Science.gov

Sample records for airborne field experiment

  1. Vegetation Water Content Mapping in a Diverse Agricultural Landscape: National Airborne Field Experiment 2006

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cosh, Michael H.; Jing Tao; Jackson, Thomas J.; McKee, Lynn; O'Neill, Peggy

    2011-01-01

    Mapping land cover and vegetation characteristics on a regional scale is critical to soil moisture retrieval using microwave remote sensing. In aircraft-based experiments such as the National Airborne Field Experiment 2006 (NAFE 06), it is challenging to provide accurate high resolution vegetation information, especially on a daily basis. A technique proposed in previous studies was adapted here to the heterogenous conditions encountered in NAFE 06, which included a hydrologically complex landscape consisting of both irrigated and dryland agriculture. Using field vegetation sampling and ground-based reflectance measurements, the knowledge base for relating the Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) and the vegetation water content was extended to a greater diversity of agricultural crops, which included dryland and irrigated wheat, alfalfa, and canola. Critical to the generation of vegetation water content maps, the land cover for this region was determined from satellite visible/infrared imagery and ground surveys with an accuracy of 95.5% and a kappa coefficient of 0.95. The vegetation water content was estimated with a root mean square error of 0.33 kg/sq m. The results of this investigation contribute to a more robust database of global vegetation water content observations and demonstrate that the approach can be applied with high accuracy. Keywords: Vegetation, field experimentation, thematic mapper, NDWI, agriculture.

  2. Vegetation water content mapping in a diverse agricultural landscape: National Airborne Field Experiment 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cosh, Michael H.; Tao, Jing; Jackson, Thomas J.; McKee, Lynn; O'Neill, Peggy

    2010-05-01

    Mapping land cover and vegetation characteristics on a regional scale is critical to soil moisture retrieval using microwave remote sensing. In aircraft-based experiments such as the National Airborne Field Experiment 2006 (NAFE'06), it is challenging to provide accurate high resolution vegetation information, especially on a daily basis. A technique proposed in previous studies was adapted here to the heterogenous conditions encountered in NAFE'06, which included a hydrologically complex landscape consisting of both irrigated and dryland agriculture. Using field vegetation sampling and ground-based reflectance measurements, the knowledge base for relating the Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) and the vegetation water content was extended to a greater diversity of agricultural crops, which included dryland and irrigated wheat, alfalfa, and canola. Critical to the generation of vegetation water content maps, the land cover for this region was determined from satellite visible/infrared imagery and ground surveys with an accuracy of 95.5% and a kappa coefficient of 0.95. The vegetation water content was estimated with a root mean square error of 0.33 kg/m2. The results of this investigation contribute to a more robust database of global vegetation water content observations and demonstrate that the approach can be applied with high accuracy.

  3. Airborne field strength monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bredemeyer, J.; Kleine-Ostmann, T.; Schrader, T.; Münter, K.; Ritter, J.

    2007-06-01

    In civil and military aviation, ground based navigation aids (NAVAIDS) are still crucial for flight guidance even though the acceptance of satellite based systems (GNSS) increases. Part of the calibration process for NAVAIDS (ILS, DME, VOR) is to perform a flight inspection according to specified methods as stated in a document (DOC8071, 2000) by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). One major task is to determine the coverage, or, in other words, the true signal-in-space field strength of a ground transmitter. This has always been a challenge to flight inspection up to now, since, especially in the L-band (DME, 1GHz), the antenna installed performance was known with an uncertainty of 10 dB or even more. In order to meet ICAO's required accuracy of ±3 dB it is necessary to have a precise 3-D antenna factor of the receiving antenna operating on the airborne platform including all losses and impedance mismatching. Introducing precise, effective antenna factors to flight inspection to achieve the required accuracy is new and not published in relevant papers yet. The authors try to establish a new balanced procedure between simulation and validation by airborne and ground measurements. This involves the interpretation of measured scattering parameters gained both on the ground and airborne in comparison with numerical results obtained by the multilevel fast multipole algorithm (MLFMA) accelerated method of moments (MoM) using a complex geometric model of the aircraft. First results will be presented in this paper.

  4. Airborne field experiments and select radiance analysis focused on SNPP validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larar, Allen M.; Smith, William L.; Zhou, Daniel K.; Liu, Xu; Tian, Jialin

    2017-02-01

    The Suomi NPP (SNPP) satellite began a critical first step in building the next-generation Earth observing satellite system for the US, continuing key environmental data records that are essential for weather forecasting and climate change science. Since its launch in late 2011, two airborne field campaigns have been conducted with a primary focus on SNPP instrument and data product calibration / validation: 1) mid-latitude flights based out of Palmdale, CA during May 2013 (SNPP-1), and 2) flights over Greenland during March 2015 while based out of Keflavik, Iceland (SNPP-2). In addition to under-flying SNPP, aircraft flight profiles were defined to also obtain coincident observations with the NASA A-train (i.e. AQUA), MetOP-A, and MetOP-B advanced sounder satellites (i.e. AIRS, IASI, and CrIS), along with radiosonde and ground truth sites. The NASA LaRC National Airborne Sounder Testbed-Interferometer (NAST-I) was one of the key payload sensors aboard the ER-2 aircraft during these campaigns. This presentation gives an overview of the SNPP field campaigns and shows example infrared spectral radiance inter-comparisons involving NAST-I and other measurement assets.

  5. MODIS airborne simulator visible and near-infrared calibration, 1992 ASTEX field experiment. Calibration version: ASTEX King 1.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, G. Thomas; Fitzgerald, Michael; Grant, Patrick S.; King, Michael D.

    1994-01-01

    Calibration of the visible and near-infrared (near-IR) channels of the MODIS Airborne Simulator (MAS) is derived from observations of a calibrated light source. For the 1992 Atlantic Stratocumulus Transition Experiment (ASTEX) field deployment, the calibrated light source was the NASA Goddard 48-inch integrating hemisphere. Tests during the ASTEX deployment were conducted to calibrate the hemisphere and then the MAS. This report summarizes the ASTEX hemisphere calibration, and then describes how the MAS was calibrated from the hemisphere data. All MAS calibration measurements are presented and determination of the MAS calibration coefficients (raw counts to radiance conversion) is discussed. In addition, comparisons to an independent MAS calibration by Ames personnel using their 30-inch integrating sphere is discussed.

  6. The Australian National Airborne Field Experiment 2005: Soil Moisture Remote Sensing at 60 Meter Resolution and Up

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, E. J.; Walker, J. P.; Panciera, R.; Kalma, J. D.

    2006-01-01

    truth collection over a range of grid spacings, to provide a basis for examining the effects of subpixel variability. However, the native footprint size of the airborne L-band radiometers was always a few hundred meters. During the recently completed (November, 2005) National Airborne Field Experiment (NAFE) campaign in Australia, a compact L-band radiometer was deployed on a small aircraft. This new combination permitted routine observations at native resolutions as high as 60 meters, substantially finer than in previous airborne soil moisture campaigns, as well as satellite footprint areal coverage. The radiometer, the Polarimetric L-band Microwave Radiometer (PLMR) performed extremely well and operations included extensive calibration-related observations. Thus, along with the extensive fine-scale ground truth, the NAFE dataset includes all the ingredients for the first scaling studies involving very-high-native resolution soil moisture observations and the effects of vegetation, roughness, etc. A brief overview of the NAFE will be presented, then examples of the airborne observations with resolutions from 60 m to 1 km will be shown, and early results from scaling studies will be discussed.

  7. Airborne Research Experience for Educators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, V. B.; Albertson, R.; Smith, S.; Stockman, S. A.

    2009-12-01

    The Airborne Research Experience for Educators (AREE) Program, conducted by the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center Office of Education in partnership with the AERO Institute, NASA Teaching From Space Program, and California State University Fullerton, is a complete end-to-end residential research experience in airborne remote sensing and atmospheric science. The 2009 program engaged ten secondary educators who specialize in science, technology, engineering or mathematics in a 6-week Student Airborne Research Program (SARP) offered through NSERC. Educators participated in collection of in-flight remote sensor data during flights aboard the NASA DC-8 as well as in-situ research on atmospheric chemistry (bovine emissions of methane); algal blooms (remote sensing to determine location and degree of blooms for further in-situ analysis); and crop classification (exploration of how drought conditions in Central California have impacted almond and cotton crops). AREE represents a unique model of the STEM teacher-as-researcher professional development experience because it asks educators to participate in a research experience and then translate their experiences into classroom practice through the design, implementation, and evaluation of instructional materials that emphasize the scientific research process, inquiry-based investigations, and manipulation of real data. Each AREE Master Educator drafted a Curriculum Brief, Teachers Guide, and accompanying resources for a topic in their teaching assignment Currently, most professional development programs offer either a research experience OR a curriculum development experience. The dual nature of the AREE model engaged educators in both experiences. Educators’ content and pedagogical knowledge of STEM was increased through the review of pertinent research articles during the first week, attendance at lectures and workshops during the second week, and participation in the airborne and in-situ research studies, data

  8. Collaboration Portals for NASA's Airborne Field Campaigns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conover, Helen; Kulkami, Ajinkya; Garrett, Michele; Goodman, Michael; Peterson, Walter Arthur; Drewry, Marilyn; Hardin, Danny M.; He, Matt

    2011-01-01

    The University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH), in collaboration with the Global Hydrology Resource Center, a NASA Earth Science Data Center, has provided information management for a number of NASA Airborne Field campaigns, both hurricane science investigations and satellite instrument validation. Effective field campaign management requires communication and coordination tools, including utilities for personnel to upload and share flight plans, weather forecasts, a variety of mission reports, preliminary science data, and personal photos. Beginning with the Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) hurricane field campaign in 2010, we have provided these capabilities via a Drupal-based collaboration portal. This portal was reused and modified for the Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E), part of the Global Precipitation Measurement mission ground validation program. An end goal of these development efforts is the creation of a Drupal profile for field campaign management. This presentation will discuss experiences with Drupal in developing and using these collaboration portals. Topics will include Drupal modules used, advantages and disadvantages of working with Drupal in this context, and how the science teams used the portals in comparison with other communication and collaboration tools.

  9. Collaboration Portals for NASA's Airborne Field Campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conover, H.; Kulkarni, A.; Garrett, M.; Goodman, M.; Petersen, W. A.; Drewry, M.; Hardin, D. M.; He, M.

    2011-12-01

    The University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH), in collaboration with the Global Hydrology Resource Center, a NASA Earth Science Data Center, has provided information management for a number of NASA Airborne Field campaigns, both hurricane science investigations and satellite instrument validation. Effective field campaign management requires communication and coordination tools, including utilities for personnel to upload and share flight plans, weather forecasts, a variety of mission reports, preliminary science data, and personal photos. Beginning with the Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) hurricane field campaign in 2010, we have provided these capabilities via a Drupal-based collaboration portal. This portal was reused and modified for the Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E), part of the Global Precipitation Measurement mission ground validation program. An end goal of these development efforts is the creation of a Drupal profile for field campaign management. This presentation will discuss experiences with Drupal in developing and using these collaboration portals. Topics will include Drupal modules used, advantages and disadvantages of working with Drupal in this context, and how the science teams used the portals in comparison with other communication and collaboration tools.

  10. Evaluating bedload transport with RFID and accelerometer tracers, airborne LiDAR, and HEC-GeoRAS modeling: field experiments in Reynolds Creek, Idaho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olinde, L.; Johnson, J. P.; Pierson, F. B.

    2012-12-01

    Relationships between bedload transport, channel geometry, and bed topography in upland channels are not well understood due in part to a lack of quantitative field data. With this motivation, we are performing field experiments related to (i) bedload travel distances within and between transport events, (ii) style of bedload motion during transport events, and (iii) channel characteristics of depositional areas. To address these objectives, we deployed gravel and cobble Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) and accelerometer tracers, installed permanent RFID antennas, utilized airborne LiDAR, and conducted stream surveys in Reynolds Creek, Idaho. This gauged coarse alluvial stream is located at the USDA-Agricultural Research Service Reynolds Creek Experimental Watershed within the Owyhee Mountains. Flood discharges generally consist of occasional flashy winter rain-on-snow flows spanning less than a day, large spring snowmelt events lasting several weeks, and no high summer discharges during our experiments. Through repeat surveys of tracer clast positions, to date we have quantified travel distances of 800 RFID particles. Spring 2011 discharge transported RFID tracers nearly seven kilometers while the shorter Spring 2012 flow only displaced particles up to approximately three kilometers. During Winter 2011 rain-on-snow events, tracers moved a maximum of 200 meters. Statistical distributions of transport distances vary with deployment location and season- uniform distributions fit some datasets best while gamma distributions fit others better. Permanent cross-stream RFID antennas constrain periods of bedload motion and rest. In Spring 2012, antennas recorded significant RFID tracer motion initiating just when discharge began to rise due to snowmelt, travel times between antennas decreasing as flow increased, and RFID particles no longer passing almost immediately after the hydrograph peaked. Accelerometer tracers deployed in Spring 2012 expanded bedload motion

  11. Airborne Trace Gas Mapping During the GOSAT-COMEX Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tratt, D. M.; Leifer, I.; Buckland, K. N.; Johnson, P. D.; Van Damme, M.; Pierre-Francois, C.; Clarisse, L.

    2015-12-01

    The GOSAT-COMEX-IASI (Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite - CO2 and Methane EXperiment - Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer) experiment acquired data on 24-27 April 2015 with two aircraft, a mobile ground-based sampling suite, and the GOSAT and IASI platforms. Collections comprised the Kern Front and Kern River oil fields north of Bakersfield, Calif. and the Chino stockyard complex in the eastern Los Angeles Basin. The nested-grid experiment examined the convergence of multiple approaches to total trace gas flux estimation from the experimental area on multiple length-scales, which entailed the integrated analysis of ground-based, airborne, and space-based measurements. Airborne remote sensing was employed to map the spatial distribution of discrete emission sites - crucial information to understanding their relative aggregate contribution to the overall flux estimation. This contribution discusses the methodology in the context of the airborne GHG source mapping component of the GOSAT-COMEX experiment and its application to satellite validation.

  12. Airborne space laser communication system and experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiao-Ming; Zhang, Li-zhong; Meng, Li-Xin

    2015-11-01

    Airborne space laser communication is characterized by its high speed, anti-electromagnetic interference, security, easy to assign. It has broad application in the areas of integrated space-ground communication networking, military communication, anti-electromagnetic communication. This paper introduce the component and APT system of the airborne laser communication system design by Changchun university of science and technology base on characteristic of airborne laser communication and Y12 plan, especially introduce the high communication speed and long distance communication experiment of the system that among two Y12 plans. In the experiment got the aim that the max communication distance 144Km, error 10-6 2.5Gbps - 10-7 1.5Gbps capture probability 97%, average capture time 20s. The experiment proving the adaptability of the APT and the high speed long distance communication.

  13. MODIS airborne simulator visible and near-infrared calibration, 1991 FIRE-Cirrus field experiment. Calibration version: FIRE King 1.1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, G. Thomas; Fitzgerald, Michael; Grant, Patrick S.; King, Michael D.

    1994-01-01

    Calibration of the visible and near-infrared channels of the MODIS Airborne Simulator (MAS) is derived from observations of a calibrated light source. For the 1991 FIRE-Cirrus field experiment, the calibrated light source was the NASA Goddard 48-inch integrating hemisphere. Laboratory tests during the FIRE Cirrus field experiment were conducted to calibrate the hemisphere and from the hemisphere to the MAS. The purpose of this report is to summarize the FIRE-Cirrus hemisphere calibration, and then describe how the MAS was calibrated from observations of the hemisphere data. All MAS calibration measurements are presented, and determination of the MAS calibration coefficients (raw counts to radiance conversion) is discussed. Thermal sensitivity of the MAS visible and near-infrared calibration is also discussed. Typically, the MAS in-flight is 30 to 60 degrees C colder than the room temperature laboratory calibration. Results from in-flight temperature measurements and tests of the MAS in a cold chamber are given, and from these, equations are derived to adjust the MAS in-flight data to what the value would be at laboratory conditions. For FIRE-Cirrus data, only channels 3 through 6 were found to be temperature sensitive. The final section of this report describes comparisons to an independent MAS (room temperature) calibration by Ames personnel using their 30-inch integrating sphere.

  14. Airborne Lidar measurements of aerosols, mixed layer heights, and ozone during the 1980 PEPE/NEROS summer field experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Browell, E. V.; Shipley, S. T.; Butler, C. F.; Ismail, S.

    1985-01-01

    A detailed summary of the NASA Ultraviolet Differential Absorption Lidar (UV DIAL) data archive obtained during the EPA Persistent Elevated Pollution Episode/Northeast Regional Oxidant Study (PEPE/NEROS) Summer Field Experiment Program (July through August 1980) is presented. The UV dial data set consists of remote measurements of mixed layer heights, aerosol backscatter cross sections, and sequential ozone profiles taken during 14 long-range flights onboard the NASA Wallops Flight Center Electra aircraft. These data are presented in graphic and tabular form, and they have been submitted to the PEPE/NEROS data archive on digital magnetic tape. The derivation of mixing heights and ozone profiles from UV Dial signals is discussed, and detailed intercomparisons with measurements obtained by in situ sensors are presented.

  15. Airborne 2 color ranging experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millar, Pamela S.; Abshire, James B.; Mcgarry, Jan F.; Zagwodzki, Thomas W.; Pacini, Linda K.

    1993-01-01

    Horizontal variations in the atmospheric refractivity are a limiting error source for many precise laser and radio space geodetic techniques. This experiment was designed to directly measure horizontal variations in atmospheric refractivity, for the first time, by using 2 color laser ranging measurements to an aircraft. The 2 color laser system at the Goddard Optical Research Facility (GORF) ranged to a cooperative laser target package on a T-39 aircraft. Circular patterns which extended from the southern edge of the Washington D.C. Beltway to the southern edge of Baltimore, MD were flown counter clockwise around Greenbelt, MD. Successful acquisition, tracking, and ranging for 21 circular paths were achieved on three flights in August 1992, resulting in over 20,000 two color ranging measurements.

  16. Airborne multispectral detection of regrowth cotton fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westbrook, John K.; Suh, Charles P.-C.; Yang, Chenghai; Lan, Yubin; Eyster, Ritchie S.

    2015-01-01

    Effective methods are needed for timely areawide detection of regrowth cotton plants because boll weevils (a quarantine pest) can feed and reproduce on these plants beyond the cotton production season. Airborne multispectral images of regrowth cotton plots were acquired on several dates after three shredding (i.e., stalk destruction) dates. Linear spectral unmixing (LSU) classification was applied to high-resolution airborne multispectral images of regrowth cotton plots to estimate the minimum detectable size and subsequent growth of plants. We found that regrowth cotton fields can be identified when the mean plant width is ˜0.2 m for an image resolution of 0.1 m. LSU estimates of canopy cover of regrowth cotton plots correlated well (r2=0.81) with the ratio of mean plant width to row spacing, a surrogate measure of plant canopy cover. The height and width of regrowth plants were both well correlated (r2=0.94) with accumulated degree-days after shredding. The results will help boll weevil eradication program managers use airborne multispectral images to detect and monitor the regrowth of cotton plants after stalk destruction, and identify fields that may require further inspection and mitigation of boll weevil infestations.

  17. Radiative heating rates during AAOE and AASE. [Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment and Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenfield, Joan E.

    1990-01-01

    Radiative transit computations of heating rates utilizing data from the 1987 Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment (AAOE) (Tuck et al., 1989) and the 1989 Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Experiment (AASE) (Turco et al., 1990) are described. Observed temperature and ozone profiles and a radiative transfer model are used to compute the heating rates for the Southern Hemisphere during AAOE and the Northern Hemisphere during AASE. The AASE average cooling rates computed inside the vortex are in good agreement with the diabatic cooling rates estimated from the ER-2 profile data for N2O for the AASE period (Schoeberl et al., 1989).

  18. Holographic Airborne Rotating Lidar Instrument Experiment (HARLIE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwemmer, Geary K.

    1998-01-01

    Scanning holographic lidar receivers are currently in use in two operational lidar systems, PHASERS (Prototype Holographic Atmospheric Scanner for Environmental Remote Sensing) and now HARLIE (Holographic Airborne Rotating Lidar Instrument Experiment). These systems are based on volume phase holograms made in dichromated gelatin (DCG) sandwiched between 2 layers of high quality float glass. They have demonstrated the practical application of this technology to compact scanning lidar systems at 532 and 1064 nm wavelengths, the ability to withstand moderately high laser power and energy loading, sufficient optical quality for most direct detection systems, overall efficiencies rivaling conventional receivers, and the stability to last several years under typical lidar system environments. Their size and weight are approximately half of similar performing scanning systems using reflective optics. The cost of holographic systems will eventually be lower than the reflective optical systems depending on their degree of commercialization. There are a number of applications that require or can greatly benefit from a scanning capability. Several of these are airborne systems, which either use focal plane scanning, as in the Laser Vegetation Imaging System or use primary aperture scanning, as in the Airborne Oceanographic Lidar or the Large Aperture Scanning Airborne Lidar. The latter class requires a large clear aperture opening or window in the aircraft. This type of system can greatly benefit from the use of scanning transmission holograms of the HARLIE type because the clear aperture required is only about 25% larger than the collecting aperture as opposed to 200-300% larger for scan angles of 45 degrees off nadir.

  19. APEX - the Hyperspectral ESA Airborne Prism Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Itten, Klaus I.; Dell'Endice, Francesco; Hueni, Andreas; Kneubühler, Mathias; Schläpfer, Daniel; Odermatt, Daniel; Seidel, Felix; Huber, Silvia; Schopfer, Jürg; Kellenberger, Tobias; Bühler, Yves; D'Odorico, Petra; Nieke, Jens; Alberti, Edoardo; Meuleman, Koen

    2008-01-01

    The airborne ESA-APEX (Airborne Prism Experiment) hyperspectral mission simulator is described with its distinct specifications to provide high quality remote sensing data. The concept of an automatic calibration, performed in the Calibration Home Base (CHB) by using the Control Test Master (CTM), the In-Flight Calibration facility (IFC), quality flagging (QF) and specific processing in a dedicated Processing and Archiving Facility (PAF), and vicarious calibration experiments are presented. A preview on major applications and the corresponding development efforts to provide scientific data products up to level 2/3 to the user is presented for limnology, vegetation, aerosols, general classification routines and rapid mapping tasks. BRDF (Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function) issues are discussed and the spectral database SPECCHIO (Spectral Input/Output) introduced. The optical performance as well as the dedicated software utilities make APEX a state-of-the-art hyperspectral sensor, capable of (a) satisfying the needs of several research communities and (b) helping the understanding of the Earth's complex mechanisms. PMID:27873868

  20. CALIOPE and TAISIR airborne experiment platform

    SciTech Connect

    Chocol, C.J.

    1994-07-01

    Between 1950 and 1970, scientific ballooning achieved many new objectives and made a substantial contribution to understanding near-earth and space environments. In 1986, the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) began development of ballooning technology capable of addressing issues associated with precision tracking of ballistic missiles. In 1993, the Radar Ocean Imaging Project identified the need for a low altitude (1 km) airborne platform for its Radar system. These two technologies and experience base have been merged with the acquisition of government surplus Aerostats by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The CALIOPE and TAISIR Programs can benefit directly from this technology by using the Aerostat as an experiment platform for measurements of the spill facility at NTS.

  1. Airborne biological particles and electric fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benninghoff, William S.; Benninghoff, Anne S.

    1982-01-01

    In November and December 1977 at McMurdo Station in Antarctica we investigated the kinds, numbers, and deposition of airborne particles larger than 2 μm while measuring electric field gradient at 2.5 m above the ground. Elementary collecting devices were used: Staplex Hi-Volume and Roto-rod samplers, Tauber (static sedimentation) traps, petrolatum-coated microscope slides, and snow (melted and filtered). The electric fields were measured by a rotating dipole (Stanford Radioscience Laboratory field mill number 2). During periods of blowing snow and dust the electric field gradient was + 500 to + 2500 V/m, and Tauber traps with grounded covers collected 2 or more times as much snow and dust as the ones with ungrounded covers. During falling snow the electric field gradient was -1000 to -1500 V/m, and the ungrounded traps collected almost twice as much snow and dust as those grounded. These observations suggest that under the prevailing weather conditions in polar regions the probable net effect is deposition of greater quantities of dust, including diaspores and minute organisms, on wet, grounded surfaces. This hypothesis needs examination for its use in explanation of biological distribution patterns.

  2. Shaped Sonic Boom Demonstration/Experiment Airborne Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haering ,Edward A., Jr.; Murray, James E.

    2004-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews NASA's project to demonstrate that careful design of aircraft contour the resultant sonic boom can maintain a tailored shape, propagating through a real atmosphere down to ground level. The areas in covered in this presentation are: (1) Past airborne shock measurement efforts, (2) SR-71 Sonic Boom Propagation Experiment (3) F-5E Inlet Spillage Shock Measurement (4) Flight test approach (5) GPS data (6) Shaped Sonic Boom Demonstration (SSBD) Mach calibration (7) Super Blanik L-23 sailplane (8) Near-field probing (8a)Maneuvers (8b) Control Room Displays (8c) Pressure Instrumentation (8d) Signatures.

  3. Airborne lidar experiments at the Savannah River Plant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krabill, William B.; Swift, Robert N.

    1985-01-01

    The results of remote sensing experiments at the Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Nuclear Facility utilizing the NASA Airborne Oceanographic Lidar (AOL) are presented. The flights were conducted in support of the numerous environmental monitoring requirements associated with the operation of the facility and for the purpose of furthering research and development of airborne lidar technology. Areas of application include airborne laser topographic mapping, hydrologic studies using fluorescent tracer dye, timber volume estimation, baseline characterization of wetlands, and aquatic chlorophyll and photopigment measurements. Conclusions relative to the usability of airborne lidar technology for the DOE for each of these remote sensing applications are discussed.

  4. Wind Field Measurements With Airborne Doppler Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menzies, Robert T.

    1999-01-01

    In collaboration with lidar atmospheric remote sensing groups at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Environmental Technology Laboratory, we have developed and flown the Multi-center Airborne Coherent Atmospheric Wind Sensor (MACAWS) lidar on the NASA DC-8 research aircraft. The scientific motivations for this effort are: to obtain measurements of subgrid scale (i.e. 2-200 km) processes and features which may be used to improve parameterizations in global/regional-scale models; to improve understanding and predictive capabilities on the mesoscale; and to assess the performance of Earth-orbiting Doppler lidar for global tropospheric wind measurements. MACAWS is a scanning Doppler lidar using a pulsed transmitter and coherent detection; the use of the scanner allows 3-D wind fields to be produced from the data. The instrument can also be radiometrically calibrated and used to study aerosol, cloud, and surface scattering characteristics at the lidar wavelength in the thermal infrared. MACAWS was used to study surface winds off the California coast near Point Arena, with an example depicted in the figure below. The northerly flow here is due to the Pacific subtropical high. The coastal topography interacts with the northerly flow in the marine inversion layer, and when the flow passes a cape or point that juts into the winds, structures called "hydraulic expansion fans" are observed. These are marked by strong variation along the vertical and cross-shore directions. The plots below show three horizontal slices at different heights above sea level (ASL). Bottom plots are enlargements of the area marked by dotted boxes above. The terrain contours are in 200-m increments, with the white spots being above 600-m elevation. Additional information is contained in the original.

  5. Initial Retrieval Validation from the Joint Airborne IASI Validation Experiment (JAIVEx)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, Daniel K.; Liu, Xu; Smith, WIlliam L.; Larar, Allen M.; Taylor, Jonathan P.; Revercomb, Henry E.; Mango, Stephen A.; Schluessel, Peter; Calbet, Xavier

    2007-01-01

    The Joint Airborne IASI Validation Experiment (JAIVEx) was conducted during April 2007 mainly for validation of the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) on the MetOp satellite, but also included a strong component focusing on validation of the Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS) aboard the AQUA satellite. The cross validation of IASI and AIRS is important for the joint use of their data in the global Numerical Weather Prediction process. Initial inter-comparisons of geophysical products have been conducted from different aspects, such as using different measurements from airborne ultraspectral Fourier transform spectrometers (specifically, the NPOESS Airborne Sounder Testbed Interferometer (NAST-I) and the Scanning-High resolution Interferometer Sounder (S-HIS) aboard the NASA WB-57 aircraft), UK Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements (FAAM) BAe146-301 aircraft insitu instruments, dedicated dropsondes, radiosondes, and ground based Raman Lidar. An overview of the JAIVEx retrieval validation plan and some initial results of this field campaign are presented.

  6. Study of airborne science experiment management concepts for application to space shuttle, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulholland, D. R.; Reller, J. O., Jr.; Neel, C. B.; Haughney, L. C.

    1973-01-01

    Airborne research management and shuttle sortie planning at the Ames Research Center are reported. Topics discussed include: basic criteria and procedures for the formulation and approval of airborne missions; ASO management structure and procedures; experiment design, development, and testing aircraft characteristics and experiment interfaces; information handling for airborne science missions; mission documentation requirements; and airborne science methods and shuttle sortie planning.

  7. Composite mapping experiences in airborne gamma spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Bucher, B

    2014-08-01

    During an international intercomparison exercise of airborne gamma spectrometry held in Switzerland 2007 teams from Germany, France and Switzerland were proving their capabilities. One of the tasks was the composite mapping of an area around Basel. Each team was mainly covering the part of its own country at its own flying procedures. They delivered the evaluated data in a data format agreed in advance. The quantities to be delivered were also defined in advance. Nevertheless, during the process to put the data together a few questions raised: Which dose rate was meant? Had the dose rate to be delivered with or without cosmic contribution? Activity per dry or wet mass? Which coordinate system was used? Finally, the data could be put together in one map. For working procedures in case of an emergency, quantities of interest and exchange data format have to be defined in advance. But the procedures have also to be proved regularly.

  8. Overview of the first Multicenter Airborne Coherent Atmospheric Wind Sensor (MACAWS) experiment: conversion of a ground-based lidar for airborne applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, James N.; Hardesty, R. Michael; Rothermel, Jeffrey; Menzies, Robert T.

    1996-11-01

    The first Multi center Airborne Coherent Atmospheric Wind Sensor (MACAWS) field experiment demonstrated an airborne high energy TEA CO2 Doppler lidar system for measurement of atmospheric wind fields and aerosol structure. The system was deployed on the NASA DC-8 during September 1995 in a series of checkout flights to observe several important atmospheric phenomena, including upper level winds in a Pacific hurricane, marine boundary layer winds, cirrus cloud properties, and land-sea breeze structure. The instrument, with its capability to measure 3D winds and backscatter fields, promises to be a valuable tool for climate and global change, severe weather, and air quality research. In this paper, we describe the airborne instrument, assess its performance, discuss future improvements, and show some preliminary results from the September experiments.

  9. Overview of the first Multi-center Airborne Coherent Atmospheric Wind Sensor (MACAWS) experiment: Conversion of a ground-based lidar for airborne applications

    SciTech Connect

    Howell, J.N.; Hardesty, R.M.; Rothermel, J.; Menzies, R.T.

    1996-12-31

    The first Multi-center Airborne Coherent Atmospheric Wind Sensor (MACAWS) field experiment demonstrated an airborne high energy TEA CO{sub 2} Doppler lidar system for measurement of atmospheric wind fields and aerosol structure. The system was deployed on the NASA DC-8 during September 1995 in a series of checkout flights to observe several important atmospheric phenomena, including upper level winds in a Pacific hurricane, marine boundary layer winds, cirrus cloud properties, and land-sea breeze structure. The instrument, with its capability to measure three-dimensional winds and backscatter fields, promises to be a valuable tool for climate and global change, severe weather, and air quality research. In this paper, the authors describe the airborne instrument, assess its performance, discuss future improvements, and show some preliminary results from September experiments.

  10. Airborne water vapor DIAL research: System development and field measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Higdon, Noah S.; Browell, Edward V.; Ponsardin, Patrick; Chyba, Thomas H.; Grossmann, Benoist E.; Butler, Carolyn F.; Fenn, Marta A.; Mayor, Shane D.; Ismail, Syed; Grant, William B.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the airborne differential absorption lidar (DIAL) system developed at the NASA Langley Research Center for remote measurement of water vapor (H2O) and aerosols in the lower atmosphere. The airborne H2O DIAL system was flight tested aboard the NASA Wallops Flight Facility (WFF) Electra aircraft in three separate field deployments between 1989 and 1991. Atmospheric measurements were made under a variety of atmospheric conditions during the flight tests, and several modifications were implemented during this development period to improve system operation. A brief description of the system and major modifications will be presented, and the most significant atmospheric observations will be described.

  11. An assessment of the surface longwave direct radiative effect of airborne dust in Zhangye, China, during the Asian Monsoon Years field experiment (2008)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansell, Richard A.; Tsay, Si-Chee; Hsu, N. Christina; Ji, Qiang; Bell, Shaun W.; Holben, Brent N.; Welton, Ellsworth J.; Roush, Ted L.; Zhang, W.; Huang, J.; Li, Zhanqing; Chen, H.

    2012-08-01

    In April-June 2008, NASA Goddard's ground-based mobile laboratories (SMART-COMMIT) were deployed to Zhangye China (39.0°N; 101°W) to support the Asian Monsoon Years field experiment and the East Asian Study of Tropospheric Aerosols and Impact on Regional Climate. One of the primary objectives at Zhangye, a semi-arid region located between the Taklimakan and Gobi Deserts, was to capture and characterize dust aerosols near the source and to quantify their direct radiative effects (DRE). A regional dust optical model was constructed by combining previously measured soil mineralogy data at Zhangye with COMMIT's particle microphysical measurements. During a 2-week period of heightened dust activity, retrieved longwave (LW) aerosol optical thickness (τ) from SMART's Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer was used in the Fu-Liou radiative transfer model to derive LW instantaneous DRE (DRELW) at the surface, top of atmosphere, and heating rate profiles for cloud-free conditions. Conservatively, surface instantaneous DRELW and LW forcing efficiency range from about 2-20 Wm-2 and 31-35 Wm-2τ-1 (0 ≤ τ ≤ 0.83), respectively. The significance of DRELWrelative to its shortwave counterpart was estimated to be between 51 and 58%, but of opposite sign, partly compensating shortwave surface cooling. Compared to Saharan dust observed during the NAMMA-2006 field experiment at Cape Verde, dust LW forcing efficiency for this study was found to be a factor of two larger stemming from differences in environmental and surface conditions, aerosol absorption, and Zhangye's close proximity to major desert sources. Relative to observed and modeled ranges in surface DRELW for clouds (˜30-80 Wm-2) and greenhouse gases (˜2 Wm-2), this study's upper range in DRELW represents a significant perturbation to the climate system with important implications for better understanding regional changes in surface temperatures and moisture budgets.

  12. Laboratory experiments on membrane filter sampling of airborne mycotoxins produced by Stachybotrys atra corda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasanen, A.-L.; Nikulin, M.; Tuomainen, M.; Berg, S.; Parikka, P.; Hintikka, E.-L.

    A membrane filter method for sampling of airborne stachybotrystoxins was studied in the laboratory. Toxigenic strains of Stachybotrys atra on wallpaper, grain, hay and straw were used as toxin sources in the experiments. Air samples were collected on cellulose nitrate and polycarbonate membrane filters at air flow rates of 10-20 ℓ min -1. After the filter sampling, the air was passed through methanol. The results showed that stachybotrystoxins (trichothecenes) were concentrated in airborne fungal propagules, and thus can be collected on filters. Polycarbonate filters with a pore size of 0.2 μm collected the highest percentage of toxic samples. The laboratory experiments indicated that polycarbonate filter sampling for the collection of airborne mycotoxins is a promising method for extension to field measurements.

  13. Radiative heating rates during the Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenfield, Joan E.; Schoeberl, Mark R.; Lait, Leslie R.; Newman, Paul A.; Proffitt, Michael H.

    1990-01-01

    A radiative transfer model and observed temperature and ozone profiles are used to compute three-dimensional fields of heating rates for the Northern Hemisphere during 1989 Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Experiment. For a clear atmosphere, an average cooling of 0.2 to 0.4 K/day is computed in the regions of the ER-2 aircraft during flight days. Tropospheric clouds will increase the cooling by 0.1 to 0.2 K/day. These cooling rates are in good agreement with the diabatic cooling estimated from N2O data, Net heating rather than cooling is computed in the area of the ozone 'minihole' which had its maximum on 1/31/89 and 2/1/89 in the vicinity of the mission. On 1/31/89 the 50 and 30 mb net heating rates are 0.1 to 0.2 K/day for clear skies, and 0.05 to 0.1 K/day for cloudy skies.

  14. Airborne Visible Laser Optical Communications (AVLOC) experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A series of optical communication experiments between a high altitude aircraft at 18.3 km (60,000 ft) and a ground station were conducted by NASA from summer 1972 through winter 1973. The basic system was an optical tracker and transmitter located in each terminal. The aircraft transceiver consisted of a 5-mW HeNe laser transmitter with a 30-megabit modulator. The ground station beacon was an argon laser operating at 488 nm. A separate pulsed laser radar was used for initial acquisition. The objective of the experiment was to obtain engineering data on the precision tracking and communication system performance at both terminals. Atmospheric effects on the system performance was also an experiment objective. The system description, engineering analysis, testing, and flight results are discussed.

  15. Automated alexandrite transmitter for airborne DIAL experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degnan, John J.

    1988-01-01

    An account is given of the performance characteristics and development status of an automated dual alexandrite laser transmitter that is to be carried aloft by NASA's ER-2 research aircraft for water vapor DIAL experiments; these efforts are part of NASA's Lidar Atmospheric Sensing Experiment (LASE). The LASE transmitter encompasses control unit, thermal unit, and two lamp driver unit subsystems. Major reductions in system size and weight relative to commercially available alexandrite lasers were necessary; a total weight of only 330 lbs has been achieved. Attention is given to subsystem flight test results.

  16. The Airborne Field Artillery: From Inception to Combat Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    in 1940--1941 and “by the summer of 1942 the German Empire extended from the Pyrenees to the outskirts of Moscow and . . . from the Mediterranean to...promised the Soviet government it would open a second front in the west to relieve some of the pressure on the Soviets in the Eastern Front since they...airborne doctrine governing parachute operations, as well as look at how the parachute and glider field artillery nested within the over-arching War

  17. The Sunphotometer Airborne Validation Experiment 2012: Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estellés, Victor; Marenco, Franco; Ryder, Claire L.; Campanelli, Monica; Expósito, Francisco; Solá, Yolanda; Segura, Sara; Marcos, Carlos; Toledano, Carlos; Berjón, Alberto; Guirado, Carmen; Claxton, Bernard; Todd, Martin

    2013-04-01

    With the aim of validating columnar integrated aerosol properties retrieved by AERONET and SKYNET from ground sunphotometric measurements, with the integrated vertical profiles of airborne in-situ aerosol measurements, the "Sunphotometer Airborne Validation Experiment" field campaign was held in the Tenerife (Canary Islands) and western Sahara areas, during June 2012. The Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) (http://aeronet.gsfc.nasa.gov/) and the Skyrad Network (SKYNET) (http://atmos.cr.chiba-u.ac.jp/) are two different international ground based networks that provide global aerosol properties. AERONET is an operative network run by NASA that makes use of an improved inversion methodology to derive the aerosol properties from measurements of the Cimel CE318 sunphotometer and its data is extensively used worldwide and archived in climate data records. In turn, SKYNET is a research network lead by the Universities of Chiba and Tokyo (Japan) and is present in Europe through the new European Skynet Radiometers network (ESR). SKYNET adopts the Prede POM sky radiometer as the standard instrument and an alternative inversion algorithm called SKYRAD. Previous research has shown important discrepancies between the AERONET and SKYRAD inversion algorithms (Campanelli et al., 2010; Estellés et al., 2012) even in the case of applying these algorithms to the same instrument datasets and with the same calibration coefficients. Still no explanation is provided for these discrepancies, although it is crucial to state the responsible processes and address them so as to provide more accurate aerosol retrievals for climate recordings. The SAVEX experiment took place alongside the FENNEC aircraft campaigns of June 2011 and 2012. The UK BAe146 was equipped with in-situ aerosol instrumentation to measure size distributions from 0.1 to 300 microns diameter, scattering and absorption properties, and aerosol composition. Vertical profiles and horizontal legs were performed over ground sites

  18. Impact of Deep Convection on UTLS Composition -New Observations from Recent Airborne Field Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, L.

    2014-12-01

    Deep convection redistributes chemical trace gas species throughout the troposphere. Tropopause-penetrating deep convection injects water vapor and pollutants into the lower stratosphere. To obtain the necessary information for characterizing its role in chemistry-climate coupling, the impact of deep convection on UTLS ozone, water vapor, and short-lived organic species has been a key component of several recent airborne field campaigns. We present selected findings and observational highlights from two airborne field campaigns. They are the CONvective TRansport of Active Species in the Tropics (CONTRAST) experiment, conducted January-February 2014 over the western Pacific using the NCAR GV research aircraft, in collaboration with the UK FAAM BAe146 and the NASA Global Hawk, and the Studies of Emissions and Atmospheric Composition, Clouds and Climate Coupling by Regional Surveys (SEAC4RS) experiment, conducted August-September 2013 over the north America using the NASA DC-8 and ER-2 research aircraft.

  19. Coordinated Airborne Studies in the Tropics (CAST) Field Campaign Report

    SciTech Connect

    Vaughan, Geraint

    2016-05-01

    The last field campaign held at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility site on Manus Island, Papua New Guinea (PNG), was conducted in February 2014 as part of the Co-ordinated Airborne Studies in the Tropics (CAST) campaign. This campaign was a collaboration between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), and the United Kingdom’s (UK) Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) to study the composition of the Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL) and the impact of deep convection on this composition. There are three main areas of interest: i) transport of trace gases in the tropical atmosphere (especially short-lived halogenated compounds that can be lifted rapidly into the TTL, where they augment the stratospheric loading of these species); ii) formation of cirrus and its impact on the TTL; and iii) the upper-atmosphere water vapor budget. Overall, the aim was to improve understanding of the dynamical, radiative, and chemical role of the TTL. The Manus operation was a joint experiment between the Universities of Manchester and Cambridge and the UK National Centre for Atmospheric Science (NCAS). It consisted of two elements: an ozonesonde campaign to measure ozone vertical profiles through the TTL, and ground-based monitoring of ozone, halogenated hydrocarbons, and greenhouse gases to determine the composition of lower-boundary-layer air in the Warm Pool region. Thanks to the support from the ARM Climate Research Facility and the exemplary collaboration of ARM staff in the region, the campaign was very successful.

  20. Field of view selection for optimal airborne imaging sensor performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goss, Tristan M.; Barnard, P. Werner; Fildis, Halidun; Erbudak, Mustafa; Senger, Tolga; Alpman, Mehmet E.

    2014-05-01

    The choice of the Field of View (FOV) of imaging sensors used in airborne targeting applications has major impact on the overall performance of the system. Conducting a market survey from published data on sensors used in stabilized airborne targeting systems shows a trend of ever narrowing FOVs housed in smaller and lighter volumes. This approach promotes the ever increasing geometric resolution provided by narrower FOVs, while it seemingly ignores the influences the FOV selection has on the sensor's sensitivity, the effects of diffraction, the influences of sight line jitter and collectively the overall system performance. This paper presents a trade-off methodology to select the optimal FOV for an imaging sensor that is limited in aperture diameter by mechanical constraints (such as space/volume available and window size) by balancing the influences FOV has on sensitivity and resolution and thereby optimizing the system's performance. The methodology may be applied to staring array based imaging sensors across all wavebands from visible/day cameras through to long wave infrared thermal imagers. Some examples of sensor analysis applying the trade-off methodology are given that highlights the performance advantages that can be gained by maximizing the aperture diameters and choosing the optimal FOV for an imaging sensor used in airborne targeting applications.

  1. Infrared radiance analysis from the SNPP airborne field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larar, Allen M.; Zhou, Daniel K.; Liu, Xu; Smith, William L.

    2014-11-01

    Experimental field campaigns, including satellite under-flights with well-calibrated FTS sensors aboard high-altitude aircraft, are an essential part of the satellite measurement system validation task aimed at improving observations of the Earth's atmosphere, clouds, and surface for enabling enhancements in weather prediction, climate monitoring capability, and environmental change detection. The Suomi NPP (SNPP) airborne field campaign was conducted during the 6 - 31 May, 2013 timeframe based out of Palmdale, CA, and focused on under-flights of the SNPP satellite with the NASA ER-2 aircraft in order to perform cal/val of the satellite instruments and their corresponding data products. Aircraft flight profiles were designed to under-fly multiple satellites within a single sortie, when feasible, to address satellite sensor validation and cross-validation; specifically, in addition to under-flying SNPP, flight profiles were defined to also obtain data coincident with the NASA A-train (i.e. AQUA), MetOP-A, and MetOP-B satellites to enable intercomparisons with instruments aboard those platforms (i.e. AIRS, IASI, and CrIS). This presentation focuses on radiance analysis from the SNPP airborne field campaign with a particular emphasis on NAST-I intercomparisons with the Crosstrack Infrared Sounder (CrIS).

  2. Airborne experiment results for spaceborne atmospheric synchronous correction system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Wenyu; Yi, Weining; Du, Lili; Liu, Xiao

    2015-10-01

    The image quality of optical remote sensing satellite is affected by the atmosphere, thus the image needs to be corrected. Due to the spatial and temporal variability of atmospheric conditions, correction by using synchronous atmospheric parameters can effectively improve the remote sensing image quality. For this reason, a small light spaceborne instrument, the atmospheric synchronous correction device (airborne prototype), is developed by AIOFM of CAS(Anhui Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics of Chinese Academy of Sciences). With this instrument, of which the detection mode is timing synchronization and spatial coverage, the atmospheric parameters consistent with the images to be corrected in time and space can be obtained, and then the correction is achieved by radiative transfer model. To verify the technical process and treatment effect of spaceborne atmospheric correction system, the first airborne experiment is designed and completed. The experiment is implemented by the "satellite-airborne-ground" synchronous measuring method. A high resolution(0.4 m) camera and the atmospheric correction device are equipped on the aircraft, which photograph the ground with the satellite observation over the top simultaneously. And aerosol optical depth (AOD) and columnar water vapor (CWV) in the imagery area are also acquired, which are used for the atmospheric correction for satellite and aerial images. Experimental results show that using the AOD and CWV of imagery area retrieved by the data obtained by the device to correct aviation and satellite images, can improve image definition and contrast by more than 30%, and increase MTF by more than 1 time, which means atmospheric correction for satellite images by using the data of spaceborne atmospheric synchronous correction device is accurate and effective.

  3. On the impact of airborne gravity data to fused gravity field models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolkas, Dimitrios; Fotopoulos, Georgia; Braun, Alexander

    2016-06-01

    In gravity field modeling, fused models that utilize satellite, airborne and terrestrial gravity observations are often employed to deal with erroneous terrestrially derived gravity datasets. These terrestrial datasets may suffer from long-wavelength systematic errors and inhomogeneous data coverage, which are not prevalent in airborne and satellite datasets. Airborne gravity acquisition plays an essential role in gravity field modeling, providing valuable information of the Earth's gravity field at medium and short wavelengths. Thus, assessing the impact of airborne gravity data to fused gravity field models is important for identifying problematic regions. Six study regions that represent different gravity field variability and terrestrial data point-density characteristics are investigated to quantify the impact of airborne gravity data to fused gravity field models. The numerical assessments of these representative regions resulted in predictions of airborne gravity impact for individual states and provinces in the USA and Canada, respectively. Prediction results indicate that, depending on the terrestrial data point-density and gravity field variability, the expected impact of airborne gravity can reach up to 3mGal (in terms of standard deviation) in Canada and Alaska (over areas of 1° × 1°). However, in the mainland US region, small changes are expected (0.2-0.4 mGal over areas of 1° × 1°) due to the availability of high spatial resolution terrestrial data. These results can serve as a guideline for setting airborne gravity data acquisition priorities and for improving future planning of airborne gravity surveys.

  4. Airborne Oceanographic Lidar results. Spring removal experiments, April 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Hoge, F.

    1985-06-21

    This document contains the preliminary results from the analysis of data acquired with the NASA Airborne Oceanographic Lidar (AOL) during the recent Spring Removal Experiment (SPREX). A total of four flights were made with the NASA P-3A aircraft in direct support of the SPREX studies. In addition, a single pass extending from the Sargasso Sea, across the Gulf Stream, and into Savannah was flown as the final leg of the ONR sponsored BIOWATT experiment. The relative distribution of surface temperature and the concentration of chlorophyll and phycoerythrin photopigments across the study area are provided. Also included are along track profiles of sea surface temperature and chlorophyll and phycoerythrin fluorescence emission for each of the individual flight lines. Both the chlorophyll and phycoerythrin laser induced fluorescence signals have been normalized by the water Raman backscatter signal and are each expressed as relative ratio's.

  5. Advanced sounder validation studies from recent NAST-I airborne field campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larar, Allen M.; Zhou, Daniel K.; Liu, Xu; Tian, Jialin; Smith, William L.

    2016-05-01

    The evolution of satellite measurement systems continues to improve their research and operational impact and is essential for advancing global observations of the Earth's atmosphere, clouds, and surface. Measurement system and data product validation is required to fully exploit these data for enabling their intended enhancements in weather prediction, climate monitoring capability, and environmental change detection. Airborne field campaigns can play a vital role in such validation and contribute to assessing and improving satellite sensor measurements and associated data products. The NASA LaRC National Airborne Sounder Testbed - Interferometer (NAST-I) was part of the aircraft payload for the two field experiments conducted to address Suomi NPP (SNPP) validation since the satellite's launch in late 2011: 1) mid-latitude flights based out of Palmdale, CA during May 2013 (SNPP-1), and 2) flights over Greenland during March 2015 while based out of Keflavik, Iceland (SNPP-2). This presentation focuses on radiance analysis from the SNPP airborne field campaigns with a particular emphasis on NAST-I inter-comparisons with the Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) for challenging cold scene conditions as observed during SNPP-2.

  6. Airborne Tropical TRopopause EXperiment (ATTREX) 2014 Western Pacific Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, E.; Pfister, L.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Airborne Tropical TRopopause EXperiment (ATTREX) is a series of airborne campaigns focused on understanding physical processes in the Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL) and their role in atmospheric chemistry and climate. ATTREX is using the high-altitude, long-duration NASA Global Hawk Unmanned Air System to make in situ and remote-sensing measurements spanning the Pacific. A particular ATTREX emphasis is to better understand the dehydration of air as it passes through the cold tropical tropopause region. The ATTREX payload contains 12 in situ and remote sensing instruments that measure water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, nonmethane hydrocarbons, sulfur hexafluoride, chlorofluorocarbons, nitrous oxide), reactive chemical compounds (ozone, bromine, nitrous oxide), meteorological parameters, and radiative fluxes. During January-March, 2014, the Global Hawk was deployed to Guam for ATTREX flights. Six science flights were conducted from Guam (in addition to the transits across the Pacific), resulting in over 100 hours of Western Pacific TTL sampling and about 180 vertical profiles through the TTL. I will provide an overview of the dataset, with examples of the measurements including meteorological parameters, clouds and water vapor, and chemical tracers.

  7. Airborne Tropical TRopopause EXperiment (ATTREX) 2014 Western Pacific Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, E. J.; Pfister, L.

    2014-12-01

    The NASA Airborne Tropical TRopopause EXperiment (ATTREX) is a series of airborne campaigns focused on understanding physical processes in the Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL) and their role in atmospheric chemistry and climate. ATTREX is using the high-altitude, long-duration NASA Global Hawk Unmanned Air System to make in situ and remote-sensing measurements spanning the Pacific. A particular ATTREX emphasis is to better understand the dehydration of air as it passes through the cold tropical tropopause region. The ATTREX payload contains 12 in situ and remote sensing instruments that measure water vapor, clouds, multiple gaseous tracers (CO, CO2, CH4, NMHC, SF6, CFCs, N2O), reactive chemical compounds (O3, BrO, NO2), meteorological parameters, and radiative fluxes.During January-March, 2014, the Global Hawk was deployed to Guam for ATTREX flights. Six science flights were conducted from Guam (in addition to the transits across the Pacific), resulting in over 100 hours of Western Pacific TTL sampling and about 180 vertical profiles through the TTL. I will provide an overview of the dataset, with examples of the measurements including meteorological parameters, clouds and water vapor, and chemical tracers.

  8. Final Report on the Airborne Field Mill Project (ABFM) 2000-2001 Field Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dye, James E.; Lewis, Sharon; Bateman, Monte, G.; Mach, Douglas M.; Merceret, Francis J.; Ward, Jennifer G.; Grainger, Cedric A.

    2004-01-01

    The Airborne Field Mill (ABFM) research program conducted under the direction of the John F. Kennedy Space Center during 2000 and 2001 is described. The purpose, methodology and initial results from the program are presented. Extensive appendices detailing the instrumentation used to collect the data are provided.

  9. Study of airborne science experiment management concepts for application to space shuttle. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulholland, D. R.; Reller, J. O., Jr.; Neel, C. B.; Haughney, L. C.

    1973-01-01

    The management concepts and operating procedures are documented as they apply to the planning of shuttle spacelab operations. Areas discussed include: airborne missions; formulation of missions; management procedures; experimenter involvement; experiment development and performance; data handling; safety procedures; and applications to shuttle spacelab planning. Characteristics of the airborne science experience are listed, and references and figures are included.

  10. Experience with airborne detection of radioactive pollution (ENMOS, IRIS).

    PubMed

    Pavlik, Bohuslav; Engelsmann, Jan

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the advantages of airborne monitoring of radioactive pollution and shows example maps indicating manmade pollution from different sources. The sensitivity of airborne radioactive detection is discussed. Comparisons of airborne and different ground measurements are presented. New instrumentation for airborne or ground moving vehicles is briefly described. Airborne footprinting provides rapid, well-defined spatial images of natural and manmade radioactive contamination. Data acquisition integrated with GPS navigation provides consistent data and guarantees proper data location. Real-time airborne measurements are re-calculated, with the use of special algorithms, into absolute units for individual radioactive nuclei contamination of the ground together with dose calculation. Raw records and calculated data are provided after enhanced post-flight processing. Dose rates and detection of different radioactive elements are presented. (ENMOS is a product of Picodas Group Inc. and IRIS is the product of Pico Envirotec Inc.)

  11. Test field for airborne laser scanning in Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahokas, E.; Kaartinen, H.; Kukko, A.; Litkey, P.

    2014-11-01

    Airborne laser scanning (ALS) is a widely spread operational measurement tool for obtaining 3D coordinates of the ground surface. There is a need for calibrating the ALS system and a test field for ALS was established at the end of 2013. The test field is situated in the city of Lahti, about 100 km to the north of Helsinki. The size of the area is approximately 3.5 km × 3.2 km. Reference data was collected with a mobile laser scanning (MLS) system assembled on a car roof. Some streets were measured both ways and most of them in one driving direction only. The MLS system of the Finnish Geodetic Institute (FGI) consists of a navigation system (NovAtel SPAN GNSS-IMU) and a laser scanner (FARO Focus3D 120). In addition to the MLS measurements more than 800 reference points were measured using a Trimble R8 VRS-GNSS system. Reference points are along the streets, on parking lots, and white pedestrian crossing line corners which can be used as reference targets. The National Land Survey of Finland has already used this test field this spring for calibrating their Leica ALS-70 scanner. Especially it was easier to determine the encoder scale factor parameter using this test field. Accuracy analysis of the MLS points showed that the point height RMSE is 2.8 cm and standard deviation is 2.6 cm. Our purpose is to measure both more MLS data and more reference points in the test field area to get a better spatial coverage. Calibration flight heights are planned to be 1000 m and 2500 m above ground level. A cross pattern, southwest-northeast and northwest-southeast, will be flown both in opposite directions.

  12. From Mars to Greenland: Charting gravity with space and airborne instruments - Fields, tides, methods, results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colombo, Oscar L. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    This symposium on space and airborne techniques for measuring gravity fields, and related theory, contains papers on gravity modeling of Mars and Venus at NASA/GSFC, an integrated laser Doppler method for measuring planetary gravity fields, observed temporal variations in the earth's gravity field from 16-year Starlette orbit analysis, high-resolution gravity models combining terrestrial and satellite data, the effect of water vapor corrections for satellite altimeter measurements of the geoid, and laboratory demonstrations of superconducting gravity and inertial sensors for space and airborne gravity measurements. Other papers are on airborne gravity measurements over the Kelvin Seamount; the accuracy of GPS-derived acceleration from moving platform tests; airborne gravimetry, altimetry, and GPS navigation errors; controlling common mode stabilization errors in airborne gravity gradiometry, GPS/INS gravity measurements in space and on a balloon, and Walsh-Fourier series expansion of the earth's gravitational potential.

  13. Developing Metadata Requirements for NASA Airborne Field Campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, L.; Rinsland, P. L.; Kusterer, J.; Chen, G.; Early, A. B.; Beach, A. L., III; Wang, D.; Typanski, N. D.; Rutherford, M.; Rieflin, E.

    2014-12-01

    The common definition of metadata is "data about data". NASA has developed metadata formats to meet the needs of its satellite missions and emerging users. Coverage of satellite missions is highly predictable based on orbit characteristics. Airborne missions feature complicated flight patterns to maximize science return and changes in the instrument suites. More relevant to the airborne science data holding, the metadata describes the airborne measurements, in terms of measurement location, time, platform, and instruments. The metadata organizes the data holdings and facilitates the data ordering process from the DAAC. Therefore, the metadata requirements will need to fit the type of airborne measurements and sampling strategies as well as leverage current Earth Science and Data Information System infrastructure (ECHO/Reverb, GCMD). Current airborne data is generated/produced in a variety of formats (ICARRT, ASCII, etc) with the metadata information embedded in the data file. Special readers are needed to parse data file to generate metadata needed for search and discovery. With loosely defined standards within the airborne community this process poses challenges to the data providers. It is necessary to assess the suitability of current metadata standards, which have been mostly developed for satellite observations. To be presented are the use case-based assessments of the current airborne metadata standards and suggestions for future changes.

  14. International Symposium on Airborne Geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mogi, Toru; Ito, Hisatoshi; Kaieda, Hideshi; Kusunoki, Kenichiro; Saltus, Richard W.; Fitterman, David V.; Okuma, Shigeo; Nakatsuka, Tadashi

    2006-05-01

    Airborne geophysics can be defined as the measurement of Earth properties from sensors in the sky. The airborne measurement platform is usually a traditional fixed-wing airplane or helicopter, but could also include lighter-than-air craft, unmanned drones, or other specialty craft. The earliest history of airborne geophysics includes kite and hot-air balloon experiments. However, modern airborne geophysics dates from the mid-1940s when military submarine-hunting magnetometers were first used to map variations in the Earth's magnetic field. The current gamut of airborne geophysical techniques spans a broad range, including potential fields (both gravity and magnetics), electromagnetics (EM), radiometrics, spectral imaging, and thermal imaging.

  15. Overview of the Airborne Tropical TRopopause EXperiment (ATTREX)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, Eric

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Airborne Tropical TRopopause EXperiment (ATTREX) is a series of airborne campaigns focused on understanding physical processes in the Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL) and their role in atmospheric chemistry and climate. ATTREX is using the high-altitude, long-duration NASA Global Hawk Unmanned Air System to make in situ and remote-sensing measurements spanning the Pacific. A particular ATTREX emphasis is to better understand the dehydration of air as it passes through the cold tropical tropopause region. The ATTREX payload contains 12 in situ and remote sensing instruments that measure water vapor, clouds, multiple gaseous tracers (CO, CO2, CH4, NMHC, SF6, CFCs, N2O), reactive chemical compounds (O3, BrO, NO2), meteorological parameters, and radiative fluxes. ATTREX flight series have been conducted in the fall of 2011 from Armstrong Flight Research Center (AFRC) in California, in the winter of 2013 from AFRC, and in the winter/spring of 2014 from Guam. The first two flight series provided extensive sampling of the central and eastern Pacific, whereas the last flight series permitted sampling in the western Pacific. The sampling strategy has primarily involved repeated ascents and descents through the depth of the TTL (about 13-19 km). Over 100 TTL profiles were obtained on each flight series. The ATTREX dataset includes TTL water vapor measurements with unprecedented accuracy, ice crystal size distributions and habits. The cloud and water measurements provide unique information about TTL cloud formation, the persistence of super-saturation with respect to ice, and dehydration. The plethora of tracers measured on the Global Hawk flights are providing unique information about TTL transport pathways and time scales. The meteorological measurements are revealing dynamical phenomena controlling the TTL thermal structure, and the radiation measurements are providing information about heating rates associated with TTL clouds and water vapor. This presentation

  16. Methodology for High-Throughput Field Phenotyping of Canopy Temperature Using Airborne Thermography.

    PubMed

    Deery, David M; Rebetzke, Greg J; Jimenez-Berni, Jose A; James, Richard A; Condon, Anthony G; Bovill, William D; Hutchinson, Paul; Scarrow, Jamie; Davy, Robert; Furbank, Robert T

    2016-01-01

    Lower canopy temperature (CT), resulting from increased stomatal conductance, has been associated with increased yield in wheat. Historically, CT has been measured with hand-held infrared thermometers. Using the hand-held CT method on large field trials is problematic, mostly because measurements are confounded by temporal weather changes during the time required to measure all plots. The hand-held CT method is laborious and yet the resulting heritability low, thereby reducing confidence in selection in large scale breeding endeavors. We have developed a reliable and scalable crop phenotyping method for assessing CT in large field experiments. The method involves airborne thermography from a manned helicopter using a radiometrically-calibrated thermal camera. Thermal image data is acquired from large experiments in the order of seconds, thereby enabling simultaneous measurement of CT on potentially 1000s of plots. Effects of temporal weather variation when phenotyping large experiments using hand-held infrared thermometers are therefore reduced. The method is designed for cost-effective and large-scale use by the non-technical user and includes custom-developed software for data processing to obtain CT data on a single-plot basis for analysis. Broad-sense heritability was routinely >0.50, and as high as 0.79, for airborne thermography CT measured near anthesis on a wheat experiment comprising 768 plots of size 2 × 6 m. Image analysis based on the frequency distribution of temperature pixels to remove the possible influence of background soil did not improve broad-sense heritability. Total image acquisition and processing time was ca. 25 min and required only one person (excluding the helicopter pilot). The results indicate the potential to phenotype CT on large populations in genetics studies or for selection within a plant breeding program.

  17. Methodology for High-Throughput Field Phenotyping of Canopy Temperature Using Airborne Thermography

    PubMed Central

    Deery, David M.; Rebetzke, Greg J.; Jimenez-Berni, Jose A.; James, Richard A.; Condon, Anthony G.; Bovill, William D.; Hutchinson, Paul; Scarrow, Jamie; Davy, Robert; Furbank, Robert T.

    2016-01-01

    Lower canopy temperature (CT), resulting from increased stomatal conductance, has been associated with increased yield in wheat. Historically, CT has been measured with hand-held infrared thermometers. Using the hand-held CT method on large field trials is problematic, mostly because measurements are confounded by temporal weather changes during the time required to measure all plots. The hand-held CT method is laborious and yet the resulting heritability low, thereby reducing confidence in selection in large scale breeding endeavors. We have developed a reliable and scalable crop phenotyping method for assessing CT in large field experiments. The method involves airborne thermography from a manned helicopter using a radiometrically-calibrated thermal camera. Thermal image data is acquired from large experiments in the order of seconds, thereby enabling simultaneous measurement of CT on potentially 1000s of plots. Effects of temporal weather variation when phenotyping large experiments using hand-held infrared thermometers are therefore reduced. The method is designed for cost-effective and large-scale use by the non-technical user and includes custom-developed software for data processing to obtain CT data on a single-plot basis for analysis. Broad-sense heritability was routinely >0.50, and as high as 0.79, for airborne thermography CT measured near anthesis on a wheat experiment comprising 768 plots of size 2 × 6 m. Image analysis based on the frequency distribution of temperature pixels to remove the possible influence of background soil did not improve broad-sense heritability. Total image acquisition and processing time was ca. 25 min and required only one person (excluding the helicopter pilot). The results indicate the potential to phenotype CT on large populations in genetics studies or for selection within a plant breeding program. PMID:27999580

  18. Wake field acceleration experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, J.D.

    1988-01-01

    Where and how will wake field acceleration devices find use for other than, possibly, accelerators for high energy physics. I don't know that this can be responsibly answered at this time. What I can do is describe some recent results from an ongoing experimental program at Argonne which support the idea that wake field techniques and devices are potentially important for future accelerators. Perhaps this will spawn expanded interest and even new ideas for the use of this new technology. The Argonne program, and in particular the Advanced Accelerator Test Facility (AATF), has been reported in several fairly recent papers and reports. But because this is a substantially new audience for the subject, I will include a brief review of the program and the facility before describing experiments. 10 refs., 7 figs.

  19. Radiative flux measurements during the Airborne Tropical Tropopause Experiment (ATTREX) Guam Deployment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kindel, B. C.; Pilewskie, P.; Schmidt, S.

    2015-12-01

    The Airborne Tropical Tropopause Experiment was a field program utilizing the NASA Global Hawk aircraft, to make extensive measurements of tropical tropopause layer (TTL) over the Pacific Ocean. In February and March of 2014, the NASA Global Hawk was deployed to Guam and flew six long duration science flights. The aircraft was outfitted with a suite of instruments to study the composition of the TTL. Measurements included: water vapor amount, cloud particle size and shape, various gaseous species (e.g. CO, CH4, CO2, O3), and radiation measurements. The radiation measurements were comprised of the Solar Spectral Flux Radiometer (SSFR) that made spectrally resolved measurements of upwelling and downwelling solar irradiance from 350 to 2200 nm and thermal broadband (4μm to 42 μm) upwelling and downwelling irradiance. Once airborne, the Global Hawk made numerous vertical profiles (14 - 18 km) through the TTL. In this work we present results of combined solar spectral irradiance and broadband thermal irradiance measurements. Solar spectral measurements are correlated, wavelength-by-wavelength, with broadband thermal measurements. The radiative impact in the TTL of water vapor and cirrus clouds are examined both in the solar and thermal wavelengths from both upwelling and downwelling irradiances. The spectral measurements are used in an attempt to attribute physical mechanisms to the thermal (spectrally integrated) measurements. Measurements of heating rates are also presented, highlighting the difficultly in obtaining reliable results from aircraft measurements.

  20. Fourth Airborne Geoscience Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The focus of the workshop was on how the airborne community can assist in achieving the goals of the Global Change Research Program. The many activities that employ airborne platforms and sensors were discussed: platforms and instrument development; airborne oceanography; lidar research; SAR measurements; Doppler radar; laser measurements; cloud physics; airborne experiments; airborne microwave measurements; and airborne data collection.

  1. Biomass Burning Airborne and Spaceborne Experiment in the Amazonas (BASE-A)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, Y. J.; Setzer, A.; Ward, D.; Tanre, D.; Holben, B. N.; Menzel, P.; Pereira, M. C.; Rasmussen, R.

    1992-01-01

    Results are presented on measurements of the trace gas and particulate matter emissions due to biomass burning during deforestation and grassland fires in South America, conducted as part of the Biomass Burning Airborne and Spaceborne Experiment in the Amazonas in September 1989. Field observations by an instrumented aircraft were used to estimate concentrations of O3, CO2, CO, CH4, and particulate matter. Fires were observed from satellite imagery, and the smoke optical thickness, particle size, and profiles of the extinction coefficient were measured from the aircraft and from the ground. Four smoke plumes were sampled, three vertical profiles were measured, and extensive ground measurements of smoke optical characteristics were carried out for different smoke types. The simultaneous measurements of the trace gases, smoke particles, and the distribution of fires were used to correlate biomass burning with the elevated levels of ozone.

  2. Investigation of the spatio-temporal variability of atmospheric boundary layer depths over mountainous terrain observed with a suite of ground-based and airborne instruments during the MATERHORN field experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, S.; De Wekker, S.; Emmitt, G. D.

    2013-12-01

    We present first results of the spatio-temporal variability of atmospheric boundary layer depths obtained with a suite of ground-based and airborne instruments deployed during the first field phase of The Mountain Terrain Atmospheric Modeling and Observations (MATERHORN) Program (http://www3.nd.edu/~dynamics/materhorn/index.php) at Dugway Proving Ground (DPG, Utah, USA) in Fall 2012. We mainly use high-resolution data collected on selected intensive observation periods obtained by Doppler lidars, ceilometer, and in-situ measurements from an unmanned aerial vehicle for the measurements of atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) depths. In particular, a Navy Twin Otter aircraft flew 6 missions of about 5 hours each during the daytime, collecting remotely sensed (Doppler lidar, TODWL) wind data in addition to in-situ turbulence measurements which allowed a detailed investigation of the spatial heterogeneity of the convective boundary layer turbulence features over a steep isolated mountain of a horizontal and vertical scale of about 10 km and 1 km, respectively. Additionally, we use data collected by (1) radiosonde systems at two sites of Granite Mountain area in DPG (Playa and Sagebrush), (2) sonic anemometers (CSAT-3D) for high resolution turbulence flux measurements near ground, (3) Pyranometer for incoming solar radiation, and (4) standard meteorological measurements (PTU) obtained near the surface. In this contribution, we discuss and address (1) composites obtained with lidar, ceilometer, micro-meteorological measurements, and radiosonde observations to determine the quasi-continuous regime of ABL depths, growth rates, maximum convective boundary layer (CBL) depths, etc., (2) the temporal variability in the ABL depths during entire diurnal cycle and the spatial heterogeneity in the daytime ABL depths triggered by the underlying orography in the experimental area to investigate the most possible mechanisms (e.g. combined effect of diurnal cycle and orographic trigger

  3. Hurricane Wind Field Measurements with Scanning Airborne Doppler Lidar During CAMEX-3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothermel, Jeffry; Cutten, D. R.; Howell, J. N.; Darby, L. S.; Hardesty, R. M.; Traff, D. M.; Menzies, R. T.

    2000-01-01

    During the 1998 Convection and Moisture Experiment (CAMEX-3), the first hurricane wind field measurements with Doppler lidar were achieved. Wind fields were mapped within the eye, along the eyewall, in the central dense overcast, and in the marine boundary layer encompassing the inflow region. Spatial coverage was determined primarily by cloud distribution and opacity. Within optically-thin cirrus slant range of 20- 25 km was achieved, whereas no propagation was obtained during penetration of dense cloud. Measurements were obtained with the Multi-center Airborne Coherent Atmospheric Wind Sensor (MACAWS) on the NASA DC-8 research aircraft. MACAWS was developed and operated cooperatively by the atmospheric lidar remote sensing groups of NOAA Environmental Technology Laboratory, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, and Jet Propulsion Laboratory. A pseudo-dual Doppler technique ("co-planar scanning") is used to map the horizontal component of the wind at several vertical levels. Pulses from the laser are directed out the left side of the aircraft in the desired directions using computer-controlled rotating prisms. Upon exiting the aircraft, the beam is completely eyesafe. Aircraft attitude and speed are taken into account during real-time signal processing, resulting in determination of the ground-relative wind to an accuracy of about 1 m/s magnitude and about 10 deg direction. Beam pointing angle errors are about 0.1 deg, equivalent to about 17 m at 10 km. Horizontal resolution is about 1 km (along-track) for typical signal processor and scanner settings; vertical resolution varies with range. Results from CAMEX-3 suggest that scanning Doppler wind lidar can complement airborne Doppler radar by providing wind field measurements in regions that are devoid of hydrometeors. At present MACAWS observations are being assimilated into experimental forecast models and satellite Doppler wind lidar simulations to evaluate the relative impact.

  4. Saharan Mineral Dust Experiment SAMUM 2006: Airborne observations of dust particle properties and vertical dust profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petzold, A.; Weinzierl, B.; Esselborn, M.; Fiebig, M.; Fix, A.; Kiemle, C.; Wirth, M.; Müller, D.; Wendisch, M.; Schuetz, L.; Kandler, K.; Kahn, R.; Wagner, F.; Pereira, S.; Virkkula, A.

    2006-12-01

    The Saharan Mineral Dust Experiment (SAMUM) is an initiative of several German institutes. Its goal is the characterisation of optical, physical, chemical, and radiative properties of Saharan dust at the source region. SAMUM data may serve as ground truth data to validate satellite products and atmospheric transport models, and to support the CALIPSO (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation) mission. The first SAMUM intensive field phase was carried out in May/June 2006 in Southern Morocco. Ground sites were Ouarzazate (30.93° N, 6.9° W), Zagora (30.15° N, 5.37°), and Evora (38.53°N, 7.90°E) in Portugal for long- range transport studies. Research aircraft were operating from Ouarzazate (Partenavia, local flights) and Casablanca (DLR Falcon) at the Moroccan west coast As part of SAMUM, airborne measurements of dust particle properties were conducted using the German research aircraft Falcon. The DLR Falcon was equipped with an extensive set of aerosol physico-chemical instruments for size, volatility, and absorption measurements, impactor sampling for chemical analyses and with a nadir-looking high spectral resolution lidar (HSRL) for measuring aerosol extinction at 532 nm, and aerosol backscatter and depolarisation at 532 nm and 1064 nm. The field sites were equipped with aerosol sampling devices and instruments for particle size distribution measurements. During the SAMUM core phase, three large-scale dust events were probed which extended from southern Morocco to Portugal. Vertical (0 10 km) and horizontal (Saharan border to southern Portugal) dust plume structures, aerosol optical depth as well as particle microphysical and optical properties were studied for all cases. The upper boundary of the dust layers was found at altitudes between 4 and 6 km above sea level. The internal structure of the dust layers varied from well mixed to stratified. The influence of the Atlas Mountains on the lifting of the dust layers was monitored

  5. Radiative effects of polar stratospheric clouds during the Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment and the Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenfield, Joan E.

    1992-01-01

    Results are presented of a study of the radiative effects of polar stratospheric clouds during the Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment (AAOE) and the Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition (AASE) in which daily 3D Type I nitric acid trihydrate (NAT) and Type II water ice polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) were generated in the polar regions during AAOE and the AASE aircraft missions. Mission data on particular composition and size, together with NMC-analyzed temperatures, are used. For AAOE, both Type I and Type II clouds were formed for the time period August 23 to September 17, after which only Type I clouds formed. During AASE, while Type I clouds were formed for each day between January 3 and February 10, Type II clouds formed on only two days, January 24 and 31. Mie theory and a radiative transfer model are used to compute the radiative heating rates during the mission periods, for clear and cloudy lower sky cases. Only the Type II water ice clouds have a significant radiative effect, with the Type I NATO PSCs generating a net heating or cooling of 0.1 K/d or less.

  6. Evaluating evaporation from field crops using airborne radiometry and ground-based meteorological data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jackson, R. D.; Moran, M.S.; Gay, L.W.; Raymond, L.H.

    1987-01-01

    Airborne measurements of reflected solar and emitted thermal radiation were combined with ground-based measurements of incoming solar radiation, air temperature, windspeed, and vapor pressure to calculate instantaneous evaporation (LE) rates using a form of the Penman equation. Estimates of evaporation over cotton, wheat, and alfalfa fields were obtained on 5 days during a one-year period. A Bowen ratio apparatus, employed simultaneously, provided ground-based measurements of evaporation. Comparison of the airborne and ground techniques showed good agreement, with the greatest difference being about 12% for the instantaneous values. Estimates of daily (24 h) evaporation were made from the instantaneous data. On three of the five days, the difference between the two techniques was less than 8%, with the greatest difference being 25%. The results demonstrate that airborne remote sensing techniques can be used to obtain spatially distributed values of evaporation over agricultural fields. ?? 1987 Springer-Verlag.

  7. Analysis of satellite and airborne wind measurements during the SEMAPHORE experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Tournadre, J.; Hauser, D.

    1994-12-31

    During the SEMAPHORE experiment Intensive Observation Period (IOP), held in October and November 1993 in the Azores-Madeira region, two airplanes, instrumented for atmospheric research, and two oceanographic research vessels have conducted in situ measurements in a 500km x 500km domain. Within the framework of SEMAPHORE, the SOFIA program is dedicated to the study of the air-sea fluxes and interactions from local scale up to mesoscale. The analysis of the structure of the wind and wave fields and their relations to the surface fluxes (especially near oceanic fronts) and the validation of the satellite data are two of the main goals of the SOFIA program. During the IOP, the experiment domain was regularly overflown by the ERS-1 and Topex-Poseidon (TP) satellites. This study presents a preliminary analysis of the ERS-1 and TP altimeter wind and wave measurement and ERS-1 scatterometer wind fields. The data from the airborne RESSAC (a radar ocean wave spectrometer) are also presented.

  8. NASA's Student Airborne Research Program as a model for effective professional development experience in Oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palacios, S. L.; Kudela, R. M.; Clinton, N. E.; Atkins, N.; Austerberry, D.; Johnson, M.; McGonigle, J.; McIntosh, K.; O'Shea, J. J.; Shirshikova, Z.; Singer, N.; Snow, A.; Woods, R.; Schaller, E.; Shetter, R. E.

    2011-12-01

    With over half of the current earth and space science workforce expected to retire within the next 15 years, NASA has responded by cultivating young minds through programs such as the Student Airborne Research Program (SARP). SARP is a competitive internship that introduces upper-level undergraduates and early graduate students to Earth System Science research and NASA's Airborne Science Program. The program serves as a model for recruitment of very high caliber students into the scientific workforce. Its uniqueness derives from total vertical integration of hands-on experience at every stage of airborne science: aircraft instrumentation, flight planning, mission participation, field-work, analysis, and reporting of results in a competitive environment. At the conclusion of the program, students presented their work to NASA administrators, faculty, mentors, and the other participants with the incentive of being selected as best talk and earning a trip to the fall AGU meeting to present their work at the NASA booth. We hope lessons learned can inform the decisions of scientists at the highest levels seeking to broaden the appeal of research. In 2011, SARP was divided into three disciplinary themes: Oceanography, Land Use, and Atmospheric Chemistry. Each research group was mentored by an upper-level graduate student who was supervised by an expert faculty member. A coordinator managed the program and was supervised by a senior research scientist/administrator. The program is a model of knowledge transfer among the several levels of research: agency administration to the program coordinator, established scientific experts to the research mentors, and the research mentors to the pre-career student participants. The outcomes from this program include mission planning and institutional knowledge transfer from administrators and expert scientists to the coordinator and research mentors; personnel and project management from the coordinator and expert scientists to the

  9. Monitoring cotton root rot infection in fungicide-treated cotton fields using airborne imagery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With the authorization for use of Topguard fungicide (Section 18 exemption) on cotton in Texas to control cotton root rot in 2012 and 2013, many cotton growers used this product to treat their fields historically infected with the disease. The objectives of this study were to use airborne multispect...

  10. Dust Transport Across the Atlantic Studied by Airborne Doppler Wind Lidar During the Saltrace Experiment in 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chouza, Fernando; Reitebuch, Oliver; Rahm, Stephan; Weinzierl, Bernadett

    2016-06-01

    During the SALTRACE field experiment, conducted during June/July 2013, the Saharan dust transport across the Atlantic was analyzed by a set of ground based, in-situ and airborne instruments, including a 2-μm coherent DWL (Doppler wind lidar) mounted onboard the DLR Falcon 20 research aircraft. An overview of the measurements of aerosol backscatter and extinction, horizontal and vertical winds retrieved from the DWL are presented together with a brief description of the applied methods. The retrieved measurements provide direct observation of Saharan dust transport mechanisms across the Atlantic as well as island induced lee waves in the Barbados region.

  11. Advances in Quantifying the Radiative Effects of Aerosol Particles on Climate from Airborne Field Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilewskie, P.; Schmidt, K. S.; Coddington, O.; Bergstrom, R.; Redemann, J.

    2007-12-01

    In the fourth assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, large uncertainties persist in estimates of climate forcing by aerosol particles. One contributor to this uncertainty is the poorly quantified vertical distribution of solar radiation absorbed by aerosol particles, from the regional to global scale. Another is the spectral and spatial variability of surface albedo, an effect that can dominate the top-of-atmosphere perturbations due to aerosol scattering and absorption, particularly over land. Over the past three years a number of intensive airborne field experiments (ICARTT, MILAGRO, GoMACCS) have contributed significantly to our understanding of the impact of pollution outflow from urban-industrial centers on radiative forcing, using spectrally resolved radiometric measurements and novel observationally-based methods to derive forcing efficiency and flux divergence. We present an overview of some of the most significant advances in direct radiative forcing realized by these studies, and recommendations on where the greatest challenges remain. In addition we present findings from these experiments on the influence of aerosol particles on cloud radiative properties, a potentially greater effect but even more uncertain than direct radiative forcing.

  12. Aerosol, Cloud and Trace Gas Observations Derived from Airborne Hyperspectral Radiance and Direct Beam Measurements in Recent Field Campaigns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redemann, J.; Flynn, C. J.; Shinozuka, Y.; Kacenelenbogen, M.; Segal-Rosenheimer, M.; LeBlanc, S.; Russell, P. B.; Livingston, J. M.; Schmid, B.; Dunagan, S. E.; Johnson, R. R.

    2014-01-01

    The AERONET (AErosol RObotic NETwork) ground-based suite of sunphotometers provides measurements of spectral aerosol optical depth (AOD), precipitable water and spectral sky radiance, which can be inverted to retrieve aerosol microphysical properties that are critical to assessments of aerosol-climate interactions. Because of data quality criteria and sampling constraints, there are significant limitations to the temporal and spatial coverage of AERONET data and their representativeness for global aerosol conditions. The 4STAR (Spectrometer for Sky-Scanning, Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research) instrument, jointly developed by NASA Ames and PNNL with NASA Goddard collaboration, combines airborne sun tracking and AERONET-like sky scanning with spectroscopic detection. Being an airborne instrument, 4STAR has the potential to fill gaps in the AERONET data set. Dunagan et al. [2013] present results establishing the performance of the instrument, along with calibration, engineering flight test, and preliminary scientific field data. The 4STAR instrument operated successfully in the SEAC4RS [Studies of Emissions and Atmospheric Composition, Clouds and Climate Coupling by Regional Surveys] experiment in Aug./Sep. 2013 aboard the NASA DC-8 and in the DoE [Department of Energy]-sponsored TCAP [Two Column Aerosol Project, July 2012 & Feb. 2013] experiment aboard the DoE G-1 aircraft (Shinozuka et al., 2013), and acquired a wealth of data in support of mission objectives on all SEAC4RS and TCAP research flights. 4STAR provided direct beam measurements of hyperspectral AOD, columnar trace gas retrievals (H2O, O3, NO2; Segal-Rosenheimer et al., 2014), and the first ever airborne hyperspectral sky radiance scans, which can be inverted to yield the same products as AERONET ground-based observations. In addition, 4STAR measured zenith radiances underneath cloud decks for retrievals of cloud optical depth and effective diameter. In this presentation, we provide an overview of the new

  13. A Field Evaluation of Airborne Techniques for Detection of Unexploded Ordnance

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, D.; Doll, W.E.; Hamlett, P.; Holladay, J.S.; Nyquist, J.E.; Smyre, J.; Gamey, T.J.

    1999-03-14

    US Defense Department estimates indicate that as many as 11 million acres of government land in the U. S. may contain unexploded ordnance (UXO), with the cost of identifying and disposing of this material estimated at nearly $500 billion. The size and character of the ordnance, types of interference, vegetation, geology, and topography vary from site to site. Because of size or composition, some ordnance is difficult to detect with any geophysical method, even under favorable soil and cultural interference conditions. For some sites, airborne methods may provide the most time and cost effective means for detection of UXO. Airborne methods offer lower risk to field crews from proximity to unstable ordnance, and less disturbance of sites that maybe environmentally sensitive. Data were acquired over a test site at Edwards AFB, CA using airborne magnetic, electromagnetic, multispectral and thermal sensors. Survey areas included sites where trenches might occur, and a test site in which we placed deactivated ordnance, ranging in size from small ''bomblets'' to large bombs. Magnetic data were then acquired with the Aerodat HM-3 system, which consists of three cesium magnetometers within booms extending to the front and sides of the helicopter, and mounted such that the helicopter can be flown within 3m of the surface. Electromagnetic data were acquired with an Aerodat 5 frequency coplanar induction system deployed as a sling load from a helicopter, with a sensor altitude of 15m. Surface data, acquired at selected sites, provide a comparison with airborne data. Multispectral and thermal data were acquired with a Daedelus AADS 1268 system. Preliminary analysis of the test data demonstrate the value of airborne systems for UXO detection and provide insight into improvements that might make the systems even more effective.

  14. Airborne Observations and Satellite Validation: INTEX-A Experience and INTEX-B Plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crawford, James H.; Singh, Hanwant B.; Brune, William H.; Jacob, Daniel J.

    2005-01-01

    Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment (INTEX; http://cloudl.arc.nasa.gov) is an ongoing two-phase integrated atmospheric field experiment being performed over North America (NA). Its first phase (INTEX-A) was performed in the summer of 2004 and the second phase (INTEX-B) is planned for the early spring of 2006. The main goal of INTEX-NA is to understand the transport and transformation of gases and aerosols on transcontinental/intercontinental scales and to assess their impact on air quality and climate. Central to achieving this goal is the need to relate space-based observations with those from airborne and surface platforms. During INTEX-A, NASA s DC-8 was joined by some dozen other aircraft from a large number of European and North American partners to focus on the outflow of pollution from NA to the Atlantic. Several instances of Asian pollution over NA were also encountered. INTEX-A flight planning extensively relied on satellite observations and in turn Satellite validation (Terra, Aqua, and Envisat) was given high priority. Over 20 validation profiles were successfully carried out. DC-8 sampling of smoke from Alaskan fires and formaldehyde over forested regions, and simultaneous satellite observations of these provided excellent opportunities for the interplay of these platforms. The planning for INTEX-5 is currently underway, and a vast majority of "standard" and "research" products to be retrieved from Aura instruments will be measured during INTEX-B throughout the troposphere. INTEX-B will focus on the inflow of pollution from Asia to North America and validation of satellite observations with emphasis on Aura. Several national and international partners are expected to coordinate activities with INTEX-B, and we expect its scope to expand in the coming months. An important new development involves partnership with an NSF-sponsored campaign called MIRAGE (Megacity Impacts on Regional and Global Environments- Mexico City Pollution Outflow Field

  15. An Equivalent Source Method for Modelling the Lithospheric Magnetic Field Using Satellite and Airborne Magnetic Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kother, L. K.; Hammer, M. D.; Finlay, C. C.; Olsen, N.

    2014-12-01

    We present a technique for modelling the lithospheric magnetic field based on estimation of equivalent potential field sources. As a first demonstration we present an application to magnetic field measurements made by the CHAMP satellite during the period 2009-2010. Three component vector field data are utilized at all latitudes. Estimates of core and large-scale magnetospheric sources are removed from the satellite measurements using the CHAOS-4 model. Quiet-time and night-side data selection criteria are also employed to minimize the influence of the ionospheric field. The model for the remaining lithospheric magnetic field consists of magnetic point sources (monopoles) arranged in an icosahedron grid with an increasing grid resolution towards the airborne survey area. The corresponding source values are estimated using an iteratively reweighted least squares algorithm that includes model regularization (either quadratic or maximum entropy) and Huber weighting. Data error covariance matrices are implemented, accounting for the dependence of data error variances on quasi-dipole latitudes. Results show good consistency with the CM5 and MF7 models for spherical harmonic degrees up to n = 95. Advantages of the equivalent source method include its local nature and the ease of transforming to spherical harmonics when needed. The method can also be applied in local, high resolution, investigations of the lithospheric magnetic field, for example where suitable aeromagnetic data is available. To illustrate this possibility, we present preliminary results from a case study combining satellite measurements and local airborne scalar magnetic measurements of the Norwegian coastline.

  16. Airborne electromagnetics supporting salinity and natural resource management decisions at the field scale in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cresswell, Richard G.; Mullen, Ian C.; Kingham, Rob; Kellett, Jim; Dent, David L.; Jones, Grant L.

    2007-05-01

    Airborne geophysics has been used at the catchment scale to map salt stores, conduits and soil variability, but few studies have evaluated its usefulness as a land management tool at the field scale. We respond to questions posed by land managers with: (1) comparison of airborne and ground-based electromagnetic surveys in the Lower Balonne catchment, Queensland, and (2) comparison with historical and anecdotal knowledge of landscape response in the country around Jamestown in mid-South Australia. In the Lower Balonne, direct comparison between ground electromagnetic survey (EM) and airborne electromagnetics (AEM) showed a strong relationship for both the absolute values and spatial patterns of conductivity. The penetration of AEM to greater than 100 m is valuable in defining hydrological barriers. In the Jamestown area, AEM conductivity corresponded well with specific outbreaks of salinity and observed variability in crop response; local inconsistencies at the ground surface could be resolved when sub-surface data were considered. AEM can provide valuable information at the field scale that is relevant to salinity management. Farmers can have confidence in any of these techniques (historical information, EM and AEM) and they may directly compare or integrate the results.

  17. Specially equipped aircraft used in Florida airborne field mill research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    CO2 study site manager and plant physiologist Graham Hymus (left) examines scrub oak foliage while project engineer David Johnson (right) looks on. The life sciences study is showing that rising levels of carbon dioxide in our atmosphere, caused by the burning of fossil fuels, could spur plant growth globally. The site of KSC's study is a natural scrub oak area near the Vehicle Assembly Building. Twelve-foot areas of scrub oak have been enclosed in 16 open-top test chambers into which CO2 has been blown. Five scientists from NASA and the Smithsonian Environmental Research Center in Edgewater, Md., work at the site to monitor experiments and keep the site running. Scientists hope to continue the study another five to 10 years. More information on this study can be found in Release No. 57- 00. Additional photos can be found at: www- pao.ksc.nasa.gov/captions/subjects/co2study.htm

  18. Toward the Direct Measurement of Coronal Magnetic Fields: An Airborne Infrared Spectrometer for Eclipse Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samra, J.; DeLuca, E. E.; Golub, L.; Cheimets, P.

    2014-12-01

    The solar magnetic field enables the heating of the corona and provides its underlying structure. Energy stored in coronal magnetic fields is released in flares and coronal mass ejections (CME) and provides the ultimate source of energy for space weather. Therefore, direct measurements of the coronal magnetic field have significant potential to enhance understanding of coronal dynamics and improve solar forecasting models. Of particular interest are observations of coronal field lines in the transitional region between closed and open flux systems, providing important information on the origin of the slow solar wind. While current instruments routinely observe only the photospheric and chromospheric magnetic fields, a proposed airborne spectrometer will take a step toward the direct observation of coronal fields by measuring plasma emission in the infrared at high spatial and spectral resolution. The targeted lines are four forbidden magnetic dipole transitions between 2 and 4 μm. The airborne system will consist of a telescope, grating spectrometer, and pointing/stabilization system to be flown on the NSF/NCAR High-performance Instrumented Airborne Platform for Environmental Research (HIAPER) during the August 2017 total solar eclipse. The project incorporates several optical engineering challenges, centered around maintaining adequate spectral and spatial resolution in a compact and inexpensive package and on a moving platform. Design studies are currently underway to examine the tradeoffs between various optical geometries and control strategies for the pointing/stabilization system. The results will be presented and interpreted in terms of the consequences for the scientific questions. In addition, results from a laboratory prototype and simulations of the final system will be presented.

  19. Development of an Airborne Sea Ice Thickness Measurement System and Field Test Results

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-01

    Kovacs and J . Scott Holladay PJTIS CRA&I DTIC TAB Unannronced JustiCaton By Distribution I AvaIabilit Cordes AvjII d-dlc, Dist Prepared for U.S...Development of an Airborne Sea Ice Thickness Measurement System and Field Test Results 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Kovacs, Austin and Holladay, J . Scott 13a...Thickness Measurement System and Field Test Results AUSTIN KOVACS AND J . SCOTT HOLLADAY INTRODUCTION was determined to be desirable. The goals of the 1986-87

  20. The hydrological assessment of aerosol effects by the idealized airborne cloud seeding experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, K.; Lee, B.; Chae, S.; Lee, C.; Choi, Y.

    2012-12-01

    The main source of aerosols over East Asia including the Korean Peninsula is the anthropogenic emission of atmospheric pollutants transported from Chinese industrial areas. For this reason, the researches of aerosol effects are very active in East Asian countries. In case of South Korea, aircraft measurement campaigns and airborne cloud seeding experiments for the meteorological and environmental research have been conducted over the local area of Korean Peninsula since the year of 2010. This project is related with the weather modification research to build up strategies for the regulation or enhancement of precipitation and snowpack for a severe drought in South Korea during a winter season. For this study, the aerosol effect on precipitation by the airborne cloud seeding was simulated using WRF-CHEM model with RADM2/MADE,SORGAM modules. Emission data of 10000μg/(m2s) of unspeciated primary PM2.5 were input at 0.5km altitude for aerosol scenario cases which is the height of airborne cloud seeding experiment. For the control run, the original WRF model with no chemistry/aerosol modules was used. Also, the hydrological model, SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool, USDA/ARS) is incorporated to evaluate this aerosol effects hydrologically for the enhancement of precipitation or snowfall from the results of WRF-CHEM model. The target area is the Andong dam basin (1,584 km2) which is known as one of the important water resources in southern part of South Korea. The date was chosen based on the conditions of airborne cloud seeding experiment (RH>50%, Low Temp.<-3°C, Wind Speeds<5m/s, etc). During the 24 forecasting hour, the aerosol scenario case showed more amounts of accumulated precipitation (about 12%) than those of control run. According to the analysis of SWAT, the enhancement of precipitation in aerosol scenario cases of WRF-CHEM model could influence the increase of about 1.0×106m3 water resources when we assumed the 10% of effective area over the Andong dam

  1. Near-real-time TOMS, telecommunications and meteorological support for the 1987 Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ardanuy, P.; Victorine, J.; Sechrist, F.; Feiner, A.; Penn, L.

    1988-01-01

    The goal of the 1987 Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment was to improve the understanding of the mechanisms involved in the formation of the Antarctic ozone hole. Total ozone data taken by the Nimbus-7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) played a central role in the successful outcome of the experiment. During the experiment, the near-real-time TOMS total ozone observations were supplied within hours of real time to the operations center in Punta Arenas, Chile. The final report summarizes the role which Research and Data Systems (RDS) Corporation played in the support of the experiment. The RDS provided telecommunications to support the science and operations efforts for the Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment, and supplied near real-time weather information to ensure flight and crew safety; designed and installed the telecommunications network to link NASA-GSFC, the United Kingdom Meteorological Office (UKMO), Palmer Station, the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) to the operation at Punta Arenas; engineered and installed stations and other stand-alone systems to collect data from designated low-orbiting polar satellites and beacons; provided analyses of Nimbus-7 TOMS data and backup data products to Punta Arenas; and provided synoptic meteorological data analysis and reduction.

  2. NATO TG-25 joint field experiment in distributed sensor networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mays, Brian; Vu, Hao; Srour, Nino

    2003-09-01

    NATO's Task Group (TG-25) on acoustic and seismic sensing is responsible for assessing the potential technologies that can be cooperatively developed and shared within NATO's countries to provide effective, robust and low-cost battlefield sensor systems. The primary applications will be detection and/or classification of ground troops, ground vehicles, airborne vehicles, artillery and sniper. TG-25 has 3 main objectives: (1) to establish acoustic and seismic standards and data exchange procedures, (2) to compare, analyze, exchange, and develop analytical techniques, computational models and signal processing algorithms, and (3) to plan and conduct joint field experiments. In this paper, we discuss participation in the joint NATO field experiment conducted in France in October 2002. The experiment's goal is to demonstrate interoperability of unattended ground sensors from various participating nations. Results of the experiments will be briefed and discussed. Keywords: TG-25, unattended ground sensor, vehicle tracking

  3. Mojave remote sensing field experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arvidson, Raymond E.; Petroy, S. B.; Plaut, J. J.; Shepard, Michael K.; Evans, D.; Farr, T.; Greeley, Ronald; Gaddis, L.; Lancaster, N.

    1991-01-01

    The Mojave Remote Sensing Field Experiment (MFE), conducted in June 1988, involved acquisition of Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS); C, L, and P-band polarimetric radar (AIRSAR) data; and simultaneous field observations at the Pisgah and Cima volcanic fields, and Lavic and Silver Lake Playas, Mojave Desert, California. A LANDSAT Thematic Mapper (TM) scene is also included in the MFE archive. TM-based reflectance and TIMS-based emissivity surface spectra were extracted for selected surfaces. Radiative transfer procedures were used to model the atmosphere and surface simultaneously, with the constraint that the spectra must be consistent with field-based spectral observations. AIRSAR data were calibrated to backscatter cross sections using corner reflectors deployed at target sites. Analyses of MFE data focus on extraction of reflectance, emissivity, and cross section for lava flows of various ages and degradation states. Results have relevance for the evolution of volcanic plains on Venus and Mars.

  4. Gravity field of the Western Weddell Sea: Comparison of airborne gravity and Geosat derived gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, R. E.; Brozena, J. M.; Haxby, W. F.; Labrecque, J. L.

    1989-01-01

    Marine gravity surveying in polar regions was typically difficult and costly, requiring expensive long range research vessels and ice-breakers. Satellite altimetry can recover the gravity field in these regions where it is feasible to survey with a surface vessel. Unfortunately, the data collected by the first global altimetry mission, Seasat, was collected only during the austral winter, producing a very poor quality gravitational filed for the southern oceans, particularly in the circum-Antarctic regions. The advent of high quality airborne gravity (Brozena, 1984; Brozena and Peters, 1988; Bell, 1988) and the availability of satellite altimetry data during the austral summer (Sandwell and McAdoo, 1988) has allowed the recovery of a free air gravity field for most of the Weddell Sea. The derivation of the gravity field from both aircraft and satellite measurements are briefly reviewed, before presenting along track comparisons and shaded relief maps of the Weddell Sea gravity field based on these two data sets.

  5. Airborne laser topographic mapping results from initial joint NASA/US Army Corps of Engineers experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krabill, W. B.; Collins, J. G.; Swift, R. N.; Butler, M. L.

    1980-01-01

    Initial results from a series of joint NASA/US Army Corps of Engineers experiments are presented. The NASA Airborne Oceanographic Lidar (AOL) was exercised over various terrain conditions, collecting both profile and scan data from which river basin cross sections are extracted. Comparisons of the laser data with both photogrammetry and ground surveys are made, with 12 to 27 cm agreement observed over open ground. Foliage penetration tests, utilizing the unique time-waveform sampling capability of the AOL, indicate 50 cm agreement with photogrammetry (known to have difficulty in foliage covered terrain).

  6. Experiment of monitoring thermal discharge drained from nuclear plant through airborne infrared remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Difeng; Pan, Delu; Li, Ning

    2009-07-01

    The State Development and Planning Commission has approved nuclear power projects with the total capacity of 23,000 MW. The plants will be built in Zhejiang, Jiangsu, Guangdong, Shandong, Liaoning and Fujian Province before 2020. However, along with the nuclear power policy of accelerated development in our country, the quantity of nuclear plants and machine sets increases quickly. As a result the environment influence of thermal discharge will be a problem that can't be slid over. So evaluation of the environment influence and engineering simulation must be performed before station design and construction. Further more real-time monitoring of water temperature need to be arranged after fulfillment, reflecting variety of water temperature in time and provided to related managing department. Which will help to ensure the operation of nuclear plant would not result in excess environment breakage. At the end of 2007, an airborne thermal discharge monitoring experiment has been carried out by making use of MAMS, a marine multi-spectral scanner equipped on the China Marine Surveillance Force airplane. And experimental subject was sea area near Qin Shan nuclear plant. This paper introduces the related specification and function of MAMS instrument, and decrypts design and process of the airborne remote sensing experiment. Experiment showed that applying MAMS to monitoring thermal discharge is viable. The remote sensing on a base of thermal infrared monitoring technique told us that thermal discharge of Qin Shan nuclear plant was controlled in a small scope, never breaching national water quality standard.

  7. Nuclide-migration field experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Erdal, B.R.; Wolfsberg, K.; Johnstone, J.K.; Erickson, K.L.; Friedman, A.M.; Fried, S.; Hines, J.J.

    1981-03-01

    When considering groundwater flow and radionuclide retention in the complex flow systems that can occur in geologic formations, one has a serious problem in determining if laboratory studies are being performed under conditions appropriate to natural systems. This document is the project plan for a program designed to begin to address these problems. The project is being carried out jointly by the Los Alamos National Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, and Argonne National Laboratory. The work has three principal objectives: (1) to develop the experimental, instrumental, and safety techniques necessary to conduct controlled, small-scale radionuclide migration field experiments, including those involving actinides; (2) to use these techniques to define radionuclide migration through rock by performing generic, at-depth experiments under closely monitored conditions; and (3) to determine whether available lithologic, geochemical, and hydrologic properties together with existing or developing transport models are sufficient and appropriate to describe real field conditions.

  8. Airborne observations of electric fields around growing and decaying cumulus clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giori, K. L.; Nanevicz, J. E.

    1991-01-01

    Airborne electric field data were gathered in an atmospheric electrification study near Cape Canaveral, FL. A Learjet 36A was instrumented with eight electric field meters (mills) and five different particle probes. The local electric field enhancements at each field mill site were determined under lab conditions and verified using in-flight data. The overdetermined system of eight equations (one for each field mill) was solved using a weighted least squares algorithm to compute the magnitude and direction of the ambient electric field. The signal processing system allowed the measured data to be expressed in terms of earth coordinates, regardless of the attitude of the aircraft. Thus, it was possible to take maximum advantage of the Learjet's speed and maneuverability in studying the electric field structure in the vicinity of the clouds. Data gathered while circling just outside the boundary of a growing cumulus cloud show a nonsymmetric pattern of electric field strength. Field intensity grew rapidly over a period of less than 10 minutes. The observed direction of the ambient electric field vector can be explained by an ascending motion of the charge centers of a classic tripole model of a thunderstorm.

  9. Remote Sensing of Wind Fields and Aerosol Distribution with Airborne Scanning Doppler Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothermel, Jeffry; Cutten, Dean R.; Johnson, Steven C.; Jazembski, Maurice; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The coherent Doppler laser radar (lidar), when operated from an airborne platform, is a unique tool for the study of atmospheric and surface processes and features. This is especially true for scientific objectives requiring measurements in optically-clear air, where other remote sensing technologies such as Doppler radar are typically at a disadvantage. The atmospheric lidar remote sensing groups of several US institutions, led by Marshall Space Flight Center, have developed an airborne coherent Doppler lidar capable of mapping the wind field and aerosol structure in three dimensions. The instrument consists of an eye-safe approx. 1 Joule/pulse lidar transceiver, telescope, scanner, inertial measurement unit, and flight computer system to orchestrate all subsystem functions and tasks. The scanner is capable of directing the expanded lidar beam in a variety of ways, in order to extract vertically-resolved wind fields. Horizontal resolution is approx. 1 km; vertical resolution is even finer. Winds are obtained by measuring backscattered, Doppler-shifted laser radiation from naturally-occurring aerosol particles (of order 1 micron diameter). Measurement coverage depends on aerosol spatial distribution and composition. Velocity accuracy has been verified to be approx. 1 meter per second. A variety of applications have been demonstrated during the three flight campaigns conducted during 1995-1998. Examples will be shown during the presentation. In 1995, boundary layer winds over the ocean were mapped with unprecedented resolution. In 1996, unique measurements were made of. flow over the complex terrain of the Aleutian Islands; interaction of the marine boundary layer jet with the California coastal mountain range; a weak dry line in Texas - New Mexico; the angular dependence of sea surface scattering; and in-flight radiometric calibration using the surface of White Sands National Monument. In 1998, the first measurements of eyewall and boundary layer winds within a

  10. Early Soil Moisture Field Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmugge, T.

    2008-12-01

    Before the large scale field experiments described in the call for papers, there were a number of experiments devoted to a single parameter, e.g. soil moisture. In the early 1970's, before the launch of the first microwave radiometer by NASA, there were a number of aircraft experiments to determine utility of these sensors for land observations. For soil moisture, these experiments were conducted in southwestern United States over irrigated agricultural areas which could provide a wide range of moisture conditions on a given day. The radiometers covered the wavelength range from 0.8 to 21 cm. These experiments demonstrated that it is possible to observe soil moisture variations remotely using a microwave radiometer with a sensitivity of about 3 K / unit of soil moisture. The results also showed that the longer wavelengths were better, with a radiometer at the 21 cm wavelength giving the best results. These positive results led to the development of Push Broom Microwave Radiometer (PBMR) and the Electrically Scanned Thinned Array Radiometer (ESTAR) instruments at the 21-cm wavelength. They have been used extensively in the large-scale experiments such as HAPEX-MOBILHY, FIFE, Monsoon90, SMEX, etc. The multi-beam nature of these instruments makes it possible to obtain more extensive coverage and thus to map spatial variations of surface soil moisture. Examples of the early results along with the more recent soil moisture maps will be presented.

  11. Remote sensing of large scale methane emission sources with the Methane Airborne MAPper (MAMAP) instrument over the Kern River and Kern Front Oil fields and validation through airborne in-situ measurements - Initial results from COMEX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerilowski, K.; Krautwurst, S.; Kolyer, R.; Jonsson, H.; Krings, T.; Horstjann, M.; Leifer, I.; Schuettemeyer, D.; Fladeland, M. M.; Burrows, J. P.; Bovensmann, H.

    2014-12-01

    During three flights performed with the MAMAP (Methane Airborne MAPper) airborne remote sensing instrument in the framework of the CO2 and MEthane Experiment (COMEX) - a NASA and ESA funded campaign in support of HyspIRI and CarbonSat mission definition activities - large scale methane plumes were detected over the Kern River and Kern Front Oil fields in the period between June 3 and 13, 2014. MAMAP was installed for these flights aboard of the Center for Interdisciplinary Remotely-Piloted Aircraft Studies (CIRPAS) Twin Otter aircraft, together with a Picarro fast in-situ greenhouse gas (GHG) analyzer (operate by the Ames Research Center, ARC), a 5 hole turbulence probe as well as a atmospheric measurement package (operated by CIRPAS), measuring aerosols, temperature, dew-point and other atmospheric parameters. Data collected with the in-situ GHG analyzer will be used for validation of MAMAP remotely sensed data by acquiring vertical cross sections of the discovered plumes at a fixed downwind distance. Precise airborne wind information from the turbulence probe together with ground based wind data from the nearby airport will be used to estimate emission rates from the remote sensed and in-situ measured data. Remote sensed and in-situ data as well as initial flux estimates for the three flights will be presented.

  12. Source Identification Of Airborne Antimony On The Basis Of The Field Monitoring And The Source Profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iijima, A.; Sato, K.; Fujitani, Y.; Fujimori, E.; Tanabe, K.; Ohara, T.; Shimoda, M.; Kozawa, K.; Furuta, N.

    2008-12-01

    The results of the long-term monitoring of airborne particulate matter (APM) in Tokyo indicated that APM have been extremely enriched with antimony (Sb) compared to crustal composition. This observation suggests that the airborne Sb is distinctly derived from human activities. According to the material flow analysis, automotive brake abrasion dust and fly ash from waste incinerator were suspected as the significant Sb sources. To clarify the emission sources of the airborne Sb, elemental composition, particle size distribution, and morphological profiles of dust particles collected from two possible emission sources were characterized and compared to the field observation data. Brake abrasion dust samples were generated by using a brake dynamometer. During the abrasion test, particle size distribution was measured by an aerodynamic particle sizer spectrometer. Concurrently, size- classified dust particles were collected by an Andersen type air sampler. Fly ash samples were collected from several municipal waste incinerators, and the bulk ash samples were re-dispersed into an enclosed chamber. The measurement of particle size distribution and the collection of size-classified ash particles were conducted by the same methodologies as described previously. Field observations of APM were performed at a roadside site and a residential site by using an Andersen type air sampler. Chemical analyses of metallic elements were performed by an inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry and an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometr. Morphological profiling of the individual particle was conducted by a scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer. High concentration of Sb was detected from both of two possible sources. Particularly, Sb concentrations in a brake abrasion dust were extremely high compared to that in an ambient APM, suggesting that airborne Sb observed at the roadside might have been largely derived from

  13. Airborne Bacteria in the Atmospheric Surface Layer: Temporal Distribution above a Grass Seed Field

    PubMed Central

    Lighthart, B.; Shaffer, B. T.

    1995-01-01

    Temporal airborne bacterial concentrations and meteorological conditions were measured above a grass seed field in the Willamette River Valley, near Corvallis, Oreg., in the summer of 1993. The concentration of airborne bacteria had a maximum of 1,368.5 CFU/m(sup3), with a coefficient of variation of 90.5% and a mean of 121.3 CFU/m(sup3). The lowest concentration of bacteria occurred during the predawn hours, with an average of 32.2 CFU/m(sup3), while sunrise and early evening hours had the highest averages (164.7 and 158.1 CFU/m(sup3), respectively). The concentrations of bacteria in the atmosphere varied greatly, with a maximum difference between two 2-min samples of 1,995 CFU/m(sup3). The concentrations of bacteria in the atmosphere could be divided into five time periods during the day that were thought to be related to the local diurnal sea breeze and Pacific Coast monsoon weather conditions as follows: (i) the nighttime minimum concentration, i.e., 2300 to 0600 h; (ii) the sunrise peak concentration, i.e., 0600 to 0800 h; (iii) the midday accumulating concentration, i.e., 0800 to 1515 h; (iv) the late-afternoon sea breeze trough concentration, i.e., 1515 to 1700 h; and (v) the evening decrease to the nighttime minimum concentration, i.e., 1700 to 2300 h. The sunrise peak concentration (period ii) is thought to be a relatively general phenomenon dependent on ground heating by the sun, while the afternoon trough concentration is thought to be a relatively local phenomenon dependent on the afternoon sea breeze. Meteorological conditions are thought to be an important regulating influence on airborne bacterial concentrations in the outdoor atmosphere in the Willamette River Valley. PMID:16534998

  14. Airborne Active and Passive L-Band Observations in Soil Moisture Active Passive Validation Experiment 2012 (SMAPVEX12)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colliander, A.; Yueh, S. H.; Chazanoff, S.; Jackson, T. J.; McNairn, H.; Bullock, P.; Wiseman, G.; Berg, A. A.; Magagi, R.; Njoku, E. G.

    2012-12-01

    NASA's (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Mission is scheduled for launch in October 2014. The objective of the mission is global mapping of soil moisture and freeze/thaw state. Merging of active and passive L-band observations of the mission will enable unprecedented combination of accuracy, resolution, coverage and revisit-time for soil moisture and freeze/thaw state retrieval. For pre-launch algorithm development and validation the SMAP project and NASA coordinated a field campaign named as SMAPVEX12 (Soil Moisture Active Passive Validation Experiment 2012) together with Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada in the vicinity of Winnipeg, Canada in June-July, 2012. The main objective of SMAPVEX12 was acquisition of data record that features long-time series with varying soil moisture and vegetation conditions (for testing the application of time-series approach) over aerial domain of multiple parallel lines (for spatial disaggregation studies). The coincident active and passive L-band data were acquired using the Passive Active L-band System (PALS), which is an airborne radiometer and radar developed for testing L-band retrieval algorithms. For SMAPVEX12 PALS was installed on a Twin Otter aircraft. The flight plan included flights at two altitudes. The higher altitude was used to map the whole experiment domain and the lower altitude was used to obtain measurements over a specific set of field sites. The spatial resolution (and swath) of the radar and radiometer from low altitude was about 600 m and from high altitude about 1500 m. The PALS acquisitions were complemented with high resolution (~10 m) L-band SAR measurements carried out by UAVSAR instrument on-board G-III aircraft. The campaign ran from June 7 until July 19. The PALS instrument conducted 17 brightness temperature and backscatter measurement flights and the UAVSAR conducted 14 backscatter measurement flights. The airborne data acquisition was supported by

  15. The United States Army Special Forces--Walter Reed Army Institute of Research Field Epidemiologic Survey Team (Airborne).

    PubMed

    Dorogi, Louis Theodore

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Army Special Forces--Walter Reed Army Institute of Research Field Epidemiological Survey Team (Airborne) was formed in late 1965 and later deployed to Vietnam in 1966. Funded by Walter Reed Army Institute of Research and staffed by highly trained Special Forces qualified medical personnel from Fort Bragg, North Carolina, the team was attached to the 5th Special Forces Group (Airborne) while in Vietnam. During its short existence, the team conducted extensive and important field studies on diseases of military medical importance, often under combat conditions.

  16. Nitrous oxide as a dynamical tracer in the 1987 Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loewenstein, M.; Podolske, J. R.; Chan, K. R.; Strahan, S. E.

    1989-01-01

    In situ N2O measurements were made using an airborne tunable laser absorption spectrometer (ATLAS) on 12 flights into the Antarctic vortex, as well as on five transit flights outside the vortex region in August and September 1987, as part of the Airborne Antartic Ozone Experiment. Vertical profiles of N2O were obtained within the vortex on most of these flights and were obtained outside the vortex on several occasions. Flights into the vortex region show N2O decreasing southward between 53 and 72 S latitude on constant potential temperature surfaces in the lower stratosphere. The data lead to two important conclusions about the vortex region: (1) the lower stratosphere in August/September 1987 was occupied by 'old' air, which had subsided several kilometers during polar winter; (2) the N2O profile in the vortex was in an approximately steady state in August/September 1987, which indicates that the spring upwelling, suggested by several theories, did not occur.

  17. An overview of the first International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project (ISLSCP) Field Experiment (FIFE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sellers, P. J.; Hall, F. G.; Asrar, G.; Strebel, D. E.; Murphy, R. E.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reviews the history and scientific background leading up to FIFE, the experiment design, the scientific teams and equipment involved, and the actual execution of the experiment. The experiment was tasked with exploring techniques for utilizing satellite data to quantify important biophysical states and rates for model input. During the intensive field campaigns the fluxes of moisture, heat, carbon dioxide and radiation were measured with airborne and surface equipment in coordination with measurements of atmospheric and surface parameters and satellite overpasses.

  18. Airborne ROWS data report for the high resolution experiment, June 1993

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandemark, D.; Hines, D.; Bailey, S.; Stewart, K.

    1994-01-01

    Airborne radar ocean wave spectrometer (ROWS) data collected during the Office of Naval Research's High Resolution Remote Sensing Experiment of June 1993 are presented. This data summary covers six flights made using NASA's T-39 aircraft over a region of the North Atlantic off the coast of North Carolina and includes multiple crossings of the gulf stream. The Ku-band ROWS was operated in a configuration which continuously switched between an altimeter and a spectrometer channel. Data derived from the two channels include altimeter radar cross section, altimeter-derived sea surface mean square slope and wind speed, and directional and nondirectional longwave spectra. Discussion is provided for several events of particular interest.

  19. On error sources during airborne measurements of the ambient electric field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evteev, B. F.

    1991-01-01

    The principal sources of errors during airborne measurements of the ambient electric field and charge are addressed. Results of their analysis are presented for critical survey. It is demonstrated that the volume electric charge has to be accounted for during such measurements, that charge being generated at the airframe and wing surface by droplets of clouds and precipitation colliding with the aircraft. The local effect of that space charge depends on the flight regime (air speed, altitude, particle size, and cloud elevation). Such a dependence is displayed in the relation between the collector conductivity of the aircraft discharging circuit - on one hand, and the sum of all the residual conductivities contributing to aircraft discharge - on the other. Arguments are given in favor of variability in the aircraft electric capacitance. Techniques are suggested for measuring from factors to describe the aircraft charge.

  20. Field evidence of an airborne enemy-avoidance kairomone in wolf spiders.

    PubMed

    Schonewolf, Kenneth W; Bell, Ryan; Rypstra, Ann L; Persons, Matthew H

    2006-07-01

    Hogna helluo, Pardosa milvina, and Trochosa ruricola are co-occurring species of wolf spiders within agricultural fields in the eastern USA. The largest species, H. helluo, is a common predator of the two smaller species, P. milvina and T. ruricola. H. helluo frequently resides within soil fissures where P. milvina and T. ruricola may be attacked when they enter or walk near these fissures. We tested the ability of P. milvina and T. ruricola to avoid H. helluo-containing burrows by detecting airborne enemy-avoidance kairomones associated with H. helluo. To simulate soil fissures and control for visual and vibratory means of predator detection, we baited funneled pitfall traps with one of the following (N = 20 traps/treatment): (1) blank (empty trap); (2) one house cricket (Acheta domesticus); (3) one adult female H. helluo; and (4) one adult male H. helluo. Over two separate 3-d periods, we measured pitfall capture rates of P. milvina and T. ruricola as well as other incidentally captured ground-dwelling arthropods. During the day, male P. milvina showed significant avoidance of pitfall traps baited with H. helluo of either sex but showed no avoidance of empty traps or those containing crickets. At night, male T. ruricola showed a qualitatively similar pattern of avoiding H. helluo-baited traps, but the differences were not statistically significant. We found no evidence that other ground-dwelling arthropods either avoided or were attracted to H. helluo-baited traps. This study suggests that an airborne enemy-avoidance kairomone may mediate behavior among male P. milvina in the field.

  1. Measurement of airborne gunshot particles in a ballistics laboratory by sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Ernesto; Sarkis, Jorge E Souza; Viebig, Sônia; Saldiva, Paulo

    2012-01-10

    The present study aimed determines lead (Pb), antimony (Sb) and barium (Ba) as the major elements present in GSR in the environmental air of the Ballistics Laboratory of the São Paulo Criminalistics Institute (I.C.-S.P.), São Paulo, SP, Brazil. Micro environmental monitors (mini samplers) were located at selected places. The PM(2.5) fraction of this airborne was collected in, previously weighted filters, and analyzed by sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (SF-HR-ICP-MS). The higher values of the airborne lead, antimony and barium, were found at the firing range (lead (Pb): 58.9 μg/m(3); barium (Ba): 6.9 μg/m(3); antimony (Sb): 7.3 μg/m(3)). The mean value of the airborne in this room during 6 monitored days was Pb: 23.1 μg/m(3); Ba: 2.2 μg/m(3); Sb: 1.5 μg/m(3). In the water tank room, the air did not show levels above the limits of concern. In general the airborne lead changed from day to day, but the barium and antimony remained constant. Despite of that, the obtained values suggest that the workers may be exposed to airborne lead concentration that can result in an unhealthy environment and could increase the risk of chronic intoxication.

  2. Evaluation of Airborne Precision Spacing in a Human-in-the-Loop Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barmore, Bryan E.; Abbott, Terence S.; Capron, William R.

    2005-01-01

    A significant bottleneck in the current air traffic system occurs at the runway. Expanding airports and adding new runways will help solve this problem; however, this comes with significant costs: financially, politically and environmentally. A complementary solution is to safely increase the capacity of current runways. This can be achieved by precisely spacing aircraft at the runway threshold, with a resulting reduction in the spacing bu er required under today s operations. At NASA's Langley Research Center, the Airspace Systems program has been investigating airborne technologies and procedures that will assist the flight crew in achieving precise spacing behind another aircraft. A new spacing clearance allows the pilot to follow speed cues from a new on-board guidance system called Airborne Merging and Spacing for Terminal Arrivals (AMSTAR). AMSTAR receives Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) reports from an assigned, leading aircraft and calculates the appropriate speed for the ownship to fly to achieve the desired spacing interval, time- or distance-based, at the runway threshold. Since the goal is overall system capacity, the speed guidance algorithm is designed to provide system-wide benefits and stability to a string of arriving aircraft. An experiment was recently performed at the NASA Langley Air Traffic Operations Laboratory (ATOL) to test the flexibility of Airborne Precision Spacing operations under a variety of operational conditions. These included several types of merge and approach geometries along with the complementary merging and in-trail operations. Twelve airline pilots and four controllers participated in this simulation. Performance and questionnaire data were collected from a total of eighty-four individual arrivals. The pilots were able to achieve precise spacing with a mean error of 0.5 seconds and a standard deviation of 4.7 seconds. No statistically significant di erences in spacing performance were found between in

  3. Field evaluation of a sampling and analytical method for environmental levels of airborne hexavalent chromium.

    PubMed

    Sheehan, P; Ricks, R; Ripple, S; Paustenbach, D

    1992-01-01

    Hexavalent chromium, Cr(VI), has been classified as a human respiratory carcinogen. Airborne Cr(VI) emissions are associated with a number of industrial sources including metal plating, tanning, chromite ore processing, and spray painting operations; combustion sources such as automobiles and incinerators; and fugitive dusts from contaminated soil. There has been considerable interest within industry and the regulatory community to assess the potential cancer risks of workers exposed to Cr(VI) at levels substantially below the threshold limit value (TLV) of 50 micrograms/m3. To date, only the workplace sampling and analytical method (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health [NIOSH] Method 7600) has been validated for measuring airborne Cr(VI), and it can accurately measure concentrations only as low as 500 ng/m3. This paper describes the field evaluation of a sampling and analytical method for the quantitation of airborne Cr(VI) at concentrations 5000 times lower than the current standard method (as low as 0.1 ng/m3). The collection method uses three 500-mL Greenberg-Smith impingers in series, operated at 15 Lpm for 24 hr. All three impingers are filled with 200 mL of a slightly alkaline (pH approximately 8) sodium bicarbonate buffer solution. The results of validation tests showed that both Cr(VI) and trivalent chromium, Cr(III), were stable in the collection medium and that samples may be stored for up to 100 days without appreciable loss of Cr(VI). Method precision based on the pooled coefficient of variation for replicate samples was 10.4%, and method accuracy based on the mean percent recovery of spiked samples was 94%. Both the precision and accuracy of the impinger method were within NIOSH criteria. This method could be used to measure ambient concentrations of Cr(VI) in the workplace caused by fugitive emissions from manufacturing processes or chromium-contaminated soils at workplace concentrations well below the current TLV (50 micrograms/m3

  4. Towards an improved knowledge of the gravity field and geoid in Antarctica utilizing airborne gravimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheinert, M.

    2011-12-01

    For the determination of high-resolution earth's gravity field models (EGM) satellite measurements have to be combined with terrestrial gravity anomalies. In this respect, Antarctica remains one of the largest data gaps in the global coverage of terrestrial gravity data. This is especially critical, since the polar data gap resulting from the orbit inclination of GOCE, the recent and most powerful satellite gravity mission, amounts to a cap of about 1,300 km diameter at the pole. Furthermore, the limitation to a certain harmonic degree of resolution prevent a complete, high resolution data coverage to be obtained from the dedicated gravity missions only. For Antarctica, characterized by a hostile environment and difficult logistic conditions, airborne gravimetry offers the most powerful technique to survey large areas. In the perspective of geodesy, the coordination of activities is in the focus of the "Antarctic Geoid Project" (AntGP), Sub-Commission 2.4f of the International Association of Geodesy (IAG), and of project 3 "Physical Geodesy" within the GIANT program of the Standing Scientific Group on Geosciences (SSG-G) of the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR), both chaired by the author. This contribution will review the progress made realizing gravity surveys in Antarctica. Often initiated by a geophysically focussed rationale a great number of airborne surveys were accomplished during the last years. Furthermore, new plans shall be discussed. In this context, the initiative to make use of the new German "High Altitude and Long Range Research Aircraft" (HALO) for geoscientific applications will be presented. Based on a modified Gulfstream G550 jet it opens unprecedented possibilities for atmospheric and geoscientific research. Being the first geoscientific mission, GEOHALO shall demonstrate the feasibility and performance of the geodetic-geophysical instrumentation to gain airborne gravimetry and magnetometry measurements, GNSS direct, reflected

  5. Use of airborne hyperspectral imagery to map soil parameters in tilled agricultural fields

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hively, W. Dean; McCarty, Gregory W.; Reeves, James B.; Lang, Megan W.; Oesterling, Robert A.; Delwiche, Stephen R.

    2011-01-01

    Soil hyperspectral reflectance imagery was obtained for six tilled (soil) agricultural fields using an airborne imaging spectrometer (400–2450 nm, ~10 nm resolution, 2.5 m spatial resolution). Surface soil samples (n = 315) were analyzed for carbon content, particle size distribution, and 15 agronomically important elements (Mehlich-III extraction). When partial least squares (PLS) regression of imagery-derived reflectance spectra was used to predict analyte concentrations, 13 of the 19 analytes were predicted with R2 > 0.50, including carbon (0.65), aluminum (0.76), iron (0.75), and silt content (0.79). Comparison of 15 spectral math preprocessing treatments showed that a simple first derivative worked well for nearly all analytes. The resulting PLS factors were exported as a vector of coefficients and used to calculate predicted maps of soil properties for each field. Image smoothing with a 3 × 3 low-pass filter prior to spectral data extraction improved prediction accuracy. The resulting raster maps showed variation associated with topographic factors, indicating the effect of soil redistribution and moisture regime on in-field spatial variability. High-resolution maps of soil analyte concentrations can be used to improve precision environmental management of farmlands.

  6. Passive remote sensing of large-scale methane emissions from Oil Fields in California's San Joaquin Valley and validation by airborne in-situ measurements - Results from COMEX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerilowski, Konstantin; Krautwurst, Sven; Thompson, David R.; Thorpe, Andrew K.; Kolyer, Richard W.; Jonsson, Haflidi; Krings, Thomas; Frankenberg, Christian; Horstjann, Markus; Leifer, Ira; Eastwood, Michael; Green, Robert O.; Vigil, Sam; Fladeland, Matthew; Schüttemeyer, Dirk; Burrows, John P.; Bovensmann, Heinrich

    2016-04-01

    The CO2 and MEthane EXperiment (COMEX) was a NASA and ESA funded campaign in support of the HyspIRI and CarbonSat mission definition activities. As a part of this effort, seven flights were performed between June 3 and September 4, 2014 with the Methane Airborne MAPper (MAMAP) remote sensing instrument (operated by the University of Bremen in cooperation with the German Research Centre for Geosciences - GFZ) over the Kern River, Kern Front, and Poso Creek Oil Fields located in California's San Joaquin Valley. MAMAP was installed for the flights aboard the Center for Interdisciplinary Remotely-Piloted Aircraft Studies (CIRPAS) Twin Otter aircraft, together with: a Picarro fast in-situ greenhouse gas (GHG) analyzer operated by the NASA Ames Research Center, ARC; a 5-hole turbulence probe; and an atmospheric measurement package operated by CIRPAS measuring aerosols, temperature, dew-point, and other atmospheric parameters. Three of the flights were accompanied by the Next Generation Airborne Visual InfraRed Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS-NG), operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), California Institute of Technology, installed aboard a second Twin Otter aircraft. Large-scale, high-concentration CH4 plumes were detected by the MAMAP instrument over the fields and tracked over several kilometers. The spatial distribution of the MAMAP observed plumes was compared to high spatial resolution CH4 anomaly maps derived by AVIRIS-NG imaging spectroscopy data. Remote sensing data collected by MAMAP was used to infer CH4 emission rates and their distributions over the three fields. Aggregated emission estimates for the three fields were compared to aggregated emissions inferred by subsequent airborne in-situ validation measurements collected by the Picarro instrument. Comparison of remote sensing and in-situ flux estimates will be presented, demonstrating the ability of airborne remote sensing data to provide accurate emission estimates for concentrations above the

  7. Analysis of field-sampled, in-situ network, and PALS airborne soil moisture observations over SMAPVEX12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, J. R.; Berg, A. A.; McNairn, H.; Cosh, M. H.

    2014-12-01

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive Validation Experiment in 2012 (SMAPVEX12) was conducted over an agricultural domain in southern Manitoba, Canada. The purpose of the campaign was to develop ground and airborne datasets for pre-launch validation of SMAP satellite soil moisture retrieval algorithms. Three key soil moisture datasets were collected in support of the campaign objectives: 1) intensive field sampling over (up to) 55 agricultural fields on 17 sampling days; 2) a continuously operated temporary in-situ network (> 30 stations) distributed over the domain; and 3) L-band microwave data from NASA's Passive Active L-band Sensor (PALS) onboard a Twin-Otter aircraft. This presentation addresses whether dense temporary in-situ networks can supplant intensive field-sampling during pre-/post-launch validation campaigns. SMAPVEX12 datasets are examined at the field and aircraft pixel (~800 m) scale, and at the domain scale. Preliminary results demonstrate that, at the field-scale, there is generally limited agreement between a single station and sampled data over its field. Over the duration of the campaign, the majority of temporary soil moisture stations have > 0.04 m3m-3 RMSE with sampled field data, suggesting that a single station has limited representativeness of an agricultural field. Furthermore, the in-situ stations and field-sampled data are compared with PALS generated soil moisture to assess differences in daily RMSE. For wet-periods, both ground datasets provide a comparable RMSE for the PALS estimate. Although for dry-periods, the difference in RMSE between the ground datasets becomes more significant (> 0.04 m3m-3). This is because the field-sampled data exhibit a sharper dry-down than the in-situ station measurements. However, at the domain scale there is strong agreement between the soil moisture datasets. Additional results describe the sources of variability affecting these soil moisture datasets and the statistical number of stations needed to

  8. Wide-Area Mapping of Forest with National Airborne Laser Scanning and Field Inventory Datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monnet, J.-M.; Ginzler, C.; Clivaz, J.-C.

    2016-06-01

    Airborne laser scanning (ALS) remote sensing data are now available for entire countries such as Switzerland. Methods for the estimation of forest parameters from ALS have been intensively investigated in the past years. However, the implementation of a forest mapping workflow based on available data at a regional level still remains challenging. A case study was implemented in the Canton of Valais (Switzerland). The national ALS dataset and field data of the Swiss National Forest Inventory were used to calibrate estimation models for mean and maximum height, basal area, stem density, mean diameter and stem volume. When stratification was performed based on ALS acquisition settings and geographical criteria, satisfactory prediction models were obtained for volume (R2 = 0.61 with a root mean square error of 47 %) and basal area (respectively 0.51 and 45 %) while height variables had an error lower than 19%. This case study shows that the use of nationwide ALS and field datasets for forest resources mapping is cost efficient, but additional investigations are required to handle the limitations of the input data and optimize the accuracy.

  9. Retrieval of Aerosol Within Cloud Fields Using the MODIS Airborne Simulator (MAS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munchak, L. A.; Levy, R. C.; Mattoo, S.; Patadia, F.; Wilcox, E. M.; Marshak, A.

    2015-12-01

    Passive satellite remote sensing has become essential for obtaining global information about aerosol properties, including aerosol optical depth (AOD) and aerosol fine mode fraction (FMF). However, due to the spatial resolution of satellite aerosol products (typically 3 km and larger), observing aerosol within dense partly cloudy fields is difficult from space. Here, we apply an adapted version of the MODIS Collection 6 dark target algorithm to the 50-meter MODIS airborne simulator retrieved reflectances measured during the SEAC4RS campaign during 2013 to robustly retrieve aerosol with a 500 m resolution. We show good agreement with AERONET and MODIS away from cloud, suggesting that the algorithm is working as expected. However, closer to cloud, significant AOD increases are observed. We investigate the cause of these AOD increases, including examining the potential for undetected cloud contamination, reflectance increases due to unconsidered 3D radiative effects, and the impact of humidification on aerosol properties. In combination with other sensors that flew in SEAC4RS, these high-resolution observations of aerosol in partly cloudy fields can be used to characterize the radiative impact of the "twilight zone" between cloud and aerosol which is typically not considered in current estimates of direct aerosol radiative forcing.

  10. Joint influences of aerodynamic flow field and aerodynamic heating of the dome on imaging quality degradation of airborne optical systems.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Haosu; Zuo, Baojun; Tian, Yi; Zhang, Wang; Hao, Chenglong; Liu, Chaofeng; Li, Qi; Li, Fan; Zhang, Li; Fan, Zhigang

    2012-12-20

    We investigated the joint influences exerted by the nonuniform aerodynamic flow field surrounding the optical dome and the aerodynamic heating of the dome on imaging quality degradation of an airborne optical system. The Spalart-Allmaras model provided by FLUENT was used for flow computations. The fourth-order Runge-Kutta algorithm based ray tracing program was used to simulate optical transmission through the aerodynamic flow field and the dome. Four kinds of imaging quality evaluation parameters were presented: wave aberration of the exit pupil, point spread function, encircled energy, and modulation transfer function. The results show that the aero-optical disturbance of the aerodynamic flow field and the aerodynamic heating of the dome significantly affect the imaging quality of an airborne optical system.

  11. Comprehensive analysis of imaging quality degradation of an airborne optical system for aerodynamic flow field around the optical window.

    PubMed

    Hao, Chenglong; Chen, Shouqian; Zhang, Wang; Ren, Jinhan; Li, Chong; Pang, Hongjun; Wang, Honghao; Liu, Qian; Wang, Chao; Zou, Huiying; Fan, Zhigang

    2013-11-20

    We investigated the influences exerted by the nonuniform aerodynamic flow field surrounding the optical window on the imaging quality degradation of an airborne optical system. The density distribution of flow fields around three typical optical windows, including a spherical window, an ellipsoidal window, and a paraboloidal window, were calculated by adopting the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations with the Spalart-Allmaras model provided by FLUENT. The fourth-order Runge-Kutta algorithm based ray-tracing program was used to simulate the optical transmission through the aerodynamic flow field. Four kinds of imaging quality evaluation parameters were presented: wave aberration of the entrance pupil, point spread function, encircled energy, and modulation transfer function. The results show that the imaging quality of the airborne optical system was affected by the shape of the optical window and angle of attack of the aircraft.

  12. Crisp clustering of airborne geophysical data from the Alto Ligonha pegmatite field, northeastern Mozambique, to predict zones of increased rare earth element potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eberle, Detlef G.; Daudi, Elias X. F.; Muiuane, Elônio A.; Nyabeze, Peter; Pontavida, Alfredo M.

    2012-01-01

    . The highest probability to meet pegmatite bodies is in close vicinity to (magnetic) amphibole schist occurring in areas where depletion of potassium as indication of metasomatic processes is evident from the airborne radiometric data. Clustering has proven to be a fast and effective method to compile value-added maps from multivariate geophysical datasets. Experience made in the Alto Ligonha pegmatite field encourages adopting this new methodology for mapping other parts of the Mozambique Fold Belt.

  13. Use of field reflectance data for crop mapping using airborne hyperspectral image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nidamanuri, Rama Rao; Zbell, Bernd

    2011-09-01

    Recent developments in hyperspectral remote sensing technologies enable acquisition of image with high spectral resolution, which is typical to the laboratory or in situ reflectance measurements. There has been an increasing interest in the utilization of in situ reference reflectance spectra for rapid and repeated mapping of various surface features. Here we examined the prospect of classifying airborne hyperspectral image using field reflectance spectra as the training data for crop mapping. Canopy level field reflectance measurements of some important agricultural crops, i.e. alfalfa, winter barley, winter rape, winter rye, and winter wheat collected during four consecutive growing seasons are used for the classification of a HyMAP image acquired for a separate location by (1) mixture tuned matched filtering (MTMF), (2) spectral feature fitting (SFF), and (3) spectral angle mapper (SAM) methods. In order to answer a general research question "what is the prospect of using independent reference reflectance spectra for image classification", while focussing on the crop classification, the results indicate distinct aspects. On the one hand, field reflectance spectra of winter rape and alfalfa demonstrate excellent crop discrimination and spectral matching with the image across the growing seasons. On the other hand, significant spectral confusion detected among the winter barley, winter rye, and winter wheat rule out the possibility of existence of a meaningful spectral matching between field reflectance spectra and image. While supporting the current notion of "non-existence of characteristic reflectance spectral signatures for vegetation", results indicate that there exist some crops whose spectral signatures are similar to characteristic spectral signatures with possibility of using them in image classification.

  14. Global meteorological data facility for real-time field experiments support and guidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shipham, Mark C.; Shipley, Scott T.; Trepte, Charles R.

    1988-01-01

    A Global Meteorological Data Facility (GMDF) has been constructed to provide economical real-time meteorological support to atmospheric field experiments. After collection and analysis of meteorological data sets at a central station, tailored meteorological products are transmitted to experiment field sites using conventional ground link or satellite communication techniques. The GMDF supported the Global Tropospheric Experiment Amazon Boundary Layer Experiment (GTE-ABLE II) based in Manaus, Brazil, during July and August 1985; an arctic airborne lidar survey mission for the Polar Stratospheric Clouds (PSC) experiment during January 1986; and the Genesis of Atlantic Lows Experiment (GALE) during January, February and March 1986. GMDF structure is similar to the UNIDATA concept, including meteorological data from the Zephyr Weather Transmission Service, a mode AAA GOES downlink, and dedicated processors for image manipulation, transmission and display. The GMDF improved field experiment operations in general, with the greatest benefits arising from the ability to communicate with field personnel in real time.

  15. Spatial Correlation of Airborne Magnetic Anomalies with Reservoir Temperatures of Geothermal Fields, Western Anatolia, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ertekin, Can; Ekinci, Yunus Levent

    2013-04-01

    Geothermal areas in Western Anatolia are remarkably located throughout Büyük Menderes Graben (BMG) and Gediz Graben (GG). These E-W trending grabens have been subjected to N-E stretching since Miocene. Except for these major outcomes of the extensional forces, NE-SW oriented and relatively short grabens take place in Western Anatolia as well. Among them, BMG and GG are remarkable with topographic escarpments that reveal footwall of steeply-dipping active normal faults. They manifest themselves via numerous earthquakes and geothermal activity (fluid discharges from springs and wells). Geothermal discharges are aligned along the rims of E-W trending normal faults trending over detachment faults. Concerning BMG, geothermal manifestations extend along the northern sector of the graben. Geothermal reservoirs inside BMG are the limestone and conglomerate units within Neogene sediments and the marble-quartzite units within The Menderes Massif rocks. The main high and low enthalpy geothermal fields along BMG and their reservoir temperatures are as follows: Kızıldere (242°C), Germencik (232°C), Aydın-Ilıcabası (101°C), Yılmazköy (142°C), Salavatlı (171°C), Söke (26°C), Pamukkale (36°C), Karahayıt (59°C), Gölemezli (101°C) and Yenice (70°C). Through GG, reservoir temperatures decrease from east to west. Geothermal reservoirs inside GG are metamorphics and granodiorite of the Menderes Massif rocks. The Neogene sediments act as cap rock of the geothermal reservoirs. Geothermal fields inside the graben and their reservoir temperatures are as follows: Alaşehir (215°C), Salihli (155°C), Urganlı (85°C), Kurşunlu (135°C), Caferbey (150°C), Sart (100°C). In order to investigate the spatial correlation of magnetic anomalies and the reservoir temperatures of geothermal fields in the region, we analysed airborne magnetic data which were collected by General Directorate of Mineral Research and Exploration (MTA) of Turkey. Airborne magnetic data were taken

  16. Science Experiments, Field and Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davido, Frank, Comp.

    Included is a compilation of 21 simple experiments for use by elementary teachers and aides. The experiments are grouped into these categories: plants, insects, and senses. The materials required are not specialized and would generally be available in the classroom or from a local store. A number of films are recommended and are available from the…

  17. The 1987 Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment: the Nimbus-7 TOMS Data Atlas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krueger, Arlin J.; Ardanuy, Philip E.; Sechrist, Frank S.; Penn, Lanning M.; Larko, David E.; Doiron, Scott D.; Galimore, Reginald N.

    1988-01-01

    Total ozone data taken by the Nimbus-7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) played a central role in the successful outcome of the 1987 Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment. The near-real-time TOMS total ozone observations were suppled within hours of real time to the operations center in Punta Arenas, Chile, over a telecommunications network designed specifically for this purpose. The TOMS data preparation and method of transfer over the telecommunications links are reviewed. This atlas includes a complete set of the near-real-time TOMS orbital overpass data over regions around the Palmer Peninsula of Antarctica for the period of August 8 through September 29, 1987. Also provided are daily polar orthographic projections of TOMS total ozone measurements over the Southern Hemisphere from August through November 1987. In addition, a chronology of the salient points of the experiment, along with some latitudinal cross sections and time series at locations of interest of the TOMS total ozone observations are presented. The TOMS total ozone measurements are evaluated along the flight tracks of each of the ER-2 and DC-8 missions during the experiment. The ozone hole is shown here to develop in a monotonic progression throughout late August and September. The minimum total ozone amount was found on 5 October, when its all-time lowest value of 109 DU is recorded. The hole remains well defined, but fills gradually from mid-October through mid-November. The hole's dissolution is observed here to begin in mid-November, when it elongates and begins to rotate. By the end of November, the south pole is no longer located within the ozone hole.

  18. Tropospheric ozone and aerosols measured by airborne lidar during the 1988 Arctic boundary layer experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Browell, Edward V.; Butler, Carolyn F.; Kooi, Susan A.

    1991-01-01

    Ozone (O3) and aerosol distributions were measured from an aircraft using a differential absorption lidar (DIAL) system as part of the 1988 NASA Global Tropospheric Experiment - Arctic Boundary Layer Experiment (ABLE-3A) to study the sources and sinks of gases and aerosols over the tundra regions of Alaska during the summer. The tropospheric O3 budget over the Arctic was found to be strongly influenced by stratospheric intrusions. Regions of low aerosol scattering and enhanced O3 mixing ratios were usually correlated with descending air from the upper troposphere or lower stratosphere. Several cases of continental polar air masses were examined during the experiment. The aerosol scattering associated with these air masses was very low, and the atmospheric distribution of aerosols was quite homogeneous for those air masses that had been transported over the ice for greater than or = 3 days. The transition in O3 and aerosol distributions from tundra to marine conditions was examined several times. The aerosol data clearly show an abrupt change in aerosol scattering properties within the mixed layer from lower values over the tundra to generally higher values over the water. The distinct differences in the heights of the mixed layers in the two regions was also readily apparent. Several cases of enhanced O3 were observed during ABLE-3 in conjunction with enhanced aerosol scattering in layers in the free atmosphere. Examples are presented of the large scale variations of O3 and aerosols observed with the airborne lidar system from near the surface to above the tropopause over the Arctic during ABLE-3.

  19. Use of multitemporal SPOT data in first ISLSCP field experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asrar, Ghassem; Murphy, R. E.; Hall, F. G.; Sellers, P. J.

    1991-01-01

    The use of multitemporal SPOT data in a coordinated field experiment is described with objectives to understand the processes that control the biosphere-atmosphere exchanges of heat, mass, momentum and radiation at a range of spatial and temporal scales; and quantify processes associated with these biosphere-atmosphere exchanges with the aid of multispectral and multitemporal remotely sensed data. The study was conducted in a 15 sq km area located in the tall grass prairie region of midwestern U.S. over a period of three years from 1987 through 1989. A combination of ground based, airborne and space based remotely sensed data were used in a variety of interdisciplinary investigations. An overview of the results from studies that used SPOT multispectral and multitemporal data is presented.

  20. Inviscid Flow Field Effects: Experimental results. [optical distortions over airborne laser turrets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otten, L. J., III; Gilbert, K. G.

    1980-01-01

    The aero-optical distortions due to invisid flow effects over airborne laser turrets is investigated. Optical path differences across laser turret apertures are estimated from two data sources. The first is a theoretical study of main flow effects for a spherical turret assembly for a Mach number (M) of 0.6. The second source is an actual wind tunnel density field measurement on a 0.3 scale laser turret/fairing assembly, with M = 0.75. A range of azimuthal angles from 0 to 90 deg was considered, while the elevation angle was always 0 deg (i.e., in the plane of the flow). The calculated optical path differences for these two markedly different geometries are of the same order. Scaling of results to sea level conditions and an aperture diameter of 50 cm indicated up to 0.0007 cm of phase variation across the aperture for certain forward look angles and a focal length of F = -11.1 km. These values are second order for a 10.6 micron system.

  1. Field-Based and Airborne Hyperspectral Imaging for Applied Research in the State of Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, A.; Buchhorn, M.; Cristobal, J.; Kokaly, R. F.; Graham, P. R.; Waigl, C. F.; Hampton, D. L.; Werdon, M.; Guldager, N.; Bertram, M.; Stuefer, M.

    2015-12-01

    Hyperspectral imagery acquired using Hyspex VNIR-1800 and SWIR-384 camera systems have provided unique information on terrestrial and aquatic biogeochemical parameters, and diagnostic mineral properties in exposed outcrops in selected sites in the state of Alaska. The Hyspex system was configured for in-situ and field scanning by attaching it to a gimbal-mounted rotational stage on a robust tripod. Scans of vertical faces of vegetation and rock outcrops were made close to the campus of the University of Alaska Fairbanks, in an abandoned mine near Fairbanks, and on exposures of Orange Hill in Wrangell-St. Elias National Park. Atmospherically corrected integrated VNIR_SWIR spectra were extracted which helped to study varying nitrogen content in the vegetation, and helped to distinguish the various micas. Processed imagery helped to pull out carbonates, clays, sulfates, and alteration-related minerals. The same instrument was also mounted in airborne configuration on two different aircrafts, a DeHavilland Beaver and a Found Bush Hawk. Test flights were flown over urban and wilderness areas that presented a variety of landcover types. Processed imagery shows promise in mapping man-made surfaces, phytoplankton, and dissolved materials in inland water bodies. Sample data and products are available on the University of Alaska Fairbanks Hyperspectral Imaging Laboratory (HyLab) website at http://hyperspectral.alaska.edu.

  2. Optimized Field Sampling and Monitoring of Airborne Hazardous Transport Plumes; A Geostatistical Simulation Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, DI-WEN

    2001-11-21

    Airborne hazardous plumes inadvertently released during nuclear/chemical/biological incidents are mostly of unknown composition and concentration until measurements are taken of post-accident ground concentrations from plume-ground deposition of constituents. Unfortunately, measurements often are days post-incident and rely on hazardous manned air-vehicle measurements. Before this happens, computational plume migration models are the only source of information on the plume characteristics, constituents, concentrations, directions of travel, ground deposition, etc. A mobile ''lighter than air'' (LTA) system is being developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory that will be part of the first response in emergency conditions. These interactive and remote unmanned air vehicles will carry light-weight detectors and weather instrumentation to measure the conditions during and after plume release. This requires a cooperative computationally organized, GPS-controlled set of LTA's that self-coordinate around the objectives in an emergency situation in restricted time frames. A critical step before an optimum and cost-effective field sampling and monitoring program proceeds is the collection of data that provides statistically significant information, collected in a reliable and expeditious manner. Efficient aerial arrangements of the detectors taking the data (for active airborne release conditions) are necessary for plume identification, computational 3-dimensional reconstruction, and source distribution functions. This report describes the application of stochastic or geostatistical simulations to delineate the plume for guiding subsequent sampling and monitoring designs. A case study is presented of building digital plume images, based on existing ''hard'' experimental data and ''soft'' preliminary transport modeling results of Prairie Grass Trials Site. Markov Bayes Simulation, a coupled Bayesian/geostatistical methodology, quantitatively combines soft information

  3. Conceptual design of an airborne laser Doppler velocimeter system for studying wind fields associated with severe local storms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomson, J. A. L.; Davies, A. R.; Sulzmann, K. G. P.

    1976-01-01

    An airborne laser Doppler velocimeter was evaluated for diagnostics of the wind field associated with an isolated severe thunderstorm. Two scanning configurations were identified, one a long-range (out to 10-20 km) roughly horizontal plane mode intended to allow probing of the velocity field around the storm at the higher altitudes (4-10 km). The other is a shorter range (out to 1-3 km) mode in which a vertical or horizontal plane is scanned for velocity (and possibly turbulence), and is intended for diagnostics of the lower altitude region below the storm and in the out-flow region. It was concluded that aircraft flight velocities are high enough and severe storm lifetimes are long enough that a single airborne Doppler system, operating at a range of less than about 20 km, can view the storm area from two or more different aspects before the storm characteristics change appreciably.

  4. Field campaigns of the autonomous, closed-path, airborne TDLAS Hygrometer SEALDH-II and traceability to the German Primary Humidity Standards.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchholz, Bernhard; Ebert, Volker

    2014-05-01

    Airborne hygrometry is often demanded in scientific flight campaigns to provide datasets for environmental modeling or to correct for water vapor dilution or cross sensitivity effects in other gas analytical techniques. Water vapor measurements, however, are quite challenging due to the large dynamic range in the atmosphere (between 2 and 40000 ppmv) and the high spatio-temporal variability. Airborne hygrometers therefore need to combine a large measurement range with high temporal resolution to resolve - at typical airspeeds of 500 to 900 km/h - atmospheric gradients of several 1000 ppmv/s. Especially during the ascent into the upper troposphere, hygrometers need to work at high gas exchange rates to minimize water vapor adsorption effects. On the other hand, water vapor sensors are difficult to calibrate due to the strong water adsorption and the lack of bottled reference gas standards, which requires pre- or/and post-flight field calibrations. Recently in-flight calibration using an airborne H2O generator was demonstrated, which minimizes calibration drift but still imposes a lot of additional work and hardware to the experiments, since these kind of calibrations just transfer the accuracy level issues to the in-flight calibration-source. To make things worse, the low gas flow (1-5 std l/min, compared with up to 100 std l/min in flight for fast response instruments) adheres critical questions of wall absorption/desorption of the source and instrument even during the calibration process. The national metrological institutes (NMIs) maintain a global metrological water vapor scale which is defined via national primary humidity generators. These provide for calibration purposes well-defined, accurate water vapor samples of excellent comparability and stability traced back to the SI-units. The humidity calibration chain is maintained via high accuracy (but rather slow) Dew-Point-Mirror-Hygrometers as transfer standards. These provide a traceable performance and

  5. Field Experiments in Litter Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finnie, William C.

    1973-01-01

    A series of urban and highway litter experiments in Richmond (Virginia), St. Louis, and Philadelphia indicated well-designed litter cans reduced littering about 15 percent along city streets and nearly 30 percent along highways. Also, the propensity to litter is critically affected by the characteristics of the individual and environmental…

  6. Family Oriented Field Experience in Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Karen A.

    A family-oriented geography field course about the southwestern United States was conducted in 1978 by a community college in Michigan (Delta College). Course activities took place in Colorado. The major purpose of the field experience was to offer learning experiences to family groups rather than to individual students. For purposes of the field…

  7. Field experiences with intelligent pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, S.N.; Duvivier, J.P.; Lefevre, D.E.; Robb, G.A.

    1996-08-01

    Oil and gas production operations use intelligent pigs for corrosion inspection of gathering systems and pipelines worldwide. The authors have been involved with intelligent pig inspections which have been conducted on over 155 different pipelines owned by one international corporation. A variety of intelligent pig vendors have been used with tools ranging from standard first generation magnetic flux leakage (MFL) to high-resolution MFL to standard and custom made ultrasonic (UT) tools. Experiences encountered during these inspections are discussed and resolutions to many of the problems are described.

  8. Filter measurements of chemical composition during the airborne Antarctic ozone experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grandrud, B. W.; Sperry, P. D.; Sanford, L.

    1988-01-01

    During the Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment campaign, a filter sampler was flown to measure the bulk composition of aerosol and gas phases. The background sulfate aerosol was measured in regions inside and outside of the chemically perturbed region (CPR) of the polar vortex. The mass ratio of sulfate outside to inside was 2.8. This is indicative of a cleansing mechanism effecting the CPR or of a different air mass inside versus outside. The absolute value of the sulfate mixing ratio shows that the background aerosol has not been influenced by recent volcanic eruptions. The sulfate measured on the ferry flight returning to NASA Ames shows a decrease towards the equator with increasing concentrations in the northern hemisphere. Nitrate in the aerosol phase was observed on two flights. The largest amount of nitrate measured in the aerosol was 44 percent of the total amount of nitrate observed. Other samples on the same flights show no nitrate in the aerosol phase. The presence of nitrate in the aerosol is correlated with the coldest temperatures observed on a given flight. Total nitrate (aerosol plus acidic vapor nitrate) concentrations were observed to increase at flight altitude with increasing latitude north and south of the equator. Total nitrate was lower inside the CPR than outside. Chloride and flouride were not detected in the aerosol phase. From the concentrations of acidic chloride vapor, the ratio of acidic vapor Cl to acidic vapor F and a summing of the individual chloride containing species to yield a total chloride concentration, there is a suggestion that some of the air sampled was dechlorinated. Acidic vapor phase fluoride was observed to increase at flight altitude with increasing latitude both north and south of the equator. The acidic vapor phase fluoride was the only compound measured with the filter technique that exhibited larger concentrations inside the CPR than outside.

  9. The NASA Airborne Tropical TRopopause EXperiment (ATTREX):High-Altitude Aircraft Measurements in the Tropical Western Pacific

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, E. J.; Pfister, L.; Jordan, D. E.; Bui, T. V.; Ueyama, R.; Singh, H. B.; Lawson, P.; Thornberry, T.; Diskin, G.; McGill, M.; Pittman, J.; Atlas, E.; Kim, J.

    2016-01-01

    The February through March 2014 deployment of the NASA Airborne Tropical TRopopause EXperiment (ATTREX) provided unique in situ measurements in the western Pacific Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL). Six flights were conducted from Guam with the long-range, high-altitude, unmanned Global Hawk aircraft. The ATTREX Global Hawk payload provided measurements of water vapor, meteorological conditions, cloud properties, tracer and chemical radical concentrations, and radiative fluxes. The campaign was partially coincident with the CONTRAST and CAST airborne campaigns based in Guam using lower-altitude aircraft The ATTREX dataset is being used for investigations of TTL cloud, transport, dynamical, and chemical processes as well as for evaluation and improvement of global-model representations of TTL processes.

  10. A Reevaluation of Airborne HO(x) Observations from NASA Field Campaigns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, Jennifer; Crawford, James H.; Chen, Gao; Brune, William H.; Faloona, Ian C.; Tan, David; Harder, Hartwig; Martinez, Monica

    2006-01-01

    In-situ observations of tropospheric HO(x) (OH and HO2) obtained during four NASA airborne campaigns (SUCCESS, SONEX, PEM-Tropics B and TRACE-P) are reevaluated using the NASA Langley time-dependent photochemical box model. Special attention is given to previously diagnosed discrepancies between observed and predicted HO2 which increase with higher NO(x) levels and at high solar zenith angles. This analysis shows that much of the model discrepancy at high NO(x) during SUCCESS can be attributed to modeling observations at time-scales too long to capture the nonlinearity of HO(x) chemistry under highly variable conditions for NO(x). Discrepancies at high NO(x) during SONEX can be moderated to a large extent by complete use of all available precursor observations. Differences in kinetic rate coefficients and photolysis frequencies available for previous studies versus current recommendations also explain some of the disparity. Each of these causes is shown to exert greater influence with increasing NO(x) due to both the chemical nonlinearity between HO(x) and NO(x) and the increased sensitivity of HO(x) to changes in sources at high NO(x). In contrast, discrepancies at high solar zenith angles will persist until an adequate nighttime source of HO(x) can be identified. It is important to note that this analysis falls short of fully eliminating the issue of discrepancies between observed and predicted HO(x) for high NO(x) environments. These discrepancies are not resolved with the above causes in other data sets from ground-based field studies. Nevertheless, these results highlight important considerations in the application of box models to observationally based predictions of HO(x) radicals.

  11. Airborne Sunphotometry in Support of the Chesapeake Lighthouse and Aircraft Measurements for Satellites (CLAMS) Experiment, 2001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redemann, J.; Schmid, B.; Livingston, J. M.; Russell, P. B.; Eilers, J. A.; Hobbs, P. V.; Kahn, R.; Smith, W. L.

    2001-12-01

    As part of the Chesapeake Lighthouse and Aircraft Measurements for Satellites (CLAMS) experiment, July 10 - August 2, 2001, the 14-channel NASA Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS-14) was operated successfully aboard the University of Washington CV-580 during 10 research flights, totaling 45.09 flight hours. The CLAMS campaign was a clear sky, shortwave (SW) closure campaign sponsored by CERES, MISR, MODIS-Atmospheres, and the NASA/GEWEX Global Aerosol Climatology Project (GACP), and entailed measurements from the Chesapeake Lighthouse research platform, several land sites, 6 research aircraft and the TERRA satellite. Among the CLAMS research goals were the validation of satellite-based retrievals of aerosol properties, vertical profiles of radiative fluxes, temperature and water vapor. AATS-14 measures the direct solar beam transmission at 14 discrete wavelengths (354-1558 nm), yielding aerosol optical depth (AOD) spectra, columnar water vapor and columnar ozone. Differentiation of AOD (CWV) with respect to altitude in favorable flight patterns, allows the derivation of aerosol extinction (water vapor density). During coordinated flights of the UW CV-580, AATS-14 measured full column aerosol optical depth spectra at exact TERRA overpass time on at least 7 occasions. For five of these opportunities, AOD at 499nm was at or below 0.1. During TERRA overpass time on July 17, 2001, AATS-14 measured the highest AOD encountered during the entire experiment (ca. 0.48 at 499nm), including a horizontal gradient in AOD of more than 0.1 over a horizontal distance of ca. 80 kilometers. In this paper, we will show first sunphotometer-derived results regarding the spatial variation of AOD and CWV during TERRA overpass time at key locations for the CLAMS experiment. Preliminary comparison studies between our AOD/aerosol extinction data and results from (i) extinction products derived using in situ measurements aboard the UW CV-580 and (ii) AOD retrievals using the Multi

  12. From theory to field experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vos, Bram

    2016-04-01

    Peter Raats' achievements in Haren (NL) 1986-1997 were based on a solid theoretical insight in hydrology and transport process in soil. However, Peter was also the driving force behind many experimental studies and applied research. This will be illustrated by a broad range of examples ranging from the dynamics of composting processes of organic material; modelling and monitoring nutrient leaching at field-scale; wind erosion; water and nutrient dynamics in horticultural production systems; oxygen diffusion in soils; and processes of water and nutrient uptake by plant roots. Peter's leadership led to may new approaches and the introduction of innovative measurement techniques in Dutch research; ranging from TDR to nutrient concentration measurements in closed fertigation systems. This presentation will give a brief overview how Peter's theoretical and mathematical insights accelerated this applied research.

  13. Indirect Reciprocity; A Field Experiment

    PubMed Central

    van Apeldoorn, Jacobien; Schram, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Indirect reciprocity involves cooperative acts towards strangers, either in response to their kindness to third parties (downstream) or after receiving kindness from others oneself (upstream). It is considered to be important for the evolution of cooperative behavior amongst humans. Though it has been widely studied theoretically, the empirical evidence of indirect reciprocity has thus far been limited and based solely on behavior in laboratory experiments. We provide evidence from an online environment where members can repeatedly ask and offer services to each other, free of charge. For the purpose of this study we created several new member profiles, which differ only in terms of their serving history. We then sent out a large number of service requests to different members from all over the world. We observe that a service request is more likely to be rewarded for those with a profile history of offering the service (to third parties) in the past. This provides clear evidence of (downstream) indirect reciprocity. We find no support for upstream indirect reciprocity (in this case, rewarding the service request after having previously received the service from third parties), however. Our evidence of downstream indirect reciprocity cannot be attributed to reputational effects concerning one’s trustworthiness as a service user. PMID:27043712

  14. Characterizing the impact of urban emissions on regional aerosol particles; airborne measurements during the MEGAPOLI experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freney, E. J.; Sellegri, K.; Canonaco, F.; Colomb, A.; Borbon, A.; Michoud, V.; Doussin, J.-F.; Crumeyrolle, S.; Amarouch, N.; Pichon, J.-M.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Beekmann, M.; Schwarzenböeck, A.

    2013-09-01

    The MEGAPOLI experiment took place in July 2009. The aim of this campaign was to study the aging and reactions of aerosol and gas-phase emissions in the city of Paris. Three ground-based measurement sites and several mobile platforms including instrument equipped vehicles and the ATR-42 aircraft were involved. We present here the variations in particle- and gas-phase species over the city of Paris using a combination of high-time resolution measurements aboard the ATR-42 aircraft. Particle chemical composition was measured using a compact time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (C-ToF-AMS) giving detailed information of the non-refractory submicron aerosol species. The mass concentration of BC, measured by a particle absorption soot photometer (PSAP), was used as a marker to identify the urban pollution plume boundaries. Aerosol mass concentrations and composition were affected by air-mass history, with air masses that spent longest time over land having highest fractions of organic aerosol and higher total mass concentrations. The Paris plume is mainly composed of organic aerosol (OA), black carbon and nitrate aerosol, as well as high concentrations of anthropogenic gas-phase species such as toluene, benzene, and NOx. Using BC and CO as tracers for air-mass dilution, we observe the ratio of ΔOA / ΔBC and ΔOA / ΔCO increase with increasing photochemical age (-log(NOx / NOy). Plotting the equivalent ratios for the Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) resolved species (LV-OOA, SV-OOA, and HOA) illustrate that the increase in OA is a result of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). Within Paris the changes in the ΔOA / ΔCO are similar to those observed during other studies in Mexico city, Mexico and in New England, USA. Using the measured VOCs species together with recent organic aerosol formation yields we predicted ~ 50% of the measured organics. These airborne measurements during the MEGAPOLI experiment show that urban emissions contribute to the formation of OA

  15. Characterizing the impact of urban emissions on regional aerosol particles: airborne measurements during the MEGAPOLI experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freney, E. J.; Sellegri, K.; Canonaco, F.; Colomb, A.; Borbon, A.; Michoud, V.; Doussin, J.-F.; Crumeyrolle, S.; Amarouche, N.; Pichon, J.-M.; Bourianne, T.; Gomes, L.; Prevot, A. S. H.; Beekmann, M.; Schwarzenböeck, A.

    2014-02-01

    yields, we were able to predict ~50% of the measured organics. These airborne measurements during the MEGAPOLI experiment show that urban emissions contribute to the formation of OA and have an impact on aerosol composition on a regional scale.

  16. A comparison of airborne and ground-based radar observations with rain gages during the CaPE experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Satake, Makoto; Short, David A.; Iguchi, Toshio

    1992-01-01

    The vicinity of KSC, where the primary ground truth site of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) program is located, was the focal point of the Convection and Precipitation/Electrification (CaPE) experiment in Jul. and Aug. 1991. In addition to several specialized radars, local coverage was provided by the C-band (5 cm) radar at Patrick AFB. Point measurements of rain rate were provided by tipping bucket rain gage networks. Besides these ground-based activities, airborne radar measurements with X- and Ka-band nadir-looking radars on board an aircraft were also recorded. A unique combination data set of airborne radar observations with ground-based observations was obtained in the summer convective rain regime of central Florida. We present a comparison of these data intending a preliminary validation. A convective rain event was observed simultaneously by all three instrument types on the evening of 27 Jul. 1991. The high resolution aircraft radar was flown over convective cells with tops exceeding 10 km and observed reflectivities of 40 to 50 dBZ at 4 to 5 km altitude, while the low resolution surface radar observed 35 to 55 dBZ echoes and a rain gage indicated maximum surface rain rates exceeding 100 mm/hr. The height profile of reflectivity measured with the airborne radar show an attenuation of 6.5 dB/km (two way) for X-band, corresponding to a rainfall rate of 95 mm/hr.

  17. Study of airborne science experiment management concepts for application to space shuttle. Volume 3: Appendixes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulholland, D. R.; Reller, J. O., Jr.; Neel, C. B.; Haughney, L. C.

    1973-01-01

    Detailed information is presented concerning specific airborne missions in support of the ASSESS program. These missions are the AIDJEX expeditions, meteor shower expeditions, CAT and atmospheric sampling missions, ocean color expeditions, and the Lear Jet missions. For Vol. 2, see N73-31729.

  18. Airborne passive remote sensing of large-scale methane emissions from oil fields in California's San Joaquin Valley and validation by airborne in-situ measurements - Initial results from COMEX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerilowski, Konstantin; Krautwurst, Sven; Kolyer, Richard W.; Thompson, David R.; Jonsson, Haflidi; Krings, Thomas; Horstjann, Markus; Leifer, Ira; Eastwood, Michael; Green, Robert O.; Vigil, Sam; Schüttemeyer, Dirk; Fladeland, Matthew; Burrows, John P.; Bovensmann, Heinrich

    2015-04-01

    On several flights performed over the Kern River, Kern Front, and Poso Creek Oil Fields in California between June 3 and September 4, 2014, in the framework of the CO2 and MEthane Experiment (COMEX) - a NASA and ESA funded campaign in support of the HyspIRI and CarbonSat mission definition activities - the Methane Airborne MAPper (MAMAP) remote sensing instrument (operated by the University of Bremen in cooperation with the German Research Centre for Geosciences - GFZ) detected large-scale, high-concentration, methane plumes. MAMAP was installed for the flights aboard the Center for Interdisciplinary Remotely-Piloted Aircraft Studies (CIRPAS) Twin Otter aircraft, together with a Picarro fast in-situ greenhouse gas (GHG) analyzer (operated by the NASA Ames Research Center, ARC), a 5-hole turbulence probe and an atmospheric measurement package (operated by CIRPAS), measuring aerosols, temperature, dew-point, and other atmospheric parameters. Some of the flights were accompanied by the next generation of the Airborne Visible InfraRed Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS-NG), operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), California Institute of Technology, installed aboard a second Twin Otter aircraft (operated by Twin Otter International). Data collected with the in-situ GHG analyzer were used for validation of the MAMAP and AVIRIS-NG remotely sensed data. The in-situ measurements were acquired in vertical cross sections of the discovered plumes at fixed distances downwind of the sources. Emission rates are estimated from both the remote and in-situ data using wind information from the turbulence probe together with ground-based wind data from the nearby airport. Remote sensing and in-situ data as well as initial flux estimates for selected flights will be presented.

  19. Teaching Representation Translations with Magnetic Field Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tillotson, Wilson Andrew; McCaskey, Timothy; Nasser, Luis

    2017-01-01

    We have developed a laboratory exercise designed to help students translate between different field representations. It starts with students qualitatively mapping field lines for various bar magnet configurations and continues with a Hall probe experiment in which students execute a series of scaffolded tasks, culminating in the prediction and…

  20. Overview of Field Experience - Degradation Rates & Lifetimes

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, Dirk; Kurtz, Sarah

    2015-09-14

    The way a PV module fails may depend not only on its design and the materials used in its construction, but also on the weather it experiences, the way it is mounted, and the quality control during its manufacture. This presentation gives an overview of Field Experience - what degradation rates and what lifetimes are being observed in various regions.

  1. FIELD EXPERIMENTS AND MODELING AT CDG AIRPORTS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramaroson, R.

    2009-12-01

    Richard Ramaroson1,4, Klaus Schaefer2, Stefan Emeis2, Carsten Jahn2, Gregor Schürmann2, Maria Hoffmann2, Mikhael Zatevakhin3, Alexandre Ignatyev3. 1ONERA, Châtillon, France; 4SEAS, Harvard University, Cambridge, USA; 2FZK, Garmisch, Germany; (3)FSUE SPbAEP, St Petersburg, Russia. 2-month field campaigns have been organized at CDG airports in autumn 2004 and summer 2005. Air quality and ground air traffic emissions have been monitored continuously at terminals and taxi-runways, along with meteorological parameters onboard trucks and with a SODAR. This paper analyses the commercial engine emissions characteristics at airports and their effects on gas pollutants and airborne particles coupled to meteorology. LES model results for PM dispersion coupled to microphysics in the PBL are compared to measurements. Winds and temperature at the surface and their vertical profiles have been stored with turbulence. SODAR observations show the time-development of the mixing layer depth and turbulent mixing in summer up to 800m. Active low level jets and their regional extent have been observed and analyzed. PM number and mass size distribution, morphology and chemical contents are investigated. Formation of new ultra fine volatile (UFV) particles in the ambient plume downstream of running engines is observed. Soot particles are mostly observed at significant level at high power thrusts at take-off (TO) and on touch-down whereas at lower thrusts at taxi and aprons ultra the UFV PM emissions become higher. Ambient airborne PM1/2.5 is closely correlated to air traffic volume and shows a maximum beside runways. PM number distribution at airports is composed mainly by volatile UF PM abundant at apron. Ambient PM mass in autumn is higher than in summer. The expected differences between TO and taxi emissions are confirmed for NO, NO2, speciated VOC and CO. NO/NO2 emissions are larger at runways due to higher power. Reactive VOC and CO are more produced at low powers during idling at

  2. Extracting Tree Height from Repeat-Pass PolInSAR Data : Experiments with JPL and ESA Airborne Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lavalle, Marco; Ahmed, Razi; Neumann, Maxim; Hensley, Scott

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present our latest developments and experiments with the random-motion-over-ground (RMoG) model used to extract canopy height and other important forest parameters from repeat-pass polarimetricinterferometric SAR (Pol-InSAR) data. More specifically, we summarize the key features of the RMoG model in contrast with the random-volume-over-ground (RVoG) model, describe in detail a possible inversion scheme for the RMoG model and illustrate the results of the RMoG inversion using airborne data collected by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and the European Space Agency (ESA).

  3. Worldwide C-17 Availability to Support 82nd Airborne Operations from Fort Bragg/Pope Field

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-11-06

    Gordon’s work on scenarios for future 82nd Airborne operations and Christopher G. Pernin et al., Enabling the Global Response Force: Access Strategies ...Monica, Calif. © Copyright 2016 RAND Corporation R® is a registered trademark. iii Preface The Global Response Force (GRF) must respond to a variety...the GRF, a subset of the research of the RAND fiscal year 2014 study “Enabling the Global Response Force to Meet Future Needs.” The purpose of the

  4. Teaching Representation Translations with Magnetic Field Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tillotson, Wilson Andrew; McCaskey, Timothy; Nasser, Luis

    2017-01-01

    We have developed a laboratory exercise designed to help students translate between different field representations. It starts with students qualitatively mapping field lines for various bar magnet configurations and continues with a Hall probe experiment in which students execute a series of scaffolded tasks, culminating in the prediction and measurement of the spatial variation of magnetic field components along a line near magnets. We describe the experimental tasks, various difficulties students have throughout, and ways this lab makes even their incorrect predictions better. We suggest that developing lab activities of this nature brings a new dimension to the ways students learn and interact with field concepts.

  5. Aerosol properties derived from airborne sky radiance and direct beam measurements in recent NASA and DoE field campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redemann, J.; Flynn, C. J.; Shinozuka, Y.; Russell, P. B.; Kacenelenbogen, M. S.; Segal-Rosenhaimer, M.; Livingston, J. M.; Schmid, B.; Dunagan, S. E.; Johnson, R. R.; LeBlanc, S. E.; Schmidt, S.; Pilewskie, P.; Song, S.

    2014-12-01

    The AERONET (AErosol RObotic NETwork) ground-based suite of sunphotometers provides measurements of spectral aerosol optical depth (AOD), precipitable water and spectral sky radiance, which can be inverted to retrieve aerosol microphysical properties that are critical to assessments of aerosol-climate interactions. Because of data quality criteria and sampling constraints, there are significant limitations to the temporal and spatial coverage of AERONET data and their representativeness for global aerosol conditions. The 4STAR (Spectrometer for Sky-Scanning, Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research) instrument, jointly developed by NASA Ames and PNNL with NASA Goddard collaboration, combines airborne sun tracking and AERONET-like sky scanning with spectroscopic detection. Being an airborne instrument, 4STAR has the potential to fill gaps in the AERONET data set. The 4STAR instrument operated successfully in the SEAC4RS [Studies of Emissions and Atmospheric Composition, Clouds and Climate Coupling by Regional Surveys] experiment in Aug./Sep. 2013 aboard the NASA DC-8 and in the DoE [Department of Energy]-sponsored TCAP [Two Column Aerosol Project, July 2012 & Feb. 2013] experiment aboard the DoE G-1 aircraft. 4STAR provided direct beam measurements of hyperspectral AOD, columnar trace gas retrievals (H2O, O3, NO2), and the first ever airborne hyperspectral sky radiance scans, which can be inverted to yield the same products as AERONET ground-based observations. In this presentation, we provide an overview of the new 4STAR capabilities, with an emphasis on 26 high-quality sky radiance measurements carried out by 4STAR in SEAC4RS. We compare collocated 4STAR and AERONET sky radiances, as well as their retrievals of aerosol microphysical properties for a subset of the available case studies. We summarize the particle property and airmass characterization studies made possible by the combined 4STAR direct beam and sky radiance observations.

  6. Aerosol Properties Derived from Airborne Sky Radiance and Direct Beam Measurements in Recent NASA and DoE Field Campaigns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redemann, J.; Flynn, C. J.; Shinozuka, Y.; Russell, P. B.; Kacenelenbogen, M.; Segal-Rosenheimer, M.; Livingston, J. M.; Schmid, B.; Dunagan, S. E.; Johnson, R. R.; LeBlanc, S.; Schmidt, S.; Pilewskie, P.; Song, S.

    2014-01-01

    The AERONET (AErosol RObotic NETwork) ground-based suite of sunphotometers provides measurements of spectral aerosol optical depth (AOD), precipitable water and spectral sky radiance, which can be inverted to retrieve aerosol microphysical properties that are critical to assessments of aerosol-climate interactions. Because of data quality criteria and sampling constraints, there are significant limitations to the temporal and spatial coverage of AERONET data and their representativeness for global aerosol conditions.The 4STAR (Spectrometer for Sky-Scanning, Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research) instrument, jointly developed by NASA Ames and PNNL (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory) with NASA Goddard collaboration, combines airborne sun tracking and AERONET-like sky scanning with spectroscopic detection. Being an airborne instrument, 4STAR has the potential to fill gaps in the AERONET data set. The 4STAR instrument operated successfully in the SEAC4RS (Studies of Emissions and Atmospheric Composition, Clouds and Climate Coupling by Regional Surveys) experiment in Aug./Sep. 2013 aboard the NASA DC-8 and in the DoE (Department of Energy)-sponsored TCAP (Two Column Aerosol Project, July 2012 & Feb. 2013) experiment aboard the DoE G-1 aircraft. 4STAR provided direct beam measurements of hyperspectral AOD, columnar trace gas retrievals (H2O, O3, NO2), and the first ever airborne hyperspectral sky radiance scans, which can be inverted to yield the same products as AERONET ground-based observations. In this presentation, we provide an overview of the new 4STAR capabilities, with an emphasis on 26 high-quality sky radiance measurements carried out by 4STAR in SEAC4RS. We compare collocated 4STAR and AERONET sky radiances, as well as their retrievals of aerosol microphysical properties for a subset of the available case studies. We summarize the particle property and air-mass characterization studies made possible by the combined 4STAR direct beam and sky radiance

  7. The Tropospheric Wind Lidar Technology Experiment (TWiLiTE): An Airborne Direct Detection Doppler Lidar Instrument Development Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gentry, Bruce; McGill, Matthew; Schwemmer, Geary; Hardesty, Michael; Brewer, Alan; Wilkerson, Thomas; Atlas, Robert; Sirota, Marcos; Lindemann, Scott

    2006-01-01

    Global measurement of tropospheric winds is a key measurement for understanding atmospheric dynamics and improving numerical weather prediction. Global wind profiles remain a high priority for the operational weather community and also for a variety of research applications including studies of the global hydrologic cycle and transport studies of aerosols and trace species. In addition to space based winds, a high altitude airborne system flown on UAV or other advanced platforms would be of great interest for studying mesoscale dynamics and hurricanes. The Tropospheric Wind Lidar Technology Experiment (TWiLiTE) project was selected in 2005 by the NASA Earth Sun Technology Office as part of the Instrument Incubator Program. TWiLiTE will leverage significant research and development investments in key technologies made in the past several years. The primary focus will be on integrating these sub-systems into a complete molecular direct detection Doppler wind lidar system designed for autonomous operation on a high altitude aircraft, such as the NASA WB57, so that the nadir viewing lidar will be able to profile winds through the full troposphere. TWiLiTE is a collaboration involving scientists and technologists from NASA Goddard, NOAA ESRL, Utah State University Space Dynamics Lab and industry partners Michigan Aerospace Corporation and Sigma Space Corporation. NASA Goddard and it's partners have been at the forefront in the development of key lidar technologies (lasers, telescopes, scanning systems, detectors and receivers) required to enable spaceborne global wind lidar measurement. The TWiLiTE integrated airborne Doppler lidar instrument will be the first demonstration of a airborne scanning direct detection Doppler lidar and will serve as a critical milestone on the path to a fixture spaceborne tropospheric wind system. The completed system will have the capability to profile winds in clear air from the aircraft altitude of 18 h to the surface with 250 m vertical

  8. Quantification of gully volume using very high resolution DSM generated through 3D reconstruction from airborne and field digital imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castillo, Carlos; Zarco-Tejada, Pablo; Laredo, Mario; Gómez, Jose Alfonso

    2013-04-01

    Major advances have been made recently in automatic 3D photo-reconstruction techniques using uncalibrated and non-metric cameras (James and Robson, 2012). However, its application on soil conservation studies and landscape feature identification is currently at the outset. The aim of this work is to compare the performance of a remote sensing technique using a digital camera mounted on an airborne platform, with 3D photo-reconstruction, a method already validated for gully erosion assessment purposes (Castillo et al., 2012). A field survey was conducted in November 2012 in a 250 m-long gully located in field crops on a Vertisol in Cordoba (Spain). The airborne campaign was conducted with a 4000x3000 digital camera installed onboard an aircraft flying at 300 m above ground level to acquire 6 cm resolution imagery. A total of 990 images were acquired over the area ensuring a large overlap in the across- and along-track direction of the aircraft. An ortho-mosaic and the digital surface model (DSM) were obtained through automatic aerial triangulation and camera calibration methods. For the field-level photo-reconstruction technique, the gully was divided in several reaches to allow appropriate reconstruction (about 150 pictures taken per reach) and, finally, the resulting point clouds were merged into a unique mesh. A centimetric-accuracy GPS provided a benchmark dataset for gully perimeter and distinguishable reference points in order to allow the assessment of measurement errors of the airborne technique and the georeferenciation of the photo-reconstruction 3D model. The uncertainty on the gully limits definition was explicitly addressed by comparison of several criteria obtained by 3D models (slope and second derivative) with the outer perimeter obtained by the GPS operator identifying visually the change in slope at the top of the gully walls. In this study we discussed the magnitude of planimetric and altimetric errors and the differences observed between the

  9. An analysis of the materiel fielding plan for the SINCGARS (Single Channel Ground and Airborne Radio System) radio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tegen, C. M.

    1984-12-01

    This thesis is an analysis of the materiel fielding plan (MFP) for the Army's Single Channel Ground and Airborne Radio System (SINCGARS). Objectives of the study are to identify major potential problem areas in the MFP, and to generate recommendations for resolving these problems. The study involves a specific analysis of the maintenance and supply support aspects of the MFP within the context of the Major System acquisition framework. Research included extensive field interviews with personnel in the functional management areas of the Communications and Electronics Command (CECOM), the Project Office, and the Department of Army Staff. Potential problems identified concern the redistribution of VRC-12 series and PRC-77 radios, the imbedded COMSEC modification, and the issue of warranties. Recommendations include purchasing a warranty for the original production contract, improving the planning for redistribution of old radios, and providing strict control over the design of the imbedded COMSEC modification.

  10. Random Assignment: Practical Considerations from Field Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunford, Franklyn W.

    1990-01-01

    Seven qualitative issues associated with randomization that have the potential to weaken or destroy otherwise sound experimental designs are reviewed and illustrated via actual field experiments. Issue areas include ethics and legality, liability risks, manipulation of randomized outcomes, hidden bias, design intrusiveness, case flow, and…

  11. Teacher Knowledge Development in Early Field Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingersoll, Casey; Jenkins, Jayne M.; Lux, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Investigation of physical education preservice teacher knowledge development has been primarily limited to study of a single semester of early field experience (EFE), with findings from these investigations driving EFE design. The purpose of this research was to investigate what types of knowledge develop and how knowledge evolves and interacts to…

  12. Unmanned airborne vehicle (UAV): Flight testing and evaluation of two-channel E-field very low frequency (VLF) instrument

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-01

    Using VLF frequencies, transmitted by the Navy`s network, for airborne remote sensing of the earth`s electrical, magnetic characteristics was first considered by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) around the mid 1970s. The first VLF system was designed and developed by the USGS for installation and operation on a single engine, fixed wing aircraft used by the Branch of Geophysics for geophysical surveying. The system consisted of five channels. Two E-field channels with sensors consisting of a fixed vertical loaded dipole antenna with pre-amp mounted on top of the fuselage and a gyro stabilized horizontal loaded dipole antenna with pre-amp mounted on a tail boom. The three channel magnetic sensor consisted of three orthogonal coils mounted on the same gyro stabilized platform as the horizontal E-field antenna. The main features of the VLF receiver were: narrow band-width frequency selection using crystal filters, phase shifters for zeroing out system phase variances, phase-lock loops for generating real and quadrature gates, and synchronous detectors for generating real and quadrature outputs. In the mid 1990s the Branch of Geophysics designed and developed a two-channel E-field ground portable VLF system. The system was built using state-of-the-art circuit components and new concepts in circuit architecture. Small size, light weight, low power, durability, and reliability were key considerations in the design of the instrument. The primary purpose of the instrument was for collecting VLF data during ground surveys over small grid areas. Later the system was modified for installation on a Unmanned Airborne Vehicle (UAV). A series of three field trips were made to Easton, Maryland for testing and evaluating the system performance.

  13. Field investigation of surface-deposited radon progeny as a possible predictor of the airborne radon progeny dose rate.

    PubMed

    Sun, Kainan; Steck, Daniel J; Field, R William

    2009-08-01

    The quantitative relationships between radon gas concentration, the surface-deposited activities of various radon progeny, the airborne radon progeny dose rate, and various residential environmental factors were investigated through actual field measurements in 38 selected Iowa houses occupied by either smokers or nonsmokers. Airborne dose rate was calculated from unattached and attached potential alpha energy concentrations (PAECs) using two dosimetric models with different activity-size weighting factors. These models are labeled Pdose and Jdose, respectively. Surface-deposited 218Po and 214Po were found significantly correlated to radon, unattached PAEC, and both airborne dose rates (p < 0.0001) in nonsmoking environments. However, deposited 218Po was not significantly correlated to the above parameters in smoking environments. In multiple linear regression analysis, natural logarithm transformation was performed for airborne dose rate as the dependent variable, as well as for radon and deposited 218Po and 214Po as predictors. An interaction effect was found between deposited 214Po and an obstacle in front of the Retrospective Reconstruction Detector (RRD) in predicting dose rate (p = 0.049 and 0.058 for Pdose and Jdose, respectively) for nonsmoking environments. After adjusting for radon and deposited radon progeny effects, the presence of either cooking, usage of a fireplace, or usage of a ceiling fan significantly, or marginally significantly, reduced the Pdose to 0.65 (90% CI 0.42-0.996), 0.54 (90% CI 0.28-1.02), and 0.66 (90% CI 0.45-0.96), respectively. For Jdose, only the usage of a ceiling fan significantly reduced the dose rate to 0.57 (90% CI 0.39-0.85). In smoking environments, deposited 218Po was a significant negative predictor for Pdose (RR 0.68, 90% CI 0.55-0.84) after adjusting for long-term 222Rn and environmental factors. A significant decrease of 0.72 (90% CI 0.64-0.83) in the mean Pdose was noted, after adjusting for the radon and radon

  14. Idaho field experiment 1981. Volume 2: measurement data

    SciTech Connect

    Start, G E; Sagendorf, J F; Ackermann, G R; Cate, J H; Hukari, N F; Dickson, C R

    1984-04-01

    The 1981 Idaho Field Experiment was conducted in southeastern Idaho over the upper Snake River Plain. Nine test-day case studies were conducted between July 15 and 30, 1981. Releases of SF/sub 6/ gaseous tracer were made for 8-hour periods from 46m above ground. Tracer was sampled hourly, for 12 sequential hours, at about 100 locations within an area 24km square. Also, a single total integrated sample of about 30 hours duration was collected at approximately 100 sites within an area 48 by 72km square (using 6km spacings). Extensive tower profiles of meteorology at the release point were collected. RAWINSONDES, RABALS and PIBALS were collected at 3 to 5 sites. Horizontal, low-altitude winds were monitored using the INEL MESONET. SF/sub 6/ tracer plume releases were marked with co-located oil fog releases and bi-hourly sequential launches of tetroon pairs. Aerial LIDAR observations of the oil fog plume and airborne samples of SF/sub 6/ were collected. High altitude aerial photographs of daytime plumes were collected. Volume II lists the data in tabular form or cites the special supplemental reports by other participating contractors. While the primary user file and the data archive are maintained on 9 track/1600 cpi magnetic tapes, listings of the individual values are provided for the user who either cannot utilize the tapes or wishes to preview the data. The accuracies and quality of these data are described.

  15. Australian Soil Moisture Field Experiments in Support of Soil Moisture Satellite Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Edward; Walker, Jeff; Rudiger, Christopher; Panciera, Rocco

    2010-01-01

    Large-scale field campaigns provide the critical fink between our understanding retrieval algorithms developed at the point scale, and algorithms suitable for satellite applications at vastly larger pixel scales. Retrievals of land parameters must deal with the substantial sub-pixel heterogeneity that is present in most regions. This is particularly the case for soil moisture remote sensing, because of the long microwave wavelengths (L-band) that are optimal. Yet, airborne L-band imagers have generally been large, heavy, and required heavy-lift aircraft resources that are expensive and difficult to schedule. Indeed, US soil moisture campaigns, have been constrained by these factors, and European campaigns have used non-imagers due to instrument and aircraft size constraints. Despite these factors, these campaigns established that large-scale soil moisture remote sensing was possible, laying the groundwork for satellite missions. Starting in 2005, a series of airborne field campaigns have been conducted in Australia: to improve our understanding of soil moisture remote sensing at large scales over heterogeneous areas. These field data have been used to test and refine retrieval algorithms for soil moisture satellite missions, and most recently with the launch of the European Space Agency's Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission, to provide validation measurements over a multi-pixel area. The campaigns to date have included a preparatory campaign in 2005, two National Airborne Field Experiments (NAFE), (2005 and 2006), two campaigns to the Simpson Desert (2008 and 2009), and one Australian Airborne Cal/val Experiment for SMOS (AACES), just concluded in the austral spring of 2010. The primary airborne sensor for each campaign has been the Polarimetric L-band Microwave Radiometer (PLMR), a 6-beam pushbroom imager that is small enough to be compatible with light aircraft, greatly facilitating the execution of the series of campaigns, and a key to their success. An

  16. Magnetic field homogeneity for neutron EDM experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Melissa

    2016-09-01

    The neutron electric dipole moment (nEDM) is an observable which, if non-zero, would violate time-reversal symmetry, and thereby charge-parity symmetry of nature. New sources of CP violation beyond those found in the standard model of particle physics are already tightly constrained by nEDM measurements. Our future nEDM experiment seeks to improve the precision on the nEDM by a factor of 30, using a new ultracold neutron (UCN) source that is being constructed at TRIUMF. Systematic errors in the nEDM experiment are driven by magnetic field inhomogeneity and instability. The goal field inhomogeneity averaged over the experimental measurement cell (order of 1 m) is 1 nT/m, at a total magnetic field of 1 microTesla. This equates to roughly 10-3 homogeneity. A particularly challenging aspect of the design problem is that nearby magnetic materials will also affect the magnetic inhomogeneity, and this must be taken into account in completing the design. This poster will present the design methodology and status of the main coil for the experiment where we use FEA software (COMSOL) to simulate and analyze the magnetic field. Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council.

  17. Utilization of Airborne and in Situ Data Obtained in SGP99, SMEX02, CLASIC and SMAPVEX08 Field Campaigns for SMAP Soil Moisture Algorithm Development and Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colliander, Andreas; Chan, Steven; Yueh, Simon; Cosh, Michael; Bindlish, Rajat; Jackson, Tom; Njoku, Eni

    2010-01-01

    Field experiment data sets that include coincident remote sensing measurements and in situ sampling will be valuable in the development and validation of the soil moisture algorithms of the NASA's future SMAP (Soil Moisture Active and Passive) mission. This paper presents an overview of the field experiment data collected from SGP99, SMEX02, CLASIC and SMAPVEX08 campaigns. Common in these campaigns were observations of the airborne PALS (Passive and Active L- and S-band) instrument, which was developed to acquire radar and radiometer measurements at low frequencies. The combined set of the PALS measurements and ground truth obtained from all these campaigns was under study. The investigation shows that the data set contains a range of soil moisture values collected under a limited number of conditions. The quality of both PALS and ground truth data meets the needs of the SMAP algorithm development and validation. The data set has already made significant impact on the science behind SMAP mission. The areas where complementing of the data would be most beneficial are also discussed.

  18. The analysis of in situ and retrieved aerosol properties measured during three airborne field campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corr, Chelsea A.

    Aerosols can directly influence climate, visibility, and photochemistry by scattering and absorbing solar radiation. Aerosol chemical and physical properties determine how efficiently a particle scatters and/or absorbs incoming short-wave solar radiation. Because many types of aerosol can act as nuclei for cloud droplets (CCN) and a smaller population of airborne particles facilitate ice crystal formation (IN), aerosols can also alter cloud-radiation interactions which have subsequent impacts on climate. Thus aerosol properties determine the magnitude and sign of both the direct and indirect impacts of aerosols on radiation-dependent Earth System processes. This dissertation will fill some gaps in our understanding of the role of aerosol properties on aerosol absorption and cloud formation. Specifically, the impact of aerosol oxidation on aerosol spectral (350nm < lambda< 500nm) absorption was examined for two biomass burning plumes intercepted by the NASA DC-S aircraft during the Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS) mission in Spring and Summer 2008. Spectral aerosol single scattering albedo (SSA) retrieved using actinic flux measured aboard the NASA DC-8 was used to calculate the aerosol absorption Angstrom exponents (AAE) for a 6-day-old plume on April 17 th and a 3-hour old plume on June 29th. Higher AAE values for the April 17th plume (6.78+/-0.38) indicate absorption by aerosol was enhanced in the ultraviolet relative to the visible portion of the short-wave spectrum in the older plume compared to the fresher plume (AAE= 3.34 0.11). These differences were largely attributed to the greater oxidation of the organic aerosol in the April 17th plume which can arise either from the aging of primary organic aerosol or the formation of spectrally-absorbing secondary organic aerosol. The validity of the actinic flux retrievals used above were also evaluated in this work by the comparison of SSA retrieved using

  19. Multi-trophic invasion resistance in Hawaii: bioacoustics, field surveys, and airborne remote sensing.

    PubMed

    Boelman, Natalie T; Asner, Gregory P; Hart, Patrick J; Martin, Roberta E

    2007-12-01

    We used airborne imaging spectroscopy and scanning light detection and ranging (LiDAR), along with bioacoustic recordings, to determine how a plant species invasion affects avian abundance and community composition across a range of Hawaiian submontane ecosystems. Total avian abundance and the ratio of native to exotic avifauna were highest in habitats with the highest canopy cover and height. Comparing biophysically equivalent sites, stands dominated by native Metrosideros polymorpha trees hosted larger native avian communities than did mixed stands of Metrosideros and the invasive tree Morella faya. A multi-trophic analysis strongly suggests that native avifauna provide biotic resistance against the invasion of Morella trees and exotic birds, thus slowing invasion "meltdowns" that disrupt the functioning of native Hawaiian ecosystems.

  20. Mapping Geomagnetic Field Variations in the Cretaceous Quiet Zone with Unmanned Airborne Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gee, J. S.; Cande, S. C.; Kent, D. V.

    2007-12-01

    About one quarter of the present seafloor was generated during the constant normal polarity interval from 121 to 83 Ma (Cretaceous Quiet Zone or KQZ), and the lack of temporal markers limits tectonic reconstructions in these areas. Although magnetostratigraphic studies provide strong evidence that the KQZ formed during predominantly normal polarity, there are nonetheless relatively large amplitude variations in many sea surface magnetic anomaly profiles crossing KQZ crust. To evaluate the relative importance of geomagnetic and crustal variables (thickness, geochemistry) in generating these anomalies, we collected multibeam bathymetry and magnetic data on 19 profiles crossing anomaly 34 and extending 500 km into the KQZ in the southwest Pacific. The relatively fast spreading (60 km/m.y. half rate), minimal sediment cover and high paleolatitude of formation make this area ideal for evaluating the magnetic anomaly pattern. An additional 10,000 km of magnetic anomaly data were acquired using an autonomous unmanned airborne vehicle (UAV). Although land-launched UAVs have been used in a variety of research applications, the nine successful flights during our cruise represent the first deployment from a UNOLS research vessel. The UAV (operated by Fugro Airborne) was launched from a pneumatic catapult and captured by a wingtip clip that attaches to a rope suspended from a retractable boom on the fantail. The Cs-vapor magnetometer data from the UAV compare favorably with results from the surface-towed magnetometer, with minor differences related primarily to the higher elevation (120m above sea level) of the UAV. The resulting magnetic coverage indicates that, as with younger seafloor, quasi-linear short wavelength anomalies are present within the KQZ. These anomalies can vary on spatial scales smaller than the multibeam swath width, highlighting the utility of obtaining additional coverage with the UAVs.

  1. The Effect of Air Density on Atmospheric Electric Fields Required for Lightning Initiation from a Long Airborne Object

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bazelyan, E. M.; Aleksandrov, N. L.; Raizer, Yu. Pl.; Konchankov, A. M.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the work was to determine minimum atmospheric electric fields required for lightning initiation from an airborne vehicle at various altitudes up to 10 km. The problem was reduced to the determination of a condition for initiation of a viable positive leader from a conductive object in an ambient electric field. It was shown that, depending on air density and shape and dimensions of the object, critical atmospheric fields are governed by the condition for leader viability or that for corona onset. To establish quantitative criteria for reduced air densities, available observations of spark discharges in long laboratory gaps were analyzed, the effect of air density on leader velocity was discussed and evolution in time of the properties of plasma in the leader channel was numerically simulated. The results obtained were used to evaluate the effect of pressure on the quantitative relationships between the potential difference near the leader tip, leader current and its velocity; based on these relationships, criteria for steady development of a leader were determined for various air pressures. Atmospheric electric fields required for lightning initiation from rods and ellipsoidal objects of various dimensions were calculated at different air densities. It was shown that there is no simple way to extend critical ambient fields obtained for some given objects and pressures to other objects and pressures.

  2. Evaluation of Terms in the Water Vapor Budget Using Airborne Dial and In Situ Measurements from the Southern Great Plans 1997 Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Senff, Christoph J.; Davis, Kenneth J.; Lenschow, Donald H.; Browell, Edward V.; Ismail, Syed

    1998-01-01

    The Southern Great Plains (SGP97) field experiment was conducted in Oklahoma during June and July 1997 primarily to validate soil moisture retrieval algorithms using microwave radiometer measurements from aircraft as well as in situ surface measurements. One important objective of the SGP97 experiment plan was to examine the effect of soil moisture on the evolution of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) and clouds over the Southern Great Plains during the warm season. To support boundary layer studies during SGP97. the NASA Langley Research Center's Lidar Atmospheric Sensing Experiment (LASE) was flown on a NASA-P3 aircraft in conjunction with the Electronically Scanned Thinned Array Radiometer (ESTAR). The LASE instrument is an airborne, downward-looking differential absorption lidar (DIAL) system capable of measuring water vapor concentration as well as aerosol backscatter with high horizontal and vertical resolution in the ABL. Here, we will demonstrate how the LASE data can be used to determine water vapor statistics and most of the water vapor budget terms in the ABL. This information can then be related to spatial variations in soil moisture and the surface energy budget. The extensive surface and aircraft in situ measurements conducted during SGP97 provide information on the ABL that cannot be retrieved from the LASE data alone and also offer an excellent opportunity to validate the remote water vapor budget measurements with LASE.

  3. Utilizing Urban Environments for Effective Field Experiences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacAvoy, S. E.; Knee, K.

    2014-12-01

    Research surveys suggest that students are demanding more applied field experiences from their undergraduate environmental science programs. For geoscience educators at liberal arts colleges without field camps, university vehicles, or even geology departments, getting students into the field is especially rewarding - and especially challenging. Here, we present strategies that we have used in courses ranging from introductory environmental science for non-majors, to upper level environmental methods and geology classes. Urban locations provide an opportunity for a different type of local "field-work" than would otherwise be available. In the upper-level undergraduate Environmental Methods class, we relied on a National Park area located a 10-minute walk from campus for most field exercises. Activities included soil analysis, measuring stream flow and water quality parameters, dendrochronology, and aquatic microbe metabolism. In the non-majors class, we make use of our urban location to contrast water quality in parks and highly channelized urban streams. Here we share detailed lesson plans and budgets for field activities that can be completed during a class period of 2.5 hours with a $75 course fee, show how these activities help students gain quantitative competency, and provide student feedback about the classes and activities.

  4. IMP 8. Volume 1: EM field experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The electromagnetic fields experiment on IMP-J used two electric dipole antennas and a triaxial search coil magnetic antenna to sense the electric and magnetic field of plasma waves in space. The electric dipole antennas consisted of a fine wire, 0.021 inches in diameter, with a nominal extended tip-to-tip length of 400 ft. The outermost 50 ft. of each element was conducting and the rest of the antenna was covered with an insulating coating. The search coil antennas each consisted of a high mu core with two separate windings of 40,000 turns each to sense ac magnetic fields. The search coils had a length of 18 inches tip-to-tip and are mounted on the end of a boom. The axes of the x prime and y prime search coil antennas were parallel to the x prime and y prime electric antenna axes.

  5. The FIELDS experiment for Solar Probe Plus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bale, S.; Spp/Fields Team

    2010-12-01

    Many of our basic ideas on the plasma physics of acceleration, energy flow, and dissipation, and structure of the solar wind have never been rigorously confronted by direct experimental measurements in the region where these processes are actually occurring. Although Alfven waves, shocks, and magnetic reconnection are often invoked as heating mechanisms, there have never been any direct measurements of Alfvenic waves nor the associated Poynting flux nor any measurements of ion or electron kinetic energy flux in the region from 10 R_s to 30 R_s where the final stages of wind acceleration are believed to occur. The radial profiles of both slow and fast solar wind acceleration are based on remote-sensing measurements and have been obtained for only a few selected events. Thus, the spatial radial and perpendicular scales of the acceleration process have been averaged by line-of-sight effects and the possibility of intense localized acceleration cannot be ruled out. The Solar Probe Plus (SPP) mission calls for the high quality fields and particles measurements required to solve the coronal heating and wind acceleration problem. The SPP 'FIELDS' experiment measures the electric and magnetic fields fundamental to the plasma physics of the structured and turbulent solar wind, flux ropes, collisionless shocks, and magnetic reconnection. FIELDS will make the first-ever measurements of the DC/Low-Frequency electric field inside of 1 AU allowing for in situ, high cadence measurements of the Poynting vector, the Elsasser variables, and E/B diagnostics of the wave spectrum to fce in the solar wind. SPP/FIELDS measures the radio wave (type III and II) signatures of microflares, energized electrons, and CME propagation. SPP/ FIELDS measures the plasma electron density to ~2% accuracy and the core electron temperature to ~5-10% accuracy more than 90% of the time at perihelion. FIELDS will also measure the in situ density fluctuation spectrum and structures at a very high cadence (

  6. Microwave Remote Sensing and the Cold Land Processes Field Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Edward J.; Cline, Don; Davis, Bert; Hildebrand, Peter H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Cold Land Processes Field Experiment (CLPX) has been designed to advance our understanding of the terrestrial cryosphere. Developing a more complete understanding of fluxes, storage, and transformations of water and energy in cold land areas is a critical focus of the NASA Earth Science Enterprise Research Strategy, the NASA Global Water and Energy Cycle (GWEC) Initiative, the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX), and the GEWEX Americas Prediction Project (GAPP). The movement of water and energy through cold regions in turn plays a large role in ecological activity and biogeochemical cycles. Quantitative understanding of cold land processes over large areas will require synergistic advancements in 1) understanding how cold land processes, most comprehensively understood at local or hillslope scales, extend to larger scales, 2) improved representation of cold land processes in coupled and uncoupled land-surface models, and 3) a breakthrough in large-scale observation of hydrologic properties, including snow characteristics, soil moisture, the extent of frozen soils, and the transition between frozen and thawed soil conditions. The CLPX Plan has been developed through the efforts of over 60 interested scientists that have participated in the NASA Cold Land Processes Working Group (CLPWG). This group is charged with the task of assessing, planning and implementing the required background science, technology, and application infrastructure to support successful land surface hydrology remote sensing space missions. A major product of the experiment will be a comprehensive, legacy data set that will energize many aspects of cold land processes research. The CLPX will focus on developing the quantitative understanding, models, and measurements necessary to extend our local-scale understanding of water fluxes, storage, and transformations to regional and global scales. The experiment will particularly emphasize developing a strong synergism between process

  7. Preliminary airborne measurements for the SR-71 sonic boom propagation experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haering, Edward A., Jr.; Ehernberger, L. J.; Whitmore, Stephen A.

    1995-01-01

    SR-71 sonic boom signatures were measured to validate sonic boom propagation prediction codes. An SR-71 aircraft generated sonic booms from Mach 1.25 to Mach 1.6, at altitudes of 31,000 to 48,000 ft, and at various gross weights. An F-16XL aircraft measured the SR-71 near-field shock waves from close to the aircraft to more than 8,000 ft below, gathering 105 signatures. A YO-3A aircraft measured the SR-71 sonic booms from 21,000 to 38,000 feet below, recording 17 passes. The sonic booms at ground level and atmospheric data were recorded for each flight. Data analysis is underway. Preliminary results show that shock wave patterns and coalescence vary with SR-71 gross weight, Mach number, and altitude. For example, noncoalesced shock wave signatures were measured by the YO-3A at 21,000 ft below the SR-71 aircraft while at a low gross weight, Mach 1.25, and 31,000-ft altitude. This paper describes the design and execution of the flight research experiment. Instrumentation and flight maneuvers of the SR-71, F-16XL, and YO-3A aircraft and sample sonic boom signatures are included.

  8. Aerosol Spectral Radiative Forcing Efficiency from Airborne Measurements During Multiple Field Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, S.; Leblanc, S. E.; Pilewskie, P.; Redemann, J.; Hostetler, C. A.; Ferrare, R. A.; Hair, J. W.

    2012-12-01

    Measurements of shortwave spectral irradiance in conjunction with measurements of aerosol optical depth are used to determine the direct aerosol radiative forcing for various different regions and missions. To better compare cases with different air masses and solar geometry, we use the concept of top-of-layer and bottom-of-layer relative forcing efficiency. The aerosol layers were sampled from aircraft during several field campaigns, including the Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations (MILAGRO, Mexico, 2006); the Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS, Alaska and Alberta, 2008), Research at the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change (CalNex, California, 2010); and the Deep Convective Clouds and Chemistry Experiment (DC3, central US, 2012). We show that the spectral shape of the relative forcing efficiency is similar for these aerosol layers regardless of the aerosol type. The spectral relative forcing efficiency at any one wavelength for the majority of the cases is constrained within a span of 20% per unit of midvisible aerosol optical depth. Single scattering albedo, asymmetry parameter, and surface albedo are secondary products for the various methods used to determine aerosol radiative forcing. Using these, we determine the diurnally averaged spectral and broadband top-of-atmosphere and surface radiative forcing efficiency for the various different aerosol types and surface conditions.

  9. Comparison of field and airborne laser scanning based crown cover estimates across land cover types in Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heiskanen, J.; Korhonen, L.; Hietanen, J.; Heikinheimo, V.; Schafer, E.; Pellikka, P. K. E.

    2015-04-01

    Tree crown cover (CC) provides means for the continuous land cover characterization of complex tropical landscapes with multiple land uses and variable degrees of degradation. It is also a key parameter in the international forest definitions that are basis for monitoring global forest cover changes. Recently, airborne laser scanning (ALS) has emerged as a practical method for accurate CC mapping, but ALS derived CC estimates have rarely been assessed with field data in the tropics. Here, our objective was to compare the various field and ALS based CC estimates across multiple land cover types in the Taita Hills, Kenya. The field data was measured from a total of 178 sample plots (0.1 ha) in 2013 and 2014. The most accurate field measurement method, line intersect sampling using Cajanus tube, was used in 37 plots. Other methods included CC estimate based on the tree inventory data (144 plots), crown relascope (43 plots) and hemispherical photography (30 plots). Three ALS data sets, including two scanners and flying heights, were acquired concurrently with the field data collection. According to the results, the first echo cover index (FCI) from ALS data had good agreement with the most accurate field based CC estimates (RMSD 7.1% and 2.7% depending on the area and scan). The agreement with other field based methods was considerably worse. Furthermore, we observed that ALS cover indices were robust between the different scans in the overlapping area. In conclusion, our results suggest that ALS provides a reliable method for continuous CC mapping across tropical land cover types although dense shrub layer and tree-like herbaceous plants can cause overestimation of CC.

  10. Across the Arctic Teachers Experience Field Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warnick, W. K.; Warburton, J.; Wiggins, H. V.; Marshall, S. A.; Darby, D. A.

    2005-12-01

    From studying snow geese on the North Slope of Alaska to sediment coring aboard the U.S. Coast Guard Cutter Healy in the Arctic Ocean, K-12 teachers embark on scientific expeditions as part of a program that strives to make science in the Arctic a "virtual" reality. In the past two years, seventeen K-12 teachers have participated in Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating (TREC), a program that pairs teachers with researchers to improve science education through arctic field experiences. TREC builds on the scientific and cultural opportunities of the Arctic, linking research and education through topics that naturally engage students and the wider public. TREC includes expeditions as diverse as studying plants at Toolik Field Station, a research facility located 150 miles above the Arctic Circle; climate change studies in Norway's Svalbard archipelago; studying rivers in Siberia; or a trans-arctic expedition aboard the USCGC Healy collecting an integrated geophysical data set. Funded by the National Science Foundation Office of Polar Programs, TREC offers educators experiences in scientific inquiry while encouraging the public and students to become active participants in the scientific inquiry by engaging them virtually in arctic research. TREC uses online outreach elements to convey the research experience to a broad audience. While in remote field locations, teachers and researchers interact with students and the public through online seminars and live calls from the field, online journals with accompanying photos, and online bulletin boards. Since the program's inception in 2004, numerous visitors have posted questions or interacted with teachers, researchers, and students through the TREC website (http://www.arcus.org/trec). TREC teachers are required to transfer their experience of research and current science into their classroom through the development of relevant activities and resources. Teachers and researchers are encouraged to participate

  11. Aerosol Optical Thickness comparisons between NASA LaRC Airborne HSRL and AERONET during the DISCOVER-AQ field campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarino, A. J.; Ferrare, R. A.; Burton, S. P.; Hostetler, C. A.; Hair, J. W.; Rogers, R. R.; Berkoff, T.; Cook, A. L.; Harper, D. B.; Hoff, R. M.; Holben, B. N.; Schafer, J.; McGill, M. J.; Yorks, J. E.; Lantz, K. O.; Michalsky, J. J.; Hodges, G.

    2013-12-01

    The first- and second-generation NASA airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidars (HSRL-1 and HSRL-2) have been deployed on board the NASA Langley Research Center King Air aircraft during the Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from Column and VERtically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality (DISCOVER-AQ) field campaigns. These included deployments during July 2011 over Washington, D.C. and Baltimore, MD and during January and February 2013 over the San Joaquin Valley (SJV) of California and also a scheduled deployment during September 2013 over Houston, TX. Measurements of aerosol extinction, backscatter, and depolarization are available from both HSRL-1 and HSRL-2 in coordination with other participating research aircraft and ground sites. These measurements constitute a diverse data set for use in characterizing the spatial and temporal distribution of aerosols, aerosol optical thickness (AOT), as well as the Mixing Layer Height (MLH). HSRL AOT is compared to AOT measured by the Distributed Regional Aerosol Gridded Observation Networks (DRAGON) and long-term AERONET sites. For the 2011 campaign, comparisons of AOT at 532nm between HSRL-1 and AERONET showed excellent agreement (r = 0.98, slope = 1.01, intercept = 0.037) when the King Air flights were within 2.5 km of the ground site and 10 min from the retrieval time. The comparison results are similar for the 2013 DISCOVER-AQ campaign in the SJV. Additional ground-based (MPL) and airborne (CPL) lidar data were used to help screen for clouds in the AERONET observations during the SJV portion. AOT values from a Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) located at the Porterville, CA site during the SJV campaign are also compared to HSRL-2 AOT. Lastly, using the MLH retrieved from HSRL aerosol backscatter profiles, we describe the distribution of AOT relative to the MLH.

  12. Stress indicators based on airborne thermal imagery for field phenotyping a heterogeneous tree population for response to water constraints.

    PubMed

    Virlet, Nicolas; Lebourgeois, Valentine; Martinez, Sébastien; Costes, Evelyne; Labbé, Sylvain; Regnard, Jean-Luc

    2014-10-01

    As field phenotyping of plant response to water constraints constitutes a bottleneck for breeding programmes, airborne thermal imagery can contribute to assessing the water status of a wide range of individuals simultaneously. However, the presence of mixed soil-plant pixels in heterogeneous plant cover complicates the interpretation of canopy temperature. Moran's Water Deficit Index (WDI = 1-ETact/ETmax), which was designed to overcome this difficulty, was compared with surface minus air temperature (T s-T a) as a water stress indicator. As parameterization of the theoretical equations for WDI computation is difficult, particularly when applied to genotypes with large architectural variability, a simplified procedure based on quantile regression was proposed to delineate the Vegetation Index-Temperature (VIT) scatterplot. The sensitivity of WDI to variations in wet and dry references was assessed by applying more or less stringent quantile levels. The different stress indicators tested on a series of airborne multispectral images (RGB, near-infrared, and thermal infrared) of a population of 122 apple hybrids, under two irrigation regimes, significantly discriminated the tree water statuses. For each acquisition date, the statistical method efficiently delineated the VIT scatterplot, while the limits obtained using the theoretical approach overlapped it, leading to inconsistent WDI values. Once water constraint was established, the different stress indicators were linearly correlated to the stem water potential among a tree subset. T s-T a showed a strong sensitivity to evaporative demand, which limited its relevancy for temporal comparisons. Finally, the statistical approach of WDI appeared the most suitable for high-throughput phenotyping.

  13. Stress indicators based on airborne thermal imagery for field phenotyping a heterogeneous tree population for response to water constraints

    PubMed Central

    Virlet, Nicolas; Lebourgeois, Valentine; Martinez, Sébastien; Costes, Evelyne; Labbé, Sylvain; Regnard, Jean-Luc

    2014-01-01

    As field phenotyping of plant response to water constraints constitutes a bottleneck for breeding programmes, airborne thermal imagery can contribute to assessing the water status of a wide range of individuals simultaneously. However, the presence of mixed soil–plant pixels in heterogeneous plant cover complicates the interpretation of canopy temperature. Moran’s Water Deficit Index (WDI = 1–ETact/ETmax), which was designed to overcome this difficulty, was compared with surface minus air temperature (T s–T a) as a water stress indicator. As parameterization of the theoretical equations for WDI computation is difficult, particularly when applied to genotypes with large architectural variability, a simplified procedure based on quantile regression was proposed to delineate the Vegetation Index–Temperature (VIT) scatterplot. The sensitivity of WDI to variations in wet and dry references was assessed by applying more or less stringent quantile levels. The different stress indicators tested on a series of airborne multispectral images (RGB, near-infrared, and thermal infrared) of a population of 122 apple hybrids, under two irrigation regimes, significantly discriminated the tree water statuses. For each acquisition date, the statistical method efficiently delineated the VIT scatterplot, while the limits obtained using the theoretical approach overlapped it, leading to inconsistent WDI values. Once water constraint was established, the different stress indicators were linearly correlated to the stem water potential among a tree subset. T s–T a showed a strong sensitivity to evaporative demand, which limited its relevancy for temporal comparisons. Finally, the statistical approach of WDI appeared the most suitable for high-throughput phenotyping. PMID:25080086

  14. Evaluation of the MOZAIC Capacitive Hygrometer during the airborne field study CIRRUS-III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neis, P.; Smit, H. G. J.; Krämer, M.; Spelten, N.; Petzold, A.

    2015-03-01

    The MOZAIC Capacitive Hygrometer (MCH) is usually operated aboard passenger aircraft in the framework of MOZAIC (Measurement of Ozone by Airbus In-Service Aircraft) for measuring atmospheric relative humidity (RH). In order to evaluate the performance of the MCH, the instrument was operated aboard a Learjet 35A research aircraft as part of the CIRRUS-III field study together with a closed-cell Lyman-α fluorescence hygrometer (Fast in situ Stratospheric Hygrometer, or FISH) and an open-path tunable diode laser system (Open-path Jülich Stratospheric TDL ExpeRiment, or OJSTER) for water vapour measurement. After reducing the CIRRUS-III data set to data corresponding to MOZAIC aircraft operation conditions, the 1 Hz RH data cross correlation between the MCH and reference instruments FISH (clear sky) and OJSTER (in-cirrus) yielded a remarkably good agreement of R2 = 0.92 and slope m = 1.02 and provided a MCH uncertainty of 5% RH. Probability distribution functions of RH deduced from the MCH and reference instruments agreed well between 10 and 70% RH with respect to liquid water in the ambient temperature range of ca. -70 to -40 °C. The use of MCH data is limited to sensor temperatures above the calibration limit of Tsensor = -40 °C (corresponds to ambient temperature of Tambient = -70 °C at typical cruising speed of long-haul passenger aircraft). Good performance of the MCH for clear sky as well as for in-cirrus conditions demonstrated the sensor robustness also for operation inside ice clouds.

  15. Southern Hemispheric nitrous oxide measurements obtained during 1987 airborne Antarctic ozone experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Podolske, J. R.; Loewenstein, M.; Strahan, S. E.; Chan, K. Roland

    1988-01-01

    The chemical lifetime of N2O is about 150 years, which makes it an excellent dynamical tracer of air motion on the time scale of the ozone depletion event. For these reasons it was chosen to help test whether dynamical theories of ozone loss over Antarctica were plausible, particularly the theory that upwelling ozone-poor air from the troposphere was replacing ozone-rich stratospheric air. The N2O measurements were made with the Airborne Tunable Laser Absorption Spectrometer (ATLAS) aboard the NASA ER-2 aircraft. The detection technique involves measuring the diffential absorption of the IR laser radiation as it is rapidly scanned over an N2O absorption feature. For the AAOE mission, the instrument was capable of making measurements with a 1 ppb sensitivity, 1 second response time, over an altitude range of 10 to 20 kilometers. The AAOE mission consisted of a series of 12 flights from Punta Arenas (53S) into the polar vortex (approximately 72S) at which time a vertical profile from 65 to 45 km and back was performed. Comparison of the observed profiles inside the vortex with N2O profiles obtained by balloon flights during the austral summer showed that an overall subsidence had occurred during the winter of about 5 to 6 km. Also, over the course of the mission (mid-August to late September), no trend in the N2O vertical profile, either upward or downward, was discernible, eliminating the possibility that upwelling was the cause of the observed ozone decrease.

  16. Stream Morphologic Measurements from Airborne Laser Swath Mapping: Comparisons with Field Surveys, Traditional DEMs, and Aerial Photographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, N. P.; Schultz, L. L.

    2005-12-01

    Precise measurement of stream morphology over entire watersheds is one of the great research opportunities provided by airborne laser swath mapping (ALSM). ALSM surveys allow for rapid quantification of factors, such as channel width and gradient, that control stream hydraulic and ecologic properties. We compare measurements from digital elevation models (DEMs) derived from ALSM data collected by the National Center for Airborne Laser Mapping (NCALM) to field surveys, traditional DEMs (rasterized from topographic maps), and aerial photographs. The field site is in the northern Black Mountains in arid Death Valley National Park (California). The area is unvegetated, and therefore is excellent for testing DEM analysis methods because the ALSM data required minimal filtering, and the resulting DEM contains relatively few unphysical sinks. Algorithms contained in geographic information systems (GIS) software used to extract stream networks from DEMs yield best results where streams are steep enough for resolvable pixel-to-pixel elevation change, and channel width is on the order of pixel resolution. This presents a new challenge with ALSM-derived DEMs because the pixel size (1 m) is often an order of magnitude or more smaller than channel width. We find the longitudinal profile of Gower Gulch in the northern Black Mountains (~4 km total length) extracted using the ALSM DEM and a flow accumulation algorithm is 14% longer than a traditional 10-m DEM, and 13% longer than a field survey. These differences in length (and therefore gradient) are due to the computed channel path following small-scale topographic variations within the channel bottom that are not relevant during high flows. However, visual analysis of shaded-relief images created from high-resolution ALSM data is an excellent method for digitizing channel banks and thalweg paths. We used these lines to measure distance, elevation, and width. In Gower Gulch, the algorithm-derived profile is 10% longer than that

  17. Large Eddy Simulation and Field Experiments of Pollen Transport in the Atmospheric Boundary Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamecki, M.; Meneveau, C.; Parlange, M. B.; van Hout, R.

    2006-12-01

    Dispersion of airborne pollen by the wind has been a subject of interest for botanists and allergists for a long time. More recently, the development of genetically modified crops and questions about cross-pollination and subsequent contamination of natural plant populations has brought even more interest to this field. A critical question is how far from the source field pollen grains will be advected. Clearly the answer depends on the aerodynamic properties of the pollen, geometrical properties of the field, topography, local vegetation, wind conditions, atmospheric stability, etc. As a consequence, field experiments are well suited to provide some information on pollen transport mechanisms but are limited to specific field and weather conditions. Numerical simulations do not have this drawback and can be a useful tool to study pollen dispersal in a variety of configurations. It is well known that the dispersion of particles in turbulent fields is strongly affected by the large scale coherent structures. Large Eddy Simulation (LES) is a technique that allows us to study the typical distances reached by pollen grains and, at the same time, resolve the larger coherent structures present in the atmospheric boundary layer. The main objective of this work is to simulate the dispersal of pollen grains in the atmospheric surface layer using LES. Pollen concentrations are simulated by an advection-diffusion equation including gravitational settling. Of extreme importance is the specification of the bottom boundary conditions characterizing the pollen source over the canopy and the deposition process everywhere else. In both cases we make use of the theoretical profile for suspended particles derived by Kind (1992). Field experiments were performed to study the applicability of the theoretical profile to pollen grains and the results are encouraging. Airborne concentrations as well as ground deposition from the simulations are compared to experimental data to validate the

  18. Magnetic Field Experiment Data Analysis System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holland, D. B.; Zanetti, L. J.; Suther, L. L.; Potemra, T. A.; Anderson, B. J.

    1995-01-01

    The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) Magnetic Field Experiment Data Analysis System (MFEDAS) has been developed to process and analyze satellite magnetic field experiment data from the TRIAD, MAGSAT, AMPTE/CCE, Viking, Polar BEAR, DMSP, HILAT, UARS, and Freja satellites. The MFEDAS provides extensive data management and analysis capabilities. The system is based on standard data structures and a standard user interface. The MFEDAS has two major elements: (1) a set of satellite unique telemetry processing programs for uniform and rapid conversion of the raw data to a standard format and (2) the program Magplot which has file handling, data analysis, and data display sections. This system is an example of software reuse, allowing new data sets and software extensions to be added in a cost effective and timely manner. Future additions to the system will include the addition of standard format file import routines, modification of the display routines to use a commercial graphics package based on X-Window protocols, and a generic utility for telemetry data access and conversion.

  19. Temperature and horizontal wind measurements on the ER-2 aircraft during the 1987 airborne Antarctic ozone experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, K. Roland; Scott, Stan G.; Bui, T. Paul; Bowen, Stuart W.; Day, Jon

    1988-01-01

    The NASA ER-2 aircraft is equipped with special instrumentation to provide accurate in situ measurement of the atmospheric state variables during flight. The Meteorological Measurement System (MMS) on the ER-2 aircraft is described. Since the meteorological parameters (temperature, pressure, and wind vector) are extensively used by other ER-2 experimenters for data processing and interpretation, the accuracy and resolution of each of these parameters are assessed and discussed. During the 1987 Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment (AAOE) mission, the ER-2 aircraft was stationed at Punta Arenas, Chile (53 S, 72 W), and successfully flew over Antarctica on 12 occasions between August 17 and September 22, 1987. On each of the 12 flights, the ER-2 aircraft flight plan was to take off at approximately the same local time, fly southward at a near constant potential temperature surface, descend and ascend at the southernmost terminus at about 72 S over Antarctica and return northward at either the same or a different constant potential temperature surface. The measurements of the MMS experiment during the AAOE mission are presented. MMS data are organized to provide a composite view of the polar atmosphere, which is characterized by frigid temperatures and high zonal winds. Altitudinal variations of the temperature measurement (during takeoff/landing at Punta Arenas and during descent/ascent at the southern terminus) and latitudinal variations of the zonal wind (on near constant potential temperature surfaces) are emphasized and discussed.

  20. Airborne measurements of aerosols from burning biomass in Brazil related to the TRACE A experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, E. B.; Setzer, A. W.; Gerab, F.; Artaxo, P. E.; Pereira, M. C.; Monroe, G.

    1996-10-01

    Results are reported from an airborne campaign to investigate the impacts of burning biomass upon the loading of lower-tropospheric aerosols and its composition over the Brazilian tropics. The flights, conducted as part of the NASA/Transport and Atmospheric Chemistry Near the Equator-Atlantic (TRACE A) mission, started on September 1, 1992, when the dry (fire) season still prevailed in the central part of Brazil, and ended on September 29. Of the total number of burnings detected in Brazil by the advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR)/NOAA satellite sensor, 74% were concentrated in the states of Amazonas, Maranhão, Mato Grosso, Pará, Roraima, and Tocantins during this period. Aerosol particles were sampled from a twin-engine aircraft in transit and vertical profile flights were made up to 4,000 m altitude. Black carbon measurements made in real time and in areas of burning biomass peaked at ˜2,500 m above the ground, increasing to ˜12,000 ng/m3. In other areas these values were lower by 1 order of magnitude. A condensation nuclei counter measuring small particles (>0.014 μm) produced values ranging from 2,000 to 16,000/cm3 for areas with low and high burning biomass, respectively. Deposition filters in a two-stage cascade impactor, and Nuclepore filters collected aerosols for analysis of 13 elements through particle-induced X ray emissions (PIXE). Primary elements associated with soil dust (Al, Si, Mn, Fe, Ni) prevailed in the aerosol coarse mode (>1 μm) while the fine mode aerosols were enriched in S, K, Br, and Rb, which are tracers normally associated with burning of biomass. The good correlation between fire spot counts, obtained via AVHRR aboard NOAA satellites, and black carbon, counts of small particles and total aerosol mass, suggests the determining of local concentrations of fire-derived aerosol fire emissions by satellite to be a new and useful approach.

  1. JSC thunderstorm experiment results. [electric fields, lightning, and effects on space shuttle operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    To gain more insight into the various effects of lightning and thunderstorms on future shuttle vehicle launch and landing operations, an experiment was conducted to obtain data on the nature of electric fields in the vicinity of thunderstorms and particularly in the region of cumulonimbus cloud anvils during their various stages of build-up, maturity, and dissipation. These data supplement the airborne electric field data collected during the summer of 1975 in support of the Apollo Soyuz Test Project and the Viking launches. A Learjet aircraft was outfitted with four special electric field meters for collecting data. The onboard aircraft radar was also used to investigate cells embedded in large thunderstorm systems such as those found in frontal and squall line activities. Data were collected from 33 storm cells and used to establish a launch criteria to preclude triggering lightning during shuttle vehicle operations in close proximity to thunderstorms.

  2. Technology-Focused Early Field Experiences in Preservice Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lux, Nicholas J.

    2013-01-01

    Although a broad body of research exists on field experiences in teacher education, one specific area of inquiry lacking substantial current research is that of technology-focused early field experiences, or field experiences that occur prior to student teaching and more formal clinical experiences. To address this gap, I conducted this…

  3. Spectral characterization of coastal sediments using Field Spectral Libraries, Airborne Hyperspectral Images and Topographic LiDAR Data (FHyL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzo, Ciro; Valentini, Emiliana; Taramelli, Andrea; Filipponi, Federico; Disperati, Leonardo

    2015-04-01

    Beach dune systems are important for coastal zone ecosystems as they provide natural sea defences that dissipate wave energy. Geomorphological models of this near-shore topography require site-specific sediment composition, grain size and moisture content as inputs. Hyperspectral, field radiometry and LiDAR remote sensing can be used as tools by providing synoptic maps of these properties. However, multi-remote sensing of near-shore beach images can only be interpreted if there are adequate bio-geophysical or empirical models for information extraction. Our aim was thus to model the effects of varying sediment properties on the reflectance in both field and laboratory conditions within the FHyL (Field Spectral Libraries, Airborne Hyperspectral Images and Topographic LiDAR) procedure, using a multisource dataset (airborne Hyperspectral - MIVIS and topographic LiDAR - Hawk-eye II and field radiometry). The methodology consisted of (i) acquisition of simultaneous multi-source datasets (airborne Hyperspectral - MIVIS and topographic LiDAR - Hawk-eye) (ii) hyperspectral measurements of sediment mixtures with varying physical characteristics (moisture, grain size and minerals) in field and laboratory conditions, (iii) determination and quantification of specific absorption features, and (iv) correlation between the absorption features and physical parameters cited above. Results showed the potential of hyperspectral signals to assess the effect of moisture, grain-size and mineral composition on sediment properties.

  4. A laser communication experiment utilizing the ACT satellite and an airborne laser transceiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Provencher, Charles E., Jr.; Spence, Rodney L.

    1988-01-01

    The launch of a laser communication transmitter package into geosynchronous Earth orbit onboard the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) will present an excellent opportunity for the experimental reception of laser communication signals transmitted from a space orbit. The ACTS laser package includes both a heterodyne transmitter (Lincoln Labs design) and a direct detection transmitter (Goddard Space Flight Center design) with both sharing some common optical components. NASA Lewis Research Center's Space Electronics Division is planning to perform a space communication experiment utilizing the GSFC direct detection laser transceiver. The laser receiver will be installed within an aircraft provided with a glass port for the reception of the signal. This paper describes the experiment and the approach to performing such an experiment. Described are the constraints placed on the NASA Lewis experiment by the performance parameters of the laser transmitter and by the ACTS spacecraft operations. The conceptual design of the receiving terminal is given; also included is the anticipated capability of the detector.

  5. New geological and tectonic map of Paleoproterozoic basement in western Burkina Faso: integrated interpretation of airborne geophysical and field data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metelka, Vaclav; Baratoux, Lenka; Jessell, Mark; Naba, Seta

    2010-05-01

    The recent acquisition of regional scale airborne datasets over most of the West African craton sparked off a number of studies concentrating on their litho-tectonic interpretation. In such polydeformed terrains, where outcrop is very sparse or virtually nonexistent due to the presence of thick lateritic cover, geophysics and specifically geomagnetic surveying provide a wealth of information that facilitates the deciphering of regional litho-structural hierarchies. A revised geological and tectonic map of the Houndé and Boromo greenstone belts was derived by interpretation of aeromagnetic and gamma-ray spectrometric data constrained by field observations where available. Medium resolution geophysical data gridded at 250 meters acquired during the SYSMIN project served as a basis for the interpretation. This dataset was integrated with the SRTM digital elevation model and over 600 field observations. Furthermore, the BRGM/BUMIGEB SYSMIN project outcrops database (Castaing et al., 2003) as well as older outcrop maps, maintained by BUMIGEB, were used. Locally, outcrop maps and high resolution geophysics provided by mining companies (Orezone, SEMAFO, Volta Resources, Wega Mining) were employed. 2-D geophysical inversion modeling in GM-sys software using the ground gravity and airborne magnetic data was applied to three selected E-W profiles. Principal component analysis (PCA) of magnetic and radiometric data was a powerful tool for distinguishing different lithological units, in particular tholeiitic suites of basalts and gabbros and various volcano-sedimentary units. Some of the granite pluton limits can be traced as well using the PCA; however thick lateritic cover substantially hinders precise mapping. Magnetic data used on its own gave better results not only for granite limits but also for determining internal structures such as shear zones and concentric compositional zoning. Several major N-S to NNE-SSW oriented shear zones, representing most probably deep

  6. The NASA Real Time Mission Monitor - A Situational Awareness Tool for Conducting Tropical Cyclone Field Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, Michael; Blakeslee, Richard; Hall, John; Parker, Philip; He, Yubin

    2008-01-01

    The NASA Real Time Mission Monitor (RTMM) is a situational awareness tool that integrates satellite, aircraft state information, airborne and surface instruments, and weather state data in to a single visualization package for real time field experiment management. RTMM optimizes science and logistic decision-making during field experiments by presenting timely data and graphics to the users to improve real time situational awareness of the experiment's assets. The RTMM is proven in the field as it supported program managers, scientists, and aircraft personnel during the NASA African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analyses (investigated African easterly waves and Tropical Storm Debby and Helene) during August-September 2006 in Cape Verde, the Tropical Composition, Cloud and Climate Coupling experiment during July-August 2007 in Costa Rica, and the Hurricane Aerosonde mission into Hurricane Noel in 2-3 November 2007. The integration and delivery of this information is made possible through data acquisition systems, network communication links, and network server resources built and managed by collaborators at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC). RTMM is evolving towards a more flexible and dynamic combination of sensor ingest, network computing, and decision-making activities through the use of a service oriented architecture based on community standards and protocols. Each field experiment presents unique challenges and opportunities for advancing the functionality of RTMM. A description of RTMM, the missions it has supported, and its new features that are under development will be presented.

  7. Quantifying wind blown landscapes using time-series airborne LiDAR at White Sands Dune Field, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewing, R. C.

    2011-12-01

    Wind blown landscapes are a default geomorphic and sedimentary environment in our solar system. Wind sand dunes are ubiquitous features on the surfaces of Earth, Mars and Titan and prevalent within the aeolian rock records of Earth and Mars. Dunes are sensitive to environmental and climatic changes and a complete understanding of this system promises a unique, robust and quantitative record of paleoclimate extending to the early histories of these worlds. However, our understanding of how aeolian dune landscapes evolve and how the details of the wind are recorded in cross-strata is limited by our lack of understanding of three-dimensional dune morphodynamics related to changing boundary conditions such as wind direction and magnitude and sediment source area. We use airborne LiDAR datasets over 40 km2 of White Sands Dune Field collected from June 2007, June 2008, January 2009, September 2009 and June 2010 to quantify 1) three-dimensional dune geometries, 2) annual and seasonal patterns of erosion and deposition across dune topography, 3) spatial changes in sediment flux related to position within the field, 4) spatial changes in sediment flux across sinuous crestlines and 5) morphologic changes through dune-dune interactions. In addition to measurements, we use the LiDAR data along with wind data from two near-by weather stations to develop a simple model that predicts depositional and stratigraphic patterns on dune lee slopes. Several challenges emerged using time series LiDAR data sets at White Sands Dune Field. The topography upon which the dunes sit is variable and rises by 16 meters over the length of the dune field. In order to compare individual dune geometries across the field and between data sets a base surface was interpolated from local minima and subtracted from the dune topography. Co-registration and error calculation between datasets was done manually using permanent vegetated features within the active dune field and structures built by the

  8. Survey of whole air data from the second airborne Biomass Burning and Lightning Experiment using principal component analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Yunsoo; Elliott, Scott; Simpson, Isobel J.; Blake, Donald R.; Colman, Jonah J.; Dubey, Manvendra K.; Meinardi, Simone; Rowland, F. Sherwood; Shirai, Tomoko; Smith, Felisa A.

    2003-03-01

    Hydrocarbon and halocarbon measurements collected during the second airborne Biomass Burning and Lightning Experiment (BIBLE-B) were subjected to a principal component analysis (PCA), to test the capability for identifying intercorrelated compounds within a large whole air data set. The BIBLE expeditions have sought to quantify and understand the products of burning, electrical discharge, and general atmospheric chemical processes during flights arrayed along the western edge of the Pacific. Principal component analysis was found to offer a compact method for identifying the major modes of composition encountered in the regional whole air data set. Transecting the continental monsoon, urban and industrial tracers (e.g., combustion byproducts, chlorinated methanes and ethanes, xylenes, and longer chain alkanes) dominated the observed variability. Pentane enhancements reflected vehicular emissions. In general, ethyl and propyl nitrate groupings indicated oxidation under nitrogen oxide (NOx) rich conditions and hence city or lightning influences. Over the tropical ocean, methyl nitrate grouped with brominated compounds and sometimes with dimethyl sulfide and methyl iodide. Biomass burning signatures were observed during flights over the Australian continent. Strong indications of wetland anaerobics (methane) or liquefied petroleum gas leakage (propane) were conspicuous by their absence. When all flights were considered together, sources attributable to human activity emerged as the most important. We suggest that factor reductions in general and PCA in particular may soon play a vital role in the analysis of regional whole air data sets, as a complement to more familiar methods.

  9. CU Airborne MAX-DOAS measurements over California during the CalNEx and CARES field campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baidar, S.; Oetjen, H.; Coburn, S.; Ortega, I.; Dix, B. K.; Sinreich, R.; Volkamer, R.

    2010-12-01

    The University of Colorado Airborne Multi-Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (CU AMAX-DOAS) instrument was deployed aboard the NOAA Optical Remote Sensing Twin Otter Research Aircraft during the CalNEx 2010 and CARES field campaigns. A total of 52 flights (48 research + 4 transfer flights) were carried out between May 19 and July 19 2010 and included flights in the South California Air Basin, the High deserts, Northern Mexico, the Central Valley, Sacramento, and the San Francisco Bay Area. A particular component of the CU AMAX-DOAS deployment was to enhance the value of ground-based super sites in Pasadena and Bakersfield, as well as the CARES T0 and T1 sites. The CU AMAX-DOAS is measuring column amounts of NO2, HCHO, CHOCHO, O4 and other gases above and below the aircraft. The focus of this deployment was to map the horizontal and vertical distribution of these gases. Here we describe the CU AMAX-DOAS instrument and give an overview of the NO2 vertical columns below the plane along the flight tracks. A first comparison of NO2 vertical columns measured by AMAX-DOAS and two CU Ground based MAX-DOAS instruments which were deployed in Pasadena and Fontana Arrows during CalNEx and at the T1 site during CARES is also presented.

  10. MSFC Doppler Lidar Science experiments and operations plans for 1981 airborne test flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fichtl, G. H.; Bilbro, J. W.; Kaufman, J. W.

    1981-01-01

    The flight experiment and operations plans for the Doppler Lidar System (DLS) are provided. Application of DLS to the study of severe storms and local weather penomena is addressed. Test plans involve 66 hours of flight time. Plans also include ground based severe storm and local weather data acquisition.

  11. DETECTION AND IDENTIFICATION OF TOXIC AIR POLLUTANTS USING FIELD PORTABLE AND AIRBORNE REMOTE IMAGING SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Remote sensing technologies are a class of instrument and sensor systems that include laser imageries, imaging spectrometers, and visible to thermal infrared cameras. These systems have been successfully used for gas phase chemical compound identification in a variety of field e...

  12. Experience modulates the psychophysiological response of airborne warfighters during a tactical combat parachute jump.

    PubMed

    Clemente-Suárez, Vicente Javier; de la Vega, Ricardo; Robles-Pérez, José Juan; Lautenschlaeger, Mario; Fernández-Lucas, Jesús

    2016-12-01

    We aimed to analyse the effect of experience level in the psychophysiological response and specific fine motor skills of novel and expert parachute warfighters during a tactical combat parachute jump. We analysed blood oxygen saturation, heart rate, salivary cortisol, blood glucose, lactate and creatinkinase, leg strength, isometric hand-grip strength, cortical arousal, specific fine motor skills and cognitive anxiety, somatic anxiety and self-confident before and after a tactical combat parachute jump in 40 warfighters divided in two group, novel (n=17) and expert group (n=23). Novels presented a higher heart rate, lactate, cognitive anxiety, somatic anxiety and a lower self-confident than experts during the jump. We concluded that experience level has a direct effect on the psychophysiological response since novel paratroopers presented a higher psychophysiological response than compared to the expert ones, however this result neither affected the specific fine motor skills nor the muscle structure after a tactical combat parachute jump.

  13. Project MAFEX: Report on Preservice Field Experiences in Science Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malone, Mark R.

    Project MAFEX (Meta-Analysis of Field Experience) used standard meta-analysis techniques to synthesize the available body of research concerning preservice field experience programs. Several important questions were considered: (1) What types of field experience programs are most and least effective? (2) Are there common characteristics of field…

  14. Operation Sun Beam, Shots Little Feller II and Small Boy. Project Officer's report - Project 7. 16. Airborne E-field radiation measurements of electromagnetic-pulse phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, K.L.

    1985-09-01

    Airborne measurements of the absolute vertical electric field (E-field) of the radiated electromagnetic pulse were attempted for Shots Little Feller II and Small Boy. Instrumentation included calibrated vertical whip antennas, wideband magnetic tape recorders, and photographs of oscilloscope traces. One instrumented aircraft participated in Little Feller II (C-131F); two aircraft participated in Small Boy (a C-131F and an A-3A). No detectable signals were recorded for either event. It is concluded that the vertical E-field intensities encountered were below the calibrated levels of the instrumentation or the method of instrumentation and calibration was inadequate for nonrepetitive pulse signals.

  15. C-2-Upgrade Field Reversed Configuration Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, Artem

    2016-10-01

    In the C-2 field-reversed configuration (FRC) experiment, tangential neutral beam injection (20 - 40 keV hydrogen, 4 MW total), coupled with electrically-biased plasma guns at the plasma ends, magnetic end plugs, and advanced surface conditioning, led to dramatic reductions in turbulence-driven losses and greatly improved plasma stability. Under such conditions, highly reproducible FRCs with a significant fast-ion population and total plasma temperature of about 1 keV were achieved. The FRC's were macroscopically stable and decayed on characteristic transport time scales of a few milliseconds. In order to sustain an FRC configuration, the C-2 device was upgraded with a new neutral beam injection (NBI) system, which can deliver a total of 10 + MW of hydrogen beam power, by far the largest ever used in a compact toroid plasma experiment. Compared to C-2, the beam energy was lowered to 15 keV and angled injection geometry was adopted to provide better beam coupling to the FRC. The upgraded neutral beams produce a dominant fast ion population that makes a dramatic beneficial impact on the overall plasma performance. Specifically: (1) high-performance, advanced beam-driven FRCs were produced and sustained for times significantly longer (5 + ms) than all characteristic plasma decay times without the beams, (2) the sustainment is fully correlated with neutral beam injection, (3) confinement of fast ions is close to the classical limit, and (4) new, benign collective fast ion effects were observed. Collectively, these accomplishments represent a dramatic advance towards the scientific validation of the FRC-based approach to fusion. This talk will provide a comprehensive overview of the C-2U device and recent experimental advances.

  16. Experiments with Low Voltage Field Emission EPMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fournelle, J.; Cathey, H. E.

    2014-12-01

    We report results from 5-7 keV Field Emission EPMA experiments on selected natural minerals and synthetic materials to illustrate some strengths -- and pitfalls --of low keV FE-EPMA. In a silicate mineral in pseudotachylite from South Mountain, AZ (Goodwin, 1999), the spatial resolution (equation of Merlet & Llovet, 2012, with an 80 nm diameter beam) at 7 keV for Si Ka is calculated to be 588 nm, 391 nm for Ca Ka and 641 nm for Fe La. This pseudotachylite contains abundant 5-10 um sieve-textured crystals full of inclusions with low BSE intensity. Previous 15 keV work suggested the sieve phase was amphibole. At 7 keV, it is possible to identify the compositions of the submicron inclusions as SiO2 and a K-rich alumino-silicate phase; the host composition is epidote. The enhanced resolution of FE-EPMA reveals problems with some microanalytical standards. Vicenzi and Rose (2008) showed submicron inclusions in the Smithsonian Kakanui hornblende standard. Our 7 keV experiments show the ~400 nm inclusions consist of a silicate phase (glass?), Fe-Ti oxide and possibly a gas bubble, concentrated along planes or grain boundaries. SEM imaging of an inclusion analyzed with a focused FE beam shows radiating trails of debris on the hornblende host, consistent with residue from a popped vapor bubble in the inclusion. How should FE-EPMA handle standards that may have inclusions? Use a focused beam avoiding inclusions? Sometimes, perhaps. However, we used a defocused beam to "average" the phases. The results show little or no deviation from the published wet chemical analysis. Operation at reduced keV may require use of non-traditional X-ray lines (e.g. Gopon et al, 2013 for Fe Ll vs Fe La). Experiments at 5 keV were also performed upon a synthetic material enriched in Nd (Nd-Mg-Zn). Fischer & Baun (1967) demonstrated problems with the Ma/Mb lines of REE; we find that use of the Nd Mz line is necessary in order to achieve reasonable results in this material (98 wt% total, Nd 36 wt

  17. Extraterrestrial Virtual Field Experience: Water at Meridiani

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duggan-Haas, D.; Million, C.; Sullivan, R. J., Jr.; Hayes, A. G., Jr.; Ross, R. M.; St Clair, M.

    2014-12-01

    The Spacecraft Planetary Imaging Facility (SPIF) at Cornell University, in collaboration with Million Concepts and the Paleontological Research Institute (PRI), has developed the Extraterrestrial Virtual Field Experience (EVFE), a web-based, game-like and inquiry-driven classroom activity targeted to middle school through undergraduate introductory Earth science classrooms. Students play the role of mission scientists for a NASA rover mission, tasked with targeting the rover's scientific instruments to investigate a specific scientific question about the landing site. As with the real mission, the student operators must optimize the efficient use of limited resources and time against the need to make observations to address working hypotheses. The activity uses only real--not artificial or simulated--mission data, and students are guided throughout by a "Mission Manager" who provides hints and advice about the scientific meaning of observations within the broader context of the mission objectives. The MER Opportunity EVFE is a pilot effort, the first of five EVFE modules planned a rate of one per year that will feature different NASA missions and scientific topics. The MER Opportunity EVFE has already been developed and focuses on the investigation of the history of water on Mars at the Meridiani landing site of the Opportunity rover. The module includes a teacher guide and is currently available to educators through the SPIF website.

  18. Sediment grain size estimation using airborne remote sensing, field sampling, and robust statistic.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Elena; Pereda, Raúl; Luis, Julio Manuel de; Medina, Raúl; Viguri, Javier

    2011-10-01

    Remote sensing has been used since the 1980s to study parameters in relation with coastal zones. It was not until the beginning of the twenty-first century that it started to acquire imagery with good temporal and spectral resolution. This has encouraged the development of reliable imagery acquisition systems that consider remote sensing as a water management tool. Nevertheless, the spatial resolution that it provides is not adapted to carry out coastal studies. This article introduces a new methodology for estimating the most fundamental physical property of intertidal sediment, the grain size, in coastal zones. The study combines hyperspectral information (CASI-2 flight), robust statistic, and simultaneous field work (chemical and radiometric sampling), performed over Santander Bay, Spain. Field data acquisition was used to build a spectral library in order to study different atmospheric correction algorithms for CASI-2 data and to develop algorithms to estimate grain size in an estuary. Two robust estimation techniques (MVE and MCD multivariate M-estimators of location and scale) were applied to CASI-2 imagery, and the results showed that robust adjustments give acceptable and meaningful algorithms. These adjustments have given the following R(2) estimated results: 0.93 in the case of sandy loam contribution, 0.94 for the silty loam, and 0.67 for clay loam. The robust statistic is a powerful tool for large dataset.

  19. Technology Supported Cognitive Apprenticeship Transforms the Student Teaching Field Experience: Improving the Student Teaching Field Experience for All Triad Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alger, Christianna; Kopcha, Theodore J.

    2011-01-01

    Despite issues of fragmentation, isolation, and disconnection from the university associated with the student teaching field experience, the field experience plays a critical role in teacher education. In this article, the authors provide an overview of eSupervision, a technology-based innovation to improve the student teaching field experience by…

  20. Marsh dieback, loss, and recovery mapped with satellite optical, airborne polarimetric radar, and field data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ramsey, Elijah W.; Rangoonwala, Amina; Chi, Zhaohui; Jones, Cathleen E.; Bannister, Terri

    2014-01-01

    Landsat Thematic Mapper and Satellite Pour l'Observation de la Terre (SPOT) satellite based optical sensors, NASA Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle synthetic aperture radar (UAVSAR) polarimetric SAR (PolSAR), and field data captured the occurrence and the recovery of an undetected dieback that occurred between the summers of 2010, 2011, and 2012 in the Spartina alterniflora marshes of coastal Louisiana. Field measurements recorded the dramatic biomass decrease from 2010 to 2011 and a biomass recovery in 2012 dominated by a decrease of live biomass, and the loss of marsh as part of the dieback event. Based on an established relationship, the near-infrared/red vegetation index (VI) and site-specific measurements delineated a contiguous expanse of marsh dieback encompassing 6649.9 ha of 18,292.3 ha of S. alterniflora marshes within the study region. PolSAR data were transformed to variables used in biophysical mapping, and of this variable suite, the cross-polarization HV (horizontal send and vertical receive) backscatter was the best single indicator of marsh dieback and recovery. HV backscatter exhibited substantial and significant changes over the dieback and recovery period, tracked measured biomass changes, and significantly correlated with the live/dead biomass ratio. Within the context of regional trends, both HV and VI indicators started higher in pre-dieback marshes and exhibited substantially and statistically higher variability from year to year than that exhibited in the non-dieback marshes. That distinct difference allowed the capturing of the S. alterniflora marsh dieback and recovery; however, these changes were incorporated in a regional trend exhibiting similar but more subtle biomass composition changes.

  1. Development of the Lidar Atmospheric Sensing Experiment (LASE): An Advanced Airborne DIAL Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Alvah S., Jr.; Brown, Kevin E.; Hall, William M.; Barnes, James C.; Edwards, William C.; Petway, Larry B.; Little, Alan D.; Luck, William S., Jr.; Jones, Irby W.; Antill, Charles W., Jr.

    1997-01-01

    The Lidar Atmospheric Sensing Experiment (LASE) Instrument is the first fully-engineered, autonomous Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) System for the measurement of water vapor in the troposphere (aerosol and cloud measurements are included). LASE uses a double-pulsed Ti:Sapphire laser for the transmitter with a 30 ns pulse length and 150 mJ/pulse. The laser beam is "seeded" to operate on a selected water vapor absorption line in the 815-nm region using a laser diode and an onboard absorption reference cell. A 40 cm diameter telescope collects the backscattered signals and directs them onto two detectors. LASE collects DIAL data at 5 Hz while onboard a NASA/Ames ER-2 aircraft flying at altitudes from 16-21 km. LASE was designed to operate autonomously within the environment and physical constraints of the ER-2 aircraft and to make water vapor profile measurements across the troposphere to better than 10% accuracy. LASE has flown 19 times during the development of the instrument and the validation of the science data. This paper describes the design, operation, and reliability of the LASE Instrument.

  2. Evaluation of the MOZAIC Capacitive Hygrometer during the airborne field study CIRRUS-III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neis, P.; Smit, H. G. J.; Krämer, M.; Spelten, N.; Petzold, A.

    2014-09-01

    The MOZAIC Capacitive Hygrometer (MCH) is usually operated onboard of passenger aircraft in the framework of MOZAIC (Measurement of Ozone by AIRBUS In-Service Aircraft). In order to evaluate the performance of the MCH, it was operated aboard a Learjet 35A aircraft as part of the CIRRUS-III field study together with a closed-cell Lyman-α fluorescence hygrometer (FISH) and an open path tunable diode laser system (OJSTER) for water vapour measurement. After reducing the data set to MOZAIC-relevant conditions, the 1Hz relative humidity (RH) cross correlation between MCH and reference instruments FISH (clear sky) and OJSTER (in-cirrus) yielded a remarkably good agreement of R2 = 0.97 and slope m = 0.96 and provided the MCH uncertainty of 5% RH. Probability distribution functions of RH deduced from MCH and reference instruments agreed well over the entire range of observations. The main limitation for the use of MCH data is related to sensor temperatures below the calibration limit of Tsensor = -40 °C (corresponds to ambient temperature of Tambient = -70 °C at typical cruising speed of long-haul passenger aircraft), which causes a delay in the sensor's time response. Good performance of MCH for clear sky as well as for in-cirrus conditions demonstrated the sensor robustness also for operation inside ice clouds.

  3. University of Washington Airborne Studies in Support of the CLAMS-2001 Field Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hobbs, Peter V.

    2003-01-01

    The main activity under this grant was participation in the Chesapeake Lighthouse and Aircraft Measurements for Satellites (CLAMS) field study from 10 July through 2 August 2001. The Cloud and Aerosol Research Group (CARG) from the University of Washington (UW) flew its Convair-580 research aircraft on thirteen occasions, for a total of 45 research flight hours, in support of CLAMS. Some of the main accomplishments of these flights were: 1) Aerosol and trace gas measurements and sunphotometer measurements of aerosol optical depth and column water vapor and ozone from close to Ocean surface to approx. 10,000 ft off Delmarva Peninsula on various occasions; 2) Measurements of aerosol properties on seven occasions beneath the Terra satellite, once beneath AVHRR, and five times beneath the ER-2 aircraft; 3) Measurements of aerosol properties in the vicinity of the (CERES instrumented) Chesapeake Bay lighthouse (COVE) on nine occasions; 4) Use of the NASA Goddard Cloud Absorption Radiometer (CAR) to obtain measurements of BRDF of the ocean surface on fifteen occasions and over Great Dismal Swamp on two occasions; 5) Measurements of aerosol properties over instrumented buoys 44014, 44004, and 41001. 6) On July 17 (a CLAMS 'Golden Day') six aircraft, including the Convair-580 and ER-2, were stacked above the Chesapeake Bay lighthouse under clear skies at the time of the Terra overpass.

  4. An Overview of Measurement Comparisons from the INTEX-B/MILAGRO Airborne Field Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleb, Mary M.; Chen, Gao; Crawford, James H.; Flocke, Frank M.; Brown, Clyde C.

    2011-01-01

    As part of the NASA's INTEX-B mission, the NASA DC-8 and NSF C-130 conducted three wing-tip to wing-tip comparison flights. The intercomparison flights sampled a variety of atmospheric conditions (polluted urban, non-polluted, marine boundary layer, clean and polluted free troposphere). These comparisons form a basis to establish data consistency, but also should also be viewed as a continuation of efforts aiming to better understand and reduce measurement differences as identified in earlier field intercomparison exercises. This paper provides a comprehensive overview of 140 intercomparisons of data collected as well as a record of the measurement consistency demonstrated during INTEX-B. It is the primary goal to provide necessary information for the future research to determine if the observations from different INTEX-B platforms/instrument are consistent within the PI reported uncertainties and used in integrated analysis. This paper may also contribute to the formulation strategy for future instrument developments. For interpretation and most effective use of these results, the reader is strongly urged to consult with the instrument principle investigator.

  5. Detection of airborne viruses using electro-aerodynamic deposition and a field-effect transistor

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kyu-Tae; Cho, Dong-Guk; Park, Ji-Woon; Hong, Seunghun; Hwang, Jungho

    2015-01-01

    We report a technique for the detection of aerosolized viruses. Conventional field-effect-transistor (FET)-based techniques use solution-based processes, thus require antibody binding to the detection region of the FET prior to the supply of the analyte. With the method described here, virus–antibody-bound particles are delivered to the FET during detection; therefore, neither a pre-treatment antibody binding step on the FET channel nor washing process for virus–antibody-binding are necessary. Our method is based on the concept that virus–antibody-bound particles are larger than the virus or antibody alone, and thus have larger charge numbers following aerosol charging. When these particles are charged by negative ions and electro-aerodynamically deposited on a substrate, there exists a location on the substrate where neither lone virus nor antibody particles land, and where only virus–antibody-bound particles are deposited. If this location coincides with the channel of the FET, the resulting variation in the current can be used to indicate the existence of a virus. By aerosolizing a mixed solution of the virus and the antibody, only the virus–antibody-bound particles were transported to the swCNT-FET, and the electric current in the swCNT-FET decreased to 30% of that measured with no deposited particles. PMID:26642822

  6. Photochemical modeling of the Antarctic stratosphere: Observational constraints from the airborne Antarctic ozone experiment and implications for ozone behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, Jose M.; Sze, Nien-Dak; Ko, Malcolm K. W.

    1988-01-01

    The rapid decrease in O3 column densities observed during Antarctic spring has been attributed to several chemical mechanisms involving nitrogen, bromine, or chlorine species, to dynamical mechanisms, or to a combination of the above. Chlorine-related theories, in particular, predict greatly elevated concentrations of ClO and OClO and suppressed abundances of NO2 below 22 km. The heterogeneous reactions and phase transitions proposed by these theories could also impact the concentrations of HCl, ClNO3 and HNO3 in this region. Observations of the above species have been carried out from the ground by the National Ozone Expedition (NOZE-I, 1986, and NOZE-II, 1987), and from aircrafts by the Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment (AAOE) during the austral spring of 1987. Observations of aerosol concentrations, size distribution and backscattering ratio from AAOE, and of aerosol extinction coefficients from the SAM-II satellite can also be used to deduce the altitude and temporal behavior of surfaces which catalyze heterogeneous mechanisms. All these observations provide important constraints on the photochemical processes suggested for the spring Antarctic stratosphere. Results are presented for the concentrations and time development of key trace gases in the Antarctic stratosphere, utilizing the AER photochemical model. This model includes complete gas-phase photochemistry, as well as heterogeneous reactions. Heterogeneous chemistry is parameterized in terms of surface concentrations of aerosols, collision frequencies between gas molecules and aerosol surfaces, concentrations of HCl/H2O in the frozen particles, and probability of reaction per collision (gamma). Values of gamma are taken from the latest laboratory measurements. The heterogeneous chemistry and phase transitions are assumed to occur between 12 and 22 km. The behavior of trace species at higher altitudes is calculated by the AER 2-D model without heterogeneous chemistry. Calculations are performed for

  7. Characterizing forest structure variations across an intact tropical peat dome using field samplings and airborne LiDAR.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Ha T; Hutyra, Lucy R; Hardiman, Brady S; Raciti, Steve M

    2016-03-01

    Tropical peat swamp forests (PSF) are one of the most carbon dense ecosystems on the globe and are experiencing substantial natural and anthropogenic disturbances. In this study, we combined direct field sampling and airborne LiDAR to empirically quantify forest structure and aboveground live biomass (AGB) across a large, intact tropical peat dome in Northwestern Borneo. Moving up a 4 m elevational gradient, we observed increasing stem density but decreasing canopy height, crown area, and crown roughness. These findings were consistent with hypotheses that nutrient and hydrological dynamics co-influence forest structure and stature of the canopy individuals, leading to reduced productivity towards the dome interior. Gap frequency as a function of gap size followed a power law distribution with a shape factor (λ) of 1.76 ± 0.06. Ground-based and dome-wide estimates of AGB were 217.7 ± 28.3 Mg C/ha and 222.4 ± 24.4 Mg C/ha, respectively, which were higher than previously reported AGB for PSF and tropical forests in general. However, dome-wide AGB estimates were based on height statistics, and we found the coefficient of variation on canopy height was only 0.08, three times less than stem diameter measurements, suggesting LiDAR height metrics may not be a robust predictor of AGB in tall tropical forests with dense canopies. Our structural characterization of this ecosystem advances the understanding of the ecology of intact tropical peat domes and factors that influence biomass density and landscape-scale spatial variation. This ecological understanding is essential to improve estimates of forest carbon density and its spatial distribution in PSF and to effectively model the effects of disturbance and deforestation in these carbon dense ecosystems.

  8. An Assessment of the Surface Longwave Direct Radiative Effect of Airborne Saharan Dust During the NAMMA Field Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansell, R. A.; Tsay, S. C.; Ji, Q.; Hsu, N. C.; Jeong, M. J.; Wang, S. H.; Reid, J. S.; Liou, K. N.; Ou, S. C.

    2010-01-01

    In September 2006, NASA Goddard s mobile ground-based laboratories were deployed to Sal Island in Cape Verde (16.73degN, 22.93degW) to support the NASA African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis (NAMMA) field study. The Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI), a key instrument for spectrally characterizing the thermal IR, was used to retrieve the dust IR aerosol optical depths (AOTs) in order to examine the diurnal variability of airborne dust with emphasis on three separate dust events. AERI retrievals of dust AOT are compared with those from the coincident/collocated multifilter rotating shadow-band radiometer (MFRSR), micropulse lidar (MPL), and NASA Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) sensors. The retrieved AOTs are then inputted into the Fu-Liou 1D radiative transfer model to evaluate local instantaneous direct longwave radiative effects (DRE(sub LW)) of dust at the surface in cloud-free atmospheres and its sensitivity to dust microphysical parameters. The top-of-atmosphere DRE(sub LW) and longwave heating rate profiles are also evaluated. Instantaneous surface DRE(sub LW) ranges from 2 to 10 W/sq m and exhibits a strong linear dependence with dust AOT yielding a DRE(sub LW) of 16 W/sq m per unit dust AOT. The DRE(sub LW) is estimated to be approx.42% of the diurnally averaged direct shortwave radiative effect at the surface but of opposite sign, partly compensating for the shortwave losses. Certainly nonnegligible, the authors conclude that DRE(sub LW) can significantly impact the atmospheric energetics, representing an important component in the study of regional climate variation.

  9. Field experiences in science teacher preparation programs of Missouri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhea, Marilyn Sue Alvis

    The purpose of this study was to collect and analyze data pertinent to identifying the differences and similarities in the design and implementation of field experiences for pre-service science teachers in institutions of higher education in the State of Missouri. Directors of field experience from 25 Institutions of Higher Education (IHE) that prepare both elementary and secondary science teachers and 5 additional IHE that prepare only elementary teachers were surveyed using a 48-item Likert scale instrument designed for this study. Data were collected on the hours of field experience in relation to science and other methods classes, distribution of field experience hours across the program, and total hours of field experience required. Comparisons were made between elementary and secondary science teacher preparation programs. Five areas of field experience were surveyed: design of early field experience, design of student teaching, support provided by IHE for cooperating schools, field experience assessment practices, and relationships between pre-service teachers, cooperating teachers and IHE educators. Analyses of the responses indicate statistically significant differences in the number of field experience hours between IRE programs for both early field experience (p < .05) and student teaching (p < .01). Differences in number of field experience hours by level of certification were not significant. Correlation of scores was significant between the elementary and secondary levels for both early field experience design (r = .97) and student teaching design (r = .75). No other significant correlation was found. This study found highly heterogeneous practices regarding field experience exist in Missouri IHE programs. When reported practices are compared to standards set in the professional literature, as a group Missouri IHE science teacher preparation programs could be described as traditional apprenticeships or quasi-professional development school programs.

  10. Methane Screening in JET Reverse Field Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    J.D. Strachan; B. Alper; G. Corrigan; S.K. Erents; C. Giroud; A. Korotkov; H. Leggate; G.F. Mathews; R.A. Pitts; M. Stamp; J. Spence

    2004-05-17

    JET plasmas with reverse magnetic field feature a different SOL flow than those with normal field. The observed carbon fueling efficiency from injecting methane gas was similar in reverse and normal field. EDGE2D modeling used an externally applied force to create the SOL flows, without specifying the origin of the force. The resulting flow agreed reasonably with the experimental values between the separatrix and 4 cm mid-plane depth in the SOL. The effect of the flow on the calculated carbon screening was 5 to 15% higher carbon fueling efficiency for the low flow velocity with reverse field.

  11. Exploring Group Cohesion in a Higher Education Field Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malcarne, Brian Keith

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain understanding into the experience of group cohesion for university students participating in an academic field experience. A mixed methods approach was used following a two-phase, sequential research design to help provide a more complete explanation of how group cohesion was impacted by the field experience.…

  12. Integrating Research into LIS Field Experiences in Academic Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Selinda Adelle; Hoffmann, Kristin; Dawson, Diane

    2009-01-01

    Field experiences function as a link between LIS theory and practice. Students should be provided with an experience that is a true reflection of the professional environment. The increasing focus on research by academic librarians provides an opportunity and responsibility to integrate research into the field experiences of LIS students.…

  13. Airborne measurements of spectral direct aerosol radiative forcing in the Intercontinental chemical Transport Experiment/Intercontinental Transport and Chemical Transformation of anthropogenic pollution, 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redemann, Jens; Pilewskie, Peter; Russell, Philip B.; Livingston, John M.; Howard, Steve; Schmid, Beat; Pommier, John; Gore, Warren; Eilers, James; Wendisch, Manfred

    2006-07-01

    As part of the INTEX-NA (Intercontinental chemical Transport Experiment-North America) and ITCT (Intercontinental Transport and Chemical Transformation of anthropogenic pollution) field studies, the NASA Ames 14-channel Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS-14) and a pair of Solar Spectral Flux Radiometers (SSFR) took measurements from aboard a Sky Research Jet stream 31 (J31) aircraft during 19 science flights over the Gulf of Maine during 12 July to 8 August 2004. The combination of coincident AATS-14 and SSFR measurements yields plots of net (downwelling minus upwelling) spectral irradiance as a function of aerosol optical depth (AOD) as measured along horizontal flight legs. By definition, the slope of these plots yields the instantaneous change in net irradiance per unit AOD change and is referred to as the instantaneous spectral aerosol radiative forcing efficiency, Ei (W m-2 nm-1). Numerical integration over a given spectral range yields the instantaneous broadband aerosol radiative forcing efficiency (W m-2). This technique for deriving Ei is called the aerosol gradient method. Within 10 case studies considered suitable for our analysis we found a high variability in the derived instantaneous aerosol forcing efficiencies for the visible wavelength range (350-700 nm), with a mean of -79.6 W m-2 and a standard deviation of 21.8 W m-2 (27%). An analytical conversion of the instantaneous forcing efficiencies to 24-hour-average values yielded -45.8 ± 13.1 W m-2 (mean ± std). We present spectrally resolved aerosol forcing efficiencies between 350 and 1670 nm, estimates of the midvisible aerosol single scattering albedo and a comparison of observed broadband forcing efficiencies to previously reported values.

  14. Chemical gradient of selected organic trace gases in the Tropical Tropopause Layer observed during the Airborne Tropical Tropopause Experiment 2013 (ATTREX-2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro, M. A.; Atlas, E. L.; Lueb, R.; Hendershot, R.; Gabbard, S.; Zhu, X.; Pope, L.

    2013-12-01

    Hydrocarbons and short-lived organic halogen gases play an important role in the chemistry of the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere (UT/LS) region. The characterization of these gases not only provides information on air mass sources and transport time scales, but also defines the reactive halogen budget and the conditions for the stratospheric chemistry that affects ozone depletion rates. As part of the transition between troposphere and stratosphere, nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHC) and halocarbons reach the Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL) where chemical and physical processes determine their fate. However, very limited data are available regarding composition, seasonality and variability of these gases, since only high altitude aircraft can reach this region of the atmosphere (>13-14 Km). A new whole air sampler (GWAS) was developed to study the trace gas chemistry in this region of the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. The sampler collects up to 90 samples per flight for measurement of a wide range of hydrocarbons, halocarbons, organic nitrates and solvents. During the Airborne Tropical Tropopause Experiment (ATTREX) field project, carried out during February-March 2013, we flew the GWAS system on 5 research flights. A total of 388 samples were collected during flights of approximately 24 hours, which sampled air over the tropical Pacific Ocean at altitudes from 9 to 19 km. The sample collection focused on obtaining measurements across the TTL region. Approximately 45 vertical profiles of the TTL were sampled with our instrument during this mission. Measurements of trace gases were carried out at Dryden Flight Research Center using a combination of gas chromatography with mass spectrometric, flame ionization, and electron capture detectors. Supporting measurements were done at the University of Miami (UM) laboratory. The distribution, vertical structure, and variability of selected hydrocarbon and organic halogen trace gases in the TTL region will be

  15. The Soviet Airborne Experience

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-11-01

    nastupatel’naya operatsiya” [Army offensive operations], SVE, 1:239-44; N. Kireev , “Pr imenenie tankovykh podraelenii i chas tei pr i proryve oborony...forward detachments would be of reinforced tank regiment size; division forward detachments of reinforced tank battalion size. See Kireev ...Primenenie,” 38-39. For the origins of,,;he concept and cur,fent applicability, see N. Kireev N. Dovbenko, Iz oivta boevogo primeneniya peredovykh

  16. Airborne atmospheric electricity experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blakeslee, R. J.

    1985-01-01

    During the 1984 U2 spring flight program, lightning spectra were measured in the wavelengths from 380 nm to 900 nm with a temporal resolution of 5 ms. With this capability, researchers simultaneously acquired both visible near-infrared lightning spectra on a pulse to pulse basis, so that the spectral variability within a flash, as well as flash to flash variations, can be studied. Preliminary results suggest that important variations do occur, particularly in the strengths of the hydrogen and singly ionized nitrogen emission lines. Also, the results have revealed significant differences in the integrated energy distributions between the lightning spectra measured above clouds and the spectral measurements of cloud-to-ground lightning made at the ground. In particular, the ratio of the energy in the near-IR to that in the visible is around 1 to 2 for cloud top spectra versus about 1/3 for surface observations. Detailed analyses of the 1984 lightning spectral data is being conducted. This data should provide improved understanding about the optical transmission properties of thunderclouds and the physics of the lightning discharge process. Efforts continue on developing and testing background signal removal algorithms using U2 spectometer and optical array sensor day-flight data sets. The goal of this research is to develop an algorithm satisfying Lightning Mapper Sensor requirements.

  17. Lidar and radiometer results from the ER-2 for the FIRE field experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spinhirne, James D.

    1990-01-01

    The airborne lidar and radiometers which were flown during the FIRE cirrus and marine stratus field experiments had multiple objectives. Cloud parameters of direct interest, such as cirrus infrared emittance or convective scales for marine stratus, may be derived from the observations and analyzed along with the available cloud physics and meteorological observations. Additionally however a stated goal of the FIRE studies was to validate satellite cloud retrievals. To this end a number of derived products are to be available from the basic lidar and radiometer observations. The characteristics of the derived products are described, and in addition analysis results for cloud radiometric and structure parameters are presented. This extended abstract will be used to describe the available data products and the associated presentation will emphasize case study analysis results.

  18. Field Trips as Valuable Learning Experiences in Geography Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krakowka, Amy Richmond

    2012-01-01

    Field trips have been acknowledged as valuable learning experiences in geography. This article uses Kolb's (1984) experiential learning model to discuss how students learn and how field trips can help enhance learning. Using Kolb's experiential learning theory as a guide in the design of field trips helps ensure that field trips contribute to…

  19. A data assimilation experiment of RASTA airborne cloud radar data during HyMeX IOP16

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saussereau, Gaël; Caumont, Olivier; Delanoë, Julien

    2015-04-01

    The main goal of HyMeX first special observing period (SOP1), which took place from 5 September to 5 November 2012, was to document the heavy precipitation events and flash floods that regularly affect the north-western Mediterranean coastal areas. In the two-month campaign, around twenty rainfall events were documented in France, Italy, and Spain. Among the instrumental platforms that were deployed during SOP1, the Falcon 20 of the Safire unit (http://www.safire.fr/) made numerous flights in storm systems so as to document their thermodynamic, microphysical, and dynamical properties. In particular, the RASTA cloud radar (http://rali.projet.latmos.ipsl.fr/) was aboard this aircraft. This radar measures vertical profiles of reflectivity and Doppler velocity above and below the aircraft. This unique instrument thus allows us to document the microphysical properties and the speed of wind and hydrometeors in the clouds, quasi-continuously in time and at a 60-m vertical resolution. For this field campaign, a special version of the numerical weather prediction (NWP) Arome system was developed to cover the whole north-western Mediterranean basin. This version, called Arome-WMed, ran in real time during the SOP in order to, notably, schedule the airborne operations, especially in storm systems. Like the operational version, Arome-WMed delivers forecasts at a horizontal resolution of 2.5 km with a one-moment microphysical scheme that predicts the evolution of six water species: water vapour, cloud liquid water, rainwater, pristine ice, snow, and graupel. Its three-dimensional variational (3DVar) data assimilation (DA) system ingests every three hours (at 00 UTC, 03 UTC, etc.) numerous observations (radiosoundings, ground automatic weather stations, radar, satellite, GPS, etc.). In order to provide improved initial conditions to Arome-WMed, especially for heavy precipitation events, RASTA data were assimilated in Arome-WMed 3DVar DA system for IOP16 (26 October 2012), to

  20. Data Management Challenges for Airborne NASA Earth Venture Sub-Orbital Investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyer, A.; Lindsley, C.; Wright, D.; Cook, R. B.; Santhana Vannan, S. K.

    2015-12-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) is developing technology infrastructure to archive airborne remote sensing observations from two of NASA's Earth Venture Sub-orbital Missions. The two missions are CARVE (Carbon in Arctic Reservoirs Vulnerability Experiment) and AirMOSS (Airborne Microwave Observatory of Subcanopy and Subsurface). These missions collected over 140 TB of data from extensive ground-based and airborne instruments. The metadata and documentation requirements necessary for proper archive and dissemination of such transect-based, and often 3-dimensional, airborne data are quite different from traditional field campaign data and satellite remote sensing data streams. Staff at the ORNL DAAC have developed a metadata and data infrastructure for airborne data that enables spatial or keyword-based search and discovery, integration of related satellite- or ground-based data sets, and subsetting and visualization tools for both CARVE and AirMOSS. Here we discuss challenges, progress, and lessons learned.

  1. Orientation of Oblique Airborne Image Sets - Experiences from the Isprs/eurosdr Benchmark on Multi-Platform Photogrammetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerke, M.; Nex, F.; Remondino, F.; Jacobsen, K.; Kremer, J.; Karel, W.; Hu, H.; Ostrowski, W.

    2016-06-01

    During the last decade the use of airborne multi camera systems increased significantly. The development in digital camera technology allows mounting several mid- or small-format cameras efficiently onto one platform and thus enables image capture under different angles. Those oblique images turn out to be interesting for a number of applications since lateral parts of elevated objects, like buildings or trees, are visible. However, occlusion or illumination differences might challenge image processing. From an image orientation point of view those multi-camera systems bring the advantage of a better ray intersection geometry compared to nadir-only image blocks. On the other hand, varying scale, occlusion and atmospheric influences which are difficult to model impose problems to the image matching and bundle adjustment tasks. In order to understand current limitations of image orientation approaches and the influence of different parameters such as image overlap or GCP distribution, a commonly available dataset was released. The originally captured data comprises of a state-of-the-art image block with very high overlap, but in the first stage of the so-called ISPRS/EUROSDR benchmark on multi-platform photogrammetry only a reduced set of images was released. In this paper some first results obtained with this dataset are presented. They refer to different aspects like tie point matching across the viewing directions, influence of the oblique images onto the bundle adjustment, the role of image overlap and GCP distribution. As far as the tie point matching is concerned we observed that matching of overlapping images pointing to the same cardinal direction, or between nadir and oblique views in general is quite successful. Due to the quite different perspective between images of different viewing directions the standard tie point matching, for instance based on interest points does not work well. How to address occlusion and ambiguities due to different views onto

  2. Observations of TTL water vapor and cirrus properties from the NASA Global Hawk during the Airborne Tropical TRopopause EXperiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thornberry, Troy; Rollins, Andrew; Gao, Ru-Shan; Woods, Sarah; Lawson, Paul; Bui, Thaopaul; Pfister, Leonhard; Fahey, David

    2015-04-01

    Despite its very low mixing ratios relative to the troposphere, water vapor in the lower stratosphere (LS) plays a significant role in Earth's radiative balance and climate system and is an important constituent in stratospheric chemistry. The low H2O content of air entering the LS is established to first order by dehydration processes controlled by the cold temperatures of the tropical tropopause layer (TTL), especially over the western Pacific. Cirrus clouds occur with high frequency and large spatial extent in the TTL, and those occurring near the thermal tropopause facilitate the final dehydration of stratosphere-bound air parcels. Uncertainties in aspects of the nucleation and growth of cirrus cloud particles and the sparseness of in situ water vapor and cirrus cloud observations with sufficient spatial resolution limit our ability to fully describe the final stages of the dehydration process before air enters the LS in the tropics. The NASA Airborne Tropical TRopopause EXperiment (ATTREX) measurement campaign has yielded more than 140 hours of sampling from the Global Hawk UAS in the Pacific TTL during deployments in winter 2013 and 2014, including more than 30 hours sampling TTL cirrus. Cirrus clouds were encountered throughout the TTL, up to the tropopause (17-18 km), with ice water contents (IWC) down to the detection limit of 3 μg m-3 and water vapor mixing ratios as low as 1.5 ppm. Most TTL cirrus sampled had particle number concentrations of less than 100 L-1, but some had concentrations ranging up to more than 1000 L-1. The mean value for relative humidity with respect to ice within cirrus was near 100%, but encompassed a range from < 50% to higher than 150%. The high spatial and temporal resolution in situ measurements of water vapor and cirrus cloud properties made during ATTREX provide an outstanding dataset by which to characterize the Pacific TTL environment and evaluate our current understanding of the dynamical and microphysical processes that

  3. Detecting trends in regional ecosystem functioning: the importance of field data for calibrating and validating NEON airborne remote sensing instruments and science data products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCorkel, J.; Kuester, M. A.; Johnson, B. R.; Krause, K.; Kampe, T. U.; Moore, D. J.

    2011-12-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is a research facility under development by the National Science Foundation to improve our understanding of and ability to forecast the impacts of climate change, land-use change, and invasive species on ecology. The infrastructure, designed to operate over 30 years or more, includes site-based flux tower and field measurements, coordinated with airborne remote sensing observations to observe key ecological processes over a broad range of temporal and spatial scales. NEON airborne data on vegetation biochemical, biophysical, and structural properties and on land use and land cover will be captured at 1 to 2 meter resolution by an imaging spectrometer, a small-footprint waveform-LiDAR and a high-resolution digital camera. Annual coverage of the 60 NEON sites and capacity to support directed research flights or respond to unexpected events will require three airborne observation platforms (AOP). The integration of field and airborne data with satellite observations and other national geospatial data for analysis, monitoring and input to ecosystem models will extend NEON observations to regions across the United States not directly sampled by the observatory. The different spatial scales and measurement methods make quantitative comparisons between remote sensing and field data, typically collected over small sample plots (e.g. < 0.2 ha), difficult. New approaches to developing temporal and spatial scaling relationships between these data are necessary to enable validation of airborne and satellite remote sensing data and for incorporation of these data into continental or global scale ecological models. In addition to consideration of the methods used to collect ground-based measurements, careful calibration of the remote sensing instrumentation and an assessment of the accuracy of algorithms used to derive higher-level science data products are needed. Furthermore, long-term consistency of the data collected by all

  4. Observations of Saharan dust microphysical and optical properties from the Eastern Atlantic during NAMMA airborne field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, G.; Ziemba, L. D.; Chu, D. A.; Thornhill, K. L.; Schuster, G. L.; Winstead, E. L.; Diskin, G. S.; Ferrare, R. A.; Burton, S. P.; Ismail, S.; Kooi, S. A.; Omar, A. H.; Slusher, D. L.; Kleb, M. M.; Reid, J. S.; Twohy, C. H.; Zhang, H.; Anderson, B. E.

    2011-01-01

    As part of the international project entitled "African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis (AMMA)", NAMMA (NASA AMMA) aimed to gain a better understanding of the relationship between the African Easterly Waves (AEWs), the Sahara Air Layer (SAL), and tropical cyclogenesis. The NAMMA airborne field campaign was based out of the Cape Verde Islands during the peak of the hurricane season, i.e., August and September 2006. Multiple Sahara dust layers were sampled during 62 encounters in the eastern portion of the hurricane main development region, covering both the eastern North Atlantic Ocean and the western Saharan desert (i.e., 5-22° N and 10-35° W). The centers of these layers were located at altitudes between 1.5 and 3.3 km and the layer thickness ranged from 0.5 to 3 km. Detailed dust microphysical and optical properties were characterized using a suite of in-situ instruments aboard the NASA DC-8 that included a particle counter, an Ultra-High Sensitivity Aerosol Spectrometer, an Aerodynamic Particle Sizer, a nephelometer, and a Particle Soot Absorption Photometer. The NAAMA sampling inlet has a size cut (i.e., 50% transmission efficiency size) of approximately 4 μm in diameter for dust particles, which limits the representativeness of the NAMMA observational findings. The NAMMA dust observations showed relatively low particle number densities, ranging from 268 to 461 cm-3, but highly elevated volume density with an average at 45 μm3 cm-3. NAMMA dust particle size distributions can be well represented by tri-modal lognormal regressions. The estimated volume median diameter (VMD) is averaged at 2.1 μm with a small range of variation regardless of the vertical and geographical sampling locations. The Ångström Exponent assessments exhibited strong wavelength dependence for absorption but a weak one for scattering. The single scattering albedo was estimated at 0.97 ± 0.02. The imaginary part of the refractive index for Sahara dust was estimated at 0.0022, with a

  5. Observations of Saharan dust microphysical and optical properties from the Eastern Atlantic during NAMMA airborne field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, G.; Ziemba, L. D.; Chu, D. A.; Thornhill, K. L.; Schuster, G. L.; Winstead, E. L.; Diskin, G. S.; Ferrare, R. A.; Burton, S. P.; Ismail, S.; Kooi, S. A.; Omar, A. H.; Slusher, D. L.; Kleb, M. M.; Reid, J. S.; Twohy, C. H.; Zhang, H.; Anderson, B. E.

    2010-05-01

    As part of the international project entitled "African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis (AMMA)", NAMMA (NASA AMMA) aimed to gain a better understanding of the relationship between the African Easterly Waves (AEWs), the Sahara Air Layer (SAL), and tropical cyclogenesis. The NAMMA airborne field campaign was based out of the Cape Verde Islands during the peak of the hurricane season, i.e., August and September 2006. Multiple Sahara dust layers were sampled during 62 encounters in the eastern portion of the hurricane main development region, covering both the eastern North Atlantic Ocean and the western Saharan desert (i.e., 5-22° N and 10-35° W). The centers of these layers were located at altitudes between 1.5 and 3.3 km and the layer thickness ranged from 0.5 to 3 km. Detailed dust microphysical and optical properties were characterized using a suite of in situ instruments aboard the NASA DC-8 that included a particle counter, an Ultra-High Sensitivity Aerosol Spectrometer, an Aerodynamic Particle Sizer, nephelometer, and Particle Soot Absorption Photometer. The NAMMA dust observations showed relatively low particle number densities, ranging from 268 to 461 cm-3, but highly elevated volume density with an average at 45 μm3 cm-3. NAMMA dust particle size distributions were well represented by tri-modal lognormal regressions. The estimated volume median diameter (VMD) is averaged at 2.1 μm with a small range of variation regardless of the vertical and geographical sampling locations. The absorption coefficient measurements exhibited a strong wavelength dependence for absorption but a weak one for scattering. The single scattering albedo was estimated at 0.97±0.02. Closure analyses showed that observed scattering and absorption coefficients are highly correlated with those calculated from spherical Mie-Theory and observed dust particle size distributions. The imaginary part of the refractive index for Sahara dust was estimated at 0.0022, with a range from 0

  6. Minimizing magnetic fields for precision experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Altarev, I.; Fierlinger, P.; Lins, T.; Marino, M. G.; Nießen, B.; Petzoldt, G.; Reisner, M.; Stuiber, S. Sturm, M.; Taggart Singh, J.; Taubenheim, B.; Rohrer, H. K.; Schläpfer, U.

    2015-06-21

    An increasing number of measurements in fundamental and applied physics rely on magnetically shielded environments with sub nano-Tesla residual magnetic fields. State of the art magnetically shielded rooms (MSRs) consist of up to seven layers of high permeability materials in combination with highly conductive shields. Proper magnetic equilibration is crucial to obtain such low magnetic fields with small gradients in any MSR. Here, we report on a scheme to magnetically equilibrate MSRs with a 10 times reduced duration of the magnetic equilibration sequence and a significantly lower magnetic field with improved homogeneity. For the search of the neutron's electric dipole moment, our finding corresponds to a 40% improvement of the statistical reach of the measurement. However, this versatile procedure can improve the performance of any MSR for any application.

  7. The Cyborg Astrobiologist: first field experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGuire, Patrick Charles; Ormö, Jens; Díaz Martínez, Enrique; Rodríguez Manfredi, José Antonio; Gómez Elvira, Javier; Ritter, Helge; Oesker, Markus; Ontrup, Jörg

    2004-07-01

    We present results from the first geological field tests of the "Cyborg Astrobiologist", which is a wearable computer and video camcorder system that we are using to test and train a computer-vision system towards having some of the autonomous decision-making capabilities of a field-geologist and field-astrobiologist. The Cyborg Astrobiologist platform has thus far been used for testing and development of the following algorithms and systems: robotic acquisition of quasi-mosaics of images; real-time image segmentation; and real-time determination of interesting points in the image mosaics. The hardware and software systems function reliably, and the computer-vision algorithms are adequate for the first field tests. In addition to the proof-of-concept aspect of these field tests, the main result of these field tests is the enumeration of those issues that we can improve in the future, including: detection and accounting for shadows caused by three-dimensional jagged edges in the outcrop; reincorporation of more sophisticated texture-analysis algorithms into the system; creation of hardware and software capabilities to control the camera's zoom lens in an intelligent manner; and, finally, development of algorithms for interpretation of complex geological scenery. Nonetheless, despite these technical inadequacies, this Cyborg Astrobiologist system, consisting of a camera-equipped wearable-computer and its computer-vision algorithms, has demonstrated its ability in finding genuinely interesting points in real-time in the geological scenery, and then gathering more information about these interest points in an automated manner.

  8. The STEREO/IMPACT Magnetic Field Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acuña, M. H.; Curtis, D.; Scheifele, J. L.; Russell, C. T.; Schroeder, P.; Szabo, A.; Luhmann, J. G.

    2008-04-01

    The magnetometer on the STEREO mission is one of the sensors in the IMPACT instrument suite. A single, triaxial, wide-range, low-power and noise fluxgate magnetometer of traditional design—and reduced volume configuration—has been implemented in each spacecraft. The sensors are mounted on the IMPACT telescoping booms at a distance of ˜3 m from the spacecraft body to reduce magnetic contamination. The electronics have been designed as an integral part of the IMPACT Data Processing Unit, sharing a common power converter and data/command interfaces. The instruments cover the range ±65,536 nT in two intervals controlled by the IDPU (±512 nT; ±65,536 nT). This very wide range allows operation of the instruments during all phases of the mission, including Earth flybys as well as during spacecraft test and integration in the geomagnetic field. The primary STEREO/IMPACT science objectives addressed by the magnetometer are the study of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF), its response to solar activity, and its relationship to solar wind structure. The instruments were powered on and the booms deployed on November 1, 2006, seven days after the spacecraft were launched, and are operating nominally. A magnetic cleanliness program was implemented to minimize variable spacecraft fields and to ensure that the static spacecraft-generated magnetic field does not interfere with the measurements.

  9. Thought Field Therapy: A Former Insider's Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pignotti, Monica

    2007-01-01

    Thought Field Therapy (TFT) is a novel therapy that employs finger tapping on purported acupressure points. Over the past decade, TFT, promoted on the Internet and through testimonials of fast cures, has gained popularity with therapists, including clinical social workers. Although TFT claims to cure a wide variety of psychological and physical…

  10. The Falklands war: Army field surgical experience.

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, D. S.; Batty, C. G.; Ryan, J. M.; McGregor, W. S.

    1983-01-01

    In the recent Falklands campaign four Army Field Surgical Teams were deployed in the two phases of the war. They functioned as Advanced Surgical Centres and operated on 233 casualties. There were 3 deaths. The patterns of wounding and the methods of casualty management are discussed and compared with other recent campaigns. Images Fig. 1 PMID:6614760

  11. Field experience with gas turbine meters

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, W.H.

    1984-04-01

    This paper discusses a company's experience and problems with turbine meters in a large offshore system. With the increased cost and decreasing reserves of natural gas, greater demands will be placed on gas measurement. Turbine meters have lent themselves well to the task and will continue to find more applications in the natural gas industry.

  12. A Cryogenic, Insulating Suspension System for the High Resolution Airborne Wideband Camera (HAWC)and Submillemeter And Far Infrared Experiment (SAFIRE) Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerators (ADRs)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voellmer, George M.; Jackson, Michael L.; Shirron, Peter J.; Tuttle, James G.

    2002-01-01

    The High Resolution Airborne Wideband Camera (HAWC) and the Submillimeter And Far Infrared Experiment (SAFIRE) will use identical Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerators (ADR) to cool their detectors to 200mK and 100mK, respectively. In order to minimize thermal loads on the salt pill, a Kevlar suspension system is used to hold it in place. An innovative, kinematic suspension system is presented. The suspension system is unique in that it consists of two parts that can be assembled and tensioned offline, and later bolted onto the salt pill.

  13. Emerging Trends in Teacher Preparation: The Future of Field Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slick, Gloria Appelt, Ed.

    This is the fourth in a series of four books presenting a variety of field experience program models and philosophies that drive the programs provided to preservice teachers during their undergraduate teacher preparation. This book focuses on critical issues facing teaching education in the future, in particular field experiences. Major themes…

  14. Concerns of Teacher Candidates in an Early Field Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Sau Hou

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined the concerns of teacher candidates in an early field experience. Thirty-five teacher candidates completed the Teacher Concerns Checklist (TCC, Fuller & Borich, 2000) at the beginning, middle and end of their early field experiences. Results showed that teacher candidates ranked impact as the highest concern, self as…

  15. Preparing Middle School Teachers: Using Collaborative Middle School Field Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramey, Linda K.

    Wright State University, Ohio, has developed an undergraduate degree in Middle Childhood Education with extensive content preparation and initial field experiences. Participants complete an undergraduate program in two specialized areas accompanied by 15 hours of teacher education professional coursework and field experiences in urban and suburban…

  16. The Field Experience: Creating Successful Programs for New Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slick, Gloria Appelt, Ed.

    This is the first in a series of four books presenting a variety of field experience program models and philosophies that drive the programs provided to preservice teachers during their undergraduate teacher preparation. This publications focuses on developing and evaluating an effective field experience program. Several common themes emerge from…

  17. Assisting Your Preservice Teacher to Be Successful during Field Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brett, Christine

    2006-01-01

    Field experience (junior practicum and student teaching) is considered by many to be the most influential part of a teacher preparation program (Cruickshank & Aramalin, 1986; Tannehill & Zakrajsek, 1988). During field experiences, preservice teachers (hereafter referred to as PSTs) are guided by a cooperating teacher (hereafter referred to as a…

  18. Field experience in gravel packing the Dourado field, offshore Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Santos, F.C.R.

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes the completion operations in the Dourado field, with emphasis on four major gravel packing problems: (1) formation taking excessive gravel; (2) failure of the gravel pack screens; (3) severe well productivity decline and (4) an unusual production casing buckling. The problem occurred in a new area of the field where the main reservoir, the Calumbi sandstone, is largely intercalated with plastic, water sensitive shale streaks. Presumably, stresses developed during gravel packing set off the creepage tendency of these streaks, which might be intensified by hydration upon rock imbibition with water-based completion and gravel carrier fluids. The result was a continuous migration of shale into adjacent permeable layers, leaving behind progressive void space, which allows for the excessive pumping of gravel. As the well was flowed, check-valve effect naturally ensued as lumps of dispersed shales concentrates around the wellbore; hence the decline on well productivity. Another consequence of the shale behavior was a detrimental effect in the wellbore stability, which reflected in buckling of the casing in front of the perforated interval. Finally, the screen failure, a less conjectural problem, was attributed only to poor manufacturing quality.

  19. CO2 Budget and Rectification Airborne Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grainger, C. A.

    2004-01-01

    The main purpose of this award was to supply a platform for the airborne measurements of gases associated with the CO2 Budget and Regional Airborne Study (COBRA). The original program was to consist of three field programs: the first was to be in 1999, the second in 2000, and the third in 2001. At the end of the second field program, it was agreed that the science could better be served by making the measurements in northern Brazil, rather than in North America. The final North American program would be postponed until after two field programs in Brazil. A substantial amount of effort was diverted into making plans and preparations for the Brazil field programs. The Brazil field programs were originally scheduled to take place in the Fall of 2002 and Spring of 2003. Carrying out the field program in Brazil was going to logistically much more involved than a program in the US. Shipping of equipment, customs, and site preparations required work to begin many months prior to the actual measurement program. Permission to fly in that country was also not trivial and indeed proved to be a major obstacle. When we were not able to get permission to fly in Brazil for the 2002 portion of the experiment, the program was pushed back to 2003. When permission by the Brazilian government was not given in time for a Spring of 2003 field program, the experiment was postponed again to begin in the Fall of 2003.

  20. Classroom and Field Experiments for Florida's Environmental Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Jim

    This booklet is intended to help teachers in Florida manage the growing interest in environmental education. Fourteen experiments are grouped into the environmental areas of the water cycle, groundwater, water pollution, waste and water treatment, air pollution, and field experiments. Experiments include demonstrations of the water cycle, the…

  1. Airborne Particles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ojala, Carl F.; Ojala, Eric J.

    1987-01-01

    Describes an activity in which students collect airborne particles using a common vacuum cleaner. Suggests ways for the students to convert their data into information related to air pollution and human health. Urges consideration of weather patterns when analyzing the results of the investigation. (TW)

  2. Airborne Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    ATM (Airborne Thematic Mapper) was developed for NSTL (National Space Technology Companies) by Daedalus Company. It offers expanded capabilities for timely, accurate and cost effective identification of areas with prospecting potential. A related system is TIMS, Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner. Originating from Landsat 4, it is also used for agricultural studies, etc.

  3. Field experience with various slicing methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoo, H. I.

    1982-01-01

    Wafer slicing using internal diameter (ID) saw, multiblade slurry (MBS) saw and multiwire slurry (MWS) saw techniques were evaluated. Wafer parameters such as bow, taper, and roughness which may not be important factors for solar cell fabrication, were considerably better for ID saw than those of the MBS and MWS saw. Analysis of add-on slicing cost indicated that machine productivity seems to be a major limiting factor for ID saw, while expendible material costs are a major factor for both MBS and MWS saw. Slicing experience indicated that the most important factors controling final wafer cost are: (1) silicon cost (wafer thickness + kerf loss); (2) add-on slicing cost, and (3) mechanical yield. There is a very strong interaction between these parameters, suggesting a necessity of optimization of these parameters.

  4. Evolution of a highly dilatant fault zone in the grabens of Canyonlands National Park, Utah/USA - integrating field work, ground penetrating radar and airborne imagery analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kettermann, M.; Grützner, C.; van Gent, H. W.; Urai, J. L.; Reicherter, K.; Mertens, J.

    2015-03-01

    The grabens of the Canyonlands National Park are a young and active system of sub-parallel, arcuate grabens, whose evolution is the result of salt movement in the subsurface and a slight regional tilt of the faulted strata. We present results of ground penetrating radar surveys in combination with field observations and analysis of high resolution airborne imagery. GPR data show intense faulting of the Quaternary sediments at the flat graben floors, implying a more complex fault structure than visible at the surface. Direct measurements of heave and throw at several locations to infer fault dips at depth, combined with observations of primary joint surfaces in the upper 100 m suggest a model of the highly dilatant fault geometry in profile. Sinkholes observed in the field as well as in airborne imagery give insights in local massive dilatancy and show where water and sediments are transported underground. Based on correlations of paleosols observed in outcrops and GPR profiles, we argue that the grabens in Canyonlands National Park are either older than previously assumed, or that sedimentation rates were much higher in the Pleistocene.

  5. Mod-2 wind turbine field operations experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, L. H.

    1985-01-01

    The three-machine, 7.5 MW Goodnoe Hills located near Goldendale, Washington and is now in a research/experimental operations phase that offers a unique opportunity to study the effects of single and multiple wind turbines interacting with each other, the power grid; and the environment. Following a brief description of the turbine and project history, this paper addresses major problem areas and research and development test results. Field operations, both routine and nonroutine, are discussed. Routine operation to date has produced over 13,379,000 KWh of electrical energy during 11,064 hr of rotation. Nonroutine operation includes suspended activities caused by a crack in the low speed shaft that necessitated a redesign and reinstallation of this assembly on all three turbines. With the world's largest cluster back in full operation, two of the turbines will be operated over the next years to determine their value as energy producer. The third unit will be used primarily for conducting research tests requiring configuration changes to better understand the wind turbine technology. Technical areas summarized pertain to system performance and enhancements. Specific research tests relating to acoustics, TV interference, and wake effects conclude the paper.

  6. Field experiments of multi-channel oceanographic fluorescence lidar for oil spill and chlorophyll- a detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaolong; Zhao, Chaofang; Ma, Youjun; Liu, Zhishen

    2014-08-01

    A Multi-channel Oceanographic Fluorescence Lidar (MOFL), with a UV excitation at 355 nm and multiple receiving channels at typical wavelengths of fluorescence from oil spills and chlorophyll- a (Chl- a), has been developed using the Laser-induced Fluorescence (LIF) technique. The sketch of the MOFL system equipped with a compact multi-channel photomultiplier tube (MPMT) is introduced in the paper. The methods of differentiating the oil fluorescence from the background water fluorescence and evaluating the Chl- a concentration are described. Two field experiments were carried out to investigate the field performance of the system, i.e., an experiment in coastal areas for oil pollution detection and an experiment over the Yellow Sea for Chl- a monitoring. In the coastal experiment, several oil samples and other fluorescence substances were used to analyze the fluorescence spectral characteristics for oil identification, and to estimate the thickness of oil films at the water surface. The experiment shows that both the spectral shape of fluorescence induced from surface water and the intensity ratio of two channels ( I 495/ I 405) are essential to determine oil-spill occurrence. In the airborne experiment, MOFL was applied to measure relative Chl- a concentrations in the upper layer of the ocean. A comparison of relative Chl- a concentration measurements by MOFL and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) indicates that the two datasets are in good agreement. The results show that the MOFL system is capable of monitoring oil spills and Chl- a in the upper layer of ocean water.

  7. SEALDH-II—An Autonomous, Holistically Controlled, First Principles TDLAS Hygrometer for Field and Airborne Applications: Design–Setup–Accuracy/Stability Stress Test

    PubMed Central

    Buchholz, Bernhard; Kallweit, Sören; Ebert, Volker

    2016-01-01

    Instrument operation in harsh environments often significantly impacts the trust level of measurement data. While commercial instrument manufacturers clearly define the deployment conditions to achieve trustworthy data in typical standard applications, it is frequently unavoidable in scientific field applications to operate instruments outside these commercial standard application specifications. Scientific instrumentation, however, is employing cutting-edge technology and often highly optimized but also lacks long-term field tests to assess the field vs. laboratory performance. Recently, we developed the Selective Extractive Laser Diode Hygrometer (SEALDH-II), which addresses field and especially airborne applications as well as metrological laboratory validations. SEALDH-II targets reducing deviations between airborne hygrometers (currently up to 20% between the most advanced hygrometers) with a new holistic, internal control and validation concept, which guarantees the transfer of the laboratory performance into a field scenario by capturing more than 80 instrument internal “housekeeping” data to nearly perfectly control SEALDH-II’s health status. SEALDH-II uses a calibration-free, first principles based, direct Tuneable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (dTDLAS) approach, to cover the entire atmospheric humidity measurement range from about 3 to 40,000 ppmv with a calculated maximum uncertainty of 4.3% ± 3 ppmv. This is achieved not only by innovations in internal instrument monitoring and design, but also by active control algorithms such as a high resolution spectral stabilization. This paper describes the setup, working principles, and instrument stabilization, as well as its precision validation and long-term stress tests in an environmental chamber over an environmental temperature and humidity range of ΔT = 50 K and ΔRH = 80% RH, respectively. PMID:28042844

  8. SEALDH-II-An Autonomous, Holistically Controlled, First Principles TDLAS Hygrometer for Field and Airborne Applications: Design-Setup-Accuracy/Stability Stress Test.

    PubMed

    Buchholz, Bernhard; Kallweit, Sören; Ebert, Volker

    2016-12-30

    Instrument operation in harsh environments often significantly impacts the trust level of measurement data. While commercial instrument manufacturers clearly define the deployment conditions to achieve trustworthy data in typical standard applications, it is frequently unavoidable in scientific field applications to operate instruments outside these commercial standard application specifications. Scientific instrumentation, however, is employing cutting-edge technology and often highly optimized but also lacks long-term field tests to assess the field vs. laboratory performance. Recently, we developed the Selective Extractive Laser Diode Hygrometer (SEALDH-II), which addresses field and especially airborne applications as well as metrological laboratory validations. SEALDH-II targets reducing deviations between airborne hygrometers (currently up to 20% between the most advanced hygrometers) with a new holistic, internal control and validation concept, which guarantees the transfer of the laboratory performance into a field scenario by capturing more than 80 instrument internal "housekeeping" data to nearly perfectly control SEALDH-II's health status. SEALDH-II uses a calibration-free, first principles based, direct Tuneable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (dTDLAS) approach, to cover the entire atmospheric humidity measurement range from about 3 to 40,000 ppmv with a calculated maximum uncertainty of 4.3% ± 3 ppmv. This is achieved not only by innovations in internal instrument monitoring and design, but also by active control algorithms such as a high resolution spectral stabilization. This paper describes the setup, working principles, and instrument stabilization, as well as its precision validation and long-term stress tests in an environmental chamber over an environmental temperature and humidity range of ΔT = 50 K and ΔRH = 80% RH, respectively.

  9. A Gravitational Experiment Involving Inhomogeneous Electric Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datta, T.; Yin, Ming; Vargas, Jose

    2004-02-01

    Unification of gravitation with other forms of interactions, particularly with electromagnetism, will have tremendous impacts on technology and our understanding of nature. The economic impact of such an achievement will also be unprecedented and far more extensive than the impact experienced in the past century due to the unification of electricity with magnetism and optics. Theoretical unification of gravitation with electromagnetism using classical differential geometry has been pursued since the late nineteen twenties, when Einstein and Cartan used teleparallelism for the task. Recently, Vargas and Torr have followed the same line of research with more powerful mathematics in a more general geometric framework, which allows for the presence of other interactions. Their approach also uses Kähler generalization of Cartan's exterior calculus, which constitutes a language appropriate for both classical and quantum physics. Given the compelling nature of teleparallelism (path-independent equality of vectors at a distance) and the problems still existing with energy-momentum in general relativity, it is important to seek experimental evidence for such expectations. Such experimental programs are likely to provide quantitative guidance to the further development of current and future theories. We too, have undertaken an experimental search for potential electrically induced gravitational (EIG) effects. This presentation describes some of the practical concerns that relates to our investigation of electrical influences on laboratory size test masses. Preliminary results, appear to indicate a correlation between the application of a spatially inhomogeneous electric field and the appearance of an additional force on the test mass. If confirmed, the presence of such a force will be consistent with the predictions of Vargas-Torr. More importantly, proven results will shed new light and clearer understanding of the interactions between gravitational and electromagnetic

  10. The Hintereisferner - eight years of experience in method development for glacier monitoring with airborne LiDAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vetter, M.; Höfle, B.; Pfeifer, N.; Rutzinger, M.; Sailer, R.; Stötter, J.; Geist, T.

    2009-04-01

    Topographic data acquisition with LiDAR technology, airborne or terrestrial, has become the state-of-the-art procedure for Earth surface surveying. For glacier monitoring different remote sensing technologies are used for many years. With the advent of airborne LiDAR a paradigm shift in glacier monitoring has taken place. Eight years ago pioneer work within glacier surface surveying and monitoring has been carried out at the Institute of Geography (Innsbruck) within the OMEGA (Development of Operational Monitoring System for European Glacial Areas) project by using airborne LiDAR. Since 2001, 16 single airborne LiDAR campaigns have been carried out by collecting data of Hintereisferner, Kesselwandferner and adjacent small glaciers as well as their surrounding areas (Ötztal Alps, Tyrol, Austria). We present the main results of this period of glacier monitoring based on LiDAR data. One major task was to set up a geo-database system to manage the huge amount of LiDAR data, offering the opportunity to compute various point features and different rasterized data sets using this LiDAR data management and analysis system. In this context some basic routines were developed (e.g. a tool for intensity calibration, for derive intensity and point density images, and for modeling the locations of laser shot dropouts). In addition, tools for the analysis of the glacier surface have been developed: (a) a glacier delineation tool, using intensity and roughness information, (b) tools to compute and visualize the volume and elevation changes using multitemporal data, (c) a tool to calculate the ice flow velocity at the glacier surface, (d) a classification tool to detect crevasses, snow, firn, ice and debris covered ice areas, using calibrated intensity data, roughness information and modeled laser shot dropouts. For the analysis of glacial geomorphologic processes (i) a routine for the delineation of moraine ridges and rock glaciers works on the basis of break lines, (ii) a

  11. Greenhouse Gas Sensing Using Small Unmanned Aerial Systems - Field Experiment Results and Future Directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubrey, A. D.; Christensen, L. E.; Brockers, R.; Thompson, D. R.

    2014-12-01

    Requirements for greenhouse gas point source detection and quantification often require high spatial resolution on the order of meters. These applications, which help close the gap in emissions estimate uncertainties, also demand sensing with high sensitivity and in a fashion that accounts for spatiotemporal variability on the order of seconds to minutes. Low-cost vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) small unmanned aerial systems (sUAS) provide a means to detect and identify the location of point source gas emissions while offering ease of deployment and high maneuverability. Our current fielded gas sensing sUAS platforms are able to provide instantaneous in situ concentration measurements at locations within line of sight of the operator. Recent results from field experiments demonstrating methane detection and plume characterization will be discussed here, including performance assessment conducted via a controlled release experiment in 2013. The logical extension of sUAS gas concentration measurement is quantification of flux rate. We will discuss the preliminary strategy for quantitative flux determination, including intrinsic challenges and heritage from airborne science campaigns, associated with this point source flux quantification. This system approach forms the basis for intelligent autonomous quantitative characterization of gas plumes, which holds great value for applications in commercial, regulatory, and safety environments.

  12. Drift studies--comparison of field and wind tunnel experiments.

    PubMed

    Stadler, R; Regenauer, W

    2005-01-01

    Drift at pesticide application leads to a pollution of non-target crops, non-target species and surface water. Spray drift is influenced by many factors like environmental conditions, vegetation, technical conditions, and physical properties of the tank mixes and influenced by Chemicals. Field experiments to characterise spray drift effects with the risk of permanent changing weather conditions can be supported by wind tunnel experiments. Wind tunnel experiments do not lead to the same soil deposition curves like field experiments, but the ratio of drift reduction potential is comparable.

  13. An overview of the results of the FIFE-87 and FIFE-89 campaigns. [First International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project Field Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, R. E.; Sellers, P. J.; Hall, F. G.; Asrar, G.; Blad, B. L.; Kanemasu, E. T.; Kelley, R. D.; Markham, B.; Strebel, D.; Wang, J. R.

    1991-01-01

    Results of a major land surface-atmosphere exchange study, the First ISLSCP Field Experiment (FIFE) are summarized. Findings result from nearly 80 days of field measurements over a 15 kilometer square area involving 30 science teams, seven remote sensing aircraft, and 5 satellites which acquired over 1200 low resolution and 35 high spatial resolution satellite images, maps of remotely sensed temperature, vegetation index and soil moisture, surface flux measurements from more than 20 ground stations and airborne sensors, and transects of vegetation, soil moisture and soil chemistry. Relationships between in situ, airborne, and spaceborne remote measurements and the problem of scaling will be discussed. Energy balance comparisons among sites were made. Diurnal measurements of latent heat fluxes indicated a strong correlation between the evaporative fraction at midday and the daytime average value.

  14. Estimating Aboveground Forest Carbon Stock of Major Tropical Forest Land Uses Using Airborne Lidar and Field Measurement Data in Central Sumatra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thapa, R. B.; Watanabe, M.; Motohka, T.; Shiraishi, T.; shimada, M.

    2013-12-01

    Tropical forests are providing environmental goods and services including carbon sequestration, energy regulation, water fluxes, wildlife habitats, fuel, and building materials. Despite the policy attention, the tropical forest reserve in Southeast Asian region is releasing vast amount of carbon to the atmosphere due to deforestation. Establishing quality forest statistics and documenting aboveground forest carbon stocks (AFCS) are emerging in the region. Airborne and satellite based large area monitoring methods are developed to compliment conventional plot based field measurement methods as they are costly, time consuming, and difficult to implement for large regions. But these methods still require adequate ground measurements for calibrating accurate AFCS model. Furthermore, tropical region comprised of varieties of natural and plantation forests capping higher variability of forest structures and biomass volumes. To address this issue and the needs for ground data, we propose the systematic collection of ground data integrated with airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data. Airborne LiDAR enables accurate measures of vertical forest structure, including canopy height and volume demanding less ground measurement plots. Using an appropriate forest type based LiDAR sampling framework, structural properties of forest can be quantified and treated similar to ground measurement plots, producing locally relevant information to use independently with satellite data sources including synthetic aperture radar (SAR). In this study, we examined LiDAR derived forest parameters with field measured data and developed general and specific AFCS models for tropical forests in central Sumatra. The general model is fitted for all types of natural and plantation forests while the specific model is fitted to the specific forest type. The study region consists of natural forests including peat swamp and dry moist forests, regrowth, and mangrove and plantation forests

  15. Multispectral airborne imagery in the field reveals genetic determinisms of morphological and transpiration traits of an apple tree hybrid population in response to water deficit

    PubMed Central

    Virlet, Nicolas; Costes, Evelyne; Martinez, Sébastien; Kelner, Jean-Jacques; Regnard, Jean-Luc

    2015-01-01

    Genetic studies of response to water deficit in adult trees are limited by low throughput of the usual phenotyping methods in the field. Here, we aimed at overcoming this bottleneck, applying a new methodology using airborne multispectral imagery and in planta measurements to compare a high number of individuals. An apple tree population, grafted on the same rootstock, was submitted to contrasting summer water regimes over two years. Aerial images acquired in visible, near- and thermal-infrared at three dates each year allowed calculation of vegetation and water stress indices. Tree vigour and fruit production were also assessed. Linear mixed models were built accounting for date and year effects on several variables and including the differential response of genotypes between control and drought conditions. Broad-sense heritability of most variables was high and 18 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) independent of the dates were detected on nine linkage groups of the consensus apple genetic map. For vegetation and stress indices, QTLs were related to the means, the intra-crown heterogeneity, and differences induced by water regimes. Most QTLs explained 15−20% of variance. Airborne multispectral imaging proved relevant to acquire simultaneous information on a whole tree population and to decipher genetic determinisms involved in response to water deficit. PMID:26208644

  16. Multispectral airborne imagery in the field reveals genetic determinisms of morphological and transpiration traits of an apple tree hybrid population in response to water deficit.

    PubMed

    Virlet, Nicolas; Costes, Evelyne; Martinez, Sébastien; Kelner, Jean-Jacques; Regnard, Jean-Luc

    2015-09-01

    Genetic studies of response to water deficit in adult trees are limited by low throughput of the usual phenotyping methods in the field. Here, we aimed at overcoming this bottleneck, applying a new methodology using airborne multispectral imagery and in planta measurements to compare a high number of individuals.An apple tree population, grafted on the same rootstock, was submitted to contrasting summer water regimes over two years. Aerial images acquired in visible, near- and thermal-infrared at three dates each year allowed calculation of vegetation and water stress indices. Tree vigour and fruit production were also assessed. Linear mixed models were built accounting for date and year effects on several variables and including the differential response of genotypes between control and drought conditions.Broad-sense heritability of most variables was high and 18 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) independent of the dates were detected on nine linkage groups of the consensus apple genetic map. For vegetation and stress indices, QTLs were related to the means, the intra-crown heterogeneity, and differences induced by water regimes. Most QTLs explained 15-20% of variance.Airborne multispectral imaging proved relevant to acquire simultaneous information on a whole tree population and to decipher genetic determinisms involved in response to water deficit.

  17. Airborne lidar detection of subsurface oceanic scattering layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoge, Frank E.; Wright, C. Wayne; Krabill, William B.; Buntzen, Rodney R.; Gilbert, Gary D.

    1988-01-01

    The airborne lidar detection and cross-sectional mapping of submerged oceanic scattering layers are reported. The field experiment was conducted in the Atlantic Ocean southeast of Assateague Island, VA. NASA's Airborne Oceanographic Lidar was operated in the bathymetric mode to acquire on-wavelength 532-nm depth-resolved backscatter signals from shelf/slope waters. Unwanted laser pulse reflection from the air-water interface was minimized by spatial filtering and off-nadir operation. The presence of thermal stratification over the shelf was verified by the deployment of airborne expendable bathythermographs. Optical beam transmission measurements acquired from a surface truthing vessel indicated the presence of a layer of turbid water near the sea floor over the inner portion of the shelf.

  18. Airborne signals of communication in sagebrush: a pharmacological approach

    PubMed Central

    Shiojiri, Kaori; Ishizaki, Satomi; Ozawa, Rika; Karban, Richard

    2015-01-01

    When plants receive volatiles from a damaged plant, the receivers become more resistant to herbivory. This phenomenon has been reported in many plant species and called plant-plant communication. Lab experiments have suggested that several compounds may be functioning as airborne signals. The objective of this study is to identify potential airborne signals used in communication between sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) individuals in the field. We collected volatiles of one branch from each of 99 sagebrush individual plants. Eighteen different volatiles were detected by GC-MS analysis. Among these, 4 compounds; 1.8-cineol, β-caryophyllene, α-pinene and borneol, were investigated as signals of communication under natural conditions. The branches which received either 1,8-cineol or β-caryophyllene tended to get less damage than controls. These results suggested that 1,8-cineol and β-caryophyllene should be considered further as possible candidates for generalized airborne signals in sagebrush. PMID:26418970

  19. Multidisciplinary Field Training in Undergraduate Physical Geography: Russian Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasimov, Nikolay S.; Chalov, Sergey R.; Panin, Andrey V.

    2013-01-01

    Field training is seen as a central component of the discipline of Physical Geography and an essential part of the undergraduate curriculum. This paper explores the structure and relationships between fieldwork and theoretical courses and the abundant experiences of field training in the undergraduate curriculum of 37 Russian universities. It…

  20. Electric Dipole Moment Experiment Systematic from Electric Field Discharge Current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feinberg, B.; Gould, Harvey

    2014-09-01

    A magnetic field, in the direction of the electric field and synchronous with the electric field reversal, will mimic an EDM signal. One might expect a discharge across the electric field plates to produce magnetic fields with only small or vanishing components parallel to the electric field, minimizing its systematic effect. Our experimental model, using simulated discharge currents, found otherwise: the discharge current may be at an angle to the normal, and thus generate a normal magnetic field. Comparison of data from the experimental model with the results from calculations will be presented, along with estimates of the time-averaged normal magnetic field seen by atoms in an electron EDM experiment using a fountain of laser-cooled francium, as a function of discharge current.

  1. On the design of experiments to study extreme field limits

    SciTech Connect

    Bulanov, S. S.; Chen, M.; Schroeder, C. B.; Esarey, E.; Leemans, W. P.; Bulanov, S. V.; Esirkepov, T. Zh.; Kando, M.; Koga, J. K.; Zhidkov, A. G.; Chen, P.; Mur, V. D.; Narozhny, N. B.; Popov, V. S.; Thomas, A. G. R.; Korn, G.

    2012-12-21

    We propose experiments on the collision of high intensity electromagnetic pulses with electron bunches and on the collision of multiple electromagnetic pulses for studying extreme field limits in the nonlinear interaction of electromagnetic waves. The effects of nonlinear QED will be revealed in these laser plasma experiments.

  2. Airborne quantification of upper tropospheric NOx enhancements from lightning in deep convective storms over the continental U.S. during the Deep Convective Clouds and Chemistry (DC3) experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollack, I. B.; Campos, T. L.; Cohen, R. C.; Diskin, G. S.; Flocke, F. M.; Knapp, D. J.; Garland, C.; Mikoviny, T.; Nault, B.; Peischl, J.; Sachse, G. W.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Wisthaler, A.; Ryerson, T. B.

    2012-12-01

    Airborne in-situ observations from the chemically-instrumented NASA DC8 and NSF GV research aircraft during the Deep Convective Clouds and Chemistry (DC3) experiment are used to quantify enhancements in nitrogen oxides (NOx) in the upper troposphere due to lightning in deep convective storms. Several storms were sampled over Colorado, Oklahoma, and Alabama in May and June, 2012. Inflow to these storms was primarily sampled by the DC8 aircraft between 1 and 5 km above ground level; outflow was typically sampled by both aircraft near 10 km. Storms were typically sampled over a 1-2 hour time period by a single aircraft, and often simultaneously using the two instrumented airborne platforms. In this work, we examine airborne measurements of NOx and other tracers in the outflow to attribute and quantify NOx enhancements produced from lightning. Results from several convective storms sampled during the DC3 experiment will be compared.

  3. Overview of the Field Phase of the NASA Tropical Cloud Systems and Processes (TCSP)Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hood, Robbie E.; Zipser, Edward; Heymsfield, Gerald M.; Kakar, Ramesh; Halverson Jeffery; Rogers, Robert; Black, Michael

    2006-01-01

    The Tropical Cloud Systems and Processes experiment is sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to investigate characteristics of tropical cyclone genesis, rapid intensification and rainfall using a three-pronged approach that emphasizes satellite information, suborbital observations and numerical model simulations. Research goals include demonstration and assessment of new technology, improvements to numerical model parameterizations, and advancements in data assimilation techniques. The field phase of the experiment was based in Costa Rica during July 2005. A fully instrumented NASA ER-2 high altitude airplane was deployed with Doppler radar, passive microwave instrumentation, lightning and electric field sensors and an airborne simulator of visible and infrared satellite sensors. Other assets brought to TCSP were a low flying uninhabited aerial vehicle, and a surface-based radiosonde network. In partnership with the Intensity Forecasting Experiment of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Hurricane Research Division, two NOAA P-3 aircraft instrumented with radar, passive microwave, microphysical, and dropsonde instrumentation were also deployed to Costa Rica. The field phase of TCSP was conducted in Costa Rica to take advantage of the geographically compact tropical cyclone genesis region of the Eastern Pacific Ocean near Central America. However, the unusual 2005 hurricane season provided numerous opportunities to sample tropical cyclone development and intensification in the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico as well. Development of Hurricane Dennis and Tropical Storm Gert were each investigated over several days in addition to Hurricane Emily as it was close to Saffir-Simpson Category 5 intensity. An overview of the characteristics of these storms along with the pregenesis environment of Tropical Storm Eugene in the Eastern Pacific will be presented.

  4. TPE-1R (M) reversed field pinch experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Shimada, T.; Hirano, Y.; Maejima, Y.; Ogawa, K.

    1981-01-01

    This report describes the engineering aspects of the design, tests, and performances of the toroidal device TPE-1RM with which plasma physics researches on ''Reversed Field Pinch''configurations are carried out and this is an intermediate scale like HBTX-1A, ZT-40M, and ETA-BETA II. In TPE-1RM experiments are being performed in order to obtain an optimum reversed field configurations for MHD stability. The main description in this report is devoted to the metal vacuum vessel and specially contrived electrical circuit for field programming control techniques. The experiments with this device have been successful both from the technical and physcial points of view.

  5. A sensor fusion field experiment in forest ecosystem dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, James A.; Ranson, K. Jon; Williams, Darrel L.; Levine, Elissa R.; Goltz, Stewart M.

    1990-01-01

    The background of the Forest Ecosystem Dynamics field campaign is presented, a progress report on the analysis of the collected data and related modeling activities is provided, and plans for future experiments at different points in the phenological cycle are outlined. The ecological overview of the study site is presented, and attention is focused on forest stands, needles, and atmospheric measurements. Sensor deployment and thermal and microwave observations are discussed, along with two examples of the optical radiation measurements obtained during the experiment in support of radiative transfer modeling. Future activities pertaining to an archival system, synthetic aperture radar, carbon acquisition modeling, and upcoming field experiments are considered.

  6. Detection of Aeromagnetic Field Changes Using an Unmanned Autonomous Helicopter: Repeated Experiments at Tarumae Volcano (Japan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, T.; Koyama, T.; Yanagisawa, T.; Yoshimoto, M.; Ohminato, T.; Kaneko, T.

    2015-12-01

    Volcanic eruptions often prohibit humans from approaching active craters. Meanwhile, it is important, especially at the initial stage of an eruption, to perform visual surveillance, geophysical/chemical measurements and material sampling in the vicinity of the craters. Besides scientific purposes, information from such surveys is helpful for the local government in deciding the response to volcanic unrest. We started airborne surveys using an unmanned helicopter on a trial basis in cooperation with the Hokkaido Regional Development Bureau. As a part of the project, we repeated aeromagnetic surveys over Mt. Tarumae (1,041m), one of the active volcanoes in northern Japan in 2011, 2012 and 2013. Owing to its high accuracy of positioning control in the autonomous flight with the aid of GPS navigation and the fairly small magnetic field gradient in the air, temporal changes up to 30 nT were successfully detected through a direct comparison between separate surveys. The field changes in the air were mostly consistent with those on the ground surface, which suggested remagnetization due to cooling beneath the summit lava dome. Through our three-year experiments, the unmanned helicopter was proved to be useful for aeromagnetic monitoring. Although the system still has some limitations in terms of maximum flight altitude and operational range from the base station, we emphasize the following three advantages of this technique. (1) Operation without exposing human to volcanic hazards. (2) Straightforward data processing procedure to obtain temporal magnetic field changes, which is especially important in an emergency response such as an ongoing unrest. (3) Great reduction of the cost to maintain ground-based monitoring stations for many years. Acknowledgments: We express sincere thanks to Muroran and Sapporo Development and Construction Departments of the HRDB for the cooperation in the field experiments using their unmanned helicopter.

  7. Field Experiences for Young Children: Planning and Implementing Field Trips, Classroom Visitors and Collecting Trips.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Anne; Warner, Jane

    This document provides guidelines and suggestions for taking preschool children on field trips. Rationale for field trips, safety considerations, planning, preparation through classroom activities, parent involvement and keeping a field experience reference file are among the topics discussed. Examples of trips to a supermarket and to hear a high…

  8. DC-8 Airborne Laboratory in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This 17-second clip shows air-to-air shots of the NASA DC-8 airborne laboratory as it passes over the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards, California, and the foothills of the Sierra Nevada mountains. On December 29, 1997, NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, received a DC-8 airborne laboratory from NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California, where it had flown missions related to airborne science and earth science for many years. This airplane has continued to be used from Dryden for basic research about the Earth's surface and atmosphere as well as sensor development and satellite sensor verification. In mid-February 1998, the DC-8 resumed flying its medium-altitude, science-gathering missions following maintenance and upgrades of its satellite communications system. It flew a variety of missions over widely scattered geographic regions during the rest of the calendar year and beyond to gather data about earth science, including weather and climate. Built by Douglas Aircraft Company, Long Beach, California, in 1966, the DC-8 flew for 20 years with two major airlines before being acquired by NASA and converted to its present role as an airborne laboratory. The four-engine former jetliner was capable of flying extended-duration missions as long as 12 hours over a range of 5,400 nautical miles at cruise altitudes up to 41,000 feet. It was also capable of carrying a payload of multiple experiments weighing up to 30,000 pounds. On some of its missions, up to 30 scientists have worked on as many as 14 different experiments.

  9. DC-8 airborne laboratory in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In this 26-second clip the NASA DC-8 airborne laboratory is shown making turns over the Sierra Nevada foothills, NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, and Rogers Dry Lakebed at Edwards Air Force Base, California. On December 29, 1997, NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, received a DC-8 airborne laboratory from NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California, where it had flown missions related to airborne science and earth science for many years. This airplane has continued to be used from Dryden for basic research about the Earth's surface and atmosphere as well as sensor development and satellite sensor verification. In mid-February 1998, the DC-8 resumed flying its medium-altitude, science-gathering missions following maintenance and upgrades of its satellite communications system. It flew a variety of missions over widely scattered geographic regions during the rest of the calendar year and beyond to gather data about earth science, including weather and climate. Built by Douglas Aircraft Company, Long Beach, California, in 1966, the DC-8 flew for 20 years with two major Airlines before being acquired by NASA and converted to its present role as an airborne laboratory. The four-engine former jetliner was capable of flying extended-duration missions for as long as 12 hours over a range of 5,400 nautical miles at cruise altitudes of up to 41,000 feet. It was also capable of carrying a payload of multiple experiments weighing up to 30,000 pounds. On some of its missions, up to 30 scientists have worked on as many as 14 different experiments.

  10. Impact of portable air filtration units on exposure of haematology-oncology patients to airborne Aspergillus fumigatus spores under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Engelhart, S; Hanfland, J; Glasmacher, A; Krizek, L; Schmidt-Wolf, I G H; Exner, M

    2003-08-01

    We undertook a one-year study to investigate the impact of the NSA model 7100A/B portable air filtration unit on exposure of haematology-oncology patients to airborne Aspergillus fumigatus spores under field conditions. Weekly measurements for airborne A. fumigatus were conducted in indoor and outdoor air, and surveillance for invasive aspergillosis was based on a combination of ward liaison, targeted chart review and consultation with the medical staff. The mean indoor A. fumigatus counts (8.1 cfu/m3; range, <0.8 to 42 cfu/m3) reflected the fungal load of outdoor air (9.4 cfu/m3; range, <0.8 to 50 cfu/m3), and were reduced by only about one third in rooms with portable air filtration units (5.3 cfu/m3; range, <0.8 to 41 cfu/m3). During the study period, a total of five cases (incidence density, 0.8 per 1000 patient-days) of invasive aspergillosis (one proven case, four suspected cases; case fatality rate 40%) were recorded. None of these five patients was allocated to a room with portable air filtration unit, however, the difference between incidence densities in rooms with and without portable air filtration units was non-significant (Fisher's exact test, P=0.33). Due to the noise level and thermal discomfort, patient compliance with the air filtration units was poor. We conclude that under field conditions this air filtration unit cannot be recommended for prevention of invasive aspergillosis in neutropenic haematology-oncology patients.

  11. An illustrated gardener's guide to transgenic Arabidopsis field experiments.

    PubMed

    Frenkel, Martin; Jänkänpää, Hanna Johansson; Moen, Jon; Jansson, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    Field studies with transgenic Arabidopsis lines have been performed over 8 yr, to better understand the influence that certain genes have on plant performance. Many (if not most) plant phenotypes cannot be observed under the near constant, low-stress conditions in growth chambers, making field experiments necessary. However, there are challenges in performing such experiments: permission must be obtained and regulations obeyed, the profound influence of uncontrollable biotic and abiotic factors has to be considered, and experimental design has to be strictly controlled. The aim here is to provide inspiration and guidelines for researchers who are not used to setting up such experiments, allowing others to learn from our mistakes. This is believed to be the first example of a 'manual' for field experiments with transgenic Arabidopsis plants. Many of the challenges encountered are common for all field experiments, and many researchers from ecological backgrounds are skilled in such methods. There is huge potential in combining the detailed mechanistic understanding of molecular biologists with ecologists' expertise in examining plant performance under field conditions, and it is suggested that more interdisciplinary collaborations will open up new scientific avenues to aid analyses of the roles of genetic and physiological variation in natural systems.

  12. Influencing attitudes toward science through field experiences in biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, Deborah Mcintyre

    The purpose of this study was to determine how student attitudes toward science are influenced by field experiences in undergraduate biology courses. The study was conducted using two institutions of higher education including a 2-year lower-level and a 2-year upper-level institution. Data were collected through interviews with student participants, focus group discussions, students' journal entries, and field notes recorded by the researcher during the field activities. Photographs and video recordings were also used as documentation sources. Data were collected over a period of 34 weeks. Themes that emerged from the qualitative data included students' beliefs that field experiences (a) positively influence student motivation to learn, (b) increase student ability to learn the concepts being taught, and (c) provide opportunities for building relationships and for personal growth. The findings of the study reinforce the importance of offering field-study programs at the undergraduate level to allow undergraduate students the opportunity to experience science activities in a field setting. The research study was framed by the behavioral and developmental theories of attitude and experience including the Theory of Planned Behavior (Ajzen, 1991) and the Theory of Experiential Learning (Kolb, 1984).

  13. Multicomponent reactive transport modeling of uranium bioremediation field experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Yilin; Yabusaki, Steven B.; Morrison, Stan J.; Amonette, James P.; Long, Philip E.

    2009-10-01

    A reaction network integrating abiotic and microbially mediated reactions has been developed to simulate biostimulation field experiments at a former Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) site in Rifle, Colorado. The reaction network was calibrated using data from the 2002 field experiment, after which it was applied without additional calibration to field experiments performed in 2003 and 2007. The robustness of the model specification is significant in that (1) the 2003 biostimulation field experiment was performed with 3 times higher acetate concentrations than the previous biostimulation in the same field plot (i.e., the 2002 experiment), and (2) the 2007 field experiment was performed in a new unperturbed plot on the same site. The biogeochemical reactive transport simulations accounted for four terminal electron-accepting processes (TEAPs), two distinct functional microbial populations, two pools of bioavailable Fe(III) minerals (iron oxides and phyllosilicate iron), uranium aqueous and surface complexation, mineral precipitation and dissolution. The conceptual model for bioavailable iron reflects recent laboratory studies with sediments from the UMTRA site that demonstrated that the bulk (˜90%) of initial Fe(III) bioreduction is associated with phyllosilicate rather than oxide forms of iron. The uranium reaction network includes a U(VI) surface complexation model based on laboratory studies with Rifle site sediments and aqueous complexation reactions that include ternary complexes (e.g., calcium-uranyl-carbonate). The bioreduced U(IV), Fe(II), and sulfide components produced during the experiments are strongly associated with the solid phases and may play an important role in long-term uranium immobilization.

  14. Magnetic field experiment for Voyagers 1 and 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behannon, K. W.; Aluna, M. H.; Burlaga, L. F.; Lepping, R. P.; Ness, N. F.; Neubauer, F. M.

    1977-01-01

    The magnetic field experiment to be carried on the Voyager 1 and 2 missions consists of dual low field (LFM) and high field magnetometer (HFM) systems. The dual systems provide greater reliability and, in the case of the LFM's, permit the separation of spacecraft magnetic fields from the ambient fields. Additional reliability is achieved through electronics redundancy. The wide dynamic ranges of plus or minus 0.5G for the LFM's and plus or minus 20G for the HFM's, low quantization uncertainty of plus or minus 0.002 gamma in the most sensitive (plus or minus 8 gamma) LFM range, low sensor RMS noise level of 0.006 gamma, and use of data compaction schemes to optimize the experiment information rate all combine to permit the study of a broad spectrum of phenomena during the mission. Planetary fields at Jupiter, Saturn, and possibly Uranus; satellites of these planets; solar wind and satellite interactions with the planetary fields; and the large-scale structure and microscale characteristics of the interplanetary magnetic field are studied. The interstellar field may also be measured.

  15. Airborne active and passive L-band measurements using PALS instrument in SMAPVEX12 soil moisture field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colliander, Andreas; Yueh, Simon; Chazanoff, Seth; Dinardo, Steven; O'Dwyer, Ian; Jackson, Thomas; McNairn, Heather; Bullock, Paul; Wiseman, Grant; Berg, Aaron; Magagi, Ramata; Njoku, Eni

    2012-10-01

    NASA's (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Mission is scheduled for launch in late 2014. The objective of the mission is global mapping of soil moisture and freeze/thaw state. Merging of active and passive L-band observations of the mission will enable unprecedented combination of accuracy, resolution, coverage and revisit-time for soil moisture and freeze/thaw state retrieval. For pre-launch algorithm development and validation the SMAP project and NASA coordinated a field campaign named as SMAPVEX12 (Soil Moisture Active Passive Validation Experiment 2012) together with Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, and other Canadian and US institutions in the vicinity of Winnipeg, Canada in June-July, 2012. The main objective of SMAPVEX12 was acquisition of a data record that features long time-series with varying soil moisture and vegetation conditions over an aerial domain of multiple parallel flight lines. The coincident active and passive L-band data was acquired with the PALS (Passive Active L-band System) instrument. The measurements were conducted over the experiment domain every 2-3 days on average, over a period of 43 days. The preliminary calibration of the brightness temperatures obtained in the campaign has been performed. Daily lake calibrations were used to adjust the radiometer calibration parameters, and the obtained measurements were compared against the raw in situ soil moisture measurements. The evaluation shows that this preliminary calibration of the data produces already a consistent brightness temperature record over the campaign duration, and only secondary adjustments and cleaning of the data is need before the data can be applied to the development and validation of SMAP algorithms.

  16. Lab and field experiments: are they the same animal?

    PubMed

    Calisi, Rebecca M; Bentley, George E

    2009-06-01

    To advance our understanding of biological processes we often plan our experiments based on published data. This can be confusing though, as data from experiments performed in a laboratory environment are sometimes different from, or completely opposite to, findings from similar experiments performed in the "real world". In this mini-review, we discuss instances where results from laboratory experiments differ as a result of laboratory housing conditions, and where they differ from results gathered in the field environment. Experiments involving endocrinology and behavior appear to be particularly susceptible to influence from the environment in which they are performed. As such, we have attempted to promote discussion of the influence of housing environment on the reproductive axis, circadian biology and behavior, immune function, stress biology, neuroplasticity and photoperiodism. For example, why should a rodent species be diurnal in one housing environment yet nocturnal in another? Are data that are gathered from experiments in the laboratory applicable to the field environment, and vice-versa? We hope not only to highlight the need for experiments in both lab and field when looking at complex biological systems, but also to promote frank discussion of discordant data. Perhaps, just as study of individual variation has been gaining momentum in recent years, data from variation between experimental arenas can provide us with novel lines of research.

  17. Torsion-balance experiments and ultra-low-mass fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terrano, William

    2017-01-01

    Many of the solutions to outstanding problems in modern cosmology posit new, ultra-light fields. Unifying General Relativity and Quantum Mechanics appears to require new ultra-light fields at some level. Such fields are also invoked to drive inflation and dark energy. Ultra-light fields may also make up much or all of the dark matter density of the universe. Torsion pendulums, a technology that dates to the 18th century, remain one of the most sensitive experimental techniques to search for ultra-light, weakly interacting fields. I will explain how torsion balance experiments can search for beyond-the-standard-model fields using laboratory-based as well as galactic sources, and the important cosmological implications of these measurements. I will also describe a new experimental signature for which certain torsion balance geometries make very sensitive direct dark matter detectors over a broad range of interesting dark matter parameter space.

  18. Comparison of Precision of Biomass Estimates in Regional Field Sample Surveys and Airborne LiDAR-Assisted Surveys in Hedmark County, Norway

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naesset, Erik; Gobakken, Terje; Bollandsas, Ole Martin; Gregoire, Timothy G.; Nelson, Ross; Stahl, Goeran

    2013-01-01

    Airborne scanning LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) has emerged as a promising tool to provide auxiliary data for sample surveys aiming at estimation of above-ground tree biomass (AGB), with potential applications in REDD forest monitoring. For larger geographical regions such as counties, states or nations, it is not feasible to collect airborne LiDAR data continuously ("wall-to-wall") over the entire area of interest. Two-stage cluster survey designs have therefore been demonstrated by which LiDAR data are collected along selected individual flight-lines treated as clusters and with ground plots sampled along these LiDAR swaths. Recently, analytical AGB estimators and associated variance estimators that quantify the sampling variability have been proposed. Empirical studies employing these estimators have shown a seemingly equal or even larger uncertainty of the AGB estimates obtained with extensive use of LiDAR data to support the estimation as compared to pure field-based estimates employing estimators appropriate under simple random sampling (SRS). However, comparison of uncertainty estimates under SRS and sophisticated two-stage designs is complicated by large differences in the designs and assumptions. In this study, probability-based principles to estimation and inference were followed. We assumed designs of a field sample and a LiDAR-assisted survey of Hedmark County (HC) (27,390 km2), Norway, considered to be more comparable than those assumed in previous studies. The field sample consisted of 659 systematically distributed National Forest Inventory (NFI) plots and the airborne scanning LiDAR data were collected along 53 parallel flight-lines flown over the NFI plots. We compared AGB estimates based on the field survey only assuming SRS against corresponding estimates assuming two-phase (double) sampling with LiDAR and employing model-assisted estimators. We also compared AGB estimates based on the field survey only assuming two-stage sampling (the NFI

  19. Exact quantum field mappings between different experiments on quantum gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wamba, Etienne; Pelster, Axel; Anglin, James R.

    2016-10-01

    Experiments on trapped quantum gases can probe challenging regimes of quantum many-body dynamics, where strong interactions or nonequilibrium states prevent exact solutions. Here we present a different kind of exact result, which applies even in the absence of actual solutions: a class of space-time mappings of different experiments onto each other. Since our result is an identity relating second-quantized field operators in the Heisenberg picture of quantum mechanics, it is extremely general; it applies to arbitrary measurements on any mixtures of Bose or Fermi gases, in arbitrary initial states. It represents a strong prediction of quantum field theory which can be tested in current laboratories, and whose practical applications include perfect simulation of interesting experiments with other experiments which may be easier to perform.

  20. Feasibility of airborne detection of laser-induced fluorescence emissions from green terrestrial plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoge, F. E.; Swift, R. N.; Yungel, J. K.

    1983-01-01

    The present investigation provides a demonstration of the feasibility of the airborne detection of the laser-induced fluorescence spectral emissions from living terrestrial grasses, shrubs, and trees using existing levels of lidar technology. Airborne studies were performed to ascertain system requirements necessary to detect laser-induced fluorescence from living terrestrial plants, to assess the practical acquisition of useful single-shot laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) waveforms over vegetative canopies, and to determine the comparative suitability of laser system, airborne platform, and terrestrial environmental parameters. The field experiment was conducted on May 3, 1982, over the northern portion of Wallops Island, VA. Attention is given to airborne lidar results and the description of laboratory investigations.

  1. Validation of full-field techniques: discussion of experiences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hack, E.; Burguete, R.; Siebert, T.; Davighi, A.; Mottershead, J.; Lampeas, G.; Ihle, A.; Patterson, E.; Pipino, A.

    2010-06-01

    Validation and calibration of optical full-field techniques that are used to measure strain and displacement in experimental mechanics is a prerequisite for validating numerical stress analyses. ICEM14 brings together practising engineers from around the world to exchange their experience regarding validation and calibration from everyday measurements with different optical techniques. The discussion addresses the following issues: (i) experience in calibrating measurement equipment based on imaging; (ii) reference measurements and calibration artefacts; (iii) validation of finite element analyses by comparison to experimental data; and (iv) uncertainties in full-field measurements.

  2. Natural attenuation of xenobiotic compounds: Anaerobic field injection experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Ruegge, K.; Bjerg, P.L.; Mosbaek, H.; Christensen, T.H.

    1995-12-31

    Currently, a continuous field injection experiment is being performed in the anaerobic part of a pollution plume downgradient of the Grindsted Landfill in Denmark. This natural gradient experiment includes an injection of 18 different xenobiotic compounds with bromide as a tracer. The injection is taking place under methanogenic/sulfate-reducing conditions and the compounds will, as they migrate with the groundwater, pass through a zone where the redox conditions have been determined as iron-reducing.

  3. Absolute airborne gravimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumann, Henri

    This work consists of a feasibility study of a first stage prototype airborne absolute gravimeter system. In contrast to relative systems, which are using spring gravimeters, the measurements acquired by absolute systems are uncorrelated and the instrument is not suffering from problems like instrumental drift, frequency response of the spring and possible variation of the calibration factor. The major problem we had to resolve were to reduce the influence of the non-gravitational accelerations included in the measurements. We studied two different approaches to resolve it: direct mechanical filtering, and post-processing digital compensation. The first part of the work describes in detail the different mechanical passive filters of vibrations, which were studied and tested in the laboratory and later in a small truck in movement. For these tests as well as for the airborne measurements an absolute gravimeter FG5-L from Micro-G Ltd was used together with an Inertial navigation system Litton-200, a vertical accelerometer EpiSensor, and GPS receivers for positioning. These tests showed that only the use of an optical table gives acceptable results. However, it is unable to compensate for the effects of the accelerations of the drag free chamber. The second part describes the strategy of the data processing. It is based on modeling the perturbing accelerations by means of GPS, EpiSensor and INS data. In the third part the airborne experiment is described in detail, from the mounting in the aircraft and data processing to the different problems encountered during the evaluation of the quality and accuracy of the results. In the part of data processing the different steps conducted from the raw apparent gravity data and the trajectories to the estimation of the true gravity are explained. A comparison between the estimated airborne data and those obtained by ground upward continuation at flight altitude allows to state that airborne absolute gravimetry is feasible and

  4. ARM-ACME V: ARM Airborne Carbon Measurements V on the North Slope of Alaska Field Campaign Report

    SciTech Connect

    Biraud, Sebastien C

    2016-05-01

    Atmospheric temperatures are warming faster in the Arctic than predicted by climate models. The impact of this warming on permafrost degradation is not well understood, but it is projected to increase carbon decomposition and greenhouse gas production (CO2 and/or CH4) by arctic ecosystems. Airborne observations of atmospheric trace gases, aerosols and cloud properties in North Slopes of Alaska (NSA) are improving our understanding of global climate, with the goal of reducing the uncertainty in global and regional climate simulations and projections. From June 1 through September 15, 2015, AAF deployed the G1 research aircraft and flew over the North Slope of Alaska (38 flights, 140 science flight hours), with occasional vertical profiling over Prudhoe Bay, Oliktok point, Barrow, Atqasuk, Ivotuk, and Toolik Lake. The aircraft payload included Picarro and Los Gatos Research (LGR) analyzers for continuous measurements of CO2, CH4, H2O, and CO and N2O mixing ratios, and a 12-flask sampler for analysis of carbon cycle gases (CO2, CO, CH4, N2O, 13CO2, and trace hydrocarbon species). The aircraft payload also include measurements of aerosol properties (number size distribution, total number concentration, absorption, and scattering), cloud properties (droplet and ice size information), atmospheric thermodynamic state, and solar/infrared radiation.

  5. An Overview of the First International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project (ISLSCP) Field Experiment (FIFE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sellers, P. J.; Hall, F. G.; Asrar, G.; Strebel, D. E.; Murphy, R. E.

    1992-11-01

    In the summer of 1983 a group of scientists working in the fields of meteorology, biology, and remote sensing met to discuss methods for modeling and observing land-surface—atmosphere interactions on regional and global scales. They concluded, first, that the existing climate models contained poor representations of the processes controlling the exchanges of energy, water, heat, and carbon between the land surface and the atmosphere and, second, that satellite remote sensing had been underutilized as a means of specifying global fields of the governing biophysical parameters. Accordingly, a multiscale, multidisciplinary experiment, FIFE, was initiated to address these two issues. The objectives of FIFE were specified as follows: (1) Upscale integration of models: The experiment was designed to test the soil-plant-atmosphere models developed by biometeorologists for small-scale applications (millimeters to meters) and to develop methods to apply them at the larger scales (kilometers) appropriate to atmospheric models and satellite remote sensing. (2) Application of satellite remote sensing: Even if the first goal were achieved to yield a "perfect" model of vegetation-atmosphere exchanges, it would have very limited applications without a global observing system for initialization and validation. As a result, the experiment was tasked with exploring methods for using satellite data to quantify important biophysical states and rates for model input. The experiment was centered on a 15 × 15 km grassland site near Manhattan, Kansas. This area became the focus for an extended monitoring program of satellite, meteorological, biophysical, and hydrological data acquisition from early 1987 through October 1989 and a series of 12- to 20-day intensive field campaigns (IFCs), four in 1987 and one in 1989. During the IFCs the fluxes of heat, moisture, carbon dioxide, and radiation were measured with surface and airborne equipment in coordination with measurements of surface

  6. Multicomponent reactive transport modeling of uranium bioremediation field experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Yilin; Yabusaki, Steven B.; Morrison, Stan J.; Amonette, James E.; Long, Philip E.

    2009-10-15

    Biostimulation field experiments with acetate amendment are being performed at a former uranium mill tailings site in Rifle, Colorado, to investigate subsurface processes controlling in situ bioremediation of uranium-contaminated groundwater. An important part of the research is identifying and quantifying field-scale models of the principal terminal electron-accepting processes (TEAPs) during biostimulation and the consequent biogeochemical impacts to the subsurface receiving environment. Integrating abiotic chemistry with the microbially mediated TEAPs in the reaction network brings into play geochemical observations (e.g., pH, alkalinity, redox potential, major ions, and secondary minerals) that the reactive transport model must recognize. These additional constraints provide for a more systematic and mechanistic interpretation of the field behaviors during biostimulation. The reaction network specification developed for the 2002 biostimulation field experiment was successfully applied without additional calibration to the 2003 and 2007 field experiments. The robustness of the model specification is significant in that 1) the 2003 biostimulation field experiment was performed with 3 times higher acetate concentrations than the previous biostimulation in the same field plot (i.e., the 2002 experiment), and 2) the 2007 field experiment was performed in a new unperturbed plot on the same site. The biogeochemical reactive transport simulations accounted for four TEAPs, two distinct functional microbial populations, two pools of bioavailable Fe(III) minerals (iron oxides and phyllosilicate iron), uranium aqueous and surface complexation, mineral precipitation, and dissolution. The conceptual model for bioavailable iron reflects recent laboratory studies with sediments from the Old Rifle Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) site that demonstrated that the bulk (~90%) of Fe(III) bioreduction is associated with the phyllosilicates rather than the iron oxides

  7. CALIOPE airborne CO{sub 2} DIAL (CACDI) system design

    SciTech Connect

    Mietz, D.; Archuleta, B.; Archuleta, J.

    1997-09-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory is currently developing an airborne CO{sub 2} Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) system based on second generation technology demonstrated last summer at NTS. The CALIOPE Airborne CO{sub 2} DIAL (CACDI) system requirements have been compiled based on the mission objectives and SONDIAL model trade studies. Subsystem designs have been developed based on flow down from these system requirements, as well as experience gained from second generation ground tests and N-ABLE (Non-proliferation AirBorne Lidar Experiments) airborne experiments. This paper presents the CACDI mission objectives, system requirements, the current subsystem design, and provides an overview of the airborne experimental plan.

  8. Meeting Review: Airborne Aerosol Inlet Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumgardner, Darrel; Huebert, Barry; Wilson, Chuck

    1991-01-01

    Proceedings from the Airborne Aerosol Inlet Workshop are presented. The two central topics of discussion were the role of aerosols in atmospheric processes and the difficulties in characterizing aerosols. The following topics were discussed during the working sessions: airborne observations to date; identification of inlet design issues; inlet modeling needs and directions; objectives for aircraft experiments; and future laboratory and wind tunnel studies.

  9. Linear models for airborne-laser-scanning-based operational forest inventory with small field sample size and highly correlated LiDAR data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Junttila, Virpi; Kauranne, Tuomo; Finley, Andrew O.; Bradford, John B.

    2015-01-01

    Modern operational forest inventory often uses remotely sensed data that cover the whole inventory area to produce spatially explicit estimates of forest properties through statistical models. The data obtained by airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR) correlate well with many forest inventory variables, such as the tree height, the timber volume, and the biomass. To construct an accurate model over thousands of hectares, LiDAR data must be supplemented with several hundred field sample measurements of forest inventory variables. This can be costly and time consuming. Different LiDAR-data-based and spatial-data-based sampling designs can reduce the number of field sample plots needed. However, problems arising from the features of the LiDAR data, such as a large number of predictors compared with the sample size (overfitting) or a strong correlation among predictors (multicollinearity), may decrease the accuracy and precision of the estimates and predictions. To overcome these problems, a Bayesian linear model with the singular value decomposition of predictors, combined with regularization, is proposed. The model performance in predicting different forest inventory variables is verified in ten inventory areas from two continents, where the number of field sample plots is reduced using different sampling designs. The results show that, with an appropriate field plot selection strategy and the proposed linear model, the total relative error of the predicted forest inventory variables is only 5%–15% larger using 50 field sample plots than the error of a linear model estimated with several hundred field sample plots when we sum up the error due to both the model noise variance and the model’s lack of fit.

  10. Airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar Measurements of Atmospheric Aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrare, R.; Hostetler, C.; Hair, J.; Cook, A.; Harper, D.; Kleinman, L.; Clarke, A.; Russell, P.; Redemann, J.; Livingston, J.; Szykman, J.; Al-Saadi, J.

    2007-05-01

    NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) recently developed an airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) to measure aerosol distributions and optical properties. The HSRL technique takes advantage of the spectral distribution of the lidar return signal to discriminate aerosol and molecular signals and thereby measure aerosol extinction and backscatter independently. The LaRC instrument employs the HSRL technique to measure aerosol backscatter and extinction profiles at 532 nm and the standard backscatter lidar technique to measure aerosol backscatter profiles at 1064 nm. Depolarization profiles are measured at both wavelengths. Since March 2006, the airborne HSRL has acquired over 215 flight hours of data deployed on the NASA King Air B200 aircraft during several field experiments. Most of the flights were conducted during two major field experiments. The first major experiment was the joint Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations (MILAGRO) /Megacity Aerosol Experiment in Mexico City (MAX-MEX)/Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment-B (INTEX B) experiment that was conducted during March 2006 to investigate the evolution and transport of pollution from Mexico City. The second major experiment was the Texas Air Quality Study (TEXAQS)/Gulf of Mexico Atmospheric Composition and Climate Study (GoMACCS) that was conducted during August and September 2006 to investigate climate and air quality in the Houston/Gulf of Mexico region. Several flights were also conducted to help validate the Cloud-Aerosol LIdar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) lidar on board the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite (CALIPSO) satellite. In February 2007, several flights were carried out as part of an Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) experiment to assess air quality in central California. Airborne HSRL data acquired during these missions were used to quantify aerosol extinction and optical thickness contributed by various aerosol types

  11. Dynamic field-frequency lock for tracking magnetic field fluctuations in electron spin resonance experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asfaw, Abraham; Tyryshkin, Alexei; Lyon, Stephen

    Global magnetic field fluctuations present significant challenges to pulsed electron spin resonance experiments on systems with long spin coherence times. We will discuss results from experiments in which we follow instantaneous changes in magnetic field by locking to the free induction decay of a proton NMR signal using a phase-locked loop. We extend conventional field-frequency locking techniques used in NMR to follow slow magnetic field drifts by using a modified Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) pulse sequence in which the phase of the pi-pulses follows the phase of the proton spins at all times. Hence, we retain the ability of the CPMG pulse sequence to refocus local magnetic field inhomogeneities without refocusing global magnetic field fluctuations. In contrast with conventional field-frequency locking techniques, our experiments demonstrate the potential of this method to dynamically track global magnetic field fluctuations on timescales of about 2 seconds and with rates faster than a kHz. This frequency range covers the dominant noise frequencies in our electron spin resonance experiments as previously reported.

  12. Field Experiences Using iPads: Impact of Experience on Preservice Teachers' Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Jill A.; Bicheler, Rachel; Robinson, Callan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological case study was to investigate the lived experiences of preservice music teachers using iPads to engage secondary general music students in creating and performing music during field teaching experiences. Two questions guided this research study: (a) What are these preservice teachers' perceptions of their…

  13. Infusing Coteaching into the General Education Field Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Deborah J.; Fisch, Audrey A.

    2013-01-01

    With the proliferation of inclusion, teacher education programs must prepare general education candidates to work collaboratively in a coteaching environment. This study addresses a coteaching assignment introduced into the general education field experience course for secondary content majors. The candidates enrolled had no previous preparation…

  14. Creating Dissonance in Pre-Service Teachers' Field Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenhardt, Sara; Besnoy, Kevin; Steele, Emily

    2012-01-01

    The study is practical in nature and addresses the call for investigating effective aspects of field experiences in teacher preparation. The authors designed a framework of assignments requiring the pre-service teachers to collect data about two diverse elementary students in their assigned elementary classroom during the twelve weeks of their…

  15. Field experiments on an intelligent towed vehicle ``Flying Fish``

    SciTech Connect

    Koterayama, W.; Yamaguchi, S.; Nakamura, M.

    1995-12-31

    A depth, pitch and roll controllable towed vehicle, ``Flying Fish`` is being developed to measure the ocean current, temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, pH, turbidity, chlorophyll and total inorganic hydrocarbon. The first field experiments on its performance were carried out in the Japan sea last summer. The motion data of the ``Flying Fish`` are compared with those of numerical simulations.

  16. An Experiment In Field-Based Elementary Teacher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swann, Margaret H.

    The Experimental Program in Elementary Education (EXEL) at Shepherd College in West Virginia began in 1973 with authorization by the West Virginia State Department of Education. The program was developed with the hope of producing more confident and competent teachers. EXEL provides continuous field experience from the second semester of the…

  17. Quality and Early Field Experiences: Partnering with Junior Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piro, Jody S.; Anderson, Gina; Fredrickson, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the perceptions of preservice teacher candidates who participated in a pilot partnership between a public teacher education preparation program and Junior Achievement (JA). The partnership was grounded in the premise that providing early field experiences to preservice teacher candidates was a necessary requirement of quality…

  18. The Impact of Field Experience on Elementary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Sau Hou

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this session is to describe a research project that involved preservice teacher education candidates in a field experience incorporating individualized tutoring for at-risk elementary students. Specifically, do these struggling elementary readers improve their reading? The first and second graders (n = 190) were all given the…

  19. Rational Ignorance in Education: A Field Experiment in Student Plagiarism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dee, Thomas S.; Jacob, Brian A.

    2012-01-01

    Plagiarism appears to be a common problem among college students, yet there is little evidence on the effectiveness of interventions designed to minimize plagiarism. This study presents the results of a field experiment that evaluated the effects of a web-based educational tutorial in reducing plagiarism. We found that assignment to the treatment…

  20. Exploring International Multicultural Field Experiences in Educational Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilder, Hilary; Ferris, Sharmila Pixy; An, Heejung

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore an online field experience between technology facilitator candidates in the USA and K-12 teachers in Namibia, to improve candidates' understanding of diversity and equity issues in the successful incorporation of information and communication technologies (ICT) in teaching and learning.…

  1. The First Field Experience: Perspectives of Preservice and Cooperating Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brian, Mary; Stoner, Julia; Appel, Kelli; House, Jennifer J.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined perspectives of field experiences among preservice teachers and their cooperating teachers because of debate in the politically charged atmosphere of No Child Left Behind regarding teacher preparation programs. Nine pairs of preservice and cooperating teachers were observed and interviewed over the course of a semester to…

  2. FIELD ACTIVITIES AND PRELIMINARY RESULTS FROM THE INVESTIGATION OF WESTERN AIRBORNE CONTAMINANTS IN TWO HIGH ELEVATION WATERSHEDS OF ROCKY MOUNTAIN NATIONAL PARK

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Park Service initiated the Western Airborne Contaminants Assessment Project (WACAP) in 2002 to determine if airborne contaminants from long-range transport and/or regional sources are having an impact on remote western ecosystems, including AK. Rocky Mountain Nation...

  3. Regional prediction of soil organic carbon content over temperate croplands using visible near-infrared airborne hyperspectral imagery and synchronous field spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaudour, E.; Gilliot, J. M.; Bel, L.; Lefevre, J.; Chehdi, K.

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed at identifying the potential of Vis-NIR airborne hyperspectral AISA-Eagle data for predicting the topsoil organic carbon (SOC) content of bare cultivated soils over a large peri-urban area (221 km2) with both contrasted soils and SOC contents, located in the western region of Paris, France. Soil types comprised haplic luvisols, calcaric cambisols and colluvic cambisols. Airborne AISA-Eagle data (400-1000 nm, 126 bands) with 1 m-resolution were acquired on 17 April 2013 over 13 tracks. Tracks were atmospherically corrected then mosaicked at a 2 m-resolution using a set of 24 synchronous field spectra of bare soils, black and white targets and impervious surfaces. The land use identification system layer (RPG) of 2012 was used to mask non-agricultural areas, then calculation and thresholding of NDVI from an atmospherically corrected SPOT image acquired the same day enabled to map agricultural fields with bare soil. A total of 101 sites sampled either in 2013 or in the 3 previous years and in 2015 were identified as bare by means of this map. Predictions were made from the mosaic AISA spectra which were related to topsoil SOC contents by means of partial least squares regression (PLSR). Regression robustness was evaluated through a series of 1000 bootstrap data sets of calibration-validation samples, considering 74 sites outside cloud shadows only, and different sampling strategies for selecting calibration samples. Validation root-mean-square errors (RMSE) were comprised between 3.73 and 4.49 g Kg-1 and were ∼4 g Kg-1 in median. The most performing models in terms of coefficient of determination (R2) and Residual Prediction Deviation (RPD) values were the calibration models derived either from Kennard-Stone or conditioned Latin Hypercube sampling on smoothed spectra. The most generalizable model leading to lowest RMSE value of 3.73 g Kg-1 at the regional scale and 1.44 g Kg-1 at the within-field scale and low bias was the cross-validated leave

  4. Electric field measurements during the Condor critical velocity experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, M. C.; Pfaff, R. F.; Haerendel, G.

    1986-01-01

    The instrumentation of the Condor critical velocity Ba experiment (Wescott et al., 1986) for the measurements of the energetic particles and the electric field associated with a Ba explosion is described. The Ba explosion created a complex electric field pulse detected in situ by a single-axis double electric-field probe on a separate spacecraft. The measurements provide evidence of several important links in the critical-velocity chain, and are consistent with two hypotheses. The first hypothesis involves the creation of large polarization electric field due to charge separation; the second hypothesis implies a polarization of the beam by currents flowing across it. The chain of physical processes inferred from the observations is in agreement with most theories for the Alfven process.

  5. NATO SET-093 joint field experiment at Bourges, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marty, C.; Bruel, F.; Prieur, D.; Naz, P.; Miller, L. S.

    2009-05-01

    This paper describes the NATO Task Group SET-093/RTG53/MSE (referred to as TG-53 in this report) Acoustic Detection of Weapons Firing Joint Field Experiment II conducted at the Etablissement Technique de Bourges (ETBS), Bourges, France, during 16 to 27 June 2008. This field experiment is a follow-on to the NATO TG-53 Acoustic Detection of Weapons Firing Joint Field Experiment I conducted at the Yuma Proving Grounds (YPG), Yuma, Arizona, USA, during 31 October to 4 November 2005 [1]. The objectives of the joint experiment were: (i) to collect acoustic signatures of direct and indirect firings from weapons' such as small arms, mortars, artillery, rockets, and C4 explosives, (ii) to analyze the propagation effects of grassy, wooded, and urban terrains, (iii) to share signatures collected from a variety of acoustic sensors, on the ground and in the air, distributed over a wide area, and (iv) to demonstrate the interoperability of disparate sensors developed by the various nations involved. The participating NATO countries , including France, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, Canada, and the United States of America, and Israel as well as part of the Mediterranean dialogue countries, deployed nearly 90 sensors and sensor systems over the test range area.

  6. LASE measurements of water vapor and aerosol profiles during the Plains Elevated Convection at Night (PECAN) field experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nehrir, A. R.; Ferrare, R. A.; Kooi, S. A.; Butler, C. F.; Notari, A.; Hair, J. W.; Collins, J. E., Jr.; Ismail, S.

    2015-12-01

    The Lidar Atmospheric Sensing Experiment (LASE) system was deployed on the NASA DC-8 aircraft during the Plains Elevated Convection At Night (PECAN) field experiment, which was conducted during June-July 2015 over the central and southern plains. LASE is an active remote sensor that employs the differential absorption lidar (DIAL) technique to measure range resolved profiles of water vapor and aerosols above and below the aircraft. The DC-8 conducted nine local science flights from June 30- July 14 where LASE sampled water vapor and aerosol fields in support of the PECAN primary science objectives relating to better understanding nocturnal Mesoscale Convective Systems (MCSs), Convective Initiation (CI), the Low Level Jet (LLJ), bores, and to compare different airborne and ground based measurements. LASE observed large spatial and temporal variability in water vapor and aerosol distributions in advance of nocturnal MCSs, across bores resulting from MCS outflow boundaries, and across the LLJ associated with the development of MCSs and CI. An overview of the LASE data collected during the PECAN field experiment will be presented where emphasis will be placed on variability of water vapor profiles in the vicinity of severe storms and intense convection in the central and southern plains. Preliminary comparisons show good agreement between coincident LASE and radiosonde water vapor profiles. In addition, an advanced water vapor DIAL system being developed at NASA Langley will be discussed.

  7. Designing a Field Experience Tracking System in the Area of Special Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Wu; Watson, Silvana

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the quality of field experience, support field experience cooperation and streamline field experience management, the purpose of this paper is to describe the experience in using Activity Theory to design and develop a web-based field experience tracking system for a special education program. Design/methodology/approach: The…

  8. Precision magnetic field mapping for CERN experiment NA62

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fry, John R.; Ruggiero, Giuseppe; Bergsma, Felix

    2016-12-01

    In the CERN experiment NA62, low-mass straw-tube tracking-chambers have been designed to operate in vacuum and, in conjunction with precisely mapped magnetic fields, enable the determination of the trajectories of the charged decay products of a 75 GeV/c K+ with high accuracy. This is particularly important for the crucial measurement of the branching fraction for the decay K+ → π + ν ν, which has the potential to reveal BSM physics. The charged particles passing through the magnetic field of a dipole magnet receive a transverse-momentum kick, ΔP T = 270 MeV/c, which the physics requires to be determined to better than one part in a thousand. This puts stringent constraints on the required accuracy and precision of the magnetic field components at all points through which charged particles pass. Before reaching the dipole magnet the particles travel through an evacuated steel tank of length 90 m, where residual magnetic fields of typical size 50 μT modify the trajectories of the charged particles and require measurement with a precision of better than 10 μT. In this paper we describe in detail the different approaches to the measurement and analysis of the magnetic field for the two regions, the corrections to the raw data necessary to produce the final field map, and the physics validation procedures showing that the required accuracy and precision of the field maps have been achieved.

  9. Recent magneto-inertial fusion experiments on the field reversed configuration heating experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degnan, J. H.; Amdahl, D. J.; Domonkos, M.; Lehr, F. M.; Grabowski, C.; Robinson, P. R.; Ruden, E. L.; White, W. M.; Wurden, G. A.; Intrator, T. P.; Sears, J.; Weber, T.; Waganaar, W. J.; Frese, M. H.; Frese, S. D.; Camacho, J. F.; Coffey, S. K.; Makhin, V.; Roderick, N. F.; Gale, D. G.; Kostora, M.; Lerma, A.; McCullough, J. L.; Sommars, W.; Kiuttu, G. F.; Bauer, B.; Fuelling, S. R.; Siemon, R. E.; Lynn, A. G.; Turchi, P. J.

    2013-09-01

    Magneto-inertial fusion (MIF) approaches take advantage of an embedded magnetic field to improve plasma energy confinement by reducing thermal conduction relative to conventional inertial confinement fusion (ICF). MIF reduces required precision in the implosion and the convergence ratio. Since 2008 (Wurden et al 2008 IAEA 2008 Fusion Energy Conf. (Geneva, Switzerland, 13-18 October) IC/P4-13 LA-UR-08-0796) and since our prior refereed publication on this topic (Degnan et al 2008 IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 36 80), AFRL and LANL have developed further one version of MIF. We have (1) reliably formed, translated, and captured field reversed configurations (FRCs) in magnetic mirrors inside metal shells or liners in preparation for subsequent compression by liner implosion; (2) imploded a liner with interior magnetic mirror field, obtaining evidence for compression of a 1.36 T field to 540 T (3) performed a full system experiment of FRC formation, translation, capture, and imploding liner compression operation; (4) identified by comparison of 2D-MHD simulation and experiments factors limiting the closed-field lifetime of FRCs to about half that required for good liner compression of FRCs to multi-keV, 1019 ion cm-3, high energy density plasma (HEDP) conditions; and (5) designed and prepared hardware to increase that closed-field FRC lifetime to the required amount. Those lifetime experiments are now underway, with the goal of at least doubling closed-field FRC lifetimes and performing FRC implosions to HEDP conditions this year. These experiments have obtained imaging evidence of FRC rotation, and of initial rotation control measures slowing and stopping such rotation. Important improvements in fidelity of simulation to experiment have been achieved, enabling improved guidance and understanding of experiment design and performance.

  10. Active experiments in the ionosphere and geomagnetic field variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivokon, V. P.; Cherneva, N. V.; Khomutov, S. Y.; Serovetnikov, A. S.

    2014-11-01

    Variations of ionospheric-magnetospheric relation energy, as one of the possible outer climatology factors, may be traced on the basis of analysis of natural geophysical phenomena such as ionosphere artificial radio radiation and magnetic storms. Experiments on active impact on the ionosphere have been carried out for quite a long time in Russia as well. The most modern heating stand is located in Alaska; it has been used within the HAARP Program. The possibility of this stand to affect geophysical fields, in particular, the geomagnetic field is of interest.

  11. Neutron spin turners with a rotating magnetic field: first experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodnarchuk, V. I.; Kraan, W. H.; Rekveldt, M. T.; Ioffe, A.

    2008-03-01

    Spin turners are the key elements of a neutron spin-echo spectrometer with rotating magnetic fields. Here we describe the results of experiments with thin-film spin turners made of 25 µm amorphous ferromagnetic foils, whose in-plane magnetization is rotated by a weak external rotating field. The behaviour of the polarization vector of a 0.2 nm neutron beam is analysed in 3D after transmission through such a foil and, apart from a non-negligible depolarization, the results show that they are in good accordance with simulations. This observed depolarization is due to a domain structure with a net magnetization.

  12. ITER Test Blanket Module Error Field Simulation Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaffer, M. J.

    2010-11-01

    Recent experiments at DIII-D used an active-coil mock-up to investigate effects of magnetic error fields similar to those expected from two ferromagnetic Test Blanket Modules (TBMs) in one ITER equatorial port. The largest and most prevalent observed effect was plasma toroidal rotation slowing across the entire radial profile, up to 60% in H-mode when the mock-up local ripple at the plasma was ˜4 times the local ripple expected in front of ITER TBMs. Analysis showed the slowing to be consistent with non-resonant braking by the mock-up field. There was no evidence of strong electromagnetic braking by resonant harmonics. These results are consistent with the near absence of resonant helical harmonics in the TBM field. Global particle and energy confinement in H-mode decreased by <20% for the maximum mock-up ripple, but <5% at the local ripple expected in ITER. These confinement reductions may be linked with the large velocity reductions. TBM field effects were small in L-mode but increased with plasma beta. The L-H power threshold was unaffected within error bars. The mock-up field increased plasma sensitivity to mode locking by a known n=1 test field (n = toroidal harmonic number). In H-mode the increased locking sensitivity was from TBM torque slowing plasma rotation. At low beta, locked mode tolerance was fully recovered by re-optimizing the conventional DIII-D ``I-coils'' empirical compensation of n=1 errors in the presence of the TBM mock-up field. Empirical error compensation in H-mode should be addressed in future experiments. Global loss of injected neutral beam fast ions was within error bars, but 1 MeV fusion triton loss may have increased. The many DIII-D mock-up results provide important benchmarks for models needed to predict effects of TBMs in ITER.

  13. Elucidating GPR Response to Biological Activity: Field and Laboratory Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsoflias, G. P.; Schillig, P. C.; McGlashan, M. A.; Roberts, J. A.; Devlin, J. F.

    2010-12-01

    Recent studies of the geophysical signatures of biological processes in earth environments have resulted in the emergent field of “biogeophysics”. The ability to monitor remotely and to quantify active biological processes in the subsurface can have transformative implications to a wide range of investigations, including the bioremediation of contaminated sites. Previous studies have demonstrated that ground-penetrating radar (GPR) can be used to detect the products of microbial activity in the subsurface, such as changes in bulk electrical conductivity, mineral dissolution and precipitation, and the formation of biogenic gas. We present field and laboratory experiments that offer insights to the response of GPR signals to microbial activity. In the field, time-lapse borehole radar tomography was used to monitor biodegradation of a hydrocarbon plume over a period of two years. A dense grid of fourteen borehole pairs monitoring the bioactive region showed radar wave velocity changes of +/-4% and signal attenuation changes of +/-25%. These GPR observations correlated spatially and temporally to independent measurements of groundwater velocity and geochemical variations that occurred in response to microbial activity. The greatest relative changes in radar wave velocity of propagation and attenuation were observed in the region of enhanced bacterial stimulation where biomass growth was the greatest. Radar wave velocity and attenuation decreased during periods of enhanced biostimulation. Two laboratory experiments were conducted to further assess radar response to biomass growth. The first experiment monitored GPR wave transmission through a water-saturated quartz-sand reactor during the course of enhanced biostimulation. Radar wave velocity initially decreased as a result of bacterial activity and subsequently increased rapidly as biogenic gas formed in the pore space. Radar signal attenuation increased during the course of the experiment as a result of an

  14. Field Experiences with Floating Breakwaters in the Eastern United States.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-07-01

    7AD-AL ’b76 MARINE RESOURCE MANAGEMENT INC CAMBRIDGE MA FIG 1 3/2 FIELD EXPERIENCES WITH FLOATING BREAKWATERS IN THE EASTERN UNIT--ETC(U) JUL 82 A...Resource Management , Inc. 12 Arrow Street [31679 Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 If. CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND ADDRESS 12. REPORT DATE Department of the...Development. The report was prepared by Andrew V. Baird, Marine Resource Management , Inc., Cambridge, Massachusetts, and Neil W. Ross, who provided

  15. Active-passive airborne ocean color measurement. II - Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoge, F. E.; Swift, R. N.; Yungel, J. K.

    1986-01-01

    Reported here for the first time is the use of a single airborne instrument to make concurrent measurements of oceanic chlorophyll concentration by (1) laser-induced fluorescence, (2) passive upwelling radiance, and (3) solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence. Results from field experiments conducted with the NASA airborne oceanographic lidar (AOL) in the New York Bight demonstrate the capability of a single active-passive instrument to perform new and potentially important ocean color studies related to (1) active lidar validation of passive ocean color in-water algorithms, (2) chlorophyll a in vivo fluorescence yield variability, (3) calibration of active multichannel lidar systems, (4) effect of sea state on passive and active ocean color measurements, (5) laser/solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence investigations, and (6) subsequent improvement of satellite-borne ocean color scanners. For validation and comparison purposes a separate passive ocean color sensor was also flown along with the new active-passive sensor during these initial field trials.

  16. An Integral, Multidisciplinary and Global Geophysical Field Experience for Undergraduates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vázquez, O.; Carrillo, D. J.; Pérez-Campos, X.

    2007-05-01

    The udergraduate program of Geophysical Engineering at the School of Engineering, of the Univesidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), went through an update process that concluded in 2006. As part of the program, the student takes three geophysical prospecting courses (gravity and magnetics, electric, electromagnetics, and seismic methods). The older program required a three-week field experience for each course in order to gradute. The new program considers only one extended field experience. This work stresses the importance of international academic exchange, where undergraduate students could participate, such as the Summer of Applied Geophysical Experience (SAGE), and interaction with research programs, such as the MesoAmerican Subduction Experiment (MASE). Also, we propose a scheeme for this activity based on those examples; both of them have in common real geophysical problems, from which students could benefit. Our proposal covers academic and logistic aspects to be taken into account, enhancing the relevance of interaction between other academic institutions, industry, and UNAM, in order to obtain a broader view of geophysics.

  17. Dark matter effective field theory scattering in direct detection experiments

    DOE PAGES

    Schneck, K.

    2015-05-01

    We examine the consequences of the effective field theory (EFT) of dark matter–nucleon scattering for current and proposed direct detection experiments. Exclusion limits on EFT coupling constants computed using the optimum interval method are presented for SuperCDMS Soudan, CDMS II, and LUX, and the necessity of combining results from multiple experiments in order to determine dark matter parameters is discussed. We demonstrate that spectral differences between the standard dark matter model and a general EFT interaction can produce a bias when calculating exclusion limits and when developing signal models for likelihood and machine learning techniques. We also discuss the implicationsmore » of the EFT for the next-generation (G2) direct detection experiments and point out regions of complementarity in the EFT parameter space.« less

  18. Dark matter effective field theory scattering in direct detection experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Schneck, K.; Cabrera, B.; Cerdeño, D. G.; Mandic, V.; Rogers, H. E.; Agnese, R.; Anderson, A. J.; Asai, M.; Balakishiyeva, D.; Barker, D.; Basu Thakur, R.; Bauer, D. A.; Billard, J.; Borgland, A.; Brandt, D.; Brink, P. L.; Bunker, R.; Caldwell, D. O.; Calkins, R.; Chagani, H.; Chen, Y.; Cooley, J.; Cornell, B.; Crewdson, C. H.; Cushman, P.; Daal, M.; Di Stefano, P. C. F.; Doughty, T.; Esteban, L.; Fallows, S.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Godfrey, G. L.; Golwala, S. R.; Hall, J.; Harris, H. R.; Hofer, T.; Holmgren, D.; Hsu, L.; Huber, M. E.; Jardin, D. M.; Jastram, A.; Kamaev, O.; Kara, B.; Kelsey, M. H.; Kennedy, A.; Leder, A.; Loer, B.; Lopez Asamar, E.; Lukens, P.; Mahapatra, R.; McCarthy, K. A.; Mirabolfathi, N.; Moffatt, R. A.; Morales Mendoza, J. D.; Oser, S. M.; Page, K.; Page, W. A.; Partridge, R.; Pepin, M.; Phipps, A.; Prasad, K.; Pyle, M.; Qiu, H.; Rau, W.; Redl, P.; Reisetter, A.; Ricci, Y.; Roberts, A.; Saab, T.; Sadoulet, B.; Sander, J.; Schnee, R. W.; Scorza, S.; Serfass, B.; Shank, B.; Speller, D.; Toback, D.; Upadhyayula, S.; Villano, A. N.; Welliver, B.; Wilson, J. S.; Wright, D. H.; Yang, X.; Yellin, S.; Yen, J. J.; Young, B. A.; Zhang, J.

    2015-05-18

    We examine the consequences of the effective field theory (EFT) of dark matter-nucleon scattering for current and proposed direct detection experiments. Exclusion limits on EFT coupling constants computed using the optimum interval method are presented for SuperCDMS Soudan, CDMS II, and LUX, and the necessity of combining results from multiple experiments in order to determine dark matter parameters is discussed. Here. we demonstrate that spectral differences between the standard dark matter model and a general EFT interaction can produce a bias when calculating exclusion limits and when developing signal models for likelihood and machine learning techniques. In conclusion, we discuss the implications of the EFT for the next-generation (G2) direct detection experiments and point out regions of complementarity in the EFT parameter space.

  19. Dark matter effective field theory scattering in direct detection experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Schneck, K.

    2015-05-01

    We examine the consequences of the effective field theory (EFT) of dark matter–nucleon scattering for current and proposed direct detection experiments. Exclusion limits on EFT coupling constants computed using the optimum interval method are presented for SuperCDMS Soudan, CDMS II, and LUX, and the necessity of combining results from multiple experiments in order to determine dark matter parameters is discussed. We demonstrate that spectral differences between the standard dark matter model and a general EFT interaction can produce a bias when calculating exclusion limits and when developing signal models for likelihood and machine learning techniques. We also discuss the implications of the EFT for the next-generation (G2) direct detection experiments and point out regions of complementarity in the EFT parameter space.

  20. A Low Noise, Microprocessor-Controlled, Internally Digitizing Rotating-Vane Electric Field Mill for Airborne Platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bateman, M. G.; Stewart, M. F.; Blakeslee, R. J.; Podgorny, s. J.; Christian, H. J.; Mach, D. M.; Bailey, J. C.; Daskar, D.

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports on a new generation of aircraft-based rotating-vane style electric field mills designed and built at NASA's Marshall Spaceflight Center. The mills have individual microprocessors that digitize the electric field signal at the mill and respond to commands from the data system computer. The mills are very sensitive (1 V/m per bit), have a wide dynamic range (115 dB), and are very low noise (+/-1 LSB). Mounted on an aircraft, these mills can measure fields from +/-1 V/m to +/-500 kV/m. Once-per-second commanding from the data collection computer to each mill allows for precise timing and synchronization. The mills can also be commanded to execute a self-calibration in flight, which is done periodically to monitor the status and health of each mill.

  1. The Spectroscopic Terahertz Airborne Receiver for Far-InfraRed Exploration (STARFIRE): a Next-Generation Experiment for Galaxy Evolution Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguirre, James

    This is the lead proposal for the Spectroscopic Terahertz Airborne Receiver for Far-InfraRed Exploration (STARFIRE). Understanding the formation and evolution of galaxies is one of the foremost goals of astrophysics and cosmology today. The cosmic star formation rate has undergone a dramatic evolution of the course of the last seven billion years. Dust-obscured star forming galaxies (DSFGs) offer the perfect tracers of this evolution as they contain much of the star-forming activity. By their very nature, DSFGs are difficult to study and have, until recently, been poorly understood. A variety of unextincted diagnostic lines are present in the far-infrared (FIR) which can provide insight into the conditions of star formation, including the instantaneous star formation rate, the effect of AGN feedback on star formation, the mass function of the stars, and the spectrum of their ionizing radiation. Spectroscopy in the far-infrared is thus scientifically crucial, yet remains technically difficult. To obtain this science requires the development a telescope having low-emissivity, high-throughput optics with a dispersive spectrometer and high-sensitivity, large-format detector arrays operating above atmosphere to perform large-area, wide-bandwidth spatial/spectral mapping. Stratospheric balloons such a platform, and with proper design, can outperform current instruments. A promising route for economical, large-format submillimeter detector arrays are so-called kinetic-inductance detectors (KIDs). We propose a program of instrumentation development to enable one such a future mission, the Spectroscopic Terahertz Airborne Receiver for Far-InfraRed Exploration (STARFIRE), an integral-field spectrometer from 240 - 420 microns coupled to a 2.5 meter low-emissivity carbon-fiber telescope. STARFIRE will provide a technological stepping stone to future space-borne instrumentation such as the Far- IR Surveyor or a Probe mission. This proposal has the goal of demonstrating a single

  2. Accuracy Assessment of Landsat-Derived Continuous Fields of Tree Cover Products Using Airborne LIDAR Data in the Eastern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, X. P.; Tang, H.

    2015-08-01

    Knowing the detailed error structure of a land cover map is crucial for area estimation. Facilitated by the opening of the Landsat archive, global land cover mapping at 30-m resolution has become possible in recent years. Two global Landsat-based continuous fields of tree cover maps have been generated by Sexton et al. (2013) and Hansen et al. (2013) but the accuracy of which have not been comprehensively evaluated. Here we used canopy cover derived from airborne small-footprint Lidar data as a reference to evaluate the accuracy of these two datasets as well as the National Land Cover Database 2001 canopy cover layer (Homer et al. 2004) in two entire counties in Maryland, United States. Our results showed that all three Landsat datasets captured well the spatial variations of tree cover in the study area with an r2 ranging between 0.54 and 0.58, a mean bias error ranging between -15% and 5% tree cover, and a root mean square error ranging between 27% and 29% tree cover. When the continuous tree cover maps were converted to binary forest/nonforest maps, all three products were proved to have an overall accuracy >= 80% but with significant differences in producer's accuracy and user's accuracy. Data users are thus suggested to beware of these accuracy patterns when selecting the most appropriate dataset for their specific applications.

  3. Airborne Sunphotometer Measurements of Aerosol Optical Depth and Columnar Water Vapor During the Puerto Rico Dust Experiment, and Comparison with Land, Aircraft, and Satellite Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Livingston, John M.; Russell, Philip B.; Reid, Jeffrey; Redemann, Jens; Schmid, Beat; Allen, Duane A.; Torres, Omar; Levy, Robert C.; Remer, Lorraine A.; Holben, Brent N.; Hipskind, R. Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Analyses of aerosol optical depth (AOD) and columnar water vapor (CWV) measurements obtained with the six-channel NASA Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS-6) mounted on a twin-engine aircraft during the summer 2000 Puerto Rico Dust Experiment are presented. In general, aerosol extinction values calculated from AATS-6 AOD measurements acquired during aircraft profiles up to 5 km ASL reproduce the vertical structure measured by coincident aircraft in-situ measurements of total aerosol number and surface area concentration. Calculations show that the spectral dependence of AOD was small (mean Angstrom wavelength exponents of approximately 0.20) within three atmospheric layers defined as the total column beneath the top of each aircraft profile, the region beneath the trade wind inversion, and the region within the Saharan Air Layer (SAL) above the trade inversion. This spectral behavior is consistent with attenuation of incoming solar radiation by large dust particles or by dust plus sea salt. Values of CWV calculated from profile measurements by AATS-6 at 941.9 nm and from aircraft in-situ measurements by a chilled mirror dewpoint hygrometer agree to within approximately 4% (0.13 g/sq cm). AATS-6 AOD values measured on the ground at Roosevelt Roads Naval Air Station and during low altitude aircraft runs over the adjacent Cabras Island aerosol/radiation ground site agree to within 0.004 to 0.030 with coincident data obtained with an AERONET Sun/sky Cimel radiometer located at Cabras Island. For the same observation times, AERONET retrievals of CWV exceed AATS-6 values by a mean of 0.74 g/sq cm (approximately 21 %) for the 2.9-3.9 g/sq cm measured by AATS-6. Comparison of AATS-6 aerosol extinction values obtained during four aircraft ascents over Cabras Island with corresponding values calculated from coincident aerosol backscatter measurements by a ground-based micro-pulse lidar (MPL-Net) located at Cabras yields a similar vertical structure above the trade

  4. The BLLAST field experiment: Boundary-Layer Late Afternoon and Sunset Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lothon, M.; Lohou, F.; Pino, D.; Couvreux, F.; Pardyjak, E. R.; Reuder, J.; Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, J.; Durand, P.; Hartogensis, O.; Legain, D.; Augustin, P.; Gioli, B.; Lenschow, D. H.; Faloona, I.; Yagüe, C.; Alexander, D. C.; Angevine, W. M.; Bargain, E.; Barrié, J.; Bazile, E.; Bezombes, Y.; Blay-Carreras, E.; van de Boer, A.; Boichard, J. L.; Bourdon, A.; Butet, A.; Campistron, B.; de Coster, O.; Cuxart, J.; Dabas, A.; Darbieu, C.; Deboudt, K.; Delbarre, H.; Derrien, S.; Flament, P.; Fourmentin, M.; Garai, A.; Gibert, F.; Graf, A.; Groebner, J.; Guichard, F.; Jiménez, M. A.; Jonassen, M.; van den Kroonenberg, A.; Magliulo, V.; Martin, S.; Martinez, D.; Mastrorillo, L.; Moene, A. F.; Molinos, F.; Moulin, E.; Pietersen, H. P.; Piguet, B.; Pique, E.; Román-Cascón, C.; Rufin-Soler, C.; Saïd, F.; Sastre-Marugán, M.; Seity, Y.; Steeneveld, G. J.; Toscano, P.; Traullé, O.; Tzanos, D.; Wacker, S.; Wildmann, N.; Zaldei, A.

    2014-10-01

    Due to the major role of the sun in heating the earth's surface, the atmospheric planetary boundary layer over land is inherently marked by a diurnal cycle. The afternoon transition, the period of the day that connects the daytime dry convective boundary layer to the night-time stable boundary layer, still has a number of unanswered scientific questions. This phase of the diurnal cycle is challenging from both modelling and observational perspectives: it is transitory, most of the forcings are small or null and the turbulence regime changes from fully convective, close to homogeneous and isotropic, toward a more heterogeneous and intermittent state. These issues motivated the BLLAST (Boundary-Layer Late Afternoon and Sunset Turbulence) field campaign that was conducted from 14 June to 8 July 2011 in southern France, in an area of complex and heterogeneous terrain. A wide range of instrumented platforms including full-size aircraft, remotely piloted aircraft systems, remote-sensing instruments, radiosoundings, tethered balloons, surface flux stations and various meteorological towers were deployed over different surface types. The boundary layer, from the earth's surface to the free troposphere, was probed during the entire day, with a focus and intense observation periods that were conducted from midday until sunset. The BLLAST field campaign also provided an opportunity to test innovative measurement systems, such as new miniaturized sensors, and a new technique for frequent radiosoundings of the low troposphere. Twelve fair weather days displaying various meteorological conditions were extensively documented during the field experiment. The boundary-layer growth varied from one day to another depending on many contributions including stability, advection, subsidence, the state of the previous day's residual layer, as well as local, meso- or synoptic scale conditions. Ground-based measurements combined with tethered-balloon and airborne observations captured the

  5. LESSONS LEARNED REGARDING THE USE OF AN IMPINGER FOR COLLECTING AIRBORNE BACTERIA DURING A BIOSOLIDS APPLICATION FIELD STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL) of the USEPA has performed laboratory wind tunnel studies as well as large field studies to evaluate specific bioaerosol components (bacteria, fungi, endotoxin, β-d glucan) that may be associated with various practices for ...

  6. Using airborne imagery to monitor cotton root rot progression in fungicide-treated and untreated cotton fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton root rot is a serious and destructive disease that has affected cotton production in the southwestern and south central U.S for over a century. Recent field studies have shown that Topguard fungicide has considerable promise for controlling this disease. With the authorization (Section 18 exe...

  7. Using airborne multispectral imagery to monitor cotton root rot progression in fungicide-treated and non-treated cotton fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton root rot has affected cotton production in the southwestern and south central U.S for over 100 years. A fungicide, flutriafol, has shown considerable promise for controlling this disease in field studies in the last few years. With the temporary authorization for use of the fungicide to contr...

  8. Toolsets for Airborne Data - URS and New Documentation

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2015-03-23

    ... missions, documentation, and EOSDIS User Registration System (URS) authentication. This web application features an intuitive user interface for variable selection across different airborne field studies and ...

  9. Plasma Rotation Control Experiment in a Strongly Diverging Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terasaka, Kenichiro; Furuta, Kanshi; Yoshimura, Shinji; Aramaki, Mitsutoshi; Tanaka, Masayoshi Y.

    2016-10-01

    It has been recognized that the plasma rotation affects the plasma flow structure along the magnetic field line. However, the effect of plasma rotation on structure formation in a strongly diverging magnetic field with magnetized electrons and unmagnetized ions has not been fully understood, so far. Understanding the flow structure formation in an ion-unmagnetized plasma is essential to control ion streamline detachment from the magnetic field line and also necessary to study the astrophysical phenomena in laboratory. In order to clarify the effect of plasma rotation in a diverging magnetic field, we have performed the plasma rotation control experiment in the HYPER-II device at Kyushu Univ., Japan. A set of cylindrical electrode was utilized to control the radial electric field, and the profile of azimuthal E × B rotation has been changed. We present the experimental results on the electron density pileup and the flow reversal appeared in the rotating plasma. This study was supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number 16K05633.

  10. Design and implementation of digital airborne multispectral camera system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Zhaorong; Zhang, Xuguo; Wang, Li; Pan, Deai

    2012-10-01

    The multispectral imaging equipment is a kind of new generation remote sensor, which can obtain the target image and the spectra information simultaneously. A digital airborne multispectral camera system using discrete filter method had been designed and implemented for unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) and manned aircraft platforms. The digital airborne multispectral camera system has the advantages of larger frame, higher resolution, panchromatic and multispectral imaging. It also has great potential applications in the fields of environmental and agricultural monitoring and target detection and discrimination. In order to enhance the measurement precision and accuracy of position and orientation, Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) is integrated in the digital airborne multispectral camera. Meanwhile, the Temperature Control Unit (TCU) guarantees that the camera can operate in the normal state in different altitudes to avoid the window fogging and frosting which will degrade the imaging quality greatly. Finally, Flying experiments were conducted to demonstrate the functionality and performance of the digital airborne multispectral camera. The resolution capability, positioning accuracy and classification and recognition ability were validated.

  11. Airborne soil organic particles generated by precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Bingbing; Harder, Tristan H.; Kelly, Stephen T.; Piens, Dominique S.; China, Swarup; Kovarik, Libor; Keiluweit, Marco; Arey, Bruce W.; Gilles, Mary K.; Laskin, Alexander

    2016-05-02

    Airborne organic particles play a critical role in the Earth’s climate1, public health2, air quality3, and hydrological and carbon cycles4. These particles exist in liquid, amorphous semi-solid, or solid (glassy) phase states depending on their composition and ambient conditions5. However, sources and formation mechanisms for semi- solid and solid organic particles are poorly understood and typically neglected in atmospheric models6. Here we report field evidence for airborne solid organic particles generated by a “raindrop” mechanism7 pertinent to atmosphere – land surface interactions (Fig. 1). We find that after rain events at Southern Great Plains, Oklahoma, USA, submicron solid particles, with a composition consistent with soil organic matter, contributed up to 60% of atmospheric particles in number. Subsequent experiments indicate that airborne soil organic particles are ejected from the surface of soils caused by intensive rains or irrigation. Our observations suggest that formation of these particles may be a widespread phenomenon in ecosystems where soils are exposed to strong, episodic precipitation events such as agricultural systems and grasslands8. Chemical imaging and micro-spectroscopy analysis of their physico-chemical properties suggests that airborne soil organic particles may have important impacts on cloud formation and efficiently absorb solar radiation and hence, are an important type of particles.

  12. Airborne Open Polar/Imaging Nephelometer for Ice Particles in Cirrus Clouds and Aerosols Field Campaign Report

    SciTech Connect

    Martins, JV

    2016-04-01

    The Open Imaging Nephelometer (O-I-Neph) instrument is an adaptation of a proven laboratory instrument built and tested at the University of Maryland, Baltimore County (UMBC), the Polarized Imaging Nephelometer (PI-Neph). The instrument design of both imaging nephelometers uses a narrow-beam laser source and a wide-field-of-view imaging camera to capture the entire scattering-phase function in one image, quasi-instantaneously.

  13. Massless scalar field and solar-system experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Formiga, J. B.

    2011-04-15

    The solution of Einstein's field equations with the energy-momentum tensor of a massless scalar field is known as the Fisher solution. It is well known that this solution has a naked singularity due to the ''charge''{Sigma} of the massless scalar field. Here I obtain the radial null geodesic of the Fisher solution and use it to confirm that there is no black hole. In addition, I use the parametrized post-Newtonian formalism to show that the Fisher spacetime predicts the same effects on solar-system experiments as the Schwarzschild one does, as long as we impose a limit on {Sigma}. I show that this limit is not a strong constraint and we can even take values of {Sigma} bigger than M. By using the exact formula of the redshift and some assumptions, I evaluate this limit for the experiment of Pound and Snider [Phys. Rev. 140, B788 (1965)]. It turns out that this limit is {Sigma}<5.8x10{sup 3} m.

  14. Detection of airborne Legionella while showering using liquid impingement and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH).

    PubMed

    Deloge-Abarkan, Magali; Ha, Thi-Lan; Robine, Enric; Zmirou-Navier, Denis; Mathieu, Laurence

    2007-01-01

    Aerosols of water contaminated with Legionella bacteria constitute the only mode of exposure for humans. However, the prevention strategy against this pathogenic bacteria risk is managed through the survey of water contamination. No relationship linked the Legionella bacteria water concentration and their airborne abundance. Therefore, new approaches in the field of the metrological aspects of Legionella bioaerosols are required. This study was aimed at testing the main principles for bioaerosol collection (solid impaction, liquid impingement and filtration) and the in situ hybridization (FISH) method, both in laboratory and field assays, with the intention of applying such methodologies for airborne Legionella bacteria detection while showering. An aerosolization chamber was developed to generate controlled and reproducible L. pneumophila aerosols. This tool allowed the identification of the liquid impingement method as the most appropriate one for collecting airborne Legionella bacteria. The culturable fraction of airborne L. pneumophila recovered with the liquid impingement principle was 4 and 700 times higher compared to the impaction and filtration techniques, respectively. Moreover, the concentrations of airborne L. pneumophila in the impinger fluid were on average 7.0 x 10(5) FISH-cells m(-3) air with the fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) method versus 9.0 x 10(4) CFU m(-3) air with the culture method. These results, recorded under well-controlled conditions, were confirmed during the field experiments performed on aerosols generated by hot water showers in health institutions. This new approach may provide a more accurate characterization of aerobiocontamination by Legionella bacteria.

  15. Employment of the 307th Medical Battalion (Airborne) in Operations Desert Shield and Desert Storm: A Personal Experience Monograph

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-05-08

    limited in duration and scope, we didn’t deploy our heavier equipment; X-Ray, Dental , canvas tentage, cots, autoclaves, and miscellaneous support...Oxygen/Fluids Requirements MAJ Clark 16. Medical Supply Stockage 1LT Branch 17. Dental Configuration MAJ Madison 18. Personnel Decontamination SSG...APPARATUS GAS W/ 02 1 0 A6Z252 ANESTESIA SET FIELD: IN CHEST. .. A72260 ANTENNA RC-29- A0712b AXLE CABLE REEL: RL-27 1 0 A79381 ANTENNA GROUP, OE-254 2 1

  16. Estimation of lava flow field volumes and volumetric effusion rates from airborne radar profiling and other data: Monitoring of the Nornahraun (Holuhraun) 2014/15 eruption in Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dürig, Tobias; Gudmundsson, Magnús; Högnadóttir, Thordís; Jónsdóttir, Ingibjörg; Gudbjörnsson, Snaebjörn; Lárusson, Örnólfur; Höskuldsson, Ármann; Thordarson, Thorvaldur; Riishuus, Morten; Magnússon, Eyjólfur

    2015-04-01

    Monitoring of lava-producing eruptions involves systematic measurement of flow field volumes, which in turn can be used to obtain average magma discharge over the period of observation. However, given inaccessibility to the interior parts of active lava fields, remote sensing techniques must be applied. Several satellite platforms provide data that can be geo-referenced, allowing area estimation. However, unless sterographic or tandem satellite data are available, the determination of thicknesses is non-trivial. The ongoing eruption ('Nornaeldar')at Dyngjusandurin the Icelandic highlands offers an opportunity to monitor the temporal and spatial evolution of a typical Icelandic lava flow field. The mode of emplacementis complex and includesboth horizontal and vertical stacking, inflation of lobes and topographic inversions. Due to the large extent of the flow field (>83 km2 on 5 Jan 2015, and still growing) and its considerable local variation in thickness (30 m) and surface roughness, obtaining robust quantification of lava thicknesses is very challenging,despite the lava is being emplaced onto a low-relief sandur plain. Creative methods have been implemented to obtain as reliable observation as possible into the third dimension: Next to areal extent measurements from satellites and maps generated with airborne synthetic-aperture radar (SAR), lava thickness profiles are regularly obtained by low-level flights with a fixed-wing aircraft that is equipped with a ground clearance radar coupled witha submeter DGPS,a system originally designed for monitoring surface changes of glaciers above geothermally active areas.The resulting radar profile data are supplemented by analyses of aerial photos and complemented by results from an array of ground based thickness measurement methods. The initial results indicate that average effusion ratewas ~200 m3/s in the first weeks of the eruption (end August, early September) but declined to 50-100 m3/s in November to December period

  17. Equilibrium evolution in oscillating-field current-drive experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCollam, K. J.; Anderson, J. K.; Blair, A. P.; Craig, D.; Den Hartog, D. J.; Ebrahimi, F.; O'Connell, R.; Reusch, J. A.; Sarff, J. S.; Stephens, H. D.; Stone, D. R.; Brower, D. L.; Deng, B. H.; Ding, W. X.

    2010-08-01

    Oscillating-field current drive (OFCD) is a proposed method of steady-state toroidal plasma sustainment in which ac poloidal and toroidal loop voltages are applied to produce a dc plasma current. OFCD is added to standard, inductively sustained reversed-field pinch plasmas in the Madison Symmetric Torus [R. N. Dexter et al., Fusion Technol. 19, 131 (1991)]. Equilibrium profiles and fluctuations during a single cycle are measured and analyzed for different relative phases between the two OFCD voltages and for OFCD off. For OFCD phases leading to the most added plasma current, the measured energy confinement is slightly better than that for OFCD off. By contrast, the phase of the maximum OFCD helicity-injection rate also has the maximum decay rate, which is ascribed to transport losses during discrete magnetic-fluctuation events induced by OFCD. Resistive-magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the experiments reproduce the observed phase dependence of the added current.

  18. Airborne measurements of NO, NO2, and NO(sub y) as related to NASA's TRACE-A field program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradshaw, John; Sandholm, Scott

    1995-01-01

    The Georgia Tech group's effort on NASA's GTE program and TRACE-A field mission primarily involved analysis and interpretation of the measurement data base obtained during the TRACE-A field campaign. These investigations focused on the distribution of ozone and ozone precursors over the south Atlantic and nearby continental regions of Africa and South Africa. The Transport and Atmospheric Chemistry near the Equator-Atlantic (TRACE-A) Mission was designed with the goal of investigating tropospheric trace gas distributions, sources, and photochemical state over the southern Atlantic. Major scientific issues related to N(x)O(y) tropospheric chemistry addressed in this program included: (1) what controls the tropospheric ozone budget over the southern Atlantic? (2) What are the spatial distributions of CO, CO2, NO, NO2, NO(sub y), O3, NMHC, H2O3, etc. over the southern Atlantic? (3) How does long range transport of long-lived NO(y) compounds affect the more reactive NO(x) budget in southern Atlantic troposphere?

  19. SRNL RADIONUCLIDE FIELD LYSIMETER EXPERIMENT: BASELINE CONSTRUCTION AND IMPLEMENTATION

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, K.; Kaplan, D.; Bagwell, L.; Powell, B.; Almond, P.; Emerson, H.; Hixon, A.; Jablonski, J.; Buchanan, C.; Waterhouse, T.

    2012-10-17

    The purpose of this document is to compile information regarding experimental design, facility design, construction, radionuclide source preparation, and path forward for the ten year Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Radionuclide Field Lysimeter Experiment at the Savannah River Site (SRS). This is a collaborative effort by researchers at SRNL and Clemson University. The scientific objectives of this study are to: Study long-term radionuclide transport under conditions more representative of vadose zone conditions than laboratory experiments; Provide more realistic quantification of radionuclide transport and geochemistry in the vadose zone, providing better information pertinent to radioactive waste storage solutions than presently exists; Reduce uncertainty and improve justification for geochemical models such as those used in performance assessments and composite analyses.

  20. EFEDA - European field experiment in a desertification-threatened area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolle, H.-J.; Andre, J.-C.; Arrue, J. L.; Barth, H. K.; Bessemoulin, P.; Brasa, A.; De Bruin, H. A. R.; Cruces, J.; Dugdale, G.; Engman, E. T.

    1993-01-01

    During June 1991 more than 30 scientific teams worked in Castilla-La Mancha, Spain, studying the energy and water transfer processes between soil, vegetation, and the atmosphere in semiarid conditions within the coordinated European research project EFEDA (European Field Experiment in Desertification-threatened Areas). Measurements were made from the microscale (e.g., measurements on single plants) up to a scale compatible with the grid size of global models. For this purpose three sites were selected 70 km apart and heavily instrumented at a scale in the order of 30 sq km. Aircraft missions, satellite data, and movable equipment were deployed to provide a bridge to the larger scale. This paper gives a description of the experimental design along with some of the preliminary results of this successful experiment.

  1. A field experiment: reducing interpersonal discrimination toward pregnant job applicants.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Whitney Botsford; Walker, Sarah Singletary; Hebl, Michelle Mikki R; King, Eden B

    2013-09-01

    The current research targets 4 potential stereotypes driving hostile attitudes and discriminatory behaviors toward pregnant women: incompetence, lack of commitment, inflexibility, and need for accommodation. We tested the relative efficacy of reducing concerns related to each of the stereotypes in a field experiment in which female confederates who sometimes wore pregnancy prostheses applied for jobs in a retail setting. As expected, ratings from 3 perspectives (applicants, observers, and independent coders) converged to show that pregnant applicants received more interpersonal hostility than did nonpregnant applicants. However, when hiring managers received (vs. did not receive) counterstereotypic information about certain pregnancy-related stereotypes (particularly lack of commitment and inflexibility), managers displayed significantly less interpersonal discrimination. Explicit comparisons of counterstereotypic information shed light on the fact that certain information may be more effective in reducing discrimination than others. We conclude by discussing how the current research makes novel theoretical contributions and describe some practical organizational implications for understanding and improving the experiences of pregnant workers.

  2. Insect monitoring with fluorescence lidar techniques: field experiments.

    PubMed

    Guan, Zuguang; Brydegaard, Mikkel; Lundin, Patrik; Wellenreuther, Maren; Runemark, Anna; Svensson, Erik I; Svanberg, Sune

    2010-09-20

    Results from field experiments using a fluorescence lidar system to monitor movements of insects are reported. Measurements over a river surface were made at distances between 100 and 300 m, detecting, in particular, damselflies entering the 355 nm pulsed laser beam. The lidar system recorded the depolarized elastic backscattering and two broad bands of laser-induced fluorescence, with the separation wavelength at 500 nm. Captured species, dusted with characteristic fluorescent dye powders, could be followed spatially and temporally after release. Implications for ecological research are discussed.

  3. Cartoon music in a candy store: a field experiment.

    PubMed

    Le Guellec, Hélène; Guéguen, Nicolas; Jacob, Céline; Pascual, Alexandre

    2007-06-01

    An experiment on consumers' behavior was carried out in a new field context. According to a random assignment, 60 customers from ages 12 to 14 years who entered a candy store were exposed to Top Forty music which was usually played in this store, music from cartoons (Captain Flame, Candy, Olive & Tom, etc.), or no music. Analysis showed that customers spent significantly more time in the store when cartoon music was played, but the two styles of music were not related to the amount of money spent.

  4. The South Carolina Coastal Erosion Study: Nearshore Hydrodynamics Field Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haas, K. A.; Voulgaris, G.; Demir, H.; Work, P. A.; Hanes, D. M.

    2004-12-01

    As part of the South Carolina Coastal Erosion Study (SCCES) a nearshore field experiment was carried out for five days in December 2003 just north of Myrtle Beach, South Carolina, providing measurements of the waves, currents and morphological evolution. This experiment occurred concurrently with an extensive field campaign several kilometers offshore which included measurements of the waves and currents on and near a significant sand shoal. The purpose of the nearshore experiment was to aid in the identification of the effect of the offshore shoal on the nearshore processes. The resulting dataset will be used for verification of numerical models being used to investigate the hydrodynamics of the region. The experiment was carried out from December 10 to December 15 and consisted of measurements of the waves and currents, extensive surveys of the bathymetry every day, grab samples of the sediments, and video imagery. The hydrodynamics were measured using two Sontek Triton downward-looking Acoustic Doppler Velocimeters and two Nortek AquaDopp profilers arranged in a cross-shore line from inside the swash to several surf zone widths past the breakers. The bathymetric surveying was accomplished using both a differential GPS system and a total station. Surveying was performed each day in order to capture the morphological changes. On the last day, seven sediment samples were taken along a single cross-section to determine the sediment characteristics across the beach. Additionally, a video camera was located on a balcony of the top floor of a nearby hotel providing an excellent field of view of the entire experimental area. Digital video was captured directly onto a computer during all daylight hours and many control points were surveyed in each day to facilitate rectification of the imagery. A variety of conditions were encountered during the experiment, including two storm fronts which passed through, generating wind speeds up to 15 m/s. The first storm generated

  5. Airborne In-Situ Measurements of Formaldehyde over California: First Results from the Compact Formaldehyde Fluorescence Experiment (COFFEE) Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marrero, Josette; St. Clair, Jason; Yates, Emma L.; Gore, Warren; Swanson, Andrew K.; Iraci, Laura T.; Hanisco, Thomas F.

    2016-01-01

    Formaldehyde (HCHO) is one of the most abundant oxygenated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the atmosphere, playing a role multiple atmospheric processes. Measurements of HCHO can be used to help quantify convective transport, the abundance of VOCs, and ozone production in urban environments. The Compact Formaldehyde FluorescencE Experiment (COFFEE) instrument uses Non-Resonant Laser Induced Fluorescence (NR-LIF) to detect trace concentrations of HCHO as part of the Alpha Jet Atmospheric eXperiment (AJAX) payload. Developed at NASA GSFC, COFFEE is a small, low maintenance instrument with a sensitivity of 100 pptv and a quick response time (1 sec). The COFFEE instrument has been customized to fit in an external wing pod on the Alpha Jet aircraft based at NASA ARC. The instrument can operate over a broad range of altitudes, from boundary layer to lower stratosphere, making it well suited for the Alpha Jet, which can access altitudes from the surface up to 40,000 ft. Results of the first COFFEE science flights preformed over the California's Central Valley will be presented. Boundary layer measurements and vertical profiles in the tropospheric column will both be included. This region is of particular interest, due to its elevated levels of HCHO, revealed in satellite images, as well as its high ozone concentrations. In addition to HCHO, the AJAX payload includes measurements of atmospheric ozone, methane, and carbon dioxide. Formaldehyde is one of the few urban pollutants that can be measured from space. Plans to compare in-situ COFFEE data with satellite-based HCHO observations such as those from OMI (Aura) and OMPS (SuomiNPP) will also be presented.

  6. Airborne In-Situ Measurements of Formaldehyde Over California: First Results from the Compact Formaldehyde Fluorescence Experiment (COFFEE) Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marrero, Josette Elizabeth; Saint Clair, Jason; Yates, Emma L.; Gore, Warren; Swanson, Andrew K.; Iraci, Laura T.; Hanisco, Thomas F.

    2016-01-01

    Formaldehyde (HCHO) is one of the most abundant oxygenated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the atmosphere, playing a role multiple atmospheric processes. Measurements of HCHO can be used to help quantify convective transport, the abundance of VOCs, and ozone production in urban environments. The Compact Formaldehyde FluorescencE Experiment (COFFEE) instrument uses Non-Resonant Laser Induced Fluorescence (NR-LIF) to detect trace concentrations of HCHO as part of the Alpha Jet Atmospheric eXperiment (AJAX) payload. Developed at NASA GSFC, COFFEE is a small, low maintenance instrument with a sensitivity of 100 pptv and a quick response time (1 sec). The COFFEE instrument has been customized to fit in an external wing pod on the Alpha Jet aircraft based at NASA ARC. The instrument can operate over a broad range of altitudes, from boundary layer to lower stratosphere, making it well suited for the Alpha Jet, which can access altitudes from the surface up to 40,000 ft. Results of the first COFFEE science flights preformed over the California's Central Valley will be presented. Boundary layer measurements and vertical profiles in the tropospheric column will both be included. This region is of particular interest, due to its elevated levels of HCHO, revealed in satellite images, as well as its high ozone concentrations. In addition to HCHO, the AJAX payload includes measurements of atmospheric ozone, methane, and carbon dioxide. Formaldehyde is one of the few urban pollutants that can be measured from space. Plans to compare in-situ COFFEE data with satellite-based HCHO observations such as those from OMI (Aura) and OMPS (SuomiNPP) will also be presented.

  7. Identifying Discrimination at Work: The Use of Field Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Pager, Devah; Western, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Antidiscrimination law offers protection to workers who have been treated unfairly on the basis of their race, gender, religion, or national origin. In order for these protections to be invoked, however, potential plaintiffs must be aware of and able to document discriminatory treatment. Given the subtlety of contemporary forms of discrimination, it is often difficult to identify discrimination when it has taken place. The methodology of field experiments offers one approach to measuring and detecting hiring discrimination, providing direct observation of discrimination in real-world settings. In this article, we discuss the findings of two recent field experiments measuring racial discrimination in low wage labor markets. This research provides several relevant findings for researchers and those interested in civil rights enforcement: (1) it produces estimates of the rate of discrimination at the point of hire; (2) it yields evidence about the interactions associated with discrimination (many of which reveal the subtlety with which contemporary discrimination is practiced); and (3) it provides a vehicle for both research on and enforcement of antidiscrimination law. PMID:24163481

  8. Within-field and regional-scale accuracies of topsoil organic carbon content prediction from an airborne visible near-infrared hyperspectral image combined with synchronous field spectra for temperate croplands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaudour, Emmanuelle; Gilliot, Jean-Marc; Bel, Liliane; Lefevre, Josias; Chehdi, Kacem

    2016-04-01

    This study was carried out in the framework of the TOSCA-PLEIADES-CO of the French Space Agency and benefited data from the earlier PROSTOCK-Gessol3 project supported by the French Environment and Energy Management Agency (ADEME). It aimed at identifying the potential of airborne hyperspectral visible near-infrared AISA-Eagle data for predicting the topsoil organic carbon (SOC) content of bare cultivated soils over a large peri-urban area (221 km2) with intensive annual crop cultivation and both contrasted soils and SOC contents, located in the western region of Paris, France. Soils comprise hortic or glossic luvisols, calcaric, rendzic cambisols and colluvic cambisols. Airborne AISA-Eagle images (400-1000 nm, 126 bands) with 1 m-resolution were acquired on 17 April 2013 over 13 tracks. Tracks were atmospherically corrected then mosaicked at a 2 m-resolution using a set of 24 synchronous field spectra of bare soils, black and white targets and impervious surfaces. The land use identification system layer (RPG) of 2012 was used to mask non-agricultural areas, then calculation and thresholding of NDVI from an atmospherically corrected SPOT4 image acquired the same day enabled to map agricultural fields with bare soil. A total of 101 sites, which were sampled either at the regional scale or within one field, were identified as bare by means of this map. Predictions were made from the mosaic AISA spectra which were related to SOC contents by means of partial least squares regression (PLSR). Regression robustness was evaluated through a series of 1000 bootstrap data sets of calibration-validation samples, considering those 75 sites outside cloud shadows only, and different sampling strategies for selecting calibration samples. Validation root-mean-square errors (RMSE) were comprised between 3.73 and 4.49 g. Kg-1 and were ~4 g. Kg-1 in median. The most performing models in terms of coefficient of determination (R²) and Residual Prediction Deviation (RPD) values were the

  9. Automated decision algorithm applied to a field experiment with multiple research objectives: The DC3 campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanlon, Christopher J.; Small, Arthur A.; Bose, Satyajit; Young, George S.; Verlinde, Johannes

    2014-10-01

    Automated decision systems have shown the potential to increase data yields from field experiments in atmospheric science. The present paper describes the construction and performance of a flight decision system designed for a case in which investigators pursued multiple, potentially competing objectives. The Deep Convective Clouds and Chemistry (DC3) campaign in 2012 sought in situ airborne measurements of isolated deep convection in three study regions: northeast Colorado, north Alabama, and a larger region extending from central Oklahoma through northwest Texas. As they confronted daily flight launch decisions, campaign investigators sought to achieve two mission objectives that stood in potential tension to each other: to maximize the total amount of data collected while also collecting approximately equal amounts of data from each of the three study regions. Creating an automated decision system involved understanding how investigators would themselves negotiate the trade-offs between these potentially competing goals, and representing those preferences formally using a utility function that served to rank-order the perceived value of alternative data portfolios. The decision system incorporated a custom-built method for generating probabilistic forecasts of isolated deep convection and estimated climatologies calibrated to historical observations. Monte Carlo simulations of alternative future conditions were used to generate flight decision recommendations dynamically consistent with the expected future progress of the campaign. Results show that a strict adherence to the recommendations generated by the automated system would have boosted the data yield of the campaign by between 10 and 57%, depending on the metrics used to score success, while improving portfolio balance.

  10. Airborne measurements of black carbon aerosol over the Southeastern U.S. during the Southeast Atmosphere Study (SAS) experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markovic, M. Z.; Perring, A. E.; Schwarz, J. P.; Fahey, D. W.; Gao, R.; Watts, L.; Holloway, J.; Graus, M.; Warneke, C.; De Gouw, J. A.; Veres, P. R.; Roberts, J. M.; Middlebrook, A. M.; Welti, A.; Liao, J.

    2013-12-01

    The Southeast Atmosphere Study (SAS) field campaign was a large-scale, collaborative project, which took place in the Southeastern U.S. in June and July of 2013. The goal of the campaign was to investigate the impacts of biogenic and anthropogenic gases and aerosols on the formation of haze and anomalous climate cooling in the region. During SAS, a NOAA Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2) instrument was utilized onboard NOAA WP-3D research aircraft for measurements of black carbon (BC) aerosol mass and microphysical properties. BC aerosol is emitted into the atmosphere from biomass burning (BB) and incomplete combustion of fossil and biofuel. Hence, BC sources are strongly linked to anthropogenic activity. BC aerosol is currently the second largest anthropogenic climate forcing agent after CO2(g), and its climate impacts, which depend on vertical burden and internal mixing, are not fully understood. In the Southeast, BC aerosol is expected to provide surface area for the condensation of semi-volatile products of VOC oxidation and subsequent formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). Hence, BC is expected to impact the haze formation and regional climate. In this work we present an overview of BC measurements during Southeast Nexus (SENEX) study, the NOAA contribution to SAS. Geographical variations in mass mixing ratios, mass size distributions, and mixing state of BC over the Southeast U.S. are discussed. Relationships of BC with carbon monoxide (CO), acetonitrile (ACN) and other trace gases are used to investigate the impacts of urban, BB, natural gas development, and power plant emissions on the distribution and properties of BC aerosol in the region. Among studied urban centers, St. Louis and Atlanta were determined to be the largest source regions of BC. A clear weekend effect in BC mass mixing ratios and microphysical properties was observed in the metropolitan Atlanta region. Compared to BB and urban centers, power plants and natural gas developments

  11. Signal processing for airborne doppler radar detection of hazardous wind shear as applied to NASA 1991 radar flight experiment data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baxa, Ernest G., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Radar data collected during the 1991 NASA flight tests have been selectively analyzed to support research directed at developing both improved as well as new algorithms for detecting hazardous low-altitude windshear. Analysis of aircraft attitude data from several flights indicated that platform stability bandwidths were small compared to the data rate bandwidths which should support an assumption that radar returns can be treated as short time stationary. Various approaches at detection of weather returns in the presence of ground clutter are being investigated. Non-coventional clutter rejection through spectrum mode tracking and classification algorithms is a subject of continuing research. Based upon autoregressive modeling of the radar return time sequence, this approach may offer an alternative to overcome errors in conventional pulse-pair estimates. Adaptive filtering is being evaluated as a means of rejecting clutter with emphasis on low signal-to-clutter ratio situations, particularly in the presence of discrete clutter interference. An analysis of out-of-range clutter returns is included to illustrate effects of ground clutter interference due to range aliasing for aircraft on final approach. Data are presented to indicate how aircraft groundspeed might be corrected from the radar data as well as point to an observed problem of groundspeed estimate bias variation with radar antenna scan angle. A description of how recorded clutter return data are mixed with simulated weather returns is included. This enables the researcher to run controlled experiments to test signal processing algorithms. In the summary research efforts involving improved modelling of radar ground clutter returns and a Bayesian approach at hazard factor estimation are mentioned.

  12. Application of spectral and spatial indices for specific class identification in Airborne Prism EXperiment (APEX) imaging spectrometer data for improved land cover classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallepalli, Akhil; Kumar, Anil; Khoshelham, Kourosh; James, David B.

    2016-10-01

    Hyperspectral remote sensing's ability to capture spectral information of targets in very narrow bandwidths gives rise to many intrinsic applications. However, the major limiting disadvantage to its applicability is its dimensionality, known as the Hughes Phenomenon. Traditional classification and image processing approaches fail to process data along many contiguous bands due to inadequate training samples. Another challenge of successful classification is to deal with the real world scenario of mixed pixels i.e. presence of more than one class within a single pixel. An attempt has been made to deal with the problems of dimensionality and mixed pixels, with an objective to improve the accuracy of class identification. In this paper, we discuss the application of indices to cope with the disadvantage of the dimensionality of the Airborne Prism EXperiment (APEX) hyperspectral Open Science Dataset (OSD) and to improve the classification accuracy using the Possibilistic c-Means (PCM) algorithm. This was used for the formulation of spectral and spatial indices to describe the information in the dataset in a lesser dimensionality. This reduced dimensionality is used for classification, attempting to improve the accuracy of determination of specific classes. Spectral indices are compiled from the spectral signatures of the target and spatial indices have been defined using texture analysis over defined neighbourhoods. The classification of 20 classes of varying spatial distributions was considered in order to evaluate the applicability of spectral and spatial indices in the extraction of specific class information. The classification of the dataset was performed in two stages; spectral and a combination of spectral and spatial indices individually as input for the PCM classifier. In addition to the reduction of entropy, while considering a spectral-spatial indices approach, an overall classification accuracy of 80.50% was achieved, against 65% (spectral indices only) and

  13. Airborne Sun photometer measurements of aerosol optical depth and columnar water vapor during the Puerto Rico Dust Experiment and comparison with land, aircraft, and satellite measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livingston, John M.; Russell, Philip B.; Reid, Jeffrey S.; Redemann, Jens; Schmid, Beat; Allen, Duane A.; Torres, Omar; Levy, Robert C.; Remer, Lorraine A.; Holben, Brent N.; Smirnov, Alexander; Dubovik, Oleg; Welton, Ellsworth J.; Campbell, James R.; Wang, Jun; Christopher, Sundar A.

    2003-10-01

    Analyses of aerosol optical depth (AOD) and columnar water vapor (CWV) measurements obtained with the six-channel NASA Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS-6) mounted on a twin-engine aircraft during the summer 2000 Puerto Rico Dust Experiment are presented. In general, aerosol extinction values calculated from AATS-6 AOD measurements acquired during aircraft profiles up to 5 km above sea level (asl) reproduce the vertical structure measured by coincident aircraft in situ measurements of total aerosol number concentration. AATS-6 extinction retrievals also agree with corresponding values derived from ground-based lidar measurements for altitudes above the trade inversion. The spectral behavior of AOD within specific layers beneath the top of the aircraft profile is consistent with attenuation of incoming solar radiation by large dust particles or by dust plus sea salt, with mean Ångström wavelength exponents of ˜0.20. Values of CWV calculated from profile measurements by AATS-6 at 941.9 nm and from aircraft in situ measurements agree to within ˜4% (0.13 g/cm2). AATS-6 AOD values measured on the ground at Roosevelt Roads Naval Air Station and during low-altitude aircraft runs over the adjacent Cabras Island aerosol/radiation ground site agree to within 0.004-0.030 with coincident data obtained with an AERONET Sun/sky radiometer located on Cabras Island. For the same observation times, AERONET retrievals of CWV exceed AATS-6 values by ˜21%. AATS-6 AOD values measured during low-altitude aircraft traverses over the ocean are compared with corresponding AOD values retrieved over water from upwelling radiance measurements by the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS), and GOES 8 Imager satellite sensors, with mixed results.

  14. Assessing Aerosol Mixed Layer Heights from the NASA Larc Airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) during the Discover-AQ Field Campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarino, A. J.; Ferrare, R. A.; Burton, S. P.; Hostetler, C. A.; Hair, J. W.; Rogers, R. R.; Berkoff, T.; Sawamura, P.; Collins, J. E., Jr.; Seaman, S. T.; Cook, A. L.; Harper, D. B.; Follette-Cook, M. B.; daSilva, A.; Randles, C. A.

    2014-12-01

    The first- and second-generation NASA airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidars (HSRL-1 and HSRL-2) have been deployed on board the NASA Langley Research Center King Air aircraft during the Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from Column and VERtically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality (DISCOVER-AQ) field campaigns. These included deployments during July 2011 over Washington, D.C. and Baltimore, MD, during January and February 2013 over the San Joaquin Valley of California, during September 2013 over Houston, TX and during July and August 2014 over Denver, CO. Measurements of aerosol extinction, backscatter, and depolarization are available from both HSRL-1 and HSRL-2 in coordination with other participating research aircraft and ground sites. These measurements constitute a diverse data set for use in characterizing the spatial and temporal distribution of aerosols, aerosol optical thickness (AOT), as well as the mixed layer (ML) height. Analysis of the ML height at these four locations is presented, including temporal and horizontal variability and comparisons between land and water, including the Chesapeake Bay and Galveston Bay. Using the ML heights, the distribution of AOT relative to the ML heights is determined, which is relevant for assessing the long-range transport of aerosols. The ML heights are also used to help relate column AOT measurements and extinction profiles to surface PM2.5 concentrations. The HSRL ML heights are also used to evaluate the performance in simulating the temporal and spatial variability of ML heights from both chemical regional models and global forecast models.

  15. Dimensioning IRGA gas sampling systems: laboratory and field experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubinet, Marc; Joly, Lilian; Loustau, Denis; De Ligne, Anne; Chopin, Henri; Cousin, Julien; Chauvin, Nicolas; Decarpenterie, Thomas; Gross, Patrick

    2016-03-01

    Both laboratory and field experiments were carried out in order to define suitable configuration ranges for the gas sampling systems (GSSs) of infrared gas analyzers (IRGAs) used in eddy covariance measurements.

    In the laboratory, an original dynamic calibration bench was developed in order to test the frequency attenuation and pressure drop generated by filters. In the field, three IRGAs of the same type equipped with different filters or different rain caps were installed and run and the real frequency response of the complete setup was tested. The main results are as follows. - Filters may have a strong impact on the pressure drop in the GSS and this impact increases with flow rate. - Conversely, no impact of the tested filters on cut-off frequency was found, GSSs with and without filters presenting similar cut-off frequencies. - The main limiting factor of cut-off frequency in the field was found to be the rain cap design. In addition, the impact of this design on pressure drop was also found to be noteworthy.

  16. Dimensioning IRGA gas sampling system : laboratory and field experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubinet, Marc; Joly, Lilian; Loustau, Denis; De Ligne, Anne; Chopin, Henri; Cousin, Julien; De Carpenterie, Thomas; Gross, Patrick; Chauvin, Nicolas

    2016-04-01

    Both laboratory and field experiments were carried out in order to define suitable configuration ranges for the gas sampling systems (GSS) of infrared gas analyzers (IRGA) used in eddy covariance measurements. In the laboratory, an original dynamic calibration bench was developed in order to test the frequency attenuation and pressure drop generated by filters. In the field, three IRGAs of the same type equipped with different filters or different rain caps were installed and run and the real frequency response of the complete set-up was tested. The main results are that: - Filters may have a strong impact on the pressure drop in the GSS and this impact increases with flow rate. - On the contrary, no impact of the tested filters on cut off frequency was found, GSS with and without filters presenting similar cut off frequencies. - The main limiting factor of cut off frequency in the field was found to be the rain cap design. In addition, the impact of this design on pressure drop was also found noteworthy.

  17. [Runoff Pollution Experiments of Paddy Fields Under Different Irrigation Patterns].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jing-wen; Su, Bao-lin; Huang, Ning-bo; Guan, Yu-tang; Zhao, Kun

    2016-03-15

    To study runoff and non-point source pollution of paddy fields and to provide a scientific basis for agricultural water management of paddy fields, paddy plots in the Jintan City and the Liyang City were chosen for experiments on non-point source pollution, and flood irrigation and intermittent irrigation patterns were adopted in this research. The surface water level and rainfall were observed during the growing season of paddies, and the runoff amount from paddy plots and loads of total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) were calculated by different methods. The results showed that only five rain events of totally 27 rainfalls and one artificially drainage formed non-point source pollution from flood irrigated paddy plot, which resulted in a TN export coefficient of 49.4 kg · hm⁻² and a TP export coefficient of 1.0 kg · hm⁻². No any runoff event occurred from the paddy plot with intermittent irrigation even in the case of maximum rainfall of 95.1 mm. Runoff from paddy fields was affected by water demands of paddies and irrigation or drainage management, which was directly correlated to surface water level, rainfall amount and the lowest ridge height of outlets. Compared with the flood irrigation, intermittent irrigation could significantly reduce non-point source pollution caused by rainfall or artificial drainage.

  18. Assurance of MOZAIC/IAGOS relative humidity data quality by evaluating the Capacitive Hygrometer during airborne field studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neis, Patrick; Smit, Herman G. J.; Rohs, Susanne; Rolf, Christian; Krämer, Martina; Ebert, Volker; Buchholz, Bernhard; Bundke, Ulrich; Finger, Fanny; Klingebiel, Marcus; Petzold, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    Water vapour is a major parameter in weather prediction and climate research but the interaction between the water vapour in the upper troposphere and lowermost stratosphere (UT/LS) and tropopause dynamics are not well understood. A continuous measurement of upper tropospheric humidity (UTH) is difficult because the abundance of UTH is highly variable on spatial and temporal scales that cannot be resolved, neither by the global radiosondes network nor by satellites. Since 1994, data with high spatial and temporal resolution for relative humidity are provided by the in-situ measurements aboard civil passenger aircraft from the MOZAIC/IAGOS-programme (www.iagos.org). The data set emerging from this long-term observation effort builds the backbone of the ongoing in-situ UTH climatology and trend analyses. In order to assess the validity of the long-term water vapour data and its limitations, an analysis of the humidity data sets of two field campaigns is presented. The validation of applied measurement methods, i.e. the MOZAIC/IAGOS Capacitive Hygrometer, is valued on the basis of the aircraft campaigns CIRRUS-III (2006) and AIRTOSS-ICE (2013), where research-grade water vapour instruments were operated simultaneously to the MOZAIC/IAGOS Capacitive Hygrometers. The performance of the MOZAIC Capacitive Hygrometer (MCH; operated from 1994 to 2014 on MOZAIC aircraft) and the advanced IAGOS Capacitive Hygrometer (ICH; operated since 2011 on IAGOS aircraft) are explored in clear sky, in the vicinity of and inside cirrus clouds as a blind intercomparison to the research-grade water vapour instruments. From these intercomparisons the qualification of the Capacitive Hygrometer for the use in long-term observation programmes is successfully demonstrated and the continuation of high data quality is confirmed for the transition from MCH to ICH. In particular the Capacitive Hygrometer response time to changes in relative humidity could be determined for the full range of

  19. Tomographic retrieval of cloud liquid water fields from a single scanning microwave radiometer aboard a moving platform – Part 1: Field trial results from the Wakasa Bay experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, D.; Gasiewski, A.; Wiscombe, W.

    2010-07-22

    Tomographic methods offer great potential for retrieving three-dimensional spatial distributions of cloud liquid water from radiometric observations by passive microwave sensors. Fixed tomographic systems require multiple radiometers, while mobile systems can use just a single radiometer. Part 1 (this paper) examines the results from a limited cloud tomography trial with a single-radiometer airborne system carried out as part of the 2003 AMSR-E validation campaign over Wakasa Bay of the Sea of Japan. During this trial, the Polarimetric Scanning Radiometer (PSR) and Microwave Imaging Radiometer (MIR) aboard the NASA P-3 research aircraft provided a useful dataset for testing the cloud tomography method over a system of low-level clouds. We do tomographic retrievals with a constrained inversion algorithm using three configurations: PSR, MIR, and combined PSR and MIR data. The liquid water paths from the PSR retrieval are consistent with those from the MIR retrieval. The retrieved cloud field based on the combined data appears to be physically plausible and consistent with the cloud image obtained by a cloud radar. We find that some vertically-uniform clouds appear at high altitudes in the retrieved field where the radar shows clear sky. This is likely due to the sub-optimal data collection strategy. This sets the stage for Part 2 of this study that aims to define optimal data collection strategies using observation system simulation experiments.

  20. Field experiments using SPEAR: a speech control system for UGVs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chhatpar, Siddharth R.; Blanco, Chris; Czerniak, Jeffrey; Hoffman, Orin; Juneja, Amit; Pruthi, Tarun; Liu, Dongqing; Karlsen, Robert; Brown, Jonathan

    2009-05-01

    This paper reports on a Field Experiment carried out by the Human Research and Engineering Directorate at Ft. Benning to evaluate the efficacy of using speech to control an Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV) concurrently with a handcontroller. The SPEAR system, developed by Think-A-Move, provides speech-control of UGVs. The system picks up user-speech in the ear canal with an in-ear microphone. This property allows it to work efficiently in high-noise environments, where traditional speech systems, employing external microphones, fail. It has been integrated with an iRobot PackBot 510 with EOD kit. The integrated system allows the hand-controller to be supplemented with speech for concurrent control. At Ft. Benning, the integrated system was tested by soldiers from the Officer Candidate School. The Experiment had dual focus: 1) Quantitative measurement of the time taken to complete each station and the cognitive load on users; 2) Qualitative evaluation of ease-of-use and ergonomics through soldier-feedback. Also of significant benefit to Think-A-Move was soldier-feedback on the speech-command vocabulary employed: What spoken commands are intuitive, and how the commands should be executed, e.g., limited-motion vs. unlimited-motion commands. Overall results from the Experiment are reported in the paper.

  1. Data management for interdisciplinary field experiments: OTTER project support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angelici, Gary; Popovici, Lidia; Skiles, J. W.

    1993-01-01

    The ability of investigators of an interdisciplinary science project to properly manage the data that are collected during the experiment is critical to the effective conduct of science. When the project becomes large, possibly including several scenes of large-format remotely sensed imagery shared by many investigators requiring several services, the data management effort can involve extensive staff and computerized data inventories. The OTTER (Oregon Transect Ecosystem Research) project was supported by the PLDS (Pilot Land Data System) with several data management services, such as data inventory, certification, and publication. After a brief description of these services, experiences in providing them are compared with earlier data management efforts and some conclusions regarding data management in support of interdisciplinary science are discussed. In addition to providing these services, a major goal of this data management capability was to adopt characteristics of a pro-active attitude, such as flexibility and responsiveness, believed to be crucial for the effective conduct of active, interdisciplinary science. These are also itemized and compared with previous data management support activities. Identifying and improving these services and characteristics can lead to the design and implementation of optimal data management support capabilities, which can result in higher quality science and data products from future interdisciplinary field experiments.

  2. Airborne measurements of total sulfur gases during NASA Global Tropospheric Experiment/Chemical Instrumentation Test and Evaluation 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farwell, Sherry O.; MacTaggart, Douglas L.; Chatham, William H.; Everson, Dale O.; Samaranayake, Kumarasiri; Lim, Young Taik

    1995-04-01

    A metal foil collection/flash desorption/flame photometric detection (MFC/FD/FPD) technique was used by investigators from the University of Idaho (UI) to measure ambient total sulfur gas concentrations from an aircraft platform during the NASA Global Tropospheric Experiment/Chemical Instrumentation Test and Evaluation 3 (GTE/CITE 3) program. The MFC/FD/FPD technique allowed rapid quantitation of tropospheric background air masses using sample integration times of 1-3 min with little or no gap between measurements. The rapid and continual sampling nature of this technique yielded data covering approximately 75% of the entire CITE 3 program's air track. Ambient air measurement data obtained during northern hemisphere (NH) flights often exhibited relatively high total sulfur gas values (up to 19 ppb) and an extremely high degree of sample heterogeneity, especially in coastal locations. Data from southern hemisphere (SH) flights typically exhibited relatively low total sulfur gas concentrations and a low degree of sample heterogeneity. A bimodal interhemispheric total sulfur gas gradient was observed using data obtained during transit flights between the two CITE 3 program ground bases. Comparisons were made of UI total sulfur gas measurements with composite sulfur gas values generated using speciated sulfur gas measurements from other CITE 3 participants. Only a relatively small number of overlap periods for comparison were obtained from all the available CITE 3 data because of large differences in measurement integration times and lack of synchronization of sample start/stop times for the various investigators. These effects were compounded with extreme sample heterogeneity in the NH and the speed at which the aircraft traversed the air masses being sampled. Despite these constraints, sufficient overlapping data were available for the comparative evaluations. Comparison of NH UI total with composite sulfur gas values showed excellent correlation and linear curve fit

  3. Electric Field Double Probe Measurements for Ionospheric Space Plasma Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfaff, R.

    1999-01-01

    Double probes represent a well-proven technique for gathering high quality DC and AC electric field measurements in a variety of space plasma regimes including the magnetosphere, ionosphere, and mesosphere. Such experiments have been successfully flown on a variety of spacecraft including sounding rockets and satellites. Typical instrument designs involve a series of trades, depending on the science objectives, type of platform (e.g., spinning or 3-axis stabilized), expected plasma regime where the measurements will be made, available telemetry, budget, etc. In general, ionospheric DC electric field instruments that achieve accuracies of 0.1 mV/m or better, place spherical sensors at large distances (10m or more) from the spacecraft body in order to extend well beyond the spacecraft wake and sheath and to achieve large signal-to-noise ratios for DC and long wavelength measurements. Additional sets of sensors inboard of the primary, outermost sensors provide useful additional information, both for diagnostics of the plasma contact potentials, which particularly enhance the DC electric field measurements on non-spinning spacecraft, and for wavelength and phase velocity measurements that use the spaced receiver or "interferometer" technique. Accurate attitude knowledge enables B times V contributions to be subtracted from the measured potentials, and permits the measured components to be rotated into meaningful geophysical reference frames. We review the measurement technique for both DC and wave electric field measurements in the ionosphere discussing recent advances involving high resolution burst memories, multiple baseline double probes, new sensor surface materials, biasing techniques, and other considerations.

  4. Geologic mapping in Death Valley, California/Nevada using NASA/JPL airborne systems (AVIRIS, TIMS, and AIRSAR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kruse, Fred A.; Dietz, John B.; Kiereinyoung, Kathryn S.

    1991-01-01

    A multi-sensor aircraft campaign called the Geologic Remote Sensing Field Experiment (GRSFE) conducted during 1989 resulted in acquisition of high quality multispectral images in the visible, near infrared, shortwave infrared, thermal infrared, and microwave regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. The airborne data sets include the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS), the Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS), and the Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR). Ancillary data include Landsat Thematic Mapper, laboratory and field spectral measurements, and traditional geologic mapping. The GRSFE data for a site in the northern Death Valley, (California and Nevada) region were calibrated to physical units and geometrically registered to a map base. Various aspects of this experiment are briefly discussed.

  5. The Beginnings of Airborne Astronomy, 1920 - 1930: an Historical Narrative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craine, E. R.

    1984-01-01

    The emergence of airborne astronomy in the early twentieth century is recounted. The aerial expedition to observe the solar eclipse on September 10, 1923, is described. Observation of the total solar eclipse of January 24, 1925, is discussed. The Honey Lake aerial expedition to study the solar eclipse of April 28, 1930, is also described. Four major accomplishments in airborne astronomy during the period 1920 to 1930 are listed. Airborne expeditions were undertaken at every logical opportunity, starting a continuous sequence of airborne astronomical expeditions which was to remain unbroken, except by World War II, to the present day. Although the scientific returns of the first ten years were modest, they did exist. Interest in, and support for, airborne astronomy was generated not only among astronomers but also among the public. Albert Stevens, arguably the true father of airborne astronomy, was to become interested in applying his considerable skill and experience to the airborne acquisition of astronomical data.

  6. Mercury's Gravity Field from BepiColombo MORE experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marabucci, M.; Genova, A.; Iess, L.

    2012-04-01

    The Mercury Orbiter Radioscience Experiment (MORE) is one of the main instruments on board the BepiColombo Mercury Planetary Orbiter (MPO), designed to provide an accurate estimation of Mercury's gravity field by means of highly stable, multi-frequency radio links in X and Ka band. The state-of-the-art microwave equipment enables simultaneous two-way links in X/X (7.2 GHz uplink/8.4 GHz downlink), X/Ka (7.2/32.5 GHz) and Ka/Ka band (34/32.5 GHz), providing range rate accuracies of 3 micron/s (at 1000 s integration time) at nearly all elongation angles. Range observables accurate to 20 cm (two-way) will be attained using a novel, wideband (24 Mcps) ranging system, based upon a pseudo-noise modulation scheme. The multifrequency link, adopted for the first time by the Cassini mission to Saturn [1,2], allows a nearly complete cancellation of the plasma noise both in Doppler and range measurements and hence an accurate determination of Mercury's gravity field and ephemerides. The orbit determination of spacecraft in deep space is generally carried out by means of batch filters, for recovering the trajectory and the model parameters (i.e. gravity field coefficients). The complexity of Mercury's environment penalizes strongly the accuracy of the orbit determination because of the non-gravitational perturbations, such as the solar radiation pressure. Although the non-gravitational accelerations of the MPO will be measured by a highly sensitive accelerometer (the Italian Spring Accelerometer, ISA), a classical, global batch filter proved to be inadequate for precise orbit propagation due to numerical instabilities. Therefore, a different approach has been devised, where the information accumulated previously is exploited in a batch-sequential filter. This paper reports on a new set of numerical simulations carried out with this strategy. The simulation setup takes into account the latest changes in the spacecraft design, the mission profile and the tracking system. We

  7. Soil response to chemicals used in a field experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jezierska-Tys, S.; Rutkowska, A.

    2013-03-01

    The effect of chemicals (Reglone 200 SL and Elastiq 550 EC) on soil microorganisms and their enzymatic activity was estimated. The study was conducted in a field experiment which was set up in the split-block design and comprised three treatments. Soil samples were taken six times, twice in each year of study. The results showed that the application of chemicals generally had no negative effect on the number of soil microorganisms. The application of Reglone 200 SL caused an increase of proteolytic and ureolytic activity and affected the activity of dehydrogenases, acid and alkaline phosphatases in the soil. The soil subjected of Elastiq 550 EC was characterized by lower activity of dehydrogenases, protease, urease and alkaline phosphatase.

  8. Prosocial Behavior and Subjective Insecurity in Violent Contexts: Field Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Vélez, María Alejandra; Trujillo, Carlos Andres; Moros, Lina; Forero, Clemente

    2016-01-01

    Subjective insecurity is a key determinant of different forms of prosocial behavior. In Study 1, we used field experiments with farmers in Colombian villages exposed to different levels of violence to investigate how individual perceptions of insecurity affect cooperation, trust, reciprocity and altruism. To do so, we developed a cognitive-affective measure of subjective insecurity. We found that subjective insecurity has a negative effect on cooperation but influences trust and altruism positively. In Study 2, carried out three years after Study 1, we repeated the initial design with additional measures of victimization. Our goal was to relate subjective insecurity with actual victimization. The findings of Study 2 support the initial results, and are robust and consistent for cooperative behavior and trust when including victimization as a mediator. Different indicators of victimization are positively correlated with subjective insecurity and an aggregate index of victimization has a negative effect on cooperation but exerts a positive influence on trust. PMID:27472437

  9. Monitoring instrument field experiments at Oregon Institute of Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Danielson, M.J.; Smith, R.P.

    1980-09-01

    The field tests were conducted under reducing and oxidizing conditions. Corrosion rates with zero oxygen were about 1.1 mils per year (mpy) for both copper and steel coupons, which is quite low for carbon steel. There was a problem controlling the oxygen level in the oxygenated experiments; however, it was found that corrosion rates increased with the presence of oxygen. Corrosion rates for the steel and copper coupons were 4 and 2 mpy, respectively; copper coupled to cast iron corroded at 8 mpy. Commercial corrosion rate measuring equipment determined the general corrosion rate of carbon steel farily well but overestimated copper corrosion rates. The redox electrode was a very sensitive indicator of the entry of oxygen.

  10. Impact detection on airborne multilayered structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noharet, Bertrand; Chazelas, Jean; Bonniau, Philippe; Lecuellet, Jerome; Turpin, Marc J.

    1995-04-01

    This paper reviews the progress of an ongoing research program at Thomson-CSF and Bertin & Cie which addresses an optical fiber system dedicated to the assessment of impact induced damages on airborne multilayered structures. The method is based on the use of embedded high birefringence optical fiber sensors and distributed white light interfero-polarimetry. The first part is devoted to the transduction process efficiency within optical fibers depending on the applied force intensity, direction versus the fiber eigen axes and the interaction length. To understand the behavior of these optical fibers and calibrate the detection system, experiments have been conducted on elliptical core fibers, `bow-tie' fibers and side-hole fibers and showed a wide range of available sensitivities. The second step is related to the inclusion of optical fibers in a sandwich structure representative of an airborne dome, and composed of foam between glass/epoxy composite skins. Different designs of grooves in the foam and tube sheathings have been investigated to support and protect the optical fiber. Impacts have been performed on the structure in the 1 to 10 Joules energy range. Experimental impact location and energy measurements have been achieved for a variety of stress fields.

  11. ARM Cloud-Aerosol-Precipitation Experiment (ACAPEX) Field Campaign Report

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, L Ruby

    2016-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility’s ARM Cloud-Aerosol-Precipitation Experiment (ACAPEX) field campaign contributes to CalWater 2015, a multi-agency field campaign that aims to improve understanding of atmospheric rivers and aerosol sources and transport that influence cloud and precipitation processes. The ultimate goal is to reduce uncertainties in weather predictions and climate projections of droughts and floods in California. With the DOE G-1 aircraft and ARM Mobile Facility 2 (AMF2) well equipped for making aerosol and cloud measurements, ACAPEX focuses specifically on understanding how aerosols from local pollution and long-range transport affect the amount and phase of precipitation associated with atmospheric rivers. ACAPEX took place between January 12, 2015 and March 8, 2015 as part of CalWater 2015, which included four aircraft (DOE G-1, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration [NOAA] G-IV and P-3, and National Aeronautics and Space Administration [NASA] ER-2), the NOAA research ship Ron Brown, carrying onboard the AMF2, National Science Foundation (NSF)-sponsored aerosol and precipitation measurements at Bodega Bay, and the California Department of Water Resources extreme precipitation network.

  12. Frac-and-pack stimulation: Application, design, and field experience

    SciTech Connect

    Roodhart, L.P.; Fokker, P.A.; Davies, D.R.; Shlyapobersky, J.; Wong, G.K.

    1994-03-01

    This paper discusses the criteria for selecting wells to be frac-and-packed. The authors show how systematic study of the inflow performance can be used to assess the potential of frac-and-packed wells, to identify the controlling factors, and to optimize design parameters. They also show that fracture conductivity is often the key to successful treatment. This conductivity depends largely on proppant size; formation permeability damage around the created fracture has less effect. Appropriate allowance needs to be made for flow restrictions caused by the presence of the perforations, partial penetration, and non-Darcy effects. They describe the application of the overpressure-calibrated hydraulic fracture model in frac-and-pack treatment design, and discuss some operational considerations with reference to field examples. The full potential of this promising new completion method can be achieved only if the design is tailored to the individual well. This demands high-quality input data, which can be obtained only from a calibration test. This paper presents their strategy for frac-and-pack design, drawing on examples from field experience. They also point out several areas that the industry needs to address, such as the sizing of proppant in soft formations and the interaction between fracturing fluids and resin in resin-coated proppant.

  13. Magnetic Field Experiment on Yinghuo-1 at Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Hua

    Magnetic Field Experiment on Yinghuo-1 at Mars Hua Zhao, G. W. Zhu, J. D. Wang, M. F. Yu, L. Li, Y. Q. Sun, S. W. Chen, H. Z. Liao, and B. Zhou Center for Space Science and Applied Research (CSSAR), Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China Abstract: A micro-satellite, Yinghuo-1, would be launched with Phobos-Grunt in October, 2009 to investigate the space environment around Mars. YH-1 and Phobos-Grunt forms a twopoint measurement configuration in the Martian space environment, and equipped with similar magnetic field and plasma detecting payload on two spacecraft would give some coordinated exploration around Mars. YH-1 would orbit Mars with periapsis of 800 km above the Martian surface, and apoapsis about 80000 km to the center of Mars. The orbit inclination is in the range of 0—7o to the Martian equator. A flux-gate type magnetometer, with two sensors, is developed for YH-1 spacecraft. Two sensors are mounted on one-side of the deployable solar panel with a radial separation about 45 cm to function as a gradiometer to minimize the affects of platform remanence. The dynamic range of √ magnetometer is with a 16-bit ADC converter, and the the noise level is better than 0.01 nT/ Hz, to measure three-component magnetic field from DC to 10Hz. Flux-gate magnetometer would work together with the Plasma Package onboard of YH-1 to investigate the Martian bow shock, magnetosheath, magnetic pileup region (MPR). A detail description of the flux-gate magnetometer is presented in this paper, with some test and calibration results.

  14. Macroalgal mats and species abundance: a field experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hull, S. C.

    1987-11-01

    A field experiment was carried out whereby the density of macroalgae ( Enteromorpha spp.) was manipulated and the resultant changes in sediment infaunal density were monitored. Four densities of Enteromorpha spp. were used: 0,0·3, 1, and 3 kg FW m -2, corresponding to control, low-, medium-, and high-density plots. The experiment ran from May to October 1985 and was sampled on three occasions. By July, the density of Corophium volutator was reduced at all weed levels when compared to control plots, whereas densities of Hydrobia ulvae, Macoma balthica, Nereis diversicolor, and Capitella capitata, all increased. Samples taken in October when the weed mats were buried in the sediment showed fewer differences than in July. Macoma, Nereis, and Capitella were still significantly more abundant at medium and high weed densities. Corophium showed no significant treatment effect. There was, however, a highly significant difference in population size structure for Corophium. Measurements of sediment redox potential and silt content under medium- and high-density plots revealed rapid anoxia with a significant increase in siltation.

  15. Geothermal well stimulation - program summary and the Beowawe field experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Verity, R.V.

    1983-12-01

    Republic Geothermal, Inc. and its subcontractors have planned and executed laboratory studies and eight well stimulation field experiments under the Geothermal Reservoir Well Stimulation Program (GRWSP). The program, begun in February 1979, has concentrated on extending petroleum industry stimulation technology for use by the geothermal industry. The most recent experiment was in a naturally fractured Chevron well at Beowawe and involved an acid stimulation of a damaged interval which yielded a 2.3-fold increase in injectivity. Overall results to date have shown that stimulation is viable where adequate reservoirs are penetrated by wells encountering formation damage or locally tight formations. However, wells in marginal naturally fractured reservoirs have not been saved by the types of well stimulation jobs performed thus far. A recent discovery is that many wells can possibly be made outstanding producers by widening and propping compliant natural fractures. Confirmation of this constitutes unfinished business of the GRWSP, adn offers one of the greatest potential opportunities for enhancing the economics of geothermal power production.

  16. The field experiments on the HTO washout from the atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Golubev, A.V.; Mavrin, S.V.; Golubeva, V.N.; Stengach, A.V.; Balashov, Y.S.; Kovalenko, V.P.; Solomatin, I.I.

    2015-03-15

    HTO (tritiated water) wash-out from the atmosphere is one of the key processes governing the HTO transport from the atmosphere into soil and plants. Experimental studies of the HTO interaction with water drops were carried out both in laboratories and in the field. In the course of experiments, the following rain characteristics were recorded: rain intensity, size distribution of drops, and falling velocities and their dependence on drop diameter. A laser optical device was designed and used to measure the distribution of the drop radius and velocities during the period of experiment. The tritium source was placed at a height of 30 m. Rainwater samples were collected in plastic bottles and their HTO activity was determined by liquid scintillation techniques. The data obtained for the experimental values of the scavenging rate are within the range from 4.12*10{sup -5} to 1.57*10{sup -4} s{sup -1} and correspond to the precipitation intensity from 0.3 to 1.26 mm/hour. These results are in sufficiently good agreement with the results of earlier papers.

  17. Absolute tracer dye concentration using airborne laser-induced water Raman backscatter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoge, F. E.; Swift, R. N.

    1981-01-01

    The use of simultaneous airborne-laser-induced dye fluorescence and water Raman backscatter to measure the absolute concentration of an ocean-dispersed tracer dye is discussed. Theoretical considerations of the calculation of dye concentration by the numerical comparison of airborne laser-induced fluorescence spectra with laboratory spectra for known dye concentrations using the 3400/cm OH-stretch water Raman scatter as a calibration signal are presented which show that minimum errors are obtained and no data concerning water mass transmission properties are required when the laser wavelength is chosen to yield a Raman signal near the dye emission band. Results of field experiments conducted with an airborne conical scan lidar over a site in New York Bight into which rhodamine dye had been injected in a study of oil spill dispersion are then indicated which resulted in a contour map of dye concentrations, with a minimum detectable dye concentration of approximately 2 ppb by weight.

  18. An Oceanographic Decision Support System for Scientific Field Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maughan, T.; Das, J.; McCann, M. P.; Rajan, K.

    2011-12-01

    Thom Maughan, Jnaneshwar Das, Mike McCann, Danelle Cline, Mike Godin, Fred Bahr, Kevin Gomes, Tom O'Reilly, Frederic Py, Monique Messie, John Ryan, Francisco Chavez, Jim Bellingham, Maria Fox, Kanna Rajan Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute Moss Lading, California, United States Many of the coastal ocean processes we wish to observe in order to characterize marine ecosystems have large spatial extant (tens of square km) and are dynamic moving kilometers in a day with biological processes spanning anywhere from minutes to days. Some like harmful algal blooms generate toxins which can significantly impact human health and coastal economies. In order to obtain a viable understanding of the biogeochemical processes which define their dynamics and ecology, it is necessary to persistently observe, track and sample within and near the dynamic fields using augmented methods of observation such as autonomous platforms like AUVs, gliders and surface craft. Field experiments to plan, execute and manage such multitude of assets are challenging. To alleviate this problem the autonomous systems group with its collaborators at MBARI and USC designed, built and fielded a prototype Oceanographic Decision Support System (ODSS) that provides situational awareness and a single portal to visualize and plan deployments for the large scale October 2010 CANON field program as well as a series of 2 week field programs in 2011. The field programs were conducted in Monterey Bay, a known 'red tide' incubator, and varied from as many as twenty autonomous platforms, four ships and 2 manned airplanes to coordinated AUV operations, drifters and a single ship. The ODSS web-based portal was used to assimilate information from a collection of sources at sea, including AUVs, moorings, radar data as well as remote sensing products generated by partner organizations to provide a synthesis of views useful to predict the movement of a chlorophyll patch in the confines of the northern Monterey Bay

  19. Field experiments of nonlocal sediment transport on a steep hillslope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiBiase, R.; Booth, A. M.; Ganti, V.; Scheingross, J. S.; Lamb, M. P.

    2014-12-01

    Steep rocky hillslopes dominate the areal extent of rapidly uplifting mountain ranges, and pose a significant hazard to encroaching population centers. Existing models for hillslope sediment transport developed for soil-mantled landscapes are poorly suited to explain the evolution of steep hillslopes characterized by: (1) intermittent or patchy soil cover, (2) slopes that exceed the angle of repose, and (3) transport events that often involve long travel distances. Recently, nonlocal formulations of hillslope sediment transport laws that account for long travel distances have been proposed to overcome the limitations of traditional continuum-based models. However, their application to natural landscapes has been limited owing to few field constraints on key parameters, and computational difficulties expanding the framework to two-dimensions. To address this knowledge gap, we performed a series of field experiments on natural hillslopes to inform a simple particle-based model of hillslope sediment transport. We compiled the distribution of average velocity and transport distance for over 300 stones ranging in diameter from 2-10 cm using a video camera and laser range-finder. To characterize surface roughness, we used a tripod-based laser scanner to generate a 1 cm-resolution digital elevation model of each 30 m long hillslope. We find that hillslope travel distance follows a heavy-tailed distribution that varies systematically with the ratio of particle diameter to roughness height, in general agreement to published laboratory experiments. Mean particle velocity ranges from 1-3 m/s and scales weakly with distance traveled. Our modeling exercise reveals three key effects that should be included in any treatment of steep hillslope evolution: (1) there is a strong grain-size and surface roughness dependence on sediment transport distance, (2) sediment storage on slopes steeper than the angle of repose is possible due to vegetation or topographic roughness, and (3

  20. High field electron spin resonance experiments on spin - Peierls compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palme, W.; Schmidt, S.; Lüthi, B.; Boucher, J. P.; Weiden, M.; Hauptmann, R.; Geibel, C.; Revcolevschi, A.; Dhalenne, G.

    1998-05-01

    The spin-Peierls (SP) transition is still one of the most challenging effects in quasi-one-dimensional magnetism. A few years ago the first inorganic spin-Peierls compound CuGeO 3 with TSP=14.3 K was discovered, and recently α‧-NaV 2O 5 was found to be another inorganic SP system with the highest transition temperature so far observed: TSP=35 K. Electron spin resonance (ESR) is the only direct way to probe electron spin dynamics in magnetic fields higher than 12 T, where a transition to an incommensurate magnetic phase can occur. We present ESR results on single crystals of pure and Si-doped CuGeO 3 and pure α‧-NaV 2O 5. Our experiments were done in a wide frequency range 35-440 GHz in magnetic fields up to 16 T, covering a large temperature range 1.5-100 K. The temperature dependence of the ESR absorption in the D-phase in α‧-NaV 2O 5 points to transitions among triplet states, which are separated from the singlet ground state by an energy gap Δ≈85 K for T →0 . In contrast to χ( T) the ESR absorption does not stay finite for T →0 . In the incommensurate phase of slightly Si-doped CuGeO 3 (0.2% Si) ESR signals were observed, but their behaviour is much different from the ones in the pure compound.

  1. The Deep Convective Clouds and Chemistry (DC3) Field Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barth, M. C.; Brune, W. H.; Cantrell, C. A.; Rutledge, S. A.; Crawford, J. H.; Huntrieser, H.; Homeyer, C. R.; Nault, B.; Cohen, R. C.; Pan, L.; Ziemba, L. D.

    2014-12-01

    The Deep Convective Clouds and Chemistry (DC3) field experiment took place in the central U.S. in May and June 2012 and had the objectives of characterizing the effect of thunderstorms on the chemical composition of the lower atmosphere and determining the chemical aging of upper troposphere (UT) convective outflow plumes. DC3 employed ground-based radars, lightning mapping arrays, and weather balloon soundings in conjunction with aircraft measurements sampling the composition of the inflow and outflow of a variety of thunderstorms in northeast Colorado, West Texas to central Oklahoma, and northern Alabama. A unique aspect of the DC3 strategy was to locate and sample the convective outflow a day after active convection in order to measure the chemical transformations within the UT convective plume. The DC3 data are being analyzed to investigate transport and dynamics of the storms, scavenging of soluble trace gases and aerosols, production of nitrogen oxides by lightning, relationships between lightning flash rates and storm parameters, and chemistry in the UT that is affected by the convection. In this presentation, we give an overview of the DC3 field campaign and highlight results from the campaign that are relevant to the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere region. These highlights include stratosphere-troposphere exchange in connection with thunderstorms, the 0-12 hour chemical aging and new particle formation in the UT outflow of a dissipating mesoscale convective system observed on June 21, 2012, and UT chemical aging in convective outflow as sampled the day after convection occurred and modeled in the Weather Research and Forecasting coupled with Chemistry model.

  2. Range Corrections for Airborne Radar - A Joint STARS Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-05-01

    ESD-TR-84-169 MTR-9055 RANGE CORRECTIONS FOR AIRBORNE RADAR - A JOINT STARS STUDY By • _,.G. A. ROBERTSHAW MAY 1984 - Prepared for DEPUTY COMMANDER...NO NO Hanscom AFB, MA 01731 6460 11. TITLE •Include securi,•,cleaficatton) Range Corrections Tor Airborne Radar - A Joint STARS Study 12. PERSONAL...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTATION 17 COSATI CODES 18. SUBJECT TERMS (Continue on reuera if necemary and identify by block number) FIELD GROUP SUB GR. Airborne Radar

  3. AlpSAR 2012-13, A Field Experiment On Snow Observations And Parameter Retrievals With KU- And X-Band Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rott, Helmut; Nagler, Thomas; Prinz, Rainer; Voglmeier, Karl; Fromm, Reinhard; Adams, Marc S.; Yueh, Simon; Elder, Kelly; Marshall, Hans-Peter; Coccia, Alex; Imbembo, Ernesto; Schuttemeyer, Dirk; Kern, Michael

    2013-12-01

    In winter 2012-13 the AlpSAR field experiment was performed in the Austrian Alps, with the objective to acquire an experimental data base on Ku- and X-band radar backscatter of snow by means of airborne SAR, together with detailed co-located field measurements. Comprehensive data sets on physical properties of snow were acquired in three different alpine snow zones during campaigns spanning from early to late winter season. The data sets include detailed measurements of stratigraphy and physical properties of snow, and measurements of snow depth along transects in order to obtain spatially detailed patterns of snow accumulation, using conventional techniques and portable radar sounders. These data sets, together with the acquired SnowSAR backscatter images, offer excellent possibilities for development and validation of forward and inversion models on radar interaction with snow.

  4. The Multi-Center Airborne Coherent Atmospheric Wind Sensor: Recent Measurements and Future Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothermel, Jeffry; Cutten, Dean R.; Hardesty, R. Michael; Howell, James N.; Darby, Lisa S.; Tratt, David M.; Menzies, Robert T.

    1999-01-01

    The coherent Doppler lidar, when operated from an airborne platform, offers a unique measurement capability for study of atmospheric dynamical and physical properties. This is especially true for scientific objectives requiring measurements in optically-clear air, where other remote sensing technologies such as Doppler radar are at a disadvantage in terms of spatial resolution and coverage. Recent experience suggests airborne coherent Doppler lidar can yield unique wind measurements of--and during operation within--extreme weather phenomena. This paper presents the first airborne coherent Doppler lidar measurements of hurricane wind fields. The lidar atmospheric remote sensing groups of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Environmental Technology Laboratory, and Jet Propulsion Laboratory jointly developed an airborne lidar system, the Multi-center Airborne Coherent Atmospheric Wind Sensor (MACAWS). The centerpiece of MACAWS is the lidar transmitter from the highly successful NOAA Windvan. Other field-tested lidar components have also been used, when feasible, to reduce costs and development time. The methodology for remotely sensing atmospheric wind fields with scanning coherent Doppler lidar was demonstrated in 1981; enhancements were made and the system was reflown in 1984. MACAWS has potentially greater scientific utility, compared to the original airborne scanning lidar system, owing to a factor of approx. 60 greater energy-per-pulse from the NOAA transmitter. MACAWS development was completed and the system was first flown in 1995. Following enhancements to improve performance, the system was re-flown in 1996 and 1998. The scientific motivation for MACAWS is three-fold: obtain fundamental measurements of subgrid scale (i.e., approx. 2-200 km) processes and features which may be used to improve parameterizations in hydrological, climate, and general

  5. Status of SRNL radiological field lysimeter experiment-Year 1

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, D.; Roberts, K.; Bagwell, L.

    2013-10-01

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Radiological Field Lysimeter Experiment is a one-of-a-kind field facility designed to study radionuclide geochemical processes at a larger spatial scale (from grams to tens of kilograms sediment) and temporal scale (from months to 10 years) than is readily afforded through laboratory studies. The lysimeter facility is intended to capture the natural heterogeneity of moisture and temperature regimes in the vadose zone, the unsaturated subsurface region between the surface soil and the underlying aquifer. The 48 lysimeter columns, which contain various radionuclides (and stable iodine), were opened to rainfall infiltration on July 5, 2012. The objective of this report is to provide a status of the lysimeter facility operations and to compile data collected during FY13, including leachate volume, rainfall, and soil moisture and temperature in situ probe data. Radiological leachate data are not presented in this document but will be the subject of a separate document.1 Leachate samples were collected quarterly and shipped to Clemson University for radiological analyses. Rainfall, leachate volume, moisture and temperature probe data were collected continuously. During operations of the facility this year, there were four safety or technical concerns that required additional maintenance: 1) radioactivity was detected in one of the overflow bottles (captured water collected from the secondary containment that does not come in contact with the radiological source material); 2) rainwater accumulated within the sample-bottle storage sheds; 3) overflow containers collected more liquid than anticipated; and 4) significant spider infestation occurred in the sample-bottle storage sheds. To address the first three concerns, each of the lysimeter columns was re-plumbed to improve and to minimize the number of joint unions. To address the fourth concern regarding spiders, new sample-bottle water sheds were purchased and a pest control

  6. Data Management Challenges for Airborne NASA Earth Venture Sub-Orbital (EVS-1) Investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyer, A.; Cook, R. B.; Santhana Vannan, S. K.

    2014-12-01

    The ORNL DAAC is developing a technology infrastructure to archive airborne remote sensing observations from two Earth System Science Pathfinder Missions. The two missions are CARVE: Carbon in Arctic Reservoirs Vulnerability Experiment and AirMOSS: Airborne Microwave Observatory of Subcanopy and Subsurface. The two missions are collecting over 140 TB of data from extensive ground-based and airborne instruments. The metadata and documentation requirements necessary for proper archive and dissemination of such transect-based, and often 3-dimensional, airborne data are quite different from the traditional field campaign and satellite remote sensing data streams. Staff at the ORNL DAAC are currently working with the CARVE and AirMOSS teams as well as investigating cyberinfrastructures from other DAACs to develop a metadata and data infrastructure for airborne data that will enable spatial, flight-line, or keyword-based search and discovery, integration as needed of related satellite- and ground-based data sets, and subsetting and visualization tools for both CARVE and AirMOSS. We discuss challenges, progress, and lessons learned.

  7. A measurement system applicable for landslide experiments in the field.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wen-Zhao; Xu, Xiang-Zhou; Wang, Wen-Long; Yang, Ji-Shan; Liu, Ya-Kun; Xu, Fei-Long

    2016-04-01

    Observation of gravity erosion in the field with strong sunshine and wind poses a challenge. Here, a novel topography meter together with a movable tent addresses the challenge. With the topography meter, a 3D geometric shape of the target surface can be digitally reconstructed. Before the commencement of a test, the laser generator position and the camera sightline should be adjusted with a sight calibrator. Typically, the topography meter can measure the gravity erosion on the slope with a gradient of 30°-70°. Two methods can be used to obtain a relatively clear video, despite the extreme steepness of the slopes. One method is to rotate the laser source away from the slope to ensure that the camera sightline remains perpendicular to the laser plane. Another way is to move the camera farther away from the slope in which the measured volume of the slope needs to be corrected; this method will reduce distortion of the image. In addition, installation of tent poles with concrete columns helps to surmount the altitude difference on steep slopes. Results observed by the topography meter in real landslide experiments are rational and reliable.

  8. Test plan for FY-94 digface characterization field experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Josten, N.E.; Roybal, L.G.

    1994-08-01

    The digface characterization concept has been under development at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) since fiscal year (FY) 1992 through the support of the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Program. A digface characterization system conducts continuous subsurface characterization simultaneously with retrieval of hazardous and radioactive waste from buried waste sites. The system deploys multiple sensors at the retrieval operation digface and collects data that provide a basis for detecting, locating, and classifying buried materials and hazardous conditions before they are disturbed by the retrieval equipment. This test plan describes ongoing efforts to test the digface characterization concept at the INEL`s Cold Test Pit using a simplified prototype deployment apparatus and off-the-shelf sensors. FY-94 field experiments will explore problems in object detection and classification. Detection and classification of objects are fundamental to three of the four primary functions of digface characterization during overburden removal. This test plan establishes procedures for collecting and validating the digface characterization data sets. Analysis of these data will focus on testing and further developing analysis methods for object detection and classification during overburden removal.

  9. Cooperation and conflict: field experiments in Northern Ireland

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Antonio S.; Mace, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    The idea that cohesive groups, in which individuals help each other, have a competitive advantage over groups composed of selfish individuals has been widely suggested as an explanation for the evolution of cooperation in humans. Recent theoretical models propose the coevolution of parochial altruism and intergroup conflict, when in-group altruism and out-group hostility contribute to the group's success in these conflicts. However, the few empirical attempts to test this hypothesis do not use natural groups and conflate measures of in-group and unbiased cooperative behaviour. We conducted field experiments based on naturalistic measures of cooperation (school/charity donations and lost letters' returns) with two religious groups with an on-going history of conflict—Catholics and Protestants in Northern Ireland. Conflict was associated with reduced donations to out-group schools and the return of out-group letters, but we found no evidence that it influences in-group cooperation. Rather, socio-economic status was the major determinant of cooperative behaviour. Our study presents a challenge to dominant perspectives on the origins of human cooperation, and has implications for initiatives aiming to promote conflict resolution and social cohesion. PMID:25143042

  10. A measurement system applicable for landslide experiments in the field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Wen-Zhao; Xu, Xiang-Zhou; Wang, Wen-Long; Yang, Ji-Shan; Liu, Ya-Kun; Xu, Fei-Long

    2016-04-01

    Observation of gravity erosion in the field with strong sunshine and wind poses a challenge. Here, a novel topography meter together with a movable tent addresses the challenge. With the topography meter, a 3D geometric shape of the target surface can be digitally reconstructed. Before the commencement of a test, the laser generator position and the camera sightline should be adjusted with a sight calibrator. Typically, the topography meter can measure the gravity erosion on the slope with a gradient of 30°-70°. Two methods can be used to obtain a relatively clear video, despite the extreme steepness of the slopes. One method is to rotate the laser source away from the slope to ensure that the camera sightline remains perpendicular to the laser plane. Another way is to move the camera farther away from the slope in which the measured volume of the slope needs to be corrected; this method will reduce distortion of the image. In addition, installation of tent poles with concrete columns helps to surmount the altitude difference on steep slopes. Results observed by the topography meter in real landslide experiments are rational and reliable.

  11. Field performance of the Walker Branch throughfall displacement experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, P.J.; Todd, D.E.; Edwards, N.T.; Huston, M.A.

    1994-10-06

    The authors are conducting a large-scale manipulative field experiments in an upland oak forest on the Walker Branch Watershed in eastern Tennessee USA to identify important ecosystem responses that might result from future precipitation changes. The manipulation of soil moisture is being implemented by a gravity-driven transfer of throughfall precipitation from one treatment plot to another. Throughfall is intercepted in {approx} 2,000 subcanopy troughs (0.3 x 5 m) suspended above the forest floor of the dry plots ({approx} 33% of the ground area is covered) and transferred by gravity flow across an ambient plot for subsequent distribution onto the wet treatment plot. Percent soil water is being monitored with time domain reflectometers at 310 sampling locations across the site. The experimental system is able to produce statistically significant differences in soil water content in years having both extremely dry and extremely wet conditions. Furthermore, comparisons of pre- and post-installation soil temperature measurements have documented the ability of the experimental design to produce these changes without changing the microclimate of the forest understory.

  12. VIIRS Aerosol Products During the SEAC4RS Field Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remer, L. A.; Munchak, L. A.; Huang, J.; Martins, J. V.; Espinosa, R.; Orozco, D.

    2014-12-01

    The Studies of Emissions, Atmospheric Composition, Clouds and Climate Coupling by Regional Surveys (SEAC4RS) field experiment that took place during August and September 2013 offered an in depth portrait of the aerosol system over much of the continental United States. Heavily instrumented aircraft, including the NASA DC-8 sampled a wide variety of aerosol types including transported Saharan dust, both fresh and aged smoke from western wildfires, urban pollution plumes and also biogenic aerosol produced by the "green volcano" in the vegetated Ozarks. Complementing these aircraft measurements was an enhanced array of AERONET stations sprinkled across the country and also concentrated in a mesoscale array near the home base of Houston Texas. This rich collection of suborbital aerosol information permits a more comprehensive evaluation of the VIIRS aerosol product that includes validation of the products across the mesoscale and choices of case studies in which we can delve deeper into the VIIRS retrieval to test algorithm assumptions. We will compare VIIRS retrievals during SEAC4RS with MODIS retrievals, with AERONET observations and retrievals, and with measurements and retrievals from the Polar Imaging Nephelometer (PI-Neph) that flew aboard the NASA DC-8.

  13. Micro-scale hydrological field experiments in Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minea, Gabriel; Moroşanu, Gabriela A.

    2016-02-01

    The paper (communication) presents an overview of hydrologic field experiments at micro-scale in Romania. In order to experimentally investigate micro (plot)-scale hydrological impact of soil erosion, the National Institute of Hydrology and Water Management founded Voineşti Experimental Basin (VES) in 1964 and the Aldeni Experimental Basins (AEB) in 1984. AEB and VES are located in the Curvature Subcarpathians. Experimental plots are organized in a double systems and have an area of 80 m2 (runoff plots) at AEB and 300 m2 (water balance plots) at VES. Land use of plot: first plot "grass-land" is covered with perennial grass and second plot (control) consists in "bare soil". Over the latter one, the soil is hoeing, which results in a greater development of infiltration than in the first plot. Experimental investigations at micro-scale are aimed towards determining the parameters of the water balance equation, during natural and artificial rainfalls, researching of flows and soil erosion processes on experimental plots, extrapolating relations involving runoff coefficients from a small scale to medium scale. Nowadays, the latest evolutions in data acquisition and transmission equipment are represented by sensors (such as: sensors to determinate the soil moisture content). Exploitation and dissemination of hydrologic data is accomplished by research themes/projects, year-books of basic data and papers.

  14. Beam extraction experiment with field-emission arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Ishizuka, H.; Watanabe, A.; Shiho, M.

    1995-12-31

    An experimental project aimed to develop FEL drivers using a field-emission array is under way. The subject covers design and fabrication of novel micro-emitters, operation of FEAs, beam formation and emittance diagnostics. So far the generation of a focused beam has been demonstrated with an array of double-gated microemitters. Active control of FEAs has greatly improved the stability of the emission current. Large FEAs with an emitting area of up to 2 x 2 cm{sup 2} have been fabricated for the production of high-current beams. DC beams (1 - 5 keV < 100 {mu}A) extracted from Spindt cathodes were propagated over 1 m and projected on a fluorescent screen. Separate images of FEA tips were observed and emittance measurement has been carried out. The cathode is going to be replaced by a double-gated FEA to improve the beam quality. Pulsed extraction of high currents will also be tested, employing a non-gated FEA as the cathode of a 1 MV induction linac. Results of these experiments will be presented and perspectives concerning the FEA gun will be discussed.

  15. Geothermal injection treatment: process chemistry, field experiences, and design options

    SciTech Connect

    Kindle, C.H.; Mercer, B.W.; Elmore, R.P.; Blair, S.C.; Myers, D.A.

    1984-09-01

    The successful development of geothermal reservoirs to generate electric power will require the injection disposal of approximately 700,000 gal/h (2.6 x 10/sup 6/ 1/h) of heat-depleted brine for every 50,000 kW of generating capacity. To maintain injectability, the spent brine must be compatible with the receiving formation. The factors that influence this brine/formation compatibility and tests to quantify them are discussed in this report. Some form of treatment will be necessary prior to injection for most situations; the process chemistry involved to avoid and/or accelerate the formation of precipitate particles is also discussed. The treatment processes, either avoidance or controlled precipitation approaches, are described in terms of their principles and demonstrated applications in the geothermal field and, when such experience is limited, in other industrial use. Monitoring techniques for tracking particulate growth, the effect of process parameters on corrosion and well injectability are presented. Examples of brine injection, preinjection treatment, and recovery from injectivity loss are examined and related to the aspects listed above.

  16. Multi-center Airborne Coherent Atmospheric Wind Sensor (MACAWS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhothermel, Jeffry; Jones, W. D.; Dunkin, J. A.; McCaul, E. W., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    This effort involves development of a calibrated, pulsed coherent CO2 Doppler lidar, followed by a carefully-planned and -executed program of multi-dimensional wind velocity and aerosol backscatter measurements from the NASA DC-8 research aircraft. The lidar, designated as the Multi-center Airborne Coherent Atmospheric Wind Sensor (MACAWS), will be applicable to two research areas. First, MACAWS will enable specialized measurements of atmospheric dynamical processes in the planetary boundary layer and free troposphere in geographic locations and over scales of motion not routinely or easily accessible to conventional sensors. The proposed observations will contribute fundamentally to a greater understanding of the role of the mesoscale, helping to improve predictive capabilities for mesoscale phenomena and to provide insights into improving model parameterizations of sub-grid scale processes within large-scale circulation models. As such, it has the potential to contribute uniquely to major, multi-institutional field programs planned for the mid 1990's. Second, MACAWS measurements can be used to reduce the degree of uncertainty in performance assessments and algorithm development for NASA's prospective Laser Atmospheric Wind Sounder (LAWS), which has no space-based instrument heritage. Ground-based lidar measurements alone are insufficient to address all of the key issues. To minimize costs, MACAWS is being developed cooperatively by the lidar remote sensing groups of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, NOAA Wave Propagation Laboratory, and MSFC using existing lidar hardware and manpower resources. Several lidar components have already been exercised in previous airborne lidar programs (for example, MSFC Airborne Doppler Lidar System (ADLS) used in 1981,4 Severe Storms Wind Measurement Program; JPL Airborne Backscatter Lidar Experiment (ABLE) used in 1989,90 Global Backscatter Experiment Survey Missions). MSFC has been given responsibility for directing the overall

  17. Airborne Observation of Ocean Surface Roughness Variations Using a Combination of Microwave Radiometer and Reflectometer Systems: The Second Virginia Offshore (Virgo II) Experiment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-06

    katzberg (Snasa.gov Abstract—Airborne and satellite retrieval of Sea Surface Salinity ( SSS ) using L-band micronave radiometers requires accurate...combined an L-band micronave radiometer for retrieving SSS , with L- and S-band reflectometer systems for retrieving SSR descriptors including Mean Square...from the reflectometers to correct the brightness temperatures observed by the L-band radiometer, and produce more accurate SSS retrievals. Here we

  18. Sampling for Airborne Radioactivity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-10-01

    compared to betas, gammas and neutrons. For an airborne radioactivity detection system, it is most important to be able to detect alpha particles and... Airborne radioactive particles may emit alpha, beta, gamma or neutron radiation, depending on which radioisotope is present. From a health perspective...

  19. Anomalous transport in fracture networks: field scale experiments and modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, P. K.; Le Borgne, T.; Bour, O.; Dentz, M.; Juanes, R.

    2012-12-01

    Anomalous transport is widely observed in different settings and scales of transport through porous and fractured geologic media. A common signature of anomalous transport is the late-time power law tailing in breakthrough curves (BTCs) during tracer tests. Various conceptual models of anomalous transport have been proposed, including multirate mass transfer, continuous time random walk, and stream tube models. Since different conceptual models can produce equally good fits to a single BTC, tracer test interpretation has been plagued with ambiguity. Here, we propose to resolve such ambiguity by analyzing BTCs obtained from both convergent and push-pull flow configurations at two different fracture planes. We conducted field tracer tests in a fractured granite formation close to Ploemeur, France. We observe that BTC tailing depends on the flow configuration and the injection fracture. Specifically the tailing disappears under push-pull geometry, and when we injected at a fracture with high flux (Figure 1). This indicates that for this fractured granite, BTC tailing is controlled by heterogeneous advection and not by matrix diffusion. To explain the change in tailing behavior for different flow configurations, we employ a simple lattice network model with heterogeneous conductivity distribution. The model assigns random conductivities to the fractures and solves the Darcy equation for an incompressible fluid, enforcing mass conservation at fracture intersections. The mass conservation constraint yields a correlated random flow through the fracture system. We investigate whether BTC tailing can be explained by the spatial distribution of preferential flow paths and stagnation zones, which is controlled by the conductivity variance and correlation length. By combining the results from the field tests and numerical modeling, we show that the reversibility of spreading is a key mechanism that needs to be captured. We also demonstrate the dominant role of the injection

  20. High Magnetic field generation for laser-plasma experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Pollock, B B; Froula, D H; Davis, P F; Ross, J S; Fulkerson, S; Bower, J; Satariano, J; Price, D; Glenzer, S H

    2006-05-01

    An electromagnetic solenoid was developed to study the effect of magnetic fields on electron thermal transport in laser plasmas. The solenoid, which is driven by a pulsed power system suppling 30 kJ, achieves magnetic fields of 13 T. The field strength was measured on the solenoid axis with a magnetic probe and optical Zeeman splitting. The measurements agree well with analytical estimates. A method for optimizing the solenoid design to achieve magnetic fields exceeding 20 T is presented.

  1. Experiments of Flow Field Influenced by Vegetation Distribution on Floodplain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jin-Fu; Wang, Shun-Chang; Chen, Su-Chin

    2015-04-01

    The vegetation on floodplain can block river flow, raise flood level, and scour riverbed downstream the vegetation region. However, it can also protect the dike, reduce flood velocity, and increase the stability of channel. This experiment analyzed the relationship between vegetation distribution and flow field. We designed three vegetation arrangement pattern of unilateral vegetation, unilateral interval vegetation and no vegetation, respectively. The unilateral vegetation was defined as a 4.9 m length and 0.5 m width with vegetative area in one side of the experiment flume. The unilateral interval vegetation was defined as the same dimension of vegetative area but inserted 2 gaps with 1 m interval, and the vegetative area was separated into 3 blocks. The model of a single plant was assembled with stem and frond. The stem was a woody cylinder with 10 cm height and 2.2 cm in diameter. The other part was plastic frond with 10 cm in height. The flume was 20 m length, 1 m width and 0.7 m height with 2 kinds of bed slopes in 0.001 and 0.002, and 3 different discharges in 0.2 m3/s, 0.145 m3/s and 0.0855 m3/s. The velocity was measured by 2-D electromagnetic velocimeter (ACM2-R2). In addition, water depth was measured by Vernier calipers. The velocity distribution showed that the current were divided into two parts. In the part of inside vegetation area, water level uplifted when flow entering the vegetation area, and it declined until the current leaving vegetation area. Compared with the current in the other half part of flume, the magnitudes of uplift were about 50% in both case of unilateral vegetation and unilateral interval vegetation. Downstream the vegetation area edge, the water level dropped immediately and violently. The water depth was shallower than that in the other half non-vegetation part, and the decline magnitude were 48% and 39% in cases of unilateral vegetation and unilateral interval vegetation, respectively. To explain this phenomenon, we measured

  2. Field Experiment Provides Ground Truth for Surface NMR Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knight, R. J.; Abraham, J. D.; Cannia, J. C.; Dlubac, K. I.; Grau, B.; Grunewald, E. D.; Irons, T.; Song, Y.; Walsh, D.

    2010-12-01

    Effective and sustainable long-term management of fresh water resources requires accurate information about the availability of water in groundwater aquifers. Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) can provide a direct link to the presence of water in the pore space of geological materials through the detection of the nuclear magnetization of the hydrogen nuclei (protons) in the pore water. Of interest for groundwater applications is the measurement of the proton-NMR relaxation time constant, referred to as T2. This parameter is sensitive to the geometry of the water-filled pore space and can be related to the hydraulic conductivity. NMR logging instruments, which have been available since the 1980’s, provide direct measurements of T2 in boreholes. Surface NMR (SNMR) is a non-invasive geophysical method that uses a loop of wire on the surface to probe the NMR properties of groundwater aquifers to a depth of ~100 m, without the need for the drilling of boreholes. SNMR provides reliable measurements of a different NMR time constant referred to as T2*, that is related to, but not necessarily equivalent to, T2. The relationship between T2* and T2 is likely to depend upon the physical environment and the composition of the sampled material. In order to advance the use of SNMR as a non-invasive means of characterizing groundwater aquifers, we must answer the fundamental question: When probing a groundwater aquifer, what information is provided by T2*, the time constant measured with SNMR? Our approach was to conduct a field experiment in Nebraska, in an area underlain by the Quaternary Alluvium and Tertiary Ogallala aquifers. We first used SNMR to obtain a 1D profile of T2* to a depth of ~60 m. We then drilled a well inside the area of the SNMR loop, to a depth of ~150 m, and used the drill cuttings to describe the composition of the geologic material at the site. The borehole was kept open for 2 days to acquire logging NMR T2 measurements over the total depth. Three

  3. Field controlled experiments on the physiological responses of maize (Zea mays L.) leaves to low-level air and soil mercury exposures.

    PubMed

    Niu, Zhenchuan; Zhang, Xiaoshan; Wang, Sen; Zeng, Ming; Wang, Zhangwei; Zhang, Yi; Ci, Zhijia

    2014-01-01

    Thousands of tons of mercury (Hg) are released from anthropogenic and natural sources to the atmosphere in a gaseous elemental form per year, yet little is known regarding the influence of airborne Hg on the physiological activities of plant leaves. In the present study, the effects of low-level air and soil Hg exposures on the gas exchange parameters of maize (Zea mays L.) leaves and their accumulation of Hg, proline, and malondialdehyde (MDA) were examined via field open-top chamber and Hg-enriched soil experiments, respectively. Low-level air Hg exposures (<50 ng m(-3)) had little effects on the gas exchange parameters of maize leaves during most of the daytime (p > 0.05). However, both the net photosynthesis rate and carboxylation efficiency of maize leaves exposed to 50 ng m(-3) air Hg were significantly lower than those exposed to 2 ng m(-3) air Hg in late morning (p < 0.05). Additionally, the Hg, proline, and MDA concentrations in maize leaves exposed to 20 and 50 ng m(-3) air Hg were significantly higher than those exposed to 2 ng m(-3) air Hg (p < 0.05). These results indicated that the increase in airborne Hg potentially damaged functional photosynthetic apparatus in plant leaves, inducing free proline accumulation and membrane lipid peroxidation. Due to minor translocation of soil Hg to the leaves, low-level soil Hg exposures (<1,000 ng g(-1)) had no significant influences on the gas exchange parameters, or the Hg, proline, and MDA concentrations in maize leaves (p > 0.05). Compared to soil Hg, airborne Hg easily caused physiological stress to plant leaves. The effects of increasing atmospheric Hg concentration on plant physiology should be of concern.

  4. Field Experiments Aimed To The Analysis of Flood Generation Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carriero, D.; Iacobellis, V.; Oliveto, G.; Romano, N.; Telesca, V.; Fiorentino, M.

    The study of the soil moisture dynamics and of the climate-soil-vegetation interac- tion is essential for the comprehension of possible climatic change phenomena, as well as for the analysis of occurrence of extreme hydrological events. In this trend the theoretically-based distribution of floods recently derived by Fiorentino and Ia- cobellis, [ŞNew insights about the climatic and geologic control on the probability distribution of floodsT, Water Resources Research, 2001, 37: 721-730] demonstrated, by an application in some Southern Italy basins, that processes at the hillslope scale strongly influence the basin response by means of the different mechanisms of runoff generation produced by various distributions of partial area contributing. This area is considered as a stochastic variable whose pdf position parameter showed strong de- pendence on the climate as it can seen in the studied basins behavior: in dry zones, where there is the prevalence of the infiltration excess (Horton) mechanism, the basin water loss parameter decreases as basin area increases and the flood peak source area depends on the permeability of soils; in humid zones, with the prevalence of satu- ration excess (Dunne) process, the loss parameter seems independent from the basin area and very sensitive to simple climatic index while only small portion of the area invested by the storm contributes to floods. The purpose of this work is to investigate the consistency of those interpretations by means of field experiments at the hillslope scale to establish a parameterization accounting for soil physical and hydraulic prop- erties, vegetation characteristics and land-use. The research site is the catchment of River Fiumarella di Corleto, which is located in Basilicata Region, Italy, and has a drainage area of approximately 32 km2. The environment has a rather dynamic geo- morphology and very interesting features from the soil-landscape modeling viewpoint [Santini A., A. Coppola, N. Romano, and

  5. Exploring the Role of Field Experience Context in Preservice Teachers' Development as Mathematics Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Sandi; Nesmith, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    Although the importance of field experience is supported and attended to by teacher education programs across the United States, there have been numerous national reports and research findings stressing the need for major improvements in the preparation of teachers with an emphasis on more authentic experiences. Quality field experiences have the…

  6. School's IN for Summer: An Alternative Field Experience for Elementary Science Methods Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanuscin, Deborah L.; Musikul, Kusalin

    2007-01-01

    Field experiences are critical to teacher learning and enhance the effectiveness of methods courses; however, when methods courses are offered in the summer, traditional school-based field experiences are not possible. This article describes an alternative campus-based experience created as part of an elementary science methods course. The Summer…

  7. Communication, Community, and Disconnection: Pre-Service Teachers in Virtual School Field Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkens, Christian; Eckdahl, Kelli; Morone, Mike; Cook, Vicki; Giblin, Thomas; Coon, Joshua

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the experiences of 11 graduate-level pre-service teachers completing Virtual School Field Experiences (VSFEs) with cooperating teachers in fully online, asynchronous high school courses in New York State. The VSFEs included a 7-week online teacher training course, and a 7-week online field experience. Pre-service teachers…

  8. Predicting Performance in an Advanced Undergraduate Geological Field Camp Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dykas, Matthew J.; Valentino, David W.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the factors that contribute to students' success in conducting geological field work. Undergraduate students (n = 49; 51% female; mean age = 22 y) who were enrolled in the 5-wk State University of New York at Oswego (SUNY Oswego) geology field program volunteered to participate in this study. At the beginning of the field…

  9. Challenges and Successes Managing Airborne Science Data for CARVE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardman, S. H.; Dinardo, S. J.; Lee, E. C.

    2014-12-01

    The Carbon in Arctic Reservoirs Vulnerability Experiment (CARVE) mission collects detailed measurements of important greenhouse gases on local to regional scales in the Alaskan Arctic and demonstrates new remote sensing and improved modeling capabilities to quantify Arctic carbon fluxes and carbon cycle-climate processes. Airborne missions offer a number of challenges when it comes to collecting and processing the science data and CARVE is no different. The biggest challenge relates to the flexibility of the instrument payload. Within the life of the mission, instruments may be removed from or added to the payload, or even reconfigured on a yearly, monthly or daily basis. Although modification of the instrument payload provides a distinct advantage for airborne missions compared to spaceborne missions, it does tend to wreak havoc on the underlying data system when introducing changes to existing data inputs or new data inputs that require modifications to the pipeline for processing the data. In addition to payload flexibility, it is not uncommon to find unsupported files in the field data submission. In the case of CARVE, these include video files, photographs taken during the flight and screen shots from terminal displays. These need to captured, saved and somehow integrated into the data system. The CARVE data system was built on a multi-mission data system infrastructure for airborne instruments called the Airborne Cloud Computing Environment (ACCE). ACCE encompasses the end-to-end lifecycle covering planning, provisioning of data system capabilities, and support for scientific analysis in order to improve the quality, cost effectiveness, and capabilities to enable new scientific discovery and research in earth observation. This well-tested and proven infrastructure allows the CARVE data system to be easily adapted in order to handle the challenges posed by the CARVE mission and to successfully process, manage and distribute the mission's science data. This

  10. A Comparison between Airborne and Mountaintop Cloud Microphysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, R.; Lowenthal, D. H.; Hallar, A. G.; McCubbin, I.; Avallone, L. M.; Mace, G. G.; Wang, Z.

    2014-12-01

    Complex terrain has a large impact on cloud dynamics and microphysics. Several studies have examined the microphysical details of orographically-enhanced clouds from either an aircraft or from a mountain top location. However, further research is needed to characterize the relationships between mountain top and airborne microphysical properties. During the winter of 2011, an airborne study, the Colorado Airborne Mixed-Phase Cloud Study (CAMPS), and a ground-based field campaign, the Storm Peak Lab (SPL) Cloud Property Validation Experiment (StormVEx) were conducted in the Park Range of the Colorado Rockies. The CAMPS study utilized the University of Wyoming King Air (UWKA) to provide airborne cloud microphysical and meteorological data on 29 flights totaling 98 flight hours over the Park Range from December 15, 2010 to February 28, 2011. The UWKA was equipped with instruments that measured both cloud droplet and ice crystal size distributions, liquid water content, total water content (vapor, liquid, and ice), and 3-dimensional wind speed and direction. The Wyoming Cloud Radar and Lidar were also deployed during the campaign. These measurements are used to characterize cloud structure upwind and above the Park Range. StormVEx measured cloud droplet, ice crystal, and aerosol size distributions at SPL, located on the west summit of Mt. Werner at 3220m MSL. The observations from SPL are used to determine mountain top cloud microphysical properties at elevations lower than the UWKA was able to sample in-situ. Comparisons showed that cloud microphysics aloft and at the surface were consistent with respect to snow growth processes while small crystal concentrations were routinely higher at the surface, suggesting ice nucleation near cloud base. The effects of aerosol concentrations and upwind stability on mountain top and downwind microphysics are considered.

  11. Airborne gravity is here

    SciTech Connect

    Hammer, S.

    1982-01-11

    After 20 years of development efforts, the airborne gravity survey has finally become a practical exploration method. Besides gravity data, the airborne survey can also collect simultaneous, continuous records of high-precision magneticfield data as well as terrain clearance; these provide a topographic contour map useful in calculating terrain conditions and in subsequent planning and engineering. Compared with a seismic survey, the airborne gravity method can cover the same area much more quickly and cheaply; a seismograph could then detail the interesting spots.

  12. EUFAR the unique portal for airborne research in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gérard, Elisabeth; Brown, Philip

    2016-04-01

    Created in 2000 and supported by the EU Framework Programmes since then, EUFAR was born out of the necessity to create a central network and access point for the airborne research community in Europe. With the aim to support researchers by granting them access to research infrastructures, not accessible in their home countries, EUFAR also provides technical support and training in the field of airborne research for the environmental and geo-sciences. Today, EUFAR2 (2014-2018) coordinates and facilitates transnational access to 18 instrumented aircraft and 3 remote-sensing instruments through the 13 operators who are part of EUFAR's current 24-partner European consortium. In addition, the current project supports networking and research activities focused on providing an enabling environment for and promoting airborne research. The EUFAR2 activities cover three objectives, supported by the internet website www.eufar.net: (I - Institutional) improvement of the access to the research infrastructures and development of the future fleet according to the strategic advisory committee (SAC) recommendations; (ii - Innovation) improvement of the scientific knowledge and promotion of innovating instruments, processes and services for the emergence of new industrial technologies, with an identification of industrial needs by the SAC; (iii - Service) optimisation and harmonisation of the use of the research infrastructures through the development of the community of young researches in airborne science, of the standards and protocols and of the airborne central database. With the launch of a brand new website (www.eufar.net) in mid-November 2015, EUFAR aims to improve user experience on the website, which serves as a source of information and a hub where users are able to collaborate, learn, share expertise and best practices, and apply for transnational access, and education and training funded opportunities within the network. With its newly designed eye-catching interface

  13. Airborne gamma radiation measurements of soil moisture during FIFE: Activities and results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peck, Eugene L.

    1992-01-01

    Soil moisture measurements were obtained during the summer of 1987 and 1989 near Manhattan, Kansas, using the National Weather Service (NWS) airborne gamma radiation system. A network of 24 flight lines were established over the research area. Airborne surveys were flown daily during two intensive field campaigns. The data collected was sufficient to modify the NWS standard operational method for estimating soil moisture for the Field Experiment (FIFE) flight lines. The average root mean square error of the soil moisture estimates for shorter FIFE flight lines was found to be 2.5 percent, compared with a reported value of 3.9 percent for NWS flight lines. Techniques were developed to compute soil moisture estimates for portions of the flight lines. Results of comparisons of the airborne gamma radiation soil moisture estimates with those obtained using the NASA Pushbroom Microwave Radiation (PBMR) system and hydrological model are presented. The airborne soil moisture measurements, and real averages computed using all remotely sensed and ground data, have been in support of the research of the many FIFE investigators whose overall goal was the upscale integration of models and the application of satellite remote sensing.

  14. Cyberinfrastructure for Airborne Sensor Webs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freudinger, Lawrence C.

    2009-01-01

    Since 2004 the NASA Airborne Science Program has been prototyping and using infrastructure that enables researchers to interact with each other and with their instruments via network communications. This infrastructure uses satellite links and an evolving suite of applications and services that leverage open-source software. The use of these tools has increased near-real-time situational awareness during field operations, resulting in productivity improvements and the collection of better data. This paper describes the high-level system architecture and major components, with example highlights from the use of the infrastructure. The paper concludes with a discussion of ongoing efforts to transition to operational status.

  15. Missile launch detection electric field perturbation experiment. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kane, R.J.; Rynne, T.M.

    1993-04-28

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and SARA Inc. participated in the ATMD missile launch activities that occurred at WSMR during January 1993. LLNL and SARA deployed sensors for monitoring of basic phenomena. An attempt was made to measure perturbations of the earth geo-potential during the launch of a Lance missile. The occurrence of the perturbation is expected from the conducting body of the missile and the exhaust plume. A set of voltage-probe antennas were used to monitor the local electric field perturbation from the launch at ranges of approximately 1 km. Examination of the data acquired during the launch period failed to show identifiable correlation of the field variations with the launch event. Three reasons are ascribed to this lack of event data: (1) The electric field potential variations have a limited spatial correlation length - the fields measured in one region have little correlation to measurements made at distances of a kilometer away. The potential variations are related to localized atmospheric disturbances and are generally unpredictable. A value for the spatial correlation length is also not known. (2) The conductivity of the plume and missile body are not adequate to produce a field perturbation of adequate magnitude. Phenomena related to the exhaust plume and missile may exist and be outside of the collection range of the equipment employed for these measurements. (3) The presence of 60 Hz power line noise was of sufficient magnitude to irreversibly contaminate measurements.

  16. Taking Them into the Field: Mathematics Teacher Candidate Learning about Equity-Oriented Teaching Practices in a Mediated Field Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Sara Sunshine

    2012-01-01

    Teacher education programs have been criticized as too theoretical with university courses disconnected from the practical realities of classrooms. This single case study investigates a model of teacher education that worked to bridge the coursework-fieldwork gap in teacher education. The Mediated Field Experience (MFE) is a field experience…

  17. Aerosol Classification using Airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burton, S. P.; Ferrare, R. A.; Hostetler, C. A.; Hair, J. W.; Obland, M. D.; Rogers, R.; Butler, C. F.; Cook, A.; Harper, D.; Froyd, K. D.

    2011-12-01

    The NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) on the NASA B200 aircraft has acquired extensive datasets of aerosol extinction (532 nm), aerosol optical thickness (AOT) (532 nm), backscatter (532 and 1064 nm), and depolarization (532 and 1064 nm) profiles during 18 field missions that have been conducted over North America since 2006. The lidar measurements of aerosol intensive parameters (lidar ratio, depolarization, backscatter color ratio, spectral depolarization ratio) are shown to vary with location and aerosol type. A methodology based on observations of known aerosol types is used to qualitatively classify the extensive set of HSRL aerosol measurements into eight separate types. Several examples are presented showing how the aerosol intensive parameters vary with aerosol type and how these aerosols are classified according to this new methodology. The HSRL-based classification reveals vertical variability of aerosol types during the NASA ARCTAS field experiment conducted over Alaska and northwest Canada during 2008. In two examples derived from flights conducted during ARCTAS, the HSRL classification of biomass burning smoke is shown to be consistent with aerosol types derived from coincident airborne in situ measurements of particle size and composition. The HSRL retrievals of aerosol optical thickness and inferences of aerosol types are used to apportion aerosol optical thickness to aerosol type; results of this analysis are shown for several experiments.

  18. It is an Experience, Not a Lesson: The Nature of High School Students' Experiences at a Biological Field Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behrendt, Marc E.

    The purpose of this case study was to describe the nature of high school students' experiences in the immersive four-day field experience at Stone Laboratory Biological Field Station including excursions to Kelley's Island and South Bass Island. Six tenth, eleventh, and twelfth grade students participated through interviews, photovoice, observations, and a survey. Pretrip semi-structured interviews were conducted to understand each participant student's relationship with science. Participants were given cameras to record their field trip experiences to relate what they found interesting, important, and exciting. Back at school after the field trip, the participants were asked to choose their five most meaningful photographs, and write a short essay to describe the significance of each image. A posttrip semi-structured interview explored each participant's experiences during the field trip. An unstructured interview was conducted to discuss each participant's full photograph gallery from the field trip. Interview transcripts were member checked with one minor wording change. Analysis consisted of open coding using apriori codes derived from the ecological framework and emergent codes derived from the data. Coding was duplicated through multiple readers. Significant findings included: 1) Prior experience, prior knowledge, and funds of knowledge added relevance and value to an experience, facilitating interest development; 2) Experiences appeared to be more meaningful when all the senses were stimulated; 3) Friends and peers were an essential part of a quality experience; 4) Quality experiences included a wow factor, or sudden awareness; 5) Teachers needed to be within the experience, not the focus of the experience, and needed to be available to answer questions, be enthusiastic when a discovery was made, and promote student reflection concerning their perceptions and discoveries; 6) A quality informal learning situation incorporated the cognitive/affective, physical

  19. International Field Experiences: The Impact of Class, Gender and Race on the Perceptions and Experiences of Preservice Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malewski, Erik; Phillion, JoAnn

    2009-01-01

    We explore ways class, gender and race complicate perceptions and experiences of preservice teachers during an international field experience in Honduras. Data were collected over 5 years through observations, group discussions, course assignments, and on-site focus group interviews and post-trip individual interviews. An inductive approach…

  20. Near-field radiative thermal transport: From theory to experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Bai Fiorino, Anthony; Meyhofer, Edgar; Reddy, Pramod

    2015-05-15

    Radiative thermal transport via the fluctuating electromagnetic near-field has recently attracted increasing attention due to its fundamental importance and its impact on a range of applications from data storage to thermal management and energy conversion. After a brief historical account of radiative thermal transport, we summarize the basics of fluctuational electrodynamics, a theoretical framework for the study of radiative heat transfer in terms of thermally excited propagating and evanescent electromagnetic waves. Various approaches to modeling near-field thermal transport are briefly discussed, together with key results and proposals for manipulation and utilization of radiative heat flow. Subsequently, we review the experimental advances in the characterization of both near-field heat flow and energy density. We conclude with remarks on the opportunities and challenges for future explorations of radiative heat transfer at the nanoscale.

  1. Dark matter effective field theory scattering in direct detection experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Schneck, K.; Cabrera, B.; Cerdeno, D. G.; Mandic, V.; Rogers, H. E.; Agnese, R.; Anderson, A. J.; Asai, M.; Balakishiyeva, D.; Barker, D.; Basu Thakur, R.; Bauer, D. A.; Billard, J.; Borgland, A.; Brandt, D.; Brink, P. L.; Bunker, R.; Caldwell, D. O.; Calkins, R.; Chagani, H.; Chen, Y.; Cooley, J.; Cornell, B.; Crewdson, C. H.; Cushman, Priscilla B.; Daal, M.; Di Stefano, P. C.; Doughty, T.; Esteban, L.; Fallows, S.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Godfrey, G. L.; Golwala, S. R.; Hall, Jeter C.; Harris, H. R.; Hofer, T.; Holmgren, D.; Hsu, L.; Huber, M. E.; Jardin, D. M.; Jastram, A.; Kamaev, O.; Kara, B.; Kelsey, M. H.; Kennedy, A.; Leder, A.; Loer, B.; Lopez Asamar, E.; Lukens, W.; Mahapatra, R.; McCarthy, K. A.; Mirabolfathi, N.; Moffatt, R. A.; Morales Mendoza, J. D.; Oser, S. M.; Page, K.; Page, W. A.; Partridge, R.; Pepin, M.; Phipps, A.; Prasad, K.; Pyle, M.; Qiu, H.; Rau, W.; Redl, P.; Reisetter, A.; Ricci, Y.; Roberts, A.; Saab, T.; Sadoulet, B.; Sander, J.; Schnee, R. W.; Scorza, S.; Serfass, B.; Shank, B.; Speller, D.; Toback, D.; Upadhyayula, S.; Villano, A. N.; Welliver, B.; Wilson, J. S.; Wright, D. H.; Yang, X.; Yellin, S.; Yen, J. J.; Young, B. A.; Zhang, J.

    2015-05-01

    We examine the consequences of the effective eld theory (EFT) of dark matter-nucleon scattering or current and proposed direct detection experiments. Exclusion limits on EFT coupling constants computed using the optimum interval method are presented for SuperCDMS Soudan, CDMS II, and LUX, and the necessity of combining results from multiple experiments in order to determine dark matter parameters is discussed. We demonstrate that spectral di*erences between the standard dark matter model and a general EFT interaction can produce a bias when calculating exclusion limits and when developing signal models for likelihood and machine learning techniques. We also discuss the implications of the EFT for the next-generation (G2) direct detection experiments and point out regions of complementarity in the EFT parameter space.

  2. Field tests of a new, extractive, airborne 1.4 μm -TDLAS hygrometer (SEALDH-I) on a Learjet 35A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchholz, Bernhard; Ebert, Volker

    2013-04-01

    A highly accurate and precise quantification of atmospheric humidity is a prerequisite for cloud studies as well as for environmental models in order to get a deeper understanding of physical processes and effects. On the one hand numerous trace gases measurements in airborne "laboratories" have to be corrected for water vapor influence; on the other hand satellite measurements have to be validated by in-situ H2O measurements on aircrafts. The vast majority of the airborne hygrometers require a precise and frequent sensor calibration in order to ensure a sufficient performance. UT/LS sensors in particular are often calibrated before and after each individual flight. But even this might not be sufficient which explains why recently in-flight calibrations are becoming more common. Nevertheless all calibrated sensors completely depend on the performance of the water standard used for calibration. Therefore it remains an open question if in-flight calibrations are the way to go: They also might suffer from inflight disturbances and they would need validation during flight conditions. Water calibrations at low humidity are even more complicated due to the strong water adsorption and the resulting sampling problems. An abstention from calibration would avoid many of these problems. In addition, calibration free sensors are much easier to debug as they can hardly have errors which can be hidden by calibration parameters (such as leaks, etc.). Robust cal-free sensors should therefore perform more stable in flight when the sensors boundary conditions might change. The situation can be improved further with extractive cal-free sensors as the boundary condition in measurement volume (pressure, temperature, path length, flow pattern, etc.), i.e. in an extractive cell, are much better controlled than for an open path sensor. Further cal-free extractive sensors can be designed maintain its integrity when attaching and detaching it from the carrier (airplane). This makes it much

  3. Focus on Geography--Team Themes and Field Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daly, John L.

    1990-01-01

    Describes an approach used by the Wayland, Massachusetts, middle school to organizing students into instructional teams. Explains that each instructional team is organized into a "house" named after a significant individual around whom the curriculum and theme for field trips is designed. Highlights the Rachel Carson House activities of…

  4. Early Field Experience in Career and Technical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smalley, Scott Walter

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the three studies in this dissertation was to enhance career and technical education in the area of agriculture, business, and family and consumer sciences. This dissertation contains three papers: (1) a Delphi study identifying the purpose, expected outcomes, and methods of documenting preservice teacher early field experience…

  5. Soil Science as a Field Discipline - Experiences in Iowa, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burras, C. Lee

    2015-04-01

    Effective field understanding of soils is crucial. This is true everywhere but especially so in Iowa, a 15 million hectare state in the central USA's "corn belt." Iowa is intensely farmed and almost exclusively privately owned. Many regions of Iowa have had over 90% of their land area in row crops for the past 60 years. In these regions two very common land management strategies are tile drainage (1.5 million km total) and high rates of fertilization (e.g., 200 kg N/ha-yr for cropland) Iowa also has problematic environmental issues including high rates of erosion, excessive sediment and nutrient pollution in water bodies and episodic catastrophic floods. Given the preceding the Agronomy, Environmental Science and Sustainable Agriculture programs at Iowa State University (ISU) offer a strong suite of soil science classes - undergraduate through graduate. The objective of this presentation is to review selected field based soil science courses offered by those programs. This review includes contrasting and comparing campus-based and immersion classes. Immersion classes include ones offered at Iowa Lakeside Laboratory, as "soil judging" and internationally. Findings over the past 20 years are consistent. Students at all levels gain soil science knowledge, competency and confidence proportional to the amount of time spent in field activities. Furthermore their professional skepticism is sharpened. They are also preferentially hired even in career postings that do not require fieldwork. In other words, field learning results in better soil science professionals who have highly functional and sought after knowledge.

  6. Mechanisms of nitrogen retention in forest ecosystems - A field experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vitousek, P. M.; Matson, P. A.

    1984-01-01

    Intensive forest management led to elevated losses of nitrogen from a recently harvested loblolly pine plantation in North Carolina. Measurements of nitrogen-15 retention in the field demonstrated that microbial uptake of nitrogen during the decomposition of residual organic material was the most important process retaining nitrogen. Management practices that remove this material cause increased losses of nitrogen to aquatic ecosystems and the atmosphere.

  7. The Field Trip Book: Study Travel Experiences in Social Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Ronald V.

    2010-01-01

    Looking for social studies adventures to help students find connections to democratic citizenship? Look no further! This book provides just the answer teachers need for engaging students in field trips as researching learners with emphasis on interdisciplinary social studies plus skills in collecting and reporting data gathered from field…

  8. Well-planning programs give students field-like experience

    SciTech Connect

    Sifferman, T.R.; Chapman, L.

    1983-01-01

    The University of Tulsa recently was given a package of computer well planning and drilling programs that will enable petroleum engineering students to gain valuable experience in designing well programs while still in school. Comprehensive homework assignments are now given in areas of drilling fluids programing, hydraulics, directional wells and surveying. Additional programs are scheduled for next semester.

  9. Laboratory Experiment in Semiconductor Surface-Field Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, F. R.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    A laboratory instructional program involving metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) devices is described. In the first of a two-part experiment, students become familiar with the important parameters of a simple MIS device and learn measurement techniques; in the second part, device fabrication procedures are learned. (DT)

  10. International Field Experiences Promote Professional Development for Sustainability Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hull, R. Bruce; Kimmel, Courtney; Robertson, David P.; Mortimer, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to describe, explain and evaluate a graduate education program that provides international project experiences and builds competencies related to collaborative problem-solving, cultural capacity to work globally and sustainable development. Design/methodology/approach: Qualitative analysis of survey data from 28 students…

  11. Rocky 7 prototype Mars rover field geology experiments 1. Lavic Lake and sunshine volcanic field, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arvidson, R. E.; Acton, C.; Blaney, D.; Bowman, J.; Kim, S.; Klingelhofer, G.; Marshall, J.; Niebur, C.; Plescia, J.; Saunders, R.S.; Ulmer, C.T.

    1998-01-01

    Experiments with the Rocky 7 rover were performed in the Mojave Desert to better understand how to conduct rover-based, long-distance (kilometers) geological traverses on Mars. The rover was equipped with stereo imaging systems for remote sensing science and hazard avoidance and 57Fe Mo??ssbauer and nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometers for in situ determination of mineralogy of unprepared rock and soil surfaces. Laboratory data were also obtained using the spectrometers and an X ray diffraction (XRD)/XRF instrument for unprepared samples collected from the rover sites. Simulated orbital and descent image data assembled for the test sites were found to be critical for assessing the geologic setting, formulating hypotheses to be tested with rover observations, planning traverses, locating the rover, and providing a regional context for interpretation of rover-based observations. Analyses of remote sensing and in situ observations acquired by the rover confirmed inferences made from orbital and simulated descent images that the Sunshine Volcanic Field is composed of basalt flows. Rover data confirmed the idea that Lavic Lake is a recharge playa and that an alluvial fan composed of sediments with felsic compositions has prograded onto the playa. Rover-based discoveries include the inference that the basalt flows are mantled with aeolian sediment and covered with a dense pavement of varnished basalt cobbles. Results demonstrate that the combination of rover remote sensing and in situ analytical observations will significantly increase our understanding of Mars and provide key connecting links between orbital and descent data and analyses of returned samples. Copyright 1998 by the American Geophysical Union.

  12. Assessing inhalation exposure from airborne soil contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Shinn, J.H.

    1998-04-01

    A method of estimation of inhalation exposure to airborne soil contaminants is presented. this method is derived from studies of airborne soil particles with radioactive tags. The concentration of contaminants in air (g/m{sup 3}) can be derived from the product of M, the suspended respirable dust mass concentration (g/m{sup 3}), S, the concentration of contaminant in the soil (g/g), and E{sub f}, an enhancement factor. Typical measurement methods and values of M, and E{sub f} are given along with highlights of experiences with this method.

  13. Monitoring airborne alpha-emitter contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, P.L.; Koster, J.E.; Conaway, J.G.; Bounds, J.A.; Whitley, C.W.; Steadman, P.A.

    1998-02-01

    Facilities that may produce airborne alpha emitter contamination require a continuous air monitoring (CAM) system. However, these traditional CAMs have difficulty in environments with large quantities of non-radioactive particulates such as dust and salt. Los Alamos has developed an airborne plutonium sensor (APS) for the REBOUND experiment at the Nevada Test Site which detects alpha contamination directly in the air, and so is less vulnerable to the problems associated with counting activity on a filter. In addition, radon compensation is built into the detector by the use of two measurement chambers.

  14. National center for airborne laser mapping proposed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, Bill; Shrestha, Ramesh L.; Dietrich, Bill

    Researchers from universities, U.S. government agencies, U.S. national laboratories, and private industry met in the spring to learn about the current capabilities of Airborne Laser Swath Mapping (ALSM), share their experiences in using the technology for a wide variety of research applications, outline research that would be made possible by research-grade ALSM data, and discuss the proposed operation and management of the brand new National Center for Airborne Laser Mapping (NCALM).The workshop successfully identified a community of researchers with common interests in the advancement and use of ALSM—a community which strongly supports the immediate establishment of the NCALM.

  15. Quick response airborne command post communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaisdell, Randy L.

    1988-08-01

    National emergencies and strategic crises come in all forms and sizes ranging from natural disasters at one end of the scale up to and including global nuclear warfare at the other. Since the early 1960s the U.S. Government has spent billions of dollars fielding airborne command posts to ensure continuity of government and the command and control function during times of theater conventional, theater nuclear, and global nuclear warfare. Unfortunately, cost has prevented the extension of the airborne command post technology developed for these relatively unlikely events to the lower level, though much more likely to occur, crises such as natural disasters, terrorist acts, political insurgencies, etc. This thesis proposes the implementation of an economical airborne command post concept to address the wide variety of crises ignored by existing military airborne command posts. The system is known as the Quick Response Airborne Command Post (QRAC Post) and is based on the exclusive use of commercially owned and operated aircraft, and commercially available automated data processing and communications resources. The thesis addresses the QRAC Post concept at a systems level and is primarily intended to demonstrate how current technology can be exploited to economically achieve a national objective.

  16. Airborne Gravimetry and Downward Continuation (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jekeli, C.; Yang, H.; Kwon, J.

    2009-12-01

    Measuring the Earth’s gravity field using airborne instrumentation is fully operational and has been widely practiced for nearly three decades since its official debut in the early 1980s (S. Hammer: “Airborne Gravity is Here!”) coinciding with the precision kinematic positioning capability of GPS. Airborne gravimetry is undertaken for both efficient geophysical exploration purposes, as well as the determination of the regional geoid to aid in the modernization of height systems. Especially for the latter application, downward continuation of the data and combination with existing terrestrial gravimetry pose theoretical as well as practical challenges, which, on the other hand, create multiple processing possibilities. Downward continuation may be approached in various ways from the viewpoint of potential theory and the boundary-value problem to using gradients either estimated locally or computed from existing models. Logistical constraints imposed by the airborne survey, instrumental noise, and the intrinsic numerical instability of downward continuation all conspire to impact the final product in terms of achievable resolution and accuracy. In this paper, we review the theory of airborne gravimetry and the methodology of downward continuation, and provide a numerical comparison of possible schemes and their impact on geoid determination.

  17. Community-Based Field Experiences in Teacher Education: Possibilities for a Pedagogical Third Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallman, Heidi L.

    2012-01-01

    The present article discusses the importance of community-based field experiences as a feature of teacher education programs. Through a qualitative case study, prospective teachers' work with homeless youth in an after-school initiative is presented. Framing community-based field experiences in teacher education through "third space" theory, the…

  18. Examining the Content of Preservice Teachers' Reflections of Early Field Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subramaniam, Karthigeyan

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes an exploratory study that examined the content of preservice elementary teachers' reflections of their documented early field experiences of science teaching in authentic contexts. The study used an early field experience model that was focused on the objective of profiling an elementary science teacher as the practical…

  19. Issues in Field Experience Assessment in Teacher Education in a Standards-Based Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Sylvia Yee Fan

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a study that shows the use of professional standards in field experience assessment in initial teacher education. A Professional Development Progress Map was developed in field experience assessment in a teacher education institution in Hong Kong. The study enriches our understanding of the holistic nature of assessing…

  20. Which Field Experiences Best Prepare Future School Leaders? An Analysis of Kentucky's Principal Preparation Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodson, Richard L.

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the effectiveness of field experiences in preparing school principals for the exigencies of the job. Current school principals throughout Kentucky were surveyed regarding their perceptions of the utility and comparative effectiveness of field experiences in the principal preparation program (PPP) each attended. Surveys were…

  1. Using Field Experiments to Change the Template of How We Teach Economics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    List, John A.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the author explains why field experiments can improve what we teach and how we teach economics. Economists no longer operate as passive observers of economic phenomena. Instead, they participate actively in the research process by collecting data from field experiments to investigate the economics of everyday life. This change can…

  2. The Influence of Technology-Rich Early Childhood Field Experiences on Preservice Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lux, Nicholas; Lux, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Despite a comprehensive body of research on field experiences in teacher education, technology-rich early field experiences in early childhood environments is one particular area of inquiry lacking substantive current research. Therefore, this study was conducted to better understand how preservice teachers' perceptions of global concepts related…

  3. Sites for Student Field Experiences in Refugee Mental Health. Task VI--Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoshino, George; And Others

    This report on sites for student field experiences in refugee mental health has been prepared by the University of Minnesota's Mental Health Technical Assistance Center for the state refugee assistance programs. After a brief introduction describing the mission of the Technical Assistance Center, the characteristics of field experience in mental…

  4. The Effects of Primary Sources and Field Trip Experience on the Knowledge Retention of Multicultural Content

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, James; Knapp, Doug; Benton, Gregory M.

    2007-01-01

    Although small in scope, this study attempted to analyze the impacts of primary sources and field trip experiences on multicultural education through first-hand narrative interviews, one year after the experience. In particular, it assessed the recollections of students who participated in a one-half-day field trip to George Washington Carver…

  5. Impact of a Paid Urban Field Experience on Teacher Candidates' Willingness to Work in Urban Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grande, Marya; Burns, Barbara; Schmidt, Raquel; Marable, Michele A.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a paid field experience designed to investigate teacher candidates' willingness to teach in urban schools. Seventy-three teacher candidates each participated in an urban field experience including 90 hours of tutoring and 12 hours of training. Data from pre and post surveys indicated no significant difference as the number…

  6. ETIPS: Using Cases with Virtual Schools to Prepare for, Extend, and Deepen Preservice Teachers' Field Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dexter, Sara L.; Riedel, Eric; Scharber, Cassandra

    2008-01-01

    Field experiences are identified as an important component in the preparation of new teachers. As such, methods to supplement field experiences with pre- and post-activities that ready preservice teachers to effectively learn from them warrant further examination. This paper presents one tool that has been used successfully to improve preservice…

  7. Life on the Reservation: Cross-Cultural Field Experiences and Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Belinda Conrad; Dinkins, Elizabeth G.

    2014-01-01

    Twenty-first century classrooms are filled with increasingly diverse student populations. Effective teacher preparation programs must include explicit course work in culturally responsive pedagogies and field experiences that place educators in new sociocultural contexts. Field experiences in cross-cultural, place-based settings have the potential…

  8. Focusing, Situating, and Grounding Micro-Level Evaluation Field Experiences: An Instructional Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skolits, Gary J.; Woodard, Thelma; Morrow, Jennifer Ann; Kaesbauer, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    Evaluator training field experiences seek to reinforce applicable content knowledge and promote applied skills. For students, even a small-scale field experience focusing on limited components of a larger evaluation process can seem particularly challenging. Students often do not recognize the relevance of established evaluation resources capable…

  9. Vegetation and soils field research data base: Experiment summaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biehl, L. L.; Daughtry, C. S. T.; Bauer, M. E.

    1984-01-01

    Understanding of the relationships between the optical, spectral characteristics and important biological-physical parameters of earth-surface features can best be obtained by carefully controlled studies over fields and plots where complete data describing the condition of targets are attainable and where frequent, timely spectral measurement can be obtained. Development of a vegetation and soils field research data base was initiated in 1972 at Purdue University's Laboratory for Applications of Remote Sensing and expanded in the fall of 1974 by NASA as part of LACIE. Since then, over 250,000 truck-mounted and helicopter-borne spectrometer/multiband radiometer observations have been obtained of more than 50 soil series and 20 species of crops, grasses, and trees. These data are supplemented by an extensive set of biophysical and meteorological data acquired during each mission. The field research data form one of the most complete and best-documented data sets acquired for agricultural remote sensing research. Thus, they are well-suited to serve as a data base for research to: (1) quantiatively determine the relationships of spectral and biophysical characteristics of vegetation, (2) define future sensor systems, and (3) develop advanced data analysis techniques.

  10. Measuring microbial fitness in a field reciprocal transplant experiment.

    PubMed

    Boynton, Primrose J; Stelkens, Rike; Kowallik, Vienna; Greig, Duncan

    2016-06-22

    Microbial fitness is easy to measure in the laboratory, but difficult to measure in the field. Laboratory fitness assays make use of controlled conditions and genetically modified organisms, neither of which are available in the field. Among other applications, fitness assays can help researchers detect adaptation to different habitats or locations. We designed a competitive fitness assay to detect adaptation of Saccharomyces paradoxus isolates to the habitat they were isolated from (oak or larch leaf litter). The assay accurately measures relative fitness by tracking genotype frequency changes in the field using digital droplet PCR (DDPCR). We expected locally adapted S. paradoxus strains to increase in frequency over time when growing on the leaf litter type from which they were isolated. The DDPCR assay successfully detected fitness differences among S. paradoxus strains, but did not find a tendency for strains to be adapted to the habitat they were isolated from. Instead, we found that the natural alleles of the hexose transport gene we used to distinguish S. paradoxus strains had significant effects on fitness. The origin of a strain also affected its fitness: strains isolated from oak litter were generally fitter than strains from larch litter. Our results suggest that dispersal limitation and genetic drift shape S. paradoxus populations in the forest more than local selection does, although further research is needed to confirm this. Tracking genotype frequency changes using DDPCR is a practical and accurate microbial fitness assay for natural environments.

  11. Overview of results from the MST reversed field pinch experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarff, J. S.; Almagri, A. F.; Anderson, J. K.; Borchardt, M.; Cappechi, W.; Carmody, D.; Caspary, K.; Chapman, B. E.; Den Hartog, D. J.; Duff, J.; Eilerman, S.; Falkowski, A.; Forest, C. B.; Galante, M.; Goetz, J. A.; Holly, D. J.; Koliner, J.; Kumar, S.; Lee, J. D.; Liu, D.; McCollam, K. J.; McGarry, M.; Mirnov, V. V.; Morton, L.; Munaretto, S.; Nornberg, M. D.; Nonn, P. D.; Oliva, S. P.; Parke, E.; Pueschel, M. J.; Reusch, J. A.; Sauppe, J.; Seltzman, A.; Sovinec, C. R.; Stone, D.; Theucks, D.; Thomas, M.; Triana, J.; Terry, P. W.; Waksman, J.; Whelan, G. C.; Brower, D. L.; Ding, W. X.; Lin, L.; Demers, D. R.; Fimognari, P.; Titus, J.; Auriemma, F.; Cappello, S.; Franz, P.; Innocente, P.; Lorenzini, R.; Martines, E.; Momo, B.; Piovesan, P.; Puiatti, M.; Spolaore, M.; Terranova, D.; Zanca, P.; Davydenko, V. I.; Deichuli, P.; Ivanov, A. A.; Polosatkin, S.; Stupishin, N. V.; Spong, D.; Craig, D.; Stephens, H.; Harvey, R. W.; Cianciosa, M.; Hanson, J. D.; Breizman, B. N.; Li, M.; Zheng, L. J.

    2015-10-01

    An overview of recent results from the MST reversed field pinch programme is presented. With neutral beam injection, bursty energetic particle (EP) modes are observed. The profiles of the magnetic and density fluctuations associated with these EP modes are measured using a far infrared interferometer-polarimeter. Equilibrium reconstructions of the quasi-single-helicity 3D helical state are provided by the V3FIT code that now incorporates several of MST's advanced diagnostics. The orientation of the helical structure is controlled using a new resonant magnetic perturbation technique. Gyrokinetic simulations based on experimental equilibria predict unstable trapped-electron modes (TEMs), and small-scale density fluctuations are detected in improved-confinement plasmas with TEM-like features. Upgraded pellet injection permits study of density and beta limits over MST's full range of operation, and an MST-record line-average density of 0.9 × 1020 m3 (n/nG = 1.4) has been obtained. Impurity ion temperature measurements reveal a charge-to-mass-ratio dependence in the rapid heating that occurs during a sawtooth crash. Runaway of NBI-born fast ions during the impulsive sawtooth event agrees with test-particle theory. Magnetic self-organization studies include measurements of the dynamo emf with an applied ac inductive electric field using oscillating field current drive.

  12. Nondestructive testing using air-borne ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Hsu, David K

    2006-12-22

    Over the last two decades, more efficient transducers were developed for the generation and reception of air-borne ultrasound, thus enabling the non-contact, non-contaminating inspection of composite laminates and honeycomb structures widely used in the aerospace industry. This paper presents the fundamentals of making air-borne ultrasonic measurement, and point out special considerations unique to propagating ultrasound in air and through solids. Transducer beam profile characterization, thickness dependence and resonance effects in the transmission of air-coupled ultrasound through plates, and the detection and imaging of defects and damage in solid laminates and honeycomb sandwich will be discussed and illustrated with examples. Finally, a manual scan system developed for implementing air-borne ultrasonic imaging in the field and on aircraft will be introduced.

  13. Field experiments of success-breeds-success dynamics

    PubMed Central

    van de Rijt, Arnout; Kang, Soong Moon; Restivo, Michael; Patil, Akshay

    2014-01-01

    Seemingly similar individuals often experience drastically different success trajectories, with some repeatedly failing and others consistently succeeding. One explanation is preexisting variability along unobserved fitness dimensions that is revealed gradually through differential achievement. Alternatively, positive feedback operating on arbitrary initial advantages may increasingly set apart winners from losers, producing runaway inequality. To identify social feedback in human reward systems, we conducted randomized experiments by intervening in live social environments across the domains of funding, status, endorsement, and reputation. In each system we consistently found that early success bestowed upon arbitrarily selected recipients produced significant improvements in subsequent rates of success compared with the control group of nonrecipients. However, success exhibited decreasing marginal returns, with larger initial advantages failing to produce much further differentiation. These findings suggest a lesser degree of vulnerability of reward systems to incidental or fabricated advantages and a more modest role for cumulative advantage in the explanation of social inequality than previously thought. PMID:24778230

  14. The Camp Pendleton Experiment in Battalion Level Field Feeding

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-07-01

    Two 30KW generators were used to provide the required electrical power to operate the reefers, lights , water heater and pump, and other labor...dehydrated mashed potatoes , etc.). During the fourth week of the experiment, five meals were prepared using B- ratlon Hems. These meals were...TABLE 13. FOOD PREPARATION TIMES Food Item Quantity for 900 Portions Control XM-75/XM-76 Dinner Items: Vegetables Mashed Potatoes Baked

  15. Viking satellite program - preliminary results from the APL Magnetic Field Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Potemra, T.A.; Zanetti, L.J.; Erlandson, R.E.; Gustafsson, G.; Acuna, M.H.

    1986-12-01

    Sweden's Viking satellite, launched in February 1986, has been conducting plasma process observations in the earth magnetosphere and auroral regions; the U.S.-supplied APL Magnetic Field Experiment aboard Viking is used to determine field-aligned Birkeland current characteristics in previously unsampled regions of near-earth space. The Magnetic Field Experiment has an equivalent spatial resolution of 12 m in the auroral ionosphere when making measurements near apogee. The purposes of Viking's other instruments and their relationship to the Magnetic Field Experiment are discussed.

  16. The Viking satellite program - Preliminary results from the APL Magnetic Field Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potemra, Thomas A.; Zanetti, Lawrence J.; Erlandson, Robert E.; Gustafsson, Georg; Acuna, Mario H.

    1986-12-01

    Sweden's Viking satellite, launched in February 1986, has been conducting plasma process observations in the earth magnetosphere and auroral regions; the U.S.-supplied APL Magnetic Field Experiment aboard Viking is used to determine field-aligned Birkeland current characteristics in previously unsampled regions of near-earth space. The Magnetic Field Experiment has an equivalent spatial resolution of 12 m in the auroral ionosphere when making measurements near apogee. The purposes of Viking's other instruments and their relationship to the Magnetic Field Experiment are discussed.

  17. The Viking satellite program - Preliminary results from the APL Magnetic Field Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potemra, Thomas A.; Zanetti, Lawrence J.; Erlandson, Robert E.; Gustafsson, Georg; Acuna, Mario H.

    1986-01-01

    Sweden's Viking satellite, launched in February 1986, has been conducting plasma process observations in the earth magnetosphere and auroral regions; the U.S.-supplied APL Magnetic Field Experiment aboard Viking is used to determine field-aligned Birkeland current characteristics in previously unsampled regions of near-earth space. The Magnetic Field Experiment has an equivalent spatial resolution of 12 m in the auroral ionosphere when making measurements near apogee. The purposes of Viking's other instruments and their relationship to the Magnetic Field Experiment are discussed.

  18. First experiments probing the collision of parallel magnetic fields using laser-produced plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, M. J.; Li, C. K.; Fox, W.; Igumenshchev, I.; Seguin, F. H.; Town, R. P.; Frenje, J. A.; Stoeckl, C.; Glebov, V.; Petrasso, R. D.

    2015-04-08

    Novel experiments to study the strongly-driven collision of parallel magnetic fields in β~10, laser-produced plasmas have been conducted using monoenergetic proton radiography. These experiments were designed to probe the process of magnetic flux pileup, which has been identified in prior laser-plasma experiments as a key physical mechanism in the reconnection of anti-parallel magnetic fields when the reconnection inflow is dominated by strong plasma flows. In the present experiments using colliding plasmas carrying parallel magnetic fields, the magnetic flux is found to be conserved and slightly compressed in the collision region. Two-dimensional (2D) particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations predict a stronger flux compression and amplification of the magnetic field strength, and this discrepancy is attributed to the three-dimensional (3D) collision geometry. Future experiments may drive a stronger collision and further explore flux pileup in the context of the strongly-driven interaction of magnetic fields.

  19. First experiments probing the collision of parallel magnetic fields using laser-produced plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, M. J. Li, C. K.; Séguin, F. H.; Frenje, J. A.; Petrasso, R. D.; Fox, W.; Igumenshchev, I.; Stoeckl, C.; Glebov, V.; Town, R. P. J.

    2015-04-15

    Novel experiments to study the strongly-driven collision of parallel magnetic fields in β ∼ 10, laser-produced plasmas have been conducted using monoenergetic proton radiography. These experiments were designed to probe the process of magnetic flux pileup, which has been identified in prior laser-plasma experiments as a key physical mechanism in the reconnection of anti-parallel magnetic fields when the reconnection inflow is dominated by strong plasma flows. In the present experiments using colliding plasmas carrying parallel magnetic fields, the magnetic flux is found to be conserved and slightly compressed in the collision region. Two-dimensional (2D) particle-in-cell simulations predict a stronger flux compression and amplification of the magnetic field strength, and this discrepancy is attributed to the three-dimensional (3D) collision geometry. Future experiments may drive a stronger collision and further explore flux pileup in the context of the strongly-driven interaction of magnetic fields.

  20. Evaluation of NOx emission inventories in California using multi-satellite data sets, AMAX-DOAS and in-situ airborne measurements, and regional model simulations during the CalNex field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S.; Baidar, S.; Boersma, F.; Brioude, J.; Bucsela, E. J.; Burrows, J. P.; Celarier, E. A.; Cohen, R. C.; Frost, G. J.; Krotkov, N. A.; Lamsal, L. N.; Martin, R. V.; McKeen, S. A.; Oetjen, H.; Pollack, I. B.; Richter, A.; Russell, A. R.; Ryerson, T. B.; Trainer, M.; Valin, L. C.; Volkamer, R. M.

    2012-12-01

    Satellite NO2 column measurements indicate large NOx emissions from urban and agricultural sources in California. In this presentation, we highlight the NOx sources identified in California using the satellite measurements. Comparison of regional model-simulated NO2 columns with satellite retrievals has proven useful in evaluating emission inventories for various sectors. We compare the NO2 columns from the WRF-Chem model with the multi-satellite data sets from different instruments and retrieval groups for a variety of California sources. Use of multiple satellite data sets help to define the uncertainties in the satellite retrievals. In addition, the CalNex 2010 intensive field campaign provides a unique opportunity to independently assess California's emission inventories. CU-AMAX-DOAS and in-situ airborne observations from CalNex 2010 and fine-resolution model simulations are used to estimate the accuracy of the satellite NO2 column retrievals.

  1. The experience from field operation of a subsea multiphase booster

    SciTech Connect

    De Donno, S.; Colombi, P.; Chiesa, G.; Ferrari Aggradi, G.

    1995-12-31

    The subsea multiphase production -- based on the transportation over long distance of the untreated oil-well fluids (oil, water and gas) -- is expected to be one of the most efficient tool for economic exploitation of deep offshore and marginal fields. A long term testing campaign on a multiphase screw pump was successfully completed in 1990 at the AGIP Trecate onshore oil field and the results confirmed the industrial viability for such a kind of equipment for surface application. Then, a subsea version of an improved multiphase twin screw pump has been integrated into a Subsea Multiphase Boosting Unit and installed on the Prezioso Field, offshore Sicily, in Summer 1994. Long term testing under real operating conditions were initiated after a successful start-up of the Unit. To the Authors` knowledge, this is the first world-wide subsea installation of an electrically driven multiphase pump operating with live oil. The paper presents first a description of the marine twin screw pump concept adopted for the subsea application including the main features of the complete boosting unit and the adopted solutions to allow it to operate under different conditions. Then, the project implementation activities from the onshore integration through the installation, commissioning and start-up operations are described. Moreover, the results of the initial functional tests are discussed with particular reference to the screw pump hydraulic performance as well as to the behavior of the pump pressure compensation and seal/lube oil systems. Transient and steady state conditions experienced by the system are finally characterized and the early evidences of its long term performance are discussed.

  2. Scaling of sand flux over bedforms- experiments to field scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McElroy, B. J.; Mahon, R. C.; Ashley, T.; Alexander, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    Bed forms are one of the few geomorphic phenomena whose field and laboratory geometric scales have significant overlap. This is similarly true for scales of sediment transport. Whether in the lab or field, at low transport stages and high Rouse numbers where suspension is minimal, sand fluxes scale nonlinearly with transport stage. At high transport stages, and low Rouse numbers where suspension is substantial, sand transport scales with rouse number. In intermediate cases deformation of bed forms is a direct result of the exchange of sediment between the classically suspended and bed load volumes. These parameters are straightforwardly measured in the laboratory. However, practical difficulties and cost ineffectiveness often exclude bed-sediment measurements from studies and monitoring efforts aimed at estimating sediment loads in rivers. An alternative to direct sampling is through the measurement of evolution of bed topography constrained by sediment-mass conservation. Historically, the topographic-evolution approach has been limited to systems with negligible transport of sand in suspension. As was shown decades ago, pure bed load transport is responsible for the mean migration of trains of bed forms when no sediment is exchanged between individual bed forms. In contrast, the component of bed-material load that moves in suspension is responsible for changes in the size, shape, and spacing of evolving bed forms; collectively this is called deformation. The difference between bed-load flux and bed-material-load flux equals the flux of suspended bed material. We give a partial demonstration of this using available field and laboratory data and comparing them across geometric and sediment transport scales.

  3. A full field, 3-D velocimeter for microgravity crystallization experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brodkey, Robert S.; Russ, Keith M.

    1991-01-01

    The programming and algorithms needed for implementing a full-field, 3-D velocimeter for laminar flow systems and the appropriate hardware to fully implement this ultimate system are discussed. It appears that imaging using a synched pair of video cameras and digitizer boards with synched rails for camera motion will provide a viable solution to the laminar tracking problem. The algorithms given here are simple, which should speed processing. On a heavily loaded VAXstation 3100 the particle identification can take 15 to 30 seconds, with the tracking taking less than one second. It seeems reasonable to assume that four image pairs can thus be acquired and analyzed in under one minute.

  4. Airborne Next: Rethinking Airborne Organization and Applying New Concepts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    structures since its employment on a large scale during World War II. It is puzzling to consider how little airborne organizational structures and employment...future potential of airborne concepts by rethinking traditional airborne organizational structures and employment concepts. Using a holistic approach in... structures of airborne forces to model a “small and many” approach over a “large and few” approach, while incorporating a “swarming” concept. Utilizing

  5. Tools and Setups for Experiments with AC and Rotating Magnetic Fields

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponikvar, D.

    2010-01-01

    A rotating magnetic field is the basis for the transformation of electrical energy to mechanical energy. School experiments on the rotating magnetic field are rare since they require the use of specially prepared mechanical setups and/or relatively large, three-phase power supplies to achieve strong magnetic fields. This paper proposes several…

  6. Targeting the Poor: Evidence from a Field Experiment in Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Alatas, Vivi; Banerjee, Abhijit; Hanna, Rema; Olken, Benjamin A.; Tobias, Julia

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports an experiment in 640 Indonesian villages on three approaches to target the poor: proxy-means tests (PMT), where assets are used to predict consumption; community targeting, where villagers rank everyone from richest to poorest; and a hybrid. Defining poverty based on PPP$2 per-capita consumption, community targeting and the hybrid perform somewhat worse in identifying the poor than PMT, though not by enough to significantly affect poverty outcomes for a typical program. Elite capture does not explain these results. Instead, communities appear to apply a different concept of poverty. Consistent with this finding, community targeting results in higher satisfaction. PMID:25197099

  7. Targeting the Poor: Evidence from a Field Experiment in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Alatas, Vivi; Banerjee, Abhijit; Hanna, Rema; Olken, Benjamin A; Tobias, Julia

    2012-06-01

    This paper reports an experiment in 640 Indonesian villages on three approaches to target the poor: proxy-means tests (PMT), where assets are used to predict consumption; community targeting, where villagers rank everyone from richest to poorest; and a hybrid. Defining poverty based on PPP$2 per-capita consumption, community targeting and the hybrid perform somewhat worse in identifying the poor than PMT, though not by enough to significantly affect poverty outcomes for a typical program. Elite capture does not explain these results. Instead, communities appear to apply a different concept of poverty. Consistent with this finding, community targeting results in higher satisfaction.

  8. The 1987 Federal field exercise: The DOE experience

    SciTech Connect

    Adler, M.V.; Gant, K.S.

    1989-06-01

    The second full-scale field exercise of the Federal Radiological Emergency Response Plan (FRERP) was held at the Zion Nuclear Power Station, Zion, Illinois, in June 1987. The exercise incorporated the annual compliance exercise for the Zion plant and involved the operating utility, Commonwealth Edison Company, the states of Illinois and Wisconsin, local governments, volunteer groups, and representatives from 12 federal agencies. The 3-day exercise was played from many locations in the Zion area; Springfield, Illinois; Madison, Wisconsin; and Washington, DC. Approximately 1000 people participated in the exercise, which used a scenario in which an accident at the plant resulted in the release of radioactive material outside the plant boundary. The US Department of Energy (DOE) had major responsibilities during the planning, playing, and critiquing of the exercise; these functions are outlined in the report. This document describes the DOE participation in the planning and response during the exercise. During a radiological emergency, the FRERP gives DOE the responsibility for coordinating the federal radiological monitoring and assessment activities in support of the states and the cognizant federal agency. At Zion, a self-sufficient Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center was established by DOE at a nearby fairground in which over 200 people from DOE, the two states, and other federal agencies participated. Before the field exercise, a tabletop exercise and a dry run were held for training purposes. 5 refs., 6 figs.

  9. Overview of results from the MST reversed field pinch experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarff, J. S.; Almagri, A. F.; Anderson, J. K.; Borchardt, M.; Carmody, D.; Caspary, K.; Chapman, B. E.; Den Hartog, D. J.; Duff, J.; Eilerman, S.; Falkowski, A.; Forest, C. B.; Goetz, J. A.; Holly, D. J.; Kim, J.-H.; King, J.; Ko, J.; Koliner, J.; Kumar, S.; Lee, J. D.; Liu, D.; Magee, R.; McCollam, K. J.; McGarry, M.; Mirnov, V. V.; Nornberg, M. D.; Nonn, P. D.; Oliva, S. P.; Parke, E.; Reusch, J. A.; Sauppe, J. P.; Seltzman, A.; Sovinec, C. R.; Stephens, H.; Stone, D.; Theucks, D.; Thomas, M.; Triana, J.; Terry, P. W.; Waksman, J.; Bergerson, W. F.; Brower, D. L.; Ding, W. X.; Lin, L.; Demers, D. R.; Fimognari, P.; Titus, J.; Auriemma, F.; Cappello, S.; Franz, P.; Innocente, P.; Lorenzini, R.; Martines, E.; Momo, B.; Piovesan, P.; Puiatti, M.; Spolaore, M.; Terranova, D.; Zanca, P.; Belykh, V.; Davydenko, V. I.; Deichuli, P.; Ivanov, A. A.; Polosatkin, S.; Stupishin, N. V.; Spong, D.; Craig, D.; Harvey, R. W.; Cianciosa, M.; Hanson, J. D.

    2013-10-01

    An overview of recent results from the MST programme on physics important for the advancement of the reversed field pinch (RFP) as well as for improved understanding of toroidal magnetic confinement more generally is reported. Evidence for the classical confinement of ions in the RFP is provided by analysis of impurity ions and energetic ions created by 1 MW neutral beam injection (NBI). The first appearance of energetic-particle-driven modes by NBI in a RFP plasma is described. MST plasmas robustly access the quasi-single-helicity state that has commonalities to the stellarator and ‘snake’ formation in tokamaks. In MST the dominant mode grows to 8% of the axisymmetric field strength, while the remaining modes are reduced. Predictive capability for tearing mode behaviour has been improved through nonlinear, 3D, resistive magnetohydrodynamic computation using the measured resistivity profile and Lundquist number, which reproduces the sawtooth cycle dynamics. Experimental evidence and computational analysis indicates two-fluid effects, e.g., Hall physics and gyro-viscosity, are needed to understand the coupling of parallel momentum transport and current profile relaxation. Large Reynolds and Maxwell stresses, plus separately measured kinetic stress, indicate an intricate momentum balance and a possible origin for MST's intrinsic plasma rotation. Gyrokinetic analysis indicates that micro-tearing modes can be unstable at high beta, with a critical gradient for the electron temperature that is larger than for tokamak plasmas by roughly the aspect ratio.

  10. Field experience with a mobile tomographic nondestructive assay system

    SciTech Connect

    Prettyman, T.H.; Betts, S.E.; Taggart, D.P.; Estep, R.J.; Nicholas, N.J.; Lucas, M.C.; Harlan, R.A.

    1995-12-01

    A mobile tomographic gamma-ray scanner (TGS) developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory was recently demonstrated at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site and is currently in use at Los Alamos waste storage areas. The scanner was developed to assay radionuclides in low-level, transuranic, and mixed waste in containers ranging in size from 2 ft{sup 3} boxes to 83-gallon overpacks. The tomographic imaging capability provides a complete correction for source distribution and matrix attenuation effects, enabling accurate assays of Pu-239 and other gamma-ray emitting isotopes. In addition, the system can reliably detect self-absorbing material such as plutonium metal shot, and can correct for bias caused by self-absorption. The system can be quickly configured to execute far-field scans, segmented gamma-ray scans, and a host of intermediate scanning protocols, enabling higher throughput (up to 20 drums per 8-hour shift). In this paper, we will report on the results of field trials of the mobile system at Rocky Flats and Los Alamos. Assay accuracy is confirmed for cases in which TGS assays can be compared with assays (e.g. with calorimetry) of individual packages within the drums. The mobile tomographic technology is expected to considerably reduce characterization costs at DOE production and environmental technology sites.

  11. Pesticide uptake in potatoes: model and field experiments.

    PubMed

    Juraske, Ronnie; Vivas, Carmen S Mosquera; Velásquez, Alexander Erazo; Santos, Glenda García; Moreno, Mónica B Berdugo; Gomez, Jaime Diaz; Binder, Claudia R; Hellweg, Stefanie; Dallos, Jairo A Guerrero

    2011-01-15

    A dynamic model for uptake of pesticides in potatoes is presented and evaluated with measurements performed within a field trial in the region of Boyacá, Colombia. The model takes into account the time between pesticide applications and harvest, the time between harvest and consumption, the amount of spray deposition on soil surface, mobility and degradation of pesticide in soil, diffusive uptake and persistence due to crop growth and metabolism in plant material, and loss due to food processing. Food processing steps included were cleaning, washing, storing, and cooking. Pesticide concentrations were measured periodically in soil and potato samples from the beginning of tuber formation until harvest. The model was able to predict the magnitude and temporal profile of the experimentally derived pesticide concentrations well, with all measurements falling within the 90% confidence interval. The fraction of chlorpyrifos applied on the field during plant cultivation that eventually is ingested by the consumer is on average 10(-4)-10(-7), depending on the time between pesticide application and ingestion and the processing step considered.

  12. Two-Channel Rectangular Dielectric Wake Field Accelerator Structure Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Sotnikov, G. V.; Marshall, T. C.; Shchelkunov, S. V.; Didenko, A.; Hirshfield, J. L.

    2009-01-22

    A design is presented for a two-channel 30-GHz rectangular dielectric wake field accelerator structure being built for experimental tests at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). This structure allows for a transformer ratio T much greater than two, and permits continuous coupling of energy from drive bunches to accelerated bunches. It consists of three planar slabs of cordierite ceramic ({epsilon} = 4.7) supported within a rectangular copper block, forming a drive channel 12 mmx6 mm, and an accelerator channel 2 mmx6 mm. When driven by a 50 nC, 14 MeV single bunch available at ANL, theory predicts an acceleration field of 6 MeV/m, and T = 12.6. Inherent transverse wake forces introduce deflections and some distortion of bunch profiles during transit through the structure that are estimated to be tolerable. Additionally, a cylindrical two-channel DWFA is introduced which shares many advantages of the rectangular structure including high T, and the added virtue of axisymmetry that eliminates lowest-order transverse deflecting forces.

  13. Study on analysis from sources of error for Airborne LIDAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, H. C.; Yan, Q.; Liu, Z. J.; Zuo, Z. Q.; Xu, Q. Q.; Li, F. F.; Song, C.

    2016-11-01

    With the advancement of Aerial Photogrammetry, it appears that to obtain geo-spatial information of high spatial and temporal resolution provides a new technical means for Airborne LIDAR measurement techniques, with unique advantages and broad application prospects. Airborne LIDAR is increasingly becoming a new kind of space for earth observation technology, which is mounted by launching platform for aviation, accepting laser pulses to get high-precision, high-density three-dimensional coordinate point cloud data and intensity information. In this paper, we briefly demonstrates Airborne laser radar systems, and that some errors about Airborne LIDAR data sources are analyzed in detail, so the corresponding methods is put forwarded to avoid or eliminate it. Taking into account the practical application of engineering, some recommendations were developed for these designs, which has crucial theoretical and practical significance in Airborne LIDAR data processing fields.

  14. Resolving the Physics of Error Field Correction Through Error Field Proxy Experiments in DIII-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buttery, R. J.; Ferraro, N. M.; La Haye, R. J.; Schaffer, M. J.; Strait, E. J.; Hanson, J. M.; Park, J.-K.; Reimerdes, H.

    2012-10-01

    Recent studies have determined the scale and likely origins of limitations to error field correction by using DIII-D's multiple coil arrays to apply known large amplitude proxy error fields and attempting correction with additional coils of different structure. It was found that even with pure n=1 proxy fields and carefully optimized correction field, the benefits of correction were substantially limited, at the ˜50% level in terms of low density access. This indicates coupling of residual fields either through higher order resonances and/or through non-resonant braking of the plasma The interpretation is confirmed by modeling with the IPEC code, which shows that the correction process reduces resonant components, but increases non-resonant NTV damping, thus decreasing rotation and easing penetration of residual resonant fields. The result is significant, suggesting multiple field components must be compensated to achieve good correction, and that the best approach may be to minimize the total field in the plasma by cancelling error fields close to their source or close to the plasma.

  15. Curved PVDF airborne transducer.

    PubMed

    Wang, H; Toda, M

    1999-01-01

    In the application of airborne ultrasonic ranging measurement, a partially cylindrical (curved) PVDF transducer can effectively couple ultrasound into the air and generate strong sound pressure. Because of its geometrical features, the ultrasound beam angles of a curved PVDF transducer can be unsymmetrical (i.e., broad horizontally and narrow vertically). This feature is desired in some applications. In this work, a curved PVDF air transducer is investigated both theoretically and experimentally. Two resonances were observed in this transducer. They are length extensional mode and flexural bending mode. Surface vibration profiles of these two modes were measured by a laser vibrometer. It was found from the experiment that the surface vibration was not uniform along the curvature direction for both vibration modes. Theoretical calculations based on a model developed in this work confirmed the experimental results. Two displacement peaks were found in the piezoelectric active direction of PVDF film for the length extensional mode; three peaks were found for the flexural bending mode. The observed peak positions were in good agreement with the calculation results. Transient surface displacement measurements revealed that vibration peaks were in phase for the length extensional mode and out of phase for the flexural bending mode. Therefore, the length extensional mode can generate a stronger ultrasound wave than the flexural bending mode. The resonance frequencies and vibration amplitudes of the two modes strongly depend on the structure parameters as well as the material properties. For the transducer design, the theoretical model developed in this work can be used to optimize the ultrasound performance.

  16. Developing Personal and Professional Identity: Teaming, Dialogue, and Inquiry in the Sophomore Professional Field Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Ruth J.; Sherman, Sharon J.; Rothstein, Michael; Lupo, Theresa R.

    This paper examines a model of supervision/field experience proposed for teacher candidates in the sophomore professional experience of a teacher preparation program. The approach envisions the sophomore experience as a dialogic process in which students and teachers construct knowledge and nurture dispositions needed for development of personal…

  17. Women's hairstyle and men's behavior: A field experiment.

    PubMed

    Guéguen, Nicolas

    2015-12-01

    Little research has examined the effect of women's hairstyles on people's behavior. In a field study, male and female passersby, walking alone in the street, were observed while walking behind a female-confederate who dropped a glove and apparently was unaware of her loss. The confederate had long dark hair arranged in three different hairstyles: one with her hair falling naturally on her shoulders and her back, one with her hair tied in a ponytail, and one with her hair twisted in a bun. Results reported that the hairstyle had no effect on female passersby's helping behavior. However, it was found that the hairstyle influenced male passersby with men helping the confederate more readily when her hair fell naturally on her neck, shoulders and upper back.

  18. Field experience & usage of the Sentinel treatment plant

    SciTech Connect

    Hiscock, K.C.

    1994-12-31

    A process of chemically induced flocculation followed by filtration through activated carbon has been shown to be very effective in removing pesticides from waste water prior to disposal or re-use. Large plants treating up to 100 m{sup 3} per day have been used in agrochemical manufacturing for the past twenty years. This system has been miniaturized to produce a batch treatment family of self-contained plants from 20 litres to 5000 litres. These plans have found their way into thirty-three countries worldwide, treating rinsate from research stations, field trial teams, research universities, farmers, horticulturists as well as ag-chem producers, packers, formulators and storers. In worldwide results, removal of active ingredients to the lowest level of detection have been consistently achieved.

  19. Aircraft measurements and analysis of severe storms: 1975 field experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinclair, P. C.

    1976-01-01

    Three aircraft and instrumentation systems were acquired in support of the severe storm surveillance program. The data results indicate that the original concept of a highly mobile research aircraft capability for obtaining detailed measurements of wind, temperature, dew point, etc., near and within specifically designated severe storms is entirely feasible and has been demonstrated for the first time by this program. This program is unique in that it is designed to be highly mobile in order to move to and/or with the developing storm systems to obtain the necessary measurements. Previous programs have all been fixed to a particular location and therefore have had to wait for the storms to come within their network. The present research is designed around a highly mobile aircraft measurements group in order to maximize the storm cases during the field measurements program.

  20. A preliminary assessment of field transport experiments using encapsulated cells

    SciTech Connect

    Petrich, C.R.; Knaebel, D.B.; Ralston, D.R.; Crawford, R.L.; Stormo, K.E.

    1995-12-31

    Microencapsulation of nonindigenous degradative organisms is a technique that enhances microorganism survival. An intermediate-scale field tracer test was conducted to evaluate the transport of encapsulated-cell microbeads and other particles in a shallow, confined, heterogeneous aquifer consisting of unconsolidated silts, sands, and gravels under induced-gradient, uniform flow conditions. Tracers included bromide; 2-, 5-, and 15-{micro}m-diameter polystyrene microspheres; and encapsulated Flavobacterium microbeads ranging in diameter from approximately 2 to 80 {micro}m. Results suggest that aquifer heterogeneity was a dominant factor in bromide- and particle-transport patterns. Encapsulated-cell migration appeared to be retarded with respect to the bromide and microsphere tracers. Results of this study also indicate that encapsulated-cell particle sizes and encapsulation material characteristics may be important factors affecting the transport of encapsulated cells in a subsurface environment.

  1. Airborne Brightness Temperature Measurements of the Polar Winter Troposphere as Part of the Airborne Arctic Stratosphere Experiment 2 and the Effect of Brightness Temperature Variations on the Diabatic Heating in the Lower Stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valero, Francisoco P. J.; Platnick, Steven; Kinne, Stefan; Pilewskie, Peter; Bucholtz, Anthony

    1993-01-01

    In this paper we report radiometric measurements of tropospheric brightness temperatures obtained during the AASE 2 experiment. These measurements represent the first attempt to characterize effective radiative temperatures as seen from above the troposphere during the Arctic winter. The reported measurements include brightness temperatures at 6.7 and 10.5 micrometers as seen from the NASA DC-8 aircraft flying at about 11 km altitude. We also present radiative transfer calculations to estimate the effect of tropospheric brightness temperature on the lower stratospheric heating rates. Because of the recent massive eruption of the Pinatubo volcano, we also discuss the effects of a volcanic aerosol layer. It is concluded that small particles like the volcanic aerosol or PSCs type 1 do not affect stratospheric heating rates by much; on the other hand, larger particles, PSCs types 2 and 3, may have significant effects on heating rates and consequently on dynamics of the lower stratosphere. The dynamical effects of local stratospheric temperature variations are briefly discussed.

  2. Airborne brightness temperature measurements of the polar winter troposphere as part of the Airborne Arctic Stratosphere Experiment 2 and the effect of brightness temperature variations on the diabatic heating in the lower stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valero, Francisco P. J.; Platnick, Steven; Kinne, Stefan; Pilewskie, Peter; Bucholtz, Anthony

    1993-01-01

    In this paper we report radiometric measurements of tropospheric brightness temperatures obtained during the AASE 2 experiment. These measurements represent the first attempt to characterize effective radiative temperatures as seen from above the troposphere during the Arctic winter. The reported measurements include brightness temperatures at 6.7 and 10.5 microns as seen from the NASA DC-8 aircraft flying at about 11 km altitude. We also present radiative transfer calculations to estimate the effect of tropospheric brightness temperature on the lower stratospheric heating rates. Because of the recent massive eruption of the Pinatubo volcano, we also discuss the effects of a volcanic aerosol layer. It is concluded that small particles like the volcanic aerosol or polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) type 1 do not affect stratospheric heating rates by much; on the other hand, larger particles, PSCs types 2 and 3, may have significant effects on heating rates and consequently on dynamics of the lower stratosphere. The dynamical effects of local stratospheric temperature variations are briefly discussed.

  3. The lure of local SETI: Fifty years of field experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ailleris, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    With the commemoration in October 2007 of the Sputnik launch, space exploration celebrated its 50th anniversary. Despite impressive technological and scientific achievements the fascination for space has weakened during the last decades. One contributing factor has been the gradual disappearance of mankind's hope of discovering extraterrestrial life within its close neighbourhood. In striking contrast and since the middle of the 20th century, a non-negligible proportion of the population have already concluded that intelligent beings from other worlds do exist and visit Earth through space vehicles popularly called Unidentified Flying Objects (UFOs). In light of the continuous public interest for the UFO enigma symbolized by the recent widely diffused media announcements on the release of French and English governmental files; and considering the approach of broadening the strategies of the "Active SETI" approach and the existence of a rich multi-disciplinary UFO documentation of potential interest for SETI; this paper describes some past scientific attempts to demonstrate the physical reality of the phenomena and potentially the presence on Earth of probes of extraterrestrial origin. Details of the different instrumented field studies deployed by scientists and organizations during the period 1950-1990 in the USA, Canada and Europe are provided. In conclusion it will be argued that while continuing the current radio/optical SETI searches, there is the necessity to maintain sustaining attention to the topic of anomalous aerospace phenomena and to develop new rigorous research approaches.

  4. The ESA/NASA Multi-Aircraft ATV-1 Re-Entry Campaign: Analysis of Airborne Intensified Video Observations from the NASA/JSC Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, Ed; Maley, Paul; Mulrooney, Mark; Beaulieu, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    In September 2008, a joint ESA/NASA multi-instrument airborne observing campaign was conducted over the Southern Pacific ocean. The objective was the acquisition of data to support detailed atmospheric re-entry analysis for the first flight of the European Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV)-1. Skilled observers were deployed aboard two aircraft which were flown at 12.8 km altitude within visible range of the ATV-1 re-entry zone. The observers operated a suite of instruments with low-light-level detection sensitivity including still cameras, high speed and 30 fps video cameras, and spectrographs. The collected data has provided valuable information regarding the dynamic time evolution of the ATV-1 re-entry fragmentation. Specifically, the data has satisfied the primary mission objective of recording the explosion of ATV-1's primary fuel tank and thereby validating predictions regarding the tanks demise and the altitude of its occurrence. Furthermore, the data contains the brightness and trajectories of several hundred ATV-1 fragments. It is the analysis of these properties, as recorded by the particular instrument set sponsored by NASA/Johnson Space Center, which we present here.

  5. How deep cells feel: Mean-field Computations and Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buxboim, Amnon; Sen, Shamik; Discher, Dennis E.

    2009-03-01

    Most cells in solid tissues exert contractile forces that mechanically couple them to elastic surroundings and that significantly influence cell adhesion, cytoskeletal organization and differentiation. However, strains within the depths of matrices are often unclear and are likely relevant to thin matrices, such as basement membranes, relative to cell size as well as to defining how far cells can ``feel.'' We present experimental results for cell spreading on thin, ligand- coated gels and for prestress in stem cells in relation to gel stiffness. Matrix thickness affects cell spread area, focal adhesions and cytoskeleton organization in stem cells, which we will compare to differentiated cells. We introduce a finite element computation to estimate the elastostatic deformations within the matrix on which a cell is placed. Interfacial strains between cell and matrix show large deviations only when soft matrices are a fraction of cell dimensions, proving consistent with experiments. 3-D cell morphologies that model stem cell-derived neurons, myoblasts, and osteoblasts show that a cylinder-shaped myoblast induces the highest strains, consistent with the prominent contractility of muscle. Groups of such cells show a weak crosstalk via matrix strains only when cells are much closer than a cell-width. Cells thus feel on length scales closer to that of adhesions than on cellular scales.

  6. Applicability of sniffing team observations: experience of field measurements.

    PubMed

    Van Langenhove, H; Van Broeck, G

    2001-01-01

    Sniffing measurement campaigns are a commonly used technique in Flanders to estimate the impact of an odour emission source. The Department of Organic Chemistry at Ghent University has developed its own sniffing strategy throughout the last ten years. The method uses, in essence, the technique of plotting odour perception areas and calculation of total odour emission rates based on maximum odour perception distance. 566 sniffing measurements, executed from 1990 until 1999 around industrial and agricultural odour sources were collected in a database for statistical analysis. Short-term dispersion modelling was executed using four different models, two of them based on Bultynck-Malet dispersion parameters, and two based on Pasquill dispersion parameters. Results from this analysis demonstrate some causes of variance in calculated emissions and show the fitness of each model. From the results of the sniffing teams, which are expressed as sniffing units (SU) instead of odour units (OU, OUE) to underline the difference in methodological approach, the overall odorous emission can be calculated, using short-term atmospheric dispersion models. In a second step, long-term dispersion models can be used to calculate isopercentile contour plots. According to our experience the short-term atmospheric model is a source of "noise" in the method since calculated standard deviations on calculated emissions are larger than standard deviations in the observed maximum distance for odour perception. This will be illustrated by presenting results from the evaluation of composting plants and animal farm houses.

  7. A Loop Current experiment: Field and remote measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, Peter; Lugo-Fernández, Alexis; Sheinbaum, Julio

    2016-12-01

    An overview of a new comprehensive observational study of the Loop Current (LC) in the eastern Gulf of Mexico that encompassed full-depth and near-bottom moorings, pressure-equipped inverted echo sounders (PIES) and remote sensing is presented. The study array was designed to encompass the LC from the Campeche Bank to the west Florida escarpment. This overview centers about principal findings as they pertain to mesoscale dynamics. Two companion papers provide in-depth analyses. Three LC anticyclonic eddy separation events were observed with good 3D spatial coverage over the 2½ year extent of the field study; the three separations exhibited similar processes after the LC had extended into the eastern Gulf. Large scale (∼300 km wavelength, 40-60 day periods) southward propagating meanders developed on the eastern side of the LC over deep (∼3000 m) water that were the result of baroclinic instability between the upper layer meandering jet and lower layer cyclones and anticyclones. The lower layer was only highly energetic during relatively short (∼2-3 months) intervals just prior to or during eddy detachments because of baroclinic instability. The steepening of the meanders lead to a pinch-off of LC eddies. The deep lower-layer eddies, constrained by the closed topography of the southeastern Gulf, propagated westward across the detachment zone and appear to assist in achieving separation. Small scale (∼50-100 km, periods ∼10 days) frontal eddies, observed on the western side of the LC along the Campeche Bank slope, decay over the deep water of the northern part of an extended LC, and have little influence on lower layer eddies, the east side meanders and the eddy detachment processes.

  8. Experiments and modeling of dilution jet flow fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holdeman, James D.

    1986-01-01

    Experimental and analytical results of the mixing of single, double, and opposed rows of jets with an isothermal or variable-temperature main stream in a straight duct are presented. This study was performed to investigate flow and geometric variations typical of the complex, three-dimensional flow field in the dilution zone of gas-turbine-engine combustion chambers. The principal results, shown experimentally and analytically, were the following: (1) variations in orifice size and spacing can have a significant effect on the temperature profiles; (2) similar distributions can be obtained, independent of orifice diameter, if momentum-flux ratio and orifice spacing are coupled; (3) a first-order approximation of the mixing of jets with a variable-temperature main stream can be obtained by superimposing the main-stream and jets-in-an-isothermal-crossflow profiles; (4) the penetration of jets issuing mixing is slower and is asymmetric with respect to the jet centerplanes, which shift laterally with increasing downstream distance; (5) double rows of jets give temperature distributions similar to those from a single row of equally spaced, equal-area circular holes; (6) for opposed rows of jets, with the orifice centerlines in line, the optimum ratio of orifice spacing to duct height is one-half the optimum value for single-side injection at the same momentum-flux ratiol and (7) for opposed rows of jets, with the orifice centerlines staggered, the optimum ratio of orifice spacing to duct height is twice the optimum value for single-side injection at the same momentum-flux ratio.

  9. Observing with FIFI-LS on SOFIA: time estimates and strategies to use a field imaging spectrometer on an airborne observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Christian; Bryant, Aaron; Beckmann, Siman; Colditz, Sebastian; Fumi, Fabio; Geis, Norbert; Henning, Thomas; Hönle, Rainer; Iserlohe, Christof; Klein, Randolf; Krabbe, Alfred; Looney, Leslie W.; Poglitsch, Albrecht; Raab, Walfried; Rebell, Felix; Trinh, Christopher

    2016-07-01

    Observing on the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) requires a strategy that takes the specific circumstances of an airborne platform into account. Observations of a source cannot be extended or shortened on the spot due to flight path constraints. Still, no exact prediction of the time on source is available since there are always wind and weather conditions, and sometimes technical issues. Observations have to be planned to maximize the observing efficiency while maintaining full flexibility for changes during the observation. The complex nature of observations with FIFI-LS - such as the interlocking cycles of the mechanical gratings, telescope nodding and dithering - is considered in the observing strategy as well. Since SOFIA Cycle 3 FIFI-LS is available to general investigators. Therefore general investigators must be able to define the necessary parameters simply, without being familiar with the instrument, still resulting in efficient and flexible observations. We describe the observing process with FIFI-LS including the integration time estimate, the mapping and dithering setup and aspects of the scripting for the actual observations performed in flight. We also give an overview of the observing scenarios, which have proven to be useful for FIFI-LS.

  10. The microfluidic bioagent autonomous networked detector (M-BAND): an update. Fully integrated, automated, and networked field identification of airborne pathogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, M.; Probst, L.; Blazevic, E.; Nakao, B.; Northrup, M. A.

    2011-11-01

    We describe a fully automated and autonomous air-borne biothreat detection system for biosurveillance applications. The system, including the nucleic-acid-based detection assay, was designed, built and shipped by Microfluidic Systems Inc (MFSI), a new subsidiary of PositiveID Corporation (PSID). Our findings demonstrate that the system and assay unequivocally identify pathogenic strains of Bacillus anthracis, Yersinia pestis, Francisella tularensis, Burkholderia mallei, and Burkholderia pseudomallei. In order to assess the assay's ability to detect unknown samples, our team also challenged it against a series of blind samples provided by the Department of Homeland Security (DHS). These samples included natural occurring isolated strains, near-neighbor isolates, and environmental samples. Our results indicate that the multiplex assay was specific and produced no false positives when challenged with in house gDNA collections and DHS provided panels. Here we present another analytical tool for the rapid identification of nine Centers for Disease Control and Prevention category A and B biothreat organisms.

  11. Tools and setups for experiments with AC and rotating magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponikvar, D.

    2010-09-01

    A rotating magnetic field is the basis for the transformation of electrical energy to mechanical energy. School experiments on the rotating magnetic field are rare since they require the use of specially prepared mechanical setups and/or relatively large, three-phase power supplies to achieve strong magnetic fields. This paper proposes several experiments and describes setups and tools which are easy to obtain and work with. Free software is offered to generate the required signals by a personal computer. The experiments can be implemented in introductory physics courses on electromagnetism for undergraduates or specialized courses at high schools.

  12. Evaluation of a drug abuse prevention program: a field experiment.

    PubMed

    LoSciuto, L; Ausetts, M A

    1988-01-01

    The central aim of this study was to evaluate Project PRIDE, a school-based affective education program offered in select schools since 1970 and throughout the entire Philadelphia Public School System since 1981. The primary purpose of the program is to increase youth's resistance to drug use and abuse through weekly small group counseling sessions. The 12 weekly student sessions focused on developing self-awareness, life skills, knowledge, and appropriate attitudes about drugs. Project PRIDE also developed training modules for teachers and parents. Evaluation was by means of a true experimental pretest-posttest design, with random assignment to treatment and control groups. Measures of attitudes, self-reported drug use, and behavioral intentions were administered to students, teachers, and parents; process evaluation measures of the student component were collected throughout the treatment period as well. Data analyses indicate that, while a few of the broad aims of the prevention program were not met, there were reliable changes in the intended direction in many of the students' attitudes and intentions. Student attitudes toward drug use and knowledge about drugs both improved. Project PRIDE participation was associated with a relative decrease in willingness to experiment with drugs, even though all groups showed strongly negative attitudes toward drug use. Treatment interacted with sex of student and/or SES on a number of items. Generally, effects were more pronounced for girls and for low SES students. All groups of participants felt they gained significant knowledge and skills from the program. Other effects for parents and teachers were infrequent and inconsistent.

  13. A case study of urban student and teacher experiences surrounding an outdoor environmental science field trip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preusch, Peggy L.

    2009-12-01

    Field trips provide opportunities for students to experience many different contexts beyond the classroom, and are a popular choice of K-12 teachers in the US. Recent interest in learning that occurs at informal science education c