Science.gov

Sample records for airborne field experiment

  1. Vegetation Water Content Mapping in a Diverse Agricultural Landscape: The National Airborne Field Experiment 2006

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mapping land cover and vegetation characteristics on a regional scale is critical to soil moisture retrieval using microwave remote sensing. In aircraft-based experiments such as the National Airborne Field Experiment 2006 (NAFE’06), it is challenging to provide accurate high resolution vegetation i...

  2. The Geologic Remote Sensing Field Experiment (GRSFE): The first geology multisensor airborne campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Diane L.; Arvidson, Raymond E.

    1991-01-01

    The primary objective of the Geologic Remote Sensing Field Experiment (GRSFE) is to acquire relevant data for geological sites that can be used to test models for extraction of surface property information from remote sensing data for earth, Mars and Venus in support of the Earth Observing System (EOS), Mars Observer, and Magellan, respectively. Over forty scientists from eight universities and three NASA centers are participating in GRSFE which is co-sponsored by the NASA Planetary Geology and Geophysics Program and the NASA Geology Program. Highlights of the airborne campaign included the first simultaneous acquisition of Airborne Visible and Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVRIS) and Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) data on September 29, 1989, and acquisition of Advanced Solid-State Array Spectroradiometer (ASAS), Polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR), and Airborne Terrain Laser Altimeter System (ATLAS) data all within three months of each other. The sites covered were Lunar Crater Volcanic Field and Fish Lake Valley in Nevada; and Cima Volcanic Field, Death Valley, and Ubehebe Crater in California. Coincident field measurements included meteorological and atmospheric measurements, visible/near-infrared and thermal spectra, and characterization of geology and vegetation cover. The GRSFE airborne and field data will be reduced to a suite of standard products and submitted, along with appropriate documentation, to the Planetary Data System (PDS) and the Pilot Land Data System (PLDS). These data will be used for a variety of investigations including paleoclimatic studies in the arid southwestern United States, and analysis of Magellan data. GRSFE data will also be used to support Mars Observer Laser Altimeter (MOLA) and Mars Rover Sample Return (MRSR) simulation studies.

  3. Field experiment on spray drift: deposition and airborne drift during application to a winter wheat crop.

    PubMed

    Wolters, André; Linnemann, Volker; van de Zande, Jan C; Vereecken, Harry

    2008-11-01

    A field experiment was performed to evaluate various techniques for measuring spray deposition and airborne drift during spray application to a winter wheat crop. The application of a spraying agent containing the fluorescent dye Brilliant Sulfo Flavine by a conventional boom sprayer was done according to good agricultural practice. Deposition was measured by horizontal collectors in various arrangements in and outside the treated area. Airborne spray drift was measured both with a passive and an active air collecting system. Spray deposits on top of the treated canopy ranged between 68 and 71% of the applied dose and showed only small differences for various arrangements of the collectors. Furthermore, only small variations were measured within the various groups of collectors used for these arrangements. Generally, the highest spray deposition outside the treated area was measured close to the sprayed plot and was accompanied by a high variability of values, while a rapid decline of deposits was detected in more remote areas. Estimations of spray deposits with the IMAG Drift Calculator were in accordance with experimental findings only for areas located at a distance of 0.5-4.5 m from the last nozzle, while there was an overestimation of a factor of 4 at a distance of 2.0-3.0 m, thus revealing a high level of uncertainty of the estimation of deposition for short distances. Airborne spray drift measured by passive and active air collecting systems was approximately at the same level, when taking into consideration the collector efficiency of the woven nylon wire used as sampling material for the passive collecting system. The maximum value of total airborne spray drift for both spray applications (0.79% of the applied dose) was determined by the active collecting system. However, the comparatively high variability of measurements at various heights above the soil by active and passive collecting systems revealed need for further studies to elucidate the spatial

  4. Vegetation Water Content Mapping in a Diverse Agricultural Landscape: National Airborne Field Experiment 2006

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cosh, Michael H.; Jing Tao; Jackson, Thomas J.; McKee, Lynn; O'Neill, Peggy

    2011-01-01

    Mapping land cover and vegetation characteristics on a regional scale is critical to soil moisture retrieval using microwave remote sensing. In aircraft-based experiments such as the National Airborne Field Experiment 2006 (NAFE 06), it is challenging to provide accurate high resolution vegetation information, especially on a daily basis. A technique proposed in previous studies was adapted here to the heterogenous conditions encountered in NAFE 06, which included a hydrologically complex landscape consisting of both irrigated and dryland agriculture. Using field vegetation sampling and ground-based reflectance measurements, the knowledge base for relating the Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) and the vegetation water content was extended to a greater diversity of agricultural crops, which included dryland and irrigated wheat, alfalfa, and canola. Critical to the generation of vegetation water content maps, the land cover for this region was determined from satellite visible/infrared imagery and ground surveys with an accuracy of 95.5% and a kappa coefficient of 0.95. The vegetation water content was estimated with a root mean square error of 0.33 kg/sq m. The results of this investigation contribute to a more robust database of global vegetation water content observations and demonstrate that the approach can be applied with high accuracy. Keywords: Vegetation, field experimentation, thematic mapper, NDWI, agriculture.

  5. Vegetation water content mapping in a diverse agricultural landscape: National Airborne Field Experiment 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cosh, Michael H.; Tao, Jing; Jackson, Thomas J.; McKee, Lynn; O'Neill, Peggy

    2010-05-01

    Mapping land cover and vegetation characteristics on a regional scale is critical to soil moisture retrieval using microwave remote sensing. In aircraft-based experiments such as the National Airborne Field Experiment 2006 (NAFE'06), it is challenging to provide accurate high resolution vegetation information, especially on a daily basis. A technique proposed in previous studies was adapted here to the heterogenous conditions encountered in NAFE'06, which included a hydrologically complex landscape consisting of both irrigated and dryland agriculture. Using field vegetation sampling and ground-based reflectance measurements, the knowledge base for relating the Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) and the vegetation water content was extended to a greater diversity of agricultural crops, which included dryland and irrigated wheat, alfalfa, and canola. Critical to the generation of vegetation water content maps, the land cover for this region was determined from satellite visible/infrared imagery and ground surveys with an accuracy of 95.5% and a kappa coefficient of 0.95. The vegetation water content was estimated with a root mean square error of 0.33 kg/m2. The results of this investigation contribute to a more robust database of global vegetation water content observations and demonstrate that the approach can be applied with high accuracy.

  6. Airborne field strength monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bredemeyer, J.; Kleine-Ostmann, T.; Schrader, T.; Münter, K.; Ritter, J.

    2007-06-01

    In civil and military aviation, ground based navigation aids (NAVAIDS) are still crucial for flight guidance even though the acceptance of satellite based systems (GNSS) increases. Part of the calibration process for NAVAIDS (ILS, DME, VOR) is to perform a flight inspection according to specified methods as stated in a document (DOC8071, 2000) by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). One major task is to determine the coverage, or, in other words, the true signal-in-space field strength of a ground transmitter. This has always been a challenge to flight inspection up to now, since, especially in the L-band (DME, 1GHz), the antenna installed performance was known with an uncertainty of 10 dB or even more. In order to meet ICAO's required accuracy of ±3 dB it is necessary to have a precise 3-D antenna factor of the receiving antenna operating on the airborne platform including all losses and impedance mismatching. Introducing precise, effective antenna factors to flight inspection to achieve the required accuracy is new and not published in relevant papers yet. The authors try to establish a new balanced procedure between simulation and validation by airborne and ground measurements. This involves the interpretation of measured scattering parameters gained both on the ground and airborne in comparison with numerical results obtained by the multilevel fast multipole algorithm (MLFMA) accelerated method of moments (MoM) using a complex geometric model of the aircraft. First results will be presented in this paper.

  7. MODIS airborne simulator visible and near-infrared calibration, 1992 ASTEX field experiment. Calibration version: ASTEX King 1.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, G. Thomas; Fitzgerald, Michael; Grant, Patrick S.; King, Michael D.

    1994-01-01

    Calibration of the visible and near-infrared (near-IR) channels of the MODIS Airborne Simulator (MAS) is derived from observations of a calibrated light source. For the 1992 Atlantic Stratocumulus Transition Experiment (ASTEX) field deployment, the calibrated light source was the NASA Goddard 48-inch integrating hemisphere. Tests during the ASTEX deployment were conducted to calibrate the hemisphere and then the MAS. This report summarizes the ASTEX hemisphere calibration, and then describes how the MAS was calibrated from the hemisphere data. All MAS calibration measurements are presented and determination of the MAS calibration coefficients (raw counts to radiance conversion) is discussed. In addition, comparisons to an independent MAS calibration by Ames personnel using their 30-inch integrating sphere is discussed.

  8. The Australian National Airborne Field Experiment 2005: Soil Moisture Remote Sensing at 60 Meter Resolution and Up

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, E. J.; Walker, J. P.; Panciera, R.; Kalma, J. D.

    2006-01-01

    truth collection over a range of grid spacings, to provide a basis for examining the effects of subpixel variability. However, the native footprint size of the airborne L-band radiometers was always a few hundred meters. During the recently completed (November, 2005) National Airborne Field Experiment (NAFE) campaign in Australia, a compact L-band radiometer was deployed on a small aircraft. This new combination permitted routine observations at native resolutions as high as 60 meters, substantially finer than in previous airborne soil moisture campaigns, as well as satellite footprint areal coverage. The radiometer, the Polarimetric L-band Microwave Radiometer (PLMR) performed extremely well and operations included extensive calibration-related observations. Thus, along with the extensive fine-scale ground truth, the NAFE dataset includes all the ingredients for the first scaling studies involving very-high-native resolution soil moisture observations and the effects of vegetation, roughness, etc. A brief overview of the NAFE will be presented, then examples of the airborne observations with resolutions from 60 m to 1 km will be shown, and early results from scaling studies will be discussed.

  9. Airborne Research Experience for Educators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, V. B.; Albertson, R.; Smith, S.; Stockman, S. A.

    2009-12-01

    The Airborne Research Experience for Educators (AREE) Program, conducted by the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center Office of Education in partnership with the AERO Institute, NASA Teaching From Space Program, and California State University Fullerton, is a complete end-to-end residential research experience in airborne remote sensing and atmospheric science. The 2009 program engaged ten secondary educators who specialize in science, technology, engineering or mathematics in a 6-week Student Airborne Research Program (SARP) offered through NSERC. Educators participated in collection of in-flight remote sensor data during flights aboard the NASA DC-8 as well as in-situ research on atmospheric chemistry (bovine emissions of methane); algal blooms (remote sensing to determine location and degree of blooms for further in-situ analysis); and crop classification (exploration of how drought conditions in Central California have impacted almond and cotton crops). AREE represents a unique model of the STEM teacher-as-researcher professional development experience because it asks educators to participate in a research experience and then translate their experiences into classroom practice through the design, implementation, and evaluation of instructional materials that emphasize the scientific research process, inquiry-based investigations, and manipulation of real data. Each AREE Master Educator drafted a Curriculum Brief, Teachers Guide, and accompanying resources for a topic in their teaching assignment Currently, most professional development programs offer either a research experience OR a curriculum development experience. The dual nature of the AREE model engaged educators in both experiences. Educators’ content and pedagogical knowledge of STEM was increased through the review of pertinent research articles during the first week, attendance at lectures and workshops during the second week, and participation in the airborne and in-situ research studies, data

  10. Collaboration Portals for NASA's Airborne Field Campaigns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conover, Helen; Kulkami, Ajinkya; Garrett, Michele; Goodman, Michael; Peterson, Walter Arthur; Drewry, Marilyn; Hardin, Danny M.; He, Matt

    2011-01-01

    The University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH), in collaboration with the Global Hydrology Resource Center, a NASA Earth Science Data Center, has provided information management for a number of NASA Airborne Field campaigns, both hurricane science investigations and satellite instrument validation. Effective field campaign management requires communication and coordination tools, including utilities for personnel to upload and share flight plans, weather forecasts, a variety of mission reports, preliminary science data, and personal photos. Beginning with the Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) hurricane field campaign in 2010, we have provided these capabilities via a Drupal-based collaboration portal. This portal was reused and modified for the Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E), part of the Global Precipitation Measurement mission ground validation program. An end goal of these development efforts is the creation of a Drupal profile for field campaign management. This presentation will discuss experiences with Drupal in developing and using these collaboration portals. Topics will include Drupal modules used, advantages and disadvantages of working with Drupal in this context, and how the science teams used the portals in comparison with other communication and collaboration tools.

  11. Collaboration Portals for NASA's Airborne Field Campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conover, H.; Kulkarni, A.; Garrett, M.; Goodman, M.; Petersen, W. A.; Drewry, M.; Hardin, D. M.; He, M.

    2011-12-01

    The University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH), in collaboration with the Global Hydrology Resource Center, a NASA Earth Science Data Center, has provided information management for a number of NASA Airborne Field campaigns, both hurricane science investigations and satellite instrument validation. Effective field campaign management requires communication and coordination tools, including utilities for personnel to upload and share flight plans, weather forecasts, a variety of mission reports, preliminary science data, and personal photos. Beginning with the Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) hurricane field campaign in 2010, we have provided these capabilities via a Drupal-based collaboration portal. This portal was reused and modified for the Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E), part of the Global Precipitation Measurement mission ground validation program. An end goal of these development efforts is the creation of a Drupal profile for field campaign management. This presentation will discuss experiences with Drupal in developing and using these collaboration portals. Topics will include Drupal modules used, advantages and disadvantages of working with Drupal in this context, and how the science teams used the portals in comparison with other communication and collaboration tools.

  12. Airborne space laser communication system and experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiao-Ming; Zhang, Li-zhong; Meng, Li-Xin

    2015-11-01

    Airborne space laser communication is characterized by its high speed, anti-electromagnetic interference, security, easy to assign. It has broad application in the areas of integrated space-ground communication networking, military communication, anti-electromagnetic communication. This paper introduce the component and APT system of the airborne laser communication system design by Changchun university of science and technology base on characteristic of airborne laser communication and Y12 plan, especially introduce the high communication speed and long distance communication experiment of the system that among two Y12 plans. In the experiment got the aim that the max communication distance 144Km, error 10-6 2.5Gbps - 10-7 1.5Gbps capture probability 97%, average capture time 20s. The experiment proving the adaptability of the APT and the high speed long distance communication.

  13. Airborne Trace Gas Mapping During the GOSAT-COMEX Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tratt, D. M.; Leifer, I.; Buckland, K. N.; Johnson, P. D.; Van Damme, M.; Pierre-Francois, C.; Clarisse, L.

    2015-12-01

    The GOSAT-COMEX-IASI (Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite - CO2 and Methane EXperiment - Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer) experiment acquired data on 24-27 April 2015 with two aircraft, a mobile ground-based sampling suite, and the GOSAT and IASI platforms. Collections comprised the Kern Front and Kern River oil fields north of Bakersfield, Calif. and the Chino stockyard complex in the eastern Los Angeles Basin. The nested-grid experiment examined the convergence of multiple approaches to total trace gas flux estimation from the experimental area on multiple length-scales, which entailed the integrated analysis of ground-based, airborne, and space-based measurements. Airborne remote sensing was employed to map the spatial distribution of discrete emission sites - crucial information to understanding their relative aggregate contribution to the overall flux estimation. This contribution discusses the methodology in the context of the airborne GHG source mapping component of the GOSAT-COMEX experiment and its application to satellite validation.

  14. Airborne Lidar measurements of aerosols, mixed layer heights, and ozone during the 1980 PEPE/NEROS summer field experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Browell, E. V.; Shipley, S. T.; Butler, C. F.; Ismail, S.

    1985-01-01

    A detailed summary of the NASA Ultraviolet Differential Absorption Lidar (UV DIAL) data archive obtained during the EPA Persistent Elevated Pollution Episode/Northeast Regional Oxidant Study (PEPE/NEROS) Summer Field Experiment Program (July through August 1980) is presented. The UV dial data set consists of remote measurements of mixed layer heights, aerosol backscatter cross sections, and sequential ozone profiles taken during 14 long-range flights onboard the NASA Wallops Flight Center Electra aircraft. These data are presented in graphic and tabular form, and they have been submitted to the PEPE/NEROS data archive on digital magnetic tape. The derivation of mixing heights and ozone profiles from UV Dial signals is discussed, and detailed intercomparisons with measurements obtained by in situ sensors are presented.

  15. MODIS airborne simulator visible and near-infrared calibration, 1991 FIRE-Cirrus field experiment. Calibration version: FIRE King 1.1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, G. Thomas; Fitzgerald, Michael; Grant, Patrick S.; King, Michael D.

    1994-01-01

    Calibration of the visible and near-infrared channels of the MODIS Airborne Simulator (MAS) is derived from observations of a calibrated light source. For the 1991 FIRE-Cirrus field experiment, the calibrated light source was the NASA Goddard 48-inch integrating hemisphere. Laboratory tests during the FIRE Cirrus field experiment were conducted to calibrate the hemisphere and from the hemisphere to the MAS. The purpose of this report is to summarize the FIRE-Cirrus hemisphere calibration, and then describe how the MAS was calibrated from observations of the hemisphere data. All MAS calibration measurements are presented, and determination of the MAS calibration coefficients (raw counts to radiance conversion) is discussed. Thermal sensitivity of the MAS visible and near-infrared calibration is also discussed. Typically, the MAS in-flight is 30 to 60 degrees C colder than the room temperature laboratory calibration. Results from in-flight temperature measurements and tests of the MAS in a cold chamber are given, and from these, equations are derived to adjust the MAS in-flight data to what the value would be at laboratory conditions. For FIRE-Cirrus data, only channels 3 through 6 were found to be temperature sensitive. The final section of this report describes comparisons to an independent MAS (room temperature) calibration by Ames personnel using their 30-inch integrating sphere.

  16. Data System for HS3 Airborne Field Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maskey, M.; Mceniry, M.; Berendes, T.; Bugbee, K.; Conover, H.; Ramachandran, R.

    2014-12-01

    Hurricane and Severe Storm Sentinel (HS3) is a NASA airborne field campaign aimed at better understanding the physical processes that control hurricane intensity change. HS3 will help answer questions related to the roles of environmental conditions and internal storm structures to storm intensification. Due to the nature of the questions that HS3 mission is addressing, it involves a variety of in-situ, satellite observations, airborne data, meteorological analyses, and simulation data. This variety of datasets presents numerous data management challenges for HS3. The methods used for airborne data management differ greatly from the methods used for space-borne data. In particular, metadata extraction, spatial and temporal indexing, and the large number of instruments and subsequent variables are a few of the data management challenges unique to airborne missions. A robust data system is required to successfully help HS3 scientist achieve their mission goals. Furthermore, the data system also needs to provide for data management that assists in broader use of HS3 data to enable future research activities. The Global Hydrology Resource Center (GHRC) is considering all these needs and designing a data system for HS3. Experience with past airborne field campaign puts GHRC in a good position to address HS3 needs. However, the scale of this mission along with science requirements separates HS3 from previous field campaigns. The HS3 data system will include automated services for geo-location, metadata extraction, discovery, and distribution for all HS3 data. To answer the science questions, the data system will include a visual data exploration tool that is fully integrated into the data catalog. The tool will allow visually augmenting airborne data with analyses and simulations. Satellite data will provide contextual information during such data explorations. All HS3 tools will be supported by an enterprise service architecture that will allow scaling, easy integration

  17. Airborne multispectral detection of regrowth cotton fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westbrook, John K.; Suh, Charles P.-C.; Yang, Chenghai; Lan, Yubin; Eyster, Ritchie S.

    2015-01-01

    Effective methods are needed for timely areawide detection of regrowth cotton plants because boll weevils (a quarantine pest) can feed and reproduce on these plants beyond the cotton production season. Airborne multispectral images of regrowth cotton plots were acquired on several dates after three shredding (i.e., stalk destruction) dates. Linear spectral unmixing (LSU) classification was applied to high-resolution airborne multispectral images of regrowth cotton plots to estimate the minimum detectable size and subsequent growth of plants. We found that regrowth cotton fields can be identified when the mean plant width is ˜0.2 m for an image resolution of 0.1 m. LSU estimates of canopy cover of regrowth cotton plots correlated well (r2=0.81) with the ratio of mean plant width to row spacing, a surrogate measure of plant canopy cover. The height and width of regrowth plants were both well correlated (r2=0.94) with accumulated degree-days after shredding. The results will help boll weevil eradication program managers use airborne multispectral images to detect and monitor the regrowth of cotton plants after stalk destruction, and identify fields that may require further inspection and mitigation of boll weevil infestations.

  18. Holographic Airborne Rotating Lidar Instrument Experiment (HARLIE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwemmer, Geary K.

    1998-01-01

    Scanning holographic lidar receivers are currently in use in two operational lidar systems, PHASERS (Prototype Holographic Atmospheric Scanner for Environmental Remote Sensing) and now HARLIE (Holographic Airborne Rotating Lidar Instrument Experiment). These systems are based on volume phase holograms made in dichromated gelatin (DCG) sandwiched between 2 layers of high quality float glass. They have demonstrated the practical application of this technology to compact scanning lidar systems at 532 and 1064 nm wavelengths, the ability to withstand moderately high laser power and energy loading, sufficient optical quality for most direct detection systems, overall efficiencies rivaling conventional receivers, and the stability to last several years under typical lidar system environments. Their size and weight are approximately half of similar performing scanning systems using reflective optics. The cost of holographic systems will eventually be lower than the reflective optical systems depending on their degree of commercialization. There are a number of applications that require or can greatly benefit from a scanning capability. Several of these are airborne systems, which either use focal plane scanning, as in the Laser Vegetation Imaging System or use primary aperture scanning, as in the Airborne Oceanographic Lidar or the Large Aperture Scanning Airborne Lidar. The latter class requires a large clear aperture opening or window in the aircraft. This type of system can greatly benefit from the use of scanning transmission holograms of the HARLIE type because the clear aperture required is only about 25% larger than the collecting aperture as opposed to 200-300% larger for scan angles of 45 degrees off nadir.

  19. APEX - the Hyperspectral ESA Airborne Prism Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Itten, Klaus I.; Dell'Endice, Francesco; Hueni, Andreas; Kneubühler, Mathias; Schläpfer, Daniel; Odermatt, Daniel; Seidel, Felix; Huber, Silvia; Schopfer, Jürg; Kellenberger, Tobias; Bühler, Yves; D'Odorico, Petra; Nieke, Jens; Alberti, Edoardo; Meuleman, Koen

    2008-01-01

    The airborne ESA-APEX (Airborne Prism Experiment) hyperspectral mission simulator is described with its distinct specifications to provide high quality remote sensing data. The concept of an automatic calibration, performed in the Calibration Home Base (CHB) by using the Control Test Master (CTM), the In-Flight Calibration facility (IFC), quality flagging (QF) and specific processing in a dedicated Processing and Archiving Facility (PAF), and vicarious calibration experiments are presented. A preview on major applications and the corresponding development efforts to provide scientific data products up to level 2/3 to the user is presented for limnology, vegetation, aerosols, general classification routines and rapid mapping tasks. BRDF (Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function) issues are discussed and the spectral database SPECCHIO (Spectral Input/Output) introduced. The optical performance as well as the dedicated software utilities make APEX a state-of-the-art hyperspectral sensor, capable of (a) satisfying the needs of several research communities and (b) helping the understanding of the Earth's complex mechanisms.

  20. CALIOPE and TAISIR airborne experiment platform

    SciTech Connect

    Chocol, C.J.

    1994-07-01

    Between 1950 and 1970, scientific ballooning achieved many new objectives and made a substantial contribution to understanding near-earth and space environments. In 1986, the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) began development of ballooning technology capable of addressing issues associated with precision tracking of ballistic missiles. In 1993, the Radar Ocean Imaging Project identified the need for a low altitude (1 km) airborne platform for its Radar system. These two technologies and experience base have been merged with the acquisition of government surplus Aerostats by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The CALIOPE and TAISIR Programs can benefit directly from this technology by using the Aerostat as an experiment platform for measurements of the spill facility at NTS.

  1. Airborne lidar experiments at the Savannah River Plant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krabill, William B.; Swift, Robert N.

    1985-01-01

    The results of remote sensing experiments at the Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Nuclear Facility utilizing the NASA Airborne Oceanographic Lidar (AOL) are presented. The flights were conducted in support of the numerous environmental monitoring requirements associated with the operation of the facility and for the purpose of furthering research and development of airborne lidar technology. Areas of application include airborne laser topographic mapping, hydrologic studies using fluorescent tracer dye, timber volume estimation, baseline characterization of wetlands, and aquatic chlorophyll and photopigment measurements. Conclusions relative to the usability of airborne lidar technology for the DOE for each of these remote sensing applications are discussed.

  2. Wind Field Measurements With Airborne Doppler Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menzies, Robert T.

    1999-01-01

    In collaboration with lidar atmospheric remote sensing groups at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Environmental Technology Laboratory, we have developed and flown the Multi-center Airborne Coherent Atmospheric Wind Sensor (MACAWS) lidar on the NASA DC-8 research aircraft. The scientific motivations for this effort are: to obtain measurements of subgrid scale (i.e. 2-200 km) processes and features which may be used to improve parameterizations in global/regional-scale models; to improve understanding and predictive capabilities on the mesoscale; and to assess the performance of Earth-orbiting Doppler lidar for global tropospheric wind measurements. MACAWS is a scanning Doppler lidar using a pulsed transmitter and coherent detection; the use of the scanner allows 3-D wind fields to be produced from the data. The instrument can also be radiometrically calibrated and used to study aerosol, cloud, and surface scattering characteristics at the lidar wavelength in the thermal infrared. MACAWS was used to study surface winds off the California coast near Point Arena, with an example depicted in the figure below. The northerly flow here is due to the Pacific subtropical high. The coastal topography interacts with the northerly flow in the marine inversion layer, and when the flow passes a cape or point that juts into the winds, structures called "hydraulic expansion fans" are observed. These are marked by strong variation along the vertical and cross-shore directions. The plots below show three horizontal slices at different heights above sea level (ASL). Bottom plots are enlargements of the area marked by dotted boxes above. The terrain contours are in 200-m increments, with the white spots being above 600-m elevation. Additional information is contained in the original.

  3. Initial Retrieval Validation from the Joint Airborne IASI Validation Experiment (JAIVEx)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, Daniel K.; Liu, Xu; Smith, WIlliam L.; Larar, Allen M.; Taylor, Jonathan P.; Revercomb, Henry E.; Mango, Stephen A.; Schluessel, Peter; Calbet, Xavier

    2007-01-01

    The Joint Airborne IASI Validation Experiment (JAIVEx) was conducted during April 2007 mainly for validation of the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) on the MetOp satellite, but also included a strong component focusing on validation of the Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS) aboard the AQUA satellite. The cross validation of IASI and AIRS is important for the joint use of their data in the global Numerical Weather Prediction process. Initial inter-comparisons of geophysical products have been conducted from different aspects, such as using different measurements from airborne ultraspectral Fourier transform spectrometers (specifically, the NPOESS Airborne Sounder Testbed Interferometer (NAST-I) and the Scanning-High resolution Interferometer Sounder (S-HIS) aboard the NASA WB-57 aircraft), UK Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements (FAAM) BAe146-301 aircraft insitu instruments, dedicated dropsondes, radiosondes, and ground based Raman Lidar. An overview of the JAIVEx retrieval validation plan and some initial results of this field campaign are presented.

  4. Study of airborne science experiment management concepts for application to space shuttle, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulholland, D. R.; Reller, J. O., Jr.; Neel, C. B.; Haughney, L. C.

    1973-01-01

    Airborne research management and shuttle sortie planning at the Ames Research Center are reported. Topics discussed include: basic criteria and procedures for the formulation and approval of airborne missions; ASO management structure and procedures; experiment design, development, and testing aircraft characteristics and experiment interfaces; information handling for airborne science missions; mission documentation requirements; and airborne science methods and shuttle sortie planning.

  5. Airborne water vapor DIAL research: System development and field measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Higdon, Noah S.; Browell, Edward V.; Ponsardin, Patrick; Chyba, Thomas H.; Grossmann, Benoist E.; Butler, Carolyn F.; Fenn, Marta A.; Mayor, Shane D.; Ismail, Syed; Grant, William B.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the airborne differential absorption lidar (DIAL) system developed at the NASA Langley Research Center for remote measurement of water vapor (H2O) and aerosols in the lower atmosphere. The airborne H2O DIAL system was flight tested aboard the NASA Wallops Flight Facility (WFF) Electra aircraft in three separate field deployments between 1989 and 1991. Atmospheric measurements were made under a variety of atmospheric conditions during the flight tests, and several modifications were implemented during this development period to improve system operation. A brief description of the system and major modifications will be presented, and the most significant atmospheric observations will be described.

  6. Overview of the first Multicenter Airborne Coherent Atmospheric Wind Sensor (MACAWS) experiment: conversion of a ground-based lidar for airborne applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, James N.; Hardesty, R. Michael; Rothermel, Jeffrey; Menzies, Robert T.

    1996-11-01

    The first Multi center Airborne Coherent Atmospheric Wind Sensor (MACAWS) field experiment demonstrated an airborne high energy TEA CO2 Doppler lidar system for measurement of atmospheric wind fields and aerosol structure. The system was deployed on the NASA DC-8 during September 1995 in a series of checkout flights to observe several important atmospheric phenomena, including upper level winds in a Pacific hurricane, marine boundary layer winds, cirrus cloud properties, and land-sea breeze structure. The instrument, with its capability to measure 3D winds and backscatter fields, promises to be a valuable tool for climate and global change, severe weather, and air quality research. In this paper, we describe the airborne instrument, assess its performance, discuss future improvements, and show some preliminary results from the September experiments.

  7. Laboratory experiments on membrane filter sampling of airborne mycotoxins produced by Stachybotrys atra corda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasanen, A.-L.; Nikulin, M.; Tuomainen, M.; Berg, S.; Parikka, P.; Hintikka, E.-L.

    A membrane filter method for sampling of airborne stachybotrystoxins was studied in the laboratory. Toxigenic strains of Stachybotrys atra on wallpaper, grain, hay and straw were used as toxin sources in the experiments. Air samples were collected on cellulose nitrate and polycarbonate membrane filters at air flow rates of 10-20 ℓ min -1. After the filter sampling, the air was passed through methanol. The results showed that stachybotrystoxins (trichothecenes) were concentrated in airborne fungal propagules, and thus can be collected on filters. Polycarbonate filters with a pore size of 0.2 μm collected the highest percentage of toxic samples. The laboratory experiments indicated that polycarbonate filter sampling for the collection of airborne mycotoxins is a promising method for extension to field measurements.

  8. Airborne Visible Laser Optical Communications (AVLOC) experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A series of optical communication experiments between a high altitude aircraft at 18.3 km (60,000 ft) and a ground station were conducted by NASA from summer 1972 through winter 1973. The basic system was an optical tracker and transmitter located in each terminal. The aircraft transceiver consisted of a 5-mW HeNe laser transmitter with a 30-megabit modulator. The ground station beacon was an argon laser operating at 488 nm. A separate pulsed laser radar was used for initial acquisition. The objective of the experiment was to obtain engineering data on the precision tracking and communication system performance at both terminals. Atmospheric effects on the system performance was also an experiment objective. The system description, engineering analysis, testing, and flight results are discussed.

  9. Automated alexandrite transmitter for airborne DIAL experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degnan, John J.

    1988-01-01

    An account is given of the performance characteristics and development status of an automated dual alexandrite laser transmitter that is to be carried aloft by NASA's ER-2 research aircraft for water vapor DIAL experiments; these efforts are part of NASA's Lidar Atmospheric Sensing Experiment (LASE). The LASE transmitter encompasses control unit, thermal unit, and two lamp driver unit subsystems. Major reductions in system size and weight relative to commercially available alexandrite lasers were necessary; a total weight of only 330 lbs has been achieved. Attention is given to subsystem flight test results.

  10. Airborne visible laser optical communication experiment.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randall, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    A series of optical communication experiments between a high altitude aircraft at 18.3 km (60,000 ft) and a ground station are planned by NASA in the summer of 1972. The basic concept is that an optical tracker and transmitter will be located in each terminal. The aircraft transceiver consists of a 5-mW HeNe laser transmitter with a 30-megabit modulator. The ground station beacon is an argon laser operating at 488 nm. A separate pulsed laser radar is used for initial acquisition. The objective of the experiment is to obtain engineering data on the precision tracking and communication system performance at both terminals. Atmospheric effects on the system performance are of prime importance.

  11. The Sunphotometer Airborne Validation Experiment 2012: Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estellés, Victor; Marenco, Franco; Ryder, Claire L.; Campanelli, Monica; Expósito, Francisco; Solá, Yolanda; Segura, Sara; Marcos, Carlos; Toledano, Carlos; Berjón, Alberto; Guirado, Carmen; Claxton, Bernard; Todd, Martin

    2013-04-01

    With the aim of validating columnar integrated aerosol properties retrieved by AERONET and SKYNET from ground sunphotometric measurements, with the integrated vertical profiles of airborne in-situ aerosol measurements, the "Sunphotometer Airborne Validation Experiment" field campaign was held in the Tenerife (Canary Islands) and western Sahara areas, during June 2012. The Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) (http://aeronet.gsfc.nasa.gov/) and the Skyrad Network (SKYNET) (http://atmos.cr.chiba-u.ac.jp/) are two different international ground based networks that provide global aerosol properties. AERONET is an operative network run by NASA that makes use of an improved inversion methodology to derive the aerosol properties from measurements of the Cimel CE318 sunphotometer and its data is extensively used worldwide and archived in climate data records. In turn, SKYNET is a research network lead by the Universities of Chiba and Tokyo (Japan) and is present in Europe through the new European Skynet Radiometers network (ESR). SKYNET adopts the Prede POM sky radiometer as the standard instrument and an alternative inversion algorithm called SKYRAD. Previous research has shown important discrepancies between the AERONET and SKYRAD inversion algorithms (Campanelli et al., 2010; Estellés et al., 2012) even in the case of applying these algorithms to the same instrument datasets and with the same calibration coefficients. Still no explanation is provided for these discrepancies, although it is crucial to state the responsible processes and address them so as to provide more accurate aerosol retrievals for climate recordings. The SAVEX experiment took place alongside the FENNEC aircraft campaigns of June 2011 and 2012. The UK BAe146 was equipped with in-situ aerosol instrumentation to measure size distributions from 0.1 to 300 microns diameter, scattering and absorption properties, and aerosol composition. Vertical profiles and horizontal legs were performed over ground sites

  12. Field of view selection for optimal airborne imaging sensor performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goss, Tristan M.; Barnard, P. Werner; Fildis, Halidun; Erbudak, Mustafa; Senger, Tolga; Alpman, Mehmet E.

    2014-05-01

    The choice of the Field of View (FOV) of imaging sensors used in airborne targeting applications has major impact on the overall performance of the system. Conducting a market survey from published data on sensors used in stabilized airborne targeting systems shows a trend of ever narrowing FOVs housed in smaller and lighter volumes. This approach promotes the ever increasing geometric resolution provided by narrower FOVs, while it seemingly ignores the influences the FOV selection has on the sensor's sensitivity, the effects of diffraction, the influences of sight line jitter and collectively the overall system performance. This paper presents a trade-off methodology to select the optimal FOV for an imaging sensor that is limited in aperture diameter by mechanical constraints (such as space/volume available and window size) by balancing the influences FOV has on sensitivity and resolution and thereby optimizing the system's performance. The methodology may be applied to staring array based imaging sensors across all wavebands from visible/day cameras through to long wave infrared thermal imagers. Some examples of sensor analysis applying the trade-off methodology are given that highlights the performance advantages that can be gained by maximizing the aperture diameters and choosing the optimal FOV for an imaging sensor used in airborne targeting applications.

  13. Study on automatic airborne image positioning model and its application in FY-3A airborne experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Lei; Yang, Zhongdong; Guan, Min; Zhang, Liyang; Wang, Tiantian

    2009-08-01

    This paper addresses the issue on airborne image positioning model and its application in FY-3A experiment. First, the FY-3A Medium Resolution Spectral Imager (MERSI)'s viewing vector is derived from MERSI's imaging pattern. Then, the image positioning model is analyzed mathematically in detail which is based on Earth-aircraft geometry. The model parameters are mainly determined by both the sensor - aircraft alignment and the onboard discrete measurements of the positioning and orientation. Flight trials are flown at an altitude of 8300 m over the Qinghai Lake China. It is shown that the image positioning accuracy (about 1~4 pixels) is better than previous methods (more than 7 pixels, [G. J. Jedlovec et al. NASA Technical Memorandum TM - 100352 (1989) and D. P. Roy et al. Int. J. Rem. Sens. 18(9), 1865 - 1887 (1997)]). It is also shown that the model has the potential to hold the image positioning errors within one pixel. The model can operate automatically, and does not need ground control points data. Since our algorithm get the image positioning results through an observation geometric perspective which is in computing the point at which the sensor viewing vector intersects the earth surface, our algorithm assumes the airborne data are from the plain area.

  14. Airborne experiment results for spaceborne atmospheric synchronous correction system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Wenyu; Yi, Weining; Du, Lili; Liu, Xiao

    2015-10-01

    The image quality of optical remote sensing satellite is affected by the atmosphere, thus the image needs to be corrected. Due to the spatial and temporal variability of atmospheric conditions, correction by using synchronous atmospheric parameters can effectively improve the remote sensing image quality. For this reason, a small light spaceborne instrument, the atmospheric synchronous correction device (airborne prototype), is developed by AIOFM of CAS(Anhui Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics of Chinese Academy of Sciences). With this instrument, of which the detection mode is timing synchronization and spatial coverage, the atmospheric parameters consistent with the images to be corrected in time and space can be obtained, and then the correction is achieved by radiative transfer model. To verify the technical process and treatment effect of spaceborne atmospheric correction system, the first airborne experiment is designed and completed. The experiment is implemented by the "satellite-airborne-ground" synchronous measuring method. A high resolution(0.4 m) camera and the atmospheric correction device are equipped on the aircraft, which photograph the ground with the satellite observation over the top simultaneously. And aerosol optical depth (AOD) and columnar water vapor (CWV) in the imagery area are also acquired, which are used for the atmospheric correction for satellite and aerial images. Experimental results show that using the AOD and CWV of imagery area retrieved by the data obtained by the device to correct aviation and satellite images, can improve image definition and contrast by more than 30%, and increase MTF by more than 1 time, which means atmospheric correction for satellite images by using the data of spaceborne atmospheric synchronous correction device is accurate and effective.

  15. Theoretical support for the Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hartmann, D.L.

    1992-03-01

    This investigation was to provide theoretical support during and after the deployment of NASA research aircraft to Punta Arenas, Chile during August and September of 1987 to conduct the Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment. The experiment was very successful in demonstrating the role of anthropogenic chlorine in producing the ozone hole over Antarctica during September and October of 1987. The PI worked primarily on using tracer data from the ER-2 aircraft to show that transport could not have caused the ozone hole in 1987, and that transport of chemical species into the polar vortex was very weak during the period of the experiment. The presence of gravity waves was also very apparent in the ER-2 data, and papers were published on this analysis and on the use of meteorological analyses to position the aircraft within the vortex.

  16. Theoretical support for the Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartmann, Dennis L.

    1992-01-01

    This investigation was to provide theoretical support during and after the deployment of NASA research aircraft to Punta Arenas, Chile during August and September of 1987 to conduct the Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment. The experiment was very successful in demonstrating the role of anthropogenic chlorine in producing the ozone hole over Antarctica during September and October of 1987. The PI worked primarily on using tracer data from the ER-2 aircraft to show that transport could not have caused the ozone hole in 1987, and that transport of chemical species into the polar vortex was very weak during the period of the experiment. The presence of gravity waves was also very apparent in the ER-2 data, and papers were published on this analysis and on the use of meteorological analyses to position the aircraft within the vortex.

  17. Airborne Oceanographic Lidar results. Spring removal experiments, April 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Hoge, F.

    1985-06-21

    This document contains the preliminary results from the analysis of data acquired with the NASA Airborne Oceanographic Lidar (AOL) during the recent Spring Removal Experiment (SPREX). A total of four flights were made with the NASA P-3A aircraft in direct support of the SPREX studies. In addition, a single pass extending from the Sargasso Sea, across the Gulf Stream, and into Savannah was flown as the final leg of the ONR sponsored BIOWATT experiment. The relative distribution of surface temperature and the concentration of chlorophyll and phycoerythrin photopigments across the study area are provided. Also included are along track profiles of sea surface temperature and chlorophyll and phycoerythrin fluorescence emission for each of the individual flight lines. Both the chlorophyll and phycoerythrin laser induced fluorescence signals have been normalized by the water Raman backscatter signal and are each expressed as relative ratio's.

  18. On the impact of airborne gravity data to fused gravity field models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolkas, Dimitrios; Fotopoulos, Georgia; Braun, Alexander

    2016-03-01

    In gravity field modeling, fused models that utilize satellite, airborne and terrestrial gravity observations are often employed to deal with erroneous terrestrially derived gravity datasets. These terrestrial datasets may suffer from long-wavelength systematic errors and inhomogeneous data coverage, which are not prevalent in airborne and satellite datasets. Airborne gravity acquisition plays an essential role in gravity field modeling, providing valuable information of the Earth's gravity field at medium and short wavelengths. Thus, assessing the impact of airborne gravity data to fused gravity field models is important for identifying problematic regions. Six study regions that represent different gravity field variability and terrestrial data point-density characteristics are investigated to quantify the impact of airborne gravity data to fused gravity field models. The numerical assessments of these representative regions resulted in predictions of airborne gravity impact for individual states and provinces in the USA and Canada, respectively. Prediction results indicate that, depending on the terrestrial data point-density and gravity field variability, the expected impact of airborne gravity can reach up to 3mGal (in terms of standard deviation) in Canada and Alaska (over areas of 1° × 1°). However, in the mainland US region, small changes are expected (0.2-0.4 mGal over areas of 1° × 1°) due to the availability of high spatial resolution terrestrial data. These results can serve as a guideline for setting airborne gravity data acquisition priorities and for improving future planning of airborne gravity surveys.

  19. On the impact of airborne gravity data to fused gravity field models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolkas, Dimitrios; Fotopoulos, Georgia; Braun, Alexander

    2016-06-01

    In gravity field modeling, fused models that utilize satellite, airborne and terrestrial gravity observations are often employed to deal with erroneous terrestrially derived gravity datasets. These terrestrial datasets may suffer from long-wavelength systematic errors and inhomogeneous data coverage, which are not prevalent in airborne and satellite datasets. Airborne gravity acquisition plays an essential role in gravity field modeling, providing valuable information of the Earth's gravity field at medium and short wavelengths. Thus, assessing the impact of airborne gravity data to fused gravity field models is important for identifying problematic regions. Six study regions that represent different gravity field variability and terrestrial data point-density characteristics are investigated to quantify the impact of airborne gravity data to fused gravity field models. The numerical assessments of these representative regions resulted in predictions of airborne gravity impact for individual states and provinces in the USA and Canada, respectively. Prediction results indicate that, depending on the terrestrial data point-density and gravity field variability, the expected impact of airborne gravity can reach up to 3mGal (in terms of standard deviation) in Canada and Alaska (over areas of 1° × 1°). However, in the mainland US region, small changes are expected (0.2-0.4 mGal over areas of 1° × 1°) due to the availability of high spatial resolution terrestrial data. These results can serve as a guideline for setting airborne gravity data acquisition priorities and for improving future planning of airborne gravity surveys.

  20. Airborne Tropical TRopopause EXperiment (ATTREX) 2014 Western Pacific Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, E.; Pfister, L.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Airborne Tropical TRopopause EXperiment (ATTREX) is a series of airborne campaigns focused on understanding physical processes in the Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL) and their role in atmospheric chemistry and climate. ATTREX is using the high-altitude, long-duration NASA Global Hawk Unmanned Air System to make in situ and remote-sensing measurements spanning the Pacific. A particular ATTREX emphasis is to better understand the dehydration of air as it passes through the cold tropical tropopause region. The ATTREX payload contains 12 in situ and remote sensing instruments that measure water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, nonmethane hydrocarbons, sulfur hexafluoride, chlorofluorocarbons, nitrous oxide), reactive chemical compounds (ozone, bromine, nitrous oxide), meteorological parameters, and radiative fluxes. During January-March, 2014, the Global Hawk was deployed to Guam for ATTREX flights. Six science flights were conducted from Guam (in addition to the transits across the Pacific), resulting in over 100 hours of Western Pacific TTL sampling and about 180 vertical profiles through the TTL. I will provide an overview of the dataset, with examples of the measurements including meteorological parameters, clouds and water vapor, and chemical tracers.

  1. The Development of Airborne Data for Assessing Models (ADAM) - A central repository of airborne field campaign data archives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, G.; Kleb, M. M.; Aknan, A. A.; Brown, C. C.; Mangosing, D. C.; Thornhill, A.; Rinsland, P. L.

    2010-12-01

    NASA, NOAA, and NSF have conducted over 30 airborne campaigns during the past three decades aimed at gaining an understanding of the tropospheric chemical and physical processes related to climate change and air-quality issues. In recent years, the scientific value of this accumulated airborne data has been increasingly recognized for use in satellite validation and model assessment and evaluation activities. In addition to the high spatial-temporal resolutions, the airborne data, especially from the more recent studies, offers a comprehensive view of the atmosphere through a large suite of the simultaneously observed atmospheric species/parameters, ranging from photochemical precursors to products as well as particle chemical, microphysical, and optical properties. To better facilitate the model assessment and evaluation activities, we are actively engaged in the development of a web-based central airborne data archive: ADAM (Airborne Data for Assessing Models). This effort is sponsored by the NASA MEaSUREs program and is intended to archive data from tropospheric chemistry airborne field campaign since the 1980s. The principal design philosophy of the ADAM web site is to provide an intuitive user interface that allows users to browse, visualize, subset (both spatially and temporally), merge, and download the airborne data, as well as providing adequate metadata associated with the data archive. A working version of the web site which shows the ADAM user interface and functionalities will be presented. Also presented are conventions to establish common names for the atmospheric variables which are often observed during airborne campaigns as well as the approaches to handle missing data and limit of detections. This presentation is intended to serve the purpose of getting feedback from the broad atmospheric community, including both modelers and measurement experts.

  2. Final Report on the Airborne Field Mill Project (ABFM) 2000-2001 Field Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dye, James E.; Lewis, Sharon; Bateman, Monte, G.; Mach, Douglas M.; Merceret, Francis J.; Ward, Jennifer G.; Grainger, Cedric A.

    2004-01-01

    The Airborne Field Mill (ABFM) research program conducted under the direction of the John F. Kennedy Space Center during 2000 and 2001 is described. The purpose, methodology and initial results from the program are presented. Extensive appendices detailing the instrumentation used to collect the data are provided.

  3. Study of airborne science experiment management concepts for application to space shuttle. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulholland, D. R.; Reller, J. O., Jr.; Neel, C. B.; Haughney, L. C.

    1973-01-01

    The management concepts and operating procedures are documented as they apply to the planning of shuttle spacelab operations. Areas discussed include: airborne missions; formulation of missions; management procedures; experimenter involvement; experiment development and performance; data handling; safety procedures; and applications to shuttle spacelab planning. Characteristics of the airborne science experience are listed, and references and figures are included.

  4. Two Hundred Field Per Second Airborne Video System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newkirk, David L.

    1990-01-01

    The Naval Weapons Evaluation Facility (NWEF), Albuquerque, New Mexico, conducted flight tests in November of 1983 to evaluate the NAC HVRB-200 high speed airborne video system for operation and structural integrity in the external military flight environment. The flight tests were successful, but due to budget restraints, shortage of manpower and required design changes, the upgrade to video was placed on hold. Finally in 1986. additional MAC high speed video equipment was procured and by November, NWEF had finished design, built the required control units and instrumentated the first A-7 aircraft. The NWEF system has been the primary data collection media used since then on all project missions conducted by NWEF. With many hours of flight time and extensive experience using the A-7 system, NWEF has designed, built and installed the F/A-18 high speed video system. The first system test flight was conducted on 10 July 1989 and again proved successful.

  5. Airborne Tunable Laser Absorption Spectrometer (ATLAS) instrument characterization: Accuracy of the AASE (Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition) and AAOE (Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment) nitrous oxide data sets

    SciTech Connect

    Loewenstein, M.; Podolske, J.R. ); Strahan, S.E. )

    1990-03-01

    ATLAS, the Airborne Tunable Laser Absorption Spectrometer, was used to measure nitrous oxide in the 1987 Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment (AAOE) and in the 1989 Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition (AASE). After the AASE, a detailed study of the ATLAS characteristics was undertaken to quantify the error inherent in the in situ measurement of atmospheric N{sub 2}O. Using the latest calibration of the ATLAS (June 1989) and incorporating the recognized errors arising in the flight environment of ATLAS, the authors have established that for both the AASE and the AAOE most of the acquired N{sub 2}O data sets are accurate to {plus minus}10% (2 sigma). Data from two of the earlier AAOE flights had a larger uncertainty.

  6. Test field for airborne laser scanning in Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahokas, E.; Kaartinen, H.; Kukko, A.; Litkey, P.

    2014-11-01

    Airborne laser scanning (ALS) is a widely spread operational measurement tool for obtaining 3D coordinates of the ground surface. There is a need for calibrating the ALS system and a test field for ALS was established at the end of 2013. The test field is situated in the city of Lahti, about 100 km to the north of Helsinki. The size of the area is approximately 3.5 km × 3.2 km. Reference data was collected with a mobile laser scanning (MLS) system assembled on a car roof. Some streets were measured both ways and most of them in one driving direction only. The MLS system of the Finnish Geodetic Institute (FGI) consists of a navigation system (NovAtel SPAN GNSS-IMU) and a laser scanner (FARO Focus3D 120). In addition to the MLS measurements more than 800 reference points were measured using a Trimble R8 VRS-GNSS system. Reference points are along the streets, on parking lots, and white pedestrian crossing line corners which can be used as reference targets. The National Land Survey of Finland has already used this test field this spring for calibrating their Leica ALS-70 scanner. Especially it was easier to determine the encoder scale factor parameter using this test field. Accuracy analysis of the MLS points showed that the point height RMSE is 2.8 cm and standard deviation is 2.6 cm. Our purpose is to measure both more MLS data and more reference points in the test field area to get a better spatial coverage. Calibration flight heights are planned to be 1000 m and 2500 m above ground level. A cross pattern, southwest-northeast and northwest-southeast, will be flown both in opposite directions.

  7. From Mars to Greenland: Charting gravity with space and airborne instruments - Fields, tides, methods, results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colombo, Oscar L.

    This symposium on space and airborne techniques for measuring gravity fields, and related theory, contains papers on gravity modeling of Mars and Venus at NASA/GSFC, an integrated laser Doppler method for measuring planetary gravity fields, observed temporal variations in the earth's gravity field from 16-year Starlette orbit analysis, high-resolution gravity models combining terrestrial and satellite data, the effect of water vapor corrections for satellite altimeter measurements of the geoid, and laboratory demonstrations of superconducting gravity and inertial sensors for space and airborne gravity measurements. Other papers are on airborne gravity measurements over the Kelvin Seamount; the accuracy of GPS-derived acceleration from moving platform tests; airborne gravimetry, altimetry, and GPS navigation errors; controlling common mode stabilization errors in airborne gravity gradiometry, GPS/INS gravity measurements in space and on a balloon, and Walsh-Fourier series expansion of the earth's gravitational potential.

  8. From Mars to Greenland: Charting gravity with space and airborne instruments - Fields, tides, methods, results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colombo, Oscar L. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    This symposium on space and airborne techniques for measuring gravity fields, and related theory, contains papers on gravity modeling of Mars and Venus at NASA/GSFC, an integrated laser Doppler method for measuring planetary gravity fields, observed temporal variations in the earth's gravity field from 16-year Starlette orbit analysis, high-resolution gravity models combining terrestrial and satellite data, the effect of water vapor corrections for satellite altimeter measurements of the geoid, and laboratory demonstrations of superconducting gravity and inertial sensors for space and airborne gravity measurements. Other papers are on airborne gravity measurements over the Kelvin Seamount; the accuracy of GPS-derived acceleration from moving platform tests; airborne gravimetry, altimetry, and GPS navigation errors; controlling common mode stabilization errors in airborne gravity gradiometry, GPS/INS gravity measurements in space and on a balloon, and Walsh-Fourier series expansion of the earth's gravitational potential.

  9. The 1994 TIMS airborne calibration experiment: Castaic Lake, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Realmuto, Vincent J.; Hook, Simon J.; Vandenbosch, Jeannette

    1995-01-01

    This summary describes the 9 March 1994 Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) airborne calibration experiment conducted at Castaic Lake, California. This experiment was a collaborative effort between the TIMS and Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) science teams at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). TIMS was flown on the NASA/Ames Research Center C130 with the new retractable air fence installed in the TIMS instrument bay. The purpose of this experiment was to determine if the fence would reduce the air turbulence in the TIMS instrument bay, thereby reducing the errors in calibration caused by wind-blast cooling of the blackbody reference sources internal to TIMS. Previous experiments have indicated that the wind blast effect could cause TIMS to over-estimate surface temperatures by more than 10 C. We have examined the TIMS data from twelve lines flown over Castaic Lake. Four of the lines were flown at an altitude of approximately 2.5 km (MSL), four at an altitude of approximately 6.7 km, and four at approximately 8.3 km. At each altitude there were flights with northern and southern headings, with the aircraft level and at a positive pitch (nose-up attitude). The suite of twelve flights was designed to subject the TIMS/air fence system to different wind conditions and air temperatures. The TIMS flights were supported by a ground-truth team, who measured lake surface temperatures from a boat, and an atmosphere characterization team, who launched an airsonde and measured solar irradiance with a Reagan Sun Photometer. The Reagan measurements were used to construct a time-series of estimates of the total abundance of water vapor in the atmospheric column. These estimates were used to constrain modifications of the airsonde water vapor profile measurements made when processing the TIMS data with a customized version of the MODTRAN radiative transfer code.

  10. Developing Metadata Requirements for NASA Airborne Field Campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, L.; Rinsland, P. L.; Kusterer, J.; Chen, G.; Early, A. B.; Beach, A. L., III; Wang, D.; Typanski, N. D.; Rutherford, M.; Rieflin, E.

    2014-12-01

    The common definition of metadata is "data about data". NASA has developed metadata formats to meet the needs of its satellite missions and emerging users. Coverage of satellite missions is highly predictable based on orbit characteristics. Airborne missions feature complicated flight patterns to maximize science return and changes in the instrument suites. More relevant to the airborne science data holding, the metadata describes the airborne measurements, in terms of measurement location, time, platform, and instruments. The metadata organizes the data holdings and facilitates the data ordering process from the DAAC. Therefore, the metadata requirements will need to fit the type of airborne measurements and sampling strategies as well as leverage current Earth Science and Data Information System infrastructure (ECHO/Reverb, GCMD). Current airborne data is generated/produced in a variety of formats (ICARRT, ASCII, etc) with the metadata information embedded in the data file. Special readers are needed to parse data file to generate metadata needed for search and discovery. With loosely defined standards within the airborne community this process poses challenges to the data providers. It is necessary to assess the suitability of current metadata standards, which have been mostly developed for satellite observations. To be presented are the use case-based assessments of the current airborne metadata standards and suggestions for future changes.

  11. Overview of the Airborne Tropical TRopopause EXperiment (ATTREX)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, Eric

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Airborne Tropical TRopopause EXperiment (ATTREX) is a series of airborne campaigns focused on understanding physical processes in the Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL) and their role in atmospheric chemistry and climate. ATTREX is using the high-altitude, long-duration NASA Global Hawk Unmanned Air System to make in situ and remote-sensing measurements spanning the Pacific. A particular ATTREX emphasis is to better understand the dehydration of air as it passes through the cold tropical tropopause region. The ATTREX payload contains 12 in situ and remote sensing instruments that measure water vapor, clouds, multiple gaseous tracers (CO, CO2, CH4, NMHC, SF6, CFCs, N2O), reactive chemical compounds (O3, BrO, NO2), meteorological parameters, and radiative fluxes. ATTREX flight series have been conducted in the fall of 2011 from Armstrong Flight Research Center (AFRC) in California, in the winter of 2013 from AFRC, and in the winter/spring of 2014 from Guam. The first two flight series provided extensive sampling of the central and eastern Pacific, whereas the last flight series permitted sampling in the western Pacific. The sampling strategy has primarily involved repeated ascents and descents through the depth of the TTL (about 13-19 km). Over 100 TTL profiles were obtained on each flight series. The ATTREX dataset includes TTL water vapor measurements with unprecedented accuracy, ice crystal size distributions and habits. The cloud and water measurements provide unique information about TTL cloud formation, the persistence of super-saturation with respect to ice, and dehydration. The plethora of tracers measured on the Global Hawk flights are providing unique information about TTL transport pathways and time scales. The meteorological measurements are revealing dynamical phenomena controlling the TTL thermal structure, and the radiation measurements are providing information about heating rates associated with TTL clouds and water vapor. This presentation

  12. Overview of the Airborne Tropical TRopopause EXperiment (ATTREX)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, H. B.; Jensen, E. J.; Pfister, L.

    2014-12-01

    The NASA Airborne Tropical TRopopause EXperiment (ATTREX) is a series of airborne campaigns focused on understanding physical processes in the Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL) and their role in atmospheric chemistry and climate. ATTREX is using the high-altitude, long-duration NASA Global Hawk Unmanned Air System to make in situ and remote-sensing measurements spanning the Pacific. A particular ATTREX emphasis is to better understand the dehydration of air as it passes through the cold tropical tropopause region. The ATTREX payload contains 12 in situ and remote sensing instruments that measure water vapor, clouds, multiple gaseous tracers (CO, CO2, CH4, NMHC, SF6, CFCs, N2O), reactive chemical compounds (O3, BrO, NO2), meteorological parameters, and radiative fluxes.ATTREX flight series have been conducted in the fall of 2011 from Armstrong Flight Research Center (AFRC) in California, in the winter of 2013 from AFRC, and in the winter/spring of 2014 from Guam. The first two flight series provided extensive sampling of the central and eastern Pacific, whereas the last flight series permitted sampling in the western Pacific. The sampling strategy has primarily involved repeated ascents and descents through the depth of the TTL (about 13-19 km). Over 100 TTL profiles were obtained on each flight series. The ATTREX dataset includes TTL water vapor measurements with unprecedented accuracy, ice crystal size distributions and habits. The cloud and water measurements provide unique information about TTL cloud formation, the persistence of supersaturation with respect to ice, and dehydration. The plethora of tracers measured on the Global Hawk flights are providing unique information about TTL transport pathways and time scales. The meteorological measurements are revealing dynamical phenomena controlling the TTL thermal structure, and the radiation measurements are providing information about heating rates associated with TTL clouds and water vapor.This presentation will

  13. International Symposium on Airborne Geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mogi, Toru; Ito, Hisatoshi; Kaieda, Hideshi; Kusunoki, Kenichiro; Saltus, Richard W.; Fitterman, David V.; Okuma, Shigeo; Nakatsuka, Tadashi

    2006-05-01

    Airborne geophysics can be defined as the measurement of Earth properties from sensors in the sky. The airborne measurement platform is usually a traditional fixed-wing airplane or helicopter, but could also include lighter-than-air craft, unmanned drones, or other specialty craft. The earliest history of airborne geophysics includes kite and hot-air balloon experiments. However, modern airborne geophysics dates from the mid-1940s when military submarine-hunting magnetometers were first used to map variations in the Earth's magnetic field. The current gamut of airborne geophysical techniques spans a broad range, including potential fields (both gravity and magnetics), electromagnetics (EM), radiometrics, spectral imaging, and thermal imaging.

  14. Effective data management for the DISCOVER-AQ airborne field study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, G.; Ramapriyan, H. K.; Crawford, J. H.; Kleb, M. M.; Rinsland, P.; Kusterer, J.; Sorlie, S.; Perez, J.; Walter, J.

    2011-12-01

    DISCOVER-AQ (Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality) is an airborne study aimed at improving the interpretation of satellite observations to diagnose near-surface conditions relating to air quality. This project will increase fundamental understanding satellite trace gas and aerosol observations and enable the application of satellite data for societal benefit, which is highly relevant to NASA's goals to study the Earth from space. Because of the nature of the project, DISCOVER-AQ is an investigation that involves a wide range of observational assets, including airborne and ground based in-situ and remote sensing observations. It is a broad collaborative study with participants from NASA centers, universities, and research partners from agencies at federal, state and local levels. Therefore, successfully achieving the DISCOVER-AQ science objectives requires a comprehensive and cohesive data management plan to facilitate the sharing and broad use of data to enable research and comply with NASA data policies. This plan governs the science data generation, data exchange between the DISCOVER-AQ science team and its partners, and data transfer to the NASA Langley Research Center's Atmospheric Science Data Center (LaRC ASDC). The DISCOVER-AQ Data Management Plan (DMP) has been developed through a broad collaboration among the DISCOVER-AQ project, NASA LaRC ASDC staff, and NASA Earth Science Data and Information System (ESDIS) Project. This DMP incorporates procedures that have evolved over more than 20 years of airborne field studies under NASA's Tropospheric Chemistry Program and draws upon experience from collaborations with NOAA, NSF, university, and international partners as well as NASA's experience in managing Earth science data from its various remote sensing missions. To be presented are highlights of the DISCOVER-AQ data management plan, including a brief description of the airborne

  15. Radiative flux measurements during the Airborne Tropical Tropopause Experiment (ATTREX) Guam Deployment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kindel, B. C.; Pilewskie, P.; Schmidt, S.

    2015-12-01

    The Airborne Tropical Tropopause Experiment was a field program utilizing the NASA Global Hawk aircraft, to make extensive measurements of tropical tropopause layer (TTL) over the Pacific Ocean. In February and March of 2014, the NASA Global Hawk was deployed to Guam and flew six long duration science flights. The aircraft was outfitted with a suite of instruments to study the composition of the TTL. Measurements included: water vapor amount, cloud particle size and shape, various gaseous species (e.g. CO, CH4, CO2, O3), and radiation measurements. The radiation measurements were comprised of the Solar Spectral Flux Radiometer (SSFR) that made spectrally resolved measurements of upwelling and downwelling solar irradiance from 350 to 2200 nm and thermal broadband (4μm to 42 μm) upwelling and downwelling irradiance. Once airborne, the Global Hawk made numerous vertical profiles (14 - 18 km) through the TTL. In this work we present results of combined solar spectral irradiance and broadband thermal irradiance measurements. Solar spectral measurements are correlated, wavelength-by-wavelength, with broadband thermal measurements. The radiative impact in the TTL of water vapor and cirrus clouds are examined both in the solar and thermal wavelengths from both upwelling and downwelling irradiances. The spectral measurements are used in an attempt to attribute physical mechanisms to the thermal (spectrally integrated) measurements. Measurements of heating rates are also presented, highlighting the difficultly in obtaining reliable results from aircraft measurements.

  16. Airborne lidar experiments at the Savannah River Plant, June 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Krabill, W.B.; Swift, R.N.

    1987-09-01

    Results are presented from a series of studies conducted at the Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Plant (SRP) with the NASA Airborne Oceanographic Lidar (AOL). These studies included a topographic survey of a {approximately}1000 acre lake basin (presently designated L Lake) which had been excavated for use as a cooling pond for L Reactor; a study of the movement of discharged cooling water in Pond C and the warm arm of Par Pond using Rhodamine WT dye as a tag; initial baseline studies of the vegetation cover of the Steel Creek corridor (through which the outflow of L Lake is carried to the Savannah River); and a demonstration of potential forestry applications of the AOL. These investigations were conducted over a 3-day period in June 1985. The AOL is an advanced airborne laser system capable of making temporal or time history measurements of laser backscatter (bathymetry mode) or spectral measurements of laser induced fluorescence from waterborne constituents (fluorosensing mode). The AOL is flown together with auxiliary instruments and camera systems on board a four engine P-3A aircraft. Recent modifications to the AOL allow in-flight changes between the two basic operational modes of the instrument which permitted the topographic study to be conducted on the same flights as the fluorescent dye study. The L Lake topographic survey represents a state-of-the-art demonstration of airborne laser surveying capability.

  17. Biomass Burning Airborne and Spaceborne Experiment in the Amazonas (BASE-A)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, Y. J.; Setzer, A.; Ward, D.; Tanre, D.; Holben, B. N.; Menzel, P.; Pereira, M. C.; Rasmussen, R.

    1992-01-01

    Results are presented on measurements of the trace gas and particulate matter emissions due to biomass burning during deforestation and grassland fires in South America, conducted as part of the Biomass Burning Airborne and Spaceborne Experiment in the Amazonas in September 1989. Field observations by an instrumented aircraft were used to estimate concentrations of O3, CO2, CO, CH4, and particulate matter. Fires were observed from satellite imagery, and the smoke optical thickness, particle size, and profiles of the extinction coefficient were measured from the aircraft and from the ground. Four smoke plumes were sampled, three vertical profiles were measured, and extensive ground measurements of smoke optical characteristics were carried out for different smoke types. The simultaneous measurements of the trace gases, smoke particles, and the distribution of fires were used to correlate biomass burning with the elevated levels of ozone.

  18. Fourth Airborne Geoscience Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The focus of the workshop was on how the airborne community can assist in achieving the goals of the Global Change Research Program. The many activities that employ airborne platforms and sensors were discussed: platforms and instrument development; airborne oceanography; lidar research; SAR measurements; Doppler radar; laser measurements; cloud physics; airborne experiments; airborne microwave measurements; and airborne data collection.

  19. Investigation of the spatio-temporal variability of atmospheric boundary layer depths over mountainous terrain observed with a suite of ground-based and airborne instruments during the MATERHORN field experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, S.; De Wekker, S.; Emmitt, G. D.

    2013-12-01

    We present first results of the spatio-temporal variability of atmospheric boundary layer depths obtained with a suite of ground-based and airborne instruments deployed during the first field phase of The Mountain Terrain Atmospheric Modeling and Observations (MATERHORN) Program (http://www3.nd.edu/~dynamics/materhorn/index.php) at Dugway Proving Ground (DPG, Utah, USA) in Fall 2012. We mainly use high-resolution data collected on selected intensive observation periods obtained by Doppler lidars, ceilometer, and in-situ measurements from an unmanned aerial vehicle for the measurements of atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) depths. In particular, a Navy Twin Otter aircraft flew 6 missions of about 5 hours each during the daytime, collecting remotely sensed (Doppler lidar, TODWL) wind data in addition to in-situ turbulence measurements which allowed a detailed investigation of the spatial heterogeneity of the convective boundary layer turbulence features over a steep isolated mountain of a horizontal and vertical scale of about 10 km and 1 km, respectively. Additionally, we use data collected by (1) radiosonde systems at two sites of Granite Mountain area in DPG (Playa and Sagebrush), (2) sonic anemometers (CSAT-3D) for high resolution turbulence flux measurements near ground, (3) Pyranometer for incoming solar radiation, and (4) standard meteorological measurements (PTU) obtained near the surface. In this contribution, we discuss and address (1) composites obtained with lidar, ceilometer, micro-meteorological measurements, and radiosonde observations to determine the quasi-continuous regime of ABL depths, growth rates, maximum convective boundary layer (CBL) depths, etc., (2) the temporal variability in the ABL depths during entire diurnal cycle and the spatial heterogeneity in the daytime ABL depths triggered by the underlying orography in the experimental area to investigate the most possible mechanisms (e.g. combined effect of diurnal cycle and orographic trigger

  20. Comparison of airborne bacterial communities from a hog farm and spray field.

    PubMed

    Arfken, Ann M; Song, Bongkeun; Sung, Jung-Suk

    2015-05-01

    Airborne bacteria from hog farms may have detrimental impacts on human health, particularly in terms of antibiotic resistance and pathogen zoonosis. Despite human health risks, very little is known about the composition and diversity of airborne bacteria from hog farms and hog-related spray fields. We used pyrosequencing analysis of 16S rRNA genes to compare airborne bacterial communities in a North Carolina hog farm and lagoon spray field. In addition, we isolated and identified antibiotic-resistant bacteria from both air samples. Based on 16S rRNA gene pyrosequence analysis, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria were the dominant phyla in airborne bacterial communities from both hog farm and spray field sites. Within the Firmicutes genera, Clostridium spp. were more abundant in the hog farm, whereas Staphylococcus spp. were higher in the spray field. The presence of opportunitic pathogens, including several Staphylococcus species and Propionibacterium acnes, was detected in both bioaerosol communities based on phylogenetic analysis. The isolation and identification of antibiotic-resistant bacteria from air samples also showed similar results with dominance of Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria in both hog farm and spray field air. Thus, the existence of opportunistic pathogens and antibiotic resistant bacteria in airborne communities evidences potential health risks to farmers and other residents from swine bioaerosol exposure. PMID:25406533

  1. Hurricane Wind Field Measurements with Scanning Airborne Doppler Lidar During CAMEX-3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothermel, Jeffry; Cutten, D. R.; Howell, J. N.; Darby, L. S.; Hardesty, R. M.; Traff, D. M.; Menzies, R. T.

    2000-01-01

    During the 1998 Convection and Moisture Experiment (CAMEX-3), the first hurricane wind field measurements with Doppler lidar were achieved. Wind fields were mapped within the eye, along the eyewall, in the central dense overcast, and in the marine boundary layer encompassing the inflow region. Spatial coverage was determined primarily by cloud distribution and opacity. Within optically-thin cirrus slant range of 20- 25 km was achieved, whereas no propagation was obtained during penetration of dense cloud. Measurements were obtained with the Multi-center Airborne Coherent Atmospheric Wind Sensor (MACAWS) on the NASA DC-8 research aircraft. MACAWS was developed and operated cooperatively by the atmospheric lidar remote sensing groups of NOAA Environmental Technology Laboratory, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, and Jet Propulsion Laboratory. A pseudo-dual Doppler technique ("co-planar scanning") is used to map the horizontal component of the wind at several vertical levels. Pulses from the laser are directed out the left side of the aircraft in the desired directions using computer-controlled rotating prisms. Upon exiting the aircraft, the beam is completely eyesafe. Aircraft attitude and speed are taken into account during real-time signal processing, resulting in determination of the ground-relative wind to an accuracy of about 1 m/s magnitude and about 10 deg direction. Beam pointing angle errors are about 0.1 deg, equivalent to about 17 m at 10 km. Horizontal resolution is about 1 km (along-track) for typical signal processor and scanner settings; vertical resolution varies with range. Results from CAMEX-3 suggest that scanning Doppler wind lidar can complement airborne Doppler radar by providing wind field measurements in regions that are devoid of hydrometeors. At present MACAWS observations are being assimilated into experimental forecast models and satellite Doppler wind lidar simulations to evaluate the relative impact.

  2. Detection of soil properties with airborne hyperspectral measurements of bare fields.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Airborne remote sensing data, using a hyperspectral (HSI) camera, were collected for a flight over two fields with a total of 128 ha. of recently seeded and nearly bare soil. The within-field spatial distribution of several soil properties was found by using multiple linear regression to select the ...

  3. Compact airborne lidar for tropospheric ozone: description and field measurements.

    PubMed

    Ancellet, G; Ravetta, F O

    1998-08-20

    An airborne lidar has been developed for tropospheric ozone monitoring. The transmitter module is based on a solid-state Nd:YAG laser and stimulated Raman scattering in deuterium to generate three wavelengths (266, 289, and 316 nm) that are used for differential ozone measurements. Both analog and photon-counting detection methods are used to produce a measurement range up to 8 km. The system has been flown on the French Fokker 27 aircraft to perform both lower tropospheric (0.5-4-km) and upper tropospheric (4-12-km) measurements, with a 1-min temporal resolution corresponding to a 5-km spatial resolution. The vertical resolution of the ozone profile can vary from 300 to 1000 m to accommodate either a large-altitude range or optimum ozone accuracy. Comparisons with in situ ozone measurements performed by an aircraft UV photometer or ozone sondes and with ozone vertical profiles obtained by a ground-based lidar are presented. The accuracy of the tropospheric ozone measurements is generally better than 10-15%, except when aerosol interferences cannot be corrected. Examples of ozone profiles for different atmospheric conditions demonstrate the utility of the airborne lidar in the study of dynamic or photochemical mesoscale processes that control tropospheric ozone. PMID:18286036

  4. Radiative effects of polar stratospheric clouds during the Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment and the Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenfield, Joan E.

    1992-01-01

    Results are presented of a study of the radiative effects of polar stratospheric clouds during the Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment (AAOE) and the Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition (AASE) in which daily 3D Type I nitric acid trihydrate (NAT) and Type II water ice polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) were generated in the polar regions during AAOE and the AASE aircraft missions. Mission data on particular composition and size, together with NMC-analyzed temperatures, are used. For AAOE, both Type I and Type II clouds were formed for the time period August 23 to September 17, after which only Type I clouds formed. During AASE, while Type I clouds were formed for each day between January 3 and February 10, Type II clouds formed on only two days, January 24 and 31. Mie theory and a radiative transfer model are used to compute the radiative heating rates during the mission periods, for clear and cloudy lower sky cases. Only the Type II water ice clouds have a significant radiative effect, with the Type I NATO PSCs generating a net heating or cooling of 0.1 K/d or less.

  5. Analysis of satellite and airborne wind measurements during the SEMAPHORE experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Tournadre, J.; Hauser, D.

    1994-12-31

    During the SEMAPHORE experiment Intensive Observation Period (IOP), held in October and November 1993 in the Azores-Madeira region, two airplanes, instrumented for atmospheric research, and two oceanographic research vessels have conducted in situ measurements in a 500km x 500km domain. Within the framework of SEMAPHORE, the SOFIA program is dedicated to the study of the air-sea fluxes and interactions from local scale up to mesoscale. The analysis of the structure of the wind and wave fields and their relations to the surface fluxes (especially near oceanic fronts) and the validation of the satellite data are two of the main goals of the SOFIA program. During the IOP, the experiment domain was regularly overflown by the ERS-1 and Topex-Poseidon (TP) satellites. This study presents a preliminary analysis of the ERS-1 and TP altimeter wind and wave measurement and ERS-1 scatterometer wind fields. The data from the airborne RESSAC (a radar ocean wave spectrometer) are also presented.

  6. Evaluating evaporation from field crops using airborne radiometry and ground-based meteorological data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jackson, R. D.; Moran, M.S.; Gay, L.W.; Raymond, L.H.

    1987-01-01

    Airborne measurements of reflected solar and emitted thermal radiation were combined with ground-based measurements of incoming solar radiation, air temperature, windspeed, and vapor pressure to calculate instantaneous evaporation (LE) rates using a form of the Penman equation. Estimates of evaporation over cotton, wheat, and alfalfa fields were obtained on 5 days during a one-year period. A Bowen ratio apparatus, employed simultaneously, provided ground-based measurements of evaporation. Comparison of the airborne and ground techniques showed good agreement, with the greatest difference being about 12% for the instantaneous values. Estimates of daily (24 h) evaporation were made from the instantaneous data. On three of the five days, the difference between the two techniques was less than 8%, with the greatest difference being 25%. The results demonstrate that airborne remote sensing techniques can be used to obtain spatially distributed values of evaporation over agricultural fields. ?? 1987 Springer-Verlag.

  7. Field investigation of airborne radioactivity anomalies in Marquette County, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    James, Harold L.

    1950-01-01

    The broad radioactivity anomalies recorded by the airborne detector in the vicinity of Republic, Marquette County, Michigan, coincide rather closely with parts of a granitic complex chiefly of Archean age. Ground examination of the rock in these areas of high radioactivity shows that the granitic rock typically yields two to four times the normal background activity. Fissures, shear zones, veins, and pegmatites were tested carefully. None exhibited activity higher than that of the adjacent granitic rock. It is significant that the zones of more-than-average radio-activity are related to the larger elements of the geology - in fact, the information will be of considerable value in reconsideration of some of the regional problems.

  8. NASA's Student Airborne Research Program as a model for effective professional development experience in Oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palacios, S. L.; Kudela, R. M.; Clinton, N. E.; Atkins, N.; Austerberry, D.; Johnson, M.; McGonigle, J.; McIntosh, K.; O'Shea, J. J.; Shirshikova, Z.; Singer, N.; Snow, A.; Woods, R.; Schaller, E.; Shetter, R. E.

    2011-12-01

    With over half of the current earth and space science workforce expected to retire within the next 15 years, NASA has responded by cultivating young minds through programs such as the Student Airborne Research Program (SARP). SARP is a competitive internship that introduces upper-level undergraduates and early graduate students to Earth System Science research and NASA's Airborne Science Program. The program serves as a model for recruitment of very high caliber students into the scientific workforce. Its uniqueness derives from total vertical integration of hands-on experience at every stage of airborne science: aircraft instrumentation, flight planning, mission participation, field-work, analysis, and reporting of results in a competitive environment. At the conclusion of the program, students presented their work to NASA administrators, faculty, mentors, and the other participants with the incentive of being selected as best talk and earning a trip to the fall AGU meeting to present their work at the NASA booth. We hope lessons learned can inform the decisions of scientists at the highest levels seeking to broaden the appeal of research. In 2011, SARP was divided into three disciplinary themes: Oceanography, Land Use, and Atmospheric Chemistry. Each research group was mentored by an upper-level graduate student who was supervised by an expert faculty member. A coordinator managed the program and was supervised by a senior research scientist/administrator. The program is a model of knowledge transfer among the several levels of research: agency administration to the program coordinator, established scientific experts to the research mentors, and the research mentors to the pre-career student participants. The outcomes from this program include mission planning and institutional knowledge transfer from administrators and expert scientists to the coordinator and research mentors; personnel and project management from the coordinator and expert scientists to the

  9. Multiparametric airborne radar observations of the melting layer during the Wakasa Bay experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanelli, S.; Meagher, J.; Durden, S. L.; Im, E.

    2003-01-01

    The NASA/JPL airborne precipitation radar APR-2 (cross-track scanning, dual-frequency - 14 and 35 GHz, Doppler and dual polarization, see Sadowy et al. (2003) for detailed description of the instrument) was operated on the NASA P-3 aircraft during the Wakasa Bay experiment.

  10. Use of airborne hyperspectral imagery to map soil parameters in tilled agricultural fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil hyperspectral reflectance imagery was obtained from an airborne imaging spectrometer (400 to 2450 nm with ~10 nm resolution, 2.5 m spatial resolution) flown over six tilled (bare soil) agricultural fields on the Eastern Shore of the Chesapeake Bay (Queen Anne’s county, MD). Surface soil samples...

  11. RELATIVE AIRBORNE LOSSES OF COMMERCIAL 2,4-D FORMULATIONS FROM A SIMULATED WHEAT FIELD

    EPA Science Inventory

    The relative airborne losses of seven commercial 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) formulations were evaluated in a simulated wheat field. The formulations tested were butyl ester, isooctyl ester, two propylene glycol butyl ether esters, ethanol/isopropyl amine, and two dime...

  12. Oil spill experiment using airborne DLR ESAR off the coast of Diu, India.

    PubMed

    Sasamal, S K; Rao, M V

    2015-05-15

    Oil spill experiment results in the coastal waters of Diu, India, with an airborne DLR ESAR sensor are discussed with reference to the SAR frequency, polarization and viewing angle. The SAR data acquired in the quad polarization of the L band and dual polarization of the C band over two spills are studied. A higher oil and water contrast is observed in the L-VV polarization than in the C-HH mode. Oil spill discrimination is possible over a wider view angle of the airborne SAR sensor data in L band than in C band. This study has also analyzed the spread and drift of oil in coastal waters. PMID:25813716

  13. Airborne multiangle spectropolarimetric imager (AirMSPI) observations over California during NASA's polarimeter definition experiment (PODEX)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diner, David J.; Garay, Michael J.; Kalashnikova, Olga V.; Rheingans, Brian E.; Geier, Sven; Bull, Michael A.; Jovanovic, Veljko M.; Xu, Feng; Bruegge, Carol J.; Davis, Ab; Crabtree, Karlton; Chipman, Russell A.

    2013-09-01

    The Airborne Multiangle SpectroPolarimetric Imager (AirMSPI) is an ultraviolet/visible/near-infrared pushbroom camera mounted on a single-axis gimbal to acquire multiangle imagery over a +/-67° along-track range. The instrument flies aboard NASA's high-altitude ER-2 aircraft, and acquires Earth imagery with ~10 m spatial resolution across an 11- km wide swath. Radiance data are obtained in eight spectral bands (355, 380, 445, 470, 555, 660, 865, 935 nm). Dual photoelastic modulators (PEMs), achromatic quarter-wave plates, and wire-grid polarizers also enable imagery of the linear polarization Stokes components Q and U at 470, 660, and 865 nm. During January-February 2013, AirMSPI data were acquired over California as part of NASA's Polarimeter Definition Experiment (PODEX), a field campaign designed to refine requirements for the future Aerosol-Cloud-Ecosystem (ACE) satellite mission. Observations of aerosols, low- and mid-level cloud fields, cirrus, aircraft contrails, and clear skies were obtained over the San Joaquin Valley and the Pacific Ocean during PODEX. Example radiance and polarization images are presented to illustrate some of the instrument's capabilities.

  14. Airborne Multiangle SpectroPolarimetric Imager (AirMSPI) observations during several 2013 NASA field campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diner, D. J.; Garay, M. J.; Xu, F.; Kalashnikova, O.; Rheingans, B.; Geier, S.; Val, S.; Bull, M.; Jovanovic, V.; Bruegge, C.; Seidel, F. C.; Daugherty, B.; Chipman, R.; Davis, A.

    2013-12-01

    The Airborne Multiangle SpectroPolarimetric Imager (AirMSPI) is an ultraviolet/visible/near-infrared pushbroom camera mounted on a single-axis gimbal to acquire multiangle imagery over a ×67° along-track range. The instrument flies aboard NASA's high-altitude ER-2 aircraft, and acquires Earth imagery with ~10 m spatial resolution across an 11-km wide swath. Intensity (I) images are obtained in eight spectral bands (355, 380, 445, 470, 555, 660, 865, and 935 nm). Dual photoelastic modulators (PEMs), achromatic quarter-wave plates, and wire-grid polarizers enable imagery of the linear polarization Stokes components Q and U at 470, 660, and 865 nm. The data are used to derive degree of linear polarization (DOLP) and angle of linear polarization (AOLP). Example flight data acquired during various NASA field campaigns in 2013, including the Aerosol-Cloud-Ecosystem (ACE) Polarimeter Definition Experiment (PODEX), Hyperspectral Infrared Imager (HyspIRI), and Studies of Emissions and Atmospheric Composition, Clouds and Climate Coupling by Regional Surveys (SEAC4RS) are presented. Observations of aerosols, low- and mid-level cloud fields, cirrus, and different types of surfaces under clear skies were obtained for a variety of land and ocean targets. Radiance and polarization imagery for several scenes, along with modeling of aerosol, cloud, and surface scattering, are presented to illustrate quantitatively some of the instrument's capabilities. Laboratory and vicarious calibration results are also discussed.

  15. Dust Transport Across the Atlantic Studied by Airborne Doppler Wind Lidar During the Saltrace Experiment in 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chouza, Fernando; Reitebuch, Oliver; Rahm, Stephan; Weinzierl, Bernadett

    2016-06-01

    During the SALTRACE field experiment, conducted during June/July 2013, the Saharan dust transport across the Atlantic was analyzed by a set of ground based, in-situ and airborne instruments, including a 2-μm coherent DWL (Doppler wind lidar) mounted onboard the DLR Falcon 20 research aircraft. An overview of the measurements of aerosol backscatter and extinction, horizontal and vertical winds retrieved from the DWL are presented together with a brief description of the applied methods. The retrieved measurements provide direct observation of Saharan dust transport mechanisms across the Atlantic as well as island induced lee waves in the Barbados region.

  16. Development of a high-altitude airborne dial system: The Lidar Atmospheric Sensing Experiment (LASE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Browell, E. V.; Vaughan, W. R.; Hall, W. M.; Degnan, J. J.; Averill, R. D.; Wells, J. G.; Hinton, D. E.; Goad, J. H.

    1986-01-01

    The ability of a Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) system to measure vertical profiles of H2O in the lower atmosphere was demonstrated both in ground-based and airborne experiments. In these experiments, tunable lasers were used that required real-time experimenter control to locate and lock onto the atmospheric H2O absorption line for the DIAL measurements. The Lidar Atmospheric Sensing Experiment (LASE) is the first step in a long-range effort to develop and demonstrate an autonomous DIAL system for airborne and spaceborne flight experiments. The LASE instrument is being developed to measure H2O, aerosol, and cloud profiles from a high-altitude ER-2 (extended range U-2) aircraft. The science of the LASE program, the LASE system design, and the expected measurement capability of the system are discussed.

  17. The manned hydrogen balloon - an appropriate platform for airborne Lagrange experiments in atmospheric research

    SciTech Connect

    Rabl, P.F.H.; Euskirchen, J.

    1996-10-01

    During the last decade hydrogen ballooning provided a reliable basis for special airborne measurements especially for experiments that give evidence about atmospheric chemistry and structure. Although the balloon is not quite a small particle without inertia, Lagrange-like movements of atmospheric mass can be simulated. During two experiments, the vertical gradients of ozone concentration were measured in the downwind area of Munich. The results show remarkable differences in ozone concentration and production, dependent of the daytime. 3 refs., 3 figs.

  18. Polar Magnetic Field Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, C. T.

    1999-01-01

    This grant covers the initial data reduction and analysis of the magnetic field measurements of the Polar spacecraft. At this writing data for the first three years of the mission have been processed and deposited in the key parameter database. These data are also available in a variety of time resolutions and coordinate systems via a webserver at UCLA that provides both plots and digital data. The flight software has twice been reprogrammed: once to remove a glitch in the data where there were rare collisions between commands in the central processing unit and once to provide burst mode data at 100 samples per second on a regular basis. The instrument continues to function as described in the instrument paper (1.1 in the bibliography attached below). The early observations were compared with observations on the same field lines at lower altitude. The polar magnetic measurements also proved to be most useful for testing the accuracy of MHD models. WE also made important contributions to study of waves and turbulence.

  19. Specially equipped aircraft used in Florida airborne field mill research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    At KSC's Shuttle Landing Facility, a specially equipped Cessna Citation aircraft flies over the runway to calibrate the Cessna's field mills with field mills on the ground (on the tripod at left) and on the car parked nearby (at right). Field mills measure electric fields. The aircraft is also equipped with cloud physics probes that measure the size, shape and number of ice and water particles in clouds. The plane is being flown into anvil clouds in the KSC area as part of a study to review and possibly modify lightning launch commit criteria. The weather study could lead to improved lightning avoidance rules and fewer launch scrubs for the Space Shuttle and other launch vehicles on the Eastern and Western ranges. More information about this study can be found in Release No. 56- 00.

  20. Specially equipped aircraft used in Florida airborne field mill research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    At KSC's Shuttle Landing Facility, a specially equipped Cessna Citation aircraft approaches the runway to calibrate the Cessna's field mills with field mills on the ground (on the tripod at left) and on the car parked nearby (at right). Field mills measure electric fields. The aircraft is also equipped with cloud physics probes that measure the size, shape and number of ice and water particles in clouds. The plane is being flown into anvil clouds in the KSC area as part of a study to review and possibly modify lightning launch commit criteria. The weather study could lead to improved lightning avoidance rules and fewer launch scrubs for the Space Shuttle and other launch vehicles on the Eastern and Western ranges. More information on this study can be found in Release No. 56- 00.

  1. Specially equipped aircraft used in Florida airborne field mill research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Lightning field study devices are visible on a Cessna Citation aircraft during flight over Central Florida. The center of the black circle contains one of six field mills, used to measure electric fields, located on the body of the plane. Below the circle is one of several cloud physics probes attached to the plane that measure the size, shape and number of ice and water particles in clouds. The Cessna is being flown into anvil clouds in the KSC area as part of a study to review and possibly modify lightning launch commit criteria. The weather study could lead to improved lightning avoidance rules and fewer launch scrubs for the Space Shuttle and other launch vehicles on the Eastern and Western ranges. More information about the study can be found in Release No. 56-00.

  2. Specially equipped aircraft used in Florida airborne field mill research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    A specially equipped Cessna Citation aircraft flies over KSC during a calibration test of field mills used to measure electric fields. The aircraft is also equipped with cloud physics probes that measure the size, shape and number of ice and water particles in clouds. The plane is being flown into anvil clouds in the KSC area as part of a study to review and possibly modify lightning launch commit criteria. The weather study could lead to improved lightning avoidance rules and fewer launch scrubs for the Space Shuttle and other launch vehicles on the Eastern and Western ranges. More information on this study can be found in Release No. 56-00.

  3. Specially equipped aircraft used in Florida airborne field mill research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Attached to the wing of a Cessna Citation aircraft are cloud physics probes that measure the size, shape and number of ice and water particles in clouds. The plane is also equipped with field mills, used to measure electric fields. The plane is being flown into anvil clouds in the KSC area as part of a study to review and possibly modify lightning launch commit criteria. The weather study could lead to improved lightning avoidance rules and fewer launch scrubs for the Space Shuttle and other launch vehicles on the Eastern and Western ranges. More information about the study can be found in Release No. 56- 00.

  4. The Tropical Forest and fire emissions experiment: overview and airborne fire emission factor measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokelson, R. J.; Karl, T.; Artaxo, P.; Blake, D. R.; Christian, T. J.; Griffith, D. W. T.; Guenther, A.; Hao, W. M.

    2007-05-01

    The Tropical Forest and Fire Emissions Experiment (TROFFEE) used laboratory measurements followed by airborne and ground based field campaigns during the 2004 Amazon dry season to quantify the emissions from pristine tropical forest and several plantations as well as the emissions, fuel consumption, and fire ecology of tropical deforestation fires. The airborne campaign used an Embraer 110B aircraft outfitted with whole air sampling in canisters, mass-calibrated nephelometry, ozone by uv absorbance, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and proton-transfer mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) to measure PM10, O3, CO2, CO, NO, NO2, HONO, HCN, NH3, OCS, DMS, CH4, and up to 48 non-methane organic compounds (NMOC). The Brazilian smoke/haze layers extended to 2-3 km altitude, which is much lower than the 5-6 km observed at the same latitude, time of year, and local time in Africa in 2000. Emission factors (EF) were computed for the 19 tropical deforestation fires sampled and they largely compare well to previous work. However, the TROFFEE EF are mostly based on a much larger number of samples than previously available and they also include results for significant emissions not previously reported such as: nitrous acid, acrylonitrile, pyrrole, methylvinylketone, methacrolein, crotonaldehyde, methylethylketone, methylpropanal, "acetol plus methylacetate," furaldehydes, dimethylsulfide, and C1-C4 alkyl nitrates. Thus, we recommend these EF for all tropical deforestation fires. The NMOC emissions were ~80% reactive, oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOC). Our EF for PM10 (17.8±4 g/kg) is ~25% higher than previously reported for tropical forest fires and may reflect a trend towards, and sampling of, larger fires than in earlier studies. A large fraction of the total burning for 2004 likely occurred during a two-week period of very low humidity. The combined output of these fires created a massive "mega-plume" >500 km across that we sampled on September 8. The mega

  5. A Field Evaluation of Airborne Techniques for Detection of Unexploded Ordnance

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, D.; Doll, W.E.; Hamlett, P.; Holladay, J.S.; Nyquist, J.E.; Smyre, J.; Gamey, T.J.

    1999-03-14

    US Defense Department estimates indicate that as many as 11 million acres of government land in the U. S. may contain unexploded ordnance (UXO), with the cost of identifying and disposing of this material estimated at nearly $500 billion. The size and character of the ordnance, types of interference, vegetation, geology, and topography vary from site to site. Because of size or composition, some ordnance is difficult to detect with any geophysical method, even under favorable soil and cultural interference conditions. For some sites, airborne methods may provide the most time and cost effective means for detection of UXO. Airborne methods offer lower risk to field crews from proximity to unstable ordnance, and less disturbance of sites that maybe environmentally sensitive. Data were acquired over a test site at Edwards AFB, CA using airborne magnetic, electromagnetic, multispectral and thermal sensors. Survey areas included sites where trenches might occur, and a test site in which we placed deactivated ordnance, ranging in size from small ''bomblets'' to large bombs. Magnetic data were then acquired with the Aerodat HM-3 system, which consists of three cesium magnetometers within booms extending to the front and sides of the helicopter, and mounted such that the helicopter can be flown within 3m of the surface. Electromagnetic data were acquired with an Aerodat 5 frequency coplanar induction system deployed as a sling load from a helicopter, with a sensor altitude of 15m. Surface data, acquired at selected sites, provide a comparison with airborne data. Multispectral and thermal data were acquired with a Daedelus AADS 1268 system. Preliminary analysis of the test data demonstrate the value of airborne systems for UXO detection and provide insight into improvements that might make the systems even more effective.

  6. Aerosol, Cloud and Trace Gas Observations Derived from Airborne Hyperspectral Radiance and Direct Beam Measurements in Recent Field Campaigns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redemann, J.; Flynn, C. J.; Shinozuka, Y.; Kacenelenbogen, M.; Segal-Rosenheimer, M.; LeBlanc, S.; Russell, P. B.; Livingston, J. M.; Schmid, B.; Dunagan, S. E.; Johnson, R. R.

    2014-01-01

    The AERONET (AErosol RObotic NETwork) ground-based suite of sunphotometers provides measurements of spectral aerosol optical depth (AOD), precipitable water and spectral sky radiance, which can be inverted to retrieve aerosol microphysical properties that are critical to assessments of aerosol-climate interactions. Because of data quality criteria and sampling constraints, there are significant limitations to the temporal and spatial coverage of AERONET data and their representativeness for global aerosol conditions. The 4STAR (Spectrometer for Sky-Scanning, Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research) instrument, jointly developed by NASA Ames and PNNL with NASA Goddard collaboration, combines airborne sun tracking and AERONET-like sky scanning with spectroscopic detection. Being an airborne instrument, 4STAR has the potential to fill gaps in the AERONET data set. Dunagan et al. [2013] present results establishing the performance of the instrument, along with calibration, engineering flight test, and preliminary scientific field data. The 4STAR instrument operated successfully in the SEAC4RS [Studies of Emissions and Atmospheric Composition, Clouds and Climate Coupling by Regional Surveys] experiment in Aug./Sep. 2013 aboard the NASA DC-8 and in the DoE [Department of Energy]-sponsored TCAP [Two Column Aerosol Project, July 2012 & Feb. 2013] experiment aboard the DoE G-1 aircraft (Shinozuka et al., 2013), and acquired a wealth of data in support of mission objectives on all SEAC4RS and TCAP research flights. 4STAR provided direct beam measurements of hyperspectral AOD, columnar trace gas retrievals (H2O, O3, NO2; Segal-Rosenheimer et al., 2014), and the first ever airborne hyperspectral sky radiance scans, which can be inverted to yield the same products as AERONET ground-based observations. In addition, 4STAR measured zenith radiances underneath cloud decks for retrievals of cloud optical depth and effective diameter. In this presentation, we provide an overview of the new

  7. Family Oriented Geographic Field Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Karen Ann Lalk

    This paper describes a program of geographic education through field experience trips for family groups. Developed at Delta College in Michigan, the approach is unique because it emphasizes learning experiences for families rather than for individual students. The family is interpreted to include nuclear families, single-parent families with…

  8. Specially equipped aircraft used in Florida airborne field mill research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    In a hangar at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, a Cessna Citation aircraft has been fitted on the wings with devices that measure electric fields (black circles shown behind the open door) and with cloud physics probes (under the body and wings) that measure the size, shape and number of ice and water particles in clouds. The plane is being flown into anvil clouds in the KSC area as part of a study to review and possibly modify lightning launch commit criteria. The weather study could lead to improved lightning avoidance rules and fewer launch scrubs for the Space Shuttle and other launch vehicles on the Eastern and Western ranges. More information about the study can be found in Release No. 56-00.

  9. An airborne perfluorocarbon tracer system and its first application for a Lagrangian experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Y.; Baumann, R.; Schlager, H.

    2015-01-01

    A perfluorocarbon tracer system (PERTRAS), specifically designed for Lagrangian aircraft experiments, has been developed by the Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (German Aerospace Center, DLR). It consists of three main parts: a tracer release unit (RU), an adsorption tube sampler (ATS), and a tracer analytical system. The RU was designed for airborne tracer release experiments; meanwhile, it can be used on various platforms for different experimental purposes (here research vessel). PERTRAS was for the first time applied in the field campaign Stratospheric ozone: Halogen Impacts in a Varying Atmosphere (SHIVA) in November 2011. An amount of 8.8 kg perfluoromethylcyclopentane (PMCP) was released aboard the research vessel Sonne (RV Sonne) near the operational site of this campaign, Miri, Malaysia, on 21 November. The tracer samples collected using the ATS onboard the DLR research aircraft Falcon were analyzed in the laboratory using a thermal desorber-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TD-GC-MS) system. Guided by forecasts calculated with the Lagrangian model Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT), 64 tracer samples were collected onboard the Falcon approximately 5 and 25 h after the release, mostly with a time resolution of 1 min. Enhanced PMCP concentrations relative to ambient PMCP background values (mean: 6.62 fmol mol-1) were detected during three intersects of the fresh tracer plume (age 5 h), with a maximum value of 301.33 fmol mol-1. This indicates that the fresh tracer plume was successfully intercepted at the forecast position. During the second flight, 25 h after the release, the center of tracer plume was not detected by the sampling system due to a faster advection of the plume than forecast. The newly developed PERTRAS system has been successfully deployed for the first time. The instrumental setup and comparisons between the measurements and HYSPLIT simulations are presented in this study.

  10. An airborne perfluorocarbon tracer system and its first application for a Lagrangian experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Y.; Baumann, R.; Schlager, H.

    2014-07-01

    A perfluorocarbon tracer system (PERTRAS), specifically designed for Lagrangian aircraft experiments, has been developed by the Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (German Aerospace Center, DLR). It consists of three main parts: a tracer release unit (RU), an adsorption tube sampler (ATS) and a tracer analytical system. The RU was designed for airborne tracer release experiments; meanwhile, it can be used on various platforms for different experimental purpose (here research vessel). PERTRAS was for the first time applied in the field campaign Stratospheric ozone: halogen Impacts in a Varying Atmosphere (SHIVA) in November 2011. An amount of 8.8 kg perfluoromethylcyclopentane (PMCP) was released aboard the research vessel Sonne (RV Sonne) near the operational site of this campaign, Miri, Malaysia, on 21 November. The tracer samples collected using the ATS on board the DLR research aircraft Falcon were analyzed in the laboratory using a thermal desorber/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (TD/GC/MS) system. Guided by forecasts calculated with the Lagrangian model, Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT), 64 tracer samples were collected onboard the Falcon approximately 5 and 25 h after the release, respectively, mostly with a time resolution of 1 min. Enhanced PMCP concentrations relative to ambient PMCP background values (mean: 6.62 fmol mol-1) were detected during three intersects of the fresh tracer plume (age 5 h), with a maximum value of 301.33 fmol mol-1. This indicates that the fresh tracer plume was successfully intercepted at the forecasted position. During the second flight, 25 h after the release, the center of tracer plume was not detected by the sampling system due to a faster advection of the plume than forecasted. The newly developed PERTRAS system has been successfully deployed for the first time. The instrumental set-up and comparisons between the measurements and HYSPLIT simulations are presented in this study.

  11. Airborne Observations and Satellite Validation: INTEX-A Experience and INTEX-B Plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crawford, James H.; Singh, Hanwant B.; Brune, William H.; Jacob, Daniel J.

    2005-01-01

    Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment (INTEX; http://cloudl.arc.nasa.gov) is an ongoing two-phase integrated atmospheric field experiment being performed over North America (NA). Its first phase (INTEX-A) was performed in the summer of 2004 and the second phase (INTEX-B) is planned for the early spring of 2006. The main goal of INTEX-NA is to understand the transport and transformation of gases and aerosols on transcontinental/intercontinental scales and to assess their impact on air quality and climate. Central to achieving this goal is the need to relate space-based observations with those from airborne and surface platforms. During INTEX-A, NASA s DC-8 was joined by some dozen other aircraft from a large number of European and North American partners to focus on the outflow of pollution from NA to the Atlantic. Several instances of Asian pollution over NA were also encountered. INTEX-A flight planning extensively relied on satellite observations and in turn Satellite validation (Terra, Aqua, and Envisat) was given high priority. Over 20 validation profiles were successfully carried out. DC-8 sampling of smoke from Alaskan fires and formaldehyde over forested regions, and simultaneous satellite observations of these provided excellent opportunities for the interplay of these platforms. The planning for INTEX-5 is currently underway, and a vast majority of "standard" and "research" products to be retrieved from Aura instruments will be measured during INTEX-B throughout the troposphere. INTEX-B will focus on the inflow of pollution from Asia to North America and validation of satellite observations with emphasis on Aura. Several national and international partners are expected to coordinate activities with INTEX-B, and we expect its scope to expand in the coming months. An important new development involves partnership with an NSF-sponsored campaign called MIRAGE (Megacity Impacts on Regional and Global Environments- Mexico City Pollution Outflow Field

  12. Specially equipped aircraft used in Florida airborne field mill research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    CO2 study site manager and plant physiologist Graham Hymus (left) examines scrub oak foliage while project engineer David Johnson (right) looks on. The life sciences study is showing that rising levels of carbon dioxide in our atmosphere, caused by the burning of fossil fuels, could spur plant growth globally. The site of KSC's study is a natural scrub oak area near the Vehicle Assembly Building. Twelve-foot areas of scrub oak have been enclosed in 16 open-top test chambers into which CO2 has been blown. Five scientists from NASA and the Smithsonian Environmental Research Center in Edgewater, Md., work at the site to monitor experiments and keep the site running. Scientists hope to continue the study another five to 10 years. More information on this study can be found in Release No. 57- 00. Additional photos can be found at: www- pao.ksc.nasa.gov/captions/subjects/co2study.htm

  13. Effect of electrical charges and fields on injury and viability of airborne bacteria.

    PubMed

    Mainelis, Gediminas; Górny, Rafał L; Reponen, Tiina; Trunov, Mikhaylo; Grinshpun, Sergey A; Baron, Paul; Yadav, Jagjit; Willeke, Klaus

    2002-07-20

    In this study, the effects of the electric charges and fields on the viability of airborne microorganisms were investigated. The electric charges of different magnitude and polarity were imparted on airborne microbial cells by a means of induction charging. The airborne microorganisms carrying different electric charge levels were then extracted by an electric mobility analyzer and collected using a microbial sampler. It was found that the viability of Pseudomonas fluorescens bacteria, used as a model for sensitive bacteria, carrying a net charge from 4100 negative to 30 positive elementary charges ranged between 40% and 60%; the viability of the cells carrying >2700 positive charges was below 1.5%. In contrast, the viability of the stress-resistant spores of Bacillus subtilis var. niger (used as simulant of anthrax-causing Bacillus anthracis spores when testing bioaerosol sensors in various studies), was not affected by the amount of electric charges on the spores. Because bacterial cells depend on their membrane potential for basic metabolic activities, drastic changes occurring in the membrane potential during aerosolization and the local electric fields induced by the imposed charges appeared to affect the sensitive cells' viability. These findings facilitate applications of electric charging for environmental control purposes involving sterilization of bacterial cells by imposing high electric charges on them. The findings from this study can also be used in the development of new bioaerosol sampling methods based on electrostatic principles. PMID:12115440

  14. Toward the Direct Measurement of Coronal Magnetic Fields: An Airborne Infrared Spectrometer for Eclipse Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samra, J.; DeLuca, E. E.; Golub, L.; Cheimets, P.

    2014-12-01

    The solar magnetic field enables the heating of the corona and provides its underlying structure. Energy stored in coronal magnetic fields is released in flares and coronal mass ejections (CME) and provides the ultimate source of energy for space weather. Therefore, direct measurements of the coronal magnetic field have significant potential to enhance understanding of coronal dynamics and improve solar forecasting models. Of particular interest are observations of coronal field lines in the transitional region between closed and open flux systems, providing important information on the origin of the slow solar wind. While current instruments routinely observe only the photospheric and chromospheric magnetic fields, a proposed airborne spectrometer will take a step toward the direct observation of coronal fields by measuring plasma emission in the infrared at high spatial and spectral resolution. The targeted lines are four forbidden magnetic dipole transitions between 2 and 4 μm. The airborne system will consist of a telescope, grating spectrometer, and pointing/stabilization system to be flown on the NSF/NCAR High-performance Instrumented Airborne Platform for Environmental Research (HIAPER) during the August 2017 total solar eclipse. The project incorporates several optical engineering challenges, centered around maintaining adequate spectral and spatial resolution in a compact and inexpensive package and on a moving platform. Design studies are currently underway to examine the tradeoffs between various optical geometries and control strategies for the pointing/stabilization system. The results will be presented and interpreted in terms of the consequences for the scientific questions. In addition, results from a laboratory prototype and simulations of the final system will be presented.

  15. Airborne measurements of NOx, tracer species, and small particles during the European Lightning Nitrogen Oxides Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huntrieser, H.; Feigl, C.; Schlager, H.; Schröder, F.; Gerbig, C.; van Velthoven, P.; Flatøy, F.; Théry, C.; Petzold, A.; Höller, H.; Schumann, U.

    2002-06-01

    Airborne in situ measurements of NO, NO2, NOy, CO, CO2, O3, J(NO2), and CN were performed in European thunderstorms during the field experiment EULINOX in July 1998. The measurements in the upper troposphere show enhanced NOx (= NO + NO2) concentrations within thunderstorms and their outflow at horizontal scales from 300 m to several 100 km. The maximum NO mixing ratio measured inside a thundercloud close to lightning (the aircraft was also hit by a small lightning strike) was 25 ppbv. A regional NOx enhancement of 0.5 ppbv over central Europe could be traced back to a thunderstorm event starting ~24 hours earlier over Spain. The fractions of NOx in thunderclouds which are produced by lightning and convectively transported from the polluted boundary layer are determined by using CO2 and CO as tracers for boundary layer air. The analyses show that on average about 70% of the NOx increase measured in the anvil region was found to result from production by lightning and about 30% from NOx in the boundary layer. Thunderstorms are also strong sources of small particles. The peak CN concentrations measured within thunderstorm outflows (>30,000 particles STP cm-3) were distinctly higher than in the polluted boundary layer. The amount of NOx produced per thunderstorm and NO produced per lightning flash was estimated. The results imply that the annual mean NOx budget in the upper troposphere over Europe is dominated by aircraft emissions (0.1 TgN yr-1) in comparison to lightning production (~0.03 TgN yr-1). On the global scale, NOx produced by lightning (mean 3 TgN yr-1) prevails over aircraft-produced NOx (0.6 TgN yr-1).

  16. Near-real-time TOMS, telecommunications and meteorological support for the 1987 Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ardanuy, P.; Victorine, J.; Sechrist, F.; Feiner, A.; Penn, L.

    1988-01-01

    The goal of the 1987 Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment was to improve the understanding of the mechanisms involved in the formation of the Antarctic ozone hole. Total ozone data taken by the Nimbus-7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) played a central role in the successful outcome of the experiment. During the experiment, the near-real-time TOMS total ozone observations were supplied within hours of real time to the operations center in Punta Arenas, Chile. The final report summarizes the role which Research and Data Systems (RDS) Corporation played in the support of the experiment. The RDS provided telecommunications to support the science and operations efforts for the Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment, and supplied near real-time weather information to ensure flight and crew safety; designed and installed the telecommunications network to link NASA-GSFC, the United Kingdom Meteorological Office (UKMO), Palmer Station, the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) to the operation at Punta Arenas; engineered and installed stations and other stand-alone systems to collect data from designated low-orbiting polar satellites and beacons; provided analyses of Nimbus-7 TOMS data and backup data products to Punta Arenas; and provided synoptic meteorological data analysis and reduction.

  17. Designing an in-flight airborne calibration site using experience from vicarious radiometric satellite calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livens, Stefan; Debruyn, Walter; Sterckx, Sindy; Reusen, Ils

    2011-11-01

    Laboratory calibration of electro-optical sensors is preferably complemented by regular in-flight verification. This checks whether the lab calibration parameters remain valid or recalibration is necessary. In-flight verification can be achieved by vicarious calibration using in-flight measurements of calibration targets. We intend to identify and design a set of suitable radiometric calibration targets. For this, we borrow from expertise gained with the PROBA-V satellite calibration system, which uses multiple vicarious methods relying on diverse natural on-ground targets. Besides reflectance based calibration using ground measurements, the PROBA-V calibration methods are unproven for use in airborne calibration. The selected targets should be suitable for the calibration of both multispectral and hyperspectral imagers. We start from general requirements for radiometric targets and investigate their applicability to airborne calibration. From this we identify two possible sets of natural calibration sites in Belgium. One set, located in the Campine region, contains small water bodies and sandy lakesides. Another set is located in the Westhoek region near the Belgian coast. It offers better suitable water bodies, as well as sandy areas, grass fields and dark targets. Airborne calibration lends itself to the use of smaller artifical targets. We propose to complement the natural targets with a portable target consisting of agricultural nets with different densities. The definition of sets of calibration targets, both natural and artificial can facilitate the investigation of the usability of vicarious targets and method for inflight radiometric verification.

  18. Self-Guided Field Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehrotra, Chandra M. N.

    A field experience program in which all undergraduate psychology students at the College of St. Scholastica spend about 10 weeks away from campus in an applied setting of their choice is presented. Components of the program are described in terms of: (1) selection of sites made by students in consultation with faculty advisors; (2) proposals…

  19. Field Experience, Practicums, and Internships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witucke, Virginia

    1986-01-01

    A field experience program balances great potential for learning against a major expenditure of resources and requires vision, commitment, flexibility, and persistence to implement. It enhances academic learning through use of the outside world's resources and provides a link to the world in which students prepare to live. (MSE)

  20. NATO TG-25 joint field experiment in distributed sensor networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mays, Brian; Vu, Hao; Srour, Nino

    2003-09-01

    NATO's Task Group (TG-25) on acoustic and seismic sensing is responsible for assessing the potential technologies that can be cooperatively developed and shared within NATO's countries to provide effective, robust and low-cost battlefield sensor systems. The primary applications will be detection and/or classification of ground troops, ground vehicles, airborne vehicles, artillery and sniper. TG-25 has 3 main objectives: (1) to establish acoustic and seismic standards and data exchange procedures, (2) to compare, analyze, exchange, and develop analytical techniques, computational models and signal processing algorithms, and (3) to plan and conduct joint field experiments. In this paper, we discuss participation in the joint NATO field experiment conducted in France in October 2002. The experiment's goal is to demonstrate interoperability of unattended ground sensors from various participating nations. Results of the experiments will be briefed and discussed. Keywords: TG-25, unattended ground sensor, vehicle tracking

  1. Contribution of the source velocity to the scattering of electromagnetic fields caused by airborne magnetic dipoles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emanoel Starteri Sampaio, Edson

    2014-08-01

    The velocity of controlled airborne sources of electromagnetic geophysical surveys plays an additional role in the scattering of the fields by the earth. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate its contribution in the space and time variation of secondary electromagnetic fields. The model of a vertical magnetic dipole moving at a constant speed along a horizontal line in the air and above a homogeneous conductive half-space constitutes a first approach to stress the kinematic aspect and determine the difference between the fields due to an airborne and a static source. The magnetic moment of the source is equal to 104 A m2, its height is 120 m, and the horizontal and vertical separations between it and the receiver are, respectively, equal to 100 and 50 m: these values of the model are typical of towed-bird airborne TDEM surveys. We employed four values for the common velocities of source and receiver (0, 60, 80, and 100 m s-1), four values of the conductivity of the half-space (0.5, 0.1, 0.05, and 0.01 S m-1), and two causal source currents (box with periods of 80 and 10 ms and periodic with frequency values of 12.5 and 100 Hz). The results demonstrate that the relative velocity between source and medium yields a measurable variation compared to the static condition. Therefore, it must be taken into consideration by compensating the discrepancy in measured data employing the respective theoretical result. The results also show that it is necessary to adjust the concepts of time and frequency domain for electromagnetic measurements with traveling sources.

  2. Gravity field of the Western Weddell Sea: Comparison of airborne gravity and Geosat derived gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, R. E.; Brozena, J. M.; Haxby, W. F.; Labrecque, J. L.

    1989-01-01

    Marine gravity surveying in polar regions was typically difficult and costly, requiring expensive long range research vessels and ice-breakers. Satellite altimetry can recover the gravity field in these regions where it is feasible to survey with a surface vessel. Unfortunately, the data collected by the first global altimetry mission, Seasat, was collected only during the austral winter, producing a very poor quality gravitational filed for the southern oceans, particularly in the circum-Antarctic regions. The advent of high quality airborne gravity (Brozena, 1984; Brozena and Peters, 1988; Bell, 1988) and the availability of satellite altimetry data during the austral summer (Sandwell and McAdoo, 1988) has allowed the recovery of a free air gravity field for most of the Weddell Sea. The derivation of the gravity field from both aircraft and satellite measurements are briefly reviewed, before presenting along track comparisons and shaded relief maps of the Weddell Sea gravity field based on these two data sets.

  3. Airborne laser topographic mapping results from initial joint NASA/US Army Corps of Engineers experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krabill, W. B.; Collins, J. G.; Swift, R. N.; Butler, M. L.

    1980-01-01

    Initial results from a series of joint NASA/US Army Corps of Engineers experiments are presented. The NASA Airborne Oceanographic Lidar (AOL) was exercised over various terrain conditions, collecting both profile and scan data from which river basin cross sections are extracted. Comparisons of the laser data with both photogrammetry and ground surveys are made, with 12 to 27 cm agreement observed over open ground. Foliage penetration tests, utilizing the unique time-waveform sampling capability of the AOL, indicate 50 cm agreement with photogrammetry (known to have difficulty in foliage covered terrain).

  4. Mojave remote sensing field experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arvidson, Raymond E.; Petroy, S. B.; Plaut, J. J.; Shepard, Michael K.; Evans, D.; Farr, T.; Greeley, Ronald; Gaddis, L.; Lancaster, N.

    1991-01-01

    The Mojave Remote Sensing Field Experiment (MFE), conducted in June 1988, involved acquisition of Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS); C, L, and P-band polarimetric radar (AIRSAR) data; and simultaneous field observations at the Pisgah and Cima volcanic fields, and Lavic and Silver Lake Playas, Mojave Desert, California. A LANDSAT Thematic Mapper (TM) scene is also included in the MFE archive. TM-based reflectance and TIMS-based emissivity surface spectra were extracted for selected surfaces. Radiative transfer procedures were used to model the atmosphere and surface simultaneously, with the constraint that the spectra must be consistent with field-based spectral observations. AIRSAR data were calibrated to backscatter cross sections using corner reflectors deployed at target sites. Analyses of MFE data focus on extraction of reflectance, emissivity, and cross section for lava flows of various ages and degradation states. Results have relevance for the evolution of volcanic plains on Venus and Mars.

  5. Experiment of monitoring thermal discharge drained from nuclear plant through airborne infrared remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Difeng; Pan, Delu; Li, Ning

    2009-07-01

    The State Development and Planning Commission has approved nuclear power projects with the total capacity of 23,000 MW. The plants will be built in Zhejiang, Jiangsu, Guangdong, Shandong, Liaoning and Fujian Province before 2020. However, along with the nuclear power policy of accelerated development in our country, the quantity of nuclear plants and machine sets increases quickly. As a result the environment influence of thermal discharge will be a problem that can't be slid over. So evaluation of the environment influence and engineering simulation must be performed before station design and construction. Further more real-time monitoring of water temperature need to be arranged after fulfillment, reflecting variety of water temperature in time and provided to related managing department. Which will help to ensure the operation of nuclear plant would not result in excess environment breakage. At the end of 2007, an airborne thermal discharge monitoring experiment has been carried out by making use of MAMS, a marine multi-spectral scanner equipped on the China Marine Surveillance Force airplane. And experimental subject was sea area near Qin Shan nuclear plant. This paper introduces the related specification and function of MAMS instrument, and decrypts design and process of the airborne remote sensing experiment. Experiment showed that applying MAMS to monitoring thermal discharge is viable. The remote sensing on a base of thermal infrared monitoring technique told us that thermal discharge of Qin Shan nuclear plant was controlled in a small scope, never breaching national water quality standard.

  6. Airborne observations of electric fields around growing and decaying cumulus clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giori, K. L.; Nanevicz, J. E.

    1991-01-01

    Airborne electric field data were gathered in an atmospheric electrification study near Cape Canaveral, FL. A Learjet 36A was instrumented with eight electric field meters (mills) and five different particle probes. The local electric field enhancements at each field mill site were determined under lab conditions and verified using in-flight data. The overdetermined system of eight equations (one for each field mill) was solved using a weighted least squares algorithm to compute the magnitude and direction of the ambient electric field. The signal processing system allowed the measured data to be expressed in terms of earth coordinates, regardless of the attitude of the aircraft. Thus, it was possible to take maximum advantage of the Learjet's speed and maneuverability in studying the electric field structure in the vicinity of the clouds. Data gathered while circling just outside the boundary of a growing cumulus cloud show a nonsymmetric pattern of electric field strength. Field intensity grew rapidly over a period of less than 10 minutes. The observed direction of the ambient electric field vector can be explained by an ascending motion of the charge centers of a classic tripole model of a thunderstorm.

  7. Remote Sensing of Wind Fields and Aerosol Distribution with Airborne Scanning Doppler Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothermel, Jeffry; Cutten, Dean R.; Johnson, Steven C.; Jazembski, Maurice; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The coherent Doppler laser radar (lidar), when operated from an airborne platform, is a unique tool for the study of atmospheric and surface processes and features. This is especially true for scientific objectives requiring measurements in optically-clear air, where other remote sensing technologies such as Doppler radar are typically at a disadvantage. The atmospheric lidar remote sensing groups of several US institutions, led by Marshall Space Flight Center, have developed an airborne coherent Doppler lidar capable of mapping the wind field and aerosol structure in three dimensions. The instrument consists of an eye-safe approx. 1 Joule/pulse lidar transceiver, telescope, scanner, inertial measurement unit, and flight computer system to orchestrate all subsystem functions and tasks. The scanner is capable of directing the expanded lidar beam in a variety of ways, in order to extract vertically-resolved wind fields. Horizontal resolution is approx. 1 km; vertical resolution is even finer. Winds are obtained by measuring backscattered, Doppler-shifted laser radiation from naturally-occurring aerosol particles (of order 1 micron diameter). Measurement coverage depends on aerosol spatial distribution and composition. Velocity accuracy has been verified to be approx. 1 meter per second. A variety of applications have been demonstrated during the three flight campaigns conducted during 1995-1998. Examples will be shown during the presentation. In 1995, boundary layer winds over the ocean were mapped with unprecedented resolution. In 1996, unique measurements were made of. flow over the complex terrain of the Aleutian Islands; interaction of the marine boundary layer jet with the California coastal mountain range; a weak dry line in Texas - New Mexico; the angular dependence of sea surface scattering; and in-flight radiometric calibration using the surface of White Sands National Monument. In 1998, the first measurements of eyewall and boundary layer winds within a

  8. Estimating storm areal average rainfall intensity in field experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters-Lidard, Christa D.; Wood, Eric F.

    1994-07-01

    Estimates of areal mean precipitation intensity derived from rain gages are commonly used to assess the performance of rainfall radars and satellite rainfall retrieval algorithms. Areal mean precipitation time series collected during short-duration climate field studies are also used as inputs to water and energy balance models which simulate land-atmosphere interactions during the experiments. In two recent field experiments (1987 First International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project (ISLSCP) Field Experiment (FIFE) and the Multisensor Airborne Campaign for Hydrology 1990 (MAC-HYDRO '90)) designed to investigate the climatic signatures of land-surface forcings and to test airborne sensors, rain gages were placed over the watersheds of interest. These gages provide the sole means for estimating storm precipitation over these areas, and the gage densities present during these experiments indicate that there is a large uncertainty in estimating areal mean precipitation intensity for single storm events. Using a theoretical model of time- and area-averaged space- time rainfall and a model rainfall generator, the error structure of areal mean precipitation intensity is studied for storms statistically similar to those observed in the FIFE and MAC-HYDRO field experiments. Comparisons of the error versus gage density trade-off curves to those calculated using the storm observations show that the rainfall simulator can provide good estimates of the expected measurement error given only the expected intensity, coefficient of variation, and rain cell diameter or correlation length scale, and that these errors can quickly become very large (in excess of 20%) for certain storms measured with a network whose size is below a "critical" gage density. Because the mean storm rainfall error is particularly sensitive to the correlation length, it is important that future field experiments include radar and/or dense rain gage networks capable of accurately characterizing the

  9. Nuclide-migration field experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Erdal, B.R.; Wolfsberg, K.; Johnstone, J.K.; Erickson, K.L.; Friedman, A.M.; Fried, S.; Hines, J.J.

    1981-03-01

    When considering groundwater flow and radionuclide retention in the complex flow systems that can occur in geologic formations, one has a serious problem in determining if laboratory studies are being performed under conditions appropriate to natural systems. This document is the project plan for a program designed to begin to address these problems. The project is being carried out jointly by the Los Alamos National Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, and Argonne National Laboratory. The work has three principal objectives: (1) to develop the experimental, instrumental, and safety techniques necessary to conduct controlled, small-scale radionuclide migration field experiments, including those involving actinides; (2) to use these techniques to define radionuclide migration through rock by performing generic, at-depth experiments under closely monitored conditions; and (3) to determine whether available lithologic, geochemical, and hydrologic properties together with existing or developing transport models are sufficient and appropriate to describe real field conditions.

  10. Remote sensing of large scale methane emission sources with the Methane Airborne MAPper (MAMAP) instrument over the Kern River and Kern Front Oil fields and validation through airborne in-situ measurements - Initial results from COMEX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerilowski, K.; Krautwurst, S.; Kolyer, R.; Jonsson, H.; Krings, T.; Horstjann, M.; Leifer, I.; Schuettemeyer, D.; Fladeland, M. M.; Burrows, J. P.; Bovensmann, H.

    2014-12-01

    During three flights performed with the MAMAP (Methane Airborne MAPper) airborne remote sensing instrument in the framework of the CO2 and MEthane Experiment (COMEX) - a NASA and ESA funded campaign in support of HyspIRI and CarbonSat mission definition activities - large scale methane plumes were detected over the Kern River and Kern Front Oil fields in the period between June 3 and 13, 2014. MAMAP was installed for these flights aboard of the Center for Interdisciplinary Remotely-Piloted Aircraft Studies (CIRPAS) Twin Otter aircraft, together with a Picarro fast in-situ greenhouse gas (GHG) analyzer (operate by the Ames Research Center, ARC), a 5 hole turbulence probe as well as a atmospheric measurement package (operated by CIRPAS), measuring aerosols, temperature, dew-point and other atmospheric parameters. Data collected with the in-situ GHG analyzer will be used for validation of MAMAP remotely sensed data by acquiring vertical cross sections of the discovered plumes at a fixed downwind distance. Precise airborne wind information from the turbulence probe together with ground based wind data from the nearby airport will be used to estimate emission rates from the remote sensed and in-situ measured data. Remote sensed and in-situ data as well as initial flux estimates for the three flights will be presented.

  11. Harvesting tree biomass at the stand level to assess the accuracy of field and airborne biomass estimation in savannas.

    PubMed

    Colgan, Matthew S; Asner, Gregory P; Swemmer, Tony

    2013-07-01

    Tree biomass is an integrated measure of net growth and is critical for understanding, monitoring, and modeling ecosystem functions. Despite the importance of accurately measuring tree biomass, several fundamental barriers preclude direct measurement at large spatial scales, including the facts that trees must be felled to be weighed and that even modestly sized trees are challenging to maneuver once felled. Allometric methods allow for estimation of tree mass using structural characteristics, such as trunk diameter. Savanna trees present additional challenges, including limited available allometry and a prevalence of multiple stems per individual. Here we collected airborne lidar data over a semiarid savanna adjacent to the Kruger National Park, South Africa, and then harvested and weighed woody plant biomass at the plot scale to provide a standard against which field and airborne estimation methods could be compared. For an existing airborne lidar method, we found that half of the total error was due to averaging canopy height at the plot scale. This error was eliminated by instead measuring maximum height and crown area of individual trees from lidar data using an object-based method to identify individual tree crowns and estimate their biomass. The best object-based model approached the accuracy of field allometry at both the tree and plot levels, and it more than doubled the accuracy compared to existing airborne methods (17% vs. 44% deviation from harvested biomass). Allometric error accounted for less than one-third of the total residual error in airborne biomass estimates at the plot scale when using allometry with low bias. Airborne methods also gave more accurate predictions at the plot level than did field methods based on diameter-only allometry. These results provide a novel comparison of field and airborne biomass estimates using harvested plots and advance the role of lidar remote sensing in savanna ecosystems. PMID:23967584

  12. Source Identification Of Airborne Antimony On The Basis Of The Field Monitoring And The Source Profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iijima, A.; Sato, K.; Fujitani, Y.; Fujimori, E.; Tanabe, K.; Ohara, T.; Shimoda, M.; Kozawa, K.; Furuta, N.

    2008-12-01

    The results of the long-term monitoring of airborne particulate matter (APM) in Tokyo indicated that APM have been extremely enriched with antimony (Sb) compared to crustal composition. This observation suggests that the airborne Sb is distinctly derived from human activities. According to the material flow analysis, automotive brake abrasion dust and fly ash from waste incinerator were suspected as the significant Sb sources. To clarify the emission sources of the airborne Sb, elemental composition, particle size distribution, and morphological profiles of dust particles collected from two possible emission sources were characterized and compared to the field observation data. Brake abrasion dust samples were generated by using a brake dynamometer. During the abrasion test, particle size distribution was measured by an aerodynamic particle sizer spectrometer. Concurrently, size- classified dust particles were collected by an Andersen type air sampler. Fly ash samples were collected from several municipal waste incinerators, and the bulk ash samples were re-dispersed into an enclosed chamber. The measurement of particle size distribution and the collection of size-classified ash particles were conducted by the same methodologies as described previously. Field observations of APM were performed at a roadside site and a residential site by using an Andersen type air sampler. Chemical analyses of metallic elements were performed by an inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry and an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometr. Morphological profiling of the individual particle was conducted by a scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer. High concentration of Sb was detected from both of two possible sources. Particularly, Sb concentrations in a brake abrasion dust were extremely high compared to that in an ambient APM, suggesting that airborne Sb observed at the roadside might have been largely derived from

  13. Applying linear spectral unmixing to airborne hyperspectral imagery for mapping yield variability in grain sorghum and cotton fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study examined linear spectral unmixing techniques for mapping the variation in crop yield for precision agriculture. Both unconstrained and constrained linear spectral unmixing models were applied to airborne hyperspectral imagery collected from a grain sorghum field and a cotton field. A pair...

  14. Airborne Bacteria in the Atmospheric Surface Layer: Temporal Distribution above a Grass Seed Field

    PubMed Central

    Lighthart, B.; Shaffer, B. T.

    1995-01-01

    Temporal airborne bacterial concentrations and meteorological conditions were measured above a grass seed field in the Willamette River Valley, near Corvallis, Oreg., in the summer of 1993. The concentration of airborne bacteria had a maximum of 1,368.5 CFU/m(sup3), with a coefficient of variation of 90.5% and a mean of 121.3 CFU/m(sup3). The lowest concentration of bacteria occurred during the predawn hours, with an average of 32.2 CFU/m(sup3), while sunrise and early evening hours had the highest averages (164.7 and 158.1 CFU/m(sup3), respectively). The concentrations of bacteria in the atmosphere varied greatly, with a maximum difference between two 2-min samples of 1,995 CFU/m(sup3). The concentrations of bacteria in the atmosphere could be divided into five time periods during the day that were thought to be related to the local diurnal sea breeze and Pacific Coast monsoon weather conditions as follows: (i) the nighttime minimum concentration, i.e., 2300 to 0600 h; (ii) the sunrise peak concentration, i.e., 0600 to 0800 h; (iii) the midday accumulating concentration, i.e., 0800 to 1515 h; (iv) the late-afternoon sea breeze trough concentration, i.e., 1515 to 1700 h; and (v) the evening decrease to the nighttime minimum concentration, i.e., 1700 to 2300 h. The sunrise peak concentration (period ii) is thought to be a relatively general phenomenon dependent on ground heating by the sun, while the afternoon trough concentration is thought to be a relatively local phenomenon dependent on the afternoon sea breeze. Meteorological conditions are thought to be an important regulating influence on airborne bacterial concentrations in the outdoor atmosphere in the Willamette River Valley. PMID:16534998

  15. Airborne Active and Passive L-Band Observations in Soil Moisture Active Passive Validation Experiment 2012 (SMAPVEX12)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colliander, A.; Yueh, S. H.; Chazanoff, S.; Jackson, T. J.; McNairn, H.; Bullock, P.; Wiseman, G.; Berg, A. A.; Magagi, R.; Njoku, E. G.

    2012-12-01

    NASA's (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Mission is scheduled for launch in October 2014. The objective of the mission is global mapping of soil moisture and freeze/thaw state. Merging of active and passive L-band observations of the mission will enable unprecedented combination of accuracy, resolution, coverage and revisit-time for soil moisture and freeze/thaw state retrieval. For pre-launch algorithm development and validation the SMAP project and NASA coordinated a field campaign named as SMAPVEX12 (Soil Moisture Active Passive Validation Experiment 2012) together with Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada in the vicinity of Winnipeg, Canada in June-July, 2012. The main objective of SMAPVEX12 was acquisition of data record that features long-time series with varying soil moisture and vegetation conditions (for testing the application of time-series approach) over aerial domain of multiple parallel lines (for spatial disaggregation studies). The coincident active and passive L-band data were acquired using the Passive Active L-band System (PALS), which is an airborne radiometer and radar developed for testing L-band retrieval algorithms. For SMAPVEX12 PALS was installed on a Twin Otter aircraft. The flight plan included flights at two altitudes. The higher altitude was used to map the whole experiment domain and the lower altitude was used to obtain measurements over a specific set of field sites. The spatial resolution (and swath) of the radar and radiometer from low altitude was about 600 m and from high altitude about 1500 m. The PALS acquisitions were complemented with high resolution (~10 m) L-band SAR measurements carried out by UAVSAR instrument on-board G-III aircraft. The campaign ran from June 7 until July 19. The PALS instrument conducted 17 brightness temperature and backscatter measurement flights and the UAVSAR conducted 14 backscatter measurement flights. The airborne data acquisition was supported by

  16. Nitrous oxide as a dynamical tracer in the 1987 Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loewenstein, M.; Podolske, J. R.; Chan, K. R.; Strahan, S. E.

    1989-08-01

    In situ N2O measurements were made using an airborne tunable laser absorption spectrometer (ATLAS) on 12 flights into the Antarctic vortex, as well as on five transit flights outside the vortex region in August and September 1987, as part of the Airborne Antartic Ozone Experiment. Vertical profiles of N2O were obtained within the vortex on most of these flights and were obtained outside the vortex on several occasions. Flights into the vortex region show N2O decreasing southward between 53 and 72 S latitude on constant potential temperature surfaces in the lower stratosphere. The data lead to two important conclusions about the vortex region: (1) the lower stratosphere in August/September 1987 was occupied by 'old' air, which had subsided several kilometers during polar winter; (2) the N2O profile in the vortex was in an approximately steady state in August/September 1987, which indicates that the spring upwelling, suggested by several theories, did not occur.

  17. Observational results of microwave temperature profile measurements from the airborne Antarctic ozone experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gary, Bruce L.

    1988-01-01

    The Microwave Temperature Profiler, MTP, is installed on NASA's ER-2 aircraft. MTP measures profiles of air temperature versus altitude. Temperatures are obtained every 13.7 seconds for 15 altitudes in an altitude region that is approximately 5 km thick (at high flight levels). MTP is a passive microwave radiometer, operating at the frequencies 57.3 and 58.8 GHz. Thermal emission from oxygen molecules provides the signal that is converted to air temperature. MTP is unique in that it is the only airborne instrument of its kind. The MTP instrument was used during the Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment, AAOE, to enable potential vorticity to be measured along the flight track. Other uses for the MTP data have become apparent. The most intriguing unexpected use is the detection and characterization of mountain waves that were encountered during flights over the Palmer Peninsula. Mountain waves that propagate into the polar vortex may have implications for the formation of the ozone hole. Upward excursions of air parcels lead to a brief cooling. This can begin the process of cloud formation. It is important to determine how much additional formation of polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) material is possible by the passage of air parcels through a mountain wave pattern that endures for long periods. Other mountain wave effects have been suggested, such as a speeding up of the vortex, and a consequent cooling of large air volumes (which in turn might add to PSC production).

  18. An overview of the first International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project (ISLSCP) Field Experiment (FIFE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sellers, P. J.; Hall, F. G.; Asrar, G.; Strebel, D. E.; Murphy, R. E.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reviews the history and scientific background leading up to FIFE, the experiment design, the scientific teams and equipment involved, and the actual execution of the experiment. The experiment was tasked with exploring techniques for utilizing satellite data to quantify important biophysical states and rates for model input. During the intensive field campaigns the fluxes of moisture, heat, carbon dioxide and radiation were measured with airborne and surface equipment in coordination with measurements of atmospheric and surface parameters and satellite overpasses.

  19. Observations of condensation nuclei in the 1987 airborne Antarctic ozone experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. C.; Smith, S. D.; Ferry, G. V.; Loewenstein, M.

    1988-01-01

    The condensation nucleus counter (CNC) flown of the NASA ER-2 in the Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment provides a measurement of the number mixing ratio of particles which can be grown by exposure to supersaturated n-butyl alcohol vapor to diameters of a few microns. Such particles are referred to as condensation nuclei (CN). The ER-2 CNC was calibrated with aerosols of known size and concentration and was found to provide an accurate measure of the number concentration of particles larger than about 0.02 micron. Since the number distribution of stratospheric aerosols is usually dominated by particles less than a few tenths of micron in diameter, the upper cutoff of the ER-2 CNC has not been determined experimentally. However, theory suggests that the sampling and counting efficiency should remain near one for particles as large as 1 micron in diameter. Thus, the CN mixing ratio is usually a good measure of the mixing ratio of submicron particles.

  20. Airborne ROWS data report for the high resolution experiment, June 1993

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandemark, D.; Hines, D.; Bailey, S.; Stewart, K.

    1994-01-01

    Airborne radar ocean wave spectrometer (ROWS) data collected during the Office of Naval Research's High Resolution Remote Sensing Experiment of June 1993 are presented. This data summary covers six flights made using NASA's T-39 aircraft over a region of the North Atlantic off the coast of North Carolina and includes multiple crossings of the gulf stream. The Ku-band ROWS was operated in a configuration which continuously switched between an altimeter and a spectrometer channel. Data derived from the two channels include altimeter radar cross section, altimeter-derived sea surface mean square slope and wind speed, and directional and nondirectional longwave spectra. Discussion is provided for several events of particular interest.

  1. Observational results using the microwave temperature profiler during the Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gary, Bruce L.

    1989-01-01

    The Microwave Temperature Profiler (MTP) measures profiles of air temperature versus altitude. The altitude coverage is about 5 km at a flight altitude of 20 km (66,000 feet), and the profiles are obtained every 14 s. The MTP instrument is installed on NASA's ER-2 aircraft, which flew 13 missions over Antarctica during the Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment. Altitude temperature profiles were used to derive potential temperature cross sections. These cross sections have been useful in detecting atmospheric waves. Many wave encounters have been identified as 'mountain waves'. The mountain waves are found to extend from the lowest altitudes measured to the highest (about 24 km). The southern part of the Palmer Peninsula was found to be associated with mountain waves more than half the time. Altitude temperature profiles were also used to measure the lapse rate along the flight track. Lapse rate versus latitude plots do not show significant changes at the ozone hole boundary.

  2. On error sources during airborne measurements of the ambient electric field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evteev, B. F.

    1991-01-01

    The principal sources of errors during airborne measurements of the ambient electric field and charge are addressed. Results of their analysis are presented for critical survey. It is demonstrated that the volume electric charge has to be accounted for during such measurements, that charge being generated at the airframe and wing surface by droplets of clouds and precipitation colliding with the aircraft. The local effect of that space charge depends on the flight regime (air speed, altitude, particle size, and cloud elevation). Such a dependence is displayed in the relation between the collector conductivity of the aircraft discharging circuit - on one hand, and the sum of all the residual conductivities contributing to aircraft discharge - on the other. Arguments are given in favor of variability in the aircraft electric capacitance. Techniques are suggested for measuring from factors to describe the aircraft charge.

  3. Airborne measurements of atmospheric methane over oil fields in western Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tohjima, Y.; Maksyutov, S.; Machida, T.; Inoue, G.

    Airborne measurements of atmospheric methane (CH4) over oil fields in western Siberia were carried out on August 1, 1994. Extremely sharp CH4 peaks were observed in the horizontal distribution of CH4 at an altitude of 150 m above the ground surface; the half widths of the peaks were 3-4 km and the concentration of the largest peak exceeded 2.9 ppmv. Since the CH4 distribution was considered to reflect the distribution of CH4 emission strength on the surface, there was strong CH4 emission at the peak positions. All of the observed CH4 peak positions were located at or near oil production sites and/or oil pipelines, suggesting that natural gas was emitted from the facilities. Leakage or venting of natural gas are the probable CH4 sources.

  4. Urban land-cover classification based on airborne hyperspectral data and field observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, Fumio; Hara, Konomi; Liu, Wen

    2014-10-01

    Using a dataset from the 2013 IEEE data fusion contest, a basic study to classify urban land-cover was carried out. The spectral reflectance characteristics of surface materials were investigated from the airborne hyperspectral (HS) data acquired by CASI-1500 imager over Houston, Texas, USA. The HS data include 144 spectral bands in the visible to near-infrared (380 nm to 1050 nm) regions. A multispectral (MS) image acquired by WorldView-2 satellite was also introduced in order to compare it with the HS image. A field measurement in the Houston's test site was carried out using a handheld spectroradiometer by the present authors. The reflectance of surface materials obtained by the measurement was also compared with the pseudo-reflectance of the HS data and they showed good agreement. Finally a principal component analysis was conducted for the HS and MS data and the result was discussed.

  5. Validation of Monte Carlo model of HPGe detector for field-station measurement of airborne radioactivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šolc, J.; Kovář, P.; Dryák, P.

    2016-03-01

    A Monte Carlo (MC) model of a mechanically-cooled High Purity Germanium detection system IDM-200-V™ manufactured by ORTEC® was created, optimized and validated within the scope of the Joint Research Project ENV57 ``Metrology for radiological early warning networks in Europe''. The validation was performed for a planar source homogeneously distributed on a filter placed on top of the detector end cap and for point sources positioned farther from the detector by comparing simulated full-energy peak (FEP) detection efficiencies with the ones measured with two or three different pieces of the IDM detector. True coincidence summing correction factors were applied to the measured FEP efficiencies. Relative differences of FEP efficiencies laid within 8% that is fully satisfactory for the intended use of the detectors as instruments for airborne radioactivity measurement in field-stations. The validated MC model of the IDM-200-V™ detector is now available for further MC calculations planned in the ENV57 project.

  6. Wind field measurements for the mitigation of airborne health threats in a complex urban environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arend, Mark; Santoro, David; Abdelazim, Sameh; Moshary, Fred; Ahmed, Sam

    2009-05-01

    The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) sponsored Urban Dispersion Program (UDP) resulted in the strategic placement of weather instruments in New York City (NYC) and the transition of some instruments to the City College of New York (CCNY) operated NYC MetNet to provide timely and accurate information on "skimming field" winds above city building tops. In order to extend the observational capabilities of the NYC MetNet, a cost effective portable eye safe fiber optic based coherent wind lidar system is currently under development in CCNY laboratories. Wind lidar measurements, coupled with the continuous observations from the NYC MetNet, should support the initialization, feedback and development of plume models that would be used after an initial detection of airborne toxins. An overview of the lidar system design and the NYC MetNet will be given.

  7. Sampling and analysis of airborne residues of paraquat in treated cotton field environments.

    PubMed

    Seiber, J N; Woodrow, J E

    1981-01-01

    A method was developed for the analysis of paraquat residues in airborne particulate matter collected by filtration or impaction. The method is based on extraction of paraquat with 6N hydrochloric acid, transfer of residue to saturated ammonium bicarbonate solution, and reduction of the resulting residue with alkaline sodium borohydride to a mixture of two tertiary amines with subsequent determination by nitrogen-selective gas chromatography (GLC). Recoveries ranged from 74 to 96% for filters spiked at 0.05 microgram and above; the limit of detection is approximately 0.5 ng/m3 for high volume air samples. Paraquat concentrations measured in the air downwind from two commercial applications to cotton during spraying fell regularly from extrapolated interval-average values of 4.31 and 10.7 microgram/m3 at the 1 m downwind edge of the two fields to less than 50 ng/m3 at approximately 400 m downwind. Downwind samples taken 2 to 4 hr after spraying contained 1 to 10% as much paraquat as those during spraying, and by 5 to 7 hr no paraquat was detectable in the downwind air. Paraquat was also found in the airborne particulate matter during mechanical harvesting of one of the fields, the maximum interval-average values being 1,245 and 516 ng/m3 just outside and inside an open cab, respectively. The analytical findings for paraquat are compared with those for S,S,S-tributylphosphorotrithioate (DEF), a component of the harvest aid mixture employed, and discussed in terms of occupational exposure, potential hazard, and recommended occupational practices. PMID:7224666

  8. Mapping methane concentrations from a controlled release experiment using the next generation Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRISng)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorpe, A. K.; Frankenberg, C.; Roberts, D. A.; Aubrey, A. D.; Green, R. O.; Hulley, G. C.; Hook, S. J.

    2014-12-01

    Airborne imaging spectrometers like the next generation Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRISng) are well suited for monitoring local methane sources by covering large regions with the high spatial resolution necessary to resolve emissions. As part of a field campaign with controlled methane releases at the Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center (RMOTC), a number of methane plumes were clearly visible at multiple flux rates and flight altitudes. Images of plumes appeared consistent with wind directions measured at ground stations and were present for fluxes as low as 14.2 cubic meters of methane per hour, equivalent to 0.09 kt/year. Direct comparison of results from AVIRISng and plume dispersion models is ongoing and will be used to assess the potential of constraining emission fluxes using AVIRISng. Methane plumes observed at RMOTC with the Hyperspectral Thermal Emission Spectrometer (HyTES) will also be presented. This controlled release experiment was used to determine the methane sensitivity of AVIRISng and inform sensor design for future imaging spectrometers that could constrain natural and anthropogenic methane emissions on local and regional scales. Imaging spectrometers permit direct attribution of emissions to individual point sources which is particularly useful given the large uncertainties associated with anthropogenic emissions, including industrial point source emissions and fugitive methane from the oil and gas industry. Figure caption: a. AVIRISng true color image indicating tube trailer (TT), meteorological tower (MT), and release point (RP). b. Prominent methane plume and measured enhancements for 70.8 cubic meters per hour methane flux is consistent with wind speed and direction (see arrow) measured by meteorological tower. A linear transect is shown in red and corresponds to enhancements shown in c. d. True color image showing release point (RP). e. Smaller methane plume for 14.2 cubic meters per hour flux. f. Methane

  9. Emplacement of Basaltic Flow Fields: New Insights Using MODIS/ASTER Airborne Simulator (MASTER) Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrnes, J. M.; Ramsey, M. S.; Crown, D. A.

    2001-12-01

    Surface units that reflect local emplacement conditions within the 1969-1974 Mauna Ulu lava flow field (Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii) have been identified and are being mapped using field observations and remote sensing analyses. Investigation of a preliminary study site on and below Holei Pali utilized high-resolution color aerial photographs [Byrnes and Crown, 2000. J Geophys Res 106, 2139-2151] and TIMS (Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner) airborne data. Four surface units were identified that are related to the state of the lava during emplacement and were found to be correlated with the pre-eruption topography but not to the major lava tube segments mapped previously. These units show variations at visible wavelengths related to color, the presence of a glassy surface crust, and unit (dm- to m-scale) morphology. Variations at thermal wavelengths are presumably related to surface variations in phenocryst abundance, vesicles/micron-scale roughness, and glass. Interpretations based on the TIMS data are significantly limited by noise in available data covering the flow field. The present study uses MASTER (MODIS/ASTER airborne simulator) data to extend the spatial and spectral coverage of the Mauna Ulu flow field. Preliminary analyses of the data (corrected for atmospheric effects) indicate that: (1) additional classes of surface units (such as shelly pahoehoe) can be identified within the flow field, and (2) systematic changes in emplacement occurred from the proximal to the medial and distal portions of the flow field. Comparison with ASTER images indicates that similar classes of surface units may be discriminated in both datasets, though MASTER is preferable for this study because it provides: (1) higher spatial resolution (especially in thermal bands), and (2) constant pixel size for all wavelengths. These factors allow for discrimination of smaller flow units and more accurate correlation of visible- and thermal-wavelength spectral signatures. The higher

  10. Evaluation of Airborne Precision Spacing in a Human-in-the-Loop Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barmore, Bryan E.; Abbott, Terence S.; Capron, William R.

    2005-01-01

    A significant bottleneck in the current air traffic system occurs at the runway. Expanding airports and adding new runways will help solve this problem; however, this comes with significant costs: financially, politically and environmentally. A complementary solution is to safely increase the capacity of current runways. This can be achieved by precisely spacing aircraft at the runway threshold, with a resulting reduction in the spacing bu er required under today s operations. At NASA's Langley Research Center, the Airspace Systems program has been investigating airborne technologies and procedures that will assist the flight crew in achieving precise spacing behind another aircraft. A new spacing clearance allows the pilot to follow speed cues from a new on-board guidance system called Airborne Merging and Spacing for Terminal Arrivals (AMSTAR). AMSTAR receives Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) reports from an assigned, leading aircraft and calculates the appropriate speed for the ownship to fly to achieve the desired spacing interval, time- or distance-based, at the runway threshold. Since the goal is overall system capacity, the speed guidance algorithm is designed to provide system-wide benefits and stability to a string of arriving aircraft. An experiment was recently performed at the NASA Langley Air Traffic Operations Laboratory (ATOL) to test the flexibility of Airborne Precision Spacing operations under a variety of operational conditions. These included several types of merge and approach geometries along with the complementary merging and in-trail operations. Twelve airline pilots and four controllers participated in this simulation. Performance and questionnaire data were collected from a total of eighty-four individual arrivals. The pilots were able to achieve precise spacing with a mean error of 0.5 seconds and a standard deviation of 4.7 seconds. No statistically significant di erences in spacing performance were found between in

  11. Measurement of airborne gunshot particles in a ballistics laboratory by sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Ernesto; Sarkis, Jorge E Souza; Viebig, Sônia; Saldiva, Paulo

    2012-01-10

    The present study aimed determines lead (Pb), antimony (Sb) and barium (Ba) as the major elements present in GSR in the environmental air of the Ballistics Laboratory of the São Paulo Criminalistics Institute (I.C.-S.P.), São Paulo, SP, Brazil. Micro environmental monitors (mini samplers) were located at selected places. The PM(2.5) fraction of this airborne was collected in, previously weighted filters, and analyzed by sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (SF-HR-ICP-MS). The higher values of the airborne lead, antimony and barium, were found at the firing range (lead (Pb): 58.9 μg/m(3); barium (Ba): 6.9 μg/m(3); antimony (Sb): 7.3 μg/m(3)). The mean value of the airborne in this room during 6 monitored days was Pb: 23.1 μg/m(3); Ba: 2.2 μg/m(3); Sb: 1.5 μg/m(3). In the water tank room, the air did not show levels above the limits of concern. In general the airborne lead changed from day to day, but the barium and antimony remained constant. Despite of that, the obtained values suggest that the workers may be exposed to airborne lead concentration that can result in an unhealthy environment and could increase the risk of chronic intoxication. PMID:21831549

  12. Use of airborne hyperspectral imagery to map soil parameters in tilled agricultural fields

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hively, W. Dean; McCarty, Gregory W.; Reeves, James B., III; Lang, Megan W.; Oesterling, Robert A.; Delwiche, Stephen R.

    2011-01-01

    Soil hyperspectral reflectance imagery was obtained for six tilled (soil) agricultural fields using an airborne imaging spectrometer (400–2450 nm, ~10 nm resolution, 2.5 m spatial resolution). Surface soil samples (n = 315) were analyzed for carbon content, particle size distribution, and 15 agronomically important elements (Mehlich-III extraction). When partial least squares (PLS) regression of imagery-derived reflectance spectra was used to predict analyte concentrations, 13 of the 19 analytes were predicted with R2 > 0.50, including carbon (0.65), aluminum (0.76), iron (0.75), and silt content (0.79). Comparison of 15 spectral math preprocessing treatments showed that a simple first derivative worked well for nearly all analytes. The resulting PLS factors were exported as a vector of coefficients and used to calculate predicted maps of soil properties for each field. Image smoothing with a 3 × 3 low-pass filter prior to spectral data extraction improved prediction accuracy. The resulting raster maps showed variation associated with topographic factors, indicating the effect of soil redistribution and moisture regime on in-field spatial variability. High-resolution maps of soil analyte concentrations can be used to improve precision environmental management of farmlands.

  13. Thermal Infrared Airborne Field Studies: Applications to the Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herr, K.; Kirkland, L.; Keim, E.; Hackwell, J.

    2002-12-01

    A primary goal of the Mars exploration program is to reconnoiter the planet from orbit using infrared remote sensing. Currently the Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) and the 2001 Mars Odyssey 9-band radiometer THEMIS provide this capability. Landing site selection and modeling of the geologic and climate history depend on accurate interpretations of these data sets. Interpretations use terrestrial analog remote sensing and laboratory studies. Until recently, there have been no airborne thermal infrared spectrometer ("hyspectral") data sets available to NASA researchers that are comparable to TES. As a result, studies relied on airborne multi-channel radiometer ("multispectral") measurements (e.g. TIMS, MASTER). A radiometer has the advantage that measurement of broad bands makes it easier to measure with higher sensitivity. However, radiometers lack the spectral resolution to investigate details of spectral signatures. This gap may be partially addressed using field samples collected and measured in the laboratory. However, that leaves questions unanswered about the field environment and potentially leaves important complicating issues undiscovered. Two questions that haunt thermal infrared remote sensing investigations of Mars are: (1) If a mineral is not detected in a given data set, how definitively should we state that it is not there? (2) When does the method provide quantitative mineral mapping? In order to address these questions, we began collaborating with Department of Defense (DoD) oriented researchers and drawing on the unique instrumentation they developed. Both Mars and DoD researchers have a common need to identify materials without benefit of ground truth. Such collaborations provide a fresh perspective as well as unique data. Our work addresses uncertainties in stand-off identification of solid phase surface materials when the identification must proceed without benefit of ground truth. We will report on the results applied to TES

  14. Passive remote sensing of large-scale methane emissions from Oil Fields in California's San Joaquin Valley and validation by airborne in-situ measurements - Results from COMEX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerilowski, Konstantin; Krautwurst, Sven; Thompson, David R.; Thorpe, Andrew K.; Kolyer, Richard W.; Jonsson, Haflidi; Krings, Thomas; Frankenberg, Christian; Horstjann, Markus; Leifer, Ira; Eastwood, Michael; Green, Robert O.; Vigil, Sam; Fladeland, Matthew; Schüttemeyer, Dirk; Burrows, John P.; Bovensmann, Heinrich

    2016-04-01

    The CO2 and MEthane EXperiment (COMEX) was a NASA and ESA funded campaign in support of the HyspIRI and CarbonSat mission definition activities. As a part of this effort, seven flights were performed between June 3 and September 4, 2014 with the Methane Airborne MAPper (MAMAP) remote sensing instrument (operated by the University of Bremen in cooperation with the German Research Centre for Geosciences - GFZ) over the Kern River, Kern Front, and Poso Creek Oil Fields located in California's San Joaquin Valley. MAMAP was installed for the flights aboard the Center for Interdisciplinary Remotely-Piloted Aircraft Studies (CIRPAS) Twin Otter aircraft, together with: a Picarro fast in-situ greenhouse gas (GHG) analyzer operated by the NASA Ames Research Center, ARC; a 5-hole turbulence probe; and an atmospheric measurement package operated by CIRPAS measuring aerosols, temperature, dew-point, and other atmospheric parameters. Three of the flights were accompanied by the Next Generation Airborne Visual InfraRed Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS-NG), operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), California Institute of Technology, installed aboard a second Twin Otter aircraft. Large-scale, high-concentration CH4 plumes were detected by the MAMAP instrument over the fields and tracked over several kilometers. The spatial distribution of the MAMAP observed plumes was compared to high spatial resolution CH4 anomaly maps derived by AVIRIS-NG imaging spectroscopy data. Remote sensing data collected by MAMAP was used to infer CH4 emission rates and their distributions over the three fields. Aggregated emission estimates for the three fields were compared to aggregated emissions inferred by subsequent airborne in-situ validation measurements collected by the Picarro instrument. Comparison of remote sensing and in-situ flux estimates will be presented, demonstrating the ability of airborne remote sensing data to provide accurate emission estimates for concentrations above the

  15. Tropospheric ozone in the vicinity of the ozone hole - 1987 Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, Gerald L.; Warren, Linda S.; Hypes, Warren D.; Tuck, Adrian F.; Kelly, Kenneth K.; Krueger, Arlin J.

    1989-01-01

    Results are presented on ozone measurements in the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere over Antarctica, obtained by NASA DC-8 aircraft during the August/September 1987 Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment. The ozone mixing ratios as high as several hundred ppbv were measured, but in all cases these ratios were observed in pockets of upper atmospheric air, both in the vicinity of and away from the location of the ozone hole. The background ozone values in the surrounding troposphere were typically in the range of 20-50 ppbv. Correlation of tropospheric ozone observations with the boundaries of the ozone hole differed in the course of the experiment. During the August 28 - September 2 flights, encounters with ozone-rich air were limited, and the background tropospheric ozone appeared to decrease beneath the hole. For the later flights, and as the ozone hole deepened, the ozone-rich air was frequently observed in the vicinity of the hole, and the average ozone values at the flight altitude were frequently higher than the background values.

  16. Retrieval of Aerosol Within Cloud Fields Using the MODIS Airborne Simulator (MAS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munchak, L. A.; Levy, R. C.; Mattoo, S.; Patadia, F.; Wilcox, E. M.; Marshak, A.

    2015-12-01

    Passive satellite remote sensing has become essential for obtaining global information about aerosol properties, including aerosol optical depth (AOD) and aerosol fine mode fraction (FMF). However, due to the spatial resolution of satellite aerosol products (typically 3 km and larger), observing aerosol within dense partly cloudy fields is difficult from space. Here, we apply an adapted version of the MODIS Collection 6 dark target algorithm to the 50-meter MODIS airborne simulator retrieved reflectances measured during the SEAC4RS campaign during 2013 to robustly retrieve aerosol with a 500 m resolution. We show good agreement with AERONET and MODIS away from cloud, suggesting that the algorithm is working as expected. However, closer to cloud, significant AOD increases are observed. We investigate the cause of these AOD increases, including examining the potential for undetected cloud contamination, reflectance increases due to unconsidered 3D radiative effects, and the impact of humidification on aerosol properties. In combination with other sensors that flew in SEAC4RS, these high-resolution observations of aerosol in partly cloudy fields can be used to characterize the radiative impact of the "twilight zone" between cloud and aerosol which is typically not considered in current estimates of direct aerosol radiative forcing.

  17. Wide-Area Mapping of Forest with National Airborne Laser Scanning and Field Inventory Datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monnet, J.-M.; Ginzler, C.; Clivaz, J.-C.

    2016-06-01

    Airborne laser scanning (ALS) remote sensing data are now available for entire countries such as Switzerland. Methods for the estimation of forest parameters from ALS have been intensively investigated in the past years. However, the implementation of a forest mapping workflow based on available data at a regional level still remains challenging. A case study was implemented in the Canton of Valais (Switzerland). The national ALS dataset and field data of the Swiss National Forest Inventory were used to calibrate estimation models for mean and maximum height, basal area, stem density, mean diameter and stem volume. When stratification was performed based on ALS acquisition settings and geographical criteria, satisfactory prediction models were obtained for volume (R2 = 0.61 with a root mean square error of 47 %) and basal area (respectively 0.51 and 45 %) while height variables had an error lower than 19%. This case study shows that the use of nationwide ALS and field datasets for forest resources mapping is cost efficient, but additional investigations are required to handle the limitations of the input data and optimize the accuracy.

  18. Joint influences of aerodynamic flow field and aerodynamic heating of the dome on imaging quality degradation of airborne optical systems.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Haosu; Zuo, Baojun; Tian, Yi; Zhang, Wang; Hao, Chenglong; Liu, Chaofeng; Li, Qi; Li, Fan; Zhang, Li; Fan, Zhigang

    2012-12-20

    We investigated the joint influences exerted by the nonuniform aerodynamic flow field surrounding the optical dome and the aerodynamic heating of the dome on imaging quality degradation of an airborne optical system. The Spalart-Allmaras model provided by FLUENT was used for flow computations. The fourth-order Runge-Kutta algorithm based ray tracing program was used to simulate optical transmission through the aerodynamic flow field and the dome. Four kinds of imaging quality evaluation parameters were presented: wave aberration of the exit pupil, point spread function, encircled energy, and modulation transfer function. The results show that the aero-optical disturbance of the aerodynamic flow field and the aerodynamic heating of the dome significantly affect the imaging quality of an airborne optical system. PMID:23262604

  19. Comprehensive analysis of imaging quality degradation of an airborne optical system for aerodynamic flow field around the optical window.

    PubMed

    Hao, Chenglong; Chen, Shouqian; Zhang, Wang; Ren, Jinhan; Li, Chong; Pang, Hongjun; Wang, Honghao; Liu, Qian; Wang, Chao; Zou, Huiying; Fan, Zhigang

    2013-11-20

    We investigated the influences exerted by the nonuniform aerodynamic flow field surrounding the optical window on the imaging quality degradation of an airborne optical system. The density distribution of flow fields around three typical optical windows, including a spherical window, an ellipsoidal window, and a paraboloidal window, were calculated by adopting the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations with the Spalart-Allmaras model provided by FLUENT. The fourth-order Runge-Kutta algorithm based ray-tracing program was used to simulate the optical transmission through the aerodynamic flow field. Four kinds of imaging quality evaluation parameters were presented: wave aberration of the entrance pupil, point spread function, encircled energy, and modulation transfer function. The results show that the imaging quality of the airborne optical system was affected by the shape of the optical window and angle of attack of the aircraft. PMID:24513738

  20. Use of field reflectance data for crop mapping using airborne hyperspectral image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nidamanuri, Rama Rao; Zbell, Bernd

    2011-09-01

    Recent developments in hyperspectral remote sensing technologies enable acquisition of image with high spectral resolution, which is typical to the laboratory or in situ reflectance measurements. There has been an increasing interest in the utilization of in situ reference reflectance spectra for rapid and repeated mapping of various surface features. Here we examined the prospect of classifying airborne hyperspectral image using field reflectance spectra as the training data for crop mapping. Canopy level field reflectance measurements of some important agricultural crops, i.e. alfalfa, winter barley, winter rape, winter rye, and winter wheat collected during four consecutive growing seasons are used for the classification of a HyMAP image acquired for a separate location by (1) mixture tuned matched filtering (MTMF), (2) spectral feature fitting (SFF), and (3) spectral angle mapper (SAM) methods. In order to answer a general research question "what is the prospect of using independent reference reflectance spectra for image classification", while focussing on the crop classification, the results indicate distinct aspects. On the one hand, field reflectance spectra of winter rape and alfalfa demonstrate excellent crop discrimination and spectral matching with the image across the growing seasons. On the other hand, significant spectral confusion detected among the winter barley, winter rye, and winter wheat rule out the possibility of existence of a meaningful spectral matching between field reflectance spectra and image. While supporting the current notion of "non-existence of characteristic reflectance spectral signatures for vegetation", results indicate that there exist some crops whose spectral signatures are similar to characteristic spectral signatures with possibility of using them in image classification.

  1. Crisp clustering of airborne geophysical data from the Alto Ligonha pegmatite field, northeastern Mozambique, to predict zones of increased rare earth element potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eberle, Detlef G.; Daudi, Elias X. F.; Muiuane, Elônio A.; Nyabeze, Peter; Pontavida, Alfredo M.

    2012-01-01

    . The highest probability to meet pegmatite bodies is in close vicinity to (magnetic) amphibole schist occurring in areas where depletion of potassium as indication of metasomatic processes is evident from the airborne radiometric data. Clustering has proven to be a fast and effective method to compile value-added maps from multivariate geophysical datasets. Experience made in the Alto Ligonha pegmatite field encourages adopting this new methodology for mapping other parts of the Mozambique Fold Belt.

  2. Spatial Correlation of Airborne Magnetic Anomalies with Reservoir Temperatures of Geothermal Fields, Western Anatolia, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ertekin, Can; Ekinci, Yunus Levent

    2013-04-01

    Geothermal areas in Western Anatolia are remarkably located throughout Büyük Menderes Graben (BMG) and Gediz Graben (GG). These E-W trending grabens have been subjected to N-E stretching since Miocene. Except for these major outcomes of the extensional forces, NE-SW oriented and relatively short grabens take place in Western Anatolia as well. Among them, BMG and GG are remarkable with topographic escarpments that reveal footwall of steeply-dipping active normal faults. They manifest themselves via numerous earthquakes and geothermal activity (fluid discharges from springs and wells). Geothermal discharges are aligned along the rims of E-W trending normal faults trending over detachment faults. Concerning BMG, geothermal manifestations extend along the northern sector of the graben. Geothermal reservoirs inside BMG are the limestone and conglomerate units within Neogene sediments and the marble-quartzite units within The Menderes Massif rocks. The main high and low enthalpy geothermal fields along BMG and their reservoir temperatures are as follows: Kızıldere (242°C), Germencik (232°C), Aydın-Ilıcabası (101°C), Yılmazköy (142°C), Salavatlı (171°C), Söke (26°C), Pamukkale (36°C), Karahayıt (59°C), Gölemezli (101°C) and Yenice (70°C). Through GG, reservoir temperatures decrease from east to west. Geothermal reservoirs inside GG are metamorphics and granodiorite of the Menderes Massif rocks. The Neogene sediments act as cap rock of the geothermal reservoirs. Geothermal fields inside the graben and their reservoir temperatures are as follows: Alaşehir (215°C), Salihli (155°C), Urganlı (85°C), Kurşunlu (135°C), Caferbey (150°C), Sart (100°C). In order to investigate the spatial correlation of magnetic anomalies and the reservoir temperatures of geothermal fields in the region, we analysed airborne magnetic data which were collected by General Directorate of Mineral Research and Exploration (MTA) of Turkey. Airborne magnetic data were taken

  3. The 1987 Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment: the Nimbus-7 TOMS Data Atlas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krueger, Arlin J.; Ardanuy, Philip E.; Sechrist, Frank S.; Penn, Lanning M.; Larko, David E.; Doiron, Scott D.; Galimore, Reginald N.

    1988-01-01

    Total ozone data taken by the Nimbus-7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) played a central role in the successful outcome of the 1987 Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment. The near-real-time TOMS total ozone observations were suppled within hours of real time to the operations center in Punta Arenas, Chile, over a telecommunications network designed specifically for this purpose. The TOMS data preparation and method of transfer over the telecommunications links are reviewed. This atlas includes a complete set of the near-real-time TOMS orbital overpass data over regions around the Palmer Peninsula of Antarctica for the period of August 8 through September 29, 1987. Also provided are daily polar orthographic projections of TOMS total ozone measurements over the Southern Hemisphere from August through November 1987. In addition, a chronology of the salient points of the experiment, along with some latitudinal cross sections and time series at locations of interest of the TOMS total ozone observations are presented. The TOMS total ozone measurements are evaluated along the flight tracks of each of the ER-2 and DC-8 missions during the experiment. The ozone hole is shown here to develop in a monotonic progression throughout late August and September. The minimum total ozone amount was found on 5 October, when its all-time lowest value of 109 DU is recorded. The hole remains well defined, but fills gradually from mid-October through mid-November. The hole's dissolution is observed here to begin in mid-November, when it elongates and begins to rotate. By the end of November, the south pole is no longer located within the ozone hole.

  4. Tropospheric ozone and aerosols measured by airborne lidar during the 1988 Arctic boundary layer experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Browell, Edward V.; Butler, Carolyn F.; Kooi, Susan A.

    1991-01-01

    Ozone (O3) and aerosol distributions were measured from an aircraft using a differential absorption lidar (DIAL) system as part of the 1988 NASA Global Tropospheric Experiment - Arctic Boundary Layer Experiment (ABLE-3A) to study the sources and sinks of gases and aerosols over the tundra regions of Alaska during the summer. The tropospheric O3 budget over the Arctic was found to be strongly influenced by stratospheric intrusions. Regions of low aerosol scattering and enhanced O3 mixing ratios were usually correlated with descending air from the upper troposphere or lower stratosphere. Several cases of continental polar air masses were examined during the experiment. The aerosol scattering associated with these air masses was very low, and the atmospheric distribution of aerosols was quite homogeneous for those air masses that had been transported over the ice for greater than or = 3 days. The transition in O3 and aerosol distributions from tundra to marine conditions was examined several times. The aerosol data clearly show an abrupt change in aerosol scattering properties within the mixed layer from lower values over the tundra to generally higher values over the water. The distinct differences in the heights of the mixed layers in the two regions was also readily apparent. Several cases of enhanced O3 were observed during ABLE-3 in conjunction with enhanced aerosol scattering in layers in the free atmosphere. Examples are presented of the large scale variations of O3 and aerosols observed with the airborne lidar system from near the surface to above the tropopause over the Arctic during ABLE-3.

  5. Horizontal variability of aerosol optical properties observed during the ARCTAS airborne experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinozuka, Y.; Redemann, J.; Russell, P. B.; Livingston, J. M.; Clarke, A. D.; Podolske, J. R.

    2010-12-01

    The properties of tropospheric aerosol and gas vary within a satellite grid cell and between ground-based instruments. This hinders comparison between satellite and suborbital measurements of different spatial scales as well as their applications to climate and air quality studies. This paper quantifies the realistic range of the variability in aerosol optical depth (AOD), its Angstrom exponent, in-situ extinction coefficient and carbon monoxide mixing ratio over horizontal distances of 1-30 km, using measurements from the ARCTAS airborne experiment. The Canada phase in June and July 2008, in which smoke from local forest fires was sampled, likely represents the most heterogeneous of the ambient aerosol environments common over the globe. The relative standard deviation (stdrel) of AOD measured with the 14-channel Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS-14) has median 19.4% (at 499 nm) among thousands of horizontal 20 km segments. For 6 km segments the analogous median is 9.1%. Another measure of horizontal variability, the autocorrelation (r) of AOD499 across 20 km and 6 km segments is 0.37 and 0.71, respectively. In contrast, the Alaska phase in April 2008, which sampled particles transported from Asia, is presumably among the most homogeneous environments. The median stdrel is 3.0% and r is 0.90, both over 30 km, only slightly different from those for 1 km (stdrel=0.4% and r=1.00). r in the Canada phase is ~0.2 less for in situ extinction coefficient (from a nephelometer and a particle soot absorption photometer) than for the AOD. It is ~0.1 less than for the carbon monoxide mixing ratio. The trends of horizontal variability with distance and aerosol environment are different for the wavelength dependence and the humidity response of light scattering. We discuss challenges in estimating aerosol optical properties, particle size and chemical composition from measurements at a distant location. The statistical parameters thus help interpret existing remote

  6. Field-Based and Airborne Hyperspectral Imaging for Applied Research in the State of Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, A.; Buchhorn, M.; Cristobal, J.; Kokaly, R. F.; Graham, P. R.; Waigl, C. F.; Hampton, D. L.; Werdon, M.; Guldager, N.; Bertram, M.; Stuefer, M.

    2015-12-01

    Hyperspectral imagery acquired using Hyspex VNIR-1800 and SWIR-384 camera systems have provided unique information on terrestrial and aquatic biogeochemical parameters, and diagnostic mineral properties in exposed outcrops in selected sites in the state of Alaska. The Hyspex system was configured for in-situ and field scanning by attaching it to a gimbal-mounted rotational stage on a robust tripod. Scans of vertical faces of vegetation and rock outcrops were made close to the campus of the University of Alaska Fairbanks, in an abandoned mine near Fairbanks, and on exposures of Orange Hill in Wrangell-St. Elias National Park. Atmospherically corrected integrated VNIR_SWIR spectra were extracted which helped to study varying nitrogen content in the vegetation, and helped to distinguish the various micas. Processed imagery helped to pull out carbonates, clays, sulfates, and alteration-related minerals. The same instrument was also mounted in airborne configuration on two different aircrafts, a DeHavilland Beaver and a Found Bush Hawk. Test flights were flown over urban and wilderness areas that presented a variety of landcover types. Processed imagery shows promise in mapping man-made surfaces, phytoplankton, and dissolved materials in inland water bodies. Sample data and products are available on the University of Alaska Fairbanks Hyperspectral Imaging Laboratory (HyLab) website at http://hyperspectral.alaska.edu.

  7. Inviscid Flow Field Effects: Experimental results. [optical distortions over airborne laser turrets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otten, L. J., III; Gilbert, K. G.

    1980-01-01

    The aero-optical distortions due to invisid flow effects over airborne laser turrets is investigated. Optical path differences across laser turret apertures are estimated from two data sources. The first is a theoretical study of main flow effects for a spherical turret assembly for a Mach number (M) of 0.6. The second source is an actual wind tunnel density field measurement on a 0.3 scale laser turret/fairing assembly, with M = 0.75. A range of azimuthal angles from 0 to 90 deg was considered, while the elevation angle was always 0 deg (i.e., in the plane of the flow). The calculated optical path differences for these two markedly different geometries are of the same order. Scaling of results to sea level conditions and an aperture diameter of 50 cm indicated up to 0.0007 cm of phase variation across the aperture for certain forward look angles and a focal length of F = -11.1 km. These values are second order for a 10.6 micron system.

  8. Global meteorological data facility for real-time field experiments support and guidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shipham, Mark C.; Shipley, Scott T.; Trepte, Charles R.

    1988-01-01

    A Global Meteorological Data Facility (GMDF) has been constructed to provide economical real-time meteorological support to atmospheric field experiments. After collection and analysis of meteorological data sets at a central station, tailored meteorological products are transmitted to experiment field sites using conventional ground link or satellite communication techniques. The GMDF supported the Global Tropospheric Experiment Amazon Boundary Layer Experiment (GTE-ABLE II) based in Manaus, Brazil, during July and August 1985; an arctic airborne lidar survey mission for the Polar Stratospheric Clouds (PSC) experiment during January 1986; and the Genesis of Atlantic Lows Experiment (GALE) during January, February and March 1986. GMDF structure is similar to the UNIDATA concept, including meteorological data from the Zephyr Weather Transmission Service, a mode AAA GOES downlink, and dedicated processors for image manipulation, transmission and display. The GMDF improved field experiment operations in general, with the greatest benefits arising from the ability to communicate with field personnel in real time.

  9. Optimized Field Sampling and Monitoring of Airborne Hazardous Transport Plumes; A Geostatistical Simulation Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, DI-WEN

    2001-11-21

    Airborne hazardous plumes inadvertently released during nuclear/chemical/biological incidents are mostly of unknown composition and concentration until measurements are taken of post-accident ground concentrations from plume-ground deposition of constituents. Unfortunately, measurements often are days post-incident and rely on hazardous manned air-vehicle measurements. Before this happens, computational plume migration models are the only source of information on the plume characteristics, constituents, concentrations, directions of travel, ground deposition, etc. A mobile ''lighter than air'' (LTA) system is being developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory that will be part of the first response in emergency conditions. These interactive and remote unmanned air vehicles will carry light-weight detectors and weather instrumentation to measure the conditions during and after plume release. This requires a cooperative computationally organized, GPS-controlled set of LTA's that self-coordinate around the objectives in an emergency situation in restricted time frames. A critical step before an optimum and cost-effective field sampling and monitoring program proceeds is the collection of data that provides statistically significant information, collected in a reliable and expeditious manner. Efficient aerial arrangements of the detectors taking the data (for active airborne release conditions) are necessary for plume identification, computational 3-dimensional reconstruction, and source distribution functions. This report describes the application of stochastic or geostatistical simulations to delineate the plume for guiding subsequent sampling and monitoring designs. A case study is presented of building digital plume images, based on existing ''hard'' experimental data and ''soft'' preliminary transport modeling results of Prairie Grass Trials Site. Markov Bayes Simulation, a coupled Bayesian/geostatistical methodology, quantitatively combines soft information

  10. Conceptual design of an airborne laser Doppler velocimeter system for studying wind fields associated with severe local storms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomson, J. A. L.; Davies, A. R.; Sulzmann, K. G. P.

    1976-01-01

    An airborne laser Doppler velocimeter was evaluated for diagnostics of the wind field associated with an isolated severe thunderstorm. Two scanning configurations were identified, one a long-range (out to 10-20 km) roughly horizontal plane mode intended to allow probing of the velocity field around the storm at the higher altitudes (4-10 km). The other is a shorter range (out to 1-3 km) mode in which a vertical or horizontal plane is scanned for velocity (and possibly turbulence), and is intended for diagnostics of the lower altitude region below the storm and in the out-flow region. It was concluded that aircraft flight velocities are high enough and severe storm lifetimes are long enough that a single airborne Doppler system, operating at a range of less than about 20 km, can view the storm area from two or more different aspects before the storm characteristics change appreciably.

  11. ANALYSIS OF DIFFUSION FIELD EXPERIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes general theoretical frameworks for the ordering of diffusion field data in terms of meteorological measurements. The three methods described are surface-layer (Monin-Obukhov) similarity, convective scaling, and statistical theory using wind fluctuations. Earl...

  12. Field campaigns of the autonomous, closed-path, airborne TDLAS Hygrometer SEALDH-II and traceability to the German Primary Humidity Standards.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchholz, Bernhard; Ebert, Volker

    2014-05-01

    Airborne hygrometry is often demanded in scientific flight campaigns to provide datasets for environmental modeling or to correct for water vapor dilution or cross sensitivity effects in other gas analytical techniques. Water vapor measurements, however, are quite challenging due to the large dynamic range in the atmosphere (between 2 and 40000 ppmv) and the high spatio-temporal variability. Airborne hygrometers therefore need to combine a large measurement range with high temporal resolution to resolve - at typical airspeeds of 500 to 900 km/h - atmospheric gradients of several 1000 ppmv/s. Especially during the ascent into the upper troposphere, hygrometers need to work at high gas exchange rates to minimize water vapor adsorption effects. On the other hand, water vapor sensors are difficult to calibrate due to the strong water adsorption and the lack of bottled reference gas standards, which requires pre- or/and post-flight field calibrations. Recently in-flight calibration using an airborne H2O generator was demonstrated, which minimizes calibration drift but still imposes a lot of additional work and hardware to the experiments, since these kind of calibrations just transfer the accuracy level issues to the in-flight calibration-source. To make things worse, the low gas flow (1-5 std l/min, compared with up to 100 std l/min in flight for fast response instruments) adheres critical questions of wall absorption/desorption of the source and instrument even during the calibration process. The national metrological institutes (NMIs) maintain a global metrological water vapor scale which is defined via national primary humidity generators. These provide for calibration purposes well-defined, accurate water vapor samples of excellent comparability and stability traced back to the SI-units. The humidity calibration chain is maintained via high accuracy (but rather slow) Dew-Point-Mirror-Hygrometers as transfer standards. These provide a traceable performance and

  13. Tropospheric ozone in the vicinity of the ozone hole: 1987 Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory, G.L.; Warren, L.S. ); Hypes, W.D. ); Tuck, A.F.; Kelly, K.K. ); Krueger, A.J. )

    1989-11-30

    Tropospheric ozone measurements over Antarctica aboard the NASA DC-8 aircraft are summarized. As part of the August/September 1987 Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment, the aircraft flew 13 missions covering a latitude of 53{degree}-90{degree}S, at altitudes to 13 km. Ozone mixing ratios as high as several hundred parts per billion by volume (ppbv) were measured, but in all cases these ratios were observed in pockets or patches of upper atmospheric air. These pockets were observed both in the vicinity of and away from the location of the ozone hole. At times, and as a result of these pockets, the ozone levels at the flight altitude of the aircraft, as averaged beneath the boundaries of the stratospheric ozone hole, were 2-3 times higher than background tropospheric values. The data suggest that the ozone-rich air seldom penetrated below about 9-km altitude. Background ozone values in the surrounding troposphere were typically in the range of 20-50 ppbv. Correlation of tropospheric ozone observations with the boundaries of the ozone hole differed during the experiment. During the early flights (August 28 through September 2), encounters with ozone-rich air were limited and background tropospheric ozone (at the flight altitude) appeared to decrease beneath the hole. For many of the later flights, and as the hole deepened, the reverse was noted, in that ozone-rich air was frequently observed in the vicinity of the hole and, as noted earlier, average ozone at the flight altitude was frequently higher than background values.

  14. Field Experiments in Litter Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finnie, William C.

    1973-01-01

    A series of urban and highway litter experiments in Richmond (Virginia), St. Louis, and Philadelphia indicated well-designed litter cans reduced littering about 15 percent along city streets and nearly 30 percent along highways. Also, the propensity to litter is critically affected by the characteristics of the individual and environmental…

  15. Family Oriented Field Experience in Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Karen A.

    A family-oriented geography field course about the southwestern United States was conducted in 1978 by a community college in Michigan (Delta College). Course activities took place in Colorado. The major purpose of the field experience was to offer learning experiences to family groups rather than to individual students. For purposes of the field…

  16. Filter measurements of chemical composition during the airborne Antarctic ozone experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grandrud, B. W.; Sperry, P. D.; Sanford, L.

    1988-01-01

    During the Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment campaign, a filter sampler was flown to measure the bulk composition of aerosol and gas phases. The background sulfate aerosol was measured in regions inside and outside of the chemically perturbed region (CPR) of the polar vortex. The mass ratio of sulfate outside to inside was 2.8. This is indicative of a cleansing mechanism effecting the CPR or of a different air mass inside versus outside. The absolute value of the sulfate mixing ratio shows that the background aerosol has not been influenced by recent volcanic eruptions. The sulfate measured on the ferry flight returning to NASA Ames shows a decrease towards the equator with increasing concentrations in the northern hemisphere. Nitrate in the aerosol phase was observed on two flights. The largest amount of nitrate measured in the aerosol was 44 percent of the total amount of nitrate observed. Other samples on the same flights show no nitrate in the aerosol phase. The presence of nitrate in the aerosol is correlated with the coldest temperatures observed on a given flight. Total nitrate (aerosol plus acidic vapor nitrate) concentrations were observed to increase at flight altitude with increasing latitude north and south of the equator. Total nitrate was lower inside the CPR than outside. Chloride and flouride were not detected in the aerosol phase. From the concentrations of acidic chloride vapor, the ratio of acidic vapor Cl to acidic vapor F and a summing of the individual chloride containing species to yield a total chloride concentration, there is a suggestion that some of the air sampled was dechlorinated. Acidic vapor phase fluoride was observed to increase at flight altitude with increasing latitude both north and south of the equator. The acidic vapor phase fluoride was the only compound measured with the filter technique that exhibited larger concentrations inside the CPR than outside.

  17. A Reevaluation of Airborne HO(x) Observations from NASA Field Campaigns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, Jennifer; Crawford, James H.; Chen, Gao; Brune, William H.; Faloona, Ian C.; Tan, David; Harder, Hartwig; Martinez, Monica

    2006-01-01

    In-situ observations of tropospheric HO(x) (OH and HO2) obtained during four NASA airborne campaigns (SUCCESS, SONEX, PEM-Tropics B and TRACE-P) are reevaluated using the NASA Langley time-dependent photochemical box model. Special attention is given to previously diagnosed discrepancies between observed and predicted HO2 which increase with higher NO(x) levels and at high solar zenith angles. This analysis shows that much of the model discrepancy at high NO(x) during SUCCESS can be attributed to modeling observations at time-scales too long to capture the nonlinearity of HO(x) chemistry under highly variable conditions for NO(x). Discrepancies at high NO(x) during SONEX can be moderated to a large extent by complete use of all available precursor observations. Differences in kinetic rate coefficients and photolysis frequencies available for previous studies versus current recommendations also explain some of the disparity. Each of these causes is shown to exert greater influence with increasing NO(x) due to both the chemical nonlinearity between HO(x) and NO(x) and the increased sensitivity of HO(x) to changes in sources at high NO(x). In contrast, discrepancies at high solar zenith angles will persist until an adequate nighttime source of HO(x) can be identified. It is important to note that this analysis falls short of fully eliminating the issue of discrepancies between observed and predicted HO(x) for high NO(x) environments. These discrepancies are not resolved with the above causes in other data sets from ground-based field studies. Nevertheless, these results highlight important considerations in the application of box models to observationally based predictions of HO(x) radicals.

  18. The NASA Airborne Tropical TRopopause EXperiment (ATTREX):High-Altitude Aircraft Measurements in the Tropical Western Pacific

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, E. J.; Pfister, L.; Jordan, D. E.; Bui, T. V.; Ueyama, R.; Singh, H. B.; Lawson, P.; Thornberry, T.; Diskin, G.; McGill, M.; Pittman, J.; Atlas, E.; Kim, J.

    2016-01-01

    The February through March 2014 deployment of the NASA Airborne Tropical TRopopause EXperiment (ATTREX) provided unique in situ measurements in the western Pacific Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL). Six flights were conducted from Guam with the long-range, high-altitude, unmanned Global Hawk aircraft. The ATTREX Global Hawk payload provided measurements of water vapor, meteorological conditions, cloud properties, tracer and chemical radical concentrations, and radiative fluxes. The campaign was partially coincident with the CONTRAST and CAST airborne campaigns based in Guam using lower-altitude aircraft The ATTREX dataset is being used for investigations of TTL cloud, transport, dynamical, and chemical processes as well as for evaluation and improvement of global-model representations of TTL processes.

  19. Ku band airborne radar altimeter observations of marginal sea ice during the 1984 Marginal Ice Zone Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drinkwater, Mark R.

    1991-01-01

    Pulse-limited, airborne radar data taken in June and July 1984 with a 13.8-GHz altimeter over the Fram Strait marginal ice zone are analyzed with the aid of large-format aerial photography, airborne synthetic aperture radar data, and surface observations. Variations in the radar return pulse waveforms are quantified and correlated with ice properties recorded during the Marginal Ice Zone Experiment. Results indicate that the wide-beam altimeter is a flexible instrument, capable of identifying the ice edge with a high degree of accuracy, calculating the ice concentration, and discriminating a number of different ice classes. This suggests that microwave radar altimeters have a sensitivity to sea ice which has not yet been fully exploited. When fused with SSM/I, AVHRR and ERS-1 synthetic aperture radar imagery, future ERS-1 altimeter data are expected to provide some missing pieces to the sea ice geophysics puzzle.

  20. Field experiences with intelligent pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, S.N.; Duvivier, J.P.; Lefevre, D.E.; Robb, G.A.

    1996-08-01

    Oil and gas production operations use intelligent pigs for corrosion inspection of gathering systems and pipelines worldwide. The authors have been involved with intelligent pig inspections which have been conducted on over 155 different pipelines owned by one international corporation. A variety of intelligent pig vendors have been used with tools ranging from standard first generation magnetic flux leakage (MFL) to high-resolution MFL to standard and custom made ultrasonic (UT) tools. Experiences encountered during these inspections are discussed and resolutions to many of the problems are described.

  1. How to Thrive during Your Field Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffer, Connie; Welsh, Kelly

    2014-01-01

    Field experiences, also referred to as practicums or clinical experiences, are part of every accredited teacher preparation program. These pre-student teaching experiences place future teachers in a preK-12 classroom where they have the opportunity not just to observe, but also to learn about teaching by interacting with teachers and students. The…

  2. Field Experiments of Family Planning Incentives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Everett M.

    A review of four quasi-experiments on family planning incentives in three Asian nations is presented, and a multi-national comparative field experiment on family planning incentives is proposed. Experiments include: (1) The Ernakulam vasectomy campaigns, (2) Indian Tea Estates retirement bond incentive program, (3) Taiwan educational bond…

  3. From theory to field experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vos, Bram

    2016-04-01

    Peter Raats' achievements in Haren (NL) 1986-1997 were based on a solid theoretical insight in hydrology and transport process in soil. However, Peter was also the driving force behind many experimental studies and applied research. This will be illustrated by a broad range of examples ranging from the dynamics of composting processes of organic material; modelling and monitoring nutrient leaching at field-scale; wind erosion; water and nutrient dynamics in horticultural production systems; oxygen diffusion in soils; and processes of water and nutrient uptake by plant roots. Peter's leadership led to may new approaches and the introduction of innovative measurement techniques in Dutch research; ranging from TDR to nutrient concentration measurements in closed fertigation systems. This presentation will give a brief overview how Peter's theoretical and mathematical insights accelerated this applied research.

  4. Characterizing the impact of urban emissions on regional aerosol particles: airborne measurements during the MEGAPOLI experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freney, E. J.; Sellegri, K.; Canonaco, F.; Colomb, A.; Borbon, A.; Michoud, V.; Doussin, J.-F.; Crumeyrolle, S.; Amarouche, N.; Pichon, J.-M.; Bourianne, T.; Gomes, L.; Prevot, A. S. H.; Beekmann, M.; Schwarzenböeck, A.

    2014-02-01

    yields, we were able to predict ~50% of the measured organics. These airborne measurements during the MEGAPOLI experiment show that urban emissions contribute to the formation of OA and have an impact on aerosol composition on a regional scale.

  5. Characterizing the impact of urban emissions on regional aerosol particles; airborne measurements during the MEGAPOLI experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freney, E. J.; Sellegri, K.; Canonaco, F.; Colomb, A.; Borbon, A.; Michoud, V.; Doussin, J.-F.; Crumeyrolle, S.; Amarouch, N.; Pichon, J.-M.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Beekmann, M.; Schwarzenböeck, A.

    2013-09-01

    The MEGAPOLI experiment took place in July 2009. The aim of this campaign was to study the aging and reactions of aerosol and gas-phase emissions in the city of Paris. Three ground-based measurement sites and several mobile platforms including instrument equipped vehicles and the ATR-42 aircraft were involved. We present here the variations in particle- and gas-phase species over the city of Paris using a combination of high-time resolution measurements aboard the ATR-42 aircraft. Particle chemical composition was measured using a compact time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (C-ToF-AMS) giving detailed information of the non-refractory submicron aerosol species. The mass concentration of BC, measured by a particle absorption soot photometer (PSAP), was used as a marker to identify the urban pollution plume boundaries. Aerosol mass concentrations and composition were affected by air-mass history, with air masses that spent longest time over land having highest fractions of organic aerosol and higher total mass concentrations. The Paris plume is mainly composed of organic aerosol (OA), black carbon and nitrate aerosol, as well as high concentrations of anthropogenic gas-phase species such as toluene, benzene, and NOx. Using BC and CO as tracers for air-mass dilution, we observe the ratio of ΔOA / ΔBC and ΔOA / ΔCO increase with increasing photochemical age (-log(NOx / NOy). Plotting the equivalent ratios for the Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) resolved species (LV-OOA, SV-OOA, and HOA) illustrate that the increase in OA is a result of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). Within Paris the changes in the ΔOA / ΔCO are similar to those observed during other studies in Mexico city, Mexico and in New England, USA. Using the measured VOCs species together with recent organic aerosol formation yields we predicted ~ 50% of the measured organics. These airborne measurements during the MEGAPOLI experiment show that urban emissions contribute to the formation of OA

  6. Indirect Reciprocity; A Field Experiment

    PubMed Central

    van Apeldoorn, Jacobien; Schram, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Indirect reciprocity involves cooperative acts towards strangers, either in response to their kindness to third parties (downstream) or after receiving kindness from others oneself (upstream). It is considered to be important for the evolution of cooperative behavior amongst humans. Though it has been widely studied theoretically, the empirical evidence of indirect reciprocity has thus far been limited and based solely on behavior in laboratory experiments. We provide evidence from an online environment where members can repeatedly ask and offer services to each other, free of charge. For the purpose of this study we created several new member profiles, which differ only in terms of their serving history. We then sent out a large number of service requests to different members from all over the world. We observe that a service request is more likely to be rewarded for those with a profile history of offering the service (to third parties) in the past. This provides clear evidence of (downstream) indirect reciprocity. We find no support for upstream indirect reciprocity (in this case, rewarding the service request after having previously received the service from third parties), however. Our evidence of downstream indirect reciprocity cannot be attributed to reputational effects concerning one’s trustworthiness as a service user. PMID:27043712

  7. Study of airborne science experiment management concepts for application to space shuttle. Volume 3: Appendixes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulholland, D. R.; Reller, J. O., Jr.; Neel, C. B.; Haughney, L. C.

    1973-01-01

    Detailed information is presented concerning specific airborne missions in support of the ASSESS program. These missions are the AIDJEX expeditions, meteor shower expeditions, CAT and atmospheric sampling missions, ocean color expeditions, and the Lear Jet missions. For Vol. 2, see N73-31729.

  8. A comparison of airborne and ground-based radar observations with rain gages during the CaPE experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Satake, Makoto; Short, David A.; Iguchi, Toshio

    1992-01-01

    The vicinity of KSC, where the primary ground truth site of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) program is located, was the focal point of the Convection and Precipitation/Electrification (CaPE) experiment in Jul. and Aug. 1991. In addition to several specialized radars, local coverage was provided by the C-band (5 cm) radar at Patrick AFB. Point measurements of rain rate were provided by tipping bucket rain gage networks. Besides these ground-based activities, airborne radar measurements with X- and Ka-band nadir-looking radars on board an aircraft were also recorded. A unique combination data set of airborne radar observations with ground-based observations was obtained in the summer convective rain regime of central Florida. We present a comparison of these data intending a preliminary validation. A convective rain event was observed simultaneously by all three instrument types on the evening of 27 Jul. 1991. The high resolution aircraft radar was flown over convective cells with tops exceeding 10 km and observed reflectivities of 40 to 50 dBZ at 4 to 5 km altitude, while the low resolution surface radar observed 35 to 55 dBZ echoes and a rain gage indicated maximum surface rain rates exceeding 100 mm/hr. The height profile of reflectivity measured with the airborne radar show an attenuation of 6.5 dB/km (two way) for X-band, corresponding to a rainfall rate of 95 mm/hr.

  9. A comparison of airborne and ground-based radar observations with rain gages during the CaPE experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Satake, Makoto; Short, David A.; Iguchi, Toshio

    1992-01-01

    The vicinity of KSC, where the primary ground truth site of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) program is located, was the focal point of the Convection and Precipitation/Electrification (CaPE) experiment in July and Aug. 1991. In addition to several specialized radars, local coverage was provided by the C-band (5 cm) radar at Patrick AFB. Point measurements of rain rate were provided by tipping bucket rain gage networks. Besides these ground-based activities, airborne radar measurements with X- and Ka-band nadir-looking radars on board an aircraft were also recorded. A unique combination data set of airborne radar observations with ground-based observations was obtained in the summer convective rain regime of central Florida. We present a comparison of these data intending a preliminary validation. A convective rain event was observed simultaneously by all three instrument types on the evening of 27 July 1991. The high resolution aircraft radar was flown over convective cells with tops exceeding 10 km and observed reflectivities of 40 to 50 dBZ at 4 to 5 km altitude, while the low resolution surface radar observed 35 to 55 dBZ echoes and a rain gage indicated maximum surface rain rates exceeding 100 mm/hr. The height profile of reflectivity measured with the airborne radar show an attenuation of 6.5 dB/km (two way) for X-band, corresponding to a rainfall rate of 95 mm/hr.

  10. Airborne passive remote sensing of large-scale methane emissions from oil fields in California's San Joaquin Valley and validation by airborne in-situ measurements - Initial results from COMEX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerilowski, Konstantin; Krautwurst, Sven; Kolyer, Richard W.; Thompson, David R.; Jonsson, Haflidi; Krings, Thomas; Horstjann, Markus; Leifer, Ira; Eastwood, Michael; Green, Robert O.; Vigil, Sam; Schüttemeyer, Dirk; Fladeland, Matthew; Burrows, John P.; Bovensmann, Heinrich

    2015-04-01

    On several flights performed over the Kern River, Kern Front, and Poso Creek Oil Fields in California between June 3 and September 4, 2014, in the framework of the CO2 and MEthane Experiment (COMEX) - a NASA and ESA funded campaign in support of the HyspIRI and CarbonSat mission definition activities - the Methane Airborne MAPper (MAMAP) remote sensing instrument (operated by the University of Bremen in cooperation with the German Research Centre for Geosciences - GFZ) detected large-scale, high-concentration, methane plumes. MAMAP was installed for the flights aboard the Center for Interdisciplinary Remotely-Piloted Aircraft Studies (CIRPAS) Twin Otter aircraft, together with a Picarro fast in-situ greenhouse gas (GHG) analyzer (operated by the NASA Ames Research Center, ARC), a 5-hole turbulence probe and an atmospheric measurement package (operated by CIRPAS), measuring aerosols, temperature, dew-point, and other atmospheric parameters. Some of the flights were accompanied by the next generation of the Airborne Visible InfraRed Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS-NG), operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), California Institute of Technology, installed aboard a second Twin Otter aircraft (operated by Twin Otter International). Data collected with the in-situ GHG analyzer were used for validation of the MAMAP and AVIRIS-NG remotely sensed data. The in-situ measurements were acquired in vertical cross sections of the discovered plumes at fixed distances downwind of the sources. Emission rates are estimated from both the remote and in-situ data using wind information from the turbulence probe together with ground-based wind data from the nearby airport. Remote sensing and in-situ data as well as initial flux estimates for selected flights will be presented.

  11. Overview of Field Experience - Degradation Rates & Lifetimes

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, Dirk; Kurtz, Sarah

    2015-09-14

    The way a PV module fails may depend not only on its design and the materials used in its construction, but also on the weather it experiences, the way it is mounted, and the quality control during its manufacture. This presentation gives an overview of Field Experience - what degradation rates and what lifetimes are being observed in various regions.

  12. Extracting Tree Height from Repeat-Pass PolInSAR Data : Experiments with JPL and ESA Airborne Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lavalle, Marco; Ahmed, Razi; Neumann, Maxim; Hensley, Scott

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present our latest developments and experiments with the random-motion-over-ground (RMoG) model used to extract canopy height and other important forest parameters from repeat-pass polarimetricinterferometric SAR (Pol-InSAR) data. More specifically, we summarize the key features of the RMoG model in contrast with the random-volume-over-ground (RVoG) model, describe in detail a possible inversion scheme for the RMoG model and illustrate the results of the RMoG inversion using airborne data collected by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and the European Space Agency (ESA).

  13. FIELD EXPERIMENTS AND MODELING AT CDG AIRPORTS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramaroson, R.

    2009-12-01

    Richard Ramaroson1,4, Klaus Schaefer2, Stefan Emeis2, Carsten Jahn2, Gregor Schürmann2, Maria Hoffmann2, Mikhael Zatevakhin3, Alexandre Ignatyev3. 1ONERA, Châtillon, France; 4SEAS, Harvard University, Cambridge, USA; 2FZK, Garmisch, Germany; (3)FSUE SPbAEP, St Petersburg, Russia. 2-month field campaigns have been organized at CDG airports in autumn 2004 and summer 2005. Air quality and ground air traffic emissions have been monitored continuously at terminals and taxi-runways, along with meteorological parameters onboard trucks and with a SODAR. This paper analyses the commercial engine emissions characteristics at airports and their effects on gas pollutants and airborne particles coupled to meteorology. LES model results for PM dispersion coupled to microphysics in the PBL are compared to measurements. Winds and temperature at the surface and their vertical profiles have been stored with turbulence. SODAR observations show the time-development of the mixing layer depth and turbulent mixing in summer up to 800m. Active low level jets and their regional extent have been observed and analyzed. PM number and mass size distribution, morphology and chemical contents are investigated. Formation of new ultra fine volatile (UFV) particles in the ambient plume downstream of running engines is observed. Soot particles are mostly observed at significant level at high power thrusts at take-off (TO) and on touch-down whereas at lower thrusts at taxi and aprons ultra the UFV PM emissions become higher. Ambient airborne PM1/2.5 is closely correlated to air traffic volume and shows a maximum beside runways. PM number distribution at airports is composed mainly by volatile UF PM abundant at apron. Ambient PM mass in autumn is higher than in summer. The expected differences between TO and taxi emissions are confirmed for NO, NO2, speciated VOC and CO. NO/NO2 emissions are larger at runways due to higher power. Reactive VOC and CO are more produced at low powers during idling at

  14. Composition and Morphology of Major Particle Types from Airborne Measurements during ICE-T and PRADACS Field Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venero, I. M.; Mayol-Bracero, O. L.; Anderson, J. R.

    2012-12-01

    As part of the Puerto Rican African Dust and Cloud Study (PRADACS) and the Ice in Clouds Experiment - Tropical (ICE-T), we sampled giant airborne particles to study their elemental composition, morphology, and size distributions. Samples were collected in July 2011 during field measurements performed by NCAR's C-130 aircraft based on St Croix, U.S Virgin Island. The results presented here correspond to the measurements done during research flight #8 (RF8). Aerosol particles with Dp > 1 um were sampled with the Giant Nuclei Impactor and particles with Dp < 1 um were collected with the Wyoming Inlet. Collected particles were later analyzed using an automated scanning electron microscope (SEM) and manual observation by field emission SEM. We identified the chemical composition and morphology of major particle types in filter samples collected at different altitudes (e.g., 300 ft, 1000 ft, and 4500ft). Results from the flight upwind of Puerto Rico show that particles in the giant nuclei size range are dominated by sea salt. Samples collected at altitudes 300 ft and 1000 ft showed the highest number of sea salt particles and the samples collected at higher altitudes (> 4000 ft) showed the highest concentrations of clay material. HYSPLIT back trajectories for all samples showed that the low altitude samples initiated in the free troposphere in the Atlantic Ocean, which may account for the high sea salt content and that the source of the high altitude samples was closer to the Saharan - Sahel desert region and, therefore, these samples possibly had the influence of African dust. Size distribution results for quartz and unreacted sea-salt aerosols collected on the Giant Nuclei Impactor showed that sample RF08 - 12:05 UTM (300 ft) had the largest size value (mean = 2.936 μm) than all the other samples. Additional information was also obtained from the Wyoming Inlet present at the C - 130 aircraft which showed that size distribution results for all particles were smaller in

  15. Aerosol Properties Derived from Airborne Sky Radiance and Direct Beam Measurements in Recent NASA and DoE Field Campaigns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redemann, J.; Flynn, C. J.; Shinozuka, Y.; Russell, P. B.; Kacenelenbogen, M.; Segal-Rosenheimer, M.; Livingston, J. M.; Schmid, B.; Dunagan, S. E.; Johnson, R. R.; LeBlanc, S.; Schmidt, S.; Pilewskie, P.; Song, S.

    2014-01-01

    The AERONET (AErosol RObotic NETwork) ground-based suite of sunphotometers provides measurements of spectral aerosol optical depth (AOD), precipitable water and spectral sky radiance, which can be inverted to retrieve aerosol microphysical properties that are critical to assessments of aerosol-climate interactions. Because of data quality criteria and sampling constraints, there are significant limitations to the temporal and spatial coverage of AERONET data and their representativeness for global aerosol conditions.The 4STAR (Spectrometer for Sky-Scanning, Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research) instrument, jointly developed by NASA Ames and PNNL (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory) with NASA Goddard collaboration, combines airborne sun tracking and AERONET-like sky scanning with spectroscopic detection. Being an airborne instrument, 4STAR has the potential to fill gaps in the AERONET data set. The 4STAR instrument operated successfully in the SEAC4RS (Studies of Emissions and Atmospheric Composition, Clouds and Climate Coupling by Regional Surveys) experiment in Aug./Sep. 2013 aboard the NASA DC-8 and in the DoE (Department of Energy)-sponsored TCAP (Two Column Aerosol Project, July 2012 & Feb. 2013) experiment aboard the DoE G-1 aircraft. 4STAR provided direct beam measurements of hyperspectral AOD, columnar trace gas retrievals (H2O, O3, NO2), and the first ever airborne hyperspectral sky radiance scans, which can be inverted to yield the same products as AERONET ground-based observations. In this presentation, we provide an overview of the new 4STAR capabilities, with an emphasis on 26 high-quality sky radiance measurements carried out by 4STAR in SEAC4RS. We compare collocated 4STAR and AERONET sky radiances, as well as their retrievals of aerosol microphysical properties for a subset of the available case studies. We summarize the particle property and air-mass characterization studies made possible by the combined 4STAR direct beam and sky radiance

  16. NASA Airborne Lidar July 1991

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-05-26

    NASA Airborne Lidar July 1991 Data from the 1991 NASA Langley Airborne Lidar flights following the eruption of Pinatubo in July ... and Osborn [1992a, 1992b]. Project Title:  NASA Airborne Lidar Discipline:  Field Campaigns ...

  17. NASA Airborne Lidar May 1992

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-05-26

    NASA Airborne Lidar May 1992 An airborne Nd:YAG (532 nm) lidar was operated by the NASA Langley Research Center about a year following the June 1991 eruption of ... Osborn [1992a, 1992b].  Project Title:  NASA Airborne Lidar Discipline:  Field Campaigns ...

  18. The Tropospheric Wind Lidar Technology Experiment (TWiLiTE): An Airborne Direct Detection Doppler Lidar Instrument Development Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gentry, Bruce; McGill, Matthew; Schwemmer, Geary; Hardesty, Michael; Brewer, Alan; Wilkerson, Thomas; Atlas, Robert; Sirota, Marcos; Lindemann, Scott

    2006-01-01

    Global measurement of tropospheric winds is a key measurement for understanding atmospheric dynamics and improving numerical weather prediction. Global wind profiles remain a high priority for the operational weather community and also for a variety of research applications including studies of the global hydrologic cycle and transport studies of aerosols and trace species. In addition to space based winds, a high altitude airborne system flown on UAV or other advanced platforms would be of great interest for studying mesoscale dynamics and hurricanes. The Tropospheric Wind Lidar Technology Experiment (TWiLiTE) project was selected in 2005 by the NASA Earth Sun Technology Office as part of the Instrument Incubator Program. TWiLiTE will leverage significant research and development investments in key technologies made in the past several years. The primary focus will be on integrating these sub-systems into a complete molecular direct detection Doppler wind lidar system designed for autonomous operation on a high altitude aircraft, such as the NASA WB57, so that the nadir viewing lidar will be able to profile winds through the full troposphere. TWiLiTE is a collaboration involving scientists and technologists from NASA Goddard, NOAA ESRL, Utah State University Space Dynamics Lab and industry partners Michigan Aerospace Corporation and Sigma Space Corporation. NASA Goddard and it's partners have been at the forefront in the development of key lidar technologies (lasers, telescopes, scanning systems, detectors and receivers) required to enable spaceborne global wind lidar measurement. The TWiLiTE integrated airborne Doppler lidar instrument will be the first demonstration of a airborne scanning direct detection Doppler lidar and will serve as a critical milestone on the path to a fixture spaceborne tropospheric wind system. The completed system will have the capability to profile winds in clear air from the aircraft altitude of 18 h to the surface with 250 m vertical

  19. Quantification of gully volume using very high resolution DSM generated through 3D reconstruction from airborne and field digital imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castillo, Carlos; Zarco-Tejada, Pablo; Laredo, Mario; Gómez, Jose Alfonso

    2013-04-01

    Major advances have been made recently in automatic 3D photo-reconstruction techniques using uncalibrated and non-metric cameras (James and Robson, 2012). However, its application on soil conservation studies and landscape feature identification is currently at the outset. The aim of this work is to compare the performance of a remote sensing technique using a digital camera mounted on an airborne platform, with 3D photo-reconstruction, a method already validated for gully erosion assessment purposes (Castillo et al., 2012). A field survey was conducted in November 2012 in a 250 m-long gully located in field crops on a Vertisol in Cordoba (Spain). The airborne campaign was conducted with a 4000x3000 digital camera installed onboard an aircraft flying at 300 m above ground level to acquire 6 cm resolution imagery. A total of 990 images were acquired over the area ensuring a large overlap in the across- and along-track direction of the aircraft. An ortho-mosaic and the digital surface model (DSM) were obtained through automatic aerial triangulation and camera calibration methods. For the field-level photo-reconstruction technique, the gully was divided in several reaches to allow appropriate reconstruction (about 150 pictures taken per reach) and, finally, the resulting point clouds were merged into a unique mesh. A centimetric-accuracy GPS provided a benchmark dataset for gully perimeter and distinguishable reference points in order to allow the assessment of measurement errors of the airborne technique and the georeferenciation of the photo-reconstruction 3D model. The uncertainty on the gully limits definition was explicitly addressed by comparison of several criteria obtained by 3D models (slope and second derivative) with the outer perimeter obtained by the GPS operator identifying visually the change in slope at the top of the gully walls. In this study we discussed the magnitude of planimetric and altimetric errors and the differences observed between the

  20. Unmanned airborne vehicle (UAV): Flight testing and evaluation of two-channel E-field very low frequency (VLF) instrument

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-01

    Using VLF frequencies, transmitted by the Navy`s network, for airborne remote sensing of the earth`s electrical, magnetic characteristics was first considered by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) around the mid 1970s. The first VLF system was designed and developed by the USGS for installation and operation on a single engine, fixed wing aircraft used by the Branch of Geophysics for geophysical surveying. The system consisted of five channels. Two E-field channels with sensors consisting of a fixed vertical loaded dipole antenna with pre-amp mounted on top of the fuselage and a gyro stabilized horizontal loaded dipole antenna with pre-amp mounted on a tail boom. The three channel magnetic sensor consisted of three orthogonal coils mounted on the same gyro stabilized platform as the horizontal E-field antenna. The main features of the VLF receiver were: narrow band-width frequency selection using crystal filters, phase shifters for zeroing out system phase variances, phase-lock loops for generating real and quadrature gates, and synchronous detectors for generating real and quadrature outputs. In the mid 1990s the Branch of Geophysics designed and developed a two-channel E-field ground portable VLF system. The system was built using state-of-the-art circuit components and new concepts in circuit architecture. Small size, light weight, low power, durability, and reliability were key considerations in the design of the instrument. The primary purpose of the instrument was for collecting VLF data during ground surveys over small grid areas. Later the system was modified for installation on a Unmanned Airborne Vehicle (UAV). A series of three field trips were made to Easton, Maryland for testing and evaluating the system performance.

  1. Teacher Knowledge Development in Early Field Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingersoll, Casey; Jenkins, Jayne M.; Lux, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Investigation of physical education preservice teacher knowledge development has been primarily limited to study of a single semester of early field experience (EFE), with findings from these investigations driving EFE design. The purpose of this research was to investigate what types of knowledge develop and how knowledge evolves and interacts to…

  2. Laboratory and Field Experiments in Motor Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Robert N.; And Others

    This manual for research in motor learning was written for scientifically based physical educators, experimental psychologists, and others interested in the investigation of learning and performance phenomena associated with skill acquisition. Laboratory and field experiments are presented that can be run with or without the presence of a formal…

  3. Engaging Sacred Space: Experiments in the Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    della Dora, Veronica

    2011-01-01

    This article reflects on the experience of theorizing sacred space through field practice as part of a fieldtrip to Barcelona. In particular, it focuses on the critical analysis of different approaches to sacred space as applied to various sites in the city. The article opens with a brief review of three mainstream approaches to sacred space: the…

  4. Memorable Experiences of a Science Field Trip.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Doug

    2000-01-01

    Attempts to learn more about memorable experiences associated with science field trips by conducting a 1-month and an 18-month evaluation of elementary school students who had participated in an environmental science program at a community park in a Midwestern city. Concludes that students' memories were nonspecific and disassociated from…

  5. PAINT COATINGS: CONTROLLED FIELD AND CHAMBER EXPERIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    To determine the impact of pollution levels on the weathering rates of coatings, laboratory chamber experiments and controlled field exposures at North Carolina and Ohio sites were conducted in such a manner to separate the contributions due to dry deposition, wet deposition, pre...

  6. Correlation of N2O and ozone in the Southern Polar vortex during the airborne Antarctic ozone experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strahan, S. E.; Loewenstein, M.; Podolske, J. R.; Starr, Walter L.; Proffitt, M. H.; Kelly, K. K.; Chan, K. Roland

    1988-01-01

    In situ N20 mixing ratios, measured by an airborne laser spectrometer (ATLAS), have been used along with in situ ozone measurements to determine the correlation of N2O and ozone in the Antarctic stratosphere during the late austral winter. During the 1987 Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment (AAOE), N2O data were collected by a laser absorption spectrometer on board the ER-2 on five ferry flights between Ames Research Center (37 deg N) and Punta Arenas, Chile (53 deg S), and on twelve flights over Antarctica (53 S to 72 S). Of all the trace gas species measured by instruments on board the ER-2, only one showed a relationship to the N2O/O3 correlations in the vortex. With few exceptions, positive N20/O3 correlations coincided with total water mixing ratios of greater than 2.9 ppmv, and total water mixing ratios of less than 2.9 ppmv corresponded to negative correlations. The lower water mixing ratios, or dehydrated regions, are colocated with the negative correlations within the vortex, while the wetter regions always occur near the vortex edge.

  7. New insights into the properties of contrail cirrus and their impact on climate from airborne experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voigt, Christiane; Schumann, Ulrich; Minikin, Andreas; Schlager, Hans; Anderson, Bruce

    2016-04-01

    Current growth rates in aviation demand a profound scientific data base of contrail cirrus properties in order to accurately assess their climate impact. In particular, the differentiation of contrail cirrus in natural cirrus fields is challenging. Direct observations of contrail cirrus throughout their life cycle are scarce and therefore limit our understanding of the climate effects from contrail cirrus. Here, we give new insights into the growth, life-cycle and climate impact from contrail cirrus based on results from suite of aircraft experiments. NASA's ACCESSII mission focused on the detection of aircraft emissions and initial contrail stages. Nascent contrails were detected at cruise altitudes at 100 m distance to the engine exit. Contrail growth to 10-min contrail age was investigated during DLR's CONCERT campaigns. Finally, the objective of the ML-CIRRUS experiment was to study the life cycle and climate impact of contrail cirrus. The contrail measurements are related to previous observations and discussed in the context of recent developments in contrail modeling. Highlights include the quantification of the effects of aircraft type on contrail microphysics, the analysis of ice particle shapes and the quantitative distinction of contrail cirrus and natural cirrus.

  8. Idaho field experiment 1981. Volume 2: measurement data

    SciTech Connect

    Start, G E; Sagendorf, J F; Ackermann, G R; Cate, J H; Hukari, N F; Dickson, C R

    1984-04-01

    The 1981 Idaho Field Experiment was conducted in southeastern Idaho over the upper Snake River Plain. Nine test-day case studies were conducted between July 15 and 30, 1981. Releases of SF/sub 6/ gaseous tracer were made for 8-hour periods from 46m above ground. Tracer was sampled hourly, for 12 sequential hours, at about 100 locations within an area 24km square. Also, a single total integrated sample of about 30 hours duration was collected at approximately 100 sites within an area 48 by 72km square (using 6km spacings). Extensive tower profiles of meteorology at the release point were collected. RAWINSONDES, RABALS and PIBALS were collected at 3 to 5 sites. Horizontal, low-altitude winds were monitored using the INEL MESONET. SF/sub 6/ tracer plume releases were marked with co-located oil fog releases and bi-hourly sequential launches of tetroon pairs. Aerial LIDAR observations of the oil fog plume and airborne samples of SF/sub 6/ were collected. High altitude aerial photographs of daytime plumes were collected. Volume II lists the data in tabular form or cites the special supplemental reports by other participating contractors. While the primary user file and the data archive are maintained on 9 track/1600 cpi magnetic tapes, listings of the individual values are provided for the user who either cannot utilize the tapes or wishes to preview the data. The accuracies and quality of these data are described.

  9. Emergency medical training in the 82d Airborne Division. The Gulf War experience.

    PubMed

    Cancio, L C; Goforth, G A

    1993-01-01

    The 82d Airborne Division, as the Army's worldwide contingency division, places unique demands on its medical personnel. This was true particularly during Operations Desert Shield and Desert Storm in 1990-1991. An unprecedented emergency medical training program was carried out in preparation for the Gulf War. All levels of expertise were involved: non-medical Combat Lifesavers, medics, physician assistants, and physicians. Courses provided included Combat Lifesaver provider and refresher training, Basic Trauma Life Support (BTLS) provider and instructor training, Chemical Casualty courses, and a Combat Surgical Skills course. Approximately 736 personnel, including 80 Saudi and allied physicians and medics, participated in these courses. Confidence and competence in handling war casualties at all levels was enhanced greatly. Prepackaged courses such as BTLS enabled the rapid training of large numbers of medical personnel under challenging conditions. PMID:10155478

  10. The analysis of in situ and retrieved aerosol properties measured during three airborne field campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corr, Chelsea A.

    Aerosols can directly influence climate, visibility, and photochemistry by scattering and absorbing solar radiation. Aerosol chemical and physical properties determine how efficiently a particle scatters and/or absorbs incoming short-wave solar radiation. Because many types of aerosol can act as nuclei for cloud droplets (CCN) and a smaller population of airborne particles facilitate ice crystal formation (IN), aerosols can also alter cloud-radiation interactions which have subsequent impacts on climate. Thus aerosol properties determine the magnitude and sign of both the direct and indirect impacts of aerosols on radiation-dependent Earth System processes. This dissertation will fill some gaps in our understanding of the role of aerosol properties on aerosol absorption and cloud formation. Specifically, the impact of aerosol oxidation on aerosol spectral (350nm < lambda< 500nm) absorption was examined for two biomass burning plumes intercepted by the NASA DC-S aircraft during the Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS) mission in Spring and Summer 2008. Spectral aerosol single scattering albedo (SSA) retrieved using actinic flux measured aboard the NASA DC-8 was used to calculate the aerosol absorption Angstrom exponents (AAE) for a 6-day-old plume on April 17 th and a 3-hour old plume on June 29th. Higher AAE values for the April 17th plume (6.78+/-0.38) indicate absorption by aerosol was enhanced in the ultraviolet relative to the visible portion of the short-wave spectrum in the older plume compared to the fresher plume (AAE= 3.34 0.11). These differences were largely attributed to the greater oxidation of the organic aerosol in the April 17th plume which can arise either from the aging of primary organic aerosol or the formation of spectrally-absorbing secondary organic aerosol. The validity of the actinic flux retrievals used above were also evaluated in this work by the comparison of SSA retrieved using

  11. Multi-trophic invasion resistance in Hawaii: bioacoustics, field surveys, and airborne remote sensing.

    PubMed

    Boelman, Natalie T; Asner, Gregory P; Hart, Patrick J; Martin, Roberta E

    2007-12-01

    We used airborne imaging spectroscopy and scanning light detection and ranging (LiDAR), along with bioacoustic recordings, to determine how a plant species invasion affects avian abundance and community composition across a range of Hawaiian submontane ecosystems. Total avian abundance and the ratio of native to exotic avifauna were highest in habitats with the highest canopy cover and height. Comparing biophysically equivalent sites, stands dominated by native Metrosideros polymorpha trees hosted larger native avian communities than did mixed stands of Metrosideros and the invasive tree Morella faya. A multi-trophic analysis strongly suggests that native avifauna provide biotic resistance against the invasion of Morella trees and exotic birds, thus slowing invasion "meltdowns" that disrupt the functioning of native Hawaiian ecosystems. PMID:18213957

  12. Utilization of Airborne and in Situ Data Obtained in SGP99, SMEX02, CLASIC and SMAPVEX08 Field Campaigns for SMAP Soil Moisture Algorithm Development and Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colliander, Andreas; Chan, Steven; Yueh, Simon; Cosh, Michael; Bindlish, Rajat; Jackson, Tom; Njoku, Eni

    2010-01-01

    Field experiment data sets that include coincident remote sensing measurements and in situ sampling will be valuable in the development and validation of the soil moisture algorithms of the NASA's future SMAP (Soil Moisture Active and Passive) mission. This paper presents an overview of the field experiment data collected from SGP99, SMEX02, CLASIC and SMAPVEX08 campaigns. Common in these campaigns were observations of the airborne PALS (Passive and Active L- and S-band) instrument, which was developed to acquire radar and radiometer measurements at low frequencies. The combined set of the PALS measurements and ground truth obtained from all these campaigns was under study. The investigation shows that the data set contains a range of soil moisture values collected under a limited number of conditions. The quality of both PALS and ground truth data meets the needs of the SMAP algorithm development and validation. The data set has already made significant impact on the science behind SMAP mission. The areas where complementing of the data would be most beneficial are also discussed.

  13. Mapping Geomagnetic Field Variations in the Cretaceous Quiet Zone with Unmanned Airborne Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gee, J. S.; Cande, S. C.; Kent, D. V.

    2007-12-01

    About one quarter of the present seafloor was generated during the constant normal polarity interval from 121 to 83 Ma (Cretaceous Quiet Zone or KQZ), and the lack of temporal markers limits tectonic reconstructions in these areas. Although magnetostratigraphic studies provide strong evidence that the KQZ formed during predominantly normal polarity, there are nonetheless relatively large amplitude variations in many sea surface magnetic anomaly profiles crossing KQZ crust. To evaluate the relative importance of geomagnetic and crustal variables (thickness, geochemistry) in generating these anomalies, we collected multibeam bathymetry and magnetic data on 19 profiles crossing anomaly 34 and extending 500 km into the KQZ in the southwest Pacific. The relatively fast spreading (60 km/m.y. half rate), minimal sediment cover and high paleolatitude of formation make this area ideal for evaluating the magnetic anomaly pattern. An additional 10,000 km of magnetic anomaly data were acquired using an autonomous unmanned airborne vehicle (UAV). Although land-launched UAVs have been used in a variety of research applications, the nine successful flights during our cruise represent the first deployment from a UNOLS research vessel. The UAV (operated by Fugro Airborne) was launched from a pneumatic catapult and captured by a wingtip clip that attaches to a rope suspended from a retractable boom on the fantail. The Cs-vapor magnetometer data from the UAV compare favorably with results from the surface-towed magnetometer, with minor differences related primarily to the higher elevation (120m above sea level) of the UAV. The resulting magnetic coverage indicates that, as with younger seafloor, quasi-linear short wavelength anomalies are present within the KQZ. These anomalies can vary on spatial scales smaller than the multibeam swath width, highlighting the utility of obtaining additional coverage with the UAVs.

  14. Australian Soil Moisture Field Experiments in Support of Soil Moisture Satellite Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Edward; Walker, Jeff; Rudiger, Christopher; Panciera, Rocco

    2010-01-01

    Large-scale field campaigns provide the critical fink between our understanding retrieval algorithms developed at the point scale, and algorithms suitable for satellite applications at vastly larger pixel scales. Retrievals of land parameters must deal with the substantial sub-pixel heterogeneity that is present in most regions. This is particularly the case for soil moisture remote sensing, because of the long microwave wavelengths (L-band) that are optimal. Yet, airborne L-band imagers have generally been large, heavy, and required heavy-lift aircraft resources that are expensive and difficult to schedule. Indeed, US soil moisture campaigns, have been constrained by these factors, and European campaigns have used non-imagers due to instrument and aircraft size constraints. Despite these factors, these campaigns established that large-scale soil moisture remote sensing was possible, laying the groundwork for satellite missions. Starting in 2005, a series of airborne field campaigns have been conducted in Australia: to improve our understanding of soil moisture remote sensing at large scales over heterogeneous areas. These field data have been used to test and refine retrieval algorithms for soil moisture satellite missions, and most recently with the launch of the European Space Agency's Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission, to provide validation measurements over a multi-pixel area. The campaigns to date have included a preparatory campaign in 2005, two National Airborne Field Experiments (NAFE), (2005 and 2006), two campaigns to the Simpson Desert (2008 and 2009), and one Australian Airborne Cal/val Experiment for SMOS (AACES), just concluded in the austral spring of 2010. The primary airborne sensor for each campaign has been the Polarimetric L-band Microwave Radiometer (PLMR), a 6-beam pushbroom imager that is small enough to be compatible with light aircraft, greatly facilitating the execution of the series of campaigns, and a key to their success. An

  15. The Effect of Air Density on Atmospheric Electric Fields Required for Lightning Initiation from a Long Airborne Object

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bazelyan, E. M.; Aleksandrov, N. L.; Raizer, Yu. Pl.; Konchankov, A. M.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the work was to determine minimum atmospheric electric fields required for lightning initiation from an airborne vehicle at various altitudes up to 10 km. The problem was reduced to the determination of a condition for initiation of a viable positive leader from a conductive object in an ambient electric field. It was shown that, depending on air density and shape and dimensions of the object, critical atmospheric fields are governed by the condition for leader viability or that for corona onset. To establish quantitative criteria for reduced air densities, available observations of spark discharges in long laboratory gaps were analyzed, the effect of air density on leader velocity was discussed and evolution in time of the properties of plasma in the leader channel was numerically simulated. The results obtained were used to evaluate the effect of pressure on the quantitative relationships between the potential difference near the leader tip, leader current and its velocity; based on these relationships, criteria for steady development of a leader were determined for various air pressures. Atmospheric electric fields required for lightning initiation from rods and ellipsoidal objects of various dimensions were calculated at different air densities. It was shown that there is no simple way to extend critical ambient fields obtained for some given objects and pressures to other objects and pressures.

  16. Field Experiment Data Support at the Goddard DAAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hrubiak, P. L.; Yang, R.; Ahmad, S.; Chiu, L.; Teng, W.; Liu, Z.; Serafino, G.; Rui, H.; Bonk, J.; Pollack, N.

    2001-12-01

    . The Goddard DAAC's campaign complement now stands at nine and includes the five TRMM campaigns, an instrument archive for the MODIS Airborne Simulator (MAS), and the Southern Great Plains Soil Hydrology campaigns of 1997 and 1999. >http://daac.gsfc.nasa.gov/CAMPAIGN_DOCS/field_experiments/ field_main.html

  17. The Geologic Remote Sensing Field Experiment (GRSFE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dale-Bannister, Mary A.; Arvidson, Raymond E.; Guinness, Edward E.; Slavney, Susan H.; Stein, Thomas C.

    1991-01-01

    Field measurements for the Geologic Remote Sensing Field Experiment (GRSFE) were concentrated in the Lunar Lake area of Nevada. The GRSFE data are meant to be used in a variety of investigations, including tests of multispectral radiative transfer models for scattering and emission from planetary surfaces in support of the Earth Observing System (EOS), Mars Observer, and Magellan Missions. Studies will also be pursued to establish the neotectonic and paleoclimatic history of the arid southwestern United States. The data will also be used to support Mars Rover Sample Return (MRSR) simulation studies.

  18. Airborne gamma radiation soil moisture measurements over short flight lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peck, Eugene L.; Carrol, Thomas R.; Lipinski, Daniel M.

    1990-01-01

    Results are presented on airborne gamma radiation measurements of soil moisture condition, carried out along short flight lines as part of the First International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project Field Experiment (FIFE). Data were collected over an area in Kansas during the summers of 1987 and 1989. The airborne surveys, together with ground measurements, provide the most comprehensive set of airborne and ground truth data available in the U.S. for calibrating and evaluating airborne gamma flight lines. Analysis showed that, using standard National Weather Service weights for the K, Tl, and Gc radiation windows, the airborne soil moisture estimates for the FIFE lines had a root mean square error of no greater than 3.0 percent soil moisture. The soil moisture estimates for sections having acquisition time of at least 15 sec were found to be reliable.

  19. Biogenic and Anthropogenic VOC Emissions over the Central and Southern U.S.: Results from Recent Airborne Field Campaigns (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hornbrook, R. S.; Apel, E. C.; Riemer, D. D.; Hills, A. J.; Kaser, L.; Emmons, L. K.; Lamarque, J.; Blake, N. J.; Simpson, I. J.; Blake, D. R.; Karl, T.; Yuan, B.

    2013-12-01

    Over the last two years, the NCAR Trace Organic Gas Analyzer (TOGA), capable of quantifying over 50 individual gas-phase volatile organic compounds (VOCs), was deployed on two airborne field campaigns with flights over the central and southeast United States: Deep Convective Cloud and Chemistry (DC3), and Nitrogen, Oxidants, Mercury and Aerosol Distributions, Sources and Sinks (NOMADSS). These studies provided opportunities to sample air masses dominated by individual emissions sources, including biomass burning, oil and gas extraction, biogenic activity, and marine emissions, as well as the impact of convection on recently emitted trace gases. Using observations of biogenic VOCs, including speciated monoterpenes, we will compare our findings with NCAR CESM CAM-chem model simulations using the MEGAN emissions inventory. Likewise, we will contrast our observations of anthropogenic VOCs over the continental U.S. to model simulations with anthropogenic inventories (e.g., NEI, EDGAR).

  20. Utilizing Urban Environments for Effective Field Experiences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacAvoy, S. E.; Knee, K.

    2014-12-01

    Research surveys suggest that students are demanding more applied field experiences from their undergraduate environmental science programs. For geoscience educators at liberal arts colleges without field camps, university vehicles, or even geology departments, getting students into the field is especially rewarding - and especially challenging. Here, we present strategies that we have used in courses ranging from introductory environmental science for non-majors, to upper level environmental methods and geology classes. Urban locations provide an opportunity for a different type of local "field-work" than would otherwise be available. In the upper-level undergraduate Environmental Methods class, we relied on a National Park area located a 10-minute walk from campus for most field exercises. Activities included soil analysis, measuring stream flow and water quality parameters, dendrochronology, and aquatic microbe metabolism. In the non-majors class, we make use of our urban location to contrast water quality in parks and highly channelized urban streams. Here we share detailed lesson plans and budgets for field activities that can be completed during a class period of 2.5 hours with a $75 course fee, show how these activities help students gain quantitative competency, and provide student feedback about the classes and activities.

  1. Preliminary airborne measurements for the SR-71 sonic boom propagation experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haering, Edward A., Jr.; Ehernberger, L. J.; Whitmore, Stephen A.

    1995-01-01

    SR-71 sonic boom signatures were measured to validate sonic boom propagation prediction codes. An SR-71 aircraft generated sonic booms from Mach 1.25 to Mach 1.6, at altitudes of 31,000 to 48,000 ft, and at various gross weights. An F-16XL aircraft measured the SR-71 near-field shock waves from close to the aircraft to more than 8,000 ft below, gathering 105 signatures. A YO-3A aircraft measured the SR-71 sonic booms from 21,000 to 38,000 feet below, recording 17 passes. The sonic booms at ground level and atmospheric data were recorded for each flight. Data analysis is underway. Preliminary results show that shock wave patterns and coalescence vary with SR-71 gross weight, Mach number, and altitude. For example, noncoalesced shock wave signatures were measured by the YO-3A at 21,000 ft below the SR-71 aircraft while at a low gross weight, Mach 1.25, and 31,000-ft altitude. This paper describes the design and execution of the flight research experiment. Instrumentation and flight maneuvers of the SR-71, F-16XL, and YO-3A aircraft and sample sonic boom signatures are included.

  2. The FIELDS experiment for Solar Probe Plus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bale, S.; Spp/Fields Team

    2010-12-01

    Many of our basic ideas on the plasma physics of acceleration, energy flow, and dissipation, and structure of the solar wind have never been rigorously confronted by direct experimental measurements in the region where these processes are actually occurring. Although Alfven waves, shocks, and magnetic reconnection are often invoked as heating mechanisms, there have never been any direct measurements of Alfvenic waves nor the associated Poynting flux nor any measurements of ion or electron kinetic energy flux in the region from 10 R_s to 30 R_s where the final stages of wind acceleration are believed to occur. The radial profiles of both slow and fast solar wind acceleration are based on remote-sensing measurements and have been obtained for only a few selected events. Thus, the spatial radial and perpendicular scales of the acceleration process have been averaged by line-of-sight effects and the possibility of intense localized acceleration cannot be ruled out. The Solar Probe Plus (SPP) mission calls for the high quality fields and particles measurements required to solve the coronal heating and wind acceleration problem. The SPP 'FIELDS' experiment measures the electric and magnetic fields fundamental to the plasma physics of the structured and turbulent solar wind, flux ropes, collisionless shocks, and magnetic reconnection. FIELDS will make the first-ever measurements of the DC/Low-Frequency electric field inside of 1 AU allowing for in situ, high cadence measurements of the Poynting vector, the Elsasser variables, and E/B diagnostics of the wave spectrum to fce in the solar wind. SPP/FIELDS measures the radio wave (type III and II) signatures of microflares, energized electrons, and CME propagation. SPP/ FIELDS measures the plasma electron density to ~2% accuracy and the core electron temperature to ~5-10% accuracy more than 90% of the time at perihelion. FIELDS will also measure the in situ density fluctuation spectrum and structures at a very high cadence (

  3. Experience with a prototype of the Test Ban Treaty monitoring system for air-borne radioactivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Measday, David F.; Ho, Ernest C. Y.

    2004-01-01

    Monitoring of air-borne radioactivity has been tested on behalf of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty Organization. A prototype system was installed at the University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC in April 1996 and has been operating successfully since then. The air is drawn through a glass-fibre filter for a period of 24 h. A cooling period eliminates products of 222Rn in the uranium series. A germanium detector then counts the γ-rays. Several anthropogenic nuclides such as 123I and 99mTc have been observed from local medical facilities. In addition many natural nuclides have been detected and the most abundant are the products of thoron viz 220Rn, which is in the thorium series. The 239 keV γ-ray from 212Pb has been studied to investigate the reason for significant fluctuations in its intensity. It was found that rain, wind, low temperature and maritime air all decrease the observed activity. A model was created which mimics the variation reasonably well.

  4. Microwave Remote Sensing and the Cold Land Processes Field Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Edward J.; Cline, Don; Davis, Bert; Hildebrand, Peter H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Cold Land Processes Field Experiment (CLPX) has been designed to advance our understanding of the terrestrial cryosphere. Developing a more complete understanding of fluxes, storage, and transformations of water and energy in cold land areas is a critical focus of the NASA Earth Science Enterprise Research Strategy, the NASA Global Water and Energy Cycle (GWEC) Initiative, the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX), and the GEWEX Americas Prediction Project (GAPP). The movement of water and energy through cold regions in turn plays a large role in ecological activity and biogeochemical cycles. Quantitative understanding of cold land processes over large areas will require synergistic advancements in 1) understanding how cold land processes, most comprehensively understood at local or hillslope scales, extend to larger scales, 2) improved representation of cold land processes in coupled and uncoupled land-surface models, and 3) a breakthrough in large-scale observation of hydrologic properties, including snow characteristics, soil moisture, the extent of frozen soils, and the transition between frozen and thawed soil conditions. The CLPX Plan has been developed through the efforts of over 60 interested scientists that have participated in the NASA Cold Land Processes Working Group (CLPWG). This group is charged with the task of assessing, planning and implementing the required background science, technology, and application infrastructure to support successful land surface hydrology remote sensing space missions. A major product of the experiment will be a comprehensive, legacy data set that will energize many aspects of cold land processes research. The CLPX will focus on developing the quantitative understanding, models, and measurements necessary to extend our local-scale understanding of water fluxes, storage, and transformations to regional and global scales. The experiment will particularly emphasize developing a strong synergism between process

  5. Ecosystem Mapping Approaches Based on Vegetation Structure Using NEON Prototype Airborne LiDAR and Field Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, K.; Emery, W. J.; Barnett, D.; Petroy, S. B.; Meier, C. L.; Wessman, C. A.

    2014-12-01

    classification accuracy. Finally, a classification map is generated for entire site. Future work with the flux tower measurements, field vegetation observations, and airborne hyperspectral data from NEON at OSBS will facilitate analysis of how ecosystem structure is connected to ecosystem function.

  6. Comparison of field and airborne laser scanning based crown cover estimates across land cover types in Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heiskanen, J.; Korhonen, L.; Hietanen, J.; Heikinheimo, V.; Schafer, E.; Pellikka, P. K. E.

    2015-04-01

    Tree crown cover (CC) provides means for the continuous land cover characterization of complex tropical landscapes with multiple land uses and variable degrees of degradation. It is also a key parameter in the international forest definitions that are basis for monitoring global forest cover changes. Recently, airborne laser scanning (ALS) has emerged as a practical method for accurate CC mapping, but ALS derived CC estimates have rarely been assessed with field data in the tropics. Here, our objective was to compare the various field and ALS based CC estimates across multiple land cover types in the Taita Hills, Kenya. The field data was measured from a total of 178 sample plots (0.1 ha) in 2013 and 2014. The most accurate field measurement method, line intersect sampling using Cajanus tube, was used in 37 plots. Other methods included CC estimate based on the tree inventory data (144 plots), crown relascope (43 plots) and hemispherical photography (30 plots). Three ALS data sets, including two scanners and flying heights, were acquired concurrently with the field data collection. According to the results, the first echo cover index (FCI) from ALS data had good agreement with the most accurate field based CC estimates (RMSD 7.1% and 2.7% depending on the area and scan). The agreement with other field based methods was considerably worse. Furthermore, we observed that ALS cover indices were robust between the different scans in the overlapping area. In conclusion, our results suggest that ALS provides a reliable method for continuous CC mapping across tropical land cover types although dense shrub layer and tree-like herbaceous plants can cause overestimation of CC.

  7. Stress indicators based on airborne thermal imagery for field phenotyping a heterogeneous tree population for response to water constraints

    PubMed Central

    Virlet, Nicolas; Lebourgeois, Valentine; Martinez, Sébastien; Costes, Evelyne; Labbé, Sylvain; Regnard, Jean-Luc

    2014-01-01

    As field phenotyping of plant response to water constraints constitutes a bottleneck for breeding programmes, airborne thermal imagery can contribute to assessing the water status of a wide range of individuals simultaneously. However, the presence of mixed soil–plant pixels in heterogeneous plant cover complicates the interpretation of canopy temperature. Moran’s Water Deficit Index (WDI = 1–ETact/ETmax), which was designed to overcome this difficulty, was compared with surface minus air temperature (T s–T a) as a water stress indicator. As parameterization of the theoretical equations for WDI computation is difficult, particularly when applied to genotypes with large architectural variability, a simplified procedure based on quantile regression was proposed to delineate the Vegetation Index–Temperature (VIT) scatterplot. The sensitivity of WDI to variations in wet and dry references was assessed by applying more or less stringent quantile levels. The different stress indicators tested on a series of airborne multispectral images (RGB, near-infrared, and thermal infrared) of a population of 122 apple hybrids, under two irrigation regimes, significantly discriminated the tree water statuses. For each acquisition date, the statistical method efficiently delineated the VIT scatterplot, while the limits obtained using the theoretical approach overlapped it, leading to inconsistent WDI values. Once water constraint was established, the different stress indicators were linearly correlated to the stem water potential among a tree subset. T s–T a showed a strong sensitivity to evaporative demand, which limited its relevancy for temporal comparisons. Finally, the statistical approach of WDI appeared the most suitable for high-throughput phenotyping. PMID:25080086

  8. Aerosol Optical Thickness comparisons between NASA LaRC Airborne HSRL and AERONET during the DISCOVER-AQ field campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarino, A. J.; Ferrare, R. A.; Burton, S. P.; Hostetler, C. A.; Hair, J. W.; Rogers, R. R.; Berkoff, T.; Cook, A. L.; Harper, D. B.; Hoff, R. M.; Holben, B. N.; Schafer, J.; McGill, M. J.; Yorks, J. E.; Lantz, K. O.; Michalsky, J. J.; Hodges, G.

    2013-12-01

    The first- and second-generation NASA airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidars (HSRL-1 and HSRL-2) have been deployed on board the NASA Langley Research Center King Air aircraft during the Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from Column and VERtically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality (DISCOVER-AQ) field campaigns. These included deployments during July 2011 over Washington, D.C. and Baltimore, MD and during January and February 2013 over the San Joaquin Valley (SJV) of California and also a scheduled deployment during September 2013 over Houston, TX. Measurements of aerosol extinction, backscatter, and depolarization are available from both HSRL-1 and HSRL-2 in coordination with other participating research aircraft and ground sites. These measurements constitute a diverse data set for use in characterizing the spatial and temporal distribution of aerosols, aerosol optical thickness (AOT), as well as the Mixing Layer Height (MLH). HSRL AOT is compared to AOT measured by the Distributed Regional Aerosol Gridded Observation Networks (DRAGON) and long-term AERONET sites. For the 2011 campaign, comparisons of AOT at 532nm between HSRL-1 and AERONET showed excellent agreement (r = 0.98, slope = 1.01, intercept = 0.037) when the King Air flights were within 2.5 km of the ground site and 10 min from the retrieval time. The comparison results are similar for the 2013 DISCOVER-AQ campaign in the SJV. Additional ground-based (MPL) and airborne (CPL) lidar data were used to help screen for clouds in the AERONET observations during the SJV portion. AOT values from a Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) located at the Porterville, CA site during the SJV campaign are also compared to HSRL-2 AOT. Lastly, using the MLH retrieved from HSRL aerosol backscatter profiles, we describe the distribution of AOT relative to the MLH.

  9. Stress indicators based on airborne thermal imagery for field phenotyping a heterogeneous tree population for response to water constraints.

    PubMed

    Virlet, Nicolas; Lebourgeois, Valentine; Martinez, Sébastien; Costes, Evelyne; Labbé, Sylvain; Regnard, Jean-Luc

    2014-10-01

    As field phenotyping of plant response to water constraints constitutes a bottleneck for breeding programmes, airborne thermal imagery can contribute to assessing the water status of a wide range of individuals simultaneously. However, the presence of mixed soil-plant pixels in heterogeneous plant cover complicates the interpretation of canopy temperature. Moran's Water Deficit Index (WDI = 1-ETact/ETmax), which was designed to overcome this difficulty, was compared with surface minus air temperature (T s-T a) as a water stress indicator. As parameterization of the theoretical equations for WDI computation is difficult, particularly when applied to genotypes with large architectural variability, a simplified procedure based on quantile regression was proposed to delineate the Vegetation Index-Temperature (VIT) scatterplot. The sensitivity of WDI to variations in wet and dry references was assessed by applying more or less stringent quantile levels. The different stress indicators tested on a series of airborne multispectral images (RGB, near-infrared, and thermal infrared) of a population of 122 apple hybrids, under two irrigation regimes, significantly discriminated the tree water statuses. For each acquisition date, the statistical method efficiently delineated the VIT scatterplot, while the limits obtained using the theoretical approach overlapped it, leading to inconsistent WDI values. Once water constraint was established, the different stress indicators were linearly correlated to the stem water potential among a tree subset. T s-T a showed a strong sensitivity to evaporative demand, which limited its relevancy for temporal comparisons. Finally, the statistical approach of WDI appeared the most suitable for high-throughput phenotyping. PMID:25080086

  10. Evaluation of the MOZAIC Capacitive Hygrometer during the airborne field study CIRRUS-III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neis, P.; Smit, H. G. J.; Krämer, M.; Spelten, N.; Petzold, A.

    2015-03-01

    The MOZAIC Capacitive Hygrometer (MCH) is usually operated aboard passenger aircraft in the framework of MOZAIC (Measurement of Ozone by Airbus In-Service Aircraft) for measuring atmospheric relative humidity (RH). In order to evaluate the performance of the MCH, the instrument was operated aboard a Learjet 35A research aircraft as part of the CIRRUS-III field study together with a closed-cell Lyman-α fluorescence hygrometer (Fast in situ Stratospheric Hygrometer, or FISH) and an open-path tunable diode laser system (Open-path Jülich Stratospheric TDL ExpeRiment, or OJSTER) for water vapour measurement. After reducing the CIRRUS-III data set to data corresponding to MOZAIC aircraft operation conditions, the 1 Hz RH data cross correlation between the MCH and reference instruments FISH (clear sky) and OJSTER (in-cirrus) yielded a remarkably good agreement of R2 = 0.92 and slope m = 1.02 and provided a MCH uncertainty of 5% RH. Probability distribution functions of RH deduced from the MCH and reference instruments agreed well between 10 and 70% RH with respect to liquid water in the ambient temperature range of ca. -70 to -40 °C. The use of MCH data is limited to sensor temperatures above the calibration limit of Tsensor = -40 °C (corresponds to ambient temperature of Tambient = -70 °C at typical cruising speed of long-haul passenger aircraft). Good performance of the MCH for clear sky as well as for in-cirrus conditions demonstrated the sensor robustness also for operation inside ice clouds.

  11. [Design of airborne dual channel ultraviolet-visible imaging spectrometer with large field of view, wide spectrum, and high resolution].

    PubMed

    Hao, Ai-Hua; Hu, Bing-Liang; Bai, Jia-Guang; Li, Li-Bo; Yu, Tao; Li, Si-Yuan

    2013-12-01

    The ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis 200-500 nm) imaging spectrometer is an important part of space remote sensing. Based on special requirements and practical application of the airborne UV-VIS spectrometer, a kind of scanning imaging spectrometer using area array CCD is proposed, which can meet the application requirements of large field of view, wide spectrum and high resolution. It overcomes low spatial resolution of traditional line array CCD scanning imaging spectrometer, and limited field of view of the pushbroom imaging spectrometer. In addition, dual channel was designed to reduce stray light. 400-500 nm band includes two order spectrum for 200-250 nm band, and variation of radiance from earth between the shorter wavelength (<290 nm) and the longer wavelength (>310 nm) is above three orders of magnitude. In the structure design of the system, the imaging spectrometer is composed of a two-mirror concentric telescope and two Czerny-Turner plane grating imaging spectrometers. The whole system doesn't use any additional optical elements in addition to spherical mirrors. The whole system has the advantage of simple structure, excellent performance, and very good feasibility. The modulation transfer function value of full spectrum and full field of view is above 0.6. PMID:24611417

  12. Southern Hemispheric nitrous oxide measurements obtained during 1987 airborne Antarctic ozone experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Podolske, J. R.; Loewenstein, M.; Strahan, S. E.; Chan, K. Roland

    1988-01-01

    The chemical lifetime of N2O is about 150 years, which makes it an excellent dynamical tracer of air motion on the time scale of the ozone depletion event. For these reasons it was chosen to help test whether dynamical theories of ozone loss over Antarctica were plausible, particularly the theory that upwelling ozone-poor air from the troposphere was replacing ozone-rich stratospheric air. The N2O measurements were made with the Airborne Tunable Laser Absorption Spectrometer (ATLAS) aboard the NASA ER-2 aircraft. The detection technique involves measuring the diffential absorption of the IR laser radiation as it is rapidly scanned over an N2O absorption feature. For the AAOE mission, the instrument was capable of making measurements with a 1 ppb sensitivity, 1 second response time, over an altitude range of 10 to 20 kilometers. The AAOE mission consisted of a series of 12 flights from Punta Arenas (53S) into the polar vortex (approximately 72S) at which time a vertical profile from 65 to 45 km and back was performed. Comparison of the observed profiles inside the vortex with N2O profiles obtained by balloon flights during the austral summer showed that an overall subsidence had occurred during the winter of about 5 to 6 km. Also, over the course of the mission (mid-August to late September), no trend in the N2O vertical profile, either upward or downward, was discernible, eliminating the possibility that upwelling was the cause of the observed ozone decrease.

  13. The AACES field experiments: SMOS calibration and validation across the Murrumbidgee River catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peischl, S.; Walker, J. P.; Rüdiger, C.; Ye, N.; Kerr, Y. H.; Kim, E.; Bandara, R.; Allahmoradi, M.

    2012-03-01

    Following the launch of the European Space Agency's Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission on 2 November 2009, SMOS products need to be rigorously validated at the satellite's approximately 45 km scale, and disaggregation techniques for maps with finer resolutions tested. The Australian Airborne Cal/val Experiments for SMOS (AACES) provide the basis for one of the most comprehensive assessments of SMOS data world-wide by covering a range of topographic, climatic and land surface variability within an approximately 500 × 100 km2 study area, located in South-East Australia. The AACES calibration and validation activities consisted of two extensive field experiments which were undertaken across the Murrumbidgee River catchment during the Australian summer and winter season of 2010, respectively. The data sets include airborne L-band brightness temperature, thermal infrared and multi-spectral observations at 1 km resolution, as well as extensive ground measurements of near-surface soil moisture and ancillary data, such as soil temperature, soil texture, surface roughness, vegetation water content, dew amount, leaf area index and spectral characteristics of the vegetation. This paper explains the design and data collection strategy of the airborne and ground component of the two AACES campaigns and presents a preliminary analysis of the field measurements including the application and performance of the SMOS core retrieval model on the diverse land surface conditions captured by the experiments. The data described in this paper are publicly available from the website: http://www.moisturemap.monash.edu.au/aaces.

  14. The AACES field experiments: SMOS calibration and validation across the Murrumbidgee River catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peischl, S.; Walker, J. P.; Rüdiger, C.; Ye, N.; Kerr, Y. H.; Kim, E.; Bandara, R.; Allahmoradi, M.

    2012-06-01

    Following the launch of the European Space Agency's Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission on 2 November 2009, SMOS soil moisture products need to be rigorously validated at the satellite's approximately 45 km scale and disaggregation techniques for producing maps with finer resolutions tested. The Australian Airborne Cal/val Experiments for SMOS (AACES) provide the basis for one of the most comprehensive assessments of SMOS data world-wide by covering a range of topographic, climatic and land surface variability within an approximately 500 × 100 km2 study area, located in South-East Australia. The AACES calibration and validation activities consisted of two extensive field experiments which were undertaken across the Murrumbidgee River catchment during the Australian summer and winter season of 2010, respectively. The datasets include airborne L-band brightness temperature, thermal infrared and multi-spectral observations at 1 km resolution, as well as extensive ground measurements of near-surface soil moisture and ancillary data, such as soil temperature, soil texture, surface roughness, vegetation water content, dew amount, leaf area index and spectral characteristics of the vegetation. This paper explains the design and data collection strategy of the airborne and ground component of the two AACES campaigns and presents a preliminary analysis of the field measurements including the application and performance of the SMOS core retrieval model on the diverse land surface conditions captured by the experiments. The data described in this paper are publicly available from the website: http://www.moisturemap.monash.edu.au/aaces.

  15. The AMPTE CCE Magnetic Field Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potemra, T. A.; Zanetti, L. J.; Acuna, M. H.

    1985-01-01

    The Magnetic Field Experiment on the Active Magnetosheric Particle Tracer Explorer (AMPTE) Charge Composition Explorer (CCE) spacecraft consists of a triaxial fluxgate-magnetometer system containing sensors mounted on a 2.3-m two-link collapsible boom. It is pointed out that this instrument is similar to those flown on Voyager 1 and 2, and those scheduled to flight on the Giotto and Viking spacecraft. A description is provided of the sensor system and the analog electronics, and some preliminary data are presented.

  16. Stream Morphologic Measurements from Airborne Laser Swath Mapping: Comparisons with Field Surveys, Traditional DEMs, and Aerial Photographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, N. P.; Schultz, L. L.

    2005-12-01

    Precise measurement of stream morphology over entire watersheds is one of the great research opportunities provided by airborne laser swath mapping (ALSM). ALSM surveys allow for rapid quantification of factors, such as channel width and gradient, that control stream hydraulic and ecologic properties. We compare measurements from digital elevation models (DEMs) derived from ALSM data collected by the National Center for Airborne Laser Mapping (NCALM) to field surveys, traditional DEMs (rasterized from topographic maps), and aerial photographs. The field site is in the northern Black Mountains in arid Death Valley National Park (California). The area is unvegetated, and therefore is excellent for testing DEM analysis methods because the ALSM data required minimal filtering, and the resulting DEM contains relatively few unphysical sinks. Algorithms contained in geographic information systems (GIS) software used to extract stream networks from DEMs yield best results where streams are steep enough for resolvable pixel-to-pixel elevation change, and channel width is on the order of pixel resolution. This presents a new challenge with ALSM-derived DEMs because the pixel size (1 m) is often an order of magnitude or more smaller than channel width. We find the longitudinal profile of Gower Gulch in the northern Black Mountains (~4 km total length) extracted using the ALSM DEM and a flow accumulation algorithm is 14% longer than a traditional 10-m DEM, and 13% longer than a field survey. These differences in length (and therefore gradient) are due to the computed channel path following small-scale topographic variations within the channel bottom that are not relevant during high flows. However, visual analysis of shaded-relief images created from high-resolution ALSM data is an excellent method for digitizing channel banks and thalweg paths. We used these lines to measure distance, elevation, and width. In Gower Gulch, the algorithm-derived profile is 10% longer than that

  17. Temperature and horizontal wind measurements on the ER-2 aircraft during the 1987 airborne Antarctic ozone experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, K. Roland; Scott, Stan G.; Bui, T. Paul; Bowen, Stuart W.; Day, Jon

    1988-01-01

    The NASA ER-2 aircraft is equipped with special instrumentation to provide accurate in situ measurement of the atmospheric state variables during flight. The Meteorological Measurement System (MMS) on the ER-2 aircraft is described. Since the meteorological parameters (temperature, pressure, and wind vector) are extensively used by other ER-2 experimenters for data processing and interpretation, the accuracy and resolution of each of these parameters are assessed and discussed. During the 1987 Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment (AAOE) mission, the ER-2 aircraft was stationed at Punta Arenas, Chile (53 S, 72 W), and successfully flew over Antarctica on 12 occasions between August 17 and September 22, 1987. On each of the 12 flights, the ER-2 aircraft flight plan was to take off at approximately the same local time, fly southward at a near constant potential temperature surface, descend and ascend at the southernmost terminus at about 72 S over Antarctica and return northward at either the same or a different constant potential temperature surface. The measurements of the MMS experiment during the AAOE mission are presented. MMS data are organized to provide a composite view of the polar atmosphere, which is characterized by frigid temperatures and high zonal winds. Altitudinal variations of the temperature measurement (during takeoff/landing at Punta Arenas and during descent/ascent at the southern terminus) and latitudinal variations of the zonal wind (on near constant potential temperature surfaces) are emphasized and discussed.

  18. Magnetic Field Experiment Data Analysis System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holland, D. B.; Zanetti, L. J.; Suther, L. L.; Potemra, T. A.; Anderson, B. J.

    1995-01-01

    The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) Magnetic Field Experiment Data Analysis System (MFEDAS) has been developed to process and analyze satellite magnetic field experiment data from the TRIAD, MAGSAT, AMPTE/CCE, Viking, Polar BEAR, DMSP, HILAT, UARS, and Freja satellites. The MFEDAS provides extensive data management and analysis capabilities. The system is based on standard data structures and a standard user interface. The MFEDAS has two major elements: (1) a set of satellite unique telemetry processing programs for uniform and rapid conversion of the raw data to a standard format and (2) the program Magplot which has file handling, data analysis, and data display sections. This system is an example of software reuse, allowing new data sets and software extensions to be added in a cost effective and timely manner. Future additions to the system will include the addition of standard format file import routines, modification of the display routines to use a commercial graphics package based on X-Window protocols, and a generic utility for telemetry data access and conversion.

  19. Large Eddy Simulation and Field Experiments of Pollen Transport in the Atmospheric Boundary Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamecki, M.; Meneveau, C.; Parlange, M. B.; van Hout, R.

    2006-12-01

    Dispersion of airborne pollen by the wind has been a subject of interest for botanists and allergists for a long time. More recently, the development of genetically modified crops and questions about cross-pollination and subsequent contamination of natural plant populations has brought even more interest to this field. A critical question is how far from the source field pollen grains will be advected. Clearly the answer depends on the aerodynamic properties of the pollen, geometrical properties of the field, topography, local vegetation, wind conditions, atmospheric stability, etc. As a consequence, field experiments are well suited to provide some information on pollen transport mechanisms but are limited to specific field and weather conditions. Numerical simulations do not have this drawback and can be a useful tool to study pollen dispersal in a variety of configurations. It is well known that the dispersion of particles in turbulent fields is strongly affected by the large scale coherent structures. Large Eddy Simulation (LES) is a technique that allows us to study the typical distances reached by pollen grains and, at the same time, resolve the larger coherent structures present in the atmospheric boundary layer. The main objective of this work is to simulate the dispersal of pollen grains in the atmospheric surface layer using LES. Pollen concentrations are simulated by an advection-diffusion equation including gravitational settling. Of extreme importance is the specification of the bottom boundary conditions characterizing the pollen source over the canopy and the deposition process everywhere else. In both cases we make use of the theoretical profile for suspended particles derived by Kind (1992). Field experiments were performed to study the applicability of the theoretical profile to pollen grains and the results are encouraging. Airborne concentrations as well as ground deposition from the simulations are compared to experimental data to validate the

  20. A laser communication experiment utilizing the ACT satellite and an airborne laser transceiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Provencher, Charles E., Jr.; Spence, Rodney L.

    1988-01-01

    The launch of a laser communication transmitter package into geosynchronous Earth orbit onboard the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) will present an excellent opportunity for the experimental reception of laser communication signals transmitted from a space orbit. The ACTS laser package includes both a heterodyne transmitter (Lincoln Labs design) and a direct detection transmitter (Goddard Space Flight Center design) with both sharing some common optical components. NASA Lewis Research Center's Space Electronics Division is planning to perform a space communication experiment utilizing the GSFC direct detection laser transceiver. The laser receiver will be installed within an aircraft provided with a glass port for the reception of the signal. This paper describes the experiment and the approach to performing such an experiment. Described are the constraints placed on the NASA Lewis experiment by the performance parameters of the laser transmitter and by the ACTS spacecraft operations. The conceptual design of the receiving terminal is given; also included is the anticipated capability of the detector.

  1. A Residual Kriging method for the reconstruction of 3D high-resolution meteorological fields from airborne and surface observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laiti, Lavinia; Zardi, Dino; de Franceschi, Massimiliano; Rampanelli, Gabriele

    2013-04-01

    Manned light aircrafts and remotely piloted aircrafts represent very valuable and flexible measurement platforms for atmospheric research, as they are able to provide high temporal and spatial resolution observations of the atmosphere above the ground surface. In the present study the application of a geostatistical interpolation technique called Residual Kriging (RK) is proposed for the mapping of airborne measurements of scalar quantities over regularly spaced 3D grids. In RK the dominant (vertical) trend component underlying the original data is first extracted to filter out local anomalies, then the residual field is separately interpolated and finally added back to the trend; the determination of the interpolation weights relies on the estimate of the characteristic covariance function of the residuals, through the computation and modelling of their semivariogram function. RK implementation also allows for the inference of the characteristic spatial scales of variability of the target field and its isotropization, and for an estimate of the interpolation error. The adopted test-bed database consists in a series of flights of an instrumented motorglider exploring the atmosphere of two valleys near the city of Trento (in the southeastern Italian Alps), performed on fair-weather summer days. RK method is used to reconstruct fully 3D high-resolution fields of potential temperature and mixing ratio for specific vertical slices of the valley atmosphere, integrating also ground-based measurements from the nearest surface weather stations. From RK-interpolated meteorological fields, fine-scale features of the atmospheric boundary layer developing over the complex valley topography in connection with the occurrence of thermally-driven slope and valley winds, are detected. The performance of RK mapping is also tested against two other commonly adopted interpolation methods, i.e. the Inverse Distance Weighting and the Delaunay triangulation methods, comparing the results

  2. Technology-Focused Early Field Experiences in Preservice Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lux, Nicholas J.

    2013-01-01

    Although a broad body of research exists on field experiences in teacher education, one specific area of inquiry lacking substantial current research is that of technology-focused early field experiences, or field experiences that occur prior to student teaching and more formal clinical experiences. To address this gap, I conducted this…

  3. The MOSO field experiment - Overview of findings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ólafsson, Haraldur; Jonassen, Marius O.; Ágústsson, Hálfdán; Rögnvaldsson, Ólafur; Hjarðar, Bjarni G. Þ.; Rasol, Dubravka; Reuder, Joachim; Jónsson, Sigurður; Líf Kristinsdóttir, Birta

    2013-04-01

    In 2009 and 2011, the MOSO I and MOSO II meteorological field experiments took place in SW-Iceland. The main objectives were to describe the low level atmospheric coastal flows in the vicinity of mountains. The observations for the MOSO dataset were made using a large number of automatic weather stations, microbarographs, radiosoundings and a remotely piloted aircraft. The highlights of the findings include a four-dimensional description of the sea-breeze in Iceland, weak downslope acceleration, summer- and winter-time mountain wake flow, transition between wake flow and sea-breeze. The orographic drag force is explored and shown to be not so high most of the time in the predicted high-drag state. The observations from the remotely piloted aircraft have been used successfully to nudge simulations of the flow and are shown to be promising for operational use in numerical prediction of mesoscale coastal and orographic flows.

  4. FIFE, First ISLSCP Field Experiment - Results overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, F. G.; Markham, B. J.; Wang, J. R.; Huemmerich, F.; Sellers, P. J.; Strebel, D. E.; Kanemasu, E. T.; Kelly, Robert D.; Blad, Blaine L.

    1990-01-01

    Results of the analyses of the First International Satellite Land-Surface Climatology Project Field Experiment (FIFE) are described which relate to the mass and energy flux of a particular area. The extensive satellite and ground data are used to analyze the energy balance over the FIFE site, monitor the energy-budget components, study atmospheric effects on remote sensing, examine cloud cover, and investigate fluxes in the atmospheric boundary layer. The results verify existing theories relating energy-balance components with surface biology and remote sensing, and satellites can be used to estimate surface-energy budgets. Some analyses provide data that contradict present theories regarding thermodynamic and biophysical methodologies for estimating surface-heat fluxes.

  5. MSFC Doppler Lidar Science experiments and operations plans for 1981 airborne test flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fichtl, G. H.; Bilbro, J. W.; Kaufman, J. W.

    1981-01-01

    The flight experiment and operations plans for the Doppler Lidar System (DLS) are provided. Application of DLS to the study of severe storms and local weather penomena is addressed. Test plans involve 66 hours of flight time. Plans also include ground based severe storm and local weather data acquisition.

  6. Near UV atmospheric absorption measurements from the DC-8 aircraft during the 1987 airborne Antarctic ozone experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wahner, A.; Jakoubek, R. O.; Ravishankara, A. R.; Mount, G. H.; Schmeltekopf, A. L.

    1988-01-01

    During the Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment from 28 August to 30 September 1987 near UV zenith scattered sky measurements were made over Antarctic from the NASA DC-8 aircraft using a one third m spectrograph equipped with a diode-array detector. Scattered sky light data in the wavelength range 348 nm to 388 nm was spectrally analyzed for O3, NO2, OClO, and BrO column abundances. Slant column abudances of O3, NO2, OClO and BrO were determined, using a computer algorithm of non-linear and linear least square correlation of Antarctic scattered sky spectra to laboratory absorption cross section data. Using measured vertical electrochemical sonde ozone profiles from Palmer, Halley Bay, and the South Pole Stations the slant columns of O3 were converted into vertical column abundances. The vertical column amounts of NO2, OClO, and BrO were derived using vertical profiles calculated by a chemical model appropriate for Antarctica. NO2 vertical column abundances show steep latitudinal decrease with increasing latitude for all 13 flights carried out during the mission. In the regions where NO2 abudances are low, OClO and BrO were observed. The spatial and temporal vertical column abundances of these species are discussed in the context of the chemistry and dynamics in the antarctic polar vortex during the austral spring.

  7. ESTIMATING WITHIN-FIELD VARIATIONS IN SOIL PROPERTIES FROM AIRBORNE HYPERSPECTRAL IMAGES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ability of hyperspectral image (HSI) data to provide estimates of soil electrical conductivity (EC) and soil fertility levels without requiring extensive field data collection was investigated. Bare soil images were acquired using a prism grating pushbroom scanner in April 2000 and May 2001 for ...

  8. Field Scale Evaluation of Crop Residue Cover Distribution Using Airborne and Satellite Remote Sensing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conservation tillage adoption has been associated with sustainable agricultural practices and linked with increased plant available water content in some regions. However, rapid and spatially accurate field scale assessments in the southeastern U.S. are lacking. A major goal of this study was to e...

  9. DETECTION AND IDENTIFICATION OF TOXIC AIR POLLUTANTS USING FIELD PORTABLE AND AIRBORNE REMOTE IMAGING SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Remote sensing technologies are a class of instrument and sensor systems that include laser imageries, imaging spectrometers, and visible to thermal infrared cameras. These systems have been successfully used for gas phase chemical compound identification in a variety of field e...

  10. The NASA Real Time Mission Monitor - A Situational Awareness Tool for Conducting Tropical Cyclone Field Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, Michael; Blakeslee, Richard; Hall, John; Parker, Philip; He, Yubin

    2008-01-01

    The NASA Real Time Mission Monitor (RTMM) is a situational awareness tool that integrates satellite, aircraft state information, airborne and surface instruments, and weather state data in to a single visualization package for real time field experiment management. RTMM optimizes science and logistic decision-making during field experiments by presenting timely data and graphics to the users to improve real time situational awareness of the experiment's assets. The RTMM is proven in the field as it supported program managers, scientists, and aircraft personnel during the NASA African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analyses (investigated African easterly waves and Tropical Storm Debby and Helene) during August-September 2006 in Cape Verde, the Tropical Composition, Cloud and Climate Coupling experiment during July-August 2007 in Costa Rica, and the Hurricane Aerosonde mission into Hurricane Noel in 2-3 November 2007. The integration and delivery of this information is made possible through data acquisition systems, network communication links, and network server resources built and managed by collaborators at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC). RTMM is evolving towards a more flexible and dynamic combination of sensor ingest, network computing, and decision-making activities through the use of a service oriented architecture based on community standards and protocols. Each field experiment presents unique challenges and opportunities for advancing the functionality of RTMM. A description of RTMM, the missions it has supported, and its new features that are under development will be presented.

  11. Preliminary results from an airborne experiment using along-track interferometry for ground moving target indication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapin, Elaine; Chen, Curtis W.

    2005-01-01

    Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) along track interferometry (ATI) has been used extensively to measure ocean surface currents. Given its ability to measure small velocities of relatively radar-dark water surfaces, there is great potential that this technique can be adapted for ground moving target indication (GMTI) applications, particularly as a method for detecting very slwo targets with small radar cross sections. In this paper we describe preliminary results from an ATI GMTI experiment.

  12. Magnetic field experiment on the Freja Satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freja Magnetic Field Experiment Team

    1994-11-01

    Freja is a Swedish scientific satellite mission to study fine scale auroral processes. Launch was October 6, 1992, piggyback on a Chinese Long March 2C, to the present 600×1750 km, 63° inclination orbit. The JHU/APL provided the Magnetic Field Experiment (MFE), which includes a custom APL-designed Forth, language microprocessor. This approach has led to a truly generic and flexible design with adaptability to differing mission requirements and has resulted in the transfer of significant ground analysis to on-board processing. Special attention has been paid to the analog electronic and digital processing design in an effort to lower system noise levels, verified by inflight data showing unprecedented system noise levels for near-Earth magnetic field measurements, approaching the fluxgate sensor levels. The full dynamic range measurements are of the 3-axis Earth's magnetic field taken at 128 vector samples s-1 and digitized to 16 bit, resolution, primarily used to evaluate currents and the main magnetic field of the Earth. Additional 3-axis ‘AC’ channels are bandpass filtered from 1.5 to 128 Hz to remove the main field spin signal, the range is±650 nT. These vector measurements cover Pc waves to ion gyrofrequency magnetic wave signals up to the oxygen gyrofrequency (˜40 Hz). A separate, seventh channel samples the spin axis sensor with a bandpass filter of 1.5 to 256 Hz, the signal of which is fed to a software FFT. This on-board FFT processing covers the local helium gyrofrequencies (˜160 Hz) and is plotted in the Freja Summary Plots (FSPs) along with disturbance fields. First data were received in the U.S. October 16 from Kiruna, Sweden via the Internet and SPAN e-mail networks, and were from an orbit a few hours earlier over Greenland and Sweden. Data files and data products, e.g., FSPs generated at the Kiruna ground station, are communicated in a similar manner through an automatic mail distribution system in Stockholm to PIs and various users

  13. Characterizing Geology and Mineralization at High Latitudes in Alaska Using Airborne and Field-Based Imaging Spectrometer Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoefen, T. M.; Kokaly, R. F.; Graham, G. E.; Kelley, K. D.; Buchhorn, M.; Johnson, M. R.; Hubbard, B. E.; Goldfarb, R. J.; Prakash, A.

    2015-12-01

    Passive optical remote sensing of high latitude regions faces many challenges including a short acquisition season and poor illumination. Identification of surface minerals can be complicated by steep terrain and vegetation cover. In July 2014, the HyMap* imaging spectrometer was flown over two study areas in Alaska. Contemporaneously, field spectra and samples of geologic units were collected, including altered and unaltered parts of intrusions hosting mid-Cretaceous porphyry copper deposits at Orange Hill and Bond Creek in the eastern Alaska Range. The HyMap radiance data were converted to surface reflectance using a radiative transfer correction program and reflectance spectra of calibration sites. Reflectance data were analyzed with the Material Identification and Characterization Algorithm (MICA), a module of USGS PRISM (Processing Routines in IDL for Spectroscopic Measurements; speclab.cr.usgs.gov). Large areas of abundant epidote/chlorite, muscovite/illite, calcite, kaolinite, montmorillonite, and (or) pyrophyllite were mapped, which are minerals typically formed during alteration of host rocks surrounding porphyry copper deposits. A map showing the wavelength position of the muscovite/illite absorption feature was made. Shifts in wavelength position have been related to the aluminum composition of micas and areas of high metal concentrations in past studies. In July 2015, rock and spectral sampling was continued in areas with surface exposures of copper- and molybdenum-bearing sulfides. Also, high-spatial resolution (~6 cm pixel size) imaging spectrometer data were collected at the Orange Hill deposit using the University of Alaska, Fairbanks (UAF) HySpex imaging spectrometer (www.hyperspectral.alaska.edu). Laboratory, field, and airborne spectra are being examined to define indicators of mineralization. The study results will be used to assess the effectiveness of spectroscopic remote sensing for geologic mapping and exploration targeting in Alaska and

  14. Airborne Doppler lidar wind field measurements of waves in the lee of Mount Shasta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blumen, William; Hart, John E.

    1988-01-01

    Doppler lidar wind data obtained along one leg of a race track traverse around Mount Shasta are presently studied to establish their value and limitations for the study of orographic flows, as well as to evaluate the relative usefulness of a linear model in the analyses of the observed fields-of-motion. The model successfully reproduced the observed downstream lee of positive horizontal divergence which embedded spatially irregular waves, but the amplitudes of the model downstream divergence is smaller than the observations by a factor of two.

  15. The NASA Cold Land Processes Field Experiment (CLPX)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cline, D.; Elder, K.; Davis, B.; Hardy, J.; Liston, G.; Parsons, M.

    2002-12-01

    The Cold Land Processes Field Experiment (CLPX) is a multi-year effort to develop the quantitative understanding, models, and measurements necessary to extend our local-scale understanding of cold-region water fluxes, storage, and transformations to regional and global scales. Particularly emphasized is the development of a strong synergism between process-oriented understanding, land surface models and microwave remote sensing within a broad range of physiographic regimes. Objectives of the CLPX include evaluation and improvement of algorithms for retrieving snow and frozen soil information from active and passive microwave sensors, evaluating the effects of sensor spatial resolution on retrieval skill, coupling forward microwave radiative transfer schemes to distributed snow/soil models to improve assimilation of microwave remote sensing data, and development of sensor specifications for a new space-flight mission to measure cold land hydrologic processes. The experimental design is a multi-sensor, multi-scale approach to providing the comprehensive data set necessary to address these objectives. A series of nested study areas, at five scales ranging from 1-ha to 160,000 km2, provides the framework needed to address objectives concerning the scale and scaling of processes, measurements, and models. The largest of these, the Large Regional Study Area (160,000 km2), is located in north central Colorado and southern Wyoming. Within it is the Small Regional Study Area (37,000 km2). These two areas are the focus of satellite remote sensing data collection (MODIS, Landsat, Hyperion, SSM/I, AMSR, Radarsat, and others), and archival of mesoscale atmospheric model data sets (RUC2, LAPS, and RAMS). Nested within these are three 25-km x 25-km Meso-Cell Study Areas (MSA), that are the focus of airborne remote sensing data collection, including AIRSAR, POLSCAT, PSR-A, GAMMA, and AVIRIS. Within each of the three MSA are three 1-km x 1-km Intensive Study Areas (ISA), where

  16. Comparison of ARAC calculations with surface and airborne measurements for the ACE field trials

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, K.T.; Pobanz, B.

    1996-11-01

    These Atmospheric Collection Equipment (ACE) trials were sponsored by the Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC) for the purpose of investigating specific tracer monitoring methods and equipment. Three different tracers (sulfur hexafluoride and two particulate tracers) were released simultaneously for each experiment. This document provides a brief summary of the sulfur hexafluoride modeling results for three of the remaining four ACE trials (the tracer plume from the fifth trial was not located by the monitoring teams and provided no tracer measurements for model comparison). This summary is followed by a discussion of model results for the two particulate tracers which were co-released with sulfur hexafluoride.

  17. Operation Sun Beam, Shots Little Feller II and Small Boy. Project Officer's report - Project 7. 16. Airborne E-field radiation measurements of electromagnetic-pulse phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, K.L.

    1985-09-01

    Airborne measurements of the absolute vertical electric field (E-field) of the radiated electromagnetic pulse were attempted for Shots Little Feller II and Small Boy. Instrumentation included calibrated vertical whip antennas, wideband magnetic tape recorders, and photographs of oscilloscope traces. One instrumented aircraft participated in Little Feller II (C-131F); two aircraft participated in Small Boy (a C-131F and an A-3A). No detectable signals were recorded for either event. It is concluded that the vertical E-field intensities encountered were below the calibrated levels of the instrumentation or the method of instrumentation and calibration was inadequate for nonrepetitive pulse signals.

  18. Joint NASA/USAF Airborne Field Mill Program - Operation and safety considerations during flights of a Lear 28 airplane in adverse weather

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Bruce D.; Phillips, Michael R.; Maier, Launa M.

    1992-01-01

    A NASA Langley Research Center Learjet 28 research airplane was flown in various adverse weather conditions in the vicinity of the NASA Kennedy Space Center from 1990-1992 to measure airborne electric fields during the Joint NASA/USAF Airborne Field Mill Program. The objective of this program was to characterize the electrical activity in various weather phenomena common to the NASA-Kennedy area in order to refine Launch Commit Criteria for natural and triggered lightning. The purpose of the program was to safely relax the existing launch commit criteria, thereby increasing launch availability and reducing the chance for weather holds and delays. This paper discusses the operational conduct of the flight test, including environmental/safety considerations, aircraft instrumentation and modification, test limitations, flight procedures, and the procedures and responsibilities of the personnel in the ground station. Airborne field mill data were collected for all the Launch Commit Criteria during two summer and two winter deployments. These data are now being analyzed.

  19. Experiments with Low Voltage Field Emission EPMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fournelle, J.; Cathey, H. E.

    2014-12-01

    We report results from 5-7 keV Field Emission EPMA experiments on selected natural minerals and synthetic materials to illustrate some strengths -- and pitfalls --of low keV FE-EPMA. In a silicate mineral in pseudotachylite from South Mountain, AZ (Goodwin, 1999), the spatial resolution (equation of Merlet & Llovet, 2012, with an 80 nm diameter beam) at 7 keV for Si Ka is calculated to be 588 nm, 391 nm for Ca Ka and 641 nm for Fe La. This pseudotachylite contains abundant 5-10 um sieve-textured crystals full of inclusions with low BSE intensity. Previous 15 keV work suggested the sieve phase was amphibole. At 7 keV, it is possible to identify the compositions of the submicron inclusions as SiO2 and a K-rich alumino-silicate phase; the host composition is epidote. The enhanced resolution of FE-EPMA reveals problems with some microanalytical standards. Vicenzi and Rose (2008) showed submicron inclusions in the Smithsonian Kakanui hornblende standard. Our 7 keV experiments show the ~400 nm inclusions consist of a silicate phase (glass?), Fe-Ti oxide and possibly a gas bubble, concentrated along planes or grain boundaries. SEM imaging of an inclusion analyzed with a focused FE beam shows radiating trails of debris on the hornblende host, consistent with residue from a popped vapor bubble in the inclusion. How should FE-EPMA handle standards that may have inclusions? Use a focused beam avoiding inclusions? Sometimes, perhaps. However, we used a defocused beam to "average" the phases. The results show little or no deviation from the published wet chemical analysis. Operation at reduced keV may require use of non-traditional X-ray lines (e.g. Gopon et al, 2013 for Fe Ll vs Fe La). Experiments at 5 keV were also performed upon a synthetic material enriched in Nd (Nd-Mg-Zn). Fischer & Baun (1967) demonstrated problems with the Ma/Mb lines of REE; we find that use of the Nd Mz line is necessary in order to achieve reasonable results in this material (98 wt% total, Nd 36 wt

  20. NASA Student Airborne Research Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaller, E. L.; Shetter, R. E.

    2012-12-01

    The NASA Student Airborne Research Program (SARP) is a unique summer internship program for advanced undergraduates and early graduate students majoring in the STEM disciplines. SARP participants acquire hands-on research experience in all aspects of an airborne research campaign, including flying onboard an major NASA resource used for studying Earth system processes. In summer 2012, thirty-two participants worked in four interdisciplinary teams to study surface, atmospheric, and oceanographic processes. Participants assisted in the operation of instruments onboard the NASA P-3B aircraft where they sampled and measured atmospheric gases and imaged land and water surfaces in multiple spectral bands. Along with airborne data collection, students participated in taking measurements at field sites. Mission faculty and research mentors helped to guide participants through instrument operation, sample analysis, and data reduction. Over the eight-week program, each student developed an individual research project from the data collected and delivered a conference-style final presentation on his/her results. We will discuss the results and effectiveness of the program from the first four summers and discuss plans for the future.

  1. Marsh dieback, loss, and recovery mapped with satellite optical, airborne polarimetric radar, and field data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ramsey, Elijah W., III; Rangoonwala, Amina; Chi, Zhaohui; Jones, Cathleen E.; Bannister, Terri

    2014-01-01

    Landsat Thematic Mapper and Satellite Pour l'Observation de la Terre (SPOT) satellite based optical sensors, NASA Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle synthetic aperture radar (UAVSAR) polarimetric SAR (PolSAR), and field data captured the occurrence and the recovery of an undetected dieback that occurred between the summers of 2010, 2011, and 2012 in the Spartina alterniflora marshes of coastal Louisiana. Field measurements recorded the dramatic biomass decrease from 2010 to 2011 and a biomass recovery in 2012 dominated by a decrease of live biomass, and the loss of marsh as part of the dieback event. Based on an established relationship, the near-infrared/red vegetation index (VI) and site-specific measurements delineated a contiguous expanse of marsh dieback encompassing 6649.9 ha of 18,292.3 ha of S. alterniflora marshes within the study region. PolSAR data were transformed to variables used in biophysical mapping, and of this variable suite, the cross-polarization HV (horizontal send and vertical receive) backscatter was the best single indicator of marsh dieback and recovery. HV backscatter exhibited substantial and significant changes over the dieback and recovery period, tracked measured biomass changes, and significantly correlated with the live/dead biomass ratio. Within the context of regional trends, both HV and VI indicators started higher in pre-dieback marshes and exhibited substantially and statistically higher variability from year to year than that exhibited in the non-dieback marshes. That distinct difference allowed the capturing of the S. alterniflora marsh dieback and recovery; however, these changes were incorporated in a regional trend exhibiting similar but more subtle biomass composition changes.

  2. Habit versus planned behaviour: a field experiment.

    PubMed

    Verplanken, B; Aarts, H; van Knippenberg, A; Moonen, A

    1998-03-01

    A field experiment investigated the prediction and change in repeated behaviour in the domain of travel mode choices. Car use during seven days was predicted from habit strength (measured by self-reported frequency of past behaviour, as well as by a more covert measure based on personal scripts incorporating the behaviour), and antecedents of behaviour as conceptualized in the theory of planned behaviour (attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioural control and behavioural intention). Both habit measures predicted behaviour in addition to intention and perceived control. Significant habit x intention interactions indicated that intentions were only significantly related to behaviour when habit was weak, whereas no intention-behaviour relation existed when habit was strong. During the seven-day registration of behaviour, half of the respondents were asked to think about the circumstances under which the behaviour was executed. Compared to control participants, the behaviour of experimental participants was more strongly related to their previously expressed intentions. However, the habit-behaviour relation was unaffected. The results demonstrate that, although external incentives may increase the enactment of intentions, habits set boundary conditions for the applicability of the theory of planned behaviour. PMID:9554090

  3. Extraterrestrial Virtual Field Experience: Water at Meridiani

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duggan-Haas, D.; Million, C.; Sullivan, R. J., Jr.; Hayes, A. G., Jr.; Ross, R. M.; St Clair, M.

    2014-12-01

    The Spacecraft Planetary Imaging Facility (SPIF) at Cornell University, in collaboration with Million Concepts and the Paleontological Research Institute (PRI), has developed the Extraterrestrial Virtual Field Experience (EVFE), a web-based, game-like and inquiry-driven classroom activity targeted to middle school through undergraduate introductory Earth science classrooms. Students play the role of mission scientists for a NASA rover mission, tasked with targeting the rover's scientific instruments to investigate a specific scientific question about the landing site. As with the real mission, the student operators must optimize the efficient use of limited resources and time against the need to make observations to address working hypotheses. The activity uses only real--not artificial or simulated--mission data, and students are guided throughout by a "Mission Manager" who provides hints and advice about the scientific meaning of observations within the broader context of the mission objectives. The MER Opportunity EVFE is a pilot effort, the first of five EVFE modules planned a rate of one per year that will feature different NASA missions and scientific topics. The MER Opportunity EVFE has already been developed and focuses on the investigation of the history of water on Mars at the Meridiani landing site of the Opportunity rover. The module includes a teacher guide and is currently available to educators through the SPIF website.

  4. Research on airborne infrared leakage detection of natural gas pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Dongjie; Xu, Bin; Xu, Xu; Wang, Hongchao; Yu, Dongliang; Tian, Shengjie

    2011-12-01

    An airborne laser remote sensing technology is proposed to detect natural gas pipeline leakage in helicopter which carrying a detector, and the detector can detect a high spatial resolution of trace of methane on the ground. The principle of the airborne laser remote sensing system is based on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS). The system consists of an optical unit containing the laser, camera, helicopter mount, electronic unit with DGPS antenna, a notebook computer and a pilot monitor. And the system is mounted on a helicopter. The principle and the architecture of the airborne laser remote sensing system are presented. Field test experiments are carried out on West-East Natural Gas Pipeline of China, and the results show that airborne detection method is suitable for detecting gas leak of pipeline on plain, desert, hills but unfit for the area with large altitude diversification.

  5. Airborne tunable diode laser measurements of formaldehyde during the 1997 North Atlantic Regional Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fried, Alan; Wert, Bryan P.; Henry, Bruce E.; Drummond, James R.; Frost, Gregory J.; Lee, Yin-Nan

    1999-10-01

    Accurate measurements of formaldehyde (CH2O), a trace gas found throughout the atmosphere, are important for furthering our understanding of hydrocarbon oxidation processes in the atmosphere. During the 1997 North Atlantic Regional Experiment numerous trace gases, including CH2O, were measured onboard a WP3 aircraft operated by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration to study continental transport and photochemistry over remote regions of the North Atlantic Ocean. A highly sensitive tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer was employed in acquiring ambient CH2O measurements on 10 different flights during this campaign. A second instrument, based on chemical derivatization of ambient CH2O with DNPH, was also operated on the WP3 aircraft. This paper will briefly summarize the aircraft TDLAS system employed and discuss the level of agreement obtained between both instruments. This will be followed by a brief discussion of the results, and concludes with a preliminary comparison of the measurements with a 0-dimensional box model constrained by the measurements of other species during the campaign.

  6. Development of the Lidar Atmospheric Sensing Experiment (LASE): An Advanced Airborne DIAL Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Alvah S., Jr.; Brown, Kevin E.; Hall, William M.; Barnes, James C.; Edwards, William C.; Petway, Larry B.; Little, Alan D.; Luck, William S., Jr.; Jones, Irby W.; Antill, Charles W., Jr.

    1997-01-01

    The Lidar Atmospheric Sensing Experiment (LASE) Instrument is the first fully-engineered, autonomous Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) System for the measurement of water vapor in the troposphere (aerosol and cloud measurements are included). LASE uses a double-pulsed Ti:Sapphire laser for the transmitter with a 30 ns pulse length and 150 mJ/pulse. The laser beam is "seeded" to operate on a selected water vapor absorption line in the 815-nm region using a laser diode and an onboard absorption reference cell. A 40 cm diameter telescope collects the backscattered signals and directs them onto two detectors. LASE collects DIAL data at 5 Hz while onboard a NASA/Ames ER-2 aircraft flying at altitudes from 16-21 km. LASE was designed to operate autonomously within the environment and physical constraints of the ER-2 aircraft and to make water vapor profile measurements across the troposphere to better than 10% accuracy. LASE has flown 19 times during the development of the instrument and the validation of the science data. This paper describes the design, operation, and reliability of the LASE Instrument.

  7. An Overview of Measurement Comparisons from the INTEX-B/MILAGRO Airborne Field Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleb, Mary M.; Chen, Gao; Crawford, James H.; Flocke, Frank M.; Brown, Clyde C.

    2011-01-01

    As part of the NASA's INTEX-B mission, the NASA DC-8 and NSF C-130 conducted three wing-tip to wing-tip comparison flights. The intercomparison flights sampled a variety of atmospheric conditions (polluted urban, non-polluted, marine boundary layer, clean and polluted free troposphere). These comparisons form a basis to establish data consistency, but also should also be viewed as a continuation of efforts aiming to better understand and reduce measurement differences as identified in earlier field intercomparison exercises. This paper provides a comprehensive overview of 140 intercomparisons of data collected as well as a record of the measurement consistency demonstrated during INTEX-B. It is the primary goal to provide necessary information for the future research to determine if the observations from different INTEX-B platforms/instrument are consistent within the PI reported uncertainties and used in integrated analysis. This paper may also contribute to the formulation strategy for future instrument developments. For interpretation and most effective use of these results, the reader is strongly urged to consult with the instrument principle investigator.

  8. University of Washington Airborne Studies in Support of the CLAMS-2001 Field Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hobbs, Peter V.

    2003-01-01

    The main activity under this grant was participation in the Chesapeake Lighthouse and Aircraft Measurements for Satellites (CLAMS) field study from 10 July through 2 August 2001. The Cloud and Aerosol Research Group (CARG) from the University of Washington (UW) flew its Convair-580 research aircraft on thirteen occasions, for a total of 45 research flight hours, in support of CLAMS. Some of the main accomplishments of these flights were: 1) Aerosol and trace gas measurements and sunphotometer measurements of aerosol optical depth and column water vapor and ozone from close to Ocean surface to approx. 10,000 ft off Delmarva Peninsula on various occasions; 2) Measurements of aerosol properties on seven occasions beneath the Terra satellite, once beneath AVHRR, and five times beneath the ER-2 aircraft; 3) Measurements of aerosol properties in the vicinity of the (CERES instrumented) Chesapeake Bay lighthouse (COVE) on nine occasions; 4) Use of the NASA Goddard Cloud Absorption Radiometer (CAR) to obtain measurements of BRDF of the ocean surface on fifteen occasions and over Great Dismal Swamp on two occasions; 5) Measurements of aerosol properties over instrumented buoys 44014, 44004, and 41001. 6) On July 17 (a CLAMS 'Golden Day') six aircraft, including the Convair-580 and ER-2, were stacked above the Chesapeake Bay lighthouse under clear skies at the time of the Terra overpass.

  9. Detection of airborne viruses using electro-aerodynamic deposition and a field-effect transistor

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kyu-Tae; Cho, Dong-Guk; Park, Ji-Woon; Hong, Seunghun; Hwang, Jungho

    2015-01-01

    We report a technique for the detection of aerosolized viruses. Conventional field-effect-transistor (FET)-based techniques use solution-based processes, thus require antibody binding to the detection region of the FET prior to the supply of the analyte. With the method described here, virus–antibody-bound particles are delivered to the FET during detection; therefore, neither a pre-treatment antibody binding step on the FET channel nor washing process for virus–antibody-binding are necessary. Our method is based on the concept that virus–antibody-bound particles are larger than the virus or antibody alone, and thus have larger charge numbers following aerosol charging. When these particles are charged by negative ions and electro-aerodynamically deposited on a substrate, there exists a location on the substrate where neither lone virus nor antibody particles land, and where only virus–antibody-bound particles are deposited. If this location coincides with the channel of the FET, the resulting variation in the current can be used to indicate the existence of a virus. By aerosolizing a mixed solution of the virus and the antibody, only the virus–antibody-bound particles were transported to the swCNT-FET, and the electric current in the swCNT-FET decreased to 30% of that measured with no deposited particles. PMID:26642822

  10. Detection of airborne viruses using electro-aerodynamic deposition and a field-effect transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Kyu-Tae; Cho, Dong-Guk; Park, Ji-Woon; Hong, Seunghun; Hwang, Jungho

    2015-12-01

    We report a technique for the detection of aerosolized viruses. Conventional field-effect-transistor (FET)-based techniques use solution-based processes, thus require antibody binding to the detection region of the FET prior to the supply of the analyte. With the method described here, virus-antibody-bound particles are delivered to the FET during detection; therefore, neither a pre-treatment antibody binding step on the FET channel nor washing process for virus-antibody-binding are necessary. Our method is based on the concept that virus-antibody-bound particles are larger than the virus or antibody alone, and thus have larger charge numbers following aerosol charging. When these particles are charged by negative ions and electro-aerodynamically deposited on a substrate, there exists a location on the substrate where neither lone virus nor antibody particles land, and where only virus-antibody-bound particles are deposited. If this location coincides with the channel of the FET, the resulting variation in the current can be used to indicate the existence of a virus. By aerosolizing a mixed solution of the virus and the antibody, only the virus-antibody-bound particles were transported to the swCNT-FET, and the electric current in the swCNT-FET decreased to 30% of that measured with no deposited particles.

  11. Evaluation of the MOZAIC Capacitive Hygrometer during the airborne field study CIRRUS-III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neis, P.; Smit, H. G. J.; Krämer, M.; Spelten, N.; Petzold, A.

    2014-09-01

    The MOZAIC Capacitive Hygrometer (MCH) is usually operated onboard of passenger aircraft in the framework of MOZAIC (Measurement of Ozone by AIRBUS In-Service Aircraft). In order to evaluate the performance of the MCH, it was operated aboard a Learjet 35A aircraft as part of the CIRRUS-III field study together with a closed-cell Lyman-α fluorescence hygrometer (FISH) and an open path tunable diode laser system (OJSTER) for water vapour measurement. After reducing the data set to MOZAIC-relevant conditions, the 1Hz relative humidity (RH) cross correlation between MCH and reference instruments FISH (clear sky) and OJSTER (in-cirrus) yielded a remarkably good agreement of R2 = 0.97 and slope m = 0.96 and provided the MCH uncertainty of 5% RH. Probability distribution functions of RH deduced from MCH and reference instruments agreed well over the entire range of observations. The main limitation for the use of MCH data is related to sensor temperatures below the calibration limit of Tsensor = -40 °C (corresponds to ambient temperature of Tambient = -70 °C at typical cruising speed of long-haul passenger aircraft), which causes a delay in the sensor's time response. Good performance of MCH for clear sky as well as for in-cirrus conditions demonstrated the sensor robustness also for operation inside ice clouds.

  12. Technology Supported Cognitive Apprenticeship Transforms the Student Teaching Field Experience: Improving the Student Teaching Field Experience for All Triad Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alger, Christianna; Kopcha, Theodore J.

    2011-01-01

    Despite issues of fragmentation, isolation, and disconnection from the university associated with the student teaching field experience, the field experience plays a critical role in teacher education. In this article, the authors provide an overview of eSupervision, a technology-based innovation to improve the student teaching field experience by…

  13. Application of airborne laser scanner measurements of ocean roughness to the calibration and validation of a satellite bistatic radar experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parrin, J.; Garrison, J. L.

    2006-12-01

    A high-resolution airborne laser scanner, from the National Center for Airborne Laser Mapping (NCALM) was used to profile the ocean surface in an attempt to experimentally measure the ocean height spectrum down to wavelengths as small as a few centimetres. In October of 2005, three data collections were scheduled, during overpasses of the UK-DMC satellite, off the coast of Virginia. UK-DMC carries an experimental bistatic radar receiver, which uses Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signals as illumination sources. Most models for reflected GNSS signals relate the shape of the signal correlation waveforms to the ocean roughness, parameterized as a probability distribution (PDF) of surface slopes. This statistical description of the ocean surface must first be filtered to wavelengths greater than some fraction of the GNSS wavelength of 19 cm. Past experimental campaigns have used more common in-situ measurements, such as wind speed, for comparison with GNSS waveforms. These types of measurements will require the assumption of some empirical model for the ocean height spectrum, allowing the computation of the filtered slope statistics. Proposed applications of reflected GNSS signals include the correction of ocean roughness effects in passive microwave radiometry. To evaluate the feasibility of GNSS reflections for this measurement, it is important to make a more direct measurement of the ocean surface slope statistics, without the assumption of a spectrum model. In these experiments, a direct measurement of this spectrum was attempted, using the NCALM system. The laser scanner was operated on a low altitude (500 m) aircraft, at the highest sample rate (33KHz), generating ocean height measurements with an along-track separation of a few millimetres. The laser illuminates a spot on the ocean surface that is smaller than 10 cm, however, limiting the smallest resolvable wavelength to something on that order. Laser data were collected along multiple flight lines

  14. Forest Inventory Attribute Estimation Using Airborne Laser Scanning, Aerial Stereo Imagery, Radargrammetry and Interferometry-Finnish Experiences of the 3d Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holopainen, M.; Vastaranta, M.; Karjalainen, M.; Karila, K.; Kaasalainen, S.; Honkavaara, E.; Hyyppä, J.

    2015-03-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) remote sensing has enabled detailed mapping of terrain and vegetation heights. Consequently, forest inventory attributes are estimated more and more using point clouds and normalized surface models. In practical applications, mainly airborne laser scanning (ALS) has been used in forest resource mapping. The current status is that ALS-based forest inventories are widespread, and the popularity of ALS has also raised interest toward alternative 3D techniques, including airborne and spaceborne techniques. Point clouds can be generated using photogrammetry, radargrammetry and interferometry. Airborne stereo imagery can be used in deriving photogrammetric point clouds, as very-high-resolution synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data are used in radargrammetry and interferometry. ALS is capable of mapping both the terrain and tree heights in mixed forest conditions, which is an advantage over aerial images or SAR data. However, in many jurisdictions, a detailed ALS-based digital terrain model is already available, and that enables linking photogrammetric or SAR-derived heights to heights above the ground. In other words, in forest conditions, the height of single trees, height of the canopy and/or density of the canopy can be measured and used in estimation of forest inventory attributes. In this paper, first we review experiences of the use of digital stereo imagery and spaceborne SAR in estimation of forest inventory attributes in Finland, and we compare techniques to ALS. In addition, we aim to present new implications based on our experiences.

  15. Characterizing forest structure variations across an intact tropical peat dome using field samplings and airborne LiDAR.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Ha T; Hutyra, Lucy R; Hardiman, Brady S; Raciti, Steve M

    2016-03-01

    Tropical peat swamp forests (PSF) are one of the most carbon dense ecosystems on the globe and are experiencing substantial natural and anthropogenic disturbances. In this study, we combined direct field sampling and airborne LiDAR to empirically quantify forest structure and aboveground live biomass (AGB) across a large, intact tropical peat dome in Northwestern Borneo. Moving up a 4 m elevational gradient, we observed increasing stem density but decreasing canopy height, crown area, and crown roughness. These findings were consistent with hypotheses that nutrient and hydrological dynamics co-influence forest structure and stature of the canopy individuals, leading to reduced productivity towards the dome interior. Gap frequency as a function of gap size followed a power law distribution with a shape factor (λ) of 1.76 ± 0.06. Ground-based and dome-wide estimates of AGB were 217.7 ± 28.3 Mg C/ha and 222.4 ± 24.4 Mg C/ha, respectively, which were higher than previously reported AGB for PSF and tropical forests in general. However, dome-wide AGB estimates were based on height statistics, and we found the coefficient of variation on canopy height was only 0.08, three times less than stem diameter measurements, suggesting LiDAR height metrics may not be a robust predictor of AGB in tall tropical forests with dense canopies. Our structural characterization of this ecosystem advances the understanding of the ecology of intact tropical peat domes and factors that influence biomass density and landscape-scale spatial variation. This ecological understanding is essential to improve estimates of forest carbon density and its spatial distribution in PSF and to effectively model the effects of disturbance and deforestation in these carbon dense ecosystems. PMID:27209797

  16. Field experiences in science teacher preparation programs of Missouri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhea, Marilyn Sue Alvis

    The purpose of this study was to collect and analyze data pertinent to identifying the differences and similarities in the design and implementation of field experiences for pre-service science teachers in institutions of higher education in the State of Missouri. Directors of field experience from 25 Institutions of Higher Education (IHE) that prepare both elementary and secondary science teachers and 5 additional IHE that prepare only elementary teachers were surveyed using a 48-item Likert scale instrument designed for this study. Data were collected on the hours of field experience in relation to science and other methods classes, distribution of field experience hours across the program, and total hours of field experience required. Comparisons were made between elementary and secondary science teacher preparation programs. Five areas of field experience were surveyed: design of early field experience, design of student teaching, support provided by IHE for cooperating schools, field experience assessment practices, and relationships between pre-service teachers, cooperating teachers and IHE educators. Analyses of the responses indicate statistically significant differences in the number of field experience hours between IRE programs for both early field experience (p < .05) and student teaching (p < .01). Differences in number of field experience hours by level of certification were not significant. Correlation of scores was significant between the elementary and secondary levels for both early field experience design (r = .97) and student teaching design (r = .75). No other significant correlation was found. This study found highly heterogeneous practices regarding field experience exist in Missouri IHE programs. When reported practices are compared to standards set in the professional literature, as a group Missouri IHE science teacher preparation programs could be described as traditional apprenticeships or quasi-professional development school programs.

  17. Exploring Group Cohesion in a Higher Education Field Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malcarne, Brian Keith

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain understanding into the experience of group cohesion for university students participating in an academic field experience. A mixed methods approach was used following a two-phase, sequential research design to help provide a more complete explanation of how group cohesion was impacted by the field experience.…

  18. Airborne atmospheric electricity experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blakeslee, R. J.

    1985-01-01

    During the 1984 U2 spring flight program, lightning spectra were measured in the wavelengths from 380 nm to 900 nm with a temporal resolution of 5 ms. With this capability, researchers simultaneously acquired both visible near-infrared lightning spectra on a pulse to pulse basis, so that the spectral variability within a flash, as well as flash to flash variations, can be studied. Preliminary results suggest that important variations do occur, particularly in the strengths of the hydrogen and singly ionized nitrogen emission lines. Also, the results have revealed significant differences in the integrated energy distributions between the lightning spectra measured above clouds and the spectral measurements of cloud-to-ground lightning made at the ground. In particular, the ratio of the energy in the near-IR to that in the visible is around 1 to 2 for cloud top spectra versus about 1/3 for surface observations. Detailed analyses of the 1984 lightning spectral data is being conducted. This data should provide improved understanding about the optical transmission properties of thunderclouds and the physics of the lightning discharge process. Efforts continue on developing and testing background signal removal algorithms using U2 spectometer and optical array sensor day-flight data sets. The goal of this research is to develop an algorithm satisfying Lightning Mapper Sensor requirements.

  19. Argonne plasma wake-field acceleration experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenzweig, J.B.; Cole, B.; Gai, W.; Konecny, R.; Norem, J.; Schoessow, P.; Simpson, J.

    1989-03-14

    Four years after the initial proposal of the Plasma Wake-field Accelerator (PWFA), it continues to be the object of much investigation, due to the promise of the ultra-high accelerating gradients that can exist in relativistic plasma waves driven in the wake of charged particle beams. These wake-fields are of interest both in the laboratory, for acceleration and focusing of electrons and positrons in future linear colliders, and in nature as a possible cosmic ray acceleration mechanism. The purpose of the present work is to review the recent experimental advances made in PWFA research at Argonne National Laboratory. Some of the topics discussed are: the Argonne Advanced Accelerator Test Facility; linear plasma wake-field theory; measurement of linear plasma wake-fields; review of nonlinear plasma wave theory; and experimental measurement of nonlinear plasma wake-fields. 25 refs., 11 figs.

  20. FINAL RESULTS OF THE CONDORS CONVECTIVE DIFFUSION FIELD EXPERIMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Convective Diffusion Observed by Remote Sensors (CONDORS) field experiment conducted at the Boulder Atmospheric Observatory used innovative techniques to obtain three dimensional mappings of plume concentration fields of oil fog detected by lidar and "chaff" detected by Doppl...

  1. A data assimilation experiment of RASTA airborne cloud radar data during HyMeX IOP16

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saussereau, Gaël; Caumont, Olivier; Delanoë, Julien

    2015-04-01

    The main goal of HyMeX first special observing period (SOP1), which took place from 5 September to 5 November 2012, was to document the heavy precipitation events and flash floods that regularly affect the north-western Mediterranean coastal areas. In the two-month campaign, around twenty rainfall events were documented in France, Italy, and Spain. Among the instrumental platforms that were deployed during SOP1, the Falcon 20 of the Safire unit (http://www.safire.fr/) made numerous flights in storm systems so as to document their thermodynamic, microphysical, and dynamical properties. In particular, the RASTA cloud radar (http://rali.projet.latmos.ipsl.fr/) was aboard this aircraft. This radar measures vertical profiles of reflectivity and Doppler velocity above and below the aircraft. This unique instrument thus allows us to document the microphysical properties and the speed of wind and hydrometeors in the clouds, quasi-continuously in time and at a 60-m vertical resolution. For this field campaign, a special version of the numerical weather prediction (NWP) Arome system was developed to cover the whole north-western Mediterranean basin. This version, called Arome-WMed, ran in real time during the SOP in order to, notably, schedule the airborne operations, especially in storm systems. Like the operational version, Arome-WMed delivers forecasts at a horizontal resolution of 2.5 km with a one-moment microphysical scheme that predicts the evolution of six water species: water vapour, cloud liquid water, rainwater, pristine ice, snow, and graupel. Its three-dimensional variational (3DVar) data assimilation (DA) system ingests every three hours (at 00 UTC, 03 UTC, etc.) numerous observations (radiosoundings, ground automatic weather stations, radar, satellite, GPS, etc.). In order to provide improved initial conditions to Arome-WMed, especially for heavy precipitation events, RASTA data were assimilated in Arome-WMed 3DVar DA system for IOP16 (26 October 2012), to

  2. Orientation of Oblique Airborne Image Sets - Experiences from the Isprs/eurosdr Benchmark on Multi-Platform Photogrammetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerke, M.; Nex, F.; Remondino, F.; Jacobsen, K.; Kremer, J.; Karel, W.; Hu, H.; Ostrowski, W.

    2016-06-01

    During the last decade the use of airborne multi camera systems increased significantly. The development in digital camera technology allows mounting several mid- or small-format cameras efficiently onto one platform and thus enables image capture under different angles. Those oblique images turn out to be interesting for a number of applications since lateral parts of elevated objects, like buildings or trees, are visible. However, occlusion or illumination differences might challenge image processing. From an image orientation point of view those multi-camera systems bring the advantage of a better ray intersection geometry compared to nadir-only image blocks. On the other hand, varying scale, occlusion and atmospheric influences which are difficult to model impose problems to the image matching and bundle adjustment tasks. In order to understand current limitations of image orientation approaches and the influence of different parameters such as image overlap or GCP distribution, a commonly available dataset was released. The originally captured data comprises of a state-of-the-art image block with very high overlap, but in the first stage of the so-called ISPRS/EUROSDR benchmark on multi-platform photogrammetry only a reduced set of images was released. In this paper some first results obtained with this dataset are presented. They refer to different aspects like tie point matching across the viewing directions, influence of the oblique images onto the bundle adjustment, the role of image overlap and GCP distribution. As far as the tie point matching is concerned we observed that matching of overlapping images pointing to the same cardinal direction, or between nadir and oblique views in general is quite successful. Due to the quite different perspective between images of different viewing directions the standard tie point matching, for instance based on interest points does not work well. How to address occlusion and ambiguities due to different views onto

  3. Observations of TTL water vapor and cirrus properties from the NASA Global Hawk during the Airborne Tropical TRopopause EXperiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thornberry, Troy; Rollins, Andrew; Gao, Ru-Shan; Woods, Sarah; Lawson, Paul; Bui, Thaopaul; Pfister, Leonhard; Fahey, David

    2015-04-01

    Despite its very low mixing ratios relative to the troposphere, water vapor in the lower stratosphere (LS) plays a significant role in Earth's radiative balance and climate system and is an important constituent in stratospheric chemistry. The low H2O content of air entering the LS is established to first order by dehydration processes controlled by the cold temperatures of the tropical tropopause layer (TTL), especially over the western Pacific. Cirrus clouds occur with high frequency and large spatial extent in the TTL, and those occurring near the thermal tropopause facilitate the final dehydration of stratosphere-bound air parcels. Uncertainties in aspects of the nucleation and growth of cirrus cloud particles and the sparseness of in situ water vapor and cirrus cloud observations with sufficient spatial resolution limit our ability to fully describe the final stages of the dehydration process before air enters the LS in the tropics. The NASA Airborne Tropical TRopopause EXperiment (ATTREX) measurement campaign has yielded more than 140 hours of sampling from the Global Hawk UAS in the Pacific TTL during deployments in winter 2013 and 2014, including more than 30 hours sampling TTL cirrus. Cirrus clouds were encountered throughout the TTL, up to the tropopause (17-18 km), with ice water contents (IWC) down to the detection limit of 3 μg m-3 and water vapor mixing ratios as low as 1.5 ppm. Most TTL cirrus sampled had particle number concentrations of less than 100 L-1, but some had concentrations ranging up to more than 1000 L-1. The mean value for relative humidity with respect to ice within cirrus was near 100%, but encompassed a range from < 50% to higher than 150%. The high spatial and temporal resolution in situ measurements of water vapor and cirrus cloud properties made during ATTREX provide an outstanding dataset by which to characterize the Pacific TTL environment and evaluate our current understanding of the dynamical and microphysical processes that

  4. Field Trips as Valuable Learning Experiences in Geography Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krakowka, Amy Richmond

    2012-01-01

    Field trips have been acknowledged as valuable learning experiences in geography. This article uses Kolb's (1984) experiential learning model to discuss how students learn and how field trips can help enhance learning. Using Kolb's experiential learning theory as a guide in the design of field trips helps ensure that field trips contribute to…

  5. The JPL MSAT mobile laboratory and the pilot field experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berner, Jeff B.; Emerson, Richard F.

    1988-01-01

    A Mobile Laboratory/Propagation Measurement Van (PMV) was developed to support the field experiments of the Mobile Satellite Experiment (MSAT-X) Project. This van was designed to provide flexibility, self-sufficiency and data acquisition to allow for both measurement of equipment performance and the mobile environment. The design philosophy and implementation of the PMV are described. The Pilot Field Experiments and an overall description of the three experiments in which the PMV was used are described.

  6. Bell Experiment with Classical Optical Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Little, Bethany; Qian, Xiao-Feng; Howell, John; Eberly, J. H.

    We theoretically and experimentally explore the implications of entanglement in statistically classical optical fields. The description of these fields in terms of polarization and amplitude degrees of freedom can take a non-separable form which employs a mathematical description of entanglement often associated with quantum phenomena. By subjecting these optical fields to a Bell analysis, we examine the role of entanglement in marking the quantum-classical boundary. We report a value of the Bell parameter greater than calB = 2 . 54 , many standard deviations outside the limit calB = 2 established by the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt Bell inequality. This suggests that Bell violation has less to do with quantum theory than previously thought, but everything to do with entanglement. University of Rochester Research Award, NSF PHY-1203931, NSF PHY-1505189, and NSF/INSPIRE PHY-1539859.

  7. Minimizing magnetic fields for precision experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Altarev, I.; Fierlinger, P.; Lins, T.; Marino, M. G.; Nießen, B.; Petzoldt, G.; Reisner, M.; Stuiber, S. Sturm, M.; Taggart Singh, J.; Taubenheim, B.; Rohrer, H. K.; Schläpfer, U.

    2015-06-21

    An increasing number of measurements in fundamental and applied physics rely on magnetically shielded environments with sub nano-Tesla residual magnetic fields. State of the art magnetically shielded rooms (MSRs) consist of up to seven layers of high permeability materials in combination with highly conductive shields. Proper magnetic equilibration is crucial to obtain such low magnetic fields with small gradients in any MSR. Here, we report on a scheme to magnetically equilibrate MSRs with a 10 times reduced duration of the magnetic equilibration sequence and a significantly lower magnetic field with improved homogeneity. For the search of the neutron's electric dipole moment, our finding corresponds to a 40% improvement of the statistical reach of the measurement. However, this versatile procedure can improve the performance of any MSR for any application.

  8. Data Management Challenges for Airborne NASA Earth Venture Sub-Orbital Investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyer, A.; Lindsley, C.; Wright, D.; Cook, R. B.; Santhana Vannan, S. K.

    2015-12-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) is developing technology infrastructure to archive airborne remote sensing observations from two of NASA's Earth Venture Sub-orbital Missions. The two missions are CARVE (Carbon in Arctic Reservoirs Vulnerability Experiment) and AirMOSS (Airborne Microwave Observatory of Subcanopy and Subsurface). These missions collected over 140 TB of data from extensive ground-based and airborne instruments. The metadata and documentation requirements necessary for proper archive and dissemination of such transect-based, and often 3-dimensional, airborne data are quite different from traditional field campaign data and satellite remote sensing data streams. Staff at the ORNL DAAC have developed a metadata and data infrastructure for airborne data that enables spatial or keyword-based search and discovery, integration of related satellite- or ground-based data sets, and subsetting and visualization tools for both CARVE and AirMOSS. Here we discuss challenges, progress, and lessons learned.

  9. A Cryogenic, Insulating Suspension System for the High Resolution Airborne Wideband Camera (HAWC)and Submillemeter And Far Infrared Experiment (SAFIRE) Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerators (ADRs)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voellmer, George M.; Jackson, Michael L.; Shirron, Peter J.; Tuttle, James G.

    2002-01-01

    The High Resolution Airborne Wideband Camera (HAWC) and the Submillimeter And Far Infrared Experiment (SAFIRE) will use identical Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerators (ADR) to cool their detectors to 200mK and 100mK, respectively. In order to minimize thermal loads on the salt pill, a Kevlar suspension system is used to hold it in place. An innovative, kinematic suspension system is presented. The suspension system is unique in that it consists of two parts that can be assembled and tensioned offline, and later bolted onto the salt pill.

  10. Operational overview of NASA GTE/CITE 1 airborne instrument intercomparisons - Carbon monoxide, nitric oxide, and hydroxyl instrumentation. [Global Tropospheric Experiment/Chemical Instrumentation Test and Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beck, Sherwin M.; Bendura, Richard J.; Mcdougal, David S.; Hoell, James M., Jr.; Gregory, Gerald L.; Sachse, Glen W.; Hill, Gerald F.; Curfman, Howard J., Jr.; Torres, Arnold L.; Condon, Estelle P.

    1987-01-01

    An overview of the airborne intercomparisons of CO, NO, and OH instrumentation is presented in this first paper of the series on the NASA Global Tropospheric Experiment/Chemical Instrumentation Test and Evaluation (GTE/CITE 1). This paper provides the reader with background information about several important characteristics of the project. These include the overall objectives and approach, the measurements taken, the intercomparison protocol, aircraft platform, profiles of each aircraft flight, and the participants. A synopsis of the overall results of the CO, NO, and OH instrument intercomparisons is also included. Companion papers discuss the detailed results of the CO and NO intercomparison tests as well as pertinent scientific findings.

  11. Remote sensing observations of daytime column NO sub 2 during the Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment, August 22 to October 2, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Wahner, A.; Jakoubek, R.O.; Mount, G.H.; Ravishankara, A.R.; Schmeltekopf, A.L. )

    1989-11-30

    A sensitive absorption spectrograph was flown on the NASA DC-8 aircraft as part of the 1987 Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment to measure column abundances of O{sub 3}, NO{sub 2}, OClO, and BrO inside the Antarctic polar vortex. The instrument functioned successfully on all flights. Slant column NO{sub 2} measurements were made every 300 s whenever light levels permitted observation with an absolute accuracy better than 20% and with a detection limit of 3.4 {times} 10{sup 15} cm{sup {minus}2} slant column. These measurements are presented and compared with TOMS total ozone along the flight track.

  12. Thought Field Therapy: A Former Insider's Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pignotti, Monica

    2007-01-01

    Thought Field Therapy (TFT) is a novel therapy that employs finger tapping on purported acupressure points. Over the past decade, TFT, promoted on the Internet and through testimonials of fast cures, has gained popularity with therapists, including clinical social workers. Although TFT claims to cure a wide variety of psychological and physical…

  13. Development of the APEX experiment, preparatory activities for an airborne system supporting future space-borne imaging spectrometers in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaepman, M.

    2002-06-01

    APEX is an airborne imaging spectrometer built in the framework of ESA PRODEX (Programme développement d'expériences scientifiques) with the support of ESA EO-EP. It is based on a Swiss/Belgian initiative and designed to be an airborne simulator for the support and development of future spaceborne systems for the study of land surface processes. It will be able to contribute to the simulation, calibration, and validation of planned ESA imaging spectrometer missions (e.g., MERIS/ENVISAT, SPECTRA, etc.) in the 400 - 2500 nm region of the spectrum. APEX will foster the use of imaging spectrometer data in Europe and will support the application development for imaging spectroscopy products. The industrial consortium building the instrument is composed out of joint Swiss/Belgian industries with the support of ESA EO-EP (e.g., detectors, calibration, technical management).

  14. Airborne laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamberson, Steven E.

    2002-06-01

    The US Air Force Airborne Laser (ABL) is an airborne, megawatt-class laser system with a state-of-the-art atmospheric compensation system to destroy enemy ballistic missiles at long ranges. This system will provide both deterrence and defense against the use of such weapons during conflicts. This paper provides an overview of the ABL weapon system including: the notional operational concept, the development approach and schedule, the overall aircraft configuration, the technologies being incorporated in the ABL, and the risk reduction approach being utilized to ensure program success.

  15. Characteristics of a Model Industrial Technology Education Field Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Phillip R.; Kozak, Michael R.

    1986-01-01

    This report contains selected findings from a research project that investigated field experiences in industrial technology education. Funded by the Texas Education Agency, the project addressed the identification of characteristics of a model field experience in industrial technology education. This was accomplished using the Delphi technique.…

  16. Technology's Role in Field Experiences for Preservice Teacher Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hixon, Emily; So, Hyo-Jeong

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a comprehensive review of how technology has been used to enhance or replace field experiences in preservice teacher preparation programs, and discuss the benefits and limitations of traditional and technology-enhanced/virtual field experience approaches. In this paper, three types of technology-enhanced…

  17. Assisting Your Preservice Teacher to Be Successful during Field Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brett, Christine

    2006-01-01

    Field experience (junior practicum and student teaching) is considered by many to be the most influential part of a teacher preparation program (Cruickshank & Aramalin, 1986; Tannehill & Zakrajsek, 1988). During field experiences, preservice teachers (hereafter referred to as PSTs) are guided by a cooperating teacher (hereafter referred to as a…

  18. Preparing Middle School Teachers: Using Collaborative Middle School Field Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramey, Linda K.

    Wright State University, Ohio, has developed an undergraduate degree in Middle Childhood Education with extensive content preparation and initial field experiences. Participants complete an undergraduate program in two specialized areas accompanied by 15 hours of teacher education professional coursework and field experiences in urban and suburban…

  19. Concerns of Teacher Candidates in an Early Field Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Sau Hou

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined the concerns of teacher candidates in an early field experience. Thirty-five teacher candidates completed the Teacher Concerns Checklist (TCC, Fuller & Borich, 2000) at the beginning, middle and end of their early field experiences. Results showed that teacher candidates ranked impact as the highest concern, self as the…

  20. CO2 Budget and Rectification Airborne Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grainger, C. A.

    2004-01-01

    The main purpose of this award was to supply a platform for the airborne measurements of gases associated with the CO2 Budget and Regional Airborne Study (COBRA). The original program was to consist of three field programs: the first was to be in 1999, the second in 2000, and the third in 2001. At the end of the second field program, it was agreed that the science could better be served by making the measurements in northern Brazil, rather than in North America. The final North American program would be postponed until after two field programs in Brazil. A substantial amount of effort was diverted into making plans and preparations for the Brazil field programs. The Brazil field programs were originally scheduled to take place in the Fall of 2002 and Spring of 2003. Carrying out the field program in Brazil was going to logistically much more involved than a program in the US. Shipping of equipment, customs, and site preparations required work to begin many months prior to the actual measurement program. Permission to fly in that country was also not trivial and indeed proved to be a major obstacle. When we were not able to get permission to fly in Brazil for the 2002 portion of the experiment, the program was pushed back to 2003. When permission by the Brazilian government was not given in time for a Spring of 2003 field program, the experiment was postponed again to begin in the Fall of 2003.

  1. Idaho Field Experiment 1981. Volume 1. Experimental design and measurement systems

    SciTech Connect

    Start, G E; Cate, J H; Dickson, C R; Sagendorf, J F; Ackermann, G R

    1983-10-01

    The Idaho Field Experiment is reported in three volumes and supplemented by special contractor reports. Volume I describes the design and goals of the measurement program and the measurement systems utilized during the field program. The measurement systems layouts are described as well. The 1981 Idaho Field Experiment was conducted in South East Idaho over the Upper Snake River Plain. Nine test-day case studies were measured between July 15 and 30, 1981. Eight-hour releases of SF/sub 6/ gaseous tracer were made from 46 m above ground. Tracer was sampled hourly, for 12 sequential hours, at about 100 locations within an area 24 km square. Also, a single total integrated sample, of about 30 hours duration, was collected at approximately 100 sites within an area 48 by 72 km (using 6 km spacings). Extensive tower profiles of meteorology at the release point were collected. RAWINSONDES, RABALS and PIBALS were collected at 3 to 5 sites. Horizontal, low-altitude winds were monitored using the INEL MESONET. SF/sub 6/ tracer plumes were marked with co-located oil fog releases and bi-hourly sequential launches of tetroon pairs. Aerial LIDAR observations of the oil fog plume and airborne samples of SF/sub 6/ were collected. High-altitude aerial photographs of daytime plumes were also collected. 10 references, 14 figures, 5 tables.

  2. Magnetic field experiment for Voyagers 1 and 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behannon, K. W.; Acuna, M. H.; Burlaga, L. F.; Lepping, R. P.; Ness, N. F.; Neubauer, F. M.

    1977-01-01

    The magnetic field experiments of the Voyager program involve studies of the planetary fields of Jupiter, Saturn, possibly Uranus, and several satellites; the solar wind and satellite interactions with the planetary fields, as well as large- and micro-scale features of the interplanetary magnetic field will also be investigated. Dual low field and high field magnetometer systems with dynamic ranges of + or - 0.5 G and + or - 20 G respectively provide high reliability for the missions and permit the separation of the spacecraft and ambient fields. Quantization uncertainty, rms noise levels and data compaction schemes of the magnetometer systems are also mentioned.

  3. Classroom and Field Experiments for Florida's Environmental Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Jim

    This booklet is intended to help teachers in Florida manage the growing interest in environmental education. Fourteen experiments are grouped into the environmental areas of the water cycle, groundwater, water pollution, waste and water treatment, air pollution, and field experiments. Experiments include demonstrations of the water cycle, the…

  4. Field-reversed configuration (FRC) experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siemon, R. E.; Chrien, R. E.; Hugrass, W. N.; Okada, S.; Rej, D. J.; Taggart, D. P.; Tuszewski, M.; Webster, R. B.; Wright, B. L.; Slough, J. T.

    FRCs with equilibrium separatrix radii up to 0.18 m have been formed and studied in FRX-C/LSM. For best formation conditions at low fill pressure, the particle confinement exceeds the predictions of LHD transport calculations by up to a factor of two; however, the inferred flux confinement is more anomalous than in smaller FRCs. Higher bias field produces axial shocks and degradation in confinement, while higher fill pressure results in gross fluting during formation. FRCs have been formed in TRX with s from 2 to 6. These relatively collisional FRCs exhibit flux lifetimes of 10 yields 20 kinetic growth times for the internal tilt mode. The coaxial slow source has produced annular FRCs in a coaxial coil geometry on slow time scales using low voltages.

  5. The Ecology of Field Experience: Toward an Understanding of the Role of Field Experiences in Teacher Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeichner, Kenneth M.

    There continues to be a great deal of debate about the role that field experiences play in teacher development and about the relative contribution of various individual and institutional factors to the socialization process. Field experiences in teacher education entail a complex set of interactions among program features, settings, and people…

  6. Mod-2 wind turbine field operations experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, L. H.

    1985-01-01

    The three-machine, 7.5 MW Goodnoe Hills located near Goldendale, Washington and is now in a research/experimental operations phase that offers a unique opportunity to study the effects of single and multiple wind turbines interacting with each other, the power grid; and the environment. Following a brief description of the turbine and project history, this paper addresses major problem areas and research and development test results. Field operations, both routine and nonroutine, are discussed. Routine operation to date has produced over 13,379,000 KWh of electrical energy during 11,064 hr of rotation. Nonroutine operation includes suspended activities caused by a crack in the low speed shaft that necessitated a redesign and reinstallation of this assembly on all three turbines. With the world's largest cluster back in full operation, two of the turbines will be operated over the next years to determine their value as energy producer. The third unit will be used primarily for conducting research tests requiring configuration changes to better understand the wind turbine technology. Technical areas summarized pertain to system performance and enhancements. Specific research tests relating to acoustics, TV interference, and wake effects conclude the paper.

  7. A Gravitational Experiment Involving Inhomogeneous Electric Fields

    SciTech Connect

    Datta, T.; Yin Ming; Vargas, Jose

    2004-02-04

    Unification of gravitation with other forms of interactions, particularly with electromagnetism, will have tremendous impacts on technology and our understanding of nature. The economic impact of such an achievement will also be unprecedented and far more extensive than the impact experienced in the past century due to the unification of electricity with magnetism and optics. Theoretical unification of gravitation with electromagnetism using classical differential geometry has been pursued since the late nineteen twenties, when Einstein and Cartan used teleparallelism for the task. Recently, Vargas and Torr have followed the same line of research with more powerful mathematics in a more general geometric framework, which allows for the presence of other interactions. Their approach also uses Kaehler generalization of Cartan's exterior calculus, which constitutes a language appropriate for both classical and quantum physics. Given the compelling nature of teleparallelism (path-independent equality of vectors at a distance) and the problems still existing with energy-momentum in general relativity, it is important to seek experimental evidence for such expectations. Such experimental programs are likely to provide quantitative guidance to the further development of current and future theories. We too, have undertaken an experimental search for potential electrically induced gravitational (EIG) effects. This presentation describes some of the practical concerns that relates to our investigation of electrical influences on laboratory size test masses. Preliminary results, appear to indicate a correlation between the application of a spatially inhomogeneous electric field and the appearance of an additional force on the test mass. If confirmed, the presence of such a force will be consistent with the predictions of Vargas-Torr. More importantly, proven results will shed new light and clearer understanding of the interactions between gravitational and electromagnetic

  8. Field experiments of multi-channel oceanographic fluorescence lidar for oil spill and chlorophyll- a detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaolong; Zhao, Chaofang; Ma, Youjun; Liu, Zhishen

    2014-08-01

    A Multi-channel Oceanographic Fluorescence Lidar (MOFL), with a UV excitation at 355 nm and multiple receiving channels at typical wavelengths of fluorescence from oil spills and chlorophyll- a (Chl- a), has been developed using the Laser-induced Fluorescence (LIF) technique. The sketch of the MOFL system equipped with a compact multi-channel photomultiplier tube (MPMT) is introduced in the paper. The methods of differentiating the oil fluorescence from the background water fluorescence and evaluating the Chl- a concentration are described. Two field experiments were carried out to investigate the field performance of the system, i.e., an experiment in coastal areas for oil pollution detection and an experiment over the Yellow Sea for Chl- a monitoring. In the coastal experiment, several oil samples and other fluorescence substances were used to analyze the fluorescence spectral characteristics for oil identification, and to estimate the thickness of oil films at the water surface. The experiment shows that both the spectral shape of fluorescence induced from surface water and the intensity ratio of two channels ( I 495/ I 405) are essential to determine oil-spill occurrence. In the airborne experiment, MOFL was applied to measure relative Chl- a concentrations in the upper layer of the ocean. A comparison of relative Chl- a concentration measurements by MOFL and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) indicates that the two datasets are in good agreement. The results show that the MOFL system is capable of monitoring oil spills and Chl- a in the upper layer of ocean water.

  9. Emissions of NOx, SO2 and CO2 From Power Plants: Evaluating Continuous Emissions Monitoring Systems (CEMS) Data Using Airborne Field Measurements.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicks, D.; Ryerson, T.; Holloway, J.; Trainer, M.; Parrish, D.; Frost, G.; Hubler, G.; Wiedinmyer, C.; Sueper, D.; Fehsenfeld, F.

    2002-12-01

    Airborne studies of power plant emissions were conducted during the Southern Oxidants Study (SOS) in 1999, the Texas Air Quality Study (TexAQS) in 2000 and the Intercontinental Transport and Chemical Transformation (ITCT) study in 2002. Measurements of NOy, CO2 and SO2 were made in near-field transects of power plant plumes aboard the NOAA WP-3D and NCAR L-188 Electra aircraft. Ratios of the primary emissions NOy, SO2 and CO2, and/or fluxes of those gases determined by integration of plume mixing ratios, were compared to data from CEMS equipment installed to directly measure plant emissions from power generation units. This study presents field measurements from over 180 transects of plumes from 20 separate power plants in the Eastern and Western United States and Texas. Estimates of accuracy for the CEMS equipment are presented and probable impacts to annual point source emissions inventories are discussed.

  10. Greenhouse Gas Sensing Using Small Unmanned Aerial Systems - Field Experiment Results and Future Directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubrey, A. D.; Christensen, L. E.; Brockers, R.; Thompson, D. R.

    2014-12-01

    Requirements for greenhouse gas point source detection and quantification often require high spatial resolution on the order of meters. These applications, which help close the gap in emissions estimate uncertainties, also demand sensing with high sensitivity and in a fashion that accounts for spatiotemporal variability on the order of seconds to minutes. Low-cost vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) small unmanned aerial systems (sUAS) provide a means to detect and identify the location of point source gas emissions while offering ease of deployment and high maneuverability. Our current fielded gas sensing sUAS platforms are able to provide instantaneous in situ concentration measurements at locations within line of sight of the operator. Recent results from field experiments demonstrating methane detection and plume characterization will be discussed here, including performance assessment conducted via a controlled release experiment in 2013. The logical extension of sUAS gas concentration measurement is quantification of flux rate. We will discuss the preliminary strategy for quantitative flux determination, including intrinsic challenges and heritage from airborne science campaigns, associated with this point source flux quantification. This system approach forms the basis for intelligent autonomous quantitative characterization of gas plumes, which holds great value for applications in commercial, regulatory, and safety environments.

  11. Estimating Aboveground Forest Carbon Stock of Major Tropical Forest Land Uses Using Airborne Lidar and Field Measurement Data in Central Sumatra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thapa, R. B.; Watanabe, M.; Motohka, T.; Shiraishi, T.; shimada, M.

    2013-12-01

    Tropical forests are providing environmental goods and services including carbon sequestration, energy regulation, water fluxes, wildlife habitats, fuel, and building materials. Despite the policy attention, the tropical forest reserve in Southeast Asian region is releasing vast amount of carbon to the atmosphere due to deforestation. Establishing quality forest statistics and documenting aboveground forest carbon stocks (AFCS) are emerging in the region. Airborne and satellite based large area monitoring methods are developed to compliment conventional plot based field measurement methods as they are costly, time consuming, and difficult to implement for large regions. But these methods still require adequate ground measurements for calibrating accurate AFCS model. Furthermore, tropical region comprised of varieties of natural and plantation forests capping higher variability of forest structures and biomass volumes. To address this issue and the needs for ground data, we propose the systematic collection of ground data integrated with airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data. Airborne LiDAR enables accurate measures of vertical forest structure, including canopy height and volume demanding less ground measurement plots. Using an appropriate forest type based LiDAR sampling framework, structural properties of forest can be quantified and treated similar to ground measurement plots, producing locally relevant information to use independently with satellite data sources including synthetic aperture radar (SAR). In this study, we examined LiDAR derived forest parameters with field measured data and developed general and specific AFCS models for tropical forests in central Sumatra. The general model is fitted for all types of natural and plantation forests while the specific model is fitted to the specific forest type. The study region consists of natural forests including peat swamp and dry moist forests, regrowth, and mangrove and plantation forests

  12. Column-integrated aerosol optical properties from ground-based spectroradiometer measurements at Barrax (Spain) during the Digital Airborne Imaging Spectrometer Experiment (DAISEX) campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedrós, Roberto; Martinez-Lozano, Jose A.; Utrillas, Maria P.; Gómez-Amo, José L.; Tena, Fernando

    2003-09-01

    The Digital Airborne Imaging Spectrometer Experiment (DAISEX) was carried out for the European Space Agency (ESA) in order to develop the potential of spaceborne imaging spectroscopy for a range of different scientific applications. DAISEX involved simultaneous data acquisitions using different airborne imaging spectrometers over test sites in southeast Spain (Barrax) and the Upper Rhine valley (Colmar, France, and Hartheim, Germany). This paper presents the results corresponding to the column-integrated aerosol optical properties from ground-based spectroradiometer measurements over the Barrax area during the DAISEX campaign days in the years 1998, 1999, and 2000. The instruments used for spectral irradiance measurements were two Licor 1800 and one Optronic OL-754 spectroradiometers. The analysis of the spectral aerosol optical depth in the visible range shows in all cases the predominance of the coarse-particle mode over the fine-particle mode. The analysis of the back trajectories of the air masses indicates a predominance of marine-type aerosols in the lower atmospheric layers in all cases. Overall, the results obtained show that during the DAISEX there was a combination of maritime aerosols with smaller continental aerosols.

  13. Multispectral airborne imagery in the field reveals genetic determinisms of morphological and transpiration traits of an apple tree hybrid population in response to water deficit.

    PubMed

    Virlet, Nicolas; Costes, Evelyne; Martinez, Sébastien; Kelner, Jean-Jacques; Regnard, Jean-Luc

    2015-09-01

    Genetic studies of response to water deficit in adult trees are limited by low throughput of the usual phenotyping methods in the field. Here, we aimed at overcoming this bottleneck, applying a new methodology using airborne multispectral imagery and in planta measurements to compare a high number of individuals.An apple tree population, grafted on the same rootstock, was submitted to contrasting summer water regimes over two years. Aerial images acquired in visible, near- and thermal-infrared at three dates each year allowed calculation of vegetation and water stress indices. Tree vigour and fruit production were also assessed. Linear mixed models were built accounting for date and year effects on several variables and including the differential response of genotypes between control and drought conditions.Broad-sense heritability of most variables was high and 18 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) independent of the dates were detected on nine linkage groups of the consensus apple genetic map. For vegetation and stress indices, QTLs were related to the means, the intra-crown heterogeneity, and differences induced by water regimes. Most QTLs explained 15-20% of variance.Airborne multispectral imaging proved relevant to acquire simultaneous information on a whole tree population and to decipher genetic determinisms involved in response to water deficit. PMID:26208644

  14. Multispectral airborne imagery in the field reveals genetic determinisms of morphological and transpiration traits of an apple tree hybrid population in response to water deficit

    PubMed Central

    Virlet, Nicolas; Costes, Evelyne; Martinez, Sébastien; Kelner, Jean-Jacques; Regnard, Jean-Luc

    2015-01-01

    Genetic studies of response to water deficit in adult trees are limited by low throughput of the usual phenotyping methods in the field. Here, we aimed at overcoming this bottleneck, applying a new methodology using airborne multispectral imagery and in planta measurements to compare a high number of individuals. An apple tree population, grafted on the same rootstock, was submitted to contrasting summer water regimes over two years. Aerial images acquired in visible, near- and thermal-infrared at three dates each year allowed calculation of vegetation and water stress indices. Tree vigour and fruit production were also assessed. Linear mixed models were built accounting for date and year effects on several variables and including the differential response of genotypes between control and drought conditions. Broad-sense heritability of most variables was high and 18 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) independent of the dates were detected on nine linkage groups of the consensus apple genetic map. For vegetation and stress indices, QTLs were related to the means, the intra-crown heterogeneity, and differences induced by water regimes. Most QTLs explained 15−20% of variance. Airborne multispectral imaging proved relevant to acquire simultaneous information on a whole tree population and to decipher genetic determinisms involved in response to water deficit. PMID:26208644

  15. Airborne lidar detection of subsurface oceanic scattering layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoge, Frank E.; Wright, C. Wayne; Krabill, William B.; Buntzen, Rodney R.; Gilbert, Gary D.

    1988-01-01

    The airborne lidar detection and cross-sectional mapping of submerged oceanic scattering layers are reported. The field experiment was conducted in the Atlantic Ocean southeast of Assateague Island, VA. NASA's Airborne Oceanographic Lidar was operated in the bathymetric mode to acquire on-wavelength 532-nm depth-resolved backscatter signals from shelf/slope waters. Unwanted laser pulse reflection from the air-water interface was minimized by spatial filtering and off-nadir operation. The presence of thermal stratification over the shelf was verified by the deployment of airborne expendable bathythermographs. Optical beam transmission measurements acquired from a surface truthing vessel indicated the presence of a layer of turbid water near the sea floor over the inner portion of the shelf.

  16. Airborne signals of communication in sagebrush: a pharmacological approach

    PubMed Central

    Shiojiri, Kaori; Ishizaki, Satomi; Ozawa, Rika; Karban, Richard

    2015-01-01

    When plants receive volatiles from a damaged plant, the receivers become more resistant to herbivory. This phenomenon has been reported in many plant species and called plant-plant communication. Lab experiments have suggested that several compounds may be functioning as airborne signals. The objective of this study is to identify potential airborne signals used in communication between sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) individuals in the field. We collected volatiles of one branch from each of 99 sagebrush individual plants. Eighteen different volatiles were detected by GC-MS analysis. Among these, 4 compounds; 1.8-cineol, β-caryophyllene, α-pinene and borneol, were investigated as signals of communication under natural conditions. The branches which received either 1,8-cineol or β-caryophyllene tended to get less damage than controls. These results suggested that 1,8-cineol and β-caryophyllene should be considered further as possible candidates for generalized airborne signals in sagebrush. PMID:26418970

  17. Airborne lidar detection of subsurface oceanic scattering layers.

    PubMed

    Hoge, F E; Wright, C W; Krabill, W B; Buntzen, R R; Gilbert, G D; Swift, R N; Yungel, J K; Berry, R E

    1988-10-01

    The airborne lidar detection and cross-sectional mapping of submerged oceanic scattering layers are reported. The field experiment was conducted in the Atlantic Ocean southeast of Assateague Island, VA. NASA's Airborne Oceanographic Lidar was operated in the bathymetric mode to acquire on-wavelength 532-nm depth-resolved backscatter signals from shelf/slope waters. Unwanted laser pulse reflection from the airwater interface was minimized by spatial filtering and off-nadir operation. The presence of thermal stratification over the shelf was verified by the deployment of airborne expendable bathythermographs. Optical beam transmission measurements acquired from a surface truthing vessel indicated the presence of a layer of turbid water near the sea floor over the inner portion of the shelf. PMID:20539503

  18. Near-Field Deformation Associated with the South Napa Earthquake (M 6.0) Using Differential Airborne LiDAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudnut, K. W.; Glennie, C. L.; Brooks, B. A.; Hauser, D. L.; Ericksen, T.; Boatwright, J.; Rosinski, A.; Dawson, T. E.; Mccrink, T. P.; Mardock, D. K.; Hoirup, D. F., Jr.; Bray, J.

    2014-12-01

    Pre-earthquake airborne LiDAR coverage exists for the area impacted by the M 6.0 South Napa earthquake. The Napa watershed data set was acquired in 2003, and data sets were acquired in other portions of the impacted area in 2007, 2010 and 2014. The pre-earthquake data are being assessed and are of variable quality and point density. Following the earthquake, a coalition was formed to enable rapid acquisition of post-earthquake LiDAR. Coordination of this coalition took place through the California Earthquake Clearinghouse; consequently, a commercial contract was organized by Department of Water Resources that allowed for the main fault rupture and damaged Browns Valley area to be covered 16 days after the earthquake at a density of 20 points per square meter over a 20 square kilometer area. Along with the airborne LiDAR, aerial imagery was acquired and will be processed to form an orthomosaic using the LiDAR-derived DEM. The 'Phase I' airborne data were acquired using an Optech Orion M300 scanner, an Applanix 200 GPS-IMU, and a DiMac ultralight medium format camera by Towill. These new data, once delivered, will be differenced against the pre-earthquake data sets using a newly developed algorithm for point cloud matching, which is improved over prior methods by accounting for scan geometry error sources. Proposed additional 'Phase II' coverage would allow repeat-pass, post-earthquake coverage of the same area of interest as in Phase I, as well as an addition of up to 4,150 square kilometers that would potentially allow for differential LiDAR assessment of levee and bridge impacts at a greater distance from the earthquake source. Levee damage was reported up to 30 km away from the epicenter, and proposed LiDAR coverage would extend up to 50 km away and cover important critical lifeline infrastructure in the western Sacramento River delta, as well as providing full post-earthquake repeat-pass coverage of the Napa watershed to study transient deformation.

  19. Multidisciplinary Field Training in Undergraduate Physical Geography: Russian Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasimov, Nikolay S.; Chalov, Sergey R.; Panin, Andrey V.

    2013-01-01

    Field training is seen as a central component of the discipline of Physical Geography and an essential part of the undergraduate curriculum. This paper explores the structure and relationships between fieldwork and theoretical courses and the abundant experiences of field training in the undergraduate curriculum of 37 Russian universities. It…

  20. Pre-Service Teachers' Reflections during Field Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Hassan, Omayya; Al-Barakat, Ali; Al-Hassan, Yazid

    2012-01-01

    This research study investigates pre-service teachers' perceptions of their field experience in kindergartens and schools in Jordan. A total of 57 pre-service early years teachers wrote weekly reflective journals describing and commenting on their experiences during placement in kindergartens and elementary schools. Three major themes emerged from…

  1. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN AND INSTRUMENTATION FOR A FIELD EXPERIMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report concerns the design of a field experiment for a military setting in which the effects of carbon monoxide on neurobehavioral variables are to be studied. ield experiment is distinguished from a survey by the fact that independent variables are manipulated, just as in t...

  2. CONVECTIVE DIFFUSION FIELD MEASUREMENTS COMPARED WITH LABORATORY AND NUMERICAL EXPERIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Some of the more fundamental diffusion parameters measured in the CONDORS convective diffusion field experiment are compared with laboratory experiment and numerical modeling results by means of nondimensionalizations using convective scaling (i.e., mixing depth, z sub i, for len...

  3. An innovative, interdisciplinary educational experience in field research.

    PubMed

    Smith, M; Barton, J; Baxter, J

    1996-01-01

    Although interdisciplinary practice is necessary to meet the complex health needs of populations, there are few planned interdisciplinary learning experiences within educational programs for the health professions. The authors describe an interdisciplinary learning experience in field research for students and faculty members from schools of nursing and medicine. PMID:8700424

  4. On the design of experiments to study extreme field limits

    SciTech Connect

    Bulanov, S. S.; Chen, M.; Schroeder, C. B.; Esarey, E.; Leemans, W. P.; Bulanov, S. V.; Esirkepov, T. Zh.; Kando, M.; Koga, J. K.; Zhidkov, A. G.; Chen, P.; Mur, V. D.; Narozhny, N. B.; Popov, V. S.; Thomas, A. G. R.; Korn, G.

    2012-12-21

    We propose experiments on the collision of high intensity electromagnetic pulses with electron bunches and on the collision of multiple electromagnetic pulses for studying extreme field limits in the nonlinear interaction of electromagnetic waves. The effects of nonlinear QED will be revealed in these laser plasma experiments.

  5. The Impact of an International Field Experience on Preservice Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pence, Holly M.; Macgillivray, Ian K.

    2008-01-01

    This study addresses the question, "What is the impact of an international field experience on preservice teachers?" and corroborates many of the findings of a similar study by Willard-Holt [(2001). "The impact of a short-term international experience for preservice teachers." "Teaching and Teacher Education, 17," 505-517]. In May 2005, 15 teacher…

  6. Airborne polar experiment (APE): tests and qualification of the scientific instrumentation installed on the stratospheric platform M-55 aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Rossi, Giuseppe; Puccini, Massimo; Puccetti, Giuseppe

    1995-12-01

    The paper describes the environmental tests to be carried out on the scientific instrumentation to be flown on the M-55 Geophysika in the frame of the APE Program. The instruments, developed by different European research institutes, are for remote sensing and in situ measurements of the major components of the Earth's stratosphere. The paper presents the technological activities that ENEA (Ente Nazionale per le Nuove Tecnologie l'Energia e l'Ambiente) is carrying out in its laboratories to verify the correspondence of the various instruments to meet the requirements for airborne application. The reference documents used have been the RTCA/DO-160C and the MDB (Myasishchev Design Bureau) specifications.

  7. Electric Dipole Moment Experiment Systematic from Electric Field Discharge Current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feinberg, B.; Gould, Harvey

    2014-09-01

    A magnetic field, in the direction of the electric field and synchronous with the electric field reversal, will mimic an EDM signal. One might expect a discharge across the electric field plates to produce magnetic fields with only small or vanishing components parallel to the electric field, minimizing its systematic effect. Our experimental model, using simulated discharge currents, found otherwise: the discharge current may be at an angle to the normal, and thus generate a normal magnetic field. Comparison of data from the experimental model with the results from calculations will be presented, along with estimates of the time-averaged normal magnetic field seen by atoms in an electron EDM experiment using a fountain of laser-cooled francium, as a function of discharge current.

  8. TPE-1R (M) reversed field pinch experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Shimada, T.; Hirano, Y.; Maejima, Y.; Ogawa, K.

    1981-01-01

    This report describes the engineering aspects of the design, tests, and performances of the toroidal device TPE-1RM with which plasma physics researches on ''Reversed Field Pinch''configurations are carried out and this is an intermediate scale like HBTX-1A, ZT-40M, and ETA-BETA II. In TPE-1RM experiments are being performed in order to obtain an optimum reversed field configurations for MHD stability. The main description in this report is devoted to the metal vacuum vessel and specially contrived electrical circuit for field programming control techniques. The experiments with this device have been successful both from the technical and physcial points of view.

  9. A sensor fusion field experiment in forest ecosystem dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, James A.; Ranson, K. Jon; Williams, Darrel L.; Levine, Elissa R.; Goltz, Stewart M.

    1990-01-01

    The background of the Forest Ecosystem Dynamics field campaign is presented, a progress report on the analysis of the collected data and related modeling activities is provided, and plans for future experiments at different points in the phenological cycle are outlined. The ecological overview of the study site is presented, and attention is focused on forest stands, needles, and atmospheric measurements. Sensor deployment and thermal and microwave observations are discussed, along with two examples of the optical radiation measurements obtained during the experiment in support of radiative transfer modeling. Future activities pertaining to an archival system, synthetic aperture radar, carbon acquisition modeling, and upcoming field experiments are considered.

  10. Overview of the Field Phase of the NASA Tropical Cloud Systems and Processes (TCSP)Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hood, Robbie E.; Zipser, Edward; Heymsfield, Gerald M.; Kakar, Ramesh; Halverson Jeffery; Rogers, Robert; Black, Michael

    2006-01-01

    The Tropical Cloud Systems and Processes experiment is sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to investigate characteristics of tropical cyclone genesis, rapid intensification and rainfall using a three-pronged approach that emphasizes satellite information, suborbital observations and numerical model simulations. Research goals include demonstration and assessment of new technology, improvements to numerical model parameterizations, and advancements in data assimilation techniques. The field phase of the experiment was based in Costa Rica during July 2005. A fully instrumented NASA ER-2 high altitude airplane was deployed with Doppler radar, passive microwave instrumentation, lightning and electric field sensors and an airborne simulator of visible and infrared satellite sensors. Other assets brought to TCSP were a low flying uninhabited aerial vehicle, and a surface-based radiosonde network. In partnership with the Intensity Forecasting Experiment of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Hurricane Research Division, two NOAA P-3 aircraft instrumented with radar, passive microwave, microphysical, and dropsonde instrumentation were also deployed to Costa Rica. The field phase of TCSP was conducted in Costa Rica to take advantage of the geographically compact tropical cyclone genesis region of the Eastern Pacific Ocean near Central America. However, the unusual 2005 hurricane season provided numerous opportunities to sample tropical cyclone development and intensification in the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico as well. Development of Hurricane Dennis and Tropical Storm Gert were each investigated over several days in addition to Hurricane Emily as it was close to Saffir-Simpson Category 5 intensity. An overview of the characteristics of these storms along with the pregenesis environment of Tropical Storm Eugene in the Eastern Pacific will be presented.

  11. Modeling HEDLA magnetic field generation experiments on laser facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatenejad, M.; Bell, A. R.; Benuzzi-Mounaix, A.; Crowston, R.; Drake, R. P.; Flocke, N.; Gregori, G.; Koenig, M.; Krauland, C.; Lamb, D.; Lee, D.; Marques, J. R.; Meinecke, J.; Miniati, F.; Murphy, C. D.; Park, H.-S.; Pelka, A.; Ravasio, A.; Remington, B.; Reville, B.; Scopatz, A.; Tzeferacos, P.; Weide, K.; Woolsey, N.; Young, R.; Yurchak, R.

    2013-03-01

    The Flash Center is engaged in a collaboration to simulate laser driven experiments aimed at understanding the generation and amplification of cosmological magnetic fields using the FLASH code. In these experiments a laser illuminates a solid plastic or graphite target launching an asymmetric blast wave into a chamber which contains either Helium or Argon at millibar pressures. Induction coils placed several centimeters away from the target detect large scale magnetic fields on the order of tens to hundreds of Gauss. The time dependence of the magnetic field is consistent with generation via the Biermann battery mechanism near the blast wave. Attempts to perform simulations of these experiments using the FLASH code have uncovered previously unreported numerical difficulties in modeling the Biermann battery mechanism near shock waves which can lead to the production of large non-physical magnetic fields. We report on these difficulties and offer a potential solution.

  12. Airborne Remote Sensing of Sea Surface Temperature Using the Ball Experimental Sea Surface Temperature (BESST) Radiometer With A Discussion of the 2013 Marginal Ice Zone Observation Processes EXperiment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tooth, M.; Emery, W. J.

    2014-12-01

    Airborne remote sensing has opened up new possibilities for scientists to study oceanic and atmospheric problems that are relevant to industry, environmental groups, and the scientific community as a whole. Data obtained from these platforms can provide much higher resolution imagery in comparison to satellite observations that allow for more detailed analyses of important regions. Sea surface temperature (SST) data obtained from instruments like the BESST radiometer can be used to provide more insight into issues like natural disasters and oceanographic problems of interest; such as the influence of melting sea ice on SST. During the 2013 Marginal Ice Zone Observation Processes EXperiment (MIZOPEX), BESST was flown on a Scan Eagle UAS in the Alaskan Marginal Ice Zone to acquire SST data. These observations will be discussed, along with possible future uses for the BESST radiometer.

  13. Detection of Aeromagnetic Field Changes Using an Unmanned Autonomous Helicopter: Repeated Experiments at Tarumae Volcano (Japan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, T.; Koyama, T.; Yanagisawa, T.; Yoshimoto, M.; Ohminato, T.; Kaneko, T.

    2015-12-01

    Volcanic eruptions often prohibit humans from approaching active craters. Meanwhile, it is important, especially at the initial stage of an eruption, to perform visual surveillance, geophysical/chemical measurements and material sampling in the vicinity of the craters. Besides scientific purposes, information from such surveys is helpful for the local government in deciding the response to volcanic unrest. We started airborne surveys using an unmanned helicopter on a trial basis in cooperation with the Hokkaido Regional Development Bureau. As a part of the project, we repeated aeromagnetic surveys over Mt. Tarumae (1,041m), one of the active volcanoes in northern Japan in 2011, 2012 and 2013. Owing to its high accuracy of positioning control in the autonomous flight with the aid of GPS navigation and the fairly small magnetic field gradient in the air, temporal changes up to 30 nT were successfully detected through a direct comparison between separate surveys. The field changes in the air were mostly consistent with those on the ground surface, which suggested remagnetization due to cooling beneath the summit lava dome. Through our three-year experiments, the unmanned helicopter was proved to be useful for aeromagnetic monitoring. Although the system still has some limitations in terms of maximum flight altitude and operational range from the base station, we emphasize the following three advantages of this technique. (1) Operation without exposing human to volcanic hazards. (2) Straightforward data processing procedure to obtain temporal magnetic field changes, which is especially important in an emergency response such as an ongoing unrest. (3) Great reduction of the cost to maintain ground-based monitoring stations for many years. Acknowledgments: We express sincere thanks to Muroran and Sapporo Development and Construction Departments of the HRDB for the cooperation in the field experiments using their unmanned helicopter.

  14. Off-axis measurements of atmospheric trace gases by use of an airborne ultraviolet-visible spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Petritoli, Andrea; Ravegnani, Fabrizio; Giovanelli, Giorgio; Bortoli, Daniele; Bonafè, Ubaldo; Kostadinov, Ivan; Oulanovsky, Alexey

    2002-09-20

    An airborne UV-visible spectrometer, the Gas Analyzer Spectrometer Correlating Optical Differences, airborne version (GASCOD/A4pi) was successfully operated during the Airborne Polar Experiment, Geophysica Aircraft in Antarctica airborne campaign from Ushuaia (54 degrees 49' S, 68 degrees 18' W), Argentina in southern spring 1999. The instrument measured scattered solar radiation through three optical windows with a narrow field of view (FOV), one from the zenith, two from the horizontal, as well as actinic fluxes through 2pi FOV radiometric heads. Only a few airborne measurements of scattered solar radiation at different angles from the zenith are available in the literature. With our configuration we attempted to obtain the average line-of-sight concentrations of detectable trace gases. The retrieval method, based on differential optical absorption spectroscopy, is described and results for ozone are shown and compared with measurements from an in situ instrument as the first method of validation. PMID:12269557

  15. Off-axis measurements of atmospheric trace gases by use of an airborne ultraviolet-visible spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petritoli, Andrea; Ravegnani, Fabrizio; Giovanelli, Giorgio; Bortoli, Daniele; Bonafè, Ubaldo; Kostadinov, Ivan; Oulanovsky, Alexey

    2002-09-01

    An airborne UV-visible spectrometer, the Gas Analyzer Spectrometer Correlating Optical Differences, airborne version (GASCOD/A4π) was successfully operated during the Airborne Polar Experiment, Geophysica Aircraft in Antarctica airborne campaign from Ushuaia (54°49'S, 68°18'W), Argentina in southern spring 1999. The instrument measured scattered solar radiation through three optical windows with a narrow field of view (FOV), one from the zenith, two from the horizontal, as well as actinic fluxes through 2π FOV radiometric heads. Only a few airborne measurements of scattered solar radiation at different angles from the zenith are available in the literature. With our configuration we attempted to obtain the average line-of-sight concentrations of detectable trace gases. The retrieval method, based on differential optical absorption spectroscopy, is described and results for ozone are shown and compared with measurements from an in situ instrument as the first method of validation.

  16. Airborne active and passive L-band measurements using PALS instrument in SMAPVEX12 soil moisture field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colliander, Andreas; Yueh, Simon; Chazanoff, Seth; Dinardo, Steven; O'Dwyer, Ian; Jackson, Thomas; McNairn, Heather; Bullock, Paul; Wiseman, Grant; Berg, Aaron; Magagi, Ramata; Njoku, Eni

    2012-10-01

    NASA's (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Mission is scheduled for launch in late 2014. The objective of the mission is global mapping of soil moisture and freeze/thaw state. Merging of active and passive L-band observations of the mission will enable unprecedented combination of accuracy, resolution, coverage and revisit-time for soil moisture and freeze/thaw state retrieval. For pre-launch algorithm development and validation the SMAP project and NASA coordinated a field campaign named as SMAPVEX12 (Soil Moisture Active Passive Validation Experiment 2012) together with Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, and other Canadian and US institutions in the vicinity of Winnipeg, Canada in June-July, 2012. The main objective of SMAPVEX12 was acquisition of a data record that features long time-series with varying soil moisture and vegetation conditions over an aerial domain of multiple parallel flight lines. The coincident active and passive L-band data was acquired with the PALS (Passive Active L-band System) instrument. The measurements were conducted over the experiment domain every 2-3 days on average, over a period of 43 days. The preliminary calibration of the brightness temperatures obtained in the campaign has been performed. Daily lake calibrations were used to adjust the radiometer calibration parameters, and the obtained measurements were compared against the raw in situ soil moisture measurements. The evaluation shows that this preliminary calibration of the data produces already a consistent brightness temperature record over the campaign duration, and only secondary adjustments and cleaning of the data is need before the data can be applied to the development and validation of SMAP algorithms.

  17. Influencing attitudes toward science through field experiences in biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, Deborah Mcintyre

    The purpose of this study was to determine how student attitudes toward science are influenced by field experiences in undergraduate biology courses. The study was conducted using two institutions of higher education including a 2-year lower-level and a 2-year upper-level institution. Data were collected through interviews with student participants, focus group discussions, students' journal entries, and field notes recorded by the researcher during the field activities. Photographs and video recordings were also used as documentation sources. Data were collected over a period of 34 weeks. Themes that emerged from the qualitative data included students' beliefs that field experiences (a) positively influence student motivation to learn, (b) increase student ability to learn the concepts being taught, and (c) provide opportunities for building relationships and for personal growth. The findings of the study reinforce the importance of offering field-study programs at the undergraduate level to allow undergraduate students the opportunity to experience science activities in a field setting. The research study was framed by the behavioral and developmental theories of attitude and experience including the Theory of Planned Behavior (Ajzen, 1991) and the Theory of Experiential Learning (Kolb, 1984).

  18. Magnetic field experiment for Voyagers 1 and 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behannon, K. W.; Aluna, M. H.; Burlaga, L. F.; Lepping, R. P.; Ness, N. F.; Neubauer, F. M.

    1977-01-01

    The magnetic field experiment to be carried on the Voyager 1 and 2 missions consists of dual low field (LFM) and high field magnetometer (HFM) systems. The dual systems provide greater reliability and, in the case of the LFM's, permit the separation of spacecraft magnetic fields from the ambient fields. Additional reliability is achieved through electronics redundancy. The wide dynamic ranges of plus or minus 0.5G for the LFM's and plus or minus 20G for the HFM's, low quantization uncertainty of plus or minus 0.002 gamma in the most sensitive (plus or minus 8 gamma) LFM range, low sensor RMS noise level of 0.006 gamma, and use of data compaction schemes to optimize the experiment information rate all combine to permit the study of a broad spectrum of phenomena during the mission. Planetary fields at Jupiter, Saturn, and possibly Uranus; satellites of these planets; solar wind and satellite interactions with the planetary fields; and the large-scale structure and microscale characteristics of the interplanetary magnetic field are studied. The interstellar field may also be measured.

  19. Comparison of Precision of Biomass Estimates in Regional Field Sample Surveys and Airborne LiDAR-Assisted Surveys in Hedmark County, Norway

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naesset, Erik; Gobakken, Terje; Bollandsas, Ole Martin; Gregoire, Timothy G.; Nelson, Ross; Stahl, Goeran

    2013-01-01

    Airborne scanning LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) has emerged as a promising tool to provide auxiliary data for sample surveys aiming at estimation of above-ground tree biomass (AGB), with potential applications in REDD forest monitoring. For larger geographical regions such as counties, states or nations, it is not feasible to collect airborne LiDAR data continuously ("wall-to-wall") over the entire area of interest. Two-stage cluster survey designs have therefore been demonstrated by which LiDAR data are collected along selected individual flight-lines treated as clusters and with ground plots sampled along these LiDAR swaths. Recently, analytical AGB estimators and associated variance estimators that quantify the sampling variability have been proposed. Empirical studies employing these estimators have shown a seemingly equal or even larger uncertainty of the AGB estimates obtained with extensive use of LiDAR data to support the estimation as compared to pure field-based estimates employing estimators appropriate under simple random sampling (SRS). However, comparison of uncertainty estimates under SRS and sophisticated two-stage designs is complicated by large differences in the designs and assumptions. In this study, probability-based principles to estimation and inference were followed. We assumed designs of a field sample and a LiDAR-assisted survey of Hedmark County (HC) (27,390 km2), Norway, considered to be more comparable than those assumed in previous studies. The field sample consisted of 659 systematically distributed National Forest Inventory (NFI) plots and the airborne scanning LiDAR data were collected along 53 parallel flight-lines flown over the NFI plots. We compared AGB estimates based on the field survey only assuming SRS against corresponding estimates assuming two-phase (double) sampling with LiDAR and employing model-assisted estimators. We also compared AGB estimates based on the field survey only assuming two-stage sampling (the NFI

  20. FLASH magnetohydrodynamic simulations of shock-generated magnetic field experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tzeferacos, P.; Fatenejad, M.; Flocke, N.; Gregori, G.; Lamb, D. Q.; Lee, D.; Meinecke, J.; Scopatz, A.; Weide, K.

    2012-12-01

    We report the results of benchmark FLASH magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of experiments conducted by the University of Oxford High Energy Density Laboratory Astrophysics group and its collaborators at the Laboratoire pour l'Utilisation des Lasers Intenses (LULI). In these experiments, a long-pulse laser illuminates a target in a chamber filled with Argon gas, producing shock waves that generate magnetic fields via the Biermann battery mechanism. We first outline the implementation of 2D cylindrical geometry in the unsplit MHD solver in FLASH and present results of verification tests. We then describe the results of benchmark 2D cylindrical MHD simulations of the LULI experiments using FLASH that explore the impact of external fields along with the possibility of magnetic field amplification by turbulence that is associated with the shock waves and that is induced by a grid placed in the gas-filled chamber.

  1. A two-photon laser-induced fluorescence field instrument for ground-based and airborne measurements of atmospheric NO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradshaw, J. D.; Rodgers, M. O.; Sandholm, S. T.; Kesheng, S.; Davis, D. D.

    1985-01-01

    This paper reports on a new two-photon laser-induced fluorescence (TP-LIF) sensor capable of making routine measurements at the few parts per trillion volume level. This direct spectroscopic detection method has been demonstrated to be a reliable instrument while performing both on the ground and in the air. As currently designed it is unique in being 'signal' rather than 'signal-to-noise' limited. The latter characteristic enables the TP-LIF sensor to make atmospheric measurements of NO under environmental conditions that might normally be considered unsuitable for a laser technique. These include clouds, rain, and, in general, high-atmospheric-aerosol loading conditions. Of special interest is the insensitivity of the TP-LIF NO instrument to changes in pressure while operating in the troposphere. This characteristic has enabled this sensor to be used to record real-time altitude profiles of NO. Future improvements should make possible two measurement opportunities: (1) NO flux measurements via the airborne eddy-correlation method and (2) nitrogen isotopic distribution measurements (e.g., (N-15)(0-16) versus (N-14)(0-16) as a means of identifying specific NO(x) sources.

  2. Natural attenuation of xenobiotic compounds: Anaerobic field injection experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Ruegge, K.; Bjerg, P.L.; Mosbaek, H.; Christensen, T.H.

    1995-12-31

    Currently, a continuous field injection experiment is being performed in the anaerobic part of a pollution plume downgradient of the Grindsted Landfill in Denmark. This natural gradient experiment includes an injection of 18 different xenobiotic compounds with bromide as a tracer. The injection is taking place under methanogenic/sulfate-reducing conditions and the compounds will, as they migrate with the groundwater, pass through a zone where the redox conditions have been determined as iron-reducing.

  3. Measurements of aerosol distributions and properties from Airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar and DRAGON during the DISCOVER-AQ California Experiment (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrare, R. A.; Burton, S. P.; Scarino, A. J.; Hostetler, C. A.; Hair, J. W.; Rogers, R. R.; Mueller, D.; Chemyakin, E.; Cook, A. L.; Harper, D. B.; Hare, R.; Holben, B. N.; Schafer, J.; Anderson, B. E.; Sawamura, P.

    2011-12-01

    The new NASA Langley Research Center airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar-2 (HSRL-2) was deployed from the NASA Langley King Air aircraft for the DISCOVER-AQ (Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from COlumn and VERtically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality) and DRAGON experiments that occurred over the San Joaquin Valley during January and February, 2013. The HSRL-2, which is the world's first airborne multiwavelength HSRL, measures aerosol extinction at 355 and 532 nm via the HSRL technique, as well as aerosol backscatter and depolarization at 355, 532, and 1064 nm. Additional HSRL-2 data products include aerosol type, mixed layer depth, and range-resolved aerosol microphysical parameters (e.g., effective radius, index of refraction, single scatter albedo, and concentration). During this mission, the King Air flights and HSRL-2 measurements were acquired over the DRAGON network and long-term AERONET sites and were closely coordinated with flights of the NASA P-3 aircraft that carried a suite of in situ aerosol instruments. In this presentation, we discuss how the HSRL-2 and DRAGON observations have been used to examine aerosol optical and microphysical properties as well as spatial and temporal variability. On some days, both HSRL-2 and DRAGON measurements indicated that coarse mode dust contributed a significant fraction of the aerosol optical thickness (AOT); in these cases, HSRL-2 measurements indicated that this depolarizing layer was located at the top of the boundary layer. We discuss differences in the aerosol properties between two episodes of high surface PM2.5 concentrations as revealed by the HSRL-2 and DRAGON measurements. Both the HSRL-2 and DRAGON measurements reveal considerable day-to-day spatial variability in the aerosol distributions across the valley. The HSRL-2 measurements also show variability in the daily evolution of the vertical distribution of aerosols.

  4. Measurements of aerosol distributions and properties from Airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar and DRAGON during the DISCOVER-AQ California Experiment (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrare, R. A.; Burton, S. P.; Scarino, A. J.; Hostetler, C. A.; Hair, J. W.; Rogers, R. R.; Mueller, D.; Chemyakin, E.; Cook, A. L.; Harper, D. B.; Hare, R.; Holben, B. N.; Schafer, J.; Anderson, B. E.; Sawamura, P.

    2013-12-01

    The new NASA Langley Research Center airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar-2 (HSRL-2) was deployed from the NASA Langley King Air aircraft for the DISCOVER-AQ (Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from COlumn and VERtically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality) and DRAGON experiments that occurred over the San Joaquin Valley during January and February, 2013. The HSRL-2, which is the world's first airborne multiwavelength HSRL, measures aerosol extinction at 355 and 532 nm via the HSRL technique, as well as aerosol backscatter and depolarization at 355, 532, and 1064 nm. Additional HSRL-2 data products include aerosol type, mixed layer depth, and range-resolved aerosol microphysical parameters (e.g., effective radius, index of refraction, single scatter albedo, and concentration). During this mission, the King Air flights and HSRL-2 measurements were acquired over the DRAGON network and long-term AERONET sites and were closely coordinated with flights of the NASA P-3 aircraft that carried a suite of in situ aerosol instruments. In this presentation, we discuss how the HSRL-2 and DRAGON observations have been used to examine aerosol optical and microphysical properties as well as spatial and temporal variability. On some days, both HSRL-2 and DRAGON measurements indicated that coarse mode dust contributed a significant fraction of the aerosol optical thickness (AOT); in these cases, HSRL-2 measurements indicated that this depolarizing layer was located at the top of the boundary layer. We discuss differences in the aerosol properties between two episodes of high surface PM2.5 concentrations as revealed by the HSRL-2 and DRAGON measurements. Both the HSRL-2 and DRAGON measurements reveal considerable day-to-day spatial variability in the aerosol distributions across the valley. The HSRL-2 measurements also show variability in the daily evolution of the vertical distribution of aerosols.

  5. Multicomponent reactive transport modeling of uranium bioremediation field experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Yilin; Yabusaki, Steven B.; Morrison, Stan J.; Amonette, James E.; Long, Philip E.

    2009-10-15

    Biostimulation field experiments with acetate amendment are being performed at a former uranium mill tailings site in Rifle, Colorado, to investigate subsurface processes controlling in situ bioremediation of uranium-contaminated groundwater. An important part of the research is identifying and quantifying field-scale models of the principal terminal electron-accepting processes (TEAPs) during biostimulation and the consequent biogeochemical impacts to the subsurface receiving environment. Integrating abiotic chemistry with the microbially mediated TEAPs in the reaction network brings into play geochemical observations (e.g., pH, alkalinity, redox potential, major ions, and secondary minerals) that the reactive transport model must recognize. These additional constraints provide for a more systematic and mechanistic interpretation of the field behaviors during biostimulation. The reaction network specification developed for the 2002 biostimulation field experiment was successfully applied without additional calibration to the 2003 and 2007 field experiments. The robustness of the model specification is significant in that 1) the 2003 biostimulation field experiment was performed with 3 times higher acetate concentrations than the previous biostimulation in the same field plot (i.e., the 2002 experiment), and 2) the 2007 field experiment was performed in a new unperturbed plot on the same site. The biogeochemical reactive transport simulations accounted for four TEAPs, two distinct functional microbial populations, two pools of bioavailable Fe(III) minerals (iron oxides and phyllosilicate iron), uranium aqueous and surface complexation, mineral precipitation, and dissolution. The conceptual model for bioavailable iron reflects recent laboratory studies with sediments from the Old Rifle Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) site that demonstrated that the bulk (~90%) of Fe(III) bioreduction is associated with the phyllosilicates rather than the iron oxides

  6. Linear models for airborne-laser-scanning-based operational forest inventory with small field sample size and highly correlated LiDAR data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Junttila, Virpi; Kauranne, Tuomo; Finley, Andrew O.; Bradford, John B.

    2015-01-01

    Modern operational forest inventory often uses remotely sensed data that cover the whole inventory area to produce spatially explicit estimates of forest properties through statistical models. The data obtained by airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR) correlate well with many forest inventory variables, such as the tree height, the timber volume, and the biomass. To construct an accurate model over thousands of hectares, LiDAR data must be supplemented with several hundred field sample measurements of forest inventory variables. This can be costly and time consuming. Different LiDAR-data-based and spatial-data-based sampling designs can reduce the number of field sample plots needed. However, problems arising from the features of the LiDAR data, such as a large number of predictors compared with the sample size (overfitting) or a strong correlation among predictors (multicollinearity), may decrease the accuracy and precision of the estimates and predictions. To overcome these problems, a Bayesian linear model with the singular value decomposition of predictors, combined with regularization, is proposed. The model performance in predicting different forest inventory variables is verified in ten inventory areas from two continents, where the number of field sample plots is reduced using different sampling designs. The results show that, with an appropriate field plot selection strategy and the proposed linear model, the total relative error of the predicted forest inventory variables is only 5%–15% larger using 50 field sample plots than the error of a linear model estimated with several hundred field sample plots when we sum up the error due to both the model noise variance and the model’s lack of fit.

  7. Meeting Review: Airborne Aerosol Inlet Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumgardner, Darrel; Huebert, Barry; Wilson, Chuck

    1991-01-01

    Proceedings from the Airborne Aerosol Inlet Workshop are presented. The two central topics of discussion were the role of aerosols in atmospheric processes and the difficulties in characterizing aerosols. The following topics were discussed during the working sessions: airborne observations to date; identification of inlet design issues; inlet modeling needs and directions; objectives for aircraft experiments; and future laboratory and wind tunnel studies.

  8. CALIOPE airborne CO{sub 2} DIAL (CACDI) system design

    SciTech Connect

    Mietz, D.; Archuleta, B.; Archuleta, J.

    1997-09-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory is currently developing an airborne CO{sub 2} Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) system based on second generation technology demonstrated last summer at NTS. The CALIOPE Airborne CO{sub 2} DIAL (CACDI) system requirements have been compiled based on the mission objectives and SONDIAL model trade studies. Subsystem designs have been developed based on flow down from these system requirements, as well as experience gained from second generation ground tests and N-ABLE (Non-proliferation AirBorne Lidar Experiments) airborne experiments. This paper presents the CACDI mission objectives, system requirements, the current subsystem design, and provides an overview of the airborne experimental plan.

  9. Magnetic field uniformity for the nEDM experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slutsky, Simon; nEDM Collaboration

    2014-09-01

    The nEDM experiment at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) will search for a neutron electric dipole moment (EDM) with a sensitivity of <5*10-28 e-cm. Neutrons will precess in a constant magnetic field and variable electric field, and non-zero neutron EDM will appear as a variation in the precession frequency correlated with the changing electric field. Geometric phase and neutron polarization lifetime effects constrain the allowed magnetic field gradient to below 0.1 uG/cm. Gradients nearly satisfying this requirement have been achieved using a cos(θ) coil inside an open-ended superconducting lead shield operated at cryogenic temperatures and using the design electric fields. I will describe efforts to further improve the magnet design using a superconducting endcap.

  10. Dynamic field-frequency lock for tracking magnetic field fluctuations in electron spin resonance experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asfaw, Abraham; Tyryshkin, Alexei; Lyon, Stephen

    Global magnetic field fluctuations present significant challenges to pulsed electron spin resonance experiments on systems with long spin coherence times. We will discuss results from experiments in which we follow instantaneous changes in magnetic field by locking to the free induction decay of a proton NMR signal using a phase-locked loop. We extend conventional field-frequency locking techniques used in NMR to follow slow magnetic field drifts by using a modified Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) pulse sequence in which the phase of the pi-pulses follows the phase of the proton spins at all times. Hence, we retain the ability of the CPMG pulse sequence to refocus local magnetic field inhomogeneities without refocusing global magnetic field fluctuations. In contrast with conventional field-frequency locking techniques, our experiments demonstrate the potential of this method to dynamically track global magnetic field fluctuations on timescales of about 2 seconds and with rates faster than a kHz. This frequency range covers the dominant noise frequencies in our electron spin resonance experiments as previously reported.

  11. Enhancing Preservice Teacher Development: Field Experiences with Gifted Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamberlin, Michelle T.; Chamberlin, Scott A.

    2010-01-01

    During 3 field experience visits, 23 elementary preservice teachers implemented mathematical problem-solving tasks with grade 3-6 gifted students. Researchers investigated what the teachers learned about gifted students regarding student characteristics, mathematical problem-solving tasks, and pedagogy. Each teacher completed a pre- and…

  12. An Experiment In Field-Based Elementary Teacher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swann, Margaret H.

    The Experimental Program in Elementary Education (EXEL) at Shepherd College in West Virginia began in 1973 with authorization by the West Virginia State Department of Education. The program was developed with the hope of producing more confident and competent teachers. EXEL provides continuous field experience from the second semester of the…

  13. Creating Dissonance in Pre-Service Teachers' Field Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenhardt, Sara; Besnoy, Kevin; Steele, Emily

    2012-01-01

    The study is practical in nature and addresses the call for investigating effective aspects of field experiences in teacher preparation. The authors designed a framework of assignments requiring the pre-service teachers to collect data about two diverse elementary students in their assigned elementary classroom during the twelve weeks of their…

  14. Infusing Outdoor Field Experiences into the Secondary Biology Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Ginny

    1984-01-01

    To offer students biological field experiences, teachers should use their own basic skills, be enthusiastic motivators, participate in community programs/courses/workshops to acquire additional skills/knowledge for outdoor biological education, plan outdoor excursions with safety considerations in mind, and use available resources for classroom…

  15. The spherical probe electric field and wave experiment. [Cluster mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gustafsson, G.; Aggson, T.; Bostrom, R.; Block, L. P.; Cattell, C.; Decreau, P. M. E.; Egeland, A.; Falthammar, C.-G.; Grard, R. J. L.; Gurnett, D. A.

    1988-01-01

    The experiment is designed to measure the electric field and density fluctuations with sampling rates up to 40,000 samples/sec. The description includes Langmuir sweeps that can be made to determine the electron density and temperature, the study of nonlinear processes that result in acceleration of plasma, and the analysis of large scale phenomena where all four spacecraft are needed.

  16. Field-Based Research Experience in Earth Science Teacher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neal, Michael L.

    2003-01-01

    Describes the pilot of a field-based research experience in earth science teacher education designed to produce well-prepared, scientifically and technologically literate earth science teachers through a teaching- and research-oriented partnership between in-service teachers and a university scientist-educator. Indicates that the pilot program was…

  17. Nonphysical Results with the Electric-Field Mapping Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayars, Eric

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the behavior of the current near the end of the paper in the electric-field mapping experiment and approaches to solving problems associated with this behavior. Presents programs that can be used to model the boundary condition computationally. (JRH)

  18. Rational Ignorance in Education: A Field Experiment in Student Plagiarism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dee, Thomas S.; Jacob, Brian A.

    2012-01-01

    Plagiarism appears to be a common problem among college students, yet there is little evidence on the effectiveness of interventions designed to minimize plagiarism. This study presents the results of a field experiment that evaluated the effects of a web-based educational tutorial in reducing plagiarism. We found that assignment to the treatment…

  19. A Model for a Rural School Field Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hull, Ray; Hegtvedt, Kathryn

    Fifteen University of Oregon undergraduate education majors participated in a successful 3-day program of total immersion in rural community living and teaching in Condon, Oregon. The field experience model had unique elements: (1) the course was offered as an alternative to a required course in teaching strategies and student teachers were…

  20. Field experiments on an intelligent towed vehicle ``Flying Fish``

    SciTech Connect

    Koterayama, W.; Yamaguchi, S.; Nakamura, M.

    1995-12-31

    A depth, pitch and roll controllable towed vehicle, ``Flying Fish`` is being developed to measure the ocean current, temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, pH, turbidity, chlorophyll and total inorganic hydrocarbon. The first field experiments on its performance were carried out in the Japan sea last summer. The motion data of the ``Flying Fish`` are compared with those of numerical simulations.

  1. Conceptualizing Developmentally Responsive Teaching in Early Field Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Penny B.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this descriptive qualitative study was to examine case study as a pedagogical tool used to scaffold the conceptualization of developmentally responsive pedagogy for middle level preservice teachers in early field experiences. Child study projects (CSP) completed by middle level preservice candidates were analyzed to determine if…

  2. Experiments to investigate particulate materials in reduced gravity fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowden, M.; Eden, H. F.; Felsenthal, P.; Glaser, P. E.; Wechsler, A. E.

    1967-01-01

    Study investigates agglomeration and macroscopic behavior in reduced gravity fields of particles of known properties by measuring and correlating thermal and acoustical properties of particulate materials. Experiment evaluations provide a basis for a particle behavior theory and measure bulk properties of particulate materials in reduced gravity.

  3. FIELD ACTIVITIES AND PRELIMINARY RESULTS FROM THE INVESTIGATION OF WESTERN AIRBORNE CONTAMINANTS IN TWO HIGH ELEVATION WATERSHEDS OF ROCKY MOUNTAIN NATIONAL PARK

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Park Service initiated the Western Airborne Contaminants Assessment Project (WACAP) in 2002 to determine if airborne contaminants from long-range transport and/or regional sources are having an impact on remote western ecosystems, including AK. Rocky Mountain Nation...

  4. Regional prediction of soil organic carbon content over temperate croplands using visible near-infrared airborne hyperspectral imagery and synchronous field spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaudour, E.; Gilliot, J. M.; Bel, L.; Lefevre, J.; Chehdi, K.

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed at identifying the potential of Vis-NIR airborne hyperspectral AISA-Eagle data for predicting the topsoil organic carbon (SOC) content of bare cultivated soils over a large peri-urban area (221 km2) with both contrasted soils and SOC contents, located in the western region of Paris, France. Soil types comprised haplic luvisols, calcaric cambisols and colluvic cambisols. Airborne AISA-Eagle data (400-1000 nm, 126 bands) with 1 m-resolution were acquired on 17 April 2013 over 13 tracks. Tracks were atmospherically corrected then mosaicked at a 2 m-resolution using a set of 24 synchronous field spectra of bare soils, black and white targets and impervious surfaces. The land use identification system layer (RPG) of 2012 was used to mask non-agricultural areas, then calculation and thresholding of NDVI from an atmospherically corrected SPOT image acquired the same day enabled to map agricultural fields with bare soil. A total of 101 sites sampled either in 2013 or in the 3 previous years and in 2015 were identified as bare by means of this map. Predictions were made from the mosaic AISA spectra which were related to topsoil SOC contents by means of partial least squares regression (PLSR). Regression robustness was evaluated through a series of 1000 bootstrap data sets of calibration-validation samples, considering 74 sites outside cloud shadows only, and different sampling strategies for selecting calibration samples. Validation root-mean-square errors (RMSE) were comprised between 3.73 and 4.49 g Kg-1 and were ∼4 g Kg-1 in median. The most performing models in terms of coefficient of determination (R2) and Residual Prediction Deviation (RPD) values were the calibration models derived either from Kennard-Stone or conditioned Latin Hypercube sampling on smoothed spectra. The most generalizable model leading to lowest RMSE value of 3.73 g Kg-1 at the regional scale and 1.44 g Kg-1 at the within-field scale and low bias was the cross-validated leave

  5. Idaho Field Experiment 1981. Volume 3. Comparison of trajectories, tracer concentration patterns and MESODIF model calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Start, G E; Cate, J H; Sagendorf, J F; Ackermann, G R; Dickson, C R; Nukari, N H; Thorngren, L G

    1985-02-01

    The 1981 Idaho Field Experiment was conducted in southeast Idaho over the Upper Snake River Plain. Nine test-day case studies were conducted between July 15 and 30, 1981. Releases of SF/sub 6/ gaseous tracer were made for 8-hour periods from 46 m above ground. Tracer was sampled hourly, for 12 sequential hours, at about 100 locations within an area 24 km square. Also, a single total integrated sample, of about 30 hours duration, was collected at approximately 100 sites within an area 48 by 72 km (using 6 km spacings). Extensive tower profiles of meteorology at the release point were collected. RAWINSONDES, RABALS and PIBALS were collected at 3 to 5 sites. Horizontal, low-altitude winds were monitored using the INEL mesonet. SF/sub 6/ tracer plume releases were marked with co-located oil fog releases and bi-hourly sequential launches of tetroon pairs. Aerial LIDAR observations of the oil fog plume and airborne samples of SF/sub 6/ were collected. High-altitude aerial photographs of daytime plumes were also collected. Volume III contains descriptions of the nine intensive measurement days. General meteorological conditions are described, trajectories and their relationships to analyses of gaseous tracer data are discussed, and overviews of test day cases are presented. Calculations using the ARLFRD MESODIF model are included and related to the gaseous tracer data. Finally, a summary and a list of recommendations are presented. 11 references, 39 figures, 4 tables.

  6. Overview of the South American biomass burning analysis (SAMBBA) field experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, W. T.; Allan, J. D.; Flynn, M.; Darbyshire, E.; Hodgson, A.; Johnson, B. T.; Haywood, J. M.; Freitas, S.; Longo, K.; Artaxo, P.; Coe, H.

    2013-05-01

    Biomass burning represents one of the largest sources of particulate matter to the atmosphere, which results in a significant perturbation to the Earth's radiative balance coupled with serious negative impacts on public health. Globally, biomass burning aerosols are thought to exert a small warming effect of 0.03 Wm-2, however the uncertainty is 4 times greater than the central estimate. On regional scales, the impact is substantially greater, particularly in areas such as the Amazon Basin where large, intense and frequent burning occurs on an annual basis for several months (usually from August-October). Furthermore, a growing number of people live within the Amazon region, which means that they are subject to the deleterious effects on their health from exposure to substantial volumes of polluted air. Initial results from the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA) field experiment, which took place during September and October 2012 over Brazil, are presented here. A suite of instrumentation was flown on-board the UK Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurement (FAAM) BAe-146 research aircraft and was supported by ground based measurements, with extensive measurements made in Porto Velho, Rondonia. The aircraft sampled a range of conditions with sampling of fresh biomass burning plumes, regional haze and elevated biomass burning layers within the free troposphere. The physical, chemical and optical properties of the aerosols across the region will be characterized in order to establish the impact of biomass burning on regional air quality, weather and climate.

  7. Magnetic field uniformity for the nEDM experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slutsky, Simon; nEDM Collaboration

    2013-10-01

    The nEDM experiment at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) will search for a neutron electric dipole moment (EDM) with a sensitivity of < 5 .10-28 e-cm. Neutrons will precess in a constant magnetic field and variable electric field, and non-zero neutron EDM will appear as a variation in the precession frequency. Gradients in the magnetic field lead to spurious EDM signals through a geometric phase effect. The volume averaged magnetic gradient must be below 0.1 μG/cm to reach the desired sensitivity. In this talk, we describe an effort to produce such a uniform magnetic field in a laboratory using a cos (θ) coil operated at cryogenic temperatures inside a superconducting lead shield.

  8. The Ecology of Field Experience: Toward an Understanding of the Role of Field Experiences in Teacher Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeichner, Kenneth M.

    1985-01-01

    This paper focuses on conceptual and methodological limitations which have been identified in relation to research on field experiences. A point of view is offered as to how research in this area can begin to provide the kinds of empirical data which will be more useful for policy decisions. (CB)

  9. NATO SET-093 joint field experiment at Bourges, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marty, C.; Bruel, F.; Prieur, D.; Naz, P.; Miller, L. S.

    2009-05-01

    This paper describes the NATO Task Group SET-093/RTG53/MSE (referred to as TG-53 in this report) Acoustic Detection of Weapons Firing Joint Field Experiment II conducted at the Etablissement Technique de Bourges (ETBS), Bourges, France, during 16 to 27 June 2008. This field experiment is a follow-on to the NATO TG-53 Acoustic Detection of Weapons Firing Joint Field Experiment I conducted at the Yuma Proving Grounds (YPG), Yuma, Arizona, USA, during 31 October to 4 November 2005 [1]. The objectives of the joint experiment were: (i) to collect acoustic signatures of direct and indirect firings from weapons' such as small arms, mortars, artillery, rockets, and C4 explosives, (ii) to analyze the propagation effects of grassy, wooded, and urban terrains, (iii) to share signatures collected from a variety of acoustic sensors, on the ground and in the air, distributed over a wide area, and (iv) to demonstrate the interoperability of disparate sensors developed by the various nations involved. The participating NATO countries , including France, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, Canada, and the United States of America, and Israel as well as part of the Mediterranean dialogue countries, deployed nearly 90 sensors and sensor systems over the test range area.

  10. Intermittent magnetic field excitations in the Madison Dynamo Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nornberg, M. D.; Spence, E. J.; Jacobson, C. M.; Parada, C. A.; Kendrick, R. D.; Forest, C. B.

    2006-10-01

    Determining the onset conditions for magnetic field growth in magnetohydrodynamics is fundamental to understanding how astrophysical dynamos such as the Earth, the Sun, and the galaxy self-generate magnetic fields. The role of turbulence in modifying these onset conditions is studied in the Madison Dynamo Experiment. A turbulent flow of liquid sodium, composed primarily of two counter-rotating helical vortices, is generated by impellers. Laser Doppler velocimetry measurements of the flow in an identical-scale water experiment demonstrate that the turbulence is isotropic, though not homogeneous, with particularly long-lived eddies in the shear layer between the two flow cells. The magnetic field induced when an axial field is applied shows intermittent periods of growth and has a spatial structure consistent with the fastest growing magnetic eigenmode predicted by a laminar kinematic dynamo model of the mean flow. Turbulent fluctuations of the velocity field change the flow geometry such that the eigenmode growth rate is temporarily positive, thus generating the magnetic bursts. It is found from ensemble averaging that the bursts gain strength and frequency with increased impeller rotation rate, though they become shorter so that each burst remains a rare, random event. Nornberg et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., in press (2006), physics/0606239.

  11. LASE measurements of water vapor and aerosol profiles during the Plains Elevated Convection at Night (PECAN) field experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nehrir, A. R.; Ferrare, R. A.; Kooi, S. A.; Butler, C. F.; Notari, A.; Hair, J. W.; Collins, J. E., Jr.; Ismail, S.

    2015-12-01

    The Lidar Atmospheric Sensing Experiment (LASE) system was deployed on the NASA DC-8 aircraft during the Plains Elevated Convection At Night (PECAN) field experiment, which was conducted during June-July 2015 over the central and southern plains. LASE is an active remote sensor that employs the differential absorption lidar (DIAL) technique to measure range resolved profiles of water vapor and aerosols above and below the aircraft. The DC-8 conducted nine local science flights from June 30- July 14 where LASE sampled water vapor and aerosol fields in support of the PECAN primary science objectives relating to better understanding nocturnal Mesoscale Convective Systems (MCSs), Convective Initiation (CI), the Low Level Jet (LLJ), bores, and to compare different airborne and ground based measurements. LASE observed large spatial and temporal variability in water vapor and aerosol distributions in advance of nocturnal MCSs, across bores resulting from MCS outflow boundaries, and across the LLJ associated with the development of MCSs and CI. An overview of the LASE data collected during the PECAN field experiment will be presented where emphasis will be placed on variability of water vapor profiles in the vicinity of severe storms and intense convection in the central and southern plains. Preliminary comparisons show good agreement between coincident LASE and radiosonde water vapor profiles. In addition, an advanced water vapor DIAL system being developed at NASA Langley will be discussed.

  12. Using a Field Experience to Build Understanding of Planetary Geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higbie, M.; Treiman, A.; Kiefer, W.; Shipp, S.

    2004-12-01

    In the summer of 2004, the Lunar and Planetary Institute hosted 25 middle- and high-school teachers on a week-long field experience in Idaho and Montana. This workshop mixed field work with classroom experiences and provided educators and scientists the opportunity to interact. The educators investigated deposits associated with Glacial Lake Missoula floods and lava flows in the Craters of the Moon National Monument and Preserve. The participants applied what they learned about Earth-based processes to develop understanding of processes operating on Mars and the most recent results from NASA's missions to Mars. This was the most recent of five field-based experiences that used Earth-planet comparisons as a basis for experiential learning. These field experiences all are designed to strengthen content knowledge of geologic processes and planetary sciences. Learning geology through fieldwork enables participants to take ownership of the content through real-life experience; in essence, the teacher becomes the student. Establishing deeper knowledge of the content increases their confidence in facilitating inquiry-based science in their own classrooms. In addition to content, the educators are immersed in the process of science. Participants make observations, compile notes and illustrations, debate interpretations, draw conclusions, and communicate findings. Care was taken to separate observations and interpretations to help build an understanding of scientific reasoning. Discussions often involved questions without solutions, or with multiple solutions. While some participants expressed discomfort with these aspects of the nature of science, most were more comfortable with open-ended, inquiry based exploration by the close of the workshop. The field work is coupled with discussion and activities in the classroom. Participants reflected on the field sites and placed them in the context of the geologic history of the region. Observations and interpretations at

  13. Active experiments in the ionosphere and geomagnetic field variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivokon, V. P.; Cherneva, N. V.; Khomutov, S. Y.; Serovetnikov, A. S.

    2014-11-01

    Variations of ionospheric-magnetospheric relation energy, as one of the possible outer climatology factors, may be traced on the basis of analysis of natural geophysical phenomena such as ionosphere artificial radio radiation and magnetic storms. Experiments on active impact on the ionosphere have been carried out for quite a long time in Russia as well. The most modern heating stand is located in Alaska; it has been used within the HAARP Program. The possibility of this stand to affect geophysical fields, in particular, the geomagnetic field is of interest.

  14. ITER Test Blanket Module Error Field Simulation Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaffer, M. J.

    2010-11-01

    Recent experiments at DIII-D used an active-coil mock-up to investigate effects of magnetic error fields similar to those expected from two ferromagnetic Test Blanket Modules (TBMs) in one ITER equatorial port. The largest and most prevalent observed effect was plasma toroidal rotation slowing across the entire radial profile, up to 60% in H-mode when the mock-up local ripple at the plasma was ˜4 times the local ripple expected in front of ITER TBMs. Analysis showed the slowing to be consistent with non-resonant braking by the mock-up field. There was no evidence of strong electromagnetic braking by resonant harmonics. These results are consistent with the near absence of resonant helical harmonics in the TBM field. Global particle and energy confinement in H-mode decreased by <20% for the maximum mock-up ripple, but <5% at the local ripple expected in ITER. These confinement reductions may be linked with the large velocity reductions. TBM field effects were small in L-mode but increased with plasma beta. The L-H power threshold was unaffected within error bars. The mock-up field increased plasma sensitivity to mode locking by a known n=1 test field (n = toroidal harmonic number). In H-mode the increased locking sensitivity was from TBM torque slowing plasma rotation. At low beta, locked mode tolerance was fully recovered by re-optimizing the conventional DIII-D ``I-coils'' empirical compensation of n=1 errors in the presence of the TBM mock-up field. Empirical error compensation in H-mode should be addressed in future experiments. Global loss of injected neutral beam fast ions was within error bars, but 1 MeV fusion triton loss may have increased. The many DIII-D mock-up results provide important benchmarks for models needed to predict effects of TBMs in ITER.

  15. A Low Noise, Microprocessor-Controlled, Internally Digitizing Rotating-Vane Electric Field Mill for Airborne Platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bateman, M. G.; Stewart, M. F.; Blakeslee, R. J.; Podgorny, s. J.; Christian, H. J.; Mach, D. M.; Bailey, J. C.; Daskar, D.

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports on a new generation of aircraft-based rotating-vane style electric field mills designed and built at NASA's Marshall Spaceflight Center. The mills have individual microprocessors that digitize the electric field signal at the mill and respond to commands from the data system computer. The mills are very sensitive (1 V/m per bit), have a wide dynamic range (115 dB), and are very low noise (+/-1 LSB). Mounted on an aircraft, these mills can measure fields from +/-1 V/m to +/-500 kV/m. Once-per-second commanding from the data collection computer to each mill allows for precise timing and synchronization. The mills can also be commanded to execute a self-calibration in flight, which is done periodically to monitor the status and health of each mill.

  16. Tuning the mass of chameleon fields in Casimir force experiments.

    PubMed

    Brax, Ph; van de Bruck, C; Davis, A C; Shaw, D J; Iannuzzi, D

    2010-06-18

    We have calculated the chameleon pressure between two parallel plates in the presence of an intervening medium that affects the mass of the chameleon field. As intuitively expected, the gas in the gap weakens the chameleon interaction mechanism with a screening effect that increases with the plate separation and with the density of the intervening medium. This phenomenon might open up new directions in the search of chameleon particles with future long-range Casimir force experiments. PMID:20867290

  17. Vacuum magnetic field mapping experiments for validated determination of the helical field coil location in stellarators

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, J.; Hanson, J.; Hartwell, G.; Knowlton, S.

    2010-03-15

    Understanding the behavior of plasmas in magnetic confinement fusion devices typically requires accurate knowledge of the magnetic field structure. In stellarator-type confinement devices, the helical magnetic field is produced by currents in external coils and may be traced experimentally in the absence of plasma through the experimental technique of vacuum magnetic field mapping. Field mapping experiments, such as these, were performed on the recently constructed compact toroidal hybrid to verify the range of accessible magnetic configurations, compare the actual magnetic configuration with the design configuration, and identify any vacuum field errors that lead to perturbations of the vacuum magnetic flux surfaces. Furthermore, through the use of a new coil optimization routine, modifications are made to the simulation coil model such that better agreement exists between the experimental and simulation results. An outline of the optimization procedure is discussed in conjunction with the results of one such optimization process performed on the helical field coil.

  18. Optimizing Field-Reversed Configuration Plasmas for Plasma Compression Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabowski, C.; Degnan, J. H.; Amdahl, D. J.; Domonkos, M.; Ruden, E. L.; White, W.; Wurden, G. A.; Frese, M. H.; Frese, S. D.; Camacho, J. F.; Coffey, S. K.; Kostora, M.; McCullough, J.; Sommars, W.; Kiuttu, G. F.; Lynn, A. G.; Yates, K.; Bauer, B. S.; Fuelling, S.; Pahl, R.

    2013-10-01

    The Field-Reversed Configuration Heating Experiment (FRCHX) is a collaborative experiment between the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to study high energy density plasmas and various associated phenomena. With FRCHX, a field-reversed configuration (FRC) plasma is formed via reversed-field theta pinch and then translated a short distance into a cylindrical aluminum shell (solid liner), where it is either compressed by the magnetically-driven implosion of the shell or diagnosed in preparation for such compression tests. The lifetime of the trapped magnetic flux within the FRC is an important parameter affecting the confinement of plasma during the compression and ultimately the final density, temperature, and yield of neutrons from the plasma. Processes occurring during formation, initial plasma temperature, and instabilities in turn all affect the trapped-flux lifetime and the integrity of the FRC. A discussion of FRC parameters measured on FRCHX and efforts that have been made to improve these parameters and the FRC stability will be presented in connection with results from recent FRCHX experiments. This work is supported by DOE-OFES.

  19. Acoustic experience shapes female mate choice in field crickets

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Nathan W; Zuk, Marlene

    2008-01-01

    Female choice can drive the evolution of extravagant male traits. In invertebrates, the influence of prior social experience on female choice has only recently been considered. To better understand the evolutionary implications of experience-mediated plasticity in female choice, we investigated the effect of acoustic experience during rearing on female responsiveness to male song in the field cricket Teleogryllus oceanicus. Acoustic experience has unique biological relevance in this species: a morphological mutation has rendered over 90 per cent of males on the Hawaiian island of Kauai silent in fewer than 20 generations, impeding females' abilities to locate potential mates. Females reared in silent conditions mimicking Kauai were less discriminating of male calling song and more responsive to playbacks, compared with females that experienced song during rearing. Our results to our knowledge, are the first demonstration of long-term effects of acoustic experience in an arthropod, and suggest that female T. oceanicus may be able to compensate for the reduced availability of long-range male sexual signals by increasing their responsiveness to the few remaining signallers. Understanding the adaptive significance of experience-mediated plasticity in female choice provides insight into processes that facilitate rapid evolutionary change and shape sexual selection pressure in natural populations. PMID:18700205

  20. Acoustic experience shapes female mate choice in field crickets.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Nathan W; Zuk, Marlene

    2008-11-22

    Female choice can drive the evolution of extravagant male traits. In invertebrates, the influence of prior social experience on female choice has only recently been considered. To better understand the evolutionary implications of experience-mediated plasticity in female choice, we investigated the effect of acoustic experience during rearing on female responsiveness to male song in the field cricket Teleogryllus oceanicus. Acoustic experience has unique biological relevance in this species: a morphological mutation has rendered over 90 per cent of males on the Hawaiian island of Kauai silent in fewer than 20 generations, impeding females' abilities to locate potential mates. Females reared in silent conditions mimicking Kauai were less discriminating of male calling song and more responsive to playbacks, compared with females that experienced song during rearing. Our results to our knowledge, are the first demonstration of long-term effects of acoustic experience in an arthropod, and suggest that female T. oceanicus may be able to compensate for the reduced availability of long-range male sexual signals by increasing their responsiveness to the few remaining signallers. Understanding the adaptive significance of experience-mediated plasticity in female choice provides insight into processes that facilitate rapid evolutionary change and shape sexual selection pressure in natural populations. PMID:18700205

  1. Airborne laser topographic mapping results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krabill, W. B.; Collins, J. G.; Link, L. E.; Swift, R. N.; Butler, M. L.

    1984-01-01

    The results of terrain mapping experiments utilizing the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Airborne Oceanographic Lidar (AOL) over forested areas are presented. The flight tests were conducted as part of a joint NASA/U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (CE) investigation aimed at evaluating the potential of an airborne laser ranging system to provide cross-sectional topographic data on flood plains that are difficult and expensive to survey using conventional techniques. The data described in this paper were obtained in the Wolf River Basin located near Memphis, TN. Results from surveys conducted under winter 'leaves off' and summer 'leaves on' conditions, aspects of day and night operation, and data obtained from decidous and coniferous tree types are compared. Data processing techniques are reviewed. Conclusions relative to accuracy and present limitations of the AOL, and airborne lidar systems in general, to terrain mapping over forested areas are discussed.

  2. Using airborne multispectral imagery to monitor cotton root rot progression in fungicide-treated and non-treated cotton fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton root rot has affected cotton production in the southwestern and south central U.S for over 100 years. A fungicide, flutriafol, has shown considerable promise for controlling this disease in field studies in the last few years. With the temporary authorization for use of the fungicide to contr...

  3. Using airborne imagery to monitor cotton root rot progression in fungicide-treated and untreated cotton fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton root rot is a serious and destructive disease that has affected cotton production in the southwestern and south central U.S for over a century. Recent field studies have shown that Topguard fungicide has considerable promise for controlling this disease. With the authorization (Section 18 exe...

  4. LESSONS LEARNED REGARDING THE USE OF AN IMPINGER FOR COLLECTING AIRBORNE BACTERIA DURING A BIOSOLIDS APPLICATION FIELD STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL) of the USEPA has performed laboratory wind tunnel studies as well as large field studies to evaluate specific bioaerosol components (bacteria, fungi, endotoxin, β-d glucan) that may be associated with various practices for ...

  5. Magnetic Field Stabilization for 129Xe EDM Search Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furukawa, Takeshi; Inoue, Takeshi; Nanao, Tsubasa; Yoshimi, Akihiro; Tsuchiya, Masato; Hayashi, Hironori; Uchida, Makoto; Asahi, Koichiro

    2011-09-01

    Magnetic field stabilization is a crucial condition parameter for many kinds of ultra-high precision measurements such as a search for an electric dipole moment (EDM). The instability of magnetic field strength often arises from the drift of current flow in a solenoid coil to generate the magnetic field. For our EDM search experiment with maser oscillating diamagnetic 129Xe atoms, we have developed a new stabilized current source based on a feedback system which is devised to correct the amount of current flow measured precisely with high-precision digital multimeter and standard resistor. Using this new current source, we have successfully reduced the drifts of coil current by at least a factor of 100 compared to commercially available current sources.

  6. Airborne Sunphotometer Measurements of Aerosol Optical Depth and Columnar Water Vapor During the Puerto Rico Dust Experiment, and Comparison with Land, Aircraft, and Satellite Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Livingston, John M.; Russell, Philip B.; Reid, Jeffrey; Redemann, Jens; Schmid, Beat; Allen, Duane A.; Torres, Omar; Levy, Robert C.; Remer, Lorraine A.; Holben, Brent N.; Hipskind, R. Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Analyses of aerosol optical depth (AOD) and columnar water vapor (CWV) measurements obtained with the six-channel NASA Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS-6) mounted on a twin-engine aircraft during the summer 2000 Puerto Rico Dust Experiment are presented. In general, aerosol extinction values calculated from AATS-6 AOD measurements acquired during aircraft profiles up to 5 km ASL reproduce the vertical structure measured by coincident aircraft in-situ measurements of total aerosol number and surface area concentration. Calculations show that the spectral dependence of AOD was small (mean Angstrom wavelength exponents of approximately 0.20) within three atmospheric layers defined as the total column beneath the top of each aircraft profile, the region beneath the trade wind inversion, and the region within the Saharan Air Layer (SAL) above the trade inversion. This spectral behavior is consistent with attenuation of incoming solar radiation by large dust particles or by dust plus sea salt. Values of CWV calculated from profile measurements by AATS-6 at 941.9 nm and from aircraft in-situ measurements by a chilled mirror dewpoint hygrometer agree to within approximately 4% (0.13 g/sq cm). AATS-6 AOD values measured on the ground at Roosevelt Roads Naval Air Station and during low altitude aircraft runs over the adjacent Cabras Island aerosol/radiation ground site agree to within 0.004 to 0.030 with coincident data obtained with an AERONET Sun/sky Cimel radiometer located at Cabras Island. For the same observation times, AERONET retrievals of CWV exceed AATS-6 values by a mean of 0.74 g/sq cm (approximately 21 %) for the 2.9-3.9 g/sq cm measured by AATS-6. Comparison of AATS-6 aerosol extinction values obtained during four aircraft ascents over Cabras Island with corresponding values calculated from coincident aerosol backscatter measurements by a ground-based micro-pulse lidar (MPL-Net) located at Cabras yields a similar vertical structure above the trade

  7. Accuracy Assessment of Landsat-Derived Continuous Fields of Tree Cover Products Using Airborne LIDAR Data in the Eastern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, X. P.; Tang, H.

    2015-08-01

    Knowing the detailed error structure of a land cover map is crucial for area estimation. Facilitated by the opening of the Landsat archive, global land cover mapping at 30-m resolution has become possible in recent years. Two global Landsat-based continuous fields of tree cover maps have been generated by Sexton et al. (2013) and Hansen et al. (2013) but the accuracy of which have not been comprehensively evaluated. Here we used canopy cover derived from airborne small-footprint Lidar data as a reference to evaluate the accuracy of these two datasets as well as the National Land Cover Database 2001 canopy cover layer (Homer et al. 2004) in two entire counties in Maryland, United States. Our results showed that all three Landsat datasets captured well the spatial variations of tree cover in the study area with an r2 ranging between 0.54 and 0.58, a mean bias error ranging between -15% and 5% tree cover, and a root mean square error ranging between 27% and 29% tree cover. When the continuous tree cover maps were converted to binary forest/nonforest maps, all three products were proved to have an overall accuracy >= 80% but with significant differences in producer's accuracy and user's accuracy. Data users are thus suggested to beware of these accuracy patterns when selecting the most appropriate dataset for their specific applications.

  8. Active-passive airborne ocean color measurement. II - Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoge, F. E.; Swift, R. N.; Yungel, J. K.

    1986-01-01

    Reported here for the first time is the use of a single airborne instrument to make concurrent measurements of oceanic chlorophyll concentration by (1) laser-induced fluorescence, (2) passive upwelling radiance, and (3) solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence. Results from field experiments conducted with the NASA airborne oceanographic lidar (AOL) in the New York Bight demonstrate the capability of a single active-passive instrument to perform new and potentially important ocean color studies related to (1) active lidar validation of passive ocean color in-water algorithms, (2) chlorophyll a in vivo fluorescence yield variability, (3) calibration of active multichannel lidar systems, (4) effect of sea state on passive and active ocean color measurements, (5) laser/solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence investigations, and (6) subsequent improvement of satellite-borne ocean color scanners. For validation and comparison purposes a separate passive ocean color sensor was also flown along with the new active-passive sensor during these initial field trials.

  9. An Integral, Multidisciplinary and Global Geophysical Field Experience for Undergraduates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vázquez, O.; Carrillo, D. J.; Pérez-Campos, X.

    2007-05-01

    The udergraduate program of Geophysical Engineering at the School of Engineering, of the Univesidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), went through an update process that concluded in 2006. As part of the program, the student takes three geophysical prospecting courses (gravity and magnetics, electric, electromagnetics, and seismic methods). The older program required a three-week field experience for each course in order to gradute. The new program considers only one extended field experience. This work stresses the importance of international academic exchange, where undergraduate students could participate, such as the Summer of Applied Geophysical Experience (SAGE), and interaction with research programs, such as the MesoAmerican Subduction Experiment (MASE). Also, we propose a scheeme for this activity based on those examples; both of them have in common real geophysical problems, from which students could benefit. Our proposal covers academic and logistic aspects to be taken into account, enhancing the relevance of interaction between other academic institutions, industry, and UNAM, in order to obtain a broader view of geophysics.

  10. Dark matter effective field theory scattering in direct detection experiments

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Schneck, K.; Cabrera, B.; Cerdeño, D. G.; Mandic, V.; Rogers, H. E.; Agnese, R.; Anderson, A. J.; Asai, M.; Balakishiyeva, D.; Barker, D.; et al

    2015-05-18

    We examine the consequences of the effective field theory (EFT) of dark matter-nucleon scattering for current and proposed direct detection experiments. Exclusion limits on EFT coupling constants computed using the optimum interval method are presented for SuperCDMS Soudan, CDMS II, and LUX, and the necessity of combining results from multiple experiments in order to determine dark matter parameters is discussed. Here. we demonstrate that spectral differences between the standard dark matter model and a general EFT interaction can produce a bias when calculating exclusion limits and when developing signal models for likelihood and machine learning techniques. In conclusion, we discussmore » the implications of the EFT for the next-generation (G2) direct detection experiments and point out regions of complementarity in the EFT parameter space.« less

  11. Dark matter effective field theory scattering in direct detection experiments

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Schneck, K.

    2015-05-01

    We examine the consequences of the effective field theory (EFT) of dark matter–nucleon scattering for current and proposed direct detection experiments. Exclusion limits on EFT coupling constants computed using the optimum interval method are presented for SuperCDMS Soudan, CDMS II, and LUX, and the necessity of combining results from multiple experiments in order to determine dark matter parameters is discussed. We demonstrate that spectral differences between the standard dark matter model and a general EFT interaction can produce a bias when calculating exclusion limits and when developing signal models for likelihood and machine learning techniques. We also discuss the implicationsmore » of the EFT for the next-generation (G2) direct detection experiments and point out regions of complementarity in the EFT parameter space.« less

  12. Dark matter effective field theory scattering in direct detection experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Schneck, K.

    2015-05-01

    We examine the consequences of the effective field theory (EFT) of dark matter–nucleon scattering for current and proposed direct detection experiments. Exclusion limits on EFT coupling constants computed using the optimum interval method are presented for SuperCDMS Soudan, CDMS II, and LUX, and the necessity of combining results from multiple experiments in order to determine dark matter parameters is discussed. We demonstrate that spectral differences between the standard dark matter model and a general EFT interaction can produce a bias when calculating exclusion limits and when developing signal models for likelihood and machine learning techniques. We also discuss the implications of the EFT for the next-generation (G2) direct detection experiments and point out regions of complementarity in the EFT parameter space.

  13. Dark matter effective field theory scattering in direct detection experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Schneck, K.; Cabrera, B.; Cerdeño, D. G.; Mandic, V.; Rogers, H. E.; Agnese, R.; Anderson, A. J.; Asai, M.; Balakishiyeva, D.; Barker, D.; Basu Thakur, R.; Bauer, D. A.; Billard, J.; Borgland, A.; Brandt, D.; Brink, P. L.; Bunker, R.; Caldwell, D. O.; Calkins, R.; Chagani, H.; Chen, Y.; Cooley, J.; Cornell, B.; Crewdson, C. H.; Cushman, P.; Daal, M.; Di Stefano, P. C. F.; Doughty, T.; Esteban, L.; Fallows, S.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Godfrey, G. L.; Golwala, S. R.; Hall, J.; Harris, H. R.; Hofer, T.; Holmgren, D.; Hsu, L.; Huber, M. E.; Jardin, D. M.; Jastram, A.; Kamaev, O.; Kara, B.; Kelsey, M. H.; Kennedy, A.; Leder, A.; Loer, B.; Lopez Asamar, E.; Lukens, P.; Mahapatra, R.; McCarthy, K. A.; Mirabolfathi, N.; Moffatt, R. A.; Morales Mendoza, J. D.; Oser, S. M.; Page, K.; Page, W. A.; Partridge, R.; Pepin, M.; Phipps, A.; Prasad, K.; Pyle, M.; Qiu, H.; Rau, W.; Redl, P.; Reisetter, A.; Ricci, Y.; Roberts, A.; Saab, T.; Sadoulet, B.; Sander, J.; Schnee, R. W.; Scorza, S.; Serfass, B.; Shank, B.; Speller, D.; Toback, D.; Upadhyayula, S.; Villano, A. N.; Welliver, B.; Wilson, J. S.; Wright, D. H.; Yang, X.; Yellin, S.; Yen, J. J.; Young, B. A.; Zhang, J.

    2015-05-18

    We examine the consequences of the effective field theory (EFT) of dark matter-nucleon scattering for current and proposed direct detection experiments. Exclusion limits on EFT coupling constants computed using the optimum interval method are presented for SuperCDMS Soudan, CDMS II, and LUX, and the necessity of combining results from multiple experiments in order to determine dark matter parameters is discussed. Here. we demonstrate that spectral differences between the standard dark matter model and a general EFT interaction can produce a bias when calculating exclusion limits and when developing signal models for likelihood and machine learning techniques. In conclusion, we discuss the implications of the EFT for the next-generation (G2) direct detection experiments and point out regions of complementarity in the EFT parameter space.

  14. Inverse Simulation of Field Infiltration Experiment Counting Preferential Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zumr, David; Snehota, Michal; Nemcova, Renata; Dohnal, Michal; Cislerova, Milena

    2010-05-01

    The field tension and ponded infiltration experiments were conducted to monitor and describe irregularities of moisture propagation and to estimate the soil hydraulic properties (Distric Cambisol, Korkusova Hut, Sumava). On these soils the preferential pathways have been observed in several scales with the use of dye tracers, MRI and CT imaging. Preferential behavior was detected also during laboratory infiltration experiments. The flow irregularities are credited to variable air entrapment at the beginning of infiltrations. The field infiltration experiment was carried out in a shallow pit for a period of one day. The upper boundary condition was controlled by the tension disk infiltrometer, the propagation of a water front was monitored by two tensiometers installed in two depths below the infiltration disk. The propagation of saline solution front during ponded infiltration was visualized with high resolution electrical resistivity tomography (ERT). Infiltration experiments were monitored with TDR probes, tensiometers and ERT. Zones of preferential flow were determined through analyses of photographs taken during laboratory dye tracer infiltration experiments performed on undisturbed soil samples. Connectivity, volumetric ratio and spatial development of preferential pathways were evaluated as the necessary information for numerical simulations of flow using dual-permeability approach. 2D axisymetric numerical simulations were conducted to evaluate the results of the experiment. The parameter estimator PEST coupled with the simulation code S2D_DUAL (Vogel et al., 2000) were employed. Two different approaches were used: 1. Single-domain approach based on Richards' equation. 2. Dual-permeability approach based on two interacting water flow domains (matrix and preferential domains), each governed by one Richards' equation. Concerning the existence of preferential flow on investigated soil, the dual-permeability model gives a better picture of the flow regime. The

  15. The BLLAST field experiment: Boundary-Layer Late Afternoon and Sunset Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lothon, M.; Lohou, F.; Pino, D.; Couvreux, F.; Pardyjak, E. R.; Reuder, J.; Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, J.; Durand, P.; Hartogensis, O.; Legain, D.; Augustin, P.; Gioli, B.; Lenschow, D. H.; Faloona, I.; Yagüe, C.; Alexander, D. C.; Angevine, W. M.; Bargain, E.; Barrié, J.; Bazile, E.; Bezombes, Y.; Blay-Carreras, E.; van de Boer, A.; Boichard, J. L.; Bourdon, A.; Butet, A.; Campistron, B.; de Coster, O.; Cuxart, J.; Dabas, A.; Darbieu, C.; Deboudt, K.; Delbarre, H.; Derrien, S.; Flament, P.; Fourmentin, M.; Garai, A.; Gibert, F.; Graf, A.; Groebner, J.; Guichard, F.; Jiménez, M. A.; Jonassen, M.; van den Kroonenberg, A.; Magliulo, V.; Martin, S.; Martinez, D.; Mastrorillo, L.; Moene, A. F.; Molinos, F.; Moulin, E.; Pietersen, H. P.; Piguet, B.; Pique, E.; Román-Cascón, C.; Rufin-Soler, C.; Saïd, F.; Sastre-Marugán, M.; Seity, Y.; Steeneveld, G. J.; Toscano, P.; Traullé, O.; Tzanos, D.; Wacker, S.; Wildmann, N.; Zaldei, A.

    2014-10-01

    Due to the major role of the sun in heating the earth's surface, the atmospheric planetary boundary layer over land is inherently marked by a diurnal cycle. The afternoon transition, the period of the day that connects the daytime dry convective boundary layer to the night-time stable boundary layer, still has a number of unanswered scientific questions. This phase of the diurnal cycle is challenging from both modelling and observational perspectives: it is transitory, most of the forcings are small or null and the turbulence regime changes from fully convective, close to homogeneous and isotropic, toward a more heterogeneous and intermittent state. These issues motivated the BLLAST (Boundary-Layer Late Afternoon and Sunset Turbulence) field campaign that was conducted from 14 June to 8 July 2011 in southern France, in an area of complex and heterogeneous terrain. A wide range of instrumented platforms including full-size aircraft, remotely piloted aircraft systems, remote-sensing instruments, radiosoundings, tethered balloons, surface flux stations and various meteorological towers were deployed over different surface types. The boundary layer, from the earth's surface to the free troposphere, was probed during the entire day, with a focus and intense observation periods that were conducted from midday until sunset. The BLLAST field campaign also provided an opportunity to test innovative measurement systems, such as new miniaturized sensors, and a new technique for frequent radiosoundings of the low troposphere. Twelve fair weather days displaying various meteorological conditions were extensively documented during the field experiment. The boundary-layer growth varied from one day to another depending on many contributions including stability, advection, subsidence, the state of the previous day's residual layer, as well as local, meso- or synoptic scale conditions. Ground-based measurements combined with tethered-balloon and airborne observations captured the

  16. The BLLAST field experiment: Boundary-Layer Late Afternoon and Sunset Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lothon, M.; Lohou, F.; Pino, D.; Couvreux, F.; Pardyjak, E. R.; Reuder, J.; Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, J.; Durand, P.; Hartogensis, O.; Legain, D.; Augustin, P.; Gioli, B.; Faloona, I.; Yagüe, C.; Alexander, D. C.; Angevine, W. M.; Bargain, E.; Barrié, J.; Bazile, E.; Bezombes, Y.; Blay-Carreras, E.; van de Boer, A.; Boichard, J. L.; Bourdon, A.; Butet, A.; Campistron, B.; de Coster, O.; Cuxart, J.; Dabas, A.; Darbieu, C.; Deboudt, K.; Delbarre, H.; Derrien, S.; Flament, P.; Fourmentin, M.; Garai, A.; Gibert, F.; Graf, A.; Groebner, J.; Guichard, F.; Jimenez Cortes, M. A.; Jonassen, M.; van den Kroonenberg, A.; Lenschow, D. H.; Magliulo, V.; Martin, S.; Martinez, D.; Mastrorillo, L.; Moene, A. F.; Molinos, F.; Moulin, E.; Pietersen, H. P.; Piguet, B.; Pique, E.; Román-Cascón, C.; Rufin-Soler, C.; Saïd, F.; Sastre-Marugán, M.; Seity, Y.; Steeneveld, G. J.; Toscano, P.; Traullé, O.; Tzanos, D.; Wacker, S.; Wildmann, N.; Zaldei, A.

    2014-04-01

    Due to the major role of the sun in heating the earth's surface, the atmospheric planetary boundary layer over land is inherently marked by a diurnal cycle. The afternoon transition, the period of the day that connects the daytime dry convective to the night-time stable boundary layer, still raises several scientific issues. This phase of the diurnal cycle is challenging from both modeling and observational perspectives: it is transitory, most of the forcings are small or null and the turbulence regime changes from fully convective regime, close to homogeneous and isotropic, toward a more heterogeneous and intermittent state. These issues motivated the BLLAST (Boundary Layer Late Afternoon and Sunset Turbulence) field campaign that was conducted from 14 June to 8 July 2011 in southern France, in an area of complex and heterogeneous terrain. A wide range of integrated instrument platforms including full-size aircraft, remotely piloted aircraft systems (RPAS), remote sensing instruments, radiosoundings, tethered balloons, surface flux stations, and various meteorological towers were deployed over different surface types. The boundary layer, from the earth's surface to the free troposphere, was probed during the entire day, with a focus and intense observations from midday until sunset. The BLLAST field campaign also provided an opportunity to test innovative measurement systems, like new miniaturized sensors, and a new technique for frequent radiosoundings of the low troposphere. Twelve fair weather days displaying various meteorological conditions were extensively documented during the field experiment. The boundary layer growth varied from one day to another depending on many contributions including stability, advection, subsidence, the state of the residual layer of the previous day, as well as local, meso- or synoptic scale conditions. Ground-based measurements combined with tethered-balloon and airborne observations captured the turbulence decay from the surface

  17. Inherent optical properties of the ocean: retrieval of the absorption coefficient of chromophoric dissolved organic matter from airborne laser spectral fluorescence measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoge, Frank E.; Vodacek, Anthony; Swift, Robert N.; Yungel, James K.; Blough, Neil V.

    1995-10-01

    The absorption coefficient of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) at 355 nm has been retrieved from airborne laser-induced and water Raman-normalized CDOM fluorescence. Four combined airborne and ship field experiments have demonstrated that (1) the airborne CDOM fluorescence-to--water Raman ratio is linearly related to concurrent quinine-sulfate-standardized CDOM shipboard fluorescence measurements over a wide range of water masses (coastal to blue water); (2) the vicarious calibration of the airborne fluorosensor in units traceable to a fluorescence standard can be established and then maintained over an extended time period by tungsten lamp calibration; (3) the vicariously calibrated airborne CDOM fluorescence-to-water Raman ratio can be directly applied to previously developed

  18. Validation of AMSR-E soil moisture using L-band airborne radiometer data from National Airborne Field Experiment 2006 (NAFE'06)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    AMSR-E has been extensively evaluated under a wide range of ground and climate conditions using in situ and aircraft data, where the later were primarily used for assessing the TB calibration accuracy. However, none of the previous work evaluates AMSR-E performance under the conditions of flood irri...

  19. Massless scalar field and solar-system experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Formiga, J. B.

    2011-04-15

    The solution of Einstein's field equations with the energy-momentum tensor of a massless scalar field is known as the Fisher solution. It is well known that this solution has a naked singularity due to the ''charge''{Sigma} of the massless scalar field. Here I obtain the radial null geodesic of the Fisher solution and use it to confirm that there is no black hole. In addition, I use the parametrized post-Newtonian formalism to show that the Fisher spacetime predicts the same effects on solar-system experiments as the Schwarzschild one does, as long as we impose a limit on {Sigma}. I show that this limit is not a strong constraint and we can even take values of {Sigma} bigger than M. By using the exact formula of the redshift and some assumptions, I evaluate this limit for the experiment of Pound and Snider [Phys. Rev. 140, B788 (1965)]. It turns out that this limit is {Sigma}<5.8x10{sup 3} m.

  20. Magnetic Diagnostics and Field Structure in the Madison Dynamo Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmus, A. M.; Clark, M.; Kaplan, E. J.; Kendrick, R. D.; Nornberg, M. D.; Rahbarnia, K.; Taylor, N. Z.; Forest, C. B.

    2010-11-01

    The Madison Dynamo Experiment(MDE) is expected to spontaneously self-generate a magnetic field in a two vortex flow geometry driven by counter rotating impellers in a 1 m diameter sphere filled with liquid sodium. This poster will focus on the spatial structure of the magnetic field associated with the dynamo eigenmodes and the turbulent fluctuations. A new internal array of Hall probes will increase the number of probe locations from 60 to 100 (in addition to 74 existing surface probes), including 40 spanning the center of the experiment. Three orthogonal measurements of the magnetic field are taken at each internal location, whereas previous internal probes took one directional data (2 directional after probe rotation on a different run). This will allow resolution of harmonic modes up to a poloidal order of l=7 and a toroidal order of m=5. Cross correlation analysis between the surface probes and internal probes will be used to determine the internal structure associated with each l and m. This work is supported by the NSF/DOE partnership in plasma physics.

  1. Airborne measurements of NO, NO2, and NO(sub y) as related to NASA's TRACE-A field program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradshaw, John; Sandholm, Scott

    1995-01-01

    The Georgia Tech group's effort on NASA's GTE program and TRACE-A field mission primarily involved analysis and interpretation of the measurement data base obtained during the TRACE-A field campaign. These investigations focused on the distribution of ozone and ozone precursors over the south Atlantic and nearby continental regions of Africa and South Africa. The Transport and Atmospheric Chemistry near the Equator-Atlantic (TRACE-A) Mission was designed with the goal of investigating tropospheric trace gas distributions, sources, and photochemical state over the southern Atlantic. Major scientific issues related to N(x)O(y) tropospheric chemistry addressed in this program included: (1) what controls the tropospheric ozone budget over the southern Atlantic? (2) What are the spatial distributions of CO, CO2, NO, NO2, NO(sub y), O3, NMHC, H2O3, etc. over the southern Atlantic? (3) How does long range transport of long-lived NO(y) compounds affect the more reactive NO(x) budget in southern Atlantic troposphere?

  2. Airborne multidimensional integrated remote sensing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Weiming; Wang, Jianyu; Shu, Rong; He, Zhiping; Ma, Yanhua

    2006-12-01

    In this paper, we present a kind of airborne multidimensional integrated remote sensing system that consists of an imaging spectrometer, a three-line scanner, a laser ranger, a position & orientation subsystem and a stabilizer PAV30. The imaging spectrometer is composed of two sets of identical push-broom high spectral imager with a field of view of 22°, which provides a field of view of 42°. The spectral range of the imaging spectrometer is from 420nm to 900nm, and its spectral resolution is 5nm. The three-line scanner is composed of two pieces of panchromatic CCD and a RGB CCD with 20° stereo angle and 10cm GSD(Ground Sample Distance) with 1000m flying height. The laser ranger can provide height data of three points every other four scanning lines of the spectral imager and those three points are calibrated to match the corresponding pixels of the spectral imager. The post-processing attitude accuracy of POS/AV 510 used as the position & orientation subsystem, which is the aerial special exterior parameters measuring product of Canadian Applanix Corporation, is 0.005° combined with base station data. The airborne multidimensional integrated remote sensing system was implemented successfully, performed the first flying experiment on April, 2005, and obtained satisfying data.

  3. Airborne In-Situ Measurements of Formaldehyde over California: First Results from the Compact Formaldehyde Fluorescence Experiment (COFFEE) Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marrero, Josette; St. Clair, Jason; Yates, Emma L.; Gore, Warren; Swanson, Andrew K.; Iraci, Laura T.; Hanisco, Thomas F.

    2016-01-01

    Formaldehyde (HCHO) is one of the most abundant oxygenated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the atmosphere, playing a role multiple atmospheric processes. Measurements of HCHO can be used to help quantify convective transport, the abundance of VOCs, and ozone production in urban environments. The Compact Formaldehyde FluorescencE Experiment (COFFEE) instrument uses Non-Resonant Laser Induced Fluorescence (NR-LIF) to detect trace concentrations of HCHO as part of the Alpha Jet Atmospheric eXperiment (AJAX) payload. Developed at NASA GSFC, COFFEE is a small, low maintenance instrument with a sensitivity of 100 pptv and a quick response time (1 sec). The COFFEE instrument has been customized to fit in an external wing pod on the Alpha Jet aircraft based at NASA ARC. The instrument can operate over a broad range of altitudes, from boundary layer to lower stratosphere, making it well suited for the Alpha Jet, which can access altitudes from the surface up to 40,000 ft. Results of the first COFFEE science flights preformed over the California's Central Valley will be presented. Boundary layer measurements and vertical profiles in the tropospheric column will both be included. This region is of particular interest, due to its elevated levels of HCHO, revealed in satellite images, as well as its high ozone concentrations. In addition to HCHO, the AJAX payload includes measurements of atmospheric ozone, methane, and carbon dioxide. Formaldehyde is one of the few urban pollutants that can be measured from space. Plans to compare in-situ COFFEE data with satellite-based HCHO observations such as those from OMI (Aura) and OMPS (SuomiNPP) will also be presented.

  4. Airborne In-Situ Measurements of Formaldehyde Over California: First Results from the Compact Formaldehyde Fluorescence Experiment (COFFEE) Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marrero, Josette Elizabeth; Saint Clair, Jason; Yates, Emma L.; Gore, Warren; Swanson, Andrew K.; Iraci, Laura T.; Hanisco, Thomas F.

    2016-01-01

    Formaldehyde (HCHO) is one of the most abundant oxygenated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the atmosphere, playing a role multiple atmospheric processes. Measurements of HCHO can be used to help quantify convective transport, the abundance of VOCs, and ozone production in urban environments. The Compact Formaldehyde FluorescencE Experiment (COFFEE) instrument uses Non-Resonant Laser Induced Fluorescence (NR-LIF) to detect trace concentrations of HCHO as part of the Alpha Jet Atmospheric eXperiment (AJAX) payload. Developed at NASA GSFC, COFFEE is a small, low maintenance instrument with a sensitivity of 100 pptv and a quick response time (1 sec). The COFFEE instrument has been customized to fit in an external wing pod on the Alpha Jet aircraft based at NASA ARC. The instrument can operate over a broad range of altitudes, from boundary layer to lower stratosphere, making it well suited for the Alpha Jet, which can access altitudes from the surface up to 40,000 ft. Results of the first COFFEE science flights preformed over the California's Central Valley will be presented. Boundary layer measurements and vertical profiles in the tropospheric column will both be included. This region is of particular interest, due to its elevated levels of HCHO, revealed in satellite images, as well as its high ozone concentrations. In addition to HCHO, the AJAX payload includes measurements of atmospheric ozone, methane, and carbon dioxide. Formaldehyde is one of the few urban pollutants that can be measured from space. Plans to compare in-situ COFFEE data with satellite-based HCHO observations such as those from OMI (Aura) and OMPS (SuomiNPP) will also be presented.

  5. Cavity Attenuated Phase Shift (CAPS) Method for Airborne Aerosol Light Extinction Measurement: Instrument Validation and First Results from Field Deployment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petzold, A.; Perim de Faria, J.; Berg, M.; Bundke, U.; Freedman, A.

    2015-12-01

    Monitoring the direct impact of aerosol particles on climate requires the continuous measurement of aerosol optical parameters like the aerosol extinction coefficient on a regular basis. Remote sensing and ground-based networks are well in place (e.g., AERONET, ACTRIS), whereas the regular in situ measurement of vertical profiles of atmospheric aerosol optical properties remains still an important challenge in quantifying climate change. The European Research Infrastructure IAGOS (In-service Aircraft for a Global Observing System; www.iagos.org) responds to the increasing requests for long-term, routine in situ observational data by using commercial passenger aircraft as measurement platform. However, scientific instrumentation for the measurement of atmospheric constituents requires major modifications before being deployable aboard in-service passenger aircraft. Recently, a compact and robust family of optical instruments based on the cavity attenuated phase shift (CAPS) technique has become available for measuring aerosol light extinction. While this technique was successfully deployed for ground-based atmospheric measurements under various conditions, its suitability for operation aboard aircraft in the free and upper free troposphere still has to be demonstrated. In this work, the modifications of a CAPS PMex instrument for measuring aerosol light extinction on aircraft, the results from subsequent laboratory tests for evaluating the modified instrument prototype, and first results from a field deployment aboard a research aircraft will be covered. In laboratory studies, the instrument showed excellent agreement (deviation < 5%) with theoretical values calculated from Rayleigh scattering cross-sections, when operated on pressurized air and CO2 at ambient and low pressure (~200 hPa). For monodisperse and polydisperse aerosols, reference aerosol extinction coefficients were calculated from measured size distributions and agreed with the CAPS PMex instrument

  6. Equilibrium evolution in oscillating-field current-drive experiments

    SciTech Connect

    McCollam, K. J.; Anderson, J. K.; Blair, A. P.; Craig, D.; Den Hartog, D. J.; Ebrahimi, F.; O'Connell, R.; Reusch, J. A.; Sarff, J. S.; Stephens, H. D.; Stone, D. R.; Brower, D. L.; Deng, B. H.; Ding, W. X.

    2010-08-15

    Oscillating-field current drive (OFCD) is a proposed method of steady-state toroidal plasma sustainment in which ac poloidal and toroidal loop voltages are applied to produce a dc plasma current. OFCD is added to standard, inductively sustained reversed-field pinch plasmas in the Madison Symmetric Torus [R. N. Dexter et al., Fusion Technol. 19, 131 (1991)]. Equilibrium profiles and fluctuations during a single cycle are measured and analyzed for different relative phases between the two OFCD voltages and for OFCD off. For OFCD phases leading to the most added plasma current, the measured energy confinement is slightly better than that for OFCD off. By contrast, the phase of the maximum OFCD helicity-injection rate also has the maximum decay rate, which is ascribed to transport losses during discrete magnetic-fluctuation events induced by OFCD. Resistive-magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the experiments reproduce the observed phase dependence of the added current.

  7. Large scale meteorological influence during the Geysers 1979 field experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Barr, S.

    1980-01-01

    A series of meteorological field measurements conducted during July 1979 near Cobb Mountain in Northern California reveals evidence of several scales of atmospheric circulation consistent with the climatic pattern of the area. The scales of influence are reflected in the structure of wind and temperature in vertically stratified layers at a given observation site. Large scale synoptic gradient flow dominates the wind field above about twice the height of the topographic ridge. Below that there is a mixture of effects with evidence of a diurnal sea breeze influence and a sublayer of katabatic winds. The July observations demonstrate that weak migratory circulations in the large scale synoptic meteorological pattern have a significant influence on the day-to-day gradient winds and must be accounted for in planning meteorological programs including tracer experiments.

  8. Equilibrium evolution in oscillating-field current-drive experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCollam, K. J.; Anderson, J. K.; Blair, A. P.; Craig, D.; Den Hartog, D. J.; Ebrahimi, F.; O'Connell, R.; Reusch, J. A.; Sarff, J. S.; Stephens, H. D.; Stone, D. R.; Brower, D. L.; Deng, B. H.; Ding, W. X.

    2010-08-01

    Oscillating-field current drive (OFCD) is a proposed method of steady-state toroidal plasma sustainment in which ac poloidal and toroidal loop voltages are applied to produce a dc plasma current. OFCD is added to standard, inductively sustained reversed-field pinch plasmas in the Madison Symmetric Torus [R. N. Dexter et al., Fusion Technol. 19, 131 (1991)]. Equilibrium profiles and fluctuations during a single cycle are measured and analyzed for different relative phases between the two OFCD voltages and for OFCD off. For OFCD phases leading to the most added plasma current, the measured energy confinement is slightly better than that for OFCD off. By contrast, the phase of the maximum OFCD helicity-injection rate also has the maximum decay rate, which is ascribed to transport losses during discrete magnetic-fluctuation events induced by OFCD. Resistive-magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the experiments reproduce the observed phase dependence of the added current.

  9. SRNL RADIONUCLIDE FIELD LYSIMETER EXPERIMENT: BASELINE CONSTRUCTION AND IMPLEMENTATION

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, K.; Kaplan, D.; Bagwell, L.; Powell, B.; Almond, P.; Emerson, H.; Hixon, A.; Jablonski, J.; Buchanan, C.; Waterhouse, T.

    2012-10-17

    The purpose of this document is to compile information regarding experimental design, facility design, construction, radionuclide source preparation, and path forward for the ten year Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Radionuclide Field Lysimeter Experiment at the Savannah River Site (SRS). This is a collaborative effort by researchers at SRNL and Clemson University. The scientific objectives of this study are to: Study long-term radionuclide transport under conditions more representative of vadose zone conditions than laboratory experiments; Provide more realistic quantification of radionuclide transport and geochemistry in the vadose zone, providing better information pertinent to radioactive waste storage solutions than presently exists; Reduce uncertainty and improve justification for geochemical models such as those used in performance assessments and composite analyses.

  10. Experiments of cylindrical isentropic compression by ultrahigh magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Zhuowei; Zhou, Zhongyu; Zhang, Chunbo; Tang, Xiaosong; Tong, Yanjin; Zhao, Jianheng; Sun, Chengwei

    2015-09-01

    The high Explosive Magnetic Flux Implosion Compression Generator (EMFICG) is a kind of unique high energy density dynamic technique with characters like ultrahigh pressure and low temperature rising and could be suitable as a tool of cylindrical isentropic compression. The Institute of Fluid Physics, Chinese Academy of Engineering Physics (IFP, CAEP) have developed EMFICG technique and realized cylindrical isentropic compression. In the experiments, a seed magnetic field of 5-6 Tesla were built first and compressed by a stainless steel liner which is driven by high explosive. The inner free surface velocity of sample was measured by PDV. The isentropic compression of a copper sample was verified and the isentropic pressure is over 100 GPa. The cylindrical isentropic compression process has been numerical simulated by 1D MHD code and the simulation results were compared with the experiments. Compared with the transitional X-ray flash radiograph measurement, this method will probably promote the data accuracy.

  11. EFEDA - European field experiment in a desertification-threatened area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolle, H.-J.; Andre, J.-C.; Arrue, J. L.; Barth, H. K.; Bessemoulin, P.; Brasa, A.; De Bruin, H. A. R.; Cruces, J.; Dugdale, G.; Engman, E. T.

    1993-01-01

    During June 1991 more than 30 scientific teams worked in Castilla-La Mancha, Spain, studying the energy and water transfer processes between soil, vegetation, and the atmosphere in semiarid conditions within the coordinated European research project EFEDA (European Field Experiment in Desertification-threatened Areas). Measurements were made from the microscale (e.g., measurements on single plants) up to a scale compatible with the grid size of global models. For this purpose three sites were selected 70 km apart and heavily instrumented at a scale in the order of 30 sq km. Aircraft missions, satellite data, and movable equipment were deployed to provide a bridge to the larger scale. This paper gives a description of the experimental design along with some of the preliminary results of this successful experiment.

  12. ASCOT 91 field experiment : PNL airsonde data summary.

    SciTech Connect

    JM Hubbe and KJ Allwine

    1991-07-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) participated in the Winter 1991 Atmospheric Studies in Complex Terrain (ASCOT) field experiment conducted in the vicinity of the Rocky Flats Plant between Boulder and Denver, Colorado. This report contains a summary of operations and data associated with free-release-ball oon-borne atmospheric soundings made by PNL between January 29 and February 8, 1991. Given here are descriptions of the site and instrumentation, a brief summary of the soundings, and a description of the data post processing. The appendices contain a detailed summary of all soundings and ASCOT plots of completed soundings.

  13. Does canvassing increase voter turnout? A field experiment.

    PubMed

    Gerber, A S; Green, D P

    1999-09-14

    This paper reports the results of a randomized field experiment involving registered voters in the city of New Haven. Nonpartisan get-out-the-vote messages were delivered through personal canvassing shortly before the November 1998 election. We find that personal canvassing increased voter turnout by approximately 6. The effect of personal contact seems to be slightly smaller for voters registered with a major political party and higher for unaffiliated voters, although the hypothesis that all voters are equally affected could not be rejected. Study of several alternative political messages provided equivocal evidence suggesting the superiority of a canvassing appeal that emphasizes the closeness of the election. PMID:10485930

  14. Radio frequency wave experiments on the MST reversed field pinch

    SciTech Connect

    Forest, C.B.; Chattopadhyay, P.K.; Nornberg, M.D.; Prager, S.C.; Thomas, M.A.; Uchimoto, E.; Smirnov, A.P.; Harvey, R.W.; Ram, A.K.

    1999-04-01

    Experiments, simulations, and theory all indicate that the magnetic fluctuations responsible for the poor confinement in the reversed field pinch (RFP) can be controlled by altering the radial profile of the current density. The magnetic fluctuations in the RFP are due to resistive MHD instabilities caused by current profile peaking; thus confinement in the RFP is ultimately the result of a misalignment between inductively driven current profiles and the stable current profiles characteristic of the Taylor state. If a technique such as rf current drive can be developed to non-inductively sustain a Taylor state (a current profile linearly stable to all tearing modes), the confinement of the RFP and its potential as a reactor concept are likely to increase. Whether there is a self-consistent path from poor confinement to greatly improved confinement through current profile modification is an issue for future experiments to address if and only if near term experiments can demonstrate: (1) coupling to and the propagation of rf waves in RFP plasmas, (2) efficient current drive, and (3) control of the power deposition which will make it possible to control the current profile. In this paper, modeling results and experimental plans are presented for two rf experiments which have the potential of satisfying these three goals: high-n{sub {parallel}} lower hybrid (LH) waves and electron Bernstein waves (EBWs).

  15. The South Carolina Coastal Erosion Study: Nearshore Hydrodynamics Field Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haas, K. A.; Voulgaris, G.; Demir, H.; Work, P. A.; Hanes, D. M.

    2004-12-01

    As part of the South Carolina Coastal Erosion Study (SCCES) a nearshore field experiment was carried out for five days in December 2003 just north of Myrtle Beach, South Carolina, providing measurements of the waves, currents and morphological evolution. This experiment occurred concurrently with an extensive field campaign several kilometers offshore which included measurements of the waves and currents on and near a significant sand shoal. The purpose of the nearshore experiment was to aid in the identification of the effect of the offshore shoal on the nearshore processes. The resulting dataset will be used for verification of numerical models being used to investigate the hydrodynamics of the region. The experiment was carried out from December 10 to December 15 and consisted of measurements of the waves and currents, extensive surveys of the bathymetry every day, grab samples of the sediments, and video imagery. The hydrodynamics were measured using two Sontek Triton downward-looking Acoustic Doppler Velocimeters and two Nortek AquaDopp profilers arranged in a cross-shore line from inside the swash to several surf zone widths past the breakers. The bathymetric surveying was accomplished using both a differential GPS system and a total station. Surveying was performed each day in order to capture the morphological changes. On the last day, seven sediment samples were taken along a single cross-section to determine the sediment characteristics across the beach. Additionally, a video camera was located on a balcony of the top floor of a nearby hotel providing an excellent field of view of the entire experimental area. Digital video was captured directly onto a computer during all daylight hours and many control points were surveyed in each day to facilitate rectification of the imagery. A variety of conditions were encountered during the experiment, including two storm fronts which passed through, generating wind speeds up to 15 m/s. The first storm generated

  16. Airborne measurements of black carbon aerosol over the Southeastern U.S. during the Southeast Atmosphere Study (SAS) experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markovic, M. Z.; Perring, A. E.; Schwarz, J. P.; Fahey, D. W.; Gao, R.; Watts, L.; Holloway, J.; Graus, M.; Warneke, C.; De Gouw, J. A.; Veres, P. R.; Roberts, J. M.; Middlebrook, A. M.; Welti, A.; Liao, J.

    2013-12-01

    The Southeast Atmosphere Study (SAS) field campaign was a large-scale, collaborative project, which took place in the Southeastern U.S. in June and July of 2013. The goal of the campaign was to investigate the impacts of biogenic and anthropogenic gases and aerosols on the formation of haze and anomalous climate cooling in the region. During SAS, a NOAA Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2) instrument was utilized onboard NOAA WP-3D research aircraft for measurements of black carbon (BC) aerosol mass and microphysical properties. BC aerosol is emitted into the atmosphere from biomass burning (BB) and incomplete combustion of fossil and biofuel. Hence, BC sources are strongly linked to anthropogenic activity. BC aerosol is currently the second largest anthropogenic climate forcing agent after CO2(g), and its climate impacts, which depend on vertical burden and internal mixing, are not fully understood. In the Southeast, BC aerosol is expected to provide surface area for the condensation of semi-volatile products of VOC oxidation and subsequent formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). Hence, BC is expected to impact the haze formation and regional climate. In this work we present an overview of BC measurements during Southeast Nexus (SENEX) study, the NOAA contribution to SAS. Geographical variations in mass mixing ratios, mass size distributions, and mixing state of BC over the Southeast U.S. are discussed. Relationships of BC with carbon monoxide (CO), acetonitrile (ACN) and other trace gases are used to investigate the impacts of urban, BB, natural gas development, and power plant emissions on the distribution and properties of BC aerosol in the region. Among studied urban centers, St. Louis and Atlanta were determined to be the largest source regions of BC. A clear weekend effect in BC mass mixing ratios and microphysical properties was observed in the metropolitan Atlanta region. Compared to BB and urban centers, power plants and natural gas developments

  17. Signal processing for airborne doppler radar detection of hazardous wind shear as applied to NASA 1991 radar flight experiment data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baxa, Ernest G., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Radar data collected during the 1991 NASA flight tests have been selectively analyzed to support research directed at developing both improved as well as new algorithms for detecting hazardous low-altitude windshear. Analysis of aircraft attitude data from several flights indicated that platform stability bandwidths were small compared to the data rate bandwidths which should support an assumption that radar returns can be treated as short time stationary. Various approaches at detection of weather returns in the presence of ground clutter are being investigated. Non-coventional clutter rejection through spectrum mode tracking and classification algorithms is a subject of continuing research. Based upon autoregressive modeling of the radar return time sequence, this approach may offer an alternative to overcome errors in conventional pulse-pair estimates. Adaptive filtering is being evaluated as a means of rejecting clutter with emphasis on low signal-to-clutter ratio situations, particularly in the presence of discrete clutter interference. An analysis of out-of-range clutter returns is included to illustrate effects of ground clutter interference due to range aliasing for aircraft on final approach. Data are presented to indicate how aircraft groundspeed might be corrected from the radar data as well as point to an observed problem of groundspeed estimate bias variation with radar antenna scan angle. A description of how recorded clutter return data are mixed with simulated weather returns is included. This enables the researcher to run controlled experiments to test signal processing algorithms. In the summary research efforts involving improved modelling of radar ground clutter returns and a Bayesian approach at hazard factor estimation are mentioned.

  18. Assurance of MOZAIC/IAGOS relative humidity data quality by evaluating the Capacitive Hygrometer during airborne field studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neis, Patrick; Smit, Herman G. J.; Rohs, Susanne; Rolf, Christian; Krämer, Martina; Ebert, Volker; Buchholz, Bernhard; Bundke, Ulrich; Finger, Fanny; Klingebiel, Marcus; Petzold, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    Water vapour is a major parameter in weather prediction and climate research but the interaction between the water vapour in the upper troposphere and lowermost stratosphere (UT/LS) and tropopause dynamics are not well understood. A continuous measurement of upper tropospheric humidity (UTH) is difficult because the abundance of UTH is highly variable on spatial and temporal scales that cannot be resolved, neither by the global radiosondes network nor by satellites. Since 1994, data with high spatial and temporal resolution for relative humidity are provided by the in-situ measurements aboard civil passenger aircraft from the MOZAIC/IAGOS-programme (www.iagos.org). The data set emerging from this long-term observation effort builds the backbone of the ongoing in-situ UTH climatology and trend analyses. In order to assess the validity of the long-term water vapour data and its limitations, an analysis of the humidity data sets of two field campaigns is presented. The validation of applied measurement methods, i.e. the MOZAIC/IAGOS Capacitive Hygrometer, is valued on the basis of the aircraft campaigns CIRRUS-III (2006) and AIRTOSS-ICE (2013), where research-grade water vapour instruments were operated simultaneously to the MOZAIC/IAGOS Capacitive Hygrometers. The performance of the MOZAIC Capacitive Hygrometer (MCH; operated from 1994 to 2014 on MOZAIC aircraft) and the advanced IAGOS Capacitive Hygrometer (ICH; operated since 2011 on IAGOS aircraft) are explored in clear sky, in the vicinity of and inside cirrus clouds as a blind intercomparison to the research-grade water vapour instruments. From these intercomparisons the qualification of the Capacitive Hygrometer for the use in long-term observation programmes is successfully demonstrated and the continuation of high data quality is confirmed for the transition from MCH to ICH. In particular the Capacitive Hygrometer response time to changes in relative humidity could be determined for the full range of

  19. Within-field and regional-scale accuracies of topsoil organic carbon content prediction from an airborne visible near-infrared hyperspectral image combined with synchronous field spectra for temperate croplands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaudour, Emmanuelle; Gilliot, Jean-Marc; Bel, Liliane; Lefevre, Josias; Chehdi, Kacem

    2016-04-01

    This study was carried out in the framework of the TOSCA-PLEIADES-CO of the French Space Agency and benefited data from the earlier PROSTOCK-Gessol3 project supported by the French Environment and Energy Management Agency (ADEME). It aimed at identifying the potential of airborne hyperspectral visible near-infrared AISA-Eagle data for predicting the topsoil organic carbon (SOC) content of bare cultivated soils over a large peri-urban area (221 km2) with intensive annual crop cultivation and both contrasted soils and SOC contents, located in the western region of Paris, France. Soils comprise hortic or glossic luvisols, calcaric, rendzic cambisols and colluvic cambisols. Airborne AISA-Eagle images (400-1000 nm, 126 bands) with 1 m-resolution were acquired on 17 April 2013 over 13 tracks. Tracks were atmospherically corrected then mosaicked at a 2 m-resolution using a set of 24 synchronous field spectra of bare soils, black and white targets and impervious surfaces. The land use identification system layer (RPG) of 2012 was used to mask non-agricultural areas, then calculation and thresholding of NDVI from an atmospherically corrected SPOT4 image acquired the same day enabled to map agricultural fields with bare soil. A total of 101 sites, which were sampled either at the regional scale or within one field, were identified as bare by means of this map. Predictions were made from the mosaic AISA spectra which were related to SOC contents by means of partial least squares regression (PLSR). Regression robustness was evaluated through a series of 1000 bootstrap data sets of calibration-validation samples, considering those 75 sites outside cloud shadows only, and different sampling strategies for selecting calibration samples. Validation root-mean-square errors (RMSE) were comprised between 3.73 and 4.49 g. Kg-1 and were ~4 g. Kg-1 in median. The most performing models in terms of coefficient of determination (R²) and Residual Prediction Deviation (RPD) values were the

  20. Joint Variability of Airborne Passive Microwave and Ground-based Radar Observations Obtained in the TRMM Kwajalein Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuter, S. E.; Kingsmill, D. E.

    2007-12-01

    The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Kwajalein Experiment (KWAJEX) held July-September 1999 in the west Pacific was designed to obtain an empirical physical characterization of precipitating convective clouds over the tropical ocean. The majority of the precipitation was from mixed-phase clouds. Coordinated data sets were obtained from aircraft and ground-based sensors including passive microwave measurements by the Advanced Microwave Precipitation Radiometer (AMPR) instrument on the NASA DC-8 aircraft and S-band volumetric radar data by the KPOL radar. The AMPR and KPOL data sets were processed to yield a set of 25,049 matching observations at ~ 2 km x 2 km horizontal spatial resolution and within 6 min. The TRMM satellite Microwave Imager (TMI) has a similar set of channels to AMPR but coarser spatial resolution (19 GHz: 35 km, 85 GHz: 7.7 km). During KWAJEX, the 0 deg C level height was nearly constant at ~ 4800 m. Hence, two potential sources of uncertainty in relating passive microwave brightness temperatures (Tbs) to surface precipitation, inhomogeneous beam filling and variations in depth of the rain layer are much smaller sources of error in the KWAJEX data set than for TMI. TRMM was originally designed to yield monthly rainfall estimates over 5 deg x 5 deg grid boxes. The use of these data to yield instantaneous rainrate products at smaller spatial scales is more sensitive to the detailed characteristics of the joint distributions of passive microwave Tbs versus rain rate. KWAJEX data sets reveal poor correlations, very wide scatter, and weak modes in these distributions. The spread of emission Tb values for a given rain-layer reflectivity (e.g., 75 K at 30 dBZ for 19 GHz) is similar or larger within convective compared to stratiform precipitation regions. This result implies that the enhancement in emission Tbs associated with partially melted ice particles can occur whether the particles are concentrated within a thin layer in stratiform

  1. Electromagnetic induction tomography field experiment at Lost Hills, CA

    SciTech Connect

    Buettner, H. M.; Berryman, J. G.

    1998-11-03

    We have collected borehole to surface electromagnetic induction field data for a shallow steam injection that is underway at Mobil Oil' s Lost Hills-3 field in San Joaquin Valley. Earlier work had been done at the same site by Wilt et al. (1996). This site is an interesting test for techniques under development for environmental engineering, because it can be viewed as an excellent analog of a shallow environmental remediation using steam injection. Surface magnetic field data (vertical and radial fields, magnitude and phase) were collected using 18 receiver stations along two profiles which ran radially from the EM transmitter well from 5 m to 120 m. The data at each surface station were collected while the EM transmitter was raised slowly from a depth of 120 m to a final depth of 20 m. As part of this experiment, a calibration of the EM transmitter was also performed. Magnetic field data from Lost Hills were successfully collected, including both vertical and horizontal (surface radial) magnitude and phase data along a northerly profile and along a westerly profile. We have observed that the radial receiver data appear to be better behaved than the vertical receiver data, suggesting that these data may be less sensitive to environmental clutter (numerous metallic pipes crisscrossing the site at the surface) than are the vertical data. Some simple 1-D modeling has been done to confirm that the expected conductivity change in the steam zone should produce an observable anomaly in the measured data when comparing the pre-steam to the post-steam conditions. Results of this test were positive. Further analyses of these data making use of a new code developed in a companion paper are in progress and will presented separately.

  2. Identifying Discrimination at Work: The Use of Field Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Pager, Devah; Western, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Antidiscrimination law offers protection to workers who have been treated unfairly on the basis of their race, gender, religion, or national origin. In order for these protections to be invoked, however, potential plaintiffs must be aware of and able to document discriminatory treatment. Given the subtlety of contemporary forms of discrimination, it is often difficult to identify discrimination when it has taken place. The methodology of field experiments offers one approach to measuring and detecting hiring discrimination, providing direct observation of discrimination in real-world settings. In this article, we discuss the findings of two recent field experiments measuring racial discrimination in low wage labor markets. This research provides several relevant findings for researchers and those interested in civil rights enforcement: (1) it produces estimates of the rate of discrimination at the point of hire; (2) it yields evidence about the interactions associated with discrimination (many of which reveal the subtlety with which contemporary discrimination is practiced); and (3) it provides a vehicle for both research on and enforcement of antidiscrimination law. PMID:24163481

  3. Assessing Aerosol Mixed Layer Heights from the NASA Larc Airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) during the Discover-AQ Field Campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarino, A. J.; Ferrare, R. A.; Burton, S. P.; Hostetler, C. A.; Hair, J. W.; Rogers, R. R.; Berkoff, T.; Sawamura, P.; Collins, J. E., Jr.; Seaman, S. T.; Cook, A. L.; Harper, D. B.; Follette-Cook, M. B.; daSilva, A.; Randles, C. A.

    2014-12-01

    The first- and second-generation NASA airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidars (HSRL-1 and HSRL-2) have been deployed on board the NASA Langley Research Center King Air aircraft during the Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from Column and VERtically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality (DISCOVER-AQ) field campaigns. These included deployments during July 2011 over Washington, D.C. and Baltimore, MD, during January and February 2013 over the San Joaquin Valley of California, during September 2013 over Houston, TX and during July and August 2014 over Denver, CO. Measurements of aerosol extinction, backscatter, and depolarization are available from both HSRL-1 and HSRL-2 in coordination with other participating research aircraft and ground sites. These measurements constitute a diverse data set for use in characterizing the spatial and temporal distribution of aerosols, aerosol optical thickness (AOT), as well as the mixed layer (ML) height. Analysis of the ML height at these four locations is presented, including temporal and horizontal variability and comparisons between land and water, including the Chesapeake Bay and Galveston Bay. Using the ML heights, the distribution of AOT relative to the ML heights is determined, which is relevant for assessing the long-range transport of aerosols. The ML heights are also used to help relate column AOT measurements and extinction profiles to surface PM2.5 concentrations. The HSRL ML heights are also used to evaluate the performance in simulating the temporal and spatial variability of ML heights from both chemical regional models and global forecast models.

  4. Automated decision algorithm applied to a field experiment with multiple research objectives: The DC3 campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanlon, Christopher J.; Small, Arthur A.; Bose, Satyajit; Young, George S.; Verlinde, Johannes

    2014-10-01

    Automated decision systems have shown the potential to increase data yields from field experiments in atmospheric science. The present paper describes the construction and performance of a flight decision system designed for a case in which investigators pursued multiple, potentially competing objectives. The Deep Convective Clouds and Chemistry (DC3) campaign in 2012 sought in situ airborne measurements of isolated deep convection in three study regions: northeast Colorado, north Alabama, and a larger region extending from central Oklahoma through northwest Texas. As they confronted daily flight launch decisions, campaign investigators sought to achieve two mission objectives that stood in potential tension to each other: to maximize the total amount of data collected while also collecting approximately equal amounts of data from each of the three study regions. Creating an automated decision system involved understanding how investigators would themselves negotiate the trade-offs between these potentially competing goals, and representing those preferences formally using a utility function that served to rank-order the perceived value of alternative data portfolios. The decision system incorporated a custom-built method for generating probabilistic forecasts of isolated deep convection and estimated climatologies calibrated to historical observations. Monte Carlo simulations of alternative future conditions were used to generate flight decision recommendations dynamically consistent with the expected future progress of the campaign. Results show that a strict adherence to the recommendations generated by the automated system would have boosted the data yield of the campaign by between 10 and 57%, depending on the metrics used to score success, while improving portfolio balance.

  5. [Runoff Pollution Experiments of Paddy Fields Under Different Irrigation Patterns].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jing-wen; Su, Bao-lin; Huang, Ning-bo; Guan, Yu-tang; Zhao, Kun

    2016-03-15

    To study runoff and non-point source pollution of paddy fields and to provide a scientific basis for agricultural water management of paddy fields, paddy plots in the Jintan City and the Liyang City were chosen for experiments on non-point source pollution, and flood irrigation and intermittent irrigation patterns were adopted in this research. The surface water level and rainfall were observed during the growing season of paddies, and the runoff amount from paddy plots and loads of total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) were calculated by different methods. The results showed that only five rain events of totally 27 rainfalls and one artificially drainage formed non-point source pollution from flood irrigated paddy plot, which resulted in a TN export coefficient of 49.4 kg · hm⁻² and a TP export coefficient of 1.0 kg · hm⁻². No any runoff event occurred from the paddy plot with intermittent irrigation even in the case of maximum rainfall of 95.1 mm. Runoff from paddy fields was affected by water demands of paddies and irrigation or drainage management, which was directly correlated to surface water level, rainfall amount and the lowest ridge height of outlets. Compared with the flood irrigation, intermittent irrigation could significantly reduce non-point source pollution caused by rainfall or artificial drainage. PMID:27337888

  6. Data management for interdisciplinary field experiments: OTTER project support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angelici, Gary; Popovici, Lidia; Skiles, J. W.

    1993-01-01

    The ability of investigators of an interdisciplinary science project to properly manage the data that are collected during the experiment is critical to the effective conduct of science. When the project becomes large, possibly including several scenes of large-format remotely sensed imagery shared by many investigators requiring several services, the data management effort can involve extensive staff and computerized data inventories. The OTTER (Oregon Transect Ecosystem Research) project was supported by the PLDS (Pilot Land Data System) with several data management services, such as data inventory, certification, and publication. After a brief description of these services, experiences in providing them are compared with earlier data management efforts and some conclusions regarding data management in support of interdisciplinary science are discussed. In addition to providing these services, a major goal of this data management capability was to adopt characteristics of a pro-active attitude, such as flexibility and responsiveness, believed to be crucial for the effective conduct of active, interdisciplinary science. These are also itemized and compared with previous data management support activities. Identifying and improving these services and characteristics can lead to the design and implementation of optimal data management support capabilities, which can result in higher quality science and data products from future interdisciplinary field experiments.

  7. Field experiments using SPEAR: a speech control system for UGVs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chhatpar, Siddharth R.; Blanco, Chris; Czerniak, Jeffrey; Hoffman, Orin; Juneja, Amit; Pruthi, Tarun; Liu, Dongqing; Karlsen, Robert; Brown, Jonathan

    2009-05-01

    This paper reports on a Field Experiment carried out by the Human Research and Engineering Directorate at Ft. Benning to evaluate the efficacy of using speech to control an Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV) concurrently with a handcontroller. The SPEAR system, developed by Think-A-Move, provides speech-control of UGVs. The system picks up user-speech in the ear canal with an in-ear microphone. This property allows it to work efficiently in high-noise environments, where traditional speech systems, employing external microphones, fail. It has been integrated with an iRobot PackBot 510 with EOD kit. The integrated system allows the hand-controller to be supplemented with speech for concurrent control. At Ft. Benning, the integrated system was tested by soldiers from the Officer Candidate School. The Experiment had dual focus: 1) Quantitative measurement of the time taken to complete each station and the cognitive load on users; 2) Qualitative evaluation of ease-of-use and ergonomics through soldier-feedback. Also of significant benefit to Think-A-Move was soldier-feedback on the speech-command vocabulary employed: What spoken commands are intuitive, and how the commands should be executed, e.g., limited-motion vs. unlimited-motion commands. Overall results from the Experiment are reported in the paper.

  8. The Value of Field Experience in Education for Health Care Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiller, Marc D.

    A sample of 54 health administration education programs were examined to identify and analyze current practices in field experience programs. The six primary areas investigated include: (1) the prevalence of field experience requirements; (2) the objectives and characteristics of field experience components; (3) the experiences encountered in…

  9. Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition 2: An Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, James G.; Toon, Owen B.

    1993-01-01

    The sudden onset of ozone depletion in the antarctic vortex set a precedent for both the time scale and the severity of global change. The Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment (AAOE), staged from Punta Arenas, Chile, in 1987, established that CFCs, halons, and methyl bromide, the dominant sources of chlorine and bromine radicals in the stratosphere, control the rate of ozone destruction over the Antarctic; that the vortex is depleted in reactive nitrogen and water vapor; and that diabatic cooling during the antarctic winter leads to subsidence within the vortex core, importing air from higher altitudes and lower latitudes. This last conclusion is based on observed dramatic distortion in the tracer fields, most notably N2O. In 1989, the first Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition (AASE-I), staged from Stavanger, Norway, and using the same aircraft employed for AAOE (the NASA ER-2 and the NASA DC-8), discovered that while NO(x) and to some degree NO(y) were perturbed within the arctic vortex, there was little evidence for desiccation. Under these (in contrast to the antarctic) marginally perturbed conditions, however, Cl0 was found to be dramatically enhanced such that a large fraction of the available (inorganic) chlorine resided in the form of Cl0 and its dimer ClOOCl. This leaves two abiding issues for the northern hemisphere and the mission of the second Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition (AASE-II): (1) Will significant ozone erosion occur within the arctic vortex in the next ten years as chlorine loading in the stratosphere exceeds four parts per billion by volume? and (2) Which mechanisms are responsible for the observed ozone erosion poleward of 30 deg N in the winter/spring northern hemisphere reported in satellite observations?

  10. Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition 2: An overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, James G.; Toon, Owen B.

    1993-01-01

    The sudden onset of ozone depletion in the antarctic vortex set a precedent for both the time scale and the severity of global change. The Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment (AAOE), stages from Punta Arenas, Chile, in 1987, established that CFCs, halons, and methyl bromide, the dominant sources of chlorine and bromide radicals in the stratosphere, control the rate of ozone destruction over the Antarctic; that the vortex is depleted in reactive nitrogen and water vapor; and that diabatic cooling during the antarctic winter leads to subsidence within the vortex core, importing air from higher altitudes and lower latitudes. This last conclusion is based on observed dramatic distortion in the tracer fields, most notably N2O. In 1989, the first Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition (AASE-1), staged from Stavanger, Norway, and using the same aircraft employed for AAOE (the NASA ER-2 and the NASA DC-8), discovered that while NO(x) and to some degree NO(y) were perturbed within the arctic vortex, there was little evidence for desiccation. Under these (in contrast to the antarctic) marginally perturbed conditions, however, ClO was found to be dramatically enhanced such that a large fraction of the available (inorganic) chlorine resided in the form of ClO and its dimer ClOOCl. This leaves two abiding issues for the northern hemisphere and the mission of the second Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition (AASE-2): (1) Will significant ozone erosion occur within the arctic vortex in the next ten years as chlorine loading in the stratosphere exceeds four parts per billion by volume? (2) Which mechanisms are responsible for the observed ozone erosion poleward of 30 deg N in the winter/spring northern hemisphere reported in satellite observations?

  11. Tomographic retrieval of cloud liquid water fields from a single scanning microwave radiometer aboard a moving platform – Part 1: Field trial results from the Wakasa Bay experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, D.; Gasiewski, A.; Wiscombe, W.

    2010-07-22

    Tomographic methods offer great potential for retrieving three-dimensional spatial distributions of cloud liquid water from radiometric observations by passive microwave sensors. Fixed tomographic systems require multiple radiometers, while mobile systems can use just a single radiometer. Part 1 (this paper) examines the results from a limited cloud tomography trial with a single-radiometer airborne system carried out as part of the 2003 AMSR-E validation campaign over Wakasa Bay of the Sea of Japan. During this trial, the Polarimetric Scanning Radiometer (PSR) and Microwave Imaging Radiometer (MIR) aboard the NASA P-3 research aircraft provided a useful dataset for testing the cloud tomography method over a system of low-level clouds. We do tomographic retrievals with a constrained inversion algorithm using three configurations: PSR, MIR, and combined PSR and MIR data. The liquid water paths from the PSR retrieval are consistent with those from the MIR retrieval. The retrieved cloud field based on the combined data appears to be physically plausible and consistent with the cloud image obtained by a cloud radar. We find that some vertically-uniform clouds appear at high altitudes in the retrieved field where the radar shows clear sky. This is likely due to the sub-optimal data collection strategy. This sets the stage for Part 2 of this study that aims to define optimal data collection strategies using observation system simulation experiments.

  12. Electric Field Double Probe Measurements for Ionospheric Space Plasma Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfaff, R.

    1999-01-01

    Double probes represent a well-proven technique for gathering high quality DC and AC electric field measurements in a variety of space plasma regimes including the magnetosphere, ionosphere, and mesosphere. Such experiments have been successfully flown on a variety of spacecraft including sounding rockets and satellites. Typical instrument designs involve a series of trades, depending on the science objectives, type of platform (e.g., spinning or 3-axis stabilized), expected plasma regime where the measurements will be made, available telemetry, budget, etc. In general, ionospheric DC electric field instruments that achieve accuracies of 0.1 mV/m or better, place spherical sensors at large distances (10m or more) from the spacecraft body in order to extend well beyond the spacecraft wake and sheath and to achieve large signal-to-noise ratios for DC and long wavelength measurements. Additional sets of sensors inboard of the primary, outermost sensors provide useful additional information, both for diagnostics of the plasma contact potentials, which particularly enhance the DC electric field measurements on non-spinning spacecraft, and for wavelength and phase velocity measurements that use the spaced receiver or "interferometer" technique. Accurate attitude knowledge enables B times V contributions to be subtracted from the measured potentials, and permits the measured components to be rotated into meaningful geophysical reference frames. We review the measurement technique for both DC and wave electric field measurements in the ionosphere discussing recent advances involving high resolution burst memories, multiple baseline double probes, new sensor surface materials, biasing techniques, and other considerations.

  13. The Beginnings of Airborne Astronomy, 1920 - 1930: an Historical Narrative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craine, E. R.

    1984-01-01

    The emergence of airborne astronomy in the early twentieth century is recounted. The aerial expedition to observe the solar eclipse on September 10, 1923, is described. Observation of the total solar eclipse of January 24, 1925, is discussed. The Honey Lake aerial expedition to study the solar eclipse of April 28, 1930, is also described. Four major accomplishments in airborne astronomy during the period 1920 to 1930 are listed. Airborne expeditions were undertaken at every logical opportunity, starting a continuous sequence of airborne astronomical expeditions which was to remain unbroken, except by World War II, to the present day. Although the scientific returns of the first ten years were modest, they did exist. Interest in, and support for, airborne astronomy was generated not only among astronomers but also among the public. Albert Stevens, arguably the true father of airborne astronomy, was to become interested in applying his considerable skill and experience to the airborne acquisition of astronomical data.

  14. Soil response to chemicals used in a field experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jezierska-Tys, S.; Rutkowska, A.

    2013-03-01

    The effect of chemicals (Reglone 200 SL and Elastiq 550 EC) on soil microorganisms and their enzymatic activity was estimated. The study was conducted in a field experiment which was set up in the split-block design and comprised three treatments. Soil samples were taken six times, twice in each year of study. The results showed that the application of chemicals generally had no negative effect on the number of soil microorganisms. The application of Reglone 200 SL caused an increase of proteolytic and ureolytic activity and affected the activity of dehydrogenases, acid and alkaline phosphatases in the soil. The soil subjected of Elastiq 550 EC was characterized by lower activity of dehydrogenases, protease, urease and alkaline phosphatase.

  15. Prosocial Behavior and Subjective Insecurity in Violent Contexts: Field Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Vélez, María Alejandra; Trujillo, Carlos Andres; Moros, Lina; Forero, Clemente

    2016-01-01

    Subjective insecurity is a key determinant of different forms of prosocial behavior. In Study 1, we used field experiments with farmers in Colombian villages exposed to different levels of violence to investigate how individual perceptions of insecurity affect cooperation, trust, reciprocity and altruism. To do so, we developed a cognitive-affective measure of subjective insecurity. We found that subjective insecurity has a negative effect on cooperation but influences trust and altruism positively. In Study 2, carried out three years after Study 1, we repeated the initial design with additional measures of victimization. Our goal was to relate subjective insecurity with actual victimization. The findings of Study 2 support the initial results, and are robust and consistent for cooperative behavior and trust when including victimization as a mediator. Different indicators of victimization are positively correlated with subjective insecurity and an aggregate index of victimization has a negative effect on cooperation but exerts a positive influence on trust. PMID:27472437

  16. Prosocial Behavior and Subjective Insecurity in Violent Contexts: Field Experiments.

    PubMed

    Vélez, María Alejandra; Trujillo, Carlos Andres; Moros, Lina; Forero, Clemente

    2016-01-01

    Subjective insecurity is a key determinant of different forms of prosocial behavior. In Study 1, we used field experiments with farmers in Colombian villages exposed to different levels of violence to investigate how individual perceptions of insecurity affect cooperation, trust, reciprocity and altruism. To do so, we developed a cognitive-affective measure of subjective insecurity. We found that subjective insecurity has a negative effect on cooperation but influences trust and altruism positively. In Study 2, carried out three years after Study 1, we repeated the initial design with additional measures of victimization. Our goal was to relate subjective insecurity with actual victimization. The findings of Study 2 support the initial results, and are robust and consistent for cooperative behavior and trust when including victimization as a mediator. Different indicators of victimization are positively correlated with subjective insecurity and an aggregate index of victimization has a negative effect on cooperation but exerts a positive influence on trust. PMID:27472437

  17. Impact detection on airborne multilayered structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noharet, Bertrand; Chazelas, Jean; Bonniau, Philippe; Lecuellet, Jerome; Turpin, Marc J.

    1995-04-01

    This paper reviews the progress of an ongoing research program at Thomson-CSF and Bertin & Cie which addresses an optical fiber system dedicated to the assessment of impact induced damages on airborne multilayered structures. The method is based on the use of embedded high birefringence optical fiber sensors and distributed white light interfero-polarimetry. The first part is devoted to the transduction process efficiency within optical fibers depending on the applied force intensity, direction versus the fiber eigen axes and the interaction length. To understand the behavior of these optical fibers and calibrate the detection system, experiments have been conducted on elliptical core fibers, `bow-tie' fibers and side-hole fibers and showed a wide range of available sensitivities. The second step is related to the inclusion of optical fibers in a sandwich structure representative of an airborne dome, and composed of foam between glass/epoxy composite skins. Different designs of grooves in the foam and tube sheathings have been investigated to support and protect the optical fiber. Impacts have been performed on the structure in the 1 to 10 Joules energy range. Experimental impact location and energy measurements have been achieved for a variety of stress fields.

  18. Preliminary Results from the Field Experiment of OPACC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Kun; Xue, Ming

    2015-04-01

    The project for the Observation, Prediction and Analysis of severe Convection of China (OPACC) is a 5-year project funded by the Chinese Ministry of Science and Technology Foundational Research (973) Program from January 2013, and it focuses on studying convective weather systems characteristic of the China region. Field observation is the key component of OPACC, which aims to obtain detailed observations of the internal structures, dynamics and microphysics and their evolution of typical convective systems during summer monsoon period in China, as well as their mesoscale environment. An observational experiment was conducted from June 1 to July 31, 2014 in the Changjiang-Huaihe River basin region that included 11 intensive observing periods (IOPs). During the IOPs, 6-hourly soundings were launched in order to catch the environment of convection. Special research instruments deployed include three C-band polarimetric radars, an S-band polarimetric radar and disdrometers. Observations from the operational networks, including those from rather dense operational S-band Doppler radars in the region, and from automated surface weather stations at up to 1-minute intervals, were collected. In the presentation, a brief summary of the field program will be given. The dynamical and microphysical structures of isolated convection, embedded convection and organized convection observed by polarimetric radars will be presented and compared to other studies of tropical and midlatitude convection.

  19. Magnetic Field Structure in the Madison Dynamo Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmus, A. M.; Clark, M.; Kaplan, E. J.; Nornberg, M. D.; Rahbarnia, K.; Taylor, N. Z.; Forest, C. B.

    2011-10-01

    The Madison Dynamo Experiment(MDE) is expected to spontaneously self-generate a magnetic field in a two vortex flow geometry driven by counter rotating impellers in a 1 m diameter sphere filled with liquid sodium. Prevoiusly an equatorial baffle was installed and has been demonstrated to reduce the largest scale turbulent-eddies. An additonal set of six rotatable baffles have been installed to optimize the helicity of the flow, lowering the critical magnetic Reynolds number. This poster will focus on the spatial structure of the magnetic field associated with the dynamo eigenmodes and the turbulent fluctuations. Singular value decomposition (SVD) and cross correlation analysis between the surface harmonics and internal probes will be used to determine the internal structure associated with each spherical harmonic. Spherical harmonic decomposition is of limited utility when analysing the equatorial array of internal probes as there is a limited angular spread (only one theta value and two phi values), whereas cross correlation and SVD allow the use of time domain data to infer internal modes excited via three-wave couplings. This work is supported by the NSF/DOE partnership in plasma physics.

  20. Frac-and-pack stimulation: Application, design, and field experience

    SciTech Connect

    Roodhart, L.P.; Fokker, P.A.; Davies, D.R.; Shlyapobersky, J.; Wong, G.K.

    1994-03-01

    This paper discusses the criteria for selecting wells to be frac-and-packed. The authors show how systematic study of the inflow performance can be used to assess the potential of frac-and-packed wells, to identify the controlling factors, and to optimize design parameters. They also show that fracture conductivity is often the key to successful treatment. This conductivity depends largely on proppant size; formation permeability damage around the created fracture has less effect. Appropriate allowance needs to be made for flow restrictions caused by the presence of the perforations, partial penetration, and non-Darcy effects. They describe the application of the overpressure-calibrated hydraulic fracture model in frac-and-pack treatment design, and discuss some operational considerations with reference to field examples. The full potential of this promising new completion method can be achieved only if the design is tailored to the individual well. This demands high-quality input data, which can be obtained only from a calibration test. This paper presents their strategy for frac-and-pack design, drawing on examples from field experience. They also point out several areas that the industry needs to address, such as the sizing of proppant in soft formations and the interaction between fracturing fluids and resin in resin-coated proppant.

  1. A field experiment: reducing interpersonal discrimination toward pregnant job applicants.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Whitney Botsford; Walker, Sarah Singletary; Hebl, Michelle Mikki R; King, Eden B

    2013-09-01

    The current research targets 4 potential stereotypes driving hostile attitudes and discriminatory behaviors toward pregnant women: incompetence, lack of commitment, inflexibility, and need for accommodation. We tested the relative efficacy of reducing concerns related to each of the stereotypes in a field experiment in which female confederates who sometimes wore pregnancy prostheses applied for jobs in a retail setting. As expected, ratings from 3 perspectives (applicants, observers, and independent coders) converged to show that pregnant applicants received more interpersonal hostility than did nonpregnant applicants. However, when hiring managers received (vs. did not receive) counterstereotypic information about certain pregnancy-related stereotypes (particularly lack of commitment and inflexibility), managers displayed significantly less interpersonal discrimination. Explicit comparisons of counterstereotypic information shed light on the fact that certain information may be more effective in reducing discrimination than others. We conclude by discussing how the current research makes novel theoretical contributions and describe some practical organizational implications for understanding and improving the experiences of pregnant workers. PMID:23957687

  2. Geothermal well stimulation - program summary and the Beowawe field experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Verity, R.V.

    1983-12-01

    Republic Geothermal, Inc. and its subcontractors have planned and executed laboratory studies and eight well stimulation field experiments under the Geothermal Reservoir Well Stimulation Program (GRWSP). The program, begun in February 1979, has concentrated on extending petroleum industry stimulation technology for use by the geothermal industry. The most recent experiment was in a naturally fractured Chevron well at Beowawe and involved an acid stimulation of a damaged interval which yielded a 2.3-fold increase in injectivity. Overall results to date have shown that stimulation is viable where adequate reservoirs are penetrated by wells encountering formation damage or locally tight formations. However, wells in marginal naturally fractured reservoirs have not been saved by the types of well stimulation jobs performed thus far. A recent discovery is that many wells can possibly be made outstanding producers by widening and propping compliant natural fractures. Confirmation of this constitutes unfinished business of the GRWSP, adn offers one of the greatest potential opportunities for enhancing the economics of geothermal power production.

  3. The field experiments on the HTO washout from the atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Golubev, A.V.; Mavrin, S.V.; Golubeva, V.N.; Stengach, A.V.; Balashov, Y.S.; Kovalenko, V.P.; Solomatin, I.I.

    2015-03-15

    HTO (tritiated water) wash-out from the atmosphere is one of the key processes governing the HTO transport from the atmosphere into soil and plants. Experimental studies of the HTO interaction with water drops were carried out both in laboratories and in the field. In the course of experiments, the following rain characteristics were recorded: rain intensity, size distribution of drops, and falling velocities and their dependence on drop diameter. A laser optical device was designed and used to measure the distribution of the drop radius and velocities during the period of experiment. The tritium source was placed at a height of 30 m. Rainwater samples were collected in plastic bottles and their HTO activity was determined by liquid scintillation techniques. The data obtained for the experimental values of the scavenging rate are within the range from 4.12*10{sup -5} to 1.57*10{sup -4} s{sup -1} and correspond to the precipitation intensity from 0.3 to 1.26 mm/hour. These results are in sufficiently good agreement with the results of earlier papers.

  4. Macroalgal mats and species abundance: a field experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hull, S. C.

    1987-11-01

    A field experiment was carried out whereby the density of macroalgae ( Enteromorpha spp.) was manipulated and the resultant changes in sediment infaunal density were monitored. Four densities of Enteromorpha spp. were used: 0,0·3, 1, and 3 kg FW m -2, corresponding to control, low-, medium-, and high-density plots. The experiment ran from May to October 1985 and was sampled on three occasions. By July, the density of Corophium volutator was reduced at all weed levels when compared to control plots, whereas densities of Hydrobia ulvae, Macoma balthica, Nereis diversicolor, and Capitella capitata, all increased. Samples taken in October when the weed mats were buried in the sediment showed fewer differences than in July. Macoma, Nereis, and Capitella were still significantly more abundant at medium and high weed densities. Corophium showed no significant treatment effect. There was, however, a highly significant difference in population size structure for Corophium. Measurements of sediment redox potential and silt content under medium- and high-density plots revealed rapid anoxia with a significant increase in siltation.

  5. Magnetic Field Experiment on Yinghuo-1 at Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Hua

    Magnetic Field Experiment on Yinghuo-1 at Mars Hua Zhao, G. W. Zhu, J. D. Wang, M. F. Yu, L. Li, Y. Q. Sun, S. W. Chen, H. Z. Liao, and B. Zhou Center for Space Science and Applied Research (CSSAR), Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China Abstract: A micro-satellite, Yinghuo-1, would be launched with Phobos-Grunt in October, 2009 to investigate the space environment around Mars. YH-1 and Phobos-Grunt forms a twopoint measurement configuration in the Martian space environment, and equipped with similar magnetic field and plasma detecting payload on two spacecraft would give some coordinated exploration around Mars. YH-1 would orbit Mars with periapsis of 800 km above the Martian surface, and apoapsis about 80000 km to the center of Mars. The orbit inclination is in the range of 0—7o to the Martian equator. A flux-gate type magnetometer, with two sensors, is developed for YH-1 spacecraft. Two sensors are mounted on one-side of the deployable solar panel with a radial separation about 45 cm to function as a gradiometer to minimize the affects of platform remanence. The dynamic range of √ magnetometer is with a 16-bit ADC converter, and the the noise level is better than 0.01 nT/ Hz, to measure three-component magnetic field from DC to 10Hz. Flux-gate magnetometer would work together with the Plasma Package onboard of YH-1 to investigate the Martian bow shock, magnetosheath, magnetic pileup region (MPR). A detail description of the flux-gate magnetometer is presented in this paper, with some test and calibration results.

  6. Absolute tracer dye concentration using airborne laser-induced water Raman backscatter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoge, F. E.; Swift, R. N.

    1981-01-01

    The use of simultaneous airborne-laser-induced dye fluorescence and water Raman backscatter to measure the absolute concentration of an ocean-dispersed tracer dye is discussed. Theoretical considerations of the calculation of dye concentration by the numerical comparison of airborne laser-induced fluorescence spectra with laboratory spectra for known dye concentrations using the 3400/cm OH-stretch water Raman scatter as a calibration signal are presented which show that minimum errors are obtained and no data concerning water mass transmission properties are required when the laser wavelength is chosen to yield a Raman signal near the dye emission band. Results of field experiments conducted with an airborne conical scan lidar over a site in New York Bight into which rhodamine dye had been injected in a study of oil spill dispersion are then indicated which resulted in a contour map of dye concentrations, with a minimum detectable dye concentration of approximately 2 ppb by weight.

  7. Airborne oceanographic lidar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bressel, C.; Itzkan, I.; Nunes, J. E.; Hoge, F.

    1977-01-01

    The characteristics of an Airborne Oceanographic Lidar (AOL) are given. The AOL system is described and its potential for various measurement applications including bathymetry and fluorosensing is discussed.

  8. An Oceanographic Decision Support System for Scientific Field Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maughan, T.; Das, J.; McCann, M. P.; Rajan, K.

    2011-12-01

    Thom Maughan, Jnaneshwar Das, Mike McCann, Danelle Cline, Mike Godin, Fred Bahr, Kevin Gomes, Tom O'Reilly, Frederic Py, Monique Messie, John Ryan, Francisco Chavez, Jim Bellingham, Maria Fox, Kanna Rajan Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute Moss Lading, California, United States Many of the coastal ocean processes we wish to observe in order to characterize marine ecosystems have large spatial extant (tens of square km) and are dynamic moving kilometers in a day with biological processes spanning anywhere from minutes to days. Some like harmful algal blooms generate toxins which can significantly impact human health and coastal economies. In order to obtain a viable understanding of the biogeochemical processes which define their dynamics and ecology, it is necessary to persistently observe, track and sample within and near the dynamic fields using augmented methods of observation such as autonomous platforms like AUVs, gliders and surface craft. Field experiments to plan, execute and manage such multitude of assets are challenging. To alleviate this problem the autonomous systems group with its collaborators at MBARI and USC designed, built and fielded a prototype Oceanographic Decision Support System (ODSS) that provides situational awareness and a single portal to visualize and plan deployments for the large scale October 2010 CANON field program as well as a series of 2 week field programs in 2011. The field programs were conducted in Monterey Bay, a known 'red tide' incubator, and varied from as many as twenty autonomous platforms, four ships and 2 manned airplanes to coordinated AUV operations, drifters and a single ship. The ODSS web-based portal was used to assimilate information from a collection of sources at sea, including AUVs, moorings, radar data as well as remote sensing products generated by partner organizations to provide a synthesis of views useful to predict the movement of a chlorophyll patch in the confines of the northern Monterey Bay

  9. Satellite and airborne IR sensor validation by an airborne interferometer

    SciTech Connect

    Gumley, L.E.; Delst, P.F. van; Moeller, C.C.

    1996-11-01

    The validation of in-orbit longwave IR radiances from the GOES-8 Sounder and inflight longwave IR radiances from the MODIS Airborne Simulator (MAS) is described. The reference used is the airborne University of Wisconsin High Resolution Interferometer Sounder (HIS). The calibration of each sensor is described. Data collected during the Ocean Temperature Interferometric Survey (OTIS) experiment in January 1995 is used in the comparison between sensors. Detailed forward calculations of at-sensor radiance are used to account for the difference in GOES-8 and HIS altitude and viewing geometry. MAS radiances and spectrally averaged HIS radiances are compared directly. Differences between GOES-8 and HIS brightness temperatures, and GOES-8 and MAS brightness temperatures, are found to be with 1.0 K for the majority of longwave channels examined. The same validation approach will be used for future sensors such as the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS). 11 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. Field experiments of nonlocal sediment transport on a steep hillslope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiBiase, R.; Booth, A. M.; Ganti, V.; Scheingross, J. S.; Lamb, M. P.

    2014-12-01

    Steep rocky hillslopes dominate the areal extent of rapidly uplifting mountain ranges, and pose a significant hazard to encroaching population centers. Existing models for hillslope sediment transport developed for soil-mantled landscapes are poorly suited to explain the evolution of steep hillslopes characterized by: (1) intermittent or patchy soil cover, (2) slopes that exceed the angle of repose, and (3) transport events that often involve long travel distances. Recently, nonlocal formulations of hillslope sediment transport laws that account for long travel distances have been proposed to overcome the limitations of traditional continuum-based models. However, their application to natural landscapes has been limited owing to few field constraints on key parameters, and computational difficulties expanding the framework to two-dimensions. To address this knowledge gap, we performed a series of field experiments on natural hillslopes to inform a simple particle-based model of hillslope sediment transport. We compiled the distribution of average velocity and transport distance for over 300 stones ranging in diameter from 2-10 cm using a video camera and laser range-finder. To characterize surface roughness, we used a tripod-based laser scanner to generate a 1 cm-resolution digital elevation model of each 30 m long hillslope. We find that hillslope travel distance follows a heavy-tailed distribution that varies systematically with the ratio of particle diameter to roughness height, in general agreement to published laboratory experiments. Mean particle velocity ranges from 1-3 m/s and scales weakly with distance traveled. Our modeling exercise reveals three key effects that should be included in any treatment of steep hillslope evolution: (1) there is a strong grain-size and surface roughness dependence on sediment transport distance, (2) sediment storage on slopes steeper than the angle of repose is possible due to vegetation or topographic roughness, and (3

  11. The Deep Convective Clouds and Chemistry (DC3) Field Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barth, M. C.; Brune, W. H.; Cantrell, C. A.; Rutledge, S. A.; Crawford, J. H.; Huntrieser, H.; Homeyer, C. R.; Nault, B.; Cohen, R. C.; Pan, L.; Ziemba, L. D.

    2014-12-01

    The Deep Convective Clouds and Chemistry (DC3) field experiment took place in the central U.S. in May and June 2012 and had the objectives of characterizing the effect of thunderstorms on the chemical composition of the lower atmosphere and determining the chemical aging of upper troposphere (UT) convective outflow plumes. DC3 employed ground-based radars, lightning mapping arrays, and weather balloon soundings in conjunction with aircraft measurements sampling the composition of the inflow and outflow of a variety of thunderstorms in northeast Colorado, West Texas to central Oklahoma, and northern Alabama. A unique aspect of the DC3 strategy was to locate and sample the convective outflow a day after active convection in order to measure the chemical transformations within the UT convective plume. The DC3 data are being analyzed to investigate transport and dynamics of the storms, scavenging of soluble trace gases and aerosols, production of nitrogen oxides by lightning, relationships between lightning flash rates and storm parameters, and chemistry in the UT that is affected by the convection. In this presentation, we give an overview of the DC3 field campaign and highlight results from the campaign that are relevant to the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere region. These highlights include stratosphere-troposphere exchange in connection with thunderstorms, the 0-12 hour chemical aging and new particle formation in the UT outflow of a dissipating mesoscale convective system observed on June 21, 2012, and UT chemical aging in convective outflow as sampled the day after convection occurred and modeled in the Weather Research and Forecasting coupled with Chemistry model.

  12. The Multi-Center Airborne Coherent Atmospheric Wind Sensor: Recent Measurements and Future Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothermel, Jeffry; Cutten, Dean R.; Hardesty, R. Michael; Howell, James N.; Darby, Lisa S.; Tratt, David M.; Menzies, Robert T.

    1999-01-01

    The coherent Doppler lidar, when operated from an airborne platform, offers a unique measurement capability for study of atmospheric dynamical and physical properties. This is especially true for scientific objectives requiring measurements in optically-clear air, where other remote sensing technologies such as Doppler radar are at a disadvantage in terms of spatial resolution and coverage. Recent experience suggests airborne coherent Doppler lidar can yield unique wind measurements of--and during operation within--extreme weather phenomena. This paper presents the first airborne coherent Doppler lidar measurements of hurricane wind fields. The lidar atmospheric remote sensing groups of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Environmental Technology Laboratory, and Jet Propulsion Laboratory jointly developed an airborne lidar system, the Multi-center Airborne Coherent Atmospheric Wind Sensor (MACAWS). The centerpiece of MACAWS is the lidar transmitter from the highly successful NOAA Windvan. Other field-tested lidar components have also been used, when feasible, to reduce costs and development time. The methodology for remotely sensing atmospheric wind fields with scanning coherent Doppler lidar was demonstrated in 1981; enhancements were made and the system was reflown in 1984. MACAWS has potentially greater scientific utility, compared to the original airborne scanning lidar system, owing to a factor of approx. 60 greater energy-per-pulse from the NOAA transmitter. MACAWS development was completed and the system was first flown in 1995. Following enhancements to improve performance, the system was re-flown in 1996 and 1998. The scientific motivation for MACAWS is three-fold: obtain fundamental measurements of subgrid scale (i.e., approx. 2-200 km) processes and features which may be used to improve parameterizations in hydrological, climate, and general

  13. Test plan for FY-94 digface characterization field experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Josten, N.E.; Roybal, L.G.

    1994-08-01

    The digface characterization concept has been under development at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) since fiscal year (FY) 1992 through the support of the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Program. A digface characterization system conducts continuous subsurface characterization simultaneously with retrieval of hazardous and radioactive waste from buried waste sites. The system deploys multiple sensors at the retrieval operation digface and collects data that provide a basis for detecting, locating, and classifying buried materials and hazardous conditions before they are disturbed by the retrieval equipment. This test plan describes ongoing efforts to test the digface characterization concept at the INEL`s Cold Test Pit using a simplified prototype deployment apparatus and off-the-shelf sensors. FY-94 field experiments will explore problems in object detection and classification. Detection and classification of objects are fundamental to three of the four primary functions of digface characterization during overburden removal. This test plan establishes procedures for collecting and validating the digface characterization data sets. Analysis of these data will focus on testing and further developing analysis methods for object detection and classification during overburden removal.

  14. A measurement system applicable for landslide experiments in the field.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wen-Zhao; Xu, Xiang-Zhou; Wang, Wen-Long; Yang, Ji-Shan; Liu, Ya-Kun; Xu, Fei-Long

    2016-04-01

    Observation of gravity erosion in the field with strong sunshine and wind poses a challenge. Here, a novel topography meter together with a movable tent addresses the challenge. With the topography meter, a 3D geometric shape of the target surface can be digitally reconstructed. Before the commencement of a test, the laser generator position and the camera sightline should be adjusted with a sight calibrator. Typically, the topography meter can measure the gravity erosion on the slope with a gradient of 30°-70°. Two methods can be used to obtain a relatively clear video, despite the extreme steepness of the slopes. One method is to rotate the laser source away from the slope to ensure that the camera sightline remains perpendicular to the laser plane. Another way is to move the camera farther away from the slope in which the measured volume of the slope needs to be corrected; this method will reduce distortion of the image. In addition, installation of tent poles with concrete columns helps to surmount the altitude difference on steep slopes. Results observed by the topography meter in real landslide experiments are rational and reliable. PMID:27131688

  15. Geothermal injection treatment: process chemistry, field experiences, and design options

    SciTech Connect

    Kindle, C.H.; Mercer, B.W.; Elmore, R.P.; Blair, S.C.; Myers, D.A.

    1984-09-01

    The successful development of geothermal reservoirs to generate electric power will require the injection disposal of approximately 700,000 gal/h (2.6 x 10/sup 6/ 1/h) of heat-depleted brine for every 50,000 kW of generating capacity. To maintain injectability, the spent brine must be compatible with the receiving formation. The factors that influence this brine/formation compatibility and tests to quantify them are discussed in this report. Some form of treatment will be necessary prior to injection for most situations; the process chemistry involved to avoid and/or accelerate the formation of precipitate particles is also discussed. The treatment processes, either avoidance or controlled precipitation approaches, are described in terms of their principles and demonstrated applications in the geothermal field and, when such experience is limited, in other industrial use. Monitoring techniques for tracking particulate growth, the effect of process parameters on corrosion and well injectability are presented. Examples of brine injection, preinjection treatment, and recovery from injectivity loss are examined and related to the aspects listed above.

  16. A measurement system applicable for landslide experiments in the field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Wen-Zhao; Xu, Xiang-Zhou; Wang, Wen-Long; Yang, Ji-Shan; Liu, Ya-Kun; Xu, Fei-Long

    2016-04-01

    Observation of gravity erosion in the field with strong sunshine and wind poses a challenge. Here, a novel topography meter together with a movable tent addresses the challenge. With the topography meter, a 3D geometric shape of the target surface can be digitally reconstructed. Before the commencement of a test, the laser generator position and the camera sightline should be adjusted with a sight calibrator. Typically, the topography meter can measure the gravity erosion on the slope with a gradient of 30°-70°. Two methods can be used to obtain a relatively clear video, despite the extreme steepness of the slopes. One method is to rotate the laser source away from the slope to ensure that the camera sightline remains perpendicular to the laser plane. Another way is to move the camera farther away from the slope in which the measured volume of the slope needs to be corrected; this method will reduce distortion of the image. In addition, installation of tent poles with concrete columns helps to surmount the altitude difference on steep slopes. Results observed by the topography meter in real landslide experiments are rational and reliable.

  17. Field performance of the Walker Branch throughfall displacement experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, P.J.; Todd, D.E.; Edwards, N.T.; Huston, M.A.

    1994-10-06

    The authors are conducting a large-scale manipulative field experiments in an upland oak forest on the Walker Branch Watershed in eastern Tennessee USA to identify important ecosystem responses that might result from future precipitation changes. The manipulation of soil moisture is being implemented by a gravity-driven transfer of throughfall precipitation from one treatment plot to another. Throughfall is intercepted in {approx} 2,000 subcanopy troughs (0.3 x 5 m) suspended above the forest floor of the dry plots ({approx} 33% of the ground area is covered) and transferred by gravity flow across an ambient plot for subsequent distribution onto the wet treatment plot. Percent soil water is being monitored with time domain reflectometers at 310 sampling locations across the site. The experimental system is able to produce statistically significant differences in soil water content in years having both extremely dry and extremely wet conditions. Furthermore, comparisons of pre- and post-installation soil temperature measurements have documented the ability of the experimental design to produce these changes without changing the microclimate of the forest understory.

  18. Beam extraction experiment with field-emission arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Ishizuka, H.; Watanabe, A.; Shiho, M.

    1995-12-31

    An experimental project aimed to develop FEL drivers using a field-emission array is under way. The subject covers design and fabrication of novel micro-emitters, operation of FEAs, beam formation and emittance diagnostics. So far the generation of a focused beam has been demonstrated with an array of double-gated microemitters. Active control of FEAs has greatly improved the stability of the emission current. Large FEAs with an emitting area of up to 2 x 2 cm{sup 2} have been fabricated for the production of high-current beams. DC beams (1 - 5 keV < 100 {mu}A) extracted from Spindt cathodes were propagated over 1 m and projected on a fluorescent screen. Separate images of FEA tips were observed and emittance measurement has been carried out. The cathode is going to be replaced by a double-gated FEA to improve the beam quality. Pulsed extraction of high currents will also be tested, employing a non-gated FEA as the cathode of a 1 MV induction linac. Results of these experiments will be presented and perspectives concerning the FEA gun will be discussed.

  19. Micro-scale hydrological field experiments in Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minea, Gabriel; Moroşanu, Gabriela A.

    2016-02-01

    The paper (communication) presents an overview of hydrologic field experiments at micro-scale in Romania. In order to experimentally investigate micro (plot)-scale hydrological impact of soil erosion, the National Institute of Hydrology and Water Management founded Voineşti Experimental Basin (VES) in 1964 and the Aldeni Experimental Basins (AEB) in 1984. AEB and VES are located in the Curvature Subcarpathians. Experimental plots are organized in a double systems and have an area of 80 m2 (runoff plots) at AEB and 300 m2 (water balance plots) at VES. Land use of plot: first plot "grass-land" is covered with perennial grass and second plot (control) consists in "bare soil". Over the latter one, the soil is hoeing, which results in a greater development of infiltration than in the first plot. Experimental investigations at micro-scale are aimed towards determining the parameters of the water balance equation, during natural and artificial rainfalls, researching of flows and soil erosion processes on experimental plots, extrapolating relations involving runoff coefficients from a small scale to medium scale. Nowadays, the latest evolutions in data acquisition and transmission equipment are represented by sensors (such as: sensors to determinate the soil moisture content). Exploitation and dissemination of hydrologic data is accomplished by research themes/projects, year-books of basic data and papers.

  20. Observations of Ozone and Aerosols Over Mexico and Gulf of Mexico During INTEX- B/MILAGRO Field Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, C. F.; Browell, E. V.; Hair, J. W.; Fenn, M. A.; Notari, A.; Kooi, S. A.; Ismail, S.; Avery, M. A.; Pierce, R. B.

    2007-12-01

    The NASA Langley Research Center's Differential Absorption Lidar (LaRC/DIAL) system has been used to measure ozone and aerosol distributions in many airborne global tropospheric and stratospheric campaigns since 1980. The tropospheric configuration of this system was flown on the NASA DC-8 during the INTEX-B (Phase-I)/MILAGRO (I/M) field experiment, which was conducted from 24 February to 22 March 2006 over Mexico and the Gulf of Mexico. DIAL remote profile measurements were made from near the surface to above the tropopause along the flight track of the DC-8 with a small data void region of 750 m above and below the aircraft. Aerosol scattering ratios were determined at two wavelengths for a gross estimation of the relative size of the observed particles and measurements of aerosol depolarization were made to distinguish nonspherical aerosols, such as dust and some aerosols in aged fire plumes. In situ measurements of ozone from the FASTOZ instrument on the DC-8 were used to constrain the interpolation of the nadir and zenith ozone lidar measurements, which then provided an estimate of the entire tropospheric ozone profile along the flight track. A first order correction for aerosol attenuation was made to the aerosol profiles by using an assumed extinction-to- backscatter ratio to better characterize the attenuation by thick aerosol layers. The DIAL system was used to determine the large-scale variability and context of air masses being sampled in situ on the DC-8 and to direct the in situ sampling strategy in real time. Plumes from biomass burning in southern Mexico were often observed in the free troposphere over the Gulf of Mexico and over eastern Mexico. The Mexico City (MC) pollution plume was readily apparent with high ozone (>100 ppbv), high aerosol scattering (S>20), and enhanced aerosol depolarization (D>10%). The top of the MC pollution extended to a depth of about 2.5 km AGL. Some observations showed the MC plume spilling out over the mountains to

  1. Data Management Challenges for Airborne NASA Earth Venture Sub-Orbital (EVS-1) Investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyer, A.; Cook, R. B.; Santhana Vannan, S. K.

    2014-12-01

    The ORNL DAAC is developing a technology infrastructure to archive airborne remote sensing observations from two Earth System Science Pathfinder Missions. The two missions are CARVE: Carbon in Arctic Reservoirs Vulnerability Experiment and AirMOSS: Airborne Microwave Observatory of Subcanopy and Subsurface. The two missions are collecting over 140 TB of data from extensive ground-based and airborne instruments. The metadata and documentation requirements necessary for proper archive and dissemination of such transect-based, and often 3-dimensional, airborne data are quite different from the traditional field campaign and satellite remote sensing data streams. Staff at the ORNL DAAC are currently working with the CARVE and AirMOSS teams as well as investigating cyberinfrastructures from other DAACs to develop a metadata and data infrastructure for airborne data that will enable spatial, flight-line, or keyword-based search and discovery, integration as needed of related satellite- and ground-based data sets, and subsetting and visualization tools for both CARVE and AirMOSS. We discuss challenges, progress, and lessons learned.

  2. Multi-center Airborne Coherent Atmospheric Wind Sensor (MACAWS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhothermel, Jeffry; Jones, W. D.; Dunkin, J. A.; McCaul, E. W., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    This effort involves development of a calibrated, pulsed coherent CO2 Doppler lidar, followed by a carefully-planned and -executed program of multi-dimensional wind velocity and aerosol backscatter measurements from the NASA DC-8 research aircraft. The lidar, designated as the Multi-center Airborne Coherent Atmospheric Wind Sensor (MACAWS), will be applicable to two research areas. First, MACAWS will enable specialized measurements of atmospheric dynamical processes in the planetary boundary layer and free troposphere in geographic locations and over scales of motion not routinely or easily accessible to conventional sensors. The proposed observations will contribute fundamentally to a greater understanding of the role of the mesoscale, helping to improve predictive capabilities for mesoscale phenomena and to provide insights into improving model parameterizations of sub-grid scale processes within large-scale circulation models. As such, it has the potential to contribute uniquely to major, multi-institutional field programs planned for the mid 1990's. Second, MACAWS measurements can be used to reduce the degree of uncertainty in performance assessments and algorithm development for NASA's prospective Laser Atmospheric Wind Sounder (LAWS), which has no space-based instrument heritage. Ground-based lidar measurements alone are insufficient to address all of the key issues. To minimize costs, MACAWS is being developed cooperatively by the lidar remote sensing groups of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, NOAA Wave Propagation Laboratory, and MSFC using existing lidar hardware and manpower resources. Several lidar components have already been exercised in previous airborne lidar programs (for example, MSFC Airborne Doppler Lidar System (ADLS) used in 1981,4 Severe Storms Wind Measurement Program; JPL Airborne Backscatter Lidar Experiment (ABLE) used in 1989,90 Global Backscatter Experiment Survey Missions). MSFC has been given responsibility for directing the overall

  3. Anomalous transport in fracture networks: field scale experiments and modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, P. K.; Le Borgne, T.; Bour, O.; Dentz, M.; Juanes, R.

    2012-12-01

    Anomalous transport is widely observed in different settings and scales of transport through porous and fractured geologic media. A common signature of anomalous transport is the late-time power law tailing in breakthrough curves (BTCs) during tracer tests. Various conceptual models of anomalous transport have been proposed, including multirate mass transfer, continuous time random walk, and stream tube models. Since different conceptual models can produce equally good fits to a single BTC, tracer test interpretation has been plagued with ambiguity. Here, we propose to resolve such ambiguity by analyzing BTCs obtained from both convergent and push-pull flow configurations at two different fracture planes. We conducted field tracer tests in a fractured granite formation close to Ploemeur, France. We observe that BTC tailing depends on the flow configuration and the injection fracture. Specifically the tailing disappears under push-pull geometry, and when we injected at a fracture with high flux (Figure 1). This indicates that for this fractured granite, BTC tailing is controlled by heterogeneous advection and not by matrix diffusion. To explain the change in tailing behavior for different flow configurations, we employ a simple lattice network model with heterogeneous conductivity distribution. The model assigns random conductivities to the fractures and solves the Darcy equation for an incompressible fluid, enforcing mass conservation at fracture intersections. The mass conservation constraint yields a correlated random flow through the fracture system. We investigate whether BTC tailing can be explained by the spatial distribution of preferential flow paths and stagnation zones, which is controlled by the conductivity variance and correlation length. By combining the results from the field tests and numerical modeling, we show that the reversibility of spreading is a key mechanism that needs to be captured. We also demonstrate the dominant role of the injection

  4. Ozone process insights from field experiments - part I: overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidy, G. M.

    This paper gives an overview of selected approaches recently adopted to analyze observations from field experiments that characterize the tropospheric physics and chemistry of ozone and related oxidation products. Analysis of ambient oxidant and precursor concentration measurements, combined with meteorological observations, has provided important information about tropospheric processes. Projection of the response of tropospheric ozone concentrations to changes in precursor emissions is achieved through emissions based air quality models (AQMs). These models integrate several "process" elements from source emissions to meteorological and chemical phenomena. Through field campaigns, new knowledge has become available which has enabled workers to better understand the strengths and weaknesses of AQMs and their components. Examples of insightful results include: (a) reconciliation of ambient concentrations of speciated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with estimates from emissions models, and inventories, (b) verification of chemical mechanisms for ozone formation from its precursors using approximations applicable in different chemical regimes, (c) inference of regimes of sensitivity in ozone concentration to changes in VOC and NO x precursors from ozone management practices, (d) conceptualization of important air mass transport and mixing processes on different spatial and temporal scales that affect ozone and precursor concentrations distributions, and (e) application of the analysis of spatial and temporal variance to infer the origins of chemical product transport, and precursor distributions. Studies from the first category have been used to improve emissions models substantially over previous forms. The remainder of the analyses has yielded valuable insight into the chemical and meteorological mechanisms at work on different spatial and temporal scales. The methods have provided an observationally based framework for effective choices to improve ozone

  5. Experiments of Flow Field Influenced by Vegetation Distribution on Floodplain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jin-Fu; Wang, Shun-Chang; Chen, Su-Chin

    2015-04-01

    The vegetation on floodplain can block river flow, raise flood level, and scour riverbed downstream the vegetation region. However, it can also protect the dike, reduce flood velocity, and increase the stability of channel. This experiment analyzed the relationship between vegetation distribution and flow field. We designed three vegetation arrangement pattern of unilateral vegetation, unilateral interval vegetation and no vegetation, respectively. The unilateral vegetation was defined as a 4.9 m length and 0.5 m width with vegetative area in one side of the experiment flume. The unilateral interval vegetation was defined as the same dimension of vegetative area but inserted 2 gaps with 1 m interval, and the vegetative area was separated into 3 blocks. The model of a single plant was assembled with stem and frond. The stem was a woody cylinder with 10 cm height and 2.2 cm in diameter. The other part was plastic frond with 10 cm in height. The flume was 20 m length, 1 m width and 0.7 m height with 2 kinds of bed slopes in 0.001 and 0.002, and 3 different discharges in 0.2 m3/s, 0.145 m3/s and 0.0855 m3/s. The velocity was measured by 2-D electromagnetic velocimeter (ACM2-R2). In addition, water depth was measured by Vernier calipers. The velocity distribution showed that the current were divided into two parts. In the part of inside vegetation area, water level uplifted when flow entering the vegetation area, and it declined until the current leaving vegetation area. Compared with the current in the other half part of flume, the magnitudes of uplift were about 50% in both case of unilateral vegetation and unilateral interval vegetation. Downstream the vegetation area edge, the water level dropped immediately and violently. The water depth was shallower than that in the other half non-vegetation part, and the decline magnitude were 48% and 39% in cases of unilateral vegetation and unilateral interval vegetation, respectively. To explain this phenomenon, we measured

  6. High Magnetic field generation for laser-plasma experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Pollock, B B; Froula, D H; Davis, P F; Ross, J S; Fulkerson, S; Bower, J; Satariano, J; Price, D; Glenzer, S H

    2006-05-01

    An electromagnetic solenoid was developed to study the effect of magnetic fields on electron thermal transport in laser plasmas. The solenoid, which is driven by a pulsed power system suppling 30 kJ, achieves magnetic fields of 13 T. The field strength was measured on the solenoid axis with a magnetic probe and optical Zeeman splitting. The measurements agree well with analytical estimates. A method for optimizing the solenoid design to achieve magnetic fields exceeding 20 T is presented.

  7. NASA's Student Airborne Research Program (2009-2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaller, E. L.; Shetter, R. E.

    2013-12-01

    The NASA Student Airborne Research Program (SARP) is a unique summer internship program for rising senior undergraduates majoring in any of the STEM disciplines. SARP participants acquire hands-on research experience in all aspects of an airborne research campaign, including flying onboard an major NASA resource used for studying Earth system processes. In summer 2013, thirty-two participants worked in four interdisciplinary teams to study surface, atmospheric, and oceanographic processes. Participants assisted in the operation of instruments onboard the NASA DC-8 aircraft where they sampled and measured atmospheric gases and imaged land and water surfaces in multiple spectral bands. Along with airborne data collection, students participated in taking measurements at field sites. Mission faculty and research mentors helped to guide participants through instrument operation, sample analysis, and data reduction. Over the eight-week program, each student developed an individual research project from the data collected and delivered a conference-style final presentation on his/her results. Several students will present the results of their research in science sessions at this meeting. We will discuss the results and effectiveness of the program over the past five summers and plans for the future.

  8. Calculations of transient fields in the Felix experiments at Argonne using null field integrated techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, H. C.; Davey, K. R.; Turner, L.

    1985-08-01

    The transient eddy current problem is characteristically computationally intensive. The motivation for this research was to realize an efficient, accurate, solution technique involving small matrices via an eigenvalue approach. Such a technique is indeed realized and tested using the null field integral technique. Using smart (i.e., efficient, global) basis functions to represent unknowns in terms of a minimum number of unknowns, homogeneous eigenvectors and eigenvalues are first determined. The general excitatory response is then represented in terms of these eigenvalues/eigenvectors. Excellent results are obtained for the Argonne Felix cylinder experiments using a 4 x 4 matrix. Extension to the 3-D problem (short cylinder) is set up in terms of an 8 x 8 matrix.

  9. Use of field and airborne advanced remote sensing data for the characterisation of surface erosional stages in agricultural semi-arid soils (central Spain) at various scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milewski, Robert; Chabrillat, Sabine; Schmid, Thomas; Rodriguez, Manuel; Schuett, Brigitta

    2014-05-01

    The interest in the use of non-invasive remote sensing methods such as visible-near infrared reflectance spectroscopy for the remote determination of mineralogical composition in soils and planetary surfaces has been demonstrated since the 1970s with the development of databases in the laboratory of minerals spectra. Nowadays, quantitative soil spectroscopy has been shown to be a powerful tool for the identification and prediction of soil properties, and has been used in many soil science applications. With the upcoming launch of the next generation of hyperspectral satellite systems such as the German EnMAP (Environmental Mapping) satellite in 2017, new potential toward the quantitative analyses of chemical and physical soil attributes of the Earth's soil surface composition based on reflectance spectroscopy will be opened. In particular, in arid and semi-arid agricultural regions sensitive to soil erosion processes, the analyses of the spatial distribution of combined varying surface soil properties based on advanced hyperspectral methodology could be used to infer erosion and deposition stages in selected areas, although it was never thoroughly demonstrated. To fully utilize the potential of this technology for the assessment of surface soil erosional stages, new adapted approaches have to be developed, providing the context for this study. This research focuses on a semi-arid, agricultural area in Central Spain near Toledo and Madrid, in which airborne hyperspectral and LiDAR data have been obtained. The study area is under the influence of a Mediterranean climate with extended agricultural rainfed uses on mostly evolved soils. There, soil erosion features can be observed that are representative for areas throughout Southern Europe. Such erosion features are associated with different soil horizons and rock outcrops with contrasted physical and chemical characteristic. They are exposed at the surface as a consequence of human induced soil erosion which is

  10. Field controlled experiments on the physiological responses of maize (Zea mays L.) leaves to low-level air and soil mercury exposures.

    PubMed

    Niu, Zhenchuan; Zhang, Xiaoshan; Wang, Sen; Zeng, Ming; Wang, Zhangwei; Zhang, Yi; Ci, Zhijia

    2014-01-01

    Thousands of tons of mercury (Hg) are released from anthropogenic and natural sources to the atmosphere in a gaseous elemental form per year, yet little is known regarding the influence of airborne Hg on the physiological activities of plant leaves. In the present study, the effects of low-level air and soil Hg exposures on the gas exchange parameters of maize (Zea mays L.) leaves and their accumulation of Hg, proline, and malondialdehyde (MDA) were examined via field open-top chamber and Hg-enriched soil experiments, respectively. Low-level air Hg exposures (<50 ng m(-3)) had little effects on the gas exchange parameters of maize leaves during most of the daytime (p > 0.05). However, both the net photosynthesis rate and carboxylation efficiency of maize leaves exposed to 50 ng m(-3) air Hg were significantly lower than those exposed to 2 ng m(-3) air Hg in late morning (p < 0.05). Additionally, the Hg, proline, and MDA concentrations in maize leaves exposed to 20 and 50 ng m(-3) air Hg were significantly higher than those exposed to 2 ng m(-3) air Hg (p < 0.05). These results indicated that the increase in airborne Hg potentially damaged functional photosynthetic apparatus in plant leaves, inducing free proline accumulation and membrane lipid peroxidation. Due to minor translocation of soil Hg to the leaves, low-level soil Hg exposures (<1,000 ng g(-1)) had no significant influences on the gas exchange parameters, or the Hg, proline, and MDA concentrations in maize leaves (p > 0.05). Compared to soil Hg, airborne Hg easily caused physiological stress to plant leaves. The effects of increasing atmospheric Hg concentration on plant physiology should be of concern. PMID:23943002

  11. Airborne gravity is here

    SciTech Connect

    Hammer, S.

    1982-01-11

    After 20 years of development efforts, the airborne gravity survey has finally become a practical exploration method. Besides gravity data, the airborne survey can also collect simultaneous, continuous records of high-precision magneticfield data as well as terrain clearance; these provide a topographic contour map useful in calculating terrain conditions and in subsequent planning and engineering. Compared with a seismic survey, the airborne gravity method can cover the same area much more quickly and cheaply; a seismograph could then detail the interesting spots.

  12. SUPERVISED FIELD EXPERIENCE AND INTERNSHIP PROGRAMS IN EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION AND SUPERVISION IN THE CALIFORNIA STATE COLLEGES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    JOHNS, W. LLOYD

    A SURVEY OF EXISTING FIELD EXPERIENCE PROGRAMS IN THE 18 CALIFORNIA STATE COLLEGES WAS CONDUCTED TO IDENTIFY THE CHARACTERISTICS OF A HIGH-QUALITY SUPERVISED FIELD-EXPERIENCE PROGRAM IN EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION AND SUPERVISION. DATA FOR MAJOR FINDINGS WERE COLLECTED FROM (1) A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE, (2) AN EXAMINATION OF FIELD-EXPERIENCE…

  13. Field Experiments Aimed To The Analysis of Flood Generation Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carriero, D.; Iacobellis, V.; Oliveto, G.; Romano, N.; Telesca, V.; Fiorentino, M.

    The study of the soil moisture dynamics and of the climate-soil-vegetation interac- tion is essential for the comprehension of possible climatic change phenomena, as well as for the analysis of occurrence of extreme hydrological events. In this trend the theoretically-based distribution of floods recently derived by Fiorentino and Ia- cobellis, [ŞNew insights about the climatic and geologic control on the probability distribution of floodsT, Water Resources Research, 2001, 37: 721-730] demonstrated, by an application in some Southern Italy basins, that processes at the hillslope scale strongly influence the basin response by means of the different mechanisms of runoff generation produced by various distributions of partial area contributing. This area is considered as a stochastic variable whose pdf position parameter showed strong de- pendence on the climate as it can seen in the studied basins behavior: in dry zones, where there is the prevalence of the infiltration excess (Horton) mechanism, the basin water loss parameter decreases as basin area increases and the flood peak source area depends on the permeability of soils; in humid zones, with the prevalence of satu- ration excess (Dunne) process, the loss parameter seems independent from the basin area and very sensitive to simple climatic index while only small portion of the area invested by the storm contributes to floods. The purpose of this work is to investigate the consistency of those interpretations by means of field experiments at the hillslope scale to establish a parameterization accounting for soil physical and hydraulic prop- erties, vegetation characteristics and land-use. The research site is the catchment of River Fiumarella di Corleto, which is located in Basilicata Region, Italy, and has a drainage area of approximately 32 km2. The environment has a rather dynamic geo- morphology and very interesting features from the soil-landscape modeling viewpoint [Santini A., A. Coppola, N. Romano, and

  14. Exploring the Role of Field Experience Context in Preservice Teachers' Development as Mathematics Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Sandi; Nesmith, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    Although the importance of field experience is supported and attended to by teacher education programs across the United States, there have been numerous national reports and research findings stressing the need for major improvements in the preparation of teachers with an emphasis on more authentic experiences. Quality field experiences have the…

  15. School's IN for Summer: An Alternative Field Experience for Elementary Science Methods Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanuscin, Deborah L.; Musikul, Kusalin

    2007-01-01

    Field experiences are critical to teacher learning and enhance the effectiveness of methods courses; however, when methods courses are offered in the summer, traditional school-based field experiences are not possible. This article describes an alternative campus-based experience created as part of an elementary science methods course. The Summer…

  16. The Examination of a Mentoring Relationship during a Metadiscrete Physical Education Field Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bower, Glenna G.; Bonnett, Stephanie

    2009-01-01

    Universities strive to graduate well-rounded individuals with opportunities to gain knowledge in the classroom and experience in the "real world". Therefore, many colleges focus their attention to offering discrete field experiences. However, few universities offer metadiscrete field experiences, with students majoring in exercise science or…

  17. Land data assimilation and estimation of soil moisture using measurements from the Southern Great Plains 1997 Field Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margulis, Steven A.; McLaughlin, Dennis; Entekhabi, Dara; Dunne, Susan

    2002-12-01

    Remotely sensed microwave measurements provide useful but indirect observations of surface soil moisture. Ground-based measurements are more direct but are very localized and limited in coverage. Model predictions provide a more regional perspective but rely on many simplifications and approximations and depend on inputs that are difficult to obtain over extensive areas. The only effective way to achieve soil moisture estimates with the accuracy and coverage required for hydrologic and meteorological applications is to merge information from satellites, ground-based stations, and models. In this paper we describe a convenient data merging (or data assimilation) procedure based on an ensemble Kalman filter. This procedure is illustrated with an application to the Southern Great Plains 1997 (SGP97) field experiment. It uses land surface and radiative transfer models to derive soil moisture estimates from airborne L band microwave observations and ground-based measurements of micrometeorological variables, soil texture, and vegetation type. The ensemble filter approach is appealing because (1) it can accommodate a wide range of models, (2) it can account for input and measurement uncertainties, (3) it provides information on the accuracy of its estimates, and (4) it is relatively efficient, making large-scale applications feasible. Results from our SGP97 application of the ensemble Kalman filter include large-scale maps (˜10,000 km2) of soil moisture estimates and estimation error standard deviations for the entire month long experiment and comparisons of filter soil moisture and latent heat estimates to ground truth measurements (gravimetric and flux tower observations). The ground truth comparisons show that the filter is able to track soil moisture fluctuations. The filter estimates are significantly better than those from an "open loop" simulation that includes the same ground-based data but does not incorporate radio brightness measurements. Overall, the results

  18. Overview of the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA) field experiment in Brazil during Sept - Oct 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Ben; Haywood, Jim; Longo, Karla; Coe, Hugh; Artaxo, Paulo; Morgan, William; Freitas, Saulo

    2013-04-01

    The South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA) is an international research project investigating the impacts of biomass burning emissions on climate, air quality and numerical weather prediction over South America. The project involves a combination of measurements and modelling activities to assess the role of biomass burning and biogenic emissions in the earth system. This international collaboration has been led by a partnership between the Met Office, the Brazilian National Institute for Space research (INPE), the University of Sao Paulo, and a consortium of UK Universities. The measurement program was headed by the deployment of UK's Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements (FAAM) BAe-146 research aircraft over Brazil during the dry season of September - October 2012. This was co-ordinated with ground-based measurements operated by the University of Sao Paulo and INPE. This successful field experiment now provides an excellent source of observations to build our understanding of biomass burning processes and improve model simulations of biomass burning aerosols and their interactions with biogenic emissions, atmospheric chemistry, clouds, radiation, and the terrestrial biosphere. This talk will summarise the field experiment, including the aircraft measurements and ground-based observations made during the dry season of 2012. Preliminary results will highlight the range of biomass burning and biogenic emissions observed from tropical forest, deforested zones and scrub-land. Case studies will also show infra-red camera images of fire radiative output, the evolution of large smoke plumes and the variable composition of background aerosol and extensive haze layers across the region. The lidar data and aircraft profiles also highlight the prevalence of elevated aerosol layers observed at altitudes of 3 - 7km, presumed to be detrainment from large smoke plumes, pyrocumulus and mid-level convection. The ground-based observations also highlight the

  19. A Field Trip to Gettysburg: A Model Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olcott, Mark S.

    1987-01-01

    Using Gettysburg as an example, the author addresses the major components of a successful field trip, such as pre-teaching, memorizing, and the study of primary sources. Includes information on student participation and other factors of a successful field trip. (GEA)

  20. Airborne GLM Simulator (FEGS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quick, M.; Blakeslee, R. J.; Christian, H. J., Jr.; Stewart, M. F.; Podgorny, S.; Corredor, D.

    2015-12-01

    Real time lightning observations have proven to be useful for advanced warning and now-casting of severe weather events. In anticipation of the launch of the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) onboard GOES-R that will provide continuous real time observations of total (both cloud and ground) lightning, the Fly's Eye GLM Simulator (FEGS) is in production. FEGS is an airborne instrument designed to provide cal/val measurements for GLM from high altitude aircraft. It consists of a 5 x 5 array of telescopes each with a narrow passband filter to isolate the 777.4 nm neutral oxygen emission triplet radiated by lightning. The telescopes will measure the optical radiance emitted by lightning that is transmitted through the cloud top with a temporal resolution of 10 μs. When integrated on the NASA ER-2 aircraft, the FEGS array with its 90° field-of-view will observe a cloud top area nearly equal to a single GLM pixel. This design will allow FEGS to determine the temporal and spatial variation of light that contributes to a GLM event detection. In addition to the primary telescope array, the instrument includes 5 supplementary optical channels that observe alternate spectral emission features and will enable the use of FEGS for interesting lightning physics applications. Here we present an up-to-date summary of the project and a description of its scientific applications.

  1. A Comparison between Airborne and Mountaintop Cloud Microphysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, R.; Lowenthal, D. H.; Hallar, A. G.; McCubbin, I.; Avallone, L. M.; Mace, G. G.; Wang, Z.

    2014-12-01

    Complex terrain has a large impact on cloud dynamics and microphysics. Several studies have examined the microphysical details of orographically-enhanced clouds from either an aircraft or from a mountain top location. However, further research is needed to characterize the relationships between mountain top and airborne microphysical properties. During the winter of 2011, an airborne study, the Colorado Airborne Mixed-Phase Cloud Study (CAMPS), and a ground-based field campaign, the Storm Peak Lab (SPL) Cloud Property Validation Experiment (StormVEx) were conducted in the Park Range of the Colorado Rockies. The CAMPS study utilized the University of Wyoming King Air (UWKA) to provide airborne cloud microphysical and meteorological data on 29 flights totaling 98 flight hours over the Park Range from December 15, 2010 to February 28, 2011. The UWKA was equipped with instruments that measured both cloud droplet and ice crystal size distributions, liquid water content, total water content (vapor, liquid, and ice), and 3-dimensional wind speed and direction. The Wyoming Cloud Radar and Lidar were also deployed during the campaign. These measurements are used to characterize cloud structure upwind and above the Park Range. StormVEx measured cloud droplet, ice crystal, and aerosol size distributions at SPL, located on the west summit of Mt. Werner at 3220m MSL. The observations from SPL are used to determine mountain top cloud microphysical properties at elevations lower than the UWKA was able to sample in-situ. Comparisons showed that cloud microphysics aloft and at the surface were consistent with respect to snow growth processes while small crystal concentrations were routinely higher at the surface, suggesting ice nucleation near cloud base. The effects of aerosol concentrations and upwind stability on mountain top and downwind microphysics are considered.

  2. Challenges and Successes Managing Airborne Science Data for CARVE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardman, S. H.; Dinardo, S. J.; Lee, E. C.

    2014-12-01

    The Carbon in Arctic Reservoirs Vulnerability Experiment (CARVE) mission collects detailed measurements of important greenhouse gases on local to regional scales in the Alaskan Arctic and demonstrates new remote sensing and improved modeling capabilities to quantify Arctic carbon fluxes and carbon cycle-climate processes. Airborne missions offer a number of challenges when it comes to collecting and processing the science data and CARVE is no different. The biggest challenge relates to the flexibility of the instrument payload. Within the life of the mission, instruments may be removed from or added to the payload, or even reconfigured on a yearly, monthly or daily basis. Although modification of the instrument payload provides a distinct advantage for airborne missions compared to spaceborne missions, it does tend to wreak havoc on the underlying data system when introducing changes to existing data inputs or new data inputs that require modifications to the pipeline for processing the data. In addition to payload flexibility, it is not uncommon to find unsupported files in the field data submission. In the case of CARVE, these include video files, photographs taken during the flight and screen shots from terminal displays. These need to captured, saved and somehow integrated into the data system. The CARVE data system was built on a multi-mission data system infrastructure for airborne instruments called the Airborne Cloud Computing Environment (ACCE). ACCE encompasses the end-to-end lifecycle covering planning, provisioning of data system capabilities, and support for scientific analysis in order to improve the quality, cost effectiveness, and capabilities to enable new scientific discovery and research in earth observation. This well-tested and proven infrastructure allows the CARVE data system to be easily adapted in order to handle the challenges posed by the CARVE mission and to successfully process, manage and distribute the mission's science data. This

  3. Psychologists and the Incarcerated: New Trainees' Experience in the Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Daniel J.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore clinical psychologist trainees' perceptions of incarcerated individuals after a practicum experience at a local jail. A qualitative methodology, Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis, was utilized to explore subjective experiences and determine if participants' attitudes and beliefs were challenged with…

  4. Optical measurements of nasa/usaf crres high altitude rocket borne chemical release experiments in conjunction with the USAF airborne ionospheric observatory aircraft. Final report, 9 January 1991-30 September 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Boquist, W.P.; Ledley, B.G.

    1992-10-01

    In order to provide post experiment optical imagery data for correlation of airborne measurements of satellite signal modification from intervening chemical vapor clouds released in the upper atmosphere, Technology International Corporation provided and operated as part of the NASA/USAF PL/CRRES research program a ground optics station on Grand Turk Island in the Caribbean during June-July 1992. Optical data was acquired on the AA-1 event (approximately 95%) and the AA-7 event (approximately 60%). The third release (AA-2 event) occurred when the Grand Turk optics site was fully obscured by clouds for the duration of the normal period of visibility. All three rocket borne experiments were launched at morning twilight.

  5. EUFAR the unique portal for airborne research in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gérard, Elisabeth; Brown, Philip

    2016-04-01

    Created in 2000 and supported by the EU Framework Programmes since then, EUFAR was born out of the necessity to create a central network and access point for the airborne research community in Europe. With the aim to support researchers by granting them access to research infrastructures, not accessible in their home countries, EUFAR also provides technical support and training in the field of airborne research for the environmental and geo-sciences. Today, EUFAR2 (2014-2018) coordinates and facilitates transnational access to 18 instrumented aircraft and 3 remote-sensing instruments through the 13 operators who are part of EUFAR's current 24-partner European consortium. In addition, the current project supports networking and research activities focused on providing an enabling environment for and promoting airborne research. The EUFAR2 activities cover three objectives, supported by the internet website www.eufar.net: (I - Institutional) improvement of the access to the research infrastructures and development of the future fleet according to the strategic advisory committee (SAC) recommendations; (ii - Innovation) improvement of the scientific knowledge and promotion of innovating instruments, processes and services for the emergence of new industrial technologies, with an identification of industrial needs by the SAC; (iii - Service) optimisation and harmonisation of the use of the research infrastructures through the development of the community of young researches in airborne science, of the standards and protocols and of the airborne central database. With the launch of a brand new website (www.eufar.net) in mid-November 2015, EUFAR aims to improve user experience on the website, which serves as a source of information and a hub where users are able to collaborate, learn, share expertise and best practices, and apply for transnational access, and education and training funded opportunities within the network. With its newly designed eye-catching interface

  6. Toolsets for Airborne Data

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2015-04-02

    article title:  Toolsets for Airborne Data     View larger image The ... limit of detection values. Prior to accessing the TAD Web Application ( https://tad.larc.nasa.gov ) for the first time, users must ...

  7. Near-field spillover from a subreflector: Theory and experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, S. W.; Acosta, R.; Cherrette, A. R.; Lam, P. T.

    1986-01-01

    In a dual reflector antenna, the spillover from the subreflector is important in determining the accuracy of near-field measurements. This is especially so when some of the feed elements are placed far away from the focus. In this paper, we present a high-frequency GTD analysis of the spillover field over a plane just behind the subreflector. Special attention is given to the field near the incident shadow boundary and the role played by the slope diffraction term. Our computations are in excellent agreement with experimental results.

  8. Airborne laser communication technology and flight test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Li-xin; Zhang, Li-zhong; Li, Xiao-ming; Li, Ying-chao; Jiang, Hui-lin

    2015-11-01

    Reconnaissance aircraft is an important node of the space-air-ground integrated information network, on which equipped with a large number of high-resolution surveillance equipment, and need high speed communications equipment to transmit detected information in real time. Currently RF communication methods cannot meet the needs of communication bandwidth. Wireless laser communication has outstanding advantages high speed, high capacity, security, etc., is an important means to solve the high-speed information transmission of airborne platforms. In this paper, detailed analysis of how the system works, the system components, work processes, link power and the key technologies of airborne laser communication were discussed. On this basis, a prototype airborne laser communications was developed, and high-speed, long-distance communications tests were carried out between the two fixed-wing aircraft, and the airborne precision aiming, atmospheric laser communication impacts on laser communication were tested. The experiments ultimately realize that, the communication distance is 144km, the communication rate is 2.5Gbps. The Airborne laser communication experiments provide technical basis for the application of the conversion equipment.

  9. The airborne laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamberson, Steven; Schall, Harold; Shattuck, Paul

    2007-05-01

    The Airborne Laser (ABL) is an airborne, megawatt-class laser system with a state-of-the-art atmospheric compensation system to destroy enemy ballistic missiles at long ranges. This system will provide both deterrence and defense against the use of such weapons during conflicts. This paper provides an overview of the ABL weapon system including: the notional operational concept, the development approach and schedule, the overall aircraft configuration, the technologies being incorporated in the ABL, and the current program status.

  10. Airborne gamma radiation measurements of soil moisture during FIFE: Activities and results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peck, Eugene L.

    1992-01-01

    Soil moisture measurements were obtained during the summer of 1987 and 1989 near Manhattan, Kansas, using the National Weather Service (NWS) airborne gamma radiation system. A network of 24 flight lines were established over the research area. Airborne surveys were flown daily during two intensive field campaigns. The data collected was sufficient to modify the NWS standard operational method for estimating soil moisture for the Field Experiment (FIFE) flight lines. The average root mean square error of the soil moisture estimates for shorter FIFE flight lines was found to be 2.5 percent, compared with a reported value of 3.9 percent for NWS flight lines. Techniques were developed to compute soil moisture estimates for portions of the flight lines. Results of comparisons of the airborne gamma radiation soil moisture estimates with those obtained using the NASA Pushbroom Microwave Radiation (PBMR) system and hydrological model are presented. The airborne soil moisture measurements, and real averages computed using all remotely sensed and ground data, have been in support of the research of the many FIFE investigators whose overall goal was the upscale integration of models and the application of satellite remote sensing.

  11. Cyberinfrastructure for Airborne Sensor Webs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freudinger, Lawrence C.

    2009-01-01

    Since 2004 the NASA Airborne Science Program has been prototyping and using infrastructure that enables researchers to interact with each other and with their instruments via network communications. This infrastructure uses satellite links and an evolving suite of applications and services that leverage open-source software. The use of these tools has increased near-real-time situational awareness during field operations, resulting in productivity improvements and the collection of better data. This paper describes the high-level system architecture and major components, with example highlights from the use of the infrastructure. The paper concludes with a discussion of ongoing efforts to transition to operational status.

  12. Field tests of a new, extractive, airborne 1.4 μm -TDLAS hygrometer (SEALDH-I) on a Learjet 35A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchholz, Bernhard; Ebert, Volker

    2013-04-01

    A highly accurate and precise quantification of atmospheric humidity is a prerequisite for cloud studies as well as for environmental models in order to get a deeper understanding of physical processes and effects. On the one hand numerous trace gases measurements in airborne "laboratories" have to be corrected for water vapor influence; on the other hand satellite measurements have to be validated by in-situ H2O measurements on aircrafts. The vast majority of the airborne hygrometers require a precise and frequent sensor calibration in order to ensure a sufficient performance. UT/LS sensors in particular are often calibrated before and after each individual flight. But even this might not be sufficient which explains why recently in-flight calibrations are becoming more common. Nevertheless all calibrated sensors completely depend on the performance of the water standard used for calibration. Therefore it remains an open question if in-flight calibrations are the way to go: They also might suffer from inflight disturbances and they would need validation during flight conditions. Water calibrations at low humidity are even more complicated due to the strong water adsorption and the resulting sampling problems. An abstention from calibration would avoid many of these problems. In addition, calibration free sensors are much easier to debug as they can hardly have errors which can be hidden by calibration parameters (such as leaks, etc.). Robust cal-free sensors should therefore perform more stable in flight when the sensors boundary conditions might change. The situation can be improved further with extractive cal-free sensors as the boundary condition in measurement volume (pressure, temperature, path length, flow pattern, etc.), i.e. in an extractive cell, are much better controlled than for an open path sensor. Further cal-free extractive sensors can be designed maintain its integrity when attaching and detaching it from the carrier (airplane). This makes it much

  13. Missile launch detection electric field perturbation experiment. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kane, R.J.; Rynne, T.M.

    1993-04-28

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and SARA Inc. participated in the ATMD missile launch activities that occurred at WSMR during January 1993. LLNL and SARA deployed sensors for monitoring of basic phenomena. An attempt was made to measure perturbations of the earth geo-potential during the launch of a Lance missile. The occurrence of the perturbation is expected from the conducting body of the missile and the exhaust plume. A set of voltage-probe antennas were used to monitor the local electric field perturbation from the launch at ranges of approximately 1 km. Examination of the data acquired during the launch period failed to show identifiable correlation of the field variations with the launch event. Three reasons are ascribed to this lack of event data: (1) The electric field potential variations have a limited spatial correlation length - the fields measured in one region have little correlation to measurements made at distances of a kilometer away. The potential variations are related to localized atmospheric disturbances and are generally unpredictable. A value for the spatial correlation length is also not known. (2) The conductivity of the plume and missile body are not adequate to produce a field perturbation of adequate magnitude. Phenomena related to the exhaust plume and missile may exist and be outside of the collection range of the equipment employed for these measurements. (3) The presence of 60 Hz power line noise was of sufficient magnitude to irreversibly contaminate measurements.

  14. It is an Experience, Not a Lesson: The Nature of High School Students' Experiences at a Biological Field Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behrendt, Marc E.

    The purpose of this case study was to describe the nature of high school students' experiences in the immersive four-day field experience at Stone Laboratory Biological Field Station including excursions to Kelley's Island and South Bass Island. Six tenth, eleventh, and twelfth grade students participated through interviews, photovoice, observations, and a survey. Pretrip semi-structured interviews were conducted to understand each participant student's relationship with science. Participants were given cameras to record their field trip experiences to relate what they found interesting, important, and exciting. Back at school after the field trip, the participants were asked to choose their five most meaningful photographs, and write a short essay to describe the significance of each image. A posttrip semi-structured interview explored each participant's experiences during the field trip. An unstructured interview was conducted to discuss each participant's full photograph gallery from the field trip. Interview transcripts were member checked with one minor wording change. Analysis consisted of open coding using apriori codes derived from the ecological framework and emergent codes derived from the data. Coding was duplicated through multiple readers. Significant findings included: 1) Prior experience, prior knowledge, and funds of knowledge added relevance and value to an experience, facilitating interest development; 2) Experiences appeared to be more meaningful when all the senses were stimulated; 3) Friends and peers were an essential part of a quality experience; 4) Quality experiences included a wow factor, or sudden awareness; 5) Teachers needed to be within the experience, not the focus of the experience, and needed to be available to answer questions, be enthusiastic when a discovery was made, and promote student reflection concerning their perceptions and discoveries; 6) A quality informal learning situation incorporated the cognitive/affective, physical

  15. Taking Them into the Field: Mathematics Teacher Candidate Learning about Equity-Oriented Teaching Practices in a Mediated Field Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Sara Sunshine

    2012-01-01

    Teacher education programs have been criticized as too theoretical with university courses disconnected from the practical realities of classrooms. This single case study investigates a model of teacher education that worked to bridge the coursework-fieldwork gap in teacher education. The Mediated Field Experience (MFE) is a field experience…

  16. Field experience with volume traps for assessing retrospective radon exposures.

    PubMed

    Paridaens, J; Vanmarcke, H; Zunic, Z S; McLaughlin, J P

    2001-05-14

    Approximately 200 volume traps were retrieved from dwellings in various radon prone areas in Europe. They were analysed for the purpose of retrospective radon assessment. Emphasis is put on specific problems encountered when using field samples as opposed to laboratory exposed samples. It was seen that in very dusty circumstances, direct penetration of radon decay products from the outside to the centre of the volume traps calls for extra caution. Rinsing the samples is proposed as a solution and was tested in field and laboratory conditions, showing good results. An attempt was made to give an assessment of the achievable accuracy of the method. Where possible, the volume trap retrospective results were compared with contemporary measurements or to retrospective results from surface traps. The overall impression is that although volume traps are sometimes hard to find in the field, the high reliability of the results makes it well worth the effort. PMID:11379924

  17. Near-field radiative thermal transport: From theory to experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Bai Fiorino, Anthony; Meyhofer, Edgar; Reddy, Pramod

    2015-05-15

    Radiative thermal transport via the fluctuating electromagnetic near-field has recently attracted increasing attention due to its fundamental importance and its impact on a range of applications from data storage to thermal management and energy conversion. After a brief historical account of radiative thermal transport, we summarize the basics of fluctuational electrodynamics, a theoretical framework for the study of radiative heat transfer in terms of thermally excited propagating and evanescent electromagnetic waves. Various approaches to modeling near-field thermal transport are briefly discussed, together with key results and proposals for manipulation and utilization of radiative heat flow. Subsequently, we review the experimental advances in the characterization of both near-field heat flow and energy density. We conclude with remarks on the opportunities and challenges for future explorations of radiative heat transfer at the nanoscale.

  18. CARABAS - an airborne VHF SAR system

    SciTech Connect

    Larsson, B.; Frolined, P.O.; Gustavsson, A.

    1996-11-01

    There is an increasing interest in imaging radar systems operating at low frequencies, Examples of civilian and military applications are detection of stealth-designed man-made objects, targets hidden under foliage, biomass estimation, and penetration into glaciers or ground. CARABAS (Coherent All Radio Band Sensing) is a new airborne SAR system developed by FOA. It is designed for operation in the lowest part of the VHF band (20-90 NHz), using horizontal polarisation. This frequency region gives the system a good ability to penetrate vegetation and to some extent ground. CARABAS is the first known SAR sensor with a capability of diffraction limited imaging, i.e. a resolution in magnitude of the adopted wavelengths. A Sabreliner business jet aircraft is used as the airborne platform. Critical parts in the development have been the antenna system, the receiver and the processing algorithms. Based upon the experiences gained with CARABAS I a major system upgrade is now taking place. The new CARABAS II system is scheduled to fly in May 1996. This system is designed to give operational performance while CARABAS I was used to verify the feasibility. The first major field campaigns are planned for the second half of 1996. CARABAS II is jointly developed by FOA and Ericsson Microwave Systems AB in Sweden. This paper will give an overview of the system design and data collected with the current radar system, including some results for forested regions. The achieved system performance will be discussed, with a presentation of the major modifications made in the new CARABAS 11 system. 12 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Radio frequency wave experiments on the MST reversed field pinch

    SciTech Connect

    Forest, C. B.; Chattopadhyay, P. K.; Nornberg, M. D.; Prager, S. C.; Thomas, M. A.; Uchimoto, E.; Smirnov, A. P.; Harvey, R. W.; Ram, A. K.

    1999-09-20

    Whether there is a self-consistent path from poor confinement to greatly improved confinement through current profile modification is an issue for future experiments to address if and only if near term experiments can demonstrate: (1) coupling to and the propagation of rf waves in RFP plasmas, (2) efficient current drive, and (3) control of the power deposition which will make it possible to control the current profile. In this paper, modeling results and experimental plans are presented for two rf experiments which have the potential of satisfying these three goals: high-n{sub (parallel} {sub sign)} lower hybrid (LH) waves and electron Bernstein waves (EBWs). (c) 1999 American Institute of Physics.

  20. Dark matter effective field theory scattering in direct detection experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Schneck, K.; Cabrera, B.; Cerdeno, D. G.; Mandic, V.; Rogers, H. E.; Agnese, R.; Anderson, A. J.; Asai, M.; Balakishiyeva, D.; Barker, D.; Basu Thakur, R.; Bauer, D. A.; Billard, J.; Borgland, A.; Brandt, D.; Brink, P. L.; Bunker, R.; Caldwell, D. O.; Calkins, R.; Chagani, H.; Chen, Y.; Cooley, J.; Cornell, B.; Crewdson, C. H.; Cushman, Priscilla B.; Daal, M.; Di Stefano, P. C.; Doughty, T.; Esteban, L.; Fallows, S.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Godfrey, G. L.; Golwala, S. R.; Hall, Jeter C.; Harris, H. R.; Hofer, T.; Holmgren, D.; Hsu, L.; Huber, M. E.; Jardin, D. M.; Jastram, A.; Kamaev, O.; Kara, B.; Kelsey, M. H.; Kennedy, A.; Leder, A.; Loer, B.; Lopez Asamar, E.; Lukens, W.; Mahapatra, R.; McCarthy, K. A.; Mirabolfathi, N.; Moffatt, R. A.; Morales Mendoza, J. D.; Oser, S. M.; Page, K.; Page, W. A.; Partridge, R.; Pepin, M.; Phipps, A.; Prasad, K.; Pyle, M.; Qiu, H.; Rau, W.; Redl, P.; Reisetter, A.; Ricci, Y.; Roberts, A.; Saab, T.; Sadoulet, B.; Sander, J.; Schnee, R. W.; Scorza, S.; Serfass, B.; Shank, B.; Speller, D.; Toback, D.; Upadhyayula, S.; Villano, A. N.; Welliver, B.; Wilson, J. S.; Wright, D. H.; Yang, X.; Yellin, S.; Yen, J. J.; Young, B. A.; Zhang, J.

    2015-05-01

    We examine the consequences of the effective eld theory (EFT) of dark matter-nucleon scattering or current and proposed direct detection experiments. Exclusion limits on EFT coupling constants computed using the optimum interval method are presented for SuperCDMS Soudan, CDMS II, and LUX, and the necessity of combining results from multiple experiments in order to determine dark matter parameters is discussed. We demonstrate that spectral di*erences between the standard dark matter model and a general EFT interaction can produce a bias when calculating exclusion limits and when developing signal models for likelihood and machine learning techniques. We also discuss the implications of the EFT for the next-generation (G2) direct detection experiments and point out regions of complementarity in the EFT parameter space.

  1. Low latitude geomagnetic field line resonance: Experiment and modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Waters, C.L.; Menk, F.W.; Fraser, B.J.

    1994-09-01

    The authors describe work to detect field line resonances, or the observation of Pc 3-5 geomagnetic pulsation events, at low latitude sites. These signals are extracted from ground based magnetometer arrays. The authors found one field line resonance structure in 5 weeks of data at L=1.8. At L=2.8 they were able to observe up to 4 harmonics concurrently. They compare these frequency spectra with the results of two different models of the plasma density in the lower ionosphere.

  2. Airborne Laser Polar Nephelometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grams, Gerald W.

    1973-01-01

    A polar nephelometer has been developed at NCAR to measure the angular variation of the intensity of light scattered by air molecules and particles. The system has been designed for airborne measurements using outside air ducted through a 5-cm diameter airflow tube; the sample volume is that which is common to the intersection of a collimated source beam and the detector field of view within the airflow tube. The source is a linearly polarized helium-neon laser beam. The optical system defines a collimated field-of-view (0.5deg half-angle) through a series of diaphragms located behind a I72-mm focal length objective lens. A photomultiplier tube is located immediately behind an aperture in the focal plane of the objective lens. The laser beam is mechanically chopped (on-off) at a rate of 5 Hz; a two-channel pulse counter, synchronized to the laser output, measures the photomultiplier pulse rate with the light beam both on and off. The difference in these measured pulse rates is directly proportional to the intensity of the scattered light from the volume common to the intersection of the laser beam and the detector field-of-view. Measurements can be made at scattering angles from 15deg to 165deg with reference to the direction of propagation of the light beam. Intermediate angles are obtained by selecting the angular increments desired between these extreme angles (any multiple of 0.1deg can be selected for the angular increment; 5deg is used in normal operation). Pulses provided by digital circuits control a stepping motor which sequentially rotates the detector by pre-selected angular increments. The synchronous photon-counting system automatically begins measurement of the scattered-light intensity immediately after the rotation to a new angle has been completed. The instrument has been flown on the NASA Convair 990 airborne laboratory to obtain data on the complex index of refraction of atmospheric aerosols. A particle impaction device is operated simultaneously

  3. Toolsets for Airborne Data Beta Release

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-09-17

    ... use, is now available. This beta-release is an intuitive user interface for variable selection across different airborne field studies ... we plan to add DISCOVER-AQ Colorado and SEAC4RS to the TAD database. We are currently focused on the in situ measurements and we want to ...

  4. Focus on Geography--Team Themes and Field Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daly, John L.

    1990-01-01

    Describes an approach used by the Wayland, Massachusetts, middle school to organizing students into instructional teams. Explains that each instructional team is organized into a "house" named after a significant individual around whom the curriculum and theme for field trips is designed. Highlights the Rachel Carson House activities of learning…

  5. Soil Science as a Field Discipline - Experiences in Iowa, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burras, C. Lee

    2015-04-01

    Effective field understanding of soils is crucial. This is true everywhere but especially so in Iowa, a 15 million hectare state in the central USA's "corn belt." Iowa is intensely farmed and almost exclusively privately owned. Many regions of Iowa have had over 90% of their land area in row crops for the past 60 years. In these regions two very common land management strategies are tile drainage (1.5 million km total) and high rates of fertilization (e.g., 200 kg N/ha-yr for cropland) Iowa also has problematic environmental issues including high rates of erosion, excessive sediment and nutrient pollution in water bodies and episodic catastrophic floods. Given the preceding the Agronomy, Environmental Science and Sustainable Agriculture programs at Iowa State University (ISU) offer a strong suite of soil science classes - undergraduate through graduate. The objective of this presentation is to review selected field based soil science courses offered by those programs. This review includes contrasting and comparing campus-based and immersion classes. Immersion classes include ones offered at Iowa Lakeside Laboratory, as "soil judging" and internationally. Findings over the past 20 years are consistent. Students at all levels gain soil science knowledge, competency and confidence proportional to the amount of time spent in field activities. Furthermore their professional skepticism is sharpened. They are also preferentially hired even in career postings that do not require fieldwork. In other words, field learning results in better soil science professionals who have highly functional and sought after knowledge.

  6. Early Field Experience in Career and Technical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smalley, Scott Walter

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the three studies in this dissertation was to enhance career and technical education in the area of agriculture, business, and family and consumer sciences. This dissertation contains three papers: (1) a Delphi study identifying the purpose, expected outcomes, and methods of documenting preservice teacher early field experience…

  7. Pioneer 10 and 11 (Jupiter and Saturn) magnetic field experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, D. E.

    1986-01-01

    Magnet field data obtained by the vector helium magnetometer (VHM) during the encounters of Jupiter (Pioneer 10 and 11) and Saturn (Pioneer 11) was analyzed and interpreted. The puzzling characteristics of the Jovian and Saturnian magnetospheric magnetic fields were studied. An apparent substorm (including thinning of the dayside tail current sheet) was observed at Jupiter, as well as evidence suggesting that at the magnetopause the cusp is at an abnormally low latitude. The characteristics of Saturn's ring current as observed by Pioneer 11 were dramatically different from those suggested by the Voyager observations. Most importantly, very strong perturbations in the azimuthal ring current magnetic field suggest that the plane of the ring was not in the dipole equatorial plane, being tilted 5 to 10 deg. relative to the dipole and undergoing significant changes during the encounter. When these changing currents were corrected for, an improved planetary field determination was obtained. In addition, the ring and azimuthal currents at Saturn displayed significantly different time dependences.

  8. Rotating field antenna experiments in Phaedrus-B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasaka, Y.; Majeski, R.; Browning, J.; Hershkowitz, N.; Roberts, D.

    1987-09-01

    The rotating field antenna installed in the central cell of the Phaedrus-B tandem mirror consists of two close-spaced dual half-turn ICRF antennas. The symmetry axes of the antennas are rotated 90° with respect to each other. Each antenna is driven by a separate rf amplifier, with ≳200 KW power output. The polarization of the resultant antenna near fields is selected by the relative phasing of the antenna currents. In particular, the antenna set can produce nearly pure left or right circularly polarized fields. We find an increase in ion heating as the field polarization is varied from right circularly polarized through linear polarization to left circular polarization, for plasma densities up to 3-4×1012 cm-3, when the antenna set is driven at ω˜ωci (midplane). Ion temperature is diagnosed by a time of flight neutral energy analyzer. Results are compared to the predictions of the ICRF code ANTENA of Brian McVey.

  9. The Field Trip Book: Study Travel Experiences in Social Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Ronald V.

    2010-01-01

    Looking for social studies adventures to help students find connections to democratic citizenship? Look no further! This book provides just the answer teachers need for engaging students in field trips as researching learners with emphasis on interdisciplinary social studies plus skills in collecting and reporting data gathered from field…

  10. Mechanisms of nitrogen retention in forest ecosystems - A field experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vitousek, P. M.; Matson, P. A.

    1984-01-01

    Intensive forest management led to elevated losses of nitrogen from a recently harvested loblolly pine plantation in North Carolina. Measurements of nitrogen-15 retention in the field demonstrated that microbial uptake of nitrogen during the decomposition of residual organic material was the most important process retaining nitrogen. Management practices that remove this material cause increased losses of nitrogen to aquatic ecosystems and the atmosphere.

  11. Validation of microwave vegetation indices using field experiment data sets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetation indices are valuable in many fields of geosciences. Conventional, visible-near infrared, indices are often limited by the effects of atmosphere, background soil conditions, and saturation at high levels of vegetation. A recent study established the theoretical basis for a new type of inde...

  12. The visibility of airborne volcanic ash from the flight deck of an aircraft - The effect of clouds in the field of view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauer, Daniel; Gasteiger, Josef; Emde, Claudia; Buras, Robert; Mayer, Bernhard; Weinzierl, Bernadett

    2013-05-01

    In April 2010, the volcanic ash cloud from the Eyjafjalla volcano in Iceland strongly impacted aviation in Europe. Several other incidents in the past have shown that volcanic ash can have severe consequences on aviation. One operational necessity is, therefore, to determine whether a pilot has the means to avoid flying through potentially dangerous volcanic ash just by visual observation of the sky from the cockpit of an aircraft. Here we investigate how clouds affect the visibility of a volcanic ash aerosol layer for an observer in the cockpit of an aircraft using a 3D Monte Carlo radiative transfer model MYSTIC. This study builds on the results of a previous study on the visibility of airborne volcanic ash in Weinzierl et al. (2012) where we considered the cloud-free case. With clouds, the discernibility of ash layers is substantially reduced. Even layers with comparably high mass concentrations of 2 mg m-3 might not be visible for uninformed observers.

  13. Well-planning programs give students field-like experience

    SciTech Connect

    Sifferman, T.R.; Chapman, L.

    1983-01-01

    The University of Tulsa recently was given a package of computer well planning and drilling programs that will enable petroleum engineering students to gain valuable experience in designing well programs while still in school. Comprehensive homework assignments are now given in areas of drilling fluids programing, hydraulics, directional wells and surveying. Additional programs are scheduled for next semester.

  14. International Field Experiences Promote Professional Development for Sustainability Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hull, R. Bruce; Kimmel, Courtney; Robertson, David P.; Mortimer, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to describe, explain and evaluate a graduate education program that provides international project experiences and builds competencies related to collaborative problem-solving, cultural capacity to work globally and sustainable development. Design/methodology/approach: Qualitative analysis of survey data from 28 students…

  15. Field Experience in Postsecondary Education: A Guidebook for Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuttenberg, Ernest M.; Poppenhagen, Brent W.

    Four main areas are addressed in this guide for learners and mentors in internship experiences in postsecondary education: (1) career orientation and planning; (2) experiential learning theory; (3) individual learning and development; and (4) program implementation and evaluation. Part One of the text identifies the structure of work in…

  16. Rocky 7 prototype Mars rover field geology experiments 1. Lavic Lake and sunshine volcanic field, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arvidson, R. E.; Acton, C.; Blaney, D.; Bowman, J.; Kim, S.; Klingelhofer, G.; Marshall, J.; Niebur, C.; Plescia, J.; Saunders, R.S.; Ulmer, C.T.

    1998-01-01

    Experiments with the Rocky 7 rover were performed in the Mojave Desert to better understand how to conduct rover-based, long-distance (kilometers) geological traverses on Mars. The rover was equipped with stereo imaging systems for remote sensing science and hazard avoidance and 57Fe Mo??ssbauer and nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometers for in situ determination of mineralogy of unprepared rock and soil surfaces. Laboratory data were also obtained using the spectrometers and an X ray diffraction (XRD)/XRF instrument for unprepared samples collected from the rover sites. Simulated orbital and descent image data assembled for the test sites were found to be critical for assessing the geologic setting, formulating hypotheses to be tested with rover observations, planning traverses, locating the rover, and providing a regional context for interpretation of rover-based observations. Analyses of remote sensing and in situ observations acquired by the rover confirmed inferences made from orbital and simulated descent images that the Sunshine Volcanic Field is composed of basalt flows. Rover data confirmed the idea that Lavic Lake is a recharge playa and that an alluvial fan composed of sediments with felsic compositions has prograded onto the playa. Rover-based discoveries include the inference that the basalt flows are mantled with aeolian sediment and covered with a dense pavement of varnished basalt cobbles. Results demonstrate that the combination of rover remote sensing and in situ analytical observations will significantly increase our understanding of Mars and provide key connecting links between orbital and descent data and analyses of returned samples. Copyright 1998 by the American Geophysical Union.

  17. Airborne Gravimetry and Downward Continuation (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jekeli, C.; Yang, H.; Kwon, J.

    2009-12-01

    Measuring the Earth’s gravity field using airborne instrumentation is fully operational and has been widely practiced for nearly three decades since its official debut in the early 1980s (S. Hammer: “Airborne Gravity is Here!”) coinciding with the precision kinematic positioning capability of GPS. Airborne gravimetry is undertaken for both efficient geophysical exploration purposes, as well as the determination of the regional geoid to aid in the modernization of height systems. Especially for the latter application, downward continuation of the data and combination with existing terrestrial gravimetry pose theoretical as well as practical challenges, which, on the other hand, create multiple processing possibilities. Downward continuation may be approached in various ways from the viewpoint of potential theory and the boundary-value problem to using gradients either estimated locally or computed from existing models. Logistical constraints imposed by the airborne survey, instrumental noise, and the intrinsic numerical instability of downward continuation all conspire to impact the final product in terms of achievable resolution and accuracy. In this paper, we review the theory of airborne gravimetry and the methodology of downward continuation, and provide a numerical comparison of possible schemes and their impact on geoid determination.

  18. Field experiments of success-breeds-success dynamics.

    PubMed

    van de Rijt, Arnout; Kang, Soong Moon; Restivo, Michael; Patil, Akshay

    2014-05-13

    Seemingly similar individuals often experience drastically different success trajectories, with some repeatedly failing and others consistently succeeding. One explanation is preexisting variability along unobserved fitness dimensions that is revealed gradually through differential achievement. Alternatively, positive feedback operating on arbitrary initial advantages may increasingly set apart winners from losers, producing runaway inequality. To identify social feedback in human reward systems, we conducted randomized experiments by intervening in live social environments across the domains of funding, status, endorsement, and reputation. In each system we consistently found that early success bestowed upon arbitrarily selected recipients produced significant improvements in subsequent rates of success compared with the control group of nonrecipients. However, success exhibited decreasing marginal returns, with larger initial advantages failing to produce much further differentiation. These findings suggest a lesser degree of vulnerability of reward systems to incidental or fabricated advantages and a more modest role for cumulative advantage in the explanation of social inequality than previously thought. PMID:24778230

  19. Field experiments of success-breeds-success dynamics

    PubMed Central

    van de Rijt, Arnout; Kang, Soong Moon; Restivo, Michael; Patil, Akshay

    2014-01-01

    Seemingly similar individuals often experience drastically different success trajectories, with some repeatedly failing and others consistently succeeding. One explanation is preexisting variability along unobserved fitness dimensions that is revealed gradually through differential achievement. Alternatively, positive feedback operating on arbitrary initial advantages may increasingly set apart winners from losers, producing runaway inequality. To identify social feedback in human reward systems, we conducted randomized experiments by intervening in live social environments across the domains of funding, status, endorsement, and reputation. In each system we consistently found that early success bestowed upon arbitrarily selected recipients produced significant improvements in subsequent rates of success compared with the control group of nonrecipients. However, success exhibited decreasing marginal returns, with larger initial advantages failing to produce much further differentiation. These findings suggest a lesser degree of vulnerability of reward systems to incidental or fabricated advantages and a more modest role for cumulative advantage in the explanation of social inequality than previously thought. PMID:24778230

  20. Overview of results from the MST reversed field pinch experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarff, J. S.; Almagri, A. F.; Anderson, J. K.; Borchardt, M.; Cappechi, W.; Carmody, D.; Caspary, K.; Chapman, B. E.; Den Hartog, D. J.; Duff, J.; Eilerman, S.; Falkowski, A.; Forest, C. B.; Galante, M.; Goetz, J. A.; Holly, D. J.; Koliner, J.; Kumar, S.; Lee, J. D.; Liu, D.; McCollam, K. J.; McGarry, M.; Mirnov, V. V.; Morton, L.; Munaretto, S.; Nornberg, M. D.; Nonn, P. D.; Oliva, S. P.; Parke, E.; Pueschel, M. J.; Reusch, J. A.; Sauppe, J.; Seltzman, A.; Sovinec, C. R.; Stone, D.; Theucks, D.; Thomas, M.; Triana, J.; Terry, P. W.; Waksman, J.; Whelan, G. C.; Brower, D. L.; Ding, W. X.; Lin, L.; Demers, D. R.; Fimognari, P.; Titus, J.; Auriemma, F.; Cappello, S.; Franz, P.; Innocente, P.; Lorenzini, R.; Martines, E.; Momo, B.; Piovesan, P.; Puiatti, M.; Spolaore, M.; Terranova, D.; Zanca, P.; Davydenko, V. I.; Deichuli, P.; Ivanov, A. A.; Polosatkin, S.; Stupishin, N. V.; Spong, D.; Craig, D.; Stephens, H.; Harvey, R. W.; Cianciosa, M.; Hanson, J. D.; Breizman, B. N.; Li, M.; Zheng, L. J.

    2015-10-01

    An overview of recent results from the MST reversed field pinch programme is presented. With neutral beam injection, bursty energetic particle (EP) modes are observed. The profiles of the magnetic and density fluctuations associated with these EP modes are measured using a far infrared interferometer-polarimeter. Equilibrium reconstructions of the quasi-single-helicity 3D helical state are provided by the V3FIT code that now incorporates several of MST's advanced diagnostics. The orientation of the helical structure is controlled using a new resonant magnetic perturbation technique. Gyrokinetic simulations based on experimental equilibria predict unstable trapped-electron modes (TEMs), and small-scale density fluctuations are detected in improved-confinement plasmas with TEM-like features. Upgraded pellet injection permits study of density and beta limits over MST's full range of operation, and an MST-record line-average density of 0.9 × 1020 m3 (n/nG = 1.4) has been obtained. Impurity ion temperature measurements reveal a charge-to-mass-ratio dependence in the rapid heating that occurs during a sawtooth crash. Runaway of NBI-born fast ions during the impulsive sawtooth event agrees with test-particle theory. Magnetic self-organization studies include measurements of the dynamo emf with an applied ac inductive electric field using oscillating field current drive.