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Sample records for airborne field campaign

  1. Collaboration Portals for NASA's Airborne Field Campaigns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conover, Helen; Kulkami, Ajinkya; Garrett, Michele; Goodman, Michael; Peterson, Walter Arthur; Drewry, Marilyn; Hardin, Danny M.; He, Matt

    2011-01-01

    The University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH), in collaboration with the Global Hydrology Resource Center, a NASA Earth Science Data Center, has provided information management for a number of NASA Airborne Field campaigns, both hurricane science investigations and satellite instrument validation. Effective field campaign management requires communication and coordination tools, including utilities for personnel to upload and share flight plans, weather forecasts, a variety of mission reports, preliminary science data, and personal photos. Beginning with the Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) hurricane field campaign in 2010, we have provided these capabilities via a Drupal-based collaboration portal. This portal was reused and modified for the Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E), part of the Global Precipitation Measurement mission ground validation program. An end goal of these development efforts is the creation of a Drupal profile for field campaign management. This presentation will discuss experiences with Drupal in developing and using these collaboration portals. Topics will include Drupal modules used, advantages and disadvantages of working with Drupal in this context, and how the science teams used the portals in comparison with other communication and collaboration tools.

  2. Collaboration Portals for NASA's Airborne Field Campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conover, H.; Kulkarni, A.; Garrett, M.; Goodman, M.; Petersen, W. A.; Drewry, M.; Hardin, D. M.; He, M.

    2011-12-01

    The University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH), in collaboration with the Global Hydrology Resource Center, a NASA Earth Science Data Center, has provided information management for a number of NASA Airborne Field campaigns, both hurricane science investigations and satellite instrument validation. Effective field campaign management requires communication and coordination tools, including utilities for personnel to upload and share flight plans, weather forecasts, a variety of mission reports, preliminary science data, and personal photos. Beginning with the Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) hurricane field campaign in 2010, we have provided these capabilities via a Drupal-based collaboration portal. This portal was reused and modified for the Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E), part of the Global Precipitation Measurement mission ground validation program. An end goal of these development efforts is the creation of a Drupal profile for field campaign management. This presentation will discuss experiences with Drupal in developing and using these collaboration portals. Topics will include Drupal modules used, advantages and disadvantages of working with Drupal in this context, and how the science teams used the portals in comparison with other communication and collaboration tools.

  3. Data System for HS3 Airborne Field Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maskey, M.; Mceniry, M.; Berendes, T.; Bugbee, K.; Conover, H.; Ramachandran, R.

    2014-12-01

    Hurricane and Severe Storm Sentinel (HS3) is a NASA airborne field campaign aimed at better understanding the physical processes that control hurricane intensity change. HS3 will help answer questions related to the roles of environmental conditions and internal storm structures to storm intensification. Due to the nature of the questions that HS3 mission is addressing, it involves a variety of in-situ, satellite observations, airborne data, meteorological analyses, and simulation data. This variety of datasets presents numerous data management challenges for HS3. The methods used for airborne data management differ greatly from the methods used for space-borne data. In particular, metadata extraction, spatial and temporal indexing, and the large number of instruments and subsequent variables are a few of the data management challenges unique to airborne missions. A robust data system is required to successfully help HS3 scientist achieve their mission goals. Furthermore, the data system also needs to provide for data management that assists in broader use of HS3 data to enable future research activities. The Global Hydrology Resource Center (GHRC) is considering all these needs and designing a data system for HS3. Experience with past airborne field campaign puts GHRC in a good position to address HS3 needs. However, the scale of this mission along with science requirements separates HS3 from previous field campaigns. The HS3 data system will include automated services for geo-location, metadata extraction, discovery, and distribution for all HS3 data. To answer the science questions, the data system will include a visual data exploration tool that is fully integrated into the data catalog. The tool will allow visually augmenting airborne data with analyses and simulations. Satellite data will provide contextual information during such data explorations. All HS3 tools will be supported by an enterprise service architecture that will allow scaling, easy integration

  4. Developing Metadata Requirements for NASA Airborne Field Campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, L.; Rinsland, P. L.; Kusterer, J.; Chen, G.; Early, A. B.; Beach, A. L., III; Wang, D.; Typanski, N. D.; Rutherford, M.; Rieflin, E.

    2014-12-01

    The common definition of metadata is "data about data". NASA has developed metadata formats to meet the needs of its satellite missions and emerging users. Coverage of satellite missions is highly predictable based on orbit characteristics. Airborne missions feature complicated flight patterns to maximize science return and changes in the instrument suites. More relevant to the airborne science data holding, the metadata describes the airborne measurements, in terms of measurement location, time, platform, and instruments. The metadata organizes the data holdings and facilitates the data ordering process from the DAAC. Therefore, the metadata requirements will need to fit the type of airborne measurements and sampling strategies as well as leverage current Earth Science and Data Information System infrastructure (ECHO/Reverb, GCMD). Current airborne data is generated/produced in a variety of formats (ICARRT, ASCII, etc) with the metadata information embedded in the data file. Special readers are needed to parse data file to generate metadata needed for search and discovery. With loosely defined standards within the airborne community this process poses challenges to the data providers. It is necessary to assess the suitability of current metadata standards, which have been mostly developed for satellite observations. To be presented are the use case-based assessments of the current airborne metadata standards and suggestions for future changes.

  5. The Development of Airborne Data for Assessing Models (ADAM) - A central repository of airborne field campaign data archives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, G.; Kleb, M. M.; Aknan, A. A.; Brown, C. C.; Mangosing, D. C.; Thornhill, A.; Rinsland, P. L.

    2010-12-01

    NASA, NOAA, and NSF have conducted over 30 airborne campaigns during the past three decades aimed at gaining an understanding of the tropospheric chemical and physical processes related to climate change and air-quality issues. In recent years, the scientific value of this accumulated airborne data has been increasingly recognized for use in satellite validation and model assessment and evaluation activities. In addition to the high spatial-temporal resolutions, the airborne data, especially from the more recent studies, offers a comprehensive view of the atmosphere through a large suite of the simultaneously observed atmospheric species/parameters, ranging from photochemical precursors to products as well as particle chemical, microphysical, and optical properties. To better facilitate the model assessment and evaluation activities, we are actively engaged in the development of a web-based central airborne data archive: ADAM (Airborne Data for Assessing Models). This effort is sponsored by the NASA MEaSUREs program and is intended to archive data from tropospheric chemistry airborne field campaign since the 1980s. The principal design philosophy of the ADAM web site is to provide an intuitive user interface that allows users to browse, visualize, subset (both spatially and temporally), merge, and download the airborne data, as well as providing adequate metadata associated with the data archive. A working version of the web site which shows the ADAM user interface and functionalities will be presented. Also presented are conventions to establish common names for the atmospheric variables which are often observed during airborne campaigns as well as the approaches to handle missing data and limit of detections. This presentation is intended to serve the purpose of getting feedback from the broad atmospheric community, including both modelers and measurement experts.

  6. The Geologic Remote Sensing Field Experiment (GRSFE): The first geology multisensor airborne campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Diane L.; Arvidson, Raymond E.

    1991-01-01

    The primary objective of the Geologic Remote Sensing Field Experiment (GRSFE) is to acquire relevant data for geological sites that can be used to test models for extraction of surface property information from remote sensing data for earth, Mars and Venus in support of the Earth Observing System (EOS), Mars Observer, and Magellan, respectively. Over forty scientists from eight universities and three NASA centers are participating in GRSFE which is co-sponsored by the NASA Planetary Geology and Geophysics Program and the NASA Geology Program. Highlights of the airborne campaign included the first simultaneous acquisition of Airborne Visible and Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVRIS) and Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) data on September 29, 1989, and acquisition of Advanced Solid-State Array Spectroradiometer (ASAS), Polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR), and Airborne Terrain Laser Altimeter System (ATLAS) data all within three months of each other. The sites covered were Lunar Crater Volcanic Field and Fish Lake Valley in Nevada; and Cima Volcanic Field, Death Valley, and Ubehebe Crater in California. Coincident field measurements included meteorological and atmospheric measurements, visible/near-infrared and thermal spectra, and characterization of geology and vegetation cover. The GRSFE airborne and field data will be reduced to a suite of standard products and submitted, along with appropriate documentation, to the Planetary Data System (PDS) and the Pilot Land Data System (PLDS). These data will be used for a variety of investigations including paleoclimatic studies in the arid southwestern United States, and analysis of Magellan data. GRSFE data will also be used to support Mars Observer Laser Altimeter (MOLA) and Mars Rover Sample Return (MRSR) simulation studies.

  7. Final Report on the Airborne Field Mill Project (ABFM) 2000-2001 Field Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dye, James E.; Lewis, Sharon; Bateman, Monte, G.; Mach, Douglas M.; Merceret, Francis J.; Ward, Jennifer G.; Grainger, Cedric A.

    2004-01-01

    The Airborne Field Mill (ABFM) research program conducted under the direction of the John F. Kennedy Space Center during 2000 and 2001 is described. The purpose, methodology and initial results from the program are presented. Extensive appendices detailing the instrumentation used to collect the data are provided.

  8. Airborne Multiangle SpectroPolarimetric Imager (AirMSPI) observations during several 2013 NASA field campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diner, D. J.; Garay, M. J.; Xu, F.; Kalashnikova, O.; Rheingans, B.; Geier, S.; Val, S.; Bull, M.; Jovanovic, V.; Bruegge, C.; Seidel, F. C.; Daugherty, B.; Chipman, R.; Davis, A.

    2013-12-01

    The Airborne Multiangle SpectroPolarimetric Imager (AirMSPI) is an ultraviolet/visible/near-infrared pushbroom camera mounted on a single-axis gimbal to acquire multiangle imagery over a ×67° along-track range. The instrument flies aboard NASA's high-altitude ER-2 aircraft, and acquires Earth imagery with ~10 m spatial resolution across an 11-km wide swath. Intensity (I) images are obtained in eight spectral bands (355, 380, 445, 470, 555, 660, 865, and 935 nm). Dual photoelastic modulators (PEMs), achromatic quarter-wave plates, and wire-grid polarizers enable imagery of the linear polarization Stokes components Q and U at 470, 660, and 865 nm. The data are used to derive degree of linear polarization (DOLP) and angle of linear polarization (AOLP). Example flight data acquired during various NASA field campaigns in 2013, including the Aerosol-Cloud-Ecosystem (ACE) Polarimeter Definition Experiment (PODEX), Hyperspectral Infrared Imager (HyspIRI), and Studies of Emissions and Atmospheric Composition, Clouds and Climate Coupling by Regional Surveys (SEAC4RS) are presented. Observations of aerosols, low- and mid-level cloud fields, cirrus, and different types of surfaces under clear skies were obtained for a variety of land and ocean targets. Radiance and polarization imagery for several scenes, along with modeling of aerosol, cloud, and surface scattering, are presented to illustrate quantitatively some of the instrument's capabilities. Laboratory and vicarious calibration results are also discussed.

  9. A Reevaluation of Airborne HO(x) Observations from NASA Field Campaigns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, Jennifer; Crawford, James H.; Chen, Gao; Brune, William H.; Faloona, Ian C.; Tan, David; Harder, Hartwig; Martinez, Monica

    2006-01-01

    In-situ observations of tropospheric HO(x) (OH and HO2) obtained during four NASA airborne campaigns (SUCCESS, SONEX, PEM-Tropics B and TRACE-P) are reevaluated using the NASA Langley time-dependent photochemical box model. Special attention is given to previously diagnosed discrepancies between observed and predicted HO2 which increase with higher NO(x) levels and at high solar zenith angles. This analysis shows that much of the model discrepancy at high NO(x) during SUCCESS can be attributed to modeling observations at time-scales too long to capture the nonlinearity of HO(x) chemistry under highly variable conditions for NO(x). Discrepancies at high NO(x) during SONEX can be moderated to a large extent by complete use of all available precursor observations. Differences in kinetic rate coefficients and photolysis frequencies available for previous studies versus current recommendations also explain some of the disparity. Each of these causes is shown to exert greater influence with increasing NO(x) due to both the chemical nonlinearity between HO(x) and NO(x) and the increased sensitivity of HO(x) to changes in sources at high NO(x). In contrast, discrepancies at high solar zenith angles will persist until an adequate nighttime source of HO(x) can be identified. It is important to note that this analysis falls short of fully eliminating the issue of discrepancies between observed and predicted HO(x) for high NO(x) environments. These discrepancies are not resolved with the above causes in other data sets from ground-based field studies. Nevertheless, these results highlight important considerations in the application of box models to observationally based predictions of HO(x) radicals.

  10. Aerosol Optical Thickness comparisons between NASA LaRC Airborne HSRL and AERONET during the DISCOVER-AQ field campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarino, A. J.; Ferrare, R. A.; Burton, S. P.; Hostetler, C. A.; Hair, J. W.; Rogers, R. R.; Berkoff, T.; Cook, A. L.; Harper, D. B.; Hoff, R. M.; Holben, B. N.; Schafer, J.; McGill, M. J.; Yorks, J. E.; Lantz, K. O.; Michalsky, J. J.; Hodges, G.

    2013-12-01

    The first- and second-generation NASA airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidars (HSRL-1 and HSRL-2) have been deployed on board the NASA Langley Research Center King Air aircraft during the Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from Column and VERtically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality (DISCOVER-AQ) field campaigns. These included deployments during July 2011 over Washington, D.C. and Baltimore, MD and during January and February 2013 over the San Joaquin Valley (SJV) of California and also a scheduled deployment during September 2013 over Houston, TX. Measurements of aerosol extinction, backscatter, and depolarization are available from both HSRL-1 and HSRL-2 in coordination with other participating research aircraft and ground sites. These measurements constitute a diverse data set for use in characterizing the spatial and temporal distribution of aerosols, aerosol optical thickness (AOT), as well as the Mixing Layer Height (MLH). HSRL AOT is compared to AOT measured by the Distributed Regional Aerosol Gridded Observation Networks (DRAGON) and long-term AERONET sites. For the 2011 campaign, comparisons of AOT at 532nm between HSRL-1 and AERONET showed excellent agreement (r = 0.98, slope = 1.01, intercept = 0.037) when the King Air flights were within 2.5 km of the ground site and 10 min from the retrieval time. The comparison results are similar for the 2013 DISCOVER-AQ campaign in the SJV. Additional ground-based (MPL) and airborne (CPL) lidar data were used to help screen for clouds in the AERONET observations during the SJV portion. AOT values from a Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) located at the Porterville, CA site during the SJV campaign are also compared to HSRL-2 AOT. Lastly, using the MLH retrieved from HSRL aerosol backscatter profiles, we describe the distribution of AOT relative to the MLH.

  11. Biogenic and Anthropogenic VOC Emissions over the Central and Southern U.S.: Results from Recent Airborne Field Campaigns (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hornbrook, R. S.; Apel, E. C.; Riemer, D. D.; Hills, A. J.; Kaser, L.; Emmons, L. K.; Lamarque, J.; Blake, N. J.; Simpson, I. J.; Blake, D. R.; Karl, T.; Yuan, B.

    2013-12-01

    Over the last two years, the NCAR Trace Organic Gas Analyzer (TOGA), capable of quantifying over 50 individual gas-phase volatile organic compounds (VOCs), was deployed on two airborne field campaigns with flights over the central and southeast United States: Deep Convective Cloud and Chemistry (DC3), and Nitrogen, Oxidants, Mercury and Aerosol Distributions, Sources and Sinks (NOMADSS). These studies provided opportunities to sample air masses dominated by individual emissions sources, including biomass burning, oil and gas extraction, biogenic activity, and marine emissions, as well as the impact of convection on recently emitted trace gases. Using observations of biogenic VOCs, including speciated monoterpenes, we will compare our findings with NCAR CESM CAM-chem model simulations using the MEGAN emissions inventory. Likewise, we will contrast our observations of anthropogenic VOCs over the continental U.S. to model simulations with anthropogenic inventories (e.g., NEI, EDGAR).

  12. Aerosol, Cloud and Trace Gas Observations Derived from Airborne Hyperspectral Radiance and Direct Beam Measurements in Recent Field Campaigns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redemann, J.; Flynn, C. J.; Shinozuka, Y.; Kacenelenbogen, M.; Segal-Rosenheimer, M.; LeBlanc, S.; Russell, P. B.; Livingston, J. M.; Schmid, B.; Dunagan, S. E.; Johnson, R. R.

    2014-01-01

    4STAR capabilities for airborne field campaigns, with an emphasis on comparisons between 4STAR and AERONET sky radiances, and retrievals of aerosol microphysical properties based on sky radiance measurements, column trace gas amounts from spectral direct beam measurements and cloud property retrievals from zenith mode observations for a few select case studies in the SEAC4RS and TCAP experiments. We summarize the aerosol, trace gas, cloud and airmass characterization studies made possible by the combined 4STAR direct beam, and sky/zenith radiance observations.

  13. Upper tropospheric water vapor: A field campaign of two Raman lidars, Airborne hygrometers, and Radiosondes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melfi, S. Harvey; Turner, Dave; Evans, Keith; Whiteman, Dave; Schwemmer, Geary; Ferrare, Richard

    1998-01-01

    Water vapor in the atmosphere plays an important role in radiative transfer and the process of radiative balance so critical for understanding global change. It is the principal ingredient in cloud formation, one of the most difficult atmospheric processes to model, and the most variable component of the Earth-atmosphere albedo. And as a free molecule, it is the most active infrared absorber and emitter, thus, the most important greenhouse gas. The radiative impact of water vapor is important at all levels of the atmosphere. Even though moisture decreases by several orders-of-magnitude from the Earth's surface to the tropopause, recent research has shown that, from a radiative standpoint, a small percentage change in water vapor at any level is nearly equivalent. Therefore accurate and precise measurements of this important atmospheric constituent are needed at all levels to evaluate the full radiative impact. The need for improved measurements in the upper troposphere is particularly important because of the generally hostile (very dry and cold) conditions encountered. Because of the importance of water vapor to the understanding of radiative transfer, the Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) program initiated a series of measurement campaigns at the Cloud And Radiation Testbed (CART) site in Oklahoma, especially focused on atmospheric water vapor. Three water vapor intensive observation period (water vapor IOP) campaigns were planned. Two of the water vapor IOP campaigns have been completed: the first IOP was held during the fall of 1996 with a focus on boundary layer water vapor measurements, and the second was conducted during the fall of 1997 with a focus on both boundary layer moisture e and moisture in the upper troposphere. This paper presents a review of the intercomparisons of water vapor measurements in the upper troposphere aquired during the second water vapor IOP. Data to be presented include water vapor measurements ements

  14. Field Campaign Guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    Voyles, J. W.; Chapman, L. A.

    2015-12-01

    This document establishes a common set of guidelines for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility for planning, executing, and closing out field campaigns. The steps that guide individual field campaigns are described in the Field Campaign Tracking System and are specifically tailored to meet the scope of each field campaign.

  15. The analysis of in situ and retrieved aerosol properties measured during three airborne field campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corr, Chelsea A.

    Aerosols can directly influence climate, visibility, and photochemistry by scattering and absorbing solar radiation. Aerosol chemical and physical properties determine how efficiently a particle scatters and/or absorbs incoming short-wave solar radiation. Because many types of aerosol can act as nuclei for cloud droplets (CCN) and a smaller population of airborne particles facilitate ice crystal formation (IN), aerosols can also alter cloud-radiation interactions which have subsequent impacts on climate. Thus aerosol properties determine the magnitude and sign of both the direct and indirect impacts of aerosols on radiation-dependent Earth System processes. This dissertation will fill some gaps in our understanding of the role of aerosol properties on aerosol absorption and cloud formation. Specifically, the impact of aerosol oxidation on aerosol spectral (350nm < lambda< 500nm) absorption was examined for two biomass burning plumes intercepted by the NASA DC-S aircraft during the Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS) mission in Spring and Summer 2008. Spectral aerosol single scattering albedo (SSA) retrieved using actinic flux measured aboard the NASA DC-8 was used to calculate the aerosol absorption Angstrom exponents (AAE) for a 6-day-old plume on April 17 th and a 3-hour old plume on June 29th. Higher AAE values for the April 17th plume (6.78+/-0.38) indicate absorption by aerosol was enhanced in the ultraviolet relative to the visible portion of the short-wave spectrum in the older plume compared to the fresher plume (AAE= 3.34 0.11). These differences were largely attributed to the greater oxidation of the organic aerosol in the April 17th plume which can arise either from the aging of primary organic aerosol or the formation of spectrally-absorbing secondary organic aerosol. The validity of the actinic flux retrievals used above were also evaluated in this work by the comparison of SSA retrieved using

  16. An Overview of Measurement Comparisons from the INTEX-B/MILAGRO Airborne Field Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleb, Mary M.; Chen, Gao; Crawford, James H.; Flocke, Frank M.; Brown, Clyde C.

    2011-01-01

    As part of the NASA's INTEX-B mission, the NASA DC-8 and NSF C-130 conducted three wing-tip to wing-tip comparison flights. The intercomparison flights sampled a variety of atmospheric conditions (polluted urban, non-polluted, marine boundary layer, clean and polluted free troposphere). These comparisons form a basis to establish data consistency, but also should also be viewed as a continuation of efforts aiming to better understand and reduce measurement differences as identified in earlier field intercomparison exercises. This paper provides a comprehensive overview of 140 intercomparisons of data collected as well as a record of the measurement consistency demonstrated during INTEX-B. It is the primary goal to provide necessary information for the future research to determine if the observations from different INTEX-B platforms/instrument are consistent within the PI reported uncertainties and used in integrated analysis. This paper may also contribute to the formulation strategy for future instrument developments. For interpretation and most effective use of these results, the reader is strongly urged to consult with the instrument principle investigator.

  17. Utilization of Airborne and in Situ Data Obtained in SGP99, SMEX02, CLASIC and SMAPVEX08 Field Campaigns for SMAP Soil Moisture Algorithm Development and Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colliander, Andreas; Chan, Steven; Yueh, Simon; Cosh, Michael; Bindlish, Rajat; Jackson, Tom; Njoku, Eni

    2010-01-01

    Field experiment data sets that include coincident remote sensing measurements and in situ sampling will be valuable in the development and validation of the soil moisture algorithms of the NASA's future SMAP (Soil Moisture Active and Passive) mission. This paper presents an overview of the field experiment data collected from SGP99, SMEX02, CLASIC and SMAPVEX08 campaigns. Common in these campaigns were observations of the airborne PALS (Passive and Active L- and S-band) instrument, which was developed to acquire radar and radiometer measurements at low frequencies. The combined set of the PALS measurements and ground truth obtained from all these campaigns was under study. The investigation shows that the data set contains a range of soil moisture values collected under a limited number of conditions. The quality of both PALS and ground truth data meets the needs of the SMAP algorithm development and validation. The data set has already made significant impact on the science behind SMAP mission. The areas where complementing of the data would be most beneficial are also discussed.

  18. Airborne active and passive L-band measurements using PALS instrument in SMAPVEX12 soil moisture field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colliander, Andreas; Yueh, Simon; Chazanoff, Seth; Dinardo, Steven; O'Dwyer, Ian; Jackson, Thomas; McNairn, Heather; Bullock, Paul; Wiseman, Grant; Berg, Aaron; Magagi, Ramata; Njoku, Eni

    2012-10-01

    NASA's (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Mission is scheduled for launch in late 2014. The objective of the mission is global mapping of soil moisture and freeze/thaw state. Merging of active and passive L-band observations of the mission will enable unprecedented combination of accuracy, resolution, coverage and revisit-time for soil moisture and freeze/thaw state retrieval. For pre-launch algorithm development and validation the SMAP project and NASA coordinated a field campaign named as SMAPVEX12 (Soil Moisture Active Passive Validation Experiment 2012) together with Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, and other Canadian and US institutions in the vicinity of Winnipeg, Canada in June-July, 2012. The main objective of SMAPVEX12 was acquisition of a data record that features long time-series with varying soil moisture and vegetation conditions over an aerial domain of multiple parallel flight lines. The coincident active and passive L-band data was acquired with the PALS (Passive Active L-band System) instrument. The measurements were conducted over the experiment domain every 2-3 days on average, over a period of 43 days. The preliminary calibration of the brightness temperatures obtained in the campaign has been performed. Daily lake calibrations were used to adjust the radiometer calibration parameters, and the obtained measurements were compared against the raw in situ soil moisture measurements. The evaluation shows that this preliminary calibration of the data produces already a consistent brightness temperature record over the campaign duration, and only secondary adjustments and cleaning of the data is need before the data can be applied to the development and validation of SMAP algorithms.

  19. MISR Field Campaign Imagery

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-07-23

      MISR Support of Field Campaigns Aerosol Arctic Research of the Composition of the ... Daily ARCTAS Aerosol Polar Imagery ​Gulf of Mexico Atmospheric Composition and Climate Study ( GoMACCS ) ​July - ...

  20. Field campaigns of the autonomous, closed-path, airborne TDLAS Hygrometer SEALDH-II and traceability to the German Primary Humidity Standards.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchholz, Bernhard; Ebert, Volker

    2014-05-01

    Airborne hygrometry is often demanded in scientific flight campaigns to provide datasets for environmental modeling or to correct for water vapor dilution or cross sensitivity effects in other gas analytical techniques. Water vapor measurements, however, are quite challenging due to the large dynamic range in the atmosphere (between 2 and 40000 ppmv) and the high spatio-temporal variability. Airborne hygrometers therefore need to combine a large measurement range with high temporal resolution to resolve - at typical airspeeds of 500 to 900 km/h - atmospheric gradients of several 1000 ppmv/s. Especially during the ascent into the upper troposphere, hygrometers need to work at high gas exchange rates to minimize water vapor adsorption effects. On the other hand, water vapor sensors are difficult to calibrate due to the strong water adsorption and the lack of bottled reference gas standards, which requires pre- or/and post-flight field calibrations. Recently in-flight calibration using an airborne H2O generator was demonstrated, which minimizes calibration drift but still imposes a lot of additional work and hardware to the experiments, since these kind of calibrations just transfer the accuracy level issues to the in-flight calibration-source. To make things worse, the low gas flow (1-5 std l/min, compared with up to 100 std l/min in flight for fast response instruments) adheres critical questions of wall absorption/desorption of the source and instrument even during the calibration process. The national metrological institutes (NMIs) maintain a global metrological water vapor scale which is defined via national primary humidity generators. These provide for calibration purposes well-defined, accurate water vapor samples of excellent comparability and stability traced back to the SI-units. The humidity calibration chain is maintained via high accuracy (but rather slow) Dew-Point-Mirror-Hygrometers as transfer standards. These provide a traceable performance and

  1. ESA airborne campaigns in support of Earth Explorers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casal, Tania; Davidson, Malcolm; Schuettemeyer, Dirk; Perrera, Andrea; Bianchi, Remo

    2013-04-01

    comprised three airborne campaigns in Greenland from April to June 2012 separated by roughly one month and preliminary results showed the instrument capability to detect ice motion. CryoVEx 2012 was a large collaborative effort to help ensure the accuracy of ESA's ice mission CryoSat. The aim of this large-scale Arctic campaign was to record sea-ice thickness and conditions of the ice exactly below the CryoSat-2 path. A range of sensors installed on different aircraft included simple cameras to get a visual record of the sea ice, laser scanners to clearly map the height of the ice, an ice-thickness sensor (EM-Bird), ESA's radar altimeter (ASIRAS) and NASA's snow and Ku-band radars, which mimic CryoSat's measurements but at a higher resolution. Preliminary results reveal the ability to detect centimetre differences between sea-ice and thin ice/water which in turn allow for the estimation of actual sea ice thickness. In support of two currently operating EE Missions: SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity) and GOCE (Gravity field and steady-state Ocean Circulation Explorer), DOMECair airborne campaign will take place in Antarctica, in the Dome C region during the middle of January 2013. The two main objectives are to quantify and document the spatial variability in the DOME C area, important to establish long-term cross-calibrated multi-mission L-band measurement time-series (SMOS) and fill in the gap in the high-quality gravity anomaly maps in Antarctica since airborne gravity measurements are sparse (GOCE). Key airborne instruments in the campaign are EMIRAD-2 L-band radiometer, designed and operated by DTU and a gravimeter from AWI. ESA campaigns have been fundamental and an essential part in the preparation of new Earth Observation missions, as well as in the independent validation of their measurements and quantification of error sources. For the different activities a rich variety of datasets has been recorded, are archived and users can access campaign data through the

  2. Aerosol Properties Derived from Airborne Sky Radiance and Direct Beam Measurements in Recent NASA and DoE Field Campaigns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redemann, J.; Flynn, C. J.; Shinozuka, Y.; Russell, P. B.; Kacenelenbogen, M.; Segal-Rosenheimer, M.; Livingston, J. M.; Schmid, B.; Dunagan, S. E.; Johnson, R. R.; LeBlanc, S.; Schmidt, S.; Pilewskie, P.; Song, S.

    2014-01-01

    The AERONET (AErosol RObotic NETwork) ground-based suite of sunphotometers provides measurements of spectral aerosol optical depth (AOD), precipitable water and spectral sky radiance, which can be inverted to retrieve aerosol microphysical properties that are critical to assessments of aerosol-climate interactions. Because of data quality criteria and sampling constraints, there are significant limitations to the temporal and spatial coverage of AERONET data and their representativeness for global aerosol conditions.The 4STAR (Spectrometer for Sky-Scanning, Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research) instrument, jointly developed by NASA Ames and PNNL (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory) with NASA Goddard collaboration, combines airborne sun tracking and AERONET-like sky scanning with spectroscopic detection. Being an airborne instrument, 4STAR has the potential to fill gaps in the AERONET data set. The 4STAR instrument operated successfully in the SEAC4RS (Studies of Emissions and Atmospheric Composition, Clouds and Climate Coupling by Regional Surveys) experiment in Aug./Sep. 2013 aboard the NASA DC-8 and in the DoE (Department of Energy)-sponsored TCAP (Two Column Aerosol Project, July 2012 & Feb. 2013) experiment aboard the DoE G-1 aircraft. 4STAR provided direct beam measurements of hyperspectral AOD, columnar trace gas retrievals (H2O, O3, NO2), and the first ever airborne hyperspectral sky radiance scans, which can be inverted to yield the same products as AERONET ground-based observations. In this presentation, we provide an overview of the new 4STAR capabilities, with an emphasis on 26 high-quality sky radiance measurements carried out by 4STAR in SEAC4RS. We compare collocated 4STAR and AERONET sky radiances, as well as their retrievals of aerosol microphysical properties for a subset of the available case studies. We summarize the particle property and air-mass characterization studies made possible by the combined 4STAR direct beam and sky radiance

  3. VELETA 2002 Field Campaign.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alados-Arboledas, L.; Veleta2002 Team

    2003-04-01

    Depletion of the Earth's ozone layer is considered responsible of an increase in the solar ultraviolet irradiance incoming at surface level (WMO, 1998). For this reason, it is important to know the amount of ultraviolet radiation received by plants and animal organisms to evaluate the potential impact of increased UV radiation on biological systems. During recent years several studies has investigated the differences in UV radiation between places located at different altitude. Depending on the choice of the experimental area altitudinal gradients in erythemal UV have been reported ranging from 0.08 to 0.40 at different regions. Rather high altitudinal gradients were obtained when the studies have been undertaken at sites with important tropospheric pollution or when snow cover was present in the high-level sites. In this sense, it seems of interest to study these altitudinal gradients including comprehensive observations of the environmental conditions relevant to the incoming UV irradiance in order to separate the different contributions to this altitudinal effect. This paper presents the field campaign VELETA2002 (eValuation of the Effects of eLevation and aErosols on the ultravioleT rAdiation), developed during the month of July 2002 in the area of Sierra Nevada (Spain). This field campaign was designed to obtain experimental data on elevation and atmospheric aerosol effects on the solar ultraviolet irradiance. For this purpose a set of radiometers and spectroradiometers has been installed at both slopes of Sierra Nevada Massif, from coastal to inland locations. The field stations include Motril, a coastal location at sea level, Pitres (1200 m a.s.l.) located in the South slope of Sierra Nevada Massif, the Veleta Peak (3398 m a.s.l.), Las Sabinas (2200 m a.s.l.) located on the north slope of the mountain range and Armilla (680 m a.s.l.) located in the valley. The principal feature of the locations is that they provide a strong altitudinal gradient considering

  4. Assessing Aerosol Mixed Layer Heights from the NASA Larc Airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) during the Discover-AQ Field Campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarino, A. J.; Ferrare, R. A.; Burton, S. P.; Hostetler, C. A.; Hair, J. W.; Rogers, R. R.; Berkoff, T.; Sawamura, P.; Collins, J. E., Jr.; Seaman, S. T.; Cook, A. L.; Harper, D. B.; Follette-Cook, M. B.; daSilva, A.; Randles, C. A.

    2014-12-01

    The first- and second-generation NASA airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidars (HSRL-1 and HSRL-2) have been deployed on board the NASA Langley Research Center King Air aircraft during the Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from Column and VERtically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality (DISCOVER-AQ) field campaigns. These included deployments during July 2011 over Washington, D.C. and Baltimore, MD, during January and February 2013 over the San Joaquin Valley of California, during September 2013 over Houston, TX and during July and August 2014 over Denver, CO. Measurements of aerosol extinction, backscatter, and depolarization are available from both HSRL-1 and HSRL-2 in coordination with other participating research aircraft and ground sites. These measurements constitute a diverse data set for use in characterizing the spatial and temporal distribution of aerosols, aerosol optical thickness (AOT), as well as the mixed layer (ML) height. Analysis of the ML height at these four locations is presented, including temporal and horizontal variability and comparisons between land and water, including the Chesapeake Bay and Galveston Bay. Using the ML heights, the distribution of AOT relative to the ML heights is determined, which is relevant for assessing the long-range transport of aerosols. The ML heights are also used to help relate column AOT measurements and extinction profiles to surface PM2.5 concentrations. The HSRL ML heights are also used to evaluate the performance in simulating the temporal and spatial variability of ML heights from both chemical regional models and global forecast models.

  5. Airborne field strength monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bredemeyer, J.; Kleine-Ostmann, T.; Schrader, T.; Münter, K.; Ritter, J.

    2007-06-01

    In civil and military aviation, ground based navigation aids (NAVAIDS) are still crucial for flight guidance even though the acceptance of satellite based systems (GNSS) increases. Part of the calibration process for NAVAIDS (ILS, DME, VOR) is to perform a flight inspection according to specified methods as stated in a document (DOC8071, 2000) by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). One major task is to determine the coverage, or, in other words, the true signal-in-space field strength of a ground transmitter. This has always been a challenge to flight inspection up to now, since, especially in the L-band (DME, 1GHz), the antenna installed performance was known with an uncertainty of 10 dB or even more. In order to meet ICAO's required accuracy of ±3 dB it is necessary to have a precise 3-D antenna factor of the receiving antenna operating on the airborne platform including all losses and impedance mismatching. Introducing precise, effective antenna factors to flight inspection to achieve the required accuracy is new and not published in relevant papers yet. The authors try to establish a new balanced procedure between simulation and validation by airborne and ground measurements. This involves the interpretation of measured scattering parameters gained both on the ground and airborne in comparison with numerical results obtained by the multilevel fast multipole algorithm (MLFMA) accelerated method of moments (MoM) using a complex geometric model of the aircraft. First results will be presented in this paper.

  6. SLAPex Freeze/Thaw 2015: The First Dedicated Soil Freeze/Thaw Airborne Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Edward; Wu, Albert; DeMarco, Eugenia; Powers, Jarrett; Berg, Aaron; Rowlandson, Tracy; Freeman, Jacqueline; Gottfried, Kurt; Toose, Peter; Roy, Alexandre; Derksen, Chris; Royer, Alain; Belair, Stephane; Houser, Paul; McDonald, Kyle; Entin, Jared; Lewis, Kristen

    2016-01-01

    Soil freezing and thawing is an important process in the terrestrial water, energy, and carbon cycles, marking the change between two very different hydraulic, thermal, and biological regimes. NASA's Soil Moisture Active/Passive (SMAP) mission includes a binary freeze/thaw data product. While there have been ground-based remote sensing field measurements observing soil freeze/thaw at the point scale, and airborne campaigns that observed some frozen soil areas (e.g., BOREAS), the recently-completed SLAPex Freeze/Thaw (F/T) campaign is the first airborne campaign dedicated solely to observing frozen/thawed soil with both passive and active microwave sensors and dedicated ground truth, in order to enable detailed process-level exploration of the remote sensing signatures and in situ soil conditions. SLAPex F/T utilized the Scanning L-band Active/Passive (SLAP) instrument, an airborne simulator of SMAP developed at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, and was conducted near Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, in October/November, 2015. Future soil moisture missions are also expected to include soil freeze/thaw products, and the loss of the radar on SMAP means that airborne radar-radiometer observations like those that SLAP provides are unique assets for freeze/thaw algorithm development. This paper will present an overview of SLAPex F/T, including descriptions of the site, airborne and ground-based remote sensing, ground truth, as well as preliminary results.

  7. Coordinating Aircraft During Field Campaigns: Real Time Mission Monitor Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, Michael

    2012-01-01

    RTMM has evolved into a powerful and easy to use application in support of planning, situational awareness and strategic decision-making during airborne field campaigns. NASA is very open to sharing these capabilities with any interested group through interagency collaborations in future field activities.

  8. Field Campaign Guidelines (ARM Climate Research Facility)

    SciTech Connect

    Voyles, JW

    2011-01-17

    The purpose of this document is to establish a common set of guidelines for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility for planning, executing, and closing out field campaigns. The steps that guide individual field campaigns are described in the Field Campaign Tracking database tool and are tailored to meet the scope of each specific field campaign.

  9. The 2011 Draconids: The First European Airborne Meteor Observation Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaubaillon, Jeremie; Koten, Pavel; Margonis, Anastasios; Toth, Juraj; Rudawska, Regina; Gritsevich, Maria; Zender, Joe; McAuliffe, Jonathan; Pautet, Pierre-Dominique; Jenniskens, Peter; Koschny, Detlef; Colas, Francois; Bouley, Sylvain; Maquet, Lucie; Leroy, Arnaud; Lecacheux, Jean; Borovicka, Jiri; Watanabe, Junichi; Oberst, Jürgen

    2015-02-01

    On 8 October 2011, the Draconid meteor shower (IAU, DRA) was predicted to cause two brief outbursts of meteors, visible from locations in Europe. For the first time, a European airborne meteor observation campaign was organized, supported by ground-based observations. Two aircraft were deployed from Kiruna, Sweden, carrying six scientists, 19 cameras and eight crew members. The flight geometry was chosen such that it was possible to obtain double-station observations of many meteors. The instrument setup on the aircraft as well as on the ground is described in full detail. The main peak from 1900-dust ejecta happened at the predicted time and at the predicted rate. The second peak was observed from the earlier flight and from the ground, and was caused most likely by trails ejected in the nineteenth century. A total of 250 meteors were observed, for which light curve data were derived. The trajectory, velocity, deceleration and orbit of 35 double station meteors were measured. The magnitude distribution index was high, as a result of which there was no excess of meteors near the horizon. The light curve proved to be extremely flat on average, which was unexpected. Observations of spectra allowed us to derive the compositional information of the Draconids meteoroids and showed an early release of sodium, usually interpreted as resulting from fragile meteoroids. Lessons learned from this experience are derived for future airborne meteor shower observation campaigns.

  10. Airborne Tropical TRopopause EXperiment (ATTREX) 2014 Western Pacific Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, E.; Pfister, L.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Airborne Tropical TRopopause EXperiment (ATTREX) is a series of airborne campaigns focused on understanding physical processes in the Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL) and their role in atmospheric chemistry and climate. ATTREX is using the high-altitude, long-duration NASA Global Hawk Unmanned Air System to make in situ and remote-sensing measurements spanning the Pacific. A particular ATTREX emphasis is to better understand the dehydration of air as it passes through the cold tropical tropopause region. The ATTREX payload contains 12 in situ and remote sensing instruments that measure water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, nonmethane hydrocarbons, sulfur hexafluoride, chlorofluorocarbons, nitrous oxide), reactive chemical compounds (ozone, bromine, nitrous oxide), meteorological parameters, and radiative fluxes. During January-March, 2014, the Global Hawk was deployed to Guam for ATTREX flights. Six science flights were conducted from Guam (in addition to the transits across the Pacific), resulting in over 100 hours of Western Pacific TTL sampling and about 180 vertical profiles through the TTL. I will provide an overview of the dataset, with examples of the measurements including meteorological parameters, clouds and water vapor, and chemical tracers.

  11. Ground testing and campaign intercomparisons with the NAST-I airborne FTS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larar, Allen M.; Zhou, Daniel K.; Liu, Xu; Smith, William L.; Rochette, Luc; Noe, Anna; Oliver, Don; Tian, Jialin

    2014-10-01

    The NASA / JPSS Airborne Sounder Testbed - Interferometer (NAST-I) is a well-proven airborne remote sensing system, which has flown in 19 previous field campaigns aboard the high altitude NASA ER-2, Northrop Grumman / Scaled Composites Proteus, and NASA WB-57 aircraft since initially being flight qualified in 1998. While originally developed to provide experimental observations needed to finalize specifications and test proposed designs and data processing algorithms for the Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) flying aboard the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) Preparatory Project (SNPP) and the Joint Polar Satellite System, JPSS (formerly NPOESS, prior to program restructuring), its unprecedented data quality and system characteristics have contributed to a variety of atmospheric research and measurement validation objectives. This paper will provide a program overview and update, including a summary of measurement system capabilities, with a primary focus on postmission ground testing and characterization performed subsequent to the recently conducted Suomi NPP (SNPP) airborne field campaign.

  12. Minimizing Intra-Campaign Biases in Airborne Laser Altimetry By Thorough Calibration of Lidar System Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonntag, J. G.; Chibisov, A.; Krabill, K. A.; Linkswiler, M. A.; Swenson, C.; Yungel, J.

    2015-12-01

    Present-day airborne lidar surveys of polar ice, NASA's Operation IceBridge foremost among them, cover large geographical areas. They are often compared with previous surveys over the same flight lines to yield mass balance estimates. Systematic biases in the lidar system, especially those which vary from campaign to campaign, can introduce significant error into these mass balance estimates and must be minimized before the data is released by the instrument team to the larger scientific community. NASA's Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM) team designed a thorough and novel approach in order to minimize these biases, and here we describe two major aspects of this approach. First, we conduct regular ground vehicle-based surveys of lidar calibration targets, and overfly these targets on a near-daily basis during field campaigns. We discuss our technique for conducting these surveys, in particular the measures we take specifically to minimize systematic height biases in the surveys, since these can in turn bias entire campaigns of lidar data and the mass balance estimates based on them. Second, we calibrate our GPS antennas specifically for each instrument installation in a remote-sensing aircraft. We do this because we recognize that the metallic fuselage of the aircraft can alter the electromagnetic properties of the GPS antenna mounted to it, potentially displacing its phase center by several centimeters and biasing lidar results accordingly. We describe our technique for measuring the phase centers of a GPS antenna installed atop an aircraft, and show results which demonstrate that different installations can indeed alter the phase centers significantly.

  13. Leveraging Realtime Data in Airborne Campaigns: From COMEX to Disaster Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leifer, I.; Thompson, D. R.; Bovensmann, H.; Eastwood, M. L.; Fladeland, M. M.; Gerilowski, K.; Green, R. O.; Krautwurst, S.; Krings, T.; Luna, B.; Di Benedetto, J.; Morey, M.

    2015-12-01

    The COMEX (CO2 and Methane eXperiment) campaign leveraged real-time remote sensing and in situ data spanning multiple airborne and surface mobile platforms and interplatform communications to improve dramatically science outcomes. COMEX realtime remote sensing of strong methane plumes released from a producing oil field in Southern California by the non-imaging spectrometer MAMAP (Methane Airborne MAPper) were used to shift the survey strategy of the AVIRIS NG (Airborne Visual InfraRed Imaging Spectrometer-Next Generation) instrument on a separate airplane from an area of few plumes to an area of high activity. Concurrently, a ground team was re-directed to collect mobile surface validation data by the AMOG (AutoMObile gas) Surveyor in the new area. On all platforms, realtime analysis were used to adapt the survey patterns such as making tactical decisions to repeat certain swaths or flight lines by AVIRIS NG and by MAMAP and to adapt surface survey patterns. The AVIRIS-NG realtime algorithms were developed for methane; however, oil exhibits spectral features that are similar, enabling their testing on AVIRIS-NG data acquired during the Santa Barbara Oil Spill. The effort determined that realtime oil mapping currently is feasible. For oil spill disaster response as well as other disaster response applications, the tactical advantages of realtime remote sensing for time-critical data collections will facilitate greater roles played by remote sensing in future disaster response.

  14. Airborne Sun photometry and Closure Studies in SAFARI-2000 Dry Season Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmid, B.; Russell, P. B.; Pilewskie, P.; Redemann, J.; Livingston, J. M.; Hobbs, P. V.; Welton, E. J.; Campbell, J.; Holben, B. N.; McGill, M.; Hipskind, R. Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    From August 13 to September 25, the Southern African Regional Science Initiative's (SAFARI 2000) dry-season airborne campaign studied the complex interactions between the region's ecosystems, air pollution, atmospheric circulation, land-atmosphere interactions, and land use change. The field campaign was timed to coincide with the annual winter fire season in Southern Africa. This challenging campaign. which coordinated ground-based measurement teams, multiple research aircraft, and satellite overpasses across nine African nations, was head quartered at the Petersburg International Airport in South Africa's Northern Province. Among many others, unique coordinated observations were made of the evolution of massive, thick haze layers produced by industrial emissions, biomass burning, marine and biogenic sources. The NASA Ames Airborne Tracking 14-channel Sunphotometer (AATS-14) was operated successfully aboard the University of Washington CV-580 during 24 data flights. The AATS-14 instrument measures the transmission of the direct solar beam at 14 discrete wavelengths (3501558 nm) from which we derive spectral aerosol optical depths (AOD), columnar water vapor (CWV) and columnar ozone. Flying at different altitudes over a fixed location allows derivation of layer AOD and CWV. Data taken during feasible vertical profiles allows derivation of aerosol extinction and water vapor density. In the talk, we show comparisons with ground-based AERONET sun/sky photometer results, with ground based MPL-Net lidar data, and with measurements from a lidar aboard the high flying ER-2 aircraft. We will use measurements from the Ames Solar Spectral Flux Radiometer to derive estimates of solar spectral forcing as a function of aerosol thickness. Validations of TOMS and Terra satellite aerosol and water-vapor retrievals will also be discussed.

  15. Airborne measurements performed by a light aircraft during Pegasos spring 2013 campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Väänänen, Riikka; Krejci, Radovan; Manninen, Hanna E.; Nieminen, Tuomo; Yli-Juuti, Taina; Kangasluoma, Juha; Pohja, Toivo; Aalto, Pasi P.; Petäjä, Tuukka; Kulmala, Markku

    2014-05-01

    To fully understand the chemical and physical processes in atmosphere, measuring only on-ground is not sufficient. To extend the measurements into the lower troposphere, the University of Helsinki has performed airborne campaigns since 2009. During spring 2013, a light aircraft was used to measure the aerosol size distribution over boreal forests as a part of the Pegasos 'Norhern Mission'. The aims of the measurements were to quantify the vertical profiles of aerosols up to the altitude of 3.5 km, to study the new particle formation in the lower troposphere, to measure the planetary boundary layer evolution, and to support the measurements performed by Zeppelin NT. We used a Cessna 172 light aircraft as a platform. An aerosol and gas inlet was mounted under the right wing and the sample air was conducted inside the cabin where most of the instruments were placed. The aerosol measurement instruments included a TSI 3776 condensation particle counter (CPC) with a cut-off size of 3 nm, a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS), with a size range of 10-350 nm, and a Particle Size Magnifier (PSM) connected with a TSI 3772 condensation particle counter. As the properties of the PSM measuring in airborne conditions were still under testing during the campaign, the setups of the PSM varied between the measurements. Other instruments on board included a Li-Cor Li-840 H2O/Co2-analyzer, a temperature sensor, a relative humidity sensor, and a GPS receiver. Total amount of 45 flights with 118 flight hours were performed between 24th April and 15th June 2013. The majority of the flights were flown around SMEAR II station located in Hyytiälä, and when possible, the flights were synchronized with the Zeppelin flights. Simultaneously, an extensive field campaign to measure aerosol and gas properties was performed on-ground at SMEAR II station. A time series of airborne aerosol data of around 1.5 months allows us to construct statistical vertical profiles of aerosol size

  16. IceBridge: Bringing a Field Campaign Home

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woods, J.; Beck, J.; Bartholow, S.

    2015-12-01

    IceBridge, a six-year NASA mission, is the largest airborne survey of Earth's polar ice ever flown. It will yield an unprecedented three-dimensional view of Arctic and Antarctic ice sheets, ice shelves and sea ice. These flights will provide a yearly, multi-instrument look at the behavior of the rapidly changing features of the Greenland and Antarctic ice. Data collected during IceBridge will help scientists bridge the gap in polar observations between NASA's Ice, Cloud and Land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) -- in orbit since 2003 -- and ICESat-2, planned for 2017. ICESat stopped collecting science data in 2009, making IceBridge critical for ensuring a continuous series of observations. IceBridge will use airborne instruments to map Arctic and Antarctic areas once a year at a minimum, with new campaigns being developed during the Arctic melt season. IceBridge flights are conducted in the spring and summer for the Arctic and in the fall over Antarctica. Other smaller airborne surveys around the world are also part of the IceBridge campaign. IceBridge actively engages the public and educators through a variety of outlets ranging from communications strategies through social media outlets, to larger organized efforts such as PolarTREC. In field activities include blog posts, photo updates, in flight chat sessions, and more intensive live events to include google hangouts, where field team members can interact with the public during a scheduled broadcast. The IceBridge team provides scientists and other team members with the training and support to become communicators in their own right. There is an exciting new initiative where IceBridge will be collaborating with Undergraduate and Graduate students to integrate the next generation of scientists and communicators into the Science Teams. This will be explored through partnerships with institutions that are interested in mentoring through project based initiatives.

  17. The NRL 2011 Airborne Sea-Ice Thickness Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brozena, J. M.; Gardner, J. M.; Liang, R.; Ball, D.; Richter-Menge, J.

    2011-12-01

    In March of 2011, the US Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) performed a study focused on the estimation of sea-ice thickness from airborne radar, laser and photogrammetric sensors. The study was funded by ONR to take advantage of the Navy's ICEX2011 ice-camp /submarine exercise, and to serve as a lead-in year for NRL's five year basic research program on the measurement and modeling of sea-ice scheduled to take place from 2012-2017. Researchers from the Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (CRREL) and NRL worked with the Navy Arctic Submarine Lab (ASL) to emplace a 9 km-long ground-truth line near the ice-camp (see Richter-Menge et al., this session) along which ice and snow thickness were directly measured. Additionally, US Navy submarines collected ice draft measurements under the groundtruth line. Repeat passes directly over the ground-truth line were flown and a grid surrounding the line was also flown to collect altimeter, LiDAR and Photogrammetry data. Five CRYOSAT-2 satellite tracks were underflown, as well, coincident with satellite passage. Estimates of sea ice thickness are calculated assuming local hydrostatic balance, and require the densities of water, ice and snow, snow depth, and freeboard (defined as the elevation of sea ice, plus accumulated snow, above local sea level). Snow thickness is estimated from the difference between LiDAR and radar altimeter profiles, the latter of which is assumed to penetrate any snow cover. The concepts we used to estimate ice thickness are similar to those employed in NASA ICEBRIDGE sea-ice thickness estimation. Airborne sensors used for our experiment were a Reigl Q-560 scanning topographic LiDAR, a pulse-limited (2 nS), 10 GHz radar altimeter and an Applanix DSS-439 digital photogrammetric camera (for lead identification). Flights were conducted on a Twin Otter aircraft from Pt. Barrow, AK, and averaged ~ 5 hours in duration. It is challenging to directly compare results from the swath LiDAR with the

  18. JORNEX: An airborne campaign to quantify rangeland vegetation change and plant community-atmospheric interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Ritchie, J.C.; Rango, A.; Kustas, W.P.

    1996-11-01

    The Jornada Experimental Range in New Mexico provides a unique opportunity to integrate hydrologic-atmospheric fluxes and surface states, vegetation types, cover, and distribution, and vegetation response to changes in hydrologic states and atmospheric driving forces. The Jornada Range is the site of a long-term ecological research program to investigate the processes leading to desertification. In concert with ongoing ground measurements, remotely sensed data are being collected from ground, airborne, and satellite platforms during JORNEX (the JORNada Experiment) to provide spatial and temporal distribution of vegetation state using laser altimeter and multispectral aircraft and satellite data and surface energy balance estimates from a combination of parameters and state variables derived from remotely sensed data. These measurements will be used as inputs to models to quantify the hydrologic budget and the plant response to changes in components in the water and energy balance. Intensive three day study periods for ground and airborne campaigns have been made in May 1995 (dry season) and September 1995 (wet season), February 1996 (Winter) and are planned for wet and dry seasons of 1996. An airborne platform is being used to collect thermal, multispectral, 3-band video, and laser altimetry profile data. Bowen ratio-energy balance stations were established in shrub and grass communities in May 1995 and are collecting data continuously. Additional energy flux measurements were made using eddy correlation techniques during the September 1995 campaign. Ground-based measurements during the intensive campaigns include thermal and multispectral measurements made using yoke-based platforms and hand-held instruments, LAI, and other vegetation data. Ground and aircraft measurements are acquired during Landsat overpasses so the effect of scale on measurements can be studied. This paper discusses preliminary results from the 1995 airborne campaign. 24 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  19. ESA Cryovex 2011 Airborne Campaign for CRYOSAT-2 Calibration and Validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skourup, H.; Einarsson, I.; Sandberg, L.; Forsberg, R.; Stenseng, L.; Hendricks, S.; Helm, V.; Davidson, M.

    2011-12-01

    After the successful launch of CryoSat-2 in April 2010, the first direct validation campaign of the satellite was carried out in the April-May 2011. DTU Space has been involved in ESA's CryoSat Validation Experiment (CryoVEx) with airborne activities since 2003. To validate the performance of the CryoSat-2 radar altimeter (SIRAL), the aircraft is equipped with an airborne version of the SIRAL altimeter (ASIRAS) together with a laser scanner. Of particular interest is to study the penetration depth of SIRAL into both land- and sea ice. This can be done by comparing the radar and laser measurements, as the laser reflects on the surface, and by overflight of laser reflectors. In the spring of 2011 the DTU Space airborne team visited five main validation sites: Devon ice cap (Canada), Austfonna ice cap (Svalbard), the EGIG line crossing the Greenland Ice Sheet, as well as the sea ice north of Alert and sea ice around Svalbard in the Fram Strait. Selected tracks were planned to match CryoSat-2 passes and a few of them were flown in formation flight with the Alfred Wegener Institute (AWI) Polar-5 carrying an EM-bird. We present an overview of the 2011 airborne campaign together with first results of the CryoSat-2 underflights.

  20. NASA 1990 Multisensor Airborne Campaigns (MACs) for ecosystem and watershed studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wickland, Diane E.; Asrar, Ghassem; Murphy, Robert E.

    1991-01-01

    The Multisensor Airborne Campaign (MAC) focus within NASA's former Land Processes research program was conceived to achieve the following objectives: to acquire relatively complete, multisensor data sets for well-studied field sites, to add a strong remote sensing science component to ecology-, hydrology-, and geology-oriented field projects, to create a research environment that promotes strong interactions among scientists within the program, and to more efficiently utilize and compete for the NASA fleet of remote sensing aircraft. Four new MAC's were conducted in 1990: the Oregon Transect Ecosystem Research (OTTER) project along an east-west transect through central Oregon, the Forest Ecosystem Dynamics (FED) project at the Northern Experimental Forest in Howland, Maine, the MACHYDRO project in the Mahantango Creek watershed in central Pennsylvania, and the Walnut Gulch project near Tombstone, Arizona. The OTTER project is testing a model that estimates the major fluxes of carbon, nitrogen, and water through temperate coniferous forest ecosystems. The focus in the project is on short time-scale (days-year) variations in ecosystem function. The FED project is concerned with modeling vegetation changes of forest ecosystems using remotely sensed observations to extract biophysical properties of forest canopies. The focus in this project is on long time-scale (decades to millenia) changes in ecosystem structure. The MACHYDRO project is studying the role of soil moisture and its regulating effects on hydrologic processes. The focus of the study is to delineate soil moisture differences within a basin and their changes with respect to evapotranspiration, rainfall, and streamflow. The Walnut Gulch project is focused on the effects of soil moisture in the energy and water balance of arid and semiarid ecosystems and their feedbacks to the atmosphere via thermal forcing.

  1. A Transport Analysis of In Situ Airborne Ozone Measurements from the 2011 DISCOVER-AQ Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arkinson, H. L.; Brent, L. C.; He, H.; Loughner, C.; Stehr, J. W.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Dickerson, R. R.

    2013-12-01

    Baltimore and Washington are currently designated as nonattainment areas with respect to the 2008 EPA National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for 8-hour Ozone (O3). Tropospheric O3 is the dominant component of summertime photochemical smog, and at high levels, has deleterious effects on human health, ecosystems, and materials. The University of Maryland (UMD) Regional Atmospheric Measurement Modeling and Prediction Program (RAMMPP) strives to improve understanding of air quality in the Mid-Atlantic States and to elucidate contributions of pollutants such as O3 from regional transport versus local sources through a combination of modeling and in situ measurements. The NASA Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality (DISCOVER-AQ) project investigates the connection between column measurements and surface conditions to explore the potential of remote sensing observations in diagnosing air quality at ground level where pollutants can affect human health. During the 2011 DISCOVER-AQ field campaign, in situ airborne measurements of trace gases and aerosols were performed along the Interstate 95 corridor between Baltimore and Washington from the NASA P3B aircraft. To augment this data and provide regional context, measurements of trace gases and aerosols were also performed by the RAMMPP Cessna 402B aircraft over nearby airports in Maryland and Virginia. This work presents an analysis of O3 measurements made by the Ultraviolet (UV) Photometric Ambient O3 Analyzer on the RAMMPP Cessna 402B and by the NCAR 4-Channel Chemiluminescence instrument on the NASA P3B. In this analysis, spatial and temporal patterns of O3 data are examined within the context of forward and backward trajectories calculated from 12-km North American Mesoscale (NAM) meteorological data using the NOAA Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) Model and from a high resolution Weather Research and

  2. The International SubMillimetre Airborne Radiometer (ISMAR) - First results from the STICCS and COSMIC campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendrok, Jana; Eriksson, Patrick; Fox, Stuart; Brath, Manfred; Buehler, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    Multispectral millimeter- and submillimeter-wave observations bear the potential to measure properties of non-thin ice clouds like mass content and mean particle size. The next generation of European meteorological satellites, the MetOp-SG series, will carry the first satellite-borne submillimeter sounder, the Ice Cloud Imager (ICI). An airborne demonstrator, the International SubMillimetre Airborne Radiometer (ISMAR), is operated together with other remote sensing instruments and in-situ probes on the FAAM aircraft. Scientific measurements from two campaings in the North Atlantic region, STICCS and COSMIC, are available so far. Here we will introduce the ISMAR instrument, present the acquired measurements from the STICCS and COSMIC campaigns and show some first results. This will include estimation of instrument performance, first analysis of clear-sky and cloudy cases and discussion of selected features observed in the measurements (e.g. polarisation signatures).

  3. Airborne measurements of different trace gases during the AROMAT-2 campaign with an Avantes spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bösch, Tim; Meier, Andreas; Schönhardt, Anja; Peters, Enno; Richter, Andreas; Ruhtz, Thomas; Burrows, John

    2016-04-01

    Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) is a well-known, versatile, and frequently used technique for the analysis of trace gases within the atmosphere. Although DOAS has been used for several decades, airborne DOAS has become more popular during the last years because of the possibility of measuring in high lateral resolutions with the help of imaging instruments. Here, we present results of the AROMAT-2 campaign in Romania in summer 2015. The introduced measurements were taken using a nadir viewing Avantes spectrometer on board of a Cessna aircraft which flew over Bucharest and the Turceni power plant in Romania. The instrument covers the wavelength region of 287 - 551nm at a spectral resolution of 0.13nm and has a temporal resolution of 0.5s, translating to about 450m in flight direction at 3000m flight attitude. The field of view of the instrument was set to 8.1 degrees, resulting in a pixel size across track of about 420m. Compared to the imaging DOAS instrument AirMAP which was also operated from the aircraft, the signal to noise ratio of the simple nadir viewing spectrometer is slightly better, which allows an analysis of less abundant species and interesting spectral features. The results show a day-to-day variation of NO2 over the city of Bucharest as well as spectral features over lakes in the city, which can be attributed to algae. Furthermore, we were able to measure large emission plumes of NO2 and SO2 over the Turceni power plant, which could be observed over long spatial distances. In addition, the results from the Avantes instrument were used for comparison with measurements of the imaging spectrometer AirMAP and good agreement was found, providing independent verification of the imager data.

  4. Airborne multispectral detection of regrowth cotton fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westbrook, John K.; Suh, Charles P.-C.; Yang, Chenghai; Lan, Yubin; Eyster, Ritchie S.

    2015-01-01

    Effective methods are needed for timely areawide detection of regrowth cotton plants because boll weevils (a quarantine pest) can feed and reproduce on these plants beyond the cotton production season. Airborne multispectral images of regrowth cotton plots were acquired on several dates after three shredding (i.e., stalk destruction) dates. Linear spectral unmixing (LSU) classification was applied to high-resolution airborne multispectral images of regrowth cotton plots to estimate the minimum detectable size and subsequent growth of plants. We found that regrowth cotton fields can be identified when the mean plant width is ˜0.2 m for an image resolution of 0.1 m. LSU estimates of canopy cover of regrowth cotton plots correlated well (r2=0.81) with the ratio of mean plant width to row spacing, a surrogate measure of plant canopy cover. The height and width of regrowth plants were both well correlated (r2=0.94) with accumulated degree-days after shredding. The results will help boll weevil eradication program managers use airborne multispectral images to detect and monitor the regrowth of cotton plants after stalk destruction, and identify fields that may require further inspection and mitigation of boll weevil infestations.

  5. Ozonesonde and aircraft measurements in the tropical West Pacific from the CAST field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newton, Richard; Vaughan, Geraint; Ricketts, Hugo

    2015-04-01

    The Coordinated Airborne Studies in the Tropics (CAST) campaign comprised of ozonesonde launches and an aircraft campaign in the West Pacific in January-March 2014. Previous field campaigns in this region have highlighted an area to the east of Papua New Guinea and near the Solomon Islands as sources of deep convection and anomalously low ozone in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL). The CAST campaign provides a unique dataset of ozonesonde launches from Manus Island, Papua New Guinea, close to the hypothesized source region. CAST was performed in coordination with two sister campaigns, CONTRAST and ATTREX, bringing the FAAM BAe 146, NCAR Gulfstream V and NASA Global Hawk aircraft respectively to Guam. The aircraft campaign allowed an unprecedented comparison between ozonesondes and aircraft, which was used to verify the ozonesonde measurements and support the choice of background correction; this correction is of paramount importance in the tropics as the background constitutes half of the measured signal. The data obtained from the CAST ozonesondes suggest that the lowest ozone concentrations, at ~15 ppb, found in the tropical tropopause layer were accompanied by easterly winds from an area of deep convection, suggesting the air was lifted quickly from the marine boundary layer. The evidence from the CAST campaign suggests that the anomalously low near-zero ozone measured during previous campaigns in the tropical West Pacific is an artefact of the ozonesonde behaviour at low pressures (high altitude) - the low-ozone measurements can be recreated with the CAST ozonesondes if the background is not properly treated.

  6. Global Modeling, Field Campaigns, Upscaling and Ray Desjardins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sellers, P. J.; Hall, F. G.

    2012-01-01

    In the early 1980's, it became apparent that land surface radiation and energy budgets were unrealistically represented in Global Circulation models (GCM's), Shortly thereafter, it became clear that the land carbon budget was also poorly represented in Earth System Models (ESM's), A number of scientific communities, including GCM/ESM modelers, micrometeorologists, satellite data specialists and plant physiologists, came together to design field experiments that could be used to develop and validate the contemporary prototype land surface models. These experiments were designed to measure land surface fluxes of radiation, heat, water vapor and CO2 using a network of flux towers and other plot-scale techniques, coincident with satellite measurements of related state variables, The interdisciplinary teams involved in these experiments quickly became aware of the scale gap between plot-scale measurements (approx 10 - 100m), satellite measurements (100m - 10 km), and GCM grid areas (l0 - 200km). At the time, there was no established flux measurement capability to bridge these scale gaps. Then, a Canadian science learn led by Ray Desjardins started to actively participate in the design and execution of the experiments, with airborne eddy correlation providing the radically innovative bridge across the scale gaps, In a succession of brilliantly executed field campaigns followed up by convincing scientific analyses, they demonstrated that airborne eddy correlation allied with satellite data was the most powerful upscaling tool available to the community, The rest is history: the realism and credibility of weather and climate models has been enormously improved enormously over the last 25 years with immense benefits to the public and policymakers.

  7. An Airborne and Ground-based Study of a Long-lived and Intense Atmospheric River Impacting California during the CalWater-2014 Early-Start Field Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neiman, P. J.; Benjamin, M.; White, A. B.; Wick, G. A.; Aikins, J.; Jackson, D. L.; Spackman, J. R.; Ralph, F. M.

    2015-12-01

    During the CalWater-2014 Early Start winter field campaign, the wettest period occurred with a long-lived, intense atmospheric river (AR) impacting California on 7-10 February. SSMIS satellite imagery of integrated water vapor (see figure) provides a large-scale overview of the event. Based on Lagrangian trajectories, the AR tapped into the tropical water-vapor reservoir, and the water vapor subsequently advected to California. Widespread heavy precipitation (200-400 mm) fell across the coastal mountain ranges northwest of San Francisco and across the northern Sierra Nevada, although only modest flooding ensued due to anomalously dry antecedent conditions. The NOAA G-IV aircraft - which represents the cornerstone observing platform for this study - flew through two mesoscale frontal waves in the AR environment offshore in a ~24-h period. Parallel dropsonde curtains documented key three-dimensional thermodynamic and kinematic characteristics across the AR and frontal waves prior to landfall. Different AR characteristics were evident, depending on the location of the cross section through the frontal waves. A newly-implemented tail-mounted Doppler radar on the G-IV simultaneously captured coherent precipitation features. Along the coast, a 449-MHz wind profiler and collocated global positioning system (GPS) receiver monitored tropospheric winds and water vapor during the AR landfall. These instruments also observed the transient frontal waves - which prolonged AR conditions and heavy precipitation - and highlighted the orographic character of the rainfall in the coastal mountains. A vertically pointing S-PROF radar in the coastal mountains provided detailed information on the bulk microphysical characteristics of the rainfall. Farther inland, a pair of 915-MHz wind profilers and GPS receivers quantified the orographic precipitation forcing as the AR ascended the Sierra Nevada, and as the terrain-induced Sierra barrier jet ascended the northern terminus of California

  8. MTU-Kestrel airborne hyperspectral imaging campaigns of the Lake Superior ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafert, J. Bruce; Slough, William J.; Rohde, Charles A.; Pilant, Andrew; Otten, Leonard J.; Meigs, Andrew D.; Jones, Al; Butler, Eugene W.

    1999-10-01

    The clear waters of Lake Superior constitute the heart of one of the most significant fresh water ecosystems in the world. Lake Superior is the world's largest lake by surface area (82,100 km2) holding approximately 10% of the earth's freshwater (12,230 km3) that is not locked into glaciers or ice caps. Although Superior is arguably the most significant fresh water ecosystem on earth, questions relating to the lake and its watershed remain unanswered, including the effects of human habitation, exploitation, and economic potential of the region. There is a great diversity of scientific disciplines with a common interest in remote sensing of the Lake Superior ecosystem which have the need for data at all spatial, spectral, and temporal scales-from scales supplied by satellites, ships or aircraft at low spatial, spectral or temporal resolution, to a requirement for synoptic high resolution spatial (approximately 1 meter)/spectral (1 - 10 nm) data. During May and August of 1998, two week-long data collection campaigns were performed using the Kestrel airborne visible hyperspectral imager to acquire hyperspectral data of a broad taxonomy of ecologically significant targets, including forests, urban areas, lakeshore zones and rivers, mining industry tailing basins, and the Lake itself. We will describe the Kestrel airborne hyperspectral sensor, the collection and data reduction methodology, and flight imagery from both campaigns.

  9. EAGLE 2006 - multi-purpose, multi-angle and multi-sensor in-situ, airborne and space borne campaigns over grassland and forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Z.; Timmermans, W. J.; van der Tol, C.; Dost, R. J. J.; Bianchi, R.; Gómez, J. A.; House, A.; Hajnsek, I.; Menenti, M.; Magliulo, V.; Esposito, M.; Haarbrink, R.; Bosveld, F. C.; Rothe, R.; Baltink, H. K.; Vekerdy, Z.; Sobrino, J. A.; Timmermans, J.; van Laake, P.; Salama, S.; van der Kwast, H.; Claassen, E.; Stolk, A.; Jia, L.; Moors, E.; Hartogensis, O.; Gillespie, A.

    2009-03-01

    EAGLE2006 - an intensive field campaign for the advances in land surface hydrometeorological processes - was carried out in the Netherlands from 8 to 18 June 2006, involving 16 institutions with in total 67 people from 16 different countries. In addition to the acquisition of multi-angle and multi-sensor satellite data, several airborne instruments - an optical imaging sensor, an imaging microwave radiometer, and a flux airplane - were deployed and extensive ground measurements were conducted over one grassland site at Cabauw and two forest sites at Loobos and Speulderbos in the central part of the Netherlands. The generated data set is both unique and urgently needed for the development and validation of models and inversion algorithms for quantitative land surface parameter estimation and land surface hydrometeorological process studies. EAGLE2006 was led by the Department of Water Resources of the International Institute for Geo-Information Science and Earth Observation (ITC) and originated from the combination of a number of initiatives supported by different funding agencies. The objectives of the EAGLE2006 campaign were closely related to the objectives of other European Space Agency (ESA) campaign activities (SPARC2004, SEN2FLEX2005 and especially AGRISAR2006). However, one important objective of the EAGLE 2006 campaign is to build up a data base for the investigation and validation of the retrieval of bio-geophysical parameters, obtained at different radar frequencies (X-, C- and L-Band) and at hyperspectral optical and thermal bands acquired simultaneously over contrasting vegetated fields (forest and grassland). As such, all activities were related to algorithm development for future satellite missions such as the Sentinels and for validation of retrievals of land surface parameters with optical and thermal and microwave sensors onboard current and future satellite missions. This contribution describes the campaign objectives and provides an overview of

  10. TRMM Field Campaigns: Objectives and Status Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zipser, Edward I.; Heymsfield, Gerald; Kummerow, Christian; Simpson, Joanne; Thiele, Otto; Rutledge, Steven; Dias, Maria Assuncio Silva; Houze, Robert A., Jr.; Yuter, Sandra; Kakar, Ramesh

    1999-01-01

    The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite has been sending valuable data since launch in November 1997. Some of the key goals of the joint NASA (US) and NASDA (Japan) mission are: (1) to estimate the four-dimensional diabatic heating in the tropical and subtropical atmosphere, (2) understand the role of latent heating in driving tropical and extratropical circulations, (3) obtain monthly area-averaged estimates of rainfall over the data-sparse oceans, and (4) estimate the relative contribution of convective and stratiform precipitation over different regions during different seasons. The overarching scientific objective is to understand and improve estimates of rainfall and latent heating profiles throughout the global tropics. This requires observations for fundamental understanding of cloud dynamics and microphysics, as well as for validation, testing assumptions and error estimates of cloud-resolving models, forward radiative transfer models, algorithms used to estimate rainfall statistics and vertical structure of precipitation from surface-based radar, and from satellites. Field experiments designed to contribute to this understanding have been conducted in Texas and the South China Sea in spring of 1998, Florida in summer of 1998, and interior Brazil in (boreal) winter 1999. In summer 1999, a major oceanic campaign will be based at Kwajalein Atoll. Some early results will be highlighted, noting some significant contrasts between oceanic and continental convective systems.

  11. Airborne Observations of the Spatial and Temporal Variability of Tropospheric Carbon Dioxide during the INTEX-B Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vay, Stephanie A.; Choi, Younghoon; Woo, Jung-Hun; Barrick, John D.; Sachse, Glen W.; Blake, Donald; Avery, Melody A.; Fuelberg, Henry; Nolf, Scott

    2006-01-01

    The Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment-North America (INTEX-NA) is an international field campaign envisioned to investigate the transport and transformation of gases and aerosols on transcontinental/intercontinental scales and assess their impact on air quality and climate. Phase B (INTEX-B) of the mission was conducted during a 10- week period from March 1 to May 15, 2006 and focused initially on pollution outflow from the Mexico City Metropolitan Area, later addressing the transport of pollution from Asia to North America during springtime meteorological conditions. During the deployment, fast-response (1-s resolution) CO2 measurements were recorded aboard the NASA DC-8 providing valuable regional-scale information on carbon sources and sinks over sparsely sampled areas of North America and adjacent ocean basins. When coupled with the enormously sophisticated chemistry payload on the DC-8, these measurements collectively afford extremely powerful multi-tracer constraints for carbon source/sink attribution. Preliminary examination of the two data sets from the INTEX-B campaign, acquired one month apart, reveals not only the influence of the CO2 seasonal cycle, but also the preponderance of human population and industrial activity in the northern hemisphere. In this presentation, a synergy of the ensemble of airborne and surface observations, bottomup emission inventories, as well as transport history are invoked in a GIS framework to elucidate the source/sink processes reflected in the observations. The airborne CO2 data, along with simultaneous surface measurements (e.g. NOAA ESRL), are examined to establish the vertical distribution and variability of CO2 as a function of location. The role of localized sources, long-range transport, the biosphere, stratospheric exchange, and dynamical processes on the CO2 spatial variability observed throughout the tropospheric column will be discussed.

  12. GRIP Collaboration Portal: Information Management for a Hurricane Field Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conover, H.; Kulkarni, A.; Garrett, M.; Smith, T.; Goodman, H. M.

    2010-12-01

    NASA’s Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) experiment, carried out in August and September of 2010, was a complex operation, involving three aircraft and their crews based at different airports, a dozen instrument teams, mission scientists, weather forecasters, project coordinators and a variety of other participants. In addition, GRIP was coordinated with concurrent airborne missions: NOAA’s IFEX and then NSF-funded PREDICT. The GRIP Collaboration Portal was developed to facilitate communication within and between the different teams and serve as an information repository for the field campaign, providing a single access point for project documents, plans, weather forecasts, flight reports and quicklook data. The portal was developed using the Drupal open source content management framework. This presentation will cover both technology and participation issues. Specific examples include: Drupal’s large and diverse open source developer community is an advantage in that we were able to reuse many modules rather than develop capabilities from scratch, but integrating multiple modules developed by many people adds to the overall complexity of the site. Many of the communication capabilities provided by the site, such as discussion forums and blogs, were not used. Participants were diligent about posting necessary documents, but the favored communication method remained email. Drupal's developer-friendly nature allowed for quick development of the customized functionality needed to accommodate the rapidly changing requirements of GRIP experiment. DC-8 Overflight of Hurricane Earl during GRIP Mission

  13. Demonstration of high-rate laser communications from fast airborne platform: flight campaign and results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moll, Florian; Mitzkus, Wolfgang; Horwath, Joachim; Shrestha, Amita; Brechtelsbauer, Martin; Martin, Luis; Lozano, Alberto; Diaz Gonzalez, Dionisio

    2014-10-01

    Some current and future airborne payloads like high resolution cameras and radar systems need high channel capacity to transmit their data from air to ground in near real-time. Especially in reconnaissance and surveillance missions, it is important to downlink huge amount of data in very short contact times to a ground station during a flyby. Aeronautical laser communications can supply the necessary high data-rates for this purpose. Within the project DODfast (Demonstration of Optical Data link fast) a laser link from a fast flying platform was demonstrated. The flight platform was a Panavia Tornado with the laser communication terminal installed in an attached avionic demonstrator pod. The air interface was a small glass dome protecting the beam steering assembly. All other elements were integrated in a small box inside the Pod's fuselage. The receiver station was DLR's Transportable Optical Ground Station equipped with a free-space receiver front-end. Downlink wavelength for communication and uplink wavelength for beacon laser were chosen from the optical C-band DWDM grid. The test flights were carried out at the end of November 2013 near the Airbus Defence and Space location in Manching, Germany. The campaign successfully demonstrated the maturity and readiness of laser communication with a data-rate of 1.25 Gbit/s for aircraft downlinks. Pointing, acquisition and tracking performance of the airborne terminal and the ground station could be measured at aircraft speed up to 0.7 Mach and video data from an onboard camera has been transmitted. Link distances with stable tracking were up to 79 km and distance with data transmission over 50 km. In this paper, we describe the system architecture, the flight campaign and the results.

  14. NASA Airborne Lidar July 1991

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-05-26

    NASA Airborne Lidar July 1991 Data from the 1991 NASA Langley Airborne Lidar flights following the eruption of Pinatubo in July ... and Osborn [1992a, 1992b]. Project Title:  NASA Airborne Lidar Discipline:  Field Campaigns ...

  15. NASA Airborne Lidar May 1992

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-05-26

    NASA Airborne Lidar May 1992 An airborne Nd:YAG (532 nm) lidar was operated by the NASA Langley Research Center about a year following the June 1991 eruption of ... Osborn [1992a, 1992b].  Project Title:  NASA Airborne Lidar Discipline:  Field Campaigns ...

  16. Airborne Observations of Mercury Emissions from the Chicago/Gary Urban/Industrial Area during the 2013 NOMADSS Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gratz, L.; Ambrose, J. L., II; Jaffe, D. A.; Knote, C. J.; Jaegle, L.; Selin, N. E.; Campos, T. L.; Flocke, F. M.; Reeves, J. M.; Stechman, D. M.; Stell, M. H.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Knapp, D. J.; Montzka, D.; Tyndall, G. S.; Mauldin, L.; Cantrell, C. A.; Apel, E. C.; Hornbrook, R. S.; Blake, N. J.

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric emissions from the Chicago/Gary urban/industrial area significantly enhance ambient mercury (Hg) concentrations and lead to increased levels of atmospheric mercury deposition within the Lake Michigan Basin (Gratz et al., 2013a; Gratz et al., 2013b; Landis and Keeler, 2002; Landis et al., 2002; Vette et al., 2002). In this study we use airborne observations of total atmospheric Hg (THg) collected over Lake Michigan during summer 2013 as part of the Nitrogen, Oxidants, Mercury, and Aerosol Distributions, Sources, and Sinks (NOMADSS) field campaign to quantify the outflow of total atmospheric Hg from the Chicago/Gary urban/industrial area. We use concurrent airborne measurements of THg, carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and sulfur dioxide (SO2) to calculate measured enhancement ratios (ER) and thus characterize Chicago/Gary emissions. We determine the observed THg/CO ER in outflow from Chicago/Gary to be 2.11x10-7 mol mol-1, which is comparable to values reported in the literature for other major U.S. urban/industrial areas (Radke et al., 2007; Talbot et al., 2008; Weiss-Penzias et al., 2013). We also employ the FLEXPART Lagrangian transport and dispersion model to simulate air mass transport during plume encounters. We convolve the emissions of each species from the 2011 U.S. EPA National Emissions Inventory (NEI) with the FLEXPART-modeled air mass transport to compare our observations to inventoried emission ratios (EmR). We find that the inventoried THg/CO EmRs are biased low by -63% to -67% compared to the observed ERs for the Chicago/Gary area. This suggests that there are many small emission sources that are not fully accounted for within the inventory, and/or that the re-emission of legacy Hg is a significant source of THg to the atmosphere in this region.

  17. Design of Airborne Surface Water Elevation Observation Campaigns for Improved Hydrodynamic Modeling of Deltas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michailovsky, C.; Rodriguez, E.; Andreadis, K.

    2014-12-01

    Traditional hydrological monitoring relies on frequent water level measurements at discrete locations, and in complex environments this type of measurement may not be able to capture the spatial variability of the hydrodynamic processes. While remote sensing, whether air-or-spaceborne, has made spatially distributed measurements of surface waters possible, the frequency of data acquisition is typically too low for most hydrological applications and the data is often used in conjunction with hydrological or hydrodynamic models. The new AirSWOT instrument provides spatially distributed measurements of water surface elevation from an airborne platform and the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta is one of its test areas. Our objective was to assess the value of such measurements to hydrodynamic modeling in the Delta and to evaluate the necessary spatial and temporal coverage needed for the data to improve on current monitoring capabilities. To achieve this, a synthetic data assimilation experiment was designed: a hydrodynamic model of the Delta was built and run using in situ observations to produce a "true" run and sets of synthetic AirSWOT measurements, covering different locations and at different times, were generated using an instrument simulator. An ensemble of perturbed runs was then generated by perturbing the boundary conditions and the synthetic data sets were assimilated using the ensemble Kalman Filter. The impact of the assimilation on the hydrodynamic model performance was studied for the different sets of synthetic data in order to identify the most sensitive measurement times and locations and help improve the design of future measurement campaigns.

  18. Retrieval of cloud optical properties using airborne hyperspectral cameras during the VOCALS campaign.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labrador, L.; Vaughan, G.

    2009-09-01

    A set of two hyperspectral imaging sensors have been used to analyze the optical properties of stratocumulus cloud off the coast of Northern Chile within the framework of the VAMOS Ocean Clouds Atmosphere Land Study (VOCALS) during September-October 2008. The SPECIM Aisa Eagle & Hawk are tandem pushbroom-type hyperspectral imagers scanning in the 400-970 and 970-2500 nm range, respectively. The instruments were mounted onboard the National Environmental Research Council's (NERC) Dornier DO-228 aircraft, based in Arica, northern Chile during the campaign. An area approximately 600 x 200 km was surveyed off the northern coast of Chile and a total of 14 science flights were carried out where hyperspectral data were successfully collected over the stratocumulus deck at altitudes varying between 10000 and 15000 ft. Cloud optical properties, such as cloud optical thickness, cloud effective radius and liquid water path can be retrieved which can then be compared with space-borne hyperspectral imagers' retrievals. Atmospheric corrections have been applied to enable the comparison between the different type of sensors and the analysis requires, amongst other, solving the back-scattering problems associated with off-nadir views. The high resolution, both spatial and temporal, of these airborne sensors makes them ideal to validate satellite retrievals of cloud optical properties.

  19. The Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000): Overview of the Dry Season Field Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swap, R. J.; Annegarn, H. J.; Suttles, J. T.; Haywood, J.; Helmlinger, M. C.; Hely, C.; Hobbs, P. V.; Holben, B. N.; Ji, J.; King, M. D.

    2002-01-01

    The Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000) is an international project investigating the earth atmosphere -human system in southern Africa. The programme was conducted over a two year period from March 1999 to March 2001. The dry season field campaign (August-September 2000) was the most intensive activity involved over 200 scientist from eighteen countries. The main objectives were to characterize and quantify biogenic, pyrogenic and anthropogenic aerosol and trace gas emissions and their transport and transformations in the atmosphere and to validate NASA's Earth Observing System's Satellite Terra within a scientific context. Five aircraft-- two South African Weather Service Aeorcommanders, the University of Washington's CV-880, the U.K. Meteorological Office's C-130, and NASA's ER-2 --with different altitude capabilities, participated in the campaign. Additional airborne sampling of southern African air masses, that had moved downwind of the subcontinent, was conducted by the CSIRO over Australia. Multiple Observations were made in various geographical sections under different synoptic conditions. Airborne missions were designed to optimize the value of synchronous over-flights of the Terra Satellite platform, above regional ground validation and science targets. Numerous smaller scale ground validation activities took place throughout the subcontinent during the campaign period.

  20. VNIR-SWIR-TIR hyperspectral airborne campaign for soil and sediment mapping in semi-arid south african environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milewski, Robert; Chabrillat, Sabine; Eisele, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    Airborne hyperspectral remote sensing techniques has been proven to offer efficient procedures for soil and sediment mineralogical mapping in arid areas on larger scales. Optical methods based on traditional remote sensing windows using the solar reflective spectral wavelength range from the visible-near infrared (VNIR: 0.4-1.1 μm) to the short-wave infrared region (SWIR: 1.1-2.5 μm) allow mapping of common soil properties such as iron oxides, textural characteristics and organic carbon. However, soil mapping in semi-arid environments using VNIR-SWIR is currently limited due to specific spectral characteristics. Challenges appear in such environments due to the common presence of sandy soils (coarse textured) which grain size distribution is driven by the dominant mineral, quartz (SiO2), and which lacks any distinctive Si-O bond related spectral features within the VNIR-SWIR. Furthermore, another challenge is represented by the common presence of other specific spectral features due to different salts (gypsum, halite) or coatings of different forms (cyanobacteria, iron-oxides and/or -oxyhydroxides) for which few studies exists or that oft prevent detection of any other potential spectral feature of e.g. soil organics. In this context, more methodological developments are needed to overcome current limitations of hyperspectral remote sensing for arid areas, and to extent its scope using the thermal infrared (TIR) wavelength region within the atmospheric window between 8 and 14 μm (longwave infrared). In 2015 an extensive VNIR-SWIR-TIR airborne hyperspectral dataset consisting of HySpex-VNIR, HySpex-SWIR (NEO) and Hyper-Cam (TELOPS) data has been acquired in various Namibian and South African landscapes part of the Dimap/GFZ campaign in the frame of the BMBF-SPACES Geoarchive project. Research goals are 1) to demonstrate the capabilities to extract information from such a dataset and 2) to demonstrate the potential of advanced hyperspectral remote sensing

  1. Soil moisture estimates from the SMOS Validation Rehearsal Campaign in Valencia using EMIRAD airborne measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saleh Contell, K.; López-Baeza, E.; Antolín, C.; Millán, C.; Cano, A.; Wigneron, J. P.; Balling, J.; Schmidl, S. S.; Skou, N.; Kerr, Y. H.; Richaume, P.; Juglea, S.; Delwart, S.; Bouzinac, C.; Wursteisen, P.

    2009-04-01

    The European Space Agency conducted a series of flights in 2008 over the main SMOS Validation sites in Europe, amongst them at the Valencia site. The scope of these campaigns was to help in the preparation of operational soil moisture outputs to be generated by the validation teams during the SMOS commissioning phase and beyond. For that purpose, several activities were scheduled at the Valencia site as part of the SMOS Validation Rehearsal campaign. These included: i) Airborne measurements at L-band to improve the parameterisation of the microwave model L-MEB (L-band Microwave Emssion model of the Biosphere) in the area, in order to improve the match between measured brightness temperatures by SMOS, and simulations using ground-truth soil moisture. ii) Intensive soil moisture sampling in a 10 km x 10 km area to support both current studies on soil moisture spatialisation based on SVAT modelling, and the definition of homogeneous land units for the future characterisation of soil moisture at the scale of a SMOS pixel (~ 50 km). The Valencia Site is located in SE Spain, about 80 km inland to the west of Valencia. Within the Valencia validation site, an area of 10 km x 10 km was selected for the experiment. The land use in this area is dominated by vineyards and bare soil (>70%), and orchards (~18 %). Flights over this area were conducted on four different days between April 22nd and May 2nd 2008. During that period, soil moisture near the surface (0-6 cm) slowly decreased with the last rainfall having occurred on April 20. Radiometric measurements were acquired by EMIRAD (L-band, 1.4 GHz) onboard the Skyvan aircraft. The flight plan, repeated across the four days, included 4 parallel lines crossing the 10 km x 10 km area at ~2300 m above the ground level. One diagonal flight was also performed at ~900 m above the ground level on each day. EMIRAD measured the L-band radiation emitted by the surface using two horns, one close to nadir, and the other one at 43 deg

  2. Pulsed Lidar Measurements of Atmospheric CO2 Column Absorption in the ASCENDS 2011 Airborne Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abshire, James B.; Riris, Haris; Allan, Graham R.; Ramanathan, Anand; Hasselbrack, William E.; Mao, Jianping; Weaver, Clark; Browell, Edward V.

    2012-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated an efficient pulsed, wavelength-resolved IPDA lidar technique for measuring the tropospheric CO2 concentrations as a candidate for NASA's ASCENDS mission. Our team participated in the 2010 ASCENDS airborne campaigns we flew airborne version of the CO2 and O2 lidar on the NASA DC-8. The CO2 lidar measures the atmospheric backscatter profiles and shape of the 1572.33 nm absorption line using 250 mW average laser power, 30 wavelength samples per scan and 300 scans per second. Most flights had 5-6 altitude steps to greater than 12 km, and clear CO2 line shapes were observed at all altitudes. Our post-flight analysis estimated the Iidar range and pulse energies at each wavelength every second. We then solved for the best-fit CO2 absorption line shape, and calculated the Differential Optical Depth (DOD) at the line peak. We compared these to CO2 DODs calculated from spectroscopy based on HITRAN 2008 and the conditions from airborne in-situ readings. Analysis of the 2010 measurements over the Pacific Ocean and Lamont OK shows the expected -linear change of the peak DOD with altitude. For measurements at altitudes greater than 6 km the random errors were approximately 0.3 ppm for 80 sec averaging times. After the 2010 flights we improved the airborne lidar's scan uniformity, calibration and receiver sensitivity. Our team participated in the seven ASCENDS science flights during late July and August 2011. These flights were made over a wide variety of surface and cloud conditions near the US, including over the central valley of California, over several mountain ranges, over both broken and solid stratus cloud deck over the Pacific Ocean, snow patches on mountain tops, over thin and broken clouds above the US Southwest and Iowa, and over forests near the WLEF tower in Wisconsin. Analyses show the retrievals of lidar range and CO2 column absorption, as wen as estimates of CO2 mixing ratio worked well when measuring over topography with rapidly

  3. Pulsed Lidar Measurements of Atmospheric CO2 Column Absorption in the ASCENDS 2011 Airborne Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abshire, J. B.; Riris, H.; Allan, G. R.; Ramanathan, A.; Hasselbrack, W.; Mao, J.; Weaver, C. J.; Browell, E. V.

    2012-12-01

    We have previously demonstrated an efficient pulsed, wavelength-resolved IPDA lidar technique for measuring the tropospheric CO2 concentrations as a candidate for NASA's ASCENDS mission. Our team participated in the 2010 ASCENDS airborne campaigns we flew airborne version of the CO2 and O2 lidar on the NASA DC-8. The CO2 lidar measures the atmospheric backscatter profiles and shape of the 1572.33 nm absorption line using 250 mW average laser power, 30 wavelength samples per scan and 300 scans per second. Most flights had 5-6 altitude steps to > 12 km, and clear CO2 line shapes were observed at all altitudes. Our post-flight analysis estimated the lidar range and pulse energies at each wavelength every second. We then solved for the best-fit CO2 absorption line shape, and calculated the Differential Optical Depth (DOD) at the line peak. We compared these to CO2 DODs calculated from spectroscopy based on HITRAN 2008 and the conditions from airborne in-situ readings. Analysis of the 2010 measurements over the Pacific Ocean and Lamont OK shows the expected ~linear change of the peak DOD with altitude. For measurements at altitudes > 6 km the random errors were ~ 0.3 ppm for 80 sec averaging times. After the 2010 flights we improved the airborne lidar's scan uniformity, calibration and receiver sensitivity. Our team participated in the seven ASCENDS science flights during late July and August 2011. These flights were made over a wide variety of surface and cloud conditions near the US, including over the central valley of California, over several mountain ranges, over both broken and solid stratus cloud deck over the Pacific Ocean, snow patches on mountain tops, over thin and broken clouds above the US Southwest and Iowa, and over forests near the WLEF tower in Wisconsin. Analyses show the retrievals of lidar range and CO2 column absorption, as well as estimates of CO2 mixing ratio worked well when measuring over topography with rapidly changing height and reflectivity

  4. Wind Field Measurements With Airborne Doppler Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menzies, Robert T.

    1999-01-01

    In collaboration with lidar atmospheric remote sensing groups at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Environmental Technology Laboratory, we have developed and flown the Multi-center Airborne Coherent Atmospheric Wind Sensor (MACAWS) lidar on the NASA DC-8 research aircraft. The scientific motivations for this effort are: to obtain measurements of subgrid scale (i.e. 2-200 km) processes and features which may be used to improve parameterizations in global/regional-scale models; to improve understanding and predictive capabilities on the mesoscale; and to assess the performance of Earth-orbiting Doppler lidar for global tropospheric wind measurements. MACAWS is a scanning Doppler lidar using a pulsed transmitter and coherent detection; the use of the scanner allows 3-D wind fields to be produced from the data. The instrument can also be radiometrically calibrated and used to study aerosol, cloud, and surface scattering characteristics at the lidar wavelength in the thermal infrared. MACAWS was used to study surface winds off the California coast near Point Arena, with an example depicted in the figure below. The northerly flow here is due to the Pacific subtropical high. The coastal topography interacts with the northerly flow in the marine inversion layer, and when the flow passes a cape or point that juts into the winds, structures called "hydraulic expansion fans" are observed. These are marked by strong variation along the vertical and cross-shore directions. The plots below show three horizontal slices at different heights above sea level (ASL). Bottom plots are enlargements of the area marked by dotted boxes above. The terrain contours are in 200-m increments, with the white spots being above 600-m elevation. Additional information is contained in the original.

  5. Development of Waypoint Planning Tool in Response to NASA Field Campaign Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    He, Matt; Hardin, Danny; Conover, Helen; Graves, Sara; Meyer, Paul; Blakeslee, Richard; Goodman, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Airborne real time observations are a major component of NASA's Earth Science research and satellite ground validation studies. For mission scientists, planning a research aircraft mission within the context of meeting the science objectives is a complex task because it requires real time situational awareness of the weather conditions that affect the aircraft track. Multiple aircrafts are often involved in NASA field campaigns. The coordination of the aircrafts with satellite overpasses, other airplanes and the constantly evolving, dynamic weather conditions often determines the success of the campaign. A flight planning tool is needed to provide situational awareness information to the mission scientists, and help them plan and modify the flight tracks. Scientists at the University of Alabama-Huntsville and the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center developed the Waypoint Planning Tool, an interactive software tool that enables scientists to develop their own flight plans (also known as waypoints) with point -and-click mouse capabilities on a digital map filled with real time raster and vector data. The development of this Waypoint Planning Tool demonstrates the significance of mission support in responding to the challenges presented during NASA field campaigns. Analysis during and after each campaign helped identify both issues and new requirements, and initiated the next wave of development. Currently the Waypoint Planning Tool has gone through three rounds of development and analysis processes. The development of this waypoint tool is directly affected by the technology advances on GIS/Mapping technologies. From the standalone Google Earth application and simple KML functionalities, to Google Earth Plugin and Java Web Start/Applet on web platform, and to the rising open source GIS tools with new JavaScript frameworks, the Waypoint Planning Tool has entered its third phase of technology advancement. The newly innovated, cross ]platform, modular designed Java

  6. Development of Way Point Planning Tool in Response to NASA Field Campaign Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, M.; Hardin, D. M.; Conover, H.; Graves, S. J.; Meyer, P.; Blakeslee, R. J.; Goodman, M. L.

    2012-12-01

    Airborne real time observations are a major component of NASA's Earth Science research and satellite ground validation studies. For mission scientists, planning a research aircraft mission within the context of meeting the science objectives is a complex task because it requires real time situational awareness of the weather conditions that affect the aircraft track. Multiple aircrafts are often involved in NASA field campaigns. The coordination of the aircrafts with satellite overpasses, other airplanes and the constantly evolving, dynamic weather conditions often determines the success of the campaign. A flight planning tool is needed to provide situational awareness information to the mission scientists, and help them plan and modify the flight tracks. Scientists at the University of Alabama-Huntsville and the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center developed the Waypoint Planning Tool, an interactive software tool that enables scientists to develop their own flight plans (also known as waypoints) with point-and-click mouse capabilities on a digital map filled with real time raster and vector data. The development of this Waypoint Planning Tool demonstrates the significance of mission support in responding to the challenges presented during NASA field campaigns. Analysis during and after each campaign helped identify both issues and new requirements, and initiated the next wave of development. Currently the Waypoint Planning Tool has gone through three rounds of development and analysis processes. The development of this waypoint tool is directly affected by the technology advances on GIS/Mapping technologies. From the standalone Google Earth application and simple KML functionalities, to Google Earth Plugin and Java Web Start/Applet on web platform, and to the rising open source GIS tools with new JavaScript frameworks, the Waypoint Planning Tool has entered its third phase of technology advancement. The newly innovated, cross-platform, modular designed Java

  7. An Airborne Observing Campaign of an Announced Small Asteroid Impact for High Fidelity Impact Modeling Validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenniskens, P. M. M.; Grinstead, J. H.

    2015-12-01

    -the-ocean impact (e.g., ordinary chondrites with low or high iron content). The observed altitude of disruption can be used to direct airborne dust collection efforts in the atmosphere. To prepare for such observing campaign and the quick recovery of meteorites, if possible, an international "Next TC3 Consortium" was established. For more information: http://impact.seti.org.

  8. GLOBE Aerosol Field Campaign - U.S. Pilot Study 2016

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pippin, Margaret; Marentette, Christina; Bujosa, Robert; Taylor, Jessica; Lewis, Preston

    2016-01-01

    During the spring of 2016, from April 4 - May 27, sixteen GLOBE schools participated in the GLOBE Aerosol Field Campaign - U.S. Pilot Study. Thirteen teachers from these schools had previously participated in the NASA LEARN program (Long-term Experience in Authentic Research with NASA) where they were GLOBE trained in Atmosphere protocols, and engaged in 1-3 years of research under the mentorship of NASA scientists. Each school was loaned two aerosol instruments for the Campaign duration, either 2 GLOBE sun photometers, 2 Calitoo sun photometers, or 1 of each. This allowed for students to make measurements side-by-side and in the case of the Calitoos, to compare AOT results immediately with each other for better consistency in data collection. Additionally, as part of the Field Campaign evaluation, multiple instruments allow for an assessment of the ease of use of each instrument for grade level of students, whether in middle school or high school. Before the Campaign, all GLOBE and Calitoo instruments were 'checked out' against an AERONET, then checked again upon return after the Campaign. By examining all data, before, during and after the Campaign, this gives an indication of instrument performance and proficiency obtained by the students. Support was provided to each teacher and their students at the level requested, via email, phone or video conferencing.

  9. EAGLE 2006 - Multi-purpose, multi-angle and multi-sensor in-situ and airborne campaigns over grassland and forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Z.; Timmermans, W. J.; van der Tol, C.; Dost, R.; Bianchi, R.; Gómez, J. A.; House, A.; Hajnsek, I.; Menenti, M.; Magliulo, V.; Esposito, M.; Haarbrink, R.; Bosveld, F.; Rothe, R.; Baltink, H. K.; Vekerdy, Z.; Sobrino, J. A.; Timmermans, J.; van Laake, P.; Salama, S.; van der Kwast, H.; Claassen, E.; Stolk, A.; Jia, L.; Moors, E.; Hartogensis, O.; Gillespie, A.

    2009-06-01

    EAGLE2006 - an intensive field campaign for the advances in land surface hydrometeorological processes - was carried out in the Netherlands from 8th to 18th June 2006, involving 16 institutions with in total 67 people from 16 different countries. In addition to the acquisition of multi-angle and multi-sensor satellite data, several airborne instruments - an optical imaging sensor, an imaging microwave radiometer, and a flux airplane - were deployed and extensive ground measurements were conducted over one grassland site at Cabauw and two forest sites at Loobos and Speulderbos in the central part of the Netherlands. The generated data set is both unique and urgently needed for the development and validation of models and inversion algorithms for quantitative land surface parameter estimation and land surface hydrometeorological process studies. EAGLE2006 was led by the Department of Water Resources of the International Institute for Geo-Information Science and Earth Observation (ITC) and originated from the combination of a number of initiatives supported by different funding agencies. The objectives of the EAGLE2006 campaign were closely related to the objectives of other European Space Agency (ESA) campaign activities (SPARC2004, SEN2FLEX2005 and especially AGRISAR2006). However, one important objective of the EAGLE2006 campaign is to build up a data base for the investigation and validation of the retrieval of bio-geophysical parameters, obtained at different radar frequencies (X-, C- and L-Band) and at hyperspectral optical and thermal bands acquired simultaneously over contrasting vegetated fields (forest and grassland). As such, all activities were related to algorithm development for future satellite missions such as the Sentinels and for validation of retrievals of land surface parameters with optical and thermal and microwave sensors onboard current and future satellite missions. This contribution describes the campaign objectives and provides an overview

  10. Comparisons of Anvil Cirrus Spatial Characteristics between Airborne Observations in DC3 Campaign and WRF Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Alessandro, J.; Diao, M.; Chen, M.

    2015-12-01

    John D'Alessandro1, Minghui Diao1, Ming Chen2, George Bryan2, Hugh Morrison21. Department of Meteorology and Climate Science, San Jose State University2. Mesoscale & Microscale Meteorology Division, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO, 80301 Ice crystal formation requires the prerequisite condition of ice supersaturation, i.e., relative humidity with respect to ice (RHi) greater than 100%. The formation and evolution of ice supersaturated regions (ISSRs) has large impact on the subsequent formation of ice clouds. To examine the characteristics of simulated ice supersaturated regions at various model spatial resolutions, case studies between airborne in-situ measurements in the NSF Deep Convective, Clouds and Chemistry (DC3) campaign (May - June 2012) and WRF simulations are conducted in this work. Recent studies using ~200 m in-situ observations showed that ice supersaturated regions are mostly around 1 km in horizontal scale (Diao et al. 2014). Yet it is still unclear if such observed characteristics can be represented by WRF simulations at various spatial resolutions. In this work, we compare the WRF simulated anvil cirrus spatial characteristics with those observed in the DC3 campaign over the southern great plains in US. The WRF model is run at 1 km and 3 km horizontal grid spacing with a recent update of Thompson microphysics scheme. Our comparisons focus on the spatial characteristics of ISSRs and cirrus clouds, including the distributions of their horizontal scales, the maximum relative humidity with respect to ice (RHi) and the relationship between RHi and temperature. Our previous work on the NCAR CM1 cloud-resolving model shows that the higher resolution runs (i.e., 250m and 1km) generally have better agreement with observations than the coarser resolution (4km) runs. We will examine if similar trend exists for WRF simulations in deep convection cases. In addition, we will compare the simulation results between WRF and CM1, particularly

  11. Coordinated Field Campaigns in Chesapeake Bay and Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mannino, Antonio; Novak, Michael; Tzortziou, Maria A.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's GEOstationary Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GEO-CAPE) mission concept recommended by the U.S. National Research Council (2007) focuses on measurements of atmospheric trace gases and aerosols and aquatic coastal ecology and biogeochemistry from geostationary orbit (35,786 km altitude). Two GEO-CAPE-sponsored multi-investigator ship-based field campaigns were conducted to coincide with the NASA Earth Venture Suborbital project DISCOVER-AQ (Deriving Information on Surface conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality) field campaigns: (1) Chesapeake Bay in July 2011 and (2) northwestern Gulf of Mexico in September 2013. Goal: to evaluate whether GEO-CAPE coastal mission measurement and instrument requirements are optimized to address science objectives while minimizing ocean color satellite sensor complexity, size and cost - critical mission risk reduction activities. NASA continues to support science studies related to the analysis of data collected as part of these coordinated field campaigns and smaller efforts.

  12. Validating CERES Radiative Fluxes in the Arctic with Airborne Radiative Flux Measurements from the ARISE Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbett, J.; Bucholtz, A.; Kato, S.; Rose, F. G.; Smith, W. L., Jr.

    2015-12-01

    The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instruments on board NASA's Terra, Aqua, and Soumi-NPP satellites provide the only measurements of reflected solar shortwave and emitted longwave radiative flux over the Arctic. Various methods have shown the uncertainty of CERES fluxes over sea ice to be higher than other scene types. However validation against an independent radiative flux measurement has never been attempted. We present here an attempt to better quantify the uncertainty of time-and-space averaged CERES flux measurements using airborne measurements from the Arctic Radiation - IceBridge Sea Ice Experiment (ARISE). The ARISE campaign took place during September of 2014 based out of Fairbanks, Alaska, with most of the measurements taken in the vicinity of the sea ice edge between 125°W and 150°W, and 71°N to 77°N. For six of the flights, measurements were taken in a lawnmower type pattern over either 100 x 200 km box regions at a constant altitude of >6 km, or 100 x 100 km box regions at an altitude of between 200 m to 500 m. They were designed to resemble the CERES Level 3 spatial averaging grids, and were located and timed to coincide with a high number of CERES overpasses. On board the aircraft were a set of upward and downward facing shortwave and longwave broadband radiometers (BBR), along with other instruments measuring meteorological conditions and cloud properties. We have compared the broadband radiative fluxes from BBR with those from CERES for the three days where the aircraft was flying the high altitude pattern. We use the Fu-Liou radiative transfer model to account for differences in the measurement altitude between BBR and CERES. We will present results of the comparisons between the computed fluxes and the measured longwave and shortwave radiative fluxes.

  13. The Water Vapor Variability - Satellite/Sondes (WAVES) Field Campaigns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whiteman, D. N.; Adam, M.; Barnet, C.; Bojkov, B.; Delgado, R.; Demoz, B.; Fitzgibbon, J.; Forno, R.; Herman, R.; Hoff, E.; Joseph, E.; Landulfo, E.; McCann, K.; McGee, T.; Miloshevich, L.; Restrepo, I.; Schmidlin, F. J.; Taubman, B.; Thompson, A.; Twigg, L.; Venable, D.; Vomel, H.; Walthall, C.

    2008-01-01

    Three NASA-funded field campaigns have been hosted at the Howard University Research Campus in Beltsville, MD. In each of the years 2006, 2007 and 2008, WAVES field campaigns have coordinated ozonesonde launches, lidar operations and other measurements with A-train satellite overpasses for the purposes of satellite validation. The unique mix of measurement systems, physical location and the interagency, international group of researchers and students has permitted other objectives, such as mesoscale meteorological studies, to be addressed as well. We review the goals and accomplishments of the three WAVES missions with the emphasis on the nonsatellite validation component of WAVES, as the satellite validation activities have been reported elsewhere.

  14. Optimizing Field Campaigns Using A Hypothesis Testing Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harken, B. J.; Over, M. W.; Rubin, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Field campaigns in hydrogeology often aim to characterize aquifers for modeling and predicting flow and transport of contaminants to facilitate in some objective related to environmental protection or public health and safety. Many times these objectives depend on predicting the answer to a yes/no question, such as: will contaminant concentration in an aquifer surpass a threshold value? Will a contaminant reach a river outflow before it degrades? Is water from an extraction well safe for consumption? It remains difficult, however, to predict the extent to which a field campaign will improve modeling and prediction efforts or the chance of success in the original objective. Presented here is a method for designing field campaigns around the original objective by posing it in a hypothesis testing framework and optimizing campaigns with minimizing probability of error as the goal. The first step in this process is to formulate the null and alternative hypotheses, which represent the two possible outcomes of the yes/no question in the objective. The alternative hypothesis is the desirable outcome which requires a specified level of certainty to be accepted. The null hypothesis, on the other hand, is the "safe" fallback assumption, which is accepted if the alternative hypothesis lacks sufficient supporting evidence. Of key concern in designing field campaigns is the probability of making an error (Type I or Type II). A level of significance is chosen based on the severity of each type of error and the level of risk that is considered acceptable for each case. A field campaign can then be designed to gain enough information to reduce the probability of error to the acceptable level while expending as few resources as possible. A case study examined here is attempting to predict the arrival time of a contaminant in an aquifer. A scenario is first established in which a contaminant is travelling from a point source to a control plane, which could represent, for example, a

  15. Evaluation of CMAQ and CAMx Ensemble Air Quality Forecasts during the 2015 MAPS-Seoul Field Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, E.; Kim, S.; Bae, C.; Kim, H. C.; Kim, B. U.

    2015-12-01

    The performance of Air quality forecasts during the 2015 MAPS-Seoul Field Campaign was evaluated. An forecast system has been operated to support the campaign's daily aircraft route decisions for airborne measurements to observe long-range transporting plume. We utilized two real-time ensemble systems based on the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF)-Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions (SMOKE)-Comprehensive Air quality Model with extensions (CAMx) modeling framework and WRF-SMOKE- Community Multi_scale Air Quality (CMAQ) framework over northeastern Asia to simulate PM10 concentrations. Global Forecast System (GFS) from National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) was used to provide meteorological inputs for the forecasts. For an additional set of retrospective simulations, ERA Interim Reanalysis from European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) was also utilized to access forecast uncertainties from the meteorological data used. Model Inter-Comparison Study for Asia (MICS-Asia) and National Institute of Environment Research (NIER) Clean Air Policy Support System (CAPSS) emission inventories are used for foreign and domestic emissions, respectively. In the study, we evaluate the CMAQ and CAMx model performance during the campaign by comparing the results to the airborne and surface measurements. Contributions of foreign and domestic emissions are estimated using a brute force method. Analyses on model performance and emissions will be utilized to improve air quality forecasts for the upcoming KORUS-AQ field campaign planned in 2016.

  16. Eifel field operation campaign supporting Moon Mars and NEO exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamps, Oscar; Foing, Bernard H.; Offringa, Marloes

    2016-07-01

    As follow-up on the 2009 Eifel field campaign new field tests with our ExoGeoLab lander were conducted in November 2015 and February 2016. The two phase campaign was used to test the usability of a mock-up lander as test bench for experiments and its remote control in a Moon, Mars analogue environment. In a real mission such a lander could be used in a robotic or manned mission as scientific tool for scientists on Earth to do preliminary study on in-situ collected rocks. This could be useful for example for a sample return mission where scientists on Earth can determine if sample is interesting enough for a more detailed study. The prototype lander is one of the components of the ExoGeoLab project from ESA and ILEWG. Several student projects have prepared the lander for a geological field campaign in lunar and Martian analogue terrain. The lander can be divided in three sections which are used to store several components of the lander. The lower compartment can be used to store a rover or used as laboratory. The middle compartment is used for the lander computer(s), spectrometers and the associated cables. The top plate is used for a telescope which in our case is used to observe the environment around the lander and to guide astronauts during their EVA. As closest volcanic are there is chosen to do the Eifel area, Germany. Several stages of volcanism from Devon till Quaternary resulted in a variation of rocks which is analogue to volcanic rocks from Moon, Mars and other near Earth objects. Several topics we would like to test were pre-defined. Functional tests and demo were performed at European astronaut centre prior to the campaign. The latest updates with respect to the remote control were tested. The pressurised transport vehicle was equipped as remote base for (scientific) support during the campaign. The new instrument set-up were tested and some spectra were measured on collected rocks. The telescope was used to study the environment around the lander

  17. Husbandry Trace Gas Emissions from a Dairy Complex By Mobile in Situ and Airborne and Spaceborne Remote Sensing: A Comex Campaign Focus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leifer, I.; Tratt, D. M.; Bovensmann, H.; Buckland, K. N.; Burrows, J. P.; Frash, J.; Gerilowski, K.; Iraci, L. T.; Johnson, P. D.; Kolyer, R.; Krautwurst, S.; Krings, T.; Leen, J. B.; Hu, C.; Melton, C.; Vigil, S. A.; Yates, E. L.; Zhang, M.

    2014-12-01

    Recent field study reviews on the greenhouse gas methane (CH4) found significant underestimation from fossil fuel industry and husbandry. The 2014 COMEX campaign seeks to develop methods to derive CH4 and carbon dioxide (CO2) from remote sensing data by combining hyperspectral imaging (HSI) and non-imaging spectroscopy (NIS) with in situ airborne and surface data. COMEX leverages synergies between high spatial resolution HSI column abundance maps and moderate spectral/spatial resolution NIS. Airborne husbandry data were collected for the Chino dairy complex (East Los Angeles Basin) by NIS-MAMAP, HSI-Mako thermal-infrared (TIR); AVIRIS NG shortwave IR (SWIR), with in situ surface mobile-AMOG Surveyor (AutoMObile greenhouse Gas)-and airborne in situ from a Twin Otter and the AlphaJet. AMOG Surveyor uses in situ Integrated Cavity Off Axis Spectroscopy (OA-ICOS) to measure CH4, CO2, H2O, H2S and NH3 at 5-10 Hz, 2D winds, and thermal anomaly in an adapted commuter car. OA-ICOS provides high precision and accuracy with excellent stability. NH3 and CH4 emissions were correlated at dairy size-scales but not sub-dairy scales in surface and Mako data, showing fine-scale structure and large variations between the numerous dairies in the complex (herd ~200,000-250,000) embedded in an urban setting. Emissions hotspots were consistent between surface and airborne surveys. In June, surface and MAMAP data showed a weak overall plume, while surface and Mako data showed a stronger plume in late (hotter) July. Multiple surface plume transects using NH3 fingerprinting showed East and then NE advection out of the LA Basin consistent with airborne data. Long-term trends were investigated in satellite data. This study shows the value of synergistically combined NH3 and CH4 remote sensing data to the task of CH4 source attribution using airborne and space-based remote sensing (IASI for NH3) and top of atmosphere sensitivity calculations for Sentinel V and Carbon Sat (CH4).

  18. Development of Waypoint Planning Tool in Response to NASA Field Campaign Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    He, Matt; Hardin, Danny; Mayer, Paul; Blakeslee, Richard; Goodman, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Airborne real time observations are a major component of NASA 's Earth Science research and satellite ground validation studies. Multiple aircraft are involved in most NASA field campaigns. The coordination of the aircraft with satellite overpasses, other airplanes and the constantly evolving, dynamic weather conditions often determines the success of the campaign. Planning a research aircraft mission within the context of meeting the science objectives is a complex task because it requires real time situational awareness of the weather conditions that affect the aircraft track. A flight planning tools is needed to provide situational awareness information to the mission scientists, and help them plan and modify the flight tracks. Scientists at the University of Alabama ]Huntsville and the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center developed the Waypoint Planning Tool, an interactive software tool that enables scientists to develop their own flight plans (also known as waypoints) with point -and-click mouse capabilities on a digital map filled with real time raster and vector data. The development of this Waypoint Planning Tool demonstrates the significance of mission support in responding to the challenges presented during NASA field campaigns. Analysis during and after each campaign helped identify both issues and new requirements, and initiated the next wave of development. Currently the Waypoint Planning Tool has gone through three rounds of development and analysis processes. The development of this waypoint tool is directly affected by the technology advances on GIS/Mapping technologies. From the standalone Google Earth application and simple KML functionalities, to Google Earth Plugin on web platform, and to the rising open source GIS tools with New Java Script frameworks, the Waypoint Planning Tool has entered its third phase of technology advancement. Adapting new technologies for the Waypoint Planning Tool ensures its success in helping scientist reach their

  19. Airborne water vapor DIAL research: System development and field measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Higdon, Noah S.; Browell, Edward V.; Ponsardin, Patrick; Chyba, Thomas H.; Grossmann, Benoist E.; Butler, Carolyn F.; Fenn, Marta A.; Mayor, Shane D.; Ismail, Syed; Grant, William B.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the airborne differential absorption lidar (DIAL) system developed at the NASA Langley Research Center for remote measurement of water vapor (H2O) and aerosols in the lower atmosphere. The airborne H2O DIAL system was flight tested aboard the NASA Wallops Flight Facility (WFF) Electra aircraft in three separate field deployments between 1989 and 1991. Atmospheric measurements were made under a variety of atmospheric conditions during the flight tests, and several modifications were implemented during this development period to improve system operation. A brief description of the system and major modifications will be presented, and the most significant atmospheric observations will be described.

  20. Microphysical Characteristics of Clouds During the TRMM Field Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stith, Jeffrey L.

    2003-01-01

    Further analysis of the TRMM field campaign data was conducted to examine the growth of precipitation in updraft regions of the TRMM field campaign tropical clouds and to extend the earlier results to cover the whole TRMM data set collected by the University of North Dakota (UND). The results have been submitted for publication. In this paper, composite vertical profiles of liquid water, small particle concentration, and updraft/downdraft magnitudes were presented from each of the campaigns. They exhibited similar peak values for the two TRMM regions of LBA and Kwajalein. Updrafts were found to be favored locations for precipitation embryos in the form of liquid or frozen drizzle-sized droplets. Although liquid water concentrations decreased to undetectable levels between -5 and -18 C in most glaciating updrafts, occasional traces of liquid water were found in updrafts at colder temperatures, probably due to the persistence of liquid drizzle droplets. The updraft magnitudes where the traces of liquid water were observed at cold temperatures do not appear to be stronger than updrafts without liquid water at similar temperatures, however.

  1. Wind-wave-induced velocity in ATI SAR ocean surface currents: First experimental evidence from an airborne campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Adrien C. H.; Gommenginger, Christine; Marquez, Jose; Doody, Sam; Navarro, Victor; Buck, Christopher

    2016-03-01

    Conventional and along-track interferometric (ATI) Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) senses the motion of the ocean surface by measuring the Doppler shift of reflected signals. Measurements are affected by a Wind-wave-induced Artifact Surface Velocity (WASV) which was modeled theoretically in past studies and has been estimated empirically only once before with Envisat ASAR by Mouche et al. (2012). An airborne campaign in the tidally dominated Irish Sea served to evaluate this effect and the current retrieval capabilities of a dual-beam SAR interferometer known as Wavemill. A comprehensive collection of Wavemill airborne data acquired in a star pattern over a well-instrumented validation site made it possible for the first time to estimate the magnitude of the WASV, and its dependence on azimuth and incidence angle from data alone. In light wind (5.5 m/s) and moderate current (0.7 m/s) conditions, the wind-wave-induced contribution to the measured ocean surface motion reaches up to 1.6 m/s upwind, with a well-defined second-order harmonic dependence on direction to the wind. The magnitude of the WASV is found to be larger at lower incidence angles. The airborne WASV results show excellent consistency with the empirical WASV estimated from Envisat ASAR. These results confirm that SAR and ATI surface velocity estimates are strongly affected by WASV and that the WASV can be well characterized with knowledge of the wind knowledge and of the geometry. These airborne results provide the first independent validation of Mouche et al. (2012) and confirm that the empirical model they propose provides the means to correct airborne and spaceborne SAR and ATI SAR data for WASV to obtain accurate ocean surface current measurements. After removing the WASV, the airborne Wavemill-retrieved currents show very good agreement against ADCP measurements with a root-mean-square error (RMSE) typically around 0.1 m/s in velocity and 10° in direction.

  2. Convective Systems Observed and Simulated During TRMM Field Campaigns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, Wei-Kuo; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Recently completed TRMM field campaigns (TEFLUN1998, SCSMEX-1998, TRMM.LBA-1999, and KWAJEX 1999) have obtained direct measurements of microphysical data associated with convective systems from various geographical locations. These TRMM field experiments were designed to contribute to fundamental understanding of cloud dynamics and microphysics, as well as for validation,, testing assumptions and error estimates of cloud-resolving models, forward radiative transfer models, algorithms used to estimate rainfall statistics and vertical structure of precipitation and latent heating from both surface-based radar and satellites.

  3. Automated decision algorithm applied to a field experiment with multiple research objectives: The DC3 campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanlon, Christopher J.; Small, Arthur A.; Bose, Satyajit; Young, George S.; Verlinde, Johannes

    2014-10-01

    Automated decision systems have shown the potential to increase data yields from field experiments in atmospheric science. The present paper describes the construction and performance of a flight decision system designed for a case in which investigators pursued multiple, potentially competing objectives. The Deep Convective Clouds and Chemistry (DC3) campaign in 2012 sought in situ airborne measurements of isolated deep convection in three study regions: northeast Colorado, north Alabama, and a larger region extending from central Oklahoma through northwest Texas. As they confronted daily flight launch decisions, campaign investigators sought to achieve two mission objectives that stood in potential tension to each other: to maximize the total amount of data collected while also collecting approximately equal amounts of data from each of the three study regions. Creating an automated decision system involved understanding how investigators would themselves negotiate the trade-offs between these potentially competing goals, and representing those preferences formally using a utility function that served to rank-order the perceived value of alternative data portfolios. The decision system incorporated a custom-built method for generating probabilistic forecasts of isolated deep convection and estimated climatologies calibrated to historical observations. Monte Carlo simulations of alternative future conditions were used to generate flight decision recommendations dynamically consistent with the expected future progress of the campaign. Results show that a strict adherence to the recommendations generated by the automated system would have boosted the data yield of the campaign by between 10 and 57%, depending on the metrics used to score success, while improving portfolio balance.

  4. Airborne Passive Microwave Measurements from the AMISA 2008 Science Campaign for Modeling of Arctic Sea Ice Heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zucker, M. L.; Gasiewski, A. J.; CenterEnvironmental Technology

    2011-12-01

    While climate changes in the Arctic are occurring more rapidly than anywhere else on Earth model-based predictions of sea ice extent are at once both more optimistic than the data suggest and exhibit a high degree of variability. It is believed that this high level of uncertainty is the result of an inadequate quantitative understanding of surface heating mechanisms, which in large part is due to a lack of high spatial resolution data on boundary layer and surface energy processes during melt and freezeup. In August 2008 the NASA Arctic Mechanisms of Interactions between the Surface and Atmosphere (AMISA) campaign, in conjunction with the Swedish-led Arctic Summer Cloud-Ocean Study (ASCOS) conducted coordinated high spatial resolution measurements of geophysical parameters in the Arctic relevant to atmospheric-sea ice interaction. The IPY-approved AMISA campaign used airborne radiometers, including the Polarimetric Scanning Radiometer (PSR) system, a suite of L-band to V-band fixed-beam radiometers for cloud liquid and water vapor measurement, short and longwave radiation sensors, meteorological parameters from cloud size distribution probes, GPS dropsondes, and aerosol sensors. Calibration of the PSR is achieved through periodic observations of stable references such as thermal blackbody targets and noise diodes. A combination of methods using both infrequent external thermal blackbody views and brief frequent internal noise sources has proven practical for airborne systems such as the PSR and is proposed for spaceborne systems such as GeoMAS. Once radiometric data is calibrated it is then rasterized into brightness temperature images which are then geo-located and imported into Google EarthTM. An example brightness temperature map from the AMISA 2008 campaign is included in this abstract. The analysis of this data provides a basis for the development of a heat flux model needed to decrease the uncertainly in weather and climate predictions within the Arctic. In

  5. A Coordinated Ice-based and Airborne Snow and Ice Thickness Measurement Campaign on Arctic Sea Ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter-Menge, J.; Farrell, S.; Elder, B. C.; Gardner, J. M.; Brozena, J. M.

    2011-12-01

    snow depth on sea ice and characterization of the regional sea ice thickness distribution. This poster will present preliminary data from the measurement campaign. This includes the in situ measurements of snow depth and ice thickness along the survey line. The NASA IceBridge airborne survey consisted of eleven parallel flight lines along the main in situ transect and two perpendicular passes at the northern and southern ends of the survey line, coincident with two corner reflectors. We will present initial IceBridge data, including ATM sea ice elevation and DMS photography which we use to estimate surface roughness and delineate sea ice provinces nearby the in situ survey. Preliminary data from the NRL over flights of the survey line will be presented in the poster by Brozena et al. (this session). The in situ and airborne data collected during the March 2011 campaign will be fully-documented and archived on the NASA IceBridge websites at NSIDC, allowing for their free access by the broad research community.

  6. A Survey of NASA’s Tropical Atmospheric Research Field Campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yubin He, M.; Hardin, D. M.; Graves, S.; Conover, H.; Blakeslee, R.; Goodman, M.

    2009-12-01

    the dynamics and thermodynamics of precipitating cloud systems and tropical cyclones. The TCSP experiment flew 12 science flights, including missions to Hurricanes Dennis and Emily, Tropical Storm Gert and an eastern Pacific mesoscale complex that may possibly have further developed into Tropical Storm Eugene. In August 2006 the NASA African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analyses (NAMMA) campaign, based in the Cape Verde Islands, employed surface observation networks and aircraft to characterize the evolution and structure of African Easterly Waves (AEWs) and Mesoscale Convective Systems over continental western Africa. In 2010 NASA will continue these studies with the Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes experiment. This field campaign will study how tropical storms form and develop into major hurricanes. NASA plans to use the DC-8 aircraft and the Global Hawk Unmanned Airborne System (UAS) and is soliciting proposals for instruments that can achieve the measurement requirements. Data from these campaigns is available from the Global Hydrology Resource Center (GHRC) in Huntsville Alabama, one of NASA’s Earth science data centers, managed by the Information Technology and Systems Center of UAHuntsville.

  7. Source Attributions of Pollution to the Western Arctic During the NASA ARCTAS Field Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bian, H.; Colarco, P. R.; Chin, M.; Chen, G.; Rodriquez, J. M.; Liang, Q.; Blake, D.; Chu, D. A.; daSilva, A.; Darmenov, A. S.; Diskin. G.; Fuelberg, H. E.; Huey, G.; Kondo, Y.; Nielsen, J. E.; Pan, X.; Wisthaler, A.

    2013-01-01

    We use the NASA GEOS-5 transport model with tagged tracers to investigate the contributions of different regional sources of CO and black carbon (BC) to their concentrations in the Western Arctic (i.e., 50-90 deg N and 190- 320 deg E) in spring and summer 2008. The model is evaluated by comparing the results with airborne measurements of CO and BC from the NASA Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS) field campaigns to demonstrate the strengths and limitations of our simulations. We also examine the reliability of tagged CO tracers in characterizing air mass origins using the measured fossil fuel tracer of dichloromethane and the biomass burning tracer of acetonitrile. Our tagged CO simulations suggest that most of the enhanced CO concentrations (above background level from CH4 production) observed during April originate from Asian anthropogenic emissions. Boreal biomass burning emissions and Asian anthropogenic emissions are of similar importance in July domain wise, although the biomass burning CO fraction is much larger in the area of the ARCTAS field experiments. The fraction of CO from Asian anthropogenic emissions is larger in spring than in summer. European sources make up no more than 10% of CO levels in the campaign domain during either period. Comparisons of CO concentrations along the flight tracks with regional averages from GEOS-5 show that the alongtrack measurements are representative of the concentrations within the large domain of the Western Arctic in April but not in July.

  8. Overview of the Gradient in Longitude of Atmospheric constituents above the Mediterranean basin (GLAM) airborne summer campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricaud, Philippe; Zbinden, Regina; Catoire, Valery; Brocchi, Vanessa; Dulac, Francois; Hamonou, Eric; Canonici, Jean-Christophe; El Amraoui, Laaziz; Massart, Sebastien; Piguet, Bruno; Dayan, Uri; Nabat, Pierre; Sciare, Jean; Ramonet, Michel; di Sarra, Alcide; Mihalopoulos, Nikolaos; Kouvarakis, Giorgos; Kleanthous, Savvas; Pikridas, Michael; Attié, Jean-Luc

    2016-04-01

    The Gradient in Longitude of Atmospheric constituents above the Mediterranean basin (GLAM) airborne campaign has been set up to investigate the variability of constituents (pollutants and greenhouse gases) and aerosols between the West and the East of the Mediterranean Basin in summer 2014. This campaign occurred in the framework of the Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment (CHARMEX) as part of the Mediterranean Integrated STudies at Regional And Local Scales (MISTRALS) programme. During the campaign, several instruments including the Spectromètre InfraRouge In situ Toute altitude (SPIRIT) instrument onboard the SAFIRE Falcon-20 aircraft measured aerosols, winds, radiation, humidity and chemical compounds such as O3, CO, CH4, N2O, and CO2. The campaign took place from 6 to 10 August 2014 from Toulouse (France) to Larnaca (Cyprus) and back, via Menorca (Spain), Lampedusa (Italy) and Heraklion (Crete). The aircraft flew at about 5000 m altitude above sea level to go and at about 9000 m altitude to return. The campaign also provided some vertical profilings from the surface to about 12 km in the vicinity of the landing sites listed above. The present paper shows an overview of the measurements and of the scientific results obtained during GLAM combining space-borne and surface station measurements, modelling (MOCAGE and ALADIN-CLIMAT) and chemical forecasts and analyses from Copernicus Atmospheric Monitoring Service (CAMS) run by the European Centre for Medium range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF). Along an East-West axis or along the vertical, we analyze different processes. Among the different processes that have been studied in detail, we will particularly focus on aerosol results concentrating on the intercontinental transport and comparisons with surface stations. Combining GLAM, back-trajectories, satellite and model data, we demonstrate that the biomass burning from northern America, desert dust from Sahara and O3-depleted maritime boundary layer air masses

  9. High Resolution WRF Modeling for MATERHORN Field Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silver, Z.; Dimitrova, R.; Fernando, H. J.; Leo, L.; Di Sabatino, S.; Zsedrovits, T.

    2013-12-01

    The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model was used for high resolution simulation of flow around Granite Mountain Atmospheric Sciences Testbed during MATERHORN field campaigns (www.nd.edu/~dynamics/materhorn). The aim was to provide guidance for instrument siting and map possible flow structures emanating from topographic and thermal inhomogeneities. Intriguing flow features were noted: short-lived nature of down-slope and down-valley flows due to mutual interactions between multiple nocturnal flows, drainage of cold pools between basins through sills that separate them, channelized flow expanding into nearby cold pools forming intrusions, critical (stagnation, convergence and divergence) points due to flow interactions, flow separation and wake vortices in the presence of synoptic winds, and interaction between synoptic and thermally driven flow that modifies both. The performance of the model was evaluated by comparing model predictions with observations of the two MATERHORN field campaigns (October 2012 and May 2013). This research was funded by Office of Naval Research Grant # N00014-11-1-0709.

  10. Automated decision algorithm applied to a field experiment with multiple research objectives: The DC3 campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanlon, C. J.; Small, A.; Bose, S.; Young, G. S.; Verlinde, J.

    2013-12-01

    In airborne field campaigns, investigators confront complex decision challenges concerning when and where to deploy aircraft to meet scientific objectives within constraints of time and budgeted flight hours. An automated flight decision recommendation system was developed to assist investigators leading the Deep Convective Clouds and Chemistry (DC3) campaign in spring--summer 2012. In making flight decisions, DC3 investigators needed to integrate two distinct, potentially competing objectives: to maximize the total harvest of data collected, and also to maintain an approximate balance of data collected from each of three geographic study regions. Choices needed to satisfy several constraint conditions including, most prominently, a limit on the total number of flight hours, and a bound on the number of calendar days in the field. An automated recommendation system was developed by translating these objectives and bounds into a formal problem of constrained optimization. In this formalization, a key step involved the mathematical representation of investigators' scientific preferences over the set of possible data collection outcomes. Competing objectives were integrated into a single metric by means of a utility function, which served to quantify the value of alternative data portfolios. Flight recommendations were generated to maximize the expected utility of each daily decision, conditioned on that day's forecast. A calibrated forecast probability of flight success in each study region was generated according to a forecasting system trained on numerical weather prediction model output, as well as expected climatological probability of flight success on future days. System performance was evaluated by comparing the data yielded by the actual DC3 campaign, compared with the yield that would have been realized had the algorithmic recommendations been followed. It was found that the algorithmic system would have achieved 19%--59% greater utility than the decisions

  11. A Meteorological Overview of the MILAGRO Field Campaigns

    SciTech Connect

    Fast, Jerome D.; de Foy, B.; Rosas, F. A.; Caetano, E.; Carmichael, Gregory; Emmons, L.; McKenna, D.; Mena, M.; Skamarock, W.; Tie, X.; Coulter, Richard L.; Barnard, James C.; Wiedinmyer, Christine; Madronich, Sasha

    2007-05-03

    We describe the large-scale meteorological conditions that affected atmospheric chemistry over Mexico during March 2006 when several field campaigns were conducted in the region. In-situ and remote-sensing instrumentation was deployed to obtain measurements of wind, temperature, and humidity profiles in the boundary layer and free atmosphere at four primary sampling sites in central Mexico. Several models were run operationally during the field campaign to provide forecasts of the local, regional, and synoptic meteorology as well as the predicted location of the Mexico City pollutant plume for aircraft flight planning purposes. Field campaign measurements and large-scale analyses are used to define three regimes that characterize the overall meteorological conditions: the first regime prior to March 14, the second regime between March 14 and 23, and the third regime after March 23. Mostly sunny and dry conditions with periods of cirrus and marine stratus along the coast occurred during the first regime. The beginning of the second regime was characterized by a sharp increase in humidity over the central plateau and the development of late afternoon convection associated with the passage of a weak cold surge on March 14. Over the next several days, the atmosphere over the central plateau became drier so that deep convection gradually diminished. The third regime began with the passage of a strong cold surge that led to humidity, afternoon convection, and precipitation over the central plateau that was higher than during the second regime. The frequency and intensity of fires, as determined by satellite measurements, also diminished significantly after the third cold surge. The synoptic-scale flow patterns that govern the transport of pollutants in the region are described and compared to previous March periods to put the transport into a climatological context. The complex terrain surrounding Mexico City produces local and regional circulations that govern short

  12. Field of view selection for optimal airborne imaging sensor performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goss, Tristan M.; Barnard, P. Werner; Fildis, Halidun; Erbudak, Mustafa; Senger, Tolga; Alpman, Mehmet E.

    2014-05-01

    The choice of the Field of View (FOV) of imaging sensors used in airborne targeting applications has major impact on the overall performance of the system. Conducting a market survey from published data on sensors used in stabilized airborne targeting systems shows a trend of ever narrowing FOVs housed in smaller and lighter volumes. This approach promotes the ever increasing geometric resolution provided by narrower FOVs, while it seemingly ignores the influences the FOV selection has on the sensor's sensitivity, the effects of diffraction, the influences of sight line jitter and collectively the overall system performance. This paper presents a trade-off methodology to select the optimal FOV for an imaging sensor that is limited in aperture diameter by mechanical constraints (such as space/volume available and window size) by balancing the influences FOV has on sensitivity and resolution and thereby optimizing the system's performance. The methodology may be applied to staring array based imaging sensors across all wavebands from visible/day cameras through to long wave infrared thermal imagers. Some examples of sensor analysis applying the trade-off methodology are given that highlights the performance advantages that can be gained by maximizing the aperture diameters and choosing the optimal FOV for an imaging sensor used in airborne targeting applications.

  13. Cloud Physics Lidar Measurements During the SAFARI-2000 Field Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGill, Matthew; Hlavka, Dennis; Hart, William; Spinhirne, James; Scott, Stan; Starr, David OC. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A new remote sensing instrument, the Cloud Physics Lidar (CPL) has been built for use on the ER-2 aircraft. The first deployment for CPL was the SAFARI-2000 field campaign during August-September 2000. The CPL is a three-wavelength lidar designed for studies of cirrus, subvisual cirrus, and boundary layer aerosols. The CPL utilizes a high repetition rate, low pulse energy laser with photon counting detectors. A brief description of the CPL instrument will be given, followed by examples of CPL data products. In particular, examples of aerosol backscatter, including boundary layer smoke and cirrus clouds will be shown. Resulting optical depth estimates derived from the aerosol measurements will be shown. Comparisons of the CPL optical depth and optical depth derived from microPulse Lidar and the AATS-14 sunphotomer will be shown.

  14. 3-dimensional observations of atmospheric variables during the field campaign COPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, S.; Behrendt, A.; Bauer, H.; Radlach, M.; Riede, A.; Schiller, M.; Wagner, G.

    2008-05-01

    The Convective and Orographically-induced Precipitation Study (COPS) has the aim to advance the quality of forecasts of orographically-induced precipitation in complex terrain. COPS is a Research and Development Project of the World Weather Research Program and considered to be one of the largest field campaigns on quantitative precipitation forecasting that has been performed so far. A network of state-of-the-art active and passive remote sensing systems was combined with in total 10 airborne platforms, Meteosat rapid scans and dense networks of standard meteorological instruments during the three months long field phase (June-August, 2007) in south-western Germany/eastern France to observe atmospheric variables in the three spatial dimensions and in time. By the University of Hohenheim, two novel ground-based mobile scanning lidar systems were deployed: a scanning rotational Raman lidar which provides combined measurements of the field of atmospheric temperature and aerosol optical properties, and a water-vapour differential absorption lidar (DIAL). During COPS, both lidar systems were located at Hornisgrinde, the highest peak of the northern Black Forest together with a large suite of other remote sensing systems. In this contribution we present and discuss highlights of these measurements.

  15. Remote Sensing of Wind Fields and Aerosol Distribution with Airborne Scanning Doppler Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothermel, Jeffry; Cutten, Dean R.; Johnson, Steven C.; Jazembski, Maurice; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The coherent Doppler laser radar (lidar), when operated from an airborne platform, is a unique tool for the study of atmospheric and surface processes and features. This is especially true for scientific objectives requiring measurements in optically-clear air, where other remote sensing technologies such as Doppler radar are typically at a disadvantage. The atmospheric lidar remote sensing groups of several US institutions, led by Marshall Space Flight Center, have developed an airborne coherent Doppler lidar capable of mapping the wind field and aerosol structure in three dimensions. The instrument consists of an eye-safe approx. 1 Joule/pulse lidar transceiver, telescope, scanner, inertial measurement unit, and flight computer system to orchestrate all subsystem functions and tasks. The scanner is capable of directing the expanded lidar beam in a variety of ways, in order to extract vertically-resolved wind fields. Horizontal resolution is approx. 1 km; vertical resolution is even finer. Winds are obtained by measuring backscattered, Doppler-shifted laser radiation from naturally-occurring aerosol particles (of order 1 micron diameter). Measurement coverage depends on aerosol spatial distribution and composition. Velocity accuracy has been verified to be approx. 1 meter per second. A variety of applications have been demonstrated during the three flight campaigns conducted during 1995-1998. Examples will be shown during the presentation. In 1995, boundary layer winds over the ocean were mapped with unprecedented resolution. In 1996, unique measurements were made of. flow over the complex terrain of the Aleutian Islands; interaction of the marine boundary layer jet with the California coastal mountain range; a weak dry line in Texas - New Mexico; the angular dependence of sea surface scattering; and in-flight radiometric calibration using the surface of White Sands National Monument. In 1998, the first measurements of eyewall and boundary layer winds within a

  16. Influence of clouds on the spectral actinic flux density in the lower troposphere (INSPECTRO): overview of the field campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiel, S.; Ammannato, L.; Bais, A.; Bandy, B.; Blumthaler, M.; Bohn, B.; Engelsen, O.; Gobbi, G. P.; Gröbner, J.; Jäkel, E.; Junkermann, W.; Kazadzis, S.; Kift, R.; Kjeldstad, B.; Kouremeti, N.; Kylling, A.; Mayer, B.; Monks, P. S.; Reeves, C. E.; Schallhart, B.; Scheirer, R.; Schmidt, S.; Schmitt, R.; Schreder, J.; Silbernagl, R.; Topaloglou, C.; Thorseth, T. M.; Webb, A. R.; Wendisch, M.; Werle, P.

    2008-03-01

    Ultraviolet radiation is the key factor driving tropospheric photochemistry. It is strongly modulated by clouds and aerosols. A quantitative understanding of the radiation field and its effect on photochemistry is thus only possible with a detailed knowledge of the interaction between clouds and radiation. The overall objective of the project INSPECTRO was the characterization of the three-dimensional actinic radiation field under cloudy conditions. This was achieved during two measurement campaigns in Norfolk (East Anglia, UK) and Lower Bavaria (Germany) combining space-based, aircraft and ground-based measurements as well as simulations with the one-dimensional radiation transfer model UVSPEC and the three-dimensional radiation transfer model MYSTIC. During both campaigns the spectral actinic flux density was measured at several locations at ground level and in the air by up to four different aircraft. This allows the comparison of measured and simulated actinic radiation profiles. In addition satellite data were used to complete the information of the three dimensional input data set for the simulation. A three-dimensional simulation of actinic flux density data under cloudy sky conditions requires a realistic simulation of the cloud field to be used as an input for the 3-D radiation transfer model calculations. Two different approaches were applied, to derive high- and low-resolution data sets, with a grid resolution of about 100 m and 1 km, respectively. The results of the measured and simulated radiation profiles as well as the results of the ground based measurements are presented in terms of photolysis rate profiles for ozone and nitrogen dioxide. During both campaigns all spectroradiometer systems agreed within ±10% if mandatory corrections e.g. stray light correction were applied. Stability changes of the systems were below 5% over the 4 week campaign periods and negligible over a few days. The J(O1D) data of the single monochromator systems can be

  17. Influence of clouds on the spectral actinic flux density in the lower troposphere (INSPECTRO): overview of the field campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiel, S.; Ammannato, L.; Bais, A.; Bandy, B.; Blumthaler, M.; Bohn, B.; Engelsen, O.; Gobbi, G. P.; Gröbner, J.; Jäkel, E.; Junkermann, W.; Kazadzis, S.; Kift, R.; Kjeldstad, B.; Kouremeti, N.; Kylling, A.; Mayer, B.; Monks, P. S.; Reeves, C. E.; Schallhart, B.; Scheirer, R.; Schmidt, S.; Schmitt, R.; Schreder, J.; Silbernagl, R.; Topaloglou, C.; Thorseth, T. M.; Webb, A. R.; Wendisch, M.; Werle, P.

    2007-09-01

    Ultraviolet radiation is the key factor driving tropospheric photochemistry. It is strongly modulated by clouds and aerosols. A quantitative understanding of the radiation field and its effect on photochemistry is thus only possible with a detailed knowledge of the interaction between clouds and radiation. The overall objective of the project INSPECTRO was the characterization of the three-dimensional actinic radiation field under cloudy conditions. This was achieved during two measurement campaigns in Norfolk (East Anglia, UK) and Lower Bavaria (Germany) combining space-based, aircraft and ground-based measurements as well as simulations with the one-dimensional radiation transfer model UVSPEC and the three-dimensional radiation transfer model MYSTIC. During both campaigns the spectral actinic flux density was measured at several locations at ground level and in the air by up to four different aircraft. This allows the comparison of measured and simulated actinic radiation profiles. In addition satellite data were used to complete the information of the three dimensional input data set for the simulation. A three-dimensional simulation of actinic flux density data under cloudy sky conditions requires a realistic simulation of the cloud field to be used as an input for the 3-D radiation transfer model calculations. Two different approaches were applied, to derive high- and low-resolution data sets, with a grid resolution of about 100 m and 1 km, respectively. The results of the measured and simulated radiation profiles as well as the results of the ground based measurements are presented in terms of photolysis rate profiles for ozone and nitrogen dioxide. During both campaigns all spectroradiometer systems agreed within ±10% if mandatory corrections e.g. stray light correction were applied. Stability changes of the systems were below 5% over the 4 week campaign periods and negligible over a few days. The J(O1D) data of the single monochromator systems can be

  18. Airborne sulfur trace species intercomparison campaign: Sulfur dioxide, dimethylsulfide, hydrogen sulfide, carbon disulfide, and carbonyl sulfide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, Gerald L.; Hoell, James M., Jr.; Davis, Douglas D.

    1991-01-01

    Results from an airborne intercomparison of techniques to measure tropospheric levels of sulfur trace gases are presented. The intercomparison was part of the NASA Global Tropospheric Experiment (GTE) and was conducted during the summer of 1989. The intercomparisons were conducted on the Wallops Electra aircraft during flights from Wallops Island, Virginia, and Natal, Brazil. Sulfur measurements intercompared included sulfur dioxide (SO2), dimethylsulfide (DMS), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), carbon disulfide (CS2), and carbonyl sulfide (OCS). Measurement techniques ranged from filter collection systems with post-flight analyses to mass spectrometer and gas chromatograph systems employing various methods for measuring and identifying the sulfur gases during flight. Sampling schedules for the techniques ranged from integrated collections over periods as long as 50 minutes to one- to three-minute samples every ten or fifteen minutes. Several of the techniques provided measurements of more than one sulfur gas. Instruments employing different detection principles were involved in each of the sulfur intercomparisons. Also included in the intercomparison measurement scenario were a host of supporting measurements (i.e., ozone, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, total sulfur, aerosols, etc.) for purposes of: (1) interpreting results (i.e., correlation of any noted instrument disagreement with the chemical composition of the measurement environment); and (2) providing supporting chemical data to meet CITE-3 science objectives of studying ozone/sulfur photochemistry, diurnal cycles, etc. The results of the intercomparison study are briefly discussed.

  19. Lidar measurements of the column CO2 mixing ratio made by NASA Goddard's CO2 Sounder during the NASA ASCENDS 2014 Airborne campaign.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramanathan, A. K.; Mao, J.; Abshire, J. B.; Kawa, S. R.

    2015-12-01

    Remote sensing measurements of CO2 from space can help improve our understanding of the carbon cycle and help constrain the global carbon budget. However, such measurements need to be sufficiently accurate to detect small (1 ppm) changes in the CO2 mixing ratio (XCO2) against a large background (~ 400 ppm). Satellite measurements of XCO2 using passive spectrometers, such as those from the Japanese GOSAT (Greenhouse gas Observing Satellite) and the NASA OCO-2 (Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2) are limited to daytime sunlit portions of the Earth and are susceptible to biases from clouds and aerosols. For this reason, NASA commissioned the formulation study of ASCENDS a space-based lidar mission. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's CO2 Sounder lidar is one candidate approach for the ASCENDS mission. The NASA GSFC CO2 Sounder measures the CO2 mixing ratio using a pulsed multi-wavelength integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) approach. The CO2 Sounder has flown in the 2011, 2013 and 2014 ASCENDS airborne campaigns over the continental US, and has produced measurements in close agreement with in situ measurements of the CO2 column. In 2014, the CO2 Sounder upgraded its laser with a precision step-locked diode laser source to improve the lidar wavelength position accuracy. It also improved its optical receiver with a low-noise, high efficiency, HgCdTe avalanche photo diode detector. The combination of these two technologies enabled lidar XCO2 measurements with unprecedented accuracy. In this presentation, we show analysis from the ASCENDS 2014 field campaign, exploring: (1) Horizontal XCO2 gradients measured by the lidar, (2) Comparisons of lidar XCO2 measurements against the Parameterized Chemistry Transport Model (PCTM), and (3) Lidar column water vapor measurements using a HDO absorption line that occurs next to the CO2 absorption line. This can reduce the uncertainty in the dry air column used in XCO2 retrievals.

  20. The GLORIE Campaign: Assessment of the Capabilities of Airborne GNSS-R for Land Remote Sensing.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangiarotti, S.; Motte, E.; Zribi, M., Sr.; Fanise, P., Sr.

    2015-12-01

    In June and July 2015 an intensive flight campaign was conducted over the south west of France to test the sensitivity of Global Navigation Satellite System Reflectometry (GNSS-R) to the geophysical parameters of continental surfaces. Namely, the parameters of interest were soil moisture, soil roughness, plant water content, forest biomass and level of inland water bodies and rivers. We used the GLORI polarimetric GNSS-R instrument, collecting raw 10MSPS 2-bit IQ direct (RHCP, zenith) and reflected (RHCP and LHCP, nadir) signals at GPS L1 frequency aboard the ATR-42 aircraft of the SAFIRE fleet. Simultaneous measurement of aircraft attitude and position were recorded. The flight plan included flyovers of several areas of interests, with collocated ground truth measurements of soil moisture, soil roughness, cultivated biomass, and forest biomass. Also flyovers of ponds, lakes and river were included for power calibration and altimetry retrievals. In total, 6 flights were performed between June 19th and July 6th, representing more than 15 hours of raw data. A conventional GNSS-R processing of the data was performed in order to compute the direct and reflected complex waveforms. A preliminary data analysis based on the variations of the ratio of reflected maximum correlation amplitude in the LHCP antenna to direct maximum correlated amplitude shows measurements sensitivity to soil type, land use and incidence angle. Also, first altimetric retrievals using phase-delay techniques shows very promising results over calm waters. Current work is ongoing in order to fit the observed polarimetric measurements with innovative bistatic scattering models capable of taking into account complex geometries and land use configurations.

  1. On the impact of airborne gravity data to fused gravity field models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolkas, Dimitrios; Fotopoulos, Georgia; Braun, Alexander

    2016-03-01

    In gravity field modeling, fused models that utilize satellite, airborne and terrestrial gravity observations are often employed to deal with erroneous terrestrially derived gravity datasets. These terrestrial datasets may suffer from long-wavelength systematic errors and inhomogeneous data coverage, which are not prevalent in airborne and satellite datasets. Airborne gravity acquisition plays an essential role in gravity field modeling, providing valuable information of the Earth's gravity field at medium and short wavelengths. Thus, assessing the impact of airborne gravity data to fused gravity field models is important for identifying problematic regions. Six study regions that represent different gravity field variability and terrestrial data point-density characteristics are investigated to quantify the impact of airborne gravity data to fused gravity field models. The numerical assessments of these representative regions resulted in predictions of airborne gravity impact for individual states and provinces in the USA and Canada, respectively. Prediction results indicate that, depending on the terrestrial data point-density and gravity field variability, the expected impact of airborne gravity can reach up to 3mGal (in terms of standard deviation) in Canada and Alaska (over areas of 1° × 1°). However, in the mainland US region, small changes are expected (0.2-0.4 mGal over areas of 1° × 1°) due to the availability of high spatial resolution terrestrial data. These results can serve as a guideline for setting airborne gravity data acquisition priorities and for improving future planning of airborne gravity surveys.

  2. On the impact of airborne gravity data to fused gravity field models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolkas, Dimitrios; Fotopoulos, Georgia; Braun, Alexander

    2016-06-01

    In gravity field modeling, fused models that utilize satellite, airborne and terrestrial gravity observations are often employed to deal with erroneous terrestrially derived gravity datasets. These terrestrial datasets may suffer from long-wavelength systematic errors and inhomogeneous data coverage, which are not prevalent in airborne and satellite datasets. Airborne gravity acquisition plays an essential role in gravity field modeling, providing valuable information of the Earth's gravity field at medium and short wavelengths. Thus, assessing the impact of airborne gravity data to fused gravity field models is important for identifying problematic regions. Six study regions that represent different gravity field variability and terrestrial data point-density characteristics are investigated to quantify the impact of airborne gravity data to fused gravity field models. The numerical assessments of these representative regions resulted in predictions of airborne gravity impact for individual states and provinces in the USA and Canada, respectively. Prediction results indicate that, depending on the terrestrial data point-density and gravity field variability, the expected impact of airborne gravity can reach up to 3mGal (in terms of standard deviation) in Canada and Alaska (over areas of 1° × 1°). However, in the mainland US region, small changes are expected (0.2-0.4 mGal over areas of 1° × 1°) due to the availability of high spatial resolution terrestrial data. These results can serve as a guideline for setting airborne gravity data acquisition priorities and for improving future planning of airborne gravity surveys.

  3. Jet engine noise and infrared plume correlation field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunio, Phillip M.; Weber, Reed A.; Knobel, Kimberly R.; Smith, Christine; Draudt, Andy

    2015-09-01

    Jet engine noise can be a health hazard and environmental pollutant, particularly affecting personnel working in close proximity to jet engines, such as airline mechanics. Mitigating noise could reduce the potential for hearing loss in runway workers; however, there exists a very complex relationship between jet engine design parameters, operating conditions, and resultant noise power levels, and understanding and characterizing this relationship is a key step in mitigating jet engine noise effects. We demonstrate initial results highlighting the utility of high-speed imaging (hypertemporal imaging) in correlating the infrared signatures of jet engines with acoustic noise. This paper builds on prior theoretical analysis of jet engine infrared signatures and their potential relationships to jet engine acoustic emissions. This previous work identified the region of the jet plume most likely to emit both in infrared and in acoustic domains, and it prompted the investigation of wave packets as a physical construct tying together acoustic and infrared energy emissions. As a means of verifying these assertions, a field campaign to collect relevant data was proposed, and data collection was carried out with a bank of infrared instruments imaging a T700 turboshaft engine undergoing routine operational testing. The detection of hypertemporal signatures in association with acoustic signatures of jet engines enables the use of a new domain in characterizing jet engine noise. This may in turn enable new methods of predicting or mitigating jet engine noise, which could lead to socioeconomic benefits for airlines and other operators of large numbers of jet engines.

  4. Airborne Formaldehyde Measurements Onboard the NASA DC-8 Aircraft During the 2006 INTEX-B Campaign by Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fried, A.; Walega, J. G.; Weibring, P.; Richter, D.

    2007-12-01

    The 2006 Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment Phase B (INTEX-B) Campaign was designed in part to quantify the outflow and evolution of gases and aerosols from aging plumes downwind of major tropical megacities such as Mexico City. Formaldehyde (CH2O), an important reactive gas phase intermediate, is photochemically produced as such plumes age and is involved in a number of important atmospheric processes, such as: hydrocarbon oxidation, ozone production, reactive hydrogen radical formation, and generation of carbon monoxide. This talk will present CH2O results acquired by a tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer operated onboard the NASA DC-8 aircraft during this campaign. Airborne CH2O distributions and measurement- model comparisons over a wide geographic region of this study, including Mexico, the Gulf of Mexico, and vast regions over the Pacific Ocean during the second campaign phase, will be presented. Comparisons and contrasts with results from other major metropolitan areas will also be discussed.

  5. Pulsed Lidar Measurements of Atmospheric CO2 Column Absorption and Range During the ASCENDS 2009-2011 Airborne Campaigns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abshire, J. B.; Weaver, C. J.; Riris, H.; Mao, J.; Sun, X.; Allan, G. R.; Hasselbrack, W. E.; Browell, E. V.

    2012-01-01

    We have developed a pulsed lidar technique for measuring the tropospheric CO2 concentrations as a candidate for NASA's ASCENDS mission and have demonstrated the CO2 and O2 measurements from aircraft. Our technique uses two pulsed lasers allowing simultaneous measurement of a single CO2 absorption line near 1572 nm, O2 extinction in the Oxygen A-band, surface height and backscatter profile. The lasers are stepped in wavelength across the CO2 line and an O2 line doublet during the measurement. The column densities for the CO2 and O2 are estimated from the differential optical depths (DOD) of the scanned absorption lines via the IPDA technique. For the 2009 ASCENDS campaign we flew the CO2 lidar only on a Lear-25 aircraft, and measured the absorption line shapes of the CO2 line using 20 wavelength samples per scan. Measurements were made at stepped altitudes from 3 to 12.6 km over the Lamont OK, central Illinois, North Carolina, and over the Virginia Eastern Shore. Although the received signal energies were weaker than expected for ASCENDS, clear C02 line shapes were observed at all altitudes. Most flights had 5-6 altitude steps with 200-300 seconds of recorded measurements per step. We averaged every 10 seconds of measurements and used a cross-correlation approach to estimate the range to the scattering surface and the echo pulse energy at each wavelength. We then solved for the best-fit CO2 absorption line shape, and calculated the DOD of the fitted CO2 line, and computed its statistics at the various altitude steps. We compared them to CO2 optical depths calculated from spectroscopy based on HITRAN 2008 and the column number densities calculated from the airborne in-situ readings. The 2009 measurements have been analyzed in detail and they were similar on all flights. The results show clear CO2 line shape and absorption signals, which follow the expected changes with aircraft altitude from 3 to 13 km. They showed the expected nearly the linear dependence of DOD vs

  6. Comparison of microphysical cloud properties from the FSSP and CDP during the CAMPS field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pina, A. J.; Hallar, A. G.; Salazar, V.; Chirokova, G.

    2011-12-01

    Understanding and accurately sampling microphysical cloud properties for orographic-forced mixed-phase is of crucial importance for an enhanced representation of mixed-phase clouds in global climate models. The Forward Scattering Spectrometer Probe (FSSP) has been the most widely used instrument to measure cloud microphysical characteristics for over three decades. The Cloud Droplet Probe (CDP) is a new instrument that was introduced to address mechanical issues the FSSP experienced (e.g. ice shattering). In current work, in-situ cloud data from 9 January 2011 of the Colorado Airborne Multi-Phase Cloud Study (CAMPS) field campaign were used to compare measurements by the FSSP and CDP. For all cloud penetrations considered, the FSSP measured a mean cloud droplet concentration of 131.66 cm-3 while the CDP measured a mean concentration of 110.89 cm-3. From calibration data, the CDP showed to undersize cloud particles. Results show concentrations measured by the FSSP and CDP, in general, do not agree in clouds comprised mostly of ice. In conclusion, on the considered day, data from the FSSP were significantly affected by ice particle shattering while the CDP undersized particles by 2-3.5 μm.

  7. Distinct Impacts of Aerosols on an Evolving Continental Cloud System during the RACORO Field Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Y.; Wang, Y.; Zhang, R.; Liu, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Aerosol-cloud interactions have been investigated extensively but still remain high uncertainty due to the complexity of cloud microphysical processes under various dynamic and thermodynamic environments. Cloud-resolving Weather Research and Forecast (CR-WRF) model implemented with a two-moment bulk microphysics and a modified Goddard radiation scheme is employed to investigate aerosol effects on different cloud regimes and their transitions associated with a continental cloud system occurring from 25 May to 27 May, 2009 during the Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Routine AAF Clouds with Low Optical Water Depths Optical Radiative Observations (RACORO) field campaign. The simulated cloud properties and precipitation for the three different cloud regimes, including shallow cumuli, a deep convective cloud (DCC), and a stratus exhibit overall agreements with airborne and ground-based observations. Sensitivity studies with different aerosol scenarios reveal that the responses of cloud micro- and macrophysics to aerosol loading depend on the cloud regimes with monotonic or non-monotonic trend. Aerosol radiative effects modify the atmospheric thermodynamic condition and change the atmospheric stability, which induce different response from aerosol indirect effects. Our results also indicate that the overall aerosol effects on a cloud complex are distinct from those of the individual cloud types. The aerosol-cloud interaction for the different cloud regimes should be evaluated to assess the aerosol direct and indirect radiative forcings on regional and global climate.

  8. Retrieval of Atmospheric CO2 Concentration above Clouds and Cloud Top Pressure from Airborne Lidar Measurements during ASCENDS Science Campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, J.; Ramanathan, A. K.; Rodriguez, M.; Allan, G. R.; Hasselbrack, W. E.; Abshire, J. B.; Riris, H.; Kawa, S. R.

    2014-12-01

    NASA Goddard is developing an integrated-path, differential absorption (IPDA) lidar approach to measure atmospheric CO2 concentrations from space as a candidate for NASA's ASCENDS (Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons) mission. The approach uses pulsed lasers to measure both CO2 and O2 absorption simultaneously in the vertical path to the surface at a number of wavelengths across a CO2 line at 1572.335 nm and an O2 line doublet near 764.7 nm. Measurements of time-resolved laser backscatter profiles from the atmosphere allow the technique to estimate column CO2 and O2 number density and range to cloud tops in addition to those to the ground. This allows retrievals of CO2 column above clouds and cloud top pressure, and all-sky measurement capability from space. This additional information can be used to evaluate atmospheric transport processes and other remote sensing carbon data in the free atmosphere, improve carbon data assimilation in models and help global and regional carbon flux estimates. We show some preliminary results of this capability using airborne lidar measurements from the summers of 2011 and 2014 ASCENDS science campaigns. These show simultaneous retrievals of CO2 and O2 column densities for laser returns from low-level marine stratus clouds in the west coast of California. This demonstrates the supplemental capability of the future space carbon mission to measure CO2 above clouds, which is valuable particularly for the areas with persistent cloud covers, e.g, tropical ITCZ, west coasts of continents with marine layered clouds and southern ocean with highest occurrence of low-level clouds, where underneath carbon cycles are active but passive remote sensing techniques using the reflected short wave sunlight are unable to measure accurately due to cloud scattering effect. We exercise cloud top pressure retrieval from O2 absorption measurements during the flights over the low-level marine stratus cloud decks, which is one of

  9. Physical and chemical processes of air masses in the Aegean Sea during Etesians: Aegean-GAME airborne campaign.

    PubMed

    Tombrou, M; Bossioli, E; Kalogiros, J; Allan, J D; Bacak, A; Biskos, G; Coe, H; Dandou, A; Kouvarakis, G; Mihalopoulos, N; Percival, C J; Protonotariou, A P; Szabó-Takács, B

    2015-02-15

    High-resolution measurements of gas and aerosols' chemical composition along with meteorological and turbulence parameters were performed over the Aegean Sea (AS) during an Etesian outbreak in the framework of the Aegean-GAME airborne campaign. This study focuses on two distinct Etesian patterns, with similarities inside the Marine Atmospheric Boundary Layer (MABL) and differences at higher levels. Under long-range transport and subsidence the pollution load is enhanced (by 17% for CO, 11% for O3, 28% for sulfate, 62% for organic mass, 47% for elemental carbon), compared to the pattern with a weaker synoptic system. Sea surface temperature (SST) was a critical parameter for the MABL structure, turbulent fluxes and pollutants' distribution at lower levels. The MABL height was below 500 m asl over the eastern AS (favoring higher accumulation), and deeper over the western AS. The most abundant components of total PM1 were sulfate (40-50%) and organics (30-45%). Higher average concentrations measured over the eastern AS (131 ± 76 ppbv for CO, 62.5 ± 4.1 ppbv for O3, 5.0 ± 1.1 μg m(-3) for sulfate, 4.7 ± 0.9 μg m(-3) for organic mass and 0.5 ± 0.2 μg m(-3) for elemental carbon). Under the weaker synoptic system, cleaner but more acidic air masses prevailed over the eastern part, while distinct aerosol layers of different signature were observed over the western part. The Aitken and accumulation modes contributed equally during the long-range transport, while the Aitken modes dominated during local or medium range transport. PMID:25460953

  10. 4STAR Spectrometer for Sky-scanning Sun-tracking Atmospheric Research: Results from TCAP Summer 2012 Field Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flynn, C. J.; Dunnagan, S. E.; Johnson, R. R.; Kassianov, E.; Kluzek, C. D.; Redemann, J.; Russell, P. B.; Schmid, B.; Shinozuka, Y.; Sinyuk, A.; Segal-Rosenhaimer, M.; Holben, B. N.

    2012-12-01

    The 4STAR (Spectrometer for Sky-Scanning, Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research) concept combines airborne sun tracking capabilities of the Ames Airborne Tracking Sun Photometer (AATS-14) with AERONET-like sky scanning capability and adds state-of-the-art monolithic spectrometry. The overall science goal for the 4STAR is to improve knowledge of atmospheric components and their links to climate through measurements of direct and scattered solar radiation. The measurement of contiguous spectra spanning the UV, visible, and near IR will improve retrievals of gas components (e.g., H2O, O3, and NO2) and thereby improve determination of aerosol properties as residual components of the total optical depth. The sky scanning capability enables retrievals of aerosol type (via complex refractive index and shape) and mode-resolved aerosol size distribution with improved sensitivity to larger aerosols compared to using direct-beam sun photometry alone. 4STAR also carries the potential for improved cloud retrievals by combining its zenith sky radiance measurements with surface albedo estimates (analogous to the recently published AERONET cloud mode observations). Vertical profiles of cloud and aerosol properties may then be obtained through combination of the direct-beam and sky-scanning measurements from an airborne platform flying through different altitudes. When flown as a component of an integrated field campaign, the 4STAR tightens the closure between satellite and ground-based remote sensing measurements while providing an exact match of layers sampled by airborne in-situ instruments. The extensive track record of the AATS-6 and AATS-14 sun photometers with more than 100 peer-reviewed publications from more than a dozen field campaigns establishes the value of this approach. A ground-based prototype, 4STAR-Ground, was developed and extensively characterized through laboratory tests, field tests, and instrument inter-comparisons including a 4-way inter-comparison of 4STAR

  11. The impact of mass communication campaigns in the health field.

    PubMed

    Alcalay, R

    1983-01-01

    This article analyzes a series of health education projects that used the mass media to change behavior. First, the article describes how persuasion theories are used to maximize impact in mass communication campaigns. Second, this paper discusses theories of social psychology used in such campaigns. One such theory, cognitive dissonance, explains changes at the level of attitudes, beliefs and opinion. Another theory, social learning, defines strategies of behavior changes. A third theory, concerning diffusion of innovations, helps understand the network of interpersonal relationships essential for the adoption of any innovation. McGuire's inoculation theory suggests strategies to aid resistance to harmful environmental influences (e.g. smoking, excessive drinking, etc.). Third, this work reviews public health campaigns that have used one or more of these theories of social psychology. The first project, dealing with smoking behavior cessation and prevention, mainly used strategies of interpersonal communication for inoculating and modeling useful behavior in order to resist social pressures favorable to smoking. The second project, designed to prevent alcoholism, used the mass media primarily. The objective of this campaign was to obtain changes in knowledge, attitude and behavior in the public through modeling desirable behaviors over public service announcements. The third campaign, a heart disease prevention program, used a combination of mass media and interpersonal communication to achieve changes in lifestyle of the population. Finally, this article describes limitations in using mass media in behavior change health programs. PMID:6836345

  12. Analysis of Pulsed Lidar Measurements of Atmospheric CO2 Column Absorption During the ASCENDS 2009-2011 Airborne Campaigns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abshire, J. B.; Weaver, C. J.; Riris, H.; Mao, J.; Sun, X; Allan, G. R.; Hasselbrack, W. E.; Browell, E. V.

    2012-01-01

    We have developed a pulsed lidar technique for measuring the tropospheric CO2 concentrations as a candidate for NASA's ASCENDS mission and have demonstrated the CO2 and O2 measurements from aircraft. Our technique uses two pulsed lasers allowing simultaneous measurement of a single CO2 absorption line near 1572 nm, O2 extinction in the Oxygen A-band, surface height and backscatter profile. The lasers are stepped in wavelength across the CO2 line and an O2 line doublet during the measurement. The column densities for the CO2 and O2 are estimated from the differential optical depths (DOD) of the scanned absorption lines via the IPDA technique. For the 2009 ASCENDS campaign we flew the CO2 lidar on a Lear-25 aircraft, and measured the absorption line shapes of the CO2 line using 20 wavelength samples per scan. Measurements were made at stepped altitudes from 3 to 12.6 km over the Lamont OK, central Illinois, North Carolina, and over the Virginia Eastern Shore. Although the received signal energies were weaker than expected for ASCENDS, clear CO2 line shapes were observed at all altitudes. Most flights had 5-6 altitude steps with 200-300 seconds of recorded measurements per step. We averaged every 10 seconds of measurements and used a cross-correlation approach to estimate the range to the scattering surface and the echo pulse energy at each wavelength. We then solved for the best-fit CO2 absorption line shape, and calculated the DOD of the fitted CO2 line, and computed its statistics at the various altitude steps. We compared them to CO2 optical depths calculated from spectroscopy based on HITRAN 2008 and the column number densities calculated from the airborne in-situ readings. The 2009 measurements have been analyzed and they were similar on all flights. The results show clear CO2 line shape and absorption signals, which follow the expected changes with aircraft altitude from 3 to 13 km. They showed the expected nearly the linear dependence of DOD vs altitude. The

  13. Analysis of Pulsed Lidar Measurements of Atmospheric CO2 Column Absorption during the ASCENDS 2009-2011 Airborne Campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abshire, J. B.; Weaver, C. J.; Riris, H.; Mao, J.; Sun, X.; Allan, G.; Hasselbrack, W.; Browell, E. V.

    2011-12-01

    We have developed a pulsed lidar technique for measuring the tropospheric CO2 concentrations as a candidate for NASA's ASCENDS mission and have demonstrated the CO2 and O2 measurements from aircraft. Our technique uses two pulsed lasers allowing simultaneous measurement of a single CO2 absorption line near 1572 nm, O2 extinction in the Oxygen A-band, surface height and backscatter profile. The lasers are stepped in wavelength across the CO2 line and an O2 line doublet during the measurement. The column densities for the CO2 and O2 are estimated from the differential optical depths (DOD) of the scanned absorption lines via the IPDA technique. For the 2009 ASCENDS campaign we flew the CO2 lidar on a Lear-25 aircraft, and measured the absorption line shapes of the CO2 line using 20 wavelength samples per scan. Measurements were made at stepped altitudes from 3 to 12.6 km over the Lamont OK, central Illinois, North Carolina, and over the Virginia Eastern Shore. Although the received signal energies were weaker than expected for ASCENDS, clear CO2 line shapes were observed at all altitudes. Most flights had 5-6 altitude steps with 200-300 seconds of recorded measurements per step. We averaged every 10 seconds of measurements and used a cross-correlation approach to estimate the range to the scattering surface and the echo pulse energy at each wavelength. We then solved for the best-fit CO2 absorption line shape, and calculated the DOD of the fitted CO2 line, and computed its statistics at the various altitude steps. We compared them to CO2 optical depths calculated from spectroscopy based on HITRAN 2008 and the column number densities calculated from the airborne in-situ readings. The 2009 measurements have been analyzed in detail and they were similar on all flights. The results show clear CO2 line shape and absorption signals, which follow the expected changes with aircraft altitude from 3 to 13 km. They showed the expected nearly the linear dependence of DOD vs

  14. Lessons learned from the SAMUM-1 and SAMUM-2 field campaigns and future activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansmann, A.

    2012-04-01

    Two comprehensive field campaigns on desert dust were conducted in 2006 and 2008 in the framework of the Saharan Mineral Dust Experiment (SAMUM) project. SAMUM-1 took place in southern Morocco close to the Saharan desert at pure dust conditions in the summer of 2006, whereas SAMUM-2 was conducted in Cape Verde in the outflow region of desert dust and biomass burning smoke from western Africa in the winter of 2008. The relationship between chemical composition, shape morphology, size distribution, and optical effects of the dust particles was investigated. The impact of Saharan dust on radiative transfer and the feedback of radiative effects upon dust emission and aerosol transport were studied. State-of-the-art field observations (ground-based and airborne in situ measurements, multiwavelength polarization Raman and HSRL lidars, Sun photometers with 1640 nm channels, radiometers) and modelling results were compared within a variety of dust closure experiments with a strong focus on vertical profiling of desert dust properties. This presentation summarizes the highlights and main findings of the SAMUM observations and modelling efforts, but also presents a list of remaining problems and unsolved questions. Another tropical dust experiment is planned for the summer of 2013 and the spring of 2014, the respective proposal was submitted end of 2011 (national funding, DFG). The Saharan Aerosol Long-range Transport and Aerosol-Cloud-Interaction Experiment (SALTRACE) is proposed to take place at Barbados. The research focus is on (a) the transport and transformation (aging, cloud processing, contamination) of African mineral dust and biomass burning smoke in the far field regime (i.e., towards the Americas), about 6000-7000 km west of the main desert dust sources and (b) the impact of aged dust on cloud formation, especially the evolution of deep convection. The motivation, design, and plans of SALTRACE will be briefly outlined.

  15. Test field for airborne laser scanning in Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahokas, E.; Kaartinen, H.; Kukko, A.; Litkey, P.

    2014-11-01

    Airborne laser scanning (ALS) is a widely spread operational measurement tool for obtaining 3D coordinates of the ground surface. There is a need for calibrating the ALS system and a test field for ALS was established at the end of 2013. The test field is situated in the city of Lahti, about 100 km to the north of Helsinki. The size of the area is approximately 3.5 km × 3.2 km. Reference data was collected with a mobile laser scanning (MLS) system assembled on a car roof. Some streets were measured both ways and most of them in one driving direction only. The MLS system of the Finnish Geodetic Institute (FGI) consists of a navigation system (NovAtel SPAN GNSS-IMU) and a laser scanner (FARO Focus3D 120). In addition to the MLS measurements more than 800 reference points were measured using a Trimble R8 VRS-GNSS system. Reference points are along the streets, on parking lots, and white pedestrian crossing line corners which can be used as reference targets. The National Land Survey of Finland has already used this test field this spring for calibrating their Leica ALS-70 scanner. Especially it was easier to determine the encoder scale factor parameter using this test field. Accuracy analysis of the MLS points showed that the point height RMSE is 2.8 cm and standard deviation is 2.6 cm. Our purpose is to measure both more MLS data and more reference points in the test field area to get a better spatial coverage. Calibration flight heights are planned to be 1000 m and 2500 m above ground level. A cross pattern, southwest-northeast and northwest-southeast, will be flown both in opposite directions.

  16. Retrieval of Aerosol Within Cloud Fields Using the MODIS Airborne Simulator (MAS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munchak, L. A.; Levy, R. C.; Mattoo, S.; Patadia, F.; Wilcox, E. M.; Marshak, A.

    2015-12-01

    Passive satellite remote sensing has become essential for obtaining global information about aerosol properties, including aerosol optical depth (AOD) and aerosol fine mode fraction (FMF). However, due to the spatial resolution of satellite aerosol products (typically 3 km and larger), observing aerosol within dense partly cloudy fields is difficult from space. Here, we apply an adapted version of the MODIS Collection 6 dark target algorithm to the 50-meter MODIS airborne simulator retrieved reflectances measured during the SEAC4RS campaign during 2013 to robustly retrieve aerosol with a 500 m resolution. We show good agreement with AERONET and MODIS away from cloud, suggesting that the algorithm is working as expected. However, closer to cloud, significant AOD increases are observed. We investigate the cause of these AOD increases, including examining the potential for undetected cloud contamination, reflectance increases due to unconsidered 3D radiative effects, and the impact of humidification on aerosol properties. In combination with other sensors that flew in SEAC4RS, these high-resolution observations of aerosol in partly cloudy fields can be used to characterize the radiative impact of the "twilight zone" between cloud and aerosol which is typically not considered in current estimates of direct aerosol radiative forcing.

  17. From Mars to Greenland: Charting gravity with space and airborne instruments - Fields, tides, methods, results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colombo, Oscar L.

    This symposium on space and airborne techniques for measuring gravity fields, and related theory, contains papers on gravity modeling of Mars and Venus at NASA/GSFC, an integrated laser Doppler method for measuring planetary gravity fields, observed temporal variations in the earth's gravity field from 16-year Starlette orbit analysis, high-resolution gravity models combining terrestrial and satellite data, the effect of water vapor corrections for satellite altimeter measurements of the geoid, and laboratory demonstrations of superconducting gravity and inertial sensors for space and airborne gravity measurements. Other papers are on airborne gravity measurements over the Kelvin Seamount; the accuracy of GPS-derived acceleration from moving platform tests; airborne gravimetry, altimetry, and GPS navigation errors; controlling common mode stabilization errors in airborne gravity gradiometry, GPS/INS gravity measurements in space and on a balloon, and Walsh-Fourier series expansion of the earth's gravitational potential.

  18. From Mars to Greenland: Charting gravity with space and airborne instruments - Fields, tides, methods, results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colombo, Oscar L. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    This symposium on space and airborne techniques for measuring gravity fields, and related theory, contains papers on gravity modeling of Mars and Venus at NASA/GSFC, an integrated laser Doppler method for measuring planetary gravity fields, observed temporal variations in the earth's gravity field from 16-year Starlette orbit analysis, high-resolution gravity models combining terrestrial and satellite data, the effect of water vapor corrections for satellite altimeter measurements of the geoid, and laboratory demonstrations of superconducting gravity and inertial sensors for space and airborne gravity measurements. Other papers are on airborne gravity measurements over the Kelvin Seamount; the accuracy of GPS-derived acceleration from moving platform tests; airborne gravimetry, altimetry, and GPS navigation errors; controlling common mode stabilization errors in airborne gravity gradiometry, GPS/INS gravity measurements in space and on a balloon, and Walsh-Fourier series expansion of the earth's gravitational potential.

  19. The Australian National Airborne Field Experiment 2005: Soil Moisture Remote Sensing at 60 Meter Resolution and Up

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, E. J.; Walker, J. P.; Panciera, R.; Kalma, J. D.

    2006-01-01

    truth collection over a range of grid spacings, to provide a basis for examining the effects of subpixel variability. However, the native footprint size of the airborne L-band radiometers was always a few hundred meters. During the recently completed (November, 2005) National Airborne Field Experiment (NAFE) campaign in Australia, a compact L-band radiometer was deployed on a small aircraft. This new combination permitted routine observations at native resolutions as high as 60 meters, substantially finer than in previous airborne soil moisture campaigns, as well as satellite footprint areal coverage. The radiometer, the Polarimetric L-band Microwave Radiometer (PLMR) performed extremely well and operations included extensive calibration-related observations. Thus, along with the extensive fine-scale ground truth, the NAFE dataset includes all the ingredients for the first scaling studies involving very-high-native resolution soil moisture observations and the effects of vegetation, roughness, etc. A brief overview of the NAFE will be presented, then examples of the airborne observations with resolutions from 60 m to 1 km will be shown, and early results from scaling studies will be discussed.

  20. Airborne measurements of hygroscopicity and mixing state of aerosols in the planetary boundary layer during the PEGASOS campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosati, Bernadette; Weingartner, Ernest; Gysel, Martin; Rubach, Florian; Mentel, Thomas; Baltensperger, Urs

    2014-05-01

    properties and mixing state. By combining these results with measurements from an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) and an aethalometer, insights can be gathered to explain their hygroscopicity. In this work we will present vertical profiles of the hygroscopic growth and mixing state of aerosol particles measured during Zeppelin flights of the PEGASOS campaigns in the Netherlands, Italy and Finland. Results from ground measurements will also be included to compare the aerosol directly at the surface with different heights. W.T. Morgan et al., Enhancement of the aerosol direct radiative effect by semi-volatile aerosol components: Airborne measurements in North-Western Europe, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 10(2010), pp. 8151-8171. P. Zieger et al., Comparison of ambient aerosol extinction coefficients obtained from in-situ, MAX-DOAS and LIDAR measurements at Cabauw, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 11(2011), pp. 2603-2624.

  1. Pulsed Lidar Measurements of Atmospheric CO2 Column Absorption in the ASCENDS 2011 Airborne Campaign: Measurement Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramanathan, A.; Mao, J.; Allan, G. R.; Weaver, C. J.; Hasselbrack, W.; Riris, H.; Sun, X.; Abshire, J. B.

    2012-12-01

    Trace gas LIDAR has the potential to actively sense greenhouse gas concentrations in the earth's atmosphere continuously without being affected by day or night. This will enable identifying greenhouse gas sources and sinks, which will help better predict future atmospheric trends of these gases. However, in order to ensure reliable and accurate measurements, it is important to establish metrics to quantify performance. As part of the ASCENDS (Active Sensing of Co2 over Nights, Days and Seasons) program, we conducted an airborne campaign of our CO2 pulsed LIDAR system in August 2011, flying over a variety of terrain and conditions, including snow, ocean, clouds, desert and mountains. Our instrument uses an IPDA (Integrated Path Differential Absorption) approach probing 30 wavelengths across a 1572 nm CO2 absorption line. Our multi-wavelength approach provides redundancy for evaluating the stability of the instrument, and also allows us to perform spectroscopic analysis of the atmosphere. Here, we present our detailed analysis and results. Tracking long-term stability of our instrument by using the Allan deviation formalism for wavelengths away from the absorption line-center, we find that the measured pulse energy (normalized to eliminate ground reflectivity) is stable down to 0.2% across varying terrain, surface reflectivity, flight altitude and LIDAR range. Comparing our measured CO2 absorption line-shape (at regions of constant, known CO2 concentrations) with the predicted line-shape based on the LIDAR range, flight altitude and relevant atmosphere parameters (based on in situ measurements by instruments aboard the aircraft), we find the agreement to be better than 1% (RMS error), once we average 50 s to eliminate shot noise. Our multi-wavelength approach also allows us to track the position of the line-center. The altitude dependence of the atmospheric pressure causes a shift in the CO2 absorption as a function of aircraft altitude. Our measured pressure shift

  2. Radiation Isotope Identification Device (RIIDs) Field Test and Evaluation Campaign

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher Hodge, Raymond Keegan

    2007-08-01

    Handheld, backpack, and mobile sensors are elements of the Global Nuclear Detection System for the interdiction and control of illicit radiological and nuclear materials. They are used by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and other government agencies and organizations in various roles for border protection, law enforcement, and nonproliferation monitoring. In order to systematically document the operational performance of the common commercial off-the-shelf portable radiation detection systems, the DHS Domestic Nuclear Detection Office conducted a test and evaluation campaign conducted at the Nevada Test Site from January 18 to February 27, 2006. Named 'Anole', it was the first test of its kind in terms of technical design and test complexities. The Anole test results offer users information for selecting appropriate mission-specific portable radiation detection systems. The campaign also offered manufacturers the opportunity to submit their equipment for independent operationally relevant testing to subsequently improve their detector performance. This paper will present the design, execution, and methodologies of the DHS Anole portable radiation detection system test campaign.

  3. ANOLE Portable Radiation Detection System Field Test and Evaluation Campaign

    SciTech Connect

    Chris A. Hodge

    2007-07-12

    Handheld, backpack, and mobile sensors are elements of the Global Nuclear Detection System for the interdiction and control of illicit radiological and nuclear materials. They are used by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and other government agencies and organizations in various roles for border protection, law enforcement, and nonproliferation monitoring. In order to systematically document the operational performance of the common commercial off-the-shelf portable radiation detection systems, the DHS Domestic Nuclear Detection Office conducted a test and evaluation campaign conducted at the Nevada Test Site from January 18 to February 27, 2006. Named “Anole,” it was the first test of its kind in terms of technical design and test complexities. The Anole test results offer users information for selecting appropriate mission-specific portable radiation detection systems. The campaign also offered manufacturers the opportunity to submit their equipment for independent operationally relevant testing to subsequently improve their detector performance. This paper will present the design, execution, and methodologies of the DHS Anole portable radiation detection system test campaign.

  4. Simultaneous Retrieval of Aerosol and Cloud Properties During the MILAGRO Field Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knobelspiesse, K.; Cairns, B.; Redemann, J.; Bergstrom, R. W.; Stohl, A.

    2011-01-01

    Estimation of Direct Climate Forcing (DCF) due to aerosols in cloudy areas has historically been a difficult task, mainly because of a lack of appropriate measurements. Recently, passive remote sensing instruments have been developed that have the potential to retrieve both cloud and aerosol properties using polarimetric, multiple view angle, and multi spectral observations, and therefore determine DCF from aerosols above clouds. One such instrument is the Research Scanning Polarimeter (RSP), an airborne prototype of a sensor on the NASA Glory satellite, which unfortunately failed to reach orbit during its launch in March of 2011. In the spring of 2006, the RSP was deployed on an aircraft based in Veracruz, Mexico, as part of the Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations (MILAGRO) field campaign. On 13 March, the RSP over flew an aerosol layer lofted above a low altitude marine stratocumulus cloud close to shore in the Gulf of Mexico. We investigate the feasibility of retrieving aerosol properties over clouds using these data. Our approach is to first determine cloud droplet size distribution using the angular location of the cloud bow and other features in the polarized reflectance. The selected cloud was then used in a multiple scattering radiative transfer model optimization to determine the aerosol optical properties and fine tune the cloud size distribution. In this scene, we were able to retrieve aerosol optical depth, the fine mode aerosol size distribution parameters and the cloud droplet size distribution parameters to a degree of accuracy required for climate modeling. This required assumptions about the aerosol vertical distribution and the optical properties of the coarse aerosol size mode. A sensitivity study was also performed to place this study in the context of future systematic scanning polarimeter observations, which found that the aerosol complex refractive index can also be observed accurately if the aerosol optical depth is

  5. Implementing the Mars Science Laboratory Terminal Descent Sensor Field Test Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, Jim

    2012-01-01

    Overall, the MSL TDS Field Test campaign was very successful. TDS was shown to perform extremely well over the required operational envelope. Early BB TDS field tests uncovered a number of issues, but none that invalidated the TDS design or implementation. EM TDS tests uncovered minor things of interest, but nothing of concern. Value of testing hardware in the field was demonstrated and significantly contributed to the overall TDS V&V effort. Over the 5-plus year field test campaign, numerous lessons were learned that will inform future field test efforts.

  6. Coincident Retrieval of Sea Surface Salinity from the Northern Gulf of Mexico Using SMOS and STARRS During the 2011 COSSAR Airborne Campaign.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burrage, D. M.; Wesson, J. C.; Wang, D. W.; Hwang, P. A.; Howden, S. D.

    2012-04-01

    Airborne mapping of Sea Surface Salinity (SSS) using L-band radiometers has been practiced for over a decade. However, aircraft range has limited mapping to coastal regions with occasional extended offshore transects. With 2-years of successful SMOS operation and the launch of NASA's Aquarius mission on 10 June 2011, open ocean SSS remote sensing has become an operational reality. The spatial resolution of the L-band radiometers is limited by deployable antenna size, but the relatively fine (35 km) resolution of SMOS at nadir, provides unprecedented opportunities to study SSS variations in marginal seas. Here, the relatively high signal to noise ratio produced by freshwater inflows at the coast allows the averaging period needed to map open ocean SSS variations to be reduced; improving temporal resolution without significantly compromising sensitivity. We describe an airborne campaign that combined the high-resolution coastal mapping capabilities of NRL's airborne Salinity Temperature and Roughness Remote Scanner (STARRS) with the open ocean mapping capabilities of SMOS. The Color Surface Salinity and Roughness (COSSAR) airborne campaign was conducted under summertime conditions, by flying STARRS over the Northern Gulf of Mexico during 2-13 June, 2011. Campaign objectives were to map SSS over the continental shelf and fly offshore transects coincident with SMOS overpasses. The campaign started immediately following a record flood crest in the Mississippi River, with flows exceeding 42,500 m^3/s. This necessitated large diversions into the Atchafalaya River and Lake Ponchartrain, to avoid catastrophic flooding of New Orleans and Baton Rouge. The flood, and its diversion, produced large plumes from both rivers, which were observed by STARRS. Line transects crossing the plumes were flown along three ascending SMOS groundtracks and a descending one, at times coincident with satellite overpasses. Shorter zig-zag transects were flown along the coast. Intensive mapping

  7. Airborne in situ vertical profiling of HDO/H216O in the subtropical troposphere during the MUSICA remote sensing validation campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyroff, C.; Sanati, S.; Christner, E.; Zahn, A.; Balzer, M.; Bouquet, H.; McManus, J. B.; González-Ramos, Y.; Schneider, M.

    2015-01-01

    Vertical profiles of water vapor (H2O) and its isotope ratio D / H expressed as δ D(H2O were measured in situ by the ISOWAT II diode-laser spectrometer during the MUlti-platform remote Sensing of Isotopologues for investigating the Cycle of Atmospheric water (MUSICA) airborne campaign. We present recent modifications of the instrument design. The instrument calibration on the ground as well as in flight is described. Based on the calibration measurements, the humidity-dependent uncertainty of our airborne data is determined. For the majority of the airborne data we achieved an accuracy (uncertainty of the mean) of Δ(δ D) ≈ 10‰. Vertical profiles between 150 and ~7000 m were obtained during 7 days in July and August 2013 over the subtropical North Atlantic Ocean near Tenerife. The flights were coordinated with ground-based (Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change, NDACC) and space-based (Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer, IASI) FTIR remote-sensing measurements of δ D(H2O) as a means to validate the remote sensing humidity and δ D(H2O) data products. The results of the validation are presented in detail in a separate paper (Schneider et al., 2014). The profiles were obtained with a high vertical resolution of around 3 m. By analyzing humidity and δ D(H2O) correlations we were able to identify different layers of airmasses with specific isotopic signatures. The results are discussed.

  8. Airborne in situ vertical profiling of HDO / H216O in the subtropical troposphere during the MUSICA remote sensing validation campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyroff, C.; Sanati, S.; Christner, E.; Zahn, A.; Balzer, M.; Bouquet, H.; McManus, J. B.; Gonzalez-Ramos, Y.; Schneider, M.

    2015-05-01

    Vertical profiles of water vapor (H2O) and its isotope ratio D / H expressed as δD(H2O) were measured in situ by the ISOWAT II diode-laser spectrometer during the MUlti-platform remote Sensing of Isotopologues for investigating the Cycle of Atmospheric water (MUSICA) airborne campaign. We present recent modifications of the instrument design. The instrument calibration on the ground as well as in flight is described. Based on the calibration measurements, the humidity-dependent uncertainty of our airborne data is determined. For the majority of the airborne data we achieved an accuracy (uncertainty of the mean) of Δ(δD) ≈10‰. Vertical profiles between 150 and ~7000 m were obtained during 7 days in July and August 2013 over the subtropical North Atlantic Ocean near Tenerife. The flights were coordinated with ground-based (Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change, NDACC) and space-based (Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer, IASI) FTIR remote sensing measurements of δD(H2O) as a means to validate the remote sensing humidity and δD(H2O) data products. The results of the validation are presented in detail in a separate paper (Schneider et al., 2014). The profiles were obtained with a high vertical resolution of around 3 m. By analyzing humidity and δD(H2O) correlations we were able to identify different layers of air masses with specific isotopic signatures. The results are discussed.

  9. BOBCAT Personal Radiation Detector Field Test and Evaluation Campaign

    SciTech Connect

    Chris Hodge

    2008-03-01

    Following the success of the Anole test of portable detection system, the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Domestic Nuclear Detection Office organized a test and evaluation campaign for personal radiation detectors (PRDs), also known as “Pagers.” This test, “Bobcat,” was conducted from July 17 to August 8, 2006, at the Nevada Test Site. The Bobcat test was designed to evaluate the performance of PRDs under various operational scenarios, such as pedestrian surveying, mobile surveying, cargo container screening, and pedestrian chokepoint monitoring. Under these testing scenarios, many operational characteristics of the PRDs, such as gamma and neutron sensitivities, positive detection and false alarm rates, response delay times, minimum detectable activities, and source localization errors, were analyzed. This paper will present the design, execution, and methodologies used to test this equipment for the DHS.

  10. Personal Radiation Detector Field Test and Evaluation Campaign

    SciTech Connect

    Chris A. Hodge, Ding Yuan, Raymond P. Keegan, Michael A. Krstich

    2007-07-09

    Following the success of the Anole test of portable detection system, the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Domestic Nuclear Detection Office organized a test and evaluation campaign for personal radiation detectors (PRDs), also known as 'Pagers'. This test, 'Bobcat', was conducted from July 17 to August 8, 2006, at the Nevada Test Site. The Bobcat test was designed to evaluate the performance of PRDs under various operational scenarios, such as pedestrian surveying, mobile surveying, cargo container screening, and pedestrian chokepoint monitoring. Under these testing scenarios, many operational characteristics of the PRDs, such as gamma and neutron sensitivities, positive detection and false alarm rates, response delay times, minimum detectable activities, and source localization errors, were analyzed. This paper will present the design, execution, and methodologies used to test this equipment for the DHS.

  11. Risk-Based, Hypothesis-Driven Framework for Hydrological Field Campaigns with Case Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harken, B.; Rubin, Y.

    2014-12-01

    There are several stages in any hydrological modeling campaign, including: formulation and analysis of a priori information, data acquisition through field campaigns, inverse modeling, and prediction of some environmental performance metric (EPM). The EPM being predicted could be, for example, contaminant concentration or plume travel time. These predictions often have significant bearing on a decision that must be made. Examples include: how to allocate limited remediation resources between contaminated groundwater sites or where to place a waste repository site. Answering such questions depends on predictions of EPMs using forward models as well as levels of uncertainty related to these predictions. Uncertainty in EPM predictions stems from uncertainty in model parameters, which can be reduced by measurements taken in field campaigns. The costly nature of field measurements motivates a rational basis for determining a measurement strategy that is optimal with respect to the uncertainty in the EPM prediction. The tool of hypothesis testing allows this uncertainty to be quantified by computing the significance of the test resulting from a proposed field campaign. The significance of the test gives a rational basis for determining the optimality of a proposed field campaign. This hypothesis testing framework is demonstrated and discussed using various synthetic case studies. This study involves contaminated aquifers where a decision must be made based on prediction of when a contaminant will arrive at a specified location. The EPM, in this case contaminant travel time, is cast into the hypothesis testing framework. The null hypothesis states that the contaminant plume will arrive at the specified location before a critical amount of time passes, and the alternative hypothesis states that the plume will arrive after the critical time passes. The optimality of different field campaigns is assessed by computing the significance of the test resulting from each one

  12. Fast Airborne Aerosol Size and Chemistry Measurements with the High Resolution Aerosol Mass Spectrometer during the MILAGRO Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeCarlo, P. F.; Dunlea, E. J.; Kimmel, J. R.; Aiken, A. C.; Sueper, D.; Crounse, J.; Wennberg, P. O.; Emmons, L.; Shinozuka, Y.; Clarke, A.; Zhou, J.; Tomlinson, J.; Collins,D. R.; Knapp, D.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Montzka,D. D.; Campos,T.; Jimenez, J. L.

    2007-01-01

    The concentration, size, and composition of non-refractory submicron aerosol (NR-PM(sub l)) was measured over Mexico City and central Mexico with a High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) onboard the NSF/NCAR C-130 aircraft as part of the MILAGRO field campaign. This was the first aircraft deployment of the HR-ToF-AMS. During the campaign the instrument performed very well, and provided 12 s data. The aerosol mass from the AMS correlates strongly with other aerosol measurements on board the aircraft. Organic aerosol (OA) species dominate the NR-PM(sub l) mass. OA correlates strongly with CO and HCN indicating that pollution (mostly secondary OA, SOA) and biomass burning (BB) are the main OA sources. The OA to CO ratio indicates a typical value for aged air of around 80 microg/cubic m (STP) ppm(exp -1). This is within the range observed in outflow from the Northeastern US, which could be due to a compensating effect between higher BB but lower biogenic VOC emissions during this study. The O/C atomic ratio for OA is calculated from the HR mass spectra and shows a clear increase with photochemical age, as SOA forms rapidly and quickly overwhelms primary urban OA, consistent with Volkamer et al. (2006) and Kleinman et al. (2008). The stability of the OA/CO while O/C increases with photochemical age implies a net loss of carbon from the OA. BB OA is marked by signals at m/z 60 and 73, and also by a signal enhancement at large m/z indicative of larger molecules or more resistance to fragmentation. The main inorganic components show different spatial patterns and size distributions. Sulfate is regional in nature with clear volcanic and petrochemical/power plant sources, while the urban area is not a major regional source for this species. Nitrate is enhanced significantly in the urban area and immediate outflow, and is strongly correlated with CO indicating a strong urban source. The importance of nitrate decreases with distance from the city

  13. MJO Initiation: A Biennial Report of the CINDY/DYNAMO Field Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chidong; Yoneyama, Kunio; Long, Chuck

    2014-05-01

    Two years after the MJO Field Campaign over the Indian Ocean and adjacent regions during October 2011 - March 2012, research results based on field observations have emerged on a number of topics. This talk briefly summarizes those that are reported in journal articles, submitted or published. Covered results are organized into three categories pertaining to convective initiation of the MJO over the Indian Ocean: (1) Testing the DYNAMO hypotheses proposed to guide the design and operation of the field campaign (convection interaction with its environmental moisture, cloud population evolution, air-sea interaction), (2) Investigating issues not included in the DYNAMO hypotheses but important to the MJO (e.g., cold pools, subtropical dry-air intrusion, the diurnal cycle, hydrometeor distribution in convective cloud), and (3) Exploring new topics surfaced during and after the field campaign (e.g. ITCZ-MJO interaction, roles of the Maritime Continent and western Pacific, effect of vertical wind shear).

  14. Preliminary Results from the Summer 2014 ADELE (Airborne Detection of Energetic Lightning Emissions) Campaign Aboard the NOAA Hurricane Hunters' P3 Orion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowers, G. S.; Kelley, N. A.; Martinez-McKinney, G. F.; Smith, D. M.; Buzbee, P.; Dwyer, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    ADELE (Airborne Detection for Energetic Lightning Emissions) is an instrument designed to make observations from aircraft altitudes of high energy radiation from lightning related phenomena that include TGFs (Terrestrial Gamma-Ray Flashes), intense sub-millisecond bursts of gamma-rays with energies up to 40 MeV; gamma-ray glows, long duration continuous emissions of gamma-rays; and stepped leader enhancements, gamma-ray emissions coincident with lightning stepped leaders. The instrumentation is three energetic particle detectors each composed of a scintillating material coupled to a photomultiplier tube. The pulse heights from each PMT are discriminated into 4 to 8 energy channels, corresponding roughly to an energy range of 100 keV to 10 MeV. The time resolution for each channel is 50 microseconds. We will discuss preliminary results from the 2014 campaign aboard a NOAA "Hurricane Hunters" P3 aircraft that began on 5 July.

  15. Seasonal and Inter-Annual Patterns of Phytoplankton Community Structure in Monterey Bay, CA Derived from AVIRIS Data During the 2013-2015 HyspIRI Airborne Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palacios, S. L.; Thompson, D. R.; Kudela, R. M.; Negrey, K.; Guild, L. S.; Gao, B. C.; Green, R. O.; Torres-Perez, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    There is a need in the ocean color community to discriminate among phytoplankton groups within the bulk chlorophyll pool to understand ocean biodiversity, to track energy flow through ecosystems, and to identify and monitor for harmful algal blooms. Imaging spectrometer measurements enable use of sophisticated spectroscopic algorithms for applications such as differentiating among coral species, evaluating iron stress of phytoplankton, and discriminating phytoplankton taxa. These advanced algorithms rely on the fine scale, subtle spectral shape of the atmospherically corrected remote sensing reflectance (Rrs) spectrum of the ocean surface. As a consequence, these algorithms are sensitive to inaccuracies in the retrieved Rrs spectrum that may be related to the presence of nearby clouds, inadequate sensor calibration, low sensor signal-to-noise ratio, glint correction, and atmospheric correction. For the HyspIRI Airborne Campaign, flight planning considered optimal weather conditions to avoid flights with significant cloud/fog cover. Although best suited for terrestrial targets, the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) has enough signal for some coastal chlorophyll algorithms and meets sufficient calibration requirements for most channels. However, the coastal marine environment has special atmospheric correction needs due to error that may be introduced by aerosols and terrestrially sourced atmospheric dust and riverine sediment plumes. For this HyspIRI campaign, careful attention has been given to the correction of AVIRIS imagery of the Monterey Bay to optimize ocean Rrs retrievals for use in estimating chlorophyll (OC3 algorithm) and phytoplankton functional type (PHYDOTax algorithm) data products. This new correction method has been applied to several image collection dates during two oceanographic seasons - upwelling and the warm, stratified oceanic period for 2013 and 2014. These two periods are dominated by either diatom blooms (occasionally

  16. Comparison of airborne bacterial communities from a hog farm and spray field.

    PubMed

    Arfken, Ann M; Song, Bongkeun; Sung, Jung-Suk

    2015-05-01

    Airborne bacteria from hog farms may have detrimental impacts on human health, particularly in terms of antibiotic resistance and pathogen zoonosis. Despite human health risks, very little is known about the composition and diversity of airborne bacteria from hog farms and hog-related spray fields. We used pyrosequencing analysis of 16S rRNA genes to compare airborne bacterial communities in a North Carolina hog farm and lagoon spray field. In addition, we isolated and identified antibiotic-resistant bacteria from both air samples. Based on 16S rRNA gene pyrosequence analysis, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria were the dominant phyla in airborne bacterial communities from both hog farm and spray field sites. Within the Firmicutes genera, Clostridium spp. were more abundant in the hog farm, whereas Staphylococcus spp. were higher in the spray field. The presence of opportunitic pathogens, including several Staphylococcus species and Propionibacterium acnes, was detected in both bioaerosol communities based on phylogenetic analysis. The isolation and identification of antibiotic-resistant bacteria from air samples also showed similar results with dominance of Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria in both hog farm and spray field air. Thus, the existence of opportunistic pathogens and antibiotic resistant bacteria in airborne communities evidences potential health risks to farmers and other residents from swine bioaerosol exposure. PMID:25406533

  17. Column-integrated aerosol optical properties from ground-based spectroradiometer measurements at Barrax (Spain) during the Digital Airborne Imaging Spectrometer Experiment (DAISEX) campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedrós, Roberto; Martinez-Lozano, Jose A.; Utrillas, Maria P.; Gómez-Amo, José L.; Tena, Fernando

    2003-09-01

    The Digital Airborne Imaging Spectrometer Experiment (DAISEX) was carried out for the European Space Agency (ESA) in order to develop the potential of spaceborne imaging spectroscopy for a range of different scientific applications. DAISEX involved simultaneous data acquisitions using different airborne imaging spectrometers over test sites in southeast Spain (Barrax) and the Upper Rhine valley (Colmar, France, and Hartheim, Germany). This paper presents the results corresponding to the column-integrated aerosol optical properties from ground-based spectroradiometer measurements over the Barrax area during the DAISEX campaign days in the years 1998, 1999, and 2000. The instruments used for spectral irradiance measurements were two Licor 1800 and one Optronic OL-754 spectroradiometers. The analysis of the spectral aerosol optical depth in the visible range shows in all cases the predominance of the coarse-particle mode over the fine-particle mode. The analysis of the back trajectories of the air masses indicates a predominance of marine-type aerosols in the lower atmospheric layers in all cases. Overall, the results obtained show that during the DAISEX there was a combination of maritime aerosols with smaller continental aerosols.

  18. Practical example for use of the supervised vicarious calibration (SVC) method on multisource hyperspectral imagery data - ValCalHyp airborne hyperspectral campaign under the EUFAR framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brook, A.; Ben Dor, E.

    2014-09-01

    A novel approach for radiometric calibration and atmospheric correction of airborne hyperspectral (HRS) data, termed supervised vicarious calibration (SVC) was proposed by Brook and Ben-Dor in 2010. The present study was aimed at validating this SVC approach by simultaneously using several different airborne HSR sensors that acquired HSR data over several selected sites at the same time. The general goal of this study was to apply a cross-calibration approach to examine the capability and stability of the SVC method and to examine its validity. This paper reports the result of the multi sensors campaign took place over Salon de Provenance, France on behalf of the ValCalHyp project took place in 2011. The SVC method enabled the rectification of the radiometric drift of each sensor and improves their performance significantly. The flight direction of the SVC targets was found to be a critical issue for such correction and recommendations have been set for future utilization of this novel method. The results of the SVC method were examined by comparing ground-truth spectra of several selected validation targets with the image spectra as well as by comparing the classified water quality images generated from all sensors over selected water bodies.

  19. Large Scale Field Campaign Contributions to Soil Moisture Remote Sensing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Large-scale field experiments have been an essential component of soil moisture remote sensing for over two decades. They have provided test beds for both the technology and science necessary to develop and refine satellite mission concepts. The high degree of spatial variability of soil moisture an...

  20. Application of the LIRIC algorithm for the characterization of aerosols during the Airborne Romanian Measurements of Aerosols and Trace gases (AROMAT) campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefanie, Horatiu; Nicolae, Doina; Nemuc, Anca; Belegante, Livio; Toanca, Florica; Ajtai, Nicolae; Ozunu, Alexandru

    2015-04-01

    The ESA/ESTEC AROMAT campaign (Airborne Romanian Measurements of Aerosols and Trace gases) was held between 1st and 14th of September 2014 with the purpose to test and inter-compare newly developed airborne and ground-based instruments dedicated to air quality studies in the context of validation programs of the forthcoming European Space Agency satellites (Sentinel 5P, ADM-Aeolus and EarthCARE). Ground-based remote sensing and airborne in situ measurements were made in southern Romania in order to assess the level and the variability of NO2 and particulate matter, focusing on two areas of interest: SW (Turceni), where many coal based power plants are operating, and SE (Bucharest), affected by intense traffic and partially by industrial pollution. In this paper we present the results obtained after the application of the Lidar - Radiometer Inversion Code (LIRIC) algorithm on combined lidar and sunphotometer data collected at Magurele, 6 km South Bucharest. Full lidar data sets in terms of backscatter signals at 355, 532 and 1064 nm, as well as depolarization at 532 nm were used and combined with Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) data, in order to retrieve the profiles of aerosol volume concentrations, separated as fine, spherical and spheroidal coarse modes. Preliminary results showed that aerosols generated by traffic and industrial activities were present in the Planetary Boundary Layer, while biomass burning aerosols transported from the Balkan Peninsula were detected in the upper layers. Acknowledgements: ***This work has been supported by Programme for Research- Space Technology and Advanced Research - STAR, project number 55/2013 - CARESSE. ***The financial support by the European Community's FP7 - PEOPLE 2011 under ITaRS Grant Agreement n° 289923 is gratefully acknowledged.

  1. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from Field Campaigns or Intensive Operational Periods (IOP)

    DOE Data Explorer

    ARM Climate Research Facility users regularly conduct field campaigns to augment routine data acquisitions and to test and validate new instruments. Any field campaign which is proposed, planned, and implemented at one or more research sites is referred to as an intensive operational period (IOP). IOPs are held using the fixed and mobile sites; Southern Great Plains, North Slope of Alaska, Tropical Western Pacific, ARM Mobile Facility (AMF), and Aerial Vehicles Program (AVP). [Taken from http://www.arm.gov/science/fc.stm] Users may search with the specialized interface or browse campaigns/IOPs in table format. Browsing allows users to see the start date of the IOP, the status (Past, In Progress, etc.), the duration, the Principal Investigator, and the research site, along with the title of the campaign/IOP. Clicking on the title leads to a descriptive summary of the campaign, names of co-investigators, contact information, links to related websites, and a link to available data in the ARM Archive. Users will be requested to create a password, but the data files are free for viewing and downloading. The URL to go directly to the ARM Archive, bypassing the information pages, is http://www.archive.arm.gov/. The Office of Biological and Environmental Research in DOE's Office of Science is responsible for the ARM Program. The ARM Archive physically resides at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  2. Detection of soil properties with airborne hyperspectral measurements of bare fields.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Airborne remote sensing data, using a hyperspectral (HSI) camera, were collected for a flight over two fields with a total of 128 ha. of recently seeded and nearly bare soil. The within-field spatial distribution of several soil properties was found by using multiple linear regression to select the ...

  3. Remote sensing of large scale methane emission sources with the Methane Airborne MAPper (MAMAP) instrument over the Kern River and Kern Front Oil fields and validation through airborne in-situ measurements - Initial results from COMEX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerilowski, K.; Krautwurst, S.; Kolyer, R.; Jonsson, H.; Krings, T.; Horstjann, M.; Leifer, I.; Schuettemeyer, D.; Fladeland, M. M.; Burrows, J. P.; Bovensmann, H.

    2014-12-01

    During three flights performed with the MAMAP (Methane Airborne MAPper) airborne remote sensing instrument in the framework of the CO2 and MEthane Experiment (COMEX) - a NASA and ESA funded campaign in support of HyspIRI and CarbonSat mission definition activities - large scale methane plumes were detected over the Kern River and Kern Front Oil fields in the period between June 3 and 13, 2014. MAMAP was installed for these flights aboard of the Center for Interdisciplinary Remotely-Piloted Aircraft Studies (CIRPAS) Twin Otter aircraft, together with a Picarro fast in-situ greenhouse gas (GHG) analyzer (operate by the Ames Research Center, ARC), a 5 hole turbulence probe as well as a atmospheric measurement package (operated by CIRPAS), measuring aerosols, temperature, dew-point and other atmospheric parameters. Data collected with the in-situ GHG analyzer will be used for validation of MAMAP remotely sensed data by acquiring vertical cross sections of the discovered plumes at a fixed downwind distance. Precise airborne wind information from the turbulence probe together with ground based wind data from the nearby airport will be used to estimate emission rates from the remote sensed and in-situ measured data. Remote sensed and in-situ data as well as initial flux estimates for the three flights will be presented.

  4. Project Overview: Cumulus Humilis Aerosol Processing Study (CHAPS): Proposed Summer 2007 ASP Field Campaign

    SciTech Connect

    Berkowitz, Carl M.; Berg, Larry K.; Ogren, J. A.; Hostetler, Chris A.; Ferrare, Richard

    2006-05-18

    This white paper presents the scientific motivation and preliminary logistical plans for a proposed ASP field campaign to be carried out in the summer of 2007. The primary objective of this campaign is to use the DOE Gulfstream-1 aircraft to make measurements characterizing the chemical, physical and optical properties of aerosols below, within and above large fields of fair weather cumulus and to use the NASA Langley Research Center’s High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) to make independent measurements of aerosol backscatter and extinction profiles in the vicinity of these fields. Separate from the science questions to be addressed by these observations will be information to add in the development of a parameterized cumulus scheme capable of including multiple cloud fields within a regional or global scale model. We will also be able to compare and contrast the cloud and aerosol properties within and outside the Oklahoma City plume to study aerosol processes within individual clouds. Preliminary discussions with the Cloud and Land Surface Interaction Campaign (CLASIC) science team have identified overlap between the science questions posed for the CLASIC Intensive Operation Period (IOP) and the proposed ASP campaign, suggesting collaboration would benefit both teams.

  5. Intensity-Modulated Continuous-Wave Lidar Measurements of Surface Reflectance and Implications for CO2 Column Measurements: Results from 2013 ASCENDS Airborne Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nehrir, A. R.; Browell, E. V.; Harrison, F. W.; Dobler, J. T.; Lin, B.; Ismail, S.; Kooi, S. A.; Obland, M. D.

    2013-12-01

    Improved knowledge of the Earth's surface reflectance in the 1.57-micron spectral band is of particular importance for accurate Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) measurements and modeling of IPDA CO2 column measurements as required by the Active Sensing of CO2 Emission of Nights Days and Seasons (ASCENDS) Decadal Survey space mission. The Earth's surface albedo in the near-infrared portion of the spectrum is extremely low for snow and ice and for water under high wind conditions, and this can lead to degraded signal to noise ratios of surface reflectances and of IPDA CO2 column retrievals, requiring increased integration periods. This paper discusses the magnitude and variability of the surface reflectance and corresponding column CO2 measurements over snow measured using an intensity-modulated continuous-wave (IM-CW) laser absorption spectrometer (LAS), namely the Exelis Multi-function Fiber Laser Lidar (MFLL), during the winter 2013 ASCENDS airborne campaign. This LAS system is currently being evaluated by NASA Langley as the ASCENDS space mission prototype system. The surface reflectance measurements over snow and ice as well as over water collected during the 2013 winter DC-8 flight campaign were calibrated using surface reflectance data obtained over well-established satellite radiometric calibration sites such as Railroad Valley, Nevada and over other homogeneous desert sites in California and Arizona that have been used for similar calibrations on past ASCENDS airborne campaigns. Two separate flights targeting differences in surface reflectances between fresh and aged snow were conducted over the U.S. Central Plains and Colorado Rockies, respectively. From these measurements, the nominal surface reflectance of fresh snow (less than 1-2 days old; ~ 0.01/sr at 1.57 microns) was found to be approximately half that of aged snow (3-4 days old; ~ 0.02/sr) which is believed to be a result of increased absorption due to the snow water content. The

  6. Compact airborne lidar for tropospheric ozone: description and field measurements.

    PubMed

    Ancellet, G; Ravetta, F O

    1998-08-20

    An airborne lidar has been developed for tropospheric ozone monitoring. The transmitter module is based on a solid-state Nd:YAG laser and stimulated Raman scattering in deuterium to generate three wavelengths (266, 289, and 316 nm) that are used for differential ozone measurements. Both analog and photon-counting detection methods are used to produce a measurement range up to 8 km. The system has been flown on the French Fokker 27 aircraft to perform both lower tropospheric (0.5-4-km) and upper tropospheric (4-12-km) measurements, with a 1-min temporal resolution corresponding to a 5-km spatial resolution. The vertical resolution of the ozone profile can vary from 300 to 1000 m to accommodate either a large-altitude range or optimum ozone accuracy. Comparisons with in situ ozone measurements performed by an aircraft UV photometer or ozone sondes and with ozone vertical profiles obtained by a ground-based lidar are presented. The accuracy of the tropospheric ozone measurements is generally better than 10-15%, except when aerosol interferences cannot be corrected. Examples of ozone profiles for different atmospheric conditions demonstrate the utility of the airborne lidar in the study of dynamic or photochemical mesoscale processes that control tropospheric ozone. PMID:18286036

  7. Analysis of Pulsed Lidar Measurements of Atmospheric CO2 Column Absorption in the ASCENDS 2011 and 2013 Airborne Campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abshire, J. B.; Ramanathan, A.; Mao, J.; Riris, H.; Allan, G. R.; Hasselbrack, W.; Weaver, C. J.; Browell, E. V.

    2013-12-01

    altitudes above 5 km the biases in retrieved concentrations were 1-2 ppm. Analysis shows the decrease in CO2 due to vegetation when flying over Iowa cropland as well as the sudden increases in CO2 concentration near a coal-fired power plant in New Mexico. Our team also participated in the February 2013 ASCENDS flight campaign, flying over a variety of surfaces in the US, including over Railroad Valley NV, the California Central Valley, desert areas in Arizona, and over cold snow fields in the Rocky Mountains of Colorado and warmer snow in Iowa and Wisconsin. Our post-flight analyses showed that the retrievals of lidar range, lineshape and CO2 column absorption and concentrations worked well when measuring over topography with rapidly changing height and reflectivity, and through thin clouds. As expected, the relative reflectivity of snow surfaces near 1572 nm was small, about 10% of that of the desert, and good line fits and retrievals were made to these as well. Examples from analyzing the 2011 and 2013 measurements will be presented.

  8. Evaluating evaporation from field crops using airborne radiometry and ground-based meteorological data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jackson, R. D.; Moran, M.S.; Gay, L.W.; Raymond, L.H.

    1987-01-01

    Airborne measurements of reflected solar and emitted thermal radiation were combined with ground-based measurements of incoming solar radiation, air temperature, windspeed, and vapor pressure to calculate instantaneous evaporation (LE) rates using a form of the Penman equation. Estimates of evaporation over cotton, wheat, and alfalfa fields were obtained on 5 days during a one-year period. A Bowen ratio apparatus, employed simultaneously, provided ground-based measurements of evaporation. Comparison of the airborne and ground techniques showed good agreement, with the greatest difference being about 12% for the instantaneous values. Estimates of daily (24 h) evaporation were made from the instantaneous data. On three of the five days, the difference between the two techniques was less than 8%, with the greatest difference being 25%. The results demonstrate that airborne remote sensing techniques can be used to obtain spatially distributed values of evaporation over agricultural fields. ?? 1987 Springer-Verlag.

  9. Field investigation of airborne radioactivity anomalies in Marquette County, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    James, Harold L.

    1950-01-01

    The broad radioactivity anomalies recorded by the airborne detector in the vicinity of Republic, Marquette County, Michigan, coincide rather closely with parts of a granitic complex chiefly of Archean age. Ground examination of the rock in these areas of high radioactivity shows that the granitic rock typically yields two to four times the normal background activity. Fissures, shear zones, veins, and pegmatites were tested carefully. None exhibited activity higher than that of the adjacent granitic rock. It is significant that the zones of more-than-average radio-activity are related to the larger elements of the geology - in fact, the information will be of considerable value in reconsideration of some of the regional problems.

  10. Two Hundred Field Per Second Airborne Video System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newkirk, David L.

    1990-01-01

    The Naval Weapons Evaluation Facility (NWEF), Albuquerque, New Mexico, conducted flight tests in November of 1983 to evaluate the NAC HVRB-200 high speed airborne video system for operation and structural integrity in the external military flight environment. The flight tests were successful, but due to budget restraints, shortage of manpower and required design changes, the upgrade to video was placed on hold. Finally in 1986. additional MAC high speed video equipment was procured and by November, NWEF had finished design, built the required control units and instrumentated the first A-7 aircraft. The NWEF system has been the primary data collection media used since then on all project missions conducted by NWEF. With many hours of flight time and extensive experience using the A-7 system, NWEF has designed, built and installed the F/A-18 high speed video system. The first system test flight was conducted on 10 July 1989 and again proved successful.

  11. Quantification of gully volume using very high resolution DSM generated through 3D reconstruction from airborne and field digital imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castillo, Carlos; Zarco-Tejada, Pablo; Laredo, Mario; Gómez, Jose Alfonso

    2013-04-01

    Major advances have been made recently in automatic 3D photo-reconstruction techniques using uncalibrated and non-metric cameras (James and Robson, 2012). However, its application on soil conservation studies and landscape feature identification is currently at the outset. The aim of this work is to compare the performance of a remote sensing technique using a digital camera mounted on an airborne platform, with 3D photo-reconstruction, a method already validated for gully erosion assessment purposes (Castillo et al., 2012). A field survey was conducted in November 2012 in a 250 m-long gully located in field crops on a Vertisol in Cordoba (Spain). The airborne campaign was conducted with a 4000x3000 digital camera installed onboard an aircraft flying at 300 m above ground level to acquire 6 cm resolution imagery. A total of 990 images were acquired over the area ensuring a large overlap in the across- and along-track direction of the aircraft. An ortho-mosaic and the digital surface model (DSM) were obtained through automatic aerial triangulation and camera calibration methods. For the field-level photo-reconstruction technique, the gully was divided in several reaches to allow appropriate reconstruction (about 150 pictures taken per reach) and, finally, the resulting point clouds were merged into a unique mesh. A centimetric-accuracy GPS provided a benchmark dataset for gully perimeter and distinguishable reference points in order to allow the assessment of measurement errors of the airborne technique and the georeferenciation of the photo-reconstruction 3D model. The uncertainty on the gully limits definition was explicitly addressed by comparison of several criteria obtained by 3D models (slope and second derivative) with the outer perimeter obtained by the GPS operator identifying visually the change in slope at the top of the gully walls. In this study we discussed the magnitude of planimetric and altimetric errors and the differences observed between the

  12. ARM Airborne Carbon Measurements (ARM-ACME) and ARM-ACME 2.5 Final Campaign Reports

    SciTech Connect

    Biraud, S. C.; Tom, M. S.; Sweeney, C.

    2016-01-01

    We report on a 5-year multi-institution and multi-agency airborne study of atmospheric composition and carbon cycling at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility’s Southern Great Plains (SGP) site, with scientific objectives that are central to the carbon-cycle and radiative-forcing goals of the U.S. Global Change Research Program and the North American Carbon Program (NACP). The goal of these measurements is to improve understanding of 1) the carbon exchange of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) SGP region; 2) how CO2 and associated water and energy fluxes influence radiative-forcing, convective processes, and CO2 concentrations over the ARM SGP region, and 3) how greenhouse gases are transported on continental scales.

  13. Development and Evaluation of Novel and Compact Hygrometer for Airborne Research (DENCHAR): In-Flight Performance During AIRTOSS-I/II Research Aircaft Campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smit, Herman G. J.; Rolf, Christian; Kraemer, Martina; Petzold, Andreas; Spelten, Nicole; Rohs, Susanne; Neis, Patrick; Maser, Rolf; Bucholz, Bernhard; Ebert, Volker; Tatrai, David; Bozoki, Zoltan; Finger, Fanny; Klingebiel, Marcus

    2014-05-01

    Water vapour is one of the most important parameters in weather prediction and climate research. Accurate and reliable airborne measurements of water vapour are a pre-requisite to study the underlying processes in the chemistry and physics of the atmosphere. Presently, no airborne water vapour sensor exists that covers the entire range of water vapour content of more than four order of magnitudes between the surface and the UT/LS region with sufficient accuracy and time resolution, not to speak of the technical requirements for quasi-routine operation. In a joint research activity of the European Facility for Airborne Research (EUFAR) programme, funded by the EC in FP7, we have addressed this deficit by the Development and Evaluation of Novel and Compact Hygrometer for Airborne Research (DENCHAR), including the sampling characteristics of different gas/ice inlets. The new instruments using innovative detecting technics based on tuneable diode laser technology combined with absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) or photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS): (i) SEALDH based on novel self-calibrating absorption spectroscopy; (ii) WASUL, based on photoacoustic spectroscopy; (iii) commercial WVSS-II, also a TDLAS hygrometer, but using 2f-detection technics. DENCHAR has followed an unique strategy by facilitating new instrumental developments together with conducting extensive testing, both in the laboratory and during in-flight operation. Here, we will present the evaluation of the in-flight performance of the three new hygrometer instruments, which is based on the results obtained during two dedicated research aircraft campaigns (May and September 2013) as part of the AIRTOSS (AIRcraft Towed Sensor Shuttle) experiments. Aboard the Learjet 35A research aircraft the DENCHAR instruments were operated side by side with the well established Fast In-Situ Hygrometer (FISH), which is based on Lyman (alpha) resonance fluorescence detection technics and calibrated to the reference frost point

  14. Use of airborne hyperspectral imagery to map soil parameters in tilled agricultural fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil hyperspectral reflectance imagery was obtained from an airborne imaging spectrometer (400 to 2450 nm with ~10 nm resolution, 2.5 m spatial resolution) flown over six tilled (bare soil) agricultural fields on the Eastern Shore of the Chesapeake Bay (Queen Anne’s county, MD). Surface soil samples...

  15. Vegetation Water Content Mapping in a Diverse Agricultural Landscape: The National Airborne Field Experiment 2006

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mapping land cover and vegetation characteristics on a regional scale is critical to soil moisture retrieval using microwave remote sensing. In aircraft-based experiments such as the National Airborne Field Experiment 2006 (NAFE’06), it is challenging to provide accurate high resolution vegetation i...

  16. RELATIVE AIRBORNE LOSSES OF COMMERCIAL 2,4-D FORMULATIONS FROM A SIMULATED WHEAT FIELD

    EPA Science Inventory

    The relative airborne losses of seven commercial 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) formulations were evaluated in a simulated wheat field. The formulations tested were butyl ester, isooctyl ester, two propylene glycol butyl ether esters, ethanol/isopropyl amine, and two dime...

  17. Retrieval of Hydrometeor Drop Size Distributions from TRMM Field Campaign Profiler Doppler Velocity Spectra Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Christopher R.; Gage, Kenneth S.

    2003-01-01

    Consistent with the original proposal and work plan, this project focused on estimating the raindrop size distributions (DSDs) retrieved from vertically pointing Doppler radar profilers and analyzing the relationship of the retrieved DSDs with the dynamics of the precipitation processes. The first phase of this project focused on developing the model to retrieve the DSD from the observed Doppler velocity spectra. The second phase used this model to perform DSD retrievals from the profiler observations made during the TRMM Ground Validation Field Campaigns of TEFLUN-B, TRMM-LBA, and KWAJEX. The third phase of this project established collaborations with scientists involved with each field campaign in order to validate the profiler DSD estimates and to enable the profiler retrievals to be used in their research. Through these collaborations, the retrieved DSDs were placed into context with the dynamical processes of the observed precipitating cloud systems.

  18. Botswana water and surface energy balance research program. Part 1: Integrated approach and field campaign results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandegriend, A. A.; Owe, M.; Vugts, H. F.; Ramothwa, G. K.

    1992-01-01

    The Botswana water and surface energy balance research program was developed to study and evaluate the integrated use of multispectral satellite remote sensing for monitoring the hydrological status of the Earth's surface. Results of the first part of the program (Botswana 1) which ran from 1 Jan. 1988 - 31 Dec. 1990 are summarized. Botswana 1 consisted of two major, mutually related components: a surface energy balance modeling component, built around an extensive field campaign; and a passive microwave research component which consisted of a retrospective study of large scale moisture conditions and Nimbus scanning multichannel microwave radiometer microwave signatures. The integrated approach of both components in general are described and activities performed during the surface energy modeling component including the extensive field campaign are summarized. The results of the passive microwave component are summarized. The key of the field campaign was a multilevel approach, whereby measurements by various similar sensors were made at several altitudes and resolution. Data collection was performed at two adjacent sites of contrasting surface character. The following measurements were made: micrometeorological measurements, surface temperatures, soil temperatures, soil moisture, vegetation (leaf area index and biomass), satellite data, aircraft data, atmospheric soundings, stomatal resistance, and surface emissivity.

  19. Appendix I1-2 to Wind HUI Initiative 1: Field Campaign Report

    SciTech Connect

    John Zack; Deborah Hanley; Dora Nakafuji

    2012-07-15

    This report is an appendix to the Hawaii WindHUI efforts to dev elop and operationalize short-term wind forecasting and wind ramp event forecasting capabilities. The report summarizes the WindNET field campaign deployment experiences and challenges. As part of the WindNET project on the Big Island of Hawaii, AWS Truepower (AWST) conducted a field campaign to assess the viability of deploying a network of monitoring systems to aid in local wind energy forecasting. The data provided at these monitoring locations, which were strategically placed around the Big Island of Hawaii based upon results from the Oahu Wind Integration and Transmission Study (OWITS) observational targeting study (Figure 1), provided predictive indicators for improving wind forecasts and developing responsive strategies for managing real-time, wind-related system events. The goal of the field campaign was to make measurements from a network of remote monitoring devices to improve 1- to 3-hour look ahead forecasts for wind facilities.

  20. Optical properties and vertical distribution of pollution aerosols in the Mediterranean basin in summertime: airborne observations from the Charmex SOP0, SOP1, and SOP2 campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Biagio, Claudia; Beekmann, Matthias; Chevallier, Servanne; Denjean, Cyrielle; Doppler, Lionel; Gaimoz, Cecile; Grand, Noel; Loisil, Rodrigue; Mallet, Marc; Pelon, Jacques; Ravetta, Francois; Sartelet, Karine; Schnitt, Sabrina; Triquet, Sylvain; Zapf, Pascal; Formenti, Paola

    2014-05-01

    The Mediterranean basin is a very complex area where high concentrations of atmospheric aerosols of different origin and types may be found. The North-Western part of the Mediterranean basin, due to its closeness with high polluted industrialized areas and coastal high populated cities, is frequently affected by severe pollution episodes. The strength of these episodes is particularly intense during summer when stable meteorological conditions favour the accumulation of pollutants in the lowermost atmospheric layers. Three intensive airborne campaigns (TRAQA, TRansport and Air QuAlity, June-July 2012), ADRIMED (Aerosol Direct Radiative Impact on the regional climate in the MEDiterranean region, June 2013) and SAFMED (Secondary Aerosol Formation in the MEDiterranean, July 2013) have been conducted over the North-Western and Central Mediterranean basin with the SAFIRE ATR-42 aircraft in the framework of the ChArMex Special Observing Periods 0 and 1. During the different campaigns the ATR-42 was equipped with a large set of instruments for the measurements of the aerosol physico-chemical (GRIMM, SMPS, PCASP, USHAS, FSSP for size distribution, and three lines for filter sampling on polycarbonate and quartz membranes in order to derive the bulk aerosol composition) and optical properties (TSI nephelometer, Magee Sci. aethalomether, and CAPS for scattering, absorption, and extinction coefficients at several wavelengths in the visible). Lidar backscatter profiles at 355, 532, and 1064 nm, meteorological parameters, upward and downward shortwave and longwave radiative fluxes, and atmospheric composition (H2O, CO2, CO, and O3) were also measured from aircraft instrumentation. In this work we present data on the aerosol physico-chemical and optical properties obtained during the 25 scientific flights of TRAQA, ADRIMED, and SAFMED performed in correspondence of pollution episodes. During the campaigns the Western Mediterranean basin was interested by different synoptic

  1. The Coca-campaign: An Attempt To Derive The Carbon Exchange of A Forested Region Using Airborne Co2 and Co Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitgen, S.; Ciais, P.; Geiß, H.; Kley, D.; Neininger, B.; Baeumle, M.; Fuchs, W.; Brunet, Y.

    As part of the project COCA an attempt was made to measure the daytime biogenic CO2 fluxes over a forest area (about 15 by 30 km). This campaign took place around the CARBOEUROFLUX site "Le Bray" (Pinus pinaster) close to Bordeaux in France end of June 2001. Based on continuous airborne CO2, H2O and CO flux and concen- tration measurements a Lagrangian budgeting approach was chosen for the determi- nation of the regional CO2 fluxes. The objective is to determine the CO2 uptake of the extended forest area from the CO2/CO gradients up- and downwind of the ecosystem, using CO as air mass tracer and such eliminating the influence of anthropogenic CO2 advected into the area. First results will be shown of a flight on June 23rd, where fair wind speeds (about 5 m/s) and a low CBL height led to the observation of a clear decrease in CO2 at the downwind flight stacks with basically constant CO concentrations. For other flights with very low wind speeds, local effects dominate the observa- tions leading to a larger variability in the observations. Both, correlations and anti- correlations of CO2 with the anthropogenic tracer CO have been observed. Positive correlations indicate fresh plumes of anthropogenic CO2. Negative correlations are indicative of entrainment of free tropospheric air, that was marked by relatively higher CO2 and lower CO concentrations than the average CBL concentrations.

  2. The ESA/NASA Multi-Aircraft ATV-1 Re-Entry Campaign: Analysis of Airborne Intensified Video Observations from the NASA/JSC Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, Ed; Maley, Paul; Mulrooney, Mark; Beaulieu, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    In September 2008, a joint ESA/NASA multi-instrument airborne observing campaign was conducted over the Southern Pacific ocean. The objective was the acquisition of data to support detailed atmospheric re-entry analysis for the first flight of the European Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV)-1. Skilled observers were deployed aboard two aircraft which were flown at 12.8 km altitude within visible range of the ATV-1 re-entry zone. The observers operated a suite of instruments with low-light-level detection sensitivity including still cameras, high speed and 30 fps video cameras, and spectrographs. The collected data has provided valuable information regarding the dynamic time evolution of the ATV-1 re-entry fragmentation. Specifically, the data has satisfied the primary mission objective of recording the explosion of ATV-1's primary fuel tank and thereby validating predictions regarding the tanks demise and the altitude of its occurrence. Furthermore, the data contains the brightness and trajectories of several hundred ATV-1 fragments. It is the analysis of these properties, as recorded by the particular instrument set sponsored by NASA/Johnson Space Center, which we present here.

  3. Airborne CH2O measurements over the North Atlantic during the 1997 NARE campaign: Instrument comparisons and distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fried, Alan; Lee, Yin-Nan; Frost, Greg; Wert, Bryan; Henry, Bruce; Drummond, James R.; Hübler, Gerd; Jobson, Tom

    2002-02-01

    Airborne CH2O measurements were acquired by tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) and coil/2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (CDNPH) techniques over remote regions of the North Atlantic Ocean from the surface to 8 km during the North Atlantic Regional Experiment (NARE-97) in September of 1997. There were eight aircraft flights when both instruments were simultaneously operating, producing 665 overlapping time intervals for comparisons. A number of approaches were used in the comparisons, and indicated that on average both instruments measured identical ambient CH2O concentrations to within 0.1 ppbv, and more typically within 0.08 ppbv, over the 0 to 0.8 ppbv-concentration range. However, significant differences, larger than the combined 2σ total uncertainty estimates, were observed in 29% of the full time-coincident data set. The two instruments produced very similar altitude trends. Under clean background conditions in the 35° to 55°N latitude band, the median TDLAS and CDNPH CH2O concentrations were 0.399 and 0.410 ppbv for 0-2 km, 0.250 and 0.355 ppbv for 2-4 km, and 0.217 and 0.280 ppbv for 4-8 km, respectively. Elevated CH2O concentrations were observed in this study at both high altitudes (4-8 km) and in the marine boundary layer by both instruments. Thus vertical transport of CH2O and/or its precursors may provide a greater contribution to upper tropospheric HOx than previously thought. The results of this study, which are based upon instruments employing entirely different measurement principles, calibration, and sampling approaches, not only reinforce this conclusion but also provide a high-quality database necessary to further explore CH2O measurement-model relationships in the clean background atmosphere.

  4. Resolving Organized Aerosol Structures (Rolls and Layers) with Airborne Fast Mobility Particle Sizer (FMPS) During MILAGRO/INTEX Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapustin, V.; Clarke, A.; Zhou, J.; Howell, S.; Shinozuka, Y.; Brekhovskikh, V.; McNaughton, C.

    2007-12-01

    The Hawaii Group for Environmental Aerosol Research [http://www.soest.hawaii.edu/HIGEAR] deployed a wide range of aerosol instrumentation aboard the C-130 and the NASA DC-8 as part of MILAGRO/INTEX. These were designed to provide rapid information on aerosol composition, state of mixing (internal or external), spectral optical properties (scattering and absorption), the humidity dependence of light scattering-f(RH), and the role of condensed species in changing the absorption properties of black carbon (BC) and inferred properties of organic carbon (OC). These measurements included size distributions from about 7 nm up to about 10,000 nm and their volatility at 150, 300 and 400 C; size selected response to heating (volatility) to resolve the state of mixing of the aerosol; continuous measurements of the light scattering and absorption at 3 wavelengths; measurements of the f(RH). We also flew the first airborne deployment of the new Fast Mobility Particle Sizer (FMPS, TSI Inc.) that provided information on rapid (1Hz) size variations in the Aitken mode. This revealed small scale structure of the aerosol and allowed us to examine size distributions varying over space and time associated with mixing processes previously unresolved etc. Rapid measurements during profiles also revealed variations in size over shallow layers. Other dynamic processes included rapid size distribution measurements within orographically induced aerosol layers and size distribution evolution of the nanoparticles formed by nucleation (C-130 flights 5, 6 and 9). Evidence for fluctuations induced by underlying changes in topography was also detected. These measurements also frequently revealed the aerosol variability in the presence of boundary layer rolls aligned along the wind in the Marine Boundary Layer (Gulf region) both with and without visible cloud streets (DC-8 flight 4 and C-130 flight 7). This organized convection over 1-2 km scales influences the mixing processes (entrainment, RH

  5. Airborne measurements of Black Carbon using miniature high-performance Aethalometers during global circumnavigation campaign GLWF 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Močnik, Griša; Drinovec, Luka; Vidmar, Primož; Lenarčič, Matevž

    2013-04-01

    While ground-level measurements of atmospheric aerosols are routinely performed around the world, there exists very little data on their vertical and geographical distribution in the global atmosphere. This data is a crucial requirement for our understanding of the dispersion of pollutant species of anthropogenic origin, and their possible effects on radiative forcing, cloud condensation, and other phenomena which can contribute to adverse outcomes. Black Carbon (BC) is a unique tracer for combustion emissions, and can be detected rapidly and with great sensitivity by filter-based optical methods. It has no non-combustion sources and is not transformed by atmospheric processes. Its presence at altitude is unequivocal. Recent technical advances have led to the development of miniaturized instruments which can be operated on ultra-light aircraft, balloons or UAV's. From January to April 2012, a 'Pipistrel Virus' single-seat ultra-light aircraft flew around the world on a photographic and environmental-awareness mission. The flight track covered all seven continents; crossed all major oceans; and operated at altitudes around 3000 m ASL and up to 8900 m ASL. The aircraft carried a specially-developed high-sensitivity miniaturized dual-wavelength Aethalometer, which recorded BC concentrations with very high temporal resolution and sensitivity (see Reference below). We present examples of data from flight tracks over remote oceans, uninhabited land masses, and densely populated areas. Back-trajectories are used to show transport of polluted air masses. Measuring the dependence of the aerosol absorption on the wavelength, we show that aerosols produced during biomass combustion can be transported to high altitude in high concentrations. 1. __, Carbon Sampling Takes Flight, Science 2012, 335, 1286. 2. G. Močnik, L. Drinovec, M. Lenarčič, Airborne measurements of Black Carbon during the GLW Flight using miniature high-performance Aethalometers, accessed 8 January 2013

  6. 40 CFR Table C-5 to Subpart C of... - Summary of Comparability Field Testing Campaign Site and Seasonal Requirements for Class II and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... humidity. Class III Field test campaigns (Total: 5) Winter and summer Winter only Winter only Summer only... relative humidity. Class III Field test campaigns (Total: 5) Winter and summer Winter only Winter...

  7. Specially equipped aircraft used in Florida airborne field mill research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    At KSC's Shuttle Landing Facility, a specially equipped Cessna Citation aircraft flies over the runway to calibrate the Cessna's field mills with field mills on the ground (on the tripod at left) and on the car parked nearby (at right). Field mills measure electric fields. The aircraft is also equipped with cloud physics probes that measure the size, shape and number of ice and water particles in clouds. The plane is being flown into anvil clouds in the KSC area as part of a study to review and possibly modify lightning launch commit criteria. The weather study could lead to improved lightning avoidance rules and fewer launch scrubs for the Space Shuttle and other launch vehicles on the Eastern and Western ranges. More information about this study can be found in Release No. 56- 00.

  8. Specially equipped aircraft used in Florida airborne field mill research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    At KSC's Shuttle Landing Facility, a specially equipped Cessna Citation aircraft approaches the runway to calibrate the Cessna's field mills with field mills on the ground (on the tripod at left) and on the car parked nearby (at right). Field mills measure electric fields. The aircraft is also equipped with cloud physics probes that measure the size, shape and number of ice and water particles in clouds. The plane is being flown into anvil clouds in the KSC area as part of a study to review and possibly modify lightning launch commit criteria. The weather study could lead to improved lightning avoidance rules and fewer launch scrubs for the Space Shuttle and other launch vehicles on the Eastern and Western ranges. More information on this study can be found in Release No. 56- 00.

  9. Initial results of detected methane emissions from landfills in the Los Angeles Basin during the COMEX campaign by the Methane Airborne MAPper (MAMAP) instrument and a greenhouse gas in-situ analyser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krautwurst, Sven; Gerilowski, Konstantin; Kolyer, Richard; Jonsson, Haflidi; Krings, Thomas; Horstjann, Markus; Leifer, Ira; Vigil, Sam; Buchwitz, Michael; Schüttemeyer, Dirk; Fladeland, Matthew M.; Burrows, John P.; Bovensmann, Heinrich

    2015-04-01

    the German Research Center for Geoscience (GFZ) in Potsdam. The in-situ measurements were obtained by a greenhouse gas (GHG) in-situ analyser operated by NASA's Ames Research Center (ARC). Both instruments were installed aboard a DHC-6 Twin Otter aircraft operated by the Center for Interdisciplinary Remotely-Piloted Aircraft Studies (CIRPAS). Initial results - including estimated fugitive emission rates - will be presented for the landfill Olinda Alpha in Brea, Orange County, Los Angeles Basin, California, which was overflown on four different days during the COMEX field campaign in late summer 2014.

  10. Interplanetary magnetic field structure at Saturn inferred from nanodust measurements during the 2013 aurora campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, H.-W.; Kempf, S.; Badman, S. V.; Kurth, W. S.; Postberg, F.; Srama, R.

    2016-01-01

    Interactions between the solar wind and planetary magnetospheres provide important diagnostic information about the magnetospheric dynamics. The lack of monitoring of upstream solar wind conditions at the outer planets, however, restrains the overall scientific output. Here we apply a new method, using Cassini nanodust stream measurements, to derive the interplanetary magnetic field structure during the 2013 Saturn aurora campaign. Due to the complex dynamical interactions with the interplanetary magnetic field, a fraction of fast nanodust particles emerging from the Saturnian system is sent back into the magnetosphere and can be detected by a spacecraft located within. The time-dependent directionality caused by the variable interplanetary magnetic field enable these particles to probe the solar wind structure remotely. Information about the arrival time of solar wind compression regions (coupled with the heliospheric current sheet crossings) as well as the field direction associated with the solar wind sector structure can be inferred. Here we present a tentative identification of the interplanetary magnetic field sector structure based on Cassini nanodust and radio emission measurements during the 2013 Saturn aurora campaign. Our results show that, the interplanetary magnetic field near Saturn during 2013-080 to 176 was consistent with a two-sector structure. The intensifications of aurora and the radio emission on 2013-095, 112 and 140 coincide with the IMF sector boundaries, indicating that the encounter of the compressed solar wind is the main cause of the observed activities.

  11. Retrievals of cloud microphysical properties from the Research Scanning Polarimeter measurements made during PODEX field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandrov, M. D.; Cairns, B.; Sinclair, K.

    2013-12-01

    We present the retrievals of cloud droplet size distribution parameters (effective radius and variance) from the Research Scanning Polarimeter (RSP) measurements made during NASA's POlarimeter Definition EXperiment (PODEX), which was based in Palmdale, California in January - February 2013. The RSP is an airborne prototype for the Aerosol Polarimetery Sensor (APS), which was built for the NASA Glory Mission project. This instrument measures both polarized and total reflectances in 9 spectral channels with center wavelengths of 410, 470, 555, 670, 865, 960, 1590, 1880 and 2250 nm. The RSP is a push broom scanner making samples at 0.8 degree intervals within 60 degrees from nadir in both forward and backward directions. The data from actual RSP scans is aggregated into "virtual" scans, each consisting of all reflectances (at a variety of scattering angles) from a single point on the ground or at the cloud top. In the case of water clouds the rainbow is observed in the polarized reflectances in the scattering angle range between 135 and 170 degrees. It has a unique signature that is being used to accurately determine the droplet size and is not affected by cloud morphology. Simple parametric fitting algorithm applied to these polarized reflectances provides retrievals of the droplet effective radius and variance assuming a prescribed size distribution shape (gamma distribution). In addition to this, we use a non-parametric method, Rainbow Fourier Transform (RFT), which allows to retrieve the droplet size distribution a parametric model. Of particular interest is the information contained in droplet size distribution width, which is indicative of cloud life cycle. The absorbing band method is also applied to RSP total reflectance observations. The difference in the retrieved droplet size between polarized and absorbing band techniques is expected to reflect the strength of the vertical gradient in cloud liquid water content. In addition to established retrieval

  12. Specially equipped aircraft used in Florida airborne field mill research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Lightning field study devices are visible on a Cessna Citation aircraft during flight over Central Florida. The center of the black circle contains one of six field mills, used to measure electric fields, located on the body of the plane. Below the circle is one of several cloud physics probes attached to the plane that measure the size, shape and number of ice and water particles in clouds. The Cessna is being flown into anvil clouds in the KSC area as part of a study to review and possibly modify lightning launch commit criteria. The weather study could lead to improved lightning avoidance rules and fewer launch scrubs for the Space Shuttle and other launch vehicles on the Eastern and Western ranges. More information about the study can be found in Release No. 56-00.

  13. Preliminary Electric Field Results From A Multiple Balloon Campaign to Study Relativistic Electron Loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bering, E. A.; Kokorowski, M.; Holzworth, R. H.; Sample, J. G.; McCarthy, M. P.; Smith, D. M.; Parks, G. K.; Millan, R. M.; Woodger, L.; Reddell, B. D.; Lay, E.; Bale, S. D.; Pulupa, M.; O'Brien, T. P.; Blake, J. B.; Lin, R. P.; Moraal, H.; Stoker, P.; Hughes, A. R.; Collier, A. B.

    2005-05-01

    The MINIS balloon campaign was successfully conducted in January 2005 to investigate relativistic electron loss mechanisms. Quantifying and understanding losses is an integral part of understanding the variability of relativistic electrons in the radiation belts. Balloon-based experiments directly measure precipitation and thus provide a method for quantifying losses, while the nearly stationary platform allows for the separation of temporal and spatial variations. A new class of precipitation event, characterized by extremely hard spectra, short durations, and complex temporal structure, occurring in the evening to midnight sector, was discovered by the INTERBOA balloon in 1996 and studied further by the MAXIS balloon in 2000. The MINIS campaign provided the first opportunities for multi-point measurements of electron precipitation up to MeV energies, including simultaneous measurements at different longitudes and at near-conjugate locations. Two balloons, each carrying an X-ray spectrometer for measuring the bremsstrahlung produced as electrons precipitate into the atmosphere, were launched from Churchill, Manitoba at 0850 UT on 21 January 2005 and 0140 UT on 25 January 2005. Four balloons, each carrying an X-ray spectrometer, a Z-axis search coil magnetometer, and a 3-axis electric field instrument providing DC electric field and VLF measurements in 3 frequency bands, were launched from the South African Antarctic Station (SANAE IV). The Southern launches took place at 1400 UT on 17 January, 1309 UT on 19 January, 2115 UT on 20 January, and 0950 UT on 24 January 2005. In this paper, we present the preliminary results from the MINIS South electric field instrumentation. We have good DC and VLF electric field data from all payloads, and the payload rotation mechanism worked in all four as well. The campaign began with two large solar flares. In the post-flare environment, some very magnetospherically active periods are included in our data, with strong and

  14. An Overview of the 2010 Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study (CARES) Field Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaveri, R. A.; Shaw, W. J.; Cziczo, D. J.

    2010-12-01

    The primary objective of the DOE Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study (CARES) in June 2010 was to investigate the evolution of carbonaceous aerosols of different types and their optical and hygroscopic properties in central California, with a focus on the Sacramento urban plume. Carbonaceous aerosol components, which include black carbon (BC), urban primary organic aerosols (POA), biomass burning aerosols, and secondary organic aerosols (SOA) from both urban and biogenic precursors, have been shown to play a major role in the direct and indirect radiative forcing of climate. However, significant knowledge gaps and uncertainties still exist in the process-level understanding of: 1) SOA formation, 2) BC mixing state evolution, and 3) the optical and hygroscopic properties of fresh and aged carbonaceous aerosols. The CARES 2010 field study was designed to address several specific science questions under these three topics. During summer the Sacramento-Blodgett Forest corridor effectively serves as a mesoscale daytime flow reactor in which the urban aerosols undergo significant aging as they are transported to the northeast by upslope flow. The CARES campaign observation strategy consisted of the DOE G-1 aircraft sampling upwind, within, and outside of the evolving Sacramento urban plume in the morning and again in the afternoon. The G-1 payload consisted of a suite of instruments to measure trace gases, aerosol size distribution, composition, and optical properties. The NASA B-200 aircraft carrying a High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) and a Research Scanning Polarimeter (RSP) was also deployed to characterize the vertical and horizontal distribution of aerosols and aerosol optical properties. The aircraft measurements were complemented by heavily-instrumented ground sites within the Sacramento urban area and at a downwind site in Cool, California, to characterize the diurnal evolution of meteorological variables, trace gases, aerosol precursors, aerosol

  15. Specially equipped aircraft used in Florida airborne field mill research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    A specially equipped Cessna Citation aircraft flies over KSC during a calibration test of field mills used to measure electric fields. The aircraft is also equipped with cloud physics probes that measure the size, shape and number of ice and water particles in clouds. The plane is being flown into anvil clouds in the KSC area as part of a study to review and possibly modify lightning launch commit criteria. The weather study could lead to improved lightning avoidance rules and fewer launch scrubs for the Space Shuttle and other launch vehicles on the Eastern and Western ranges. More information on this study can be found in Release No. 56-00.

  16. Specially equipped aircraft used in Florida airborne field mill research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Attached to the wing of a Cessna Citation aircraft are cloud physics probes that measure the size, shape and number of ice and water particles in clouds. The plane is also equipped with field mills, used to measure electric fields. The plane is being flown into anvil clouds in the KSC area as part of a study to review and possibly modify lightning launch commit criteria. The weather study could lead to improved lightning avoidance rules and fewer launch scrubs for the Space Shuttle and other launch vehicles on the Eastern and Western ranges. More information about the study can be found in Release No. 56- 00.

  17. Ecosystem Mapping Approaches Based on Vegetation Structure Using NEON Prototype Airborne LiDAR and Field Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, K.; Emery, W. J.; Barnett, D.; Petroy, S. B.; Meier, C. L.; Wessman, C. A.

    2014-12-01

    Remote sensing is a powerful tool for measuring the current state of vegetation and monitoring changes over time with repeated data collections. Airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data is especially well suited for mapping 3D vegetation structure. In 2010, the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) contracted LiDAR and hyperspectral airborne data collections over the Ordway-Swisher Biological Station (OSBS). Ground truth campaigns were also conducted in 2010, 2011, and 2014 including structural measurements and generation of species lists for a set of ground validation plots. The vegetation communities at OSBS can be characterized by the Florida Natural Areas Inventory (FNAI) classification system, with a large area of the property belonging to the Sandhill community. For this study, classification algorithm training locations are hand selected for each FNAI community type using photo-interpretation. A series of LiDAR metrics are calculated on the discrete return point clouds and derived digital elevation (DEM) and canopy height models (CHM). A decision tree classification algorithm is run using R package "rpart". A main goal of the project is to relate the LiDAR metrics used by the decision tree to direct canopy structural quantities. For instance, the canopy 75th minus the 50th percentile height in the LiDAR point clouds are related to the uniformity and light penetration in the upper canopy. A prototype of the decision tree achieved a classification accuracy of 89% on the training data itself, suggesting that some locations in different FNAI vegetation communities have similar structure and could not be distinguished in the LiDAR metrics used. An improved decision tree is currently under development which will include more training locations and more LiDAR metrics as input features. Results from this improved model will be presenting using the NEON ground truth locations as an independent and quantitative validation measure of the decision tree

  18. Tracking long-range transported upper-tropospheric pollution layers with a newly developed airborne Hyperspectral Sun/Sky spectrometer (4STAR): Results from the TCAP 2012 campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segal-Rosenhaimer, M.; Russell, P. B.; Schmid, B.; Redemann, J.; Livingston, J. M.; Flynn, C. J.; Johnson, R.; Dunagan, S.; Shinozuka, Y.; Herman, J. R.; Cede, A.; Abuhassan, N.; Comstock, J. M.; Hubbe, J.

    2013-12-01

    TCAP, the Two Column Aerosol Project, was aimed at providing a detailed set of observations to investigate topics related to radiation and aerosol-cloud interactions, and to learn about aging and transport of atmospheric aerosols and gaseous constituents that are related to tropospheric pollution events. During the year-long campaign, an intensive airborne deployment was held in the summer of 2012 based at the Hyannis airport, Cape-Cod, MA. In the course of the campaign, the newly developed Spectrometer for Sky-Scanning, Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research (4STAR) flew onboard the DOE Gulfstream 1 (G-1) aircraft, together with a suite of in-situ instruments to measure atmospheric state parameters and aerosol and cloud characteristics. One of the unique features of the 4STAR instrument, stemming from its design using grating spectrometers that cover the UV-VIS-SWIR spectral range (i.e. 350-1700nm), is its capability to measure atmospheric trace gases such as water vapor, O3 and NO2 concurrently with spectrally resolved aerosol optical depth (AOD). Here, we utilize the 4STAR measurements above the planetary boundary layer (PBL) (i.e. above 3000 meters) to investigate atmospheric composition of elevated pollution layers transported from the continental US and Canada during the TCAP summer phase. The 4STAR-retrieved values of AOD at 500 nm, Ångstrom exponent (AE) at 500 nm, columnar water vapor (CWV), and NO2 are used as variables in a k-means clustering algorithm to determine the atmospheric composition characteristics of the observed elevated polluted layers during the July flights. We found that, compared to AOD, NO2 displays less variability in plumes that are related to biomass-burning (BB) emissions over the course of several days. HYSPLIT back-trajectory analysis has confirmed our clustering results of two major air-mass sources: a relatively dry and clean upper tropospheric source and a humid, polluted one. Our clustering analysis, resulting in different ocean

  19. Spatial Variability in Black Carbon Mixing State Observed During The Multi-City NASA DISCOVER-AQ Field Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, R.; Ziemba, L. D.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Chen, G.; Corr, C.; Hudgins, C.; Martin, R.; Shook, M.; Thornhill, K. L., II; Winstead, E.; Anderson, B. E.

    2014-12-01

    Light absorbing carbonaceous aerosols are known to be an important climatic driver with a global radiative forcing of about half (IPCC, 2013) to two-thirds (Bond et al., 2013) that of the dominant greenhouse gas, carbon dioxide. While the mass absorption coefficient of pure black carbon (BC) is fairly well known, observational evidence suggests that BC rapidly mixes with other aerosol chemical components within hours of emission (Moffet and Prather, 2009; Moteki et al., 2007). These other components may include predominantly scattering organic, sulfate, and nitrate species, as well as light-absorbing, so-called "brown carbon" (BrC). It has been suggested that the presence of these BC-mixed components may induce mixing-state-dependent lensing effects that could potentially double the BC direct radiative forcing (Jacobson, 2001). The key to better understanding how BC-rich aerosols are distributed in the atmosphere is to examine an unbiased set of measurements covering broad spatial and temporal coverage; however, many past airborne field campaigns have specifically targeted source plumes or other scientifically-relevant emissions sources. The recent NASA DISCOVER-AQ campaign is unique in that approximately the same flight pattern was performed over a month-long period in each of four different U.S. metropolitan areas, ensuring an unbiased, or at least less biased, data set with both wide horizontal and vertical (surface to 5 km altitude) coverage. We present a statistical analysis of BC-rich particle mixing state measured during DISCOVER-AQ by a DMT Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2). The SP2 measures the BC mass distribution via laser incandescence, and the non-BC coating thickness is inferred from the light scattering signal of particles greater than 200 nm in diameter (Gao et al., 2007; Moteki and Kondo, 2008). The SP2-derived size distributions are compared to optical scattering size distributions measured by an UHSAS in order determine 1) the externally

  20. A Field Evaluation of Airborne Techniques for Detection of Unexploded Ordnance

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, D.; Doll, W.E.; Hamlett, P.; Holladay, J.S.; Nyquist, J.E.; Smyre, J.; Gamey, T.J.

    1999-03-14

    US Defense Department estimates indicate that as many as 11 million acres of government land in the U. S. may contain unexploded ordnance (UXO), with the cost of identifying and disposing of this material estimated at nearly $500 billion. The size and character of the ordnance, types of interference, vegetation, geology, and topography vary from site to site. Because of size or composition, some ordnance is difficult to detect with any geophysical method, even under favorable soil and cultural interference conditions. For some sites, airborne methods may provide the most time and cost effective means for detection of UXO. Airborne methods offer lower risk to field crews from proximity to unstable ordnance, and less disturbance of sites that maybe environmentally sensitive. Data were acquired over a test site at Edwards AFB, CA using airborne magnetic, electromagnetic, multispectral and thermal sensors. Survey areas included sites where trenches might occur, and a test site in which we placed deactivated ordnance, ranging in size from small ''bomblets'' to large bombs. Magnetic data were then acquired with the Aerodat HM-3 system, which consists of three cesium magnetometers within booms extending to the front and sides of the helicopter, and mounted such that the helicopter can be flown within 3m of the surface. Electromagnetic data were acquired with an Aerodat 5 frequency coplanar induction system deployed as a sling load from a helicopter, with a sensor altitude of 15m. Surface data, acquired at selected sites, provide a comparison with airborne data. Multispectral and thermal data were acquired with a Daedelus AADS 1268 system. Preliminary analysis of the test data demonstrate the value of airborne systems for UXO detection and provide insight into improvements that might make the systems even more effective.

  1. Field experiment on spray drift: deposition and airborne drift during application to a winter wheat crop.

    PubMed

    Wolters, André; Linnemann, Volker; van de Zande, Jan C; Vereecken, Harry

    2008-11-01

    A field experiment was performed to evaluate various techniques for measuring spray deposition and airborne drift during spray application to a winter wheat crop. The application of a spraying agent containing the fluorescent dye Brilliant Sulfo Flavine by a conventional boom sprayer was done according to good agricultural practice. Deposition was measured by horizontal collectors in various arrangements in and outside the treated area. Airborne spray drift was measured both with a passive and an active air collecting system. Spray deposits on top of the treated canopy ranged between 68 and 71% of the applied dose and showed only small differences for various arrangements of the collectors. Furthermore, only small variations were measured within the various groups of collectors used for these arrangements. Generally, the highest spray deposition outside the treated area was measured close to the sprayed plot and was accompanied by a high variability of values, while a rapid decline of deposits was detected in more remote areas. Estimations of spray deposits with the IMAG Drift Calculator were in accordance with experimental findings only for areas located at a distance of 0.5-4.5 m from the last nozzle, while there was an overestimation of a factor of 4 at a distance of 2.0-3.0 m, thus revealing a high level of uncertainty of the estimation of deposition for short distances. Airborne spray drift measured by passive and active air collecting systems was approximately at the same level, when taking into consideration the collector efficiency of the woven nylon wire used as sampling material for the passive collecting system. The maximum value of total airborne spray drift for both spray applications (0.79% of the applied dose) was determined by the active collecting system. However, the comparatively high variability of measurements at various heights above the soil by active and passive collecting systems revealed need for further studies to elucidate the spatial

  2. Specially equipped aircraft used in Florida airborne field mill research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    In a hangar at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, a Cessna Citation aircraft has been fitted on the wings with devices that measure electric fields (black circles shown behind the open door) and with cloud physics probes (under the body and wings) that measure the size, shape and number of ice and water particles in clouds. The plane is being flown into anvil clouds in the KSC area as part of a study to review and possibly modify lightning launch commit criteria. The weather study could lead to improved lightning avoidance rules and fewer launch scrubs for the Space Shuttle and other launch vehicles on the Eastern and Western ranges. More information about the study can be found in Release No. 56-00.

  3. Airborne Measurements of Scattering and Absorption Coefficients in the Planetary Boundary Layer above the Po Valley, Italy, during the PEGASOS Campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosati, B.; Weingartner, E.; Gysel, M.; Tillmann, R.; Mentel, T. F.; Decesari, S.; Marinoni, A.; Gobbi, G. P.; Fierli, F.; Cairo, F.; Bucci, S.; Zanatta, M.; Größ, J.; Baltensperger, U.

    2014-12-01

    Aerosol particles influence the Earth's radiation budget by interacting with the incoming sunlight. The chemical composition and size of aerosol particles determine their potential to scatter and absorb radiation as well as their capability to take up water (Zieger et al., 2011). If particles are hygroscopic their optical properties will be altered at enhanced relative humidities (RH) due to the increase in size and change in index of refraction. It is known that RH but also the chemical composition of aerosols change with altitude (Morgan et al., 2010) which makes it very important to investigate optical properties at different heights. Within the Pan-European Gas-Aerosols-climate interaction Study (PEGASOS) a set of instruments was installed on a Zeppelin to investigate changes of light scattering and absorption in the planetary boundary layer. In order to obtain the scattering properties, Mie calculations were performed for size distributions recorded with SMPS (scanning mobility particle sizer) and WELAS (optical size spectrometer). The index of refraction and the hygroscopicity of the aerosol particles were measured with the white-light humidified optical particle spectrometer (WHOPS). These measurements further allowed studying the RH-dependence of the optical properties. Moreover, a seven wavelength portable aethalometer was employed to determine the light absorption properties of the aerosol. In this work we will present vertical profiles of scattering and absorption coefficients measured during Zeppelin flights of the PEGASOS campaigns in Italy in 2012. Additionally comparisons with ground based measurements from nephelometers and aethalometers, as well as remote sensing results will be shown. W.T. Morgan et al., Enhancement of the aerosol direct radiative effect by semi-volatile aerosol components: Airborne measurements in North-Western Europe, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 10(2010), pp. 8151-8171.P. Zieger et al., Comparison of ambient aerosol

  4. Dirac: A campaign of experiments to study physics and chemistry at ultrahigh magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Solem, J.C.; Fowler, C.M.; Goettee, J.D.; Rickel, D.; Campbell, L.J.; Veeser, L.

    1996-12-01

    We present an overview of the Dirac experimental campaign conducted at Los Alamos in spring of 1996. The name was chosen in recognition of P.A.M. Dirac`s monumental contributions to quantum theory, which affected every aspect of the science we planned to investigate. We show how the various collaborations were put together, discuss some of the difficulties of collecting data in rapidly changing magnetic fields, describe the motivation, packaging, and integration of experiments, and give an exceedingly preliminary discussion of some of the results.

  5. The Influence of Radiosonde 'Age' on TRMM Field Campaign Soundings Humidity Correction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roy, Biswadev; Halverson, Jeffrey B.; Wang, Jun-Hong

    2002-01-01

    Hundreds of Vaisala sondes with a RS80-H Humicap thin-film capacitor humidity sensor were launched during the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) field campaigns in Large Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere held in Brazil (LBA) and in Kwajalein experiment (KWAJEX) held in the Republic of Marshall Islands. Using Six humidity error correction algorithms by Wang et al., these sondes were corrected for significant dry bias in the RS80-H data. It is further shown that sonde surface temperature error must be corrected for a better representation of the relative humidity. This error becomes prominent due to sensor arm-heating in the first 50-s data.

  6. Using TRMM Field Campaign Data for Assessing GEOS Forecast and Assimilation Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hou, Arthur Y.; Zhang, Sara Q.; deSilva, Arlindo M.; Lin, Shian-Jiann; Herdies, Dirceu; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The wealth of in-situ measurements gathered during Tropical Rain Measuring Mission (TRMM) field campaigns over a wide range of tropical conditions constitute an important data source for evaluating the quality of global model forecasts and assimilated datasets. In this study we use selected observations of cloud microphysics and atmospheric sounding from TEFLUN-1998, SCEMEX-1998, and TRMMLBA-1999 to examine the assimilation and forecast fields produced by the operational GEOS-3 (Goddard Earth Observing System - version 3) global data assimilation system (DAS) and a new finite-volume DAS under development at the Data Assimilation Office. Additionally, TRMM field campaign measurements are used to verify the impact of assimilating rainfall and moisture data derived from TRMM Microwave Imager and Special Sensor Microwave/Imager instruments on the GEOS analysis. We will also explore issues concerning the 'error of representativeness' in using in-situ observations of quantities with large spatial and temporal variability such as precipitation for validating gridded global data products.

  7. Effect of electrical charges and fields on injury and viability of airborne bacteria.

    PubMed

    Mainelis, Gediminas; Górny, Rafał L; Reponen, Tiina; Trunov, Mikhaylo; Grinshpun, Sergey A; Baron, Paul; Yadav, Jagjit; Willeke, Klaus

    2002-07-20

    In this study, the effects of the electric charges and fields on the viability of airborne microorganisms were investigated. The electric charges of different magnitude and polarity were imparted on airborne microbial cells by a means of induction charging. The airborne microorganisms carrying different electric charge levels were then extracted by an electric mobility analyzer and collected using a microbial sampler. It was found that the viability of Pseudomonas fluorescens bacteria, used as a model for sensitive bacteria, carrying a net charge from 4100 negative to 30 positive elementary charges ranged between 40% and 60%; the viability of the cells carrying >2700 positive charges was below 1.5%. In contrast, the viability of the stress-resistant spores of Bacillus subtilis var. niger (used as simulant of anthrax-causing Bacillus anthracis spores when testing bioaerosol sensors in various studies), was not affected by the amount of electric charges on the spores. Because bacterial cells depend on their membrane potential for basic metabolic activities, drastic changes occurring in the membrane potential during aerosolization and the local electric fields induced by the imposed charges appeared to affect the sensitive cells' viability. These findings facilitate applications of electric charging for environmental control purposes involving sterilization of bacterial cells by imposing high electric charges on them. The findings from this study can also be used in the development of new bioaerosol sampling methods based on electrostatic principles. PMID:12115440

  8. Bromoform and Dibromomethane Emission During the SHIVA Western Pacific 2011 Field Campaign: A 3-D Model Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mantle, Hannah; Hossaini, Ryan; Chipperfield, Martyn

    2013-04-01

    Halogenated very short-lived species (VSLS) with atmospheric lifetimes of <6 months can be transported to the stratosphere, particularly in regions experiencing rapid vertical transport due to deep convection. Once in the stratosphere bromine released from VSLS contributes to ozone depletion. While the Montreal Protocol has controlled the emission of longer-lived anthropogenic halogenated species, the quantitative impact of naturally sourced VSLS remains unclear and requires further investigation. We have used the TOMCAT offline global 3-D chemical transport model (CTM) to test different VSLS emission scenarios. In this study, TOMCAT is forced using 6-hourly European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts analyses, has 60 vertical levels from the surface to ~60 km and a horizontal resolution of 2.8°x2.8°. Previous work using TOMCAT into halogenated VSLS emission and transport has involved the use of fixed surface mixing ratios of 1.2 pptv bromoform and dibromomethane in the bottom two layers of the model surface in the Tropics (Hossaini et al., 2010). Although an accurate representation of surface mixing ratios of these VSLS, the use of spatially varying emission fluxes should allow for improved accuracy in model predictions. The EU-funded SHIVA Malaysia 2011 field campaign provided a comprehensive VSLS dataset obtained in a region where these source gases have the potential to reach the stratosphere and deplete ozone. Observations of VSLS were collected during November and December 2011 on board the DLR Falcon aircraft during sixteen local flights. Fourteen of these flights have been used in this study due to technical difficulties experienced on the remaining two flights. Four emission scenarios, including both top-down and bottom-up approaches derived from airborne measurements and ocean fluxes of VSLS, were used in TOMCAT and each scenario was compared to observations of bromoform and dibromomethane collected during the SHIVA campaign. The mean bias of

  9. Passive remote sensing of large-scale methane emissions from Oil Fields in California's San Joaquin Valley and validation by airborne in-situ measurements - Results from COMEX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerilowski, Konstantin; Krautwurst, Sven; Thompson, David R.; Thorpe, Andrew K.; Kolyer, Richard W.; Jonsson, Haflidi; Krings, Thomas; Frankenberg, Christian; Horstjann, Markus; Leifer, Ira; Eastwood, Michael; Green, Robert O.; Vigil, Sam; Fladeland, Matthew; Schüttemeyer, Dirk; Burrows, John P.; Bovensmann, Heinrich

    2016-04-01

    The CO2 and MEthane EXperiment (COMEX) was a NASA and ESA funded campaign in support of the HyspIRI and CarbonSat mission definition activities. As a part of this effort, seven flights were performed between June 3 and September 4, 2014 with the Methane Airborne MAPper (MAMAP) remote sensing instrument (operated by the University of Bremen in cooperation with the German Research Centre for Geosciences - GFZ) over the Kern River, Kern Front, and Poso Creek Oil Fields located in California's San Joaquin Valley. MAMAP was installed for the flights aboard the Center for Interdisciplinary Remotely-Piloted Aircraft Studies (CIRPAS) Twin Otter aircraft, together with: a Picarro fast in-situ greenhouse gas (GHG) analyzer operated by the NASA Ames Research Center, ARC; a 5-hole turbulence probe; and an atmospheric measurement package operated by CIRPAS measuring aerosols, temperature, dew-point, and other atmospheric parameters. Three of the flights were accompanied by the Next Generation Airborne Visual InfraRed Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS-NG), operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), California Institute of Technology, installed aboard a second Twin Otter aircraft. Large-scale, high-concentration CH4 plumes were detected by the MAMAP instrument over the fields and tracked over several kilometers. The spatial distribution of the MAMAP observed plumes was compared to high spatial resolution CH4 anomaly maps derived by AVIRIS-NG imaging spectroscopy data. Remote sensing data collected by MAMAP was used to infer CH4 emission rates and their distributions over the three fields. Aggregated emission estimates for the three fields were compared to aggregated emissions inferred by subsequent airborne in-situ validation measurements collected by the Picarro instrument. Comparison of remote sensing and in-situ flux estimates will be presented, demonstrating the ability of airborne remote sensing data to provide accurate emission estimates for concentrations above the

  10. A model-based data analysis of the atmospheric methane above Siberia during YAK-AEROSIB airborne campaign in summer 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arzoumanian, Emmanuel; Paris, Jean-Daniel; Pruvost, Arnaud; Berchet, Antoine; Pison, Isabelle; Arshinov, Mikhail; Belan, Boris

    2014-05-01

    High latitude regions are large sources of CH4 in the atmosphere, both natural from boreal wetlands and wildfires, and anthropogenic from natural gas extraction industry, especially in the Russian Arctic. Our current understanding of the extent and amplitude of the natural sources, as well as the large scale driving factors, remain highly uncertain (Kirschke et al., Nature Geosci., 2013). After a decade of pause, atmospheric methane seems to be increasing again, with a possible significant contribution from the wetlands of the northern high latitudes initiated by an unusual rise of regional temperatures in 2007 (Dlugokencky et al., 2009). This work aims at better understanding high latitude CH4 sources and sinks using atmospheric measurements and transport model. YAK-AEROSIB atmospheric airborne campaigns have been performed in order to provide observational data about the composition of Siberian air. In this work, we focus on the 2012 campaign which has been conducted on July 31st and August 1st. It consisted of five flights, performed in the troposphere from the boundary layer up to 8.5 km, connecting Novosibirsk to Yakutsk and back. This particular campaign was dominated by wildfires in Western and central Siberia. Therefore a chemistry-transport model (CHIMERE), combined with datasets for anthropogenic (EDGAR) emissions and models for wetlands (ORCHIDEE) and wildfire (GFED), has been used to interpret the collected data. From tagged tracers and model observation mismatch we describe results concerning CH4 fluxes in the Siberian territory. This work was funded by CNRS (France), the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, CEA (France), Presidium of RAS (Program No. 4), Brunch of Geology, Geophysics and Mining Sciences of RAS (Program No. 5), Interdisciplinary integration projects of Siberian Branch of RAS (No. 35, No. 70, No. 131), Russian Foundation for Basic Research (grants No 14-05-00526, 14-05-00590). Kirschke, S., P. Bousquet, P. Ciais, M. Saunois, J

  11. Toward the Direct Measurement of Coronal Magnetic Fields: An Airborne Infrared Spectrometer for Eclipse Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samra, J.; DeLuca, E. E.; Golub, L.; Cheimets, P.

    2014-12-01

    The solar magnetic field enables the heating of the corona and provides its underlying structure. Energy stored in coronal magnetic fields is released in flares and coronal mass ejections (CME) and provides the ultimate source of energy for space weather. Therefore, direct measurements of the coronal magnetic field have significant potential to enhance understanding of coronal dynamics and improve solar forecasting models. Of particular interest are observations of coronal field lines in the transitional region between closed and open flux systems, providing important information on the origin of the slow solar wind. While current instruments routinely observe only the photospheric and chromospheric magnetic fields, a proposed airborne spectrometer will take a step toward the direct observation of coronal fields by measuring plasma emission in the infrared at high spatial and spectral resolution. The targeted lines are four forbidden magnetic dipole transitions between 2 and 4 μm. The airborne system will consist of a telescope, grating spectrometer, and pointing/stabilization system to be flown on the NSF/NCAR High-performance Instrumented Airborne Platform for Environmental Research (HIAPER) during the August 2017 total solar eclipse. The project incorporates several optical engineering challenges, centered around maintaining adequate spectral and spatial resolution in a compact and inexpensive package and on a moving platform. Design studies are currently underway to examine the tradeoffs between various optical geometries and control strategies for the pointing/stabilization system. The results will be presented and interpreted in terms of the consequences for the scientific questions. In addition, results from a laboratory prototype and simulations of the final system will be presented.

  12. Preliminary analysis of columnar aerosol properties in relation to surface PM measurements in the DAMOCLES 2006 field campaign (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estelles, V.; Esteve, A.; Pey, J.; Martinez-Lozano, J. A.; Utrillas, M. P.; Querol, X.; de La Rosa, J.; Gonzalez-Castanedo, Y.; Alastuey, A.; Gangoiti, G.

    2009-04-01

    The DAMOCLES network is a Spanish thematic network, started in 2004, whose main objective is the establishment of a link among the different groups that perform research on atmospheric aerosols in Spain. Under the DAMOCLES coordination, a field campaign was held in summer 2006 at the INTA installations (El Arenosillo, Huelva) for the intercomparison of different kind of instruments devoted to in - situ and columnar aerosol measurement. During this field campaign, two daily meteorological soundings were carried out at noon and midnight for characterization of the atmospheric condition. A plane was also flown by the National Institute of Aerospace Technology (INTA) to carry airborne sensors for measuring different atmospheric factors: meteorological parameters, ozone with a 2BTech analyzer, and aerosol particle size distributions in the range (0.01-2) microns, by using a PCASP probe. The columnar aerosol properties were measured by seven CIMEL CE318 sun photometers. For in situ aerosol characterization, high volume collectors (DIGITEL and MCV) with DIGITEL for PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 measurement were used, with two cascade impactors for particulate matter measurement in 7 -8 granulometric fractions. For the PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 measurement, quartz fibre filters of 150 mm diameter were adapted. Other in situ deployed instruments were a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS, Model 3936), two Aerodynamic Particle Sizer (APS Model 3321) and one Grimm Spectrometer (Model #190). For characterization of the aerosol scattering at ground level, three integrating nephelometers TSI-3563 were used. For the columnar profiling we deployed five LIDAR instruments. In this study we have related the columnar aerosol measurements retrieved with one CE318 sun photometer to the surface PM measurements, mainly in some interesting situations where nearby pollution sources were influencing the local atmosphere. For the sun photometric analysis, we have applied the EuroSkyRad package (ESR

  13. Evaluation of Particulate Matter Source Apportionment Forecasts during the MAPS-Seoul Field Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, C.; Kim, S.; Kim, H. C.; Kim, B. U.

    2015-12-01

    We report forecasting model performance analysis results of Comprehensive Air quality Model with extensions (CAMx) simulation evaluated with flight measurements during Megacity Air Pollution Studies-Seoul (MAPS-Seoul) field campaign. The primary focus of this study is two-fold: (1) the air quality forecasting model performance for O3, PM10/2.5 and their precursors over the Yellow Sea to measure the model's ability to account for the transport process and (2) the utilization of modeled source-receptor relationship to understand the root of systematic model under-prediction for PM10 and PM2.5 forecasts. MAPS-Seoul, conducted in the Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA) in the summer of 2015, was an integrated research program covering ground monitoring and aloft measurement with aircrafts. To support this field campaign, air quality forecasting was performed with Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) - Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions (SMOKE) - CAMx modeling framework. WRF model simulations initialized with National Centers for Environmental Prediction Global Forecasting System (NOAA/NCEP-GFS) were prepared for daily meteorological forecasts. Emission inventories used in this study are Model Inter-Comparison Study-Asia (MICS-Asia) 2010 for Asia and Clean Air Policy Support System (CAPSS) 2010 for South Korea. Simulated PM10 concentrations were evaluated with observed PM10 concentrations at ground monitoring sites of the AirKorea network in SMA. During the campaign period, average simulated PM10 concentrations showed significant underprediction, over 30% (~35 ㎍/㎥) lower than those observed at sites. To examine source-receptor relationship as a way to identify the cause of underprediction, we ran CAMx with Particulate matter Source Apportionment Technology (PSAT). The air quality forecasting model is based on the with 27-km horizontal grid resolution over Northeast Asia.

  14. Spatio-Temporal Variability of Atmospheric CO2 as Observed from In-Situ Measurements over North America during NASA Field Campaigns (2004-2008)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Yonghoon; Vay, Stephanie A.; Woo, Jung-Hun; Choi, Kichul; Diskin, Glenn S.; Sachse, G. W.; Vadrevu, Krishna P.; Czech, E.

    2009-01-01

    Regional-scale measurements were made over the eastern United States (Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment - North America (INTEX-NA), summer 2004); Mexico (Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations (MILAGRO), March 2006); the eastern North Pacific and Alaska (INTEX-B May 2006); and the Canadian Arctic (Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS), spring and summer 2008). For these field campaigns, instrumentation for the in situ measurement of CO2 was integrated on the NASA DC-8 research aircraft providing high-resolution (1 second) data traceable to the WMO CO2 mole fraction scale. These observations provide unique and definitive data sets via their intermediate-scale coverage and frequent vertical profiles (0.1 - 12 km) for examining the variability CO2 exhibits above the Earth s surface. A bottom-up anthropogenic CO2 emissions inventory (1deg 1deg) and processing methodology has also been developed for North America in support of these airborne science missions. In this presentation, the spatio-temporal distributions of CO2 and CO column values derived from the campaign measurements will be examined in conjunction with the emissions inventory and transport histories to aid in the interpretation of the CO2 observations.

  15. Temporal multiparameter airborne DLR E-SAR images for crop monitoring: summary of the CLEOPATRA campaign 1992

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmullius, Christiane C.; Nithack, Juergen

    1997-01-01

    From May 11 to July 31, 1992 the Cloud Experiment OberPfaffenhofen And Transports took place as a field experimental contribution to the global energy and water cycle experiment. The DLR Institute of Radio Frequency Technology participated with its experimental SAR system E- SAR. Multitemporal X-, C- and L-band data from 8 dates and three ERS-1 images between May 20 and July 30, 1992 are analyzed in regard to the influence of changing plant backscatter constituents and to investigate the impact of increasing ground cover in the different wavelength on soil moisture mapping. Backscatter curves of four crops are shown, which indicate the possibility for crop monitoring and preferred times for crop classification. Detection of soil moisture changes is only possible with L-band and only under grain crops. Maximum likelihood and isocluster classifications were applied on several single- and multifrequency, mono- and multitemporal channel combinations. The overall classification accuracies were higher than with supervised methods. Maximum likelihood classification allowed identification of ten crop types with accuracies of up to 84 percent, when a temporal multifrequency data set was used.

  16. X-band radar field campaign data analysis for orographic/warm-rain precipitation processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porcacchia, Leonardo; Kirstetter, Pierre-Emmanuel; Gourley, Jonathan J.; Anagnostou, Marios N.; Anagnostou, Emmanouil N.; Bousquet, Olivier; Cheong, Boon-Leng; Maggioni, Viviana; Hong, Yang

    2016-04-01

    Accurate quantitative precipitation estimation over mountainous basins is of great importance because of their susceptibility to hazards such as flash floods, shallow landslides, and debris flows. It is usually hard to obtain reliable weather radar information in mountainous areas, due to difficulties connected to non-meteorological scattering and the elevation of the study sites. Such regions are particularly interested by orographic/warm-rain precipitation processes, characterized by no ice phase in the cloud and prevailing concentration of small drops in the drop size distribution. Field campaigns are able to provide complete and solid datasets in mountainous regions, thanks to mobile radars and the complementary information provided by rain gauges and disdrometers. This study analyzes datasets collected during the Hymex, IPHEX, and Colorado field campaigns in mountainous areas in Italy, France, North Carolina, and Colorado. Mobile X-band radars from the NOAA National Severe Storm Laboratory and the Advanced Radar Research Center at the University of Oklahoma are utilized. The X-band dual polarimetric radar data are corrected for attenuation through the SCOP algorithm, and evaluated against disdrometer and rain-gauge data. Warm-rain events are identified by looking at the Gorgucci, Cao-Zhang, and Kumjian-Ryzhkov parameter spaces relating polarimetric radar variables to precipitation development processes in the cloud and rain size distributions. A conceptual model for the vertical profile of precipitation and microphysical structure of the cloud is also derived, to be contrasted against other typical convective and stratiform profiles.

  17. EuroGeoMars Field Campaign: habitability studies in preparation for future Mars missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Foing, B. H.; Stoker, C.; Zhavaleta, J.; Orzechowska, G.; Kotler, M.; Martins, Z.; Sephton, M.; Becker, L.; Quinn, R.; van Sluis, C.; Boche-Sauvan, L.; Gross, C.; Thiel, C.; Wendt, L.; Sarrazin, P.; Mahapatra, P.; Direito, S.; Roling, W.

    The goal of the EuroGeoMars field campaign sponsored by ESA, NASA and the international lunar exploration working group (ILEWG) was to demonstrate instrument capabilities in sup-port of current and future planetary missions, to validate a procedure for Martian surface in-situ and return science, and to study human performance aspects. The Mars Desert Re-search Station (MDRS) represents an ideal basis to simulate aspects of robotic and human exploration in support of future missions to planetary bodies. During the campaign, MDRS Crew 77 tested X-ray diffraction and Raman instruments, and assessed habitat and operations. Special emphasis was given to sample collection in the geologically rich vicinity of MDRS and subsequent analysis of organic molecules in the soil to simulate the search for bio-signatures with field instrumentation. We describe the results of in-situ and posterior analysis of the physical and chemical properties including elemental composition, salt concentrations as well as carbon and amino acid abundances. The analyses of organics and minerals show that the subsurface mineral matrix represents a key to our understanding of the survival of organics on Mars.

  18. The Real Time Mission Monitor: A Platform for Real Time Environmental Data Integration and Display during NASA Field Campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, M.; Hardin, D. M.; Goodman, M.; Blakeslee, R.

    2008-05-01

    The Real Time Mission Monitor (RTMM) is an interactive visualization application based on Google Earth, that provides situational awareness and field asset management during NASA field campaigns. The RTMM can integrate data and imagery from numerous sources including GOES-12, GOES-10, and TRMM satellites. Simultaneously, it can display data and imagery from surface observations including Nexrad, NPOL and SMART- R radars. In addition to all these it can display output from models and real-time flight tracks of all aircraft involved in the experiment. In some instances the RTMM can also display measurements from scientific instruments as they are being flown. All data are recorded and archived in an on-line system enabling playback and review of all sorties. This is invaluable in preparing for future deployments and in exercising case studies. The RTMM facilitates pre-flight planning, in-flight monitoring, development of adaptive flight strategies and post- flight data analyses and assessments. Since the RTMM is available via the internet - during the actual experiment - project managers, scientists and mission planners can collaborate no matter where they are located as long as they have a viable internet connection. In addition, the system is open so that the general public can also view the experiment, in-progress, with Google Earth. Predecessors of RTMM were originally deployed in 2002 as part of the Altus Cumulus Electrification Study (ACES) to monitor uninhabited aerial vehicles near thunderstorms. In 2005 an interactive Java-based web prototype supported the airborne Lightning Instrument Package (LIP) during the Tropical Cloud Systems and Processes (TCSP) experiment. In 2006 the technology was adapted to the 3D Google Earth virtual globe and in 2007 its capabilities were extended to support multiple NASA aircraft (ER-2, WB-57, DC-8) during Tropical Composition, Clouds and Climate Coupling (TC4) experiment and 2007 Summer Aerosonde field study. In April 2008

  19. An overview of the flight campaign for the GAUGE project: airborne greenhouse gas (and other complementary trace gas) measurements around and over the UK between April 2014 and May 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Grant; Pitt, Joseph; Le Breton, Michael; Percival, Carl; Bannan, Thomas; O'Doherty, Simon; Manning, Alistair; Rigby, Matt; Gannesan, Anita; Mead, Mohammed; Bauguitte, Stephane; Lee, James; Wenger, Angelina; Palmer, Paul

    2016-04-01

    This work highlights data measured during flights by the UK Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurement (FAAM) as part of the Greenhouse gAs UK and Global Emissions (GAUGE) campaign. A total of 17 flights (85 flight-hours) have been conducted so far around the UK mainland and Ireland to sample precision in situ CH4, CO2, N2O (and other trace gas) concentrations and meteorological parameters at altitudes up to 9500m throughout the period April 2014 to May 2015. Airborne remote sensing retrievals of greenhouse gas total columns have also been calculated using the Manchester Airborne Retrieval Scheme for the UK Met Office ARIES high resolution FTIR instrument. This airborne dataset represents a mapped climatology and a series of case studies from which to assess top-down bulk-net-flux snapshots for regions of the UK, and provides for evaluation of inverse modelling approaches that challenge bottom-up inventories, satellite remote sensing measurements, and assessment of model transport uncertainty. In this paper, we shall describe the instrumentation on the FAAM aircraft and provide a diary of GAUGE FAAM flights (and data highlights) to date; and discuss selected flights of interest to studies such as those above with a focus of net mass flux evaluation.

  20. Characteristics of aerosol at a lower atmospheric layer in DRAGON field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    KUJI, M.; Azuma, Y.; Kitakoga, S.; Sano, I.; Holben, B. N.

    2013-12-01

    Air pollution arises severely over East Asia with the rapid economic development nowadays. Monitoring the atmospheric environment, as one of the purposes, an intensive field campaign, Distributed Regional Aerosol Gridded Observation Networks (DRAGON), was carried out in the spring of year 2012, led by National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). At that time, atmospheric phenomena such as Yellow sand and haze events were observed at Nara in the western part of Japan, as one of the DRAGON observation sites. The atmospheric events were characterized with the AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) data. As a result of the data analysis, it was found that more light-absorbing and smaller particles dominated at the lower than upper atmospheric layer for the Kosa event in particular. A backward trajectory analysis suggested that the Yellow sand event traveled over the East Asian industrial cities, which could lead to a mixture of sand and air pollutants with moderate particle size and light-absorptivity. In addition, visibility observation was evaluated quantitatively with AERONET data in the DRAGON campaign since eye observation was inherently semi-quantitative. The extinction coefficient estimated from visibility was compared to that from AERONET. As a result, it was found that the extinction coefficients were generally consistent to each other. But there were some discrepancies, which could be caused with the atmospheric phenomena or aerosol types. It is confirmed that visibility is strongly influenced with aerosols in the case of severe atmospheric phenomena in particular.

  1. Communicating atmospheric science and research to diverse audiences using a field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, K. C.

    2010-12-01

    There are growing concerns among the nation’s leading science organizations about the American public’s lack of scientific literacy, participation in science, and understanding of the value of scientific research. Coupled with these concerns is the need to improve the communication of science and research to our diverse populations, and to include them in the scientific process. As these concerns extend to atmospheric processes, the effects could be magnified: the atmosphere dynamically changes from calm weather conditions to extreme high impact events that significantly affect community services and decision-making processes. However, efforts are under way to address these concerns by bridging the gap between science and community service. In recent years, research field campaigns have emerged as effective tools for communicating science and engaging science participation. They help to facilitate the understanding of atmospheric processes by the public, and their collected data sets are potentially useful for formal and informal science education and communication. Through funding from the National Science Foundation, campaigns such as T-PARC are being used to develop instructional materials to improve the public’s scientific knowledge, foster science literacy and participation, and to prepare the next generation of scientists from diverse backgrounds. In the present study, instructional materials have been presented in a variety of media with the goal of including these diverse audiences in the scientific conversation.

  2. Atmospheric polarimetric effects on GNSS radio occultations: the ROHP-PAZ field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padullés, R.; Cardellach, E.; de la Torre Juárez, M.; Tomás, S.; Turk, F. J.; Oliveras, S.; Ao, C. O.; Rius, A.

    2016-01-01

    This study describes the first experimental observations showing that hydrometeors induce polarimetric signatures in global navigation satellite system (GNSS) signals. This evidence is relevant to the PAZ low Earth orbiter, which will test the concept and applications of polarimetric GNSS radio occultation (RO) (i.e. ROs obtained with a dual-polarization antenna). A ground field campaign was carried out in preparation for PAZ to verify the theoretical sensitivity studies on this concept (Cardellach et al., 2015). The main aim of the campaign is to identify and understand the factors that might affect the polarimetric GNSS observables. Studied for the first time, GNSS signals measured with two polarimetric antennas (H, horizontal, and V, vertical) are shown to discriminate between heavy rain events by comparing the measured phase difference between the H and V phase delays (ΔΦ) in different weather scenarios. The measured phase difference indicates higher dispersion under rain conditions. When individual events are examined, significant increases in ΔΦ occur when the radio signals cross rain cells. Moreover, the amplitude of such a signal is much higher than the theoretical prediction for precipitation; thus, other sources of polarimetric signatures have been explored and identified. Modelling of other hydrometeors, such as melting particles and ice crystals, have been proposed to explain the obtained measurements, with good agreement in more than 90 % of the cases.

  3. Atmospheric polarimetric effects on GNSS Radio Occultations: the ROHP-PAZ field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padullés, R.; Cardellach, E.; de la Torre Juárez, M.; Tomás, S.; Turk, F. J.; Oliveras, S.; Ao, C. O.; Rius, A.

    2015-07-01

    This study describes the first experimental observations showing that hydrometeors induce polarimetric signatures in Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signals. This evidence is relevant to the PAZ Low Earth Orbiter, which will test the concept and applications of polarimetric GNSS Radio Occultation (RO) (i.e. ROs obtained with a two-polarization antenna). A ground field campaign was carried out in preparation for PAZ to verify the theoretical sensitivity studies about this concept (Cardellach et al., 2015). The main aim of the campaign is to identify and understand the factors that might affect the polarimetric GNSS observables. Studied for the first time, GNSS signals measured with two polarimetric antennas (H, horizontal and V, vertical) are shown to discriminate heavy rain events, by comparing the measured phase difference between the H and V phase delays (Δ Φ) in different weather scenarios. The measured phase difference indicates higher dispersion under rain conditions. When individual events are examined, significant increases of Δ Φ occur when the radio signals cross rain cells. Moreover, the amplitude of such signal is much higher than the theoretical prediction for precipitation; thus other sources of polarimetric signatures have been explored and identified. Modelling of other hydrometeors like melting particles and ice crystals have been proposed to explain the obtained measurements, with good agreement in more than 90 % of the cases.

  4. Improved Instrumentation for the Detection of Atmospheric CO2 Concentration using an Airborne IPDA LIDAR for 2014 NASA ASCENDS Science Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allan, G. R.; Riris, H.; Hasselbrack, W. E.; Rodriguez, M.; Ramanathan, A. K.; Sun, X.; Mao, J.; Abshire, J. B.

    2014-12-01

    NASA-GSFC is developing a twin-channel, Integrated-Path, Differential Absorption (IPDA) lidar to measure atmospheric CO2 from space as a candidate for NASA's ASCENDS mission (Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons). This lidar consists of two independent, tuned, pulsed transmitters on the same optical bench using a common 8" receiver telescope. The system measures CO2 abundance and O2 surface pressure in the same column to derive the dry volume mixing ratio (vmr). The system is being tested on an airborne platform up to altitudes of 13 Km. The lidar uses a cw scanning laser, externally pulsed and a fiber amplifier in a Master Oscillator Power Amplifier (MOPA) configuration to measure lineshape, range to scattering surfaces and backscatter profiles. The CO2 operates at 1572.335 nm. The O2 channel uses similar technology but frequency doubles to the O2 A-band absorption, around 765nm. Both lasers are scanned across the absorption feature measuring at a fixed number of discrete (~30) wavelengths per scan around ~300 scans/s. Each output pulse is slightly chirped <12MHz as the laser is tuning. Removing this chirp will improve our ability to infer vertical CO2 distribution from a more accurately measured line shape. A Step Tuned Frequency Locked (STFL) DBR diode laser system has been integrated into the CO2 lidar. Tuning and locking takes a ~30μs and the laser is locked to < ±100KHz. We have the ability to position these pulses anywhere on the absorption line other than within a few MHz of line center. While the telescope and fiber coupling scheme remains unchanged the detectors have been upgraded. The O2 system now uses eight SPCMs in parallel to improve count rates and increase dynamic range. Especially useful when flying over bright surfaces. This will improve our ability to measure the O2 pressure at cloud tops and aid in the determining the vmr above clouds. An HgCdTe e-APD detector with a quantum efficient of >80%, linear over five

  5. Contribution of the source velocity to the scattering of electromagnetic fields caused by airborne magnetic dipoles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emanoel Starteri Sampaio, Edson

    2014-08-01

    The velocity of controlled airborne sources of electromagnetic geophysical surveys plays an additional role in the scattering of the fields by the earth. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate its contribution in the space and time variation of secondary electromagnetic fields. The model of a vertical magnetic dipole moving at a constant speed along a horizontal line in the air and above a homogeneous conductive half-space constitutes a first approach to stress the kinematic aspect and determine the difference between the fields due to an airborne and a static source. The magnetic moment of the source is equal to 104 A m2, its height is 120 m, and the horizontal and vertical separations between it and the receiver are, respectively, equal to 100 and 50 m: these values of the model are typical of towed-bird airborne TDEM surveys. We employed four values for the common velocities of source and receiver (0, 60, 80, and 100 m s-1), four values of the conductivity of the half-space (0.5, 0.1, 0.05, and 0.01 S m-1), and two causal source currents (box with periods of 80 and 10 ms and periodic with frequency values of 12.5 and 100 Hz). The results demonstrate that the relative velocity between source and medium yields a measurable variation compared to the static condition. Therefore, it must be taken into consideration by compensating the discrepancy in measured data employing the respective theoretical result. The results also show that it is necessary to adjust the concepts of time and frequency domain for electromagnetic measurements with traveling sources.

  6. Gravity field of the Western Weddell Sea: Comparison of airborne gravity and Geosat derived gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, R. E.; Brozena, J. M.; Haxby, W. F.; Labrecque, J. L.

    1989-01-01

    Marine gravity surveying in polar regions was typically difficult and costly, requiring expensive long range research vessels and ice-breakers. Satellite altimetry can recover the gravity field in these regions where it is feasible to survey with a surface vessel. Unfortunately, the data collected by the first global altimetry mission, Seasat, was collected only during the austral winter, producing a very poor quality gravitational filed for the southern oceans, particularly in the circum-Antarctic regions. The advent of high quality airborne gravity (Brozena, 1984; Brozena and Peters, 1988; Bell, 1988) and the availability of satellite altimetry data during the austral summer (Sandwell and McAdoo, 1988) has allowed the recovery of a free air gravity field for most of the Weddell Sea. The derivation of the gravity field from both aircraft and satellite measurements are briefly reviewed, before presenting along track comparisons and shaded relief maps of the Weddell Sea gravity field based on these two data sets.

  7. Understanding the different lightning detection technologies: A contribution from CHUVA-GLM field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, C.; Albrecht, R. I.; Goodman, S.; Hoeller, H.; Bailey, J.; Blakeslee, R.; Rudlosky, S.; Hall, J.; Anselmo, E. M.; Neves, J. R.; Lacerda, M.

    2012-04-01

    CHUVA is a Brazilian research program that is characterizing the main precipitating systems observed in Brazil as a support for Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission. CHUVA conducts a series of field campaigns in the time frame of 2010-2013 that sample raining systems from maritime to continental regime in polluted and clean environments. From November of 2011 through March of 2012, CHUVA is hosting a field program at Vale do Paraiba, southeast of Brazil, where NOAA and EUMETSAT deployed 12 LMA and 7 LINET antennas respectively to gather lightning measurements to support the development of algorithms that will be employed by GOES-R and Third Generation Meteosat satellites. Due to this opportunity, other lightning detection systems have been invited to participate in this campaign. As a result, for the first time it will be possible to gather coincident measurements from 10 different lightning detection technologies, i.e., a) VHF: LMA and TLS200 Vaisala; b) VLF: WWLLN, STARNET, Vaisala GLD360, WSI and ATDNet; c) VLF/LF: RINDAT, LINET; c) ELF/VLF/LF/VHF: Weather Bug. As each system uses different frequencies, detection (sky/ground waves or line of sight, electrical and magnetic fields) and methodology for location (TOA, ATD and interferometry) it is expect that each system observes different parts of the lightning flash. Thus taking the opportunity that LMA measures most of the lightning sources associated to all atmospheric discharges, this study will concentrate on describing what each technology measures/detects in respect to LMA source over selected thunderstorms.

  8. Analysis of Doppler Lidar Data Acquired During the Pentagon Shield Field Campaign

    SciTech Connect

    Newsom, Rob K.

    2011-04-14

    Observations from two coherent Doppler lidars deployed during the Pentagon Shield field campaign are analyzed in conjunction with other sensors to characterize the overall boundary-layer structure, and identify the dominant flow characteristics during the entire two-week field campaign. Convective boundary layer (CBL) heights and cloud base heights (CBH) are estimated from an analysis of the lidar signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR), and mean wind profiles are computed using a modified velocity-azimuth-display (VAD) algorithm. Three-dimensional wind field retrievals are computed from coordinated overlapping volume scans, and the results are analyzed by visualizing the flow in horizontal and vertical cross sections. The VAD winds show that southerly flows dominate during the two-week field campaign. Low-level jets (LLJ) were evident on all but two of the nights during the field campaign. The LLJs tended to form a couple hours after sunset and reach maximum strength between 03 and 07 UTC. The surface friction velocities show distinct local maxima during four nights when strong LLJs formed. Estimates of the convective boundary layer height and residual layer height are obtained through an analysis of the vertical gradient of the lidar signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR). Strong minimum in the SNR gradient often develops just above the surface after sunrise. This minimum is associated with the developing CBL, and increases rapidly during the early portion of the daytime period. On several days, this minimum continues to increase until about sunset. Secondary minima in the SNR gradient were also observed at higher altitudes, and are believed to be remnants of the CBL height from previous days, i.e. the residual layer height. The dual-Doppler analysis technique used in this study makes use of hourly averaged radial velocity data to produce three-dimensional grids of the horizontal velocity components, and the horizontal velocity variance. Visualization of horizontal and vertical cross

  9. Desert Research and Technology Studies (RATS) 2007 Field Campaign Objectives and Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosmo, Joseph; Romig, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    Desert "RATS" (Research and Technology Studies) is a combined, multi-discipline group of inter-NASA center scientists and engineers, net-working and collaborating with representatives of industry and academia, for the purpose of conducting planetary surface exploration-focused remote field exercises. These integrated testing exercises conducted under representative analog Lunar and Mars surface terrain conditions, provide NASA the capability to validate experimental prototype hardware and software systems as well as to evaluate and develop mission operational techniques in order to identify and establish technical requirements and identify potential technology "gaps" applicable for future planetary human exploration. The 2007 D-RATS field campaign test activities were initiated based on the major themes and objectives of a notional 5-year plan developed for conducting relative analog test activities in support of the engineering evaluation and assessment of various system architectural requirements, conceptual prototype support equipment and selected technologies necessary for the establishment of a lunar outpost. Specifically, the major objectives included measuring task efficiency during robot, human, and human-robot interactive tasks associated with lunar outpost site surveying and reconnaissance activities and deployment of a representative solar panel power and distribution system. In addition, technology demonstrations were conducted with a new Lithium-ion battery and autonomous software to coordinate multiple robot activities. Secondary objectives were evaluating airlock concept mockups and prototype removable space suit over-garment elements for dust mitigation, and upgrades to the prototype extravehicular activities (EVA) communication and information system. Dry run test activities, prior to testing at a designated remote field site location, were initially conducted at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) Remote Field Demonstration Test Site. This is a multi

  10. Effective data management for the DISCOVER-AQ airborne field study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, G.; Ramapriyan, H. K.; Crawford, J. H.; Kleb, M. M.; Rinsland, P.; Kusterer, J.; Sorlie, S.; Perez, J.; Walter, J.

    2011-12-01

    DISCOVER-AQ (Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality) is an airborne study aimed at improving the interpretation of satellite observations to diagnose near-surface conditions relating to air quality. This project will increase fundamental understanding satellite trace gas and aerosol observations and enable the application of satellite data for societal benefit, which is highly relevant to NASA's goals to study the Earth from space. Because of the nature of the project, DISCOVER-AQ is an investigation that involves a wide range of observational assets, including airborne and ground based in-situ and remote sensing observations. It is a broad collaborative study with participants from NASA centers, universities, and research partners from agencies at federal, state and local levels. Therefore, successfully achieving the DISCOVER-AQ science objectives requires a comprehensive and cohesive data management plan to facilitate the sharing and broad use of data to enable research and comply with NASA data policies. This plan governs the science data generation, data exchange between the DISCOVER-AQ science team and its partners, and data transfer to the NASA Langley Research Center's Atmospheric Science Data Center (LaRC ASDC). The DISCOVER-AQ Data Management Plan (DMP) has been developed through a broad collaboration among the DISCOVER-AQ project, NASA LaRC ASDC staff, and NASA Earth Science Data and Information System (ESDIS) Project. This DMP incorporates procedures that have evolved over more than 20 years of airborne field studies under NASA's Tropospheric Chemistry Program and draws upon experience from collaborations with NOAA, NSF, university, and international partners as well as NASA's experience in managing Earth science data from its various remote sensing missions. To be presented are highlights of the DISCOVER-AQ data management plan, including a brief description of the airborne

  11. Airborne observations of electric fields around growing and decaying cumulus clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giori, K. L.; Nanevicz, J. E.

    1991-01-01

    Airborne electric field data were gathered in an atmospheric electrification study near Cape Canaveral, FL. A Learjet 36A was instrumented with eight electric field meters (mills) and five different particle probes. The local electric field enhancements at each field mill site were determined under lab conditions and verified using in-flight data. The overdetermined system of eight equations (one for each field mill) was solved using a weighted least squares algorithm to compute the magnitude and direction of the ambient electric field. The signal processing system allowed the measured data to be expressed in terms of earth coordinates, regardless of the attitude of the aircraft. Thus, it was possible to take maximum advantage of the Learjet's speed and maneuverability in studying the electric field structure in the vicinity of the clouds. Data gathered while circling just outside the boundary of a growing cumulus cloud show a nonsymmetric pattern of electric field strength. Field intensity grew rapidly over a period of less than 10 minutes. The observed direction of the ambient electric field vector can be explained by an ascending motion of the charge centers of a classic tripole model of a thunderstorm.

  12. Evaluation of GEOS-5 sulfur dioxide simulations during the Frostburg, MD 2010 field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchard, V.; da Silva, A. M.; Colarco, P.; Krotkov, N.; Dickerson, R. R.; Stehr, J. W.; Mount, G.; Spinei, E.; Arkinson, H. L.; He, H.

    2013-08-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is a major atmospheric pollutant with a strong anthropogenic component mostly produced by the combustion of fossil fuel and other industrial activities. As a precursor of sulfate aerosols that affect climate, air quality, and human health, this gas needs to be monitored on a global scale. Global climate and chemistry models including aerosol processes along with their radiative effects are important tools for climate and air quality research. Validation of these models against in-situ and satellite measurements is essential to ascertain the credibility of these models and to guide model improvements. In this study the Goddard Chemistry, Aerosol, Radiation, and Transport (GOCART) module running on-line inside the Goddard Earth Observing System version 5 (GEOS-5) model is used to simulate aerosol and SO2 concentrations. Data taken in November 2010 over Frostburg, Maryland during an SO2 field campaign involving ground instrumentation and aircraft are used to evaluate GEOS-5 simulated SO2 concentrations. Preliminary data analysis indicated the model overestimated surface SO2 concentration, which motivated the examination of mixing processes in the model and the specification of SO2 anthropogenic emission rates. As a result of this analysis, a revision of anthropogenic emission inventories in GEOS-5 was implemented, and the vertical placement of SO2 sources was updated. Results show that these revisions improve the model agreement with observations locally and in regions outside the area of this field campaign. In particular, we use the ground-based measurements collected by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) for the year 2010 to evaluate the revised model simulations over North America.

  13. Evaluation of GEOS-5 sulfur dioxide simulations during the Frostburg, MD 2010 field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchard, V.; da Silva, A. M.; Colarco, P.; Krotkov, N.; Dickerson, R. R.; Stehr, J. W.; Mount, G.; Spinei, E.; Arkinson, H. L.; He, H.

    2014-02-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is a major atmospheric pollutant with a strong anthropogenic component mostly produced by the combustion of fossil fuel and other industrial activities. As a precursor of sulfate aerosols that affect climate, air quality, and human health, this gas needs to be monitored on a global scale. Global climate and chemistry models including aerosol processes along with their radiative effects are important tools for climate and air quality research. Validation of these models against in-situ and satellite measurements is essential to ascertain the credibility of these models and to guide model improvements. In this study, the Goddard Chemistry, Aerosol, Radiation, and Transport (GOCART) module running on-line inside the Goddard Earth Observing System version 5 (GEOS-5) model is used to simulate aerosol and SO2 concentrations. Data taken in November 2010 over Frostburg, Maryland during an SO2 field campaign involving ground instrumentation and aircraft are used to evaluate GEOS-5 simulated SO2 concentrations. Preliminary data analysis indicated the model overestimated surface SO2 concentration, which motivated the examination of the specification of SO2 anthropogenic emission rates. As a result of this analysis, a revision of anthropogenic emission inventories in GEOS-5 was implemented, and the vertical placement of SO2 sources was updated. Results show that these revisions improve the model agreement with observations locally and in regions outside the area of this field campaign. In particular, we use the ground-based measurements collected by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) for the year 2010 to evaluate the revised model simulations over North America.

  14. Evaluation of GEOS-5 Sulfur Dioxide Simulations During the Frostburg, MD 2010 Field Campaign.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchard, V.; Da Silva, A. M.; Colarco, P.; Krotkov, N.; Dickerson, R. R.; Stehr, J. W.; Mount, G.; Spenei, E.; Arkinson, H. L.; He, H.

    2013-01-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is a major atmospheric pollutant with a strong anthropogenic component mostly produced by the combustion of fossil fuel and other industrial activities. As a precursor of sulfate aerosols that affect climate, air quality, and human health, this gas needs to be monitored on a global scale. Global climate and chemistry models including aerosol processes along with their radiative effects are important tools for climate and air quality research. Validation of these models against in-situ and satellite measurements is essential to ascertain the credibility of these models and to guide model improvements. In this study the Goddard Chemistry, Aerosol, Radiation, and Transport (GOCART) module running on-line inside the Goddard Earth Observing System version 5 (GEOS-5) model is used to simulate aerosol and SO2 concentrations. Data taken in November 2010 over Frostburg, Maryland during an SO2 field campaign involving ground instrumentation and aircraft are used to evaluate GEOS-5 simulated SO2 concentrations. Preliminary data analysis indicated the model overestimated surface SO2 concentration, which motivated the examination of mixing processes in the model and the specification of SO2 anthropogenic emission rates. As a result of this analysis, a revision of anthropogenic emission inventories in GEOS-5 was implemented, and the vertical placement of SO2 sources was updated. Results show that these revisions improve the model agreement with observations locally and in regions outside the area of this field campaign. In particular, we use the ground-based measurements collected by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) for the year 2010 to evaluate the revised model simulations over North America.

  15. NEW CONSTRAINTS ON COSMIC REIONIZATION FROM THE 2012 HUBBLE ULTRA DEEP FIELD CAMPAIGN

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, Brant E.; Schneider, Evan; Stark, Daniel P.; Furlanetto, Steven R.; Charlot, Stephane; Ellis, Richard S.; Schenker, Matthew A.; McLure, Ross J.; Dunlop, James S.; Curtis-Lake, Emma; Rogers, Alexander B.; Bowler, Rebecca A. A.; Cirasuolo, Michele; Koekemoer, Anton; Ouchi, Masami; Ono, Yoshiaki

    2013-05-01

    Understanding cosmic reionization requires the identification and characterization of early sources of hydrogen-ionizing photons. The 2012 Hubble Ultra Deep Field (UDF12) campaign has acquired the deepest infrared images with the Wide Field Camera 3 aboard Hubble Space Telescope and, for the first time, systematically explored the galaxy population deep into the era when cosmic microwave background (CMB) data indicate reionization was underway. The UDF12 campaign thus provides the best constraints to date on the abundance, luminosity distribution, and spectral properties of early star-forming galaxies. We synthesize the new UDF12 results with the most recent constraints from CMB observations to infer redshift-dependent ultraviolet (UV) luminosity densities, reionization histories, and electron scattering optical depth evolution consistent with the available data. Under reasonable assumptions about the escape fraction of hydrogen-ionizing photons and the intergalactic medium clumping factor, we find that to fully reionize the universe by redshift z {approx} 6 the population of star-forming galaxies at redshifts z {approx} 7-9 likely must extend in luminosity below the UDF12 limits to absolute UV magnitudes of M{sub UV} {approx} -13 or fainter. Moreover, low levels of star formation extending to redshifts z {approx} 15-25, as suggested by the normal UV colors of z {approx_equal} 7-8 galaxies and the smooth decline in abundance with redshift observed by UDF12 to z {approx_equal} 10, are additionally likely required to reproduce the optical depth to electron scattering inferred from CMB observations.

  16. Basin-Scale Wind Transport during the MILAGRO Field Campaign and Comparison to Climatology Using Cluster Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    de Foy, B.; Fast, Jerome D.; Paech, S. J.; Phillips, D.; Walters, J. T.; Coulter, Richard L.; Martin, Tim J.; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Shaw, William J.; Kastendeuch, P. P.; Marley, Nancy A.; Retama, A.; Molina, Luisa T.

    2008-03-03

    The MILAGRO field campaign was a multi-agency international collaborative project to evaluate the regional impacts of the Mexico City air pollution plume as a means of understanding urban impacts on the global climate. Mexico City lies on an elevated plateau with mountains on three sides and has complex mountain and surface-driven wind flows. This paper asks what the wind transport was in the basin during the field campaign and how representative it was of the climatology. Surface meteorology and air quality data, radiosoundings and radar wind profiler data were collected at sites in the basin and its vicinity. Cluster analysis is used to identify the dominant wind patterns both during the campaign and within the past 10 years of operational data from the warm dry season. Our analysis shows that March 2006 was representative of typical flow patterns experienced in the basin. Six episode types were identified for the basin scale circulation providing a way of interpreting atmospheric chemistry and particulate data collected during the campaign. Decoupling between surface winds and those aloft had a strong influence in leading to convection and poor air quality episodes. Hourly characterisation of wind circulation during the MILAGRO, MCMA-2003 and IMADA field campaigns will enable the comparisons of similar air pollution episodes and the evaluation of the impact of wind transport on measurements of the atmospheric chemistry taking place in the basin.

  17. Cryosphere campaigns in support of ESA's Earth Explorers Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casal, Tânia; Davidson, Malcolm; Plank, Gernot; Floberghagen, Rune; Parrinello, Tommaso; Mecklenburg, Susanne; Drusch, Matthias; Fernandez, Diego

    2014-05-01

    In the framework of its Earth Observation Programmes the European Space Agency (ESA) carries out ground based and airborne campaigns to support geophysical algorithm development, calibration/validation, simulation of future spaceborne Earth observation missions, and applications development related to land, oceans, atmosphere and solid Earth. ESA has conducted over 110 airborne and ground measurements campaigns since 1981 and this presentation will describe three campaigns in Antarctica and the Arctic. They were undertaken during the calibration/validation phase of Earth Explorer (EE) missions, such as SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity), GOCE (Gravity field and steady-state Ocean Circulation Explorer) and CryoSat-2. In support of SMOS and GOCE, the DOMECair airborne campaign took place in Antarctica, in the Dome C region in the middle of January 2013. The two main objectives were a) to quantify and document the spatial variability in the DOME C area (SMOS) and b) to fill a gap in the high-quality gravity anomaly maps in Antarctica where airborne gravity measurements are sparse (GOCE). Results from the campaign for the SMOS component, showed that the DOME C area is not as spatially homogenous as previously assumed, therefore comparisons of different missions (e.g. SMOS and NASA's Aquarius) with different footprints must be done with care, highlighting once again the importance of field work to test given assumptions. One extremely surprising outcome of this campaign was the pattern similarity between the gravity measurements and brightness temperature fields. To date, there has never been an indication that L-Band brightness temperatures could be correlated to gravity, but preliminary analysis showed coincident high brightness temperature with high gravity values, suggesting that topography may influence microwave emissions. Also in support of SMOS, the SMOSice airborne campaign has been planned in the Arctic. It was motived by a previous ESA SMOSice study that

  18. Harvesting tree biomass at the stand level to assess the accuracy of field and airborne biomass estimation in savannas.

    PubMed

    Colgan, Matthew S; Asner, Gregory P; Swemmer, Tony

    2013-07-01

    Tree biomass is an integrated measure of net growth and is critical for understanding, monitoring, and modeling ecosystem functions. Despite the importance of accurately measuring tree biomass, several fundamental barriers preclude direct measurement at large spatial scales, including the facts that trees must be felled to be weighed and that even modestly sized trees are challenging to maneuver once felled. Allometric methods allow for estimation of tree mass using structural characteristics, such as trunk diameter. Savanna trees present additional challenges, including limited available allometry and a prevalence of multiple stems per individual. Here we collected airborne lidar data over a semiarid savanna adjacent to the Kruger National Park, South Africa, and then harvested and weighed woody plant biomass at the plot scale to provide a standard against which field and airborne estimation methods could be compared. For an existing airborne lidar method, we found that half of the total error was due to averaging canopy height at the plot scale. This error was eliminated by instead measuring maximum height and crown area of individual trees from lidar data using an object-based method to identify individual tree crowns and estimate their biomass. The best object-based model approached the accuracy of field allometry at both the tree and plot levels, and it more than doubled the accuracy compared to existing airborne methods (17% vs. 44% deviation from harvested biomass). Allometric error accounted for less than one-third of the total residual error in airborne biomass estimates at the plot scale when using allometry with low bias. Airborne methods also gave more accurate predictions at the plot level than did field methods based on diameter-only allometry. These results provide a novel comparison of field and airborne biomass estimates using harvested plots and advance the role of lidar remote sensing in savanna ecosystems. PMID:23967584

  19. Airborne passive remote sensing of large-scale methane emissions from oil fields in California's San Joaquin Valley and validation by airborne in-situ measurements - Initial results from COMEX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerilowski, Konstantin; Krautwurst, Sven; Kolyer, Richard W.; Thompson, David R.; Jonsson, Haflidi; Krings, Thomas; Horstjann, Markus; Leifer, Ira; Eastwood, Michael; Green, Robert O.; Vigil, Sam; Schüttemeyer, Dirk; Fladeland, Matthew; Burrows, John P.; Bovensmann, Heinrich

    2015-04-01

    On several flights performed over the Kern River, Kern Front, and Poso Creek Oil Fields in California between June 3 and September 4, 2014, in the framework of the CO2 and MEthane Experiment (COMEX) - a NASA and ESA funded campaign in support of the HyspIRI and CarbonSat mission definition activities - the Methane Airborne MAPper (MAMAP) remote sensing instrument (operated by the University of Bremen in cooperation with the German Research Centre for Geosciences - GFZ) detected large-scale, high-concentration, methane plumes. MAMAP was installed for the flights aboard the Center for Interdisciplinary Remotely-Piloted Aircraft Studies (CIRPAS) Twin Otter aircraft, together with a Picarro fast in-situ greenhouse gas (GHG) analyzer (operated by the NASA Ames Research Center, ARC), a 5-hole turbulence probe and an atmospheric measurement package (operated by CIRPAS), measuring aerosols, temperature, dew-point, and other atmospheric parameters. Some of the flights were accompanied by the next generation of the Airborne Visible InfraRed Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS-NG), operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), California Institute of Technology, installed aboard a second Twin Otter aircraft (operated by Twin Otter International). Data collected with the in-situ GHG analyzer were used for validation of the MAMAP and AVIRIS-NG remotely sensed data. The in-situ measurements were acquired in vertical cross sections of the discovered plumes at fixed distances downwind of the sources. Emission rates are estimated from both the remote and in-situ data using wind information from the turbulence probe together with ground-based wind data from the nearby airport. Remote sensing and in-situ data as well as initial flux estimates for selected flights will be presented.

  20. Source Identification Of Airborne Antimony On The Basis Of The Field Monitoring And The Source Profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iijima, A.; Sato, K.; Fujitani, Y.; Fujimori, E.; Tanabe, K.; Ohara, T.; Shimoda, M.; Kozawa, K.; Furuta, N.

    2008-12-01

    The results of the long-term monitoring of airborne particulate matter (APM) in Tokyo indicated that APM have been extremely enriched with antimony (Sb) compared to crustal composition. This observation suggests that the airborne Sb is distinctly derived from human activities. According to the material flow analysis, automotive brake abrasion dust and fly ash from waste incinerator were suspected as the significant Sb sources. To clarify the emission sources of the airborne Sb, elemental composition, particle size distribution, and morphological profiles of dust particles collected from two possible emission sources were characterized and compared to the field observation data. Brake abrasion dust samples were generated by using a brake dynamometer. During the abrasion test, particle size distribution was measured by an aerodynamic particle sizer spectrometer. Concurrently, size- classified dust particles were collected by an Andersen type air sampler. Fly ash samples were collected from several municipal waste incinerators, and the bulk ash samples were re-dispersed into an enclosed chamber. The measurement of particle size distribution and the collection of size-classified ash particles were conducted by the same methodologies as described previously. Field observations of APM were performed at a roadside site and a residential site by using an Andersen type air sampler. Chemical analyses of metallic elements were performed by an inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry and an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometr. Morphological profiling of the individual particle was conducted by a scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer. High concentration of Sb was detected from both of two possible sources. Particularly, Sb concentrations in a brake abrasion dust were extremely high compared to that in an ambient APM, suggesting that airborne Sb observed at the roadside might have been largely derived from

  1. Applying linear spectral unmixing to airborne hyperspectral imagery for mapping yield variability in grain sorghum and cotton fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study examined linear spectral unmixing techniques for mapping the variation in crop yield for precision agriculture. Both unconstrained and constrained linear spectral unmixing models were applied to airborne hyperspectral imagery collected from a grain sorghum field and a cotton field. A pair...

  2. Airborne Bacteria in the Atmospheric Surface Layer: Temporal Distribution above a Grass Seed Field

    PubMed Central

    Lighthart, B.; Shaffer, B. T.

    1995-01-01

    Temporal airborne bacterial concentrations and meteorological conditions were measured above a grass seed field in the Willamette River Valley, near Corvallis, Oreg., in the summer of 1993. The concentration of airborne bacteria had a maximum of 1,368.5 CFU/m(sup3), with a coefficient of variation of 90.5% and a mean of 121.3 CFU/m(sup3). The lowest concentration of bacteria occurred during the predawn hours, with an average of 32.2 CFU/m(sup3), while sunrise and early evening hours had the highest averages (164.7 and 158.1 CFU/m(sup3), respectively). The concentrations of bacteria in the atmosphere varied greatly, with a maximum difference between two 2-min samples of 1,995 CFU/m(sup3). The concentrations of bacteria in the atmosphere could be divided into five time periods during the day that were thought to be related to the local diurnal sea breeze and Pacific Coast monsoon weather conditions as follows: (i) the nighttime minimum concentration, i.e., 2300 to 0600 h; (ii) the sunrise peak concentration, i.e., 0600 to 0800 h; (iii) the midday accumulating concentration, i.e., 0800 to 1515 h; (iv) the late-afternoon sea breeze trough concentration, i.e., 1515 to 1700 h; and (v) the evening decrease to the nighttime minimum concentration, i.e., 1700 to 2300 h. The sunrise peak concentration (period ii) is thought to be a relatively general phenomenon dependent on ground heating by the sun, while the afternoon trough concentration is thought to be a relatively local phenomenon dependent on the afternoon sea breeze. Meteorological conditions are thought to be an important regulating influence on airborne bacterial concentrations in the outdoor atmosphere in the Willamette River Valley. PMID:16534998

  3. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from Manacapuru, Brazil for the Green Ocean Amazon (GOAMAZON) Field Campaign

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Amazon rain forest in Brazil is the largest broadleaf forest in the world, covering 7 million square kilometers of the Amazon Basin in South America. It represents over half of the planet’s remaining rain forests, and comprises the most biodiverse tract of tropical rain forest on the planet. Due to the sheer size of the Amazon rain forest, the area has a strong impact on the climate in the Southern Hemisphere. To understand the intricacies of the natural state of the Amazon rain forest, the Green Ocean Amazon, or GOAMAZON, field campaign is a two-year scientific collaboration among U.S. and Brazilian research organizations. They are conducting a variety of different experiments with dozens of measurement tools, using both ground and aerial instrumentation, including the ARM Aerial Facility's G-1 aircraft. For more information on the holistic view of the campaign, see the Department of Energy’s GOAMAZON website. As a critical component of GOAMAZON, the ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) will obtain measurements near Manacapuru, south of Manaus, Brazil, from January to December 2014. The city of Manaus, with a population of 3 million, uses high-sulfur oil as their primary source of electricity. The AMF site is situated to measure the atmospheric extremes of a pristine atmosphere and the nearby cities’ pollution plume, as it regularly intersects with the site. Along with other instrument systems located at the Manacapuru site, this deployment will enable scientists to study how aerosol and cloud life cycles are influenced by pollutant outflow from a tropical megacity.

  4. Networked Thermodynamic Boundary Layer Profiling with AERIs during the PECAN Field Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gero, P. J.; Turner, D. D.; Hackel, D.; Phillips, C.; Smith, N.; Wagner, T.

    2015-12-01

    The Plains Elevated Convection at Night (PECAN) campaign was a large-scale field experiment in the Great Plains region of the U.S. that was conducted in June-July 2015. Nocturnal storms provide the majority of the precipitation in the Great Plains, yet the initiation and evolution of nocturnal convection is not understood to the same level as daytime surface-based convection, and thus provides significant challenges for operational weather forecasters. PECAN's objectives were to study elevated nocturnal convection initiation and the lifecycle of nocturnal convection. Specific research areas that were studied were the evolution of mesoscale convective systems, the structure and evolution of nocturnal low-level jets, atmospheric bores, and elevated convection initiation. A broad range of fixed and mobile observing systems were deployed by several agencies and organizations in a domain centered around Kansas. The Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) is a ground-based instrument that measures downwelling infrared radiance from the atmosphere. AERI observations can be used to obtain vertical profiles of tropospheric temperature and water vapor in the lowest 3 km of the troposphere, as well as measurements of the concentration of various trace gases and microphysical and optical properties of clouds and aerosols. A network of eight AERIs was deployed in the domain during PECAN, with six at fixed sites and two in mobile facilities. One of the goals of the campaign was a demonstration of the use of real-time high-temporal-resolution boundary layer profiles from the network of AERIs for characterizing the mesoscale environment and its evolution during the weather events sampled during PECAN. If successful, a future network could be implemented across CONUS and thermodynamic profiles in the boundary layer data assimilated to help improve numerical weather prediction. We present an overview of the AERI deployments, a summary of the technique used to retrieve

  5. Mid-Continental Intensive Field Campaign Atmospheric CO2 Observations Compared to Forward Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz, L. I.; Davis, K. J.; Miles, N. L.; Richardson, S.; Schuh, A. E.; Denning, A.; Andrews, A. E.; Jacobson, A. R.; Corbin, K.

    2009-12-01

    Two commonly used approaches to study source/sinks of CO2 are the “bottom-up” and the “top-down” methods. Because of the large discrepancies between these approaches, the North America Carbon Program devised the Mid-Continental Intensive field campaign (MCI). The MCI campaign aims at improving the carbon flux estimates of both approaches with a combination of atmospheric transport models, a denser network of in-situ atmospheric CO2 measurements and agricultural inventories. The first step in evaluating and improving inverse models is to compare observed CO2 concentrations and predicted concentrations from forwards models. This study shows a model-data comparison at multiple temporal and spatial scales for the 2007 growing season. In-situ tower-based observations are compared to two different forwards models: NOAA’s Carbon Tracker and CSU’s SiBcrop-RAMS. Observations from two tall towers of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and five towers of Ring2 PSU network are used for this comparison. The towers are located in an intensively agricultural region of the North American continent. Comparisons to date show that both models predict higher mid-summer concentrations at three sites located in the “corn belt.” Both models have difficulty reproducing the observed monthly-average spatial gradient across these sites. The models also underestimate the maximum observed spatial gradients in daytime, daily-averaged boundary layer concentrations. These results suggest that the rapid photosynthetic rates found in corn are not yet well-simulated in these models, and that these data, when used in inversions, will provide a valuable constraint on regional fluxes.

  6. Turbulence-wave interactions associated to drainage flows observed during the BLLAST field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yagüe, Carlos; Sun, Jielun; Román-Cascón, Carlos; Sastre, Mariano; Arrillaga, Jon A.

    2016-04-01

    Gravity waves are often observed in the Nocturnal Stable Atmospheric Boundary Layer (SBL). One of the main topics in SBL studies, which is still far from being well understood, is the interaction between these waves and the turbulence present at the lower troposphere [1]. However it is not easy to establish the origin of these waves and how they interact with turbulence. Following the case study occurred along the evening transition of 2nd July 2011 over the area of Lannemezan (France) during the Boundary Layer Late Afternoon and Sunset Turbulence (BLLAST) field campaign [2], in the present work we have extended the study to all the cases found along the campaign, where the evening transition of the Atmospheric Boundary Layer was followed by the formation of drainage flows. Different multiscale techniques (Wavelet Transform -WT- and MultiResolution Flux Decomposition -MRFD-) have been applied to the extensive records of instrumentation deployed at BLLAST. In this way, we can underline the different features related to surface turbulent parameters in the SBL, where several of the studied processes showed an interaction, producing important variations in turbulence with height and between sites along the steep terrain. [1] Sun, J., C. J. Nappo, L. Mahrt, D. Belusic, B. Grisogono, D. R. Stauffer, M. Pulido, C. Staquet, Q. Jiang, A. Pouquet, C. Yagüe, B. Galperin, R. B. Smith, J. J. Finnigan, S.D. Mayor, G. Svensson, A. A. Grachev, and W.D.Neff. (2015): Review of wave-turbulence interactions in the stable atmospheric boundary layer, Rev. Geophys., 53, 956-993, doi:10.1002/2015RG000487. [2] Román-Cascón, C., Yagüe, C., Mahrt, L., Sastre, M., Steeneveld, G.-J., Pardyjak, E., van de Boer, A., and Hartogensis, O (2015).: Interactions among drainage flows, gravity waves and turbulence: a BLLAST case study, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 9031-9047, doi:10.5194/acp-15-9031-2015.

  7. Field Testing of a Pneumatic Regolith Feed System During a 2010 ISRU Field Campaign on Mauna Kea, Hawaii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craft, Jack; Zacny, Kris; Chu, Philip; Wilson, Jack; Santoro, Chris; Carlson, Lee; Maksymuk, Michael; Townsend, Ivan I.; Mueller, Robert P.; Mantovani, James G.

    2010-01-01

    Lunar In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) consists of a number of tasks starting with mining of lunar regolith, followed by the transfer of regolith to an oxygen extraction reactor and finally processing the regolith and storing of extracted oxygen. The transfer of regolith from the regolith hopper at the ground level to an oxygen extraction reactor many feet above the surface could be accomplished in different ways, including using a mechanical auger, bucket ladder system or a pneumatic system. The latter system is commonly used on earth when moving granular materials since it offers high reliability and simplicity of operation. In this paper, we describe a pneumatic regolith feed system, delivering feedstock to a Carbothermal reactor and lessons learned from deploying the system during the 2010 ISRU field campaign on the Mauna Kea, Hawaii.

  8. Addressing the unique safety and design concerns for operating tower-based scientific field campaigns.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steele, A. C.

    2006-12-01

    Scientific field campaigns often require specialized technical infrastructure for data collection. NASA's LBA- ECO Science Team needed a network of towers, up to 65 meters in height, to be constructed in the Amazon forest to serve as platforms for instrumentation used to estimate carbon dioxide and trace gas fluxes between the forest and the atmosphere. The design, construction, and operation of these scientific towers represented unique challenges to the construction crews, the logistics support staff, and the scientists due to operational requirements beyond tower site norms. These included selection of safe sites at remote locations within a dense forest; building towers without damaging the natural environment; locating diesel generators so that exhaust would not contaminate the measurement area; performing maintenance on continuously energized towers so as not to interrupt data collection; training inexperienced climbers needing safe access to towers; and addressing unique safety concerns (e.g. venomous animal response, chainsaw safety, off road driving). To meet the challenges of the complex field site, a comprehensive safety and site operation model was designed to ensure that NASA field safety standards were met, even under extreme conditions in the remote forests of the Amazon. The model includes all phases of field site safety and operation, including site design, construction, operational practices and policies, and personnel safety training. This operational model was employed over eight years, supporting a team of nearly 400 scientists, making several thousand site visits, without loss of life or major injury. The presentation will explore these concerns and present a model for comprehensive safety plans for NASA field missions.

  9. WRF simulations of the atmospheric boundary layer evening transitions during the BLLAST field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sastre Marugán, Mariano; Steeneveld, Gert-Jan; Yagüe, Carlos; Román-Cascón, Carlos; Maqueda, Gregorio; van de Boer, Anneke

    2013-04-01

    The Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) is mainly ruled by both mechanical and thermal turbulence, and shows an evident diurnal cycle. In the evening transitional period, decay in turbulent kinetic energy occurs, but all the mechanisms behind this decay are still not well understood. In this framework, the BLLAST (Boundary Layer Late Afternoon and Sunset Turbulence) project aims to improve the knowledge on the physical processes taking place during the late afternoon and evening transition in the lower troposphere. The BLLAST field campaign was organized in Lannemezan (France) from 14th June to 8th July 2011 [1]. Both in situ measurements (i.e., with meteorological towers, surface based instruments, tethered balloons…) and remote sensors (i.e., SODAR, scintillometer…) were used for this purpose, and two different approaches were developed: vertical structure of the boundary layer and spatial heterogeneity. Besides, Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) models have exhibited substantial difficulties to properly simulate the diurnal cycle in the atmosphere and also the PBL afternoon and evening transition. Typically, some errors are found in air temperature and wind speed close to the surface. Regarding this fact, the main goal of this work is to study how the mesoscale model WRF (Weather Research and Forecast) performs simulations of the evening transition during the BLLAST field campaign. In particular, it is tested for permutations of different PBL and Land Surface Model (LSM) schemes. We try to understand why some differences in model results appear. A comparison between observations and combinations of PBL and LSM parameterizations is shown, testing the sensitivity to these options. We specifically evaluate the surface radiation budget (out- and incoming long- and shortwave radiation), and the surface energy budget variables (latent and sensible heat fluxes, as well as soil heat flux). Furthermore, the vertical profiles of some key variables (such as potential

  10. The Gravity Field of Mercury After the Messenger Low-Altitude Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazarico, Erwan; Genova, Antonio; Goossens, Sander; Lemoine, Frank G.; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.; Neumann, Gary A.; Solomon, Sean C.

    2015-01-01

    The final year of the MESSENGER mission was designed to take advantage of the remaining propellant onboard to provide a series of lowaltitude observation campaigns and acquire novel scientific data about the innermost planet. The lower periapsis altitude greatly enhances the sensitivity to the short-wavelength gravity field, but only when the spacecraft is in view of Earth. After more than 3 years in orbit around Mercury, the MESSENGER spacecraft was tracked for the first time below 200-km altitude on 5 May 2014 by the NASA Deep Space Network (DSN). Between August and October, periapsis passages down to 25-km altitude were routinely tracked. These periods considerably improved the quality of the data coverage. Before the end of its mission, MESSENGER will fly at very low altitudes for extended periods of time. Given the orbital geometry, however the periapses will not be visible from Earth and so no new tracking data will be available for altitudes lower than 75 km. Nevertheless, the continuous tracking of MESSENGER in the northern hemisphere will help improve the uniformity of the spatial coverage at altitudes lower than 150 km, which will further improve the overall quality of the Mercury gravity field.

  11. Movements, Markets and Fields: The Effects of Anti-Sweatshop Campaigns on U.S. Firms, 1993-2000

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartley, Tim; Child, Curtis

    2011-01-01

    How do social movements influence corporations? Recent work suggests that movements can inflict material damage on their targets and shape categories of evaluation in organizational fields. Extending these ideas, we examine the effects of anti-sweatshop campaigns on sales, stock performance, reputation and specialized ratings of U.S. firms, using…

  12. Hurricane Wind Field Measurements with Scanning Airborne Doppler Lidar During CAMEX-3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothermel, Jeffry; Cutten, D. R.; Howell, J. N.; Darby, L. S.; Hardesty, R. M.; Traff, D. M.; Menzies, R. T.

    2000-01-01

    During the 1998 Convection and Moisture Experiment (CAMEX-3), the first hurricane wind field measurements with Doppler lidar were achieved. Wind fields were mapped within the eye, along the eyewall, in the central dense overcast, and in the marine boundary layer encompassing the inflow region. Spatial coverage was determined primarily by cloud distribution and opacity. Within optically-thin cirrus slant range of 20- 25 km was achieved, whereas no propagation was obtained during penetration of dense cloud. Measurements were obtained with the Multi-center Airborne Coherent Atmospheric Wind Sensor (MACAWS) on the NASA DC-8 research aircraft. MACAWS was developed and operated cooperatively by the atmospheric lidar remote sensing groups of NOAA Environmental Technology Laboratory, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, and Jet Propulsion Laboratory. A pseudo-dual Doppler technique ("co-planar scanning") is used to map the horizontal component of the wind at several vertical levels. Pulses from the laser are directed out the left side of the aircraft in the desired directions using computer-controlled rotating prisms. Upon exiting the aircraft, the beam is completely eyesafe. Aircraft attitude and speed are taken into account during real-time signal processing, resulting in determination of the ground-relative wind to an accuracy of about 1 m/s magnitude and about 10 deg direction. Beam pointing angle errors are about 0.1 deg, equivalent to about 17 m at 10 km. Horizontal resolution is about 1 km (along-track) for typical signal processor and scanner settings; vertical resolution varies with range. Results from CAMEX-3 suggest that scanning Doppler wind lidar can complement airborne Doppler radar by providing wind field measurements in regions that are devoid of hydrometeors. At present MACAWS observations are being assimilated into experimental forecast models and satellite Doppler wind lidar simulations to evaluate the relative impact.

  13. The Southwest Pacific GPS Project: Geodetic results from Burst 1 of the 1990 Field Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schutz, B.; Bevis, M.; Taylor, F.; Kuang, D.; Abusali, P.; Watkins, M.; Recy, J.; Perin, B.; Peyroux, O.

    1993-12-01

    The Southwest Pacific GPS Project (SWP) is using the Global Positioning System (GPS) to monitor crustal motion across and within a plate boundary complex between the Australian and Pacific plates. GPS field campaigns were conducted in 1988, 1989 and 1990, to observe networks of increasing size and complexity. The 1990 campaign consisted of two periods, or “Bursts”, and this paper focuses on the analysis of data collected during the nine day Burst 1 in July, 1990, a period in which GPS Selective Availability was activated. During Burst 1, baselines that spanned the Tonga Trench and the Lau Basin were observed, and only one station (Espiritu Santo, Vanuatu) was located west of Fiji in the network. The lengths of the baselines observed fall mainly between 300 km and 1600 km, but some lines are as long as 3500 km. A total of 78 station-days of field site data and approximately 150 station-days of global fiducial data were processed from predominantly codeless receivers. A global fiducial network of 20 sites was used to provide orbit control and accuracy assessment for the 13 available satellites. The daily solutions for 45 baselines between 10 SWP sites have an RMS scatter in the length of 24 mm plus 6 parts per billion. This scatter provides an estimate of baseline precision for the Burst 1 “nominal solution.” Experiments were conducted to investigate a variety of possible effects on the SWP Network baseline estimates, including the influence of a reduced global fiducial network for the purpose of assessing the quality of results obtained in 1988 and 1989 in which the fiducial network was smaller than in 1990. These experiments produced results that agreed with the nominal solution at the level of the precision estimate. Furthermore, estimates for selected baselines in Australia, the Central Pacific, North America and Europe, also measured by VLBI and SLR, were used for an external accuracy evaluation. The GPS and VLBI or SLR determinations of length agreed at

  14. Passive Microwave Remote Sensing of Falling Snow and Associated GPM Field Campaigns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skofronick-Jackson, Gail

    2011-01-01

    known, we can focus retrieval efforts on detectable storms and concentrate advances on achievable results. In this work, the focus is to determine thresholds of detection for falling snow for various snow conditions over land and lake surfaces. The results rely on simulated Weather Research Forecasting (WRF) simulations of falling snow cases [9] since simulations provide all the information to determine the measurements from space and the ground truth. This analysis relies on data from the Canadian CloudSat/CALIPSO Validation Program (C3VP) field campaign held from October 31, 2006 through March 1, 2007. In January 2012 GPM will return to the C3VP area for the GPM Cold Precipitation Experiment (GCPEx). This presentation will describe the thresholds-of-detection procedure and results, as well as the field campaign details.

  15. Radar observations of field-aligned plasma irregularities in the SEEK-2 campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, S.; Yamamoto, M.; Fukao, S.; Marumoto, M.; Tsunoda, R. T.

    2005-10-01

    During the Sporadic E Experiment over Kyushu 2 (SEEK-2) campaign, field-aligned irregularities (FAIs) associated with midlatitude sporadic-E (Es) layers were observed with two backscatter radars, the Lower Thermosphere Profiler Radar (LTPR) and the Frequency Agile Radar (FAR), which were located 40 km apart in Tanegashima, Japan. We conducted observations of FAI echoes from 31 July to 24 August 2002, and the radar data were used to determine launch timing of two sounding rockets on 3 August 2002. Our comparison of echoes obtained by the LTPR and the FAR revealed that echoes often appeared at the FAR about 10min earlier than they did at the LTPR and were well correlated. This indicates that echoing regions drift with a southward velocity component that maintains the spatial shape. Interferometry observations that were conducted with the LTPR from 3 to 8 August 2002, revealed that the quasi-periodic (QP) striations in the Range-Time-Intensity (RTI) plots were due to the apparent motion of echoing regions across the radar beam including both main and side lobes. In most cases, the echo moved to the east-southeast at an almost constant altitude of 100 110 km, which was along the locus of perpendicularity of the radar line-of-sight to the geomagnetic field line. We found that the QP pattern on the RTI plot reflects the horizontal structure and motion of the (Es layer, and that echoing regions seemed to be in one-dimensionally elongated shapes or in chains of patches. Neutral wind velocities from 75 to 105 km altitude were simultaneously derived with meteor echoes from the LTPR. This is the first time-continuous simultaneous observation FAIs and neutral wind with interferometry measurements. Assuming that the echoing regions were drifting with an ambient neutral wind, we found that the echoing region was aligned east-northeast-west-southwest in eight out of ten QP echo events during the SEEK-2 campaign. A range rate was negative (positive), when a frontal structure of

  16. Characterization of the inorganic aerosol in Barcelona site during DAURE 2009 field campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plaza, Javier; Gómez-Moreno, Francisco J.; Aránzazu Revuelta, M.; Coz, Esther; Moreno, Natalia; Pujadas, Manuel; Artíñano, Begoña.

    2010-05-01

    Inorganic compounds account for a significant mass of the ambient aerosol. However this contribution varies with time and aerosol size fraction, depending on the influence of source emissions and ambient conditions, which can be relevant in the formation processes of secondary species. Time series of particulate nitrate, 10 m time resolution, have been obtained during the February-March and July 2009 DAURE (Determination of the sources of atmospheric Aerosols in Urban and Rural Environments in the western Mediterranean) field campaigns in the urban area of Barcelona by means of an R&P8400N monitor. Meteorological conditions during these periods were relevant for the photochemical formation and accumulation of secondary species. Ambient concentrations were higher in winter, specially coinciding with development of atmospheric stagnant episodes that enhanced the accumulation of pollutants including particulate nitrate that reached concentrations of 25 µgm-3 in some occasions, day or night, under these conditions. High humidity periods favored in occasions the formation of nitrates at submicronic scale. Variations in wind direction resulted in transport of particulate nitrate from near emission areas. Size segregated aerosol was sampled during the winter campaign with a micro-orifice uniform deposit impactor (MOUDI) using eleven size stages with aluminum substrates and a quartz fiber backup filter. Samples were collected twice per day for day/night periods. The first sampling period tried to collect secondary aerosol as it started after the early morning emission period. The second sample collected the night aerosol and the emission period. Soluble ions (sulfate, nitrate, ammonium and calcium) were later analyzed by IC. The nitrate mass was concentrated in two modes, the accumulation one around 0.75 µm and the coarse one around 3.90 µm. The sulfate and ammonium masses were concentrated in the accumulation mode, around 0.50 µm, although a small peak close to 5 µm

  17. Interdisciplinary Coordinated Experiment of the Southern Ocean Carbon Cycle (ICESOCC) - A Field Campaign Scoping Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, B. G.

    2015-12-01

    Accurate estimates in time and space of organic carbon export to the ocean interior via plankton net community production (NCP) for the global oceans (the biological pump) are essential for understanding the feedback between NCP, atmospheric CO2 and climate. Since integrated, multi-sensor satellite and in situ observations of many ocean variables are required to estimate NCP from space, this is a complex, interdisciplinary challenge. Satellite ocean color sensors are a fundamental component in estimating spatial and temporal variations in NCP. Therefore, NASA's PACE mission (NASA-PACE 2012), a mission included in NASA's Climate Architecture Plan (NASA-CAP, 2010), specifies a need for field programs to improve satellite algorithms and models to reduce uncertainties in estimates of NCP. Diverse data from sediment and glacial cores, and climate models, indicate that the Southern Ocean plays a large role in the glacial-interglacial variations in the biological pump, with considerable implications for variations in atmospheric CO2. The "Interdisciplinary Coordinated Experiment of the Southern Ocean Carbon Cycle (ICESOCC)" project is a NASA-funded field campaign scoping (planning) effort. Over 18 months and many public meetings and workshops, the ICESOCC team of 13 interdisciplinary scientists has integrated the input from scientific experts in ocean, atmosphere, ice physics, biogeochemistry, advanced observational tools (ship, autonomous, atmospheric gases and dust, cryosphere dynamics, winds), and models, to create a draft recommendation to NASA for field observations required to constrain uncertainty of NCP for the Southern Ocean. The ICESOCC team requests and encourages careful review and comments of the draft to ensure the most robust final recommendations are submitted in early 2016 for NASA consideration.

  18. On error sources during airborne measurements of the ambient electric field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evteev, B. F.

    1991-01-01

    The principal sources of errors during airborne measurements of the ambient electric field and charge are addressed. Results of their analysis are presented for critical survey. It is demonstrated that the volume electric charge has to be accounted for during such measurements, that charge being generated at the airframe and wing surface by droplets of clouds and precipitation colliding with the aircraft. The local effect of that space charge depends on the flight regime (air speed, altitude, particle size, and cloud elevation). Such a dependence is displayed in the relation between the collector conductivity of the aircraft discharging circuit - on one hand, and the sum of all the residual conductivities contributing to aircraft discharge - on the other. Arguments are given in favor of variability in the aircraft electric capacitance. Techniques are suggested for measuring from factors to describe the aircraft charge.

  19. Airborne measurements of atmospheric methane over oil fields in western Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tohjima, Y.; Maksyutov, S.; Machida, T.; Inoue, G.

    Airborne measurements of atmospheric methane (CH4) over oil fields in western Siberia were carried out on August 1, 1994. Extremely sharp CH4 peaks were observed in the horizontal distribution of CH4 at an altitude of 150 m above the ground surface; the half widths of the peaks were 3-4 km and the concentration of the largest peak exceeded 2.9 ppmv. Since the CH4 distribution was considered to reflect the distribution of CH4 emission strength on the surface, there was strong CH4 emission at the peak positions. All of the observed CH4 peak positions were located at or near oil production sites and/or oil pipelines, suggesting that natural gas was emitted from the facilities. Leakage or venting of natural gas are the probable CH4 sources.

  20. Urban land-cover classification based on airborne hyperspectral data and field observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, Fumio; Hara, Konomi; Liu, Wen

    2014-10-01

    Using a dataset from the 2013 IEEE data fusion contest, a basic study to classify urban land-cover was carried out. The spectral reflectance characteristics of surface materials were investigated from the airborne hyperspectral (HS) data acquired by CASI-1500 imager over Houston, Texas, USA. The HS data include 144 spectral bands in the visible to near-infrared (380 nm to 1050 nm) regions. A multispectral (MS) image acquired by WorldView-2 satellite was also introduced in order to compare it with the HS image. A field measurement in the Houston's test site was carried out using a handheld spectroradiometer by the present authors. The reflectance of surface materials obtained by the measurement was also compared with the pseudo-reflectance of the HS data and they showed good agreement. Finally a principal component analysis was conducted for the HS and MS data and the result was discussed.

  1. Validation of Monte Carlo model of HPGe detector for field-station measurement of airborne radioactivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šolc, J.; Kovář, P.; Dryák, P.

    2016-03-01

    A Monte Carlo (MC) model of a mechanically-cooled High Purity Germanium detection system IDM-200-V™ manufactured by ORTEC® was created, optimized and validated within the scope of the Joint Research Project ENV57 ``Metrology for radiological early warning networks in Europe''. The validation was performed for a planar source homogeneously distributed on a filter placed on top of the detector end cap and for point sources positioned farther from the detector by comparing simulated full-energy peak (FEP) detection efficiencies with the ones measured with two or three different pieces of the IDM detector. True coincidence summing correction factors were applied to the measured FEP efficiencies. Relative differences of FEP efficiencies laid within 8% that is fully satisfactory for the intended use of the detectors as instruments for airborne radioactivity measurement in field-stations. The validated MC model of the IDM-200-V™ detector is now available for further MC calculations planned in the ENV57 project.

  2. Wind field measurements for the mitigation of airborne health threats in a complex urban environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arend, Mark; Santoro, David; Abdelazim, Sameh; Moshary, Fred; Ahmed, Sam

    2009-05-01

    The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) sponsored Urban Dispersion Program (UDP) resulted in the strategic placement of weather instruments in New York City (NYC) and the transition of some instruments to the City College of New York (CCNY) operated NYC MetNet to provide timely and accurate information on "skimming field" winds above city building tops. In order to extend the observational capabilities of the NYC MetNet, a cost effective portable eye safe fiber optic based coherent wind lidar system is currently under development in CCNY laboratories. Wind lidar measurements, coupled with the continuous observations from the NYC MetNet, should support the initialization, feedback and development of plume models that would be used after an initial detection of airborne toxins. An overview of the lidar system design and the NYC MetNet will be given.

  3. Measurement comparison of gas phase pollutants during field campaign in Pearl River Delta, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, M.; Zeng, L.; Hu, M.; Zhang, Y.

    2005-12-01

    Pearl River delta, an economically developed region in Guangdong province China, has been suffering from serious ground-level ozone pollution. To understand the formation mechanisms of the photochemical smog in this area, a field measurement campaign involving 12 separate institutes, was performed from Oct. 1 to Nov. 4, 2004. Measurements of gas phase pollutants, performed by the different research groups using several different methods, were inter-compared. Ambient SO2, O3 and NO were measured by Peking University and Hong Kong Polytechnic University using the same methods: chemiluminescence for NOx, pulsed fluorescence for SO2, and UV photometric method for O3. VOC speciation was accomplished using canister sampling followed by GC-MS measurement by Peking University and on-line GC-FID technology by National Central University in Taiwan. Ambient concentrations of HONO, the photolysis of which is the most important source of OH radical in Pearl River delta, was measured by two wet chemical methods: one from Energy Research Foundation of the Netherlands and one developed in Peking University. Based on these inter-comparisons, the co-variation of O3, NO and VOCs at an urban site and one rural site in Pearl River delta and estimates of the relative contributions to OH production from photolysis of O3, HONO and HCHO will be presented.

  4. The Effects of Aerosol on Atmospheric UV Radiation: Measurements and Modeling from the MILAGRO Field Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madronich, S.; Hall, S.; Shetter, R.; Slusser, J.; Arnott, P.

    2007-05-01

    The MILAGRO field campaign took place in and near Mexico City 1-30 March 2006. A comprehensive data set was obtained on atmospheric chemical composition (gas and aerosol), aerosol microphysics, spectral radiation, and meteorology from surface-, aircraft-, and satellite-based instruments. For much of this time, the lower atmosphere was laden with large amounts of aerosols originating from urban and industrial sources, biomass fires, and wind-blown dust. Spectral radiation measurements are available from filter radiometers and spectroradiometers, and span ultraviolet (UV) wavelengths important to surface biota and tropospheric photochemistry. By combining the spectral radiation measurements, aerosol composition, optical, and microphysical measurements, and modeling, an assessment is now possible on how aerosols affect surface UV radiation (e.g. DNA damage, erythema, vitamin-D production) and vertical profiles of photolysis frequencies (e.g. JNO2, JO3(O1D), JCH2O, JHONO). Interactions between aerosol-scattered radiation and absorption by gaseous pollutants (esp. O3, SO2, and NO2) can also be evaluated. Implications for human health and photochemical oxidant formation will be discussed.

  5. Exploring Dust Impacts on Tropical Systems from the NASA HS-3 Field Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nowottnick, Ed; Colarco, Pete; da Silva, Arlindo; Barahona, Donifan; Hlavka, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    One of the overall scientific goals of the NASA Hurricane and Severe Storm Sentinel (HS-3) field campaign is to better understand the role of the Saharan Air Layer (SAL) in tropical storm development. During the 2012 HS-3 deployment, the Cloud Physics Lidar (CPL) observed dust within SAL air in close proximity to a developing Nadine (September 11, 2012). Throughout the mission, the NASA GEOS-5 modeling system supported HS-3 by providing 0.25 degrees resolution 5-day global forecasts of aerosols, which were used to support mission planning. The aerosol module was radiatively interactive within the GEOS-5 model, but aerosols were not directly coupled to cloud and precipitation processes. In this study we revisit the aerosol forecasts with an updated version of the GEOS-5 model. For the duration of Hurricane Nadine, we run multiday climate simulations leading up to each respective Global Hawk flight with and without aerosol direct interaction. For each set of simulations, we compare simulated dust mass fluxes to identify differences in SAL entrainment related to the interaction between dust aerosols and the atmosphere. We find that the direct effects of dust induce a low level anticyclonic circulation that temporarily shields Nadine from the intrusion of dry air, leading to a more intense storm.

  6. TECNAIRE winter field campaign: turbulent characteristics and their influence on air quality conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yagüe, Carlos; Román Cascón, Carlos; Maqueda, Gregorio; Sastre, Mariano; Arrillaga, Jon A.; Artíñano, Begoña; Diaz-Ramiro, Elías; Gómez-Moreno, Francisco J.; Borge, Rafael; Narros, Adolfo; Pérez, Javier

    2016-04-01

    An urban field campaign was conducted at an air pollution hot spot in Madrid city (Spain) during winter 2015 (from 16th February to 2nd March). The zone selected for the study is a square (Plaza Fernández Ladreda) located in the southern part of the city. This area is an important intersection of several principal routes, and therefore a significant impact in the air quality of the area is found due to the high traffic density. Meteorological data (wind speed and direction, air temperature, relative humidity, pressure, precipitation and global solar radiation) were daily recorded as well as micrometeorological measurements obtained from two sonic anemometers. To characterize this urban atmospheric boundary layer (uABL), micrometeorological parameters (turbulent kinetic energy -TKE-, friction velocity -u∗- and sensible heat flux -H-) are calculated, considering 5-minute average for variance and covariance evaluations. Furthermore, synoptic atmospheric features were analyzed. As a whole, a predominant influence of high pressure systems was found over the Atlantic Ocean and western Spain, affecting Madrid, but during a couple of days (17th and 21st February) some atmospheric instability played a role. The influence of the synoptic situation and specially the evolution of the micrometeorological conditions along the day on air quality characteristics (Particulate Matter concentrations: PM10, PM2.5 and PM1, and NOx concentrations) are analyzed and shown in detail. This work has been financed by Madrid Regional Research Plan through TECNAIRE (P2013/MAE-2972).

  7. Sampling and analysis of airborne residues of paraquat in treated cotton field environments.

    PubMed

    Seiber, J N; Woodrow, J E

    1981-01-01

    A method was developed for the analysis of paraquat residues in airborne particulate matter collected by filtration or impaction. The method is based on extraction of paraquat with 6N hydrochloric acid, transfer of residue to saturated ammonium bicarbonate solution, and reduction of the resulting residue with alkaline sodium borohydride to a mixture of two tertiary amines with subsequent determination by nitrogen-selective gas chromatography (GLC). Recoveries ranged from 74 to 96% for filters spiked at 0.05 microgram and above; the limit of detection is approximately 0.5 ng/m3 for high volume air samples. Paraquat concentrations measured in the air downwind from two commercial applications to cotton during spraying fell regularly from extrapolated interval-average values of 4.31 and 10.7 microgram/m3 at the 1 m downwind edge of the two fields to less than 50 ng/m3 at approximately 400 m downwind. Downwind samples taken 2 to 4 hr after spraying contained 1 to 10% as much paraquat as those during spraying, and by 5 to 7 hr no paraquat was detectable in the downwind air. Paraquat was also found in the airborne particulate matter during mechanical harvesting of one of the fields, the maximum interval-average values being 1,245 and 516 ng/m3 just outside and inside an open cab, respectively. The analytical findings for paraquat are compared with those for S,S,S-tributylphosphorotrithioate (DEF), a component of the harvest aid mixture employed, and discussed in terms of occupational exposure, potential hazard, and recommended occupational practices. PMID:7224666

  8. 40 CFR Table C-5 to Subpart C of... - Summary of Comparability Field Testing Campaign Site and Seasonal Requirements for Class II and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... relative humidity. Class III Field test campaigns (Total: 5) Winter and summer Winter only Winter only... Substantial temperature variation, high nitrates, wintertime conditions High sulfate and high relative humidity. Class III Field test campaigns (Total: 5) Winter and summer Winter only Winter only Summer...

  9. Outreach and education from EuroGeoMoonMars2009 Field Campaign in Utah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foing, Bernard H.

    The goal of the EuroGeoMoonMars mission at Utah Desert Research station(from 24 January to 28 February 2009) was to demonstrate instruments from ExoGeoLab pilot project, to support the interpretation of ongoing lunar and planetary missions, to validate a procedure for surface in-situ and return science, to study human performance aspects, and perform outreach and education projects. The EuroGeoMoonMars campaign included four sets of objectives: 1) Technology demonstration aspects: a set of instruments were deployed, tested, assessed, and training was provided to scientists using them in subsequent rotations 2) Research aspects: a series of field science and exploration investigations were conducted in geology, geochemistry, biology, astronomy, with synergies with space missions and research from planetary surfaces and Earth extreme environments. 3) Human crew related aspects, i.e. (a) evaluation of the different functions and interfaces of a planetary habitat, (b) crew time organization in this habitat, (c) evaluation of man-machine interfaces of science and technical equipment; 4) Education, outreach, communications, multi-cultural public relations Outreach, education and inspiration: We produced written, pictures, and video materials that can be used for education, outreach and public relations. Daily reports were posted on the MDRS website. We had during the Technical crew preparation, the visit of film producer Mark Arabella and film crew for a Moon related National Geographics documentary "Earth without the Moon". Two media crew visitors stayed also in the Hab to film our activities documenting the operational, research, human, simulation, imaginative and fantasy aspects of Moon-Mars-extreme Earth exploration. They contributed a journalist report, and even performed an EVA outreach filming a sortie to Hanksville village on Earth. Other film and journalists visited the EuroGeoMars crew for interviews and exchange. Specific crew reports were also prepared for

  10. Emplacement of Basaltic Flow Fields: New Insights Using MODIS/ASTER Airborne Simulator (MASTER) Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrnes, J. M.; Ramsey, M. S.; Crown, D. A.

    2001-12-01

    Surface units that reflect local emplacement conditions within the 1969-1974 Mauna Ulu lava flow field (Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii) have been identified and are being mapped using field observations and remote sensing analyses. Investigation of a preliminary study site on and below Holei Pali utilized high-resolution color aerial photographs [Byrnes and Crown, 2000. J Geophys Res 106, 2139-2151] and TIMS (Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner) airborne data. Four surface units were identified that are related to the state of the lava during emplacement and were found to be correlated with the pre-eruption topography but not to the major lava tube segments mapped previously. These units show variations at visible wavelengths related to color, the presence of a glassy surface crust, and unit (dm- to m-scale) morphology. Variations at thermal wavelengths are presumably related to surface variations in phenocryst abundance, vesicles/micron-scale roughness, and glass. Interpretations based on the TIMS data are significantly limited by noise in available data covering the flow field. The present study uses MASTER (MODIS/ASTER airborne simulator) data to extend the spatial and spectral coverage of the Mauna Ulu flow field. Preliminary analyses of the data (corrected for atmospheric effects) indicate that: (1) additional classes of surface units (such as shelly pahoehoe) can be identified within the flow field, and (2) systematic changes in emplacement occurred from the proximal to the medial and distal portions of the flow field. Comparison with ASTER images indicates that similar classes of surface units may be discriminated in both datasets, though MASTER is preferable for this study because it provides: (1) higher spatial resolution (especially in thermal bands), and (2) constant pixel size for all wavelengths. These factors allow for discrimination of smaller flow units and more accurate correlation of visible- and thermal-wavelength spectral signatures. The higher

  11. Structural Characteristics of Nocturnal Mesoscale Convective Systems in the U.S. Great Plains as Observed During the PECAN Field Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodine, D. J.; Dougherty, E.; Rasmussen, K. L.; Torres, A. D.

    2015-12-01

    During the summer in the U.S. Great Plains, some of the heaviest precipitation falls from large thunderstorm complexes known as Mesoscale Convective Systems (MCSs). These frequently occurring MCSs are often nocturnal in nature, so the dynamics associated with these systems are more elusive than those in the daytime. The Plains Elevated Convection at Night (PECAN) field campaign was launched over a 7-week period as an endeavor to better understand nocturnal MCSs occurring in the Great Plains. PECAN featured a dense array of ground-based and airborne instruments to observe nocturnal MCS, including dual-polarization radars at multiple frequencies, mobile mesonets, and sounding units. Our role in PECAN involved deploying Ott Parsivel disdrometers to gain information on drop size distributions (DSDs) and fall speeds. Analysis of disdrometer data in conjunction with radar data presented using Contour Frequency by Altitude Diagrams (CFADs) and high-resolution radiosonde data allows for a structural comparison of PECAN MCS cases to previously identified MCS archetypes. Novel insights into the structural evolution of nocturnal MCSs in relation to their synoptic, mesoscale, and thermodynamic environments are presented, using data collected from dense and numerous observation platforms. Understanding the environmental conditions that result in different nocturnal MCS configurations is useful for gaining insight into precipitation distributions and potential severe weather and flooding hazards in the Great Plains.

  12. Implementing the Mars Science Laboratory Terminal Descent Sensor Field Test Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, James F.; Bodie, James H.; Brown, Joseph D.; Chen, Allen; Chen, Curtis W.; Essmiller, John C.; Fisher, Charles D.; Goldberg, Hannah R.; Lee, Steven W.; Shaffer, Scott J.

    2012-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) will deliver a 900 kg rover to the surface of Mars in August 2012. MSL will utilize a new pulse-Doppler landing radar, the Terminal Descent Sensor (TDS). The TDS employs six narrow-beam antennas to provide unprecedented slant range and velocity performance at Mars to enable soft touchdown of the MSL rover using a unique sky crane Entry, De-scent, and Landing (EDL) technique. Prior to use on MSL, the TDS was put through a rigorous verification and validation (V&V) process. A key element of this V&V was operating the TDS over a series of field tests, using flight-like profiles expected during the descent and landing of MSL over Mars-like terrain on Earth. Limits of TDS performance were characterized with additional testing meant to stress operational modes outside of the expected EDL flight profiles. The flight envelope over which the TDS must operate on Mars encompasses such a large range of altitudes and velocities that a variety of venues were neces-sary to cover the test space. These venues included an F/A-18 high performance aircraft, a Eurocopter AS350 AStar helicopter and 100-meter tall Echo Towers at the China Lake Naval Air Warfare Center. Testing was carried out over a five year period from July 2006 to June 2011. TDS performance was shown, in gen-eral, to be excellent over all venues. This paper describes the planning, design, and implementation of the field test campaign plus results and lessons learned.

  13. Airborne characterization of subsaturated aerosol hygroscopicity and dry refractive index from the surface to 6.5 km during the SEAC4RS campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shingler, Taylor; Crosbie, Ewan; Ortega, Amber; Shiraiwa, Manabu; Zuend, Andreas; Beyersdorf, Andreas; Ziemba, Luke; Anderson, Bruce; Thornhill, Lee; Perring, Anne E.; Schwarz, Joshua P.; Campazano-Jost, Pedro; Day, Douglas A.; Jimenez, Jose L.; Hair, Johnathan W.; Mikoviny, Tomas; Wisthaler, Armin; Sorooshian, Armin

    2016-04-01

    In situ aerosol particle measurements were conducted during 21 NASA DC-8 flights in the Studies of Emissions and Atmospheric Composition, Clouds, and Climate Coupling by Regional Surveys field campaign over the United States, Canada, Pacific Ocean, and Gulf of Mexico. For the first time, this study reports rapid, size-resolved hygroscopic growth and real refractive index (RI at 532 nm) data between the surface and upper troposphere in a variety of air masses including wildfires, agricultural fires, biogenic, marine, and urban outflow. The Differential Aerosol Sizing and Hygroscopicity Spectrometer Probe (DASH-SP) quantified size-resolved diameter growth factors (GF = Dp,wet/Dp,dry) that are used to infer the hygroscopicity parameter κ. Thermokinetic simulations were conducted to estimate the impact of partial particle volatilization within the DASH-SP across a range of sampling conditions. Analyses of GF and RI data as a function of air mass origin, dry size, and altitude are reported, in addition to κ values for the inorganic and organic fractions of aerosol. Average RI values are found to be fairly constant (1.52-1.54) for all air mass categories. An algorithm is used to compare size-resolved DASH-SP GF with bulk scattering f(RH = 80%) data obtained from a pair of nephelometers, and the results show that the two can only be reconciled if GF is assumed to decrease with increasing dry size above 400 nm (i.e., beyond the upper bound of DASH-SP measurements). Individual case studies illustrate variations of hygroscopicity as a function of dry size, environmental conditions, altitude, and composition.

  14. Measurement of airborne gunshot particles in a ballistics laboratory by sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Ernesto; Sarkis, Jorge E Souza; Viebig, Sônia; Saldiva, Paulo

    2012-01-10

    The present study aimed determines lead (Pb), antimony (Sb) and barium (Ba) as the major elements present in GSR in the environmental air of the Ballistics Laboratory of the São Paulo Criminalistics Institute (I.C.-S.P.), São Paulo, SP, Brazil. Micro environmental monitors (mini samplers) were located at selected places. The PM(2.5) fraction of this airborne was collected in, previously weighted filters, and analyzed by sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (SF-HR-ICP-MS). The higher values of the airborne lead, antimony and barium, were found at the firing range (lead (Pb): 58.9 μg/m(3); barium (Ba): 6.9 μg/m(3); antimony (Sb): 7.3 μg/m(3)). The mean value of the airborne in this room during 6 monitored days was Pb: 23.1 μg/m(3); Ba: 2.2 μg/m(3); Sb: 1.5 μg/m(3). In the water tank room, the air did not show levels above the limits of concern. In general the airborne lead changed from day to day, but the barium and antimony remained constant. Despite of that, the obtained values suggest that the workers may be exposed to airborne lead concentration that can result in an unhealthy environment and could increase the risk of chronic intoxication. PMID:21831549

  15. Vegetation Water Content Mapping in a Diverse Agricultural Landscape: National Airborne Field Experiment 2006

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cosh, Michael H.; Jing Tao; Jackson, Thomas J.; McKee, Lynn; O'Neill, Peggy

    2011-01-01

    Mapping land cover and vegetation characteristics on a regional scale is critical to soil moisture retrieval using microwave remote sensing. In aircraft-based experiments such as the National Airborne Field Experiment 2006 (NAFE 06), it is challenging to provide accurate high resolution vegetation information, especially on a daily basis. A technique proposed in previous studies was adapted here to the heterogenous conditions encountered in NAFE 06, which included a hydrologically complex landscape consisting of both irrigated and dryland agriculture. Using field vegetation sampling and ground-based reflectance measurements, the knowledge base for relating the Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) and the vegetation water content was extended to a greater diversity of agricultural crops, which included dryland and irrigated wheat, alfalfa, and canola. Critical to the generation of vegetation water content maps, the land cover for this region was determined from satellite visible/infrared imagery and ground surveys with an accuracy of 95.5% and a kappa coefficient of 0.95. The vegetation water content was estimated with a root mean square error of 0.33 kg/sq m. The results of this investigation contribute to a more robust database of global vegetation water content observations and demonstrate that the approach can be applied with high accuracy. Keywords: Vegetation, field experimentation, thematic mapper, NDWI, agriculture.

  16. Use of airborne hyperspectral imagery to map soil parameters in tilled agricultural fields

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hively, W. Dean; McCarty, Gregory W.; Reeves, James B., III; Lang, Megan W.; Oesterling, Robert A.; Delwiche, Stephen R.

    2011-01-01

    Soil hyperspectral reflectance imagery was obtained for six tilled (soil) agricultural fields using an airborne imaging spectrometer (400–2450 nm, ~10 nm resolution, 2.5 m spatial resolution). Surface soil samples (n = 315) were analyzed for carbon content, particle size distribution, and 15 agronomically important elements (Mehlich-III extraction). When partial least squares (PLS) regression of imagery-derived reflectance spectra was used to predict analyte concentrations, 13 of the 19 analytes were predicted with R2 > 0.50, including carbon (0.65), aluminum (0.76), iron (0.75), and silt content (0.79). Comparison of 15 spectral math preprocessing treatments showed that a simple first derivative worked well for nearly all analytes. The resulting PLS factors were exported as a vector of coefficients and used to calculate predicted maps of soil properties for each field. Image smoothing with a 3 × 3 low-pass filter prior to spectral data extraction improved prediction accuracy. The resulting raster maps showed variation associated with topographic factors, indicating the effect of soil redistribution and moisture regime on in-field spatial variability. High-resolution maps of soil analyte concentrations can be used to improve precision environmental management of farmlands.

  17. Challenges for the Sequential Interaction Between Optimal Design of Field Campaigns and Model Calibration for Non-Linear Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geiges, A.; Nowak, W.; Rubin, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Stochastic models of sub-surface systems generally suffer from parametric and conceptual uncertainty. To reduce the model uncertainty, model parameters are calibrated using additional collected data. These data often come from costly data acquisition campaigns that need to be optimized to collect the data with the highest data utility (DU) or value of information. In model-based approaches, the DU is evaluated based on the uncertain model itself and is therefore uncertain as well. Additionally, for non-linear models, data utility depends on the yet unobserved measurement values and can only be estimated as an expected value over an assumed distribution of possible measurement values. Both factors introduce uncertainty into the optimization of field campaigns. We propose and investigate a sequential interaction scheme between campaign optimization, data collection and model calibration. The field campaign is split in individual segments. Each segment consists of optimization, segment-wise data collection, and successive model calibration or data assimilation. By doing so, (1) the expected data utility for the newly collected data is replaced by their actual one, (2) the calibration restricts both conceptual and parametric model uncertainty, and thus (3) the distribution of possible future data values for the subsequent campaign segments also changes. Hence, the model to describe the real system improves successively with each collected data segment, and so does the estimate of the yet remaining data requirements to achieve the overall investigation goals. We will show that using the sequentially improved model for the optimal design (OD) of the remaining field campaign leads to superior and more targeted designs.However, this traditional sequential OD optimizes small data segments one-by-one. In such a strategy, possible mutual dependencies with the possible data values and the optimization of data values collection in later segments are neglected. This allows a

  18. Study of surface energy budget and test of a newly developed fast photoacoustic spectroscopy based hygrometer in field campaign Szeged (Hungary)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tatrai, David; Nikov, Daniella; Zsolt Jász, Ervin; Bozóki, Zoltán; Szabó, Gábor; Weidinger, Tamás; András Gyöngyösi, Zénó; Kiss, Melinda; Józsa, János; Simó Diego, Gemma; Cuxart Rodamilans, Joan; Wrenger, Burkhart; Bottyán, Zsolt

    2014-05-01

    A micrometeorological field measurement campaign dedicated to study the surface energy budget and the structure of the boundary layer focusing on the transient layer forming periods during night-time was organized in the period of 10th of November to 3rd of December 2013 in the nearby of Szeged, Hungary. A temporary micrometeorological measurement station was set up at the coordinates N:46.239943; E:20.089758, approximately 1700 m far from a national meteorology station (N:46.255711; E:20.09052). In the experimental micrometeorological site different types of instruments were installed to measure numerous parameters: standard meteorological measurements (p, T, wet, wind speed and direction at three different levels, relative humidity at two levels and absolute humidity at one level) radiation budget components surface temperature and leaf wetness soil temperature, moisture and heat flux into the deeper soil layer eddy-covariance measurements (t, H, LE CO2) at 3 m level using Campbell open-path IRGA (EC150) system. At the national meteorology station (http://adatok.geo.u-szeged.hu/?lang=eng) besides their standard measurement equipment and measurement routine a SODAR was installed and continuously operated. These ground based measurements were combined with and supported by UAV, quadcopter and tethered balloon based vertical profile measurements of p, T, rh. For this measurement campaign as a modification of a previously developed airborne ready dual channel hygrometer, a fast photoacoustic spectroscopy based hygrometer was developed for absolute humidity measurements. The estimated response time of the system is faster than 15 Hz, which was achieved by the replacement of the data acquisition system and by recording the raw photoacoustic signal sampled at rate of 48 kHz for post-processing. During the campaign this new system was compared to a TDL system commercially available at Li-COR Inc. Besides the testing of the newly developed fast photoacoustic hygrometer

  19. Particle size distribution and inorganic aerosol characterization during DAURE 2009 winter field campaign at Montseny site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aranzazu Revuelta, M.; Gómez-Moreno, Francisco J.; Plaza, Javier; Coz, Esther; Pey, Jorge; Cusack, Michael; Pandolfi, Marco; Rodríguez-Maroto, Jesús J.; Pujadas, Manuel

    2010-05-01

    During DAURE 2009 winter field campaign, one of the sampling sites was Montseny, a rural background station located 40 km NNE from Barcelona and 25 km W from the Mediterranean Sea. It is a Natural Park and a protected area, thus with low human activity, mainly agriculture. The sampling station was located on a valley with it axis oriented on the direction NW-SE. At this site, a TSI-SMPS (DMA 3071 and CPC 3022) was installed in order to measure the particle number distribution in the size range 15-600 nm during the period March 19-27 with a measurement cycle of 12 minutes The particle mass distribution was measured by a micro-orifice uniform deposit impactor (MOUDI) using eleven size stages with aluminum substrates and a quartz fiber backup filter. Four samples were taken during the period 13-19 March, two during 24 hours and other two during 48 hours. This impactor has a wider size range allowing to measure from 56 to 18000 nm. The substrates and filters obtained were later analyzed for determining soluble ions (sulfate, nitrate, ammonium and calcium) by IC. There are mainly two different kinds of events measured with the SMPS. When the air masses were coming from SE, which meant that they could come from the park but also from the urban and industrial areas located in the pre-coastal depression, it was characterized by higher particle number concentrations and by size distributions centered on 80 nm. This meant it was an aged aerosol, which had grown up by coagulation, condensation and oxidation processes. When the air masses were coming from NW (the second valley axis side), the particle measured were much smaller, the instrument started to detect particles with 15 nm, but smaller ones could be possible. This meant that new particle nucleation could have occurred in the valley, just before arriving to the sampling point. From MOUDI samplings, two different types of events were also observed. Three of the four samplings coincided with stagnation of air masses or

  20. Validation Of The Earth Observation Land Data Assimilation System By The Field Data Of ESA SPARC Field Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernetskiy, Maxim; Gomez-Dans, Jose; Lewis, Philip

    2013-12-01

    The Earth Observation Land Data Assimilation System (EO-LDAS) project is uses the weak constraint variational data assimilation (DA) technique for the estimation of land surface parameters and their uncertainties by the remote sensing data. The main goal of the project is to make full use of different sources of optical sensors data, to provide improved estimation of structural and biophysical parameters of land surface. Therefore a software tool - the EO-LDAS prototype - was developed. Within the frame of this work, the possibilities of EO- LDAS have been demonstrated for MERIS/Envisat and CHRIS/Proba data acquired during ESA SPARC 2004 field campaign over an agricultural test-site near Barrax (Spain). We have used a regularization approach and conditions of spatial smoothness in order to better constrain the problem. The EO-LDAS prototype has been used to implement the weak constrain data assimilation (DA) system, to estimate leaf area index (LAI) and Chlorophyll (a + b) concentration as well as their uncertainties.

  1. Clouds, Precipitation, and Marine Boundary Layer Structure during the MAGIC Field Campaign

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Xiaoli; Kollias, Pavlos; Lewis, Ernie R.

    2015-03-01

    The recent ship-based MAGIC (Marine ARM GCSS Pacific Cross-Section Intercomparison (GPCI) Investigation of Clouds) field campaign with the marine-capable Second ARM Mobile Facility (AMF2) deployed on the Horizon Lines cargo container M/V Spirit provided nearly 200 days of intraseasonal high-resolution observations of clouds, precipitation, and marine boundary layer (MBL) structure on multiple legs between Los Angeles, California, and Honolulu, Hawaii. During the deployment, MBL clouds exhibited a much higher frequency of occurrence than other cloud types and occurred more often in the warm season than in the cold season. MBL clouds demonstrated a propensity to produce precipitation, which often evaporated before reaching the ocean surface. The formation of stratocumulus is strongly correlated to a shallow MBL with a strong inversion and a weak transition, while cumulus formation is associated with a much weaker inversion and stronger transition. The estimated inversion strength is shown to depend seasonally on the potential temperature at 700 hPa. The location of the commencement of systematic MBL decoupling always occurred eastward of the locations of cloud breakup, and the systematic decoupling showed a strong moisture stratification. The entrainment of the dry warm air above the inversion appears to be the dominant factor triggering the systematic decoupling, while surface latent heat flux, precipitation, and diurnal circulation did not play major roles. MBL clouds broke up over a short spatial region due to the changes in the synoptic conditions, implying that in real atmospheric conditions the MBL clouds do not have enough time to evolve as in the idealized models. (auth)

  2. Clouds, Precipitation, and Marine Boundary Layer Structure during the MAGIC Field Campaign

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Zhou, Xiaoli; Kollias, Pavlos; Lewis, Ernie R.

    2015-03-01

    The recent ship-based MAGIC (Marine ARM GCSS Pacific Cross-Section Intercomparison (GPCI) Investigation of Clouds) field campaign with the marine-capable Second ARM Mobile Facility (AMF2) deployed on the Horizon Lines cargo container M/V Spirit provided nearly 200 days of intraseasonal high-resolution observations of clouds, precipitation, and marine boundary layer (MBL) structure on multiple legs between Los Angeles, California, and Honolulu, Hawaii. During the deployment, MBL clouds exhibited a much higher frequency of occurrence than other cloud types and occurred more often in the warm season than in the cold season. MBL clouds demonstrated a propensity to produce precipitation, which often evaporatedmore » before reaching the ocean surface. The formation of stratocumulus is strongly correlated to a shallow MBL with a strong inversion and a weak transition, while cumulus formation is associated with a much weaker inversion and stronger transition. The estimated inversion strength is shown to depend seasonally on the potential temperature at 700 hPa. The location of the commencement of systematic MBL decoupling always occurred eastward of the locations of cloud breakup, and the systematic decoupling showed a strong moisture stratification. The entrainment of the dry warm air above the inversion appears to be the dominant factor triggering the systematic decoupling, while surface latent heat flux, precipitation, and diurnal circulation did not play major roles. MBL clouds broke up over a short spatial region due to the changes in the synoptic conditions, implying that in real atmospheric conditions the MBL clouds do not have enough time to evolve as in the idealized models. (auth)« less

  3. Aerosol Properties over the Eastern North Pacific based on Measurements from the MAGIC Field Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, E. R.; Senum, G.; Springston, S. R.; Kuang, C.

    2015-12-01

    The MAGIC field campaign, funded and operated by the ARM (Atmospheric Radiation Measurement) Climate Research Facility of the US Department of Energy, occurred between September 2012 and October, 2013 aboard the Horizon Lines cargo container ship Spirit making regular trips between Los Angeles, CA and Honolulu, HI. Along this route, which lies very near the GPCI (GCSS Pacific Cross-section Intercomparison) transect, the predominant cloud regime changes from stratocumulus near the California coast to trade-wind cumulus near Hawaii. The transition between these two regimes is poorly understood and not accurately represented in models. The goal of MAGIC was to acquire statistic of this transition and thus improve its representation in models by making repeated transects through this region and measuring properties of clouds and precipitation, aerosols, radiation, and atmospheric structure. To achieve these goals, the Second ARM Mobile Facility (AMF2) was deployed on the Horizon Spirit as it ran its regular route between Los Angeles and Honolulu. AMF2 consists of three 20-foot SeaTainers and includes three radars and other instruments to measure properties of clouds and precipitation; the Aerosol Observing System (AOS), which has a suite of instruments to measure properties of aerosols; and other instruments to measure radiation, meteorological quantities, and sea surface temperature. Two technicians accompanied the AMF2, and scientists rode the ship as observers. MAGIC made nearly 20 round trips between Los Angeles and Honolulu (and thus nearly 40 excursions through the stratocumulus-to-cumulus transition) and spent 200 days at sea, collecting an unprecedented data set. Aerosol properties measured with the AOS include number concentration and size distribution, CCN activity, hygroscopic growth, and light-scattering and absorption. Additionally, more than one hundred filter samples were collected. Aerosol properties and their spatial and temporal behavior are discussed

  4. Coherent Structure Patterns Affect Energy Balance Closure: Evidence from Virtual Measurements for a Field Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, S.; De Roo, F.; Heinze, R.; Eder, F.; Huq, S.; Schmidt, M.; Kalthoff, N.; Mauder, M.

    2015-12-01

    The energy balance closure problem is a well-known issue of eddy-covariance measurements. However, the underlying mechanisms are still under debate. Recent evidence suggests that organized low-frequency motion contributes significantly to the energy balance residual, because the associated transport cannot be captured by a point measurement. In this study, we carry out virtual measurements using a PArallelized Large-Eddy Simulation Model (PALM). In order to represent specific measurement days of the field campaign "High definition clouds and precipitation for advancing climate prediction" (HD(CP)²), which was part of the project "High Definition Clouds and Precipitation for Advancing Climate Prediction"(HOPE) in 2013, the simulations were driven by synoptic-scale COSMO-DE reanalysis data. Planet boundary layer height, the vertical profiles of variance and skewness of vertical wind were analyzed and a comparison with Doppler-lidar observations shows good agreement. Furthermore, simulated energy imbalances were compared with real-world imbalances from two eddy-covariance stations in the model domain. Particularly poor energy balance closure was found for a day with cellular organized structures in the surface layer, while the energy balance closure was better on other days with roll-like structures. This finding might be one explanation why the energy balance closure generally tends to improve with increasing friction velocity, since roll-like structures are typically associated with higher wind speeds. In order to gain insight into the partitioning of the energy balance residual between the sensible and latent heat fluxes, we further employed a control volume method within the numerical simulation. Hence, advection and storage terms were identified as the most important causes for the lack of energy balance closure by the eddy-covariance method. The results of the virtual measurements indicate that the "missing" part of the surface energy mainly comes from the

  5. Hydroxyl and Hydroperoxy Radical Chemistry during the MCMA-2006 Field Campaign: Measurement and Model Comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dusanter, S.; Vimal, D.; Stevens, P. S.; Volkamer, R.; Molina, L. T.

    2007-12-01

    The Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) field campaign, held in March 2006, was a unique opportunity to collect data in one of the most polluted megacities in the world. Such environments exhibit a complex oxidation chemistry involving a strong coupling between odd hydrogen radicals (HOX=OH+HO2) and nitrogen oxides species (NOX=NO+NO2). High levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and NOX control the HOX budget and lead to elevated tropospheric ozone formation. The HOX-NOX coupling can be investigated by comparing measured and model-predicted HOx concentrations. Atmospheric HOX concentrations were measured by the Indiana University laser-induced fluorescence instrument and data were collected at the Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo between 14 and 31 March. Measured hydroxyl radical (OH) concentrations are comparable to that measured in less polluted urban environments and suggest that the OH concentrations are highly buffered under high NOX conditions. In contrast, hydroperoxy radical (HO2) concentrations are more sensitive to the NOX levels and are highly variable between different urban sites. Enhanced levels of OH and HO2 radicals were observed on several days between 9h30-11h00 AM and suggest an additional HOX source for the morning hours and/or a fast HOX cycling under the high NOX conditions of the MCMA. A preliminary investigation of the HOX chemistry occurring in the MCMA urban atmosphere was performed using a photochemical box model based on the Regional Atmospheric Chemistry Mechanism (RACM). Model comparisons will be presented and the agreement between measured and predicted HOX concentrations will be discussed.

  6. Carbonaceous species and humic like substances (HULIS) in Arctic snowpack during OASIS field campaign in Barrow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voisin, Didier; Jaffrezo, Jean-Luc; Houdier, StéPhan; Barret, Manuel; Cozic, Julie; King, Martin D.; France, James L.; Reay, Holly J.; Grannas, Amanda; Kos, Gregor; Ariya, Parisa A.; Beine, Harry J.; Domine, Florent

    2012-07-01

    Snowpacks contain many carbonaceous species that can potentially impact on snow albedo and arctic atmospheric chemistry. During the OASIS field campaign, in March and April 2009, Elemental Carbon (EC), Water insoluble Organic Carbon (WinOC) and Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC) were investigated in various types of snow: precipitating snows, remobilized snows, wind slabs and depth hoars. EC was found to represent less than 5% of the Total Carbon Content (TCC = EC + WinOC + DOC), whereas WinOC was found to represent an unusual 28 to 42% of TCC. Snow type was used to infer physical processes influencing the evolution of different fractions of DOC. DOC is highest in soil influenced indurated depth hoar layers due to specific wind related formation mechanisms in the early season. Apart from this specific snow type, DOC is found to decrease from precipitating snow to remobilized snow to regular depth hoar. This decrease is interpreted as due to cleaving photochemistry and physical equilibration of the most volatile fraction of DOC. Depending on the relative proportions of diamond dust and fresh snow in the deposition of the seasonal snowpack, we estimate that 31 to 76% of DOC deposited to the snowpack is reemitted back to the boundary layer. Under the assumption that this reemission is purely photochemical, we estimate an average flux of VOC out of the snowpack of 20 to 170 μgC m-2 h-1. Humic like substances (HULIS), short chain diacids and aldehydes are quantified, and showed to represent altogether a modest (<20%) proportion of DOC, and less than 10% of DOC + WinOC. HULIS optical properties are measured and could be consistent with aged biomass burning or a possible marine source.

  7. Model-data comparison of MCI field campaign atmospheric CO2 mole fractions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz Isaac, Liza I.; Lauvaux, Thomas; Davis, Kenneth J.; Miles, Natasha L.; Richardson, Scott J.; Jacobson, Andrew R.; Andrews, Arlyn E.

    2014-09-01

    Atmospheric transport model errors are a major contributor to uncertainty in CO2 inverse flux estimates. Our study compares CO2 mole fraction observations from the North American Carbon Program Mid-Continental Intensive (MCI) field campaign and modeled mole fractions from two atmospheric transport models: the global Transport Model 5 from NOAA's CarbonTracker system and the mesoscale Weather Research and Forecasting model. Both models are coupled to identical CO2 fluxes and lateral boundary conditions from CarbonTracker (CT2009 release). Statistical analyses were performed for two periods of 2007 using observed daily daytime average mole fractions of CO2 to test the ability of these models to reproduce the observations and to infer possible causes of the discrepancies. TM5-CT2009 overestimates midsummer planetary boundary layer CO2 for sites in the U.S. corn belt by 10 ppm. Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF)-CT2009 estimates diverge from the observations with similar magnitudes, but the signs of the differences vary from site to site. The modeled mole fractions are highly correlated with the observed seasonal cycle (r ≥ 0.7) but less correlated in the growing season, where weather-related changes in CO2 dominate the observed variability. Spatial correlations in residuals from TM5-CT2009 are higher than WRF-CT2009 perhaps due to TM5's coarse horizontal resolution and shallow vertical mixing. Vertical mixing appears to have influenced CO2 residuals from both models. TM5-CT2009 has relatively weak vertical mixing near the surface limiting the connection between local CO2 surface fluxes and boundary layer. WRF-CT2009 has stronger vertical mixing that may increase the connections between local surface fluxes and the boundary layer.

  8. Ambient VOC Concentration and Emission Measurements during the MCMA 2002 and 2003 Field Campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamb, B. K.; Velasco, E.; Allwine, E.; Pressley, S.; Westberg, H.; Knighton, B.; Rogers, T.; Grimsrud, E.; Jobson, T.; Alexander, M.; Prazeller, P.; Volkamer, R.; de Foy, B.; Molina, L.; Molina, M.; Grutter, M.; Bueno, E.; Blanco, S.; Wohrnschimmel, H.; Cardenas, B.; Arriaga, J. L.; Limon, M. T.; Escalona, S.; Iglesias, G. S.; Doskey, P.; Gaffney, J.

    2004-12-01

    As part of the MCMA 2002 and 2003 field campaigns in Mexico City, ambient VOC samples were collected from airshed boundary sites, central urban core sites and downwind urban receptor sites. Samples were also obtained during mobile vehicle chase operations designed to obtain data on direct vehicle emissions. During MCMA 2003, additional VOC data were collected including open, long path measurements at the Cenica and La Merced sites, direct eddy covariance flux measurements at Cenica, other canister and cartridge samples collected at La Merced and balloon profiles collected at Cenica. In addition, an automated continuous VOC sampling and analysis system was operated at Cenica. Collectively, the VOC data are consistent with previous measurements that show significantly higher levels of light alkanes compared to US cities. The levels of most other VOCs are also elevated compared to the median for US cities. Examination of the VOC data in terms of lumped VOC classes and suggests that some, but not all, classes are underestimated in the emission inventory by factors of 2 to 3. The use of ratios of individual VOC is useful for examining the effects of chemistry or nearby sources on measured VOC levels. Comparison of PTR-MS results with GC/FID data showed very good agreement for a number of aromatics, and the PTR-MS data for oxygenated VOC suggests that oxygenated VOC contribute an additional 20% to the overall VOC burden. The use of a fast olefin sensor (FOS) for continuous measurement of olefin concentrations was demonstrated, but only half of the FOS signal could be accounted for in terms of olefins identified from canister samples.

  9. Thermal Infrared Airborne Field Studies: Applications to the Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herr, K.; Kirkland, L.; Keim, E.; Hackwell, J.

    2002-12-01

    A primary goal of the Mars exploration program is to reconnoiter the planet from orbit using infrared remote sensing. Currently the Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) and the 2001 Mars Odyssey 9-band radiometer THEMIS provide this capability. Landing site selection and modeling of the geologic and climate history depend on accurate interpretations of these data sets. Interpretations use terrestrial analog remote sensing and laboratory studies. Until recently, there have been no airborne thermal infrared spectrometer ("hyspectral") data sets available to NASA researchers that are comparable to TES. As a result, studies relied on airborne multi-channel radiometer ("multispectral") measurements (e.g. TIMS, MASTER). A radiometer has the advantage that measurement of broad bands makes it easier to measure with higher sensitivity. However, radiometers lack the spectral resolution to investigate details of spectral signatures. This gap may be partially addressed using field samples collected and measured in the laboratory. However, that leaves questions unanswered about the field environment and potentially leaves important complicating issues undiscovered. Two questions that haunt thermal infrared remote sensing investigations of Mars are: (1) If a mineral is not detected in a given data set, how definitively should we state that it is not there? (2) When does the method provide quantitative mineral mapping? In order to address these questions, we began collaborating with Department of Defense (DoD) oriented researchers and drawing on the unique instrumentation they developed. Both Mars and DoD researchers have a common need to identify materials without benefit of ground truth. Such collaborations provide a fresh perspective as well as unique data. Our work addresses uncertainties in stand-off identification of solid phase surface materials when the identification must proceed without benefit of ground truth. We will report on the results applied to TES

  10. An overview of dust aerosol effect on semi-arid climate during 2008 China-US joined field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, J.; Bi, J.; Zhang, W.; Shi, J.; Tsay, S.; Li, Z.; Chen, H.; Wang, X.; Huang, Z.; Zhang, B.; Wang, G.; Zhang, L.

    2009-12-01

    To improve understanding and capture the direct evident of the impact of dust aerosol on semi-arid climate, the 2008 China-US joined field campaign are conducted. Three sites involved this campaign, including one permanent site (Semi-Arid Climate & Environment Observatory of Lanzhou University (SACOL)) (located in Yuzhong, 35.95°N/104.1°E), one SACOL’s Mobile Facility (SMF) (deployed in Jintai, 37.57°N/104.23°E) and the U.S. Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurements(ARM) Ancillary Facility (AAF mobile laboratories, SMART-COMMIT) (deployed in Zhangye, 39.08°N/100.27°E). This study presents a description the objectives, measurements, and sampling strategies for this joined campaign. Major dust episodes captured during the campaign were investigated. Preliminary observation results show that the semi-direct effect may be dominated by the interaction between dust aerosols and clouds over arid and semi-arid areas and partly contribute to reduced precipitation. These results suggest that the local anthropogenic and nature absorbing aerosols make significant contribution to the regional interaction among aerosol-cloud-radiation-precipitation processes and need to be future investigation.

  11. Wide-Area Mapping of Forest with National Airborne Laser Scanning and Field Inventory Datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monnet, J.-M.; Ginzler, C.; Clivaz, J.-C.

    2016-06-01

    Airborne laser scanning (ALS) remote sensing data are now available for entire countries such as Switzerland. Methods for the estimation of forest parameters from ALS have been intensively investigated in the past years. However, the implementation of a forest mapping workflow based on available data at a regional level still remains challenging. A case study was implemented in the Canton of Valais (Switzerland). The national ALS dataset and field data of the Swiss National Forest Inventory were used to calibrate estimation models for mean and maximum height, basal area, stem density, mean diameter and stem volume. When stratification was performed based on ALS acquisition settings and geographical criteria, satisfactory prediction models were obtained for volume (R2 = 0.61 with a root mean square error of 47 %) and basal area (respectively 0.51 and 45 %) while height variables had an error lower than 19%. This case study shows that the use of nationwide ALS and field datasets for forest resources mapping is cost efficient, but additional investigations are required to handle the limitations of the input data and optimize the accuracy.

  12. Vegetation water content mapping in a diverse agricultural landscape: National Airborne Field Experiment 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cosh, Michael H.; Tao, Jing; Jackson, Thomas J.; McKee, Lynn; O'Neill, Peggy

    2010-05-01

    Mapping land cover and vegetation characteristics on a regional scale is critical to soil moisture retrieval using microwave remote sensing. In aircraft-based experiments such as the National Airborne Field Experiment 2006 (NAFE'06), it is challenging to provide accurate high resolution vegetation information, especially on a daily basis. A technique proposed in previous studies was adapted here to the heterogenous conditions encountered in NAFE'06, which included a hydrologically complex landscape consisting of both irrigated and dryland agriculture. Using field vegetation sampling and ground-based reflectance measurements, the knowledge base for relating the Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) and the vegetation water content was extended to a greater diversity of agricultural crops, which included dryland and irrigated wheat, alfalfa, and canola. Critical to the generation of vegetation water content maps, the land cover for this region was determined from satellite visible/infrared imagery and ground surveys with an accuracy of 95.5% and a kappa coefficient of 0.95. The vegetation water content was estimated with a root mean square error of 0.33 kg/m2. The results of this investigation contribute to a more robust database of global vegetation water content observations and demonstrate that the approach can be applied with high accuracy.

  13. Airborne Trace Gas and Aerosol Measurements in Several Shale Gas Basins during the SONGNEX (Shale Oil and Natural Gas Nexus) Campaign 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warneke, C.; Trainer, M.; De Gouw, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    Oil and natural gas from tight sand and shale formations has increased strongly over the last decade. This increased production has been associated with emissions of methane, non-methane hydrocarbons and other trace gases to the atmosphere, which are concerns for air quality, climate and air toxics. The NOAA Shale Oil and Natural Gas Nexus (SONGNEX) aircraft campaign took place in 2015, when the NOAA WP-3 aircraft conducted 20 research flights between March 19 and April 27, 2015 in the following shale gas regions: Denver-Julesberg, Uintah, Upper Green River, San Juan, Bakken, Barnett, Eagle Ford, Haynesville, Woodford, and Permian. The NOAA P3 was equipped with an extensive set of gas phase measurements, including instruments for methane, ethane, CO, CO2, a new H3O+CIMS, canister and cartridge samples for VOCs, HCHO, glyoxal, HNO3, NH3, NOx, NOy, PANs, ozone, and SO2. Aerosol number and size distributions were also measured. This presentation will focus on an overview of all the measurements onboard the NOAA WP-3 aircraft and discuss the differences between the shale gas regions. Due to a drop in oil prices, drilling for oil decreased in the months prior to the mission, but nevertheless the production of oil and natural gas were near the all-time high. Many of the shale gas basins investigated during SONGNEX have quite different characteristics. For example, the Permian Basin is a well-established field, whereas the Eagle Ford and the Bakken saw an almost exponential increase in production over the last few years. The basins differ by the relative amounts of natural gas versus oil that is being produced. Previous work had shown a large variability in methane emissions relative to the production (leak rate) between different basins. By including more and qualitatively different basins during SONGNEX, the study has provided an extensive data set to address how emissions depend on raw gas composition, extraction techniques and regulation. The influence of these

  14. Interdisciplinary Study of Urbanization and Impacts - the Poplex 2014 Field Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nghiem, S. V.; Masetti, M.; Stevenazzi, S.; Bonfanti, M.; Conforto, A.; Filippini, M.; Fabbri, P.; Pola, M.; Sorichetta, A.; Linard, C.; Pampaloni, P.; Paloscia, S.; Santi, E. S.; Catani, F.; Neumann, G.

    2014-12-01

    Haphazard urban development may have far reaching impacts not only around the urban vicinity but also across regional and perhaps global scales. To investigate urban change and impacts, the PO PLain EXperiment (POPLEX) was conducted in May 2014. The focus of POPLEX was to conduct the most effective study, by closely coordinating the field campaign with the science team in different zones of the Po Plain in northern Italy, and also with an extension to Florence in the Tuscany region. Northern Italy is one of the most populated areas in Europe and most of its cities registered an urban sprawl pattern in the 2000s. In this view, the POPLEX domain represents a pertinent "pilot area" to identify environmental impacts due to urban sprawl. This is to identify and understand the influence of urban characteristics and urban change on important environmental topics such as: (a) groundwater resource quality assessment and management, (b) air quality assessment, and (c) temperature assessment. POPLEX involved 25 participants from 15 institutions from 5 countries using data from 12 satellites and extensive field networks including approximately 220 meteorological stations, 170 air monitoring stations, hundreds of groundwater monitoring wells, and 20 river gauges together with demographic census data and detailed survey maps of land cover and land use. Innovative processing, with the Dense Sampling Method and Rosette Transform applied to satellite scatterometer data, has allowed a successful development of a spatially and temporally consistent dataset delineating urban extension and thus to monitor the annual rate of changes, in each pixel of a 1-km grid, throughout the decade of 2000s across the landscape without spatial gaps. Such dataset enables the introduction of the time dimension into dynamic analyses combining both anthropogenic and natural factors including atmospheric, geophysical, and hydrogeological characteristics of each study area. Initial results have been

  15. Joint influences of aerodynamic flow field and aerodynamic heating of the dome on imaging quality degradation of airborne optical systems.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Haosu; Zuo, Baojun; Tian, Yi; Zhang, Wang; Hao, Chenglong; Liu, Chaofeng; Li, Qi; Li, Fan; Zhang, Li; Fan, Zhigang

    2012-12-20

    We investigated the joint influences exerted by the nonuniform aerodynamic flow field surrounding the optical dome and the aerodynamic heating of the dome on imaging quality degradation of an airborne optical system. The Spalart-Allmaras model provided by FLUENT was used for flow computations. The fourth-order Runge-Kutta algorithm based ray tracing program was used to simulate optical transmission through the aerodynamic flow field and the dome. Four kinds of imaging quality evaluation parameters were presented: wave aberration of the exit pupil, point spread function, encircled energy, and modulation transfer function. The results show that the aero-optical disturbance of the aerodynamic flow field and the aerodynamic heating of the dome significantly affect the imaging quality of an airborne optical system. PMID:23262604

  16. Comprehensive analysis of imaging quality degradation of an airborne optical system for aerodynamic flow field around the optical window.

    PubMed

    Hao, Chenglong; Chen, Shouqian; Zhang, Wang; Ren, Jinhan; Li, Chong; Pang, Hongjun; Wang, Honghao; Liu, Qian; Wang, Chao; Zou, Huiying; Fan, Zhigang

    2013-11-20

    We investigated the influences exerted by the nonuniform aerodynamic flow field surrounding the optical window on the imaging quality degradation of an airborne optical system. The density distribution of flow fields around three typical optical windows, including a spherical window, an ellipsoidal window, and a paraboloidal window, were calculated by adopting the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations with the Spalart-Allmaras model provided by FLUENT. The fourth-order Runge-Kutta algorithm based ray-tracing program was used to simulate the optical transmission through the aerodynamic flow field. Four kinds of imaging quality evaluation parameters were presented: wave aberration of the entrance pupil, point spread function, encircled energy, and modulation transfer function. The results show that the imaging quality of the airborne optical system was affected by the shape of the optical window and angle of attack of the aircraft. PMID:24513738

  17. Use of field reflectance data for crop mapping using airborne hyperspectral image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nidamanuri, Rama Rao; Zbell, Bernd

    2011-09-01

    Recent developments in hyperspectral remote sensing technologies enable acquisition of image with high spectral resolution, which is typical to the laboratory or in situ reflectance measurements. There has been an increasing interest in the utilization of in situ reference reflectance spectra for rapid and repeated mapping of various surface features. Here we examined the prospect of classifying airborne hyperspectral image using field reflectance spectra as the training data for crop mapping. Canopy level field reflectance measurements of some important agricultural crops, i.e. alfalfa, winter barley, winter rape, winter rye, and winter wheat collected during four consecutive growing seasons are used for the classification of a HyMAP image acquired for a separate location by (1) mixture tuned matched filtering (MTMF), (2) spectral feature fitting (SFF), and (3) spectral angle mapper (SAM) methods. In order to answer a general research question "what is the prospect of using independent reference reflectance spectra for image classification", while focussing on the crop classification, the results indicate distinct aspects. On the one hand, field reflectance spectra of winter rape and alfalfa demonstrate excellent crop discrimination and spectral matching with the image across the growing seasons. On the other hand, significant spectral confusion detected among the winter barley, winter rye, and winter wheat rule out the possibility of existence of a meaningful spectral matching between field reflectance spectra and image. While supporting the current notion of "non-existence of characteristic reflectance spectral signatures for vegetation", results indicate that there exist some crops whose spectral signatures are similar to characteristic spectral signatures with possibility of using them in image classification.

  18. The THORPEX-Pacific Asian Regional Campaign and Affiliated Field Campaigns over the Tropical Western North Pacific during August-September 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harr, P.

    2008-12-01

    The THORPEX (THe Observing Research and Predictability EXperiment) Pacific Asian Regional Campaign (T-PARC) is a multi-national field campaign that addresses the shorter-range dynamics and forecast skill associated with high-impact weather events of one region (Eastern Asian and the western North Pacific) and their downstream impacts on the medium-range dynamics and forecast skill of another region (in particular, the eastern North Pacific and North America). Although many significant weather events occur over eastern Asia and the western North Pacific, the focus of T-PARC is on various aspects of typhoon activity, which include formation, intensification, structure change, motion, and extratropical transition. Because of the significant impact of typhoon activity on the region of eastern Asia and the western North Pacific, T-PARC is comprised of several affiliated programs. These programs and their national sponsor include: - Tropical Cyclone Structure-2008 (TCS-08) [United States]; - Typhoon Hunter-2008 (TH-08) [Japan]; - Predictability and Observation Experiment (PROBEX) [South Korea]; - Tibetan Plateau Experiment [China]; - The South China Sea Experiment [China]; - Dropsonde Observations for Typhoon Surveillance near the Taiwan Region (DOTSTAR) [Taiwan]. In addition to the above list of field campaigns, a significant international component existed via contribution of specific observation platforms. A high-altitude jet aircraft (FALCON) will be operated by the Deutches Zentrum fur Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR). Driftsonde balloon operations will be conducted by the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES) of France. Although the region of the western North Pacific plays an important and unique role in defining many characteristics of the midlatitude circulation of the Northern Hemisphere, the near-global participation in T-PARC is an indication that the scientific principles being examined with respect to the impacts on downstream weather by significant events

  19. Spatial Correlation of Airborne Magnetic Anomalies with Reservoir Temperatures of Geothermal Fields, Western Anatolia, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ertekin, Can; Ekinci, Yunus Levent

    2013-04-01

    Geothermal areas in Western Anatolia are remarkably located throughout Büyük Menderes Graben (BMG) and Gediz Graben (GG). These E-W trending grabens have been subjected to N-E stretching since Miocene. Except for these major outcomes of the extensional forces, NE-SW oriented and relatively short grabens take place in Western Anatolia as well. Among them, BMG and GG are remarkable with topographic escarpments that reveal footwall of steeply-dipping active normal faults. They manifest themselves via numerous earthquakes and geothermal activity (fluid discharges from springs and wells). Geothermal discharges are aligned along the rims of E-W trending normal faults trending over detachment faults. Concerning BMG, geothermal manifestations extend along the northern sector of the graben. Geothermal reservoirs inside BMG are the limestone and conglomerate units within Neogene sediments and the marble-quartzite units within The Menderes Massif rocks. The main high and low enthalpy geothermal fields along BMG and their reservoir temperatures are as follows: Kızıldere (242°C), Germencik (232°C), Aydın-Ilıcabası (101°C), Yılmazköy (142°C), Salavatlı (171°C), Söke (26°C), Pamukkale (36°C), Karahayıt (59°C), Gölemezli (101°C) and Yenice (70°C). Through GG, reservoir temperatures decrease from east to west. Geothermal reservoirs inside GG are metamorphics and granodiorite of the Menderes Massif rocks. The Neogene sediments act as cap rock of the geothermal reservoirs. Geothermal fields inside the graben and their reservoir temperatures are as follows: Alaşehir (215°C), Salihli (155°C), Urganlı (85°C), Kurşunlu (135°C), Caferbey (150°C), Sart (100°C). In order to investigate the spatial correlation of magnetic anomalies and the reservoir temperatures of geothermal fields in the region, we analysed airborne magnetic data which were collected by General Directorate of Mineral Research and Exploration (MTA) of Turkey. Airborne magnetic data were taken

  20. HyMeX-SOP1, the field campaign dedicated to heavy precipitation and flash-flooding in Northwestern Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ducrocq, Véronique

    2013-04-01

    The Mediterranean region is frequently affected by heavy precipitation events associated with flash-floods, landslides and mudslides each year that cost several billions of dollars in damage and causing too often casualties. Within the framework of the 10-year international HyMeX program dedicated to the hydrological cycle and related processes in the Mediterranean (http://www.hymex.org), a major field campaign has been dedicated to heavy precipitation and flash-floods from September to November 2012. The 2-month field campaign took place over the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea and its surrounding coastal regions in France, Italy and Spain. The observation strategy aimed at documenting four key components leading to heavy precipitation and flash-flooding in that region: (i) the marine atmospheric flow that transport moist and conditionaly unstable air towards the coasts; (ii) the Mediterranean Sea as a moisture and energy source; (iii) the dynamics and microphysics of the convective systems; (iv) the hydrological processes during flash-floods. During the field campaign about twenty precipitation events were monitored, including mesoscale convective systems, Mediterranean cyclogenesis, shallow-convection orographic precipitation. Three aircraft performed about 250 flight hours for a survey of the upstream flow, the air-sea fluxes and the convective systems. About 700 additional radiosoundings were launched either from HyMeX sites or from operational RS sites in Europe, as well as about 20 boundary layer balloons were launched to monitor the low-level flow over the Mediterranean Sea and the ambient atmospheric conditions. Gliders, Argo floats, drifting buoys and ocean soundings from vessels monitored the Mediterranean Sea during the field campaign. Atmospheric and hydrological instruments such as radars, LIDARS, radiometers, wind profilers, lightning sensors, were deployed over 5 regions in France, Italy and Spain. The presentation will present the general

  1. New Insights on the North American Monsoon from the 2004 Name Field Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, R. H.

    2014-12-01

    The 2004 North American Monsoon Experiment (NAME) was an international field campaign conducted over northwestern Mexico, the Gulf of California, and the surrounding region. The overarching goal of NAME was the determination of the sources and limits of predictability of warm season precipitation over North America, with emphasis on time scales ranging from seasonal-to-interannual. The observational component of NAME involved measurements of a range of monsoon phenomena using aircraft, soundings, profilers, research radars, ships, surface stations, rain gauges, and surface flux sites. The NAME enhanced observational network has confirmed a number of previous theories and hypotheses with respect to North American Monsoon (NAM) processes, but also yielded new insight and details regarding specific phenomena of the NAM region. Several new findings stemming from NAME observations are: The 12-14 July 2004 overall gulf surge event was comprised of several stages: an initial disturbance identified as a Kelvin shock (an internal bore modified by rotation) followed by a general acceleration of the flow by multiple convectively generated gravity currents and bores along the span of the Gulf, then ending again in the northern Gulf as a Kelvin shock disturbance; A tropical upper-tropospheric trough (TUTT) associated with the 12-14 July Gulf Surged enhanced precipitation on its western flank as it passed over the mountains of northern Mexico. It is found that these upper-level disturbances modify the low-level flow and slightly increase CAPE so as to cause more highly organized mesoscale convective systems to move off the Sierra Madre Occidental toward the west and in doing so, strengthen moisture surges over the Gulf of California; and The diurnal cycle of convection determined from sounding-based heat and moisture budgets over the Sierra Madre Occidental (SMO) is characterized by shallow convection around noon, deep convection at 1800 LT, evolving to stratiform precipitation

  2. Multidisciplinary integrated field campaign to an acidic Martian Earth analogue with astrobiological interest: Rio Tinto

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, F.; Walter, N.; Amils, R.; Rull, F.; Klingelhöfer, A. K.; Kviderova, J.; Sarrazin, P.; Foing, B.; Behar, A.; Fleischer, I.; Parro, V.; Garcia-Villadangos, M.; Blake, D.; Martin Ramos, J. D.; Direito, S.; Mahapatra, P.; Stam, C.; Venkateswaran, K.; Voytek, M.

    2011-07-01

    inside salt deposits used by phototrophs for taking advantage of sheltering particular light wavelengths. These acidic salts deposits located in Río Tinto shelter life forms that are difficult to visualize by eye. This interdisciplinary field analogue campaign was conducted in the framework of the CAREX FP7 EC programme.

  3. Ozone formation along the California-Mexican border region during Cal-Mex 2010 field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guohui; Bei, Naifang; Zavala, Miguel; Molina, Luisa T.

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the ozone (O3) formation along the California-Mexico border region using the WRF-CHEM model in association with the Cal-Mex 2010 field campaign. Four two-day episodes in 2010 are chosen based on plume transport patterns: 1) May 15-16 (plume north), 2) May 29-30 (plume southwest), 3) June 4-5 (plume east), and 4) June 13-14 (plume southeast). Generally, the predicted O3 spatial patterns and temporal variations agree well with the observations at the ambient monitoring sites in the San Diego-Tijuana region, but in the Calexico-Mexicali region, the model frequently underestimates the observation. In the San Diego-Tijuana region, the morning anthropogenic precursor emissions in the urbanized coastal plain are carried inland and mixed with the local biogenic emissions during transport, causing the high O3 level over the mountain region. Biogenic emissions enhance the O3 concentrations by up to 40 ppb over the mountain region in the afternoon. The factor separation approach is used to evaluate the contributions of trans-boundary transport of emissions from California and Baja California to the O3 level in the California-Mexico border region. The Baja California emissions play a minor role in the O3 formation in the San Diego region and do not seem to contribute to the O3 exceedances in the region, but have large potential to cause O3 exceedances in the Calexico region. The California emissions can considerably enhance the O3 level in the Tijuana region. Generally, the California emissions play a more important role than the Baja California emissions on O3 formation in the border region (within 40 km to the California-Mexico border). On average, the O3 concentrations in the border region are decreased by 2-4 ppb in the afternoon due to the interactions of emissions from California and Baja California. Further studies need to be conducted to improve the sea breeze simulations in the border region for evaluating O3 formation.

  4. Methane Emissions from Natural Gas Vehicles in Beijing, Baoding, and Shijiazhuang, China during CAREBEIJING Field Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, D.; Tao, L.; Sun, K.; Golston, L.; Zhang, Y.; Zhu, T.; Zondlo, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    From 2002-2012, number of Natural Gas Vehicles (NGVs) increased from 36,000 to 1.6 million (44 times) and is projected to reach 4.0 million by 2020. Deploying NGVs is an effective way to relieve Chinese air pollution, since NGVs can reduce emissions of particulate matter (PM) and NOx by 91% and 59% compared to gasoline vehicles (GVs). However, previous studies in US showed that NGVs might emit more methane (CH4) than GVs, which is an important greenhouse gas and a precursor to air pollution. Despite the tremendous growth of NGVs and importance of CH4, CH4 emissions from NGVs in China haven't been carefully studied yet. During CAREBEIJING field campaign in 2013 and 2014, we used a mobile platform to conduct on-road measurement of CH4, carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), and NH3 (ammonia) in Beijing, Baoding, and Shijiazhuang, China. We found that the mean on-road CH4:CO2 ratio from NGVs is (0.004±0.0003) g CH4/g CO2, which is 20 times higher than previous report on CH4:CO2 emission ratio from US cars. Although NGVs can reduce 25% CO2 compared to GVs, CH4 emitted from NGVs would diminish this number to 19%. Using this emission ratio, we estimate that NGVs in China emitted 37 Gg CH4 in 2010. CH4 emissions from NGVs would increase to 207 Gg in 2020 (by a factor of 560%) if no regulation of CH4 emissions from NGVs were implemented. Most of these emissions occur in urban areas, requiring analyses of their impacts on air quality in such regions. Therefore, a mass balance model is used to study the proportion of CH4 emissions from NGVs in total urban CH4 emissions for Baoding city. Finally, in order to better inform policy decisions, a life-cycle analysis is made to estimate potential CH4 emissions from NGV related industrials. Overall, NGVs are promising alternative fuel vehicles in China, but more attention should be paid to quantify their CH4 emissions.

  5. The Arctic-Boreal Vulnerability Experiment: a NASA Terrestrial Ecology Field Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffith, P. C.; Goetz, S. J.; Kasischke, E. S.; Mack, M. C.; Wickland, D. E.

    2012-12-01

    Climate change in the Arctic and Boreal Region (ABR) is unfolding faster than anywhere else on Earth, resulting in receding glaciers, a longer ice-free Arctic Ocean during summer, warming and thawing of permafrost, increases in the frequency and severity of climate-driven disturbances, and widespread changes to surface water extent and vegetation structure and function. To more fully understand the evolving ABR environment and provide the information required to develop options for societal responses to the impacts of ABR climate change, the Arctic-Boreal Vulnerability Experiment (ABoVE) has been proposed as a NASA Terrestrial Ecology Program field campaign. Remotely-sensed data products would be created to address scaling issues that are inherent in linking process-based research conducted at local scales over short time periods to modeling research that addresses a variety of spatial and temporal scales. Research carried out as part of ABoVE would provide the opportunity to not only focus on key process associated with the land surface, but on key interfaces between the land and the coastal ocean and atmospheric boundary layer as they interact with climate-mediated terrestrial processes. Proposed Scientific Scope: 1. What processes, interactions, and feedbacks control the vulnerability of Arctic and boreal ecosystems and landscapes to structural and functional changes in a changing Earth system? 2. How are people at local, regional, national, and global scales being affected by and responding to these changes? 3. How do changes to terrestrial processes in the ABR alter inputs to the adjacent ocean? 4. How do changes to terrestrial processes in the ABR provide feedbacks to regional and global climate through exchanges of energy, water, gases, and particulate matter between the land surface and troposphere? A NASA-sponsored workshop to further develop and evaluate the scientific scope for the Arctic-Boreal Vulnerability Experiment (ABoVE) was held in Boulder, CO

  6. Field-Based and Airborne Hyperspectral Imaging for Applied Research in the State of Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, A.; Buchhorn, M.; Cristobal, J.; Kokaly, R. F.; Graham, P. R.; Waigl, C. F.; Hampton, D. L.; Werdon, M.; Guldager, N.; Bertram, M.; Stuefer, M.

    2015-12-01

    Hyperspectral imagery acquired using Hyspex VNIR-1800 and SWIR-384 camera systems have provided unique information on terrestrial and aquatic biogeochemical parameters, and diagnostic mineral properties in exposed outcrops in selected sites in the state of Alaska. The Hyspex system was configured for in-situ and field scanning by attaching it to a gimbal-mounted rotational stage on a robust tripod. Scans of vertical faces of vegetation and rock outcrops were made close to the campus of the University of Alaska Fairbanks, in an abandoned mine near Fairbanks, and on exposures of Orange Hill in Wrangell-St. Elias National Park. Atmospherically corrected integrated VNIR_SWIR spectra were extracted which helped to study varying nitrogen content in the vegetation, and helped to distinguish the various micas. Processed imagery helped to pull out carbonates, clays, sulfates, and alteration-related minerals. The same instrument was also mounted in airborne configuration on two different aircrafts, a DeHavilland Beaver and a Found Bush Hawk. Test flights were flown over urban and wilderness areas that presented a variety of landcover types. Processed imagery shows promise in mapping man-made surfaces, phytoplankton, and dissolved materials in inland water bodies. Sample data and products are available on the University of Alaska Fairbanks Hyperspectral Imaging Laboratory (HyLab) website at http://hyperspectral.alaska.edu.

  7. Inviscid Flow Field Effects: Experimental results. [optical distortions over airborne laser turrets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otten, L. J., III; Gilbert, K. G.

    1980-01-01

    The aero-optical distortions due to invisid flow effects over airborne laser turrets is investigated. Optical path differences across laser turret apertures are estimated from two data sources. The first is a theoretical study of main flow effects for a spherical turret assembly for a Mach number (M) of 0.6. The second source is an actual wind tunnel density field measurement on a 0.3 scale laser turret/fairing assembly, with M = 0.75. A range of azimuthal angles from 0 to 90 deg was considered, while the elevation angle was always 0 deg (i.e., in the plane of the flow). The calculated optical path differences for these two markedly different geometries are of the same order. Scaling of results to sea level conditions and an aperture diameter of 50 cm indicated up to 0.0007 cm of phase variation across the aperture for certain forward look angles and a focal length of F = -11.1 km. These values are second order for a 10.6 micron system.

  8. Evaluation of Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) Simulations with the GEOS-5/ GOCART Model during the Frostburg/DISCOVER-AQ Field Campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchard-Marchant, V.; da Silva, A.; Colarco, P. R.; Krotkov, N. A.; Dickerson, R. R.; Stehr, J. W.; Spinei, E.; Mount, G. H.; Krask, D.

    2011-12-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is a major atmospheric pollutant, with a strong anthropogenic component mostly produced by the combustion of fossil fuel and other industrial activities. As a precursor of sulfate aerosols that affect climate, air quality and human health, this gas needs to be monitored on a global scale. Global climate and chemistry models including aerosol processes along with their radiative effects are important tools for climate and air quality research. Validation of these models against in-situ and satellite measurements are essential to ascertain the credibility of these models and to guide model improvements. In this study the Goddard Chemistry, Aerosol, Radiation, and Transport (GOCART) module running on-line inside the Goddard Earth Observing System version 5 (GEOS-5) model is used to simulate aerosol and SO2 concentrations. The global GEOS-5 system runs at a nominal 25 km horizontal resolution with 72 vertical levels; a comprehensive atmospheric data assimilation system is used to constrain the meteorological state of the model. Data taken over Maryland in the UM's Frostburg (November 2010) and NASA DISCOVER-AQ (July 2011) field campaigns are used to evaluate the GEOS-5 SO2 concentrations. In this presentation we show comparisons of simulated and measured SO2 concentration, using airborne and ground-based data sets, as well as data from the space-based OMI instrument. Preliminary data analysis indicated the model's overestimation of SO2 concentration at the surface, leading to a close examination of mixing processes in the model and the specification of SO2 anthropogenic emission rates. As a result of this analysis, we have implemented a revision of anthropogenic emission inventories in GEOS-5, and updated the vertical placement of SO2 sources. In this presentation we show how these revisions improve the model agreement with observations not only locally but also in regions outside the area of these field campaigns. In particular, we use the ground

  9. Optimized Field Sampling and Monitoring of Airborne Hazardous Transport Plumes; A Geostatistical Simulation Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, DI-WEN

    2001-11-21

    Airborne hazardous plumes inadvertently released during nuclear/chemical/biological incidents are mostly of unknown composition and concentration until measurements are taken of post-accident ground concentrations from plume-ground deposition of constituents. Unfortunately, measurements often are days post-incident and rely on hazardous manned air-vehicle measurements. Before this happens, computational plume migration models are the only source of information on the plume characteristics, constituents, concentrations, directions of travel, ground deposition, etc. A mobile ''lighter than air'' (LTA) system is being developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory that will be part of the first response in emergency conditions. These interactive and remote unmanned air vehicles will carry light-weight detectors and weather instrumentation to measure the conditions during and after plume release. This requires a cooperative computationally organized, GPS-controlled set of LTA's that self-coordinate around the objectives in an emergency situation in restricted time frames. A critical step before an optimum and cost-effective field sampling and monitoring program proceeds is the collection of data that provides statistically significant information, collected in a reliable and expeditious manner. Efficient aerial arrangements of the detectors taking the data (for active airborne release conditions) are necessary for plume identification, computational 3-dimensional reconstruction, and source distribution functions. This report describes the application of stochastic or geostatistical simulations to delineate the plume for guiding subsequent sampling and monitoring designs. A case study is presented of building digital plume images, based on existing ''hard'' experimental data and ''soft'' preliminary transport modeling results of Prairie Grass Trials Site. Markov Bayes Simulation, a coupled Bayesian/geostatistical methodology, quantitatively combines soft information

  10. Comparisons of cirrus cloud formation and evolution lifetime between five field campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diao, M.; Zondlo, M. A.; DiGangi, J. P.; O'Brien, A.; Heymsfield, A.; Rogers, D. C.; Beaton, S. P.

    2013-12-01

    In order to understand the microphysical properties of cirrus clouds, it is important to understand the formation and evolution of the environments where ice crystals form and reside on the microscale (~100 m). Uncertainties remain in simulating/parameterizing the evolution of ice crystals, which require more analyses in the Lagrangian view. However, most in situ observations are in the Eulerian view and are restricted from examining the lifecycle of cirrus clouds. In this work, a new method of Diao et al. GRL (2013)* is used to separate out five phases of ice crystal evolution, using the horizontal spatial relationships between ice supersaturated regions (ISSRs) and ice crystal regions (ICRs). In-situ, aircraft-based observations from five flight campaigns are used to compare the evolution processes of ISSRs and ICRs, which include the National Science Foundation HIAPER Pole-to-Pole Observations (HIPPO) Global campaign (2009-2011 Arctic to Antarctic over the central Pacific Ocean), the Stratosphere Troposphere Analyses Regional Transport 2008 (START08) campaign (2008 North America), the Pre-Depression Investigation of Cloud-Systems in the Tropics (PREDICT) campaign (2010 tropical western Atlantic), the Tropical Ocean Troposphere Exchange of Reactive Halogen Species and Oxygenated VOC (2012 Costa Rica), and the Deep Convection, Clouds, and Chemistry (DC3) campaign (2011 Interior North America). To understand the evolution of ICRs and ISSRs on the microscale, we compare the microphysical evolution processes inside ISSRs and ICRs in terms of relative humidity with respect to ice (RHi), ice crystal mean diameter (Dc) and ice crystal number density (Nc) at different meteorological and dynamical backgrounds during these five campaigns. Different phases of ice nucleation and evolution are contrasted to understand how cirrus clouds evolve from clear-sky ISS into fully developed clouds, and finally into sedimentation/evaporation phase. The results show that the ratios of

  11. Conceptual design of an airborne laser Doppler velocimeter system for studying wind fields associated with severe local storms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomson, J. A. L.; Davies, A. R.; Sulzmann, K. G. P.

    1976-01-01

    An airborne laser Doppler velocimeter was evaluated for diagnostics of the wind field associated with an isolated severe thunderstorm. Two scanning configurations were identified, one a long-range (out to 10-20 km) roughly horizontal plane mode intended to allow probing of the velocity field around the storm at the higher altitudes (4-10 km). The other is a shorter range (out to 1-3 km) mode in which a vertical or horizontal plane is scanned for velocity (and possibly turbulence), and is intended for diagnostics of the lower altitude region below the storm and in the out-flow region. It was concluded that aircraft flight velocities are high enough and severe storm lifetimes are long enough that a single airborne Doppler system, operating at a range of less than about 20 km, can view the storm area from two or more different aspects before the storm characteristics change appreciably.

  12. Sea WiFS Postlaunch Technical Report Series. Volume 8; The SeaBOARR-99 Field Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooker, Stanford B. (Editor); Firestone, Elaine R. (Editor); Lazin, Gordana (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    This report documents the scientific activities during the second Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (Sea- WIFS) Bio-Optical Algorithm Round-Robin (SeaBOARR-99) field campaign, which took place from 2 May to 7 June 1999 on board the Royal Research Ship James Clark Ross during the eighth Atlantic Meridional Transect cruise (AMT-8). The ultimate objective of the SeaBOARR activity is to evaluate the effect of different measurement protocols on bio-optical algorithms using data from a variety of field campaigns. The SeaBOARR-99 field campaign was concerned with collecting a high quality data set of simultaneous in-water and above-water radiometric measurements. The deployment goals documented in this report were to: a) use four different surface glint correction methods to compute water-leaving radiances, Lw(lambda), from above-water data; b) use two different in-water profiling systems and three different methods to compute Lw(lambda) from in-water data; c) use instruments with a common calibration history to minimize intercalibration uncertainties; d) monitor the calibration stability of the instruments in the field with the original SeaWiFS Quality Monitor (SQM) and a commercial, second-generation device called the SQM-II, thereby allowing a distinction between differences in methods from changes in instrument performance; and e) compare the Lw(lambda) values estimated from the above- water and in- water measurements. In addition to describing the instruments deployed and the data collected, a preliminary analysis of part of the SeaBOARR-99 data set is presented (using only the data collected during clear sky, calm sea, and Case-I waters).

  13. Simulation of meso-gamma-scale morning-transition flows at Granite Peak, Utah with NCAR's WRF-based 4DWX and observations from the MATERHORN 2012 field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knievel, J. C.; Liu, Y.; De Wekker, S.; Pace, J.; Cheng, W. Y.; Liu, Y.

    2013-12-01

    The goals of this study are 1) to evaluate a modified version of the WRF Model's ability to simulate meso-gamma-scale flows in complex terrain through assimilation of unusually dense and frequent observations from the MATERHORN field campaign, and 2) to pursue ways of using such highly resolved observations to improve nowcasting and very-short-range forecasting. The modified WRF Model is run in the framework of the Four-Dimensional Weather System (4DWX), developed by NCAR's Research Applications Laboratory and used by the U.S. Army Test and Evaluation Command to support their operations at Dugway Proving Ground (DPG) and seven other ranges. 4DWX uses nudging to assimilate diverse observations and to generate continuous, four-dimensional, dynamically spun-up and physically consistent meso-gamma-scale analyses and forecasts. 4DWX is particularly well suited to assimilating observations from field campaigns such as MATERHORN (http://www3.nd.edu/~dynamics/materhorn/index.php), which employed three ground-based Doppler lidars, the airborne TODWL (Twin Otter Doppler Wind Lidar), an unmanned aerial vehicle, towers, and a dense array of high-frequency weather stations. This presentation will focus on observations and simulations from a morning transition of the atmospheric boundary layer on 10 October 2012 at DPG. Data-withholding experiments will explore the effectiveness of the data assimilation and the impact of data density of wind profiles, diagnosed from observations by the TODWL, on weather analysis and short-term prediction.

  14. R.E.E.L.D. (Economical and Ecological Reconstruction of the Danube Flood Plain) Campaign: airborne LIDAR data and GIS technique outputs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Covǎsnianu, Adrian; Tudose, Ovidiu-Gelu; Cazacu, Marius-Mihai; Nichersu, Iulian; Memier, Michel; Balin, Ioan

    2010-05-01

    The study is the synthesis of the REELD (Economical and Ecological Reconstruction of the Danube Flood Plain) 2007 campaign and its applications, but also resenting the final results of the project. This unique work, by resolution and surface covering, performed in 2007 over the whole Romanian Danube plain resulted in a high resolute digital terrain and digital surface models covering over 700.000 ha. Using this extremely accurate terrain model, derivate applications were performed such as analyze of the actual geomorphologic processes (gullies, landslides, etc.), land cover dynamics, urban development indicators and also hydrological modeling for forecast and risk prevention.

  15. Overview of the Cassini In-Situ Observations of Auroral Field-Aligned Currents During the 2013 Saturn Aurora Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunce, E. J.; Badman, S. V.; Cowley, S. W.; Dougherty, M. K.; Gurnett, D. A.; Jinks, S.; Kurth, W. S.; Mitchell, D. G.; Nichols, J. D.; Provan, G.; Pryor, W. R.

    2013-12-01

    The Saturn Aurora Campaign 2013 is a coordinated effort to provide a clearer understanding of Saturn's auroral emissions at multiple wavelengths in the upper atmosphere, and their associated magnetospheric signatures and dynamics. Structures such as Corotating Interaction Regions (CIRs) are known to play a significant role in the modulation of Saturn's auroral emissions via abrupt changes in the dynamic pressure associated with forward shocks at the start of the CIR compression regions. Recent observations from the Cassini spacecraft at Saturn have also taught us that the 'magnetosphere oscillations' observed in magnetic field perturbations in the northern and southern hemispheres, which are associated with the SKR modulations in each hemisphere, also significantly modulate the magnetosphere and auroral emissions. Here we present an overview of the in situ magnetosphere measurements during the campaign, along with an overview of the solar wind conditions upstream of Saturn inferred from the Saturn Kilometric Radiation (SKR) emissions. We will discuss evidence of the high-latitude field-aligned currents and plasma boundaries (e.g. the open-closed field line (or related) boundary) from the magnetic field data, plasma signatures and/or auroral hiss observations (using the Cassini magnetometer-MAG, the Magnetospheric Imaging Instrument-MIMI, and the Radio Plasma Wave Science-RPWS instruments respectively). We will attempt to characterise the morphology and variability (e.g. co-latitude, intensity) of the current system(s) from both the knowledge of the northern or southern magnetosphere oscillation phase (according to the location of the spacecraft) and the inferred solar wind conditions. We will compare these results with available IR/UV auroral images from the campaign.

  16. Po-Basin Atmospheric Composition during the Pegasos Field Campaign (summer 2012): Evaluation of ninfa/aodeM Simulation with In-Situ e Remote Sensing Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landi, Tony C.; Bonafe, Giovanni; Stortini, Michele; Minguzzi, Enrico; Cristofanelli, Paolo; Marinoni, Angela; Giulianelli, Lara; Sandrini, Silvia; Gilardoni, Stefania; Rinaldi, Matteo; Ricciardelli, Isabella

    2014-05-01

    Within the EU project PEGASOS one of three field campaigns took place in the Po Valley during the summer of 2012. Photochemistry, particle formation, and particle properties related to diurnal evolution of the PBL were investigated through both in-situ and airborne measurements on board a Zeppelin NT air ship. In addition, 3-D air quality modeling systems were implemented over the Po valley for the summer 2012 to better characterize the atmospheric conditions, in terms of meteorological parameters and chemical composition. In this work, we present a comparison between atmospheric composition simulations carried out by the modeling system NINFA/AODEM with measurements performed during the PEGASOS field campaign for the period 13 June - 12 July 2012. NINFA (Stortini et al., 2007) is based on the chemical transport model CHIMERE (Bessagnet et al., 2008), driven by COSMO-I7, the meteorological Italian Limited Area Model, (Steppeler et al., 2003). Boundary conditions are provided by Prev'air data (www.prevair.org), and emission data input are based on regional, national and European inventory. Besides, a post-processing tool for aerosol optical properties calculation, called AODEM (Landi T. C. 2013) was implemented. Thus, predictions of Aerosol Optical Depth and aerosol extinction coefficient were also used for model comparison to vertical-resolved observations. For this experiment, NINFA/AODEM has been also evaluated by using measurements of size-segregated aerosol samples, number particles concentration and aerosol optical properties collected on hourly basis at the 3 different sampling sites representative of urban background (Bologna), rural background (San Pietro Capofiume) and remote high altitude station (Monte Cimone 2165 ma.s.l.). ). In addition, we focused on new particles formations events and long range transports from Northern Africa observed during the field campaign. References Bessagnet, Bertrand, Laurent Menut, Gabriele Curci, Alma Hodzic, Bruno

  17. NASA Student Airborne Research Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaller, E. L.; Shetter, R. E.

    2012-12-01

    The NASA Student Airborne Research Program (SARP) is a unique summer internship program for advanced undergraduates and early graduate students majoring in the STEM disciplines. SARP participants acquire hands-on research experience in all aspects of an airborne research campaign, including flying onboard an major NASA resource used for studying Earth system processes. In summer 2012, thirty-two participants worked in four interdisciplinary teams to study surface, atmospheric, and oceanographic processes. Participants assisted in the operation of instruments onboard the NASA P-3B aircraft where they sampled and measured atmospheric gases and imaged land and water surfaces in multiple spectral bands. Along with airborne data collection, students participated in taking measurements at field sites. Mission faculty and research mentors helped to guide participants through instrument operation, sample analysis, and data reduction. Over the eight-week program, each student developed an individual research project from the data collected and delivered a conference-style final presentation on his/her results. We will discuss the results and effectiveness of the program from the first four summers and discuss plans for the future.

  18. NASA'S Coastal and Ocean Airborne Science Testbed (COAST): Early Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guild, L. S.; Dungan, J. L.; Edwards, M.; Russell, P. B.; Morrow, J. H.; Kudela, R. M.; Myers, J. S.; Livingston, J.; Lobitz, B.; Torres-Perez, J.

    2012-12-01

    The NASA Coastal and Ocean Airborne Science Testbed (COAST) project advances coastal ecosystems research and ocean color calibration and validation capability by providing a unique airborne payload optimized for remote sensing in the optically complex coastal zone. The COAST instrument suite combines a customized imaging spectrometer, sunphotometer system, and a new bio-optical radiometer package to obtain ocean/coastal/atmosphere data simultaneously in flight for the first time. The imaging spectrometer (Headwall) is optimized in the blue region of the spectrum to emphasize remote sensing of marine and freshwater ecosystems. Simultaneous measurements supporting empirical atmospheric correction of image data is accomplished using the Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS-14). Coastal Airborne In situ Radiometers (C-AIR, Biospherical Instruments, Inc.), developed for COAST for airborne campaigns from field-deployed microradiometer instrumentation, will provide measurements of apparent optical properties at the land/ocean boundary including optically shallow aquatic ecosystems. Ship-based measurements allowed validation of airborne measurements. Radiative transfer modeling on in-water measurements from the HyperPro and Compact-Optical Profiling System (C-OPS, the in-water companion to C-AIR) profiling systems allows for comparison of airborne and in-situ water leaving radiance measurements. Results of the October 2011 Monterey Bay COAST mission include preliminary data on coastal ocean color products, coincident spatial and temporal data on aerosol optical depth and water vapor column content, as well as derived exact water-leaving radiances.

  19. Data Management Challenges for Airborne NASA Earth Venture Sub-Orbital Investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyer, A.; Lindsley, C.; Wright, D.; Cook, R. B.; Santhana Vannan, S. K.

    2015-12-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) is developing technology infrastructure to archive airborne remote sensing observations from two of NASA's Earth Venture Sub-orbital Missions. The two missions are CARVE (Carbon in Arctic Reservoirs Vulnerability Experiment) and AirMOSS (Airborne Microwave Observatory of Subcanopy and Subsurface). These missions collected over 140 TB of data from extensive ground-based and airborne instruments. The metadata and documentation requirements necessary for proper archive and dissemination of such transect-based, and often 3-dimensional, airborne data are quite different from traditional field campaign data and satellite remote sensing data streams. Staff at the ORNL DAAC have developed a metadata and data infrastructure for airborne data that enables spatial or keyword-based search and discovery, integration of related satellite- or ground-based data sets, and subsetting and visualization tools for both CARVE and AirMOSS. Here we discuss challenges, progress, and lessons learned.

  20. Tropical deep convection, entrainment, and dilution during the dynamo field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannah, Walter

    This dissertation presents a study of outstanding questions in tropical meteorology relating to tropical deep convection, entrainment, and dilution. Much of the discussion in this study will focus on an important convectively-coupled phenomenon in the tropical atmosphere known as the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO), which is an eastward propagating atmospheric disturbance over the Indian and West Pacific Oceans that dominates the tropical variability on intraseasonal timescales (30-90 days). A field campaign known as the "Dynamics of the MJO" (DYNAMO) was conducted in the boreal winter months from October 2011 through February 2012 to study the initialization of the MJO with in-situ observations. The first part of this study examines hindcast simulations of the first two MJO events during DYNAMO in a general circulation model (GCM). The model used for this is the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5) version 5, which uses parameterized convection. In these simulations, an entrainment rate parameter is varied to test its effects on the representation of the MJO, following previous studies. Hindcast simulations with CAM5 reveal that the entrainment parameter can improve the representation of the MJO. However, analysis of the column integrated moist static energy (MSE) budget reveals that this improvement is the right answer for the wrong reason. CAM5 incorrectly enhances vertical MSE advection, which compensates for cloud radiative feedbacks that are too weak. A promising theory for the MJOs fundamental dynamics is that of a moisture mode. The second part of the study examines hindcasts using the super-parameterized version of CAM5 (SP-CAM) that uses embedded cloud-resolving models (CRM) to explicitly simulate convection on the sub-grid scale. SP-CAM was used for these hindcast simulations because previous studies have shown this type of model can reproduce the MJO much better than conventional GCMs. SP-CAM hindcasts yield

  1. EuroMoonMars Field Campaign: Geology traverse planning using orbital sub-m imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svendsen, Åse; van't Woud, Hans; Samurovic, Dejan; Nebergall, Kent; Battler, Melissa; Orgel, Csilla; Stoker, Carol; Tolboom, Iwan; Foing, Bernard; Team EuroMoonMars

    2013-04-01

    Most of the information we have from Moon and Mars surface, comes from satellite observations. During the selection of landing sites and planning of traverses on unfamiliar planetary sites, satellite images of high resolution is crucial. But what information are we missing from these images? What kind of surprises can be expected when exploring an area that has only been investigated from satellite images? During ILEWG EuroMoonMars 2013 campaign at MDRS Utah we made a comparative study where we looked at satellite images with a spatial resolution of 50-60 cm per pixel, something that is comparable to the resolution of MRO HiRise on Mars or LROC on the Moon. We then planned traverses at MDRS that were as similar to geomorphological features seen at the Gale crater as possible. Following this, we explored these traverses with a rover, drone and walked them in a Mars EVA simulation mode, before taking rocks and soil samples. We shal also discuss the usability of a drone for imaging reconnaissance. The poster will present the results, experiences and lessons learnt from this campaign concerning geological traverse planning based on high resolution satellite images.

  2. 3-D visualization of ensemble weather forecasts - Part 2: Forecasting warm conveyor belt situations for aircraft-based field campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rautenhaus, M.; Grams, C. M.; Schäfler, A.; Westermann, R.

    2015-02-01

    We present the application of interactive 3-D visualization of ensemble weather predictions to forecasting warm conveyor belt situations during aircraft-based atmospheric research campaigns. Motivated by forecast requirements of the T-NAWDEX-Falcon 2012 campaign, a method to predict 3-D probabilities of the spatial occurrence of warm conveyor belts has been developed. Probabilities are derived from Lagrangian particle trajectories computed on the forecast wind fields of the ECMWF ensemble prediction system. Integration of the method into the 3-D ensemble visualization tool Met.3D, introduced in the first part of this study, facilitates interactive visualization of WCB features and derived probabilities in the context of the ECMWF ensemble forecast. We investigate the sensitivity of the method with respect to trajectory seeding and forecast wind field resolution. Furthermore, we propose a visual analysis method to quantitatively analyse the contribution of ensemble members to a probability region and, thus, to assist the forecaster in interpreting the obtained probabilities. A case study, revisiting a forecast case from T-NAWDEX-Falcon, illustrates the practical application of Met.3D and demonstrates the use of 3-D and uncertainty visualization for weather forecasting and for planning flight routes in the medium forecast range (three to seven days before take-off).

  3. Missing Halocarbon Source? Data from a Recent New England Landfill Field Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodson, E. L.; Prinn, R.

    2005-12-01

    Anthropogenic emissions of long-lived halocarbons, namely chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), hydrofluorocarbons (HCFCs), methyl chloroform (CH3CCl3), and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) represent the largest source of atmospheric chlorine. All of these gases with the exception of the HCFCs are banned under the Montreal Protocol from being produced within the US or imported into the US. Several recent studies indicate that lingering emissions of these compounds are occurring around urban areas in the US. One possible source for these emissions is leakage from landfills. Landfill emissions are not currently considered explicitly in the published industry based global estimations of emissions for these gases. Previous studies have been done in the UK and suggested that this leakage may be significant (on the order of 1 Gg/year in the UK) in comparison with industry emissions estimates, but no measurement based estimates of Montreal Protocol gas emissions from US landfills have been previously reported. To further investigate this idea, flask samples were taken during the winter of 2004 at two Eastern Massachusetts landfills and during the summer of 2004 at four landfills in southwestern Britain. These studies showed more data was needed to create clear regression relationships between the landfill parameters (waste composition, landfill age, and total trash volume) and halocarbon gas emissions of CFC-12, CFC-11, CFC-113, and CH3CCl3. In a movement towards creating the necessary database of measurements, an intensive Fall 2005 landfill measurement campaign was conducted in New England. The results from this campaign will be presented, analyzed and compared to our results from the above two 2004 investigations.

  4. Recent Data Campaigns and Results from the Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor (LVIS): An Airborne, Medium-Footprint, Full-Waveform, Swath Mapping Laser Altimeter System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blair, J. B.; Hofton, M. A.; Rabine, D. L.; Luthcke, S. B.; Greim, H.

    2005-12-01

    The Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor (LVIS) is an airborne, medium-sized footprint laser altimeter system. By digitally recording the shape of the returning laser pulse (waveform), LVIS provides a precise and accurate view of the vertical structure within each footprint/pixel including both the sub-canopy and canopy-top topography. Applications of LVIS data include biomass estimation for a wide variety of forest types, ground surface change detection for tectonic studies, mapping sea surface topography to assist in coastal hazard assessment, and hydrology studies utilizing sub-canopy topography in densely forested regions. Since 1998, LVIS data have been collected in various areas of New Hampshire, Maine, Massachusetts, California, Maryland, Panama and Costa Rica. The data calibration and geolocation processing system utilizes a formal Bayesian least-squares-estimation of pointing, ranging and timing parameters based on a batch reduction of altimeter range residuals. Data are released publicly on the LVIS website at http://lvis.gsfc.nasa.gov. Results show data precisions of <50 cm are routinely achieved in all forest types and <5 cm in bare ground conditions. Because of its unique capability to simultaneously map vegetation and sub-canopy ground topography, LVIS data can be used to assess the accuracy of other remote sensing systems. For example, ground and canopy top elevations generated by LVIS were used to assess the accuracy of Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) elevations at study sites with different levels of relief and land cover type. Results showed that the mean vertical offset between the SRTM elevations and LVIS ground elevations varied with landcover type and study site location. Comparisons between LVIS and ICESat will also be presented.

  5. Wind Profiling from a High Energy, Pulsed, 2-Micron, Coherent-Detection Doppler Lidar during Field Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, U. N.; Koch, G. J.; Kavaya, M. J.; Yu, J.; Beyon, J. Y.; Demoz, B.

    2009-12-01

    NASA Langley Research Center has a long history of developing 2-micron laser transmitter for wind sensing. With support from NASA Laser Risk Reduction Program (LRRP) and Instrument Incubator Program (IIP), NASA Langley Research Center has developed a state-of-the-art compact lidar transceiver for a pulsed coherent Doppler lidar system for wind measurement. The transmitter portion of the transceiver employs the high-pulse-energy, Ho:Tm:LuLiF, partially conductively cooled laser technology developed at NASA Langley. The transceiver is capable of 250 mJ pulses at 10 Hz. It is very similar to the technology envisioned for coherent Doppler lidar wind measurements from Earth and Mars orbit. The transceiver is coupled to the large optics and data acquisition system in the NASA Langley VALIDAR mobile trailer. The large optics consists of a 15-cm off-axis beam expanding telescope, and a full-hemispheric scanner. Vertical and horizontal vector winds are measured, as well as relative backscatter. The data acquisition system employs frequency domain velocity estimation and pulse accumulation. It permits real-time display of the processed winds and archival of all data. The LaRC mobile lidar was deployed at Howard University facility in Beltsville, Maryland as part of NASA HQ funded (ROSES-2007, Wind Lidar Science Proposal entitled “Intercomparison of Multiple Lidars for Wind Measurements). During the campaign, testing of the lidar was combined with a field campaign to operate a 2-μm coherent lidar alongside a 355-nm direct detection lidar to demonstrate the hybrid wind lidar concept. Besides lidar, many other meteorological sensors were located at the campaign site, including wind measuring balloon sondes, sonic and propeller anemometers mounted on a tower, and a 915-MHz radio acoustic sounding system. Comparisons among these wind measurement sensors are currently being analyzed and should be available for presentation at the Conference.

  6. SeaWiFS Postlaunch Technical Report Series. Volume 3; The SeaBOARR-98 Field Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zibordi, Giuseppe; Lazin, Gordana; McLean, Scott; Firestone, Elaine R. (Editor); Hooker, Stanford B. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    This report documents the scientific activities during the first Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) Bio-Optical Algorithm Round-Robin (SeaBOARR-98) experiment, which took place from 5-17 July 1998, at the Acqua Alta Oceanographic Tower (AAOT) in the northern Adriatic Sea off the coast of Italy. The ultimate objective of the SeaBOARR activity is to evaluate the effect of different measurement protocols on bio-optical algorithms using data from a variety of field campaigns. The SeaBOARR-98 field campaign was concerned with collecting a high quality data set of simultaneous in-water and above-water radiometric measurements. The deployment goals documented in this report were to: a) use four different surface glint correction methods to compute water-leaving radiances, L W (lambda), from above-water data; b) use two different in-water profiling systems and three different methods to compute L W (lambda) from in-water data (one making measurements at a fixed distance from the tower, 7.5 m, and the other at variable distances up to 29 m away); c) use instruments with a common calibration history to minimize intercalibration uncertainties; d) monitor the calibration drift of the instruments in the field with a second generation SeaWiFS Quality Monitor (SQM-II), to separate differences in methods from changes in instrument performance; and e) compare the L W (lambda) values estimated from the above-water and in-water measurements. In addition to describing the instruments deployed and the data collected, a preliminary analysis of the data is presented, and the kind of follow-on work that is needed to completely assess the estimation of L W (lambda) from above-water and in-water measurements is discussed.

  7. Ambient Observations of the Soot Aging Process during the SHARP Intensive Field Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, C.; Collins, D. R.; Khalizov, A. F.; Zheng, J.; Zhang, R.

    2009-12-01

    Soot aerosols affect climate both directly through absorption of solar radiation and indirectly by potentially serving as cloud condensation nuclei. Among the sources of uncertainty surrounding the effects of soot aerosol on the environment is the lack of scientific insight into the soot aging process, in which soot particles develop a coating of secondary species such as sulfates, ammonium, nitrate, and organics. Such processes may alter the behavior of soot by modifying particle morphology over time leading to changes in chemical, physical and scattering properties of the aerosol. However, it is often difficult to quantify such processes in the ambient environment due to the complex composition and spatial and temporal variability of the atmospheric aerosol. In order to better understand the effects of the environment on soot particles, it is desirable to study the processes responsible for their transformation in the ambient air without influence from variability in source region and history prior to sampling. To achieve this, the overall soot aging process in the ambient environment was physically isolated utilizing environmental chambers. Chamber measurements were conducted on the Moody Tower at the University of Houston using The Ambient Aerosol Chamber for Evolution Studies (AACES) during the SHARP campaign. AACES is a roughly cubical chamber constructed of a rigid acrylic outer shell, which transmits UV radiation both in the UV-B and UV-A ranges. FEP Teflon lines the inside of the chamber on all sides and the top, while expanded-PTFE (ePTFE) Teflon is used on the bottom of the chamber. The fibrous structure of the ePTFE acts as a barrier to particulates, while allowing gas molecules to move virtually unimpeded from the surrounding air into the chamber, creating an environment inside the chamber that is initially free of particles and continuously mimics the local ambient air. In order to study the effects of the soot aging process, a non-premixed propane

  8. Absence of Biogenic New Particle Formation in the Southern U.S. during the 2013 SOAS Field Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uin, J.; You, Y.; Sierra-Hernández, M.; Guenther, A. B.; Brune, W. H.; Misztal, P. K.; Baumann, K.; Isaacman, G. A.; Goldstein, A. H.; Edgerton, E.; Lee, S.

    2013-12-01

    One of the main goals of the Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS) field campaign was to investigate the SOA formation mechanisms in the biogenic environment under anthropogenic influences. The SOAS campaign took place in a mixed deciduous forest near Centerville, Alabama between June 1 and July 15, 2013. To study the biogenic new particle formation (NPF) mechanism, Kent State University deployed two chemical ionization mass spectrometers (CIMS) to measure concentrations of gas phase sulfuric acid, amines and ammonia; additionally, two TSI SMPSs and an Airmodus particle size magnifier (PSM) were used to together measure the ambient aerosol size distributions in the range from 1-800 nm. Data were continuously collected during the 6 weeks of the campaign period, but only two clear particle growth events were observed. During both events, concentrations of sulfuric acid were high. When there were no NPF events, sulfuric acid concentrations were sometimes high (even during the night) and there were also sufficient amounts of ammonia and amines in the gas phase. These key nucleation precursors together with low condensation sinks should have provided a reasonable condition for NPF. The PTR-TOFMS (by NCAR and UC-Berkley) measurements showed that the ratio of isoprene to monoterpene carbon concentrations was consistently higher than 1 during the campaign period. The laser induced fluorescence (LIF by Penn State) measured-OH concentrations were at the high e5 and low e6 molecules per cubic centimeter range, which should have been sufficient for BVOCs oxidation to lead to NPF. These results are consistent with a previous study in the Michigan forest [Kanawade et al., 2011: Isoprene suppression of new particle formation in a mixed deciduous forest, ACP, 11, 6013], which showed that biogenic NPF was suppressed by high emissions of isoprene without OH depletion. But the chemical mechanisms behind the absence of NPF in mixed forests need to be further investigated. The PSM

  9. Heavy-Duty Vehicle Emissions in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area during the MCMA-2003 Field Measurement Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavala, M.; Dunlea, E. J.; Marr, L.; Slott, R. S.; Molina, L. T.; Molina, M. J.; Herndon, S. C.; Jayne, J. T.; Shorter, J. H.; Worsnop, D.; Zahniser, M.; Onasch, T.; Kolb, C. E.; Rogers, T.; Knighton, B.

    2004-12-01

    On-road vehicle emissions were measured in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) as part of an intensive, five-week, field campaign held in the spring of 2003 (April 1 - May 5). Vehicle emissions measurements were made during vehicle chase experiments using the Aerodyne Mobile Laboratory. The mobile lab was equipped with a large suite of state-of-the-art analytical instruments for measuring both gas and particle phase chemical components from vehicle emissions in real time. The experiment represents a real-world sample of more than 200 in-use vehicles. The results presented here focus on heavy-duty gasoline (HDGT) and heavy-duty diesel trucks (HDDT), although measurements included pick up trucks, colectivos (microbuses), and private automobiles as well. The use of covariance and fitting methods for individual species vs. CO2 allows the estimation of individual emission ratios in a real time plume-based analysis. The variability of emission ratios within a vehicle class and during different driving modes (acceleration, idling, etc.) are explored. Results are reported as molar emission ratios of emission gases with carbon dioxide. These and other vehicle-related emissions measured during the campaign will be presented and discussed. These types of studies are important for the development of emission inventories and their use in air quality modeling studies in urban areas.

  10. Light-absorbing Aerosol Properties in the Kathmandu Valley during SusKat-ABC Field Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S.; Yoon, S.; Kim, J.; Cho, C.; Jung, J.

    2013-12-01

    Light-absorbing aerosols, such as black carbon (BC), are major contributors to the atmospheric heating and the reduction of solar radiation reaching at the earth's surface. In this study, we investigate light-absorption and scattering properties of aerosols (i.e., BC mass concentration, aerosol solar-absorption/scattering efficiency) in the Kathmandu valley during Sustainable atmosphere for the Kathmandu valley (SusKat)-ABC campaign, from December 2012 to February 2013. Kathmandu City is among the most polluted cities in the world. However, there are only few past studies that provide basic understanding of air pollution in the Kathmandu Valley, which is not sufficient for designing effective mitigation measures (e.g., technological, financial, regulatory, legal and political measures, planning strategies). A distinct diurnal variation of BC mass concentration with two high peaks observed during wintertime dry monsoon period. BC mass concentration was found to be maximum around 09:00 and 20:00 local standard time (LST). Increased cars and cooking activities including substantial burning of wood and other biomass in the morning and in the evening contributed to high BC concentration. Low BC concentrations during the daytime can be explain by reduced vehicular movement and cooking activities. Also, the developmements of the boundary layer height and mountain-valley winds in the Kathmandu Valley paly a crucial role in the temproal variation of BC mass concentrations. Detailed radiative effects of light-absorbing aerosols will be presented.

  11. Mercury's Internal Magnetic Field: Results from MESSENGER's Low-altitude Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, C. L.; Purucker, M. E.; Philpott, L. C.; Korth, H.; Anderson, B. J.; Winslow, R. M.; Al Asad, M.; Nicholas, J. B.; Tsyganenko, N. A.; Hauck, S. A., II; Head, J. W., III; Phillips, R. J.; Solomon, S. C.

    2014-12-01

    Magnetic field measurements made by the MESSENGER spacecraft in orbit around Mercury have shown that, to first order, Mercury's internal field can be described by an axially aligned dipole, offset by 479 km north of the geographic equator (the offset axial dipole, hereafter OAD). Near-periapsis MESSENGER magnetic field measurements at altitudes less than 200 km have been obtained since April 2014. We use these observations, together with higher altitude data from orbits that have been characterized with low magnetic activity , to identify non-OAD internal field structure and to establish whether it is of crustal and/or core origin. Magnetospheric models developed with MESSENGER data allow estimated contributions from magnetopause, magnetotail, and OAD fields to be subtracted from vector magnetic field measurements, and the sources of residual signatures to be examined. For measurements made at spacecraft altitudes above 200 km, determining the magnitude and sources of additional regional and global-scale contributions to the internal field has been challenging because of MESSENGER's orbit geometry and because the residuals are dominated by additional external fields that are organized in the local time frame and that vary with magnetospheric activity. After accounting for the large-scale magnetospheric fields, any additional external field contributions to the residual fields are estimated empirically in the local time frame. We investigate crustal and core contributions to the remaining signals, in particular to the low altitude signals, by examining repeatability in the body-fixed frame and using global (spherical harmonic) and local (equivalent source dipole) basis functions with regularization. Crustal sources associated with large-scale regional geological provinces such as the northern lowlands, the northern rise, and major impact basins are investigated and equivalent spherical harmonic core/crustal field spectra computed.

  12. Intercomparison of field measurements of nitrous acid (HONO) during the SHARP campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto, J. P.; Dibb, J.; Lee, B. H.; Rappenglück, B.; Wood, E. C.; Levy, M.; Zhang, R.-Y.; Lefer, B.; Ren, X.-R.; Stutz, J.; Tsai, C.; Ackermann, L.; Golovko, J.; Herndon, S. C.; Oakes, M.; Meng, Q.-Y.; Munger, J. W.; Zahniser, M.; Zheng, J.

    2014-05-01

    Because of the importance of HONO as a radical reservoir, consistent and accurate measurements of its concentration are needed. As part of SHARP (Study of Houston Atmospheric Radical Precursors), time series of HONO were obtained by six different measurement techniques on the roof of the Moody Tower at the University of Houston. Techniques used were long path differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS), stripping coil-visible absorption photometry (SC-AP), long path absorption photometry (LOPAP®), mist chamber/ion chromatography (MC-IC), quantum cascade-tunable infrared laser differential absorption spectroscopy (QC-TILDAS), and ion drift-chemical ionization mass spectrometry (ID-CIMS). Various combinations of techniques were in operation from 15 April through 31 May 2009. All instruments recorded a similar diurnal pattern of HONO concentrations with higher median and mean values during the night than during the day. Highest values were observed in the final 2 weeks of the campaign. Inlets for the MC-IC, SC-AP, and QC-TILDAS were collocated and agreed most closely with each other based on several measures. Largest differences between pairs of measurements were evident during the day for concentrations < ~100 parts per trillion (ppt). Above ~ 200 ppt, concentrations from the SC-AP, MC-IC, and QC-TILDAS converged to within about 20%, with slightly larger discrepancies when DOAS was considered. During the first 2 weeks, HONO measured by ID-CIMS agreed with these techniques, but ID-CIMS reported higher values during the afternoon and evening of the final 4 weeks, possibly from interference from unknown sources. A number of factors, including building related sources, likely affected measured concentrations.

  13. Large Eddy Simulations of Continental Boundary Layer Clouds Observed during the RACORO Field Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endo, S.; Fridlind, A. M.; Lin, W.; Vogelmann, A. M.; Toto, T.; Liu, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Three cases of boundary layer clouds are analyzed in the FAst-physics System TEstbed and Research (FASTER) project, based on continental boundary-layer-cloud observations during the RACORO Campaign [Routine Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Aerial Facility (AAF) Clouds with Low Optical Water Depths (CLOWD) Optical Radiative Observations] at the ARM Climate Research Facility's Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. The three 60-hour case study periods are selected to capture the temporal evolution of cumulus, stratiform, and drizzling boundary-layer cloud systems under a range of conditions, intentionally including those that are relatively more mixed or transitional in nature versus being of a purely canonical type. Multi-modal and temporally varying aerosol number size distribution profiles are derived from aircraft observations. Large eddy simulations (LESs) are performed for the three case study periods using the GISS Distributed Hydrodynamic Aerosol and Radiative Modeling Application (DHARMA) model and the WRF-FASTER model, which is the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model implemented with forcing ingestion and other functions to constitute a flexible LES. The two LES models commonly capture the significant transitions of cloud-topped boundary layers in the three periods: diurnal evolution of cumulus layers repeating over multiple days, nighttime evolution/daytime diminution of thick stratus, and daytime breakup of stratus and stratocumulus clouds. Simulated transitions of thermodynamic structures of the cloud-topped boundary layers are examined by balloon-borne soundings and ground-based remote sensors. Aircraft observations are then used to statistically evaluate the predicted cloud droplet number size distributions under varying aerosol and cloud conditions. An ensemble approach is used to refine the model configuration for the combined use of observations with parallel LES and single-column model simulations. See Lin et al. poster for single

  14. Variability among stars in the M 67 field from Kepler/K2-Campaign-5 light curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, Guillermo

    2016-06-01

    We examine the photometric variability of stars in the M 67 field using Kepler/K2-Campaign-5 light curves. Variabilities and periods were determined for 639 stars. The mean photometric period of 28 single Sun-like members stars in M 67 is 23.4 ± 1.2 d. This corresponds to a gyro-age of 3.7 ± 0.3 Gyr, assuming the periods can be associated with rotation. The intrinsic variabilities of the solar analogues are greater than the Sun's variability, as measure from VIRGO fluxes. We also find evidence that the single cluster members have a different distribution of variability than the binary members.

  15. Momentum and Turbulent Kinetic Energy Budgets Within the Park Avenue Street Canyon During the Joint Urban 2003 Field Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Matthew A.; Pardyjak, Eric R.; Klein, Petra

    2011-07-01

    Very few attempts have so far been made to quantify the momentum and turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) budgets within real urban canopies. In this study, sonic anemometer data obtained during the Joint Urban 2003 field campaign in Oklahoma City, U.S.A. were used for calculating the momentum and TKE budgets within a real-world urban street canyon. Sonic anemometers were deployed on multiple towers in the lower half of the canyon. Gradients in all three principal directions were included in the analyses. The storage and buoyancy terms were found to have negligible contributions to both the momentum and TKE budgets. The momentum budgets were generally found to be more complex than a simple balance of two physical processes. The horizontal terms were found to have significant and sometimes dominant contributions to the momentum and TKE budgets.

  16. Analyzing Trace Gas Measurements to Understand Convective Dynamics: Results from SEAC4RS Field Campaign and Mozaic Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Z. J.; Pyo, S.; Shah, N.

    2014-12-01

    Deep convective updrafts transport air parcels from near the PBL to the upper troposphere in about 20-30 min. At this time scale, most insoluble trace gases (e.g., ozone, some VOCs) can be treated as nearly conserved tracers. While the atmospheric chemistry community is most interested in the chemical consequences of the trace gases being lofted, these composition measurements, if sampled properly inside and near convection, can be utilized to study convective dynamics including lateral entrainment and mixing in the outflow. We will use measurements made from a recent NASA field campaign, SEAC4RS to illustrate how such studies can be conducted. Also, we analyzed long-term data from MOZAIC project to corroborate the findings from SEAC4RS. It will be shown that using trace gases to diagnose convective dynamics sometimes has certain advantages over the traditional meteorological approach using, e.g., equivalent potential temperature.

  17. Ground-based tunable diode laser measurements of formaldehyde: improvements in system performance and recent field campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fried, Alan; Sewell, Scott D.; Henry, Bruce E.; Wert, Bryan P.; Drummond, James R.

    1996-10-01

    Formaldehyde (HCHO) is an important reactive intermediate in atmospheric studies. Accurate measurements of HCHO are required to constrain and validate photochemical models. Despite this importance, there is still considerable uncertainty in present ambient measurements of this gas as well as in measurement-model relationships. The present paper discusses the long-term effort at NCAR to develop, employ, and validate a highly sensitive tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer (TDLAS) for ambient measurements of HCHO. A detailed analysis of measurement precision will be presented and performance improvements using rapid background subtraction, FFT filtering, and scan-by-scan demeaning will be discussed. This paper will conclude with a brief discussion of recent photochemistry and intercomparison field campaigns employing the TDLAS.

  18. Ground-based tunable diode laser measurements of formaldehyde: Improvements in system performance and recent field campaigns

    SciTech Connect

    Fried, A.; Sewell, S.; Henry, B.; Wert, B.P.; Drummond, J.R.

    1996-12-31

    Formaldehyde (HCHO) is an important reactive intermediate in atmospheric studies. Accurate measurements of HCHO are required to constrain and validate photochemical models. Despite this importance, there is still considerable uncertainty in present ambient measurements of this gas as well as in measurement-model relationships. The present paper discusses the long-term effort at NCAR to develop, employ, and validate a highly sensitive tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer (TDLAS) for ambient measurements of HCHO. A detailed analysis of measurement precision will be presented and performance improvements using rapid background subtraction, FFT filtering, and scan-by-scan demeaning will be discussed. This paper will conclude with a brief discussion of recent photochemistry and intercomparison field campaigns employing the TDLAS.

  19. Modeling studies on the formation of Hurricane Helene: the impact of GPS dropwindsondes from the NAMMA 2006 field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folmer, Michael J.; Pasken, Robert W.; Chiao, Sen; Dunion, Jason; Halverson, Jeffrey

    2016-04-01

    Numerical simulations, using the weather research and forecasting (WRF) model in concert with GPS dropwindsondes released during the NASA African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analyses 2006 Field Campaign, were conducted to provide additional insight on SAL-TC interaction. Using NCEP Final analysis datasets to initialize the WRF, a sensitivity test was performed on the assimilated (i.e., observation nudging) GPS dropwindsondes to understand the effects of individual variables (i.e., moisture, temperature, and winds) on the simulation and determine the extent of improvement when compared to available observations. The results suggested that GPS dropwindsonde temperature data provided the most significant difference in the simulated storm organization, storm strength, and synoptic environment, but all of the variables assimilated at the same time give a more representative mesoscale and synoptic picture.

  20. Airborne laser scanning for high-resolution mapping of Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Csatho, Bea; Schenk, Toni; Krabill, William; Wilson, Terry; Lyons, William; McKenzie, Garry; Hallam, Cheryl; Manizade, Serdar; Paulsen, Timothy

    In order to evaluate the potential of airborne laser scanning for topographic mapping in Antarctica and to establish calibration/validation sites for NASA's Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) altimeter mission, NASA, the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF), and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) joined forces to collect high-resolution airborne laser scanning data.In a two-week campaign during the 2001-2002 austral summer, NASA's Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM) system was used to collect data over several sites in the McMurdo Sound area of Antarctica (Figure 1a). From the recorded signals, NASA computed laser points and The Ohio State University (OSU) completed the elaborate computation/verification of high-resolution Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) in 2003. This article reports about the DEM generation and some exemplary results from scientists using the geomorphologic information from the DEMs during the 2003-2004 field season.

  1. Low- and mid-latitude ionospheric electric fields during the January 1984 GISMOS campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fejer, B. G.; Kelley, M. C.; Senior, C.; De La Beaujardiere, O.; Lepping, R.

    1990-01-01

    The electrical coupling between the high-, middle-, and low-latitude ionospheres during January 17-19, 1984 is examined, using interplanetary and high-latitude magnetic field data together with F region plasma drift measurements from the EISCAT, Sondre Stromfjord, Millstone Hill, Saint-Santin, Arecibo, and Jicamarca incoherent scatter radars. The penetration both the zonal and meridional electric field components of high-latitude origin into the low-latitude and the equatorial ionospheres are studied. The observations in the postmidnight sector are used to compare the longitudinal variations of the zonal perturbation electric field with predictions made from global convection models. The results show that the meridional electric field perturbations are considerably more attenuated with decreasing latitude than the zonal fluctuations. It is concluded that variations in the meridional electric field at low latitudes are largely due to dynamo effects.

  2. Mechanisms of Convective Cloud Organization by Cold Pools over Tropical Warm Ocean during the AMIE/DYNAMO Field Campaign

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Zhe; Hagos, Samson M.; Rowe, Angela; Burleyson, Casey D.; Martini, Matus; de Szoeke, S.

    2015-06-01

    This paper investigates the mechanisms of convective cloud organization by precipitation-driven cold pools over the warm tropical Indian Ocean during the 2011 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) Investigation Experiment / Dynamics of the MJO (AMIE/DYNAMO) field campaign. A high-resolution regional model simulation is performed using the Weather Research and Forecasting model during the transition from suppressed to active phases of the November 2011 MJO. The simulated cold pool lifetimes, spatial extent and thermodynamic properties agree well with the radar and ship-borne observations from the field campaign. The thermodynamic and dynamic structures of the outflow boundaries of isolated and intersecting cold pools in the simulation and the associated secondary cloud populations are examined. Intersecting cold pools last more than twice as long, are twice as large, 41% more intense (measured by buoyancy), and 62% deeper than isolated cold pools. Consequently, intersecting cold pools trigger 73% more convective clouds than isolated ones. This is possibly due to stronger outflows that enhance secondary updraft velocities by up to 45%. However, cold pool-triggered convective clouds grow into deep convection not because of the stronger secondary updrafts at cloud base, but rather due to closer spacing (aggregation) between clouds and larger cloud clusters that formed along the cold pool boundaries when they intersect. The close spacing of large clouds moistens the local environment and reduces entrainment drying, allowing the clouds to further develop into deep convection. Implications to the design of future convective parameterization with cold pool-modulated entrainment rates are discussed.

  3. Modeling the weekly cycle of NOx and CO emissions and their impacts on O3 in the Los Angeles-South Coast Air Basin during the CalNex 2010 field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S.-W.; McDonald, B. C.; Baidar, S.; Brown, S. S.; Dube, B.; Ferrare, R. A.; Frost, G. J.; Harley, R. A.; Holloway, J. S.; Lee, H.-J.; McKeen, S. A.; Neuman, J. A.; Nowak, J. B.; Oetjen, H.; Ortega, I.; Pollack, I. B.; Roberts, J. M.; Ryerson, T. B.; Scarino, A. J.; Senff, C. J.; Thalman, R.; Trainer, M.; Volkamer, R.; Wagner, N.; Washenfelder, R. A.; Waxman, E.; Young, C. J.

    2016-02-01

    We developed a new nitrogen oxide (NOx) and carbon monoxide (CO) emission inventory for the Los Angeles-South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB) expanding the Fuel-based Inventory for motor-Vehicle Emissions and applied it in regional chemical transport modeling focused on the California Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change (CalNex) 2010 field campaign. The weekday NOx emission over the SoCAB in 2010 is 620 t d-1, while the weekend emission is 410 t d-1. The NOx emission decrease on weekends is caused by reduced diesel truck activities. Weekday and weekend CO emissions over this region are similar: 2340 and 2180 t d-1, respectively. Previous studies reported large discrepancies between the airborne observations of NOx and CO mixing ratios and the model simulations for CalNex based on the available bottom-up emission inventories. Utilizing the newly developed emission inventory in this study, the simulated NOx and CO mixing ratios agree with the observations from the airborne and the ground-based in situ and remote sensing instruments during the field study. The simulations also reproduce the weekly cycles of these chemical species. Both the observations and the model simulations indicate that decreased NOx on weekends leads to enhanced photochemistry and increase of O3 and Ox (=O3 + NO2) in the basin. The emission inventory developed in this study can be extended to different years and other urban regions in the U.S. to study the long-term trends in O3 and its precursors with regional chemical transport models.

  4. Aerosol Optical Extinction during the Front Range Air Pollution and Photochemistry Experiment (FRAPPE) 2014 Summertime Field Campaign, Colorado U.S.A.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dingle, J. H.; Vu, K. K. T.; Bahreini, R.; Apel, E. C.; Campos, T. L.; Cantrell, C. A.; Cohen, R. C.; Ebben, C. J.; Flocke, F. M.; Fried, A.; Herndon, S. C.; Hills, A. J.; Hornbrook, R. S.; Huey, L. G.; Kaser, L.; Mauldin, L.; Montzka, D. D.; Nowak, J. B.; Richter, D.; Roscioli, J. R.; Shertz, S.; Stell, M. H.; Tanner, D.; Tyndall, G. S.; Walega, J.; Weibring, P.; Weinheimer, A. J.

    2015-12-01

    Aerosol optical extinction (βext) was measured in the Colorado Front Range Denver Metropolitan Area as part of the summertime air quality airborne field campaign to characterize the influence of sources, photochemical processing, and transport of pollution on local air quality. An Aerodyne Cavity Attenuated Phase Shift particle light extinction monitor (CAPS-PMex) was deployed to measure dry βext at λ=632 nm at 1 Hz. Data from a suite of gas-phase instrumentation were used to interpret the βext under various categories of aged air masses and sources. Extinction enhancement ratios of Δβext/ΔCO were evaluated under 3 differently aged air mass categories (fresh, intermediately aged, and aged) to investigate impacts of photochemistry on βext. Δβext/ΔCO was significantly increased in heavily aged air masses compared to fresh air masses (0.17 Mm-1/ppbv and 0.094 Mm-1/ppbv respectively). The resulting increase in Δβext/ΔCO under heavily aged air masses was represented by secondary organic aerosols (SOA) formation. Aerosol composition and sources from urban, natural oil and gas wells (OG), and agriculture and livestock operations were also evaluated for their impacts on βext. Linear regression fits to βext vs. organic aerosol mass showed higher correlation coefficients under the urban and OG plumes (r=0.55 and r=0.71 respectively) and weakest under agricultural and livestock plumes (r=0.28). The correlation between βext and nitrate aerosol mass however was best under the agriculture and livestock plumes (r=0.81), followed by OG plumes (r=0.74), suggesting co-location of aerosol nitrate precursor sources with OG emissions. Finally, non-refractory mass extinction efficiency (MEE) was analyzed. MEE was observed to be 1.37 g/m2 and 1.30 g/m2 in OG and urban+OG plumes, respectively.

  5. Off-axis measurements of atmospheric trace gases by use of an airborne ultraviolet-visible spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Petritoli, Andrea; Ravegnani, Fabrizio; Giovanelli, Giorgio; Bortoli, Daniele; Bonafè, Ubaldo; Kostadinov, Ivan; Oulanovsky, Alexey

    2002-09-20

    An airborne UV-visible spectrometer, the Gas Analyzer Spectrometer Correlating Optical Differences, airborne version (GASCOD/A4pi) was successfully operated during the Airborne Polar Experiment, Geophysica Aircraft in Antarctica airborne campaign from Ushuaia (54 degrees 49' S, 68 degrees 18' W), Argentina in southern spring 1999. The instrument measured scattered solar radiation through three optical windows with a narrow field of view (FOV), one from the zenith, two from the horizontal, as well as actinic fluxes through 2pi FOV radiometric heads. Only a few airborne measurements of scattered solar radiation at different angles from the zenith are available in the literature. With our configuration we attempted to obtain the average line-of-sight concentrations of detectable trace gases. The retrieval method, based on differential optical absorption spectroscopy, is described and results for ozone are shown and compared with measurements from an in situ instrument as the first method of validation. PMID:12269557

  6. Off-axis measurements of atmospheric trace gases by use of an airborne ultraviolet-visible spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petritoli, Andrea; Ravegnani, Fabrizio; Giovanelli, Giorgio; Bortoli, Daniele; Bonafè, Ubaldo; Kostadinov, Ivan; Oulanovsky, Alexey

    2002-09-01

    An airborne UV-visible spectrometer, the Gas Analyzer Spectrometer Correlating Optical Differences, airborne version (GASCOD/A4π) was successfully operated during the Airborne Polar Experiment, Geophysica Aircraft in Antarctica airborne campaign from Ushuaia (54°49'S, 68°18'W), Argentina in southern spring 1999. The instrument measured scattered solar radiation through three optical windows with a narrow field of view (FOV), one from the zenith, two from the horizontal, as well as actinic fluxes through 2π FOV radiometric heads. Only a few airborne measurements of scattered solar radiation at different angles from the zenith are available in the literature. With our configuration we attempted to obtain the average line-of-sight concentrations of detectable trace gases. The retrieval method, based on differential optical absorption spectroscopy, is described and results for ozone are shown and compared with measurements from an in situ instrument as the first method of validation.

  7. Fast, multi-phase H2O measurements on board of HALO: Results from the novel HAI instrument during the first field campaigns.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchholz, Bernhard; Afchine, Armin; Krämer, Martina; Ebert, Volker

    2014-05-01

    in a so called "closed-path" cell [6] for total water measurement via a forward facing inlet. The other part of the laser light is coupled to an "open-path" cell [7] placed outside of the aircraft fuselage to measure gas phase water without any possible artifacts from ice or liquid particles. The frequency of the measurements can be up to 240 Hz (4.2 msec) for all four channels. Altogether, the novel HAI instrument allows fast, accurate and precise dual-phase water measurements. The individual evaluation of the multi-channel raw-data is done afterwards, without any channel interdependencies, in a calibration-free mode. The water signals are combined with an extensive set of more than 100 housekeeping data to enable a holistic data quality management and a rigorous signal scrutiny to maximize the confidence level of the final H2O values. HAI therefore represents a new unique research tool for atmospheric hygrometry to address numerous open topics in atmospheric research. First scientific HAI campaigns have been successfully realized in 2012 onboard the German research plane HALO (High Altitude and Long Range Research Aircraft) during the TACTS and ESMVal missions. The first two HALO campaigns in clouds (MLCIRRUS and ACRIDICON) will be realized in 2014. In our contribution we present and discuss the performance of HAI and show detailed evaluations of typical inflight data. The results of the first two HAI campaigns on HALO resulted in more than 100 operation hours of continuous data and show nice agreement between the closed-path and open-path under clear sky conditions, despite the different sampling conditions of the sensor channels and airspeed of up to 900 km/h in the open path section. All mission data are and will be uploaded to the HALO database and are available for further scientific exploitation. Furthermore, the HAI principle can be adapted to other (airborne) platforms and be used for phase resolved science of the atmospheric water cycle. In parallel HAI

  8. Unmanned airborne vehicle (UAV): Flight testing and evaluation of two-channel E-field very low frequency (VLF) instrument

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-01

    Using VLF frequencies, transmitted by the Navy`s network, for airborne remote sensing of the earth`s electrical, magnetic characteristics was first considered by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) around the mid 1970s. The first VLF system was designed and developed by the USGS for installation and operation on a single engine, fixed wing aircraft used by the Branch of Geophysics for geophysical surveying. The system consisted of five channels. Two E-field channels with sensors consisting of a fixed vertical loaded dipole antenna with pre-amp mounted on top of the fuselage and a gyro stabilized horizontal loaded dipole antenna with pre-amp mounted on a tail boom. The three channel magnetic sensor consisted of three orthogonal coils mounted on the same gyro stabilized platform as the horizontal E-field antenna. The main features of the VLF receiver were: narrow band-width frequency selection using crystal filters, phase shifters for zeroing out system phase variances, phase-lock loops for generating real and quadrature gates, and synchronous detectors for generating real and quadrature outputs. In the mid 1990s the Branch of Geophysics designed and developed a two-channel E-field ground portable VLF system. The system was built using state-of-the-art circuit components and new concepts in circuit architecture. Small size, light weight, low power, durability, and reliability were key considerations in the design of the instrument. The primary purpose of the instrument was for collecting VLF data during ground surveys over small grid areas. Later the system was modified for installation on a Unmanned Airborne Vehicle (UAV). A series of three field trips were made to Easton, Maryland for testing and evaluating the system performance.

  9. International Symposium on Airborne Geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mogi, Toru; Ito, Hisatoshi; Kaieda, Hideshi; Kusunoki, Kenichiro; Saltus, Richard W.; Fitterman, David V.; Okuma, Shigeo; Nakatsuka, Tadashi

    2006-05-01

    Airborne geophysics can be defined as the measurement of Earth properties from sensors in the sky. The airborne measurement platform is usually a traditional fixed-wing airplane or helicopter, but could also include lighter-than-air craft, unmanned drones, or other specialty craft. The earliest history of airborne geophysics includes kite and hot-air balloon experiments. However, modern airborne geophysics dates from the mid-1940s when military submarine-hunting magnetometers were first used to map variations in the Earth's magnetic field. The current gamut of airborne geophysical techniques spans a broad range, including potential fields (both gravity and magnetics), electromagnetics (EM), radiometrics, spectral imaging, and thermal imaging.

  10. Mapping daily evapotranspiration at Landsat spatial scales during the BEAREX'08 field campaign

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Robust spatial information about environmental water use at field scales and daily to seasonal timesteps will benefit many applications in agriculture and water resource management. This information is particularly critical in arid climates where freshwater resources are limited or expensive, and g...

  11. Comparison of Ground- and Space-based Radar Observations with Disdrometer Measurements During the PECAN Field Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, A. D.; Rasmussen, K. L.; Bodine, D. J.; Dougherty, E.

    2015-12-01

    Plains Elevated Convection At Night (PECAN) was a large field campaign that studied nocturnal mesoscale convective systems (MCSs), convective initiation, bores, and low-level jets across the central plains in the United States. MCSs are responsible for over half of the warm-season precipitation across the central U.S. plains. The rainfall from deep convection of these systems over land have been observed to be underestimated by satellite radar rainfall-retrieval algorithms by as much as 40 percent. These algorithms have a strong dependence on the generally unmeasured rain drop-size distribution (DSD). During the campaign, our group measured rainfall DSDs, precipitation fall velocities, and total precipitation in the convective and stratiform regions of MCSs using Ott Parsivel optical laser disdrometers. The disdrometers were co-located with mobile pod units that measured temperature, wind, and relative humidity for quality control purposes. Data from the operational NEXRAD radar in LaCrosse, Wisconsin and space-based radar measurements from a Global Precipitation Measurement satellite overpass on July 13, 2015 were used for the analysis. The focus of this study is to compare DSD measurements from the disdrometers to radars in an effort to reduce errors in existing rainfall-retrieval algorithms. The error analysis consists of substituting measured DSDs into existing quantitative precipitation estimation techniques (e.g. Z-R relationships and dual-polarization rain estimates) and comparing these estimates to ground measurements of total precipitation. The results from this study will improve climatological estimates of total precipitation in continental convection that are used in hydrological studies, climate models, and other applications.

  12. Surface Measurements of dust/local aerosol properties over Northern China during 2008 China-US joined dust field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X.; Huang, J.

    2009-12-01

    The objective of this study is to understand the detailed characteristics and underlying mechanisms of aerosol physical and optical parameters over China Loess Plateau and its potential impacts on the regional/global climate. In order to characterize the emission, transport, and removal of atmospheric pollutants emitted from East Asia, the 2008 China-US joined field campaign are conducted from late April to May 2008 focused specifically on the Asian direct measurements of dust and pollution transport, following the plume from the Northern China which from the Taklamakan desert and Gobi desert to the Eastern Pacific and into North America. Such measurements are crucial to understanding how the dust and the pollution plume (including black carbon) are modified as their age. Three sites involved this campaign, including one permanent site (Semi-Arid Climate & Environment Observatory of Lanzhou University (SACOL)) (located in Yuzhong, 35.95N/104.1E), one SACOL's Mobile Facility (SMF) (deployed in Jintai, 37.57N/104.23E) and the U.S. Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurements(ARM) Ancillary Facility (AAF mobile laboratories, SMART-COMMIT) (deployed in Zhangye, 39.08N/100.27E). Results indicate that the dust plumes are transported from the surface to a long distance from their sources have a significant influence on the air quality in the study area. The meteorological analysis indicates that these polluted layers are not from local sources during dust plume and this large-scale transport of dust and pollutants remains a major uncertainty in quantifying the global effect of emissions from Northern China.

  13. Multimedia campaign.

    PubMed

    2007-01-01

    Research Medical Center is part of one of the nation's largest health systems, Health Corporation of America, with hospitals across the South and Midwest. Research Medical Center recently launched a multimedia campaign featuring real doctors and touting the tagline, "These are the doctors you want." Following the October 2006 launch of the campaign, the hospital embarked on a regional publicity effort to promote the local doctors featured in the campaign. PMID:17361792

  14. Field experimental vaccination campaigns against myxomatosis and their effectiveness in the wild.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Catarina; Ramírez, Esther; Castro, Francisca; Ferreras, Pablo; Alves, Paulo Célio; Redpath, Steve; Villafuerte, Rafael

    2009-11-23

    We conducted a field experiment in SW Spain to test the efficacy of a myxomatosis vaccine, a viral disease strongly affecting wild rabbit populations, by assessing individual survival and antibody seroprevalence of monthly live-trapped, vaccinated (N=466) and unvaccinated (N=558) juvenile wild rabbits, between April and October 2007. Eight percent of all juveniles caught from April to June showed maternal antibodies against myxomatosis, whereas all animals were seropositive to the disease after the outbreak. Juveniles vaccinated before the outbreak showed 17% higher survival (31% vs. 14%) and an increased mortality probability of 8% after the outbreak. Results suggest that only a costly and systematic vaccination performed before the annual myxomatosis outbreak, would improve the survival of juvenile rabbits, a premise not always accomplished that compromises its efficacy in the field. PMID:19800438

  15. First results from the Mojave Volatiles Prospector (MVP) Field Campaign, a Lunar Polar Rover Mission Analog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heldmann, J. L.; Colaprete, A.; Cook, A.; Deans, M. C.; Elphic, R. C.; Lim, D. S. S.; Skok, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    The Mojave Volatiles Prospector (MVP) project is a science-driven field program with the goal to produce critical knowledge for conducting robotic exploration of the Moon. MVP will feed science, payload, and operational lessons learned to the development of a real-time, short-duration lunar polar volatiles prospecting mission. MVP achieves these goals through a simulated lunar rover mission to investigate the composition and distribution of surface and subsurface volatiles in a natural and a priori unknown environment within the Mojave Desert, improving our understanding of how to find, characterize, and access volatiles on the Moon. The MVP field site is the Mojave Desert, selected for its low, naturally occurring water abundance. The Mojave typically has on the order of 2-6% water, making it a suitable lunar analog for this field test. MVP uses the Near Infrared and Visible Spectrometer Subsystem (NIRVSS), Neutron Spectrometer Subsystem (NSS), and a downward facing GroundCam camera on the KREX-2 rover to investigate the relationship between the distribution of volatiles and soil crust variation. Through this investigation, we mature robotic in situ instruments and concepts of instrument operations, improve ground software tools for real time science, and carry out publishable research on the water cycle and its connection to geomorphology and mineralogy in desert environments. A lunar polar rover mission is unlike prior space missions and requires a new concept of operations. The rover must navigate 3-5 km of terrain and examine multiple sites in in just ~6 days. Operational decisions must be made in real time, requiring constant situational awareness, data analysis and rapid turnaround decision support tools. This presentation will focus on the first science results and operational architecture findings from the MVP field deployment relevant to a lunar polar rover mission.

  16. Mapping daily evapotranspiration at Landsat spatial scales during the BEAREX'08 field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Martha C.; Kustas, William P.; Alfieri, Joseph G.; Gao, Feng; Hain, Christopher; Prueger, John H.; Evett, Steven; Colaizzi, Paul; Howell, Terry; Chávez, José L.

    2012-12-01

    Robust spatial information about environmental water use at field scales and daily to seasonal timesteps will benefit many applications in agriculture and water resource management. This information is particularly critical in arid climates where freshwater resources are limited or expensive, and groundwater supplies are being depleted at unsustainable rates to support irrigated agriculture as well as municipal and industrial uses. Gridded evapotranspiration (ET) information at field scales can be obtained periodically using land-surface temperature-based surface energy balance algorithms applied to moderate resolution satellite data from systems like Landsat, which collects thermal-band imagery every 16 days at a resolution of approximately 100 m. The challenge is in finding methods for interpolating between ET snapshots developed at the time of a clear-sky Landsat overpass to provide complete daily time-series over a growing season. This study examines the efficacy of a simple gap-filling algorithm designed for applications in data-sparse regions, which does not require local ground measurements of weather or rainfall, or estimates of soil texture. The algorithm relies on general conservation of the ratio between actual ET and a reference ET, generated from satellite insolation data and standard meteorological fields from a mesoscale model. The algorithm was tested with ET retrievals from the Atmosphere-Land Exchange Inverse (ALEXI) surface energy balance model and associated DisALEXI flux disaggregation technique, which uses Landsat-scale thermal imagery to reduce regional ALEXI maps to a finer spatial resolution. Daily ET at the Landsat scale was compared with lysimeter and eddy covariance flux measurements collected during the Bushland Evapotranspiration and Agricultural Remote sensing EXperiment of 2008 (BEAREX08), conducted in an irrigated agricultural area in the Texas Panhandle under highly advective conditions. The simple gap-filling algorithm performed

  17. Analysis of Upper Air, Ground and Remote Sensing Data for the Atlas Field Campaign in San Juan, Puerto Rico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzalez-Cruz, Jorge E.

    2005-01-01

    effect present in the SJMA during the year, which is increasing at a rate of 0.41oC/decade. These findings encouraged the planning and execution of an intense field campaign in February 2004 referred as the ATLAS San Juan mission. The focus of the remaining of this report is the analysis of the data for this field campaign.

  18. Variable stars in one open cluster within the Kepler/K2-Campaign-5 field: M 67 (NGC 2682)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nardiello, D.; Libralato, M.; Bedin, L. R.; Piotto, G.; Ochner, P.; Cunial, A.; Borsato, L.; Granata, V.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we continue the release of high-level data products from the multiyear photometric survey collected at the 67/92 cm Schmidt Telescope in Asiago. The primary goal of the survey is to discover and to characterize variable objects and exoplanetary transits in four fields containing five nearby open clusters spanning a broad range of ages. This second paper releases a photometric catalogue, in five photometric bands, of the solar-age, solar-metallicity open cluster M 67 (NGC 2682). Proper motions are derived comparing the positions observed in 2013 at the Asiago's Schmidt Telescope with those extracted from Wide Field Imager@2.2 m Max-Planck-Gesellschaft/European Southern Obseratory images in 2000. We also analyse the variable sources within M 67. We detected 68 variables, 43 of which are new detection. Variable periods and proper-motion memberships of a large majority of sources in our catalogue are improved with respect to previous releases. The entire catalogue will be available in electronic format. Besides the general interest on an improved catalogue, this work will be particularly useful because of: (1) the imminent release of Kepler/K2 Campaign-5 data of this clusters, for which our catalogue will provide an excellent, high spatial resolution input list, and (2) characterization of the M 67 stars which are targets of intense High Accuracy Radial velocity Planet Searcher and High Accuracy Radial velocity Planet Searcher for the Northern hemisphere radial-velocity surveys for planet search.

  19. Multi-trophic invasion resistance in Hawaii: bioacoustics, field surveys, and airborne remote sensing.

    PubMed

    Boelman, Natalie T; Asner, Gregory P; Hart, Patrick J; Martin, Roberta E

    2007-12-01

    We used airborne imaging spectroscopy and scanning light detection and ranging (LiDAR), along with bioacoustic recordings, to determine how a plant species invasion affects avian abundance and community composition across a range of Hawaiian submontane ecosystems. Total avian abundance and the ratio of native to exotic avifauna were highest in habitats with the highest canopy cover and height. Comparing biophysically equivalent sites, stands dominated by native Metrosideros polymorpha trees hosted larger native avian communities than did mixed stands of Metrosideros and the invasive tree Morella faya. A multi-trophic analysis strongly suggests that native avifauna provide biotic resistance against the invasion of Morella trees and exotic birds, thus slowing invasion "meltdowns" that disrupt the functioning of native Hawaiian ecosystems. PMID:18213957

  20. Initial Retrieval Validation from the Joint Airborne IASI Validation Experiment (JAIVEx)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, Daniel K.; Liu, Xu; Smith, WIlliam L.; Larar, Allen M.; Taylor, Jonathan P.; Revercomb, Henry E.; Mango, Stephen A.; Schluessel, Peter; Calbet, Xavier

    2007-01-01

    The Joint Airborne IASI Validation Experiment (JAIVEx) was conducted during April 2007 mainly for validation of the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) on the MetOp satellite, but also included a strong component focusing on validation of the Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS) aboard the AQUA satellite. The cross validation of IASI and AIRS is important for the joint use of their data in the global Numerical Weather Prediction process. Initial inter-comparisons of geophysical products have been conducted from different aspects, such as using different measurements from airborne ultraspectral Fourier transform spectrometers (specifically, the NPOESS Airborne Sounder Testbed Interferometer (NAST-I) and the Scanning-High resolution Interferometer Sounder (S-HIS) aboard the NASA WB-57 aircraft), UK Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements (FAAM) BAe146-301 aircraft insitu instruments, dedicated dropsondes, radiosondes, and ground based Raman Lidar. An overview of the JAIVEx retrieval validation plan and some initial results of this field campaign are presented.

  1. Mapping Geomagnetic Field Variations in the Cretaceous Quiet Zone with Unmanned Airborne Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gee, J. S.; Cande, S. C.; Kent, D. V.

    2007-12-01

    About one quarter of the present seafloor was generated during the constant normal polarity interval from 121 to 83 Ma (Cretaceous Quiet Zone or KQZ), and the lack of temporal markers limits tectonic reconstructions in these areas. Although magnetostratigraphic studies provide strong evidence that the KQZ formed during predominantly normal polarity, there are nonetheless relatively large amplitude variations in many sea surface magnetic anomaly profiles crossing KQZ crust. To evaluate the relative importance of geomagnetic and crustal variables (thickness, geochemistry) in generating these anomalies, we collected multibeam bathymetry and magnetic data on 19 profiles crossing anomaly 34 and extending 500 km into the KQZ in the southwest Pacific. The relatively fast spreading (60 km/m.y. half rate), minimal sediment cover and high paleolatitude of formation make this area ideal for evaluating the magnetic anomaly pattern. An additional 10,000 km of magnetic anomaly data were acquired using an autonomous unmanned airborne vehicle (UAV). Although land-launched UAVs have been used in a variety of research applications, the nine successful flights during our cruise represent the first deployment from a UNOLS research vessel. The UAV (operated by Fugro Airborne) was launched from a pneumatic catapult and captured by a wingtip clip that attaches to a rope suspended from a retractable boom on the fantail. The Cs-vapor magnetometer data from the UAV compare favorably with results from the surface-towed magnetometer, with minor differences related primarily to the higher elevation (120m above sea level) of the UAV. The resulting magnetic coverage indicates that, as with younger seafloor, quasi-linear short wavelength anomalies are present within the KQZ. These anomalies can vary on spatial scales smaller than the multibeam swath width, highlighting the utility of obtaining additional coverage with the UAVs.

  2. Assessment of the Aerosol Optics Component of the Coupled WRF-CMAQ Model usingCARES Field Campaign data and a Single Column Model

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Carbonaceous Aerosols and Radiative Effects Study (CARES), a field campaign held in central California in June 2010, provides a unique opportunity to assess the aerosol optics modeling component of the two-way coupled Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) – Community Multisc...

  3. 40 CFR Table C-5 to Subpart C of... - Summary of Comparability Field Testing Campaign Site and Seasonal Requirements for Class II and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Summary of Comparability Field Testing Campaign Site and Seasonal Requirements for Class II and III FEMs for PM10â2.5 and PM2.5 C Table C-5 to Subpart C of Part 53 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) AMBIENT AIR...

  4. Capital Campaigns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalessandro, David; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Eight articles focus on capital campaigns including setting goals (D. Dalessandro), the lead gift (D. A. Campbell), motivating trustees (J. J. Ianolli, Jr.), alumni associations (W. B. Adams), role of public relations officers (R. L. Williams), special events( H.R. Gilbert), the campaign document (R. King), and case statements (D. R. Treadwell,…

  5. The Effect of Air Density on Atmospheric Electric Fields Required for Lightning Initiation from a Long Airborne Object

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bazelyan, E. M.; Aleksandrov, N. L.; Raizer, Yu. Pl.; Konchankov, A. M.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the work was to determine minimum atmospheric electric fields required for lightning initiation from an airborne vehicle at various altitudes up to 10 km. The problem was reduced to the determination of a condition for initiation of a viable positive leader from a conductive object in an ambient electric field. It was shown that, depending on air density and shape and dimensions of the object, critical atmospheric fields are governed by the condition for leader viability or that for corona onset. To establish quantitative criteria for reduced air densities, available observations of spark discharges in long laboratory gaps were analyzed, the effect of air density on leader velocity was discussed and evolution in time of the properties of plasma in the leader channel was numerically simulated. The results obtained were used to evaluate the effect of pressure on the quantitative relationships between the potential difference near the leader tip, leader current and its velocity; based on these relationships, criteria for steady development of a leader were determined for various air pressures. Atmospheric electric fields required for lightning initiation from rods and ellipsoidal objects of various dimensions were calculated at different air densities. It was shown that there is no simple way to extend critical ambient fields obtained for some given objects and pressures to other objects and pressures.

  6. Lessons Learned from the Wide Field Camera 3 TV1 Test Campaign and Correlation Effort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peabody, Hume; Stavley, Richard; Bast, William

    2007-01-01

    In January 2004, shortly after the Columbia accident, future servicing missions to the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) were cancelled. In response to this, further work on the Wide Field Camera 3 instrument was ceased. Given the maturity level of the design, a characterization thermal test (TV1) was completed in case the mission was re-instated or an alternate mission found on which to fly the instrument. This thermal test yielded some valuable lessons learned with respect to testing configurations and modeling/correlation practices, including: 1. Ensure that the thermal design can be tested 2. Ensure that the model has sufficient detail for accurate predictions 3. Ensure that the power associated with all active control devices is predicted 4. Avoid unit changes for existing models. This paper documents the difficulties presented when these recommendations were not followed.

  7. MODIS airborne simulator visible and near-infrared calibration, 1992 ASTEX field experiment. Calibration version: ASTEX King 1.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, G. Thomas; Fitzgerald, Michael; Grant, Patrick S.; King, Michael D.

    1994-01-01

    Calibration of the visible and near-infrared (near-IR) channels of the MODIS Airborne Simulator (MAS) is derived from observations of a calibrated light source. For the 1992 Atlantic Stratocumulus Transition Experiment (ASTEX) field deployment, the calibrated light source was the NASA Goddard 48-inch integrating hemisphere. Tests during the ASTEX deployment were conducted to calibrate the hemisphere and then the MAS. This report summarizes the ASTEX hemisphere calibration, and then describes how the MAS was calibrated from the hemisphere data. All MAS calibration measurements are presented and determination of the MAS calibration coefficients (raw counts to radiance conversion) is discussed. In addition, comparisons to an independent MAS calibration by Ames personnel using their 30-inch integrating sphere is discussed.

  8. Multi-resolution analysis of high density spatial and temporal cloud inhomogeneity fields from HOPE campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakshmi Madhavan, Bomidi; Deneke, Hartwig; Macke, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    Clouds are the most complex structures in both spatial and temporal scales of the Earth's atmosphere that effect the downward surface reaching fluxes and thus contribute to large uncertainty in the global radiation budget. Within the framework of High Definition Clouds and Precipitation for advancing Climate Prediction (HD(CP)2) Observational Prototype Experiment (HOPE), a high density network of 99 pyranometer stations was set up around Jülich, Germany (~ 10 × 12 km2 area) during April to July 2013 to capture the small-scale variability in cloud induced radiation fields at the surface. In this study, we perform multi-resolution analysis of the downward solar irradiance variability at the surface from the pyranometer network to investigate the dependence of temporal and spatial averaging scales on the variance and spatial correlation for different cloud regimes. Preliminary results indicate that correlation is strongly scale-dependent where as the variance is dependent on the length of averaging period. Implications of our findings will be useful for quantifying the effect of spatial collocation while validating the satellite inferred solar irradiance estimates, and also to explore the link between cloud structure and radiation. We will present the details of our analysis and results.

  9. The field campaigns of the European Tracer Experiment (ETEX). overview and results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nodop, K.; Connolly, R.; Girardi, F.

    As part of the European Tracer Experiment (ETEX) two successful atmospheric experiments were carried out in October and November, 1994. Perfluorocarbon (PFC) tracers were released into the atmosphere in Monterfil, Brittany, and air samples were taken at 168 stations in 17 European countries for 72 h after the release. Upper air tracer measurements were made from three aircraft. During the first experiment a westerly air flow transported the tracer plume north-eastwards across Europe. During the second release the flow was eastwards. The results from the ground sampling network allowed the determination of the cloud evolution as far as Sweden, Poland and Bulgaria. This demonstrated that the PFT technique can be successfully applied in long-range tracer experiments up to 2000 km. Typical background concentrations of the tracer used are around 5-7 fl ℓ -1 in ambient air. Concentrations in the plume ranged from 10 to above 200 fl/ℓ -1. The tracer release characteristics, the tracer concentrations at the ground and in upper air, the routine and additional meteorological observations at the ground level and in upper air, trajectories derived from constant-level balloons and the meteorological input fields for long-range transport models are assembled in the ETEX database. The ETEX database is accessible via the Internet. Here, an overview is given of the design of the experiment, the methods used and the data obtained.

  10. Analysis of Upper Air, Ground and Remote Sensing Data For the ATLAS Field Campaign in San Juan, Puerto Rico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzalez, J. E.; Luvall, J. C.; Rickman, D.; Comarazamy, D. E.; Picon, A.

    2004-01-01

    The Atlas San Juan Mission was conducted in February 2004 with the main objectives of observing the Urban Heat Island of San Juan, providing high resolution data of the land use for El Yunque Rain Forest and for calibrating remote sensors. The mission was coordinated with NASA staff members at Marshall, Stennis, Goddard, and Glenn. The Airborne Thermal and Land Applications Sensor (ATLAS) from NASA/Stennis, that operates in the visual and IR bands, was used as the main sensor and was flown over Puerto Rico in a Lear 23 jet plane. To support the data gathering effort by the ATLAS sensor, remote sensing observations and upper air soundings were conducted along with the deployment of a number of ground based weather stations and temperature sensors. This presentation focuses in the analysis of this complementary data for the Atlas San Juan Mission. Upper air data show that during the days of the mission the Caribbean mid and high atmospheres were relatively dry and highly stable reflecting positive surface lifted index, a necessary condition to conduct this suborbital campaign. Surface wind patterns at levels below 850mb were dominated by the easterly trades, while the jet stream at the edge of the troposphere dominated the westerly wind at levels above 500mb. The jet stream remained at high latitudes reducing the possibility of fronts. In consequence, only 8.4 mm of precipitation were reported during the entire mission. Observation of soundings located about 150 km apart reflected minimum variations of the boundary layer across the island for levels below 850 meters and a uniform atmosphere for higher levels. The weather stations and the temperature sensors were placed at strategic locations to observe variations across the urban and rural landscapes. Time series plot of the stations' data show that heavily urbanized commercial areas have higher air temperatures than urban and suburban residential areas, and much higher temperatures than rural areas. Temperature

  11. Analysis of Upper Air, Ground and Remote Sensing Data for the ATLAS Field Campaign in San Juan, Puerto Rico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzalez, Jorge E.; Luvall, Jeff; Rickman, Douglas; Comarazamy, Daniel; Picon, Ana J.

    2005-01-01

    The Atlas San Juan Mission was conducted in February 2004 with the main objectives of observing the Urban Heat Island of San Juan, providing high resolution data of the land use for El Yunque Rain Forest and for calibrating remote sensors. The mission was coordinated with NASA staff members at Marsha& Stennis, Goddard, and Glenn. The Airborne Thermal and Land Applications Sensor (ATLAS) from NASA/Stennis, that operates in the visual and IR bands, was used as the main sensor and was flown over Puerto Rico in a Lear 23 jet plane. To support the data gathering effort by the ATLAS sensor, remote sensing observations and upper air soundings were conducted along with the deployment of a number of ground based weather stations and temperature sensors. This presentation focuses in the analysis of this complementary data for the Atlas San Juan Mission. Upper air data show that during the days of the mission the Caribbean mid and high atmospheres were relatively dry and highly stable reflecting positive surface lifted index, a necessary condition to conduct this suborbital campaign. Surface wind patterns at levels below 850mb were dominated by the easterly trades, while the jet stream at the edge of the troposphere dominated the westerly wind at levels above 500mb. The jet stream remained at high latitudes reducing the possibility of fronts. In consequence, only 8.4 mm of precipitation were reported during the entire mission. Observation of soundings located about 150 km apart reflected minimum variations of the boundary layer across the Island for levels below 850 meters and a uniform atmosphere for higher levels. The weather stations and the temperature sensors were placed at strategic locations to observe variations across the urban and rural landscapes. Time series plot of the stations' data show that heavily urbanized commercial areas have higher air temperatures than urban and suburban residential areas, and much higher temperatures than rural areas. Temperature

  12. Analysis of Atmospheric Mercury Depletion Events during the NASA ARCTAS Field Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S.; Talbot, R. W.; Mao, H.

    2009-12-01

    Atmospheric Mercury Depletion Events (MDEs) occur in Arctic springtime, but they have only been observed from ground-based measurements. We utilized the extensive measurement database from the NASA DC-8 flights in spring 2008 during the Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS) and a box model customized for mercury chemistry to improve understanding of MDEs. We selected 8 cases for study which had low O3 (<10 ppbv), low Hg(0) (<50 ppqv), and high Br2 (>2 pptv). MDEs were always observed over the Arctic Ocean (70-90N latitude) or along the shoreline, and near the ice/snow surface (<0.7 km). The aircraft sampled MDEs with a time frame of 4 - 30 minutes, demonstrating their occurrence over wide oceanic regions covering 225 km. Five-day backward trajectories indicated that air masses over the MDEs were transported mainly at surface level over the Arctic. In addition to Hg(0) and O3, the hydrocarbons C2H2, C2H6, C3H8, C4H10 and C5H12 also showed decreased mixing ratios in the MDE regions. In MDE regions correlations of these species with Hg(0) and O3 indicated strong relationships (e.g., r2 = 0.73 of O3-C2H2 for MDE). Very high NOx mixing ratios (up to 5 ppbv) in a couple of cases implied fresh emission influences from the Prudhoe Bay area. We conducted box modeling of each case to understand the role of halogen compounds during MDEs. Initial conditions of chemical species and photolysis rate constants were taken from flight data. Our analysis of the simulations indicates that bromine chemistry is very important for Hg(0) depletion while O3 depletion is impacted by both bromine and chlorine chemistry. Furthermore, the different environments sampled and corresponding simulations indicate that photolysis rate constants predominantly affect the time to reach total depletion of Hg(0) and O3. We are conducting more in-depth analyses of the field data and simulation results.

  13. Urban and rural aerosol characterization of summer smog events during the PIPAPO field campaign in Milan, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baltensperger, U.; Streit, N.; Weingartner, E.; Nyeki, S.; PréVôT, A. S. H.; van Dingenen, R.; Virkkula, A.; Putaud, J.-P.; Even, A.; ten Brink, H.; Blatter, A.; Neftel, A.; GäGgeler, H. W.

    2002-11-01

    A comprehensive range of aerosol parameters was measured at an urban and a rural site in the Milan, Italy metropolitan region during summer smog events in summer 1998. Measurements were performed as part of the Pianura Padana Produzione di Ozono (PIPAPO) field campaign to determine the sensitivity of O3 production to NOX and volatile organic carbon concentrations at several ground stations. Primary aerosol parameters (i.e., direct emissions) such as aerosol black carbon showed a distinct diurnal variation with maxima at about 0000 and 0800 central European summer time (CEST), in contrast to secondary aerosol parameters such as sulfate and nitrate. Aerosol number size distributions were measured under ambient conditions as well as after conditioning with volatility and hygroscopicity systems. A mode at d = 20-30 nm in the number concentration was found at 0800 CEST and exhibited high volatility at 110°C (˜80% volume lost upon heating) but no hygroscopic behavior. Based on these measurements, small particles (d < 40 nm) are thought to consist mainly of hydrophobic particulate organic matter, rather than soot or H2SO4 aerosols. Two distinct hygroscopic modes with average growth factors d/d0 ˜ 1.02 and 1.21-1.28 were found for particles with dry (relative humidity of <30%) diameters d0 = 50-200 nm. Submicrometer aerosols exhibited lower volatility at the rural than at the urban site, which is attributed to additional particulate mass produced by secondary particle formation.

  14. Urban and rural aerosol characterization of summer smog events during the PIPAPO field campaign in Milan, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baltensperger, U.; Streit, N.; Weingartner, E.; Nyeki, S.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Van Dingenen, R.; Virkkula, A.; Putaud, J.-P.; Even, A.; ten Brink, H.; Blatter, A.; Neftel, A.; Gäggeler, H. W.

    2002-10-01

    A comprehensive range of aerosol parameters was measured at an urban and a rural site in the Milan, Italy metropolitan region during summer smog events in summer 1998. Measurements were performed as part of the Pianura Padana Produzione di Ozono (PIPAPO) field campaign to determine the sensitivity of O3 production to NOX and volatile organic carbon concentrations at several ground stations. Primary aerosol parameters (i.e., direct emissions) such as aerosol black carbon showed a distinct diurnal variation with maxima at about 0000 and 0800 central European summer time (CEST), in contrast to secondary aerosol parameters such as sulfate and nitrate. Aerosol number size distributions were measured under ambient conditions as well as after conditioning with volatility and hygroscopicity systems. A mode at d = 20-30 nm in the number concentration was found at 0800 CEST and exhibited high volatility at 110°C (~80% volume lost upon heating) but no hygroscopic behavior. Based on these measurements, small particles (d < 40 nm) are thought to consist mainly of hydrophobic particulate organic matter, rather than soot or H2SO4 aerosols. Two distinct hygroscopic modes with average growth factors d/d0 ~ 1.02 and 1.21-1.28 were found for particles with dry (relative humidity of <30%) diameters d0 = 50-200 nm. Submicrometer aerosols exhibited lower volatility at the rural than at the urban site, which is attributed to additional particulate mass produced by secondary particle formation.

  15. Measurements of nitrous acid (HONO) using ion drift-chemical ionization mass spectrometry during the 2009 SHARP field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, Misti; Zhang, Renyi; Zheng, Jun; Zhang, Annie L.; Xu, Wen; Gomez-Hernandez, Mario; Wang, Yuan; Olaguer, Eduardo

    2014-09-01

    We have developed a novel approach for ambient measurements of nitrous acid (HONO) using ion drift-chemical ionization mass spectrometry (ID-CIMS). HONO is ionized using the sulfur hexafluoride anion, representing the first application of this reagent ion under humid tropospheric conditions. During the 2009 Study of Houston Atmospheric Radical Precursors (SHARP) Field Campaign, HONO measurements were continuously conducted from 1 May to 1 June at a site located on the campus of the University of Houston. Diurnally, HONO concentration accumulates in the late afternoon, reaches a nighttime maximum, and declines rapidly after sunrise. The nighttime HONO peaks show close correlations with the NO2 concentration, particle surface area, and soot mass concentration, indicating that the aerosol-phase chemistry likely contributes to HONO formation. A higher nighttime HONO peak concentration typically precedes a higher and earlier ozone peak concentration of the following day, by about 20 ppb higher and four hours earlier than those with a lower preceding HONO peak concentration. Because of its high detection sensitivity and fast-responding time, the ID-CIMS method described in this work may greatly facilitate HONO detection under typical tropospheric conditions.

  16. Eddy covariance flux measurements over a man made lake during the ALEX 2014 field campaign in South Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salgado, R.; Potes, M.; Albino, A.; Rodrigues, C. M.

    2014-12-01

    Energy, vapor, CO2 and momentum exchanges between water and air were measured using the new IRGASON eddy covariance system, an integrated open-path CO2 /H2O Gas Analyser and 3D Sonic Anemometer, installed on a instrumented floating platform (Figure 1) in the Alqueva reservoir, a large man made lake (area of 250 km2) in South Portugal. Radiation sensors were also mounted on the raft in order to measure near surface up and down radiative fluxes, while the water temperature profile below the platform were continuously archived. An accelerometer was mounted on the support bar near the sonic anemometer in order to correct the vertical component of the wind due to the the raft swing. The measurements were performed during the ALqueva hydro-meteorological EXperiment, ALEX 2014, between June and September 2014. ALEX 2014 ( http://www.alex2014.cge.uevora.pt) was an integrated field campaign with measurements of chemical, physical and biological parameters at different experimental sites in the reservoir and in its surrounding area. Worldwide, there are few reported flux measurements over lakes. This set of observations contribute to improve the characterization of the exchanges between a lake and the atmosphere in a semi-arid climate. The eddy covariance estimates of lake evaporation are compared against other methods.

  17. Development of an effective lidar retrieval algorithm using lidar measurements during 2008 China-US joined dust field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Z.; Huang, J.

    2009-12-01

    In this study, an effective algorithm was developed to retrieve aerosol optical properties and vertical profile using ground-based lidar measurements. The advantage of this algorithm is that aerosol optical depth retrieving from lidar measurements do not need so-called lidar ratio for same quality retrieved by Sun photometer of AERONET. Also, errors were apparently reduced when retrieving other optical properties using obtained-AOD as constraint. This effective algorithm was applied to retrieve the dust aerosol vertical profiles measured by three MPL-net Micro-Pulse Lidar system, which are located at one permanent site (Semi-Arid Climate & Environment Observatory of Lanzhou University (SACOL)) (located in Yuzhong, 35.95N/104.1E), one SACOL’s Mobile Facility (SMF) (deployed in Jintai, 37.57N/104.23E) and the U.S. Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurements(ARM) Ancillary Facility (AAF mobile laboratories, SMART-COMMIT) (deployed in Zhangye, 39.08N/100.27E)., during 2008 China-US joined dust field campaign (March-June 2008). A dust storm case which widely influenced Northwest China for 2 May, 2008 was studied using the three ground-based lidar and satellite-borne instruments measurements. The results show the different aerosol vertical structures at each site. Characteristics of aerosol vertical structure in spring over Northwest China were also investigated using the new method.

  18. Analysis of Raman Lidar and Radiosonde Measurements from the AWEX-G Field Campaign and Its Relation to Aqua Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whiteman, D. N.; Russo, F.; Demoz, B.; Miloshevich, L. M.; Veselovskii, I.; Hannon, S.; Wang, Z.; Vomel, H.; Schmidlin, F.; Lesht, B.; Moore, P. J.; Beebe, A. S.; Gambacorta, A.; Barnet, C.

    2006-01-01

    Early work within the Aqua validation activity revealed there to be large differences in water vapor measurement accuracy among the various technologies in use for providing validation data. The validation measurements were made at globally distributed sites making it difficult to isolate the sources of the apparent measurement differences among the various sensors, which included both Raman lidar and radiosonde. Because of this, the AIRS Water Vapor Experiment-Ground (AWEX-G) was held in October-November 2003 with the goal of bringing validation technologies to a common site for intercomparison and resolving the measurement discrepancies. Using the University of Colorado Cryogenic Frostpoint Hygrometer (CFH) as the water vapor reference, the AWEX-G field campaign permitted correction techniques to be validated for Raman lidar, Vaisala RS80-H and RS90/92 that significantly improve the absolute accuracy of water vapor measurements from these systems particularly in the upper troposphere. Mean comparisons of radiosondes and lidar are performed demonstrating agreement between corrected sensors and the CFH to generally within 5% thereby providing data of sufficient accuracy for Aqua validation purposes. Examples of the use of the correction techniques in radiance and retrieval comparisons are provided and discussed.

  19. Raman lidar measurements of water vapor and aerosol/clouds during the FIRE/SPECTRE field campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melfi, S. H.; Whiteman, D.; Ferrare, R.; Evans, K.; Goldsmith, J. E. M.; Lapp, M.; Bisson, S. E.

    1992-01-01

    Water vapor is one of the most important constituents of the earth's atmosphere. It has a major impact on both atmospheric dynamics and radiative transfer. From a dynamic standpoint, the distribution of water vapor with height determines convective stability which is the major indicator of destructive storm development. Also, water vapor stored in the planetary boundary layer acts as the fuel to intensify severe weather. In regards to radiative transfer, water vapor is the most active IR molecule in the atmosphere. It is more effective in absorbing and emitting IR radiation than either carbon dioxide or methane, and thus plays an important role in global change. The main objective of FIRE (First ISSCCP (International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project) Regional Experiment) was to study the development and radiative characteristics of cirrus clouds. The SPECTRE (Spectral Radiation Experiment) project was designed to acquire the necessary atmospheric observations to compare radiative measurements with radiative transfer theory, with special emphasis on understanding the water vapor spectral continuum. The FIRE/SPECTRE field campaign was conducted during Nov. - Dec. 1991 in Coffeyville, Kansas. A complete understanding of water vapor, its distribution with height, and its temporal variation was important for both experiments.

  20. Analysis of Raman Lidar and radiosonde measurements from the AWEX-G field campaign and its relation to Aqua validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whiteman, D. N.; Russo, F.; Demoz, B.; Miloshevich, L. M.; Veselovskii, I.; Hannon, S.; Wang, Z.; Vomel, H.; Schmidlin, F.; Lesht, B.

    2005-01-01

    Early work within the Aqua validation activity revealed there to be large differences in water vapor measurement accuracy among the various technologies in use for providing validation data. The validation measurements were made at globally distributed sites making it difficult to isolate the sources of the apparent measurement differences among the various sensors, which included both Raman lidar and radiosonde. Because of this, the AIRS Water Vapor Experiment-Ground (AWEX-G) was held in October - November, 2003 with the goal of bringing validation technologies to a common site for intercomparison and resolution of the measurement discrepancies. Using the University of Colorado Cryogenic Frostpoint Hygrometer (CFH) as the water vapor reference, the AWEX-G field campaign resulted in new correction techniques for both Raman lidar, Vaisala RS80-H and RS90/92 measurements that significantly improve the absolute accuracy of those measurement systems particularly in the upper troposphere. Mean comparisons of radiosondes and lidar are performed demonstrating agreement between corrected sensors and the CFH to generally within 5% thereby providing data of sufficient accuracy for Aqua validation purposes. Examples of the use of the correction techniques in radiance and retrieval comparisons are provided and discussed.

  1. Lessons Learned from the Wide Field Camera 3 TV1 and TV2 Thermal Vacuum Test Campaigns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peabody, Hume; Stavely, Richard; Bast, William

    2008-01-01

    The Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) instrument has undergone two complete thermal vacuum tests (TV1 and TV2), during which valuable lessons were learned regarding test configuration, test execution, model capabilities, and modeling practices. The very complex thermal design of WFC3 produced a number of challenging aspects to ground testing with numerous ThermoElectric Coolers and heat pipes, not all of which were functional. Lessons learned during TV1 resulted in significant upgrades to the model capabilities and a change in the test environment approach for TV2. These upgrades proved invaluable during TV2 when pretest modeling assumptions proved to be false. Each of the lessons learned relate to one of two following broad statements: 1. Ensure the design can be tested and that the effect of non-flight like conditions is well understood, particularly with respect to non passive devices (TECs, Heat Pipes, etc) 2. Ensure that the model is sufficiently detailed and is capable of predicting off-nominal behavior and the power dissipation of any thermal devices, especially TECs This paper outlines a number of the lessons learned over these two test campaigns with respect to the thermal design, model, and test configuration and presents recommendations for future tests.

  2. The coupling of mixed Rossby-gravity waves with diabatic heating during the TRMM-KWAJEX field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaocong; Zhang, Minghua

    2015-10-01

    Composite dynamic and thermodynamic structures of mixed Rossby-gravity (MRG) waves are presented with their coupling with diabatic heating and moisture sources/sinks, using Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission-Kwajalein Experiment (TRMM-KWAJEX) field campaign data. A significant departure of convectively coupled waves from dry waves exists in the phases of wave component: maximum low-level wind convergence is accompanied by midtropospheric divergence and upper tropospheric convergence that is preceded by increase of moisture in the boundary layer. These phases correspond to surface turbulent transport, shallow and midlevel convections that cause moistening and heating of the lower and middle troposphere. They are followed by deep convection with maximum heating centered in the upper troposphere. The deep convective heating evolves to stratiform-like upper tropospheric heating and lower tropospheric cooling that precedes the quick demise of convection. Such a structure on convectively coupled MRG waves is summarized by four phases, which sheds lights on how tropical waves are coupled with convective processes in all their phases.

  3. Dust mobilization due to density currents in the Atlas region: Observations from the Saharan Mineral Dust Experiment 2006 field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knippertz, P.; Deutscher, C.; Kandler, K.; Müller, T.; Schulz, O.; Schütz, L.

    2007-11-01

    Evaporation of precipitation is a ubiquitous feature of dry and hot desert environments. The resulting cooling often generates density currents with strong turbulent winds along their leading edges, which can mobilize large amounts of dust. Mountains support this process by triggering convection, by downslope acceleration of the cool air, and by fostering the accumulation of fine-grained sediments along their foothills through the action of water. For the Sahara, the world's largest dust source, this mechanism has been little studied because of the lack of sufficiently high resolution observational data. The present study demonstrates the frequent occurrence of density currents along the Sahara side of the Atlas Mountain chain in southern Morocco using the unique data set collected during the Saharan Mineral Dust Experiment (SAMUM) field campaign in May/June 2006. The density currents are related to convection over the mountains in the afternoon hours and have lifetimes on the order of 10 h. The passage of the sharp leading edge that sometimes reaches several hundred kilometers in length is usually associated with a marked increase in dew point and wind speed, a change in wind direction, and a decrease in temperature and visibility due to suspended dust. It is conceivable that this mechanism is relevant for other mountainous regions in northern Africa during the warm season. This would imply that simulations of the dust cycle with numerical models need a reliable representation of moist convective processes in order to generate realistic dust emissions from the Sahara.

  4. The measurement of tropospheric OH radicals by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy during the POPCORN Field Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofzumahaus, A.; Aschmutat, U.; Heßling, M.; Holland, F.; Ehhalt, D. H.

    A highly sensitive OH measurement instrument has been developed. It is based on laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) detection of OH using the A²Σ+v‧ = 0-X²Π v″ = 0 transition at 308.15 nm at low pressure. The LIF instrument detects OH directly and with high specificity, a fact that was demonstrated by recording laser excitation spectra (Q1(3), Q21(3) and P1(1) lines) of ambient OH. For high time resolution (typ. 60-100 s), the laser wavelength was modulated on-/off- resonance with the P1(1) line. Here, we report some of the OH measurements obtained by this technique during its first application in a tropospheric field campaign (“POPCORN”), which was conducted in August 1994 in a rural environment in the North-East of Germany. These include diurnal OH concentration profiles with maximum OH concentrations up to 1.4×107cm-3at noon. Minimum OH concentrations were measured in the morning and evening down to the detection limit of (3-6) × 105cm-3(SNR=2, measurement time 1 min.). During the day, OH fluctuations were observed on a time scale of minutes and hours. These were highly correlated to the flux of the solar UV radiation which is responsible for the primary OH production by photolysis.

  5. In Situ Measurement of Stratosperic Intrusions in the Free Troposphere and Boundary Layer During the DC3 Field Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroeder, J.; Cooper, O. R.; Ryerson, T. B.; Diskin, G. S.; Meinardi, S.; Blake, D. R.

    2013-12-01

    For many years, it has been known that stratospheric airmasses can become entrained within the troposphere and reach all the way down to the earth's surface. These airmasses contain high amounts of ozone and may lead to exceedences of NAAQS values at impacted surface sites. A very active region for stratosphere-to-troposphere transport (STT) is the central/western US during late winter and spring. During the DC3 field campaign, conducted over the central US in May-June 2012, evidence of STT was observed via LIDAR and satellite measurements. In situ measurement of airmasses influenced by STT often proves difficult when convection or polluted airmasses are present, as they may mask the stratospheric character of these airmasses. Here, we present a new technique for in situ detection of airmasses influenced by STT using an ensemble of long-lived halocarbons - measured aboard the NASA DC-8 aircraft by UC Irvine's whole air sampler - as tracers of stratospheric air. Using this technique, we observed evidence of STT in all three major regions of study (CO, OK, and AL), in the free troposphere, and in the boundary layer. In these samples, a significant amount of ozone was calculated to be of stratospheric origin, leading to enhancements over background levels over all altitudes studied.

  6. An intercomparison of mesoscale simulations during the Boundary Layer Late Afternoon and Sunset Turbulence (BLLAST) experimental field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jimenez, Maria A.; Angevine, Wayne M.; Bazile, Eric; Couvreux, Fleur; Cuxart, Joan; Pino, David; Sastre, Mariano

    2014-05-01

    The Convective (diurnal, CBL) and Stably stratified (nocturnal, SBL) Boundary Layers over land have been extensively observed and relatively successfully modeled. But the early morning transition, when the CBL emerges from the nocturnal boundary layer, and the late afternoon transition, when the CBL decays to an intermittently turbulent residual layer overlying a SBL, are difficult to observe and model due to the intermittency and anisotropy of turbulence, horizontal heterogeneity and rapid changes in time. The Boundary Layer Late Afternoon and Sunset Turbulence (BLLAST) experimental field campaign took place in Lannemezan, a plateau located at the foothills of the Pyrenees, during June and July 2011. The aim of this project is to have more and better observations of the late afternoon and morning transitions and to further explore the mechanisms that control it. In this work, different mesoscale models (WRF, MesoNH, AROME, ARPEGE) are run under the same conditions during 24 hours (from 0000 UTC 25th June 2011 to the next day) to evaluate their performance during both transitions. Particular effort has been made to analyze the surface conditions. For this reason, the WRF simulations include a novel technique to spin-up soil conditions to obtain a better representation of surface fluxes. The model outputs are compared to the observations (soundings, UAV, radar and surface stations). It is found that the results depend on the initial conditions but also on the parameterizations of the boundary layer and the surface.

  7. Comparison of field and airborne laser scanning based crown cover estimates across land cover types in Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heiskanen, J.; Korhonen, L.; Hietanen, J.; Heikinheimo, V.; Schafer, E.; Pellikka, P. K. E.

    2015-04-01

    Tree crown cover (CC) provides means for the continuous land cover characterization of complex tropical landscapes with multiple land uses and variable degrees of degradation. It is also a key parameter in the international forest definitions that are basis for monitoring global forest cover changes. Recently, airborne laser scanning (ALS) has emerged as a practical method for accurate CC mapping, but ALS derived CC estimates have rarely been assessed with field data in the tropics. Here, our objective was to compare the various field and ALS based CC estimates across multiple land cover types in the Taita Hills, Kenya. The field data was measured from a total of 178 sample plots (0.1 ha) in 2013 and 2014. The most accurate field measurement method, line intersect sampling using Cajanus tube, was used in 37 plots. Other methods included CC estimate based on the tree inventory data (144 plots), crown relascope (43 plots) and hemispherical photography (30 plots). Three ALS data sets, including two scanners and flying heights, were acquired concurrently with the field data collection. According to the results, the first echo cover index (FCI) from ALS data had good agreement with the most accurate field based CC estimates (RMSD 7.1% and 2.7% depending on the area and scan). The agreement with other field based methods was considerably worse. Furthermore, we observed that ALS cover indices were robust between the different scans in the overlapping area. In conclusion, our results suggest that ALS provides a reliable method for continuous CC mapping across tropical land cover types although dense shrub layer and tree-like herbaceous plants can cause overestimation of CC.

  8. Airborne Gravity Data Enhances NGS Experimental Gravimetric Geoid in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, S. A.; Childers, V. A.; Li, X.; Roman, D. R.

    2014-12-01

    The U.S. National Geodetic Survey [NGS], through their Gravity for the Redefinition of the American Vertical Datum [GRAV-D] program, continues to update its gravimetry holdings by flying new airborne gravity surveys over a large fraction of the USA and its territories. By 2022, NGS intends that all orthometric heights in the USA will be determined in the field by using a reliable national gravimetric geoid model to transform from geodetic heights obtained from GPS. Several airborne campaigns have already been flown over Alaska and its coastline. Some of this Alaskan coastal data have been incorporated into a new NGS experimental geoid model - xGEOID14. The xGEOID14 model is the first in a series of annual experimental geoid models that will incorporate NGS GRAV-D airborne data. This series provides a useful benchmark for assessing and improving current techniques by which the airborne and land-survey data are filtered and cleaned, and then combined with satellite gravity models, elevation data (etc.) with the ultimate aim of computing a geoid model that can support a national physical height system by 2022. Here we will examine the NGS GRAV-D airborne data in Alaska, and assess its contribution to xGEOID14. Future prospects for xGEOID15 will also be considered.

  9. Stress indicators based on airborne thermal imagery for field phenotyping a heterogeneous tree population for response to water constraints

    PubMed Central

    Virlet, Nicolas; Lebourgeois, Valentine; Martinez, Sébastien; Costes, Evelyne; Labbé, Sylvain; Regnard, Jean-Luc

    2014-01-01

    As field phenotyping of plant response to water constraints constitutes a bottleneck for breeding programmes, airborne thermal imagery can contribute to assessing the water status of a wide range of individuals simultaneously. However, the presence of mixed soil–plant pixels in heterogeneous plant cover complicates the interpretation of canopy temperature. Moran’s Water Deficit Index (WDI = 1–ETact/ETmax), which was designed to overcome this difficulty, was compared with surface minus air temperature (T s–T a) as a water stress indicator. As parameterization of the theoretical equations for WDI computation is difficult, particularly when applied to genotypes with large architectural variability, a simplified procedure based on quantile regression was proposed to delineate the Vegetation Index–Temperature (VIT) scatterplot. The sensitivity of WDI to variations in wet and dry references was assessed by applying more or less stringent quantile levels. The different stress indicators tested on a series of airborne multispectral images (RGB, near-infrared, and thermal infrared) of a population of 122 apple hybrids, under two irrigation regimes, significantly discriminated the tree water statuses. For each acquisition date, the statistical method efficiently delineated the VIT scatterplot, while the limits obtained using the theoretical approach overlapped it, leading to inconsistent WDI values. Once water constraint was established, the different stress indicators were linearly correlated to the stem water potential among a tree subset. T s–T a showed a strong sensitivity to evaporative demand, which limited its relevancy for temporal comparisons. Finally, the statistical approach of WDI appeared the most suitable for high-throughput phenotyping. PMID:25080086

  10. Stress indicators based on airborne thermal imagery for field phenotyping a heterogeneous tree population for response to water constraints.

    PubMed

    Virlet, Nicolas; Lebourgeois, Valentine; Martinez, Sébastien; Costes, Evelyne; Labbé, Sylvain; Regnard, Jean-Luc

    2014-10-01

    As field phenotyping of plant response to water constraints constitutes a bottleneck for breeding programmes, airborne thermal imagery can contribute to assessing the water status of a wide range of individuals simultaneously. However, the presence of mixed soil-plant pixels in heterogeneous plant cover complicates the interpretation of canopy temperature. Moran's Water Deficit Index (WDI = 1-ETact/ETmax), which was designed to overcome this difficulty, was compared with surface minus air temperature (T s-T a) as a water stress indicator. As parameterization of the theoretical equations for WDI computation is difficult, particularly when applied to genotypes with large architectural variability, a simplified procedure based on quantile regression was proposed to delineate the Vegetation Index-Temperature (VIT) scatterplot. The sensitivity of WDI to variations in wet and dry references was assessed by applying more or less stringent quantile levels. The different stress indicators tested on a series of airborne multispectral images (RGB, near-infrared, and thermal infrared) of a population of 122 apple hybrids, under two irrigation regimes, significantly discriminated the tree water statuses. For each acquisition date, the statistical method efficiently delineated the VIT scatterplot, while the limits obtained using the theoretical approach overlapped it, leading to inconsistent WDI values. Once water constraint was established, the different stress indicators were linearly correlated to the stem water potential among a tree subset. T s-T a showed a strong sensitivity to evaporative demand, which limited its relevancy for temporal comparisons. Finally, the statistical approach of WDI appeared the most suitable for high-throughput phenotyping. PMID:25080086

  11. A Laboratory of Extremophiles: Iceland Coordination Action for Research Activities on Life in Extreme Environments (CAREX) Field Campaign

    PubMed Central

    Marteinsson, Viggó; Vaishampayan, Parag; Kviderova, Jana; Mapelli, Francesca; Medori, Mauro; Calfapietra, Carlo; Aguilera, Angeles; Hamisch, Domenica; Reynisson, Eyjólfur; Magnússon, Sveinn; Marasco, Ramona; Borin, Sara; Calzada, Abigail; Souza-Egipsy, Virginia; González-Toril, Elena; Amils, Ricardo; Elster, Josef; Hänsch, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Existence of life in extreme environments has been known for a long time, and their habitants have been investigated by different scientific disciplines for decades. However, reports of multidisciplinary research are uncommon. In this paper, we report an interdisciplinary three-day field campaign conducted in the framework of the Coordination Action for Research Activities on Life in Extreme Environments (CAREX) FP7EU program, with participation of experts in the fields of life and earth sciences. In situ experiments and sampling were performed in a 20 m long hot springs system of different temperature (57 °C to 100 °C) and pH (2 to 4). Abiotic factors were measured to study their influence on the diversity. The CO2 and H2S concentration varied at different sampling locations in the system, but the SO2 remained the same. Four biofilms, mainly composed by four different algae and phototrophic protists, showed differences in photosynthetic activity. Varying temperature of the sampling location affects chlorophyll fluorescence, not only in the microbial mats, but plants (Juncus), indicating selective adaptation to the environmental conditions. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR), DNA microarray and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE)-based analysis in laboratory showed the presence of a diverse microbial population. Even a short duration (30 h) deployment of a micro colonizer in this hot spring system led to colonization of microorganisms based on ribosomal intergenic spacer (RISA) analysis. Polyphasic analysis of this hot spring system was possible due to the involvement of multidisciplinary approaches. PMID:25371340

  12. Ground measurements of carboxylic acids during the ChArMEx field campaign using PTR-ToFMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dusanter, Sébastien; Sauvage, Stéphane; Locoge, Nadine; Michoud, Vincent; Touati, Nabil; Zhang, Shouwen; Riffault, Véronique

    2014-05-01

    Carboxylic acids are long-lived and persistent species that have been shown to be important for ambient acidity and secondary organic aerosol formation. Formic, acetic, and propionic acids are among the most abundant carboxylic acids in the troposphere. However, their atmospheric sources are poorly characterized due to limited measurement data. Techniques usually used to measure gas-phase concentrations of carboxylic acids suffer from low time resolution and the use of fast instruments would be of prime interest to apportion the contribution of anthropogenic and biogenic emissions, as well as photochemical processes to the carboxylic acid budget. A Proton Transfer Reaction Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (PTR-ToFMS) was characterized for field measurements of n-carboxylic acids (C1-C4). Laboratory experiments were carried out to get insights into fragmentation patterns of parent (RCOOHH+) and acylium (RCO+) ions, sensitivities, and detection limits under various operating conditions. Carefully designed experiments were conducted to assess the impact of relative humidity on the sensitivity. Detection limits of 500, 90, 50 and 40 ppt were achieved for 10-min measurements of formic, acetic, propionic and butyric acids, respectively. This instrument was deployed for the first time during the 2013 ChArMEx intensive field campaign at a ground site in Cap Corsica and successfully measured concentrations of carboxylic acids from July 15th to August 5th. Elevated mixing ratios in the range 500-4000 ppt, 260-2500 ppt, and 50-500 ppt were observed for formic, acetic, and propionic acids, respectively. Mixing ratios of butyric acids were close to the detection limit. In this presentation, we will discuss the potential of carboxylic acid measurements by PTR-ToFMS in remote areas and we will provide a preliminary analysis of carboxylic acid sources in an area impacted by local biogenic emissions as well as aged anthropogenic air masses.

  13. A Laboratory of Extremophiles: Iceland Coordination Action for Research Activities on Life in Extreme Environments (CAREX) Field Campaign.

    PubMed

    Marteinsson, Viggó; Vaishampayan, Parag; Kviderova, Jana; Mapelli, Francesca; Medori, Mauro; Calfapietra, Carlo; Aguilera, Angeles; Hamisch, Domenica; Reynisson, Eyjólfur; Magnússon, Sveinn; Marasco, Ramona; Borin, Sara; Calzada, Abigail; Souza-Egipsy, Virginia; González-Toril, Elena; Amils, Ricardo; Elster, Josef; Hänsch, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Existence of life in extreme environments has been known for a long time, and their habitants have been investigated by different scientific disciplines for decades. However, reports of multidisciplinary research are uncommon. In this paper, we report an interdisciplinary three-day field campaign conducted in the framework of the Coordination Action for Research Activities on Life in Extreme Environments (CAREX) FP7EU program, with participation of experts in the fields of life and earth sciences. In situ experiments and sampling were performed in a 20 m long hot springs system of different temperature (57 °C to 100 °C) and pH (2 to 4). Abiotic factors were measured to study their influence on the diversity. The CO2 and H2S concentration varied at different sampling locations in the system, but the SO2 remained the same. Four biofilms, mainly composed by four different algae and phototrophic protists, showed differences in photosynthetic activity. Varying temperature of the sampling location affects chlorophyll fluorescence, not only in the microbial mats, but plants (Juncus), indicating selective adaptation to the environmental conditions. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR), DNA microarray and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE)-based analysis in laboratory showed the presence of a diverse microbial population. Even a short duration (30 h) deployment of a micro colonizer in this hot spring system led to colonization of microorganisms based on ribosomal intergenic spacer (RISA) analysis. Polyphasic analysis of this hot spring system was possible due to the involvement of multidisciplinary approaches. PMID:25371340

  14. Study of Impacts of Arctic Sea Ice Reduction on Atmospheric Chemical Processes - The BROMEX 2012 Field Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nghiem, S. V.

    2012-12-01

    Arctic perennial sea ice has decreased drastically in the last decade and still remained low in spring 2012 as observed from scatterometer datasets acquired by QuikSCAT and Oceansat-2 satellites. In particular, the thinner, weaker, and saltier seasonal sea ice has dominated over the perennial ice in the Chukchi Sea and Beaufort Sea. To investigate impacts of sea ice reduction on atmospheric chemical processes, we conducted the BRomine, Ozone, and Mercury EXperiment in (BROMEX) in March-April 2012 around Barrow, extending out to a large region offshore and inland. Here we present overview results from BROMEX, which was successfully carried out by about 30 scientists, researchers, and field workers from multiple international institutions. For BROMEX, we coordinated and collected satellite data, including a number of near-real-time products, from multiple satellite instruments including MODIS, AMSR-E, GOME-2, SCIAMACHY, OMI, RADARSAT-2, Envisat ASAR, TanDEM-X, SMOS, CryoSat-2, and Oceansat-2. Over the BROMEX field region, we made measurements and collected sea ice, snow, ocean, and air samples for physical, meteorological, chemical, biological, and acoustic studies. A helicopter was used to deploy chemical and meteorological buoys in the Chukchi Sea and the Beaufort Sea. Measurements were also made with airborne sensors across sea ice, leads, lagoon, and tundra along various flight patterns of the ALAR aircraft. Furthermore, we coordinated with the NASA IceBridge P3 aircraft to collect surface temperature, surface height, snow depth, and ice thickness measurements. We set up and maintained field sites on sea ice and in the tundra to measure bromine, ozone, mercury, and other chemical species. Moreover, we obtained temperature data from many different types of temperature sensors for temperature accuracy assessment to identify potential issues that might cause errors or biases in temperature measurements. An enormous amount of in-situ snow and ice data was collected

  15. [Design of airborne dual channel ultraviolet-visible imaging spectrometer with large field of view, wide spectrum, and high resolution].

    PubMed

    Hao, Ai-Hua; Hu, Bing-Liang; Bai, Jia-Guang; Li, Li-Bo; Yu, Tao; Li, Si-Yuan

    2013-12-01

    The ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis 200-500 nm) imaging spectrometer is an important part of space remote sensing. Based on special requirements and practical application of the airborne UV-VIS spectrometer, a kind of scanning imaging spectrometer using area array CCD is proposed, which can meet the application requirements of large field of view, wide spectrum and high resolution. It overcomes low spatial resolution of traditional line array CCD scanning imaging spectrometer, and limited field of view of the pushbroom imaging spectrometer. In addition, dual channel was designed to reduce stray light. 400-500 nm band includes two order spectrum for 200-250 nm band, and variation of radiance from earth between the shorter wavelength (<290 nm) and the longer wavelength (>310 nm) is above three orders of magnitude. In the structure design of the system, the imaging spectrometer is composed of a two-mirror concentric telescope and two Czerny-Turner plane grating imaging spectrometers. The whole system doesn't use any additional optical elements in addition to spherical mirrors. The whole system has the advantage of simple structure, excellent performance, and very good feasibility. The modulation transfer function value of full spectrum and full field of view is above 0.6. PMID:24611417

  16. Stream Morphologic Measurements from Airborne Laser Swath Mapping: Comparisons with Field Surveys, Traditional DEMs, and Aerial Photographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, N. P.; Schultz, L. L.

    2005-12-01

    Precise measurement of stream morphology over entire watersheds is one of the great research opportunities provided by airborne laser swath mapping (ALSM). ALSM surveys allow for rapid quantification of factors, such as channel width and gradient, that control stream hydraulic and ecologic properties. We compare measurements from digital elevation models (DEMs) derived from ALSM data collected by the National Center for Airborne Laser Mapping (NCALM) to field surveys, traditional DEMs (rasterized from topographic maps), and aerial photographs. The field site is in the northern Black Mountains in arid Death Valley National Park (California). The area is unvegetated, and therefore is excellent for testing DEM analysis methods because the ALSM data required minimal filtering, and the resulting DEM contains relatively few unphysical sinks. Algorithms contained in geographic information systems (GIS) software used to extract stream networks from DEMs yield best results where streams are steep enough for resolvable pixel-to-pixel elevation change, and channel width is on the order of pixel resolution. This presents a new challenge with ALSM-derived DEMs because the pixel size (1 m) is often an order of magnitude or more smaller than channel width. We find the longitudinal profile of Gower Gulch in the northern Black Mountains (~4 km total length) extracted using the ALSM DEM and a flow accumulation algorithm is 14% longer than a traditional 10-m DEM, and 13% longer than a field survey. These differences in length (and therefore gradient) are due to the computed channel path following small-scale topographic variations within the channel bottom that are not relevant during high flows. However, visual analysis of shaded-relief images created from high-resolution ALSM data is an excellent method for digitizing channel banks and thalweg paths. We used these lines to measure distance, elevation, and width. In Gower Gulch, the algorithm-derived profile is 10% longer than that

  17. HAIC/HIWC field campaign - investigating ice microphysics in high ice water content regions of mesoscale convective systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leroy, Delphine; Fontaine, Emmanuel; Schwarzenboeck, Alfons; Strapp, J. Walter; Lilie, Lyle; Dezitter, Fabien; Grandin, Alice

    2015-04-01

    Despite existing research programs focusing on tropical convection, high ice water content (IWC) regions in Mesoscale Convective Systems (MCS) - potentially encountered by commercial aircraft and related to reported in-service events - remain poorly documented either because investigation of such high IWC regions was not of highest priority or because utilized instrumentation was not capable of providing accurate cloud microphysical measurements. To gather quantitative data in high IWC regions, a multi-year international HAIC/HIWC (High Altitude Ice Crystals / High Ice Water Content) field project has been designed including a first field campaign conducted out of Darwin (Australia) in 2014. The French Falcon 20 research aircraft had been equipped among others with a state-of-the-art in situ microphysics package including the IKP (isokinetic evaporator probe which provides a reference measurement of IWC and TWC), the CDP (cloud droplet spectrometer probe measuring particles in the range 2-50 µm), the 2D-S (2D-Stereo, 10-1280 µm) and PIP (precipitation imaging probe, 100-6400 µm) optical array probes. Microphysical data collection has been performed mainly at -40°C and -30°C levels, whereas little data could be sampled at -50°C and at -15C/-10°C. The study presented here focuses on ice crystal size properties, thereby analyzing in detail the 2D image data from 2D-S and PIP optical array imaging probes. 2D images recorded with 2D-S and PIP were processed in order to extract a large variety of geometrical parameters, such as maximum diameter (Dmax), 2D surface equivalent diameter (Deq), and the corresponding number particle size distribution (PSD). Using the PSD information from both probes, a composite size distribution was then built, with sizes ranging from few tens of µm to roughly 10 mm. Finally, mass-size relationships for ice crystals in tropical convection were established in terms of power laws in order to compute median mass diameters MMDmax and

  18. Leveraging Oceanic and Surface Intensive Field Campaign Data Sets for Validation and Improvement of Recent Hyperspectral IR Satellite Data Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joseph, E.; Nalli, N. R.; Oyola, M. I.; Morris, V. R.; Sakai, R.

    2014-12-01

    An overview is given of research to validate or improve the retrieval of environmental data records (EDRs) from recently deployed hyperspectral IR satellite sensors such as Suomi NPP Cross-track Infrared Microwave Sounder Suite (CrIMSS). The effort centers around several surface field intensive campaigns that are designed or leveraged for EDR validation. These data include ship-based observations of upper air ozone, pressure, temperature and relative humidity soundings; aerosol and cloud properties; and sea surface temperature. Similar intensive data from two land-based sites are also utilized as well. One site, the Howard University Beltsville site, is at a single point location but has a comprehensive array of observations for an extended period of time. The other land site, presently being deployed by the University at Albany, is under development with limited upper air soundings but will have regionally distributed surface based microwave profiling of temperature and relative humidity on the scale of 10 - 50 km and other standard meteorological observations. Combined these observations provide data that are unique in their wide range including, a variety of meteorological conditions and atmospheric compositions over the ocean and urban-suburban environments. With the distributed surface sites the variability of atmospheric conditions are captured concurrently across a regional spatial scale. Some specific examples are given of comparisons of moisture and temperature correlative EDRs from the satellite sensors and surface based observations. An additional example is given of the use of this data to correct sea surface temperature (SST) retrieval biases from the hyperspectral IR satellite observations due to aerosol contamination.

  19. Spatial distributions and chemical properties of PM2.5 based on 21 field campaigns at 17 sites in China.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jing; Hu, Min; Peng, Jianfei; Wu, Zhijun; Kumar, Prashant; Li, Mengren; Wang, Yujue; Guo, Song

    2016-09-01

    Severe air pollution and its associated health impacts have become one of the major concerns in China. A detailed analysis of PM2.5 chemical compositions is critical for optimizing pollution control measures. In this study, daily 24-h bulk filter samples were collected and analyzed for totally 21 field campaigns at 17 sites in China between 2008 and 2013. The 17 sites were classified into four groups including six urban sites, seven regional sites, two coastal sites in four fast developing regions of China (i.e. Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, Yangtze River Delta, Pearl River Delta and Sichuan Basin), and two ship cruise measurements covered the East China Sea and Yellow Sea of China. The high average concentrations of PM2.5 and the occurrences of extreme cases at most sites imply the widespread air pollution in China. Fine particles were largely composed of organic matter and secondary inorganic species at most sites. High correlation between the temporal trends of PM2.5 and secondary species of urban and regional sites highlights the uniformly distributed air pollutants within one region. Secondary inorganic species were the dominant contributors to the high PM2.5 concentration in Northern China. However in Southern China, the relative contributions of different chemical species kept constant as PM2.5 increased. This study provides us a better understanding of the current state of air pollution in diversified Chinese cities. Analysis of chemical signatures of PM2.5 could be a strong support for model validation and emission control strategy. PMID:27341151

  20. Global Hawk dropsonde observations of the Arctic atmosphere obtained during the Winter Storms and Pacific Atmospheric Rivers (WISPAR) field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Intrieri, J. M.; de Boer, G.; Shupe, M. D.; Spackman, J. R.; Wang, J.; Neiman, P. J.; Wick, G. A.; Hock, T. F.; Hood, R. E.

    2014-11-01

    In February and March of 2011, the Global Hawk unmanned aircraft system (UAS) was deployed over the Pacific Ocean and the Arctic during the Winter Storms and Pacific Atmospheric Rivers (WISPAR) field campaign. The WISPAR science missions were designed to (1) mprove our understanding of Pacific weather systems and the polar atmosphere; (2) evaluate operational use of unmanned aircraft for investigating these atmospheric events; and (3) demonstrate operational and research applications of a UAS dropsonde system at high latitudes. Dropsondes deployed from the Global Hawk successfully obtained high-resolution profiles of temperature, pressure, humidity, and wind information between the stratosphere and surface. The 35 m wingspan Global Hawk, which can soar for ~ 31 h at altitudes up to ~ 20 km, was remotely operated from NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards Air Force Base (AFB) in California. During the 25 h polar flight on 9-10 March 2011, the Global Hawk released 35 sondes between the North Slope of Alaska and 85° N latitude, marking the first UAS Arctic dropsonde mission of its kind. The polar flight transected an unusually cold polar vortex, notable for an associated record-level Arctic ozone loss, and documented polar boundary layer variations over a sizable ocean-ice lead feature. Comparison of dropsonde observations with atmospheric reanalyses reveal that, for this day, large-scale structures such as the polar vortex and air masses are captured by the reanalyses, while smaller-scale features, including low-level jets and inversion depths, are mischaracterized. The successful Arctic dropsonde deployment demonstrates the capability of the Global Hawk to conduct operations in harsh, remote regions. The limited comparison with other measurements and reanalyses highlights the potential value of Arctic atmospheric dropsonde observations where routine in situ measurements are practically nonexistent.

  1. Global Hawk dropsonde observations of the Arctic atmosphere during the Winter Storms and Pacific Atmospheric Rivers (WISPAR) field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Intrieri, J. M.; de Boer, G.; Shupe, M. D.; Spackman, J. R.; Wang, J.; Neiman, P. J.; Wick, G. A.; Hock, T. F.; Hood, R. E.

    2014-04-01

    In February and March of 2011, the Global Hawk unmanned aircraft system (UAS) was deployed over the Pacific Ocean and the Arctic during the WISPAR field campaign. The WISPAR science missions were designed to: (1) improve our understanding of Pacific weather systems and the polar atmosphere; (2) evaluate operational use of unmanned aircraft for investigating these atmospheric events; and (3) demonstrate operational and research applications of a UAS dropsonde system at high latitudes. Dropsondes deployed from the Global Hawk successfully obtained high-resolution profiles of temperature, pressure, humidity, and wind information between the stratosphere and surface. The 35 m wingspan Global Hawk, which can soar for ~ 31 h at altitudes up to ~ 20 km, was remotely operated from NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards AFB in California. During the 25 h polar flight on 9-10 March 2011, the Global Hawk released 35 sondes between the North Slope of Alaska and 85° N latitude marking the first UAS Arctic dropsonde mission of its kind. The polar flight transected an unusually cold polar vortex, notable for an associated record-level Arctic ozone loss, and documented polar boundary layer variations over a sizable ocean-ice lead feature. Comparison of dropsonde observations with atmospheric reanalyses reveal that for this day, large-scale structures such as the polar vortex and air masses are captured by the reanalyses, while smaller-scale features, including low-level jets and inversion depths, are mischaracterized. The successful Arctic dropsonde deployment demonstrates the capability of the Global Hawk to conduct operations in harsh, remote regions. The limited comparison with other measurements and reanalyses highlights the value of Arctic atmospheric dropsonde observations where routine in situ measurements are practically non-existent.

  2. The IPAC-NC field campaign: a pollution and oxidization pool in the lower atmosphere over Huabei, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, J. Z.; Wang, W.; Chen, Y.; Liu, H. J.; Yan, P.; Ding, G. A.; Wang, M. L.; Sun, J.; Lelieveld, J.

    2012-05-01

    In the past decades, regional air pollution characterized by photochemical smog and grey haze-fog has become a severe environmental problem in China. To investigate this, a field measurement campaign was performed in the Huabei region, located between 32-42° N latitude in eastern China, during the period 2 April-16 May 2006 as part of the project "Influence of Pollution on Aerosols and Cloud Microphysics in North China" (IPAC-NC). It appeared that strong pollution emissions from urban and industrial centers tend to accumulate in the lower atmosphere over the central area of Huabei. We observed widespread, very high SO2 mixing ratios, about 20-40 ppbv at 0.5-1.5 km altitude and 10-30 ppbv at 1.5-3.0 km altitude. Average CO mixing ratios were 0.65-0.7 ppmv at 0.5-1.5 km altitude, and very high CO around 1 ppmv was observed during some flights, and even higher levels at the surface. We find the high pollution concentrations to be associated with enhanced levels of OH and HO2 radicals, calculated with a chemical box model constrained by the measurements. In the upper part of the boundary layer and in the lower free troposphere, high CO and SO2 compete with relatively less NO2 in reacting with OH, being efficiently recycled through HO2, preventing a net loss of HOx radicals. In addition to reactive hydrocarbons and CO, the oxidation of SO2 causes significant ozone production over Huabei (up to ~13% or 2.0 ppbv h-1 at 0.8 km altitude). Our results indicate that the lower atmosphere over Huabei is not only strongly polluted but also acts as an oxidation pool, with pollutants undergoing very active photochemistry over this part of China.

  3. Multiwavelength In-situ Aerosol Absorption, Scattering, and Hygroscopic Properties During the TEXAQS 2006 Field Campaign: Aerosol Classification and Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sierau, B.; Covert, D. S.; Coffman, D. J.; Quinn, P. K.; Bates, T. S.

    2006-12-01

    In-situ, three wavelength-measurements of aerosol scattering and absorption of the regional aerosol near the coast of Texas, i.e. Houston and the Houston ship channel, as well as the Gulf of Mexico were carried out onboard the NOAA research vessel Ronald H. Brown during the 2006 TEXAQS/GoMACCS field campaign in July through September 2006. Aerosol scattering, hemispheric backscattering and absorption-coefficients were measured for particles with diameters dp<10μm and dp<1μm using multiwavelength integrating nephelometers and filter-based absorption photometers (PSAPs) at 60% RH (nephelometers). Light scattering was measured as a function of RH at two additional humidities, (ca. 25%, and 85% RH). Together with the 60% RH data, this enabled determination of the hygroscopic growth curve of scattering. The extensive and intensive optical properties were used to characterize the aerosol in the Houston, TX area and the Coastal Gulf of Mexico region and to provide information critical to understanding the climatic and air quality impacts of those aerosols. Analysis focuses on how these properties change during the chemical processing of sources within the project area and how they are affected by changes in atmospheric relative humidity that accompany transport, diurnal cycles and vertical mixing. The results are relevant to radiation transfer, visibility, air quality, and interpretation of remote sensing data from lidar and satellite. The results will be presented based on a regional classification of the sampled air masses to identify distinct aerosol populations and sources and to show the temporal and spatial variability of the measured parameters. Special emphasize will be given to the physico-chemical properties of aerosols measured during extensive Saharan dust periods encountered during the cruise and several air pollution episodes and industrial plumes. Scattering hygroscopic growth will be analyzed along with the chemical composition of the aerosol and its

  4. Marine Boundary Layer Heights over the Eastern North Pacific Based on Measurements from the MAGIC Field Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, E. R.

    2014-12-01

    The MAGIC field campaign, funded and operated by the ARM (Atmospheric Radiation Measurement) Climate Research Facility of the US Department of Energy, occurred between September 2012 and October, 2013 aboard the Horizon Lines cargo container ship Spirit making regular trips between Los Angeles, CA and Honolulu, HI. Along this route, which lies very near the GPCI (GCSS Pacific Cross-section Intercomparison) transect, the predominant cloud regime changes from stratocumulus near the California coast to trade-wind cumulus near Hawaii. The transition between these two regimes is poorly understood and not accurately represented in models. The goal of MAGIC was to acquire statistic of this transition and thus improve its representation in models by making repeated transects through this region and measuring properties of clouds and precipitation, aerosols, radiation, and atmospheric structure. To achieve these goals, the Second ARM Mobile Facility (AMF2) was deployed on the Horizon Spiritas it ran its regular route between Los Angeles and Honolulu. AMF2 consists of three 20-foot SeaTainers and includes three radars, lidars, a ceilometer, microwave radiometers, a total sky imager, disdrometers, and other instruments to measure properties of clouds and precipitation; and other instruments to measure properties of aerosols, radiation, meteorological quantities, and sea surface temperature. Two technicians accompanied the AMF2, and scientists rode the ship as observers. Radiosondes were routinely launched four times daily, and during one round trip in July, 2013, eight radiosondes were launched each day. In total, more than 550 soundings were made. MAGIC made nearly 20 round trips between Los Angeles and Honolulu (and thus nearly 40 excursions through the stratocumulus-to-cumulus transition) and spent 200 days at sea, collecting an unprecedented data set. Boundary layer heights calculated from the radiosonde data using several different algorithms, and those from other

  5. Ground-based observations of new particle formation during the summer 2012 PEGASOS - SUPERSITO field campaign in the Po Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Decesari, Stefano; Facchini, Maria Cristina; Rinaldi, Matteo; Marinoni, Angela; Gobbi, Gian Paolo; Laaksonen, Ari; Manninen, Hanna; Maione, Michela; Cavalli, Fabrizia; Poluzzi, Vanes

    2014-05-01

    During the PEGASOS-SUPERSITO field campaign held in the Po Valley (Italy) in June-July 2012, new particle formation (NPF) was observed on 88% of the days at the rural station of San Pietro Capofiume (SPC). NPF started within the first two hours after sunrise, when the lowest atmospheric layer above the ground was characterized by reduced ozone concentrations (< 30 ppb), high NOx (2 - 10 ppb), and relatively high concentrations of anthropogenic reactive VOC (> 200 ppt of alkyl aromatic compounds). The comparison of nucleation events in SPC with those recorded at other Po Valley stations indicates that regional NPF events are common in this environment. The nucleation onset at SPC was often anticipated with respect to nearby urban stations (Bologna), probably because of differences in condensation sink (CS) levels or in the local boundary layer meteorology including heat island effects. New particle formation was also observed at the mountain ridges enclosing the Po Valley (Monte Cimone, 2165 m a.s.l) but with a much lower frequency (35 %) with respect to the low-altitude stations. The reduced nucleation frequency on the Apennines is unexpected, because biogenic VOCs emissions are stronger and CS and temperature are lower over the elevated terrains compared to the plain. These findings indicate that the availability of anthropogenic precursors (aromatic VOCs, sulfur dioxide, ammonia and possibly amines) is critical for the frequent set-up of regional nucleation events in summertime in the Po Valley. The experiment provides an interesting opportunity to investigate NPF in contrasting environments as a function of anthropization level and emission patterns.

  6. Multi-year Satellite and Surface Observations of AOD in support of Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) Field Campaign

    SciTech Connect

    Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Chand, Duli; Berg, Larry K.; Fast, Jerome D.; Tomlinson, Jason M.; Ferrare, R.; Hostetler, Chris A.; Hair, John

    2012-11-01

    We use combined multi-year measurements from the surface and space for assessing the spatial and temporal distribution of aerosol properties within a large (~400x400 km) region centered on Cape Cod, Massachusetts, along the East Coast of the United States. The ground-based Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) measurements at Martha’s Vineyard Coastal Observatory (MVCO) site and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) sensors on board the Terra and Aqua satellites provide horizontal and temporal variations of aerosol optical depth, while the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) offers the altitudes of aerosol-layers. The combined ground-based and satellite measurements indicated several interesting features among which were the large differences in the aerosol properties observed in July and February. We applied the climatology of aerosol properties for designing the Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP), which is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. The TCAP field campaign involves 12-month deployment (started July 1, 2012) of the ground-based ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) and Mobile Aerosol Observing System (MAOS) on Cape Cod and complimentary aerosol observations from two research aircraft: the DOE Gulfstream-1 (G-1) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) B200 King Air. Using results from the coordinated G-1 and B200 flights during the recent (July, 2012) Intensive Observation Period, we demonstrated that the G-1 in situ measurements and B200 active remote sensing can provide complementary information on the temporal and spatial changes of the aerosol properties off the coast of North America.

  7. EVOLUTION OF THE SIZES OF GALAXIES OVER 7 < z < 12 REVEALED BY THE 2012 HUBBLE ULTRA DEEP FIELD CAMPAIGN

    SciTech Connect

    Ono, Yoshiaki; Ouchi, Masami; Curtis-Lake, Emma; McLure, Ross J.; Dunlop, James S.; Bowler, Rebecca A. A.; Rogers, Alexander B.; Cirasuolo, Michele; Schenker, Matthew A.; Ellis, Richard S.; Robertson, Brant E.; Schneider, Evan; Stark, Daniel P.; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Charlot, Stephane; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Furlanetto, Steven R.

    2013-11-10

    We analyze the redshift- and luminosity-dependent sizes of dropout galaxy candidates in the redshift range z ∼ 7-12 using deep images from the 2012 Hubble Ultra Deep Field (UDF12) campaign, which offers two advantages over that used in earlier work. First, we utilize the increased signal-to-noise ratio offered by the UDF12 imaging to provide improved measurements for known galaxies at z ≅ 6.5-8 in the HUDF. Second, because the UDF12 data have allowed the construction of the first robust galaxy sample in the HUDF at z > 8, we have been able to extend the measurement of average galaxy size out to higher redshifts. Restricting our measurements to sources detected at >15σ, we confirm earlier indications that the average half-light radii of z ∼ 7-12 galaxies are extremely small, 0.3-0.4 kpc, comparable to the sizes of giant molecular associations in local star-forming galaxies. We also confirm that there is a clear trend of decreasing half-light radius with increasing redshift, and provide the first evidence that this trend continues beyond z ≅ 8. Modeling the evolution of the average half-light radius as a power law, ∝(1 + z) {sup s}, we obtain a best-fit index of s=-1.30{sup +0.12}{sub -0.14} over z ∼ 4-12. A clear size-luminosity relation is evident in our dropout samples. This relation can be interpreted in terms of a constant surface density of star formation over a range in luminosity of 0.05-1.0 L{sub z=3}. The average star formation surface density in dropout galaxies is 2-3 orders of magnitude lower than that found in extreme starburst galaxies, but is comparable to that seen today in the centers of normal disk galaxies.

  8. A Residual Kriging method for the reconstruction of 3D high-resolution meteorological fields from airborne and surface observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laiti, Lavinia; Zardi, Dino; de Franceschi, Massimiliano; Rampanelli, Gabriele

    2013-04-01

    Manned light aircrafts and remotely piloted aircrafts represent very valuable and flexible measurement platforms for atmospheric research, as they are able to provide high temporal and spatial resolution observations of the atmosphere above the ground surface. In the present study the application of a geostatistical interpolation technique called Residual Kriging (RK) is proposed for the mapping of airborne measurements of scalar quantities over regularly spaced 3D grids. In RK the dominant (vertical) trend component underlying the original data is first extracted to filter out local anomalies, then the residual field is separately interpolated and finally added back to the trend; the determination of the interpolation weights relies on the estimate of the characteristic covariance function of the residuals, through the computation and modelling of their semivariogram function. RK implementation also allows for the inference of the characteristic spatial scales of variability of the target field and its isotropization, and for an estimate of the interpolation error. The adopted test-bed database consists in a series of flights of an instrumented motorglider exploring the atmosphere of two valleys near the city of Trento (in the southeastern Italian Alps), performed on fair-weather summer days. RK method is used to reconstruct fully 3D high-resolution fields of potential temperature and mixing ratio for specific vertical slices of the valley atmosphere, integrating also ground-based measurements from the nearest surface weather stations. From RK-interpolated meteorological fields, fine-scale features of the atmospheric boundary layer developing over the complex valley topography in connection with the occurrence of thermally-driven slope and valley winds, are detected. The performance of RK mapping is also tested against two other commonly adopted interpolation methods, i.e. the Inverse Distance Weighting and the Delaunay triangulation methods, comparing the results

  9. NASA/GSFC Scanning Raman Lidar Measurements of Water Vapor and Clouds during the International H2O Project (IHOP) Field Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whiteman, David; Demoz, Belay; DiGirolamo, Paolo; Wang, Zhi-En; Evans, Keith; Lin, Ruei-Fong

    2003-01-01

    The NASA/GSFC Scanning Raman Lidar (SFL) acquired approximately 200 hours of water vapor, aerosol and cloud measurements during the IHOP field campaign. The detailed water vapor structure of events such as a dryline passage and internal bores were revealed. We discuss the error characteristics of the instrument as well as the water vapor and cirrus cloud structure during the 19-20 June bore event.

  10. Assurance of MOZAIC/IAGOS relative humidity data quality by evaluating the Capacitive Hygrometer during airborne field studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neis, Patrick; Smit, Herman G. J.; Rohs, Susanne; Rolf, Christian; Krämer, Martina; Ebert, Volker; Buchholz, Bernhard; Bundke, Ulrich; Finger, Fanny; Klingebiel, Marcus; Petzold, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    Water vapour is a major parameter in weather prediction and climate research but the interaction between the water vapour in the upper troposphere and lowermost stratosphere (UT/LS) and tropopause dynamics are not well understood. A continuous measurement of upper tropospheric humidity (UTH) is difficult because the abundance of UTH is highly variable on spatial and temporal scales that cannot be resolved, neither by the global radiosondes network nor by satellites. Since 1994, data with high spatial and temporal resolution for relative humidity are provided by the in-situ measurements aboard civil passenger aircraft from the MOZAIC/IAGOS-programme (www.iagos.org). The data set emerging from this long-term observation effort builds the backbone of the ongoing in-situ UTH climatology and trend analyses. In order to assess the validity of the long-term water vapour data and its limitations, an analysis of the humidity data sets of two field campaigns is presented. The validation of applied measurement methods, i.e. the MOZAIC/IAGOS Capacitive Hygrometer, is valued on the basis of the aircraft campaigns CIRRUS-III (2006) and AIRTOSS-ICE (2013), where research-grade water vapour instruments were operated simultaneously to the MOZAIC/IAGOS Capacitive Hygrometers. The performance of the MOZAIC Capacitive Hygrometer (MCH; operated from 1994 to 2014 on MOZAIC aircraft) and the advanced IAGOS Capacitive Hygrometer (ICH; operated since 2011 on IAGOS aircraft) are explored in clear sky, in the vicinity of and inside cirrus clouds as a blind intercomparison to the research-grade water vapour instruments. From these intercomparisons the qualification of the Capacitive Hygrometer for the use in long-term observation programmes is successfully demonstrated and the continuation of high data quality is confirmed for the transition from MCH to ICH. In particular the Capacitive Hygrometer response time to changes in relative humidity could be determined for the full range of

  11. Environmental Snapshots for Satellite Multi-Angle Aerosol Retrieval Validation During the ACE-Asia Field Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahn, Ralph; Anderson, Jim; Anderson, Theodore L.; Bates, Tim; Brechtel, Fred; Clarke, Antony; Dutton, Ellsworth; Flagan, Richard; Fouin, Robert; Fukushima, Hajime

    2003-01-01

    On five occasions spanning the ACE-Asia field experiment in spring 2001, the multi-angle imaging MISR instrument, flying aboard the NASA Earth Observing System s Terra satellite, took quarter-kilometer data over a 400-km-wide swath, coincident with high-quality observations by multiple instruments on two or more participating surface and airborne platforms. The cases capture a range of clean, polluted, and dusty aerosol conditions. They represent some of the best opportunities during ACE- Asia for comparative studies among intensive and extensive aerosol observations in their environmental context. We inter-compare related measurements and discuss the implications of apparent discrepancies for each case, at a level of detail appropriate to the analysis of satellite observations. With a three-stage optical modeling process, we synthesize data from multiple sources into layer-by-layer snapshots that summarize what we know about the state of the atmosphere and surface at key locations during each event, to be used for satellite vicarious calibration and aerosol retrieval validation. Aerosols within a few kilometers of the surface were composed primarily of pollution and Asian dust mixtures, as expected. Accumulation and coarse-mode particle size distributions varied little among the events studied, but column aerosol optical depth changed by more than a factor of four, and the near-surface proportion of dust ranged from about 25% to 50%. The amount of absorbing material in the sub-micron fraction was highest when near-surface winds crossed Beijing and the Korean Peninsula, and was considerably lower for all other cases. Ambiguities remain in segregating size distributions by composition; having simultaneous single scattering albedo measurements at more than a single wavelength would significantly reduce the resulting optical model uncertainties, as would integral constraints from surface and atmospheric radiative flux observations. The consistency of component

  12. The Effect of Ethene and Propene Emissions on Ozone Production in Houston during the TexAQS 2000 Field Campaign.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fast, J. D.; Jiang, G.

    2002-12-01

    A coupled meteorological and chemical model, PEGASUS, was used to simulate ozone and ozone precursors in the vicinity of Houston between 28 August and 1 September during the 2000 TexAQS Field Campaign. A nested grid configuration was used with an outer grid encompassing the south-central U.S. with a grid spacing of 16 km and an inner grid encompassing the Houston metropolitan area with a 1.3 km grid spacing. Area, mobile, biogenic, and point source emission rates were based on a data set provided by the Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission (TRNCC). The meteorological model employed data assimilation using observations from five radar wind profilers to limit forecast errors in the simulated wind fields around Houston. The simulated magnitude and distribution of ozone over downtown Houston was very similar to observations from the surface monitoring network. Observed and simulated ozone mixing ratios were as high as 140 ppb on 31 August. The model results were also in very good agreement with the spatial distribution of ozone, NOx, and NOy observed aloft by research aircraft. However, at surface stations and aircraft positions close to large point source emissions of VOCs, the simulated ozone mixing ratios were usually too low. For example, ozone mixing ratios at LaPorte were about 200 ppb on 30 and 31 August, but the predicted values at that location were between 110 and 120 ppb. Simulated VOCs, including propene and ethene, were also under-predicted. To examine whether an underestimation of the VOC point source emission rates may have contributed to the low ozone mixing ratios predicted by the model, two sensitivity simulations were performed in which the point source emission rates of ethene and propene were increased by a factor of 5 and 10. With the increased point source emission rates, ozone and VOC predictions were in better agreement with the surface and aircraft observations. Trajectories from the model indicated that the high ozone and VOC

  13. Development of a global aerosol microphysics model driven by assimilated meteorology and evaluation against field campaign data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trivitayanurak, Win

    We implement the TwO-Moment Aerosol Sectional (TOMAS) microphysics model into the GEOS-Chem CTM that is driven by assimilated meteorology. TOMAS has 30 size sections covering 0.01 --- 10 mum diameter with conservation equation for both aerosol mass and number. The implementation enables GEOS-Chem to simulate aerosol microphysics, size distributions, mass and number concentrations. In the first stage of development, sulfate and sea-salt aerosol model results from GEOS-Chem with TOMAS are intercompared with global models with sectional microphysics: GISS GCM-II' and GLOMAP. Predictions of CN10 and CCN(0.2%) by all models agree well within a factor of two in the boundary layer but differ more at altitudes. Comparison with marine boundary layer observations of CN10 and CCN(0.2%) shows that all models perform well with average errors of 30 -- 50%. Differences among models stress the need for updated emission inventories and accurate meteorology and oxidant fields. The second stage encompasses implementation of carbonaceous aerosols, including organic mass (OM), elemental carbon (EC), and secondary organic aerosol (SOA). Sensitivity of CCN prediction to the uncertain POA-SOA contribution to the total OA budget is examined by artificially shifting OA sources from POA emission to SOA production rate. The different microphysical pathways of POA and SOA resulting in decreased CCN(0.2%) everywhere as the model changes from POA to SOA because SOA condenses onto mostly accumulation mode. POA is twice as effective per unit mass compared to SOA at CCN production at the model surface. Completely changing from POA to SOA results in 20% CCN(0.2%) reduction at the surface as well as globally. The fully developed TOMAS aerosol microphysics model with sulfate, sea-salt, OM, EC, and dust is evaluated against observations from ACE-Asia field campaign. This is the first highly time-resolved aerosol microphysics evaluation. The Napari et al. (2002) ternary nucleation captures PBL

  14. Field Investigation of Surface-Lake Processes on Ice Shelves: Results of the 2015/16 Field Campaign on McMurdo Ice Shelf, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacAyeal, Doug; Banwell, Alison; Willis, Ian; Macdonald, Grant

    2016-04-01

    Ice-shelf instability and breakup of the style exhibited by Larsen B Ice Shelf in 2002 remains the most difficult glaciological process of consequence to observe in detail. It is, however, vital to do so because ice-shelf breakup has the potential to influence the buttressing controls on inland ice discharge, and thus to affect sea level. Several mechanisms enabling Larsen B style breakup have been proposed, including the ability of surface lakes to introduce ice-shelf fractures when they fill and drain, thereby changing the surface loads the ice-shelf must adjust to. Our model suggest that these fractures resulted in a chain-reaction style drainage of >2750 surface lakes on the Larsen B in the days prior to its demise. To validate this and other models, we began a field project on the McMurdo Ice Shelf (MIS) during the 2015/16 austral summer. Advantages of the MIS study site are: there is considerable surface melting during 3-6 weeks of the summer season, the ice is sufficiently thin (< 30 m in places) to allow observable viscoelastic responses to relatively small loads, and it is close to a center of logistical support (McMurdo Station). Here we show initial results from the field campaign, including GPS and water-depth observations of a lake that has filled and drained over multiple week timescales in previous austral summers. We also report on the analysis of high-resolution WorldView satellite imagery from several summers that reveals the complexity of surface meltwater movement in channels and subsurface void spaces. Initial reconnaissance of the largest surface-lake features reveal that they have a central circular depression surrounded by an uplifted ring, which supports one of the central tenets of our ice-shelf flexure theory. A second field season is anticipated for the 2016/17 austral summer.

  15. Chemical composition of tropospheric air masses encountered during high altitude flights (>11.5 km) during the 2009 fall Operation Ice Bridge field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Mei Ying Melissa; Vay, Stephanie A.; Stohl, Andreas; Choi, Yonghoon; Diskin, Glenn S.; Sachse, Glen W.; Blake, Donald R.

    2012-09-01

    As part of the 2009 Operation Ice Bridge campaign, the NASA DC-8 aircraft was used to fill the data-time gap in laser observation of the changes in ice sheets, glaciers and sea ice between ICESat-I (Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite) and ICESat-II. Complementing the cryospheric instrument payload were four in situ atmospheric sampling instruments integrated onboard to measure trace gas concentrations of CO2, CO, N2O, CH4, water vapor and various VOCs (Volatile Organic Compounds). This paper examines two plumes encountered at high altitude (12 km) during the campaign; one during a southbound transit flight (13°S) and the other at 86°S over Antarctica. The data presented are especially significant as the Southern Hemisphere is heavily under-sampled during the austral spring, with few if any high-resolution airborne observations of atmospheric gases made over Antarctica. Strong enhancements of CO, CH4, N2O, CHCl3, OCS, C2H6, C2H2 and C3H8 were observed in the two intercepted air masses that exhibited variations in VOC composition suggesting different sources. The transport model FLEXPART showed that the 13°S plume contained predominately biomass burning emissions originating from Southeast Asia and South Africa, while both anthropogenic and biomass burning emissions were observed at 86°S with South America and South Africa as indicated source regions. The data presented here show evidence that boundary layer pollution is transported from lower latitudes toward the upper troposphere above the South Pole, which may not have been observed in the past.

  16. ESTIMATING WITHIN-FIELD VARIATIONS IN SOIL PROPERTIES FROM AIRBORNE HYPERSPECTRAL IMAGES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ability of hyperspectral image (HSI) data to provide estimates of soil electrical conductivity (EC) and soil fertility levels without requiring extensive field data collection was investigated. Bare soil images were acquired using a prism grating pushbroom scanner in April 2000 and May 2001 for ...

  17. Field Scale Evaluation of Crop Residue Cover Distribution Using Airborne and Satellite Remote Sensing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conservation tillage adoption has been associated with sustainable agricultural practices and linked with increased plant available water content in some regions. However, rapid and spatially accurate field scale assessments in the southeastern U.S. are lacking. A major goal of this study was to e...

  18. DETECTION AND IDENTIFICATION OF TOXIC AIR POLLUTANTS USING FIELD PORTABLE AND AIRBORNE REMOTE IMAGING SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Remote sensing technologies are a class of instrument and sensor systems that include laser imageries, imaging spectrometers, and visible to thermal infrared cameras. These systems have been successfully used for gas phase chemical compound identification in a variety of field e...

  19. Airborne measurements of NO, NO2, and NO(sub y) as related to NASA's TRACE-A field program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradshaw, John; Sandholm, Scott

    1995-01-01

    The Georgia Tech group's effort on NASA's GTE program and TRACE-A field mission primarily involved analysis and interpretation of the measurement data base obtained during the TRACE-A field campaign. These investigations focused on the distribution of ozone and ozone precursors over the south Atlantic and nearby continental regions of Africa and South Africa. The Transport and Atmospheric Chemistry near the Equator-Atlantic (TRACE-A) Mission was designed with the goal of investigating tropospheric trace gas distributions, sources, and photochemical state over the southern Atlantic. Major scientific issues related to N(x)O(y) tropospheric chemistry addressed in this program included: (1) what controls the tropospheric ozone budget over the southern Atlantic? (2) What are the spatial distributions of CO, CO2, NO, NO2, NO(sub y), O3, NMHC, H2O3, etc. over the southern Atlantic? (3) How does long range transport of long-lived NO(y) compounds affect the more reactive NO(x) budget in southern Atlantic troposphere?

  20. Investigations of Possible Low-Level Temperature and Moisture Anomalies During the AMIE Field Campaign on Manus Island

    SciTech Connect

    Long, CN; Holdridge, DJ

    2012-11-19

    This document discusses results stemming from the investigation of near-surface temperature and moisture “oddities” that were brought to light as part of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) Investigation Experiment (AMIE), Dynamics of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (DYNAMO), and Cooperative Indian Ocean experiment on intraseasonal variability in the Year 2011 (CINDY2011) campaigns.

  1. Merger campaign.

    PubMed

    2007-01-01

    Through using the Web, TV, radio, and print advertisements, The Hospital of Central Connecticut announced in October 2006 its new name and the merger of two hospitals: New Britain General Hospital and Bradley Memorial Hospital. A campaign consisting of TV and radio ads was created to promote the merger. The ads are also featured on the hospital's Web site. PMID:17450950

  2. Size-dependent particle activation properties in fog during the ParisFog 2012/13 field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammer, E.; Gysel, M.; Roberts, G. C.; Elias, T.; Hofer, J.; Hoyle, C. R.; Bukowiecki, N.; Dupont, J.-C.; Burnet, F.; Baltensperger, U.; Weingartner, E.

    2014-04-01

    Fog causes a variety of hazards in road traffic, maritime navigation, as well as in air traffic and railway traffic. There is a great demand, e.g. from airports, for more reliable fog forecasts to prevent fog related accidents. Improved fog forecasts require a better understanding of the numerous complex mechanisms during the fog life cycle. During winter 2012/13 a field campaign called ParisFog aiming at fog research took place at SIRTA (Instrumented Site for Atmospheric Remote Sensing Research). SIRTA is located about 20 km southwest of the Paris city centre, France in a semi-urban environment. In situ activation properties of the prevailing fog were investigated by measuring: (1) total and interstitial (non-activated) dry particle number size distributions behind two different inlet systems; (2) interstitial hydrated aerosol and fog droplet size distributions at ambient conditions; (3) cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) number concentration at different supersaturations (SS) with a CCN counter. The aerosol particles were characterized regarding their hygroscopic properties, fog droplet activation behavior and contribution to light scattering for 17 developed fog events. Low particle hygroscopicity with an overall median of hygroscopicity parameter, κ, of 0.14 was found, likely caused by substantial influence from local traffic and wood burning emissions. Measurements of the aerosol size distribution at ambient RH revealed that the critical wet diameter, above which the hydrated aerosols activate to fog droplets, is rather large with a median value of 2.4 μm and is highly variable (ranging from 1 to 5 μm) between the different fog events. Thus, the number of activated fog droplets was very small and the non-activated hydrated particles were found to contribute siginificantly to the observed light scattering and thus to the reduction in visibility. Combining all experimental data, the effective peak supersaturation, SSpeak, a measure of the peak supersaturation

  3. Measurements of Nitrous Acid (HONO) Using Ion Drift - Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry during the 2009 SHARP Field Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, M. E.; Zhang, R.

    2013-12-01

    During the 2009 SHARP Field Campaign in Houston, TX, measurements of HONO were continuously conducted from May 1 to June 1 at a site located on the campus of the University of Houston. We have developed a novel approach for ambient measurements of nitrous acid (HONO) using ion drift - chemical ionization mass spectrometry (ID-CIMS). In our innovative method, HONO is ionized using the sulfur hexafluoride anion, representing the first application of this reagent ion under humid tropospheric conditions. In this presentation, we will discuss the temporal trends and sources of HONO, as well as, as the involvement of HONO in the formation of key atmospheric constituents, such as ozone. Diurnally, HONO concentration accumulates in the late afternoon, reaches a nighttime maximum, and declines rapidly after sunrise; the averaged daytime and nighttime concentrations are 0.15 × 0.05 and 0.26 × 0.04, respectively. The nighttime measured HONO peaks show strong correlations with the NO2 concentration, particle surface area, and soot mass concentration, indicating that the aerosol-phase chemistry represents a significant contributor to the HONO yield. A higher nighttime HONO peak concentration consistently precedes a higher and earlier ozone peak concentration of the following day, by about 20 ppb higher and four hours earlier than those with a lower preceding HONO peak concentration do. Using a kinetic approach, we estimate an uptake coefficient in the range of 6 x 10-4 to 2 x 10-3 for the heterogeneous conversion of NO2 to HONO on aerosol surfaces, which is necessary to account for the measured nighttime HONO peaks. Our results underscore the importance of aerosol heterogeneous chemistry in HONO production and the contributions of this non-photolytic HONO source to the radical budget and the photochemical ozone production in this region. Furthermore, because of its high detection sensitivity and fast-responding time, the ID-CIMS method described in this work may greatly

  4. Multiwavelength In-situ Aerosol Absorption, Scattering, and Hygroscopic Properties During the TEXAQS 2006 Field Campaign: Aerosol Classification and Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sierau, B.; Covert, D. S.; Coffman, D. J.; Quinn, P. K.; Bates, T. S.

    2007-12-01

    In-situ, three wavelength-measurements of optical properties of the aerosol near the coast of Texas, i.e. in the region of Houston and the Houston ship channel, as well as in the Gulf of Mexico were carried out onboard the NOAA research vessel Ronald H. Brown during the 2006 TEXAQS/GoMACCS field campaign in July through September 2006. Aerosol scattering, hemispheric backscattering and absorption-coefficients were measured for particles with diameters dp<10μm and dp<1μm using integrating nephelometers and filter-based absorption photometers (PSAPs) at 60% RH (nephelometers). Submicrometric light scattering coefficient was measured at two additional humidities, ca. 25%, and 85% RH. Together with the 60% RH data, this enabled determination of the effect of aerosol hygroscopic growth on light scattering and an empirical light scattering growth factor. The results are relevant to radiation transfer, visibility, air quality, and interpretation of remote sensing data from lidar and satellite. The extensive and intensive optical properties along with meteorological analysis are used to characterize the aerosol in the Houston, TX region and the Coastal Gulf of Mexico and to provide information critical to understanding the climatic and air quality impacts of those aerosols. Further analysis focuses on the changes that these properties undergo during chemical processing of emissions within the project area and how they are affected by changes in atmospheric relative humidity that accompany transport, diurnal cycles and vertical mixing. The results are classified by source region and flow regime of the sampled air masses to identify distinct aerosol populations. Special emphasis is given to the physico-chemical properties of aerosols measured during two periods when Saharan dust was encountered during the cruise as well as to several air pollution episodes and plumes from industrial complexes. The combination of hygroscopic growth, light scattering and absorption

  5. Siberian and North American Biomass Burning Contributions to the Processes that Influenced the 2008 Arctic Aircraft and Satellite Field Campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soja, A. J.; Stocks, B. J.; Carr, R.; Pierce, R. B.; Natarajan, M.; Fromm, M.

    2009-05-01

    Current climate change scenarios predict increases in biomass burning in terms of increases in fire frequency, area burned, fire season length and fire season severity, particularly in boreal regions. Climate and weather control fire danger, which strongly influences the severity of fire events, and these in turn, feed back to the climate system through direct and indirect emissions, modifying cloud condensation nuclei and altering albedo (affecting the energy balance) through vegetative land cover change and deposition. Additionally, fire emissions adversely influence air quality and human health downwind of burning. The boreal zone is significant because this region stores the largest reservoir of terrestrial carbon, globally, and will experience climate change impacts earliest. Boreal biomass burning is an integral component to several of the primary goals of the ARCTAS (Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites) and ARCPAC (Aerosol, Radiation, and Cloud Processes affecting Arctic Climate) 2008 field campaigns, which include its implication for atmospheric composition and climate, aerosol radiative forcing, and chemical processes with a focus on ozone and aerosols. Both the spring and summer phases of ARCTAS and ARCPAC offered substantial opportunities for sampling fresh and aged biomass burning emissions. However, the extent to which spring biomass burning influenced arctic haze was unexpected, which could inform our knowledge of the formation of arctic haze and the early deposition of black carbon on the icy arctic surface. There is already evidence of increased extreme fire seasons that correlate with warming across the circumboreal zone. In this presentation, we discuss seasonal and annual fire activity and anomalies that relate to the ARCTAS and ARCPAC spring (April 1 - 20) and summer (June 18 - July 13) periods across Siberia and North America, with particular emphasis on fire danger and fire behavior as they relate

  6. Amines and Ammonia Measured in the Southeastern U.S. Forest during the 2013 SOAS Field Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S.; You, Y.; Sierra-Hernández, M.; Baumann, K.; Fry, J.; Allen, H.; Draper, D. C.; Edgerton, E.

    2013-12-01

    Amines and ammonia play critical roles in new particle formation, via acid-base reactions at the initial stage of aerosol nucleation. Nitrogen base compounds are important for SOA formation, via formation of salts and condensation of amine photo-oxidation products; they also contribute to the formation of brown organic aerosols. Amines and ammonia can change the acidity and physical state of aerosols to further affect SOA yields. During the Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS) campaign in Centerville, Alabama from June 1 to July 15, 2013, amines and ammonia were simultaneously measured with a chemical ionization mass spectrometer (CIMS) by Kent State University [Yu and Lee, 2012: Environ. Chem. 9, 190-201]. The sensitivity of the CIMS was in the range of 5-10 Hz ion signals for 1 pptv of a base compound, which ultimately allows for the fast-time response detection (less than 1 minute) of ammonia and amines at the pptv level. Additionally, ammonia was also detected with another two independent methods, MARGA (Measuring AeRosols and Gases) by Reed College, and chemiluminescence by ARA. Ammonia concentrations measured by CIMS, MARGA and chemiluminescence were at the ppbv and sub-ppbv level. Over the 6 weeks of the SOAS field study, these three ammonia instruments consistently showed very similar time variations and agreed reasonably well. The CIMS also detected various C1 through C6 amines at the pptv and tens pptv level. Trimethylamine (C3 amine) and ammonia showed similar diurnal trends, temperature and wind direction dependences for most days, implying common natural emission sources of these two base compounds at this forest site. On the other hand, methylamine (C1) and dimethylamine (C2) were much lower than trimethylamine and they did not show clear diurnal variations and temperature dependences. During the brief episode of local biomass burning, concentrations of C3 through C6 amines and ammonia increased rapidly, while methylamine and dimethylamine were

  7. Size-dependent particle activation properties in fog during the ParisFog 2012/13 field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammer, E.; Gysel, M.; Roberts, G. C.; Elias, T.; Hofer, J.; Hoyle, C. R.; Bukowiecki, N.; Dupont, J.-C.; Burnet, F.; Baltensperger, U.; Weingartner, E.

    2014-10-01

    Fog-induced visibility reduction is responsible for a variety of hazards in the transport sector. Therefore there is a large demand for an improved understanding of fog formation and thus improved forecasts. Improved fog forecasts require a better understanding of the numerous complex mechanisms during the fog life cycle. During winter 2012/13 a field campaign called ParisFog aiming at fog research took place at SIRTA (Instrumented Site for Atmospheric Remote Sensing Research). SIRTA is located about 20 km southwest of the Paris city center, France, in a semi-urban environment. In situ activation properties of the prevailing fog were investigated by measuring (1) total and interstitial (non-activated) dry particle number size distributions behind two different inlet systems; (2) interstitial hydrated aerosol and fog droplet size distributions at ambient conditions; and (3) cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) number concentration at different supersaturations (SS) with a CCN counter. The aerosol particles were characterized regarding their hygroscopic properties, fog droplet activation behavior and contribution to light scattering for 17 developed fog events. Low particle hygroscopicity with an overall median of the hygroscopicity parameter, κ, of 0.14 was found, likely caused by substantial influence from local traffic and wood burning emissions. Measurements of the aerosol size distribution at ambient RH revealed that the critical wet diameter, above which the hydrated aerosols activate to fog droplets, is rather large (with a median value of 2.6μm) and is highly variable (ranging from 1 to 5μm) between the different fog events. Thus, the number of activated fog droplets was very small and the non-activated hydrated particles were found to contribute significantly to the observed light scattering and thus to the reduction in visibility. Combining all experimental data, the effective peak supersaturation, SSpeak, a measure of the peak supersaturation during the fog

  8. Mauna Kea, Hawaii as an Analogue Site for Future Planetary Resource Exploration: Results from the 2010 ILSO-ISRU Field-Testing Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    ten Kate, I. L.; Armstrong, R.; Bernhardt, B.; Blummers, M.; Boucher, D.; Caillibot, E.; Captain, J.; Deleuterio, G.; Farmer, J. D.; Glavin, D. P.; Hamilton, J. C.; Klingelhoefer, G.; Morris, R. V.; Nunez, J. I.; Quinn, J. W.; Sanders, G. B.; Sellar, R. G.; Sigurdson, L.; Taylor, R.; Zacny, K.

    2010-01-01

    Within the framework of the International Lunar Surface Operation - In-Situ Resource Utilization Analogue Test held on January 27 - February 11, 2010 on the Mauna Kea volcano in Hawaii, a number of scientific instrument teams collaborated to characterize the field site and test instrument capabilities outside laboratory environments. In this paper, we provide a geological setting for this new field-test site, a description of the instruments that were tested during the 2010 ILSO-ISRU field campaign, and a short discussion for each instrument about the validity and use of the results obtained during the test. These results will form a catalogue that may serve as reference for future test campaigns. In this paper we provide a description and regional geological setting for a new field analogue test site for lunar resource exploration, and discuss results obtained from the 2010 ILSO-ISRU field campaign as a reference for future field-testing at this site. The following instruments were tested: a multispectral microscopic imager, MMI, a Mossbauer spectrometer, an evolved gas analyzer, VAPoR, and an oxygen and volatile extractor called RESOLVE. Preliminary results show that the sediments change from dry, organic-poor, poorly-sorted volcaniclastic sand on the surface, containing basalt, iron oxides and clays, to more water- and organic-rich, fine grained, well-sorted volcaniclastic sand, primarily consisting of iron oxides and depleted of basalt and clays. Furthermore, drilling experiments showed a very close correlation between drilling on the Moon and drilling at the test site. The ILSO-ISRU test site was an ideal location for testing strategies for in situ resource exploration at the lunar or martian surface.

  9. Decadal changes in ozone and precursor emissions in the Los Angeles California region using in-situ airborne and ground-based field observations, roadside monitoring data, and surface network measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollack, I. B.; Ryerson, T. B.; Trainer, M.; Atlas, E. L.; Blake, D. R.; Flynn, J. H.; Frost, G. J.; Grossberg, N.; Harley, R. A.; Holloway, J. S.; Lefer, B. L.; Lueb, R.; Parrish, D. D.; Peischl, J.

    2011-12-01

    In-situ observations from the Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) and the California Air Resources Board (CARB) surface network show decreases in ozone (O3), nitrogen oxide (NOx=NO+NO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and select volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in California's South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB). Decreases in CO, NOx, and VOCs reflect changes, such as improved catalytic converters and reformulated fuels etc., that have been implemented in response to increasingly strict emissions standards placed upon on-road vehicles in the state of California. Here, we compare changes in emissions ratios of NOx and VOCs to CO determined from surface network data collected since 1994 to changes in emissions ratios from biennial roadside studies conducted in west Los Angeles since 1999 and airborne and ground-based measurements from three independent field campaigns conducted in California in 2002, 2008, and 2010. Using the more extensive in-situ surface network data set, we show that decreasing ozone is positively correlated with decreasing abundances of NOx and VOCs and with decreasing VOC/NOx ratio over time. The changes observed from 1994 to present suggest that reductions in both NOx and VOCs and the VOC/NOx ratio over the years have been effective in reducing ozone in the SoCAB.

  10. An update on the NAST-I airborne FTS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larar, Allen M.; Smith, William L.; Zhou, Daniel K.; Liu, Xu; Noe, Anna; Oliver, Don; Flood, Michael; Rochette, Luc; Tian, Jialin

    2011-11-01

    The NPOESS / NASA Airborne Sounder Testbed - Interferometer (NAST-I) is a well-proven airborne remote sensing system, which has flown in 18 previous field campaigns aboard the high altitude NASA ER-2, Northrop Grumman / Scaled Composites Proteus, and NASA WB-57 aircraft since initially being flight qualified in 1998. While originally developed to provide experimental observations needed to finalize specifications and test proposed designs and data processing algorithms for the Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) to fly on the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) Preparatory Project (NPP) and the Joint Polar Satellite System, JPSS (formerly NPOESS, prior to recent program restructuring), its unprecedented data quality and system characteristics have contributed to a variety of atmospheric research and measurement validation objectives. This paper will provide a program overview and update, including a summary of measurement system capabilities, select scientific results, and recent refurbishment activities.

  11. Characterizing Geology and Mineralization at High Latitudes in Alaska Using Airborne and Field-Based Imaging Spectrometer Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoefen, T. M.; Kokaly, R. F.; Graham, G. E.; Kelley, K. D.; Buchhorn, M.; Johnson, M. R.; Hubbard, B. E.; Goldfarb, R. J.; Prakash, A.

    2015-12-01

    Passive optical remote sensing of high latitude regions faces many challenges including a short acquisition season and poor illumination. Identification of surface minerals can be complicated by steep terrain and vegetation cover. In July 2014, the HyMap* imaging spectrometer was flown over two study areas in Alaska. Contemporaneously, field spectra and samples of geologic units were collected, including altered and unaltered parts of intrusions hosting mid-Cretaceous porphyry copper deposits at Orange Hill and Bond Creek in the eastern Alaska Range. The HyMap radiance data were converted to surface reflectance using a radiative transfer correction program and reflectance spectra of calibration sites. Reflectance data were analyzed with the Material Identification and Characterization Algorithm (MICA), a module of USGS PRISM (Processing Routines in IDL for Spectroscopic Measurements; speclab.cr.usgs.gov). Large areas of abundant epidote/chlorite, muscovite/illite, calcite, kaolinite, montmorillonite, and (or) pyrophyllite were mapped, which are minerals typically formed during alteration of host rocks surrounding porphyry copper deposits. A map showing the wavelength position of the muscovite/illite absorption feature was made. Shifts in wavelength position have been related to the aluminum composition of micas and areas of high metal concentrations in past studies. In July 2015, rock and spectral sampling was continued in areas with surface exposures of copper- and molybdenum-bearing sulfides. Also, high-spatial resolution (~6 cm pixel size) imaging spectrometer data were collected at the Orange Hill deposit using the University of Alaska, Fairbanks (UAF) HySpex imaging spectrometer (www.hyperspectral.alaska.edu). Laboratory, field, and airborne spectra are being examined to define indicators of mineralization. The study results will be used to assess the effectiveness of spectroscopic remote sensing for geologic mapping and exploration targeting in Alaska and

  12. Airborne Doppler lidar wind field measurements of waves in the lee of Mount Shasta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blumen, William; Hart, John E.

    1988-01-01

    Doppler lidar wind data obtained along one leg of a race track traverse around Mount Shasta are presently studied to establish their value and limitations for the study of orographic flows, as well as to evaluate the relative usefulness of a linear model in the analyses of the observed fields-of-motion. The model successfully reproduced the observed downstream lee of positive horizontal divergence which embedded spatially irregular waves, but the amplitudes of the model downstream divergence is smaller than the observations by a factor of two.

  13. Operation Sun Beam, Shots Little Feller II and Small Boy. Project Officer's report - Project 7. 16. Airborne E-field radiation measurements of electromagnetic-pulse phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, K.L.

    1985-09-01

    Airborne measurements of the absolute vertical electric field (E-field) of the radiated electromagnetic pulse were attempted for Shots Little Feller II and Small Boy. Instrumentation included calibrated vertical whip antennas, wideband magnetic tape recorders, and photographs of oscilloscope traces. One instrumented aircraft participated in Little Feller II (C-131F); two aircraft participated in Small Boy (a C-131F and an A-3A). No detectable signals were recorded for either event. It is concluded that the vertical E-field intensities encountered were below the calibrated levels of the instrumentation or the method of instrumentation and calibration was inadequate for nonrepetitive pulse signals.

  14. Joint NASA/USAF Airborne Field Mill Program - Operation and safety considerations during flights of a Lear 28 airplane in adverse weather

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Bruce D.; Phillips, Michael R.; Maier, Launa M.

    1992-01-01

    A NASA Langley Research Center Learjet 28 research airplane was flown in various adverse weather conditions in the vicinity of the NASA Kennedy Space Center from 1990-1992 to measure airborne electric fields during the Joint NASA/USAF Airborne Field Mill Program. The objective of this program was to characterize the electrical activity in various weather phenomena common to the NASA-Kennedy area in order to refine Launch Commit Criteria for natural and triggered lightning. The purpose of the program was to safely relax the existing launch commit criteria, thereby increasing launch availability and reducing the chance for weather holds and delays. This paper discusses the operational conduct of the flight test, including environmental/safety considerations, aircraft instrumentation and modification, test limitations, flight procedures, and the procedures and responsibilities of the personnel in the ground station. Airborne field mill data were collected for all the Launch Commit Criteria during two summer and two winter deployments. These data are now being analyzed.

  15. Marsh dieback, loss, and recovery mapped with satellite optical, airborne polarimetric radar, and field data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ramsey, Elijah W., III; Rangoonwala, Amina; Chi, Zhaohui; Jones, Cathleen E.; Bannister, Terri

    2014-01-01

    Landsat Thematic Mapper and Satellite Pour l'Observation de la Terre (SPOT) satellite based optical sensors, NASA Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle synthetic aperture radar (UAVSAR) polarimetric SAR (PolSAR), and field data captured the occurrence and the recovery of an undetected dieback that occurred between the summers of 2010, 2011, and 2012 in the Spartina alterniflora marshes of coastal Louisiana. Field measurements recorded the dramatic biomass decrease from 2010 to 2011 and a biomass recovery in 2012 dominated by a decrease of live biomass, and the loss of marsh as part of the dieback event. Based on an established relationship, the near-infrared/red vegetation index (VI) and site-specific measurements delineated a contiguous expanse of marsh dieback encompassing 6649.9 ha of 18,292.3 ha of S. alterniflora marshes within the study region. PolSAR data were transformed to variables used in biophysical mapping, and of this variable suite, the cross-polarization HV (horizontal send and vertical receive) backscatter was the best single indicator of marsh dieback and recovery. HV backscatter exhibited substantial and significant changes over the dieback and recovery period, tracked measured biomass changes, and significantly correlated with the live/dead biomass ratio. Within the context of regional trends, both HV and VI indicators started higher in pre-dieback marshes and exhibited substantially and statistically higher variability from year to year than that exhibited in the non-dieback marshes. That distinct difference allowed the capturing of the S. alterniflora marsh dieback and recovery; however, these changes were incorporated in a regional trend exhibiting similar but more subtle biomass composition changes.

  16. University of Washington Airborne Studies in Support of the CLAMS-2001 Field Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hobbs, Peter V.

    2003-01-01

    The main activity under this grant was participation in the Chesapeake Lighthouse and Aircraft Measurements for Satellites (CLAMS) field study from 10 July through 2 August 2001. The Cloud and Aerosol Research Group (CARG) from the University of Washington (UW) flew its Convair-580 research aircraft on thirteen occasions, for a total of 45 research flight hours, in support of CLAMS. Some of the main accomplishments of these flights were: 1) Aerosol and trace gas measurements and sunphotometer measurements of aerosol optical depth and column water vapor and ozone from close to Ocean surface to approx. 10,000 ft off Delmarva Peninsula on various occasions; 2) Measurements of aerosol properties on seven occasions beneath the Terra satellite, once beneath AVHRR, and five times beneath the ER-2 aircraft; 3) Measurements of aerosol properties in the vicinity of the (CERES instrumented) Chesapeake Bay lighthouse (COVE) on nine occasions; 4) Use of the NASA Goddard Cloud Absorption Radiometer (CAR) to obtain measurements of BRDF of the ocean surface on fifteen occasions and over Great Dismal Swamp on two occasions; 5) Measurements of aerosol properties over instrumented buoys 44014, 44004, and 41001. 6) On July 17 (a CLAMS 'Golden Day') six aircraft, including the Convair-580 and ER-2, were stacked above the Chesapeake Bay lighthouse under clear skies at the time of the Terra overpass.

  17. Detection of airborne viruses using electro-aerodynamic deposition and a field-effect transistor

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kyu-Tae; Cho, Dong-Guk; Park, Ji-Woon; Hong, Seunghun; Hwang, Jungho

    2015-01-01

    We report a technique for the detection of aerosolized viruses. Conventional field-effect-transistor (FET)-based techniques use solution-based processes, thus require antibody binding to the detection region of the FET prior to the supply of the analyte. With the method described here, virus–antibody-bound particles are delivered to the FET during detection; therefore, neither a pre-treatment antibody binding step on the FET channel nor washing process for virus–antibody-binding are necessary. Our method is based on the concept that virus–antibody-bound particles are larger than the virus or antibody alone, and thus have larger charge numbers following aerosol charging. When these particles are charged by negative ions and electro-aerodynamically deposited on a substrate, there exists a location on the substrate where neither lone virus nor antibody particles land, and where only virus–antibody-bound particles are deposited. If this location coincides with the channel of the FET, the resulting variation in the current can be used to indicate the existence of a virus. By aerosolizing a mixed solution of the virus and the antibody, only the virus–antibody-bound particles were transported to the swCNT-FET, and the electric current in the swCNT-FET decreased to 30% of that measured with no deposited particles. PMID:26642822

  18. Detection of airborne viruses using electro-aerodynamic deposition and a field-effect transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Kyu-Tae; Cho, Dong-Guk; Park, Ji-Woon; Hong, Seunghun; Hwang, Jungho

    2015-12-01

    We report a technique for the detection of aerosolized viruses. Conventional field-effect-transistor (FET)-based techniques use solution-based processes, thus require antibody binding to the detection region of the FET prior to the supply of the analyte. With the method described here, virus-antibody-bound particles are delivered to the FET during detection; therefore, neither a pre-treatment antibody binding step on the FET channel nor washing process for virus-antibody-binding are necessary. Our method is based on the concept that virus-antibody-bound particles are larger than the virus or antibody alone, and thus have larger charge numbers following aerosol charging. When these particles are charged by negative ions and electro-aerodynamically deposited on a substrate, there exists a location on the substrate where neither lone virus nor antibody particles land, and where only virus-antibody-bound particles are deposited. If this location coincides with the channel of the FET, the resulting variation in the current can be used to indicate the existence of a virus. By aerosolizing a mixed solution of the virus and the antibody, only the virus-antibody-bound particles were transported to the swCNT-FET, and the electric current in the swCNT-FET decreased to 30% of that measured with no deposited particles.

  19. Evaluation of the MOZAIC Capacitive Hygrometer during the airborne field study CIRRUS-III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neis, P.; Smit, H. G. J.; Krämer, M.; Spelten, N.; Petzold, A.

    2014-09-01

    The MOZAIC Capacitive Hygrometer (MCH) is usually operated onboard of passenger aircraft in the framework of MOZAIC (Measurement of Ozone by AIRBUS In-Service Aircraft). In order to evaluate the performance of the MCH, it was operated aboard a Learjet 35A aircraft as part of the CIRRUS-III field study together with a closed-cell Lyman-α fluorescence hygrometer (FISH) and an open path tunable diode laser system (OJSTER) for water vapour measurement. After reducing the data set to MOZAIC-relevant conditions, the 1Hz relative humidity (RH) cross correlation between MCH and reference instruments FISH (clear sky) and OJSTER (in-cirrus) yielded a remarkably good agreement of R2 = 0.97 and slope m = 0.96 and provided the MCH uncertainty of 5% RH. Probability distribution functions of RH deduced from MCH and reference instruments agreed well over the entire range of observations. The main limitation for the use of MCH data is related to sensor temperatures below the calibration limit of Tsensor = -40 °C (corresponds to ambient temperature of Tambient = -70 °C at typical cruising speed of long-haul passenger aircraft), which causes a delay in the sensor's time response. Good performance of MCH for clear sky as well as for in-cirrus conditions demonstrated the sensor robustness also for operation inside ice clouds.

  20. Evaluation of the MOZAIC Capacitive Hygrometer during the airborne field study CIRRUS-III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neis, P.; Smit, H. G. J.; Krämer, M.; Spelten, N.; Petzold, A.

    2015-03-01

    The MOZAIC Capacitive Hygrometer (MCH) is usually operated aboard passenger aircraft in the framework of MOZAIC (Measurement of Ozone by Airbus In-Service Aircraft) for measuring atmospheric relative humidity (RH). In order to evaluate the performance of the MCH, the instrument was operated aboard a Learjet 35A research aircraft as part of the CIRRUS-III field study together with a closed-cell Lyman-α fluorescence hygrometer (Fast in situ Stratospheric Hygrometer, or FISH) and an open-path tunable diode laser system (Open-path Jülich Stratospheric TDL ExpeRiment, or OJSTER) for water vapour measurement. After reducing the CIRRUS-III data set to data corresponding to MOZAIC aircraft operation conditions, the 1 Hz RH data cross correlation between the MCH and reference instruments FISH (clear sky) and OJSTER (in-cirrus) yielded a remarkably good agreement of R2 = 0.92 and slope m = 1.02 and provided a MCH uncertainty of 5% RH. Probability distribution functions of RH deduced from the MCH and reference instruments agreed well between 10 and 70% RH with respect to liquid water in the ambient temperature range of ca. -70 to -40 °C. The use of MCH data is limited to sensor temperatures above the calibration limit of Tsensor = -40 °C (corresponds to ambient temperature of Tambient = -70 °C at typical cruising speed of long-haul passenger aircraft). Good performance of the MCH for clear sky as well as for in-cirrus conditions demonstrated the sensor robustness also for operation inside ice clouds.

  1. Lidar measurements of airborne particulate matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guangkun; Philbrick, C. Russell

    2003-03-01

    Raman lidar techniques have been used in remote sensing to measure the aerosol optical extinction in the lower atmosphere, as well as water vapor, temperature and ozone profiles. Knowledge of aerosol optical properties assumes special importance in the wake of studies strongly correlating airborne particulate matter with adverse health effects. Optical extinction depends upon the concentration, composition, and size distribution of the particulate matter. Optical extinction from lidar returns provide information on particle size and density. The influence of relative humidity upon the growth and size of aerosols, particularly the sulfate aerosols along the northeast US region, has been investigated using a Raman lidar during several field measurement campaigns. A particle size distribution model is being developed and verified based on the experimental results. Optical extinction measurements from lidar in the NARSTO-NE-OPS program in Philadelphia PA, during summer of 1999 and 2001, have been analyzed and compared with other measurements such as PM sampling and particle size measurements.

  2. Characterizing forest structure variations across an intact tropical peat dome using field samplings and airborne LiDAR.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Ha T; Hutyra, Lucy R; Hardiman, Brady S; Raciti, Steve M

    2016-03-01

    Tropical peat swamp forests (PSF) are one of the most carbon dense ecosystems on the globe and are experiencing substantial natural and anthropogenic disturbances. In this study, we combined direct field sampling and airborne LiDAR to empirically quantify forest structure and aboveground live biomass (AGB) across a large, intact tropical peat dome in Northwestern Borneo. Moving up a 4 m elevational gradient, we observed increasing stem density but decreasing canopy height, crown area, and crown roughness. These findings were consistent with hypotheses that nutrient and hydrological dynamics co-influence forest structure and stature of the canopy individuals, leading to reduced productivity towards the dome interior. Gap frequency as a function of gap size followed a power law distribution with a shape factor (λ) of 1.76 ± 0.06. Ground-based and dome-wide estimates of AGB were 217.7 ± 28.3 Mg C/ha and 222.4 ± 24.4 Mg C/ha, respectively, which were higher than previously reported AGB for PSF and tropical forests in general. However, dome-wide AGB estimates were based on height statistics, and we found the coefficient of variation on canopy height was only 0.08, three times less than stem diameter measurements, suggesting LiDAR height metrics may not be a robust predictor of AGB in tall tropical forests with dense canopies. Our structural characterization of this ecosystem advances the understanding of the ecology of intact tropical peat domes and factors that influence biomass density and landscape-scale spatial variation. This ecological understanding is essential to improve estimates of forest carbon density and its spatial distribution in PSF and to effectively model the effects of disturbance and deforestation in these carbon dense ecosystems. PMID:27209797

  3. Modeling ozone plumes observed downwind of New York City over the North Atlantic Ocean during the ICARTT field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S.-H.; Kim, S.-W.; Trainer, M.; Frost, G. J.; McKeen, S. A.; Cooper, O. R.; Flocke, F.; Holloway, J. S.; Neuman, J. A.; Ryerson, T.; Senff, C. J.; Swanson, A. L.; Thompson, A. M.

    2011-07-01

    Transport and chemical transformation of well-defined New York City (NYC) urban plumes over the North Atlantic Ocean were studied using aircraft measurements collected on 20-21 July 2004 during the ICARTT (International Consortium for Atmospheric Research on Transport and Transformation) field campaign and WRF-Chem (Weather Research and Forecasting-Chemistry) model simulations. The strong NYC urban plumes were characterized by carbon monoxide (CO) mixing ratios of 350-400 parts per billion by volume (ppbv) and ozone (O3) levels of about 100 ppbv near New York City on 20 July in the WP-3D in-situ and DC-3 lidar aircraft measurements. On 21 July, the two aircraft captured strong urban plumes with about 350 ppbv CO and over 150 ppbv O3 (~160 ppbv maximum) about 600 km downwind of NYC over the North Atlantic Ocean. The measured urban plumes extended vertically up to about 2 km near New York City, but shrank to 1-1.5 km over the stable marine boundary layer (MBL) over the North Atlantic Ocean. The WRF-Chem model reproduced ozone formation processes, chemical characteristics, and meteorology of the measured urban plumes near New York City (20 July) and in the far downwind region over the North Atlantic Ocean (21 July). The quasi-Lagrangian analysis of transport and chemical transformation of the simulated NYC urban plumes using WRF-Chem results showed that the pollutants can be efficiently transported in (isentropic) layers in the lower atmosphere (<2-3 km) over the North Atlantic Ocean while maintaining a dynamic vertical decoupling by cessation of turbulence in the stable MBL. The O3 mixing ratio in the NYC urban plumes remained at 80-90 ppbv during nocturnal transport over the stable MBL, then grew to over 100 ppbv by daytime oxidation of nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2) with mixing ratios on the order of 1 ppbv. Efficient transport of reactive nitrogen species (NOy), specifically nitric acid (HNO3), was confirmed through the comparison of the CO/NOy ratio in

  4. Modeling ozone plumes observed downwind of New York City over the North Atlantic Ocean during the ICARTT field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S.-H.; Kim, S.-W.; Trainer, M.; Frost, G. J.; McKeen, S. A.; Cooper, O. R.; Flocke, F.; Holloway, J. S.; Neuman, J. A.; Ryerson, T.; Senff, C. J.; Swanson, A. L.; Thompson, A. M.

    2011-05-01

    Transport and chemical transformation of well-defined New York City (NYC) urban plumes over the North Atlantic Ocean were studied using aircraft measurements collected on 20-21 July 2004 during the ICARTT (International Consortium for Atmospheric Research on Transport and Transformation) field campaign and WRF-Chem (Weather Research and Forecasting-Chemistry) model simulations. The strong NYC urban plumes were characterized by carbon monoxide (CO) mixing ratios of 350-400 parts per billion by volume (ppbv) and ozone (O3) levels of about 100 ppbv near New York City on 20 July in the WP-3D in-situ and DC-3 lidar aircraft measurements. On 21 July, the two aircraft captured strong urban plumes with about 350 ppbv CO and over 150 ppbv O3 (~160 ppbv maximum) about 600 km downwind of NYC over the North Atlantic Ocean. The measured urban plumes extended vertically up to about 2 km near New York City, but shrank to 1-1.5 km over the stable marine boundary layer (MBL) over the North Atlantic Ocean. The WRF-Chem model reproduced ozone formation processes, chemical characteristics, and meteorology of the measured urban plumes near New York City (20 July) and in the far downwind region over the North Atlantic Ocean (21 July). The quasi-Lagrangian analysis of transport and chemical transformation of the simulated NYC urban plumes using WRF-Chem results showed that the pollutants can be efficiently transported in (isentropic) layers in the lower atmosphere (<2-3 km) over the North Atlantic Ocean while maintaining a dynamic vertical decoupling by cessation of turbulence in the stable MBL. The O3 mixing ratio in the NYC urban plumes remained at 80-90 ppbv during nocturnal transport over the stable MBL, then grew to over 100 ppbv by daytime oxidation of nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2) with mixing ratios on the order of 1 ppbv. Efficient transport of reactive nitrogen species (NOy), specifically nitric acid (HNO3), was confirmed through the comparison of the CO/NOy ratio in

  5. Measurements of submicron aerosols at the California-Mexico border during the Cal-Mex 2010 field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, Misti E.; Zhang, Renyi; Zheng, Jun; Tan, Haobo; Wang, Yuan; Molina, Luisa T.; Takahama, S.; Russell, L. M.; Li, Guohui

    2014-05-01

    We present measurements of submicron aerosols in Tijuana, Mexico during the Cal-Mex 2010 field campaign. A suite of aerosol instrumentations were deployed, including a hygroscopic-volatility tandem differential mobility analyzer (HV-TDMA), aerosol particle mass analyzer (APM), condensation particle counter (CPC), cavity ring-down spectrometer (CRDS), and nephelometer to measure the aerosol size distributions, effective density, hygroscopic growth factors (HGF), volatility growth factors (VGF), and optical properties. The average mass concentration of PM0.6 is 10.39 ± 7.61 μg m-3, and the derived average black carbon (BC) mass concentration is 2.87 ± 2.65 μg m-3. There is little new particle formation or particle growth during the day, and the mass loading is dominated by organic aerosols and BC, which on average are 37% and 27% of PM1.0, respectively. For four particle sizes of 46, 81, 151, and 240 nm, the measured particle effective density, HGFs, and VGFs exhibit distinct diurnal trends and size-dependence. For smaller particles (46 and 81 nm), the effective density distribution is unimodal during the day and night, signifying an internally mixed aerosol composition. In contrast, larger particles (151 and 240 nm) exhibit a bi-modal effective density distribution during the daytime, indicating an external mixture of fresh BC and organic aerosols, but a unimodal distribution during the night, corresponding to an internal mixture of BC and organic aerosols. The smaller particles show a noticeable diurnal trend in the effective density distribution, with the highest effective density (1.70 g cm-3) occurring shortly after midnight and the lowest value (0.90 g cm-3) occurring during the afternoon, corresponding most likely to primary organic aerosols and BC, respectively. Both HGFs and VGFs measured are strongly size-dependent. HGFs increase with increasing particle size, indicating that the largest particles are more hygroscopic. VGFs decrease with increasing

  6. Comparison of JPL-AIRSAR and DLR E-SAR images from the MAC Europe 1991 campaign over testsite Oberpfaffenhofen: Frequency and polarization dependent backscatter variations from agricultural fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmullius, C.; Nithack, J.

    1992-01-01

    On July 12, the MAC Europe '91 (Multi-Sensor Airborne Campaign) took place over test site Oberpfaffenhofen. The DLR Institute of Radio-Frequency Technology participated with its C-VV, X-VV, and X-HH Experimental Synthetic Aperture Radar (E-SAR). The high resolution E-SAR images with a pixel size between 1 and 2 m and the polarimetric AIRSAR images were analyzed. Using both sensors in combination is a unique opportunity to evaluate SAR images in a frequency range from P- to X-band and to investigate polarimetric information.

  7. Composition and Morphology of Major Particle Types from Airborne Measurements during ICE-T and PRADACS Field Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venero, I. M.; Mayol-Bracero, O. L.; Anderson, J. R.

    2012-12-01

    As part of the Puerto Rican African Dust and Cloud Study (PRADACS) and the Ice in Clouds Experiment - Tropical (ICE-T), we sampled giant airborne particles to study their elemental composition, morphology, and size distributions. Samples were collected in July 2011 during field measurements performed by NCAR's C-130 aircraft based on St Croix, U.S Virgin Island. The results presented here correspond to the measurements done during research flight #8 (RF8). Aerosol particles with Dp > 1 um were sampled with the Giant Nuclei Impactor and particles with Dp < 1 um were collected with the Wyoming Inlet. Collected particles were later analyzed using an automated scanning electron microscope (SEM) and manual observation by field emission SEM. We identified the chemical composition and morphology of major particle types in filter samples collected at different altitudes (e.g., 300 ft, 1000 ft, and 4500ft). Results from the flight upwind of Puerto Rico show that particles in the giant nuclei size range are dominated by sea salt. Samples collected at altitudes 300 ft and 1000 ft showed the highest number of sea salt particles and the samples collected at higher altitudes (> 4000 ft) showed the highest concentrations of clay material. HYSPLIT back trajectories for all samples showed that the low altitude samples initiated in the free troposphere in the Atlantic Ocean, which may account for the high sea salt content and that the source of the high altitude samples was closer to the Saharan - Sahel desert region and, therefore, these samples possibly had the influence of African dust. Size distribution results for quartz and unreacted sea-salt aerosols collected on the Giant Nuclei Impactor showed that sample RF08 - 12:05 UTM (300 ft) had the largest size value (mean = 2.936 μm) than all the other samples. Additional information was also obtained from the Wyoming Inlet present at the C - 130 aircraft which showed that size distribution results for all particles were smaller in

  8. Crisp clustering of airborne geophysical data from the Alto Ligonha pegmatite field, northeastern Mozambique, to predict zones of increased rare earth element potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eberle, Detlef G.; Daudi, Elias X. F.; Muiuane, Elônio A.; Nyabeze, Peter; Pontavida, Alfredo M.

    2012-01-01

    The National Geology Directorate of Mozambique (DNG) and Maputo-based Eduardo-Mondlane University (UEM) entered a joint venture with the South African Council for Geoscience (CGS) to conduct a case study over the meso-Proterozoic Alto Ligonha pegmatite field in the Zambézia Province of northeastern Mozambique to support the local exploration and mining sectors. Rare-metal minerals, i.e. tantalum and niobium, as well as rare-earth minerals have been mined in the Alto Ligonha pegmatite field since decades, but due to the civil war (1977-1992) production nearly ceased. The Government now strives to promote mining in the region as contribution to poverty alleviation. This study was undertaken to facilitate the extraction of geological information from the high resolution airborne magnetic and radiometric data sets recently acquired through a World Bank funded survey and mapping project. The aim was to generate a value-added map from the airborne geophysical data that is easier to read and use by the exploration and mining industries than mere airborne geophysical grid data or maps. As a first step towards clustering, thorium (Th) and potassium (K) concentrations were determined from the airborne geophysical data as well as apparent magnetic susceptibility and first vertical magnetic gradient data. These four datasets were projected onto a 100 m spaced regular grid to assemble 850,000 four-element (multivariate) sample vectors over the study area. Classification of the sample vectors using crisp clustering based upon the Euclidian distance between sample and class centre provided a (pseudo-) geology map or value-added map, respectively, displaying the spatial distribution of six different classes in the study area. To learn the quality of sample allocation, the degree of membership of each sample vector was determined using a-posterior discriminant analysis. Geophysical ground truth control was essential to allocate geology/geophysical attributes to the six classes

  9. A Comparison between Airborne and Mountaintop Cloud Microphysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, R.; Lowenthal, D. H.; Hallar, A. G.; McCubbin, I.; Avallone, L. M.; Mace, G. G.; Wang, Z.

    2014-12-01

    Complex terrain has a large impact on cloud dynamics and microphysics. Several studies have examined the microphysical details of orographically-enhanced clouds from either an aircraft or from a mountain top location. However, further research is needed to characterize the relationships between mountain top and airborne microphysical properties. During the winter of 2011, an airborne study, the Colorado Airborne Mixed-Phase Cloud Study (CAMPS), and a ground-based field campaign, the Storm Peak Lab (SPL) Cloud Property Validation Experiment (StormVEx) were conducted in the Park Range of the Colorado Rockies. The CAMPS study utilized the University of Wyoming King Air (UWKA) to provide airborne cloud microphysical and meteorological data on 29 flights totaling 98 flight hours over the Park Range from December 15, 2010 to February 28, 2011. The UWKA was equipped with instruments that measured both cloud droplet and ice crystal size distributions, liquid water content, total water content (vapor, liquid, and ice), and 3-dimensional wind speed and direction. The Wyoming Cloud Radar and Lidar were also deployed during the campaign. These measurements are used to characterize cloud structure upwind and above the Park Range. StormVEx measured cloud droplet, ice crystal, and aerosol size distributions at SPL, located on the west summit of Mt. Werner at 3220m MSL. The observations from SPL are used to determine mountain top cloud microphysical properties at elevations lower than the UWKA was able to sample in-situ. Comparisons showed that cloud microphysics aloft and at the surface were consistent with respect to snow growth processes while small crystal concentrations were routinely higher at the surface, suggesting ice nucleation near cloud base. The effects of aerosol concentrations and upwind stability on mountain top and downwind microphysics are considered.

  10. CAROLS: A New Airborne L-Band Radiometer for Ocean Surface and Land Observations

    PubMed Central

    Zribi, Mehrez; Pardé, Mickael; Boutin, Jacquline; Fanise, Pascal; Hauser, Daniele; Dechambre, Monique; Kerr, Yann; Leduc-Leballeur, Marion; Reverdin, Gilles; Skou, Niels; Søbjærg, Sten; Albergel, Clement; Calvet, Jean Christophe; Wigneron, Jean Pierre; Lopez-Baeza, Ernesto; Rius, Antonio; Tenerelli, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    The “Cooperative Airborne Radiometer for Ocean and Land Studies” (CAROLS) L-Band radiometer was designed and built as a copy of the EMIRAD II radiometer constructed by the Technical University of Denmark team. It is a fully polarimetric and direct sampling correlation radiometer. It is installed on board a dedicated French ATR42 research aircraft, in conjunction with other airborne instruments (C-Band scatterometer—STORM, the GOLD-RTR GPS system, the infrared CIMEL radiometer and a visible wavelength camera). Following initial laboratory qualifications, three airborne campaigns involving 21 flights were carried out over South West France, the Valencia site and the Bay of Biscay (Atlantic Ocean) in 2007, 2008 and 2009, in coordination with in situ field campaigns. In order to validate the CAROLS data, various aircraft flight patterns and maneuvers were implemented, including straight horizontal flights, circular flights, wing and nose wags over the ocean. Analysis of the first two campaigns in 2007 and 2008 leads us to improve the CAROLS radiometer regarding isolation between channels and filter bandwidth. After implementation of these improvements, results show that the instrument is conforming to specification and is a useful tool for Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite validation as well as for specific studies on surface soil moisture or ocean salinity. PMID:22346599

  11. Field tests of a new, extractive, airborne 1.4 μm -TDLAS hygrometer (SEALDH-I) on a Learjet 35A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchholz, Bernhard; Ebert, Volker

    2013-04-01

    easier to validate the sensor function e.g. by a direct comparison with a primary water standard and to ensure traceability of the results to metrological standards. On the other hand it remains important to investigate sampling effects and artifacts in order to provide true measurements of the outside air. The SEALDH-I (Selective Extractive Airborne Laser Diode Hygrometer) is a new, absolute 1.37 μm Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (TDLAS) hygrometer, which uses an advanced spectroscopic multiline fit and instrument stabilization process to enable a calibrations-free [1] evaluation of TDLAS signals [2]. SEALDHI is a compact (19" 4 HU), light weight (23 kg), fully extractive TDL hygrometer especially designed for space- and weight-limited airborne applications. It is based on an internal optical cell with 1.5 m optical path length. SEALDH-I's time resolution is limited by the flow through the cell: With an unpressurized inlet and gas handling system, we achieve with typical flows of 40 liter/min which leads to exchange times in the order of 0.5 sec. The laser scanning frequency of typically 140 Hz sets a maximum time resolution of 7 msec. Averaging data for about 2.1 sec ensures an excellent precision of 0.033 ppmv, which results in a band width and path length normalized precision of 72 ppbv?m?(Hz)-1-2. A dynamic range from 30 to 30000 ppmv has been proved and already validated in a blind intercomparison campaign [3]. The fast measurements, its excellent precision, validated accuracy, and absolute, calibration-free evaluation in combination with the compact, robust setup, allows airborne measurements from ground level up to the lower stratosphere. Furthermore SEALDH-I permits via its fast response time in combination with the large concentration range the resolution of fine atmospheric spatial structures and temporal fluctuations, particularly in clouds [4], where concentration gradients of 1000 ppmv per second can be present. We will present the result of

  12. Three-dimensional visualization of ensemble weather forecasts - Part 2: Forecasting warm conveyor belt situations for aircraft-based field campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rautenhaus, M.; Grams, C. M.; Schäfler, A.; Westermann, R.

    2015-07-01

    We present the application of interactive three-dimensional (3-D) visualization of ensemble weather predictions to forecasting warm conveyor belt situations during aircraft-based atmospheric research campaigns. Motivated by forecast requirements of the T-NAWDEX-Falcon 2012 (THORPEX - North Atlantic Waveguide and Downstream Impact Experiment) campaign, a method to predict 3-D probabilities of the spatial occurrence of warm conveyor belts (WCBs) has been developed. Probabilities are derived from Lagrangian particle trajectories computed on the forecast wind fields of the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) ensemble prediction system. Integration of the method into the 3-D ensemble visualization tool Met.3D, introduced in the first part of this study, facilitates interactive visualization of WCB features and derived probabilities in the context of the ECMWF ensemble forecast. We investigate the sensitivity of the method with respect to trajectory seeding and grid spacing of the forecast wind field. Furthermore, we propose a visual analysis method to quantitatively analyse the contribution of ensemble members to a probability region and, thus, to assist the forecaster in interpreting the obtained probabilities. A case study, revisiting a forecast case from T-NAWDEX-Falcon, illustrates the practical application of Met.3D and demonstrates the use of 3-D and uncertainty visualization for weather forecasting and for planning flight routes in the medium forecast range (3 to 7 days before take-off).

  13. The role of refinery flaring events and bay breezes on a high surface ozone episode during the Houston, Texas DISCOVER-AQ field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loughner, C.; Follette-Cook, M. B.; Fried, A.; Pickering, K. E.

    2015-12-01

    The highest observed surface ozone concentrations in the Houston metropolitan area in 2013 occurred on September 25, which coincided with the Texas DISCOVER-AQ (Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality) field campaign. Surface ozone was elevated throughout the Houston metropolitan area with maximum 8-hour average ozone peaking along the western shore of Galveston Bay, reaching 124 ppbv, almost 50 ppbv above the current EPA standard of 75 ppbv. The NASA P-3B aircraft observed plumes from refinery flares west and northwest of Galveston Bay that were transported over the water. Continental air pollution from the north was transported into the Houston metropolitan area where it mixed with locally generated emissions. A bay breeze circulation formed causing pollutants that were transported out over the water in the morning to recirculate back inland where they mixed with freshly emitted pollution near the bay breeze convergence zone. The highest surface ozone concentrations were reported near the bay breeze front. This ozone episode will be presented using measurements made during the DISCOVER-AQ field campaign and a CMAQ model simulation with integrated source apportionment, which tracks the contribution of emissions source groups and regions on ozone concentrations.

  14. The role of bay breezes and regional transport on a high surface ozone episode during the Houston, Texas DISCOVER-AQ field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loughner, C.; Follette-Cook, M. B.; Pickering, K. E.; Estes, M. J.

    2014-12-01

    The highest observed surface ozone concentrations in the Houston metropolitan area in 2013 occurred on September 25, which coincided with the Texas DISCOVER-AQ (Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality) field campaign. Surface ozone was elevated throughout the Houston metropolitan area. Maximum 8-hour average ozone peaked along the western shore of Galveston Bay, reaching 124 ppbv, almost 50 ppbv above the current EPA standard of 75 ppbv, at La Porte Sylvan Beach. Continental air pollution from the north and northeast was transported into the Houston metropolitan area where it mixed with locally generated emissions. A bay breeze circulation formed causing pollutants that were transported out over the water in the morning to recirculate back inland where they mixed with freshly emitted pollution near the bay breeze convergence zone. The highest surface ozone concentrations were reported near the bay breeze front at La Porte Sylvan Beach. This ozone episode will be presented using measurements made during the DISCOVER-AQ field campaign and WRF and CMAQ model simulations.

  15. A Multi-Use Airborne Research Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poellot, Michael R.

    2003-01-01

    Much of our progress in understanding the Earth system comes from measurements made in the atmosphere. Aircraft are widely used to collect in situ measurements of the troposphere and lower stratosphere, and they also serve as platforms for many remote sensing instruments. Airborne field measurement campaigns require a capable aircraft, a specially trained support team, a suite of basic instrumentation, space and power for new instruments, and data analysis and processing capabilities (e.g. Veal et al., 1977). However, these capabilities are expensive and there is a need to reduce costs while maintaining the capability to perform this type of research. To this end, NASA entered a Cooperative Agreement with the University of North Dakota (UND) to help support the operations of the UND Cessna Citation research aircraft. This Cooperative Agreement followed in form and substance a previous agreement. The Cooperative Agreement has benefited both NASA and UND. In part because of budget reductions, the NASA Airborne Science Office has elected to take advantage of outside operators of science research platforms to off-load some science requirements (Huning, 1996). UND has worked with NASA to identify those requirements that could be met more cost effectively with the UND platform. This has resulted in significant cost savings to NASA while broadening the base of researchers in the NASA science programs. At the same time, the Agreement has provided much needed support to UND to help sustain the Citation research facility. In this report, we describe the work conducted under this Cooperative Agreement.

  16. Calibration Matters: Advances in Strapdown Airborne Gravimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, D.

    2015-12-01

    Using a commercial navigation-grade strapdown inertial measurement unit (IMU) for airborne gravimetry can be advantageous in terms of cost, handling, and space consumption compared to the classical stable-platform spring gravimeters. Up to now, however, large sensor errors made it impossible to reach the mGal-level using such type IMUs as they are not designed or optimized for this kind of application. Apart from a proper error-modeling in the filtering process, specific calibration methods that are tailored to the application of aerogravity may help to bridge this gap and to improve their performance. Based on simulations, a quantitative analysis is presented on how much IMU sensor errors, as biases, scale factors, cross couplings, and thermal drifts distort the determination of gravity and the deflection of the vertical (DOV). Several lab and in-field calibration methods are briefly discussed, and calibration results are shown for an iMAR RQH unit. In particular, a thermal lab calibration of its QA2000 accelerometers greatly improved the long-term drift behavior. Latest results from four recent airborne gravimetry campaigns confirm the effectiveness of the calibrations applied, with cross-over accuracies reaching 1.0 mGal (0.6 mGal after cross-over adjustment) and DOV accuracies reaching 1.1 arc seconds after cross-over adjustment.

  17. Surface and Column Variations of CO2 using Weighting Functions for Future Active Remote CO2 sensors and Data from DISCOVER-AQ Field Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, M. M.; Choi, Y.; Kooi, S. A.; Browell, E. V.

    2014-12-01

    Fast response (1 Hz) and high precision (< 0.1 ppmv) in situ CO2 measurements were recorded onboard the NASA P-3B during the DISCOVER-AQ (Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality) Field Campaign, to investigate the ability of space-based observations to accurately assess near surface conditions related to air quality. The campaign spanned 4 years and took place over four geographically different locations. These included, Washington DC/Baltimore, MD (July 2011), San Joaquin Valley, CA (January - February 2013), Houston, TX (September 2013), and Denver, CO (July-August 2014). With the objective of obtaining better CO2 column calculations, each of these campaigns consisted of missed approaches and approximately two hundred vertical soundings of CO2 (from the surface to about 5 km). In this study, surface and column-averaged CO2 mixing ratio values from the vertical soundings in the four different urban areas are used to examine the temporal and spatial variability of CO2 within the lower troposphere. Tracers such as CO, CH2O, NOx, and NMHCs will be used to identify the source of variations observed in these urban sites. Additionally, we apply nominal CO2 column weighting functions for potential future active remote CO2 sensors operating in the 1.57-mm and 2.05-mm measurement regions to convert the in situ CO2 vertical mixing ratio profiles to variations in CO2 column optical depths, which is what the active remote sensors actually measure. Using statistics calculated from the optical depths at each urban site measured during the DISCOVER-AQ field campaign and for each nominal weighting function, we compare the natural variability of CO2 columns in the lower troposphere; relate the CO2 column variability to surface emissions; and show the measurement requirements for the future ASCENDS (Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons) in the continental U.S. urban areas.

  18. Fourth Airborne Geoscience Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The focus of the workshop was on how the airborne community can assist in achieving the goals of the Global Change Research Program. The many activities that employ airborne platforms and sensors were discussed: platforms and instrument development; airborne oceanography; lidar research; SAR measurements; Doppler radar; laser measurements; cloud physics; airborne experiments; airborne microwave measurements; and airborne data collection.

  19. Airborne laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamberson, Steven E.

    2002-06-01

    The US Air Force Airborne Laser (ABL) is an airborne, megawatt-class laser system with a state-of-the-art atmospheric compensation system to destroy enemy ballistic missiles at long ranges. This system will provide both deterrence and defense against the use of such weapons during conflicts. This paper provides an overview of the ABL weapon system including: the notional operational concept, the development approach and schedule, the overall aircraft configuration, the technologies being incorporated in the ABL, and the risk reduction approach being utilized to ensure program success.

  20. An overview of the AROMAT campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merlaud, Alexis; Dekemper, Emmanuel; Van Roozendael, Michel; Constantin, Daniel; Georgescu, Lucian; Meier, Andreas; Richter, Andreas; Den Hoed, Mirjam; Allaart, Marc; Boscornea, Andreea; Vajaiac, Sorin; Bellegante, Livio; Nemuc, Anca; Nicolae, Doina; Shaifangar, Reza; Dörner, Steffen; Wa