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Sample records for airborne gross beta

  1. ORISE Method AP1: Gross Alpha and Beta for Various Matrices

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This method uses gross alpha and gross beta proportional counting on soil, sediment and vegetation samples contaminated with americium, californium, cesium, cobalt, curium, europium, iridium, plutonium, polonium, radium, ruthenium, strontium or uranium.

  2. DOE FRMAC Method Volume 2, Page 33: Gross Alpha and Beta in Air

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This method determines gross alpha and beta in air filters and americium, californium, cesium, cobalt, curium, europium, iridium, plutonium, plutonium, polonium, radium, ruthenium, strontium or uranium in wipes.

  3. Simultaneous determination of gross alpha, gross beta and ²²⁶Ra in natural water by liquid scintillation counting.

    PubMed

    Fons, J; Zapata-García, D; Tent, J; Llauradó, M

    2013-11-01

    The determination of gross alpha, gross beta and (226)Ra activity in natural waters is useful in a wide range of environmental studies. Furthermore, gross alpha and gross beta parameters are included in international legislation on the quality of drinking water [Council Directive 98/83/EC]. In this work, a low-background liquid scintillation counter (Wallac, Quantulus 1220) was used to simultaneously determine gross alpha, gross beta and (226)Ra activity in natural water samples. Sample preparation involved evaporation to remove (222)Rn and its short-lived decay daughters. The evaporation process concentrated the sample ten-fold. Afterwards, a sample aliquot of 8 mL was mixed with 12 mL of Ultima Gold AB scintillation cocktail in low-diffusion vials. In this study, a theoretical mathematical model based on secular equilibrium conditions between (226)Ra and its short-lived decay daughters is presented. The proposed model makes it possible to determine (226)Ra activity from two measurements. These measurements also allow determining gross alpha and gross beta simultaneously. To validate the proposed model, spiked samples with different activity levels for each parameter were analysed. Additionally, to evaluate the model's applicability in natural water, eight natural water samples from different parts of Spain were analysed. The eight natural water samples were also characterised by alpha spectrometry for the naturally occurring isotopes of uranium ((234)U, (235)U and (238)U), radium ((224)Ra and (226)Ra), (210)Po and (232)Th. The results for gross alpha and (226)Ra activity were compared with alpha spectrometry characterization, and an acceptable concordance was obtained.

  4. Beta-decay rate and beta-delayed neutron emission probability of improved gross theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koura, Hiroyuki

    2014-09-01

    A theoretical study has been carried out on beta-decay rate and beta-delayed neutron emission probability. The gross theory of the beta decay is based on an idea of the sum rule of the beta-decay strength function, and has succeeded in describing beta-decay half-lives of nuclei overall nuclear mass region. The gross theory includes not only the allowed transition as the Fermi and the Gamow-Teller, but also the first-forbidden transition. In this work, some improvements are introduced as the nuclear shell correction on nuclear level densities and the nuclear deformation for nuclear strength functions, those effects were not included in the original gross theory. The shell energy and the nuclear deformation for unmeasured nuclei are adopted from the KTUY nuclear mass formula, which is based on the spherical-basis method. Considering the properties of the integrated Fermi function, we can roughly categorized energy region of excited-state of a daughter nucleus into three regions: a highly-excited energy region, which fully affect a delayed neutron probability, a middle energy region, which is estimated to contribute the decay heat, and a region neighboring the ground-state, which determines the beta-decay rate. Some results will be given in the presentation. A theoretical study has been carried out on beta-decay rate and beta-delayed neutron emission probability. The gross theory of the beta decay is based on an idea of the sum rule of the beta-decay strength function, and has succeeded in describing beta-decay half-lives of nuclei overall nuclear mass region. The gross theory includes not only the allowed transition as the Fermi and the Gamow-Teller, but also the first-forbidden transition. In this work, some improvements are introduced as the nuclear shell correction on nuclear level densities and the nuclear deformation for nuclear strength functions, those effects were not included in the original gross theory. The shell energy and the nuclear deformation for

  5. Gross-beta activity in ground water: natural sources and artifacts of sampling and laboratory analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Welch, Alan H.

    1995-01-01

    Gross-beta activity has been used as an indicator of beta-emitting isotopes in water since at least the early 1950s. Originally designed for detection of radioactive releases from nuclear facilities and weapons tests, analysis of gross-beta activity is widely used in studies of naturally occurring radioactivity in ground water. Analyses of about 800 samples from 5 ground-water regions of the United States provide a basis for evaluating the utility of this measurement. The data suggest that measured gross-beta activities are due to (1) long-lived radionuclides in ground water, and (2) ingrowth of beta-emitting radionuclides during holding times between collection of samples and laboratory measurements.Although40K and228Ra appear to be the primary sources of beta activity in ground water, the sum of40K plus228Ra appears to be less than the measured gross-beta activity in most ground-water samples. The difference between the contribution from these radionuclides and gross-beta activity is most pronounced in ground water with gross-beta activities > 10 pCi/L, where these 2 radionuclides account for less than one-half the measured ross-beta activity. One exception is groundwater from the Coastal Plain of New Jersey, where40K plus228Ra generally contribute most of the gross-beta activity. In contrast,40K and228Ra generally contribute most of beta activity in ground water with gross-beta activities < 1 pCi/L.The gross-beta technique does not measure all beta activity in ground water. Although3H contributes beta activity to some ground water, it is driven from the sample before counting and therefore is not detected by gross-beta measurements. Beta-emitting radionuclides with half-lives shorter than a few days can decay to low values between sampling and counting. Although little is known about concentrations of most short-lived beta-emitting radionuclides in environmental ground water (water unaffected by direct releases from nuclear facilities and weapons tests), their

  6. Development of Rapid Radiochemical Method for Gross Alpha and Gross Beta Activity Concentration in Flowback and Produced Waters from Hydraulic Fracturing Operations

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes the development and validation of an improved method for the Determination of Gross Alpha and Gross Beta Activity in Flowback and Produced Waters from Hydraulic Fracturing Operations (FPWHFO). Flowback and produced waters are characterized by high concentra...

  7. Monitoring gross alpha and beta activity in liquids by using ZnS(Ag) scintillation detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Stevanato, L.; Cester, D.; Filippi, D.; Lunardon, M.; Mistura, G.; Moretto, S.; Viesti, G.; Badocco, D.; Pastore, P.; Romanini, F.

    2015-07-01

    In this work the possibility of monitoring gross alpha and beta activity in liquids using EJ-444 was investigated. Specific tests were carried out to determine the change of the detector properties in water tests. Possible protecting coating is also proposed and tested. Alpha/beta real-time monitoring in liquids is a goal of the EU project TAWARA{sub R}TM. (authors)

  8. Waste minimization through high-pressure microwave digestion of soils for gross {alpha}/{beta} analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Yaeger, J.S.; Smith, L.L.

    1995-04-01

    As a result of the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) environmental restoration and waste management activities, laboratories receive numerous analytical requests for gross {alpha}/{beta} analyses. Traditional sample preparation methods for gross {alpha}/{beta} analysis of environmental and mixed waste samples require repetitive leaching, which is time consuming and generates large volumes of secondary wastes. An alternative to leaching is microwave digestion. In the past. microwave technology has had limited application in the radiochemical laboratory because of restrictions on sample size resulting from vessel pressure limitations. However, new microwave vessel designs allow for pressures on the order of 11 MPa (1500 psi). A procedure is described in which microwave digestion is used to prepare environmental soil samples for gross {alpha}/{beta} analysis. Results indicate that the described procedure meets performance requirements for several soil types and is equivalent to traditional digestion techniques. No statistical differences at the 95% confidence interval exist between the measurement on samples prepared from the hot plate and microwave digestion procedures for those soils tested. Moreover, microwave digestion allows samples to be prepared in a fraction of the time with significantly less acid and with lower potential of cross-contamination. In comparison to the traditional hot plate method, the waste volumes required for the microwave procedure are a factor of 10 lower, while the analyst time for sample processing is at least a factor of three lower.

  9. Gross alpha and beta radioactivity concentration in water, soil and sediment of the Bendimahi River and Van Lake (Turkey).

    PubMed

    Selçuk Zorer, Ozlem; Ceylan, Hasan; Doğru, Mahmut

    2009-01-01

    The concentrations of the natural radioactivity in water, soil and sediment samples collected from Bendimahi River which originates near the Tendürek Mountain (Van, Turkey), its tributaries and Van Lake (Turkey) were measured. The gross-alpha and gross-beta radioactivity concentrations were investigated in May and August in 2005. Determination of the gross-alpha and gross-beta radioactivity of river water, soil and sediment samples was obtained by using gas-flow proportional counter, PIC-MPC 9604-alpha/beta counter. In water samples, the obtained results show that in May; gross-alpha and gross-beta activity concentrations varied between 0.063-0.782 and 0.021-0.816 Bq l(-1) and in August the values were 0.009-0.037 and 0.081-3.116 Bq l(-1), respectively. The gross-alpha and gross-beta activity concentrations in soil samples ranged from 0.800 to 4.277 Bq g(-1) and 0.951 to 11.773 Bq g(-1) in May and 0.686 to 4.713 Bq g(-1) and 0.073 to 9.524 Bq g(-1) in August, respectively. Concentrations ranging from 0.782 to 4.596 Bq g(-1) and from 0.482 to 10.372 Bq g(-1) in May and from 0.580 to 5.824 Bq g(-1) and from 0.303 to 9.702 Bq g(-1) in August for gross-alpha and gross-beta radioactivity were observed in sediments, respectively.

  10. Failure of the gross theory of beta decay in neutron deficient nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Firestone, R. B.; Schwengner, R.; Zuber, K.

    2015-05-28

    The neutron deficient isotopes 117-121Xe, 117-124Cs, and 122-124Ba were produced by a beam of 28Si from the LBNL SuperHILAC on a target of natMo. The isotopes were mass separated and their beta decay schemes were measured with a Total Absorption Spectrometer (TAS). The beta strengths derived from these data decreased dramatically to levels above ≈1 MeV for the even-even decays; 3–4 MeV for even-Z, odd-N decays; 4–5 MeV for the odd-Z, even-N decays; and 7–8 MeV for the odd-Z, odd-N decays. The decreasing strength to higher excitation energies in the daughters contradicts the predictions of the Gross Theory of Beta Decay. The integrated beta strengths are instead found to be consistent with shell model predictions where the single-particle beta strengths are divided amoung many low-lying levels. The experimental beta strengths determined here have been used calculate the half-lives of 143 neutron deficient nuclei with Z=51–64 to a precision of 20% with respect to the measured values.

  11. Failure of the gross theory of beta decay in neutron deficient nuclei

    DOE PAGES

    Firestone, R. B.; Schwengner, R.; Zuber, K.

    2015-05-28

    The neutron deficient isotopes 117-121Xe, 117-124Cs, and 122-124Ba were produced by a beam of 28Si from the LBNL SuperHILAC on a target of natMo. The isotopes were mass separated and their beta decay schemes were measured with a Total Absorption Spectrometer (TAS). The beta strengths derived from these data decreased dramatically to levels above ≈1 MeV for the even-even decays; 3–4 MeV for even-Z, odd-N decays; 4–5 MeV for the odd-Z, even-N decays; and 7–8 MeV for the odd-Z, odd-N decays. The decreasing strength to higher excitation energies in the daughters contradicts the predictions of the Gross Theory of Betamore » Decay. The integrated beta strengths are instead found to be consistent with shell model predictions where the single-particle beta strengths are divided amoung many low-lying levels. The experimental beta strengths determined here have been used calculate the half-lives of 143 neutron deficient nuclei with Z=51–64 to a precision of 20% with respect to the measured values.« less

  12. Radioactivity of Potassium Solutions: A Comparison of Calculated Activity to Measured Activity from Gross Beta Counting and Gamma Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Gaylord, R F

    2005-07-26

    In order to determine if the measured beta activity for a solution containing potassium was exactly as predicted, particularly since the CES gas counter is not calibrated specifically with K-40, an experiment was conducted to compare measured activities from two radioanalytical methods (gamma spectroscopy and gas proportional counting) to calculated activities across a range of potassium concentrations. Potassium, being ubiquitous and naturally radioactive, is a well-known and common interference in gross beta counting methods. By measuring the observed beta activity due to K-40 in potassium-containing solutions across a wide range of concentrations, it was found that the observed beta activity agrees well with the beta activity calculated from the potassium concentration measured by standard inorganic analytical techniques, such as ICP-OES, and that using the measured potassium concentration to calculate the expected beta activity, and comparing this to the observed beta activity to determine if potassium can account for all the observed activity in a sample, is a valid technique. It was also observed that gamma spectroscopy is not an effective means of measuring K-40 activity below approximately 700 pCi/L, which corresponds to a solution with approximately 833 mg/L total potassium. Gas proportional counting for gross beta activity has a much lower detection limit, typically 20-50 picoCi/L for a liquid low in total dissolved solids, which corresponds to a potassium concentration of approximately 30-70 ppm K.

  13. Characterization of large area ZnS(Ag) detector for gross alpha and beta activity measurements in tap water plants

    SciTech Connect

    Lunardon, M.; Cester, D.; Mistura, G.; Moretto, S.; Stevanato, L.; Viesti, G.; Schotanus, P.; Bodewits, E.

    2015-07-01

    In this work we present the characterization of a large area 200 x 200 mm{sup 2} EJ-444 scintillation detector to be used for monitoring gross alpha and beta activity in tap water plants. Specific tests were performed to determine the best setup to readout the light from the detector side in order to have the possibility to stack many detectors and get a compact device with total active area of the order of 1 m{sup 2}. Alpha/Beta discrimination, efficiency and homogeneity tests were carried out with alpha and beta sources. Background from ambient radioactivity was measured as well. Alpha/beta real-time monitoring in drinking water is a goal of the EU project TAWARA{sub R}TM. (authors)

  14. Gross alpha and beta activity analyses in urine-a routine laboratory method for internal human radioactivity detection.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaowen; Zhao, Luqian; Qin, Hongran; Zhao, Meijia; Zhou, Yirui; Yang, Shuqiang; Su, Xu; Xu, Xiaohua

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this work was to develop a method to provide rapid results for humans with internal radioactive contamination. The authors hypothesized that valuable information could be obtained from gas proportional counter techniques by screening urine samples from potentially exposed individuals rapidly. Recommended gross alpha and beta activity screening methods generally employ gas proportional counting techniques. Based on International Standards Organization (ISO) methods, improvements were made in the evaporation process to develop a method to provide rapid results, adequate sensitivity, and minimum sample preparation and operator intervention for humans with internal radioactive contamination. The method described by an American National Standards Institute publication was used to calibrate the gas proportional counter, and urine samples from patients with or without radionuclide treatment were measured to validate the method. By improving the evaporation process, the time required to perform the assay was reduced dramatically. Compared with the reference data, the results of the validation samples were very satisfactory with respect to gross-alpha and gross-beta activities. The gas flow proportional counting method described here has the potential for radioactivity monitoring in the body. This method was easy, efficient, and fast, and its application is of great utility in determining whether a sample should be analyzed by a more complicated method, for example radiochemical and/or γ-spectroscopy. In the future, it may be used commonly in medical examination and nuclear emergency treatment.Health Phys. 106(5):000-000; 2014.

  15. Determination of natural radioactivity by gross alpha and beta measurements in ground water samples.

    PubMed

    Turhan, S; Ozçitak, E; Taşkin, H; Varinlioğlu, A

    2013-06-01

    In this study, the activity concentrations of the gross α and β in ground water samples collected from the different drilled wells in Nevşehir province were measured to assess annual effective dose due to the ingestion of the water samples. Nevşehir province is one of the major cities of Cappadocia Region which is a popular tourist destination as it has many areas with unique geological, historic, and cultural features. Sampling and measurements were carried out in the autumn of 2011 and the spring of 2012. The values of the activity concentrations of the gross α and β measured in the water samples ranged from 80 to 380 mBq L(-1) with a mean of 192 mBq L(-1) and 120-3470 mBq L(-1) with a mean of 579 mBq L(-1) respectively. All values of the gross α were lower than the limit value of 500 mBq L(-1) while two ground water samples were found to have gross β activity concentrations of greater than 1000 mBq L(-1). Therefore two water samples were the subject of further radioisotope-specific analysis. The obtained result indicated that the elevated activity concentrations of the gross β in these water samples are dominated by (40)K activity. Annual effective doses ranged from 0.04 to 0.20 mSv y(-1).

  16. Preparation and validation of gross alpha/beta samples used in EML`s quality assessment program

    SciTech Connect

    Scarpitta, S.C.

    1997-10-01

    A set of water and filter samples have been incorporated into the existing Environmental Measurements Laboratory`s (EML) Quality Assessment Program (QAP) for gross alpha/beta determinations by participating DOE laboratories. The participating laboratories are evaluated by comparing their results with the EML value. The preferred EML method for measuring water and filter samples, described in this report, uses gas flow proportional counters with 2 in. detectors. Procedures for sample preparation, quality control and instrument calibration are presented. Liquid scintillation (LS) counting is an alternative technique that is suitable for quantifying both the alpha ({sup 241}Am, {sup 230}Th and {sup 238}Pu) and beta ({sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y) activity concentrations in the solutions used to prepare the QAP water and air filter samples. Three LS counting techniques (Cerenkov, dual dpm and full spectrum analysis) are compared. These techniques may be used to validate the activity concentrations of each component in the alpha/beta solution before the QAP samples are actually prepared.

  17. Derivation of Soil Screening Guidelines for Gross Alpha/Beta Radioactivity for United States Air Force Deployment Sites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-19

    a beta particle to become polonium -214 (99.98% of decays), or it can emit an alpha particle to become thallium- 210 (0.02% of decays). Bismuth-214...lead- 210 , and polonium - 210 . A decay of bismuth-214 will eventually yield 5 alpha particles and 4 beta particles. Four radionuclides that occur in...beta no yes Polonium -214 163.7 sec alpha no no Lead- 210 22.3 y beta yes no Bismuth- 210 5.01 d beta no no Polonium - 210 138.38 d alpha yes no Lead

  18. Analysis of Electron and Antineutrino Energy Spectra from Fissile Samples under Irradiation based on Gross Theory of Beta-decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, T.; Tachibana, T.; Chiba, S.

    2016-06-01

    We applied the gross theory of β-decay to calculate the reactor electron and antineutrino ({{{bar ν }}{e}}) spectra emitted from 235,238U and 239,241Pu by summing up all the contributions from a large number of decaying fission-products (FPs). We make it clear what kinds of transition types and FP nuclides are important to shape the lepton spectra. After taking the ambiguity in the current data for fission yields and Qβ-values into account, we suggested a possibility that the high-energy part of the widely referred electron-spectra by Schreckenbach et al., almost only one experimental data set available now, might possibly be too low. Arguments on a special role of the odd(Z)-odd(N) nuclides and on the consistency between U-238 and other fissiles in the experimental data lead to the importance of a new and independent measurement of electron energy spectra which could be converted into the reactor {{{bar ν }}{e}} spectra.

  19. Airborne/Space-Based Doppler Lidar Wind Sounders Sampling the PBL and Other Regions of Significant Beta and U Inhomogeneities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emmitt, Dave

    1998-01-01

    This final report covers the period from April 1994 through March 1998. The proposed research was organized under four main tasks. Those tasks were: (1) Investigate the vertical and horizontal velocity structures within and adjacent to thin and subvisual cirrus; (2) Investigate the lowest 1 km of the PBL and develop algorithms for processing pulsed Doppler lidar data obtained from single shots into regions of significant inhomogeneities in Beta and U; (3) Participate in OSSEs including those designed to establish shot density requirements for meso-gamma scale phenomena with quasi-persistent locations (e.g., jets, leewaves, tropical storms); and (4) Participate in the planning and execution of an airborne mission to measure winds with a pulsed CO2 Doppler lidar. Over the four year period of this research contract, work on all four tasks has yielded significant results which have led to 38 professional presentations (conferences and publications) and have been folded into the science justification for an approved NASA space mission, SPARCLE (SPAce Readiness Coherent Lidar Experiment), in 2001. Also this research has, through Task 4, led to a funded proposal to work directly on a NASA field campaign, CAMEX III, in which an airborne Doppler wind lidar will be used to investigate the cloud-free circulations near tropical storms. Monthly progress reports required under this contract are on file. This final report will highlight major accomplishments, including some that were not foreseen in the original proposal. The presentation of this final report includes this written document as well as material that is better presented via the internet (web pages). There is heavy reference to appended papers and documents. Thus, the main body of the report will serve to summarize the key efforts and findings.

  20. Sampling for Airborne Radioactivity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-10-01

    compared to betas, gammas and neutrons. For an airborne radioactivity detection system, it is most important to be able to detect alpha particles and... Airborne radioactive particles may emit alpha, beta, gamma or neutron radiation, depending on which radioisotope is present. From a health perspective...

  1. Gross motor control

    MedlinePlus

    Gross motor control is the ability to make large, general movements (such as waving an arm or lifting a ... Gross motor control is a milestone in the development of an infant. Infants develop gross motor control before they ...

  2. Quarantine at Grosse Ile.

    PubMed Central

    Forster, M. M.

    1995-01-01

    In 1832 British colonial authorities established a quarantine station at Grosse Ile, an island near Quebec City, after cholera outbreaks in northern England aroused fears that growing numbers of emigrants would carry it to the New World. Later, treating those suffering from other contagious diseases, such as typhus and smallpox, Grosse Ile played a notable role as Canada's principal quarantine station. Images p842-a p843-a p844-a p845-a p846-a PMID:7756922

  3. Gross decontamination experiment report

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, R.; Kinney, K.; Dettorre, J.; Gilbert, V.

    1983-07-01

    A Gross Decontamination Experiment was conducted on various levels and surfaces of the TMI - Unit 2 reactor building in March 1982. The polar crane, D-rings, missile shields, refueling canals, refueling bridges, equipment, and elevations 305' and 347'-6'' were flushed with low pressure water. Additionally, floor surfaces on elevation 305' and floor surfaces and major pieces of equipment on elevation 347'-6'' were sprayed with high pressure water. Selective surfaces were decontaminated with a mechanical scrubber and chemicals. Strippable coating was tested and evaluated on equipment and floor surfaces. The effectiveness, efficiency, and safety of several decontamination techniques were established for the large, complex decontamination effort. Various decontamination equipment was evaluated and its effectiveness was documented. Decontamination training and procedures were documented and evaluated, as were the support system and organization for the experiment.

  4. Fourth Airborne Geoscience Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The focus of the workshop was on how the airborne community can assist in achieving the goals of the Global Change Research Program. The many activities that employ airborne platforms and sensors were discussed: platforms and instrument development; airborne oceanography; lidar research; SAR measurements; Doppler radar; laser measurements; cloud physics; airborne experiments; airborne microwave measurements; and airborne data collection.

  5. Airborne Particles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ojala, Carl F.; Ojala, Eric J.

    1987-01-01

    Describes an activity in which students collect airborne particles using a common vacuum cleaner. Suggests ways for the students to convert their data into information related to air pollution and human health. Urges consideration of weather patterns when analyzing the results of the investigation. (TW)

  6. Airborne Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    ATM (Airborne Thematic Mapper) was developed for NSTL (National Space Technology Companies) by Daedalus Company. It offers expanded capabilities for timely, accurate and cost effective identification of areas with prospecting potential. A related system is TIMS, Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner. Originating from Landsat 4, it is also used for agricultural studies, etc.

  7. Gross Primary Productivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    NASA's new Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) allows scientists to gauge our planet's metabolism on an almost daily basis. GPP, gross primary production, is the technical term for plant photosynthesis. This composite image over the continental United States, acquired during the period March 26-April 10, 2000, shows regions where plants were more or less productive-i.e., where they 'inhaled' carbon dioxide and then used the carbon from photosynthesis to build new plant structures. This false-color image provides a map of how much carbon was absorbed out of the atmosphere and fixed within land vegetation. Areas colored blue show where plants used as much as 60 grams of carbon per square meter. Areas colored green and yellow indicate a range of anywhere from 40 to 20 grams of carbon absorbed per square meter. Red pixels show an absorption of less than 10 grams of carbon per square meter and white pixels (often areas covered by snow or masked as urban) show little or no absorption. This is one of a number of new measurements that MODIS provides to help scientists understand how the Earth's landscapes are changing over time. Scientists' goal is use of these GPP measurements to refine computer models to simulate how the land biosphere influences the natural cycles of water, carbon, and energy throughout the Earth system. The GPP will be an integral part of global carbon cycle source and sink analysis, an important aspect of Kyoto Protocol assessments. This image is the first of its kind from the MODIS instrument, which launched in December 1999 aboard the Terra spacecraft. MODIS began acquiring scientific data on February 24, 2000, when it first opened its aperture door. The MODIS instrument and Terra spacecraft are both managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. Image courtesy Steven Running, MODIS Land Group Member, University of Montana

  8. On a question of Gross

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Abhijit

    2007-03-01

    Using the notion of weighted sharing of sets we prove two uniqueness theorems which improve the results proved by Fang and Qiu [H. Qiu, M. Fang, A unicity theorem for meromorphic functions, Bull. Malaysian Math. Sci. Soc. 25 (2002) 31-38], Lahiri and Banerjee [I. Lahiri, A. Banerjee, Uniqueness of meromorphic functions with deficient poles, Kyungpook Math. J. 44 (2004) 575-584] and Yi and Lin [H.X. Yi, W.C. Lin, Uniqueness theorems concerning a question of Gross, Proc. Japan Acad. Ser. A 80 (2004) 136-140] and thus provide an answer to the question of Gross [F. Gross, Factorization of meromorphic functions and some open problems, in: Proc. Conf. Univ. Kentucky, Lexington, KY, 1976, in: Lecture Notes in Math., vol. 599, Springer, Berlin, 1977, pp. 51-69], under a weaker hypothesis.

  9. 32 CFR 644.43 - Gross appraisals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Gross appraisals. 644.43 Section 644.43 National... HANDBOOK Appraisal § 644.43 Gross appraisals. (a) Preparation. (1) The gross appraisal sections of real... reflect actual market conditions and unit prices. (2) Each gross appraisal will be supported by...

  10. Tonopah Test Range Air Monitoring: CY2015 Meteorological, Radiological, and Airborne Particulate Observations

    SciTech Connect

    Nikolich, George; Shadel, Craig; Chapman, Jenny; McCurdy, Greg; Etyemezian, Vicken; Miller, Julianne J.; Mizell, Steve

    2016-09-01

    In 1963, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) (formerly the Atomic Energy Commission [AEC]), implemented Operation Roller Coaster on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) and an adjacent area of the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR) (formerly the Nellis Air Force Range). The operation resulted in radionuclide-contaminated soils at the Clean Slate I, II, and III sites. This report documents observations made during ongoing monitoring of radiological, meteorological, and dust conditions at stations installed adjacent to Clean Slate I and Clean Slate III, and at the TTR Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Range Operations Control (ROC) center. The primary objective of the monitoring effort is to determine if winds blowing across the Clean Slate sites are transporting particles of radionuclide-contaminated soil beyond the physical and administrative boundaries of the sites. Radionuclide assessment of airborne particulates in 2015 found the gross alpha and gross beta values of dust collected from the filters at the monitoring stations are consistent with background conditions. The meteorological and particle monitoring indicate that conditions for wind-borne contaminant movement exist at the Clean Slate sites and that, although the transport of radionuclide-contaminated soil by suspension has not been detected, movement by saltation is occurring.

  11. Grosse Pointe, Michigan: Race Against Race.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cosseboom, Kathy

    Grosse Pointe, Michigan, is a status community--but is it status quo? Yes and no. A bill proposed as a measure of community support for open housing opportunities got a definite "no" vote in Grosse Pointe Farms, although in opposition to State and Federal law precedents. The first Negro family who bought a Grosse Pointe home met with…

  12. Gross anatomy of network security

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siu, Thomas J.

    2002-01-01

    Information security involves many branches of effort, including information assurance, host level security, physical security, and network security. Computer network security methods and implementations are given a top-down description to permit a medically focused audience to anchor this information to their daily practice. The depth of detail of network functionality and security measures, like that of the study of human anatomy, can be highly involved. Presented at the level of major gross anatomical systems, this paper will focus on network backbone implementation and perimeter defenses, then diagnostic tools, and finally the user practices (the human element). Physical security measures, though significant, have been defined as beyond the scope of this presentation.

  13. Gross's Definition of Style in Pedagogy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Alan

    This comment on Roger D. Gross's definition of "style" explores the ramifications of that definition for the theatre teacher. It is noted that Gross's definition may help with two common pedagogic difficulties: (1) convincing students that theatre and drama of the past were regarded by their audiences and practitioners as entirely…

  14. Urban greenness influences airborne bacterial community composition.

    PubMed

    Mhuireach, Gwynne; Johnson, Bart R; Altrichter, Adam E; Ladau, Joshua; Meadow, James F; Pollard, Katherine S; Green, Jessica L

    2016-11-15

    Urban green space provides health benefits for city dwellers, and new evidence suggests that microorganisms associated with soil and vegetation could play a role. While airborne microorganisms are ubiquitous in urban areas, the influence of nearby vegetation on airborne microbial communities remains poorly understood. We examined airborne microbial communities in parks and parking lots in Eugene, Oregon, using high-throughput sequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene on the Illumina MiSeq platform to identify bacterial taxa, and GIS to measure vegetation cover in buffer zones of different diameters. Our goal was to explore variation among highly vegetated (parks) versus non-vegetated (parking lots) urban environments. A secondary objective was to evaluate passive versus active collection methods for outdoor airborne microbial sampling. Airborne bacterial communities from five parks were different from those of five parking lots (p=0.023), although alpha diversity was similar. Direct gradient analysis showed that the proportion of vegetated area within a 50m radius of the sampling station explained 15% of the variation in bacterial community composition. A number of key taxa, including several Acidobacteriaceae were substantially more abundant in parks, while parking lots had higher relative abundance of Acetobacteraceae. Parks had greater beta diversity than parking lots, i.e. individual parks were characterized by unique bacterial signatures, whereas parking lot communities tended to be similar to each other. Although parks and parking lots were selected to form pairs of nearby sites, spatial proximity did not appear to affect compositional similarity. Our results also showed that passive and active collection methods gave comparable results, indicating the "settling dish" method is effective for outdoor airborne sampling. This work sets a foundation for understanding how urban vegetation may impact microbial communities, with potential implications for designing

  15. 46 CFR 69.161 - Gross and net tonnages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Gross and net tonnages. 69.161 Section 69.161 Shipping... MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS Dual Measurement System § 69.161 Gross and net tonnages. (a) Gross tonnage means the... calculating gross tonnage (§ 69.121(d)(1)). (b) Net tonnage means gross tonnage less deductions under §...

  16. 46 CFR 69.161 - Gross and net tonnages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Gross and net tonnages. 69.161 Section 69.161 Shipping... MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS Dual Measurement System § 69.161 Gross and net tonnages. (a) Gross tonnage means the... calculating gross tonnage (§ 69.121(d)(1)). (b) Net tonnage means gross tonnage less deductions under §...

  17. 46 CFR 69.161 - Gross and net tonnages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Gross and net tonnages. 69.161 Section 69.161 Shipping... MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS Dual Measurement System § 69.161 Gross and net tonnages. (a) Gross tonnage means the... calculating gross tonnage (§ 69.121(d)(1)). (b) Net tonnage means gross tonnage less deductions under §...

  18. 46 CFR 69.161 - Gross and net tonnages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Gross and net tonnages. 69.161 Section 69.161 Shipping... MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS Dual Measurement System § 69.161 Gross and net tonnages. (a) Gross tonnage means the... calculating gross tonnage (§ 69.121(d)(1)). (b) Net tonnage means gross tonnage less deductions under §...

  19. 46 CFR 69.161 - Gross and net tonnages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gross and net tonnages. 69.161 Section 69.161 Shipping... MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS Dual Measurement System § 69.161 Gross and net tonnages. (a) Gross tonnage means the... calculating gross tonnage (§ 69.121(d)(1)). (b) Net tonnage means gross tonnage less deductions under §...

  20. Airborne gravity is here

    SciTech Connect

    Hammer, S.

    1982-01-11

    After 20 years of development efforts, the airborne gravity survey has finally become a practical exploration method. Besides gravity data, the airborne survey can also collect simultaneous, continuous records of high-precision magneticfield data as well as terrain clearance; these provide a topographic contour map useful in calculating terrain conditions and in subsequent planning and engineering. Compared with a seismic survey, the airborne gravity method can cover the same area much more quickly and cheaply; a seismograph could then detail the interesting spots.

  1. The future of gross anatomy teaching.

    PubMed

    Malamed, S; Seiden, D

    1995-01-01

    A survey of U.S. departments of anatomy, physiology, and biochemistry shows that 39% of the respondent anatomy departments reported declines in the numbers of graduate students taking the human gross anatomy course. Similarly, 42% of the departments reported decreases in the numbers of graduate students teaching human gross anatomy. These decreases were greater in anatomy than in physiology and in biochemistry. The percentages of departments reporting increases in students taking or teaching their courses was 6% for human gross anatomy and 0% to 19% for physiology and biochemistry courses. To reverse this trend the establishment of specific programs for the training of gross anatomy teachers is advocated. These new teachers will be available as the need for them is increasingly recognized in the future.

  2. Validating the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale.

    PubMed

    Downs, Jenny; Stahlhut, Michelle; Wong, Kingsley; Syhler, Birgit; Bisgaard, Anne-Marie; Jacoby, Peter; Leonard, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Rett syndrome is a pervasive neurodevelopmental disorder associated with a pathogenic mutation on the MECP2 gene. Impaired movement is a fundamental component and the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale was developed to measure gross motor abilities in this population. The current study investigated the validity and reliability of the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale. Video data showing gross motor abilities supplemented with parent report data was collected for 255 girls and women registered with the Australian Rett Syndrome Database, and the factor structure and relationships between motor scores, age and genotype were investigated. Clinical assessment scores for 38 girls and women with Rett syndrome who attended the Danish Center for Rett Syndrome were used to assess consistency of measurement. Principal components analysis enabled the calculation of three factor scores: Sitting, Standing and Walking, and Challenge. Motor scores were poorer with increasing age and those with the p.Arg133Cys, p.Arg294* or p.Arg306Cys mutation achieved higher scores than those with a large deletion. The repeatability of clinical assessment was excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient for total score 0.99, 95% CI 0.93-0.98). The standard error of measurement for the total score was 2 points and we would be 95% confident that a change 4 points in the 45-point scale would be greater than within-subject measurement error. The Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale could be an appropriate measure of gross motor skills in clinical practice and clinical trials.

  3. Beta Blockers

    MedlinePlus

    Diseases and Conditions High blood pressure (hypertension) Beta blockers, also called beta-adrenergic blocking agents, treat a variety of conditions, such as high blood pressure and migraines. Find out more about this ...

  4. Airborne Next: Rethinking Airborne Organization and Applying New Concepts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    structures since its employment on a large scale during World War II. It is puzzling to consider how little airborne organizational structures and employment...future potential of airborne concepts by rethinking traditional airborne organizational structures and employment concepts. Using a holistic approach in... structures of airborne forces to model a “small and many” approach over a “large and few” approach, while incorporating a “swarming” concept. Utilizing

  5. BOREAS HYD-8 Gross Precipitation Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fernandes, Richard; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Knapp, David E. (Editor); Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Hydrology (HYD)-08 team made measurements of surface hydrological processes at the Southern Study Area-Old Black Spruce (SSA-OBS) Tower Flux site to support its research into point hydrological processes and the spatial variation of these processes. Data collected may be useful in characterizing canopy interception, drip, throughfall, moss interception, drainage, evaporation, and capacity during the growing season at daily temporal resolution. This particular data set contains the gross precipitation measurements for July to August 1996. Gross precipitation is the precipitation that falls that is not intercepted by tree canopies. These data are stored in ASCII text files. The HYD-08 gross precipitation data are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

  6. Multiregional estimation of gross internal migration flows.

    PubMed

    Foot, D K; Milne, W J

    1989-01-01

    "A multiregional model of gross internal migration flows is presented in this article. The interdependence of economic factors across all regions is recognized by imposing a non-stochastic adding-up constraint that requires total inmigration to equal total outmigration in each time period. An iterated system estimation technique is used to obtain asymptotically consistent and efficient parameter estimates. The model is estimated for gross migration flows among the Canadian provinces over the period 1962-86 and then is used to examine the likelihood of a wash-out effect in net migration models. The results indicate that previous approaches that use net migration equations may not always be empirically justified."

  7. Rotation-invariant of Quantum Gross Laplacian

    SciTech Connect

    Horrigue, Samah; Ouerdiane, Habib

    2010-05-04

    In this paper, we prove that the quantum Gross Laplacian denoted DELTA{sub QG} is a rotation-invariant operator. For this purpose, we use the Schwartz-Grothendieck kernel theorem and the characterization theorem of rotation-invariant distributions and operators.

  8. Eliminate Gross Disparities under Your Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haycock, Kati

    1997-01-01

    Discusses how the absence of equal resources for schools or adequate support for families must not prevent educators from eliminating the gross inequalities brought about by assigning our least-qualified teachers to the neediest students, tolerating shoddy practice, steering students to inferior curricular choices, and generally miseducating the…

  9. International Symposium on Airborne Geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mogi, Toru; Ito, Hisatoshi; Kaieda, Hideshi; Kusunoki, Kenichiro; Saltus, Richard W.; Fitterman, David V.; Okuma, Shigeo; Nakatsuka, Tadashi

    2006-05-01

    Airborne geophysics can be defined as the measurement of Earth properties from sensors in the sky. The airborne measurement platform is usually a traditional fixed-wing airplane or helicopter, but could also include lighter-than-air craft, unmanned drones, or other specialty craft. The earliest history of airborne geophysics includes kite and hot-air balloon experiments. However, modern airborne geophysics dates from the mid-1940s when military submarine-hunting magnetometers were first used to map variations in the Earth's magnetic field. The current gamut of airborne geophysical techniques spans a broad range, including potential fields (both gravity and magnetics), electromagnetics (EM), radiometrics, spectral imaging, and thermal imaging.

  10. Airborne Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    NASA imaging technology has provided the basis for a commercial agricultural reconnaissance service. AG-RECON furnishes information from airborne sensors, aerial photographs and satellite and ground databases to farmers, foresters, geologists, etc. This service produces color "maps" of Earth conditions, which enable clients to detect crop color changes or temperature changes that may indicate fire damage or pest stress problems.

  11. Recognizing Airborne Hazards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Christian M.

    1990-01-01

    The heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems in older buildings often do not adequately handle air-borne contaminants. Outlines a three-stage Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) assessment and describes a case in point at a Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, school. (MLF)

  12. Airborne asbestos in buildings.

    PubMed

    Lee, R J; Van Orden, D R

    2008-03-01

    The concentration of airborne asbestos in buildings nationwide is reported in this study. A total of 3978 indoor samples from 752 buildings, representing nearly 32 man-years of sampling, have been analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. The buildings that were surveyed were the subject of litigation related to suits alleging the general building occupants were exposed to a potential health hazard as a result the presence of asbestos-containing materials (ACM). The average concentration of all airborne asbestos structures was 0.01structures/ml (s/ml) and the average concentration of airborne asbestos > or = 5microm long was 0.00012fibers/ml (f/ml). For all samples, 99.9% of the samples were <0.01 f/ml for fibers longer than 5microm; no building averaged above 0.004f/ml for fibers longer than 5microm. No asbestos was detected in 27% of the buildings and in 90% of the buildings no asbestos was detected that would have been seen optically (> or = 5microm long and > or = 0.25microm wide). Background outdoor concentrations have been reported at 0.0003f/ml > or = 5microm. These results indicate that in-place ACM does not result in elevated airborne asbestos in building atmospheres approaching regulatory levels and that it does not result in a significantly increased risk to building occupants.

  13. Beta experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    A focused laser doppler velocimeter (LDV) system was developed for the measurement of atmospheric backscatter (beta) from aerosols at infrared wavelengths. A Doppler signal generator was used in mapping the coherent sensitive focal volume of a focused LDV system. System calibration data was analyzed during the flight test activity scheduled for the Beta system. These analyses were performed to determine the acceptability of the Beta measurement system's performance.

  14. Photoreactivation in Airborne Mycobacterium parafortuitum

    PubMed Central

    Peccia, Jordan; Hernandez, Mark

    2001-01-01

    Photoreactivation was observed in airborne Mycobacterium parafortuitum exposed concurrently to UV radiation (254 nm) and visible light. Photoreactivation rates of airborne cells increased with increasing relative humidity (RH) and decreased with increasing UV dose. Under a constant UV dose with visible light absent, the UV inactivation rate of airborne M. parafortuitum cells decreased by a factor of 4 as RH increased from 40 to 95%; however, under identical conditions with visible light present, the UV inactivation rate of airborne cells decreased only by a factor of 2. When irradiated in the absence of visible light, cellular cyclobutane thymine dimer content of UV-irradiated airborne M. parafortuitum and Serratia marcescens increased in response to RH increases. Results suggest that, unlike in waterborne bacteria, cyclobutane thymine dimers are not the most significant form of UV-induced DNA damage incurred by airborne bacteria and that the distribution of DNA photoproducts incorporated into UV-irradiated airborne cells is a function of RH. PMID:11526027

  15. Absolute airborne gravimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumann, Henri

    This work consists of a feasibility study of a first stage prototype airborne absolute gravimeter system. In contrast to relative systems, which are using spring gravimeters, the measurements acquired by absolute systems are uncorrelated and the instrument is not suffering from problems like instrumental drift, frequency response of the spring and possible variation of the calibration factor. The major problem we had to resolve were to reduce the influence of the non-gravitational accelerations included in the measurements. We studied two different approaches to resolve it: direct mechanical filtering, and post-processing digital compensation. The first part of the work describes in detail the different mechanical passive filters of vibrations, which were studied and tested in the laboratory and later in a small truck in movement. For these tests as well as for the airborne measurements an absolute gravimeter FG5-L from Micro-G Ltd was used together with an Inertial navigation system Litton-200, a vertical accelerometer EpiSensor, and GPS receivers for positioning. These tests showed that only the use of an optical table gives acceptable results. However, it is unable to compensate for the effects of the accelerations of the drag free chamber. The second part describes the strategy of the data processing. It is based on modeling the perturbing accelerations by means of GPS, EpiSensor and INS data. In the third part the airborne experiment is described in detail, from the mounting in the aircraft and data processing to the different problems encountered during the evaluation of the quality and accuracy of the results. In the part of data processing the different steps conducted from the raw apparent gravity data and the trajectories to the estimation of the true gravity are explained. A comparison between the estimated airborne data and those obtained by ground upward continuation at flight altitude allows to state that airborne absolute gravimetry is feasible and

  16. Noncommutative complex Grosse-Wulkenhaar model

    SciTech Connect

    Hounkonnou, Mahouton Norbert; Samary, Dine Ousmane

    2008-11-18

    This paper stands for an application of the noncommutative (NC) Noether theorem, given in our previous work [AIP Proc 956(2007) 55-60], for the NC complex Grosse-Wulkenhaar model. It provides with an extension of a recent work [Physics Letters B 653(2007) 343-345]. The local conservation of energy-momentum tensors (EMTs) is recovered using improvement procedures based on Moyal algebraic techniques. Broken dilatation symmetry is discussed. NC gauge currents are also explicitly computed.

  17. Airborne Intercept Monitoring

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-04-01

    Primary mirror of Zerodur with Pilkington 747 coating • FOV = 0.104 degrees Airborne Intercept Monitoring RTO-MP-SET-105 16 - 3 UNCLASSIFIED...Pointing System (SPS). The STS is a 0.75 meter aperture Mersenne Cassegrain telescope and the SAT is a 0.34 meter aperture 3- mirror anastigmat telescope...UNLIMITED UNCLASSIFIED/UNLIMITED • Air Flow to Mitigate Thermal “Seeing” Effects • Light weighted primary mirror to reduce mass The SAT

  18. Airborne forest fire research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattingly, G. S.

    1974-01-01

    The research relating to airborne fire fighting systems is reviewed to provide NASA/Langley Research Center with current information on the use of aircraft in forest fire operations, and to identify research requirements for future operations. A literature survey, interview of forest fire service personnel, analysis and synthesis of data from research reports and independent conclusions, and recommendations for future NASA-LRC programs are included.

  19. Airborne Infrared Astronomical Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erickson, Edwin F.

    2017-01-01

    A unique program of infrared astronomical observations from aircraft evolved at NASA’s Ames Research Center, beginning in the 1960s. Telescopes were flown on a Convair 990, a Lear Jet, and a Lockheed C-141 - the Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO) - leading to the planning and development of SOFIA: a 2.7 m telescope now flying on a Boeing 747SP. The poster describes these telescopes and highlights of some of the scientific results obtained from them.

  20. Airborne wireless communication systems, airborne communication methods, and communication methods

    DOEpatents

    Deaton, Juan D [Menan, ID; Schmitt, Michael J [Idaho Falls, ID; Jones, Warren F [Idaho Falls, ID

    2011-12-13

    An airborne wireless communication system includes circuitry configured to access information describing a configuration of a terrestrial wireless communication base station that has become disabled. The terrestrial base station is configured to implement wireless communication between wireless devices located within a geographical area and a network when the terrestrial base station is not disabled. The circuitry is further configured, based on the information, to configure the airborne station to have the configuration of the terrestrial base station. An airborne communication method includes answering a 911 call from a terrestrial cellular wireless phone using an airborne wireless communication system.

  1. Airborne field strength monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bredemeyer, J.; Kleine-Ostmann, T.; Schrader, T.; Münter, K.; Ritter, J.

    2007-06-01

    In civil and military aviation, ground based navigation aids (NAVAIDS) are still crucial for flight guidance even though the acceptance of satellite based systems (GNSS) increases. Part of the calibration process for NAVAIDS (ILS, DME, VOR) is to perform a flight inspection according to specified methods as stated in a document (DOC8071, 2000) by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). One major task is to determine the coverage, or, in other words, the true signal-in-space field strength of a ground transmitter. This has always been a challenge to flight inspection up to now, since, especially in the L-band (DME, 1GHz), the antenna installed performance was known with an uncertainty of 10 dB or even more. In order to meet ICAO's required accuracy of ±3 dB it is necessary to have a precise 3-D antenna factor of the receiving antenna operating on the airborne platform including all losses and impedance mismatching. Introducing precise, effective antenna factors to flight inspection to achieve the required accuracy is new and not published in relevant papers yet. The authors try to establish a new balanced procedure between simulation and validation by airborne and ground measurements. This involves the interpretation of measured scattering parameters gained both on the ground and airborne in comparison with numerical results obtained by the multilevel fast multipole algorithm (MLFMA) accelerated method of moments (MoM) using a complex geometric model of the aircraft. First results will be presented in this paper.

  2. 46 CFR 69.107 - Gross and net tonnages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Gross and net tonnages. 69.107 Section 69.107 Shipping... MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS Standard Measurement System § 69.107 Gross and net tonnages. (a) Gross tonnage is the... tonnage (§ 69.121(d)(1)). (b) Net tonnage is gross tonnage less deductions under §§ 69.119 and 69.121....

  3. 46 CFR 69.107 - Gross and net tonnages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Gross and net tonnages. 69.107 Section 69.107 Shipping... MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS Standard Measurement System § 69.107 Gross and net tonnages. (a) Gross tonnage is the... tonnage (§ 69.121(d)(1)). (b) Net tonnage is gross tonnage less deductions under §§ 69.119 and 69.121....

  4. 46 CFR 69.107 - Gross and net tonnages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Gross and net tonnages. 69.107 Section 69.107 Shipping... MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS Standard Measurement System § 69.107 Gross and net tonnages. (a) Gross tonnage is the... tonnage (§ 69.121(d)(1)). (b) Net tonnage is gross tonnage less deductions under §§ 69.119 and 69.121....

  5. 46 CFR 69.107 - Gross and net tonnages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gross and net tonnages. 69.107 Section 69.107 Shipping... MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS Standard Measurement System § 69.107 Gross and net tonnages. (a) Gross tonnage is the... tonnage (§ 69.121(d)(1)). (b) Net tonnage is gross tonnage less deductions under §§ 69.119 and 69.121....

  6. 46 CFR 69.107 - Gross and net tonnages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Gross and net tonnages. 69.107 Section 69.107 Shipping... MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS Standard Measurement System § 69.107 Gross and net tonnages. (a) Gross tonnage is the... tonnage (§ 69.121(d)(1)). (b) Net tonnage is gross tonnage less deductions under §§ 69.119 and 69.121....

  7. Airborne Submillimeter Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zmuidzinas, J.

    1998-01-01

    This is the final technical report for NASA-Ames grant NAG2-1068 to Caltech, entitled "Airborne Submillimeter Spectroscopy", which extended over the period May 1, 1996 through January 31, 1998. The grant was funded by the NASA airborne astronomy program, during a period of time after the Kuiper Airborne Observatory was no longer operational. Instead. this funding program was intended to help develop instrument concepts and technology for the upcoming SOFIA (Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy) project. SOFIA, which is funded by NASA and is now being carried out by a consortium lead by USRA (Universities Space Research Association), will be a 747 aircraft carrying a 2.5 meter diameter telescope. The purpose of our grant was to fund the ongoing development of sensitive heterodyne receivers for the submillimeter band (500-1200 GHz), using sensitive superconducting (SIS) detectors. In 1997 July we submitted a proposal to USRA to construct a heterodyne instrument for SOFIA. Our proposal was successful [1], and we are now continuing our airborne astronomy effort with funding from USRA. A secondary purpose of the NAG2-1068 grant was to continue the anaIN'sis of astronomical data collected with an earlier instrument which was flown on the NASA Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO). The KAO instrument and the astronomical studies which were carried out with it were supported primarily under another grant, NAG2-744, which extended over October 1, 1991 through Januarv 31, 1997. For a complete description of the astronomical data and its anailysis, we refer the reader to the final technical report for NAG2-744, which was submitted to NASA on December 1. 1997. Here we report on the SIS detector development effort for SOFIA carried out under NAG2-1068. The main result of this effort has been the demonstration of SIS mixers using a new superconducting material niobium titanium nitride (NbTiN), which promises to deliver dramatic improvements in sensitivity in the 700

  8. Beta Absorption Mass Monitoring of Particulates - A Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lilienfeld, Pedro

    1971-01-01

    The theory and application of beta-radiation absorption for the measurement and monitoring of airborne particulates are discussed. The use of this technique, both for source testing and for ambient air quality monitoring is reviewed. Various particle collection methods used in conjunction with beta absorption sensing configurations are considered. State of the art and current developments of instrumentation approaches for the automated measurement of mass concentration and size distribution of aerosols by beta absorption are discussed. Methods for electronic signal processing and recording are presented. The Beta absorption technique appears as a powerful tool for the unattended measurement of the mass of particulate pollution, compatible with telemetry and central data processing methods.

  9. 26 CFR 1.832-1 - Gross income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Gross income. 1.832-1 Section 1.832-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Other Insurance Companies § 1.832-1 Gross income. (a) Gross income as defined...

  10. 26 CFR 1.61-1 - Gross income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Gross income. 1.61-1 Section 1.61-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Definition of Gross Income, Adjusted Gross Income, and Taxable Income § 1.61-1...

  11. 26 CFR 1.61-1 - Gross income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gross income. 1.61-1 Section 1.61-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Definition of Gross Income, Adjusted Gross Income, and Taxable Income § 1.61-1...

  12. Estimating Energy Expenditure using Individualized, Power-Specific Gross Efficiencies.

    PubMed

    Homestead, E P; Peterman, J E; Kane, L A; Contini, E J; Byrnes, W C

    2016-12-01

    Our purpose was to determine if using an individual's power-specific gross efficiency improves the accuracy of estimating energy expenditure from cycling power. 30 subjects performed a graded cycling test to develop 4 gross efficiencies: individual power-specific gross efficiencies, a group mean power-specific gross efficiency, individual fixed gross efficiencies, and a group mean fixed gross efficiency. Energy expenditure was estimated from power using these different gross efficiencies and compared to measured energy expenditure during moderate- and hard-intensity constant-power and 2 variable-power cycling bouts. Estimated energy expenditures using individual or group mean power-specific gross efficiencies were not different from measured energy expenditure across all cycling bouts (p>0.05). To examine the intra-individual variability of the estimates, absolute difference scores (absolute value of estimated minus measured energy expenditure) were compared, where values closer to zero represent more accurate individual estimates. The absolute difference score using individual power-specific gross efficiencies was significantly lower compared to the other gross efficiencies across all cycling bouts (p<0.01). Significant and strong correlations (r≥0.97, p<0.001) were found across all cycling bouts between estimated and measured energy expenditures using individual power-specific gross efficiencies. In conclusion, using an individual's power-specific gross efficiency significantly improves their energy expenditure estimate across different power outputs.

  13. 75 FR 78897 - Definition of Omission From Gross Income

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-17

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 301 RIN 1545-BI44 Definition of Omission From Gross Income AGENCY... September 28, 2009, temporary regulations (TD 9466) regarding the definition of an omission from gross... context (that is, the section 61 definition of gross income applies), they are applicable to all...

  14. 26 CFR 1.993-6 - Definition of gross receipts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Domestic International Sales Corporations § 1.993-6 Definition of gross receipts. (a) General rule. Under section 993(f), for purposes of sections 991 through 996, the gross... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Definition of gross receipts. 1.993-6 Section...

  15. 26 CFR 1.993-6 - Definition of gross receipts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Domestic International Sales Corporations § 1.993-6 Definition of gross receipts. (a) General rule. Under section 993(f), for purposes of sections 991 through 996, the gross... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Definition of gross receipts. 1.993-6 Section...

  16. 26 CFR 1.993-6 - Definition of gross receipts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Domestic International Sales Corporations § 1.993-6 Definition of gross receipts. (a) General rule. Under section 993(f), for purposes of sections 991 through 996, the gross receipts of a... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definition of gross receipts. 1.993-6 Section...

  17. 26 CFR 1.993-6 - Definition of gross receipts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Domestic International Sales Corporations § 1.993-6 Definition of gross receipts. (a) General rule. Under section 993(f), for purposes of sections 991 through 996, the gross... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Definition of gross receipts. 1.993-6 Section...

  18. 26 CFR 1.993-6 - Definition of gross receipts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Domestic International Sales Corporations § 1.993-6 Definition of gross receipts. (a) General rule. Under section 993(f), for purposes of sections 991 through 996, the gross... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Definition of gross receipts. 1.993-6 Section...

  19. The Gross Motor Skills of Children with Mild Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nonis, Karen P.; Jernice, Tan Sing Yee

    2014-01-01

    Many international studies have examined the gross motor skills of children studying in special schools while local studies of such nature are limited. This study investigated the gross motor skills of children with Mild Learning Disabilities (MLD; n = 14, M age = 8.93 years, SD = 0.33) with the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (TGMD-2, Ulrich,…

  20. Gross shell structure of moments of inertia

    SciTech Connect

    Deleplanque, M.A.; Frauendorf, S.; Pashkevich, V.V.; Chu, S.Y.; Unzhakova, A.

    2002-07-01

    Average yrast moments of inertia at high spins, where the pairing correlations are expected to be largely absent, were found to deviate from the rigid-body values. This indicates that shell effects contribute to the moment of inertia. We discuss the gross dependence of moments of inertia and shell energies on the neutron number in terms of the semiclassical periodic orbit theory. We show that the ground-state shell energies, nuclear deformations and deviations from rigid-body moments of inertia are all due to the same periodic orbits.

  1. Airborne Oceanographic Lidar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bressel, C.; Itzkan, I.; Nunes, J. E.; Hoge, F.

    1977-01-01

    The Airborne Oceanographic Lidar (AOL), a spatially scanning range-gated device installed on board a NASA C-54 aircraft, is described. The AOL system is capable of measuring topographical relief or water depth (bathymetry) with a range resolution of plus or minus 0.3 m in the vertical dimension. The system may also be used to measure fluorescent spectral signatures from 3500 to 8000 A with a resolution of 100 A. Potential applications of the AOL, including sea state measurements, water transparency assessments, oil spill identification, effluent identification and crop cover assessment are also mentioned.

  2. Airborne concentrations of peanut protein.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Rodney M; Barnes, Charles S

    2013-01-01

    Food allergy to peanut is a significant health problem, and there are reported allergic reactions to peanuts despite not eating or having physical contact with peanuts. It is presumed that an allergic reaction may have occurred from inhalation of airborne peanut allergens. The purpose of this study was to detect the possible concentrations of airborne peanut proteins for various preparations and during specific activities. Separate Ara h 1 and Ara h 2 monoclonal enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and a polyclonal sandwich enzyme immunoassay for peanuts were used to detect the amount of airborne peanut protein collected using a Spincon Omni 3000 air collector (Sceptor Industries, Inc., Kansas City, MO) under different peanut preparation methods and situations. Air samples were measured for multiple peanut preparations and scenarios. Detectable amounts of airborne peanut protein were measured using a whole peanut immunoassay when removing the shells of roasted peanut. No airborne peanut allergen (Ara h 1 or Ara h 2) or whole peanut protein above the LLD was measured in any of the other peanut preparation collections. Ara h 1, Ara h 2, and polyclonal peanut proteins were detected from water used to boil peanuts. Small amounts of airborne peanut protein were detected in the scenario of removing shells from roasted peanuts; however, Ara h 1 and Ara h 2 proteins were unable to be consistently detected. Although airborne peanut proteins were detected, the concentration of airborne peanut protein that is necessary to elicit a clinical allergic reaction is unknown.

  3. Gross motor development of Nigerian children.

    PubMed

    Iloeje, S O; Obiekwe, V U; Kaine, W N

    1991-01-01

    A prospective study of 320 Nigerian children was undertaken to determine their pattern of motor development by recording the age at attainment of 12 gross-motor milestones. The children were all born full term and were neurologically normal at birth. They were recruited in the first week of life and seen at regular intervals in a well-baby clinic, where their parents were questioned about the ages at attainment of milestones. Results show that most gross-motor milestones were attained at earlier ages by these children than by children studied to establish norms for the traditional tests of motor development that have long been in use. Our findings confirm several previous reports which emphasize the more rapid attainment of motor milestones such as 'sit without support', 'crawl', 'stand well alone' and 'walk well alone' by black as compared with white children. But, conversely, a number of transitional milestones such as 'roll over', 'pull self to stand' and 'stand holding on' were achieved later by children in this study than by their non-African counterparts. Girls in this study were slightly advanced, relative to boys, in their attainment of most milestones. The results of this study have been incorporated into a chart which can be used in well-baby clinics to detect children with motor delay.

  4. The New Airborne Disease

    PubMed Central

    Goldsmith, John R.

    1970-01-01

    Community air pollution is the new airborne disease of our generation's communities. It is caused by the increasing use of fuel, associated with both affluence and careless waste. Photochemical air pollution of the California type involves newly defined atmospheric reactions, is due mostly to motor vehicle exhaust, is oxidizing, and produces ozone, plant damage, impairment of visibility and eye and respiratory symptoms. Aggravation of asthma, impairment of lung function among persons with chronic respiratory disease and a possible causal role, along with cigarette smoking in emphysema and chronic bronchitis, are some of the effects of photochemical pollution. More subtle effects of pollution include impairment of oxygen transport by the blood due to carbon monoxide and interference with porphyrin metabolism due to lead. Carbon monoxide exposures may affect survival of patients who are in hospitals because of myocardial infarction. While many uncertainties in pollution-health reactions need to be resolved, a large number of people in California have health impairment due to airborne disease of this new type. PMID:5485227

  5. The AFIT gross motion control project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leahy, M. B., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of the Gross Motion Control project is to study alternative control approaches that will provide payload invariant high speed trajectory tracking for nonrepetitive motions in free space. The research has concentrated on modifications to the model-based control structure. Development and evaluation is being actively pursued of both adaptive primary (inner loop) and robust secondary (output loop) controllers. In-house developments are compared and contrasted to the techniques proposed by other researchers. The case study for the evaluation is the first three links of a PUMA-560. Incorporating the principals of multiple model adaptive estimation, artificial neural networks, and Lyapunov theory into the model based paradigm has shown the potential for enhanced tracking. Secondary controllers based on Quantitative Feedback Theory, or augmented with auxiliary inputs, significantly improve the robustness to payload variations and unmodeled drive system dynamics. An overview is presented of the different concepts under investigation and a sample is provided of the latest experimental results.

  6. [Gross anatomy dissection and the legal control].

    PubMed

    Yamashina, Shohei; Shibata, Yosaburo

    2010-12-01

    In Japan, dissection of human body is generally prohibited by the Penal Code, i.e. the criminal law. However, the Postmortem Examination and Corpse Preservation Act allows for the dissection of the body in very limited situations, that include gross anatomy dissection and pathological and forensic autopsy in medical and dental schools. Growing numbers of co-medical schools have been founded more recently in Japan, and not a small number of co-medical schools try to adopt human body dissection in the course of anatomy education. The present short communication reminds us of the ways of thinking of the Postmortem Examination and Corpse Preservation Act and the Act on Body Donation for Medical and Dental Education in order that anatomy education in medical as well as co-medical schools takes place under the regulation by these two laws.

  7. Processor architecture for airborne SAR systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glass, C. M.

    1983-01-01

    Digital processors for spaceborne imaging radars and application of the technology developed for airborne SAR systems are considered. Transferring algorithms and implementation techniques from airborne to spaceborne SAR processors offers obvious advantages. The following topics are discussed: (1) a quantification of the differences in processing algorithms for airborne and spaceborne SARs; and (2) an overview of three processors for airborne SAR systems.

  8. Evaluation of meteorological airborne Doppler radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hildebrand, P. H.; Mueller, C. K.

    1984-01-01

    This paper will discuss the capabilities of airborne Doppler radar for atmospheric sciences research. The evaluation is based on airborne and ground based Doppler radar observations of convective storms. The capability of airborne Doppler radar to measure horizontal and vertical air motions is evaluated. Airborne Doppler radar is shown to be a viable tool for atmospheric sciences research.

  9. Airborne Cloud Computing Environment (ACCE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardman, Sean; Freeborn, Dana; Crichton, Dan; Law, Emily; Kay-Im, Liz

    2011-01-01

    Airborne Cloud Computing Environment (ACCE) is JPL's internal investment to improve the return on airborne missions. Improve development performance of the data system. Improve return on the captured science data. The investment is to develop a common science data system capability for airborne instruments that encompasses the end-to-end lifecycle covering planning, provisioning of data system capabilities, and support for scientific analysis in order to improve the quality, cost effectiveness, and capabilities to enable new scientific discovery and research in earth observation.

  10. Airborne agent concentration analysis

    DOEpatents

    Gelbard, Fred

    2004-02-03

    A method and system for inferring airborne contaminant concentrations in rooms without contaminant sensors, based on data collected by contaminant sensors in other rooms of a building, using known airflow interconnectivity data. The method solves a least squares problem that minimizes the difference between measured and predicted contaminant sensor concentrations with respect to an unknown contaminant release time. Solutions are constrained to providing non-negative initial contaminant concentrations in all rooms. The method can be used to identify a near-optimal distribution of sensors within the building, when then number of available sensors is less than the total number of rooms. This is achieved by having a system-sensor matrix that is non-singular, and by selecting that distribution which yields the lowest condition number of all the distributions considered. The method can predict one or more contaminant initial release points from the collected data.

  11. Airborne Wind Turbine

    SciTech Connect

    2010-09-01

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: Makani Power is developing an Airborne Wind Turbine (AWT) that eliminates 90% of the mass of a conventional wind turbine and accesses a stronger, more consistent wind at altitudes of near 1,000 feet. At these altitudes, 85% of the country can offer viable wind resources compared to only 15% accessible with current technology. Additionally, the Makani Power wing can be economically deployed in deep offshore waters, opening up a resource which is 4 times greater than the entire U.S. electrical generation capacity. Makani Power has demonstrated the core technology, including autonomous launch, land, and power generation with an 8 meter wingspan, 20 kW prototype. At commercial scale, Makani Power aims to develop a 600 kW, 28 meter wingspan product capable of delivering energy at an unsubsidized cost competitive with coal, the current benchmark for low-cost power.

  12. Effect of temperate climate tree species on gross ammonification, gross nitrification and N2O formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brüggemann, N.; Rosenkranz, P.; Papen, H.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.

    2003-04-01

    Microbial nitrogen turnover processes in the soil, like ammonification, nitrification and denitrification, play an important role in the formation of nitrous oxide (N2O): (i) ammonification, because it releases nitrogen from organic material in the form of ammonium (NH4+), which in turn can serve as substrate for nitrification; (ii) nitrification itself (i.e. the turnover of NH4+ to nitrate, NO3-), during which nitric oxide (NO) and N2O can be released as by-products at varying ratios; (iii) denitrification, in which NO3- serves as electron acceptor and is converted to molecular nitrogen (N2) via NO and N2O as intermediates, that can also be partially lost to the atmosphere. Temperate forest soils are a substantial source of atmospheric N2O contributing up to 10% to the total atmospheric N2O budget. However, this figure is afflicted with a huge uncertainty due to a number of factors governing the soil N2O formation, consumption, release and uptake, which are not fully understood at present. To one of these factors belongs the influence of the tree species on nitrogen turnover processes in the soil and the formation of N trace gases related with them. The aim of the present work was to analyse this tree species effect for the temperate climate region. For this purpose the effect of five different temperate tree species, having the same age and growing on the same soil in direct vicinity to each other, on gross ammonification and gross nitrification as well as on N2O formation was investigated. The trees (common beech, Fagus sylvatica; pedunculate oak, Quercus robur; Norway spruce, Picea abies; Japanese larch, Larix leptolepis; mountain pine, Pinus mugo) were part of a species trial in Western Jutland, Denmark, established in 1965 on a former sandy heathland. Samples from the soil under these five tree species were taken in spring and in summer 2002, respectively, differentiating between organic layer and mineral soil. The gross rates of ammonification as well of

  13. The relationship between premedical coursework in gross anatomy and histology and medical school performance in gross anatomy and histology.

    PubMed

    Forester, Joseph P; McWhorter, David L; Cole, Maria S

    2002-03-01

    Many premedical students enroll in courses whose content will be encountered again during their medical education. Presumably, students believe this practice will lead to improved academic performance in corresponding medical school courses. Therefore, this study was undertaken to determine whether a premedical gross anatomy and/or histology course resulted in increased performance in corresponding medical school courses. A second aim of the study was to examine whether the type of premedical gross anatomy and/or histology course differentially affected medical school performance. A survey that assessed premedical gross anatomy and histology coursework was administered to 440 first-year medical students. The results from this survey showed that students with premedical gross anatomy (n = 236) and/or histology (n = 109) earned significantly more points in the corresponding medical school course than students without the premedical coursework (P < 0.05). Analysis of premedical course types revealed that students who took a gross anatomy course with prosected specimens (n = 35) earned significantly more points that those students without premedical gross anatomy coursework (P < 0.05). The results from this study suggest: 1) premedical gross anatomy and/or histology coursework improves academic performance in corresponding medical school courses, and 2) a premedical gross anatomy course with prosected specimens, a specific type of undergraduate course, significantly improves academic performance in medical gross anatomy.

  14. Beta measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schotland, R. M.; Warren, A. J.; Funariu, O. M.

    1991-01-01

    The second year's results of the BETA project research are presented. The program is divided into two areas, aerosol modification and climatology in the trade wind region and the climatology of BETA (CO2) on remote mountain top locations. Limited data is available on the aerosol climatology of the marine free troposphere (MFT) in the trade wind region. In order to study the effects of cumulus convection on the MFT values of BETA, a cloud model was developed to simulate the evolution of a typical Pacific trade wind cumulus cloud. The stages involved in this development are outlined. The assembly of the major optical components of the lidar was made. Tests were run of the spectral bandwidth of the Synrad laser when a portion of the beam is mixed with a component which has traveled 450 meters corresponding to a delay of 1.5 microsecs. The bandwidth of the beat signal was measured to be 3 KHz. The data processing system based on a parallel processing filter bank analyzer using true time squaring detectors at each filter was completed.

  15. Gross revenue risk in Swiss dairy farming.

    PubMed

    El Benni, N; Finger, R

    2013-02-01

    This study investigated how agricultural policy reforms, including market liberalization and market deregulation, have influenced gross revenue risk of Swiss dairy producers using farm-level panel data between 1990 and 2009. Based on detrended data, variance decomposition was applied to assess how output prices and yields contributed to revenue risk over 3 different periods: the whole period (1990-2009), the first decade (1990-1999), and the second decade (1999-2009). In addition, the effect of expected changes in animal-based support for roughage-consuming cattle and price volatility on revenue risk was evaluated using a simulation model. Prices were the main contributor to revenue risk, even if the importance of yield risk increased over time. Swiss dairy producers can profit from natural hedge but market deregulation and market liberalization have reduced the natural hedge at the farm level. An increase in price volatility would substantially increase revenue risk and would, together with the abandonment of direct payments, reduce the comparative advantage of dairy production for risk-averse decision makers. Depending on other available risk management strategies, price risk management instruments might be a valuable solution for Swiss dairy producers in the future.

  16. Systematically describing gross lesions in corals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Work, T.; Aeby, G.

    2006-01-01

    Many coral diseases are characterized based on gross descriptions and, given the lack or difficulty of applying existing laboratory tools to understanding causes of coral diseases, most new diseases will continued to be described based on appearance in the field. Unfortunately, many existing descriptions of coral disease are ambiguous or open to subjective interpretation, making comparisons between oceans problematic. One reason for this is that the process of describing lesions is often confused with that of assigning causality for the lesion. However, causality is usually something not obtained in the field and requires additional laboratory tests. Because a concise and objective morphologic description provides the foundation for a case definition of any disease, there is a need for a consistent and standardized process to describe lesions of corals that focuses on morphology. We provide a framework to systematically describe and name diseases in corals involving 4 steps: (1) naming the disease, (2) describing the lesion, (3) formulating a morphologic diagnosis and (4) formulating an etiologic diagnosis. This process focuses field investigators on describing what they see and separates the process of describing a lesion from that of inferring causality, the latter being more appropriately done using laboratory techniques.

  17. Gross-Pitaevskii model of pulsar glitches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warszawski, L.; Melatos, A.

    2011-08-01

    The first large-scale quantum mechanical simulations of pulsar glitches are presented, using a Gross-Pitaevskii model of the crust-superfluid system in the presence of pinning. Power-law distributions of simulated glitch sizes are obtained, in accord with astronomical observations, with exponents ranging from -0.55 to -1.26. Examples of large-scale simulations, containing ˜200 vortices, reveal that these statistics persist in the many-vortex limit. Waiting-time distributions are also constructed. These and other statistics support the hypothesis that catastrophic unpinning mediated by collective vortex motion produces glitches; indeed, such collective events are seen in time-lapse movies of superfluid density. Three principal trends are observed. (1) The glitch rate scales proportional to the electromagnetic spin-down torque. (2) A strong positive correlation is found between the strength of vortex pinning and mean glitch size. (3) The spin-down dynamics depend less on the pinning site abundance once the latter exceeds one site per vortex, suggesting that unpinned vortices travel a distance comparable to the intervortex spacing before repinning.

  18. Airborne Particulate Threat Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Patrick Treado; Oksana Klueva; Jeffrey Beckstead

    2008-12-31

    Aerosol threat detection requires the ability to discern between threat agents and ambient background particulate matter (PM) encountered in the environment. To date, Raman imaging technology has been demonstrated as an effective strategy for the assessment of threat agents in the presence of specific, complex backgrounds. Expanding our understanding of the composition of ambient particulate matter background will improve the overall performance of Raman Chemical Imaging (RCI) detection strategies for the autonomous detection of airborne chemical and biological hazards. Improving RCI detection performance is strategic due to its potential to become a widely exploited detection approach by several U.S. government agencies. To improve the understanding of the ambient PM background with subsequent improvement in Raman threat detection capability, ChemImage undertook the Airborne Particulate Threat Assessment (APTA) Project in 2005-2008 through a collaborative effort with the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), under cooperative agreement number DE-FC26-05NT42594. During Phase 1 of the program, a novel PM classification based on molecular composition was developed based on a comprehensive review of the scientific literature. In addition, testing protocols were developed for ambient PM characterization. A signature database was developed based on a variety of microanalytical techniques, including scanning electron microscopy, FT-IR microspectroscopy, optical microscopy, fluorescence and Raman chemical imaging techniques. An automated particle integrated collector and detector (APICD) prototype was developed for automated collection, deposition and detection of biothreat agents in background PM. During Phase 2 of the program, ChemImage continued to refine the understanding of ambient background composition. Additionally, ChemImage enhanced the APICD to provide improved autonomy, sensitivity and specificity. Deliverables included a Final Report detailing our

  19. The amino acid sequence of goat beta-lactoglobulin.

    PubMed

    Préaux, G; Braunitzer, G; Schrank, B; Stangl, A

    1979-11-01

    The isolation of beta-lactoglobulin from milk of the goat is described. The purified protein was checked for purity and has been characterized by its gross composition and end groups. The native or the modified protein was then degraded by tryptic and cyanogen bromide cleavage. The cleavage products were isolated and sequenced in the sequenator using a Quadrol and propyne program. These data provide the complete sequence of beta-lactoglobulin of the goat. The results are discussed and compared particularly with bovine beta-lactoglobulin components AB. Some biological aspects are described.

  20. 46 CFR 69.119 - Spaces deducted from gross tonnage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Spaces deducted from gross tonnage. 69.119 Section 69... VESSELS MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS Standard Measurement System § 69.119 Spaces deducted from gross tonnage. (a) Purpose. This section lists the requirements for spaces (other than propelling machinery spaces under §...

  1. International, High-Ability Adventures: An Interview with Miraca Gross

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henshon, Suzanna E.

    2006-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Dr. Miraca Gross, Professor of Gifted Education, and Director of the Gifted Education Research, Resource, and Information Centre (GERRIC), at the University of New South Wales in Sydney, Australia. Dr. Gross is a leading international authority on the education of gifted and talented children, particularly…

  2. 26 CFR 1.832-4 - Gross income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... TAXES (CONTINUED) Other Insurance Companies § 1.832-4 Gross income. (a)(1) Gross income as defined in... annual statement approved by the National Convention of Insurance Commissioners, as well as the gain... under section 61, except that in the case of a mutual fire insurance company described in section...

  3. 26 CFR 1.199-3 - Domestic production gross receipts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Domestic production gross receipts. 1.199-3 Section 1.199-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Itemized Deductions for Individuals and Corporations (continued) § 1.199-3 Domestic production gross receipts. (a)...

  4. 7 CFR 701.117 - Average adjusted gross income limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Average adjusted gross income limitation. 701.117 Section 701.117 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY... Conservation Program § 701.117 Average adjusted gross income limitation. To be eligible for payments...

  5. Guidelines for Standard Photography in Gross and Clinical Anatomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barut, Cagatay; Ertilav, Hakan

    2011-01-01

    Photography has a widespread usage in medicine and anatomy. In this review, authors focused on the usage of photography in gross and clinical anatomy. Photography in gross and clinical anatomy is not only essential for accurate documentation of morphological findings but also important in sharing knowledge and experience. Photographs of cadavers…

  6. 40 CFR 403.15 - Net/Gross calculation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Net/Gross calculation. 403.15 Section... STANDARDS GENERAL PRETREATMENT REGULATIONS FOR EXISTING AND NEW SOURCES OF POLLUTION § 403.15 Net/Gross... of the Industrial User, the applicable Standard will be calculated on a “net” basis (i.e.,...

  7. 40 CFR 403.15 - Net/Gross calculation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Net/Gross calculation. 403.15 Section... STANDARDS GENERAL PRETREATMENT REGULATIONS FOR EXISTING AND NEW SOURCES OF POLLUTION § 403.15 Net/Gross... of the Industrial User, the applicable Standard will be calculated on a “net” basis (i.e.,...

  8. Psychiatric Symptoms in Children with Gross Motor Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emck, Claudia; Bosscher, Ruud J.; van Wieringen, Piet C. W.; Doreleijers, Theo; Beek, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    Children with psychiatric disorders often demonstrate gross motor problems. This study investigates if the reverse also holds true by assessing psychiatric symptoms present in children with gross motor problems. Emotional, behavioral, and autism spectrum disorders (ASD), as well as psychosocial problems, were assessed in a sample of 40 children…

  9. 33 CFR 117.449 - Grosse Tete Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Grosse Tete Bayou. 117.449 Section 117.449 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.449 Grosse Tete Bayou. The...

  10. 33 CFR 117.449 - Grosse Tete Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Grosse Tete Bayou. 117.449 Section 117.449 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.449 Grosse Tete Bayou. (a) The draw...

  11. 33 CFR 117.449 - Grosse Tete Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Grosse Tete Bayou. 117.449 Section 117.449 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.449 Grosse Tete Bayou. The...

  12. 33 CFR 117.449 - Grosse Tete Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Grosse Tete Bayou. 117.449 Section 117.449 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.449 Grosse Tete Bayou. (a) The draw...

  13. 33 CFR 117.449 - Grosse Tete Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grosse Tete Bayou. 117.449 Section 117.449 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.449 Grosse Tete Bayou. (a) The draw...

  14. The Gross Anatomy Course: An Analysis of Its Importance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bockers, Anja; Jerg-Bretzke, Lucia; Lamp, Christoph; Brinkmann, Anke; Traue, Harald C.; Bockers, Tobias M.

    2010-01-01

    The gross anatomy dissection course is a cost-intensive piece of undergraduate medical education that students and professionals alike describe as very important within the overall medical curriculum. We sought to understand more explicitly students' valuation of gross anatomy as an "important" course and so developed a quantitative…

  15. 46 CFR 69.119 - Spaces deducted from gross tonnage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Spaces deducted from gross tonnage. 69.119 Section 69... VESSELS MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS Standard Measurement System § 69.119 Spaces deducted from gross tonnage. (a) Purpose. This section lists the requirements for spaces (other than propelling machinery spaces under §...

  16. Comparison of Continuous Wave CO2 Doppler Lidar Calibration Using Earth Surface Targets in Laboratory and Airborne Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jarzembski, Maurice A.; Srivastava, Vandana

    1999-01-01

    Routine backscatter, beta, measurements by an airborne or space-based lidar from designated earth surfaces with known and fairly uniform beta properties can potentially offer lidar calibration opportunities. This can in turn be used to obtain accurate atmospheric aerosol and cloud beta measurements on large spatial scales. This is important because achieving a precise calibration factor for large pulsed lidars then need not rest solely on using a standard hard target procedure. Furthermore, calibration from designated earth surfaces would provide an inflight performance evaluation of the lidar. Hence, with active remote sensing using lasers with high resolution data, calibration of a space-based lidar using earth's surfaces will be extremely useful. The calibration methodology using the earth's surface initially requires measuring beta of various earth surfaces simulated in the laboratory using a focused continuous wave (CW) CO2 Doppler lidar and then use these beta measurements as standards for the earth surface signal from airborne or space-based lidars. Since beta from the earth's surface may be retrieved at different angles of incidence, beta would also need to be measured at various angles of incidences of the different surfaces. In general, Earth-surface reflectance measurements have been made in the infrared, but the use of lidars to characterize them and in turn use of the Earth's surface to calibrate lidars has not been made. The feasibility of this calibration methodology is demonstrated through a comparison of these laboratory measurements with actual earth surface beta retrieved from the same lidar during the NASA/Multi-center Airborne Coherent Atmospheric Wind Sensor (MACAWS) mission on NASA's DC8 aircraft from 13 - 26 September, 1995. For the selected earth surface from the airborne lidar data, an average beta for the surface was established and the statistics of lidar efficiency was determined. This was compared with the actual lidar efficiency

  17. Airborne rescue system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haslim, Leonard A. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    The airborne rescue system includes a boom with telescoping members for extending a line and collar to a rescue victim. The boom extends beyond the tip of the helicopter rotor so that the victim may avoid the rotor downwash. The rescue line is played out and reeled in by winch. The line is temporarily retained under the boom. When the boom is extended, the rescue line passes through clips. When the victim dons the collar and the tension in the line reaches a predetermined level, the clips open and release the line from the boom. Then the rescue line can form a straight line between the victim and the winch, and the victim can be lifted to the helicopter. A translator is utilized to push out or pull in the telescoping members. The translator comprises a tape and a rope. Inside the telescoping members the tape is curled around the rope and the tape has a tube-like configuration. The tape and rope are provided from supply spools.

  18. Quantification of global gross forest cover loss.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Matthew C; Stehman, Stephen V; Potapov, Peter V

    2010-05-11

    A globally consistent methodology using satellite imagery was implemented to quantify gross forest cover loss (GFCL) from 2000 to 2005 and to compare GFCL among biomes, continents, and countries. GFCL is defined as the area of forest cover removed because of any disturbance, including both natural and human-induced causes. GFCL was estimated to be 1,011,000 km(2) from 2000 to 2005, representing 3.1% (0.6% per year) of the year 2000 estimated total forest area of 32,688,000 km(2). The boreal biome experienced the largest area of GFCL, followed by the humid tropical, dry tropical, and temperate biomes. GFCL expressed as the proportion of year 2000 forest cover was highest in the boreal biome and lowest in the humid tropics. Among continents, North America had the largest total area and largest proportion of year 2000 GFCL. At national scales, Brazil experienced the largest area of GFCL over the study period, 165,000 km(2), followed by Canada at 160,000 km(2). Of the countries with >1,000,000 km(2) of forest cover, the United States exhibited the greatest proportional GFCL and the Democratic Republic of Congo the least. Our results illustrate a pervasive global GFCL dynamic. However, GFCL represents only one component of net change, and the processes driving GFCL and rates of recovery from GFCL differ regionally. For example, the majority of estimated GFCL for the boreal biome is due to a naturally induced fire dynamic. To fully characterize global forest change dynamics, remote sensing efforts must extend beyond estimating GFCL to identify proximate causes of forest cover loss and to estimate recovery rates from GFCL.

  19. Curved PVDF airborne transducer.

    PubMed

    Wang, H; Toda, M

    1999-01-01

    In the application of airborne ultrasonic ranging measurement, a partially cylindrical (curved) PVDF transducer can effectively couple ultrasound into the air and generate strong sound pressure. Because of its geometrical features, the ultrasound beam angles of a curved PVDF transducer can be unsymmetrical (i.e., broad horizontally and narrow vertically). This feature is desired in some applications. In this work, a curved PVDF air transducer is investigated both theoretically and experimentally. Two resonances were observed in this transducer. They are length extensional mode and flexural bending mode. Surface vibration profiles of these two modes were measured by a laser vibrometer. It was found from the experiment that the surface vibration was not uniform along the curvature direction for both vibration modes. Theoretical calculations based on a model developed in this work confirmed the experimental results. Two displacement peaks were found in the piezoelectric active direction of PVDF film for the length extensional mode; three peaks were found for the flexural bending mode. The observed peak positions were in good agreement with the calculation results. Transient surface displacement measurements revealed that vibration peaks were in phase for the length extensional mode and out of phase for the flexural bending mode. Therefore, the length extensional mode can generate a stronger ultrasound wave than the flexural bending mode. The resonance frequencies and vibration amplitudes of the two modes strongly depend on the structure parameters as well as the material properties. For the transducer design, the theoretical model developed in this work can be used to optimize the ultrasound performance.

  20. Airborne Crowd Density Estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meynberg, O.; Kuschk, G.

    2013-10-01

    This paper proposes a new method for estimating human crowd densities from aerial imagery. Applications benefiting from an accurate crowd monitoring system are mainly found in the security sector. Normally crowd density estimation is done through in-situ camera systems mounted on high locations although this is not appropriate in case of very large crowds with thousands of people. Using airborne camera systems in these scenarios is a new research topic. Our method uses a preliminary filtering of the whole image space by suitable and fast interest point detection resulting in a number of image regions, possibly containing human crowds. Validation of these candidates is done by transforming the corresponding image patches into a low-dimensional and discriminative feature space and classifying the results using a support vector machine (SVM). The feature space is spanned by texture features computed by applying a Gabor filter bank with varying scale and orientation to the image patches. For evaluation, we use 5 different image datasets acquired by the 3K+ aerial camera system of the German Aerospace Center during real mass events like concerts or football games. To evaluate the robustness and generality of our method, these datasets are taken from different flight heights between 800 m and 1500 m above ground (keeping a fixed focal length) and varying daylight and shadow conditions. The results of our crowd density estimation are evaluated against a reference data set obtained by manually labeling tens of thousands individual persons in the corresponding datasets and show that our method is able to estimate human crowd densities in challenging realistic scenarios.

  1. Estimating the gross moist stability in shallow and deep convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, C. A.; Jong, B. T.; Chou, C.

    2015-12-01

    Gross moist stability has been used to study the link between tropical deep convection and large scale circulation in a moist static energy (MSE) budget. Here we aim to calculate the gross moist stability from more realistic profiles of vertical velocity and extend it beyond deep convection, adding shallow convection. Based on a principal component analysis, we were able to decompose the vertical velocity into two leading modes, which are dominated by deep and shallow convection, respectively. According to the deep and shallow modes, we calculate the gross moist stability for these two modes and discuss the roles of deep and shallow convection in the MSE budget. The gross moist stability of deep convection tends to be positive in the tropics, while that of shallow convection is negative over most areas of the tropics. This implies that deep convection exports MSE to stabilize the atmosphere and shallow convection imports MSE to enhance deep convection and destabilize the atmosphere. Based on the spatial distribution, moisture tends to reduce the gross moist stability of deep convection, while dry static energy has little impact. Deeper deep convection tends to have greater gross moist stability. For shallow convection, on the other hand, the gross moist stability is affected not only by low-level moisture but also mid-level moisture. Both moister low-level and drier mid-level moisture reduce the gross moist stability of shallow convection. Greater low-level dry static energy, which is associated with warmer sea surface temperature, also tends to reduce gross moist stability.

  2. Gross nitrogen retranslocation within a canopy of Quercus serrata saplings.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Miki U

    2012-07-01

    Nitrogen (N) retranslocation within tree canopies has been intensively studied and assumed to function as a one-way process (e.g., from older to newer leaves). However, recent studies have found that both N output and input occur in individual leaves, suggesting that 'gross' N retranslocation exists behind 'net' N retranslocation. In the present study, the amount and direction of gross N retranslocation within a canopy of deciduous oak Quercus serrata Thunb. ex. Murray saplings were investigated. Labeling was conducted with leaves of Q. serrata saplings cultivated under conditions of low-N (LN) or high-N (HN) fertility. Subsequently, N movement within the canopy was traced. Leaves at two different positions in the canopy (top and lateral) were labeled to determine the direction of gross N retranslocation. To detect seasonal differences, the leaf-labeling experiment was conducted twice during the early and late phases of the growing season. In addition, to compare the quantitative importance of gross N retranslocation and root N uptake, the latter was determined by labeling Q. serrata roots. The N-labeling experiment revealed gross N retranslocation among leaves, i.e., from top to lateral, lateral to top and lateral to lateral positions. Gross N retranslocation was quantitatively more important than root uptake, especially for plants cultivated at LN fertility. Season also affected the amount of gross N retranslocation, and these effects differed between LN and HN fertilities. These findings suggest that N allocation within a canopy is controlled dynamically by both gross N output and input. The mechanisms controlling gross N output and input likely function as key determinants of N allocation within a tree canopy.

  3. WESTERN AIRBORNE CONTAMINANTS ASSESSMENT PROJECT RESEARCH PLAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of the Western Airborne Contaminants Assessment Project (WACAP) is to assess the deposition of airborne contaminants in Western National Parks, providing regional and local information on exposure, accumulation, impacts, and probable sources. This project is being desig...

  4. 29 CFR 779.259 - What is included in annual gross volume.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Coverage Annual Gross Volume of Sales Made Or Business Done § 779.259 What is included in annual gross volume. (a) The annual gross volume of sales made or business done of an enterprise consists of its gross receipts from all types of sales made and business done during a 12-month period. The gross volume of...

  5. An airborne isothermal haze chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hindman, E. E.

    1981-01-01

    Thermal gradient diffusion cloud chambers (TGDCC) are used to determine the concentrations of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) with critical supersaturations greater than or equal to about 0.2%. The CCN concentrations measured with the airborne IHC were lower than theoretically predicted by factors ranging between 7.9 and 9.0. The CCN concentrations measured with the airborne IHC were lower than the concentrations measured with the larger laboratory IHC's by factors ranging between 3.9 and 7.5. The bounds of the supersaturation ranges of the airborne IHC and the CSU-Mee TGDCC do not overlap. Nevertheless, the slopes of the interpolated data between the bounds agree favorably with the theoretical slopes.

  6. Gross lesions of alimentary disease in adult cattle.

    PubMed

    Njaa, Bradley L; Panciera, Roger J; Clark, Edward G; Lamm, Catherine G

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of the gross necropsy examination of the gastrointestinal tract is to recognize the presence of lesions, thus requiring a basic understanding of its normal appearance and anatomy. This article highlights gross changes to the gastrointestinal tract of adult cattle that help place the disease processes into broad categories. Although few gross lesions reach the zenith of pathognomonic, there are numerous lesions that, when considered in aggregate with history (eg, number of animals affected, environment, duration of signs, time of onset relative to management changes, previous management) and clinical signs, can help narrow the spectrum of causes, provide a basis for a strong presumptive diagnosis, and focus diagnostic test selection.

  7. Weak decay processes in pre-supernova core evolution within the gross theory

    SciTech Connect

    Ferreira, R. C.; Dimarco, A. J.; Samana, A. R.; Barbero, C. A.

    2014-03-20

    The beta decay and electron capture rates are of fundamental importance in the evolution of massive stars in a pre-supernova core. The beta decay process gives its contribution by emitting electrons in the plasma of the stellar core, thereby increasing pressure, which in turn increases the temperature. From the other side, the electron capture removes free electrons from the plasma of the star core contributing to the reduction of pressure and temperature. In this work we calculate the beta decay and electron capture rates in stellar conditions for 63 nuclei of relevance in the pre-supernova stage, employing Gross Theory as the nuclear model. We use the abundances calculated with the Saha equations in the hypothesis of nuclear statistical equilibrium to evaluate the time derivative of the fraction of electrons. Our results are compared with other evaluations available in the literature. They have shown to be one order less or equal than the calculated within other models. Our results indicate that these differences may influence the evolution of the star in the later stages of pre-supernova.

  8. Airborne transmission of Bordetella pertussis.

    PubMed

    Warfel, Jason M; Beren, Joel; Merkel, Tod J

    2012-09-15

    Pertussis is a contagious, acute respiratory illness caused by the bacterial pathogen Bordetella pertussis. Although it is widely believed that transmission of B. pertussis occurs via aerosolized respiratory droplets, no controlled study has ever documented airborne transmission of pertussis. We set out to determine if airborne transmission occurs between infected and naive animals, utilizing the baboon model of pertussis. Our results showed that 100% of exposed naive animals became infected even when physical contact was prevented, demonstrating that pertussis transmission occurs via aerosolized respiratory droplets.

  9. Ambrosia airborne pollen concentration modelling and evaluation over Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamaoui-Laguel, Lynda; Vautard, Robert; Viovy, Nicolas; Khvorostyanov, Dmitry; Colette, Augustin

    2014-05-01

    Native from North America, Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. (Common Ragweed) is an invasive annual weed introduced in Europe in the mid-nineteenth century. It has a very high spreading potential throughout Europe and releases very allergenic pollen leading to health problems for sensitive persons. Because of its health effects, it is necessary to develop modelling tools to be able to forecast ambrosia air pollen concentration and to inform allergy populations of allergenic threshold exceedance. This study is realised within the framework of the ATOPICA project (https://www.atopica.eu/) which is designed to provide first steps in tools and estimations of the fate of allergies in Europe due to changes in climate, land use and air quality. To calculate and predict airborne concentrations of ambrosia pollen, a chain of models has been built. Models have been developed or adapted for simulating the phenology (PMP phonological modelling platform), inter-annual production (ORCHIDEE vegetation model), release and airborne processes (CHIMERE chemical transport model) of ragweed pollen. Airborne pollens follow processes similar to air quality pollutants in CHIMERE with some adaptations. The detailed methodology, formulations and input data will be presented. A set of simulations has been performed to simulate airborne concentrations of pollens over long time periods on a large European domain. Hindcast simulations (2000 - 2012) driven by ERA-Interim re-analyses are designed to best simulate past periods airborne pollens. The modelled pollen concentrations are calibrated with observations and validated against additional observations. Then, 20-year long historical simulations (1986 - 2005) are carried out using calibrated ambrosia density distribution and climate model-driven weather in order to serve as a control simulation for future scenarios. By comparison with multi-annual observed daily pollen counts we have shown that the model captures well the gross features of the pollen

  10. Airborne asbestos in public buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Chesson, J.; Hatfield, J.; Schultz, B.; Dutrow, E.; Blake, J. )

    1990-02-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency sampled air in 49 government-owned buildings (six buildings with no asbestos-containing material, six buildings with asbestos-containing material in generally good condition, and 37 buildings with damaged asbestos-containing material). This is the most comprehensive study to date of airborne asbestos levels in U.S. public buildings during normal building activities. The air outside each building was also sampled. Air samples were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy using a direct transfer preparation technique. The results show an increasing trend in average airborne asbestos levels; outdoor levels are lowest and levels in buildings with damaged asbestos-containing material are highest. However, the measured levels and the differences between indoors and outdoors and between building categories are small in absolute magnitude. Comparable studies from Canada and the UK, although differing in their estimated concentrations, also conclude that while airborne asbestos levels may be elevated in buildings that contain asbestos, levels are generally low. This conclusion does not eliminate the possibility of higher airborne asbestos levels during maintenance or renovation that disturbs the asbestos-containing material.

  11. Tropospheric and Airborne Emission Spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glavich, Thomas; Beer, Reinhard

    1996-01-01

    X This paper describes the development of two related instruments, the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) and the Airborne Emission Spectrometer (AES). Both instruments are infrared imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometers, used for measuring the state of the lower atmosphere, and in particular the measurement of ozone and ozone sources and sinks.

  12. Airborne Imagery Collections Barrow 2013

    DOE Data Explorer

    Cherry, Jessica; Crowder, Kerri

    2015-07-20

    The data here are orthomosaics, digital surface models (DSMs), and individual frames captured during low altitude airborne flights in 2013 at the Barrow Environmental Observatory. The orthomosaics, thermal IR mosaics, and DSMs were generated from the individual frames using Structure from Motion techniques.

  13. AARD - Autonomous Airborne Refueling Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ewers, Dick

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph document reviews the Autonomous Airborne Refueling Demonstration program, and NASA Dryden's work in the program. The primary goal of the program is to make one fully automatic probe-to-drogue engagement using the AARD system. There are pictures of the aircraft approaching to the docking.

  14. Routing architecture and security for airborne networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Hongmei; Xie, Peng; Li, Jason; Xu, Roger; Levy, Renato

    2009-05-01

    Airborne networks are envisioned to provide interconnectivity for terrestial and space networks by interconnecting highly mobile airborne platforms. A number of military applications are expected to be used by the operator, and all these applications require proper routing security support to establish correct route between communicating platforms in a timely manner. As airborne networks somewhat different from traditional wired and wireless networks (e.g., Internet, LAN, WLAN, MANET, etc), security aspects valid in these networks are not fully applicable to airborne networks. Designing an efficient security scheme to protect airborne networks is confronted with new requirements. In this paper, we first identify a candidate routing architecture, which works as an underlying structure for our proposed security scheme. And then we investigate the vulnerabilities and attack models against routing protocols in airborne networks. Based on these studies, we propose an integrated security solution to address routing security issues in airborne networks.

  15. Cereal beta-glucans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cereal beta-glucans occur predominantly in oats and barley, but can be found in other cereals. Beta-glucan structure is a mixture of single beta-1,3-linkages and consecutive beta-1,4-linkages, and cellotriosyl and cellotetraosyl units typically make up 90-95% of entire molecule. Lichenase can hydr...

  16. Gross alpha analytical modifications that improve wastewater treatment compliance

    SciTech Connect

    Tucker, B.J.; Arndt, S.

    2007-07-01

    This paper will propose an improvement to the gross alpha measurement that will provide more accurate gross alpha determinations and thus allow for more efficient and cost-effective treatment of site wastewaters. To evaluate the influence of salts that may be present in wastewater samples from a potentially broad range of environmental conditions, two types of efficiency curves were developed, each using a thorium-230 (Th-230) standard spike. Two different aqueous salt solutions were evaluated, one using sodium chloride, and one using salts from tap water drawn from the Bergen County, New Jersey Publicly Owned Treatment Works (POTW). For each curve, 13 to 17 solutions were prepared, each with the same concentration of Th-230 spike, but differing in the total amount of salt in the range of 0 to 100 mg. The attenuation coefficients were evaluated for the two salt types by plotting the natural log of the counted efficiencies vs. the weight of the sample's dried residue retained on the planchet. The results show that the range of the slopes for each of the attenuation curves varied by approximately a factor of 2.5. In order to better ensure the accuracy of results, and thus verify compliance with the gross alpha wastewater effluent criterion, projects depending on gross alpha measurements of environmental waters and wastewaters should employ gross alpha efficiency curves prepared with salts that mimic, as closely as possible, the salt content of the aqueous environmental matrix. (authors)

  17. Aerosol Backscatter from Airborne Continuous Wave CO2 Lidars Over Western North America and the Pacific Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jarzembski, Maurice A.; Srivastava, Vandana; Rothermel, Jeffry

    1999-01-01

    Atmospheric aerosol backscatter, beta, variability gives a direct indication of aerosol loading. Since aerosol variability is governed by regional sources and sinks as well as affected by its transport due to meteorological conditions, it is important to characterize this loading at different locations and times. Lidars are sensitive instruments that can effectively provide high-resolution, large-scale sampling of the atmosphere remotely by measuring aerosol beta, thereby capturing detailed temporal and spatial variability of aerosol loading, Although vertical beta profiles are usually obtained by pulsed lidars, airborne-focused CW lidars, with high sensitivity and short time integration, can provide higher resolution sampling in the vertical, thereby revealing detailed structure of aerosol layers. During the 1995 NASA Multicenter Airborne Coherent Atmospheric Wind Sensor (MACAWS) mission, NASA MSFC airborne-focused CW CO2 Doppler lidars, operating at 9.1 and 10.6-micrometers wavelength, obtained high resolution in situ aerosol beta measurements to characterize aerosol variability. The observed variability in beta at 9.1-micrometers wavelength with altitude is presented as well as comparison with some pulsed lidar profiles.

  18. Detection of airborne polyoma virus.

    PubMed Central

    McGarrity, G. J.; Dion, A. S.

    1978-01-01

    Polyoma virus was recovered from the air of an animal laboratory housing mice infected with the virus. Air samples were obtained by means of a high volume air sampler and further concentrated by high speed centrifugation. Total concentration of the air samples was 7.5 x 10(7). Assay for polyoma virus was by mouse antibody production tests. Airborne polyoma virus was detected in four of six samples. PMID:211163

  19. The Future of Airborne Reconnaissance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-01-01

    biplanes to the worldwide Cold War missions of the U - 2 and SR-71, airborne reconnaissance has become an indispensable tool to the intelligence community...Reconnaissance Operations (SRO) procedures, such as the U - 2 , RC- 135, and the EP-3, and traditional theater/fleet tactical reconnaissance systems like...upgraded sensor package on the U -2.14 The Army Staffs argument centers around command and control of the asset. The Army agreed that the U - 2 ’s

  20. Investigaton of the beta strength function at high energy: gamma-ray spectroscopy of the decay of 5. 3-s /sup 84/As to /sup 84/Se

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, E.A; Lien, O.G. III; Meyer, R.A.

    1981-06-01

    The beta strength function up to approximately 8.6 MeV for the system /sup 84/As(..beta../sup -/)/sup 84/Se was investigated. It was found that it is not possible to satisfactorily describe S/sub ..beta../ by a statistical model. From the /sup 84/As decay scheme an experimental beta strength function was deduced. Additional information on the beta transition intensity is obtained from the gross coincidence spectra of individual gamma rays. In total these data suggest that the experimental beta strength function above 6.8 MeV is significantly lower than that calculated using a statistical model. Features in the gross coincidence spectra also suggest that a significant bump appears in the experimental beta strength function at approximately 6.5 MeV.

  1. Anselm's Discovery of the Gross-Neveu Model in 1958

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shifman, M.

    2013-06-01

    The Gross-Neveu model comprises quantum field theory of N Dirac fermions interacting via four-fermion interaction in one spatial and one time dimension. It was introduced in 1974 (shortly after quantum chromodynamics was discovered) by David Gross and André Neveu [1] as a toy model which mimics two crucial features of quantum chromodynamics: asymptotic freedom and spontaneous breaking of a chiral symmetry. The model is based on N Dirac (i.e. complex two-component) fermions, ψ1, ψ2, ..., ψN. The Lagrangian of the Gross-Neveau model is [ {L} = bar{psi}ipartial_{mu}gamma^{mu}psi + frac{g^{2}}{2}(sumlimits_{k = 1}^{N}bar{psi}_{k}psi^{k})^{2}.

  2. Airborne particulate matter in spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Acceptability limits and sampling and monitoring strategies for airborne particles in spacecraft were considered. Based on instances of eye and respiratory tract irritation reported by Shuttle flight crews, the following acceptability limits for airborne particles were recommended: for flights of 1 week or less duration (1 mg/cu m for particles less than 10 microns in aerodynamic diameter (AD) plus 1 mg/cu m for particles 10 to 100 microns in AD); and for flights greater than 1 week and up to 6 months in duration (0.2 mg/cu m for particles less than 10 microns in AD plus 0.2 mg/cu m for particles 10 to 100 microns in AD. These numerical limits were recommended to aid in spacecraft atmosphere design which should aim at particulate levels that are a low as reasonably achievable. Sampling of spacecraft atmospheres for particles should include size-fractionated samples of 0 to 10, 10 to 100, and greater than 100 micron particles for mass concentration measurement and elementary chemical analysis by nondestructive analysis techniques. Morphological and chemical analyses of single particles should also be made to aid in identifying airborne particulate sources. Air cleaning systems based on inertial collection principles and fine particle collection devices based on electrostatic precipitation and filtration should be considered for incorporation into spacecraft air circulation systems. It was also recommended that research be carried out in space in the areas of health effects and particle characterization.

  3. Disentangling gross N2O production and consumption in soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Yuan; Chen, Zhe; Dannenmann, Michael; Carminati, Andrea; Willibald, Georg; Kiese, Ralf; Wolf, Benjamin; Veldkamp, Edzo; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus; Corre, Marife D.

    2016-11-01

    The difficulty of measuring gross N2O production and consumption in soil impedes our ability to predict N2O dynamics across the soil-atmosphere interface. Our study aimed to disentangle these processes by comparing measurements from gas-flow soil core (GFSC) and 15N2O pool dilution (15N2OPD) methods. GFSC directly measures soil N2O and N2 fluxes, with their sum as the gross N2O production, whereas 15N2OPD involves addition of 15N2O into a chamber headspace and measuring its isotopic dilution over time. Measurements were conducted on intact soil cores from grassland, cropland, beech and pine forests. Across sites, gross N2O production and consumption measured by 15N2OPD were only 10% and 6%, respectively, of those measured by GFSC. However, 15N2OPD remains the only method that can be used under field conditions to measure atmospheric N2O uptake in soil. We propose to use different terminologies for the gross N2O fluxes that these two methods quantified. For 15N2OPD, we suggest using ‘gross N2O emission and uptake’, which encompass gas exchange within the 15N2O-labelled, soil air-filled pores. For GFSC, ‘gross N2O production and consumption’ can be used, which includes both N2O emitted into the soil air-filled pores and N2O directly consumed, forming N2, in soil anaerobic microsites.

  4. Disentangling gross N2O production and consumption in soil

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Yuan; Chen, Zhe; Dannenmann, Michael; Carminati, Andrea; Willibald, Georg; Kiese, Ralf; Wolf, Benjamin; Veldkamp, Edzo; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus; Corre, Marife D.

    2016-01-01

    The difficulty of measuring gross N2O production and consumption in soil impedes our ability to predict N2O dynamics across the soil-atmosphere interface. Our study aimed to disentangle these processes by comparing measurements from gas-flow soil core (GFSC) and 15N2O pool dilution (15N2OPD) methods. GFSC directly measures soil N2O and N2 fluxes, with their sum as the gross N2O production, whereas 15N2OPD involves addition of 15N2O into a chamber headspace and measuring its isotopic dilution over time. Measurements were conducted on intact soil cores from grassland, cropland, beech and pine forests. Across sites, gross N2O production and consumption measured by 15N2OPD were only 10% and 6%, respectively, of those measured by GFSC. However, 15N2OPD remains the only method that can be used under field conditions to measure atmospheric N2O uptake in soil. We propose to use different terminologies for the gross N2O fluxes that these two methods quantified. For 15N2OPD, we suggest using ‘gross N2O emission and uptake’, which encompass gas exchange within the 15N2O-labelled, soil air-filled pores. For GFSC, ‘gross N2O production and consumption’ can be used, which includes both N2O emitted into the soil air-filled pores and N2O directly consumed, forming N2, in soil anaerobic microsites. PMID:27812012

  5. Ludwik Gross, Sarah Stewart, and the 1950s discoveries of Gross murine leukemia virus and polyoma virus.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Gregory J

    2014-12-01

    The Polish-American scientist Ludwik Gross made two important discoveries in the early 1950s. He showed that two viruses - murine leukemia virus and parotid tumor virus - could cause cancer when they were injected into susceptible animals. At first, Gross's discoveries were greeted with skepticism: it seemed implausible that viruses could cause a disease as complex as cancer. Inspired by Gross's initial experiments, similar results were obtained by Sarah Stewart and Bernice Eddy who later renamed the parotid tumor virus SE polyoma virus after finding it could cause many different types of tumors in mice, hamsters, and rats. Eventually the "SE" was dropped and virologists adopted the name "polyoma virus." After Gross's work was published, additional viruses capable of causing solid tumors or blood-borne tumors in mice were described by Arnold Graffi, Charlotte Friend, John Moloney and others. By 1961, sufficient data had been accumulated for Gross to confidently publish an extensive monograph--Oncogenic Viruses--the first history of tumor virology, which became a standard reference work and marked the emergence of tumor virology as a distinct, legitimate field of study.

  6. Guidelines for standard photography in gross and clinical anatomy.

    PubMed

    Barut, Cagatay; Ertilav, Hakan

    2011-01-01

    Photography has a widespread usage in medicine and anatomy. In this review, authors focused on the usage of photography in gross and clinical anatomy. Photography in gross and clinical anatomy is not only essential for accurate documentation of morphological findings but also important in sharing knowledge and experience. Photographs of cadavers are supposed to demonstrate the required information clearly. Thus, photographs should be taken with certain techniques in order to obtain high quality and standardization. Camera, lens, lighting, background, and certain photographic techniques are among the factors to achieve precise images. A set of suggested guidelines for accomplishing these standards are given for anatomists.

  7. Tonopah Test Range Air Monitoring: CY2012 Meteorological, Radiological, and Airborne Particulate Observations

    SciTech Connect

    Mizell, Steve A; Nikolich, George; Shadel, Craig; McCurdy, Greg; Miller, Julianne J

    2013-07-01

    In 1963, the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), predecessor to the US Department of Energy (DOE), implemented Operation Roller Coaster on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) and an adjacent area of the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR) (formerly the Nellis Air Force Range (NAFR)). Operation Roller Coaster consisted of four tests in which chemical explosions were detonated in the presence of nuclear devices to assess the dispersal of radionuclides and evaluate the effectiveness of storage structures to contain the ejected radionuclides. These tests resulted in dispersal of plutonium over the ground surface downwind of the test ground zero. Three tests, Clean Slate 1, 2, and 3, were conducted on the TTR in Cactus Flat; the fourth, Double Tracks, was conducted in Stonewall Flat on the NTTR. DOE is working to clean up and close all four sites. Substantial cleaned up has been accomplished at Double Tracks and Clean Slate 1. Cleanup of Clean Slate 2 and 3 is on the DOE planning horizon for some time in the next several years. The Desert Research Institute installed two monitoring stations, number 400 at the Sandia National Laboratories Range Operations Center and number 401 at Clean Slate 3, in 2008 and a third monitoring station, number 402 at Clean Slate 1, in 2011 to measure radiological, meteorological, and dust conditions. The primary objectives of the data collection and analysis effort are to (1) monitor the concentration of radiological parameters in dust particles suspended in air, (2) determine whether winds are re-distributing radionuclides or contaminated soil material, (3) evaluate the controlling meteorological conditions if wind transport is occurring, and (4) measure ancillary radiological, meteorological, and environmental parameters that might provide insight to the above assessments. The following observations are based on data collected during CY2012. The mean annual concentration of gross alpha and gross beta is highest at Station 400 and lowest at Station

  8. Observation of a possible optical burst of the double star Beta Camelopardalis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wdowiak, T. J.; Clifton, K. S.

    1985-01-01

    An intensified SEC Vidicon observation of a brightening of the image of Beta Cam for a duration of about 0.25 sec at 0932 UT on December 4, 1969 is described. The observation was made during airborne observations of meteors over Canada between latitudes of 50 and 60 deg N.

  9. beta-Hexachlorocyclohexane (beta-HCH)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    beta - Hexachlorocyclohexane ( beta - HCH ) ; CASRN 319 - 85 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Asses

  10. Effective Collaboration among the Gross Motor Assessment Team Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menear, Kristi S.; Davis, Timothy D.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the gross motor assessment team (GMAT) members' roles and collaborative approach to making appropriate decisions and modifications when addressing the needs of individuals with disabilities in physical education. Case studies of students are used to demonstrate effective uses of the GMAT. The primary outcome of the GMAT's…

  11. Gross Motor Development, Movement Abnormalities, and Early Identification of Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozonoff, Sally; Young, Gregory S.; Goldring, Stacy; Greiss-Hess, Laura; Herrera, Adriana M.; Steele, Joel; Macari, Suzanne; Hepburn, Susan; Rogers, Sally J.

    2008-01-01

    Gross motor development (supine, prone, rolling, sitting, crawling, walking) and movement abnormalities were examined in the home videos of infants later diagnosed with autism (regression and no regression subgroups), developmental delays (DD), or typical development. Group differences in maturity were found for walking, prone, and supine, with…

  12. Gross and Microscopic Lesions in Corals from Micronesia.

    PubMed

    Work, T M; Aeby, G S; Hughen, K A

    2016-01-01

    The authors documented gross and microscopic morphology of lesions in corals on 7 islands spanning western, southern, and eastern Micronesia, sampling 76 colonies comprising 30 species of corals among 18 genera, with Acropora, Porites, and Montipora dominating. Tissue loss comprised the majority of gross lesions sampled (41%), followed by discoloration (30%) and growth anomaly (29%). Of 31 cases of tissue loss, most lesions were subacute (48%), followed by acute and chronic (26% each). Of 23 samples with discoloration, most were dark discoloration (40%), with bleaching and other discoloration each constituting 30%. Of 22 growth anomalies, umbonate growth anomalies composed half, with exophytic, nodular, and rugose growth anomalies composing the remainder. On histopathology, for 9 cases of dark discoloration, fungal infections predominated (77%); for 7 bleached corals, depletion of zooxanthellae from the gastrodermis made up a majority of microscopic diagnoses (57%); and for growth anomalies other than umbonate, hyperplasia of the basal body wall was the most common microscopic finding (63%). For the remainder of the gross lesions, no single microscopic finding constituted >50% of the total. Host response varied with the agent present on histology. Fragmentation of tissues was most often associated with algae (60%), whereas necrosis dominated (53%) for fungi. Two newly documented potentially symbiotic tissue-associated metazoans were seen in Porites and Montipora. Findings of multiple potential etiologies for a given gross lesion highlight the importance of incorporating histopathology in coral disease surveys. This study also expands the range of corals infected with cell-associated microbial aggregates.

  13. ɛ-expansion in the Gross-Neveu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raju, Avinash

    2016-10-01

    We use the recently developed CFT techniques of Rychkov and Tan to compute anomalous dimensions in the O( N ) Gross-Neveu model in d = 2 + ɛ dimensions. To do this, we extend the "cowpie contraction" algorithm of arXiv:1506.06616 to theories with fermions. Our results match perfectly with Feynman diagram computations.

  14. 75 FR 56858 - Exclusions From Gross Income of Foreign Corporations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-17

    ... foreign corporations from the international operation of ships or aircraft. The final regulations adopt... determine if it is eligible to exclude its income from the international operation of ships or aircraft from... to exclude from gross income certain income from the international operation of ships or...

  15. 40 CFR 403.15 - Net/Gross calculation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Net/Gross calculation. 403.15 Section 403.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GENERAL PRETREATMENT REGULATIONS FOR EXISTING AND NEW SOURCES OF POLLUTION § 403.15...

  16. Samuel D. Gross: the nestor of American surgery.

    PubMed

    Toledo-Pereyra, Luis H

    2006-01-01

    Samuel David Gross (1805-1884) represented the most notable surgeon of his generation and was honored with the title of "The Nestor of American Surgeon" by surgeon biographer Isaac Minis Hays. Of Pennsylvania Dutch stock, he was born on the family farm near Easton, Pennsylvania. He attended Wilkebarré Academy and Lawrenceville High School, noted private institutions of the day. He apprenticed under Doctor Joseph K. Swift of Easton and later with Professor George McClellan while in Philadelphia. In 1828, he graduated from Jefferson Medical College and remained for a short time in Philadelphia. Professor Gross focused his professional pursuits in the cities of Easton (1830-1833), Cincinnati (1833-1840), Louisville (1840-1856), and Philadelphia (1856-1882). He retired from Jefferson Medical College two years before his death in 1884. Samuel D. Gross' contributions to surgery were numerous and diverse. He was recognized as a prolific author of classic texts of pathology, surgery, and history, an educator, a leader, a surgical researcher, and a pioneer surgeon practitioner. His influence in national affairs was immense, and his recognition as a respected surgeon was unmatched. He remains the most distinguished surgeon of his times. History values him as a hard working, honest, highly competent, and committed individual. His capacity for work and his dedication to a single cause were unrivaled. Doctor Gross integrated the best that surgery could give to future generations of surgical professionals.

  17. Development of the Gross Motor Function Classification System (1997)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    To address the need for a standardized system to classify the gross motor function of children with cerebral palsy, the authors developed a five-level classification system analogous to the staging and grading systems used in medicine. Nominal group process and Delphi survey consensus methods were used to examine content validity and revise the…

  18. Measuring Change in Professionalism Attitudes during the Gross Anatomy Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, William G., Jr.; Hoagland, Todd M.

    2010-01-01

    By design or default, anatomy educators are often responsible for introducing students to medical professionalism. Although much has been said about the role of anatomical education, there are no published reports suggesting how to measure change. This study investigated what professionalism attitudes, if any, change during a gross anatomy course.…

  19. 26 CFR 1.199-3 - Domestic production gross receipts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Domestic production gross receipts. 1.199-3 Section 1.199-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Itemized Deductions for Individuals and Corporations (continued) § 1.199-3 Domestic production...

  20. 26 CFR 1.199-3 - Domestic production gross receipts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Domestic production gross receipts. 1.199-3 Section 1.199-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Itemized Deductions for Individuals and Corporations (continued) § 1.199-3 Domestic production...

  1. 77 FR 65497 - Gross Combination Weight Rating (GCWR); Definition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-29

    ... Weight Rating (GCWR); Definition AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION...) amending the definition of ``gross combination weight rating'' (GCWR) in 49 CFR parts 383 and 390. The DFR... on proposed changes to the GCWR definition. DATES: The direct final rule published August 27,...

  2. 78 FR 26575 - Gross Combination Weight Rating; Definition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-07

    ... Weight Rating; Definition AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION... definition of ``gross combination weight rating'' (or GCWR) to clarify that a GCWR is the greater of: the... Commercial Vehicle Safety Alliance (CVSA) on February 12, 2008, seeking changes in the definitions...

  3. Gross and microscopic lesions in corals from Micronesia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Work, Thierry M.; Aeby, Greta S.; Hughen, Konrad A.

    2015-01-01

    The authors documented gross and microscopic morphology of lesions in corals on 7 islands spanning western, southern, and eastern Micronesia, sampling 76 colonies comprising 30 species of corals among 18 genera, with Acropora, Porites, and Montipora dominating. Tissue loss comprised the majority of gross lesions sampled (41%), followed by discoloration (30%) and growth anomaly (29%). Of 31 cases of tissue loss, most lesions were subacute (48%), followed by acute and chronic (26% each). Of 23 samples with discoloration, most were dark discoloration (40%), with bleaching and other discoloration each constituting 30%. Of 22 growth anomalies, umbonate growth anomalies composed half, with exophytic, nodular, and rugose growth anomalies composing the remainder. On histopathology, for 9 cases of dark discoloration, fungal infections predominated (77%); for 7 bleached corals, depletion of zooxanthellae from the gastrodermis made up a majority of microscopic diagnoses (57%); and for growth anomalies other than umbonate, hyperplasia of the basal body wall was the most common microscopic finding (63%). For the remainder of the gross lesions, no single microscopic finding constituted >50% of the total. Host response varied with the agent present on histology. Fragmentation of tissues was most often associated with algae (60%), whereas necrosis dominated (53%) for fungi. Two newly documented potentially symbiotic tissue-associated metazoans were seen in Porites and Montipora. Findings of multiple potential etiologies for a given gross lesion highlight the importance of incorporating histopathology in coral disease surveys. This study also expands the range of corals infected with cell-associated microbial aggregates.

  4. Strategic Improvements for Gross Anatomy Web-Based Teaching

    PubMed Central

    Marker, David R.; Juluru, Krishna; Long, Chris; Magid, Donna

    2012-01-01

    Current generations of graduate students have been immersed in technology from their early school years and have high expectations regarding digital resources. To better meet the expectations of Gross Anatomy students at our institution, electronic radiology teaching files for first-year coursework were organized into a web site. The web site was custom designed to provide material that directly correlated to the Gross Anatomy dissection and lectures. Quick links provided sets of images grouped by anatomic location. Additionally, Lab and Study Companions provided specific material for the students to review prior to and after lectures and gross dissections. Student opinions of this education resource were compared to student opinions of the prior year's digital teaching files. The new content was ranked as more user friendly (3.1 points versus 2.3 points) and more useful for learning anatomy (3.3 points versus 2.6 points). Many students reported that using the web portal was critical in helping them to better understand relationships of anatomical structures. These findings suggest that a well-organized web portal can provide a user-friendly, valuable educational resource for medical students who are studying Gross Anatomy. PMID:22567306

  5. 40 CFR 403.15 - Net/Gross calculation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Net/Gross calculation. 403.15 Section 403.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GENERAL PRE-TREAT-MENT REGULATIONS FOR EXIST-ING AND NEW SOURCES OF POLLUTION § 403.15...

  6. 40 CFR 403.15 - Net/Gross calculation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Net/Gross calculation. 403.15 Section 403.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GENERAL PRE-TREAT-MENT REGULATIONS FOR EXIST-ING AND NEW SOURCES OF POLLUTION § 403.15...

  7. 7 CFR 1424.7 - Gross payable units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    .... (a) For ethanol, producers will be eligible for payments on gross payable units for only their ethanol production from eligible inputs that exceeds, for the program year to date, their total comparable production at all locations as compared to the comparable portion of the previous year. Producers of...

  8. 7 CFR 1424.7 - Gross payable units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .... (a) For ethanol, producers will be eligible for payments on gross payable units for only their ethanol production from eligible inputs that exceeds, for the program year to date, their total comparable production at all locations as compared to the comparable portion of the previous year. Producers of...

  9. 7 CFR 1424.7 - Gross payable units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... (a) For ethanol, producers will be eligible for payments on gross payable units for only their ethanol production from eligible inputs that exceeds, for the program year to date, their total comparable production at all locations as compared to the comparable portion of the previous year. Producers of...

  10. 7 CFR 1424.7 - Gross payable units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .... (a) For ethanol, producers will be eligible for payments on gross payable units for only their ethanol production from eligible inputs that exceeds, for the program year to date, their total comparable production at all locations as compared to the comparable portion of the previous year. Producers of...

  11. 7 CFR 1424.7 - Gross payable units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... (a) For ethanol, producers will be eligible for payments on gross payable units for only their ethanol production from eligible inputs that exceeds, for the program year to date, their total comparable production at all locations as compared to the comparable portion of the previous year. Producers of...

  12. Integrability of the Gross Pitaevskii equation with Feshbach resonance management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Dun; Luo, Hong-Gang; Chai, Hua-Yue

    2008-08-01

    In this Letter we study the integrability of a class of Gross-Pitaevskii equations managed by Feshbach resonance in an expulsive parabolic external potential. By using WTC test, we find a condition under which the Gross-Pitaevskii equation is completely integrable. Under the present model, this integrability condition is completely consistent with that proposed by Serkin, Hasegawa, and Belyaeva [V.N. Serkin, A. Hasegawa, T.L. Belyaeva, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98 (2007) 074102]. Furthermore, this integrability can also be explicitly shown by a transformation, which can convert the Gross-Pitaevskii equation into the well-known standard nonlinear Schrödinger equation. By this transformation, each exact solution of the standard nonlinear Schrödinger equation can be converted into that of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation, which builds a systematical connection between the canonical solitons and the so-called nonautonomous ones. The finding of this transformation has a significant contribution to understanding the essential properties of the nonautonomous solitons and the dynamics of the Bose-Einstein condensates by using the Feshbach resonance technique.

  13. Attitudes of Healthcare Students on Gross Anatomy Laboratory Sessions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kawashiro, Yukiko; Anahara, Reiko; Kohno, Toshihiko; Mori, Chisato; Matsuno, Yoshiharu

    2009-01-01

    At Chiba University, gross anatomy laboratory sessions ("laboratories") are required for physical therapy students. Though most physical therapy schools require their students to participate in laboratories so that they will better understand the structure of the human body, few data exist on the value of these laboratories specifically…

  14. The Use of Creative Projects in a Gross Anatomy Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Johanna; Nguyen, Vincent; Mourra, Sarah; Ross, Marianne; Thai, Trung; Leonard, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: Medical students often describe the gross anatomy course as both stressful and a rite of passage. Research differs as to whether the stress it engenders is significant or transitory. This qualitative study of first year anatomy student reports on the use of optional creative projects to promote reflection and reduce stress. Methods:…

  15. Assessing Gross Motor Skills of Kosovar Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shala, Merita

    2009-01-01

    In the light of the new developments in preschool education in Kosovo, this study attempts to carry out an assessment of the development of gross motor skills of preschool children attending institutional education. The emphasis is on creating a set of tests to measure the motor attainments of these children by conducting assessments of the…

  16. Wet Load Study of Gross Pollutant Traps; Kemensah River, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahari, N. M.; Sidek, L. M.; Basri, H.; Said, N. F. Md; Noor, M. S. F. Md; Jajarmizadeh, M.; Zainal Abidin, M. R.; Mohd. Dom, N.

    2016-03-01

    Efforts have been made by the government agency to install the Gross Pollutant Trap (GPT) to protect of entering the gross pollutants from direct discharge into the river. Few studies have been performed in related to GPT and there is a need to do research on the performance of GPTs in Malaysia. The performance of GPTs is strongly dependent on installed location. Moreover, contribution of landuse has also potential to evaluate the GPTs performance. The main objective of this paper is to analyse the wet load that has been trapped inside GPTs. In this study, Installation of GPTs are performed based continuous deflective separation (CDS) and downstream defender (DD). Kemensah River is chosen as a case study and GPTs are installed at drainage systems due to analysis the impact of GPTs on reduction of solid waste from discharge to the Kemensah River. The result shows that the GPTs can reduce the gross pollutants before entering the river system in optimum way. Consequently, the area of catchment, dense residential area and rainy season have important role on increasing the gross pollutant.

  17. 26 CFR 1.832-1 - Gross income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., or gross increase due to adjustments in book value of capital assets. The underwriting and investment..., include all salvage in course of liquidation, and all reinsurance in process of collection not otherwise... course of liquidation includes all property (other than cash), real or personal, tangible or...

  18. Outcomes of a Rotational Dissection System in Gross Anatomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshak, David W.; Oakes, Joanne; Hsieh, Pei-Hsuan; Chuang, Alice Z.; Cleary, Leonard J.

    2015-01-01

    At the University of Texas Houston Medical School, a rotational dissection system was introduced to improve coordination between the Gross Anatomy and the Introduction to Clinical Medicine (ICM) courses. Six students were assigned to each cadaver and divided into two teams. For each laboratory, one team was assigned to dissect and the other to…

  19. 75 FR 15610 - Exclusions From Gross Income of Foreign Corporations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 Exclusions From Gross Income of Foreign Corporations CFR Correction In Title 26 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 1 (Sec. Sec. 1.851 to 1.907), revised as...

  20. Diagnostic sampling and gross pathology of New World camelids.

    PubMed

    Bildfell, Robert J; Löhr, Christiane V; Tornquist, Susan J

    2012-11-01

    This article provides an overview of tests and appropriate samples to send to a Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory for the diagnosis of common diseases of New World Camelids (NWC) such as abortions, congenital anomalies, anemia, enteritis, endoparasitism, gastric ulcer, hepatic lipidosis, encephalitis, pneumonia, dermatosis, neoplasia and cryptococcosis. Unique anatomic features of NWC and common findings encountered during gross necropsy examination are briefly reviewed.

  1. Airborne stellar spectrophotometry from 1.2 to 5.5 microns - Absolute calibration and spectra of stars earlier than M3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strecker, D. W.; Erickson, E. F.; Witteborn, F. C.

    1979-01-01

    Airborne infrared spectrophotometry (1.2-5.5 microns, 1.5% resolution) is presented for 13 stars which have been extensively used as infrared calibration objects: alpha Lyr, alpha CMA, alpha UMi, beta Dra, and mu Her; the K giants beta Gem, alpha UMa, alpha Boo, gamma-1 And, and alpha Tau; and the M giants beta And, beta Peg, and alpha Cet. These spectra, obtained using NASA's Kuiper Airborne Observatory and Lear Jet Observatory, are virtually free of the interfering effects of terrestrial absorptions. Absolute calibration of the spectrophotometry was based on the theoretical model of alpha Lyr by Schild, Peterson, and Oke (1971), which fits photometric measurements at shorter wavelengths. The resulting flux densities are compared with previous ground-based photometry.

  2. Airborne Research Experience for Educators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, V. B.; Albertson, R.; Smith, S.; Stockman, S. A.

    2009-12-01

    The Airborne Research Experience for Educators (AREE) Program, conducted by the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center Office of Education in partnership with the AERO Institute, NASA Teaching From Space Program, and California State University Fullerton, is a complete end-to-end residential research experience in airborne remote sensing and atmospheric science. The 2009 program engaged ten secondary educators who specialize in science, technology, engineering or mathematics in a 6-week Student Airborne Research Program (SARP) offered through NSERC. Educators participated in collection of in-flight remote sensor data during flights aboard the NASA DC-8 as well as in-situ research on atmospheric chemistry (bovine emissions of methane); algal blooms (remote sensing to determine location and degree of blooms for further in-situ analysis); and crop classification (exploration of how drought conditions in Central California have impacted almond and cotton crops). AREE represents a unique model of the STEM teacher-as-researcher professional development experience because it asks educators to participate in a research experience and then translate their experiences into classroom practice through the design, implementation, and evaluation of instructional materials that emphasize the scientific research process, inquiry-based investigations, and manipulation of real data. Each AREE Master Educator drafted a Curriculum Brief, Teachers Guide, and accompanying resources for a topic in their teaching assignment Currently, most professional development programs offer either a research experience OR a curriculum development experience. The dual nature of the AREE model engaged educators in both experiences. Educators’ content and pedagogical knowledge of STEM was increased through the review of pertinent research articles during the first week, attendance at lectures and workshops during the second week, and participation in the airborne and in-situ research studies, data

  3. Requirements for airborne vector gravimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwarz, K. P.; Colombo, O.; Hein, G.; Knickmeyer, E. T.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of airborne vector gravimetry is the determination of the full gravity disturbance vector along the aircraft trajectory. The paper briefly outlines the concept of this method using a combination of inertial and GPS-satellite data. The accuracy requirements for users in geodesy and solid earth geophysics, oceanography and exploration geophysics are then specified. Using these requirements, accuracy specifications for the GPS subsystem and the INS subsystem are developed. The integration of the subsystems and the problems connected with it are briefly discussed and operational methods are indicated that might reduce some of the stringent accuracy requirements.

  4. Biological monitoring of airborne pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Ditz, D.W. )

    1990-01-01

    Common plants such as grasses, mosses, and even goldenrod may turn out to have a new high-tech role as monitors of airborne pollution from solid waste incinerators. Certain plants that respond to specific pollutants can provide continuous surveillance of air quality over long periods of time: they are bio-indicators. Other species accumulate pollutants and can serve as sensitive indicators of pollutants and of food-chain contamination: they are bio-accumulators. Through creative use of these properties, biological monitoring can provide information that cannot be obtained by current methods such as stack testing.

  5. Cyberinfrastructure for Airborne Sensor Webs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freudinger, Lawrence C.

    2009-01-01

    Since 2004 the NASA Airborne Science Program has been prototyping and using infrastructure that enables researchers to interact with each other and with their instruments via network communications. This infrastructure uses satellite links and an evolving suite of applications and services that leverage open-source software. The use of these tools has increased near-real-time situational awareness during field operations, resulting in productivity improvements and the collection of better data. This paper describes the high-level system architecture and major components, with example highlights from the use of the infrastructure. The paper concludes with a discussion of ongoing efforts to transition to operational status.

  6. Geophex Airborne Unmanned Survey System

    SciTech Connect

    Won, I.J.; Keiswetter, D.

    1995-10-01

    The purpose of this effort is to design, construct, and evaluate a portable, remotely-piloted, airborne, geophysical survey system. This non-intrusive system will provide {open_quotes}stand-off{close_quotes} capability to conduct surveys and detect buried objects, structures, and conditions of interest at hazardous locations. This system permits rapid geophysical characterization of hazardous environmental sites. During a survey, the operators remain remote from, but within visual distance of, the site. The sensor system never contacts the Earth, but can be positioned near the ground so that weak geophysical anomalies can be detected.

  7. Geophex airborne unmanned survey system

    SciTech Connect

    Won, I.J.; Taylor, D.W.A.

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of this effort is to design, construct, and evaluate a portable, remotely-piloted, airborne, geophysical survey system. This nonintrusive system will provide {open_quotes}stand-off{close_quotes} capability to conduct surveys and detect buried objects, structures, and conditions of interest at hazardous locations. This system permits two operators to rapidly conduct geophysical characterization of hazardous environmental sites. During a survey, the operators remain remote from, but within visual distance, of, the site. The sensor system never contacts the Earth, but can be positioned near the ground so that weak anomalies can be detected.

  8. Airborne Oceanographic Lidar (AOL) (Global Carbon Cycle)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This bimonthly contractor progress report covers the operation, maintenance and data management of the Airborne Oceanographic Lidar and the Airborne Topographic Mapper. Monthly activities included: mission planning, sensor operation and calibration, data processing, data analysis, network development and maintenance and instrument maintenance engineering and fabrication.

  9. Airborne Visible Laser Optical Communications Program (AVLOC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, J. H.

    1975-01-01

    The design, development, and operation of airborne and ground-based laser communications and laser radar hardware is described in support of the Airborne Visible Laser Optical Communication program. The major emphasis is placed on the development of a highly flexible test bed for the evaluation of laser communications systems techniques and components in an operational environment.

  10. A Simple Method for Collecting Airborne Pollen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kevan, Peter G.; DiGiovanni, Franco; Ho, Rong H.; Taki, Hisatomo; Ferguson, Kristyn A.; Pawlowski, Agata K.

    2006-01-01

    Pollination is a broad area of study within biology. For many plants, pollen carried by wind is required for successful seed set. Airborne pollen also affects human health. To foster studies of airborne pollen, we introduce a simple device--the "megastigma"--for collecting pollen from the air. This device is flexible, yielding easily obtained data…

  11. Global Test Range: Toward Airborne Sensor Webs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mace, Thomas H.; Freudinger, Larry; DelFrate John H.

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the planned global sensor network that will monitor the Earth's climate, and resources using airborne sensor systems. The vision is an intelligent, affordable Earth Observation System. Global Test Range is a lab developing trustworthy services for airborne instruments - a specialized Internet Service Provider. There is discussion of several current and planned missions.

  12. Meeting Review: Airborne Aerosol Inlet Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumgardner, Darrel; Huebert, Barry; Wilson, Chuck

    1991-01-01

    Proceedings from the Airborne Aerosol Inlet Workshop are presented. The two central topics of discussion were the role of aerosols in atmospheric processes and the difficulties in characterizing aerosols. The following topics were discussed during the working sessions: airborne observations to date; identification of inlet design issues; inlet modeling needs and directions; objectives for aircraft experiments; and future laboratory and wind tunnel studies.

  13. Airborne Relay-Based Regional Positioning System

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyuman; Noh, Hongjun; Lim, Jaesung

    2015-01-01

    Ground-based pseudolite systems have some limitations, such as low vertical accuracy, multipath effects and near-far problems. These problems are not significant in airborne-based pseudolite systems. However, the monitoring of pseudolite positions is required because of the mobility of the platforms on which the pseudolites are mounted, and this causes performance degradation. To address these pseudolite system limitations, we propose an airborne relay-based regional positioning system that consists of a master station, reference stations, airborne relays and a user. In the proposed system, navigation signals are generated from the reference stations located on the ground and are relayed via the airborne relays. Unlike in conventional airborne-based systems, the user in the proposed system sequentially estimates both the locations of airborne relays and his/her own position. Therefore, a delay due to monitoring does not occur, and the accuracy is not affected by the movement of airborne relays. We conducted several simulations to evaluate the performance of the proposed system. Based on the simulation results, we demonstrated that the proposed system guarantees a higher accuracy than airborne-based pseudolite systems, and it is feasible despite the existence of clock offsets among reference stations. PMID:26029953

  14. Airborne Global Positioning System Antenna System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-10-14

    GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM ANTENNA SYSTEM DISTRIBUTION: SMC/ GP (3 cys); AFFSA...standard that airborne Global Positioning System ( GPS ) antenna system must meet to be identified with the applicable MSO marking. The similarity of...UNCLASSIFIED DOCUMENT NO. DATE NO. MSO-C144 14 Oct 04 Initial Release REV: REV: SHEET 1 OF 16 TITLE: AIRBORNE GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM

  15. Airborne fungal and bacterial components in PM1 dust from biofuel plants.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Anne Mette; Schlünssen, Vivi; Olsen, Tina; Sigsgaard, Torben; Avci, Hediye

    2009-10-01

    Fungi grown in pure cultures produce DNA- or RNA-containing particles smaller than spore size (<1.5 microm). High exposures to fungi and bacteria are observed at biofuel plants. Airborne cultivable bacteria are often described to be present in clusters or associated with larger particles with an aerodynamic diameter (d(ae)) of 2-8 microm. In this study, we investigate whether airborne fungal components smaller than spore size are present in bioaerosols in working areas at biofuel plants. Furthermore, we measure the exposure to bacteria and fungal components in airborne particulate matter (PM) with a D(50) of 1 microm (called PM(1) dust). PM(1) was sampled using Triplex cyclones at a working area at 14 Danish biofuel plants. Millipore cassettes were used to sample 'total dust'. The PM(1) particles (29 samples) were analysed for content of 11 different components and the total dust was analysed for cultivable fungi, N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase (NAGase), and (1 --> 3)-beta-D-glucans. In the 29 PM(1) samples, cultivable fungi were found in six samples and with a median concentration below detection level. Using microscopy, fungal spores were identified in 22 samples. The components NAGase and (1 --> 3)-beta-D-glucans, which are mainly associated with fungi, were present in all PM(1) samples. Thermophilic actinomycetes were present in 23 of the 29 PM(1) samples [average = 739 colony-forming units (CFU) m(-3)]. Cultivable and 'total bacteria' were found in average concentrations of, respectively, 249 CFU m(-3) and 1.8 x 10(5) m(-3). DNA- and RNA-containing particles of different lengths were counted by microscopy and revealed a high concentration of particles with a length of 0.5-1.5 microm and only few particles >1.5 microm. The number of cultivable fungi and beta-glucan in the total dust correlated significantly with the number of DNA/RNA-containing particles with lengths of between 1.0 and 1.5 microm, with DNA/RNA-containing particles >1.5 microm, and with other

  16. Beta 2-adrenergic receptors are colocalized and coregulated with whisker barrels in rat somatosensory cortex

    SciTech Connect

    Vos, P.; Kaufmann, D.; Hand, P.J.; Wolfe, B.B. )

    1990-07-01

    Autoradiography has been used to visualize independently the subtypes of beta-adrenergic receptors in rat somatosensory cortex. Beta 2-adrenergic receptors, but not beta 1-adrenergic receptors colocalize with whisker barrels in this tissue. Thus, each whisker sends a specific multisynaptic pathway to the somatosensory cortex that can be histochemically visualized and only one subtype of beta-adrenergic receptor is specifically associated with this cortical representation. Additionally, neonatal lesion of any or all of the whisker follicles results in loss of the corresponding barrel(s) as shown by histochemical markers. This loss is paralleled by a similar loss in the organization of beta 2-adrenergic receptors in the somatosensory cortex. Other results indicate that these beta 2-adrenergic receptors are not involved in moment-to-moment signal transmission in this pathway and, additionally, are not involved in a gross way in the development of whisker-barrel array.

  17. ISMAR: an airborne submillimetre radiometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, Stuart; Lee, Clare; Moyna, Brian; Philipp, Martin; Rule, Ian; Rogers, Stuart; King, Robert; Oldfield, Matthew; Rea, Simon; Henry, Manju; Wang, Hui; Chawn Harlow, R.

    2017-02-01

    The International Submillimetre Airborne Radiometer (ISMAR) has been developed as an airborne demonstrator for the Ice Cloud Imager (ICI) that will be launched on board the next generation of European polar-orbiting weather satellites in the 2020s. It currently has 15 channels at frequencies between 118 and 664 GHz which are sensitive to scattering by cloud ice, and additional channels at 874 GHz are being developed. This paper presents an overview of ISMAR and describes the algorithms used for calibration. The main sources of bias in the measurements are evaluated, as well as the radiometric sensitivity in different measurement scenarios. It is shown that for downward views from high altitude, representative of a satellite viewing geometry, the bias in most channels is less than ±1 K and the NEΔT is less than 2 K, with many channels having an NEΔT less than 1 K. In-flight calibration accuracy is also evaluated by comparison of high-altitude zenith views with radiative-transfer simulations.

  18. Geophex Airborne Unmanned Survey System

    SciTech Connect

    Won, I.L.; Keiswetter, D.

    1995-12-31

    Ground-based surveys place personnel at risk due to the proximity of buried unexploded ordnance (UXO) items or by exposure to radioactive materials and hazardous chemicals. The purpose of this effort is to design, construct, and evaluate a portable, remotely-piloted, airborne, geophysical survey system. This non-intrusive system will provide stand-off capability to conduct surveys and detect buried objects, structures, and conditions of interest at hazardous locations. During a survey, the operators remain remote from, but within visual distance of, the site. The sensor system never contacts the Earth, but can be positioned near the ground so that weak geophysical anomalies can be detected. The Geophex Airborne Unmanned Survey System (GAUSS) is designed to detect and locate small-scale anomalies at hazardous sites using magnetic and electromagnetic survey techniques. The system consists of a remotely-piloted, radio-controlled, model helicopter (RCH) with flight computer, light-weight geophysical sensors, an electronic positioning system, a data telemetry system, and a computer base-station. The report describes GAUSS and its test results.

  19. Magnetic characterization of airborne particulates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, W.; Doh, S.; Yu, Y.

    2010-12-01

    Burning fossil fuels from vehicles, domestics, industries and power plants in the large urban or industrial areas emit significant quantity of anthropogenic particulates which become a potential threat to human health. Here, we present temporal variability of particulate pollution associated with compositional differences, using magnetic measurements and electron microscopic observations. Six different grain-sizes of airborne particulates have been collected by filtering from 10 precipitation events in Seoul, Korea from February 2009 to June 2009. Magnetic concentration proxies show relatively better (R2 >0.6) and poorer correlations (R2 <0.3) with the masses of samples filtered by >0.45 μm and <0.45 μm sizes, respectively, suggesting the usefulness of magnetic characterization for the >0.45 μm particulates. Temporally, magnetic concentrations are higher in the cold season than the warm season. In particular, a significant increase of magnetic concentration is observed in 3 μm and 1 μm filters after the Chinese wind-blown dust events, indicating additional influx of fine-grained anthropogenic particulates into Seoul. Microscopic observations identify that increase of magnetic concentration is highly linked with the frequent occurrence of combustion derived particulates (i.e., carbon and/or sulfur mixed particles) than natural alumino-silicates. Overall, the present study demonstrates that magnetic measurements efficiently reflect the concentration of particulates produced from fossil-fuel combustion among the airborne particles from various sources.

  20. Small-angle light scattering by airborne particulates: Environnement S.A. continuous particulate monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renard, Jean-Baptiste; Thaury, Claire; Mineau, Jean-Luc; Gaubicher, Bertrand

    2010-08-01

    Airborne particulate matter may have an effect on human health. It is therefore necessary to determine and control in real time the evolution of the concentration and mass of particulates in the ambient air. These parameters can be obtained using optical methods. We propose here a new instrument, 'CPM' (continuous particulate monitor), for the measurement of light scattered by ambient particulates at small angles. This geometry allows simultaneous and separate detections of PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 fractions of airborne particulate matter, with no influence of their chemical nature and without using theoretical calculations. The ambient air is collected through a standard sampling head (PM10 inlet according to EN 12341, PM2.5 inlet according to EN 14907; or PM1, TSP inlets, standard US EPA inlets). The analysis of the first measurements demonstrates that this new instrument can detect, for each of the seven defined size ranges, real-time variations of particulate content in the ambient air. The measured concentrations (expressed in number per liter) can be converted into total mass concentrations (expressed in micrograms per cubic meter) of all fractions of airborne particulate matters sampled by the system. Periodic comparison with a beta-attenuation mass monitor (MP101M Beta Gauge Analyzer from Environnement S.A. company) allows the calculation of a calibration factor as a function of the mean particulate density that is used for this conversion. It is then possible to provide real-time relative variations of aerosol mass concentration.

  1. Gross-Pitaevski map as a chaotic dynamical system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guarneri, Italo

    2017-03-01

    The Gross-Pitaevski map is a discrete time, split-operator version of the Gross-Pitaevski dynamics in the circle, for which exponential instability has been recently reported. Here it is studied as a classical dynamical system in its own right. A systematic analysis of Lyapunov exponents exposes strongly chaotic behavior. Exponential growth of energy is then shown to be a direct consequence of rotational invariance and for stationary solutions the full spectrum of Lyapunov exponents is analytically computed. The present analysis includes the "resonant" case, when the free rotation period is commensurate to 2 π , and the map has countably many constants of the motion. Except for lowest-order resonances, this case exhibits an integrable-chaotic transition.

  2. The San Andreas fault experiment. [gross tectonic plates relative velocity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, D. E.; Vonbun, F. O.

    1973-01-01

    A plan was developed during 1971 to determine gross tectonic plate motions along the San Andreas Fault System in California. Knowledge of the gross motion along the total fault system is an essential component in the construction of realistic deformation models of fault regions. Such mathematical models will be used in the future for studies which will eventually lead to prediction of major earthquakes. The main purpose of the experiment described is the determination of the relative velocity of the North American and the Pacific Plates. This motion being so extremely small, cannot be measured directly but can be deduced from distance measurements between points on opposite sites of the plate boundary taken over a number of years.

  3. The gross anatomy course: an analysis of its importance.

    PubMed

    Böckers, Anja; Jerg-Bretzke, Lucia; Lamp, Christoph; Brinkmann, Anke; Traue, Harald C; Böckers, Tobias M

    2010-01-01

    The gross anatomy dissection course is a cost-intensive piece of undergraduate medical education that students and professionals alike describe as very important within the overall medical curriculum. We sought to understand more explicitly students' valuation of gross anatomy as an "important" course and so developed a quantitative longitudinal questionnaire. Medical students (n = 124) enrolled in the winter term 2006/2007 gross anatomy course at the Ulm University Faculty of Medicine were surveyed anonymously prior to, in the middle of, and at the end of the dissection course. Subgroups of students expressing rising or falling opinions of course value were identified and correlated with student opinions about the course's ability to convey professional competencies. Five-point Likert scales were used for each survey item, which included such standardized instruments as the NeoFFI, BSI, and FBM. The study confirmed that medical students believe dissection to be valuable. Students indicated that participation in the course facilitated acquisition of anatomy knowledge as well as skills related to teamwork, coping with stress, and, to a lesser extent, time management. Students also noted that they developed less empathy than expected beforehand. Significant subgroup differences were observed relative to the competencies of teamwork, stress coping strategies, and empathy, as well as in students' stress levels associated with having to take a dissection course. Our study builds on previous work that has shown dissection courses help students develop professional competencies. The increase in professionalism might be a reason for the generally high value students place on the gross anatomy dissection course.

  4. Gross efficiency and energy expenditure in kayak ergometer exercise.

    PubMed

    Gomes, B B; Mourão, L; Massart, A; Figueiredo, P; Vilas-Boas, J P; Santos, A M C; Fernandes, R J

    2012-08-01

    We purposed to study energy expenditure, power output and gross efficiency during kayak ergometer exercise in 12 elite sprint kayakers. 6 males (age 24.2±4.8 years, height 180.4±4.8 cm, body mass 79.7±8.5 kg) and 6 females (age 24.3±4.5 years, height 164.5±3.9 cm, body mass 65.4±3.5 kg), performed an incremental intermittent protocol on kayak ergometer with VO2 and blood lactate concentration assessment, a non-linear increase between power output and energy expenditure being observed. Paddling power output, energy expenditure and gross efficiency corresponding to VO2max averaged 199.92±50.41 W, 75.27±6.30 ml.kg - 1.min - 1, and 10.10±1.08%. Male kayakers presented higher VO2max, power output and gross efficiency at the VO2max, and lower heart rate and maximal lactate concentration than females, but no differences were found between genders regarding energy expenditure at VO2max. Aerobic and anaerobic components of energy expenditure evidenced a significant contribution of anaerobic energy sources in sprint kayak performance. Results also suggested the dependence of the gross efficiency on the changes in the amount of the aerobic and anaerobic contributions, at heavy and severe intensities. The inter-individual variance of the relationship between energy expenditure and the corresponding paddling power output revealed a relevant tracking for females (FDγ=0.73±0.06), conversely to the male group (FDγ=0.27±0.08), supporting that some male kayakers are more skilled in some paddling intensities than others.

  5. Airborne Compositae dermatitis: monoterpenes and no parthenolide are released from flowering Tanacetum parthenium (feverfew) plants.

    PubMed

    Christensen, L P; Jakobsen, H B; Paulsen, E; Hodal, L; Andersen, K E

    1999-01-01

    The air around intact feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium) plants was examined for the presence of airborne parthenolide and other potential allergens using a high-volume air sampler and a dynamic headspace technique. No particle-bound parthenolide was detected in the former. Among volatiles emitted from the aerial parts of feverfew plants and collected by the dynamic headspace technique a total of 41 compounds, mainly monoterpenes, were identified and quantified by GC and GC-MS. Alpha-Pinene, camphene, limonene, gamma-terpinene, (E)-beta-ocimene, linalool, p-cymene, (E)-chrysanthenol, camphor and (E)-chrysanthenyl acetate were the predominant monoterpenes accounting for nearly 88% of the total volatiles emitted. The average total yield of volatiles emitted over 24 h was 18,160 ng/g fresh weight of leaves and flowers, corresponding to the emission of approximately 8 mg volatiles per day from one full-grown feverfew plant. No parthenolide or other sesquiterpene lactones were detected. The present investigation does not support the theory of airborne sesquiterpene lactone-containing plant parts or of direct release of sesquiterpene lactones from living plants as the only explanations for airborne Compositae dermatitis. Potential allergens were found among the emitted monoterpenes and their importance in airborne Compositae dermatitis is discussed.

  6. Variations in abundance, diversity and community composition of airborne fungi in swine houses across seasons

    PubMed Central

    Kumari, Priyanka; Woo, Cheolwoon; Yamamoto, Naomichi; Choi, Hong-Lim

    2016-01-01

    We examined the abundance, diversity and community composition of airborne fungi in swine houses during winter and summer seasons by using quantitative PCR and Illumina HiSeq sequencing of ITS1 region. The abundance of airborne fungi varied significantly only between seasons, while fungal diversity varied significantly both within and between seasons, with both abundance and diversity peaked in winter. The fungal OTU composition was largely structured by the swine house unit and season as well as by their interactions. Of the measured microclimate variables, relative humidity, particulate matters (PMs), ammonia, and stocking density were significantly correlated with fungal OTU composition. The variation in beta diversity was higher within swine houses during summer, which indicates that the airborne fungal community composition was more heterogeneous in summer compared to winter. We also identified several potential allergen/pathogen related fungal genera in swine houses. The total relative abundance of potential allergen/pathogen related fungal genera varied between swine houses in both seasons, and showed positive correlation with PM2.5. Overall, our findings show that the abundance, diversity and composition of airborne fungi are highly variable in swine houses and to a large extent structured by indoor microclimate variables of swine houses. PMID:27892507

  7. Variations in abundance, diversity and community composition of airborne fungi in swine houses across seasons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumari, Priyanka; Woo, Cheolwoon; Yamamoto, Naomichi; Choi, Hong-Lim

    2016-11-01

    We examined the abundance, diversity and community composition of airborne fungi in swine houses during winter and summer seasons by using quantitative PCR and Illumina HiSeq sequencing of ITS1 region. The abundance of airborne fungi varied significantly only between seasons, while fungal diversity varied significantly both within and between seasons, with both abundance and diversity peaked in winter. The fungal OTU composition was largely structured by the swine house unit and season as well as by their interactions. Of the measured microclimate variables, relative humidity, particulate matters (PMs), ammonia, and stocking density were significantly correlated with fungal OTU composition. The variation in beta diversity was higher within swine houses during summer, which indicates that the airborne fungal community composition was more heterogeneous in summer compared to winter. We also identified several potential allergen/pathogen related fungal genera in swine houses. The total relative abundance of potential allergen/pathogen related fungal genera varied between swine houses in both seasons, and showed positive correlation with PM2.5. Overall, our findings show that the abundance, diversity and composition of airborne fungi are highly variable in swine houses and to a large extent structured by indoor microclimate variables of swine houses.

  8. Variations in abundance, diversity and community composition of airborne fungi in swine houses across seasons.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Priyanka; Woo, Cheolwoon; Yamamoto, Naomichi; Choi, Hong-Lim

    2016-11-28

    We examined the abundance, diversity and community composition of airborne fungi in swine houses during winter and summer seasons by using quantitative PCR and Illumina HiSeq sequencing of ITS1 region. The abundance of airborne fungi varied significantly only between seasons, while fungal diversity varied significantly both within and between seasons, with both abundance and diversity peaked in winter. The fungal OTU composition was largely structured by the swine house unit and season as well as by their interactions. Of the measured microclimate variables, relative humidity, particulate matters (PMs), ammonia, and stocking density were significantly correlated with fungal OTU composition. The variation in beta diversity was higher within swine houses during summer, which indicates that the airborne fungal community composition was more heterogeneous in summer compared to winter. We also identified several potential allergen/pathogen related fungal genera in swine houses. The total relative abundance of potential allergen/pathogen related fungal genera varied between swine houses in both seasons, and showed positive correlation with PM2.5. Overall, our findings show that the abundance, diversity and composition of airborne fungi are highly variable in swine houses and to a large extent structured by indoor microclimate variables of swine houses.

  9. Movement mechanisms of gross solids in intermittent flow.

    PubMed

    Littlewood, K; Butler, D

    2003-01-01

    Gross solids, such as used tampons, sanitary towels and faecal stools, are introduced into the sewer network via the WC. Although small diameter pipes (< or = 150mm diameter) make up a large proportion of most sewer networks, the transport behaviour of gross solids in these smaller pipes is not fully established. In particular, there are concerns about the effect of water conservation measures on the transport of gross solids in the intermittent flow regime prevalent in small pipes. This paper introduces a study carried out on the movement of solids in this flow regime. An extensive series of experiments has been carried out to investigate the movement mechanisms and behaviour in detail. It was found that there are three different mechanisms of movement, and photographic evidence is provided in the paper. The concept and implications of the "limiting solid transport distance" is also introduced. It is argued that solid movement is dependent on factors other than just WC flush volume and that increased blockage potential is not inevitable.

  10. [The Gross Clinic--portrait of a pioneer].

    PubMed

    Hansen, Vibeke Cecilie Waallann; Sivertsen, Einar Andreas

    2009-03-26

    THE GROSS CLINIC: is an 1875 painting by Thomas Eakins which is counted among the world's most famous doctor's portraits. This picture became more topical when it was sold to the Philadelphia Museum of Art for 68 million USD in 2006. We here present aspects of how this picture can help to document surgical practice in the USA at the time it was made. A comparison with a later doctor's portrait, THE AGNEW CLINIC: painted by Eakins in 1889, : shows that many changes occurred during a short time in the end of the 19 th century. This is especially the case within infection prevention, anaesthesia and development of the surgical profession as such. From an art historical perspective it has been common to compare the portrait with the old masters' group portraits of surgeons in surgical theatres. The most known of these is Rembrandt's DR. NICOLAES TULP'S ANATOMY LECTURE: (1632). In our opinion it is more interesting to consider THE GROSS CLINIC: in connection with concomitant photographies of medical practice. The realistic motive for the painting was assessed as inappropriate and unsuitable for a piece of art at the time. Despite of this, Eakins himself regarded the picture as one of his best, and during the 20 th century THE GROSS CLINIC: has been increasingly acknowledged. Today, the picture is the piece of art that Thomas Eakins is mainly associated with.

  11. Energy eigenfunctions of the 1D Gross-Pitaevskii equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marojević, Želimir; Göklü, Ertan; Lämmerzahl, Claus

    2013-08-01

    We developed a new and powerful algorithm by which numerical solutions for excited states in a gravito-optical surface trap have been obtained. They represent solutions in the regime of strong nonlinearities of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation. In this context we also briefly review several approaches which allow, in principle, for calculating excited state solutions. It turns out that without modifications these are not applicable to strongly nonlinear Gross-Pitaevskii equations. The importance of studying excited states of Bose-Einstein condensates is also underlined by a recent experiment of Bücker et al. in which vibrational state inversion of a Bose-Einstein condensate has been achieved by transferring the entire population of the condensate to the first excited state. Here we focus on demonstrating the applicability of our algorithm for three different potentials by means of numerical results for the energy eigenstates and eigenvalues of the 1D Gross-Pitaevskii-equation. We compare the numerically found solutions and find out that they completely agree with the case of known analytical solutions.

  12. Airborne thermography or infrared remote sensing.

    PubMed

    Goillot, C C

    1975-01-01

    Airborne thermography is part of the more general remote sensing activity. The instruments suitable for image display are infrared line scanners. A great deal of interest has developed during the past 10 years in airborne thermal remote sensing and many applications are in progress. Infrared scanners on board a satellite are used for observation of cloud cover; airborne infrared scanners are used for forest fire detection, heat budget of soils, detecting insect attack, diseases, air pollution damage, water stress, salinity stress on vegetation, only to cite some main applications relevant to agronomy. Using this system it has become possible to get a 'picture' of our thermal environment.

  13. Airborne remote sensing of forest biomes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sader, Steven A.

    1987-01-01

    Airborne sensor data of forest biomes obtained using an SAR, a laser profiler, an IR MSS, and a TM simulator are presented and examined. The SAR was utilized to investigate forest canopy structures in Mississippi and Costa Rica; the IR MSS measured forest canopy temperatures in Oregon and Puerto Rico; the TM simulator was employed in a tropical forest in Puerto Rico; and the laser profiler studied forest canopy characteristics in Costa Rica. The advantages and disadvantages of airborne systems are discussed. It is noted that the airborne sensors provide measurements applicable to forest monitoring programs.

  14. Airborne microwave radiometric imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Wei; Li, Futang; Zhang, Zuyin

    1999-09-01

    A dual channel Airborne Microwave Radiometric Imaging system (AMRI) was designed and constructed for regional environment mapping. The system operates at 35GHz, which collects radiation at horizontal and vertical polarized channels. It runs at mechanical conical scanning with 45 degrees incidence angle. Two Cassegrain antennas with 1.5 degrees beamwidth scan the scene alternately and two pseudo- color images of two channels are displayed on the screen of PC in real time. Simultaneously, all parameters of flight and radiometric data are sorted in hard disk for post- processing. The sensitivity of the radiometer (Delta) T equals 0.16K. A new displaying method, unequal size element arc displaying method, is used in image displaying. Several experiments on mobile tower were carried out and the images demonstrate that the AMRI is available to work steadily and accurately.

  15. Airborne microwave radiometric imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Wei; Zhang, Zuyin; Chen, Zhengwen

    1998-08-01

    A dual channel Airborne Microwave Radiometric Imaging system (AMRI) was designed and constructed for regional environment mapping. The system operates at 35GHz, which collects radiation at horizontal and vertical polarized. It runs at mechanical conical scanning with 45 degrees incidence angle. Two Cassegrain antennas with 1.5 degrees 3 dB beamwidth scan the scene alternately and two pseudo-color images of two channels are displayed on the screen of PC in real time. Simultaneously all parameters of flight and radiometric data are stored in hard disk for postprocessing. The sensitivity of the radiometers of flight and radiometric data are stored in hard disk for postprocessing. The sensitivity of the radiometers (Delta) T equals 0.16K. A new display method, unequal size element arc displaying method, is used in image displaying. Several experiments on mobile tower were carried out and the images demonstrate the AMRI is available to work steadily and accurately.

  16. 26 CFR 20.2031-1 - Definition of gross estate; valuation of property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... decedent's gross estate. (2) Sections 2035 through 2038 deal with interests in property transferred by the... estate. Section 2035 includes in the decedent's gross estate property transferred in contemplation of... gross estate under sections 2035 through 2038, and 2041. Section 2044 deals with retroactivity....

  17. The Relationship between Gross Motor Skills and Academic Achievement in Children with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westendorp, Marieke; Hartman, Esther; Houwen, Suzanne; Smith, Joanne; Visscher, Chris

    2011-01-01

    The present study compared the gross motor skills of 7- to 12-year-old children with learning disabilities (n = 104) with those of age-matched typically developing children (n = 104) using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2. Additionally, the specific relationships between subsets of gross motor skills and academic performance in reading,…

  18. 46 CFR 130.110 - Internal communications on OSVs of less than 100 gross tons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Internal communications on OSVs of less than 100 gross... Internal communications on OSVs of less than 100 gross tons. Each vessel of less than 100 gross tons... have a fixed means of communication between the pilothouse and the place where the auxiliary means...

  19. 46 CFR 130.110 - Internal communications on OSVs of less than 100 gross tons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Internal communications on OSVs of less than 100 gross... Internal communications on OSVs of less than 100 gross tons. Each vessel of less than 100 gross tons... have a fixed means of communication between the pilothouse and the place where the auxiliary means...

  20. 46 CFR 130.110 - Internal communications on OSVs of less than 100 gross tons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Internal communications on OSVs of less than 100 gross... Internal communications on OSVs of less than 100 gross tons. Each vessel of less than 100 gross tons... have a fixed means of communication between the pilothouse and the place where the auxiliary means...

  1. 46 CFR 130.110 - Internal communications on OSVs of less than 100 gross tons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Internal communications on OSVs of less than 100 gross... Internal communications on OSVs of less than 100 gross tons. Each vessel of less than 100 gross tons... have a fixed means of communication between the pilothouse and the place where the auxiliary means...

  2. 46 CFR 130.110 - Internal communications on OSVs of less than 100 gross tons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Internal communications on OSVs of less than 100 gross... Internal communications on OSVs of less than 100 gross tons. Each vessel of less than 100 gross tons... have a fixed means of communication between the pilothouse and the place where the auxiliary means...

  3. 46 CFR 15.901 - Inspected vessels of less than 100 gross tons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inspected vessels of less than 100 gross tons. 15.901... MANNING REQUIREMENTS Equivalents § 15.901 Inspected vessels of less than 100 gross tons. (a) An individual... tons is authorized to serve as master on inspected vessels of less than 100 gross tons within...

  4. 48 CFR 52.229-10 - State of New Mexico Gross Receipts and Compensating Tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false State of New Mexico Gross... Provisions and Clauses 52.229-10 State of New Mexico Gross Receipts and Compensating Tax. As prescribed in 29.401-4(b), insert the following clause: State of New Mexico Gross Receipts and Compensating Tax...

  5. 26 CFR 1.1312-1 - Double inclusion of an item of gross income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Double inclusion of an item of gross income. 1....1312-1 Double inclusion of an item of gross income. (a) Paragraph (1) of section 1312 applies if the determination requires the inclusion in a taxpayer's gross income of an item which was erroneously included...

  6. 46 CFR 69.169 - Spaces exempt from inclusion in gross tonnage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Spaces exempt from inclusion in gross tonnage. 69.169... MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS Dual Measurement System § 69.169 Spaces exempt from inclusion in gross tonnage. The tonnage of the following spaces is exempt from inclusion in gross tonnage: (a)...

  7. 26 CFR 1.863-1 - Allocation of gross income under section 863(a).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... uncut timber is located. The source of gross receipts from the sale of the product in excess of its fair.... Notwithstanding any other provision of this section, gross receipts from the sale of products derived by a... additional production activities. The source of gross receipts equal to the fair market value of the...

  8. 26 CFR 1.863-1 - Allocation of gross income under section 863(a).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... uncut timber is located. The source of gross receipts from the sale of the product in excess of its fair.... Notwithstanding any other provision of this section, gross receipts from the sale of products derived by a... additional production activities. The source of gross receipts equal to the fair market value of the...

  9. 26 CFR 1.863-1 - Allocation of gross income under section 863(a).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... uncut timber is located. The source of gross receipts from the sale of the product in excess of its fair.... Notwithstanding any other provision of this section, gross receipts from the sale of products derived by a... additional production activities. The source of gross receipts equal to the fair market value of the...

  10. 48 CFR 52.229-10 - State of New Mexico Gross Receipts and Compensating Tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false State of New Mexico Gross... Provisions and Clauses 52.229-10 State of New Mexico Gross Receipts and Compensating Tax. As prescribed in 29.401-4(b), insert the following clause: State of New Mexico Gross Receipts and Compensating Tax...

  11. 48 CFR 52.229-10 - State of New Mexico Gross Receipts and Compensating Tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false State of New Mexico Gross... Provisions and Clauses 52.229-10 State of New Mexico Gross Receipts and Compensating Tax. As prescribed in 29.401-4(b), insert the following clause: State of New Mexico Gross Receipts and Compensating Tax...

  12. 48 CFR 52.229-10 - State of New Mexico Gross Receipts and Compensating Tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false State of New Mexico Gross... Provisions and Clauses 52.229-10 State of New Mexico Gross Receipts and Compensating Tax. As prescribed in 29.401-4(b), insert the following clause: State of New Mexico Gross Receipts and Compensating Tax...

  13. 48 CFR 52.229-10 - State of New Mexico Gross Receipts and Compensating Tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false State of New Mexico Gross... Provisions and Clauses 52.229-10 State of New Mexico Gross Receipts and Compensating Tax. As prescribed in 29.401-4(b), insert the following clause: State of New Mexico Gross Receipts and Compensating Tax...

  14. 48 CFR 29.401-4 - New Mexico gross receipts and compensating tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false New Mexico gross receipts... ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS TAXES Contract Clauses 29.401-4 New Mexico gross... Gross Receipts and Compensating Tax Act of the State of New Mexico, Sec. 7-9-3(k) NM SA 1978, and...

  15. 48 CFR 29.401-4 - New Mexico gross receipts and compensating tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false New Mexico gross receipts... ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS TAXES Contract Clauses 29.401-4 New Mexico gross... Gross Receipts and Compensating Tax Act of the State of New Mexico, Sec. 7-9-3(k) NM SA 1978, and...

  16. 48 CFR 29.401-4 - New Mexico gross receipts and compensating tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false New Mexico gross receipts... ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS TAXES Contract Clauses 29.401-4 New Mexico gross... Gross Receipts and Compensating Tax Act of the State of New Mexico, Sec. 7-9-3(k) NM SA 1978, and...

  17. 48 CFR 29.401-4 - New Mexico gross receipts and compensating tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false New Mexico gross receipts... ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS TAXES Contract Clauses 29.401-4 New Mexico gross... Gross Receipts and Compensating Tax Act of the State of New Mexico, Sec. 7-9-3(k) NM SA 1978, and...

  18. 26 CFR 1.872-1 - Gross income of nonresident alien individuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gross income of nonresident alien individuals. 1...) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Nonresident Aliens and Foreign Corporations § 1.872-1 Gross income of nonresident alien individuals. (a) In general—(1) Inclusions. The gross income of a nonresident...

  19. 26 CFR 1.872-1 - Gross income of nonresident alien individuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Gross income of nonresident alien individuals. 1...) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Nonresident Aliens and Foreign Corporations § 1.872-1 Gross income of nonresident alien individuals. (a) In general—(1) Inclusions. The gross income of...

  20. 26 CFR 1.872-1 - Gross income of nonresident alien individuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Gross income of nonresident alien individuals. 1...) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Nonresident Aliens and Foreign Corporations § 1.872-1 Gross income of nonresident alien individuals. (a) In general—(1) Inclusions. The gross income of...

  1. 26 CFR 1.872-1 - Gross income of nonresident alien individuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Gross income of nonresident alien individuals. 1...) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Nonresident Aliens and Foreign Corporations § 1.872-1 Gross income of nonresident alien individuals. (a) In general—(1) Inclusions. The gross income of...

  2. 26 CFR 1.872-1 - Gross income of nonresident alien individuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Gross income of nonresident alien individuals. 1...) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Nonresident Aliens and Foreign Corporations § 1.872-1 Gross income of nonresident alien individuals. (a) In general—(1) Inclusions. The gross income of...

  3. 26 CFR 1.804-3 - Gross investment income of a life insurance company.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Gross investment income of a life insurance... income of a life insurance company. (a) Gross investment income defined. For purposes of part I, subchapter L, chapter 1 of the Code, section 804(b) defines the term gross investment income of a...

  4. 26 CFR 1.804-3 - Gross investment income of a life insurance company.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Gross investment income of a life insurance... income of a life insurance company. (a) Gross investment income defined. For purposes of part I, subchapter L, chapter 1 of the Code, section 804(b) defines the term gross investment income of a...

  5. 26 CFR 1.882-3 - Gross income of a foreign corporation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gross income of a foreign corporation. 1.882-3... TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Foreign Corporations § 1.882-3 Gross income of a foreign corporation. (a) In general—(1) Inclusions. The gross income of a foreign corporation for any taxable year...

  6. Principles for Sampling Airborne Radioactivity from Stacks

    SciTech Connect

    Glissmeyer, John A.

    2010-10-18

    This book chapter describes the special processes involved in sampling the airborne effluents from nuclear faciities. The title of the book is Radioactive Air Sampling Methods. The abstract for this chapter was cleared as PNNL-SA-45941.

  7. Airborne Gamma-Spectrometry in Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butterweck, Gernot; Bucher, Benno; Rybach, Ladislaus

    2008-08-01

    Airborne gamma-spectrometry is able to obtain fast radiological information over large areas. The airborne gamma-spectrometry unit deployed in Switzerland by the Swiss National Emergency Operations Centre (NEOC) consists of a Swiss army Super Puma helicopter equipped with four NaI-Detectors with a total volume of 17 liters, associated electronics and a real-time data evaluation and mapping unit developed by the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) and the Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI). The operational readiness of the airborne gamma-spectrometry system is validated in annual exercises of one week duration. Data from 2005 and 2006 exercises are represented in maps of 137Cs activity concentration for two towns located in southern and western Switzerland. An indicator of man-made radioactivity (MMGC ratio) is demonstrated for an area with four different types of nuclear installations. The intercomparison between airborne gamma-spectrometry and ground measurements showed good agreement between both methods.

  8. Airborne Gamma-Spectrometry in Switzerland

    SciTech Connect

    Butterweck, Gernot; Bucher, Benno; Rybach, Ladislaus

    2008-08-07

    Airborne gamma-spectrometry is able to obtain fast radiological information over large areas. The airborne gamma-spectrometry unit deployed in Switzerland by the Swiss National Emergency Operations Centre (NEOC) consists of a Swiss army Super Puma helicopter equipped with four NaI-Detectors with a total volume of 17 liters, associated electronics and a real-time data evaluation and mapping unit developed by the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) and the Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI). The operational readiness of the airborne gamma-spectrometry system is validated in annual exercises of one week duration. Data from 2005 and 2006 exercises are represented in maps of {sup 137}Cs activity concentration for two towns located in southern and western Switzerland. An indicator of man-made radioactivity (MMGC ratio) is demonstrated for an area with four different types of nuclear installations. The intercomparison between airborne gamma-spectrometry and ground measurements showed good agreement between both methods.

  9. SOURCES OF HUMAN EXPOSURE TO AIRBORNE PAH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Personal exposures to airborne particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were studied in several populations in the US, Japan, and Czech Republic. Personal exposure monitors, developed for human exposure biomonitoring studies were used to collect fine particles (<_ 1....

  10. Toolsets for Airborne Data Web Application

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-09-17

    ... relevant issues. Features Include Select data based on mission, date and/or scientific parameter Output original data ... Details:  Toolsets for Airborne Data (TAD) Web Application Category:  Instrument Specific Search, ...

  11. The selectivity of beta-adrenoceptor antagonists at the human beta1, beta2 and beta3 adrenoceptors.

    PubMed

    Baker, Jillian G

    2005-02-01

    Beta-adrenoceptor antagonists ("beta-blockers") are one of the most widely used classes of drugs in cardiovascular medicine (hypertension, ischaemic heart disease and increasingly in heart failure) as well as in the management of anxiety, migraine and glaucoma. Where known, the mode of action in cardiovascular disease is from antagonism of endogenous catecholamine responses in the heart (mainly at beta1-adrenoceptors), while the worrisome side effects of bronchospasm result from airway beta2-adrenoceptor blockade. The aim of this study was to determine the selectivity of beta-antagonists for the human beta-adrenoceptor subtypes. (3)H-CGP 12177 whole cell-binding studies were undertaken in CHO cell lines stably expressing either the human beta1-, beta2- or the beta3-adrenoceptor in order to determine the affinity of ligands for each receptor subtype in the same cell background. In this study, the selectivity of well-known subtype-selective ligands was clearly demonstrated: thus, the selective beta1 antagonist CGP 20712A was 501-fold selective over beta2 and 4169-fold selective over beta3; the beta2-selective antagonist ICI 118551 was 550- and 661-fold selective over beta1 and beta3, respectively, and the selective beta3 compound CL 316243 was 10-fold selective over beta2 and more than 129-fold selective over beta1. Those beta2-adrenoceptor agonists used clinically for the treatment of asthma and COPD were beta2 selective: 29-, 61- and 2818-fold for salbutamol, terbutaline and salmeterol over beta1, respectively. There was little difference in the affinity of these ligands between beta1 and beta3 adrenoceptors. The clinically used beta-antagonists studied ranged from bisoprolol (14-fold beta1-selective) to timolol (26-fold beta2-selective). However, the majority showed little selectivity for the beta1- over the beta2-adrenoceptor, with many actually being more beta2-selective. This study shows that the beta1/beta2 selectivity of most clinically used beta-blockers is

  12. Polarimetric sensor systems for airborne ISR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chenault, David; Foster, Joseph; Pezzaniti, Joseph; Harchanko, John; Aycock, Todd; Clark, Alex

    2014-06-01

    Over the last decade, polarimetric imaging technologies have undergone significant advancements that have led to the development of small, low-power polarimetric cameras capable of meeting current airborne ISR mission requirements. In this paper, we describe the design and development of a compact, real-time, infrared imaging polarimeter, provide preliminary results demonstrating the enhanced contrast possible with such a system, and discuss ways in which this technology can be integrated with existing manned and unmanned airborne platforms.

  13. The response of gross nitrogen mineralization to labile carbon inputs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bengtson, Per

    2014-05-01

    Input of labile carbon sources to forest soils commonly result in priming, i.e. an increase in the microbial decomposition of soil organic matter. Efforts aimed at quantifying the extent of priming have, to date, largely focused on soil organic matter decomposition manifested as soil respiration. Less is known about how gross nitrogen mineralization responds to input of labile carbon. It is often assumed that increased priming results in decreased soil carbon stocks. However, microbial mineralization of organic nitrogen into plant available forms is a major factor limiting primary production in forests. If increased decomposition of soil organic matter in response to labile carbon is accompanied by a concurrent increased nitrogen mineralization, this could result in elevated primary production and higher rates of plant derived organic matter input to soils. Therefore, in order to fully understand the effect of priming on net ecosystem exchange and soil carbon stocks, it is vital to consider if increased decomposition of soil organic matter caused by priming also results in increased nitrogen mineralization. Here I present the results from a series of experiments aimed at determining if, and to which extent, gross nitrogen mineralization is stimulated by input of labile carbon. The results suggest that it is by no means uncommon to find an increase in gross N mineralization rates in response to labile carbon inputs. The magnitude of the increase seems dependent on the nitrogen status of the soil, as well as the concentration and rate of labile carbon inputs. However, continuous input of labile carbon sources that also contains nitrogen, e.g. amino acids, seems to inhibit rather than increase the mineralization of organic nitrogen. These findings suggest that there is a potential for a positive feedback between priming and primary production that needs to be considered in order to fully understand the influence of priming on net ecosystem exchange and soil carbon

  14. Verbal priming and taste sensitivity make moral transgressions gross.

    PubMed

    Herz, Rachel S

    2014-02-01

    The aims of the present study were to assess whether: (a) visceral and moral disgust share a common oral origin (taste); (b) moral transgressions that are also viscerally involving are evaluated accordingly as a function of individual differences in taste sensitivity; (c) verbal priming interacts with taste sensitivity to alter how disgust is experienced in moral transgressions; and (d) whether gender moderates these effects. Standard tests of disgust sensitivity, a questionnaire developed for this research assessing different types of moral transgressions (nonvisceral, implied-visceral, visceral) with the terms "angry" and "grossed-out," and a taste sensitivity test of 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) were administered to 102 participants. Results confirmed past findings that the more sensitive to PROP a participant was the more disgusted they were by visceral, but not moral, disgust elicitors. Importantly, the findings newly revealed that taste sensitivity had no bearing on evaluations of moral transgressions, regardless of their visceral nature, when "angry" was the emotion primed. However, when "grossed-out" was primed for evaluating moral violations, the more intense PROP tasted to a participant the more "grossed-out" they were by all transgressions. Women were generally more disgust sensitive and morally condemning than men, but disgust test, transgression type, and priming scale modulated these effects. The present findings support the proposition that moral and visceral disgust do not share a common oral origin, but show that linguistic priming can transform a moral transgression into a viscerally repulsive event and that susceptibility to this priming varies as a function of an individual's sensitivity to the origins of visceral disgust-bitter taste.

  15. Downscaling of Airborne Wind Energy Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fechner, Uwe; Schmehl, Roland

    2016-09-01

    Airborne wind energy systems provide a novel solution to harvest wind energy from altitudes that cannot be reached by wind turbines with a similar nominal generator power. The use of a lightweight but strong tether in place of an expensive tower provides an additional cost advantage, next to the higher capacity factor and much lower total mass. This paper investigates the scaling effects of airborne wind energy systems. The energy yield of airborne wind energy systems, that work in pumping mode of operation is at least ten times higher than the energy yield of conventional solar systems. For airborne wind energy systems the yield is defined per square meter wing area. In this paper the dependency of the energy yield on the nominal generator power for systems in the range of 1 kW to 1 MW is investigated. For the onshore location Cabauw, The Netherlands, it is shown, that a generator of just 1.4 kW nominal power and a total system mass of less than 30 kg has the theoretical potential to harvest energy at only twice the price per kWh of large scale airborne wind energy systems. This would make airborne wind energy systems a very attractive choice for small scale remote and mobile applications as soon as the remaining challenges for commercialization are solved.

  16. Challenges and opportunities of airborne metagenomics.

    PubMed

    Behzad, Hayedeh; Gojobori, Takashi; Mineta, Katsuhiko

    2015-05-06

    Recent metagenomic studies of environments, such as marine and soil, have significantly enhanced our understanding of the diverse microbial communities living in these habitats and their essential roles in sustaining vast ecosystems. The increase in the number of publications related to soil and marine metagenomics is in sharp contrast to those of air, yet airborne microbes are thought to have significant impacts on many aspects of our lives from their potential roles in atmospheric events such as cloud formation, precipitation, and atmospheric chemistry to their major impact on human health. In this review, we will discuss the current progress in airborne metagenomics, with a special focus on exploring the challenges and opportunities of undertaking such studies. The main challenges of conducting metagenomic studies of airborne microbes are as follows: 1) Low density of microorganisms in the air, 2) efficient retrieval of microorganisms from the air, 3) variability in airborne microbial community composition, 4) the lack of standardized protocols and methodologies, and 5) DNA sequencing and bioinformatics-related challenges. Overcoming these challenges could provide the groundwork for comprehensive analysis of airborne microbes and their potential impact on the atmosphere, global climate, and our health. Metagenomic studies offer a unique opportunity to examine viral and bacterial diversity in the air and monitor their spread locally or across the globe, including threats from pathogenic microorganisms. Airborne metagenomic studies could also lead to discoveries of novel genes and metabolic pathways relevant to meteorological and industrial applications, environmental bioremediation, and biogeochemical cycles.

  17. Challenges and Opportunities of Airborne Metagenomics

    PubMed Central

    Behzad, Hayedeh; Gojobori, Takashi; Mineta, Katsuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Recent metagenomic studies of environments, such as marine and soil, have significantly enhanced our understanding of the diverse microbial communities living in these habitats and their essential roles in sustaining vast ecosystems. The increase in the number of publications related to soil and marine metagenomics is in sharp contrast to those of air, yet airborne microbes are thought to have significant impacts on many aspects of our lives from their potential roles in atmospheric events such as cloud formation, precipitation, and atmospheric chemistry to their major impact on human health. In this review, we will discuss the current progress in airborne metagenomics, with a special focus on exploring the challenges and opportunities of undertaking such studies. The main challenges of conducting metagenomic studies of airborne microbes are as follows: 1) Low density of microorganisms in the air, 2) efficient retrieval of microorganisms from the air, 3) variability in airborne microbial community composition, 4) the lack of standardized protocols and methodologies, and 5) DNA sequencing and bioinformatics-related challenges. Overcoming these challenges could provide the groundwork for comprehensive analysis of airborne microbes and their potential impact on the atmosphere, global climate, and our health. Metagenomic studies offer a unique opportunity to examine viral and bacterial diversity in the air and monitor their spread locally or across the globe, including threats from pathogenic microorganisms. Airborne metagenomic studies could also lead to discoveries of novel genes and metabolic pathways relevant to meteorological and industrial applications, environmental bioremediation, and biogeochemical cycles. PMID:25953766

  18. Expression and autoregulation of transforming growth factor beta receptor mRNA in small-cell lung cancer cell lines.

    PubMed Central

    Nørgaard, P.; Spang-Thomsen, M.; Poulsen, H. S.

    1996-01-01

    In small-cell lung cancer cell lines resistance to growth inhibition by transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta 1, was previously shown to correlate with lack of TGF-beta receptor I (RI) and II (RII) proteins. To further investigate the role of these receptors, the expression of mRNA for RI, RII and beta-glycan (RIII) was examined. The results showed that loss of RII mRNA correlated with TGF-beta 1 resistance. In contrast, RI-and beta-glycan mRNA was expressed by all cell lines, including those lacking expression of these proteins. According to Southern blot analysis, the loss of type II mRNA was not due to gross structural changes in the gene. The effect of TGF-beta 1 on expression of TGF-beta receptor mRNA (receptor autoregulation) was examined by quantitative Northern blotting in four cell lines with different expression of TGF-beta receptor proteins. In two cell lines expressing all three TGF-beta receptor proteins beta-glycan mRNA was rapidly down-regulated and this effect was sustained throughout the 24 h observation period. RI and RII mRNAs were slightly increased 24 h after treatment. In one cell line sensitive to growth inhibition by TGF-beta, 1 but lacking beta-glycan expression, and one cell line expressing only beta-glycan and thus TGF-beta 1 -resistant, no autoregulation of mRNA of either TGF-beta receptor was demonstrated. The results suggest that TGF-beta 1 regulates the expression of its receptors, in particular beta-glycan, and that this effect is dependent on co-expression of beta-glycan, RI and RII. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 4 PMID:8624260

  19. Pathology Gross Photography: The Beginning of Digital Pathology.

    PubMed

    Rampy, B Alan; Glassy, Eric F

    2015-06-01

    The underutilized practice of photographing anatomic pathology specimens from surgical pathology and autopsies is an invaluable benefit to patients, clinicians, pathologists, and students. Photographic documentation of clinical specimens is essential for the effective practice of pathology. When considering what specimens to photograph, all grossly evident pathology, absent yet expected pathologic features, and gross-only specimens should be thoroughly documented. Specimen preparation prior to photography includes proper lighting and background, wiping surfaces of blood, removing material such as tubes or bandages, orienting the specimen in a logical fashion, framing the specimen to fill the screen, positioning of probes, and using the right-sized scale.

  20. Four loop renormalization of the Gross-Neveu model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gracey, J. A.; Luthe, T.; Schröder, Y.

    2016-12-01

    We renormalize the S U (N ) Gross-Neveu model in the modified minimal subtraction scheme at four loops and determine the β function at this order. The theory ceases to be multiplicatively renormalizable when dimensionally regularized due to the generation of evanescent 4-Fermi operators. The first of these appears at three loops and we correctly take their effect into account in deriving the renormalization group functions. We use the results to provide estimates of critical exponents relevant to phase transitions in graphene.

  1. Characterizing the development of sectoral gross domestic product composition.

    PubMed

    Lutz, Raphael; Spies, Michael; Reusser, Dominik E; Kropp, Jürgen P; Rybski, Diego

    2013-07-01

    We consider the sectoral composition of a country's gross domestic product (GDP), i.e., the partitioning into agrarian, industrial, and service sectors. Exploring a simple system of differential equations, we characterize the transfer of GDP shares between the sectors in the course of economic development. The model fits for the majority of countries providing four country-specific parameters. Relating the agrarian with the industrial sector, a data collapse over all countries and all years supports the applicability of our approach. Depending on the parameter ranges, country development exhibits different transfer properties. Most countries follow three of eight characteristic paths. The types are not random but show distinct geographic and development patterns.

  2. Gross shell structure at high spin in heavy nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Deleplanque, Marie-Agnes; Frauendorf, Stefan; Pashkevich, Vitaly V.; Chu, S.Y.; Unzhakova, Anja

    2003-10-07

    Experimental nuclear moments of inertia at high spins along the yrast line have been determined systematically and found to differ from the rigid-body values. The difference is attributed to shell effect and these have been calculated microscopically. The data and quantal calculations are interpreted by means of the semiclassical Periodic Orbit Theory. From this new perspective, features in the moments of inertia as a function of neutron number and spin, as well as their relation to the shell energies can be understood. Gross shell effects persist up to the highest angular momenta observed.

  3. Numerical method for evolving the projected Gross-Pitaevskii equation.

    PubMed

    Blakie, P Blair

    2008-08-01

    In this paper we describe a method for evolving the projected Gross-Pitaevskii equation (PGPE) for a Bose gas in a harmonic oscillator potential. The central difficulty in solving this equation is the requirement that the classical field is restricted to a small set of prescribed modes that constitute the low energy classical region of the system. We present a scheme, using a Hermite-polynomial based spectral representation, that precisely implements this mode restriction and allows an efficient and accurate solution of the PGPE. We show equilibrium and nonequilibrium results from the application of the PGPE to an anisotropic trapped three-dimensional Bose gas.

  4. MOON for neutrino-less {beta}{beta} decays and {beta}{beta} nuclear matrix elements

    SciTech Connect

    Ejiri, H.

    2009-11-09

    The MOON project aims at spectroscopic 0v{beta}{beta} studies with the v-mass sensitivity of 100-30 meV by measuring two beta rays from {sup 100}Mo and/or {sup 82}Se. The detector is a compact super-module of multi-layer PL scintillator plates. R and D works made by the pro to-type MOON-1 and the small PL plate show the possible energy resolution of around {sigma}{approx}2.2%, as required for the mass sensitivity. Nuclear matrix elements M{sup 2v} for 2v{beta}{beta} are shown to be given by the sum {sigma}{sub L}M{sub k} of the 2v{beta}{beta} matrix elements M{sub k} through intermediate quasi-particle states in the Fermi-surface, where Mi is obtained experimentally by using the GT(J{sup {pi}} = 1{sup +}) matrix elements of M{sub i}(k) and M{sub f}(k) for the successive single-{beta} transitions through the k-th intermediate state.

  5. Beta-Carotene

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beta-carotene is a pigment that occurs naturally in many photosynthetic plants and organisms and one of the most abundant carotenoids found in human blood. The richest dietary sources of beta-carotene are yellow, orange, and leafy green fruits and vegetables, such as carrots, spinach, sweet potatoes...

  6. Beta blockers in hypertension.

    PubMed

    Thadani, U

    1983-11-10

    Beta-adrenoceptor antagonists are effective in the management of patients with mild-to-moderate hypertension. Noncardioselective agents, cardioselective agents and beta blockers with intrinsic sympathomimetic activity (ISA) are equally effective, provided they are used in equipotent doses. Beta blockers can be used as first-line therapy in the management of hypertension and can be safely combined with diuretics, vasodilators, or both, for a better control of blood pressure. The exact mechanism by which beta blockers decrease blood pressure remains speculative, but they all reduce cardiac output during long-term therapy; drugs with ISA lower cardiac output and heart rate less than do drugs without ISA. Pharmacokinetic properties of beta blockers differ widely; drugs metabolized by the liver have shorter plasma half-lives than drugs primarily excreted by the kidneys. Although many of the side effects of various beta blockers are similar, differences in water and lipid solubility account for a higher incidence of central nervous system side effects with lipid-soluble drugs (such as propranolol and metoprolol) than with hydrophilic drugs (such as atenolol and timolol). The incidence of cold extremities has been reported to be less with drugs with ISA, and the incidence of bronchospasm less with cardioselective drugs. In the management of uncomplicated mild-to-moderate hypertension, all beta blockers are equally effective and produce less troublesome side effects than alternative antihypertensive agents. For effective therapy beta blockers can be used in 2 divided daily doses or even once daily.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Gross primary production of global forest ecosystems has been overestimated

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jianyong; Yan, Xiaodong; Dong, Wenjie; Chou, Jieming

    2015-01-01

    Coverage rate, a critical variable for gridded forest area, has been neglected by previous studies in estimating the annual gross primary production (GPP) of global forest ecosystems. In this study, we investigated to what extent the coverage rate could impact forest GPP estimates from 1982 to 2011. Here we show that the traditional calculation without considering the coverage rate globally overestimated the forest gross carbon dioxide uptake by approximately 8.7%, with a value of 5.12 ± 0.23 Pg C yr−1, which is equivalent to 48% of the annual emissions from anthropogenic activities in 2012. Actually, the global annual GPP of forest ecosystems is approximately 53.71 ± 4.83 Pg C yr−1 for the past 30 years by taking the coverage rate into account. Accordingly, we argue that forest annual GPP calculated by previous studies has been overestimated due to the exaggerated forest area, and therefore, coverage rate may be a required factor to further quantify the global carbon cycle. PMID:26027557

  8. Measuring change in professionalism attitudes during the gross anatomy course.

    PubMed

    Pearson, William G; Hoagland, Todd M

    2010-01-01

    By design or default, anatomy educators are often responsible for introducing students to medical professionalism. Although much has been said about the role of anatomical education, there are no published reports suggesting how to measure change. This study investigated what professionalism attitudes, if any, change during a gross anatomy course. Additionally, the influence of four dichotomous variables related to student identity and preparation for medical school were analyzed for their effect on professionalism attitudes. A cross-sectional time-one (T1; beginning of the course), time-two (T2; end of the course) study using the Penn State College of Medicine Survey of Professionalism was conducted. A multivariate analysis of variance identified the main effects and interaction effects of categorical variables. A Mann Whitney U test verified significant differences. This study found a reprioritization of professionalism attitudes in favor of altruism (P = 0.04 with a Cohen's d = 0.26) at T2. Female students (P = 0.03, Cohen's d = 0.38) and students from a science background (P = 0.04, Cohen's d = 0.36) changed the most in favor of altruism. Interestingly, though several factors correlated with dissimilarities in professionalism values at T1, gender was the only factor to show a significant difference in professionalism attitudes at T2. This cohort of students reported a statistically significant increase in altruism and no significant decreases in other professionalism attitudes concurrent with the gross anatomy course.

  9. Domain Walls in the Coupled Gross-Pitaevskii Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alama, Stan; Bronsard, Lia; Contreras, Andres; Pelinovsky, Dmitry E.

    2014-09-01

    A thorough study of domain wall solutions in coupled Gross-Pitaevskii equations on the real line is carried out including existence of these solutions; their spectral and nonlinear stability; their persistence and stability under a small localized potential. The proof of existence is variational and is presented in a general framework: we show that the domain wall solutions are energy minimizers within a class of vector-valued functions with nontrivial conditions at infinity. The admissible energy functionals include those corresponding to coupled Gross-Pitaevskii equations, arising in modeling of Bose-Einstein condensates. The results on spectral and nonlinear stability follow from properties of the linearized operator about the domain wall. The methods apply to many systems of interest and integrability is not germane to our analysis. Finally, sufficient conditions for persistence and stability of domain wall solutions are obtained to show that stable pinning occurs near maxima of the potential, thus giving rigorous justification to earlier results in the physics literature.

  10. Domain Walls in the Coupled Gross-Pitaevskii Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alama, Stan; Bronsard, Lia; Contreras, Andres; Pelinovsky, Dmitry E.

    2015-02-01

    A thorough study of domain wall solutions in coupled Gross-Pitaevskii equations on the real line is carried out including existence of these solutions; their spectral and nonlinear stability; their persistence and stability under a small localized potential. The proof of existence is variational and is presented in a general framework: we show that the domain wall solutions are energy minimizers within a class of vector-valued functions with nontrivial conditions at infinity. The admissible energy functionals include those corresponding to coupled Gross-Pitaevskii equations, arising in modeling of Bose-Einstein condensates. The results on spectral and nonlinear stability follow from properties of the linearized operator about the domain wall. The methods apply to many systems of interest and integrability is not germane to our analysis. Finally, sufficient conditions for persistence and stability of domain wall solutions are obtained to show that stable pinning occurs near maxima of the potential, thus giving rigorous justification to earlier results in the physics literature.

  11. Performance Basis for Airborne Separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wing, David J.

    2008-01-01

    Emerging applications of Airborne Separation Assistance System (ASAS) technologies make possible new and powerful methods in Air Traffic Management (ATM) that may significantly improve the system-level performance of operations in the future ATM system. These applications typically involve the aircraft managing certain components of its Four Dimensional (4D) trajectory within the degrees of freedom defined by a set of operational constraints negotiated with the Air Navigation Service Provider. It is hypothesized that reliable individual performance by many aircraft will translate into higher total system-level performance. To actually realize this improvement, the new capabilities must be attracted to high demand and complexity regions where high ATM performance is critical. Operational approval for use in such environments will require participating aircraft to be certified to rigorous and appropriate performance standards. Currently, no formal basis exists for defining these standards. This paper provides a context for defining the performance basis for 4D-ASAS operations. The trajectory constraints to be met by the aircraft are defined, categorized, and assessed for performance requirements. A proposed extension of the existing Required Navigation Performance (RNP) construct into a dynamic standard (Dynamic RNP) is outlined. Sample data is presented from an ongoing high-fidelity batch simulation series that is characterizing the performance of an advanced 4D-ASAS application. Data of this type will contribute to the evaluation and validation of the proposed performance basis.

  12. Visualizing Airborne and Satellite Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bierwirth, Victoria A.

    2011-01-01

    Remote sensing is a process able to provide information about Earth to better understand Earth's processes and assist in monitoring Earth's resources. The Cloud Absorption Radiometer (CAR) is one remote sensing instrument dedicated to the cause of collecting data on anthropogenic influences on Earth as well as assisting scientists in understanding land-surface and atmospheric interactions. Landsat is a satellite program dedicated to collecting repetitive coverage of the continental Earth surfaces in seven regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Combining these two aircraft and satellite remote sensing instruments will provide a detailed and comprehensive data collection able to provide influential information and improve predictions of changes in the future. This project acquired, interpreted, and created composite images from satellite data acquired from Landsat 4-5 Thematic Mapper (TM) and Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+). Landsat images were processed for areas covered by CAR during the Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCT AS), Cloud and Land Surface Interaction Campaign (CLASIC), Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment-Phase B (INTEXB), and Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI) 2000 missions. The acquisition of Landsat data will provide supplemental information to assist in visualizing and interpreting airborne and satellite imagery.

  13. Rapid synthesis of beta zeolites

    DOEpatents

    Fan, Wei; Chang, Chun -Chih; Dornath, Paul; Wang, Zhuopeng

    2015-08-18

    The invention provides methods for rapidly synthesizing heteroatom containing zeolites including Sn-Beta, Si-Beta, Ti-Beta, Zr-Beta and Fe-Beta. The methods for synthesizing heteroatom zeolites include using well-crystalline zeolite crystals as seeds and using a fluoride-free, caustic medium in a seeded dry-gel conversion method. The Beta zeolite catalysts made by the methods of the invention catalyze both isomerization and dehydration reactions.

  14. A comparison of in situ and airborne radar observations of ocean wave directionality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, F. C.; Walton, W. T.; Peng, C. Y.

    1985-01-01

    The directional spectrum of a fully arisen, about 3 m sea as measured by an experimental airborne radar, the NASA K(u)-band radar ocean wave spectrometer (ROWS), is compared to reference pitch-roll buoy data and to the classical SWOP (stereo wave observations project) spectrum for fully developed conditions. The ROWS spectrum, inferred indirectly from backscattered power measurements at 5-km altitude, is shown to be in excellent agreement with the buoy spectrum. Specifically, excellent agreement is found between the two nondirectional height spectra, and mean wave directions and directional spreads as functions of frequency. A comparison of the ROWS and SWOP spectra shows the two spectra to be very similar, in detailed shape as well as in terms of the gross spreading characteristics. Both spectra are seen to exhibit bimodal structures which accord with the Phillips' (1958) resonance mechanism. This observation is thus seen to support Phillips' contention that the SWOP modes were indeed resonance modes, not statistical artifacts.

  15. Quick response airborne command post communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaisdell, Randy L.

    1988-08-01

    National emergencies and strategic crises come in all forms and sizes ranging from natural disasters at one end of the scale up to and including global nuclear warfare at the other. Since the early 1960s the U.S. Government has spent billions of dollars fielding airborne command posts to ensure continuity of government and the command and control function during times of theater conventional, theater nuclear, and global nuclear warfare. Unfortunately, cost has prevented the extension of the airborne command post technology developed for these relatively unlikely events to the lower level, though much more likely to occur, crises such as natural disasters, terrorist acts, political insurgencies, etc. This thesis proposes the implementation of an economical airborne command post concept to address the wide variety of crises ignored by existing military airborne command posts. The system is known as the Quick Response Airborne Command Post (QRAC Post) and is based on the exclusive use of commercially owned and operated aircraft, and commercially available automated data processing and communications resources. The thesis addresses the QRAC Post concept at a systems level and is primarily intended to demonstrate how current technology can be exploited to economically achieve a national objective.

  16. Airborne Gravimetry and Downward Continuation (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jekeli, C.; Yang, H.; Kwon, J.

    2009-12-01

    Measuring the Earth’s gravity field using airborne instrumentation is fully operational and has been widely practiced for nearly three decades since its official debut in the early 1980s (S. Hammer: “Airborne Gravity is Here!”) coinciding with the precision kinematic positioning capability of GPS. Airborne gravimetry is undertaken for both efficient geophysical exploration purposes, as well as the determination of the regional geoid to aid in the modernization of height systems. Especially for the latter application, downward continuation of the data and combination with existing terrestrial gravimetry pose theoretical as well as practical challenges, which, on the other hand, create multiple processing possibilities. Downward continuation may be approached in various ways from the viewpoint of potential theory and the boundary-value problem to using gradients either estimated locally or computed from existing models. Logistical constraints imposed by the airborne survey, instrumental noise, and the intrinsic numerical instability of downward continuation all conspire to impact the final product in terms of achievable resolution and accuracy. In this paper, we review the theory of airborne gravimetry and the methodology of downward continuation, and provide a numerical comparison of possible schemes and their impact on geoid determination.

  17. Mapping permafrost with airborne electromagnetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minsley, B. J.; Ball, L. B.; Bloss, B. R.; Kass, A.; Pastick, N.; Smith, B. D.; Voss, C. I.; Walsh, D. O.; Walvoord, M. A.; Wylie, B. K.

    2014-12-01

    Permafrost is a key characteristic of cold region landscapes, yet detailed assessments of how the subsurface distribution of permafrost impacts the environment, hydrologic systems, and infrastructure are lacking. Data acquired from several airborne electromagnetic (AEM) surveys in Alaska provide significant new insight into the spatial extent of permafrost over larger areas (hundreds to thousands of square kilometers) than can be mapped using ground-based geophysical methods or through drilling. We compare several AEM datasets from different areas of interior Alaska, and explore the capacity of these data to infer geologic structure, permafrost extent, and related hydrologic processes. We also assess the impact of fires on permafrost by comparing data from different burn years within similar geological environments. Ultimately, interpretations rely on understanding the relationship between electrical resistivity measured by AEM surveys and the physical properties of interest such as geology, permafrost, and unfrozen water content in the subsurface. These relationships are often ambiguous and non-unique, so additional information is useful for reducing uncertainty. Shallow (upper ~1m) permafrost and soil characteristics identified from remotely sensed imagery and field observations help to constrain and aerially extend near-surface AEM interpretations, where correlations between the AEM and remote sensing data are identified using empirical multivariate analyses. Surface nuclear magnetic resonance (sNMR) measurements quantify the contribution of unfrozen water at depth to the AEM-derived electrical resistivity models at several locations within one survey area. AEM surveys fill a critical data gap in the subsurface characterization of permafrost environments and will be valuable in future mapping and monitoring programs in cold regions.

  18. Gross Motor Development, Movement Abnormalities, and Early Identification of Autism

    PubMed Central

    Young, Gregory S.; Goldring, Stacy; Greiss-Hess, Laura; Herrera, Adriana M.; Steele, Joel; Macari, Suzanne; Hepburn, Susan; Rogers, Sally J.

    2015-01-01

    Gross motor development (supine, prone, rolling, sitting, crawling, walking) and movement abnormalities were examined in the home videos of infants later diagnosed with autism (regression and no regression subgroups), developmental delays (DD), or typical development. Group differences in maturity were found for walking, prone, and supine, with the DD and Autism-No Regression groups both showing later developing motor maturity than typical children. The only statistically significant differences in movement abnormalities were in the DD group; the two autism groups did not differ from the typical group in rates of movement abnormalities or lack of protective responses. These findings do not replicate previous investigations suggesting that early motor abnormalities seen on home video can assist in early identification of autism. PMID:17805956

  19. Stimulation of gross dimethylsulfide (DMS) production by solar radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galí, Martí; Saló, Violeta; Almeda, Rodrigo; Calbet, Albert; Simó, Rafel

    2011-08-01

    Oceanic gross DMS production (GP) exerts a fundamental control on the concentration and the sea-air flux of this climatically-active trace gas. However, it is a poorly constrained process, owing to the complexity of the microbial food web processes involved and their interplay with physical forcing, particularly with solar radiation. The “inhibitor method”, using dimethyldisulfide (DMDS) or other compounds to inhibit bacterial DMS consumption, has been frequently used to determine GP in dark incubations. In the work presented here, DMDS addition was optimized for its use in light incubations. By comparing simultaneous dark and light measurements of GP in meso- to ultraoligotrophic waters, we found a significant enhancement of GP in natural sunlight in 7 out of 10 experiments. Such stimulation, which was generally between 30 and 80% on a daily basis, occurred throughout contrasting microbial communities and oceanographic settings.

  20. Smoking in top-grossing US movies, 2011.

    PubMed

    Glantz, Stanton A; Iaccopucci, Anne; Titus, Kori; Polansky, Jonathan R

    2012-01-01

    We reviewed the number of incidents of tobacco use (almost exclusively smoking) depicted in movies in the United States in 2011 to compare that with previously reported trends. We counted use or implied use of a tobacco product by an actor in all movies whose box office gross ranked in the top 10 for at least 1 week. Total tobacco incidents per movie rose 7% from 2010 to 2011, ending 5 years of decline; incidents rose 34% per movie rated G, PG, or PG-13 and 7% per R-rated movie. The reversal of progress toward less onscreen smoking in youth-rated movies underscores the need to rate movies with tobacco imagery as R, establishing an industry-wide market incentive to keep youth-marketed movies tobacco-free.

  1. The inverse problem for the Gross-Pitaevskii equation.

    PubMed

    Malomed, Boris A; Stepanyants, Yury A

    2010-03-01

    Two different methods are proposed for the generation of wide classes of exact solutions to the stationary Gross-Pitaevskii equation (GPE). The first method, suggested by the work of Kondrat'ev and Miller [Izv. Vyssh. Uchebn. Zaved., Radiofiz IX, 910 (1966)], applies to one-dimensional (1D) GPE. It is based on the similarity between the GPE and the integrable Gardner equation, all solutions of the latter equation (both stationary and nonstationary ones) generating exact solutions to the GPE. The second method is based on the "inverse problem" for the GPE, i.e., construction of a potential function which provides a desirable solution to the equation. Systematic results are presented for one- and two-dimensional cases. Both methods are illustrated by a variety of localized solutions, including solitary vortices, for both attractive and repulsive nonlinearity in the GPE. The stability of the 1D solutions is tested by direct simulations of the time-dependent GPE.

  2. Numerical method for the stochastic projected Gross-Pitaevskii equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rooney, S. J.; Blakie, P. B.; Bradley, A. S.

    2014-01-01

    We present a method for solving the stochastic projected Gross-Pitaevskii equation (SPGPE) for a three-dimensional weakly interacting Bose gas in a harmonic-oscillator trapping potential. The SPGPE contains the challenge of both accurately evolving all modes in the low-energy classical region of the system, and evaluating terms from the number-conserving scattering reservoir process. We give an accurate and efficient procedure for evaluating the scattering terms using a Hermite-polynomial based spectral-Galerkin representation, which allows us to precisely implement the low-energy mode restriction. Stochastic integration is performed using the weak semi-implicit Euler method. We extensively characterize the accuracy of our method, finding a faster-than-expected rate of stochastic convergence. Physical consistency of the algorithm is demonstrated by considering thermalization of initially random states.

  3. Gross national happiness as a framework for health impact assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Pennock, Michael; Ura, Karma

    2011-01-15

    The incorporation of population health concepts and health determinants into Health Impact Assessments has created a number of challenges. The need for intersectoral collaboration has increased; the meaning of 'health' has become less clear; and the distinctions between health impacts, environmental impacts, social impacts and economic impacts have become increasingly blurred. The Bhutanese concept of Gross National Happiness may address these issues by providing an over-arching evidence-based framework which incorporates health, social, environmental and economic contributors as well as a number of other key contributors to wellbeing such as culture and governance. It has the potential to foster intersectoral collaboration by incorporating a more limited definition of health which places the health sector as one of a number of contributors to wellbeing. It also allows for the examination of the opportunity costs of health investments on wellbeing, is consistent with whole-of-government approaches to public policy and emerging models of social progress.

  4. Smoking in Top-Grossing US Movies, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Iaccopucci, Anne; Titus, Kori; Polansky, Jonathan R.

    2012-01-01

    We reviewed the number of incidents of tobacco use (almost exclusively smoking) depicted in movies in the United States in 2011 to compare that with previously reported trends. We counted use or implied use of a tobacco product by an actor in all movies whose box office gross ranked in the top 10 for at least 1 week. Total tobacco incidents per movie rose 7% from 2010 to 2011, ending 5 years of decline; incidents rose 34% per movie rated G, PG, or PG-13 and 7% per R-rated movie. The reversal of progress toward less onscreen smoking in youth-rated movies underscores the need to rate movies with tobacco imagery as R, establishing an industry-wide market incentive to keep youth-marketed movies tobacco-free. PMID:23017248

  5. Beta-carotene

    MedlinePlus

    ... cigarettes per day), former smokers, people exposed to asbestos, and those who use alcohol (one or more ... beta-carotene supplements if you smoke. History of asbestos exposure: In people who have been exposed to ...

  6. Beta experiment flight report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    A focused laser Doppler velocimeter system was developed for the measurement of atmospheric backscatter (beta) from aerosols at infrared wavelengths. The system was flight tested at several different locations and the results of these tests are summarized.

  7. Nondestructive testing using air-borne ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Hsu, David K

    2006-12-22

    Over the last two decades, more efficient transducers were developed for the generation and reception of air-borne ultrasound, thus enabling the non-contact, non-contaminating inspection of composite laminates and honeycomb structures widely used in the aerospace industry. This paper presents the fundamentals of making air-borne ultrasonic measurement, and point out special considerations unique to propagating ultrasound in air and through solids. Transducer beam profile characterization, thickness dependence and resonance effects in the transmission of air-coupled ultrasound through plates, and the detection and imaging of defects and damage in solid laminates and honeycomb sandwich will be discussed and illustrated with examples. Finally, a manual scan system developed for implementing air-borne ultrasonic imaging in the field and on aircraft will be introduced.

  8. Airborne Microalgae: Insights, Opportunities, and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Skjøth, Carsten Ambelas; Šantl-Temkiv, Tina; Löndahl, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    Airborne dispersal of microalgae has largely been a blind spot in environmental biological studies because of their low concentration in the atmosphere and the technical limitations in investigating microalgae from air samples. Recent studies show that airborne microalgae can survive air transportation and interact with the environment, possibly influencing their deposition rates. This minireview presents a summary of these studies and traces the possible route, step by step, from established ecosystems to new habitats through air transportation over a variety of geographic scales. Emission, transportation, deposition, and adaptation to atmospheric stress are discussed, as well as the consequences of their dispersal on health and the environment and state-of-the-art techniques to detect and model airborne microalga dispersal. More-detailed studies on the microalga atmospheric cycle, including, for instance, ice nucleation activity and transport simulations, are crucial for improving our understanding of microalga ecology, identifying microalga interactions with the environment, and preventing unwanted contamination events or invasions. PMID:26801574

  9. Airborne space laser communication system and experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiao-Ming; Zhang, Li-zhong; Meng, Li-Xin

    2015-11-01

    Airborne space laser communication is characterized by its high speed, anti-electromagnetic interference, security, easy to assign. It has broad application in the areas of integrated space-ground communication networking, military communication, anti-electromagnetic communication. This paper introduce the component and APT system of the airborne laser communication system design by Changchun university of science and technology base on characteristic of airborne laser communication and Y12 plan, especially introduce the high communication speed and long distance communication experiment of the system that among two Y12 plans. In the experiment got the aim that the max communication distance 144Km, error 10-6 2.5Gbps - 10-7 1.5Gbps capture probability 97%, average capture time 20s. The experiment proving the adaptability of the APT and the high speed long distance communication.

  10. Genetics Home Reference: beta-ureidopropionase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... down N-carbamyl-beta-alanine to beta-alanine, ammonia, and carbon dioxide. Both beta-aminoisobutyric acid and ... beta-ureidopropionase deficiency Merck Manual Professional Version: Pyrimidine Metabolism Disorders Orphanet: Beta-ureidopropionase deficiency Patient Support and ...

  11. The beta cell immunopeptidome.

    PubMed

    Dudek, Nadine L; Purcell, Anthony W

    2014-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes results from the autoimmune-mediated destruction of insulin-secreting beta cells, leading to beta cell loss and insulin deficiency. Presentation of peptides derived from beta cell proteins to autoreactive lymphocytes is critical for the development of disease, and the list of antigens recognized is increasing. A number of these proteins are found within the beta cell secretory granules, which are transiently exposed to the immune system during normal cellular function. How the interplay of environmental and genetic determinants culminates in destructive autoimmunity remains to be clearly defined. Nonconventional presentation of peptide ligands, posttranslational modification of peptides, and the role of the gut microbiome in the development of the immune system are all considered central topics in disease pathogenesis. Each of these may provide a mechanism by which presentation of antigenic peptides in the target tissue differs from presentation in the thymus, allowing autoreactive cells to escape tolerance induction. The high metabolic demand on pancreatic islets, the high concentration of granule proteins, and the susceptibility of islets to cellular stress may all contribute to the presentation of abnormal ligands in the pancreas. Moreover, the finding that small molecules can alter the repertoire of peptides presented by major histocompatibility complex molecules provides a tantalizing hypothesis for the presentation of autoantigenic peptides in the presence of microbial or endogenous metabolites. In this chapter, we provide an overview of the immunopeptidome of beta cells and the key factors that may influence presentation of beta cell antigens to the immune system.

  12. Beta cell dynamics: beta cell replenishment, beta cell compensation and diabetes.

    PubMed

    Cerf, Marlon E

    2013-10-01

    Type 2 diabetes, characterized by persistent hyperglycemia, arises mostly from beta cell dysfunction and insulin resistance and remains a highly complex metabolic disease due to various stages in its pathogenesis. Glucose homeostasis is primarily regulated by insulin secretion from the beta cells in response to prevailing glycemia. Beta cell populations are dynamic as they respond to fluctuating insulin demand. Beta cell replenishment and death primarily regulate beta cell populations. Beta cells, pancreatic cells, and extra-pancreatic cells represent the three tiers for replenishing beta cells. In rodents, beta cell self-replenishment appears to be the dominant source for new beta cells supported by pancreatic cells (non-beta islet cells, acinar cells, and duct cells) and extra-pancreatic cells (liver, neural, and stem/progenitor cells). In humans, beta cell neogenesis from non-beta cells appears to be the dominant source of beta cell replenishment as limited beta cell self-replenishment occurs particularly in adulthood. Metabolic states of increased insulin demand trigger increased insulin synthesis and secretion from beta cells. Beta cells, therefore, adapt to support their physiology. Maintaining physiological beta cell populations is a strategy for targeting metabolic states of persistently increased insulin demand as in diabetes.

  13. Assessing inhalation exposure from airborne soil contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Shinn, J.H.

    1998-04-01

    A method of estimation of inhalation exposure to airborne soil contaminants is presented. this method is derived from studies of airborne soil particles with radioactive tags. The concentration of contaminants in air (g/m{sup 3}) can be derived from the product of M, the suspended respirable dust mass concentration (g/m{sup 3}), S, the concentration of contaminant in the soil (g/g), and E{sub f}, an enhancement factor. Typical measurement methods and values of M, and E{sub f} are given along with highlights of experiences with this method.

  14. Airborne Turbulence Detection System Certification Tool Set

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, David W.; Proctor, Fred H.

    2006-01-01

    A methodology and a corresponding set of simulation tools for testing and evaluating turbulence detection sensors has been presented. The tool set is available to industry and the FAA for certification of radar based airborne turbulence detection systems. The tool set consists of simulated data sets representing convectively induced turbulence, an airborne radar simulation system, hazard tables to convert the radar observable to an aircraft load, documentation, a hazard metric "truth" algorithm, and criteria for scoring the predictions. Analysis indicates that flight test data supports spatial buffers for scoring detections. Also, flight data and demonstrations with the tool set suggest the need for a magnitude buffer.

  15. Monitoring airborne alpha-emitter contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, P.L.; Koster, J.E.; Conaway, J.G.; Bounds, J.A.; Whitley, C.W.; Steadman, P.A.

    1998-02-01

    Facilities that may produce airborne alpha emitter contamination require a continuous air monitoring (CAM) system. However, these traditional CAMs have difficulty in environments with large quantities of non-radioactive particulates such as dust and salt. Los Alamos has developed an airborne plutonium sensor (APS) for the REBOUND experiment at the Nevada Test Site which detects alpha contamination directly in the air, and so is less vulnerable to the problems associated with counting activity on a filter. In addition, radon compensation is built into the detector by the use of two measurement chambers.

  16. National center for airborne laser mapping proposed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, Bill; Shrestha, Ramesh L.; Dietrich, Bill

    Researchers from universities, U.S. government agencies, U.S. national laboratories, and private industry met in the spring to learn about the current capabilities of Airborne Laser Swath Mapping (ALSM), share their experiences in using the technology for a wide variety of research applications, outline research that would be made possible by research-grade ALSM data, and discuss the proposed operation and management of the brand new National Center for Airborne Laser Mapping (NCALM).The workshop successfully identified a community of researchers with common interests in the advancement and use of ALSM—a community which strongly supports the immediate establishment of the NCALM.

  17. 14 CFR 135.175 - Airborne weather radar equipment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Airborne weather radar equipment... Aircraft and Equipment § 135.175 Airborne weather radar equipment requirements. (a) No person may operate a large, transport category aircraft in passenger-carrying operations unless approved airborne...

  18. 14 CFR 121.357 - Airborne weather radar equipment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Airborne weather radar equipment... § 121.357 Airborne weather radar equipment requirements. (a) No person may operate any transport... December 31, 1964, unless approved airborne weather radar equipment has been installed in the airplane....

  19. 14 CFR 135.175 - Airborne weather radar equipment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airborne weather radar equipment... Aircraft and Equipment § 135.175 Airborne weather radar equipment requirements. (a) No person may operate a large, transport category aircraft in passenger-carrying operations unless approved airborne...

  20. 14 CFR 125.223 - Airborne weather radar equipment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Airborne weather radar equipment... Equipment Requirements § 125.223 Airborne weather radar equipment requirements. (a) No person may operate an airplane governed by this part in passenger-carrying operations unless approved airborne weather...

  1. 14 CFR 135.175 - Airborne weather radar equipment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Airborne weather radar equipment... Aircraft and Equipment § 135.175 Airborne weather radar equipment requirements. (a) No person may operate a large, transport category aircraft in passenger-carrying operations unless approved airborne...

  2. 14 CFR 121.357 - Airborne weather radar equipment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Airborne weather radar equipment... § 121.357 Airborne weather radar equipment requirements. (a) No person may operate any transport... December 31, 1964, unless approved airborne weather radar equipment has been installed in the airplane....

  3. 14 CFR 135.175 - Airborne weather radar equipment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Airborne weather radar equipment... Aircraft and Equipment § 135.175 Airborne weather radar equipment requirements. (a) No person may operate a large, transport category aircraft in passenger-carrying operations unless approved airborne...

  4. 14 CFR 135.175 - Airborne weather radar equipment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Airborne weather radar equipment... Aircraft and Equipment § 135.175 Airborne weather radar equipment requirements. (a) No person may operate a large, transport category aircraft in passenger-carrying operations unless approved airborne...

  5. 14 CFR 121.357 - Airborne weather radar equipment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Airborne weather radar equipment... § 121.357 Airborne weather radar equipment requirements. (a) No person may operate any transport... December 31, 1964, unless approved airborne weather radar equipment has been installed in the airplane....

  6. 14 CFR 125.223 - Airborne weather radar equipment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Airborne weather radar equipment... Equipment Requirements § 125.223 Airborne weather radar equipment requirements. (a) No person may operate an airplane governed by this part in passenger-carrying operations unless approved airborne weather...

  7. 14 CFR 125.223 - Airborne weather radar equipment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Airborne weather radar equipment... Equipment Requirements § 125.223 Airborne weather radar equipment requirements. (a) No person may operate an airplane governed by this part in passenger-carrying operations unless approved airborne weather...

  8. 14 CFR 121.357 - Airborne weather radar equipment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Airborne weather radar equipment... § 121.357 Airborne weather radar equipment requirements. (a) No person may operate any transport... December 31, 1964, unless approved airborne weather radar equipment has been installed in the airplane....

  9. 14 CFR 125.223 - Airborne weather radar equipment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Airborne weather radar equipment... Equipment Requirements § 125.223 Airborne weather radar equipment requirements. (a) No person may operate an airplane governed by this part in passenger-carrying operations unless approved airborne weather...

  10. 14 CFR 125.223 - Airborne weather radar equipment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airborne weather radar equipment... Equipment Requirements § 125.223 Airborne weather radar equipment requirements. (a) No person may operate an airplane governed by this part in passenger-carrying operations unless approved airborne weather...

  11. 14 CFR 121.357 - Airborne weather radar equipment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airborne weather radar equipment... § 121.357 Airborne weather radar equipment requirements. (a) No person may operate any transport... December 31, 1964, unless approved airborne weather radar equipment has been installed in the airplane....

  12. 76 FR 76333 - Notification for Airborne Wind Energy Systems (AWES)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-07

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 77 Notification for Airborne Wind Energy Systems (AWES) AGENCY...,'' to airborne wind energy systems (AWES). In addition, this notice requests information from airborne wind energy system developers and the public related to these systems so that the FAA...

  13. Effect of physical therapy frequency on gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    Park, Eun-Young

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study attempted to investigate the effect of physical therapy frequency based on neurodevelopmental therapy on gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy. [Subjects and Methods] The study sample included 161 children with cerebral palsy who attended a convalescent or rehabilitation center for disabled individuals or a special school for children with physical disabilities in South Korea. Gross Motor Function Measure data were collected according to physical therapy frequency based on neurodevelopmental therapy for a period of 1 year. [Results] The correlation between physical therapy frequency and Gross Motor Function Measure scores for crawling and kneeling, standing, walking, running and jumping, and rolling, and the Gross Motor Function Measure total score was significant. The differences in gross motor function according to physical therapy frequency were significant for crawling, kneeling, standing, and Gross Motor Function Measure total score. The differences in gross motor function according to frequency of physical therapy were significant for standing in Gross Motor Function Classification System Level V. [Conclusion] Intensive physical therapy was more effective for improving gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy. In particular, crawling and kneeling, and standing ability showed greater increases with intensive physical therapy. PMID:27390440

  14. Effect of physical therapy frequency on gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Park, Eun-Young

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] This study attempted to investigate the effect of physical therapy frequency based on neurodevelopmental therapy on gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy. [Subjects and Methods] The study sample included 161 children with cerebral palsy who attended a convalescent or rehabilitation center for disabled individuals or a special school for children with physical disabilities in South Korea. Gross Motor Function Measure data were collected according to physical therapy frequency based on neurodevelopmental therapy for a period of 1 year. [Results] The correlation between physical therapy frequency and Gross Motor Function Measure scores for crawling and kneeling, standing, walking, running and jumping, and rolling, and the Gross Motor Function Measure total score was significant. The differences in gross motor function according to physical therapy frequency were significant for crawling, kneeling, standing, and Gross Motor Function Measure total score. The differences in gross motor function according to frequency of physical therapy were significant for standing in Gross Motor Function Classification System Level V. [Conclusion] Intensive physical therapy was more effective for improving gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy. In particular, crawling and kneeling, and standing ability showed greater increases with intensive physical therapy.

  15. Airborne and Grain Dust Fungal Community Compositions Are Shaped Regionally by Plant Genotypes and Farming Practices

    PubMed Central

    Pellissier, Loïc; Oppliger, Anne; Hirzel, Alexandre H.; Savova-Bianchi, Dessislava; Mbayo, Guilain; Mascher, Fabio; Kellenberger, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Chronic exposure to airborne fungi has been associated with different respiratory symptoms and pathologies in occupational populations, such as grain workers. However, the homogeneity in the fungal species composition of these bioaerosols on a large geographical scale and the different drivers that shape these fungal communities remain unclear. In this study, the diversity of fungi in grain dust and in the aerosols released during harvesting was determined across 96 sites at a geographical scale of 560 km2 along an elevation gradient of 500 m by tag-encoded 454 pyrosequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences. Associations between the structure of fungal communities in the grain dust and different abiotic (farming system, soil characteristics, and geographic and climatic parameters) and biotic (wheat cultivar and previous crop culture) factors were explored. These analyses revealed a strong relationship between the airborne and grain dust fungal communities and showed the presence of allergenic and mycotoxigenic species in most samples, which highlights the potential contribution of these fungal species to work-related respiratory symptoms of grain workers. The farming system was the major driver of the alpha and beta phylogenetic diversity values of fungal communities. In addition, elevation and soil CaCO3 concentrations shaped the alpha diversity, whereas wheat cultivar, cropping history, and the number of freezing days per year shaped the taxonomic beta diversity of these communities. PMID:26826229

  16. Gross Cystic Disease Fluid Protein-15/Prolactin-Inducible Protein as a Biomarker for Keratoconus Disease

    PubMed Central

    Priyadarsini, Shrestha; Hjortdal, Jesper; Sarker-Nag, Akhee; Sejersen, Henrik; Asara, John M.; Karamichos, Dimitrios

    2014-01-01

    Keratoconus (KC) is a bilateral degenerative disease of the cornea characterized by corneal bulging, stromal thinning, and scarring. The etiology of the disease is unknown. In this study, we identified a new biomarker for KC that is present in vivo and in vitro. In vivo, tear samples were collected from age-matched controls with no eye disease (n = 36) and KC diagnosed subjects (n = 17). Samples were processed for proteomics using LC-MS/MS. In vitro, cells were isolated from controls (Human Corneal Fibroblasts-HCF) and KC subjects (Human Keratoconus Cells-HKC) and stimulated with a Vitamin C (VitC) derivative for 4 weeks, and with one of the three transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) isoforms. Samples were analyzed using real-time PCR and Western Blots. By using proteomics analysis, the Gross cystic disease fluid protein-15 (GCDFP-15) or prolactin-inducible protein (PIP) was found to be the best independent biomarker able to discriminate between KC and controls. The intensity of GCDFP-15/PIP was significantly higher in healthy subjects compared to KC-diagnosed. Similar findings were seen in vitro, using a 3D culture model. All three TGF-β isoforms significantly down-regulated the expression of GCDFP-15/PIP. Zinc-alpha-2-glycoprotein (AZGP1), a protein that binds to PIP, was identified by proteomics and cell culture to be highly regulated. In this study by different complementary techniques we confirmed the potential role of GCDFP-15/PIP as a novel biomarker for KC disease. It is likely that exploring the GCDFP-15/PIP-AZGP1 interactions will help better understand the mechanism of KC disease. PMID:25405607

  17. Instability of a current-carrying finite-beta collisional plasma.

    PubMed

    Choueiri, E Y

    2001-12-01

    The microinstability of a cross-field current-carrying plasma in which the electron collisions are important on the time scale of the oscillations and can be modeled with a Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook operator is studied using linearized kinetic theory under conditions of finite electron beta. The finiteness of beta allows for coupling between electrostatic and electromagnetic modes and necessitates dealing with the entire dispersion tensor. Fundamental features of the resulting instability are identified and contrasted with those found in previous studies of the lower hybrid current-driven instability in which either collisions or finite-beta effects were neglected. As beta increases, collisions play a more important role in destabilization, alter the character and extent of electromagnetic coupling, shift the instability to more perpendicular modes, and lead to a recapturing of some of the fluidlike properties the modes have in the electrostatic limit in contrast with their highly kinetic character in the collisionless limit.

  18. Assessment outcomes: computerized instruction in a human gross anatomy course.

    PubMed

    Bukowski, Elaine L

    2002-01-01

    New and traditional educational media were used to study alternative methods of instruction in a human gross anatomy course. Three consecutive entry-level physical therapy (PT) classes (55 students total) participated in this study. No other anatomy course was available to these students during this time. During the first year, all entering PT students (n = 18) completed a traditional cadaver anatomy course. This traditional group attended weekly lectures and dissection laboratories for 15 weeks. During the second year, the next entering class of PT students (n = 17) completed a self-study, computerized noncadaver anatomy course. This self-study group attended an introductory session to receive course objectives and instruction in using the computer package chosen for the study. After the introductory session, this group worked independently for the remainder of their 15-week course. During the third year, the entering class of PT students (n = 20) attended weekly lectures and completed a self-study, computerized non-cadaver laboratory course. This lecture and self-study group attended an introductory session to review course objectives and receive instruction in using the computer package. For the remainder of their 15-week course, this group attended a weekly lecture and worked independently on the computer for the laboratory portion of their course. All groups kept time logs, recording class and study time for each day of the course. The time logs were collected on the last day of each course. Each group's performance in anatomy-based system courses was followed through the remainder of the PT curricula, including clinical rotations, and through the completion of the state board licensure examination. Data were analyzed using a multivariate analysis of variance and a Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance. There was no significant difference in anatomy course class means, class study times, performance throughout the remainder of the PT curricula, and performance

  19. CALIOPE airborne CO{sub 2} DIAL (CACDI) system design

    SciTech Connect

    Mietz, D.; Archuleta, B.; Archuleta, J.

    1997-09-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory is currently developing an airborne CO{sub 2} Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) system based on second generation technology demonstrated last summer at NTS. The CALIOPE Airborne CO{sub 2} DIAL (CACDI) system requirements have been compiled based on the mission objectives and SONDIAL model trade studies. Subsystem designs have been developed based on flow down from these system requirements, as well as experience gained from second generation ground tests and N-ABLE (Non-proliferation AirBorne Lidar Experiments) airborne experiments. This paper presents the CACDI mission objectives, system requirements, the current subsystem design, and provides an overview of the airborne experimental plan.

  20. Infrared airborne spectroradiometer survey results in the western Nevada area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, W.; Chang, S. H.; Kuo, J. T.

    1982-01-01

    The Mark II airborne spectroradiometer system was flown over several geologic test sites in western Nevada. The infrared mineral absorption bands were observed and recorded for the first time using an airborne system with high spectral resolution in the 2.0 to 2.5 micron region. The data show that the hydrothermal alteration zone minerals, carbonates, and other minerals are clearly visible in the airborne survey mode. The finer spectral features that distinguish the various minerals with infrared bands are also clearly visible in the airborne survey data. Using specialized computer pattern recognition methods, it is possible to identify mineralogy and map alteration zones and lithologies by airborne spectroradiometer survey techniques.

  1. Boosted Beta Regression

    PubMed Central

    Schmid, Matthias; Wickler, Florian; Maloney, Kelly O.; Mitchell, Richard; Fenske, Nora; Mayr, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Regression analysis with a bounded outcome is a common problem in applied statistics. Typical examples include regression models for percentage outcomes and the analysis of ratings that are measured on a bounded scale. In this paper, we consider beta regression, which is a generalization of logit models to situations where the response is continuous on the interval (0,1). Consequently, beta regression is a convenient tool for analyzing percentage responses. The classical approach to fit a beta regression model is to use maximum likelihood estimation with subsequent AIC-based variable selection. As an alternative to this established - yet unstable - approach, we propose a new estimation technique called boosted beta regression. With boosted beta regression estimation and variable selection can be carried out simultaneously in a highly efficient way. Additionally, both the mean and the variance of a percentage response can be modeled using flexible nonlinear covariate effects. As a consequence, the new method accounts for common problems such as overdispersion and non-binomial variance structures. PMID:23626706

  2. Data Analysis of Airborne Electromagnetic Bathymetry.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-04-01

    ploration Method. CIMM Bulletin, May, pp. 1-12. terpretation of Airborne Electromagnetic Data. Turnross, J., H. F. Morrison, and A. Becker (1984...System. CIMM Bulletin, v. 66, pp. 104-109. Fraser. D. C. (1978). Resistivity Mapping with an Air- report, Office of Naval Research, Washington, DC

  3. Tandem mass spectrometry of individual airborne microparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Reilly, P.T.A.; Gieray, R.A.; Yang, M.; Whitten, W.B.; Ramsey, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    An apparatus for real-time MS/MS analysis of individual airborne microparticles by laser ablation in an ion trap is described. The performance has been demonstrated by the detection of tributyl phosphate and bis(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate on silicon carbide and kaolin microparticles. 28 refs., 5 figs.

  4. Airborne Satcom Terminal Research at NASA Glenn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoder, Doug; Zakrajsek, Robert

    2002-01-01

    NASA Glenn has constructed an airborne Ku-band satellite terminal, which provides wideband full-duplex ground-aircraft communications. The terminal makes use of novel electronically-steered phased array antennas and provides IP connectivity to and from the ground. The satcom terminal communications equipment may be easily changed whenever a new configuration is required, enhancing the terminal's versatility.

  5. Temporal variability in airborne pollen concentrations.

    PubMed

    Raynor, G S; Hayes, J V; Ogden, E C

    1976-06-01

    Tests were conducted to determine the relationship between concentrations of airborne pollens and sampling time, using sequential rotoslide samplers at urban and rural locations. Short-period data showed an increase in variability with time between samples. Two-hour data showed a stronger trend for the first 12 hours but better agreement as the time between samples approached one day.

  6. A Technique for Airborne Aerobiological Sampling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mill, R. A.; And Others

    1972-01-01

    Report of a study of airborne micro-organisms collected over the Oklahoma City Metropolitan area and immediate environments, to investigate the possibility that a cloud of such organisms might account for the prevalence of some respiratory diseases in and around urban areas. (LK)

  7. Airborne Forcible Entry Operations: USAF Airlift Requirements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-06-03

    34Urgent Fury." U.S. military forces would land in Grenada at 5:00 A.M. on 25 October 1983. 35 Admiral Wesley MacDonald, C~ munder -in-CMief, Atlantic...The airdrop of the 82nd Airborne Division troopers at Torri- jos/Tocwmen Airport, although successful, encountered sae problems. Bad weather in the U.S

  8. Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer and Airborne Emission Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glavich, T.; Beer, R.

    1996-01-01

    The Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) is an instrument being developed for the NASA Earth Observing System Chemistry Platform. TES will measure the distribution of ozone and its precursors in the lower atmosphere. The Airborne Emission Spectrometer (AES) is an aircraft precursor to TES. Applicable descriptions are given of instrument design, technology challenges, implementation and operations for both.

  9. AN AIRBORNE COLLISION-WARNING DEVICE,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    A simplified airborne collision- warning device is suggested in which each aircraft transmits its barometric altitude by radio. The likelihood of...signals into ’near’ and ’far’ categories would have to be determined by flight tests, it is felt that the low cost and early availability of the system justifies its consideration. (Author)

  10. Mapping Waterhyacinth Infestations Using Airborne Hyperspectral Imagery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Waterhyacinth [Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms] is an exotic aquatic weed that often invades and clogs waterways in many tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The objective of this study was to evaluate airborne hyperspectral imagery and different image classification techniques for mapp...

  11. The Beginnings of Airborne Astronomy, 1920 - 1930: an Historical Narrative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craine, E. R.

    1984-01-01

    The emergence of airborne astronomy in the early twentieth century is recounted. The aerial expedition to observe the solar eclipse on September 10, 1923, is described. Observation of the total solar eclipse of January 24, 1925, is discussed. The Honey Lake aerial expedition to study the solar eclipse of April 28, 1930, is also described. Four major accomplishments in airborne astronomy during the period 1920 to 1930 are listed. Airborne expeditions were undertaken at every logical opportunity, starting a continuous sequence of airborne astronomical expeditions which was to remain unbroken, except by World War II, to the present day. Although the scientific returns of the first ten years were modest, they did exist. Interest in, and support for, airborne astronomy was generated not only among astronomers but also among the public. Albert Stevens, arguably the true father of airborne astronomy, was to become interested in applying his considerable skill and experience to the airborne acquisition of astronomical data.

  12. Airborne laser sensors and integrated systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabatini, Roberto; Richardson, Mark A.; Gardi, Alessandro; Ramasamy, Subramanian

    2015-11-01

    The underlying principles and technologies enabling the design and operation of airborne laser sensors are introduced and a detailed review of state-of-the-art avionic systems for civil and military applications is presented. Airborne lasers including Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR), Laser Range Finders (LRF), and Laser Weapon Systems (LWS) are extensively used today and new promising technologies are being explored. Most laser systems are active devices that operate in a manner very similar to microwave radars but at much higher frequencies (e.g., LIDAR and LRF). Other devices (e.g., laser target designators and beam-riders) are used to precisely direct Laser Guided Weapons (LGW) against ground targets. The integration of both functions is often encountered in modern military avionics navigation-attack systems. The beneficial effects of airborne lasers including the use of smaller components and remarkable angular resolution have resulted in a host of manned and unmanned aircraft applications. On the other hand, laser sensors performance are much more sensitive to the vagaries of the atmosphere and are thus generally restricted to shorter ranges than microwave systems. Hence it is of paramount importance to analyse the performance of laser sensors and systems in various weather and environmental conditions. Additionally, it is important to define airborne laser safety criteria, since several systems currently in service operate in the near infrared with considerable risk for the naked human eye. Therefore, appropriate methods for predicting and evaluating the performance of infrared laser sensors/systems are presented, taking into account laser safety issues. For aircraft experimental activities with laser systems, it is essential to define test requirements taking into account the specific conditions for operational employment of the systems in the intended scenarios and to verify the performance in realistic environments at the test ranges. To support the

  13. Effect of endurance training on gross energy expenditure during exercise.

    PubMed

    Gardner, A W; Poehlman, E T; Corrigan, D L

    1989-08-01

    We compared the effect of endurance exercise training on gross energy expenditure (GEE) during steady-state exercise in 20 younger men (31.2 +/- 0.6 years) and 20 middle-aged men (49.2 +/- 1.1 years). The subjects trained for eight months. The training program consisted of three 45-min walking and jogging exercise sessions per week at an intensity of approximately 60-85% of the heart rate at peak VO2. We administered bicycle ergometer tests at 0, 4, and 8 months into training. Participants exercised at a power output of 100 W for 10 min using a pedaling frequency of 50 rpm. We determined GEE (kcal/min) by measuring the oxygen consumption and respiratory exchange ratio. We found a significant reduction (p less than 0.05) in GEE (0.7-1.3 kcal/min) following 4 months of endurance training in both age groups, with a further reduction (p less than 0.05) noted in only the middle-aged group at month 8. We found no difference (p greater than 0.05) in GEE between the younger and middle-aged men. We conclude that chronic exercise may modify GEE during a submaximal exercise bout and that this adaptation is similar in magnitude in younger and middle-aged men.

  14. Estimation of gross primary production capacity from global satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muramatsu, Kanako; Thanyapraneedkul, Juthasinee; Furumi, Shinobu; Soyama, Noriko; Daigo, Motomasa

    2012-10-01

    To estimate gross primary production (GPP), the process of photosynthesis was considered as two separate phases: capacity and reduction. The reduction phase is influenced by environmental conditions such as soil moisture and weather conditions such as vapor pressure differences. For a particular leaf, photosynthetic capacity mainly depends on the amount of chlorophyll and the RuBisCO enzyme. The chlorophyll content can be estimated by the color of the leaf, and leaf color can be detected by optical sensors. We used the chlorophyll content of leaves to estimate the level of GPP. A previously developed framework for GPP capacity estimation employs a chlorophyll index. The index is based on the linear relationship between the chlorophyll content of a leaf and the maximum photosynthesis at PAR =2000 (μmolm -2s-1) on a light-response curve under low stress conditions. As a first step, this study examined the global distribution of the index and found that regions with high chlorophyll index values in winter corresponded to tropical rainforest areas. The seasonal changes in the chlorophyll index differed from those shown by the normalized difference vegetation index. Next, the capacity of GPP was estimated from the light-response curve using the index. Most regions exhibited a higher GPP capacity than that estimated from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) observations, except in areas of tropical rainforest, where the GPP capacity and the MODIS GPP estimates were almost identical.

  15. Nonequilibrium Gross-Pitaevskii dynamics of boson lattice models

    SciTech Connect

    Polkovnikov, Anatoli; Sachdev, Subir; Girvin, S.M.

    2002-11-01

    Motivated by recent experiments on trapped ultracold bosonic atoms in an optical lattice potential, we consider the nonequilibrium dynamic properties of such bosonic systems for a number of experimentally relevant situations. When the number of bosons per lattice site is large, there is a wide parameter regime where the effective boson interactions are strong, but the ground state remains a superfluid (and not a Mott insulator): we describe the conditions under which the dynamics in this regime can be described by a discrete Gross-Pitaevskii equation. We describe the evolution of the phase coherence after the system is initially prepared in a Mott insulating state, and then allowed to evolve after a sudden change in parameters places it in a regime with a superfluid ground state. We also consider initial conditions with a '{pi} phase' imprint on a superfluid ground state (i.e., the initial phases of neighboring wells differ by {pi}), and discuss the subsequent appearance of the density wave order and 'Schroedinger cat', i.e., macroscopic quantum interference, states.

  16. Stratospheric sulfate geoengineering enhances terrestrial gross primary productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, L.; Robock, A.; Tilmes, S.; Neely, R. R., III

    2015-09-01

    Stratospheric sulfate geoengineering could impact the terrestrial carbon cycle by enhancing the carbon sink. With an 8 Tg yr-1 injection of SO2 to balance a Representative Concentration Pathway 6.0 (RCP6.0) scenario, we conducted climate model simulations with the Community Earth System Model, with the Community Atmospheric Model 4 fully coupled to tropospheric and stratospheric chemistry (CAM4-chem). During the geoengineering period, as compared to RCP6.0, land-averaged downward visible diffuse radiation increased 3.2 W m-2 (11 %). The enhanced diffuse radiation combined with the cooling increased plant photosynthesis by 2.4 %, which could contribute to an additional 3.8 ± 1.1 Gt C yr-1 global gross primary productivity without nutrient limitation. This increase could potentially increase the land carbon sink. Suppressed plant and soil respiration due to the cooling would reduce natural land carbon emission and therefore further enhance the terrestrial carbon sink during the geoengineering period. This beneficial impact of stratospheric sulfate geoengineering would need to be balanced by a large number of potential risks in any future decisions about implementation of geoengineering.

  17. World distribution of gross domestic product per-capita

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bustos-Guajardo, R.; Moukarzel, Cristian F.

    2015-05-01

    It is shown that the world distribution of gross domestic products per capita (GDPpc) is well described by a trade-investment model that combines yard-sale (YS) exchange and random multiplicative noise (RMN). We first derive analytically the typical value w(r, t) of the ranked wealths for a system evolving under YS exchange and RMN. The resulting analytical expressions are fitted to data for the GDPpc of up to 200 countries, in the period 1960-2013. Our model fits the data significantly better than previously proposed approaches that consider either Noise or Trade alone. Analysis of the resulting values for the fitting parameters, and of their time dependence, suggests that: (a) International trade conditions have (from 1960 to 2008) a statistical bias towards favoring richer countries. (b) Biased international commerce is the main cause for the observed divergence of GDPpc values from 1960 to 2008. (c) After 2008, the distribution of GDPpc starts to converge, and the world product per capita stops growing.

  18. Health care expenditures and gross domestic product: the Turkish case.

    PubMed

    Sülkü, Seher Nur; Caner, Asena

    2011-02-01

    Our study examines the long-term relationship among per capita gross domestic product (GDP), per capita health expenditures and population growth rate in Turkey during the period 1984-2006, employing the Johansen multivariate co-integration technique. Related previous studies on OECD countries have mostly excluded Turkey-itself an OECD country. The only study on Turkey examines the period 1984-1998. However, after 1998, major events and policy changes that had a substantial impact on income and health expenditures took place in Turkey, including a series of reforms to restructure the health and social security system. In contrast to earlier findings in the literature, we find that the income elasticity of total health expenditures is less than one, which indicates that health care is a necessity in Turkey during the period of analysis. According to our results, a 10% increase in per capita GDP is associated with an 8.7% increase in total per capita health expenditures, controlling for population growth. We find that the income elasticity of public health expenditures is less than one. But, in the case of private health care expenditures, the elasticity is greater than one, meaning that private health care is a luxury good in Turkey.

  19. Large historical growth in global terrestrial gross primary production.

    PubMed

    Campbell, J E; Berry, J A; Seibt, U; Smith, S J; Montzka, S A; Launois, T; Belviso, S; Bopp, L; Laine, M

    2017-04-05

    Growth in terrestrial gross primary production (GPP)-the amount of carbon dioxide that is 'fixed' into organic material through the photosynthesis of land plants-may provide a negative feedback for climate change. It remains uncertain, however, to what extent biogeochemical processes can suppress global GPP growth. As a consequence, modelling estimates of terrestrial carbon storage, and of feedbacks between the carbon cycle and climate, remain poorly constrained. Here we present a global, measurement-based estimate of GPP growth during the twentieth century that is based on long-term atmospheric carbonyl sulfide (COS) records, derived from ice-core, firn and ambient air samples. We interpret these records using a model that simulates changes in COS concentration according to changes in its sources and sinks-including a large sink that is related to GPP. We find that the observation-based COS record is most consistent with simulations of climate and the carbon cycle that assume large GPP growth during the twentieth century (31% ± 5% growth; mean ± 95% confidence interval). Although this COS analysis does not directly constrain models of future GPP growth, it does provide a global-scale benchmark for historical carbon-cycle simulations.

  20. Gross anatomy of the intestine in the giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis).

    PubMed

    Pérez, W; Lima, M; Clauss, M

    2009-11-01

    We describe the macroscopic anatomy of the intestine of the giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis). The small intestine was divided into duodenum, jejunum and ileum as usual. The caecum was attached to the ileum by a long ileocaecal fold, and to the proximal ansa of the ascending colon by a caecocolic fold. The ascending colon was the most developed portion of the gross intestine and had the most complex arrangement with three ansae: the proximal ansa, the spiral ansa and the distal ansa. The proximal ansa completely encircled the caecum, describing a 360 degrees gyrus, and represented the widest portion of the intestine. The spiral ansa was formed by three and a half centripetal gyri, a central flexure and three centrifugal gyri. The last centrifugal gyrus left the spiral and described nine flexures of different form and direction over the left side of the mesentery. The two portions that formed each of these flexures ran parallel to each other. The last part of this gyrus ran parallel to the jejunum. When compared with domestic cattle, giraffe had a comparatively short small intestine and a comparatively long large intestine, with a resulting small ratio of small:large intestine. Reasons are presented why this should be considered a peculiarity of cattle-like ruminants rather than a different representative of a browser-grazer dichotomy in general.

  1. Tracking of gross motor coordination in Portuguese children.

    PubMed

    Henrique, Rafael S; Bustamante, Alcibíades V; Freitas, Duarte L; Tani, Go; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Maia, José A

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the tracking of gross motor coordination (GMC) and to profile children at 6 years of age who consistently showed higher stability patterns in different levels of GMC. The participants were 245 children (123 boys and 122 girls) who were assessed longitudinally from 6 to 9 years of age. GMC was assessed using the Korperkoordinationtest fur Kinder (KTK) test battery. Anthropometry, physical activity, and health- and performance-related physical fitness were also measured. Cohen's kappa (κ) was used to estimate tracking. Tracking was poor for all GMC tests (0.17 ≤ κ ≤ 0.38) and moderate for the GMC motor quotient (MQ) in both boys and girls (0.44 ≤ κ ≤ 0.45). Instability at the extremes was low in GMC tests and negligible for MQ. Children who consistently showed high GMC levels during the 4 years of follow-up were lighter, had lower body mass index and subcutaneous fat, and showed higher scores in physical fitness tests at 6 years of age than those who consistently had low GMC levels. In conclusion, GMC showed low-to-moderate tracking over time in childhood. However, children who consistently demonstrated high GMC levels over time had healthier profiles at 6 years of age.

  2. Peer-Assisted Learning in a Gross Anatomy Dissection Course.

    PubMed

    Han, Eui-Ryoung; Chung, Eun-Kyung; Nam, Kwang-Il

    2015-01-01

    Peer-assisted learning encourages students to participate more actively in the dissection process and promotes thoughtful dissection. We implemented peer-assisted dissection in 2012 and compared its effects on students' self-assessments of learning and their academic achievement with those of faculty-led dissection. All subjects performed dissections after a lecture about upper-limb gross anatomy. Experimental group (n = 134) dissected a cadaver while guided by peer tutors who had prepared for the dissection in advance, and control group (n = 71) dissected a cadaver after the introduction by a faculty via prosection. Self-assessment scores regarding the learning objectives related to upper limbs were significantly higher in experimental group than in control group. Additionally, experimental group received significantly higher academic scores than did control group. The students in peer-assisted learning perceived themselves as having a better understanding of course content and achieved better academic results compared with those who participated in faculty-led dissection. Peer-assisted dissection contributed to self-perception and to the ability to retain and explain anatomical knowledge.

  3. IO SUBSYSTEM 1 BETA

    SciTech Connect

    Sjaardema, Greg

    2002-08-21

    "IO Subsystem Ver. 1.0 Beta" uses standard object-oriented principles to minimize dependencies between the underlying input or output database format and the client code (i.e., Sierra) using the io subsystem. The interface and priciples are simolar to the Facade pattern described in the "Design Patterns" book by Gamma, et.al. The software uses data authentication algorithms to ensure data input/output is consistent with model being defined. "IO Subsystem Ver. 1.0 Beta" is a database independent input/output library for finite element analysis, preprocessing, post processing, and translation programs.

  4. 20 CFR 418.2115 - What are the modified adjusted gross income ranges?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ranges? 418.2115 Section 418.2115 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION MEDICARE SUBSIDIES... Income-Related Monthly Adjustment Amount § 418.2115 What are the modified adjusted gross income ranges? (a) We list the modified adjusted gross income ranges for the calendar years 2011 through...

  5. 20 CFR 418.2115 - What are the modified adjusted gross income ranges?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ranges? 418.2115 Section 418.2115 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION MEDICARE SUBSIDIES... Income-Related Monthly Adjustment Amount § 418.2115 What are the modified adjusted gross income ranges? (a) We list the modified adjusted gross income ranges for the calendar years 2011 through...

  6. 20 CFR 418.1115 - What are the modified adjusted gross income ranges?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ranges? 418.1115 Section 418.1115 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION MEDICARE SUBSIDIES... Adjustment Amount § 418.1115 What are the modified adjusted gross income ranges? (a) We list the modified adjusted gross income ranges for the calendar years 2011 through and including 2019 for each Federal...

  7. 20 CFR 418.1115 - What are the modified adjusted gross income ranges?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ranges? 418.1115 Section 418.1115 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION MEDICARE SUBSIDIES... Adjustment Amount § 418.1115 What are the modified adjusted gross income ranges? (a) The 2007 modified adjusted gross income ranges for each Federal tax filing category are listed in paragraphs (b), (c) and...

  8. 20 CFR 418.1115 - What are the modified adjusted gross income ranges?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ranges? 418.1115 Section 418.1115 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION MEDICARE SUBSIDIES... Adjustment Amount § 418.1115 What are the modified adjusted gross income ranges? (a) The 2007 modified adjusted gross income ranges for each Federal tax filing category are listed in paragraphs (b), (c) and...

  9. 20 CFR 418.1115 - What are the modified adjusted gross income ranges?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ranges? 418.1115 Section 418.1115 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION MEDICARE SUBSIDIES... Adjustment Amount § 418.1115 What are the modified adjusted gross income ranges? (a) The 2007 modified adjusted gross income ranges for each Federal tax filing category are listed in paragraphs (b), (c) and...

  10. 20 CFR 418.1115 - What are the modified adjusted gross income ranges?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ranges? 418.1115 Section 418.1115 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION MEDICARE SUBSIDIES... Adjustment Amount § 418.1115 What are the modified adjusted gross income ranges? (a) The 2007 modified adjusted gross income ranges for each Federal tax filing category are listed in paragraphs (b), (c) and...

  11. 20 CFR 418.2115 - What are the modified adjusted gross income ranges?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ranges? 418.2115 Section 418.2115 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION MEDICARE SUBSIDIES... Income-Related Monthly Adjustment Amount § 418.2115 What are the modified adjusted gross income ranges? (a) We list the modified adjusted gross income ranges for the calendar years 2011 through...

  12. 20 CFR 418.2115 - What are the modified adjusted gross income ranges?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ranges? 418.2115 Section 418.2115 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION MEDICARE SUBSIDIES... Income-Related Monthly Adjustment Amount § 418.2115 What are the modified adjusted gross income ranges? (a) We list the modified adjusted gross income ranges for the calendar years 2011 through...

  13. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Test of Gross Motor Development-2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Ka Yee Allison; Cheung, Siu Yin

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the underlying structure of the second edition of the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (Ulrich, 2000) as applied to Chinese children. The Test of Gross Motor Development-2 was administered to 626 Hong Kong Chinese children. The outlier test with standard scoring was utilized. After data screening, a total…

  14. 76 FR 21637 - Safety Zone; Ford Estate Wedding Fireworks, Lake St. Clair, Grosse Pointe Shores, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-18

    ... Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone on Lake St. Clair, Grosse Pointe Shores, MI. This... Fireworks, Lake St. Clair, Grosse Pointe Shores, MI. (a) Location. The safety zone will encompass all U.S... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Ford Estate Wedding Fireworks, Lake...

  15. 75 FR 63380 - Exclusions From Gross Income of Foreign Corporations; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-15

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BF90 Exclusions From Gross Income of Foreign Corporations..., concerning the exclusion from gross income of income derived by certain foreign corporations from the... clarification. List of Subjects in 26 CFR Part 1 Income taxes, Reporting and recordkeeping...

  16. Modeling of the Gross Regional Product on the Basis of Production Functions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadovin, Nikolay S.; Kokotkina, Tatiana N.; Barkalova, Tatiana G.; Tsaregorodsev, Evgeny I.

    2016-01-01

    The article is devoted to elaboration and construction of a static model of macroeconomics in which economics is considered as an unstructured holistic unit, the input of which receives the resources, and the output is the result of the functioning of economics in the form of gross domestic product or gross regional product. Resources are…

  17. 25 CFR 215.21 - Payment of gross production tax on lead and zinc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Payment of gross production tax on lead and zinc. 215.21... ZINC MINING OPERATIONS AND LEASES, QUAPAW AGENCY § 215.21 Payment of gross production tax on lead and zinc. The superintendent of the Quapaw Indian Agency is hereby authorized and directed to pay at...

  18. 25 CFR 215.21 - Payment of gross production tax on lead and zinc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Payment of gross production tax on lead and zinc. 215.21... ZINC MINING OPERATIONS AND LEASES, QUAPAW AGENCY § 215.21 Payment of gross production tax on lead and zinc. The superintendent of the Quapaw Indian Agency is hereby authorized and directed to pay at...

  19. 25 CFR 215.21 - Payment of gross production tax on lead and zinc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Payment of gross production tax on lead and zinc. 215.21... ZINC MINING OPERATIONS AND LEASES, QUAPAW AGENCY § 215.21 Payment of gross production tax on lead and zinc. The superintendent of the Quapaw Indian Agency is hereby authorized and directed to pay at...

  20. 25 CFR 215.21 - Payment of gross production tax on lead and zinc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Payment of gross production tax on lead and zinc. 215.21... ZINC MINING OPERATIONS AND LEASES, QUAPAW AGENCY § 215.21 Payment of gross production tax on lead and zinc. The superintendent of the Quapaw Indian Agency is hereby authorized and directed to pay at...

  1. 25 CFR 215.21 - Payment of gross production tax on lead and zinc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Payment of gross production tax on lead and zinc. 215.21... ZINC MINING OPERATIONS AND LEASES, QUAPAW AGENCY § 215.21 Payment of gross production tax on lead and zinc. The superintendent of the Quapaw Indian Agency is hereby authorized and directed to pay at...

  2. 26 CFR 1.61-3 - Gross income derived from business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gross income derived from business. 1.61-3 Section 1.61-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME... Taxable Income § 1.61-3 Gross income derived from business. (a) In general. In a...

  3. 26 CFR 1.1332-1 - Inclusion in gross income of war loss recoveries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Inclusion in gross income of war loss recoveries... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES War Loss Recoveries § 1.1332-1 Inclusion in gross income of war loss recoveries. (a) Amount of recovery. Except as provided in section 1333(1), the amount of...

  4. Brief Assessment of Motor Function: Content Validity and Reliability of the Upper Extremity Gross Motor Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cintas, Holly Lea; Parks, Rebecca; Don, Sarah; Gerber, Lynn

    2011-01-01

    Content validity and reliability of the Brief Assessment of Motor Function (BAMF) Upper Extremity Gross Motor Scale (UEGMS) were evaluated in this prospective, descriptive study. The UEGMS is one of five BAMF ordinal scales designed for quick documentation of gross, fine, and oral motor skill levels. Designed to be independent of age and…

  5. 46 CFR 130.240 - Anchors and chains for OSVs of 100 or more gross tons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Anchors and chains for OSVs of 100 or more gross tons... SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Miscellaneous Equipment and Systems § 130.240 Anchors and chains for OSVs of 100 or more gross tons. (a) Each OSV of 100 or more...

  6. Are Gross Motor Skills and Sports Participation Related in Children with Intellectual Disabilities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westendorp, Marieke; Houwen, Suzanne; Hartman, Esther; Visscher, Chris

    2011-01-01

    This study compared the specific gross motor skills of 156 children with intellectual disabilities (ID) (50 less than or equal to IQ greater than or equal to 79) with that of 255 typically developing children, aged 7-12 years. Additionally, the relationship between the specific gross motor skills and organized sports participation was examined in…

  7. Comparison of Gross Anatomy Test Scores Using Traditional Specimens vs. Quicktime Virtual Reality Animated Specimens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maza, Paul Sadiri

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, technological advances such as computers have been employed in teaching gross anatomy at all levels of education, even in professional schools such as medical and veterinary medical colleges. Benefits of computer based instructional tools for gross anatomy include the convenience of not having to physically view or dissect a…

  8. Application of the One-Minute Preceptor Technique by Novice Teachers in the Gross Anatomy Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Lap Ki; Yang, Jian; Irby, David M.

    2015-01-01

    The one-minute preceptor (OMP) was originally developed in the ambulatory care setting as a time-efficient teaching technique for learner-centered clinical training. There are also possible advantages of using the OMP in the gross anatomy laboratory. However, in a previous study it was found that providing training to experienced gross anatomy…

  9. A Replication Among School Principals of the Gross Study of Role Conflict Resolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sayan, Donald L.; Charters, W. W., Jr.

    1970-01-01

    This study tested Gross's theory of role conflict resolution by collecting measures on the predictor variables in advance of the time at which principals encountered and resolved role conflict, and by closely replicating other procedures used by Gross. The Accuracy of predictions failed to exceed levels of chance, casting serious doubt on the…

  10. 49 CFR 179.13 - Tank car capacity and gross weight limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tank car capacity and gross weight limitation. 179... FOR TANK CARS General Design Requirements § 179.13 Tank car capacity and gross weight limitation. Except as provided in this section, tank cars, built after November 30, 1970, or any existing tank...

  11. 49 CFR 179.13 - Tank car capacity and gross weight limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Tank car capacity and gross weight limitation. 179... FOR TANK CARS General Design Requirements § 179.13 Tank car capacity and gross weight limitation. Except as provided in this section, tank cars, built after November 30, 1970, or any existing tank...

  12. 49 CFR 179.13 - Tank car capacity and gross weight limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Tank car capacity and gross weight limitation. 179... FOR TANK CARS General Design Requirements § 179.13 Tank car capacity and gross weight limitation. Except as provided in this section, tank cars, built after November 30, 1970, or any existing tank...

  13. 49 CFR 179.13 - Tank car capacity and gross weight limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Tank car capacity and gross weight limitation. 179... FOR TANK CARS General Design Requirements § 179.13 Tank car capacity and gross weight limitation. Except as provided in this section, tank cars, built after November 30, 1970, or any existing tank...

  14. 49 CFR 179.13 - Tank car capacity and gross weight limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Tank car capacity and gross weight limitation. 179... FOR TANK CARS General Design Requirements § 179.13 Tank car capacity and gross weight limitation. Except as provided in this section, tank cars, built after November 30, 1970, or any existing tank...

  15. 77 FR 57492 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Grosse Tete Bayou, Iberville Parish, LA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-18

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 RIN 1625-AA09 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Grosse Tete Bayou... existing drawbridge operation regulation for the Union Pacific railroad swing bridge over Grosse Tete Bayou... Bayou, mile 14.7, was modified into a fixed bridge in May of 2012. The modification of this bridge...

  16. 26 CFR 1.613-3 - Gross income from the property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Gross income from the property. 1.613-3 Section 1.613-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Natural Resources § 1.613-3 Gross income from the property. Oil and...

  17. Children Move to Learn: A Guide to Planning Gross Motor Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kline, Judy

    This guide for persons working with young children with gross motor delays is designed to be used in the assessment of gross motor abilities, the detection and identification of delays and the planning and implementation of appropriate Individual Activity Plans (IAP) for correcting the delays. Observation guidelines in the form of questions (Can…

  18. 26 CFR 1.1332-1 - Inclusion in gross income of war loss recoveries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Inclusion in gross income of war loss... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) War Loss Recoveries § 1.1332-1 Inclusion in gross income of war loss recoveries. (a) Amount of recovery. Except as provided in section 1333(1), the...

  19. 26 CFR 1.1332-1 - Inclusion in gross income of war loss recoveries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Inclusion in gross income of war loss... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) War Loss Recoveries § 1.1332-1 Inclusion in gross income of war loss recoveries. (a) Amount of recovery. Except as provided in section 1333(1), the...

  20. 26 CFR 1.1332-1 - Inclusion in gross income of war loss recoveries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Inclusion in gross income of war loss... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) War Loss Recoveries § 1.1332-1 Inclusion in gross income of war loss recoveries. (a) Amount of recovery. Except as provided in section 1333(1), the...

  1. Gross Motor Development of Malaysian Hearing Impaired Male Pre- and Early School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zawi, Khairi; Lian, Denise Koh Choon; Abdullah, Rozlina Tan

    2014-01-01

    Acquisition of gross motor skill is a natural developmental process for children. This aspect of human development increases with one's chronological age, irrespective of any developmental conditions. The purpose of this study was to assess the level of gross motor skill development among pre- and early school-aged children with motor disability.…

  2. The Effects of Basketball Basic Skills Training on Gross Motor Skills Development of Female Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayazit, Betul

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of basketball basic skills training on gross motor skills development of female children in Turkey. For that purpose, 40 female children took part in the study voluntarily. Basketball basic skills test was used to improve the gross motor skills of the female children in the study. Also,…

  3. 26 CFR 1.132-1 - Exclusion from gross income for certain fringe benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... benefits. 1.132-1 Section 1.132-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY....132-1 Exclusion from gross income for certain fringe benefits. (a) In general. Gross income does not include any fringe benefit which qualifies as a— (1) No-additional-cost service, (2) Qualified...

  4. Sequence replacements in the central beta-turn of plastocyanin.

    PubMed Central

    Ybe, J. A.; Hecht, M. H.

    1996-01-01

    The role of beta-turns in dictating the structure of a beta-barrel protein is assessed by probing the tolerance of the central beta-turn of poplar plastocyanin to substitution by arbitrary sequences. Native plastocyanin binds copper and is colored bright blue. However, when the wild-type Pro47-Ser48-Gly49-Val50 turn sequence is replaced by arbitrary tetrapeptides, the vast majority (92/98 = 94%) of mutant proteins cannot fold into the native blue structure. Characterization of the colorless mutant proteins demonstrates that the majority of substitutions in this type II beta-turn disrupt the native structure severely. Gross structural changes are indicated by major differences in the CD spectra of the mutants relative to the wild-type protein, and by the much larger apparent size of mutant proteins in gel filtration experiments. These mutant proteins do not bind copper. Furthermore, Cys84 forms a disulfide bond readily in the colorless mutant proteins, indicating that it has moved away from the buried position it occupies in the native copper binding site and has become exposed. These results indicate that the central beta-turn in plastocyanin is not merely a default structure arising in response to the surrounding context; rather, sequence information in this turn plays an active role in dictating the location of a chain reversal in the beta-barrel structure. These findings are discussed in terms of their implications for the folding of natural proteins, as well as the design of de novo proteins. PMID:8732753

  5. Can Clinical Assessment of Locomotive Body Function Explain Gross Motor Environmental Performance in Cerebral Palsy?

    PubMed

    Sanz Mengibar, Jose Manuel; Santonja-Medina, Fernando; Sanchez-de-Muniain, Paloma; Canteras-Jordana, Manuel

    2016-03-01

    Gross Motor Function Classification System has discriminative purposes but does not assess short-term therapy goals. Locomotion Stages (LS) classify postural body functions and independent activity components. Assessing the relation between Gross Motor Function Classification System level and Locomotion Stages will make us understand if clinical assessment can explain and predict motor environmental performance in cerebral palsy. A total of 462 children were assessed with both scales. High reliability and strong negative correlation (-0.908) for Gross Motor Function Classification System and Locomotion Stages at any age was found. Sensitivity was 83%, and specificity and positive predictive value were 100% within the same age range. Regression analysis showed detailed probabilities for the realization of the Gross Motor Function Classification System depending on the Locomotion Stages and the age group. Postural body function measure with Locomotion Stages is reliable, sensitive, and specific for gross motor function and able to predict environmental performance.

  6. Latest Advancement In Airborne Relative Gravity Instrumentation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brady, N.

    2011-12-01

    Airborne gravity surveying has been performed with widely varying degrees of success since early experimentation with the Lacoste and Romberg dynamic meter in the 1950s. There are a number of different survey systems currently in operation including relative gravity meters and gradiometers. Airborne gravity is ideally suited to rapid, wide coverage surveying and is not significantly more expensive in more remote and inhospitable terrain which makes airborne measurements one of the few viable options available for cost effective exploration. As improved instrumentation has become available, scientific applications have also been able to take advantage for use in determining sub surface geologic structures, for example under ice sheets in Antarctica, and more recently direct measurement of the geoid to improve the vertical datum in the United States. In 2004, Lacoste and Romberg (now Micro-g Lacoste) decided to build on their success with the newly developed AirSea II dynamic meter and use that system as the basis for a dedicated airborne gravity instrument. Advances in electronics, timing and positioning technology created the opportunity to refine both the hardware and software, and to develop a truly turnkey system that would work well for users with little or no airborne gravity experience as well as those with more extensive experience. The resulting Turnkey Airborne Gravity System (TAGS) was successfully introduced in 2007 and has since been flown in applications from oil, gas and mineral exploration surveys to regional gravity mapping and geoid mapping. The system has been mounted in a variety of airborne platforms including depending on the application of interest. The development experience with the TAGS enabled Micro-g Lacoste to embark on a new project in 2010 to completely redesign the mechanical and electronic components of the system rather than continuing incremental upgrades. Building on the capabilities of the original TAGS, the objectives for the

  7. Transforming growth factor beta 1-induced changes in cell migration, proliferation, and angiogenesis in the chicken chorioallantoic membrane

    PubMed Central

    1990-01-01

    Application of TGF beta 1 (10-100 ng) to the chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) for 72 h resulted in a dose-dependent, gross angiogenic response. The vascular effects induced by TGF beta 1 were qualitatively different than those induced by maximal doses of basic FGF (bFGF) (500 ng). While TGF beta 1 induced the formation of large blood vessels by 72 h, bFGF induced primarily small blood vessels. Histologic analysis revealed that TGF beta 1 stimulated pleiotropic cellular responses in the CAM. Increases in fibroblast and epithelial cell density in the area of TGF beta 1 delivery were observed as early as 4 h after TGF beta 1 treatment. By 8 h, these cell types also demonstrated altered morphology and marked inhibition of proliferation as evidenced by 3H- thymidine labeling. Thus, the TGF beta 1-stimulated accumulation of these cell types was the result of cellular chemotaxis from peripheral areas into the area of TGF beta 1 delivery. Microscopic angiogenesis in the form of capillary sprouts and increased endothelial cell density first became evident at 16 h. By 24 h, capillary cords appeared within the mesenchyme of the CAM, extending towards the point of TGF beta 1 delivery. 3H-thymidine labeling revealed that the growth of these capillary cords was due to endothelial cell proliferation. Finally, perivascular mononuclear inflammation did not become evident until 48 h of treatment, and its presence correlated spatially and temporally with the gross and histological remodelling of newly formed capillary cords into larger blood vessels. In summary, these data suggest that, in the chicken CAM, TGF beta 1 initiates a sequence of cellular responses that results in growth inhibition, cellular accumulation through migration, and microvascular angiogenesis. PMID:1696268

  8. beta-Propiolactone

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    beta - Propiolactone ; CASRN 57 - 57 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogen

  9. beta-Chloronaphthalene

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    beta - Chloronaphthalene ; CASRN 91 - 58 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcin

  10. Trichoderma .beta.-glucosidase

    DOEpatents

    Dunn-Coleman, Nigel; Goedegebuur, Frits; Ward, Michael; Yao, Jian

    2006-01-03

    The present invention provides a novel .beta.-glucosidase nucleic acid sequence, designated bgl3, and the corresponding BGL3 amino acid sequence. The invention also provides expression vectors and host cells comprising a nucleic acid sequence encoding BGL3, recombinant BGL3 proteins and methods for producing the same.

  11. Smoking in top-grossing movies--United States, 2010.

    PubMed

    2011-07-15

    The National Cancer Institute has concluded that studies indicate a causal relationship between exposure to depictions of smoking in movies and youth smoking initiation. Adolescents in the top quartile of exposures to onscreen tobacco incidents have been found to be approximately twice as likely to begin smoking as those in the bottom quartile. The 2010 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services strategic plan to reduce tobacco use includes reducing youth exposure to onscreen smoking. To monitor tobacco use in movies, Thumbs Up! Thumbs Down! (TUTD), a project of Breathe California of Sacramento-Emigrant Trails, counts occurrences of tobacco incidents in U.S. top-grossing movies each year. This report updates a previous report with the latest TUTD findings. In 2010, the number of onscreen tobacco incidents in youth-rated (G, PG, or PG-13) movies continued a downward trend, decreasing 71.6% from 2,093 incidents in 2005 to 595 in 2010. Similarly, the average number of incidents per youth-rated movie decreased 66.2%, from 20.1 in 2005 to 6.8 in 2010. The degree of decline, however, varied substantially by motion picture company. The three companies with published policies designed to reduce tobacco use in their movies had an average decrease in tobacco incidents of 95.8%, compared with an average decrease of 41.7% among the three major motion picture companies and independents without policies. This finding indicates that an enforceable policy aimed at reducing tobacco use in youth-rated movies can lead to substantially fewer tobacco incidents in movies and help prevent adolescent initiation of smoking.

  12. The between and within day variation in gross efficiency.

    PubMed

    Noordhof, Dionne A; de Koning, Jos J; van Erp, Teun; van Keimpema, Bart; de Ridder, Daan; Otter, Ruby; Foster, Carl

    2010-08-01

    Before the influence of divergent factors on gross efficiency (GE) [the ratio of mechanical power output (PO) to metabolic power input (PI)] can be assessed, the variation in GE between days, i.e. the test-retest reliability, and the within day variation needs to be known. Physically active males (n = 18) performed a maximal incremental exercise test to obtain VO2max and PO at VO2max (PVO2max), and three experimental testing days, consisting of seven submaximal exercise bouts evenly distributed over the 24 h of the day. Each submaximal exercise bout consisted of six min cycling at 45, 55 and 65% PVO2max, during which VO(2) and RER were measured. GE was determined from the final 3 min of each exercise intensity with: GE = (PO/PI) x 100%. PI was calculated by multiplying VO2 with the oxygen equivalent. GE measured during the individually highest exercise intensity with RER <1.0 did not differ significantly between days (F = 2.70, p = 0.08), which resulted in lower and upper boundaries of the 95% limits of agreement of 19.6 and 20.8%, respectively, around a mean GE of 20.2%. Although there were minor within day variations in GE, differences in GE over the day were not significant (F = 0.16, p = 0.99). The measurement of GE during cycling at intensities approximating VT is apparently very robust, a change in GE of approximately 0.6% can be reliably detected. Lastly, GE does not display a circadian rhythm so long as the criteria of a steady-state VO(2) and RER <1.0 are applied.

  13. North American Gross Primary Productivity: Regional Characterization and Interannual Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, I. T.; Denning, A.; Stockli, R.

    2009-12-01

    Seasonality and variability in North American photosynthetic activity are investigated. Using the Simple Biosphere Model (SiB) we simulate 24 years (1983-2006) and evaluate regional and seasonal contribution to annual mean Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) as well as its interannual variability. The largest productivity occurs in tropical Mexico, the southeast U.S. and small areas in the Pacific Northwest. Annual variability is largest in tropical Mexico, the desert Southwest, and the Midwestern corridor that separates the eastern forests from the intermountain west. We find that several areas (Midwest, Northeast, SouthWest, Boreal Canada) have an elevated contribution to interannual variability when compared to other regions, but no single region or season consistently determines continental annual GPP anomaly on an annual basis. GPP variability in NA is highly heterogeneous in space and time. We find that GPP variability is generally dependent upon soil moisture in low- and mid-latitudes, and on temperature in the north. Soil moisture is a better metric than raw precipitation as it integrates precipitation events temporally. EOF analysis shows no significance on an annual basis, but a band from the central plains through New England shows a coherent signal for springtime GPP anomalies. As the springtime anomaly is the largest contributor to the annual GPP variability in almost half of the years simulated (11 of 24), we can posit that this region has significant influence over annual North American GPP variability. However, when regressed against climate modes such as El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Arctic Oscillation (AO) or Pacific-North America (PNA) patterns, we find that no climate mode can be associated with variability over the entire region highlighted by the EOF analysis. Furthermore, we find that while a general response to temperature is seen (warmer spring implies longer growing season implies anomalous GPP uptake of carbon), in some regions the

  14. Attributing Changes in Gross Primary Productivity from 1901 to 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwalm, C. R.; Huntzinger, D. N.; Michalak, A. M.; Cook, R. B.; El Masri, B.; Hayes, D. J.; Huang, M.; Jacobson, A. R.; Jain, A. K.; Lei, H.; Lu, C.; Tian, H.; Schaefer, K. M.; Wei, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Model-based studies are foundational to perform diagnosis (has there been a change?) and attribution (what caused this change?) in the context of global environmental change. Here we employ a dual method approach using machine learning and simulation differencing across an ensemble of terrestrial biosphere models (TBM) to attribute changes in gross primary productivity (GPP) from 1901 to 2010. The simulations are taken from the Multi-scale Synthesis and Terrestrial Model Intercomparison Project (MsTMIP). For each TBM MsTMIP prescribes a semi-factorial set of five runs (globally at 0.5º spatial resolution) where time-varying controls on carbon metabolism are sequentially enabled. MsTMIP has a constrained simulation protocol -driving data, vegetation cover, boundary conditions, and steady-state spin up protocol are all standardized- such that only model structure varies and ensemble spread addresses process uncertainty. Applying this dual method to MsTMIP simulation output we attribute changes in GPP to changes in climate, land cover/land use change, atmospheric CO2, nitrogen deposition, near-surface air temperature, precipitation, and downwelling shortwave radiation as well as climate sigma (irreducible climate noise) and nonlinearity (interactions). Globally, the key factor associated with the Anthropocene, namely the sustained increase in atmospheric CO2, dominates changes in GPP across the full time period. Climate factors are of secondary importance and, along with land cover/land use change, may act to decrease GPP depending on decade and reference period. Despite differences in model structure attribution results across the full ensemble are generally consistent. Spatial morphologies, replicating the same dual approach by grid cell, exhibit high variability but with an atmospheric CO2 fertilization effect dominating the tropical zone. Our results suggest that the modern era of global warming, when viewed through the prism of GPP attribution, reaches back at

  15. Outcomes of a rotational dissection system in gross anatomy.

    PubMed

    Marshak, David W; Oakes, Joanne; Hsieh, Pei-Hsuan; Chuang, Alice Z; Cleary, Leonard J

    2015-01-01

    At the University of Texas Houston Medical School, a rotational dissection system was introduced to improve coordination between the Gross Anatomy and the Introduction to Clinical Medicine (ICM) courses. Six students were assigned to each cadaver and divided into two teams. For each laboratory, one team was assigned to dissect and the other to attend ICM or study independently. For the next laboratory, the assignments were reversed. At the start of the session, the team that had dissected previously spent 30 minutes teaching the other team. In 2012, the students were given three traditional practical examinations with 50 questions drawn equally from each laboratory. Students also completed three mid-course evaluations. There were no significant differences in overall performance between the two teams. Nevertheless, we wanted to determine how well individual students identified structures they had dissected compared with those they had not. For dissected structures, the mean percent correct was 80.0 ± 13.0 (mean ± standard deviation), and for undissected structures, it was 78.3 ± 14.1. The difference was small, but statistically significant (P = 0.0007). Although this result validated the concerns expressed by some students, it did not appear that a change in the system was justified. Students were generally enthusiastic about the opportunity to learn clinical skills in the first semester of medical school, and 91-96% of the students agreed that learning anatomy at the same time helped them understand the physical examination exercises in ICM.

  16. Gross Nitrogen Mineralization in Surface Sediments of the Yangtze Estuary

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Min; Li, Xiaofei; Yin, Guoyu; Zheng, Yanling; Deng, Fengyu

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen mineralization is a key biogeochemical process transforming organic nitrogen to inorganic nitrogen in estuarine and coastal sediments. Although sedimentary nitrogen mineralization is an important internal driver for aquatic eutrophication, few studies have investigated sedimentary nitrogen mineralization in these environments. Sediment-slurry incubation experiments combined with 15N isotope dilution technique were conducted to quantify the potential rates of nitrogen mineralization in surface sediments of the Yangtze Estuary. The gross nitrogen mineralization (GNM) rates ranged from 0.02 to 5.13 mg N kg-1 d-1 in surface sediments of the study area. The GNM rates were generally higher in summer than in winter, and the relative high rates were detected mainly at sites near the north branch and frontal edge of this estuary. The spatial and temporal distributions of GNM rates were observed to depend largely on temperature, salinity, sedimentary organic carbon and nitrogen contents, and extracellular enzyme (urease and L-glutaminase) activities. The total mineralized nitrogen in the sediments of the Yangtze Estuary was estimated to be about 6.17 × 105 t N yr-1, and approximately 37% of it was retained in the estuary. Assuming the retained mineralized nitrogen is totally released from the sediments into the water column, which contributed 12–15% of total dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) sources in this study area. This result indicated that the mineralization process is a significant internal nitrogen source for the overlying water of the Yangtze Estuary, and thus may contribute to the estuarine and coastal eutrophication. PMID:26991904

  17. Characterising stormwater gross pollutants captured in catch basin inserts.

    PubMed

    Alam, Md Zahanggir; Anwar, A H M Faisal; Sarker, Dipok Chandra; Heitz, Anna; Rothleitner, Craig

    2017-05-15

    The accumulation of wash-off solid waste, termed gross pollutants (GPs), in drainage systems has become a major constraint for best management practices (BMPs) of stormwater. GPs should be captured at source before the material clogs the drainage network, seals the infiltration capacity of side entry pits or affects the aquatic life in receiving waters. BMPs intended to reduce stormwater pollutants include oil and grit separators, grassed swales, vegetated filter strips, retention ponds, and catch basin inserts (CBIs) are used to remove GP at the source and have no extra land use requirement because they are typically mounted within a catch basin (e.g. side entry pits; grate or gully pits). In this study, a new type of CBI, recently developed by Urban Stormwater Technologies (UST) was studied for its performance at a site in Gosnells, Western Australia. This new type of CBI can capture pollutants down to particle sizes of 150μm while retaining its shape and pollutant capturing capacity for at least 1year. Data on GP and associated water samples were collected during monthly servicing of CBIs for one year. The main component of GPs was found to be vegetation (93%): its accumulation showed a strong relationship (r(2)=0.9) with rainfall especially during the wet season. The average accumulation of total GP load for each CBI was 384kg/ha/yr (dry mass) with the GP moisture content ranging from 24 to 52.5%. Analysis of grain sizes of GPs captured in each CBI showed similar distributions in the different CBIs. The loading rate coefficient (K) calculated from runoff and GP load showed higher K-values for CBI located near trees. The UST developed CBI in this study showed higher potential to capture GPs down to 150μm in diameter than similar CBI devices described in previous studies.

  18. Gross Nitrogen Mineralization in Surface Sediments of the Yangtze Estuary.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xianbiao; Hou, Lijun; Liu, Min; Li, Xiaofei; Yin, Guoyu; Zheng, Yanling; Deng, Fengyu

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen mineralization is a key biogeochemical process transforming organic nitrogen to inorganic nitrogen in estuarine and coastal sediments. Although sedimentary nitrogen mineralization is an important internal driver for aquatic eutrophication, few studies have investigated sedimentary nitrogen mineralization in these environments. Sediment-slurry incubation experiments combined with 15N isotope dilution technique were conducted to quantify the potential rates of nitrogen mineralization in surface sediments of the Yangtze Estuary. The gross nitrogen mineralization (GNM) rates ranged from 0.02 to 5.13 mg N kg(-1) d(-1) in surface sediments of the study area. The GNM rates were generally higher in summer than in winter, and the relative high rates were detected mainly at sites near the north branch and frontal edge of this estuary. The spatial and temporal distributions of GNM rates were observed to depend largely on temperature, salinity, sedimentary organic carbon and nitrogen contents, and extracellular enzyme (urease and L-glutaminase) activities. The total mineralized nitrogen in the sediments of the Yangtze Estuary was estimated to be about 6.17 × 10(5) t N yr(-1), and approximately 37% of it was retained in the estuary. Assuming the retained mineralized nitrogen is totally released from the sediments into the water column, which contributed 12-15% of total dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) sources in this study area. This result indicated that the mineralization process is a significant internal nitrogen source for the overlying water of the Yangtze Estuary, and thus may contribute to the estuarine and coastal eutrophication.

  19. Mineralogical, Chemical, and Optical Interrelationships of Airborne Mineral Dusts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelbrecht, J. P.; Moosmuller, H.; Pincock, S. L.; Jayanty, R. K. M.; Casuccio, G.

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of the project was to provide information on the mineralogical, chemical and physical interrelationships of re-suspended mineral dust samples collected as grab samples from global dust sources. Surface soil samples were collected from about 65 desert sites, including the southwestern USA (12), Mali (3), Chad (3), Morocco (1), Canary Islands (8), Cape Verde (1), Djibouti (1), Afghanistan (3), Iraq (6), Kuwait (5), Qatar (1), UAE (1), Serbia (3), China (5), Namibia (3), Botswana (4), Australia (3), and Chile (1). The < 38 μm sieved fraction of each sample was re-suspended in an entrainment chamber, from which the airborne mineral dust could be monitored, sampled and analyzed. Instruments integrated into the entrainment facility included two PM10 and two PM2.5 filter samplers, a beta attenuation gauge for the continuous measurement of PM10 and PM2.5 particulate mass fractions, an aerodynamic particle size (APS) analyzer, and a three wavelength (405, 532, 781nm) photoacoustic resonator with integrating reciprocal nephelometer for monitoring absorption and scattering coefficients during the dust re-suspension process. Filter sample media included Teflon® membrane and quartz fiber filters for chemical analysis (71 species), and Nuclepore® filters for individual particle analysis by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The < 38 μm sieved fractions were also analyzed by X-ray diffraction for their mineral content while the > 38 μm, < 125 μm soil fractions were mineralogically characterized by optical microscopy. We will be presenting results on the optical measurements, also showing the relationship between single scattering albedo (SSA) at three different wavelengths, and chemical as well as mineralogical content and interdependencies of the entrained dust samples. Examples showing the relationships between the single scattering albedos of airborne dusts, and iron (Fe) in hematite, goethite, and clay minerals (montmorillonite, illite, palygorskite), will

  20. The Callaway Plant's airborne tritium sampling cart

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, C.C.; Roselius, R.R. )

    1986-07-01

    The water vapor condensation method for sampling airborne tritium offers significant advantages over other methods, including minimal sample preparation, high sensitivity, and independence from collection efficiency and sample flow rate. However, it does have disadvantages that must be overcome in the design of a sampler. This article describes a cart-mounted, portable airborne tritium sampler used at the Callaway Nuclear Plant that incorporates the advantages of the condensation technique while minimizing its shortcomings. The key elements in the design of the sampler are the use of a refrigerated bath to cool a series of three water vapor collection traps and the use of an optical condensation dew point hygrometer to measure the moisture content of the sample. Design considerations for the proper operation of dew point hygrometers are presented, and the method used to convert due point readings to water vapor content is described.

  1. Airborne Infrared Spectroscopy of 1994 Western Wildfires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Worden, Helen; Beer, Reinhard; Rinsland, Curtis P.

    1997-01-01

    In the summer of 1994 the 0.07/ cm resolution infrared Airborne Emission Spectrometer (AES) acquired spectral data over two wildfires, one in central Oregon on August 3 and the other near San Luis Obispo, California, on August 15. The spectrometer was on board a NASA DC-8 research aircraft, flying at an altitude of 12 km. The spectra from both fires clearly show features due to water vapor, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, ammonia, methanol, formic acid, and ethylene at significantly higher abundance and temperature than observed in downlooking spectra of normal atmospheric and ground conditions. Column densities are derived for several species, and molar ratios are compared with previous biomass fire measurements. We believe that this is the first time such data have been acquired by airborne spectral remote sensing.

  2. Airborne Wind Measurements at Cape Blanco, Oregon.

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Jung-Tai Lin; Veenhuizen, Scott D.

    1983-12-01

    The airborne wind measuring system using a fixed wing airplane and a Loran-C navigation unit was proven to be feasible to provide the large scale background wind flow for initialization of numerical wind modeling. The rms errors in the airborne wind measuring system were +- 2 mph in wind speed and +- 12 degrees in wind direction. The advantages of this method were that wind speeds over a large area (5 miles x 14 miles, or 18 miles x 30 miles) may be determined rapidly, economically and at altitudes above the normal altitudes of TALA kite mesurements. The disadvantages were that the spatial resolution of the measurements was poor and near surface measurements were not feasible using a fixed wing aircraft. 1 reference, 10 figures, 1 table.

  3. Analyzing Options for Airborne Emergency Wireless Communications

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Schmitt; Juan Deaton; Curt Papke; Shane Cherry

    2008-03-01

    In the event of large-scale natural or manmade catastrophic events, access to reliable and enduring commercial communication systems is critical. Hurricane Katrina provided a recent example of the need to ensure communications during a national emergency. To ensure that communication demands are met during these critical times, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) under the guidance of United States Strategic Command has studied infrastructure issues, concerns, and vulnerabilities associated with an airborne wireless communications capability. Such a capability could provide emergency wireless communications until public/commercial nodes can be systematically restored. This report focuses on the airborne cellular restoration concept; analyzing basic infrastructure requirements; identifying related infrastructure issues, concerns, and vulnerabilities and offers recommended solutions.

  4. Airborne Microwave Imaging of River Velocities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plant, William J.

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this project was to determine whether airborne microwave remote sensing systems can measure river surface currents with sufficient accuracy to make them prospective instruments with which to monitor river flow from space. The approach was to fly a coherent airborne microwave Doppler radar, developed by APL/UW, on a light airplane along several rivers in western Washington state over an extended period of time. The fundamental quantity obtained by this system to measure river currents is the mean offset of the Doppler spectrum. Since this scatter can be obtained from interferometric synthetic aperture radars (INSARs), which can be flown in space, this project provided a cost effective means for determining the suitability of spaceborne INSAR for measuring river flow.

  5. Airborne Laser/GPS Mapping of Beaches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krabill, W. B.; Swift, R. N.; Fredrick, E. B.; Manizade, S. S.; Martin, C. F.; Sonntag, J. G.; Duffy, Mark

    1999-01-01

    Results are presented from topographic surveys of the Assateague National Seashore Park using recently developed airborne laser and Global Positioning System (GPS) technology. During November, 1995, and again in May, 1996, the NASA Arctic Ice Mapping (AIM) group from the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's Wallops Flight Facility conducted surveys as a part of technology enhancement activities or warm-up missions prior to conducting elevation measurements of the Greenland Ice Sheet as part of NASA's Global Climate Change program. The resulting data are compared to surface surveys using standard techniques. The goal of these projects is to make these measurements to an accuracy of 10 cm. The measurements were made from NASA's 4-engine P-3 Orion aircraft using the Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM), a scanning laser system. The necessary high accuracy vertical as well as horizontal positioning are provided by Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers located both on board the aircraft and at a fixed site at Wallops Island.

  6. Airborne infrared spectroscopy of 1994 western wildfires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worden, Helen; Beer, Reinhard; Rinsland, Curtis P.

    1997-01-01

    In the summer of 1994 the 0.07 cm-1 resolution infrared Airborne Emission Spectrometer (AES) acquired spectral data over two wildfires, one in central Oregon on August 3 and the other near San Luis Obispo, California, on August 15. The spectrometer was on board a NASA DC-8 research aircraft, flying at an altitude of 12 km. The spectra from both fires clearly show features due to water vapor, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, ammonia, methanol, formic acid, and ethylene at significantly higher abundance and temperature than observed in downlooking spectra of normal atmospheric and ground conditions. Column densities are derived for several species, and molar ratios are compared with previous biomass fire measurements. We believe that this is the first time such data have been acquired by airborne spectral remote sensing.

  7. BOREAS RSS-12 Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Nickeson, Jaime (Editor); Lobitz, Brad; Spanner, Michael; Wrigley, Robert

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS RSS-12 team collected both ground and airborne sunphotometer measurements for use in characterizing the aerosol optical properties of the atmosphere during the BOREAS data collection activities. These measurements are to be used to: 1) measure the magnitude and variability of the aerosol optical depth in both time and space; 2) determine the optical properties of the boreal aerosols; and 3) atmospherically correct remotely sensed data acquired during BOREAS. This data set contains airborne tracking sunphotometer data that were acquired from the C-130 aircraft during its flights over the BOREAS study areas. The data cover selected days and times from May to September 1994. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  8. Performance metrics for an airborne imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dayton, David C.; Gonglewski, John D.

    2004-11-01

    A series of airborne imaging experiments have been conducted on the island of Maui and at North Oscura Peak in New Mexico. Two platform altitudes were considered 3000 meters and 600 meters, both with a slant range to the target up to 10000 meters. The airborne imaging platform was a Twin Otter aircraft, which circled ground target sites. The second was a fixed platform on a mountain peak overlooking a valley 600 meters below. The experiments were performed during the day using solar illuminated target buildings. Imaging system performance predictions were calculated using standard atmospheric turbulence models, and aircraft boundary layer models. Several different measurement approaches were then used to estimate the actual system performance, and make comparisons with the calculations.

  9. Airborne Chemical Sensing with Mobile Robots

    PubMed Central

    Lilienthal, Achim J.; Loutfi, Amy; Duckett, Tom

    2006-01-01

    Airborne chemical sensing with mobile robots has been an active research area since the beginning of the 1990s. This article presents a review of research work in this field, including gas distribution mapping, trail guidance, and the different subtasks of gas source localisation. Due to the difficulty of modelling gas distribution in a real world environment with currently available simulation techniques, we focus largely on experimental work and do not consider publications that are purely based on simulations.

  10. A new tool for sampling airborne isocyanates

    SciTech Connect

    Sesana, G.; Nano, G.; Baj, A. )

    1991-05-01

    A new sampling system is presented that uses solid sorbent media contained in a tube for the determination of airborne isocyanates (2.4-2.6 toluene diisocyanate, hexamethylene diisocyanate, and 4.4' diaminodiphenylmethane diisocyanate). The method is compared with the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Method P CAM 5505 (Revision {number sign}1). Experimental tests yielded results that were highly concordant with the NIOSH method.

  11. Airborne Nanostructured Particles and Occupational Health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maynard, Andrew D.; Kuempel, Eileen D.

    2005-12-01

    Nanotechnology is leading to the development in many field, of new materials and devices in many fields that demonstrate nanostructure-dependent properties. However, concern has been expressed that these same properties may present unique challenges to addressing potential health impact. Airborne particles associated with engineered nanomaterials are of particular concern, as they can readily enter the body through inhalation. Research into the potential occupational health risks associated with inhaling engineered nanostructured particles is just beginning. However, there is a large body of data on occupational and environmental aerosols, which is applicable to developing an initial assessment of potential risk and risk reduction strategies. Epidemiological and pathological studies of occupational and environmental exposures to airborne particles and fibers provide information on the aerosol-related lung diseases and conditions that have been observed in humans. Toxicological studies provide information on the specific disease mechanisms, dose-response relationships, and the particle characteristics that influence toxicity, including the size, surface area, chemistry or reactivity, solubility, and shape. Potential health risk will depend on the magnitude and nature of exposures to airborne nanostructured particles, and on the release, dispersion, transformation and control of materials in the workplace. Aerosol control methods have not been well-characterized for nanometer diameter particles, although theory and limited experimental data indicate that conventional ventilation, engineering control and filtration approaches should be applicable in many situations. Current information supports the development of preliminary guiding principles on working with engineered nanomaterials. However critical research questions remain to be answered before the potential health risk of airborne nanostructured particles in the workplace can be fully addressed.

  12. Holographic Airborne Rotating Lidar Instrument Experiment (HARLIE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwemmer, Geary K.

    1998-01-01

    Scanning holographic lidar receivers are currently in use in two operational lidar systems, PHASERS (Prototype Holographic Atmospheric Scanner for Environmental Remote Sensing) and now HARLIE (Holographic Airborne Rotating Lidar Instrument Experiment). These systems are based on volume phase holograms made in dichromated gelatin (DCG) sandwiched between 2 layers of high quality float glass. They have demonstrated the practical application of this technology to compact scanning lidar systems at 532 and 1064 nm wavelengths, the ability to withstand moderately high laser power and energy loading, sufficient optical quality for most direct detection systems, overall efficiencies rivaling conventional receivers, and the stability to last several years under typical lidar system environments. Their size and weight are approximately half of similar performing scanning systems using reflective optics. The cost of holographic systems will eventually be lower than the reflective optical systems depending on their degree of commercialization. There are a number of applications that require or can greatly benefit from a scanning capability. Several of these are airborne systems, which either use focal plane scanning, as in the Laser Vegetation Imaging System or use primary aperture scanning, as in the Airborne Oceanographic Lidar or the Large Aperture Scanning Airborne Lidar. The latter class requires a large clear aperture opening or window in the aircraft. This type of system can greatly benefit from the use of scanning transmission holograms of the HARLIE type because the clear aperture required is only about 25% larger than the collecting aperture as opposed to 200-300% larger for scan angles of 45 degrees off nadir.

  13. Image Based Synthesis for Airborne Minefield Data

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-01

    applications of image synthesis include artificial texture generation [1], image repairing [2], photometric image rendering [3] and ultrasound imaging...1999. 4. M. Song, R. M. Haralick, F.H. Sheehan, " Ultrasound imaging simulation and echocardiographic image synthesis ", Proceedings of the IEEE...Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate AMSRD-CER-NV-TR-246I Image Based Synthesis for Airborne Minefield Data December 2005 Approved for

  14. DC-8 Airborne Laboratory in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This 17-second clip shows air-to-air shots of the NASA DC-8 airborne laboratory as it passes over the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards, California, and the foothills of the Sierra Nevada mountains. On December 29, 1997, NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, received a DC-8 airborne laboratory from NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California, where it had flown missions related to airborne science and earth science for many years. This airplane has continued to be used from Dryden for basic research about the Earth's surface and atmosphere as well as sensor development and satellite sensor verification. In mid-February 1998, the DC-8 resumed flying its medium-altitude, science-gathering missions following maintenance and upgrades of its satellite communications system. It flew a variety of missions over widely scattered geographic regions during the rest of the calendar year and beyond to gather data about earth science, including weather and climate. Built by Douglas Aircraft Company, Long Beach, California, in 1966, the DC-8 flew for 20 years with two major airlines before being acquired by NASA and converted to its present role as an airborne laboratory. The four-engine former jetliner was capable of flying extended-duration missions as long as 12 hours over a range of 5,400 nautical miles at cruise altitudes up to 41,000 feet. It was also capable of carrying a payload of multiple experiments weighing up to 30,000 pounds. On some of its missions, up to 30 scientists have worked on as many as 14 different experiments.

  15. DC-8 airborne laboratory in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In this 26-second clip the NASA DC-8 airborne laboratory is shown making turns over the Sierra Nevada foothills, NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, and Rogers Dry Lakebed at Edwards Air Force Base, California. On December 29, 1997, NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, received a DC-8 airborne laboratory from NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California, where it had flown missions related to airborne science and earth science for many years. This airplane has continued to be used from Dryden for basic research about the Earth's surface and atmosphere as well as sensor development and satellite sensor verification. In mid-February 1998, the DC-8 resumed flying its medium-altitude, science-gathering missions following maintenance and upgrades of its satellite communications system. It flew a variety of missions over widely scattered geographic regions during the rest of the calendar year and beyond to gather data about earth science, including weather and climate. Built by Douglas Aircraft Company, Long Beach, California, in 1966, the DC-8 flew for 20 years with two major Airlines before being acquired by NASA and converted to its present role as an airborne laboratory. The four-engine former jetliner was capable of flying extended-duration missions for as long as 12 hours over a range of 5,400 nautical miles at cruise altitudes of up to 41,000 feet. It was also capable of carrying a payload of multiple experiments weighing up to 30,000 pounds. On some of its missions, up to 30 scientists have worked on as many as 14 different experiments.

  16. Airborne Tactical Free-Electron Laser

    SciTech Connect

    Whitney, Roy; Neil, George

    2007-02-01

    The goal of 100 kilowatts (kW) of directed energy from an airborne tactical platform has proved challenging due to the size and weight of most of the options that have been considered. However, recent advances in Free-Electron Lasers appear to offer a solution along with significant tactical advantages: a nearly unlimited magazine, time structures for periods from milliseconds to hours, radar like functionality, and the choice of the wavelength of light that best meets mission requirements. For an Airborne Tactical Free-Electron Laser (ATFEL) on a platforms such as a Lockheed C-130J-30 and airships, the two most challenging requirements, weight and size, can be met by generating the light at a higher harmonic, aggressively managing magnet weights, managing cryogenic heat loads using recent SRF R&D results, and using FEL super compact design concepts that greatly reduce the number of components. The initial R&D roadmap for achieving an ATFEL is provided in this paper. Performing this R&D is expected to further reduce the weight, size and power requirements for the FELs the Navy is currently developing for shipboard applications, as well as providing performance enhancements for the strategic airborne MW class FELs. The 100 kW ATFEL with its tactical advantages may prove sufficiently attractive for early advancement in the queue of deployed FELs.

  17. Improved Airborne System for Sensing Wildfires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKeown, Donald; Richardson, Michael

    2008-01-01

    The Wildfire Airborne Sensing Program (WASP) is engaged in a continuing effort to develop an improved airborne instrumentation system for sensing wildfires. The system could also be used for other aerial-imaging applications, including mapping and military surveillance. Unlike prior airborne fire-detection instrumentation systems, the WASP system would not be based on custom-made multispectral line scanners and associated custom- made complex optomechanical servomechanisms, sensors, readout circuitry, and packaging. Instead, the WASP system would be based on commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) equipment that would include (1) three or four electronic cameras (one for each of three or four wavelength bands) instead of a multispectral line scanner; (2) all associated drive and readout electronics; (3) a camera-pointing gimbal; (4) an inertial measurement unit (IMU) and a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver for measuring the position, velocity, and orientation of the aircraft; and (5) a data-acquisition subsystem. It would be necessary to custom-develop an integrated sensor optical-bench assembly, a sensor-management subsystem, and software. The use of mostly COTS equipment is intended to reduce development time and cost, relative to those of prior systems.

  18. Airborne SAR imagery to support hydraulic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castiglioni, S.

    2009-04-01

    Satellite images and airborne SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) imagery are increasingly widespread and they are effective tools for measuring the size of flood events and for assessment of damage. The Hurricane Katrina disaster and the tsunami catastrophe in Indian Ocean countries are two recent and sadly famous examples. Moreover, as well known, the inundation maps can be used as tools to calibrate and validate hydraulic model (e.g. Horritt et al., Hydrological Processes, 2007). We carry out an application of a 1D hydraulic model coupled with a high resolution DTM for predicting the flood inundation processes. The study area is a 16 km reach of the River Severn, in west-central England, for which, four maps of inundated areas, obtained through airborne SAR images, and hydrometric data are available. The inundation maps are used for the calibration/validation of a 1D hydraulic model through a comparison between airborne SAR images and the results of hydraulic simulations. The results confirm the usefulness of inundation maps as hydraulic modelling tools and, moreover, show that 1D hydraulic model can be effectively used when coupled with high resolution topographic information.

  19. Cryospheric Applications of Modern Airborne Photogrammetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nolan, M.

    2014-12-01

    Airborne photogrammetry is undergoing a renaissance. Lower-cost equipment, more powerful software, and simplified methods have lowered the barriers-to-entry significantly and now allow repeat-mapping of cryospheric dynamics that were previously too expensive to consider. The current state-of-the-art is the ability to use an airborne equipment package costing less than $20,000 to make topographic maps on landscape-scales at 10 cm pixel size with a vertical repeatability of about 10 cm. Nearly any surface change on the order of decimeters can be measured using these techniques through analysis of time-series of such maps. This presentation will discuss these new methods and their application to cryospheric dynamics such as the measurement of snow depth, coastal erosion, valley-glacier volume-change, permafrost thaw, frost heave of infrastructure, river bed geomorphology, and aufeis melt. Because of the expense of other airborne methods, by necessity measurements of these dynamics are currently most often made on the ground along benchmark transects that are then extrapolated to the broader scale. The ability to directly measure entire landscapes with equal or higher accuracy than transects eliminates the need to extrapolate them and the ability to do so at lower costs than transects may revolutionize the way we approach studying change in the cryosphere, as well as our understanding of the cryosphere itself.

  20. Airborne myxomycete spores: detection using molecular techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamono, Akiko; Kojima, Hisaya; Matsumoto, Jun; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Fukui, Manabu

    2009-01-01

    Myxomycetes are organisms characterized by a life cycle that includes a fruiting body stage. Myxomycete fruiting bodies contain spores, and wind dispersal of the spores is considered important for this organism to colonize new areas. In this study, the presence of airborne myxomycetes and the temporal changes in the myxomycete composition of atmospheric particles (aerosols) were investigated with a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based method for Didymiaceae and Physaraceae. Twenty-one aerosol samples were collected on the roof of a three-story building located in Sapporo, Hokkaido Island, northern Japan. PCR analysis of DNA extracts from the aerosol samples indicated the presence of airborne myxomycetes in all the samples, except for the one collected during the snowfall season. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of the PCR products showed seasonally varying banding patterns. The detected DGGE bands were subjected to sequence analyses, and four out of nine obtained sequences were identical to those of fruiting body samples collected in Hokkaido Island. It appears that the difference in the fruiting period of each species was correlated with the seasonal changes in the myxomycete composition of the aerosols. Molecular evidence shows that newly formed spores are released and dispersed in the air, suggesting that wind-driven dispersal of spores is an important process in the life history of myxomycetes. This study is the first to detect airborne myxomycetes with the use of molecular ecological analyses and to characterize their seasonal distribution.

  1. Optical Communications Link to Airborne Transceiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Regehr, Martin W.; Kovalik, Joseph M.; Biswas, Abhijit

    2011-01-01

    An optical link from Earth to an aircraft demonstrates the ability to establish a link from a ground platform to a transceiver moving overhead. An airplane has a challenging disturbance environment including airframe vibrations and occasional abrupt changes in attitude during flight. These disturbances make it difficult to maintain pointing lock in an optical transceiver in an airplane. Acquisition can also be challenging. In the case of the aircraft link, the ground station initially has no precise knowledge of the aircraft s location. An airborne pointing system has been designed, built, and demonstrated using direct-drive brushless DC motors for passive isolation of pointing disturbances and for high-bandwidth control feedback. The airborne transceiver uses a GPS-INS system to determine the aircraft s position and attitude, and to then illuminate the ground station initially for acquisition. The ground transceiver participates in link-pointing acquisition by first using a wide-field camera to detect initial illumination from the airborne beacon, and to perform coarse pointing. It then transfers control to a high-precision pointing detector. Using this scheme, live video was successfully streamed from the ground to the aircraft at 270 Mb/s while simultaneously downlinking a 50 kb/s data stream from the aircraft to the ground.

  2. Airborne multispectral detection of regrowth cotton fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westbrook, John K.; Suh, Charles P.-C.; Yang, Chenghai; Lan, Yubin; Eyster, Ritchie S.

    2015-01-01

    Effective methods are needed for timely areawide detection of regrowth cotton plants because boll weevils (a quarantine pest) can feed and reproduce on these plants beyond the cotton production season. Airborne multispectral images of regrowth cotton plots were acquired on several dates after three shredding (i.e., stalk destruction) dates. Linear spectral unmixing (LSU) classification was applied to high-resolution airborne multispectral images of regrowth cotton plots to estimate the minimum detectable size and subsequent growth of plants. We found that regrowth cotton fields can be identified when the mean plant width is ˜0.2 m for an image resolution of 0.1 m. LSU estimates of canopy cover of regrowth cotton plots correlated well (r2=0.81) with the ratio of mean plant width to row spacing, a surrogate measure of plant canopy cover. The height and width of regrowth plants were both well correlated (r2=0.94) with accumulated degree-days after shredding. The results will help boll weevil eradication program managers use airborne multispectral images to detect and monitor the regrowth of cotton plants after stalk destruction, and identify fields that may require further inspection and mitigation of boll weevil infestations.

  3. ICESat-2 Simulated Data from Airborne Altimetery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brunt, Kelly M.; Neumann, T. A.; Markus, T.; Brenner, A. C.; Barbieri, K. A.; Field, C. T.; Sirota, J. M.

    2010-01-01

    Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite-2 (ICESat-2) is scheduled to launch in 2015 and will carry onboard the Advanced Topographic Laser Altimeter System (ATLAS), which represents a new approach to spaceborne determination of surface elevations. Specifically, the current ATLAS design is for a micropulse, multibeam, photon-counting laser altimeter with lower energy, a shorter pulse width, and a higher repetition rate relative to the Geoscience Laser Altimeter (GLAS), the instrument that was onboard ICESat. Given the new and untested technology associated with ATLAS, airborne altimetry data is necessary (1) to test the proposed ATLAS instrument geometry, (2) to validate instrument models, and (3) to assess the atmospheric effects on multibeam altimeters. We present an overview of the airborne instruments and datasets intended to address the ATLAS instrument concept, including data collected over Greenland (July 2009) using an airborne SBIR prototype 100 channel, photon-counting, terrain mapping altimeter, which addresses the first of these 3 scientific concerns. Additionally, we present the plan for further simulator data collection over vegetated and ice covered regions using Multiple Altimeter Beam Experimental Lidar (MABEL), intended to address the latter two scientific concerns. As the ICESAT-2 project is in the design phase, the particular configuration of the ATLAS instrument may change. However, we expect this work to be relevant as long as ATLAS pursues a photon-counting approach.

  4. Emergency communications via airborne communications node

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niessen, Charles W.

    1997-02-01

    Natural disasters such as floods, hurricanes, and earthquakes invariably result in disruption of the commercial communications infrastructure and can severely impede the delivery of emergency services by local and federal agencies. In addition, the public's inability to communicate with commercial service providers can substantially slow the recovery process. Since wide-spread destruction of communications plant and distribution systems takes a long time to rebuild, an attractive alternative would be to provide communications connectivity through an airborne platform configured as a communication node. From a high altitude, a single aircraft could provide line of sight connectivity between users that are not within line of sight of each other, and could relay communications through ground or satellite gateways to the national PSTN. This capability could be used to substitute for multiple base stations for fire and police as well as military relief workers using their normal mobile communications gear. The airborne platform could also serve as a wide area base station to replace cellular phone towers that have been destroyed; this would enable civilian access to communications services from existing cellular phones, but could also be used by relief workers carrying low-cost commercial handsets. This paper examines the technical methods for achieving these goals, identifies the equipment needed on the airborne platform, and discusses the performance that could be expected.

  5. Methods for Sampling of Airborne Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Verreault, Daniel; Moineau, Sylvain; Duchaine, Caroline

    2008-01-01

    Summary: To better understand the underlying mechanisms of aerovirology, accurate sampling of airborne viruses is fundamental. The sampling instruments commonly used in aerobiology have also been used to recover viruses suspended in the air. We reviewed over 100 papers to evaluate the methods currently used for viral aerosol sampling. Differentiating infections caused by direct contact from those caused by airborne dissemination can be a very demanding task given the wide variety of sources of viral aerosols. While epidemiological data can help to determine the source of the contamination, direct data obtained from air samples can provide very useful information for risk assessment purposes. Many types of samplers have been used over the years, including liquid impingers, solid impactors, filters, electrostatic precipitators, and many others. The efficiencies of these samplers depend on a variety of environmental and methodological factors that can affect the integrity of the virus structure. The aerodynamic size distribution of the aerosol also has a direct effect on sampler efficiency. Viral aerosols can be studied under controlled laboratory conditions, using biological or nonbiological tracers and surrogate viruses, which are also discussed in this review. Lastly, general recommendations are made regarding future studies on the sampling of airborne viruses. PMID:18772283

  6. Airborne Infrared Spectrograph for Eclipse Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golub, L.; Cheimets, P.; DeLuca, E. E.; Samra, J.; Judge, P. G.

    2015-12-01

    Direct measurements of the coronal magnetic field have significant potential to enhance our understanding of coronal dynamics, and improve forecasting models. Of particular interest are observations of coronal field lines in the Transition Corona, the transitional region between closed and open flux systems, providing important information on eruptive instabilities and on the origin of the slow solar wind. While current instruments routinely observe the photospheric and chromospheric magnetic fields, the proposed airborne spectrometer will take a step toward the direct observation of coronal fields by measuring plasma emission in the infrared at high spatial and spectral resolution. The targeted lines are five forbidden magnetic dipole transitions between 1.4 and 4 um. The airborne system will consist of a telescope, grating spectrometer and pointing/stabilization system to be flown on the NSF/NCAR High-performance Instrumented Airborne Platform for Environmental Research (HIAPER) during the 21 August 2017 total solar eclipse. We will discuss the scientific objectives of the 2017 flight, describe details of the instrument design, and present the observing program for the eclipse.

  7. Determination of beta activity in water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barker, F.B.; Robinson, B.P.

    1963-01-01

    Many elements have one or more naturally radioactive isotopes, and several hundred other radionuclides have been produced artificially. Radioactive substances may be present in natural water as a result of geochemical processes or the release of radioactive waste and other nuclear debris to the environment. The Geological Survey has developed methods for measuring certain of these .radioactive substances in water. Radioactive substances often are present in water samples in microgram quantities or less. Therefore, precautions must be taken to prevent loss of material and to assure that the sample truly represents its source at the time of collection. Addition of acids, complexing agents, or stable isotopes often aids in preventing loss of radioactivity on container walls, on sediment, or on other solid materials in contact with the sample. The disintegration of radioactive atoms is a random process subject to established methods of statistical analysis. Because many water samples contain small amounts of radioactivity, low-level counting techniques must be used. The usual assumption that counting data follow a Gaussian distribution is invalid under these conditions, and statistical analyses must be based on the Poisson distribution. The gross beta activity in water samples is determined from the residue left after evaporation of the sample to dryness. Evaporation is accomplished first in a teflon dish, then the residue is transferred with distilled water to a counting planchet and again is reduced to dryness. The radioactivity on the planchet is measured with an anticoincidence-shielded, low-background, beta counter and is compared with measurements of a strontium-90-yttrium-90 standard prepared and measured in the same manner. Control charts are used to assure consistent operation of the counting instrument.

  8. Beta-rolls, beta-helices, and other beta-solenoid proteins.

    PubMed

    Kajava, Andrey V; Steven, Alasdair C

    2006-01-01

    Beta-rolls and beta-helices belong to a larger group of topologically similar proteins with solenoid folds: because their regular secondary structure elements are exclusively beta-strands, they are referred to as beta-solenoids. The number of beta-solenoids whose structures are known is now large enough to support a systematic analysis. Here we survey the distinguishing structural features of beta-solenoids, also documenting their notable diversity. Appraisal of these structures suggests a classification based on handedness, twist, oligomerization state, and coil shape. In addition, beta-solenoids are distinguished by the number of chains that wind around a common axis: the majority are single-stranded but there is a recently discovered subset of triple-stranded beta-solenoids. This survey has revealed some relationships of the amino acid sequences of beta-solenoids with their structures and functions-in particular, the repetitive character of the coil sequences and conformations that recur in tracts of tandem repeats. We have proposed the term beta-arc for the distinctive turns found in beta-solenoids and beta-arch for the corresponding strand-turn-strand motifs. The evolutionary mechanisms underlying these proteins are also discussed. This analysis has direct implications for sequence-based detection, structural prediction, and de novo design of other beta-solenoid proteins. The abundance of virulence factors, toxins and allergens among beta-solenoids, as well as commonalities of beta-solenoids with amyloid fibrils, imply that this class of folds may have a broader role in human diseases than was previously recognized. Thus, identification of genes with putative beta-solenoid domains promises to be a fertile direction in the search for viable targets in the development of new antibiotics and vaccines.

  9. Experience with airborne detection of radioactive pollution (ENMOS, IRIS).

    PubMed

    Pavlik, Bohuslav; Engelsmann, Jan

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the advantages of airborne monitoring of radioactive pollution and shows example maps indicating manmade pollution from different sources. The sensitivity of airborne radioactive detection is discussed. Comparisons of airborne and different ground measurements are presented. New instrumentation for airborne or ground moving vehicles is briefly described. Airborne footprinting provides rapid, well-defined spatial images of natural and manmade radioactive contamination. Data acquisition integrated with GPS navigation provides consistent data and guarantees proper data location. Real-time airborne measurements are re-calculated, with the use of special algorithms, into absolute units for individual radioactive nuclei contamination of the ground together with dose calculation. Raw records and calculated data are provided after enhanced post-flight processing. Dose rates and detection of different radioactive elements are presented. (ENMOS is a product of Picodas Group Inc. and IRIS is the product of Pico Envirotec Inc.)

  10. Pharmacogenetics of beta-blockers.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jaekyu; Johnson, Julie A

    2007-06-01

    Beta-blockers are an important cardiovascular drug class, recommended as first-line treatment of numerous diseases such as heart failure, hypertension, and angina, as well as treatment after myocardial infarction. However, responses to a beta-blocker are variable among patients. Results of numerous studies now suggest that genetic polymorphisms may contribute to variability in responses to beta-blockers. This review summarizes the pharmacogenetic data for beta-blockers in patients with various diseases and discusses the potential implications of beta-blocker pharmacogenetics in clinical practice.

  11. Investigation of horizon Beta.

    PubMed

    Windisch, C C; Leyden, R J; Worzel, J L; Saito, T; Ewing, J

    1968-12-27

    Horizon beta is a subbottom reflector in the North Atlantic deep ocean sediments that extends over a large portion of the North America basin. Cores from an outcrop of beta contained shallow-water Aptian-Albian sediments and deep-water Cenomanian sediments. A core near an outcrop of a deeper horizon, horizon B, contained shallow-water Lower Cretaceous (Barremian-Hauterivian) sediments. These cores can be interpreted to support extensive subsidence of the eastern portion of the basin in early Cretaceous time. It is equally likely that the shallow-water deposits are a result of sediments slumping into an already deep basin. A reconciliation of these interpretations depends upon the JOIDES project.

  12. Beta-thalassemia.

    PubMed

    Galanello, Renzo; Origa, Raffaella

    2010-05-21

    Beta-thalassemias are a group of hereditary blood disorders characterized by anomalies in the synthesis of the beta chains of hemoglobin resulting in variable phenotypes ranging from severe anemia to clinically asymptomatic individuals. The total annual incidence of symptomatic individuals is estimated at 1 in 100,000 throughout the world and 1 in 10,000 people in the European Union. Three main forms have been described: thalassemia major, thalassemia intermedia and thalassemia minor. Individuals with thalassemia major usually present within the first two years of life with severe anemia, requiring regular red blood cell (RBC) transfusions. Findings in untreated or poorly transfused individuals with thalassemia major, as seen in some developing countries, are growth retardation, pallor, jaundice, poor musculature, hepatosplenomegaly, leg ulcers, development of masses from extramedullary hematopoiesis, and skeletal changes that result from expansion of the bone marrow. Regular transfusion therapy leads to iron overload-related complications including endocrine complication (growth retardation, failure of sexual maturation, diabetes mellitus, and insufficiency of the parathyroid, thyroid, pituitary, and less commonly, adrenal glands), dilated myocardiopathy, liver fibrosis and cirrhosis). Patients with thalassemia intermedia present later in life with moderate anemia and do not require regular transfusions. Main clinical features in these patients are hypertrophy of erythroid marrow with medullary and extramedullary hematopoiesis and its complications (osteoporosis, masses of erythropoietic tissue that primarily affect the spleen, liver, lymph nodes, chest and spine, and bone deformities and typical facial changes), gallstones, painful leg ulcers and increased predisposition to thrombosis. Thalassemia minor is clinically asymptomatic but some subjects may have moderate anemia. Beta-thalassemias are caused by point mutations or, more rarely, deletions in the beta

  13. Beta-thalassemia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Beta-thalassemias are a group of hereditary blood disorders characterized by anomalies in the synthesis of the beta chains of hemoglobin resulting in variable phenotypes ranging from severe anemia to clinically asymptomatic individuals. The total annual incidence of symptomatic individuals is estimated at 1 in 100,000 throughout the world and 1 in 10,000 people in the European Union. Three main forms have been described: thalassemia major, thalassemia intermedia and thalassemia minor. Individuals with thalassemia major usually present within the first two years of life with severe anemia, requiring regular red blood cell (RBC) transfusions. Findings in untreated or poorly transfused individuals with thalassemia major, as seen in some developing countries, are growth retardation, pallor, jaundice, poor musculature, hepatosplenomegaly, leg ulcers, development of masses from extramedullary hematopoiesis, and skeletal changes that result from expansion of the bone marrow. Regular transfusion therapy leads to iron overload-related complications including endocrine complication (growth retardation, failure of sexual maturation, diabetes mellitus, and insufficiency of the parathyroid, thyroid, pituitary, and less commonly, adrenal glands), dilated myocardiopathy, liver fibrosis and cirrhosis). Patients with thalassemia intermedia present later in life with moderate anemia and do not require regular transfusions. Main clinical features in these patients are hypertrophy of erythroid marrow with medullary and extramedullary hematopoiesis and its complications (osteoporosis, masses of erythropoietic tissue that primarily affect the spleen, liver, lymph nodes, chest and spine, and bone deformities and typical facial changes), gallstones, painful leg ulcers and increased predisposition to thrombosis. Thalassemia minor is clinically asymptomatic but some subjects may have moderate anemia. Beta-thalassemias are caused by point mutations or, more rarely, deletions in the beta

  14. Monitoring marine pollution by airborne remote sensing techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Yuanfu, S.; Quanan, Z.

    1982-06-01

    In order to monitor marine pollution by airborne remote sensing techniques, some comprehensive test of airborne remote sensing, involving monitoring marine oil pollution, were performed at several bay areas of China. This paper presents some typical results of monitoring marine oil pollution. The features associated with the EM spectrum (visible, thermal infrared, and microwave) response of marine oil spills is briefly analyzed. It has been verified that the airborne oil surveillance systems manifested their advantages for monitoring the oil pollution of bay environments.

  15. Range Corrections for Airborne Radar - A Joint STARS Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-05-01

    ESD-TR-84-169 MTR-9055 RANGE CORRECTIONS FOR AIRBORNE RADAR - A JOINT STARS STUDY By • _,.G. A. ROBERTSHAW MAY 1984 - Prepared for DEPUTY COMMANDER...NO NO Hanscom AFB, MA 01731 6460 11. TITLE •Include securi,•,cleaficatton) Range Corrections Tor Airborne Radar - A Joint STARS Study 12. PERSONAL...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTATION 17 COSATI CODES 18. SUBJECT TERMS (Continue on reuera if necemary and identify by block number) FIELD GROUP SUB GR. Airborne Radar

  16. Regeneration of pancreatic beta cells.

    PubMed

    Jun, Hee-Sook

    2008-05-01

    Diabetes mellitus results from inadequate mass of insulin-producing pancreatic beta cells. Type 1 diabetes is characterized by absolute loss of beta cells due to autoimmune-mediated destruction. Type 2 diabetes is characterized by relative deficiency of beta cells due to lack of compensation for insulin resistance. Restoration of deficient beta cell mass by transplantation from exogenous sources or by endogenous regeneration of insulin-producing cells would be therapeutic options. Mature beta cells have an ability to proliferate; however, it has been shown to be difficult to expand adult beta cells in vitro. Alternatively, regeneration of beta cells from embryonic and adult stem cells and pancreatic progenitor cells is an attractive method to restore islet cell mass. With information obtained from the biology of pancreatic development, direct differentiation of stem and progenitor cells toward a pancreatic beta cell phenotype has been tried using various strategies, including forced expression of beta cell-specific transcription factors. Further research is required to understand how endogenous beta cells differentiate and to develop methods to regenerate beta cells for clinically applicable therapies for diabetes.

  17. Thermophilic Beta-Glycosidase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grogan, Dennis W.

    1992-01-01

    Report describes identification of thermophilic Beta-glycosidase enzyme from isolate of Sulfolobus solfataricus, sulfur-metabolizing archaebacteria growing aerobically and heterotrophically to relatively high cell yields. Enzyme useful in enzymatic conversion of cellulose to D-glucose and important in recycling of biomass. Used for removal of lactose from milk products. Offers promise as model substance for elucidation of basic principles of structural stabilization of proteins.

  18. Backscatter Modeling at 2.1 Micron Wavelength for Space-Based and Airborne Lidars Using Aerosol Physico-Chemical and Lidar Datasets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srivastava, V.; Rothermel, J.; Jarzembski, M. A.; Clarke, A. D.; Cutten, D. R.; Bowdle, D. A.; Spinhirne, J. D.; Menzies, R. T.

    1999-01-01

    Space-based and airborne coherent Doppler lidars designed for measuring global tropospheric wind profiles in cloud-free air rely on backscatter, beta from aerosols acting as passive wind tracers. Aerosol beta distribution in the vertical can vary over as much as 5-6 orders of magnitude. Thus, the design of a wave length-specific, space-borne or airborne lidar must account for the magnitude of 8 in the region or features of interest. The SPAce Readiness Coherent Lidar Experiment under development by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and scheduled for launch on the Space Shuttle in 2001, will demonstrate wind measurements from space using a solid-state 2 micrometer coherent Doppler lidar. Consequently, there is a critical need to understand variability of aerosol beta at 2.1 micrometers, to evaluate signal detection under varying aerosol loading conditions. Although few direct measurements of beta at 2.1 micrometers exist, extensive datasets, including climatologies in widely-separated locations, do exist for other wavelengths based on CO2 and Nd:YAG lidars. Datasets also exist for the associated microphysical and chemical properties. An example of a multi-parametric dataset is that of the NASA GLObal Backscatter Experiment (GLOBE) in 1990 in which aerosol chemistry and size distributions were measured concurrently with multi-wavelength lidar backscatter observations. More recently, continuous-wave (CW) lidar backscatter measurements at mid-infrared wavelengths have been made during the Multicenter Airborne Coherent Atmospheric Wind Sensor (MACAWS) experiment in 1995. Using Lorenz-Mie theory, these datasets have been used to develop a method to convert lidar backscatter to the 2.1 micrometer wavelength. This paper presents comparison of modeled backscatter at wavelengths for which backscatter measurements exist including converted beta (sub 2.1).

  19. Radiative heating rates during AAOE and AASE. [Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment and Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenfield, Joan E.

    1990-01-01

    Radiative transit computations of heating rates utilizing data from the 1987 Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment (AAOE) (Tuck et al., 1989) and the 1989 Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Experiment (AASE) (Turco et al., 1990) are described. Observed temperature and ozone profiles and a radiative transfer model are used to compute the heating rates for the Southern Hemisphere during AAOE and the Northern Hemisphere during AASE. The AASE average cooling rates computed inside the vortex are in good agreement with the diabatic cooling rates estimated from the ER-2 profile data for N2O for the AASE period (Schoeberl et al., 1989).

  20. Airborne lidar experiments at the Savannah River Plant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krabill, William B.; Swift, Robert N.

    1985-01-01

    The results of remote sensing experiments at the Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Nuclear Facility utilizing the NASA Airborne Oceanographic Lidar (AOL) are presented. The flights were conducted in support of the numerous environmental monitoring requirements associated with the operation of the facility and for the purpose of furthering research and development of airborne lidar technology. Areas of application include airborne laser topographic mapping, hydrologic studies using fluorescent tracer dye, timber volume estimation, baseline characterization of wetlands, and aquatic chlorophyll and photopigment measurements. Conclusions relative to the usability of airborne lidar technology for the DOE for each of these remote sensing applications are discussed.

  1. Raytheon low temperature RSP2 cryocooler airborne testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, B. R.; Bellis, L.; Ellis, M. J.; Conrad, T. J.

    2014-01-01

    The Raytheon Cryocooler Product Line tested the Low Temperature Stirling / Pulse Tube Hybrid 2-Stage (LTRSP2) cryocooler for an airborne application during 2012. Several tests were carried out to verify the ability of the machine to operate in an airborne environment. The vacuum level and heat rejection surface temperatures were varied to determine the performance over the excursions. Vibration testing was performed to prove that the LT-RSP2 cryocooler can operate on an airborne platform. This paper will present the results of the airborne characterization testing.

  2. Raytheon low temperature RSP2 cryocooler airborne testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, B. R.; Bellis, L.; Ellis, M. J.; Conrad, T. J.

    2013-09-01

    The Raytheon Cryocooler Product Line tested the Low Temperature Stirling / Pulse Tube Hybrid 2-Stage (LTRSP2) cryocooler for an airborne application during 2012. Several tests were carried out to verify the ability of the machine to operate in an airborne environment. The vacuum level and heat rejection surface temperatures were varied to determine the performance over the excursions. Vibration testing was performed to prove that the LT-RSP2 cryocooler can operate on an airborne platform. This paper will present the results of the airborne characterization testing.

  3. Absorption-Desorption Compressor for Spaceborne/Airborne Cryogenic Refrigerators.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Refrigerant compressors, *Refrigeration systems), Spaceborne, Airborne, Cryogenics, Gases, Absorption, Desorption, Hydrogen, Hydrides, Lanthanum compounds, Nickel alloys, Joule Thomson effect , Heat transfer

  4. Toolsets for Airborne Data - URS and New Documentation

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2015-03-23

    ... missions, documentation, and EOSDIS User Registration System (URS) authentication. This web application features an intuitive user interface for variable selection across different airborne field studies and ...

  5. 5 CFR 890.1112 - Denial of continuation of coverage due to involuntary separation for gross misconduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... involuntary separation for gross misconduct. 890.1112 Section 890.1112 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF... involuntary separation for gross misconduct. (a) Notice of denial. (1) When an employing office determines that the offense for which an employee is being removed constitutes gross misconduct for the purpose...

  6. Effects of land use change on soil gross nitrogen transformation rates in subtropical acid soils of Southwest China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yongbo; Xu, Zhihong

    2015-07-01

    Land use change affects soil gross nitrogen (N) transformations, but such information is particularly lacking under subtropical conditions. A study was carried out to investigate the potential gross N transformation rates in forest and agricultural (converted from the forest) soils in subtropical China. The simultaneously occurring gross N transformations in soil were quantified by a (15)N tracing study under aerobic conditions. The results showed that change of land use types substantially altered most gross N transformation rates. The gross ammonification and nitrification rates were significantly higher in the agricultural soils than in the forest soils, while the reverse was true for the gross N immobilization rates. The higher total carbon (C) concentrations and C / N ratio in the forest soils relative to the agricultural soils were related to the greater gross N immobilization rates in the forest soils. The lower gross ammonification combined with negligible gross nitrification rates, but much higher gross N immobilization rates in the forest soils than in the agricultural soils suggest that this may be a mechanism to effectively conserve available mineral N in the forest soils through increasing microbial biomass N, the relatively labile organic N. The greater gross nitrification rates and lower gross N immobilization rates in the agricultural soils suggest that conversion of forests to agricultural soils may exert more negative effects on the environment by N loss through NO3 (-) leaching or denitrification (when conditions for denitrification exist).

  7. The one-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii equation and its some excitation states

    SciTech Connect

    Prayitno, T. B.

    2015-04-16

    We have derived some excitation states of the one-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii equation coupled by the gravitational potential. The methods that we have used here are taken by pursuing the recent work of Kivshar et. al. by considering the equation as a macroscopic quantum oscillator. To obtain the states, we have made the appropriate transformation to reduce the three-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii equation into the one-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii equation and applying the time-independent perturbation theory in the general solution of the one-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii equation as a linear superposition of the normalized eigenfunctions of the Schrödinger equation for the harmonic oscillator potential. Moreover, we also impose the condition by assuming that some terms in the equation should be so small in order to preserve the use of the perturbation method.

  8. The one-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii equation and its some excitation states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prayitno, T. B.

    2015-04-01

    We have derived some excitation states of the one-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii equation coupled by the gravitational potential. The methods that we have used here are taken by pursuing the recent work of Kivshar et. al. by considering the equation as a macroscopic quantum oscillator. To obtain the states, we have made the appropriate transformation to reduce the three-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii equation into the one-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii equation and applying the time-independent perturbation theory in the general solution of the one-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii equation as a linear superposition of the normalized eigenfunctions of the Schrödinger equation for the harmonic oscillator potential. Moreover, we also impose the condition by assuming that some terms in the equation should be so small in order to preserve the use of the perturbation method.

  9. Analysis of historical gross gamma logging data from BY tank farm

    SciTech Connect

    MYERS, D.A.

    1999-10-13

    Gross gamma ray logs, recorded from January 1975 through mid-year 1994 as part of the Single-Shell Tank Farm Dry Well Surveillance Program, have been reanalyzed for the BY tank farm to locate the presence of mobile radionuclides in the subsurface. This report presents the BY tank farm gross gamma ray data in such a way as to assist others in their study of vadose zone mechanisms.

  10. Gross Deletions Involving IGHM, BTK, or Artemis: A Model for Genomic Lesions Mediated by Transposable Elements

    PubMed Central

    van Zelm, Menno C.; Geertsema, Corinne; Nieuwenhuis, Nicole; de Ridder, Dick; Conley, Mary Ellen; Schiff, Claudine; Tezcan, Ilhan; Bernatowska, Ewa; Hartwig, Nico G.; Sanders, Elisabeth A.M.; Litzman, Jiri; Kondratenko, Irina; van Dongen, Jacques J.M.; van der Burg, Mirjam

    2008-01-01

    Most genetic disruptions underlying human disease are microlesions, whereas gross lesions are rare with gross deletions being most frequently found (6%). Similar observations have been made in primary immunodeficiency genes, such as BTK, but for unknown reasons the IGHM and DCLRE1C (Artemis) gene defects frequently represent gross deletions (∼60%). We characterized the gross deletion breakpoints in IGHM-, BTK-, and Artemis-deficient patients. The IGHM deletion breakpoints did not show involvement of recombination signal sequences or immunoglobulin switch regions. Instead, five IGHM, eight BTK, and five unique Artemis breakpoints were located in or near sequences derived from transposable elements (TE). The breakpoints of four out of five disrupted Artemis alleles were located in highly homologous regions, similar to Ig subclass deficiencies and Vh deletion polymorphisms. Nevertheless, these observations suggest a role for TEs in mediating gross deletions. The identified gross deletion breakpoints were mostly located in TE subclasses that were specifically overrepresented in the involved gene as compared to the average in the human genome. This concerned both long (LINE1) and short (Alu, MIR) interspersed elements, as well as LTR retrotransposons (ERV). Furthermore, a high total TE content (>40%) was associated with an increased frequency of gross deletions. Both findings were further investigated and confirmed in a total set of 20 genes disrupted in human disease. Thus, to our knowledge for the first time, we provide evidence that a high TE content, irrespective of the type of element, results in the increased incidence of gross deletions as gene disruption underlying human disease. PMID:18252213

  11. Comparison of a gross anatomy laboratory to online anatomy software for teaching anatomy.

    PubMed

    Mathiowetz, Virgil; Yu, Chih-Huang; Quake-Rapp, Cindee

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the grades, self-perceived learning, and satisfaction between occupational therapy students who used a gross anatomy laboratory versus online anatomy software (AnatomyTV) as tools to learn anatomy at a large public university and a satellite campus in the mid-western United States. The goal was to determine if equivalent learning outcomes could be achieved regardless of learning tool used. In addition, it was important to determine why students chose the gross anatomy laboratory over online AnatomyTV. A two group, post-test only design was used with data gathered at the end of the course. Primary outcomes were students' grades, self-perceived learning, and satisfaction. In addition, a survey was used to collect descriptive data. One cadaver prosection was available for every four students in the gross anatomy laboratory. AnatomyTV was available online through the university library. At the conclusion of the course, the gross anatomy laboratory group had significantly higher grade percentage, self-perceived learning, and satisfaction than the AnatomyTV group. However, the practical significance of the difference is debatable. The significantly greater time spent in gross anatomy laboratory during the laboratory portion of the course may have affected the study outcomes. In addition, some students may find the difference in (B+) versus (A-) grade as not practically significant. Further research needs to be conducted to identify what specific anatomy teaching resources are most effective beyond prosection for students without access to a gross anatomy laboratory.

  12. Airborne Astronomy Symposium. A symposium commemorating the tenth anniversary of operations of the Kuiper Airborne Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thronson, H. A., Jr. (Editor); Erickson, E. F. (Editor)

    1984-01-01

    Airborne infrared astronomy is discussed with respect to observations of the solar system, stars, star formation, and the interstellar medium. Far infrared characteristics of the Milky Way, its center, and other galaxies are considered. The instrumentation associated with IR astronomy is addressed.

  13. NEON Airborne Remote Sensing of Terrestrial Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kampe, T. U.; Leisso, N.; Krause, K.; Karpowicz, B. M.

    2012-12-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is the continental-scale research platform that will collect information on ecosystems across the United States to advance our understanding and ability to forecast environmental change at the continental scale. One of NEON's observing systems, the Airborne Observation Platform (AOP), will fly an instrument suite consisting of a high-fidelity visible-to-shortwave infrared imaging spectrometer, a full waveform small footprint LiDAR, and a high-resolution digital camera on a low-altitude aircraft platform. NEON AOP is focused on acquiring data on several terrestrial Essential Climate Variables including bioclimate, biodiversity, biogeochemistry, and land use products. These variables are collected throughout a network of 60 sites across the Continental United States, Alaska, Hawaii and Puerto Rico via ground-based and airborne measurements. Airborne remote sensing plays a critical role by providing measurements at the scale of individual shrubs and larger plants over hundreds of square kilometers. The NEON AOP plays the role of bridging the spatial scales from that of individual organisms and stands to the scale of satellite-based remote sensing. NEON is building 3 airborne systems to facilitate the routine coverage of NEON sites and provide the capacity to respond to investigator requests for specific projects. The first NEON imaging spectrometer, a next-generation VSWIR instrument, was recently delivered to NEON by JPL. This instrument has been integrated with a small-footprint waveform LiDAR on the first NEON airborne platform (AOP-1). A series of AOP-1 test flights were conducted during the first year of NEON's construction phase. The goal of these flights was to test out instrument functionality and performance, exercise remote sensing collection protocols, and provide provisional data for algorithm and data product validation. These test flights focused the following questions: What is the optimal remote

  14. Airborne laser-guided imaging spectroscopy to map forest trait diversity and guide conservation.

    PubMed

    Asner, G P; Martin, R E; Knapp, D E; Tupayachi, R; Anderson, C B; Sinca, F; Vaughn, N R; Llactayo, W

    2017-01-27

    Functional biogeography may bridge a gap between field-based biodiversity information and satellite-based Earth system studies, thereby supporting conservation plans to protect more species and their contributions to ecosystem functioning. We used airborne laser-guided imaging spectroscopy with environmental modeling to derive large-scale, multivariate forest canopy functional trait maps of the Peruvian Andes-to-Amazon biodiversity hotspot. Seven mapped canopy traits revealed functional variation in a geospatial pattern explained by geology, topography, hydrology, and climate. Clustering of canopy traits yielded a map of forest beta functional diversity for land-use analysis. Up to 53% of each mapped, functionally distinct forest presents an opportunity for new conservation action. Mapping functional diversity advances our understanding of the biosphere to conserve more biodiversity in the face of land use and climate change.

  15. Even Shallower Exploration with Airborne Electromagnetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auken, E.; Christiansen, A. V.; Kirkegaard, C.; Nyboe, N. S.; Sørensen, K.

    2015-12-01

    Airborne electromagnetics (EM) is in many ways undergoing the same type rapid technological development as seen in the telecommunication industry. These developments are driven by a steadily increasing demand for exploration of minerals, groundwater and geotechnical targets. The latter two areas demand shallow and accurate resolution of the near surface geology in terms of both resistivity and spatial delineation of the sedimentary layers. Airborne EM systems measure the grounds electromagnetic response when subject to either a continuous discrete sinusoidal transmitter signal (frequency domain) or by measuring the decay of currents induced in the ground by rapid transmission of transient pulses (time domain). In the last decade almost all new developments of both instrument hardware and data processing techniques has focused around time domain systems. Here we present a concept for measuring the time domain response even before the transient transmitter current has been turned off. Our approach relies on a combination of new instrument hardware and novel modeling algorithms. The newly developed hardware allows for measuring the instruments complete transfer function which is convolved with the synthetic earth response in the inversion algorithm. The effect is that earth response data measured while the transmitter current is turned off can be included in the inversion, significantly increasing the amount of available information. We demonstrate the technique using both synthetic and field data. The synthetic examples provide insight on the physics during the turn off process and the field examples document the robustness of the method. Geological near surface structures can now be resolved to a degree that is unprecedented to the best of our knowledge, making airborne EM even more attractive and cost-effective for exploration of water and minerals that are crucial for the function of our societies.

  16. Airborne seeker evaluation and test system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jollie, William B.

    1991-08-01

    The Airborne Seeker Evaluation Test System (ASETS) is an airborne platform for development, test, and evaluation of air-to-ground seekers and sensors. ASETS consists of approximately 10,000 pounds of equipment, including sixteen racks of control, display, and recording electronics, and a very large stabilized airborne turret, all carried by a modified C- 130A aircraft. The turret measures 50 in. in diameter and extends over 50 in. below the aircraft. Because of the low ground clearance of the C-130, a unique retractor mechanism was designed to raise the turret inside the aircraft for take-offs and landings, and deploy the turret outside the aircraft for testing. The turret has over 7 cubic feet of payload space and can accommodate up to 300 pounds of instrumentation, including missile seekers, thermal imagers, infrared mapping systems, laser systems, millimeter wave radar units, television cameras, and laser rangers. It contains a 5-axis gyro-stabilized gimbal system that will maintain a line of sight in the pitch, roll, and yaw axes to an accuracy better than +/- 125 (mu) rad. The rack-mounted electronics in the aircraft cargo bay can be interchanged to operate any type of sensor and record the data. Six microcomputer subsystems operate and maintain all of the system components during a test mission. ASETS is capable of flying at altitudes between 200 and 20,000 feet, and at airspeeds ranging from 100 to 250 knots. Mission scenarios can include air-to-surface seeker testing, terrain mapping, surface target measurement, air-to-air testing, atmospheric transmission studies, weather data collection, aircraft or missile tracking, background signature measurements, and surveillance. ASETS is fully developed and available to support test programs.

  17. Exposure to airborne microorganisms in furniture factories.

    PubMed

    Krysińska-Traczyk, Ewa; Skórska, Czesława; Cholewa, Grazyna; Sitkowska, Jolanta; Milanowski, Janusz; Dutkiewicz, Jacek

    2002-01-01

    Microbiological air sampling was performed in 2 furniture factories located in eastern Poland. In one factory furniture were made from fibreboards and chipboards while in the other from beech wood. It was found that the concentration of total microorganisms (bacteria + fungi) in the air of the facility using beech wood for furniture production (mean 10.7 x (3) cfu/m(3), range 3.3 27.5 x (3) cfu/m(3)) was significantly higher (p < 0.01) compared to microbial concentration in the facility using fibre- and chipboards (mean 3.6 x (3) cfu/m(3), range 1.9-6.2 x (3) cfu/m(3)). On average, the commonest microorganisms in the air of the furniture factories were corynebacteria (Corynebacterium spp., Arthrobacter spp., Brevibacterium spp.) which formed 18.1-50.0% of the total airborne microflora, and fungi (mostly Aspergillus spp., Penicillium spp., Absidia spp. and yeasts) which formed 6.2-54.4% of the total count. The values of the respirable fraction of airborne microflora in the furniture factories varied within fairly wide limits and were between 15.0-62.4%. Altogether, 28 species or genera of bacteria and 12 species or genera of fungi were identified in the air of examined factories, of which respectively 8 and 7 species or genera were reported as having allergenic and/or immunotoxic properties. In conclusion, the workers of furniture factories are exposed to relatively low concentrations of airborne microorganisms which do not exceed the suggested occupational exposure limits. Nevertheless, the presence of allergenic and/or immunotoxic microbial species in the air of factories poses a potential risk of respiratory disease, in particular in sensitive workers.

  18. Airborne optical detection of oil on water.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millard, J. P.; Arvesen, J. C.

    1972-01-01

    Airborne measurements were made over controlled oil-spill test sites to evaluate various techniques, utilizing reflected sunlight, for detecting oil on water. The results of these measurements show that (1) maximum contrast between oil and water is in the UV and red portions of the spectrum; (2) minimum contrast is in the blue-green; (3) differential polarization appears to be a very promising technique; (4) no characteristic absorption bands, which would permit one oil to be distinguished from another, were discovered in the spectral regions measured; (5) sky conditions greatly influence the contrast between oil and water; and (6) highest contrast was achieved under overcast sky conditions.

  19. A prospectus on airborne laser mapping systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Link, L. E.; Krabill, W. B.; Swift, R. N.

    1983-01-01

    Airborne laser systems have demonstrated enormous potential for topographic and bathymetric mapping. Both profiling and scanning systems have been evaluated for terrain elevation mapping, stream valley cross-section determination, and nearshore bottom profiling. Performance of the laser systems has been impressive and for some applications matches current operational accuracy requirements. Determining the position of individual laser measurements remains a constraint for most applications. Laser technology constrains some terrain and bathymetric applications, particularly for water penetration and frequency of measurements for high-spatial resolution over large areas.

  20. Aircraft deployment, and airborne arctic stratospheric expedition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Condon, Estelle; Tuck, Adrian; Hipskind, Steve; Toon, Brian; Wegener, Steve

    1990-01-01

    The Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition had two primary objectives: to study the production and loss mechanisms of ozone in the north polar stratosphere and to study the effect on ozone distribution of the Arctic Polar Vortex and of the cold temperatures associated with the formation of Polar Stratospheric Clouds. Two specially instrumented NASA aircraft were flown over the Arctic region. Each aircraft flew to acquire data on the meteorological, chemical and cloud physical phenomena that occur in the polar stratosphere during winter. The chemical processes which occur in the polar stratosphere during winter were also observed and studied. The data acquired are being analyzed.

  1. Highly Protable Airborne Multispectral Imaging System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lehnemann, Robert; Mcnamee, Todd

    2001-01-01

    A portable instrumentation system is described that includes and airborne and a ground-based subsytem. It can acquire multispectral image data over swaths of terrain ranging in width from about 1.5 to 1 km. The system was developed especially for use in coastal environments and is well suited for performing remote sensing and general environmental monitoring. It includes a small,munpilotaed, remotely controlled airplance that carries a forward-looking camera for navigation, three downward-looking monochrome video cameras for imaging terrain in three spectral bands, a video transmitter, and a Global Positioning System (GPS) reciever.

  2. The fate of airborne polycyclic organic matter.

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, T; Ramdahl, T; Bjørseth, A

    1983-01-01

    Biological tests have shown that a significant part of the mutagenicity of organic extracts of collected airborne particulate matter is not due to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). It is possible that part of these unknown compounds are transformation products of PAH. This survey focuses on the reaction of PAH in the atmosphere with other copollutants, such as nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, ozone and free radicals and their reaction products. Photochemically induced reactions of PAH are also included. The reactivity of particle-associated PAH is discussed in relation to the chemical composition and the physical properties of the carrier. Recommendations for future work are given. PMID:6825615

  3. Refractive acoustic devices for airborne sound.

    PubMed

    Cervera, F; Sanchis, L; Sánchez-Pérez, J V; Martínez-Sala, R; Rubio, C; Meseguer, F; López, C; Caballero, D; Sánchez-Dehesa, J

    2002-01-14

    We show that a sonic crystal made of periodic distributions of rigid cylinders in air acts as a new material which allows the construction of refractive acoustic devices for airborne sound. It is demonstrated that, in the long-wave regime, the crystal has low impedance and the sound is transmitted at subsonic velocities. Here, the fabrication and characterization of a convergent lens are presented. Also, an example of a Fabry-Perot interferometer based on this crystal is analyzed. It is concluded that refractive devices based on sonic crystals behave in a manner similar to that of optical systems.

  4. A spherical gas bearing for airborne application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bouvier, A.; Schmertz, J. C.

    1974-01-01

    A spherical gas bearing is analyzed and tested for an airborne application. The externally pressurized bearing supports an inertially stabilized 36-in aperture, infrared telescope. The bearing provides the isolation of rotary motion from the aircraft and also serves as a seal between the aircraft cabin and cavity condition at 50,000 ft altitude. The accompanying temperature gradient of 135 F across the 16-in.-diam bearing created special design and manufacturing considerations. Test data on the static load under temperature and vacuum environment are presented in support of the analysis.

  5. Airborne Data Link Operational Evaluation Test Plan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-08-01

    Peg* 1. Rep meft .2. Gowe,; , Accessio, No. 3. Recspsent’s Catel " No. DOT/FAA/CT-TN93/30 I 4. Title and Subtite 5. Roep,, .t. AIRBORNE DATA LINK...320 15. Supplementary Notes 16 . Abstract This plan desci. s an end-to-end study of operational concepts and procedures associated with the introduction...4.4 Dependent Measures 9 4.5 ATC Messages 14 4.6 Flight Scenarios 14 4.7 Support Personnel 15 4.8 Data Reduction and Analysis 16 5. SCHEDULE 16 5.1

  6. Stressed detector arrays for airborne astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stacey, G. J.; Beeman, J. W.; Haller, E. E.; Geis, N.; Poglitsch, A.; Rumitz, M.

    1989-01-01

    The development of stressed Ge:Ga detector arrays for far-infrared astronomy from the Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO) is discussed. Researchers successfully constructed and used a three channel detector array on five flights from the KAO, and have conducted laboratory tests of a two-dimensional, 25 elements (5x5) detector array. Each element of the three element array performs as well as the researchers' best single channel detector, as do the tested elements of the 25 channel system. Some of the exciting new science possible with far-infrared detector arrays is also discussed.

  7. Airborne Bistatic Radar Limitations and Sample Calculations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-01

    Any parameter which maximizes the viewing area of the receiver platform is a prime candidate for change if the transmitter wishes to deny or decrease...AES-19, NO. 4, 513-520 (July 1983) 4. Lorti , D. "Airborne Bistatic RadaL Operation With Non-Cooperative Transmitters," Aeronautical Systems Divi- ’V...nology Center. Contract DASG60-82-C-0014 with McDonnell Douglas Research Labs. Huntsville AL. July 1982. 7. Moreno, C, and D. Lorti . "Tactical

  8. Electrical charge measurements on fine airborne particles

    SciTech Connect

    Tardos, G.I.; Dietz, P.W.; Snaddon, R.W.L.

    1984-11-01

    A small parallel-plate precipitator and a theoretical collection model have been used to determine the distribution of charges acquired by monodisperse airborne polystyrene latex particles in a corona charger. The mean charge based on the total number of particles was found to be slightly higher than half the predicted saturation charge, and it agreed well with independent measurements made in a Faraday cage particle separator. The importance of careful measurements of particle charge in fine particle transport studies is highlighted by a discussion of the effect of charge (particle mobility) distribution width on observed transport characteristics.

  9. Decontamination of airborne bacteria in meat processing plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effectiveness of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generating AirOcare equipment on the reduction of airborne bacteria in a meat processing environment was determined. Bacterial strains found in ground beef were used to artificially contaminate the air using a 6-jet Collison nebulizer. Airborne bact...

  10. 14 CFR 135.173 - Airborne thunderstorm detection equipment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Airborne thunderstorm detection equipment... Aircraft and Equipment § 135.173 Airborne thunderstorm detection equipment requirements. (a) No person may... the aircraft is equipped with either approved thunderstorm detection equipment or approved...

  11. 14 CFR 135.173 - Airborne thunderstorm detection equipment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Airborne thunderstorm detection equipment... Aircraft and Equipment § 135.173 Airborne thunderstorm detection equipment requirements. (a) No person may... the aircraft is equipped with either approved thunderstorm detection equipment or approved...

  12. 14 CFR 135.173 - Airborne thunderstorm detection equipment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airborne thunderstorm detection equipment... Aircraft and Equipment § 135.173 Airborne thunderstorm detection equipment requirements. (a) No person may... the aircraft is equipped with either approved thunderstorm detection equipment or approved...

  13. 14 CFR 135.173 - Airborne thunderstorm detection equipment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Airborne thunderstorm detection equipment... Aircraft and Equipment § 135.173 Airborne thunderstorm detection equipment requirements. (a) No person may... the aircraft is equipped with either approved thunderstorm detection equipment or approved...

  14. 14 CFR 135.173 - Airborne thunderstorm detection equipment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Airborne thunderstorm detection equipment... Aircraft and Equipment § 135.173 Airborne thunderstorm detection equipment requirements. (a) No person may... the aircraft is equipped with either approved thunderstorm detection equipment or approved...

  15. UAVSAR: An Airborne Window on Earth Surface Deformation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hensley, Scott

    2011-01-01

    This study demonstrates that UAVSAR's precision autopilot and electronic steering have allowed for the reliable collection of airborne repeat pass radar interferometric data for deformation mapping. Deformation maps from temporal scales ranging from hours to months over a variety of signals of geophysical interest illustrate the utility of UAVSAR airborne repeat pass interferometry to these studies.

  16. Enumerating Spore-Forming Bacteria Airborne with Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Ying; Barengoltz, Jack

    2006-01-01

    A laboratory method has been conceived to enable the enumeration of (1) Cultivable bacteria and bacterial spores that are, variously, airborne by themselves or carried by, parts of, or otherwise associated with, other airborne particles; and (2) Spore-forming bacteria among all of the aforementioned cultivable microbes.

  17. 54. DETAIL OF GENERAL ELECTRIC AIRBORNE BEACON EQUIPMENT TEST SET ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    54. DETAIL OF GENERAL ELECTRIC AIRBORNE BEACON EQUIPMENT TEST SET (LEFT) AND ASSOCIATED GOULD BRUSH CHART RECORDERS (RIGHT). ELAPSED TIME COUNTER SITS ATOP AIRBORNE BEACON EQUIPMENT TEST SET. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Operations Building, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  18. SOFIA's Airborne Astronomy Ambassadors: An External Evaluation of Cycle 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) represents a partnership between NASA and the German Aerospace Center (DLR). The observatory itself is a Boeing 747 SP that has been modified to serve as the world's largest airborne research observatory. The SOFIA Airborne Astronomy Ambassadors (AAA) program is a component of SOFIA's…

  19. OPTIMIZING THE PAKS METHOD FOR MEASURING AIRBORNE ACROLEIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Airborne acrolein is produced from the combustion of fuel and tobacco and is of concern due to its potential for respiratory tract irritation and other adverse health effects. DNPH active-sampling is a method widely used for sampling airborne aldehydes and ketones (carbonyls); ...

  20. 59 FR- Method Development for Airborne Mycobacterium Tuberculosis; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1994-03-07

    ... Tuberculosis; Meeting The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) of the Centers for... Airborne Mycobacterium Tuberculosis. Time and Date: 1 p.m.-5 p.m., March 29, 1994. Place: Alice Hamilton... peer review of a NIOSH project entitled ``Method Development For Airborne Mycobacterium...

  1. Simultaneous beta and gamma spectroscopy

    DOEpatents

    Farsoni, Abdollah T.; Hamby, David M.

    2010-03-23

    A phoswich radiation detector for simultaneous spectroscopy of beta rays and gamma rays includes three scintillators with different decay time characteristics. Two of the three scintillators are used for beta detection and the third scintillator is used for gamma detection. A pulse induced by an interaction of radiation with the detector is digitally analyzed to classify the type of event as beta, gamma, or unknown. A pulse is classified as a beta event if the pulse originated from just the first scintillator alone or from just the first and the second scintillator. A pulse from just the third scintillator is recorded as gamma event. Other pulses are rejected as unknown events.

  2. Stellar Occultations from Airborne Platforms: 1988 to 2016

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosh, Amanda S.; Dunham, Edward W.; Zuluaga, Carlos; Levine, Stephen; Person, Michael J.; Van Cleve, Jeffrey E.

    2016-10-01

    Observing a stellar occultation by a solar system body with an airborne telescope requires precise positioning of the observer within the shadow cast onto the Earth. For small bodies like Pluto and Kuiper Belt objects, smaller than the Earth, the challenge is particularly intense, with the accuracy of the astrometric and flight planning determining whether the observation succeeds or fails. From our first airborne occultation by Pluto in 1988 aboard the Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO), to our most recent event by Pluto in 2015 aboard the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA), we have refined our astrometric and flight planning systems to the point where we can now place an airborne observer into the small central flash zone. We will discuss the history of airborne observation of occultations while detailing the improvements in the astrometric processes. Support for this work was provided by NASA SSO grant NNX15AJ82G to Lowell Observatory.

  3. Study on analysis from sources of error for Airborne LIDAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, H. C.; Yan, Q.; Liu, Z. J.; Zuo, Z. Q.; Xu, Q. Q.; Li, F. F.; Song, C.

    2016-11-01

    With the advancement of Aerial Photogrammetry, it appears that to obtain geo-spatial information of high spatial and temporal resolution provides a new technical means for Airborne LIDAR measurement techniques, with unique advantages and broad application prospects. Airborne LIDAR is increasingly becoming a new kind of space for earth observation technology, which is mounted by launching platform for aviation, accepting laser pulses to get high-precision, high-density three-dimensional coordinate point cloud data and intensity information. In this paper, we briefly demonstrates Airborne laser radar systems, and that some errors about Airborne LIDAR data sources are analyzed in detail, so the corresponding methods is put forwarded to avoid or eliminate it. Taking into account the practical application of engineering, some recommendations were developed for these designs, which has crucial theoretical and practical significance in Airborne LIDAR data processing fields.

  4. CO2 Budget and Rectification Airborne Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grainger, C. A.

    2004-01-01

    The main purpose of this award was to supply a platform for the airborne measurements of gases associated with the CO2 Budget and Regional Airborne Study (COBRA). The original program was to consist of three field programs: the first was to be in 1999, the second in 2000, and the third in 2001. At the end of the second field program, it was agreed that the science could better be served by making the measurements in northern Brazil, rather than in North America. The final North American program would be postponed until after two field programs in Brazil. A substantial amount of effort was diverted into making plans and preparations for the Brazil field programs. The Brazil field programs were originally scheduled to take place in the Fall of 2002 and Spring of 2003. Carrying out the field program in Brazil was going to logistically much more involved than a program in the US. Shipping of equipment, customs, and site preparations required work to begin many months prior to the actual measurement program. Permission to fly in that country was also not trivial and indeed proved to be a major obstacle. When we were not able to get permission to fly in Brazil for the 2002 portion of the experiment, the program was pushed back to 2003. When permission by the Brazilian government was not given in time for a Spring of 2003 field program, the experiment was postponed again to begin in the Fall of 2003.

  5. Calibration Matters: Advances in Strapdown Airborne Gravimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, D.

    2015-12-01

    Using a commercial navigation-grade strapdown inertial measurement unit (IMU) for airborne gravimetry can be advantageous in terms of cost, handling, and space consumption compared to the classical stable-platform spring gravimeters. Up to now, however, large sensor errors made it impossible to reach the mGal-level using such type IMUs as they are not designed or optimized for this kind of application. Apart from a proper error-modeling in the filtering process, specific calibration methods that are tailored to the application of aerogravity may help to bridge this gap and to improve their performance. Based on simulations, a quantitative analysis is presented on how much IMU sensor errors, as biases, scale factors, cross couplings, and thermal drifts distort the determination of gravity and the deflection of the vertical (DOV). Several lab and in-field calibration methods are briefly discussed, and calibration results are shown for an iMAR RQH unit. In particular, a thermal lab calibration of its QA2000 accelerometers greatly improved the long-term drift behavior. Latest results from four recent airborne gravimetry campaigns confirm the effectiveness of the calibrations applied, with cross-over accuracies reaching 1.0 mGal (0.6 mGal after cross-over adjustment) and DOV accuracies reaching 1.1 arc seconds after cross-over adjustment.

  6. Spatial variability in airborne pollen concentrations.

    PubMed

    Raynor, G S; Ogden, E C; Hayes, J V

    1975-03-01

    Tests were conducted to determine the relationship between airborne pollen concentrations and distance. Simultaneous samples were taken in 171 tests with sets of eight rotoslide samplers spaced from one to 486 M. apart in straight lines. Use of all possible pairs gave 28 separation distances. Tests were conducted over a 2-year period in urban and rural locations distant from major pollen sources during both tree and ragweed pollen seasons. Samples were taken at a height of 1.5 M. during 5-to 20-minute periods. Tests were grouped by pollen type, location, year, and direction of the wind relative to the line. Data were analyzed to evaluate variability without regard to sampler spacing and variability as a function of separation distance. The mean, standard deviation, coefficient of variation, ratio of maximum to the mean, and ratio of minimum to the mean were calculated for each test, each group of tests, and all cases. The average coefficient of variation is 0.21, the maximum over the mean, 1.39 and the minimum over the mean, 0.69. No relationship was found with experimental conditions. Samples taken at the minimum separation distance had a mean difference of 18 per cent. Differences between pairs of samples increased with distance in 10 of 13 groups. These results suggest that airborne pollens are not always well mixed in the lower atmosphere and that a sample becomes less representative with increasing distance from the sampling location.

  7. Asthmatic responses to airborne acid aerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Ostro, B.D.; Lipsett, M.J.; Wiener, M.B.; Selner, J.C. )

    1991-06-01

    Controlled exposure studies suggest that asthmatics may be more sensitive to the respiratory effects of acidic aerosols than individuals without asthma. This study investigates whether acidic aerosols and other air pollutants are associated with respiratory symptoms in free-living asthmatics. Daily concentrations of hydrogen ion (H+), nitric acid, fine particulates, sulfates and nitrates were obtained during an intensive air monitoring effort in Denver, Colorado, in the winter of 1987-88. A panel of 207 asthmatics recorded respiratory symptoms, frequency of medication use, and related information in daily diaries. We used a multiple regression time-series model to analyze which air pollutants, if any, were associated with health outcomes reported by study participants. Airborne H+ was found to be significantly associated with several indicators of asthma status, including moderate or severe cough and shortness of breath. Cough was also associated with fine particulates, and shortness of breath with sulfates. Incorporating the participants' time spent outside and exercise intensity into the daily measure of exposure strengthened the association between these pollutants and asthmatic symptoms. Nitric acid and nitrates were not significantly associated with any respiratory symptom analyzed. In this population of asthmatics, several outdoor air pollutants, particularly airborne acidity, were associated with daily respiratory symptoms.

  8. Airborne Dust in Space Vehicles and Habitats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John

    2006-01-01

    Airborne dust, suspended inside a space vehicle or in future celestial habitats, can present a serious threat to crew health if it is not controlled. During the Apollo missions to the moon, lunar dust brought inside the capsule caused eye irritation and breathing difficulty to the crew when they launched from the moon and re-acquired "microgravity." During Shuttle flights reactive and toxic dusts such as lithium hydroxide have created a risk to crew health, and fine particles from combustion events can be especially worrisome. Under nominal spaceflight conditions, airborne dusts and particles tend to be larger than on earth because of the absence of gravity settling. Aboard the ISS, dusts are effectively managed by HEPA filters, although floating dust in newly-arrived modules can be a nuisance. Future missions to the moon and to Mars will present additional challenges because of the possibility that external dust will enter the breathing atmosphere of the habitat and reach the crew's respiratory system. Testing with simulated lunar and Martian dust has shown that these materials are toxic when placed into the lungs of test animals. Defining and evaluating the physical and chemical properties of Martian dusts through robotic missions will challenge our ability to prepare better dust simulants and to determine the risk to crew health from exposure to such dusts.

  9. Filter algorithm for airborne LIDAR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qi; Ma, Hongchao; Wu, Jianwei; Tian, Liqiao; Qiu, Feng

    2007-11-01

    Airborne laser scanning data has become an accepted data source for highly automated acquisition of digital surface models(DSM) as well as for the generation of digital terrain models(DTM). To generate a high quality DTM using LIDAR data, 3D off-terrain points have to be separated from terrain points. Even though most LIDAR system can measure "last-return" data points, these "last-return" point often measure ground clutter like shrubbery, cars, buildings, and the canopy of dense foliage. Consequently, raw LIDAR points must be post-processed to remove these undesirable returns. The degree to which this post processing is successful is critical in determining whether LIDAR is cost effective for large-scale mapping application. Various techniques have been proposed to extract the ground surface from airborne LIDAR data. The basic problem is the separation of terrain points from off-terrain points which are both recorded by the LIDAR sensor. In this paper a new method, combination of morphological filtering and TIN densification, is proposed to separate 3D off-terrain points.

  10. Impact detection on airborne multilayered structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noharet, Bertrand; Chazelas, Jean; Bonniau, Philippe; Lecuellet, Jerome; Turpin, Marc J.

    1995-04-01

    This paper reviews the progress of an ongoing research program at Thomson-CSF and Bertin & Cie which addresses an optical fiber system dedicated to the assessment of impact induced damages on airborne multilayered structures. The method is based on the use of embedded high birefringence optical fiber sensors and distributed white light interfero-polarimetry. The first part is devoted to the transduction process efficiency within optical fibers depending on the applied force intensity, direction versus the fiber eigen axes and the interaction length. To understand the behavior of these optical fibers and calibrate the detection system, experiments have been conducted on elliptical core fibers, `bow-tie' fibers and side-hole fibers and showed a wide range of available sensitivities. The second step is related to the inclusion of optical fibers in a sandwich structure representative of an airborne dome, and composed of foam between glass/epoxy composite skins. Different designs of grooves in the foam and tube sheathings have been investigated to support and protect the optical fiber. Impacts have been performed on the structure in the 1 to 10 Joules energy range. Experimental impact location and energy measurements have been achieved for a variety of stress fields.

  11. Airborne Radar Interferometric Repeat-Pass Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hensley, Scott; Michel, Thierry R.; Jones, Cathleen E.; Muellerschoen, Ronald J.; Chapman, Bruce D.; Fore, Alexander; Simard, Marc; Zebker, Howard A.

    2011-01-01

    Earth science research often requires crustal deformation measurements at a variety of time scales, from seconds to decades. Although satellites have been used for repeat-track interferometric (RTI) synthetic-aperture-radar (SAR) mapping for close to 20 years, RTI is much more difficult to implement from an airborne platform owing to the irregular trajectory of the aircraft compared with microwave imaging radar wavelengths. Two basic requirements for robust airborne repeat-pass radar interferometry include the ability to fly the platform to a desired trajectory within a narrow tube and the ability to have the radar beam pointed in a desired direction to a fraction of a beam width. Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR) is equipped with a precision auto pilot developed by NASA Dryden that allows the platform, a Gulfstream III, to nominally fly within a 5 m diameter tube and with an electronically scanned antenna to position the radar beam to a fraction of a beam width based on INU (inertial navigation unit) attitude angle measurements.

  12. Regional lithology mapping using airborne hyperspectral data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Kai; Chen, Jianping; Zhao, Yingjun

    2015-04-01

    This paper proposed a new procedure for rock identifiction and mapping using airborne hyperspectral CASI/SASI data (wavelength: 380-2450 nm) for the Nanbaishiling in Liuyuan area, Gansu Province, NW China. Rocks in the study area include granite, diorite, marble, basalt and quartzite. In situ and laboratory reflectance spectra (400 to 2500 nm) show Al-OH absorption of muscovite, kaolinite, and illite in granite, granodiorite and quartz diorite, and Fe-OH, Mg-OH absorptions of biotite and chlorite .The absorption near 2.3µm caused by carbonate is most intense in marble reflectance spectra. Ferric-iron absorption is intense in most of the felsic rocks. CASI/SASI data with approximately 2-m spatial resolution were recorded in 149 narrow bands along a 1.2-km-wide swath. Correction of the data to spectral reflectance was performed by reference to in situ measurements of an extensive, alluvial plain. Five major rock types have been identified by using MNF and analysis of in situ and laboratory spectra. The lithoglogic map presented in this study were verified by field investigation, and was compared with previous lithologic map. The result show a reliable classification of lithology using Airborne Hyperspectral data.

  13. Handling Trajectory Uncertainties for Airborne Conflict Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barhydt, Richard; Doble, Nathan A.; Karr, David; Palmer, Michael T.

    2005-01-01

    Airborne conflict management is an enabling capability for NASA's Distributed Air-Ground Traffic Management (DAG-TM) concept. DAGTM has the goal of significantly increasing capacity within the National Airspace System, while maintaining or improving safety. Under DAG-TM, autonomous aircraft maintain separation from each other and from managed aircraft unequipped for autonomous flight. NASA Langley Research Center has developed the Autonomous Operations Planner (AOP), an onboard decision support system that provides airborne conflict management (ACM) and strategic flight planning support for autonomous aircraft pilots. The AOP performs conflict detection, prevention, and resolution from nearby traffic aircraft and area hazards. Traffic trajectory information is assumed to be provided by Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast (ADS-B). Reliable trajectory prediction is a key capability for providing effective ACM functions. Trajectory uncertainties due to environmental effects, differences in aircraft systems and performance, and unknown intent information lead to prediction errors that can adversely affect AOP performance. To accommodate these uncertainties, the AOP has been enhanced to create cross-track, vertical, and along-track buffers along the predicted trajectories of both ownship and traffic aircraft. These buffers will be structured based on prediction errors noted from previous simulations such as a recent Joint Experiment between NASA Ames and Langley Research Centers and from other outside studies. Currently defined ADS-B parameters related to navigation capability, trajectory type, and path conformance will be used to support the algorithms that generate the buffers.

  14. AESMIR: A New NASA Airborne Microwave Imager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Edward J.; Hood, Robbie; Hildebrand, Peter H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Airborne Earth Science Microwave Imaging Radiometer (AESMIR) is a versatile new airborne imaging radiometer under development by NASA. The AESMIR design is unique in that it will perform dual-polarized imaging at all AMSR frequency bands (6.9 through 89 GHz) using only one sensor head/scanner package, providing an efficient solution for AMSR-type science applications (snow, soil moisture/land parameters, precip, ocean winds, SST, water vapor, sea ice, etc.). The microwave radiometers themselves will incorporate state-of-the-art receivers, with particular attention given to instrument calibration for the best possible accuracy and sensitivity. The single-package design of AESMIR makes it compatible with high-altitude aircraft platforms such as the NASA ER-2s and the Proteus. The arbitrary 2-axis gimbal can perform conical and cross-track scanning, as well as fixed-beam staring. This compatibility with high-altitude platforms coupled with the flexible scanning configuration, opens up previously unavailable science opportunities for convection/precip/cloud science and co-flying with complementary instruments, as well as providing wider swath coverage for all science applications. By designing AESMIR to be compatible with these high-altitude platforms, we are also compatible with the NASA P-3, the NASA DC-8, and ground-based deployments. Thus AESMIR can provide low-, mid-, and high altitude microwave imaging.

  15. Advanced Airborne Hyperspectral Imaging System (AAHIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topping, Miles Q.; Pfeiffer, Joel E.; Sparks, Andrew W.; Jim, Kevin T. C.; Yoon, Dugan

    2002-11-01

    The design, operation, and performance of the fourth generation of Science and Technology International's Advanced Airborne Hyperspectral Imaging Sensors (AAHIS) are described. These imaging spectrometers have a variable bandwidth ranging from 390-840 nm. A three-axis image stabilization provides spatially and spectrally coherent imagery by damping most of the airborne platform's random motion. A wide 40-degree field of view coupled with sub-pixel detection allows for a large area coverage rate. A software controlled variable aperture, spectral shaping filters, and high quantum efficiency, back-illuminated CCD's contribute to the excellent sensitivity of the sensors. AAHIS sensors have been operated on a variety of fixed and rotary wing platforms, achieving ground-sampling distances ranging from 6.5 cm to 2 m. While these sensors have been primarily designed for use over littoral zones, they are able to operate over both land and water. AAHIS has been used for detecting and locating submarines, mines, tanks, divers, camouflage and disturbed earth. Civilian applications include search and rescue on land and at sea, agricultural analysis, environmental time-series, coral reef assessment, effluent plume detection, coastal mapping, damage assessment, and seasonal whale population monitoring

  16. A Multi-Use Airborne Research Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poellot, Michael R.

    2003-01-01

    Much of our progress in understanding the Earth system comes from measurements made in the atmosphere. Aircraft are widely used to collect in situ measurements of the troposphere and lower stratosphere, and they also serve as platforms for many remote sensing instruments. Airborne field measurement campaigns require a capable aircraft, a specially trained support team, a suite of basic instrumentation, space and power for new instruments, and data analysis and processing capabilities (e.g. Veal et al., 1977). However, these capabilities are expensive and there is a need to reduce costs while maintaining the capability to perform this type of research. To this end, NASA entered a Cooperative Agreement with the University of North Dakota (UND) to help support the operations of the UND Cessna Citation research aircraft. This Cooperative Agreement followed in form and substance a previous agreement. The Cooperative Agreement has benefited both NASA and UND. In part because of budget reductions, the NASA Airborne Science Office has elected to take advantage of outside operators of science research platforms to off-load some science requirements (Huning, 1996). UND has worked with NASA to identify those requirements that could be met more cost effectively with the UND platform. This has resulted in significant cost savings to NASA while broadening the base of researchers in the NASA science programs. At the same time, the Agreement has provided much needed support to UND to help sustain the Citation research facility. In this report, we describe the work conducted under this Cooperative Agreement.

  17. Airborne soil organic particles generated by precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bingbing; Harder, Tristan H.; Kelly, Stephen T.; Piens, Dominique S.; China, Swarup; Kovarik, Libor; Keiluweit, Marco; Arey, Bruce W.; Gilles, Mary K.; Laskin, Alexander

    2016-06-01

    Airborne organic particles play a critical role in Earth's climate, public health, air quality, and hydrological and carbon cycles. However, sources and formation mechanisms for semi-solid and solid organic particles are poorly understood and typically neglected in atmospheric models. Laboratory evidence suggests that fine particles can be formed from impaction of mineral surfaces by droplets. Here, we use chemical imaging of particles collected following rain events in the Southern Great Plains, Oklahoma, USA and after experimental irrigation to show that raindrop impaction of soils generates solid organic particles. We find that after rain events, sub-micrometre solid particles, with a chemical composition consistent with soil organic matter, contributed up to 60% of atmospheric particles. Our irrigation experiments indicate that intensive water impaction is sufficient to cause ejection of airborne soil organic particles from the soil surface. Chemical imaging and micro-spectroscopy analysis of particle physico-chemical properties suggest that these particles may have important impacts on cloud formation and efficiently absorb solar radiation. We suggest that raindrop-induced formation of solid organic particles from soils may be a widespread phenomenon in ecosystems such as agricultural systems and grasslands where soils are exposed to strong, episodic precipitation events.

  18. Airborne system for testing multispectral reconnaissance technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, Dirk-Roger; Doergeloh, Heinrich; Keil, Heiko; Wetjen, Wilfried

    1999-07-01

    There is an increasing demand for future airborne reconnaissance systems to obtain aerial images for tactical or peacekeeping operations. Especially Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) equipped with multispectral sensor system and with real time jam resistant data transmission capabilities are of high interest. An airborne experimental platform has been developed as testbed to investigate different concepts of reconnaissance systems before their application in UAVs. It is based on a Dornier DO 228 aircraft, which is used as flying platform. Great care has been taken to achieve the possibility to test different kinds of multispectral sensors. Hence basically it is capable to be equipped with an IR sensor head, high resolution aerial cameras of the whole optical spectrum and radar systems. The onboard equipment further includes system for digital image processing, compression, coding, and storage. The data are RF transmitted to the ground station using technologies with high jam resistance. The images, after merging with enhanced vision components, are delivered to the observer who has an uplink data channel available to control flight and imaging parameters.

  19. APEX - the Hyperspectral ESA Airborne Prism Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Itten, Klaus I.; Dell'Endice, Francesco; Hueni, Andreas; Kneubühler, Mathias; Schläpfer, Daniel; Odermatt, Daniel; Seidel, Felix; Huber, Silvia; Schopfer, Jürg; Kellenberger, Tobias; Bühler, Yves; D'Odorico, Petra; Nieke, Jens; Alberti, Edoardo; Meuleman, Koen

    2008-01-01

    The airborne ESA-APEX (Airborne Prism Experiment) hyperspectral mission simulator is described with its distinct specifications to provide high quality remote sensing data. The concept of an automatic calibration, performed in the Calibration Home Base (CHB) by using the Control Test Master (CTM), the In-Flight Calibration facility (IFC), quality flagging (QF) and specific processing in a dedicated Processing and Archiving Facility (PAF), and vicarious calibration experiments are presented. A preview on major applications and the corresponding development efforts to provide scientific data products up to level 2/3 to the user is presented for limnology, vegetation, aerosols, general classification routines and rapid mapping tasks. BRDF (Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function) issues are discussed and the spectral database SPECCHIO (Spectral Input/Output) introduced. The optical performance as well as the dedicated software utilities make APEX a state-of-the-art hyperspectral sensor, capable of (a) satisfying the needs of several research communities and (b) helping the understanding of the Earth's complex mechanisms. PMID:27873868

  20. The Next Generation Airborne Polarimetric Doppler Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vivekanandan, J.; Lee, Wen-Chau; Loew, Eric; Salazar, Jorge; Chandrasekar, V.

    2013-04-01

    NCAR's Electra Doppler radar (ELDORA) with a dual-beam slotted waveguide array using dual-transmitter, dual-beam, rapid scan and step-chirped waveform significantly improved the spatial scale to 300m (Hildebrand et al. 1996). However, ELDORA X-band radar's penetration into precipitation is limited by attenuation and is not designed to collect polarimetric measurements to remotely estimate microphysics. ELDORA has been placed on dormancy because its airborne platform (P3 587) was retired in January 2013. The US research community has strongly voiced the need to continue measurement capability similar to the ELDORA. A critical weather research area is quantitative precipitation estimation/forecasting (QPE/QPF). In recent years, hurricane intensity change involving eye-eyewall interactions has drawn research attention (Montgomery et al., 2006; Bell and Montgomery, 2006). In the case of convective precipitation, two issues, namely, (1) when and where convection will be initiated, and (2) determining the organization and structure of ensuing convection, are key for QPF. Therefore collocated measurements of 3-D winds and precipitation microphysics are required for achieving significant skills in QPF and QPE. Multiple radars in dual-Doppler configuration with polarization capability estimate dynamical and microphysical characteristics of clouds and precipitation are mostly available over land. However, storms over complex terrain, the ocean and in forest regions are not observable by ground-based radars (Bluestein and Wakimoto, 2003). NCAR/EOL is investigating potential configurations for the next generation airborne radar that is capable of retrieving dynamic and microphysical characteristics of clouds and precipitation. ELDORA's slotted waveguide array radar is not compatible for dual-polarization measurements. Therefore, the new design has to address both dual-polarization capability and platform requirements to replace the ELDORA system. NCAR maintains a C-130