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Sample records for airborne hunting act

  1. Acting on Behalf of Youth: Chance Hunt--Seattle Public Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library Journal, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Few might think there is much of a connection between acting and librarianship, but Chance Hunt says his acting career in Los Angeles provided him with skills he uses today as a youth services librarian, from programming with kids to representing the library at citywide meetings. Hunt oversees system-wide services for children and teens at the…

  2. HUNT Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Heinrich, Martin [D-NM

    2013-09-26

    07/30/2014 Committee on Energy and Natural Resources Senate Subcommittee on Public Lands, Forests, and Mining. Hearings held. With printed Hearing: S.Hrg. 113-433. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  3. Airborne Measurements in Support of the NASA Atmospheric Carbon and Transport - America (ACT-America) Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meadows, Byron; Davis, Ken; Barrick, John; Browell, Edward; Chen, Gao; Dobler, Jeremy; Fried, Alan; Lauvaux, Thomas; Lin, Bing; McGill, Matt; Miles, Natasha; Nehrir, Amin; Obland, Michael; O'Dell, Chris; Sweeney, Colm; Yang, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    NASA announced the research opportunity Earth Venture Suborbital -2 (EVS-2) mission in support of the NASA's science strategic goals and objectives in 2013. Penn State University, NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC), and other academic institutions, government agencies, and industrial companies together formulated and proposed the Atmospheric Carbon and Transport -America (ACT -America) suborbital mission, which was subsequently selected for implementation. The airborne measurements that are part of ACT-America will provide a unique set of remote and in-situ measurements of CO2 over North America at spatial and temporal scales not previously available to the science community and this will greatly enhance our understanding of the carbon cycle. ACT -America will consist of five airborne campaigns, covering all four seasons, to measure regional atmospheric carbon distributions and to evaluate the accuracy of atmospheric transport models used to assess carbon sinks and sources under fair and stormy weather conditions. This coordinated mission will measure atmospheric carbon in the three most important regions of the continental US carbon balance: Northeast, Midwest, and South. Data will be collected using 2 airborne platforms (NASA Wallops' C-130 and NASA Langley's B-200) with both in-situ and lidar instruments, along with instrumented ground towers and under flights of the Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO-2) satellite. This presentation provides an overview of the ACT-America instruments, with particular emphasis on the airborne CO2and backscatter lidars, and the, rationale, approach, and anticipated results from this mission.

  4. Airborne Measurements in Support of the NASA Atmospheric Carbon and Transport - America (ACT-America) Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meadows, B.; Davis, K.; Barrick, J. D. W.; Browell, E. V.; Chen, G.; Dobler, J. T.; Fried, A.; Lauvaux, T.; Lin, B.; McGill, M. J.; Miles, N. L.; Nehrir, A. R.; Obland, M. D.; O'Dell, C.; Sweeney, C.; Yang, M. M.

    2015-12-01

    NASA announced the research opportunity Earth Venture Suborbital - 2 (EVS-2) mission in support of the NASA's science strategic goals and objectives in 2013. Penn State University, NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC), and other academic institutions, government agencies, and industrial companies together formulated and proposed the Atmospheric Carbon and Transport - America (ACT - America) suborbital mission, which was subsequently selected for implementation. The airborne measurements that are part of ACT-America will provide a unique set of remote and in-situ measurements of CO2 over North America at spatial and temporal scales not previously available to the science community and this will greatly enhance our understanding of the carbon cycle. ACT - America will consist of five airborne campaigns, covering all four seasons, to measure regional atmospheric carbon distributions and to evaluate the accuracy of atmospheric transport models used to assess carbon sinks and sources under fair and stormy weather conditions. This coordinated mission will measure atmospheric carbon in the three most important regions of the continental US carbon balance: Northeast, Midwest, and South. Data will be collected using 2 airborne platforms (NASA Wallops' C-130 and NASA Langley's B-200) with both in-situ and lidar instruments, along with instrumented ground towers and under flights of the Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO-2) satellite. This presentation provides an overview of the ACT-America instruments, with particular emphasis on the airborne CO2 and backscatter lidars, and the, rationale, approach, and anticipated results from this mission.

  5. The hunt for sliding planes in a phyllitic rock slide in Western Norway using airborne electromagnetic mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aspmo Pfaffhuber, Andreas; Grimstad, Eystein; Domaas, Ulrik; Auken, Esben; Halkjær, Max

    2010-05-01

    The inner Aurland fjord and the adjacent Flåm valley (Western Norway) are subject to a potential rock slide comprised of creeping rock- and debris masses. From repeated GPS measurements we understand that rock and debris movements are constrained by precipitation and snow melt. Based on this assumption the local municipality and regional hydroelectricity company are evaluating the option to drain the unstable area with a more than 10 km long drainage tunnel to a nearby hydropower reservoir. We conducted an airborne electromagnetic (AEM) mapping survey to find indications for the sliding planes and to assess the tunnel corridor for potential tunneling hazard areas. Unstable rock areas some 1.000 meters above seawater have been mapped as massive phyllite intercepted by numerous tension cracks opening up to several meters. Field observations also point out that significant amounts of surface water in streams on the mountain plateau disappear in some of these cracks and surface again several hundred meters down the slope. Potentially sliding planes provide the water pathways and the changes in water pressure can cause instability. As the phyllite will weather to fine grained clay the water saturated sliding planes should be an ideal target for AEM as they are very conductive (1-10 Ohm*m) in comparison to the resistive undisturbed phyllite or nearby gneiss (> 1.000 Ohm*m). From our first AEM data interpretation we find widespread areas with high conductivity, which are most likely caused by either water saturated, fine grained sliding planes or fault zones at the phyllite / gneiss interface. At this point, financing for drilling is pending to transform the geophysical maps to a firm geological model. Based on the AEM results, we are formulating a joint research program involving detailed hydrological investigations, monitoring of formation water pressure, movements, meteorology, more detailed structural mapping and geophysical ground follow up of the airborne data. We

  6. Airborne lidar mapping of vertical ozone distributions in support of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uthe, Edward E.; Nielsen, Norman B.; Livingston, John M.

    1992-01-01

    The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments mandated attainment of the ozone standard established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Improved photochemical models validated by experimental data are needed to develop strategies for reducing near surface ozone concentrations downwind of urban and industrial centers. For more than 10 years, lidar has been used on large aircraft to provide unique information on ozone distributions in the atmosphere. However, compact airborne lidar systems are needed for operation on small aircraft of the type typically used on regional air quality investigations to collect data with which to develop and validate air quality models. Data presented in this paper will consist of a comparison between airborne differential absorption lidar (DIAL) and airborne in-situ ozone measurements. Also discussed are future plans to improve the airborne ultraviolet-DIAL for ozone and other gas observations and addition of a Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) emission spectrometer to investigate the effects of other gas species on vertical ozone distribution.

  7. Hunting Stories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Frank

    Eleven stories describe traditional practices and true adventures of the Tlingit hunters of Southeast Alaska. The stories are accompanied by learning activities and discussion questions for students and are arranged under the headings of bear, mountain goat and deer, and seal and sea lion. Topics include hunting weapons and strategies, bravery,…

  8. 76 FR 36508 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Supplemental Proposals for Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-22

    ... (76 FR 19876) a proposal to amend 50 CFR part 20. The proposal provided a background and overview of..., proposed rule (76 FR 19876): National Environmental Policy Act; Endangered Species Act; Regulatory... for Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations for the 2011-12 Hunting Season; Notice of Meetings...

  9. International Symposium on Airborne Geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mogi, Toru; Ito, Hisatoshi; Kaieda, Hideshi; Kusunoki, Kenichiro; Saltus, Richard W.; Fitterman, David V.; Okuma, Shigeo; Nakatsuka, Tadashi

    2006-05-01

    Airborne geophysics can be defined as the measurement of Earth properties from sensors in the sky. The airborne measurement platform is usually a traditional fixed-wing airplane or helicopter, but could also include lighter-than-air craft, unmanned drones, or other specialty craft. The earliest history of airborne geophysics includes kite and hot-air balloon experiments. However, modern airborne geophysics dates from the mid-1940s when military submarine-hunting magnetometers were first used to map variations in the Earth's magnetic field. The current gamut of airborne geophysical techniques spans a broad range, including potential fields (both gravity and magnetics), electromagnetics (EM), radiometrics, spectral imaging, and thermal imaging.

  10. Microbe Hunting

    PubMed Central

    Lipkin, W. Ian

    2010-01-01

    Summary: Platforms for pathogen discovery have improved since the days of Koch and Pasteur; nonetheless, the challenges of proving causation are at least as daunting as they were in the late 1800s. Although we will almost certainly continue to accumulate low-hanging fruit, where simple relationships will be found between the presence of a cultivatable agent and a disease, these successes will be increasingly infrequent. The future of the field rests instead in our ability to follow footprints of infectious agents that cannot be characterized using classical microbiological techniques and to develop the laboratory and computational infrastructure required to dissect complex host-microbe interactions. I have tried to refine the criteria used by Koch and successors to prove linkage to disease. These refinements are working constructs that will continue to evolve in light of new technologies, new models, and new insights. What will endure is the excitement of the chase. Happy hunting! PMID:20805403

  11. A laser communication experiment utilizing the ACT satellite and an airborne laser transceiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Provencher, C.; Spence, Rod

    1988-01-01

    The Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) will carry a laser communications transmitter package in order to attempt the experimental reception of signals transmitted from earth orbit. The ACTS laser package includes both a heterodyne transmitter and a direct-detection transmitter. The laser receiver will be installed in an aircraft that is fitted with the requisite signal window. The anticipated capability of this signal detector is noted.

  12. The Scientist Scavenger Hunt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morphew, Valerie N.; Key, Kathleen

    1994-01-01

    Using a well-planned scavenger hunt, students' awareness of the significance of minorities and women in science is enhanced. Provides a sample scavenger hunt and resource list as well as activities for extension. (ZWH)

  13. A laser communication experiment utilizing the ACT satellite and an airborne laser transceiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Provencher, Charles E., Jr.; Spence, Rodney L.

    1988-01-01

    The launch of a laser communication transmitter package into geosynchronous Earth orbit onboard the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) will present an excellent opportunity for the experimental reception of laser communication signals transmitted from a space orbit. The ACTS laser package includes both a heterodyne transmitter (Lincoln Labs design) and a direct detection transmitter (Goddard Space Flight Center design) with both sharing some common optical components. NASA Lewis Research Center's Space Electronics Division is planning to perform a space communication experiment utilizing the GSFC direct detection laser transceiver. The laser receiver will be installed within an aircraft provided with a glass port for the reception of the signal. This paper describes the experiment and the approach to performing such an experiment. Described are the constraints placed on the NASA Lewis experiment by the performance parameters of the laser transmitter and by the ACTS spacecraft operations. The conceptual design of the receiving terminal is given; also included is the anticipated capability of the detector.

  14. Puzzles and Hunts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weissblum, Aaron

    2000-01-01

    A company designs and delivers treasure and scavenger hunts for corporate and institutional clients. Groups are divided into teams that must solve puzzles for directions or clues. The hunts build creativity, teamwork, communication skills, and an appreciation of others' strengths. An insert includes a four-puzzle mini-treasure hunt. (TD)

  15. Hunting and Outdoor Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Bruce E.

    1991-01-01

    This article addresses the controversy over including hunting as a part of outdoor education. Historically, figures such as Julian Smith, of the Outdoor Education Project of the 1950's, advocated hunting as a critical element of educating children and youth about care and protection of natural resources. Henry David Thoreau saw hunting experiences…

  16. Botanical Scavenger Hunt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker-Livingston, Wendy

    2009-01-01

    Why not combine the use of technology with the excitement of a scavenger hunt that moves middle-level students out into the "wilds" of their school campus to classify plants? In the lesson plan described here, students embark on a botanical scavenger hunt and then document their findings using a digital camera. This project was designed to allow…

  17. Hunting for Ecological Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pontius, Joel B.; Greenwood, David A.; Ryan, Jessica L.; Greenwood, Eli A.

    2013-01-01

    Considering (a) the many potential connections between hunting, culture, and environmental thought, (b) how much hunters have contributed to the conservation movement and to the protection of a viable land base, and (c) renewed interest in hunting as part of the wider movement toward eating local, non-industrialized food, we seek to bring hunting…

  18. Ramsay Hunt syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... is the same virus that causes chickenpox and shingles. In people with Ramsay Hunt syndrome, the virus ... PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2012:chap 70. Read More Shingles Update Date 5/28/2014 Updated by: Joseph ...

  19. Wildlife management: Managing the hunt versus the hunting experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammitt, William E.; McDonald, Cary D.; Noe, Francis P.

    1989-07-01

    Deer hunter satisfaction is investigated from two perspectives, (1) satisfaction with the hunt/harvest and (2) satisfaction with the overall hunting trip experience. Regression analysis is used to determine what variables best predict satisfaction with the hunt and the hunting experience. Results indicate that animal population variables (number of deer seen, shot at, bagged) are the best determinants of a quality deer hunt, while environmental (outdoors) and social (crowding and hunter behavior) are the best predictors of a quality hunting trip experience. Wildlife managers and researchers need to realize that deer hunters view the hunt/harvest as different from the hunting trip experience and need to manage for both aspects of hunter satisfaction.

  20. Mathenger Hunt: Mathematics Matters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falba, Christy J.; Weiss, Maria J.

    1991-01-01

    Presented is an activity which shows how mathematics is used in real life and helps to establish a need for mathematics in students' futures. Adapted from a scavenger-hunt idea, this activity helps students to discover that almost every career makes use of mathematics. (KR)

  1. A Geometric Scavenger Hunt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smart, Julie; Marshall, Jeff

    2007-01-01

    Children possess a genuine curiosity for exploring the natural world around them. One third grade teacher capitalized on this inherent trait by leading her students on "A Geometric Scavenger Hunt." The four-lesson inquiry investigation described in this article integrates mathematics and science. Among the students' discoveries was the fact that…

  2. A Geospatial Scavenger Hunt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Adriana E.; Williams, Nikki A.; Metoyer, Sandra K.; Morris, Jennifer N.; Berhane, Stephen A.

    2009-01-01

    With the use of technology such as Global Positioning System (GPS) units and Google Earth for a simple-machine scavenger hunt, you will transform a standard identification activity into an exciting learning experience that motivates students, incorporates practical skills in technology, and enhances students' spatial-thinking skills. In the…

  3. ORR Deer Hunt Monitoring Program

    SciTech Connect

    Scofield, P.A.; Teasley, N.A.

    1999-09-01

    The primary purpose for the initiation of deer hunts on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) was deer population control to reduce collisions with vehicles and maintain a healthy herd and habitat. As of 1997, thirteen annual deer hunts have been conducted on the ORR. The deer hunt monitoring program (DHMP) has two components -- a field screening monitoring program and a confirmatory laboratory analysis program of both retained and randomly selected released deer samples.

  4. Hunting injuries in Mississippi.

    PubMed

    Forks, Thomas P

    2002-11-01

    It is clear from the data that hunting injuries in Mississippi mirror those which occur nationwide. The vast majority of these injuries are easily preventable by following common sense hunting safety rules. As with firearm injuries, tree stand injuries are clearly preventable by following common sense rules (Table 1). Most falls are due to poorly constructed or old wooden tree stands that come apart or become detached from the tree thereby causing the hunter to fall. All bolts and fasteners should be inspected and replaced if found to be defective prior to use of the stand. Old, broken or rotten lumber should be replaced. Tree stands should only be placed in healthy, mature trees with strong healthy limbs. Unfortunately, tree stand hunters seldom wear safety harnesses when hunting. These devices, when used properly (worm around the chest under both arms), can greatly decrease morbidity and mortality associated with falls. To minimize trauma, tree stands should be constructed no greater than 20 feet above ground level. Hunters should be cautioned to wear non-slip boots [table| see text] and to apply a non-slip covering to the floor of their tree stands prior to use of the stands. Other safety tips include the removal of all logs, stones or other obstructions from around the base of the tree. As with all hunters, tree stand hunters are advised to carry a compass, whistle, flashlight and cellular phone with them during their hunt. Hunting equipment, including bows and arrows and all firearms should never be carried up to the stand. This equipment should only be lifted or lowered to or from the stand with the use of a haul line. Hunters must remember the 10 commandments of gun safety (Table 2). Every firearm should be treated as if it were loaded. Firearms should not be pointed at anything other than the intended target and the muzzle must be controlled at all times. The action and barrel should be inspected prior to loading ammunition to ensure that they are clear of

  5. HOLA: Hunt for Opportunities-Learn-Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutiérrez, Rochelle

    2015-01-01

    Most mathematics teachers know that students can be a great source for understanding what they need as thinkers, group members, mathematics learners, and future citizens. Thus, listening to students is an important teacher practice. But listening takes time, something that not all teachers feel that they have. And many attempts to listen to…

  6. 77 FR 52344 - Proposed Information Collection; Annual Certification of Hunting and Sport Fishing Licenses Issued

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-29

    ...-XXX-FF09W23000] Proposed Information Collection; Annual Certification of Hunting and Sport Fishing.... 669 et seq.) and the Dingell-Johnson Sport Fish Restoration Act (16 U.S.C. 777 et seq. except 777e-1... FWS Forms 3-154a (Part I--Certification) and 3- 154b (Part II--Summary of Hunting and Sport...

  7. Shooting and Hunting: Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Julian W., Comp.

    The shooting and hunting manual, part of a series of books and pamphlets on outdoor education, explains shooting skills, hunting, and proper gun handling on the range and in the field. This manual should be supplemented and enriched by available references, facilities, and resources. It may be included in the community's educational and…

  8. HUNTing the Overlap

    SciTech Connect

    Iancu, Costin; Parry, Husbands; Hargrove, Paul

    2005-07-08

    Hiding communication latency is an important optimization for parallel programs. Programmers or compilers achieve this by using non-blocking communication primitives and overlapping communication with computation or other communication operations. Using non-blocking communication raises two issues: performance and programmability. In terms of performance, optimizers need to find a good communication schedule and are sometimes constrained by lack of full application knowledge. In terms of programmability, efficiently managing non-blocking communication can prove cumbersome for complex applications. In this paper we present the design principles of HUNT, a runtime system designed to search and exploit some of the available overlap present at execution time in UPC programs. Using virtual memory support, our runtime implements demand-driven synchronization for data involved in communication operations. It also employs message decomposition and scheduling heuristics to transparently improve the non-blocking behavior of applications. We provide a user level implementation of HUNT on a variety of modern high performance computing systems. Results indicate that our approach is successful in finding some of the overlap available at execution time. While system and application characteristics influence performance, perhaps the determining factor is the time taken by the CPU to execute a signal handler. Demand driven synchronization at execution time eliminates the need for the explicit management of non-blocking communication. Besides increasing programmer productivity, this feature also simplifies compiler analysis for communication optimizations.

  9. [Tolosa-Hunt syndrome].

    PubMed

    Péterfi, Anna; Zádori, Péter; Süto, Gábor; Horváth, Gyula; Kopa, János

    2011-01-30

    Both men and women are affected by the rare disease called Tolosa-Hunt syndrome. We don't know exactly what causes it to evolve. It is usually put into the categories of either idiopathic inflammation or pseudotumor. Its pathological feature is a non-specific inflammatory process with fibroblastic, lymphocytic, plasmocytic infiltration, which can be found, for the most part, in the wall of the sinus cavernosus. Granulocytic and giant-cell infiltrations have been described too. The possibility of autoimmune disease has also come up. In our current study we describe the case of a female patient who recovered with the help of a steroid therapy. Through examining her, we also found immunological alterations, which should urge us to thoroughly examine the further observations of this kind. PMID:21428035

  10. Hunting stand-related injuries in orthopedics.

    PubMed

    Lebus, George F; Krueger, Chad A; Stinner, Daniel J; Mir, Hassan R

    2014-09-01

    Hunting remains an extremely popular recreational activity, with nearly 15 million Americans receiving a hunting license annually. Precautions have helped decrease accidents, but hunting-related injuries remain relatively common. The majority of severe, hunting-related accidents involve either a fall from a hunting platform or an accidental shooting. Both of these mechanisms frequently result in orthopedic injuries, many of which require operative care. Although firearms-associated injury has seemingly decreased, hunting platform falls and their sequelae are increasing. Understanding the mechanisms of these injuries and increasing awareness of them may minimize their morbidity and mortality or help prevent them altogether. PMID:25188622

  11. Galaxy 'Hunting' Made Easy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-09-01

    Galaxies found under the Glare of Cosmic Flashlights Astronomers using ESO's Very Large Telescope have discovered in a single pass about a dozen otherwise invisible galaxies halfway across the Universe. The discovery, based on a technique that exploits a first-class instrument, represents a major breakthrough in the field of galaxy 'hunting'. ESO PR Photo 40a/07 ESO PR Photo 40a/07 Newly Found Galaxies (SINFONI/VLT) The team of astronomers led by Nicolas Bouché have used quasars to find these galaxies. Quasars are very distant objects of extreme brilliance, which are used as cosmic beacons that reveal galaxies lying between the quasar and us. The galaxy's presence is revealed by a 'dip' in the spectrum of the quasar - caused by the absorption of light at a specific wavelength. The team used huge catalogues of quasars, the so-called SDSS and 2QZ catalogues, to select quasars with dips. The next step was then to observe the patches of the sky around these quasars in search for the foreground galaxies from the time the Universe was about 6 billion years old, almost half of its current age. "The difficulty in actually spotting and seeing these galaxies stems from the fact that the glare of the quasar is too strong compared to the dim light of the galaxy," says Bouché. This is where observations taken with SINFONI on ESO's VLT made the difference. SINFONI is an infrared 'integral field spectrometer' that simultaneously delivers very sharp images and highly resolved colour information (spectra) of an object on the sky. ESO PR Photo 32e/07 ESO PR Photo 40b/07 Chasing 'Hidden' Galaxies (Artist's Impression) With this special technique, which untangles the light of the galaxy from the quasar light, the team detected 14 galaxies out of the 20 pre-selected quasar patches of sky, a hefty 70% success rate. "This high detection rate alone is a very exciting result," says Bouché. "But, these are not just ordinary galaxies: they are most notable ones, actively forming a lot of

  12. Bushmeat hunting changes regeneration of African rainforests

    PubMed Central

    Effiom, Edu O.; Nuñez-Iturri, Gabriela; Smith, Henrik G.; Ottosson, Ulf; Olsson, Ola

    2013-01-01

    To assess ecological consequences of bushmeat hunting in African lowland rainforests, we compared paired sites, with high and low hunting pressure, in three areas of southeastern Nigeria. In hunted sites, populations of important seed dispersers—both small and large primates (including the Cross River gorilla, Gorilla gorilla diehli)—were drastically reduced. Large rodents were more abundant in hunted sites, even though they are hunted. Hunted and protected sites had similar mature tree communities dominated by primate-dispersed species. In protected sites, seedling communities were similar in composition to the mature trees, but in hunted sites species with other dispersal modes dominated among seedlings. Seedlings emerging 1 year after clearing of all vegetation in experimental plots showed a similar pattern to the standing seedlings. This study thus verifies the transforming effects of bushmeat hunting on plant communities of tropical forests and is one of the first studies to do so for the African continent. PMID:23516245

  13. 32 CFR 770.4 - Hunting regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... LIMITING PUBLIC ACCESS TO PARTICULAR INSTALLATIONS Hunting and Fishing at Marine Corps Base, Quantico... Marine Corps Base, Quantico, VA, on any authorized hunting day. In addition, a minimum of fifteen...

  14. 32 CFR 770.4 - Hunting regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... LIMITING PUBLIC ACCESS TO PARTICULAR INSTALLATIONS Hunting and Fishing at Marine Corps Base, Quantico... Marine Corps Base, Quantico, VA, on any authorized hunting day. In addition, a minimum of fifteen...

  15. 32 CFR 770.4 - Hunting regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... LIMITING PUBLIC ACCESS TO PARTICULAR INSTALLATIONS Hunting and Fishing at Marine Corps Base, Quantico... Marine Corps Base, Quantico, VA, on any authorized hunting day. In addition, a minimum of fifteen...

  16. 32 CFR 770.4 - Hunting regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... LIMITING PUBLIC ACCESS TO PARTICULAR INSTALLATIONS Hunting and Fishing at Marine Corps Base, Quantico... Marine Corps Base, Quantico, VA, on any authorized hunting day. In addition, a minimum of fifteen...

  17. 32 CFR 770.4 - Hunting regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... LIMITING PUBLIC ACCESS TO PARTICULAR INSTALLATIONS Hunting and Fishing at Marine Corps Base, Quantico... Marine Corps Base, Quantico, VA, on any authorized hunting day. In addition, a minimum of fifteen...

  18. Bushmeat hunting changes regeneration of African rainforests.

    PubMed

    Effiom, Edu O; Nuñez-Iturri, Gabriela; Smith, Henrik G; Ottosson, Ulf; Olsson, Ola

    2013-05-22

    To assess ecological consequences of bushmeat hunting in African lowland rainforests, we compared paired sites, with high and low hunting pressure, in three areas of southeastern Nigeria. In hunted sites, populations of important seed dispersers-both small and large primates (including the Cross River gorilla, Gorilla gorilla diehli)-were drastically reduced. Large rodents were more abundant in hunted sites, even though they are hunted. Hunted and protected sites had similar mature tree communities dominated by primate-dispersed species. In protected sites, seedling communities were similar in composition to the mature trees, but in hunted sites species with other dispersal modes dominated among seedlings. Seedlings emerging 1 year after clearing of all vegetation in experimental plots showed a similar pattern to the standing seedlings. This study thus verifies the transforming effects of bushmeat hunting on plant communities of tropical forests and is one of the first studies to do so for the African continent. PMID:23516245

  19. The Significance of African Lions for the Financial Viability of Trophy Hunting and the Maintenance of Wild Land

    PubMed Central

    Lindsey, Peter Andrew; Balme, Guy Andrew; Booth, Vernon Richard; Midlane, Neil

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that trophy hunting is impacting negatively on some lion populations, notably in Tanzania. In 2004 there was a proposal to list lions on CITES Appendix I and in 2011 animal-welfare groups petitioned the United States government to list lions as endangered under their Endangered Species Act. Such listings would likely curtail the trophy hunting of lions by limiting the import of lion trophies. Concurrent efforts are underway to encourage the European Union to ban lion trophy imports. We assessed the significance of lions to the financial viability of trophy hunting across five countries to help determine the financial impact and advisability of the proposed trade restrictions. Lion hunts attract the highest mean prices (US$24,000–US$71,000) of all trophy species. Lions generate 5–17% of gross trophy hunting income on national levels, the proportional significance highest in Mozambique, Tanzania, and Zambia. If lion hunting was effectively precluded, trophy hunting could potentially become financially unviable across at least 59,538 km2 that could result in a concomitant loss of habitat. However, the loss of lion hunting could have other potentially broader negative impacts including reduction of competitiveness of wildlife-based land uses relative to ecologically unfavourable alternatives. Restrictions on lion hunting may also reduce tolerance for the species among communities where local people benefit from trophy hunting, and may reduce funds available for anti-poaching. If lion off-takes were reduced to recommended maximums (0.5/1000 km2), the loss of viability and reduction in profitability would be much lower than if lion hunting was stopped altogether (7,005 km2). We recommend that interventions focus on reducing off-takes to sustainable levels, implementing age-based regulations and improving governance of trophy hunting. Such measures could ensure sustainability, while retaining incentives for the conservation of lions and their

  20. The significance of African lions for the financial viability of trophy hunting and the maintenance of wild land.

    PubMed

    Lindsey, Peter Andrew; Balme, Guy Andrew; Booth, Vernon Richard; Midlane, Neil

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that trophy hunting is impacting negatively on some lion populations, notably in Tanzania. In 2004 there was a proposal to list lions on CITES Appendix I and in 2011 animal-welfare groups petitioned the United States government to list lions as endangered under their Endangered Species Act. Such listings would likely curtail the trophy hunting of lions by limiting the import of lion trophies. Concurrent efforts are underway to encourage the European Union to ban lion trophy imports. We assessed the significance of lions to the financial viability of trophy hunting across five countries to help determine the financial impact and advisability of the proposed trade restrictions. Lion hunts attract the highest mean prices (US$24,000-US$71,000) of all trophy species. Lions generate 5-17% of gross trophy hunting income on national levels, the proportional significance highest in Mozambique, Tanzania, and Zambia. If lion hunting was effectively precluded, trophy hunting could potentially become financially unviable across at least 59,538 km(2) that could result in a concomitant loss of habitat. However, the loss of lion hunting could have other potentially broader negative impacts including reduction of competitiveness of wildlife-based land uses relative to ecologically unfavourable alternatives. Restrictions on lion hunting may also reduce tolerance for the species among communities where local people benefit from trophy hunting, and may reduce funds available for anti-poaching. If lion off-takes were reduced to recommended maximums (0.5/1000 km(2)), the loss of viability and reduction in profitability would be much lower than if lion hunting was stopped altogether (7,005 km(2)). We recommend that interventions focus on reducing off-takes to sustainable levels, implementing age-based regulations and improving governance of trophy hunting. Such measures could ensure sustainability, while retaining incentives for the conservation of lions and their

  1. Banning Trophy Hunting Will Exacerbate Biodiversity Loss.

    PubMed

    Di Minin, Enrico; Leader-Williams, Nigel; Bradshaw, Corey J A

    2016-02-01

    International pressure to ban trophy hunting is increasing. However, we argue that trophy hunting can be an important conservation tool, provided it can be done in a controlled manner to benefit biodiversity conservation and local people. Where political and governance structures are adequate, trophy hunting can help address the ongoing loss of species. PMID:26746807

  2. Fourth Airborne Geoscience Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The focus of the workshop was on how the airborne community can assist in achieving the goals of the Global Change Research Program. The many activities that employ airborne platforms and sensors were discussed: platforms and instrument development; airborne oceanography; lidar research; SAR measurements; Doppler radar; laser measurements; cloud physics; airborne experiments; airborne microwave measurements; and airborne data collection.

  3. A Treasure Hunt for Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridgeman, Adam J.; Rutledge, Peter J.; Todd, Matthew H.; Connor, Ricky

    2011-01-01

    A new group educational activity based on a treasure hunt is described. Students are asked questions and the answers specify a grid on a map. A specified object in the grid location must be found and photographed, and the photograph submitted electronically (through the Learning Management System) for assessment. Once a series of objects in…

  4. The Great Bug Hunt 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon-Watmough, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    The Association For Science Education's "schoolscience.co.uk Great Bug Hunt 2011," in association with Martin Rapley and Gatekeeper Educational, has been a resounding success--not only because it fits into the science curriculum so neatly, but also because of the passion it evoked in the children who took part. This year's entries were truly…

  5. Winslow Homer: "The Fox Hunt."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pond, Jeanne C.

    1988-01-01

    Uses a print of Homer's painting, "The Fox Hunt," to introduce students in grades 4-6 to paintings of wildlife as both factual record and as a storytelling medium. Includes learning objectives, instructional strategies, and background information on the artist. (GEA)

  6. Airborne laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamberson, Steven E.

    2002-06-01

    The US Air Force Airborne Laser (ABL) is an airborne, megawatt-class laser system with a state-of-the-art atmospheric compensation system to destroy enemy ballistic missiles at long ranges. This system will provide both deterrence and defense against the use of such weapons during conflicts. This paper provides an overview of the ABL weapon system including: the notional operational concept, the development approach and schedule, the overall aircraft configuration, the technologies being incorporated in the ABL, and the risk reduction approach being utilized to ensure program success.

  7. Exoplanets: The Hunt Continues!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-04-01

    Swiss Telescope at La Silla Very Successful Summary The intensive and exciting hunt for planets around other stars ( "exoplanets" ) is continuing with great success in both hemispheres. Today, an international team of astronomers from the Geneva Observatory and other research institutes [1] is announcing the discovery of no less than eleven new, planetary companions to solar-type stars, HD 8574, HD 28185, HD 50554, HD 74156, HD 80606, HD 82943, HD 106252, HD 141937, HD 178911B, HD 141937, among which two new multi-planet systems . The masses of these new objects range from slightly less than to about 10 times the mass of the planet Jupiter [2]. The new detections are based on measured velocity changes of the stars [3], performed with the CORALIE spectrometer on the Swiss 1.2-m Leonard Euler telescope at the ESO La Silla Observatory , as well as with instruments on telescopes at the Haute-Provence Observatory and on the Keck telescopes on Mauna Kea (Hawaii, USA). Some of the new planets are unusual: * a two-planet system (around the star HD 82943) in which one orbital period is nearly exactly twice as long as the other - cases like this (refered to as "orbital resonance") are well known in our own solar system; * another two-planet system (HD 74156), with a Jupiter-like planet and a more massive planet further out; * a planet with the most elongated orbit detected so far (HD 80606), moving between 5 and 127 million kilometers from the central star; * a giant planet moving in an orbit around its Sun-like central star that is very similar to the one of the Earth and whose potential satellites (in theory, at least) might be "habitable". At this moment, there are 63 know exoplanet candidates with minimum masses below 10 Jupiter masses, and 67 known objects with minimum masses below 17 Jupiter masses. The present team of astronomers has detected about half of these. PR Photo 13a/01 : Radial-velocity measurements of HD 82943, a two-planet system . PR Photo 13b/01 : Radial

  8. Hunting, law enforcement, and African primate conservation.

    PubMed

    N'Goran, Paul K; Boesch, Christophe; Mundry, Roger; N'Goran, Eliezer K; Herbinger, Ilka; Yapi, Fabrice A; Kühl, Hjalmar S

    2012-06-01

    Primates are regularly hunted for bushmeat in tropical forests, and systematic ecological monitoring can help determine the effect hunting has on these and other hunted species. Monitoring can also be used to inform law enforcement and managers of where hunting is concentrated. We evaluated the effects of law enforcement informed by monitoring data on density and spatial distribution of 8 monkey species in Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire. We conducted intensive surveys of monkeys and looked for signs of human activity throughout the park. We also gathered information on the activities of law-enforcement personnel related to hunting and evaluated the relative effects of hunting, forest cover and proximity to rivers, and conservation effort on primate distribution and density. The effects of hunting on monkeys varied among species. Red colobus monkeys (Procolobus badius) were most affected and Campbell's monkeys (Cercopithecus campbelli) were least affected by hunting. Density of monkeys irrespective of species was up to 100 times higher near a research station and tourism site in the southwestern section of the park, where there is little hunting, than in the southeastern part of the park. The results of our monitoring guided law-enforcement patrols toward zones with the most hunting activity. Such systematic coordination of ecological monitoring and law enforcement may be applicable at other sites. PMID:22394275

  9. 77 FR 39983 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Application for Approval of Fluoropolymeric Shot Coatings as Nontoxic for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-06

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 RIN 1018-AY66 Migratory Bird Hunting; Application for Approval... INFORMATION CONTACT: George Allen, at 703-358-1825. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background The Migratory Bird Treaty Act of 1918 (Act) (16 U.S.C. 703-712 and 16 U.S.C. 742 a-j) implements migratory bird...

  10. Mutagenicity of airborne particles.

    PubMed

    Chrisp, C E; Fisher, G L

    1980-09-01

    The physical and chemical properties of airborne particles are important for the interpretation of their potential biologic significance as genotoxic hazards. For polydisperse particle size distributions, the smallest, most respirable particles are generally the most mutagenic. Particulate collection for testing purposes should be designed to reduce artifact formation and allow condensation of mutagenic compounds. Other critical factors such as UV irradiation, wind direction, chemical reactivity, humidity, sample storage, and temperature of combustion are important. Application of chemical extraction methods and subsequent class fractionation techniques influence the observed mutagenic activity. Particles from urban air, coal fly ash, automobile and diesel exhaust, agricultural burning and welding fumes contain primarily direct-acting mutagens. Cigarette smoke condensate, smoke from charred meat and protein pyrolysates, kerosene soot and cigarette smoke condensates contain primarily mutagens which require metabolic activation. Fractionation coupled with mutagenicity testing indicates that the most potent mutagens are found in the acidic fractions of urban air, coal fly ash, and automobile diesel exhaust, whereas mutagens in rice straw smoke and cigarette smoke condensate are found primarily in the basic fractions. The interaction of the many chemical compounds in complex mixtures from airborne particles is likely to be important in determining mutagenic or comutagenic potentials. Because the mode of exposure is generally frequent and prolonged, the presence of tumor-promoting agents in complex mixtures may be a major factor in evaluation of the carcinogenic potential of airborne particles. PMID:7005667

  11. 77 FR 38317 - Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-27

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife..., announce a public teleconference of the Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council (Council). DATES... that Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council will hold a teleconference. Background...

  12. 76 FR 3155 - Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-19

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... public meeting of the Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council (Council). DATES: Meeting... that Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council will hold a meeting. Background Formed...

  13. 77 FR 15386 - Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-15

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife..., announce a public teleconference of the Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council (Council). DATES... that Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council will hold a teleconference. Background...

  14. 77 FR 74864 - Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-18

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... public meeting of the Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council (Council). DATES: Meeting.... App., we announce that Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council will hold a...

  15. 77 FR 10543 - Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council Charter

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-22

    ... Office of the Secretary Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council Charter AGENCY: Office of the... Secretary of Agriculture have renewed the Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council (Council..., providing recommendations for: (a) Implementing the Recreational Hunting and Wildlife Resource...

  16. Ramsay Hunt syndrome type II.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Shuhan; Pyatkevich, Yelena

    2014-05-01

    A 57-year-old man developed 3 days of left facial pain and swelling with left-sided hearing loss followed by a painful, unilateral, erythematous, and vesicular rash on the left anterior two-thirds of the tongue, external auditory canal, lip, and face typical of varicella-zoster virus reactivation (figure). Reactivation in the geniculate ganglion or facial nerve is uncommon and typically causes tongue and auricular lesions or facial palsy and was described by Hunt in 1907.(1) The patient received IV acyclovir and oral prednisone with rapid improvement in pain and resolution of lesions and improvement of hearing over 1 month. PMID:24799517

  17. Inquiry on School Organizations: Some Hunting Stories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willower, Donald J.

    1978-01-01

    In this essay, inquiry concerning school organizations is likened to a hunt and some "hunting stories" are told. The stories deal with two areas of inquiry related to pupil control. One area is concerned with the instruments that serve as operational definitions or measures in the author's pupil control research. The other was concerned with a…

  18. Insights into the origins of fish hunting in venomous cone snails from studies of Conus tessulatus.

    PubMed

    Aman, Joseph W; Imperial, Julita S; Ueberheide, Beatrix; Zhang, Min-Min; Aguilar, Manuel; Taylor, Dylan; Watkins, Maren; Yoshikami, Doju; Showers-Corneli, Patrice; Safavi-Hemami, Helena; Biggs, Jason; Teichert, Russell W; Olivera, Baldomero M

    2015-04-21

    Prey shifts in carnivorous predators are events that can initiate the accelerated generation of new biodiversity. However, it is seldom possible to reconstruct how the change in prey preference occurred. Here we describe an evolutionary "smoking gun" that illuminates the transition from worm hunting to fish hunting among marine cone snails, resulting in the adaptive radiation of fish-hunting lineages comprising ∼100 piscivorous Conus species. This smoking gun is δ-conotoxin TsVIA, a peptide from the venom of Conus tessulatus that delays inactivation of vertebrate voltage-gated sodium channels. C. tessulatus is a species in a worm-hunting clade, which is phylogenetically closely related to the fish-hunting cone snail specialists. The discovery of a δ-conotoxin that potently acts on vertebrate sodium channels in the venom of a worm-hunting cone snail suggests that a closely related ancestral toxin enabled the transition from worm hunting to fish hunting, as δ-conotoxins are highly conserved among fish hunters and critical to their mechanism of prey capture; this peptide, δ-conotoxin TsVIA, has striking sequence similarity to these δ-conotoxins from piscivorous cone snail venoms. Calcium-imaging studies on dissociated dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons revealed the peptide's putative molecular target (voltage-gated sodium channels) and mechanism of action (inhibition of channel inactivation). The results were confirmed by electrophysiology. This work demonstrates how elucidating the specific interactions between toxins and receptors from phylogenetically well-defined lineages can uncover molecular mechanisms that underlie significant evolutionary transitions. PMID:25848010

  19. Insights into the origins of fish hunting in venomous cone snails from studies of Conus tessulatus

    PubMed Central

    Aman, Joseph W.; Imperial, Julita S.; Ueberheide, Beatrix; Zhang, Min-Min; Aguilar, Manuel; Taylor, Dylan; Watkins, Maren; Yoshikami, Doju; Showers-Corneli, Patrice; Safavi-Hemami, Helena; Biggs, Jason; Teichert, Russell W.; Olivera, Baldomero M.

    2015-01-01

    Prey shifts in carnivorous predators are events that can initiate the accelerated generation of new biodiversity. However, it is seldom possible to reconstruct how the change in prey preference occurred. Here we describe an evolutionary “smoking gun” that illuminates the transition from worm hunting to fish hunting among marine cone snails, resulting in the adaptive radiation of fish-hunting lineages comprising ∼100 piscivorous Conus species. This smoking gun is δ-conotoxin TsVIA, a peptide from the venom of Conus tessulatus that delays inactivation of vertebrate voltage-gated sodium channels. C. tessulatus is a species in a worm-hunting clade, which is phylogenetically closely related to the fish-hunting cone snail specialists. The discovery of a δ-conotoxin that potently acts on vertebrate sodium channels in the venom of a worm-hunting cone snail suggests that a closely related ancestral toxin enabled the transition from worm hunting to fish hunting, as δ-conotoxins are highly conserved among fish hunters and critical to their mechanism of prey capture; this peptide, δ-conotoxin TsVIA, has striking sequence similarity to these δ-conotoxins from piscivorous cone snail venoms. Calcium-imaging studies on dissociated dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons revealed the peptide’s putative molecular target (voltage-gated sodium channels) and mechanism of action (inhibition of channel inactivation). The results were confirmed by electrophysiology. This work demonstrates how elucidating the specific interactions between toxins and receptors from phylogenetically well-defined lineages can uncover molecular mechanisms that underlie significant evolutionary transitions. PMID:25848010

  20. 76 FR 13550 - Fur Products Labeling Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ...In December 2010, Congress passed the Truth in Fur Labeling Act (TFLA), which amends the Fur Products Labeling Act (Fur Act) by: (1) Eliminating the Commission's discretion to exempt fur products of relatively small quantity or value from disclosure requirements; and (2) providing that the Fur Act will not apply to certain fur products obtained through trapping or hunting and sold in face to......

  1. Regeneration: Thomas Hunt Morgan's window into development.

    PubMed

    Sunderland, Mary Evelyn

    2010-01-01

    Early in his career Thomas Hunt Morgan was interested in embryology and dedicated his research to studying organisms that could regenerate. Widely regarded as a regeneration expert, Morgan was invited to deliver a series of lectures on the topic that he developed into a book, Regeneration (1901). In addition to presenting experimental work that he had conducted and supervised, Morgan also synthesized and critiqued a great deal of work by his peers and predecessors. This essay probes into the history of regeneration studies by looking in depth at Regeneration and evaluating Morgan's contribution. Although famous for his work with fruit fly genetics, studying Regeneration illuminates Morgan's earlier scientific approach which emphasized the importance of studying a diversity of organisms. Surveying a broad range of regenerative phenomena allowed Morgan to institute a standard scientific terminology that continues to inform regeneration studies today. Most importantly, Morgan argued that regeneration was a fundamental aspect of the growth process and therefore should be accounted for within developmental theory. Establishing important similarities between regeneration and development allowed Morgan to make the case that regeneration could act as a model of development. The nature of the relationship between embryogenesis and regeneration remains an active area of research. PMID:20665231

  2. 43 CFR 423.32 - Hunting, fishing, and trapping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hunting, fishing, and trapping. 423.32... of Conduct § 423.32 Hunting, fishing, and trapping. (a) You may hunt, fish, and trap in accordance... pertaining to hunting, fishing, and trapping established by an authorized official in a special use...

  3. 43 CFR 423.32 - Hunting, fishing, and trapping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hunting, fishing, and trapping. 423.32... of Conduct § 423.32 Hunting, fishing, and trapping. (a) You may hunt, fish, and trap in accordance... pertaining to hunting, fishing, and trapping established by an authorized official in a special use...

  4. 43 CFR 423.32 - Hunting, fishing, and trapping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hunting, fishing, and trapping. 423.32... of Conduct § 423.32 Hunting, fishing, and trapping. (a) You may hunt, fish, and trap in accordance... pertaining to hunting, fishing, and trapping established by an authorized official in a special use...

  5. 43 CFR 423.32 - Hunting, fishing, and trapping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hunting, fishing, and trapping. 423.32... of Conduct § 423.32 Hunting, fishing, and trapping. (a) You may hunt, fish, and trap in accordance... pertaining to hunting, fishing, and trapping established by an authorized official in a special use...

  6. 43 CFR 423.32 - Hunting, fishing, and trapping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Hunting, fishing, and trapping. 423.32... of Conduct § 423.32 Hunting, fishing, and trapping. (a) You may hunt, fish, and trap in accordance... pertaining to hunting, fishing, and trapping established by an authorized official in a special use...

  7. Response to Roger W. Hunt.

    PubMed Central

    Callahan, Daniel

    1993-01-01

    A response to a critique by Roger W. Hunt of my views on the eventual likely need to use age as a standard for the allocation of expensive, high-technology, life-extending medical care for the elderly. The response encompasses three elements: 1. that while the elderly have a substantial claim to publicly-provided health care, it cannot be an unlimited claim; 2. that a health care system which provided a decent, coherent set of medical and social services for the elderly would be sufficient, even if some limits had to be set; and 3. allocation and rationing decisions should not be made by individual doctors at the bedside but by regional or national policy. PMID:11643099

  8. Drivers of bushmeat hunting and perceptions of zoonoses in Nigerian hunting communities.

    PubMed

    Friant, Sagan; Paige, Sarah B; Goldberg, Tony L

    2015-05-01

    Bushmeat hunting threatens biodiversity and increases the risk of zoonotic pathogen transmission. Nevertheless, limited information exists on patterns of contact with wildlife in communities that practice bushmeat hunting, especially with respect to social drivers of hunting behavior. We used interview responses from hunters and non-hunters in rural hunting communities in Nigeria to: 1) quantify contact rates with wildlife, 2) identify specific hunting behaviors that increase frequency of contact, 3) identify socioeconomic factors that predispose individuals to hunt, and 4) measure perceptions of risk. Participants engaged in a variety of behaviors that increased contact with wild animals, including: butchering to sell (37%), being injured (14%), using body parts for traditional medicine (19%), collecting carcasses found in forests and/or farms (18%), and keeping as pets (16%). Hunters came into contact with wildlife significantly more than non-hunters, even through non-hunting exposure pathways. Participants reported hunting rodents (95%), ungulates (93%), carnivores (93%), primates (87%), and bats (42%), among other prey. Reported hunting frequencies within taxonomic groups of prey were different for different hunting behaviors. Young age, lower education level, larger household size, having a father who hunts, and cultural group were all associated with becoming a hunter. Fifty-five percent of respondents were aware that they could contract diseases from wild animals, but only 26% of these individuals reported taking protective measures. Overall, hunters in this setting frequently contact a diversity of prey in risky ways, and the decision to become a hunter stems from family tradition, modified by economic necessity. Conservation and public health interventions in such settings may be most efficient when they capitalize on local knowledge and target root socio-economic and cultural drivers that lead to hunting behavior. Importantly, interventions that target

  9. Drivers of Bushmeat Hunting and Perceptions of Zoonoses in Nigerian Hunting Communities

    PubMed Central

    Friant, Sagan; Paige, Sarah B.; Goldberg, Tony L.

    2015-01-01

    Bushmeat hunting threatens biodiversity and increases the risk of zoonotic pathogen transmission. Nevertheless, limited information exists on patterns of contact with wildlife in communities that practice bushmeat hunting, especially with respect to social drivers of hunting behavior. We used interview responses from hunters and non-hunters in rural hunting communities in Nigeria to: 1) quantify contact rates with wildlife, 2) identify specific hunting behaviors that increase frequency of contact, 3) identify socioeconomic factors that predispose individuals to hunt, and 4) measure perceptions of risk. Participants engaged in a variety of behaviors that increased contact with wild animals, including: butchering to sell (37%), being injured (14%), using body parts for traditional medicine (19%), collecting carcasses found in forests and/or farms (18%), and keeping as pets (16%). Hunters came into contact with wildlife significantly more than non-hunters, even through non-hunting exposure pathways. Participants reported hunting rodents (95%), ungulates (93%), carnivores (93%), primates (87%), and bats (42%), among other prey. Reported hunting frequencies within taxonomic groups of prey were different for different hunting behaviors. Young age, lower education level, larger household size, having a father who hunts, and cultural group were all associated with becoming a hunter. Fifty-five percent of respondents were aware that they could contract diseases from wild animals, but only 26% of these individuals reported taking protective measures. Overall, hunters in this setting frequently contact a diversity of prey in risky ways, and the decision to become a hunter stems from family tradition, modified by economic necessity. Conservation and public health interventions in such settings may be most efficient when they capitalize on local knowledge and target root socio-economic and cultural drivers that lead to hunting behavior. Importantly, interventions that target

  10. Job Hunting? Maybe a Therapist Can Help

    MedlinePlus

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_159458.html Job Hunting? Maybe a Therapist Can Help Study finds ... News) -- The unemployed may find help for their job search in an unexpected place -- a therapist's office. ...

  11. Locomotion dynamics of hunting in wild cheetahs.

    PubMed

    Wilson, A M; Lowe, J C; Roskilly, K; Hudson, P E; Golabek, K A; McNutt, J W

    2013-06-13

    Although the cheetah is recognised as the fastest land animal, little is known about other aspects of its notable athleticism, particularly when hunting in the wild. Here we describe and use a new tracking collar of our own design, containing a combination of Global Positioning System (GPS) and inertial measurement units, to capture the locomotor dynamics and outcome of 367 predominantly hunting runs of five wild cheetahs in Botswana. A remarkable top speed of 25.9 m s(-1) (58 m.p.h. or 93 km h(-1)) was recorded, but most cheetah hunts involved only moderate speeds. We recorded some of the highest measured values for lateral and forward acceleration, deceleration and body-mass-specific power for any terrestrial mammal. To our knowledge, this is the first detailed locomotor information on the hunting dynamics of a large cursorial predator in its natural habitat. PMID:23765495

  12. 77 FR 36980 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Application for Approval of Copper-Clad Iron Shot as Nontoxic for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-20

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 RIN 1018-AY61 Migratory Bird Hunting; Application for Approval.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background The Migratory Bird Treaty Act of 1918 (Act) (16 U.S.C. 703-712 and 16 U.S.C. 742 a-j) implements migratory bird treaties between the United States and Great Britain...

  13. Hunting for sustainability in tropical secondary forests.

    PubMed

    Parry, Luke; Barlow, Jos; Peres, Carlos A

    2009-10-01

    The interaction between land-use change and the sustainability of hunting is poorly understood but is critical for sustaining hunted vertebrate populations and a protein supply for the rural poor. We investigated sustainability of hunting in an Amazonian landscape mosaic, where a small human population had access to large areas of both primary and secondary forest. Harvestable production of mammals and birds was calculated from density estimates. We compared production with offtake from three villages and used catch-per-unit-effort as an independent measure of prey abundance. Most species were hunted unsustainably in primary forest, leading to local depletion of the largest primates and birds. The estimated sustainable supply of wild meat was higher for primary (39 kg x km(-2) x yr(-1)) than secondary forest (22 kg x km(-2) x yr(-1)) because four species were absent and three species at low abundance in secondary forests. Production of three disturbance-tolerant mammal species was 3 times higher in secondary than in primary forest, but hunting led to overexploitation of one species. Our data suggest that an average Amazonian smallholder would require > or = 3.1 km2 of secondary regrowth to ensure a sustainable harvest of forest vertebrates. We conclude that secondary forests can sustainably provide only 2% of the required protein intake of Amazonian smallholders and are unlikely to be sufficient for sustainable hunting in other tropical forest regions. PMID:19765039

  14. Prey-Capture Strategies of Fish-Hunting Cone Snails: Behavior, Neurobiology and Evolution.

    PubMed

    Olivera, Baldomero M; Seger, Jon; Horvath, Martin P; Fedosov, Alexander E

    2015-09-01

    The venomous fish-hunting cone snails (Conus) comprise eight distinct lineages evolved from ancestors that preyed on worms. In this article, we attempt to reconstruct events resulting in this shift in food resource by closely examining patterns of behavior, biochemical agents (toxins) that facilitate prey capture and the combinations of toxins present in extant species. The first sections introduce three different hunting behaviors associated with piscivory: 'taser-and-tether', 'net-engulfment' and 'strike-and-stalk'. The first two fish-hunting behaviors are clearly associated with distinct groups of venom components, called cabals, which act in concert to modify the behavior of prey in a specific manner. Derived fish-hunting behavior clearly also correlates with physical features of the radular tooth, the device that injects these biochemical components. Mapping behavior, biochemical components and radular tooth features onto phylogenetic trees shows that fish-hunting behavior emerged at least twice during evolution. The system presented here may be one of the best examples where diversity in structure, physiology and molecular features were initially driven by particular pathways selected through behavior. PMID:26397110

  15. 76 FR 54675 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian Reservations...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-01

    ...This rule prescribes special early-season migratory bird hunting regulations for certain tribes on Federal Indian reservations, off-reservation trust lands, and ceded lands. This rule responds to tribal requests for U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (hereinafter Service or we) recognition of tribal authority to regulate hunting under established guidelines. This rule allows the establishment of......

  16. 77 FR 54451 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian Reservations...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-05

    ...This rule prescribes special early-season migratory bird hunting regulations for certain tribes on Federal Indian reservations, off-reservation trust lands, and ceded lands. This rule responds to tribal requests for U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (hereinafter Service or we) recognition of tribal authority to regulate hunting under established guidelines. This rule allows the establishment of......

  17. 75 FR 32872 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Supplemental Proposals for Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-10

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), proposed in an earlier document to establish annual hunting regulations for certain migratory game birds for the 2010-11 hunting season. This supplement to the proposed rule provides the regulatory schedule, announces the Service Migratory Bird Regulations Committee and Flyway Council meetings, and provides Flyway Council recommendations......

  18. 78 FR 53217 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian Reservations...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-28

    ... Register (78 FR 47136), we proposed special migratory bird hunting regulations for the 2013-14 hunting... (50 FR 23467). The guidelines respond to tribal requests for Service recognition of their reserved... the April 9, 2013, Federal Register (78 FR 21200), we requested that tribes desiring special...

  19. Effects of hunting on cougar spatial organization

    PubMed Central

    Maletzke, Benjamin T; Wielgus, Robert; Koehler, Gary M; Swanson, Mark; Cooley, Hilary; Alldredge, J Richard

    2014-01-01

    The effects of increased mortality on the spatial dynamics of solitary carnivores are not well understood. We examined the spatial ecology of two cougar populations that differed in hunting intensity to test whether increased mortality affected home range size and overlap. The stability hypothesis predicts that home range size and overlap will be similar for both sexes among the two areas. The instability hypothesis predicts that home range size and overlap will be greater in the heavily hunted population, although may differ for males versus females due to behavior strategies. We marked 22 adult resident cougars in the lightly hunted population and 20 in the heavily hunted population with GPS collars from 2002 to 2008. Cougar densities and predation rates were similar among areas, suggesting no difference in per capita resources. We compared home range size, two-dimensional home range overlap, and three-dimensional utilization distribution overlap index (UDOI) among annual home ranges for male and female cougars. Male cougars in the heavily hunted area had larger sized home ranges and greater two-dimensional and three-dimensional UDOI overlap than those in the lightly hunted area. Females showed no difference in size and overlap of home range areas between study populations – further suggesting that differences in prey quantity and distribution between study areas did not explain differences in male spatial organization. We reject the spatial stability hypothesis and provide evidence to support the spatial instability hypothesis. Increased hunting and ensuing increased male home range size and overlap may result in negative demographic effects for cougars and potential unintended consequences for managers. PMID:25360259

  20. Effects of hunting on cougar spatial organization.

    PubMed

    Maletzke, Benjamin T; Wielgus, Robert; Koehler, Gary M; Swanson, Mark; Cooley, Hilary; Alldredge, J Richard

    2014-06-01

    The effects of increased mortality on the spatial dynamics of solitary carnivores are not well understood. We examined the spatial ecology of two cougar populations that differed in hunting intensity to test whether increased mortality affected home range size and overlap. The stability hypothesis predicts that home range size and overlap will be similar for both sexes among the two areas. The instability hypothesis predicts that home range size and overlap will be greater in the heavily hunted population, although may differ for males versus females due to behavior strategies. We marked 22 adult resident cougars in the lightly hunted population and 20 in the heavily hunted population with GPS collars from 2002 to 2008. Cougar densities and predation rates were similar among areas, suggesting no difference in per capita resources. We compared home range size, two-dimensional home range overlap, and three-dimensional utilization distribution overlap index (UDOI) among annual home ranges for male and female cougars. Male cougars in the heavily hunted area had larger sized home ranges and greater two-dimensional and three-dimensional UDOI overlap than those in the lightly hunted area. Females showed no difference in size and overlap of home range areas between study populations - further suggesting that differences in prey quantity and distribution between study areas did not explain differences in male spatial organization. We reject the spatial stability hypothesis and provide evidence to support the spatial instability hypothesis. Increased hunting and ensuing increased male home range size and overlap may result in negative demographic effects for cougars and potential unintended consequences for managers. PMID:25360259

  1. 'Impact hunters' catalyse cooperative hunting in two wild chimpanzee communities.

    PubMed

    Gilby, Ian C; Machanda, Zarin P; Mjungu, Deus C; Rosen, Jeremiah; Muller, Martin N; Pusey, Anne E; Wrangham, Richard W

    2015-12-01

    Even when hunting in groups is mutually beneficial, it is unclear how communal hunts are initiated. If it is costly to be the only hunter, individuals should be reluctant to hunt unless others already are. We used 70 years of data from three communities to examine how male chimpanzees 'solve' this apparent collective action problem. The 'impact hunter' hypothesis proposes that group hunts are sometimes catalysed by certain individuals that hunt more readily than others. In two communities (Kasekela and Kanyawara), we identified a total of five males that exhibited high hunt participation rates for their age, and whose presence at an encounter with red colobus monkeys increased group hunting probability. Critically, these impact hunters were observed to hunt first more often than expected by chance. We argue that by hunting first, these males dilute prey defences and create opportunities for previously reluctant participants. This by-product mutualism can explain variation in group hunting rates within and between social groups. Hunting rates declined after the death of impact hunter FG in Kasekela and after impact hunter MS stopped hunting frequently in Kanyawara. There were no impact hunters in the third, smaller community (Mitumba), where, unlike the others, hunting probability increased with the number of females present at an encounter with prey. PMID:26503679

  2. Target definition for shipwreck hunting

    PubMed Central

    Kirsner, Kim

    2015-01-01

    The research described in the present article was implemented to define the locations of two World War II shipwrecks, the German raider Kormoran, and the Australian light cruiser HMAS Sydney. The paper describes the long and complex trail that led through inefficient oceanographic prediction to ambiguous historical prediction involving a single report and on to precise cognitive prediction based on nine reports from more than 70 survivors, a process that yielded a single target position or “mean” just 2.7 NM (nautical miles) from the wreck of Kormoran. Prediction for the position of the wreck of Sydney opened with wishful thinking that she had somehow reached the coast more than 100 NM away when cognitive analysis of the survivor's reports actually provided the basis for accurate prediction in a position near to the wreck of Kormoran. In the account provided below, the focus on cognitive procedures emerged from, first, a review of a sample of the shipwreck hunts, and, second, growing awareness of the extraordinarily rich database available for this search, and the extent to which it was open to cognitive analysis. This review touches on both the trans-disciplinary and the cognitive or intra-disciplinary issues that so challenged the political entities responsible for supervising of the search for the wrecks of Kormoran and Sydney. One of the theoretical questions that emerged from these debate concerns the model of expertise advanced by Collins (2013). The decomposability of alleged forms of expertise is revealed as a fundamental problem for research projects that might or might not benefit from trans-disciplinary research. Where expertise can be decomposed for operational purposes, the traditional dividing lines between experts and novices, and fools for that matter, are much harder to discern, and require advanced and scientifically informed review. PMID:26579007

  3. 77 FR 57577 - Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-18

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... public meeting of the Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council (Council). DATES: Meeting... wildlife and habitat conservation endeavors that: 1. Benefit wildlife resources; 2. Encourage...

  4. 77 FR 31636 - Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-29

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... public meeting of the Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council (Council). DATES: Meeting... Council provides advice about wildlife and habitat conservation endeavors that: 1. Benefit...

  5. 78 FR 25463 - Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-01

    ... advice about wildlife and habitat conservation endeavors that: 1. Benefit wildlife resources; 2... tribes, and the Federal Government; 3. Benefit recreational hunting. The Council advises the Secretary of... recommendations to improve implementation of Federal conservation programs that benefit wildlife, hunting,...

  6. 77 FR 16051 - Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-19

    ... conservation endeavors that (a) benefit wildlife resources; (b) encourage partnership among the public...) benefit recreational hunting. Nominations should describe and document the proposed member's... benefit wildlife, hunting, and outdoor recreation on private lands; and (h) When requested by...

  7. 78 FR 73205 - Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-05

    ... advice about wildlife and habitat conservation endeavors that: 1. Benefit wildlife resources; 2..., and the Federal Government; and 3. Benefit recreational hunting. The Council advises the Secretary of... recommendations to improve implementation of Federal conservation programs that benefit wildlife, hunting,...

  8. Cheetah do not abandon hunts because they overheat.

    PubMed

    Hetem, Robyn S; Mitchell, Duncan; de Witt, Brenda A; Fick, Linda G; Meyer, Leith C R; Maloney, Shane K; Fuller, Andrea

    2013-10-23

    Hunting cheetah reportedly store metabolic heat during the chase and abandon chases because they overheat. Using biologging to remotely measure the body temperature (every minute) and locomotor activity (every 5 min) of four free-living cheetah, hunting spontaneously, we found that cheetah abandoned hunts, but not because they overheated. Body temperature averaged 38.4°C when the chase was terminated. Storage of metabolic heat did not compromise hunts. The increase in body temperature following a successful hunt was double that of an unsuccessful hunt (1.3°C ± 0.2°C versus 0.5°C ± 0.1°C), even though the level of activity during the hunts was similar. We propose that the increase in body temperature following a successful hunt is a stress hyperthermia, rather than an exercise-induced hyperthermia. PMID:23883578

  9. Cheetah do not abandon hunts because they overheat

    PubMed Central

    Hetem, Robyn S.; Mitchell, Duncan; de Witt, Brenda A.; Fick, Linda G.; Meyer, Leith C. R.; Maloney, Shane K.; Fuller, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Hunting cheetah reportedly store metabolic heat during the chase and abandon chases because they overheat. Using biologging to remotely measure the body temperature (every minute) and locomotor activity (every 5 min) of four free-living cheetah, hunting spontaneously, we found that cheetah abandoned hunts, but not because they overheated. Body temperature averaged 38.4°C when the chase was terminated. Storage of metabolic heat did not compromise hunts. The increase in body temperature following a successful hunt was double that of an unsuccessful hunt (1.3°C ± 0.2°C versus 0.5°C ± 0.1°C), even though the level of activity during the hunts was similar. We propose that the increase in body temperature following a successful hunt is a stress hyperthermia, rather than an exercise-induced hyperthermia. PMID:23883578

  10. When top predators become prey: Black bears alter movement behaviour in response to hunting pressure.

    PubMed

    Stillfried, Milena; Belant, Jerrold L; Svoboda, Nathan J; Beyer, Dean E; Kramer-Schadt, Stephanie

    2015-11-01

    The trade-off between predator avoidance and foraging is a key decision making factor that shapes an organism's adaptive behaviour and movement patterns. Human hunters act as top predators to influence the behaviour of free-ranging mammals, including large carnivorous species such as black bears (Ursus americanus). Analysing the effects of hunting on animal behavioural patterns is essential for understanding the extent to which animals detect and respond to human-induced disturbances. To this end, we assessed whether black bear movement behaviour changed with varying risk from spatially and temporally heterogeneous human predation. Levels of risk were categorized as either low (disturbance from dog training; n=19 bears) or high (disturbance from hunting activities; n=11 bears). Road types were either paved (risk due to vehicles) or non-paved (risk due to hunters) and were used as proxies for hunting effort and amount of disturbance. We began by testing the null hypothesis that bears' distribution before the onset of human disturbance is spatially random. Next, to test temporal movement adjustment between the low and high risk levels, we measured the distance to the nearest road and the road crossing frequency using mixed effects models with risk level, time of day and sex as predictor variables. As disturbance near non-paved roads increased due to the start of the hunting activity, the mean distances of bears to non-paved roads increased while the mean distances of bears to paved roads decreased, despite the continual risk of vehicle collision. These behavioural responses were observed during day and night, with the frequency of crossing paved roads at night five times greater than in daytime during the hunting season. Our findings demonstrate that black bears are able to detect risky places and adjust their spatial movements accordingly. More specifically, bears can perceive changes in the level of risk from human hunting activities on a fine temporal scale. PMID

  11. Auditory dysfunction in Ramsay Hunt syndrome.

    PubMed

    Iragui, V J

    1986-07-01

    A 48-year-old woman with a Ramsay Hunt syndrome due to herpes zoster had a hearing deficit. Brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEPs) localised the site of dysfunction to the ipsilateral eighth nerve. Clinical improvement was associated with improvement of the BAEP. Conventional audiological studies and BAEPs provided no evidence of involvement of the cochlea or the brainstem. In Ramsay Hunt syndrome, BAEPs may help to localise the site of involvement within the auditory pathway and follow the course of the disease. PMID:3746312

  12. Who was... John A Hunt OBE?

    PubMed

    Payne, D

    2001-12-01

    Major John A (Anthony) Hunt OBE (1906 - 1986) was a professional geologist who spent part of his working life in the oil fields of the world and a further highly significant period of 28 years (1936 - 58) as a Colonial Administrative Service Officer in the former British Protectorate of Somaliland. In 1943, he was personally selected by the Governor to carry out a wide-ranging General Survey of the Protectorate. The report of this General Survey attained such repute that newly appointed colonial administrators were recommended to rely on three basic documents: the Koran, the Bible and Hunt's, A General Survey of British Somaliland. PMID:11740081

  13. 76 FR 66955 - Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-28

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... public meeting of the Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council (Council). DATES: Meeting... Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council will hold a meeting. Background Formed in February...

  14. 76 FR 12130 - Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council Teleconference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-04

    ...) Benefit recreational hunting; (b) Benefit wildlife resources; and (c) Encourage partnership among the... Sport Wildlife Trust Fund; (c) Fostering wildlife and habitat conservation and ethics in hunting and... implementation of Federal conservation programs that benefit wildlife, hunting, and outdoor recreation on...

  15. 76 FR 17442 - Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council Teleconference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-29

    ...) Benefit recreational hunting; (b) Benefit wildlife resources; and (c) Encourage partnership among the... Sport Wildlife Trust Fund; (c) Fostering wildlife and habitat conservation and ethics in hunting and... implementation of Federal conservation programs that benefit wildlife, hunting, and outdoor recreation on...

  16. Demographic influences on the hunting behavior of chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Mitani, J C; Watts, D P

    1999-08-01

    We investigated hunting in an unusually large community of wild chimpanzees at Ngogo in the Kibale National Park, Uganda. Aspects of predation were recorded with respect to the prey, the predators, and hunting episodes. During 23 months of observation, the Ngogo chimpanzees caught 128 prey items from four primate and three ungulate species. Chimpanzees preyed selectively on immature red colobus primarily during group hunts, with adult males making the majority of kills. Party size and composition were significant predictors of the probability that chimpanzees would hunt and of their success during attempts. Chimpanzees were more likely to hunt red colobus if party size and the number of male hunters were large; party size and the number of male hunters were also significantly larger in successful compared with unsuccessful hunts. The Ngogo chimpanzees did not appear to hunt cooperatively, but reciprocal meat-sharing typically took place after kills. Hunts occurred throughout the year, though there was some seasonality as displayed by periodic hunting binges. The extremely high success rate and large number of kills made per successful hunt are the two most striking aspects of predation by the Ngogo chimpanzees. We compare currently available observations of chimpanzee hunting behavior across study sites and conclude that the large size of the Ngogo community contributes to their extraordinary hunting success. Demographic differences between groups are likely to contribute to other patterns of interpopulation variation in chimpanzee predation. PMID:10423261

  17. 36 CFR 327.8 - Hunting, fishing, and trapping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hunting, fishing, and... THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS § 327.8 Hunting, fishing, and trapping. (a) Hunting is permitted except in... areas and during periods where prohibited by the District Commander. (c) Fishing is permitted except...

  18. 36 CFR 327.8 - Hunting, fishing, and trapping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hunting, fishing, and... THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS § 327.8 Hunting, fishing, and trapping. (a) Hunting is permitted except in... areas and during periods where prohibited by the District Commander. (c) Fishing is permitted except...

  19. 50 CFR 31.15 - Public hunting and fishing programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Public hunting and fishing programs. 31.15 Section 31.15 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Reduction and Disposal § 31.15 Public hunting and fishing programs. The privilege of hunting and fishing...

  20. 7 CFR 502.6 - Hunting, fishing, camping, horseback riding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Hunting, fishing, camping, horseback riding. 502.6..., MARYLAND § 502.6 Hunting, fishing, camping, horseback riding. The use of BARC grounds for any form of hunting, fishing, camping, or horseback riding is prohibited. Further, the use of these grounds...

  1. 7 CFR 502.6 - Hunting, fishing, camping, horseback riding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hunting, fishing, camping, horseback riding. 502.6..., MARYLAND § 502.6 Hunting, fishing, camping, horseback riding. The use of BARC grounds for any form of hunting, fishing, camping, or horseback riding is prohibited. Further, the use of these grounds...

  2. 50 CFR 31.15 - Public hunting and fishing programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Public hunting and fishing programs. 31.15 Section 31.15 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Reduction and Disposal § 31.15 Public hunting and fishing programs. The privilege of hunting and fishing...

  3. 36 CFR 327.8 - Hunting, fishing, and trapping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hunting, fishing, and... THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS § 327.8 Hunting, fishing, and trapping. (a) Hunting is permitted except in... areas and during periods where prohibited by the District Commander. (c) Fishing is permitted except...

  4. 50 CFR 31.15 - Public hunting and fishing programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Public hunting and fishing programs. 31.15 Section 31.15 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Reduction and Disposal § 31.15 Public hunting and fishing programs. The privilege of hunting and fishing...

  5. 7 CFR 502.6 - Hunting, fishing, camping, horseback riding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Hunting, fishing, camping, horseback riding. 502.6..., MARYLAND § 502.6 Hunting, fishing, camping, horseback riding. The use of BARC grounds for any form of hunting, fishing, camping, or horseback riding is prohibited. Further, the use of these grounds...

  6. 7 CFR 502.6 - Hunting, fishing, camping, horseback riding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Hunting, fishing, camping, horseback riding. 502.6..., MARYLAND § 502.6 Hunting, fishing, camping, horseback riding. The use of BARC grounds for any form of hunting, fishing, camping, or horseback riding is prohibited. Further, the use of these grounds...

  7. 7 CFR 502.6 - Hunting, fishing, camping, horseback riding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Hunting, fishing, camping, horseback riding. 502.6..., MARYLAND § 502.6 Hunting, fishing, camping, horseback riding. The use of BARC grounds for any form of hunting, fishing, camping, or horseback riding is prohibited. Further, the use of these grounds...

  8. 50 CFR 31.15 - Public hunting and fishing programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Public hunting and fishing programs. 31.15 Section 31.15 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Reduction and Disposal § 31.15 Public hunting and fishing programs. The privilege of hunting and fishing...

  9. 50 CFR 31.15 - Public hunting and fishing programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Public hunting and fishing programs. 31.15 Section 31.15 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Reduction and Disposal § 31.15 Public hunting and fishing programs. The privilege of hunting and fishing...

  10. 36 CFR 327.8 - Hunting, fishing, and trapping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hunting, fishing, and... THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS § 327.8 Hunting, fishing, and trapping. (a) Hunting is permitted except in... areas and during periods where prohibited by the District Commander. (c) Fishing is permitted except...

  11. 32 CFR 552.19 - Hunting and fishing permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Hunting and fishing permits. 552.19 Section 552.19 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS AND NATIONAL CEMETERIES REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Post Commander § 552.19 Hunting and fishing permits. All permits to hunt,...

  12. Helping Students Understand American Influence in Canada: A Scavenger Hunt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kokott, Bridget; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Explains a scavenger hunt to collect items (newspaper clippings, pictures, records, etc.) that represent the influence of the United States on Canadian Culture. The teacher prepares scavenger hunt stations which include items that students have collected. An assessment on items follows the hunt. (KC)

  13. 77 FR 58443 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Final Frameworks for Late-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-20

    ...The Fish and Wildlife Service (Service or we) prescribes final late-season frameworks from which States may select season dates, limits, and other options for the 2012-13 migratory bird hunting seasons. These late seasons include most waterfowl seasons, the earliest of which commences on September 22, 2012. The effect of this final rule is to facilitate the States' selection of hunting seasons......

  14. 78 FR 58123 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Final Frameworks for Late-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-20

    ...The Fish and Wildlife Service (Service or we) prescribes final late-season frameworks from which States may select season dates, limits, and other options for the 2013-14 migratory bird hunting seasons. These late seasons include most waterfowl seasons, the earliest of which commences on September 21, 2013. The effect of this final rule is to facilitate the States' selection of hunting seasons......

  15. 76 FR 44729 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Frameworks for Early-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-26

    ...The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (hereinafter Service or we) is proposing to establish the 2011-12 early-season hunting regulations for certain migratory game birds. We annually prescribe frameworks, or outer limits, for dates and times when hunting may occur and the maximum number of birds that may be taken and possessed in early seasons. Early seasons may open as early as September 1, and......

  16. Concerning Hunt's New Ways of Assessing Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belmont, John M.

    1983-01-01

    In an earlier article, Hunt envisions the automation of intelligence testing, but he appears to be overly optimistic. He neglects to mention conceptual and practical difficulties at the interface of measurement and theory that place psychometry not in the dawn of microcomputerization, but rather more nearly in its primordium. (Author)

  17. Nature or Nurture? Gender Roles Scavenger Hunt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whalen, Shannon; Maurer-Starks, Suanne

    2008-01-01

    The examination of gender roles and stereotypes and their subsequent impact on sexual behavior is a concept for discussion in many sex education courses in college and sex education units in high school. This analysis often leads to a discussion of the impact of nature vs. nurture on gender roles. The gender roles scavenger hunt is an interactive…

  18. Hunting and Wildlife Management. Issue Pac.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fish and Wildlife Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    The materials in this educational packet are designed for use with students in grades 4 through 7. They consist of an overview, three lesson plans, student data sheets, and a poster. The overview discusses hunting as a tool for wildlife management, the management of wildlife populations and hunter participation in providing research data, and the…

  19. Visuomotor Transformations Underlying Hunting Behavior in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Bianco, Isaac H.; Engert, Florian

    2015-01-01

    Summary Visuomotor circuits filter visual information and determine whether or not to engage downstream motor modules to produce behavioral outputs. However, the circuit mechanisms that mediate and link perception of salient stimuli to execution of an adaptive response are poorly understood. We combined a virtual hunting assay for tethered larval zebrafish with two-photon functional calcium imaging to simultaneously monitor neuronal activity in the optic tectum during naturalistic behavior. Hunting responses showed mixed selectivity for combinations of visual features, specifically stimulus size, speed, and contrast polarity. We identified a subset of tectal neurons with similar highly selective tuning, which show non-linear mixed selectivity for visual features and are likely to mediate the perceptual recognition of prey. By comparing neural dynamics in the optic tectum during response versus non-response trials, we discovered premotor population activity that specifically preceded initiation of hunting behavior and exhibited anatomical localization that correlated with motor variables. In summary, the optic tectum contains non-linear mixed selectivity neurons that are likely to mediate reliable detection of ethologically relevant sensory stimuli. Recruitment of small tectal assemblies appears to link perception to action by providing the premotor commands that release hunting responses. These findings allow us to propose a model circuit for the visuomotor transformations underlying a natural behavior. PMID:25754638

  20. 75 FR 57698 - Hunting and Fishing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 32 Hunting and Fishing CFR Correction In Title 50 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 18 to 199, revised as of October 1, 2009, on page 326, in Sec. 32.35, in...

  1. 75 FR 57698 - Hunting and Fishing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 32 Hunting and Fishing CFR Correction In Title 50 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 18 to 199, revised as of October 1, 2009, on page 385, in Sec. 32.43, the...

  2. 75 FR 57698 - Hunting and Fishing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 32 Hunting and Fishing CFR Correction In Title 50 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 18 to 199, revised as of October 1, 2009, on page 406, in Sec. 32.45,...

  3. 76 FR 60379 - Hunting and Fishing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-29

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 32 Hunting and Fishing CFR Correction In Title 50 of the Code of.... Sport Fishing. We allow fishing on designated areas of the refuge in accordance with State regulations subject to the following conditions: 0 1. We allow fishing in impounded waters contained within dikes...

  4. The Simulation of Prehistoric Hunting Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rick, John W.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses use of computer simulation as an archeological tool for research and teaching involving the remains of prehistoric game animals to aid in understanding effects of various strategies of prehistoric hunters on populations of game animals. A simulation involving possible vicuna hunting strategies is described. (MBR)

  5. Scavenger Hunt: Middle School Earth Science "Test."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Katharine D.; Sanders, Richard L.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a scavenger hunt activity that has been used successfully with middle school students in an earth science course. This activity includes items that call for library research rather than the collection of objects, emphasize real-world connections, are skill-oriented, ask for originality and creativity, and are just for fun. (JRH)

  6. Scavenger Hunts: Chasing Down Scientific Answers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Marshall S.; Dew, Nancy; Kronberg, Joyce R.

    2000-01-01

    Describes a scavenger hunt activity that stimulates active learning. Presents objectives, examples, pitfalls, grading methods, and evaluation based on course experiences with the technique. Although the method was used with lower division biology courses, it is applicable to a wide variety of science courses at various levels. (SAH)

  7. The Great Bug Hunt Is Back!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon-Watmough, Rebecca; Rapley, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The Association for Science Education's "schoolscience.co.uk" and Martin Rapley, presenter of "The Big Bug Experience," are again running the Great Bug Hunt in 2012. Simply identify a habitat, explore and discover the bugs that live there, photograph or draw them and record findings--it's that simple. The winner will be the submission with the…

  8. Sporting Goods. Fishing and Hunting Equipment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, W. O.

    This text provides material for the individualized instruction of students training in the area of sporting goods retailing and merchandising or some closely related area. It consists of nine assignments dealing with fishing equipment and 13 assignments devoted to hunting equipment. Covered in the individual assignments are the following topics:…

  9. Airborne oceanographic lidar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bressel, C.; Itzkan, I.; Nunes, J. E.; Hoge, F.

    1977-01-01

    The characteristics of an Airborne Oceanographic Lidar (AOL) are given. The AOL system is described and its potential for various measurement applications including bathymetry and fluorosensing is discussed.

  10. Determinants of a quality wild turkey hunting season.

    PubMed

    Wynveen, Christopher J; Cavin, Drew A; Wright, Brett A; Hammitt, William E

    2005-07-01

    According to the National Wild Turkey Federation, there has been a 450% increase in the number of licensed wild turkey hunters since 1973. Unfortunately, there is a paucity of research articles focusing specifically on turkey hunting. Most human dimensions of wildlife research have focused on either deer or waterfowl hunting. In this study, dimensions of hunting quality, days a field, and harvest were examined among a sample of 739 Virginia fall turkey hunters. Quality of a hunting season, rather than a specific hunt, was examined. Principal components analysis (PCA) revealed five domains of attributes of a high-quality turkey-hunting season: wildlife interaction, education, being away, social interaction, and hunting skills. The domains of hunting quality revealed by the PCA are similar to domains found previously for spring turkey hunters as well as other types of hunters. Also examined were hunter perceptions of overall hunting quality, the number of days spent hunting turkeys during the fall season, and harvest success. For comparative purposes and agency needs, hunters were segmented into three categories based on days spent hunting: low frequency (1 to 2 days), medium frequency (3 to 4 days), and high frequency (> or =5 days). The influence of these variables to respondents' perceptions of overall quality was examined using a series of regression models. Variables found to be significant predictors of quality were wildlife interaction and harvest success. Hunters who killed a turkey reported a significantly higher quality season than those who did not kill a turkey. PMID:16132453

  11. Identity-driven differences in stakeholder concerns about hunting wolves.

    PubMed

    Lute, Michelle L; Bump, Adam; Gore, Meredith L

    2014-01-01

    Whereas past wolf management in the United States was restricted to recovery, managers must now contend with publicly contentious post-recovery issues including regulated hunting seasons. Understanding stakeholder concerns associated with hunting can inform stakeholder engagement, communication, and policy development and evaluation. Social identity theory (SIT) has been used to understand how groups interact, why they conflict, and how collaboration may be achieved. Applying SIT to stakeholder conflicts about wolf hunting may help delineate groups according to their concern about, support for or opposition to the policy choice of hunting wolves. Our objective was to assess concerns about hunting as a tool to resolve conflict in Michigan, using SIT as a framework. We used a mixed-modal sampling approach (e.g., paper, Internet) with wolf hunting-related public meeting participants in March 2013. Survey questions focused on 12 concerns previously identified as associated with hunting as a management tool to resolve conflict. Respondents (n  =  666) cared greatly about wolves but were divided over hunting wolves. Wolf conflicts, use of science in policy decisions, and maintaining a wolf population were the highest ranked concerns. Principle components analysis reduced concerns into three factors that explained 50.7% of total variance; concerns crystallized over justifications for hunting. General linear models revealed a lack of geographic influence on care, fear and support for hunting related to wolves. These findings challenge assumptions about regional differences and suggest a strong role for social identity in driving dichotomized public perceptions in wildlife management. PMID:25464276

  12. Identity-Driven Differences in Stakeholder Concerns about Hunting Wolves

    PubMed Central

    Lute, Michelle L.; Bump, Adam; Gore, Meredith L.

    2014-01-01

    Whereas past wolf management in the United States was restricted to recovery, managers must now contend with publicly contentious post-recovery issues including regulated hunting seasons. Understanding stakeholder concerns associated with hunting can inform stakeholder engagement, communication, and policy development and evaluation. Social identity theory (SIT) has been used to understand how groups interact, why they conflict, and how collaboration may be achieved. Applying SIT to stakeholder conflicts about wolf hunting may help delineate groups according to their concern about, support for or opposition to the policy choice of hunting wolves. Our objective was to assess concerns about hunting as a tool to resolve conflict in Michigan, using SIT as a framework. We used a mixed-modal sampling approach (e.g., paper, Internet) with wolf hunting-related public meeting participants in March 2013. Survey questions focused on 12 concerns previously identified as associated with hunting as a management tool to resolve conflict. Respondents (n  =  666) cared greatly about wolves but were divided over hunting wolves. Wolf conflicts, use of science in policy decisions, and maintaining a wolf population were the highest ranked concerns. Principle components analysis reduced concerns into three factors that explained 50.7% of total variance; concerns crystallized over justifications for hunting. General linear models revealed a lack of geographic influence on care, fear and support for hunting related to wolves. These findings challenge assumptions about regional differences and suggest a strong role for social identity in driving dichotomized public perceptions in wildlife management. PMID:25464276

  13. A Pediatric Case of Ramsay Hunt Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Derin, Serhan; Derin, Hatice; Sahan, Murat; Çaksen, Hüseyin

    2014-01-01

    Ramsay Hunt syndrome (RHS) is characterized by facial paralysis, inner ear dysfunction, periauricular pain, and herpetiform vesicles. The reported incidence in children is 2.7/100,000. The pathogenesis involves the reactivation of latent varicella zoster virus (VZV) in the geniculate ganglion of the facial nerve. The recovery rate is better in children than in adults. This paper discusses a 12-year-old girl with a rare case of peripheral facial paralysis caused by RHS and reviews the literature. PMID:25276457

  14. Canvasback mortality from illegal hunting on the upper Mississippi River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Korschgen, C.E.; Kenow, K.P.; Nissen, J.M.; Wetzel, J.F.

    1996-01-01

    To quantify the consequences of local hunting on illegal kill of canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria), we studied the behavior of hunters on a 646-ha area open to duck hunting (closed to canvasback hunting) on Lake Onalaska, Navigation Pool 7, Wisconsin, during the 1991 and 1992 waterfowl hunting seasons. Law enforcement officers observed 258 hunting parties for 419 hours. Of 94 hunting parties encountering canvasbacks, 41 (44%) shot at the ducks on 56 occasions, or 27% of 207 encounters observed, Based on a ratio estimator, there were 790 (95% CI = 376) attempts to shoot at canvasbacks on the Lake Onalaska study area during 1991 and 837 (95% CI = 390) during 1992. Mortality of canvasbacks, excluding crippling loss, was estimated to be 128 during 1991 and 166 during 1992. Thus, total canvasback losses may be higher than currently estimated on a flyway or national basis. This estimating technique offers a promising method for enumerating hunter take of protected and legal species.

  15. A novel hunting accident. Discharge of a firearm by a hunting dog.

    PubMed

    Baker, A M; Keller, G; Garcia, D

    2001-09-01

    The authors report the case of a 21-year-old man who was killed while duck hunting when a shotgun accidentally discharged, shooting him in the head. The loaded weapon, which had been lying on the ground with the safety off and the muzzle pointed toward a river a few feet away, discharged when a hunting dog stepped on the trigger. Scene investigation confirmed that the victim had been standing in the river, planting decoys, with his head approximately level with the adjacent bank. Autopsy examination and ballistic testing confirmed a range of fire consistent with the witness' statements. Examination of the weapon in question documented a light trigger pull but no mechanical defects. The authors review the epidemiology and causality of hunting accidents and discuss the various safety rules that were violated in this highly unusual case. The importance of a complete death investigation, including autopsy, when dealing with a firearm death is emphasized. PMID:11563741

  16. Airborne gravity is here

    SciTech Connect

    Hammer, S.

    1982-01-11

    After 20 years of development efforts, the airborne gravity survey has finally become a practical exploration method. Besides gravity data, the airborne survey can also collect simultaneous, continuous records of high-precision magneticfield data as well as terrain clearance; these provide a topographic contour map useful in calculating terrain conditions and in subsequent planning and engineering. Compared with a seismic survey, the airborne gravity method can cover the same area much more quickly and cheaply; a seismograph could then detail the interesting spots.

  17. HUNT STABLE COMPLEX LOOKING NORTHWEST TOWARD DOG KENNEL RUINS ACROSS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    HUNT STABLE COMPLEX LOOKING NORTHWEST TOWARD DOG KENNEL RUINS ACROSS THE GREAT CIRCUS - Overhills, Fort Bragg Military Reservation, Approximately 15 miles NW of Fayetteville, Overhills, Harnett County, NC

  18. Cooperative hunting roles among taï chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Boesch, Christophe

    2002-03-01

    All known chimpanzee populations have been observed to hunt small mammals for meat. Detailed observations have shown, however, that hunting strategies differ considerably between populations, with some merely collecting prey that happens to pass by while others hunt in coordinated groups to chase fast-moving prey. Of all known populations, Taï chimpanzees exhibit the highest level of cooperation when hunting. Some of the group hunting roles require elaborate coordination with other hunters as well as precise anticipation of the movements of the prey. The meat-sharing rules observed in this community guarantee the largest share of the meat to hunters who perform the most important roles leading to a capture. The learning time of such hunting roles is sometimes especially long. Taï chimpanzee males begin hunting monkeys at about age 10. The hunters' progress in learning the more sophisticated hunting roles is clearly correlated with age; only after 20 years of practice are they able to perform them reliably. This lengthy learning period has also been shown in some hunter-gatherer societies and confirms the special challenge that hunting represents. PMID:26192594

  19. Toolsets for Airborne Data

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2015-04-02

    article title:  Toolsets for Airborne Data     View larger image The ... limit of detection values. Prior to accessing the TAD Web Application ( https://tad.larc.nasa.gov ) for the first time, users must ...

  20. The airborne laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamberson, Steven; Schall, Harold; Shattuck, Paul

    2007-05-01

    The Airborne Laser (ABL) is an airborne, megawatt-class laser system with a state-of-the-art atmospheric compensation system to destroy enemy ballistic missiles at long ranges. This system will provide both deterrence and defense against the use of such weapons during conflicts. This paper provides an overview of the ABL weapon system including: the notional operational concept, the development approach and schedule, the overall aircraft configuration, the technologies being incorporated in the ABL, and the current program status.

  1. 77 FR 49679 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-16

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: In the April 17, 2012, Federal Register (77 FR 23094), we requested proposals from... season, under the guidelines described in the June 4, 1985, Federal Register (50 FR 23467). In this... adequately and, therefore, we made them final beginning with the 1988-89 hunting season (53 FR 31612,...

  2. 75 FR 47681 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-06

    ... Service, (703) 358-1714. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: In the May 13, 2010, Federal Register (75 FR 27144... Register (50 FR 23467). In this supplemental proposed rule, we propose special migratory bird hunting... regulations were published in the Federal Register on July 29, 2010 (75 FR 44856); early-season...

  3. 78 FR 47135 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ..., 2013, Federal Register (78 FR 21200), we requested proposals from Indian Tribes wishing to establish... in the June 4, 1985, Federal Register (50 FR 23467). In this supplemental proposed rule, we propose... hunting season (53 FR 31612, August 18, 1988). We should stress here, however, that use of the...

  4. 76 FR 59298 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian Reservations...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-26

    ..., purchased, shipped, carried, exported, or transported. In the August 8, 2011, Federal Register (76 FR 48694... Indian tribes, under the guidelines described in the June 4, 1985, Federal Register (50 FR 23467). The..., Federal Register (76 FR 19876), we requested that tribes desiring special hunting regulations in the...

  5. 78 FR 58233 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian Reservations...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-23

    ..., purchased, shipped, carried, exported, or transported. In the August 2, 2013, Federal Register (78 FR 47136... Indian tribes, under the guidelines described in the June 4, 1985, Federal Register (50 FR 23467). The..., Federal Register (78 FR 21200), we requested that tribes desiring special hunting regulations in the...

  6. 75 FR 59041 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian Reservations...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-24

    ..., carried, exported, or transported. In the August 6, 2010, Federal Register (75 FR 47682), we proposed... the guidelines described in the June 4, 1985, Federal Register (50 FR 23467). The guidelines respond..., Federal Register (75 FR 27144), we requested that tribes desiring special hunting regulations in the...

  7. 77 FR 58657 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian Reservations...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-21

    ..., carried, exported, or transported. In the August 16, 2012, Federal Register (77 FR 49680), we proposed... the guidelines described in the June 4, 1985, Federal Register (50 FR 23467). The guidelines respond..., Federal Register (77 FR 23094), we requested that tribes desiring special hunting regulations in the...

  8. 75 FR 53773 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian Reservations...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-01

    ..., 2010, Federal Register (75 FR 47682), we proposed special migratory bird hunting regulations for the..., Federal Register (50 FR 23467). The guidelines respond to Tribal requests for Service recognition of their... the May 13, 2010, Federal Register (75 FR 27144), we requested that Tribes desiring special...

  9. Hunting for Knowledge: Using a Scavenger Hunt to Orient Graduate Veterinary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pike, Caitlin; Alpi, Kristine M.

    2015-01-01

    Active participation in orientation is hoped to increase understanding and use of library resources and services beyond the effect of tours or welcome lectures. Timed scavenger hunts have been used to orient undergraduate and medical students to academic libraries. This report describes the planning, execution, and evaluation of an untimed…

  10. 77 FR 34931 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Meeting Regarding Regulations for the 2012-13 Hunting Season

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-12

    ... migratory game bird hunting regulations (77 FR 29516). In that document, we announced a meeting of the SRC.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background On April 17, 2012, we published in the Federal Register (77 FR 23094) a... (77 ] FR 29516) for information regarding how to submit comments. Authority We publish...

  11. 78 FR 21199 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed 2013-14 Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations (Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-09

    ... June 4, 1985, Federal Register (50 FR 23467) to establish special migratory game bird hunting... Register (55 FR 9618). Regulatory Schedule for 2013-14 This document is the first in a series of proposed... season by indigenous inhabitants. On August 16, 2002, we published in the Federal Register (67 FR...

  12. Cat Dilemma: Too Protected To Escape Trophy Hunting?

    PubMed Central

    Palazy, Lucille; Bonenfant, Christophe; Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Courchamp, Franck

    2011-01-01

    Trophy hunting is one of the most controversial issues in the field of biodiversity conservation. In particular, proponents and opponents debate fiercely over whether it poses a threat to hunted populations. Here, we show that trophy hunting constitutes a greater menace to threatened species than previously realized. Because humans value rarity, targeted species that are threatened are likely to be disproportionately hunted, thereby becoming even more vulnerable, which could eventually push them to extinction. With the ten felid species currently hunted for their trophies, we present evidence that (1) the number of killed individuals increases with time, in several cases exponentially, despite population declines, (2) the price of trophies is strongly dependent on species protection status, (3) changes of protection status coincide with counter-intuitive changes of hunting pressures: protection intensification with augmented hunting effort, and protection relaxation with lower effort. This suggests an over-exploitation of trophy-hunted felids and the necessity of a better quota system coupled with reconsidered protection methods. PMID:21818322

  13. 77 FR 25191 - Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-27

    .... Benefit recreational hunting; 2. Benefit wildlife resources; and 3. Encourage partnership among the public... support for the Sport Wildlife Trust Fund; 3. Fostering wildlife and habitat conservation and ethics in... recommendation to improve implementation of Federal ] conservation programs that benefit wildlife, hunting,...

  14. 76 FR 30192 - Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-24

    ... habitat conservation endeavors that: (a) Benefit recreational hunting; (b) Benefit wildlife resources; and... awareness of and support for the Sport Wildlife Trust Fund; (c) Fostering wildlife and habitat conservation... benefit wildlife, hunting and outdoor recreation on private lands; and (h) When requested by the...

  15. 76 FR 39433 - Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-06

    ...) Benefit recreational hunting; (b) Benefit wildlife resources; and (c) Encourage partnership among the...) Increasing public awareness of and support for the Sport Wildlife Trust Fund; (c) Fostering wildlife and... programs that benefit wildlife, hunting, and outdoor recreation on private lands; and (h) When requested...

  16. 75 FR 57292 - Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-20

    ...) Benefit recreational hunting; (b) Benefit wildlife resources; and (c) Encourage partnership among the... Plan--A Ten-Year Plan for Implementation; (b) Increasing public awareness of and support for the Sport... improve implementation of Federal conservation programs that benefit wildlife, hunting and...

  17. 78 FR 3446 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Service Regulations Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-16

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Migratory Bird Hunting; Service Regulations Committee Meeting AGENCY: Fish... issues concerning the 2013-14 migratory bird hunting regulations. DATES: The meeting will be held..., Division of Migratory Bird Management, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior,...

  18. 77 FR 1718 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Service Regulations Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-11

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Migratory Bird Hunting; Service Regulations Committee Meeting AGENCY: Fish... issues concerning the 2012-13 migratory bird hunting regulations. DATES: The meeting will be held... CONTACT: Chief, Division of Migratory Bird Management, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of...

  19. 78 FR 78377 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Service Regulations Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-26

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service RIN 1018-AZ80 Migratory Bird Hunting; Service Regulations Committee Meeting... preliminary issues concerning the 2014-15 migratory bird hunting regulations. DATES: The meeting will be held..., Division of Migratory Bird Management, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior,...

  20. 32 CFR 552.19 - Hunting and fishing permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hunting and fishing permits. 552.19 Section 552.19 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS... and fishing permits. All permits to hunt, catch, trap, or kill any kind of game animal, game...

  1. 32 CFR 643.117 - Hunting, trapping, and fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hunting, trapping, and fishing. 643.117 Section 643.117 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE Additional Authority of Commanders § 643.117 Hunting, trapping, and...

  2. 32 CFR 643.117 - Hunting, trapping, and fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hunting, trapping, and fishing. 643.117 Section 643.117 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE Additional Authority of Commanders § 643.117 Hunting, trapping, and...

  3. 32 CFR 552.19 - Hunting and fishing permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Hunting and fishing permits. 552.19 Section 552.19 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS... and fishing permits. All permits to hunt, catch, trap, or kill any kind of game animal, game...

  4. 32 CFR 552.19 - Hunting and fishing permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Hunting and fishing permits. 552.19 Section 552.19 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS... and fishing permits. All permits to hunt, catch, trap, or kill any kind of game animal, game...

  5. 32 CFR 552.19 - Hunting and fishing permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hunting and fishing permits. 552.19 Section 552.19 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS... and fishing permits. All permits to hunt, catch, trap, or kill any kind of game animal, game...

  6. 32 CFR 643.117 - Hunting, trapping, and fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Hunting, trapping, and fishing. 643.117 Section 643.117 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE Additional Authority of Commanders § 643.117 Hunting, trapping, and...

  7. 32 CFR 643.117 - Hunting, trapping, and fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Hunting, trapping, and fishing. 643.117 Section 643.117 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE Additional Authority of Commanders § 643.117 Hunting, trapping, and...

  8. 32 CFR 643.117 - Hunting, trapping, and fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Hunting, trapping, and fishing. 643.117 Section 643.117 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE Additional Authority of Commanders § 643.117 Hunting, trapping, and...

  9. Native American Hunting Traditions as a Basis for Outdoor Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, William J.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses Native American hunting practices and beliefs applicable to an outdoor education curriculum, focusing on respect and reverence for the earth, animals, and the natural world. Suggests that Native hunting rationales could form a philosophical foundation for environmental education and outdoor education programs. (LP)

  10. 78 FR 48460 - Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-08

    ... and Water Conservation Fund; and 4. Other Council business. The final agenda will be posted on the... Fish and Wildlife Service Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... public meeting of the Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council (Council). DATES:...

  11. 50 CFR 36.14 - Subsistence hunting and trapping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Subsistence hunting and trapping. 36.14 Section 36.14 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM ALASKA NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGES Subsistence Uses § 36.14 Subsistence hunting and trapping....

  12. 50 CFR 36.14 - Subsistence hunting and trapping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Subsistence hunting and trapping. 36.14 Section 36.14 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM ALASKA NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGES Subsistence Uses § 36.14 Subsistence hunting and trapping....

  13. SOHO hunts elusive solar prey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-10-01

    wavelengths. SOHO will provide new insight to the frequency, locations and power of such explosions. SOHO tunes in the Sun's atmosphere The solar atmosphere will be studied by five SOHO instruments. Three of them will study the chromosphere and the transition region in the low corona. They are known as SUMER for Solar Ultraviolet Measurement of Emitted Radiation, CDS, an acronym for Coronal Diagnostic Spectrometer, and EIT, which is short for Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Telescope. Two SOHO instruments will examine the middle corona between 1.1 and 10 to 30 solar radii from Sun-centre. They are known as UVCS for UltraViolet Coronagraph Spectrometer and LASCO, an acronym for Large Angle and Spectrometric COronagraph. Four of these instruments detect invisible radiation at ultraviolet (UV) or extreme ultraviolet (EUV) wavelengths. UV light has wavelengths somewhat less that those of visible light, and waves of EUV are a little shorter than the UV ones. Since this radiation is partially or totally absorbed in our air, it must be observe using telescopes that have been lofted above the Earth's obscuring atmosphere in satellites such as SOHO. We can tune into different parts of the solar atmosphere by isolating UV or EUV radiation at just one wavelength and forming an image there. Certain UV and EUV lines act like thermometers, specifying the temperature when they are formed, while others are sensitive to the local density. Velocities of moving material can also be inferred from wavelength shifts or broadening of the lines. Temperature, density, and velocity measurements from all four experiments will be used to specify heating, flows and wave motions in different magnetic structures and at various levels in the solar atmosphere. When combined, they will uniquely describe an unseen world of violent change, extreme temperatures and powerful explosion, quite unlike the bland white-light face of the Sun. SUMER, CDS and EIT will observe lines over a temperature range of 10,000 to a few

  14. The Airborne Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamberson, Steven E.

    2002-09-01

    The US Air Force Airborne Laser (ABL) is an airborne, megawatt-class laser system with a state-of-the-art atmospheric compensation system to destroy enemy ballistic missiles at long ranges. This system will provide both deterrence and defense against the use of such weapons during conflicts. This paper provides an overview of the ABL weapon system including: the notional operational concept, the development approach and schedule, the overall aircraft configuration, the technologies being incorporated in the ABL, and the risk reduction approach being utilized to ensure program success.

  15. Airborne oceanographic lidar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Specifications and preliminary design of an Airborne Oceanographic Lidar (AOL) system, which is to be constructed for installation and used on a NASA Wallops Flight Center (WFC) C-54 research aircraft, are reported. The AOL system is to provide an airborne facility for use by various government agencies to demonstrate the utility and practicality of hardware of this type in the wide area collection of oceanographic data on an operational basis. System measurement and performance requirements are presented, followed by a description of the conceptual system approach and the considerations attendant to its development. System performance calculations are addressed, and the system specifications and preliminary design are presented and discussed.

  16. NASA Airborne Lidar July 1991

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-05-26

    NASA Airborne Lidar July 1991 Data from the 1991 NASA Langley Airborne Lidar flights following the eruption of Pinatubo in July ... and Osborn [1992a, 1992b]. Project Title:  NASA Airborne Lidar Discipline:  Field Campaigns ...

  17. NASA Airborne Lidar May 1992

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-05-26

    NASA Airborne Lidar May 1992 An airborne Nd:YAG (532 nm) lidar was operated by the NASA Langley Research Center about a year following the June 1991 eruption of ... Osborn [1992a, 1992b].  Project Title:  NASA Airborne Lidar Discipline:  Field Campaigns ...

  18. Successful hunting increases testosterone and cortisol in a subsistence population

    PubMed Central

    Trumble, Benjamin C.; Smith, Eric A.; O'Connor, Kathleen A.; Kaplan, Hillard S.; Gurven, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    Controversy over the adaptive significance of male hunting in subsistence societies hinges on the relative importance of familial provisioning and mate-quality signalling. This paper examines the proximate and ultimate motivations of hunting behaviour from a neuroendocrine perspective, using salivary testosterone and cortisol data collected before, during and after hunting focal follows from 31 Tsimane hunters aged 18–82 years. Despite circadian declines in hormone levels, testosterone and cortisol of Tsimane hunters increased at the time of a kill, and remained high as successful hunters returned home. Previous studies of hormonal changes during competitions find that high-stakes and success in the presence of relevant audiences result in increased neuroendocrine arousal. If men hunt primarily to provision their families, then an additional audience would not be expected to impact testosterone or cortisol, nor would the size of the animal killed. However, if signalling male quality by ‘showing off’ was a larger relative driver of men's hunting behaviour, one would expect greater hormonal response in cases where men returned with large sharable kills, especially in the presence of community members. Consistent with provisioning models of male hunting motivation, neither kill size nor encountering an audience of villagers while returning from hunting was associated with hormonal changes for successful hunters. PMID:24335989

  19. Impacts of roads and hunting on central African rainforest mammals.

    PubMed

    Laurance, William E; Croes, Barbara M; Tchignoumba, Landry; Lahm, Sally A; Alonso, Alfonso; Lee, Michelle E; Campbell, Patrick; Ondzeano, Claude

    2006-08-01

    Road expansion and associated increases in bunting pressure are a rapidly growing threat to African tropical wildlife. In the rainforests of southern Gabon, we compared abundances of larger (>1 kg) mammal species at varying distances from forest roads and between hunted and unhunted treatments (comparing a 130-km2 oil concession that was almost entirely protected from bunting with nearby areas outside the concession that had moderate hunting pressure). At each of 12 study sites that were evenly divided between hunted and unhunted areas, we established standardized 1-km transects at five distances (50, 300, 600, 900, and 1200 m) from an unpaved road, and then repeatedly surveyed mammals during the 2004 dry and wet seasons. Hunting had the greatest impact on duikers (Cephalophus spp.), forest buffalo (Syncerus caffer nanus), and red river hogs (Potamochoerus porcus), which declined in abundance outside the oil concession, and lesser effects on lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) and carnivores. Roads depressed abundances of duikers, sitatungas (Tragelaphus spekei gratus), and forest elephants (Loxondonta africana cyclotis), with avoidance of roads being stronger outside than inside the concession. Five monkey species showed little response to roads or hunting, whereas some rodents and pangolins increased in abundance outside the concession, possibly in response to greater forest disturbance. Our findings suggest that even moderate hunting pressure can markedly alter the structure of mammal communities in central Africa. Roads had the greatest impacts on large and small ungulates, with the magnitude of road avoidance increasing with local hunting pressure. PMID:16922241

  20. 75 FR 56359 - 2010-2011 Refuge-Specific Hunting and Sport Fishing Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-15

    ...The Fish and Wildlife Service proposes to add one refuge to the list of areas open for hunting and/or sport fishing and increase the activities available at seven other refuges, along with pertinent refuge-specific regulations on other refuges that pertain to migratory game bird hunting, upland game hunting, big game hunting, and sport fishing for the 2010-2011...

  1. 78 FR 52657 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Final Frameworks for Early-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-23

    ...This rule prescribes final early-season frameworks from which the States, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands may select season dates, limits, and other options for the 2013-14 migratory bird hunting seasons. Early seasons are those that generally open prior to October 1, and include seasons in Alaska, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands. The effect of this final rule is to facilitate......

  2. 77 FR 53117 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Final Frameworks for Early-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-30

    ...This rule prescribes final early-season frameworks from which the States, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands may select season dates, limits, and other options for the 2012-13 migratory bird hunting seasons. Early seasons are those that generally open prior to October 1, and include seasons in Alaska, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands. The effect of this final rule is to facilitate......

  3. 75 FR 52873 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Final Frameworks for Early-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-30

    ...This rule prescribes final early-season frameworks from which the States, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands may select season dates, limits, and other options for the 2010-11 migratory bird hunting seasons. Early seasons are those that generally open prior to October 1, and include seasons in Alaska, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands. The effect of this final rule is to facilitate......

  4. Bear-Baiting May Exacerbate Wolf-Hunting Dog Conflict

    PubMed Central

    Bump, Joseph K.; Murawski, Chelsea M.; Kartano, Linda M.; Beyer, Dean E.; Roell, Brian J.

    2013-01-01

    Background The influence of policy on the incidence of human-wildlife conflict can be complex and not entirely anticipated. Policies for managing bear hunter success and depredation on hunting dogs by wolves represent an important case because with increasing wolves, depredations are expected to increase. This case is challenging because compensation for wolf depredation on hunting dogs as compared to livestock is less common and more likely to be opposed. Therefore, actions that minimize the likelihood of such conflicts are a conservation need. Methodology/Principal Findings We used data from two US states with similar wolf populations but markedly different wolf/hunting dog depredation patterns to examine the influence of bear hunting regulations, bear hunter to wolf ratios, hunter method, and hunter effort on wolf depredation trends. Results indicated that the ratio of bear hunting permits sold per wolf, and hunter method are important factors affecting wolf depredation trends in the Upper Great Lakes region, but strong differences exist between Michigan and Wisconsin related in part to the timing and duration of bear-baiting (i.e., free feeding). The probability that a wolf depredated a bear-hunting dog increases with the duration of bear-baiting, resulting in a relative risk of depredation 2.12–7.22× greater in Wisconsin than Michigan. The net effect of compensation for hunting dog depredation in Wisconsin may also contribute to the difference between states. Conclusions/Significance These results identified a potential tradeoff between bear hunting success and wolf/bear-hunting dog conflict. These results indicate that management options to minimize conflict exist, such as adjusting baiting regulations. If reducing depredations is an important goal, this analysis indicates that actions aside from (or in addition to) reducing wolf abundance might achieve that goal. This study also stresses the need to better understand the relationship among baiting

  5. Airborne antenna pattern calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knerr, T. J.; Schaffner, P. R.; Mielke, R. R.; Gilreath, M. C.

    1980-01-01

    A procedure for numerically calculating radiation patterns of fuselage-mounted airborne antennas using the Volumetric Pattern Analysis Program is presented. Special attention is given to aircraft modeling. An actual case study involving a large commercial aircraft is included to illustrate the analysis procedure.

  6. Recognizing Airborne Hazards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Christian M.

    1990-01-01

    The heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems in older buildings often do not adequately handle air-borne contaminants. Outlines a three-stage Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) assessment and describes a case in point at a Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, school. (MLF)

  7. Airborne Fraunhofer Line Discriminator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gabriel, F. C.; Markle, D. A.

    1969-01-01

    Airborne Fraunhofer Line Discriminator enables prospecting for fluorescent materials, hydrography with fluorescent dyes, and plant studies based on fluorescence of chlorophyll. Optical unit design is the coincidence of Fraunhofer lines in the solar spectrum occurring at the characteristic wavelengths of some fluorescent materials.

  8. Airborne Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    NASA imaging technology has provided the basis for a commercial agricultural reconnaissance service. AG-RECON furnishes information from airborne sensors, aerial photographs and satellite and ground databases to farmers, foresters, geologists, etc. This service produces color "maps" of Earth conditions, which enable clients to detect crop color changes or temperature changes that may indicate fire damage or pest stress problems.

  9. The 2013 Thomas Hunt Morgan Medal

    PubMed Central

    Jinks-Robertson, Sue; Hieter, Philip

    2013-01-01

    The Genetics Society of America annually honors members who have made outstanding contributions to genetics. The Thomas Hunt Morgan Medal recognizes a lifetime contribution to the science of genetics. The Genetics Society of America Medal recognizes particularly outstanding contributions to the science of genetics over the past 32 years. The George W. Beadle Award recognizes distinguished service to the field of genetics and the community of geneticists. The Elizabeth W. Jones Award for Excellence in Education recognizes individuals or groups who have had a significant, sustained impact on genetics education at any level, from kindergarten through graduate school and beyond. The Novitski Prize recognizes an extraordinary level of creativity and intellectual ingenuity in solving significant problems in biological research through the application of genetic methods. We are pleased to announce the 2013 awards. PMID:23633133

  10. Hunt for θ13 with LENA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loo, K.; Enqvist, T.; Hissa, J.; Nesterenko, D.; Novikov, Yu N.; Trzaska, W. H.; Vergados, J.; Wurm, M.

    2012-07-01

    In a hunt for by far missing neutrino mixing angle θ13 the accelerator experiments have recently indicated non-zero value and the dedicated reactor neutrino experiments are moving towards the data-taking phase to confirm that. The small effect of θ13 to the neutrino oscillation probabilities can be also complementarily probed using artificially made source of mono-chromatic neutrinos with low energies originated from electron capture processes. Due to the small energy of neutrino and tiny interaction cross section, and the expected scale of θ13 support the use of large liquid scintillation detector. In this work, the estimated sensitivities for measurement of mixing angle θ13 is presented in context of proposed LENA detector. Instead of the existing and earlier investigated neutrino source 51Cr, more feasible source candidate 75Se is used. The search for possible sterile neutrino flavors is also discussed.

  11. [Tolosa-Hunt syndrome: a case report].

    PubMed

    Kovacić, Marijan; Kovacić, Ivan; Krvavica, Ana; Nekić, Ivica; Harapin, Mladen

    2010-01-01

    Tolosa-Hunt syndrome is a nonspecific granulomatous inflammation of the cavernous sinus, superior orbital fissure and apex of the orbit. It involves episodes of unilateral orbital pain which may last several weeks, lesions of cranial nerve III, IV or VI, and rarely II, V, VII and VIII. It is characterized by remissions and exacerbations, and can cause permanent neurological disorder of the affected nerves. We present the course of the disease in a patient whose initial symptom was gradual visual loss in the right eye, followed by neuralgic pain in the right orbit and face. The diagnosis was confirmed by biopsy and corticosteroid therapy was administered. Exacerbation of the disease required repeated surgery, excision of the fibrous tissue of the cavernous sinus, as well as prolonged corticosteroid therapy. PMID:20677620

  12. Scaling law in target-hunting processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shi-Jie

    2004-05-01

    We study a hunting process for a target, in which the hunter tracks the goal by smelling odors it emits. The odor intensity is supposed to decrease with the diffusion distance. The Monte Carlo experiment is carried out on a two-dimensional square lattice. Having no idea of the location of the target, the hunter determines its moves only by random attempts in each direction. By sorting the searching time in each simulation and introducing a variable x to reflect the sequence of searching times, we obtain a curve with a wide plateau, indicating the most probable time of successfully finding the target. The simulations reveal a scaling law for the searching time versus the distance to the position of the target. The scaling exponent depends on the sensitivity of the hunter. Our model may be a prototype in studying such searching processes as various food-foraging behaviors of wild animals.

  13. Tolosa-Hunt syndrome in children.

    PubMed

    Benzohra, D E; Damry, N; Delpierre, I; Huybrechts, S; Monier, A; Christophe, C

    2011-01-01

    We report a case of Tolosa-Hunt syndrome in a 4-year-old girl. Computed Tomography (CT) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) revealed a left cavernous sinus involvement with internal carotid artery occlusion. Clinical signs included left ophthalmoplegia, convulsions and right hemiplegia. Etiopathogenesis of this syndrome is unclear but as in our case, response to corticosteroid therapy is spectacular and avoids unnecessary invasive diagnostic procedures. We underline the importance of cross-sectional imaging in the diagnostic approach. Several other diseases including tumors, vascular lesions and infections can have a similar clinical and/or imaging presentation. However, closely monitored evolution on imaging proves to be decisive in the establishment of final diagnosis of this syndrome. PMID:22191295

  14. Hunt to buy Pacific Enterprises' U. S. production

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-19

    This paper reports that Hunt Oil Co., Dallas, has agreed to buy substantially all of the oil and gas assets of Pacific Enterprises Oil Co. (U.S.A.) a subsidiary of Pacific Enterprises, Los Angeles. Hunt will pay $371 million for leases mainly in Texas, Wyoming, Louisiana, and Mississippi. The acquired properties will add oil and gas reserves of about 63 million bbl of oil equivalent and nearly 1.4 million gross leasehold acres to Hunt's exploration and production assets. Included in the assets to be acquired are several oil and gas fields on the Burnett Ranch in King County, Tex., and a subsidiary corporation that has production interests in Colombia.

  15. Incentivizing monitoring and compliance in trophy hunting.

    PubMed

    Bunnefeld, Nils; Edwards, Charles T T; Atickem, Anagaw; Hailu, Fetene; Milner-Gulland, E J

    2013-12-01

    Conservation scientists are increasingly focusing on the drivers of human behavior and on the implications of various sources of uncertainty for management decision making. Trophy hunting has been suggested as a conservation tool because it gives economic value to wildlife, but recent examples show that overharvesting is a substantial problem and that data limitations are rife. We use a case study of trophy hunting of an endangered antelope, the mountain nyala (Tragelaphus buxtoni), to explore how uncertainties generated by population monitoring and poaching interact with decision making by 2 key stakeholders: the safari companies and the government. We built a management strategy evaluation model that encompasses the population dynamics of mountain nyala, a monitoring model, and a company decision making model. We investigated scenarios of investment into antipoaching and monitoring by governments and safari companies. Harvest strategy was robust to the uncertainty in the population estimates obtained from monitoring, but poaching had a much stronger effect on quota and sustainability. Hence, reducing poaching is in the interests of companies wishing to increase the profitability of their enterprises, for example by engaging community members as game scouts. There is a threshold level of uncertainty in the population estimates beyond which the year-to-year variation in the trophy quota prevented planning by the safari companies. This suggests a role for government in ensuring that a baseline level of population monitoring is carried out such that this level is not exceeded. Our results illustrate the importance of considering the incentives of multiple stakeholders when designing frameworks for resource use and when designing management frameworks to address the particular sources of uncertainty that affect system sustainability most heavily. Incentivando el Monitoreo y el Cumplimiento en la Caza de Trofeos. PMID:24001054

  16. Animal welfare and the harp seal hunt in Atlantic Canada

    PubMed Central

    Daoust, Pierre-Yves; Crook, Alice; Bollinger, Trent K.; Campbell, Keith G.; Wong, James

    2002-01-01

    Much attention has been given over the years to animal welfare issues surrounding the seal hunt in Atlantic Canada. However, very little information is available on this subject in the scientific literature. This article reports the results of observations made by representatives of the Canadian Veterinary Medical Association at the hunt in recent years and compares them with observations made by members of the International Fund for Animal Welfare. The conclusion is that the large majority of seals taken during this hunt (at best, 98% in work reported here) are killed in an acceptably humane manner. However, the small proportion of animals that are not killed effectively justifies continued attention to this hunt on the part of the veterinary profession. PMID:12240525

  17. 78 FR 42104 - Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-15

    .... Benefit wildlife resources; 2. Encourage partnership among the public, sporting conservation organizations, States, Native American tribes, and the Federal Government; and 3. Benefit recreational hunting. The.... Providing recommendations to improve implementation of Federal conservation programs that benefit...

  18. Geocaching: Finding Mathematics in a Global Treasure Hunt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bragg, Leicha A.

    2014-01-01

    If you love taking mathematics lessons outdoors, then you will love this article. Leicha Bragg describes geocaching, which combines technology, treasure hunting and mathematics, and results in purposeful, authentic and engaging mathematics.

  19. Animal welfare and the harp seal hunt in Atlantic Canada.

    PubMed

    Daoust, Pierre-Yves; Crook, Alice; Bollinger, Trent K; Campbell, Keith G; Wong, James

    2002-09-01

    Much attention has been given over the years to animal welfare issues surrounding the seal hunt in Atlantic Canada. However, very little information is available on this subject in the scientific literature. This article reports the results of observations made by representatives of the Canadian Veterinary Medical Association at the hunt in recent years and compares them with observations made by members of the International Fund for Animal Welfare. The conclusion is that the large majority of seals taken during this hunt (at best, 98% in work reported here) are killed in an acceptably humane manner. However, the small proportion of animals that are not killed effectively justifies continued attention to this hunt on the part of the veterinary profession. PMID:12240525

  20. Impacts of hunting on tropical forests in Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Rhett D; Sreekar, Rachakonda; Brodie, Jedediah F; Brook, Sarah; Luskin, Matthew; O'Kelly, Hannah; Rao, Madhu; Scheffers, Brett; Velho, Nandini

    2016-10-01

    Although deforestation and forest degradation have long been considered the most significant threats to tropical biodiversity, across Southeast Asia (Northeast India, Indochina, Sundaland, Philippines) substantial areas of natural habitat have few wild animals (>1 kg), bar a few hunting-tolerant species. To document hunting impacts on vertebrate populations regionally, we conducted an extensive literature review, including papers in local journals and reports of governmental and nongovernmental agencies. Evidence from multiple sites indicated animal populations declined precipitously across the region since approximately 1980, and many species are now extirpated from substantial portions of their former ranges. Hunting is by far the greatest immediate threat to the survival of most of the region's endangered vertebrates. Causes of recent overhunting include improved access to forests and markets, improved hunting technology, and escalating demand for wild meat, wildlife-derived medicinal products, and wild animals as pets. Although hunters often take common species, such as pigs or rats, for their own consumption, they take rarer species opportunistically and sell surplus meat and commercially valuable products. There is also widespread targeted hunting of high-value species. Consequently, as currently practiced, hunting cannot be considered sustainable anywhere in the region, and in most places enforcement of protected-area and protected-species legislation is weak. The international community's focus on cross-border trade fails to address overexploitation of wildlife because hunting and the sale of wild meat is largely a local issue and most of the harvest is consumed in villages, rural towns, and nearby cities. In addition to improved enforcement, efforts to engage hunters and manage wildlife populations through sustainable hunting practices are urgently needed. Unless there is a step change in efforts to reduce wildlife exploitation to sustainable levels, the

  1. Different hunting strategies of generalist predators result in functional differences.

    PubMed

    Michalko, Radek; Pekár, Stano

    2016-08-01

    The morphological, physiological, and behavioural traits of organisms are often used as surrogates for actual ecological functions. However, differences in these traits do not necessarily lead to functional differences and/or can be context-dependent. Therefore, it is necessary to explicitly test whether the surrogates have general ecological relevance. To investigate the relationship between the hunting strategies of predators (i.e., how, where, and when they hunt) and their function, we used euryphagous spiders as a model group. We used published data on the diet composition of 76 spider species based on natural prey and laboratory prey acceptance experiments. We computed differences in the position and width of trophic niches among pairs of sympatrically occurring species. Pairs were made at different classification levels, ranked according to the dissimilarity in their hunting strategies: congeners, confamiliars (as phylogenetic proxies for similarity in hunting strategy), species from the same main class of hunting strategy, from the same supra-class, and from different supra-classes. As for niche position computed from the natural prey analyses, species from the same class differed less than species from different classes. A similar pattern was obtained from the laboratory studies, but the congeners differed less than the species from the same classes. Niche widths were most similar among congeners and dissimilar among species from different supra-classes. Functional differences among euryphagous spiders increased continuously with increasing difference in their hunting strategy. The relative frequency of hunting strategies within spider assemblages can, therefore, influence the food webs through hunting strategy-specific predator-prey interactions. PMID:27098662

  2. ["Treasure Hunt"--a cognitive-behavioural computer game].

    PubMed

    Brezinka, Veronika

    2011-01-01

    The development of video games promoting health related behaviour is increasing. This holds not only for chronic diseases like asthma and diabetes, but also for the field of child psychotherapy. At the Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry of Zürich University, the video game Treasure Hunt was developed to support psychotherapeutic treatment of children between eight and thirteen years of age. Treasure Hunt does not replace the therapist but supports treatment by offering attractive electronic work assignments. The scope of this article is an overview on health games for children and a description of Treasure Hunt. After the explanation of its therapeutic potentials, an evaluation based on questionnaires for therapists and children will be presented. 124 therapists answered a questionnaire on their impression of the game three months after download. 41 therapists were willing to participate in the further evaluation and sent questionnaires of 200 children with whom Treasure Hunt had been used. A limitation of these data is that a positive bias can not be excluded, as therapists with a positive attitude towards psychotherapeutic computer games were more likely to answer the questionnaire. 118 therapists (95.2%) considered Treasure Hunt a useful tool in child psychotherapy. 197 children (98.5%) report being satisfied with the use of the game during treatment. Treasure Hunt was predominantly used for the age group it is designed for and both, by very experienced and by young therapists. Eleven diagnostic categories reflect a broader range of indications than expected. PMID:22242257

  3. Lionfish predators use flared fin displays to initiate cooperative hunting.

    PubMed

    Lönnstedt, Oona M; Ferrari, Maud C O; Chivers, Douglas P

    2014-06-01

    Despite considerable study, mystery surrounds the use of signals that initiate cooperative hunting in animals. Using a labyrinth test chamber, we examined whether a lionfish, Dendrochirus zebra, would initiate cooperative hunts with piscine partners. We found that D. zebra uses a stereotyped flared fin display to alert conspecific and heterospecific lionfish species Pterois antennata to the presence of prey. Per capita success rate was significantly higher for cooperative hunters when compared with solitary ones, with hunt responders assisting hunt initiators in cornering the prey using their large extended pectoral fins. The initiators would most often take the first strike at the group of prey, but both hunters would then alternate striking at the remaining prey. Results suggest that the cooperative communication signal may be characteristic to the lionfish family, as interspecific hunters were equally coordinated and successful as intraspecific hunters. Our findings emphasize the complexity of collaborative foraging behaviours in lionfish; the turn-taking in strikes suggests that individuals do not solely try to maximize their own hunting success: instead they equally share the resources between themselves. Communicative group hunting has enabled Pteroine fish to function as highly efficient predators. PMID:24966203

  4. Lionfish predators use flared fin displays to initiate cooperative hunting

    PubMed Central

    Lönnstedt, Oona M.; Ferrari, Maud C. O.; Chivers, Douglas P.

    2014-01-01

    Despite considerable study, mystery surrounds the use of signals that initiate cooperative hunting in animals. Using a labyrinth test chamber, we examined whether a lionfish, Dendrochirus zebra, would initiate cooperative hunts with piscine partners. We found that D. zebra uses a stereotyped flared fin display to alert conspecific and heterospecific lionfish species Pterois antennata to the presence of prey. Per capita success rate was significantly higher for cooperative hunters when compared with solitary ones, with hunt responders assisting hunt initiators in cornering the prey using their large extended pectoral fins. The initiators would most often take the first strike at the group of prey, but both hunters would then alternate striking at the remaining prey. Results suggest that the cooperative communication signal may be characteristic to the lionfish family, as interspecific hunters were equally coordinated and successful as intraspecific hunters. Our findings emphasize the complexity of collaborative foraging behaviours in lionfish; the turn-taking in strikes suggests that individuals do not solely try to maximize their own hunting success: instead they equally share the resources between themselves. Communicative group hunting has enabled Pteroine fish to function as highly efficient predators. PMID:24966203

  5. [Air-borne disease].

    PubMed

    Lameiro Vilariño, Carmen; del Campo Pérez, Victor M; Alonso Bürger, Susana; Felpeto Nodar, Irene; Guimarey Pérez, Rosa; Pérez Alvarellos, Alberto

    2003-11-01

    Respiratory protection is a factor which worries nursing professionals who take care of patients susceptible of transmitting microorganisms through the air more as every day passes. This type of protection covers the use of surgical or hygienic masks against the transmission of infection by airborne drops to the use of highly effective masks or respirators against the transmission of airborne diseases such as tuberculosis or SARS, a recently discovered disease. The adequate choice of this protective device and its correct use are fundamental in order to have an effective protection for exposed personnel. The authors summarize the main protective respiratory devices used by health workers, their characteristics and degree of effectiveness, as well as the circumstances under which each device is indicated for use. PMID:14705591

  6. Airborne forest fire research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattingly, G. S.

    1974-01-01

    The research relating to airborne fire fighting systems is reviewed to provide NASA/Langley Research Center with current information on the use of aircraft in forest fire operations, and to identify research requirements for future operations. A literature survey, interview of forest fire service personnel, analysis and synthesis of data from research reports and independent conclusions, and recommendations for future NASA-LRC programs are included.

  7. MLS airborne antenna research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, C. L.; Burnside, W. D.

    1975-01-01

    The geometrical theory of diffraction was used to analyze the elevation plane pattern of on-aircraft antennas. The radiation patterns for basic elements (infinitesimal dipole, circumferential and axial slot) mounted on fuselage of various aircrafts with or without radome included were calculated and compared well with experimental results. Error phase plots were also presented. The effects of radiation patterns and error phase plots on the polarization selection for the MLS airborne antenna are discussed.

  8. Airborne field strength monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bredemeyer, J.; Kleine-Ostmann, T.; Schrader, T.; Münter, K.; Ritter, J.

    2007-06-01

    In civil and military aviation, ground based navigation aids (NAVAIDS) are still crucial for flight guidance even though the acceptance of satellite based systems (GNSS) increases. Part of the calibration process for NAVAIDS (ILS, DME, VOR) is to perform a flight inspection according to specified methods as stated in a document (DOC8071, 2000) by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). One major task is to determine the coverage, or, in other words, the true signal-in-space field strength of a ground transmitter. This has always been a challenge to flight inspection up to now, since, especially in the L-band (DME, 1GHz), the antenna installed performance was known with an uncertainty of 10 dB or even more. In order to meet ICAO's required accuracy of ±3 dB it is necessary to have a precise 3-D antenna factor of the receiving antenna operating on the airborne platform including all losses and impedance mismatching. Introducing precise, effective antenna factors to flight inspection to achieve the required accuracy is new and not published in relevant papers yet. The authors try to establish a new balanced procedure between simulation and validation by airborne and ground measurements. This involves the interpretation of measured scattering parameters gained both on the ground and airborne in comparison with numerical results obtained by the multilevel fast multipole algorithm (MLFMA) accelerated method of moments (MoM) using a complex geometric model of the aircraft. First results will be presented in this paper.

  9. Airborne wireless communication systems, airborne communication methods, and communication methods

    DOEpatents

    Deaton, Juan D.; Schmitt, Michael J.; Jones, Warren F.

    2011-12-13

    An airborne wireless communication system includes circuitry configured to access information describing a configuration of a terrestrial wireless communication base station that has become disabled. The terrestrial base station is configured to implement wireless communication between wireless devices located within a geographical area and a network when the terrestrial base station is not disabled. The circuitry is further configured, based on the information, to configure the airborne station to have the configuration of the terrestrial base station. An airborne communication method includes answering a 911 call from a terrestrial cellular wireless phone using an airborne wireless communication system.

  10. Television camera on RMS surveys insulation on Airborne Support Equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The television camera on the end effector of the Canadian-built Remote Manipulator System (RMS) is seen surveying some of the insulation on the Airborne Support Equipment (ASE). Flight controllers called for the survey following the departure of the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) and its Transfer Orbit Stage (TOS).

  11. Modeling the impacts of hunting on the population dynamics of red howler monkeys (Alouatta seniculus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiederholt, Ruscena; Fernandez-Duque, Eduardo; Diefenbach, Duane R.; Rudran, Rasanayagam

    2010-01-01

    Overexploitation of wildlife populations occurs across the humid tropics and is a significant threat to the long-term survival of large-bodied primates. To investigate the impacts of hunting on primates and ways to mitigate them, we developed a spatially explicit, individual-based model for a landscape that included hunted and un-hunted areas. We used the large-bodied neotropical red howler monkey (Alouatta seniculus) as our case study species because its life history characteristics make it vulnerable to hunting. We modeled the influence of different rates of harvest and proportions of landscape dedicated to un-hunted reserves on population persistence, population size, social dynamics, and hunting yields of red howler monkeys. In most scenarios, the un-hunted populations maintained a constant density regardless of hunting pressure elsewhere, and allowed the overall population to persist. Therefore, the overall population was quite resilient to extinction; only in scenarios without any un-hunted areas did the population go extinct. However, the total and hunted populations did experience large declines over 100 years under moderate and high hunting pressure. In addition, when reserve area decreased, population losses and losses per unit area increased disproportionately. Furthermore, hunting disrupted the social structure of troops. The number of male turnovers and infanticides increased in hunted populations, while birth rates decreased and exacerbated population losses due to hunting. Finally, our results indicated that when more than 55% of the landscape was harvested at high (30%) rates, hunting yields, as measured by kilograms of biomass, were less than those obtained from moderate harvest rates. Additionally, hunting yields, expressed as the number of individuals hunted/year/km2, increased in proximity to un-hunted areas, and suggested that dispersal from un-hunted areas may have contributed to hunting sustainability. These results indicate that un-hunted

  12. Airborne Submillimeter Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zmuidzinas, J.

    1998-01-01

    This is the final technical report for NASA-Ames grant NAG2-1068 to Caltech, entitled "Airborne Submillimeter Spectroscopy", which extended over the period May 1, 1996 through January 31, 1998. The grant was funded by the NASA airborne astronomy program, during a period of time after the Kuiper Airborne Observatory was no longer operational. Instead. this funding program was intended to help develop instrument concepts and technology for the upcoming SOFIA (Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy) project. SOFIA, which is funded by NASA and is now being carried out by a consortium lead by USRA (Universities Space Research Association), will be a 747 aircraft carrying a 2.5 meter diameter telescope. The purpose of our grant was to fund the ongoing development of sensitive heterodyne receivers for the submillimeter band (500-1200 GHz), using sensitive superconducting (SIS) detectors. In 1997 July we submitted a proposal to USRA to construct a heterodyne instrument for SOFIA. Our proposal was successful [1], and we are now continuing our airborne astronomy effort with funding from USRA. A secondary purpose of the NAG2-1068 grant was to continue the anaIN'sis of astronomical data collected with an earlier instrument which was flown on the NASA Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO). The KAO instrument and the astronomical studies which were carried out with it were supported primarily under another grant, NAG2-744, which extended over October 1, 1991 through Januarv 31, 1997. For a complete description of the astronomical data and its anailysis, we refer the reader to the final technical report for NAG2-744, which was submitted to NASA on December 1. 1997. Here we report on the SIS detector development effort for SOFIA carried out under NAG2-1068. The main result of this effort has been the demonstration of SIS mixers using a new superconducting material niobium titanium nitride (NbTiN), which promises to deliver dramatic improvements in sensitivity in the 700

  13. The Hunt for Exomoons with Kepler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kipping, David M.

    2012-01-01

    Extrasolar moons may be frequent temperate abodes for life and their detection would not only have astrobiological significance but would also greatly further our understanding of planet/moon formation theories. To date, the bulk of research on this topic has been mostly theoretical, focussing on detection techniques and expected sensitivities as well as exomoon origin and evolution. Here, we introduce a new observational project which aims to change this, enabled by the fact both the theory and available instrumentation have evolved to the required level to make such a search feasible. Our project, "The Hunt for Exomoons with Kepler” (HEK), will be a systematic search for exomoons around planets which are viable hosts, with the explicit goal of determining the frequency of large exomoons in the cosmos. We will overview the observational strategy including the detection tools and target selection routines which have been developed, methods to vet false-positives, and some preliminary results from our first batch of candidates. This research is enabled by the NASA Carl Sagan fellowships for exoplanetary research.

  14. The hunters and the hunted revisited.

    PubMed

    Lee-Thorp, J; Thackeray, J F; van der Merwe, N

    2000-12-01

    The dietary niches of extinct animals, including hominids and predators, may be constrained using stable carbon isotope ratios in fossil tooth enamel.(13)C/(12)C ratios of many of the primates abundant in the faunal assemblages of Members 1 and 2 at Swartkrans, including cercopithecoids and Australopithecus (Paranthropus) robustus, and a range of other possible prey species, have been reported previously. Resulting suggestions of a mixed, or omnivorous, diet for A. robustus raise questions about niche overlap with coeval, larger brained Homo. Here we present(13)C/(12)C data from Homo and several large predators including Panthera pardus, Dinofelis sp., Megantereon cultridens and Chasmoporthetes nitidula in Member 1, and P. pardus and P. leo in Member 2, in order to compare the two hominid species and to determine likely predators of the various primates and other macrovertebrates. Results for three Homo cf. ergaster individuals are indistinguishable from those of A. robustus, showing that proportions of C(3)- and C(4)-based foods in their diets did not differ. P. pardus, Megantereon and Crocuta are shown to be likely predators of the hominids and Papio baboons in Member 1, while the Dinofelis individual concentrated on prey which consumed C(4)grasses. The hunting hyaenid C. nitidula preyed on either mixed feeders or on a range of animals across the spectrum of C(3)and C(4)variation. The data from Members 1 and 2 confirm a shift in leopard diets towards animals that consumed C(4)grasses. PMID:11102267

  15. LEECH: LBTI Exozodi Exoplanet Common Hunt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skemer, A.

    2014-03-01

    In Spring 2013, the LEECH (LBTI Exozodi Exoplanet Common Hunt) survey began its 100-night campaign from the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) atop Mt Graham, Arizona. This survey benefits from the many technological achievements of the LBT, including two 8.4- meter mirrors on a single fixed mount, dual adaptive secondary mirrors for high Strehl performance, and a cold beam combiner to dramatically reducing the telescope's overall background emissivity. LEECH neatly complements other high-contrast planet imaging efforts by observing stars at L' (3.8 microns) with LMIRcam, as opposed to the shorter wavelength near-infrared bands (1-2.4 microns) of other similar surveys. This portion of the spectrum offers deeper mass sensitivity for intermediate age (several hundred Myr-old) systems, since their Jovian-mass planets radiate predominantly in the mid-infrared. The goals of LEECH are to (1) discover new exoplanets, (2) characterize the atmospheres of newly discovered exoplanets, (3) characterize the architectures of nearby planetary systems, and (4) establish meaningful constraints on the prevalence of wideseparation exoplanets.

  16. Hunting for Snarks in Quantum Mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Hestenes, David

    2009-12-08

    A long-standing debate over the interpretation of quantum mechanics has centered on the meaning of Schroedinger's wave function {psi} for an electron. Broadly speaking, there are two major opposing schools. On the one side, the Copenhagen school(led by Bohr, Heisenberg and Pauli) holds that {psi} provides a complete description of a single electron state; hence the probability interpretation of {psi}{psi}* expresses an irreducible uncertainty in electron behavior that is intrinsic in nature. On the other side, the realist school(led by Einstein, de Broglie, Bohm and Jaynes) holds that {psi} represents a statistical ensemble of possible electron states; hence it is an incomplete description of a single electron state. I contend that the debaters have overlooked crucial facts about the electron revealed by Dirac theory. In particular, analysis of electron zitterbewegung(first noticed by Schroedinger) opens a window to particle substructure in quantum mechanics that explains the physical significance of the complex phase factor in {psi}. This led to a testable model for particle substructure with surprising support by recent experimental evidence. If the explanation is upheld by further research, it will resolve the debate in favor of the realist school. I give details. The perils of research on the foundations of quantum mechanics have been foreseen by Lewis Carroll in The Hunting of the Snark{exclamation_point}.

  17. Refractive acoustic devices for airborne sound.

    PubMed

    Cervera, F; Sanchis, L; Sánchez-Pérez, J V; Martínez-Sala, R; Rubio, C; Meseguer, F; López, C; Caballero, D; Sánchez-Dehesa, J

    2002-01-14

    We show that a sonic crystal made of periodic distributions of rigid cylinders in air acts as a new material which allows the construction of refractive acoustic devices for airborne sound. It is demonstrated that, in the long-wave regime, the crystal has low impedance and the sound is transmitted at subsonic velocities. Here, the fabrication and characterization of a convergent lens are presented. Also, an example of a Fabry-Perot interferometer based on this crystal is analyzed. It is concluded that refractive devices based on sonic crystals behave in a manner similar to that of optical systems. PMID:11801014

  18. PHARUS airborne SAR concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snoeij, Paul; Pouwels, Henk; Koomen, Peter J.; Hoogeboom, Peter

    1995-11-01

    PHARUS (phased array universal SAR) is an airborne SAR concept which is being developed in the Netherlands. The PHARUS system differs from other airborne SARs by the use of a phased array antenna, which provides both for the flexibility in the design as well as for a compact, light-weight instrument that can be carried on small aircraft. The concept allows for the construction of airborne SAR systems on a common generic basis but tailored to specific user needs and can be seen as a preparation for future spaceborne SAR systems using solid state transmitters with electronically steerable phased array antenna. The whole approach is aimed at providing an economic and yet technically sophisticated solution to remote sensing or surveying needs of a specific user. The solid state phased array antenna consists of a collection of radiating patches; the design flexibility for a large part resides in the freedom to choose the number of patches, and thereby the essential radar performance parameters such as resolution and swath width. Another consequence of the use of the phased array antenna is the system's compactness and the possibility to rigidly mount it on a small aircraft. The use of small aircraft of course considerably improves the cost/benefit ratio of the use of airborne SAR. Flight altitude of the system is flexible between about 7,000 and 40,000 feet, giving much operational freedom within the meteo and airspace control limits. In the PHARUS concept the airborne segment is complemented by a ground segment, which consists of a SAR processor, possibly extended by a matching image processing package. (A quick look image is available in real-time on board the aircraft.) The SAR processor is UNIX based and runs on easily available hardware (SUN station). Although the additional image processing software is available, the SAR processing software is nevertheless designed to be able to interface with commercially available image processing software, as well as being able

  19. Airborne radioactive contamination monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Whitley, C.R.; Adams, J.R.; Bounds, J.A.; MacArthur, D.W.

    1996-03-01

    Current technologies for the detection of airborne radioactive contamination do not provide real-time capability. Most of these techniques are based on the capture of particulate matter in air onto filters which are then processed in the laboratory; thus, the turnaround time for detection of contamination can be many days. To address this shortcoming, an effort is underway to adapt LRAD (Long-Range-Alpha-Detection) technology for real-time monitoring of airborne releases of alpa-emitting radionuclides. Alpha decays in air create ionization that can be subsequently collected on electrodes, producing a current that is proportional to the amount of radioactive material present. Using external fans on a pipe containing LRAD detectors, controlled samples of ambient air can be continuously tested for the presence of radioactive contamination. Current prototypes include a two-chamber model. Sampled air is drawn through a particulate filter and then through the first chamber, which uses an electrostatic filter at its entrance to remove ambient ionization. At its exit, ionization that occurred due to the presence of radon is collected and recorded. The air then passes through a length of pipe to allow some decay of short-lived radon species. A second chamber identical to the first monitors the remaining activity. Further development is necessary on air samples without the use of particulate filtering, both to distinguish ionization that can pass through the initial electrostatic filter on otherwise inert particulate matter from that produced through the decay of radioactive material and to separate both of these from the radon contribution. The end product could provide a sensitive, cost-effective, real-time method of determining the presence of airborne radioactive contamination.

  20. Airborne Raman lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heaps, Wm. S.; Burris, J.

    1996-12-01

    We designed and tested an airborne lidar system using Raman scattering to make simultaneous measurements of methane, water vapor, and temperature in a series of flights on a NASA-operated C-130 aircraft. We present the results for methane detection, which show that the instrument has the requisite sensitivity to atmospheric trace gases. Ultimately these measurements can be used to examine the transport of chemically processed air from within the polar vortex to mid-latitudinal regions and the exchange of stratospheric air between tropical and mid-latitudinal regions.

  1. Airborne Oceanographic Lidar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bressel, C.; Itzkan, I.; Nunes, J. E.; Hoge, F.

    1977-01-01

    The Airborne Oceanographic Lidar (AOL), a spatially scanning range-gated device installed on board a NASA C-54 aircraft, is described. The AOL system is capable of measuring topographical relief or water depth (bathymetry) with a range resolution of plus or minus 0.3 m in the vertical dimension. The system may also be used to measure fluorescent spectral signatures from 3500 to 8000 A with a resolution of 100 A. Potential applications of the AOL, including sea state measurements, water transparency assessments, oil spill identification, effluent identification and crop cover assessment are also mentioned.

  2. Savanna chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes verus, hunt with tools.

    PubMed

    Pruetz, Jill D; Bertolani, Paco

    2007-03-01

    Although tool use is known to occur in species ranging from naked mole rats [1] to owls [2], chimpanzees are the most accomplished tool users [3-5]. The modification and use of tools during hunting, however, is still considered to be a uniquely human trait among primates. Here, we report the first account of habitual tool use during vertebrate hunting by nonhumans. At the Fongoli site in Senegal, we observed ten different chimpanzees use tools to hunt prosimian prey in 22 bouts. This includes immature chimpanzees and females, members of age-sex classes not normally characterized by extensive hunting behavior. Chimpanzees made 26 different tools, and we were able to recover and analyze 12 of these. Tool construction entailed up to five steps, including trimming the tool tip to a point. Tools were used in the manner of a spear, rather than a probe or rousing tool. This new information on chimpanzee tool use has important implications for the evolution of tool use and construction for hunting in the earliest hominids, especially given our observations that females and immature chimpanzees exhibited this behavior more frequently than adult males. PMID:17320393

  3. Thresher Sharks Use Tail-Slaps as a Hunting Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Oliver, Simon P.; Turner, John R.; Gann, Klemens; Silvosa, Medel; D'Urban Jackson, Tim

    2013-01-01

    The hunting strategies of pelagic thresher sharks (Alopias pelagicus) were investigated at Pescador Island in the Philippines. It has long been suspected that thresher sharks hunt with their scythe-like tails but the kinematics associated with the behaviour in the wild are poorly understood. From 61 observations recorded by handheld underwater video camera between June and October 2010, 25 thresher shark shunting events were analysed. Thresher sharks employed tail-slaps to debilitate sardines at all times of day. Hunting events comprised preparation, strike, wind-down recovery and prey item collection phases, which occurred sequentially. Preparation phases were significantly longer than the others, presumably to enable a shark to windup a tail-slap. Tail-slaps were initiated by an adduction of the pectoral fins, a manoeuvre that changed a thresher shark's pitch promoting its posterior region to lift rapidly, and stall its approach. Tail-slaps occurred with such force that they may have caused dissolved gas to diffuse out of the water column forming bubbles. Thresher sharks were able to consume more than one sardine at a time, suggesting that tail-slapping is an effective foraging strategy for hunting schooling prey. Pelagic thresher sharks appear to pursue sardines opportunistically by day and night, which may make them vulnerable to fisheries. Alopiids possess specialist pectoral and caudal fins that are likely to have evolved, at least in part, for tail-slapping. The evidence is now clear; thresher sharks really do hunt with their tails. PMID:23874415

  4. Thresher sharks use tail-slaps as a hunting strategy.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Simon P; Turner, John R; Gann, Klemens; Silvosa, Medel; D'Urban Jackson, Tim

    2013-01-01

    The hunting strategies of pelagic thresher sharks (Alopias pelagicus) were investigated at Pescador Island in the Philippines. It has long been suspected that thresher sharks hunt with their scythe-like tails but the kinematics associated with the behaviour in the wild are poorly understood. From 61 observations recorded by handheld underwater video camera between June and October 2010, 25 thresher shark shunting events were analysed. Thresher sharks employed tail-slaps to debilitate sardines at all times of day. Hunting events comprised preparation, strike, wind-down recovery and prey item collection phases, which occurred sequentially. Preparation phases were significantly longer than the others, presumably to enable a shark to windup a tail-slap. Tail-slaps were initiated by an adduction of the pectoral fins, a manoeuvre that changed a thresher shark's pitch promoting its posterior region to lift rapidly, and stall its approach. Tail-slaps occurred with such force that they may have caused dissolved gas to diffuse out of the water column forming bubbles. Thresher sharks were able to consume more than one sardine at a time, suggesting that tail-slapping is an effective foraging strategy for hunting schooling prey. Pelagic thresher sharks appear to pursue sardines opportunistically by day and night, which may make them vulnerable to fisheries. Alopiids possess specialist pectoral and caudal fins that are likely to have evolved, at least in part, for tail-slapping. The evidence is now clear; thresher sharks really do hunt with their tails. PMID:23874415

  5. Airborne concentrations of peanut protein.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Rodney M; Barnes, Charles S

    2013-01-01

    Food allergy to peanut is a significant health problem, and there are reported allergic reactions to peanuts despite not eating or having physical contact with peanuts. It is presumed that an allergic reaction may have occurred from inhalation of airborne peanut allergens. The purpose of this study was to detect the possible concentrations of airborne peanut proteins for various preparations and during specific activities. Separate Ara h 1 and Ara h 2 monoclonal enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and a polyclonal sandwich enzyme immunoassay for peanuts were used to detect the amount of airborne peanut protein collected using a Spincon Omni 3000 air collector (Sceptor Industries, Inc., Kansas City, MO) under different peanut preparation methods and situations. Air samples were measured for multiple peanut preparations and scenarios. Detectable amounts of airborne peanut protein were measured using a whole peanut immunoassay when removing the shells of roasted peanut. No airborne peanut allergen (Ara h 1 or Ara h 2) or whole peanut protein above the LLD was measured in any of the other peanut preparation collections. Ara h 1, Ara h 2, and polyclonal peanut proteins were detected from water used to boil peanuts. Small amounts of airborne peanut protein were detected in the scenario of removing shells from roasted peanuts; however, Ara h 1 and Ara h 2 proteins were unable to be consistently detected. Although airborne peanut proteins were detected, the concentration of airborne peanut protein that is necessary to elicit a clinical allergic reaction is unknown. PMID:23406937

  6. Airborne ballistic camera tracking systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redish, W. L.

    1976-01-01

    An operational airborne ballistic camera tracking system was tested for operational and data reduction feasibility. The acquisition and data processing requirements of the system are discussed. Suggestions for future improvements are also noted. A description of the data reduction mathematics is outlined. Results from a successful reentry test mission are tabulated. The test mission indicated that airborne ballistic camera tracking systems are feasible.

  7. Airborne transmission of lyssaviruses.

    PubMed

    Johnson, N; Phillpotts, R; Fooks, A R

    2006-06-01

    In 2002, a Scottish bat conservationist developed a rabies-like disease and subsequently died. This was caused by infection with European bat lyssavirus 2 (EBLV-2), a virus closely related to Rabies virus (RABV). The source of this infection and the means of transmission have not yet been confirmed. In this study, the hypothesis that lyssaviruses, particularly RABV and the bat variant EBLV-2, might be transmitted via the airborne route was tested. Mice were challenged via direct introduction of lyssavirus into the nasal passages. Two hours after intranasal challenge with a mouse-adapted strain of RABV (Challenge Virus Standard), viral RNA was detectable in the tongue, lungs and stomach. All of the mice challenged by direct intranasal inoculation developed disease signs by 7 days post-infection. Two out of five mice challenged by direct intranasal inoculation of EBLV-2 developed disease between 16 and 19 days post-infection. In addition, a simple apparatus was evaluated in which mice could be exposed experimentally to infectious doses of lyssavirus from an aerosol. Using this approach, mice challenged with RABV, but not those challenged with EBLV-2, were highly susceptible to infection by inhalation. These data support the hypothesis that lyssaviruses, and RABV in particular, can be spread by airborne transmission in a dose-dependent manner. This could present a particular hazard to personnel exposed to aerosols of infectious RABV following accidental release in a laboratory environment. PMID:16687600

  8. [The determination of the ballistics of a hunting rifle loaded with a Poleva-3 bullet].

    PubMed

    Svetlakov, A V; Sotin, A V; Nagornov, M N

    2014-01-01

    Various approaches are considered to determine the shooting range of a hunting rifle loaded with a Poleva-3 bullet from the specific features of gunshot injuries inflicted by container-type Poleba-3 bullets for hunting rifles. PMID:25275187

  9. 76 FR 16638 - Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council Teleconference; Cancellation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-24

    ..., see our March 4, 2011, Federal Register notice (76 FR 12130), or contact Joshua Winchell, Council... Fish and Wildlife Service Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council Teleconference... teleconference of the Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council (Council). The teleconference was...

  10. 50 CFR 32.1 - Opening of wildlife refuge areas to hunting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Secretary that the opening of the area to the hunting of migratory game birds, upland game, or big game will...” shall annually be open to the hunting of migratory game birds, upland game, and big game subject to...

  11. 50 CFR 32.1 - Opening of wildlife refuge areas to hunting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Secretary that the opening of the area to the hunting of migratory game birds, upland game, or big game will...” shall annually be open to the hunting of migratory game birds, upland game, and big game subject to...

  12. 50 CFR 32.1 - Opening of wildlife refuge areas to hunting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Secretary that the opening of the area to the hunting of migratory game birds, upland game, or big game will...” shall annually be open to the hunting of migratory game birds, upland game, and big game subject to...

  13. Mourning dove nesting: seasonal patterns and effects of September hunting

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Geissler, Paul H.; Dolton, David D.; Field, Rebecca; Coon, Richard A.; Percival, H. Franklin; Hayne, Don W.; Soileau, Lawrence D.; George, Ronnie R.; Dunks, James H.; Bunnell, S. Dwight

    1987-01-01

    A nationwide State-Federal cooperative study was initiated in 1978 to examine effects of September hunting on nesting mourning doves (Zenaida macroura). This study was designed to (1) determine the proportion of the annual total of dove nesting activity and production that occurs in September and October, and (2) determine if survival rates of mourning dove eggs and nestlings are lower in zones where early September dove hunting is permitted than in zones where it is prohibited. During 1979 and 1980, 6,950 active nests were monitored to obtain data on nesting patterns. Nest initiation was estimated using two measurements, backdating from hatch dates and counting numbers of nests found for the first time. The nationwide percentage of the annual total of nests that were initiated in September and October was 1.0% based on backdating from hatch dates and 2.7% based on nests found for the first time. Nesting activity was measured by numbers of eggs and nestlings present in weekly counts. Nationally, 4.5% of the annual nesting activity occurred in September and October. The activity of 80% of the observed nests was within the period of 22 April to 4 September. The measure of production used in this study was numbers of young fledged. Nationally, 10.3% of all observed fledging occurred in September and October. Because a decline in nests found in the latter half of the nesting season preceded the 1 September start of hunting, we concluded that the reduction in nesting activity at the end of the season is a natural phenomenon and is not caused by hunting disturbance. In a separate part of this study, we estimated survival rates in adjacent hunted and nonhunted zones from data on 668 nests. The estimated daily survival rates for individual eggs and nestlings were 95.8% in the nonhunted and 95.0% in the hunted zones; the corresponding fledging rates were 33 and 26%, respectively. The fledging rates are lower because they are the daily survival rates operating over a 26-day

  14. Mourning Dove Nesting: Seasonal Patterns and Effects of September Hunting

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Geissler, P.H.; Dolton, D.D.; Coon, R.A.; Percival, H.F.; Field, R.; Hayne, D.W.; Soileau, L.D.; George, R.R.; Dunks, J.H.; Bunnell, S.D.

    1982-01-01

    A nationwide State/Federal cooperative study was initiated in 1978 to examine effects of September hunting on mourning dove (Zenaida macroura) nesting. This study was designed to (1) determine the proportion of the annual total of dove nesting activity and production that occurs in September and October, and (2) determine if survival rates of mourning dove eggs and nestlings are lower in areas where early September dove hunting is permitted compared to areas where it is prohibited. During 1979 and 1980, 6,950 active nests were followed to obtain data on nesting patterns. Nest initiation was estimated both by backdating from hatch dates and by the numbers of nests found for the first time. The nationwide percent of the annual total of nests that were initiated in September and October was 1.0% based on backdating hatch dates and 2.7% based on nests found for the first time. Nesting activity was measured by numbers of eggs and nestlings present in weekly counts. Nationally, 4.5% of the annual total of nesting activity occurred in September and October. The observed period when 80% of the nests were active, based on hatch dates, lasted from April 22 to September 4. The measure of production used in this study was numbers of young fledged. Nationally, 10.3% of all observed fledging occurred in September and October. A decline in nests found in the latter half of the nesting season preceded the September 1 start of hunting. From this we concluded that the reduction in nesting activity at the end of the season is a natural phenomenon and not caused by hunting disturbance. In a separate part of this study, we estimated survival rates in hunted and nonhunted sections from data on 668 nests. The estimated daily survival rates for individual eggs and nestlings were 95.8% in the nonhunted and 95.0% in the hunted sections; the corresponding fledging rates were 33% and 26%, respectively. The fledging rates are lower because they are the daily survival rates operating over a 26

  15. Shoot first, ask questions later: Interpretative narratives of Neanderthal hunting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Mark; Pettitt, Paul; Schreve, Danielle

    2016-05-01

    This paper examines the hunting strategies employed by Neanderthals at a series of kill or near-kill sites from the Middle Palaeolithic of Europe (Mauran, La Borde, Taubach, Zwoleń and Salzgitter Lebenstedt). Using palaeolandscape reconstructions and animal ethology as our context, we adopt a multifaceted approach that views hunting as a chaîne opératoire involving the decisions and actions of both the hunter and the hunted, which together help reconstruct a forensic picture of past events as they unfolded. Our conclusions indicate that Neanderthals did not necessarily pre-select individuals from a herd, who they then isolated, pursued and killed, but rather ambushed whole groups, which they slaughtered indiscriminately. There is strong evidence, however, that Neanderthals were highly selective in the carcasses they then chose to process. Our conclusions suggest that Neanderthals were excellent tacticians, casual executioners and discerning diners.

  16. Risk and Ethical Concerns of Hunting Male Elephant: Behavioural and Physiological Assays of the Remaining Elephants

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Tarryne; Page, Bruce; Van Dyk, Gus; Millspaugh, Josh; Slotow, Rob

    2008-01-01

    Background Hunting of male African elephants may pose ethical and risk concerns, particularly given their status as a charismatic species of high touristic value, yet which are capable of both killing people and damaging infrastructure. Methodology/Principal Findings We quantified the effect of hunts of male elephants on (1) risk of attack or damage (11 hunts), and (2) behavioural (movement dynamics) and physiological (stress hormone metabolite concentrations) responses (4 hunts) in Pilanesberg National Park. For eleven hunts, there were no subsequent attacks on people or infrastructure, and elephants did not break out of the fenced reserve. For three focal hunts, there was an initial flight response by bulls present at the hunting site, but their movements stabilised the day after the hunt event. Animals not present at the hunt (both bulls and herds) did not show movement responses. Physiologically, hunting elephant bulls increased faecal stress hormone levels (corticosterone metabolites) in both those bulls that were present at the hunts (for up to four days post-hunt) and in the broader bull and breeding herd population (for up to one month post-hunt). Conclusions/Significance As all responses were relatively minor, hunting male elephants is ethically acceptable when considering effects on the remaining elephant population; however bulls should be hunted when alone. Hunting is feasible in relatively small enclosed reserves without major risk of attack, damage, or breakout. Physiological stress assays were more effective than behavioural responses in detecting effects of human intervention. Similar studies should evaluate intervention consequences, inform and improve best practice, and should be widely applied by management agencies. PMID:18560517

  17. 77 FR 41001 - 2012-2013 Refuge-Specific Hunting and Sport Fishing Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-11

    ... equipment. * * * * * 10. We allow squirrel, raccoon, rabbit, and opossum to be hunted with dogs during designated hunts. We prohibit dogs in the Middle Swamp area of the refuge, except during the February small... squirrel on the North Unit from September 1 until January 31. 3. We allow dogs for hunting of rabbit...

  18. 77 FR 56027 - 2012-2013 Refuge-Specific Hunting and Sport Fishing Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-11

    ..., Federal Register (77 FR 41002), we published a proposed rulemaking identifying changes pertaining to... squirrel, raccoon, rabbit, and opossum to be hunted with dogs during designated hunts. We prohibit dogs in... from September 1 until January 31. 3. We allow dogs for hunting of rabbit and squirrel from December...

  19. Application of the anthropogenic allee effect model to trophy hunting as a conservation tool.

    PubMed

    Harris, Richard B; Cooney, Rosie; Leader-Williams, Nigel

    2013-10-01

    Trophy hunting can provide economic incentives to conserve wild species, but it can also involve risk when rare species are hunted. The anthropogenic Allee effect (AAE) is a conceptual model that seeks to explain how rarity may spread the seeds of further endangerment. The AAE model has increasingly been invoked in the context of trophy hunting, increasing concerns that such hunting may undermine rather than enhance conservation efforts. We question the appropriateness of uncritically applying the AAE model to trophy hunting for 4 reasons. First, the AAE assumes an open-access resource, which is a poor characterization of most trophy-hunting programs and obscures the potential for state, communal, or private-property use rights to generate positive incentives for conservation. Second, study results that show the price of hunting increases as the rarity of the animal increases are insufficient to indicate the presence of AAE. Third, AAE ignores the existence of biological and behavioral factors operating in most trophy-hunting contexts that tend to regulate the effect of hunting. We argue that site-specific data, rather than aggregated hunting statistics, are required to demonstrate that patterns of unsustainable exploitation can be well explained by an AAE model. Instead, we suggest that conservation managers seeking to investigate and identify constraints that limit the potential conservation role of trophy hunting, should focus on the critical governance characteristics that shape the potential conservation role of trophy hunting, such as corruption, insecure property rights, and inadequate sharing of benefits with local people. PMID:23869913

  20. 50 CFR 71.1 - Opening of national fish hatchery areas to hunting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Opening of national fish hatchery areas to hunting. 71.1 Section 71.1 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... FISH HATCHERY AREAS Hunting § 71.1 Opening of national fish hatchery areas to hunting. National...

  1. 50 CFR 71.1 - Opening of national fish hatchery areas to hunting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Opening of national fish hatchery areas to hunting. 71.1 Section 71.1 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... FISH HATCHERY AREAS Hunting § 71.1 Opening of national fish hatchery areas to hunting. National...

  2. 3 CFR 8870 - Proclamation 8870 of September 21, 2012. National Hunting and Fishing Day, 2012

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Hunting and Fishing Day, 2012 8870 Proclamation 8870 Presidential Documents Proclamations Proclamation 8870 of September 21, 2012 Proc. 8870 National Hunting and Fishing Day, 2012By the President of the... outdoors have always played an important role in our national life. On National Hunting and Fishing Day,...

  3. 50 CFR 71.1 - Opening of national fish hatchery areas to hunting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Opening of national fish hatchery areas to hunting. 71.1 Section 71.1 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... FISH HATCHERY AREAS Hunting § 71.1 Opening of national fish hatchery areas to hunting. National...

  4. 50 CFR 71.1 - Opening of national fish hatchery areas to hunting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Opening of national fish hatchery areas to hunting. 71.1 Section 71.1 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... FISH HATCHERY AREAS Hunting § 71.1 Opening of national fish hatchery areas to hunting. National...

  5. 50 CFR 71.1 - Opening of national fish hatchery areas to hunting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Opening of national fish hatchery areas to hunting. 71.1 Section 71.1 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... FISH HATCHERY AREAS Hunting § 71.1 Opening of national fish hatchery areas to hunting. National...

  6. 76 FR 39185 - 2011-2012 Refuge-Specific Hunting and Sport Fishing Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-05

    ... Refuge-Specific Hunting and Sport Fishing Regulations; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 76... Service 50 CFR Part 32 RIN 1018-AX54 2011-2012 Refuge-Specific Hunting and Sport Fishing Regulations... Service proposes to add one refuge to the list of areas open for hunting and/or sport fishing and...

  7. Hunting for Ancient Tsunamis in the Tropics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atwater, B. F.

    2007-05-01

    the plow for centuries. The outlook for paleotsunami hunting in South and Southeast Asia probably depends on new targets that include coral boulders and scarcely disturbed beach-ridge plains in Thailand; archaeological sites that provide cultural timelines in India; lagoons of Sri Lanka; coastal rivers that offer cutbanks and oxbows on beach-ridge plains of Java; delicately laminated deposits of salt flats routinely overrun by storm surges on the arid northern shores of the Arabian Sea; and records of prehistoric land-level change close to fault-rupture areas along the Sunda Trench.

  8. Processor architecture for airborne SAR systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glass, C. M.

    1983-01-01

    Digital processors for spaceborne imaging radars and application of the technology developed for airborne SAR systems are considered. Transferring algorithms and implementation techniques from airborne to spaceborne SAR processors offers obvious advantages. The following topics are discussed: (1) a quantification of the differences in processing algorithms for airborne and spaceborne SARs; and (2) an overview of three processors for airborne SAR systems.

  9. Evaluation of meteorological airborne Doppler radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hildebrand, P. H.; Mueller, C. K.

    1984-01-01

    This paper will discuss the capabilities of airborne Doppler radar for atmospheric sciences research. The evaluation is based on airborne and ground based Doppler radar observations of convective storms. The capability of airborne Doppler radar to measure horizontal and vertical air motions is evaluated. Airborne Doppler radar is shown to be a viable tool for atmospheric sciences research.

  10. Airborne agent concentration analysis

    DOEpatents

    Gelbard, Fred

    2004-02-03

    A method and system for inferring airborne contaminant concentrations in rooms without contaminant sensors, based on data collected by contaminant sensors in other rooms of a building, using known airflow interconnectivity data. The method solves a least squares problem that minimizes the difference between measured and predicted contaminant sensor concentrations with respect to an unknown contaminant release time. Solutions are constrained to providing non-negative initial contaminant concentrations in all rooms. The method can be used to identify a near-optimal distribution of sensors within the building, when then number of available sensors is less than the total number of rooms. This is achieved by having a system-sensor matrix that is non-singular, and by selecting that distribution which yields the lowest condition number of all the distributions considered. The method can predict one or more contaminant initial release points from the collected data.

  11. Airborne Wind Turbine

    SciTech Connect

    2010-09-01

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: Makani Power is developing an Airborne Wind Turbine (AWT) that eliminates 90% of the mass of a conventional wind turbine and accesses a stronger, more consistent wind at altitudes of near 1,000 feet. At these altitudes, 85% of the country can offer viable wind resources compared to only 15% accessible with current technology. Additionally, the Makani Power wing can be economically deployed in deep offshore waters, opening up a resource which is 4 times greater than the entire U.S. electrical generation capacity. Makani Power has demonstrated the core technology, including autonomous launch, land, and power generation with an 8 meter wingspan, 20 kW prototype. At commercial scale, Makani Power aims to develop a 600 kW, 28 meter wingspan product capable of delivering energy at an unsubsidized cost competitive with coal, the current benchmark for low-cost power.

  12. Incentivizing Monitoring and Compliance in Trophy Hunting

    PubMed Central

    BUNNEFELD, NILS; EDWARDS, CHARLES T T; ATICKEM, ANAGAW; HAILU, FETENE; MILNER-GULLAND, E J

    2014-01-01

    Conservation scientists are increasingly focusing on the drivers of human behavior and on the implications of various sources of uncertainty for management decision making. Trophy hunting has been suggested as a conservation tool because it gives economic value to wildlife, but recent examples show that overharvesting is a substantial problem and that data limitations are rife. We use a case study of trophy hunting of an endangered antelope, the mountain nyala (Tragelaphus buxtoni), to explore how uncertainties generated by population monitoring and poaching interact with decision making by 2 key stakeholders: the safari companies and the government. We built a management strategy evaluation model that encompasses the population dynamics of mountain nyala, a monitoring model, and a company decision making model. We investigated scenarios of investment into antipoaching and monitoring by governments and safari companies. Harvest strategy was robust to the uncertainty in the population estimates obtained from monitoring, but poaching had a much stronger effect on quota and sustainability. Hence, reducing poaching is in the interests of companies wishing to increase the profitability of their enterprises, for example by engaging community members as game scouts. There is a threshold level of uncertainty in the population estimates beyond which the year-to-year variation in the trophy quota prevented planning by the safari companies. This suggests a role for government in ensuring that a baseline level of population monitoring is carried out such that this level is not exceeded. Our results illustrate the importance of considering the incentives of multiple stakeholders when designing frameworks for resource use and when designing management frameworks to address the particular sources of uncertainty that affect system sustainability most heavily. Incentivando el Monitoreo y el Cumplimiento en la Caza de Trofeos Resumen Científicos conservacionistas cada vez se

  13. Airborne Cloud Computing Environment (ACCE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardman, Sean; Freeborn, Dana; Crichton, Dan; Law, Emily; Kay-Im, Liz

    2011-01-01

    Airborne Cloud Computing Environment (ACCE) is JPL's internal investment to improve the return on airborne missions. Improve development performance of the data system. Improve return on the captured science data. The investment is to develop a common science data system capability for airborne instruments that encompasses the end-to-end lifecycle covering planning, provisioning of data system capabilities, and support for scientific analysis in order to improve the quality, cost effectiveness, and capabilities to enable new scientific discovery and research in earth observation.

  14. 36 CFR 327.8 - Hunting, fishing, and trapping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Hunting, fishing, and trapping. 327.8 Section 327.8 Parks, Forests, and Public Property CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY RULES AND REGULATIONS GOVERNING PUBLIC USE OF WATER RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS ADMINISTERED BY...

  15. The Public Services Job Hunt: Observations and Advice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, Laura

    2014-01-01

    The library science job market is competitive, and library and information science (LIS) students and new graduates often have questions and concerns about how to engage in a successful job hunt. Based on research with employers and interactions with students and alumni, the author offers advice for job-seekers looking for public services…

  16. Job Hunting Behaviors and Employment Status of Recent College Graduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Heather Anne; And Others

    The self-reported employment status, job-hunting behaviors, and career potential of current jobs for liberal arts/natural sciences graduates and nonliberal arts/sciences graduates at the University of Texas at Austin were studied approximately six months to one year after graduation. Sixty percent (151 persons, representing a 21 percent return…

  17. Bee Hunt! Ecojustice in Practice for Earth's Buzzing Biodiversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Michael P.; Pickering, John

    2010-01-01

    The Bee Hunt! project and curriculum are designed with cultural and environmental sensitivity in mind. In this project, K-12 students develop their awareness and understanding of science and investigate North American pollinator declines. Bees, butterflies, and other pollinators are integrally connected to the pollination of the world's crops for…

  18. 36 CFR 331.3 - Hunting and trapping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hunting and trapping. 331.3 Section 331.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE PROTECTION, USE AND MANAGEMENT OF THE FALLS OF THE OHIO NATIONAL WILDLIFE CONSERVATION AREA, KENTUCKY AND INDIANA § 331.3...

  19. Sport Hunting, Predator Control and Conservation of Large Carnivores

    PubMed Central

    Packer, Craig; Kosmala, Margaret; Cooley, Hilary S.; Brink, Henry; Pintea, Lilian; Garshelis, David; Purchase, Gianetta; Strauss, Megan; Swanson, Alexandra; Balme, Guy; Hunter, Luke; Nowell, Kristin

    2009-01-01

    Sport hunting has provided important economic incentives for conserving large predators since the early 1970's, but wildlife managers also face substantial pressure to reduce depredation. Sport hunting is an inherently risky strategy for controlling predators as carnivore populations are difficult to monitor and some species show a propensity for infanticide that is exacerbated by removing adult males. Simulation models predict population declines from even moderate levels of hunting in infanticidal species, and harvest data suggest that African countries and U.S. states with the highest intensity of sport hunting have shown the steepest population declines in African lions and cougars over the past 25 yrs. Similar effects in African leopards may have been masked by mesopredator release owing to declines in sympatric lion populations, whereas there is no evidence of overhunting in non-infanticidal populations of American black bears. Effective conservation of these animals will require new harvest strategies and improved monitoring to counter demands for predator control by livestock producers and local communities. PMID:19536277

  20. 77 FR 4575 - Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-30

    ..., the Council provides advice about wildlife and habitat conservation endeavors that: 1. Benefit recreational hunting; 2. Benefit wildlife resources; and 3. Encourage partnership among the public, the... Plan for Implementation; 2. Increasing public awareness of and support for the Sport Wildlife...

  1. Sport hunting, predator control and conservation of large carnivores.

    PubMed

    Packer, Craig; Kosmala, Margaret; Cooley, Hilary S; Brink, Henry; Pintea, Lilian; Garshelis, David; Purchase, Gianetta; Strauss, Megan; Swanson, Alexandra; Balme, Guy; Hunter, Luke; Nowell, Kristin

    2009-01-01

    Sport hunting has provided important economic incentives for conserving large predators since the early 1970's, but wildlife managers also face substantial pressure to reduce depredation. Sport hunting is an inherently risky strategy for controlling predators as carnivore populations are difficult to monitor and some species show a propensity for infanticide that is exacerbated by removing adult males. Simulation models predict population declines from even moderate levels of hunting in infanticidal species, and harvest data suggest that African countries and U.S. states with the highest intensity of sport hunting have shown the steepest population declines in African lions and cougars over the past 25 yrs. Similar effects in African leopards may have been masked by mesopredator release owing to declines in sympatric lion populations, whereas there is no evidence of overhunting in non-infanticidal populations of American black bears. Effective conservation of these animals will require new harvest strategies and improved monitoring to counter demands for predator control by livestock producers and local communities. PMID:19536277

  2. Reward Your Students with an Online Scavenger Hunt!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Board, Keith

    2013-01-01

    Do you have a class of students who do excellent work and whom you would like to give an enjoyable reward? Try an "Internet scavenger hunt" for a fun and educational change of pace! This article shares how to run the activity.

  3. Library Scavenger Hunts: A Way out of the Bewilderness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCutcheon, Randall

    1990-01-01

    Describes a "scavenger hunt" approach to teaching research and critical thinking skills to high school and college students. Students are provided with lists of challenging questions, supporting materials (cartoons, quotations, odd facts and humorous excerpts), and clues for developing a research strategy. Examples of questions, clues and answers…

  4. Future-Oriented Coping and Job Hunting among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Yueqin; Gan, Yiqun

    2011-01-01

    Using a sample of Chinese college students (n = 216), the present study showed that future-oriented coping negatively correlated with perceived pressure and positively correlated with successful job hunting. The relationship between proactive coping and preventive coping was also explored. Structural equation modeling suggested that a sequence…

  5. Using Scavenger Hunts to Familiarize Students with Scientific Journal Articles.

    PubMed

    Lijek, Rebeccah S; Fankhauser, Sarah C

    2016-03-01

    Primary scientific literature can be difficult to navigate for anyone unfamiliar with its foreign, formal structure. We sought to create a fun, easy learning tool to help familiarize students of all ages with the structure of a scientific article. Our main learning objective was for the student to realize that science writing is formulaic-that specific information is found in predictable locations within an article-and that, with an understanding of the formula, anyone can comfortably navigate any journal article and accurately predict what to expect to find in each section. To this end, we designed a Journal Article Scavenger Hunt that requires the user to find and identify a series of commonplace features of a primary research article. The scavenger hunt activity is quick and easy to implement, and is adaptable to various ages and settings, including the classroom, lab, and at outreach events. The questions in the scavenger hunt can be scaled in difficulty and specificity to suit the instructor's needs. Over many years of using this activity, we have received positive feedback from students of all ages, from elementary school students to lay adult-learners as well as science teachers themselves. By making the unknown seem predictable and approachable, the scavenger hunt helps a variety of audiences feel more comfortable with science and more confident in their ability to engage directly with the scientific literature. Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education. PMID:27047608

  6. 50 CFR 36.14 - Subsistence hunting and trapping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM ALASKA NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGES Subsistence Uses § 36.14... Alaska National Wildlife Refuges in compliance with applicable State and Federal laws. To the extent... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Subsistence hunting and trapping....

  7. 50 CFR 36.14 - Subsistence hunting and trapping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM ALASKA NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGES Subsistence Uses § 36.14... Alaska National Wildlife Refuges in compliance with applicable State and Federal laws. To the extent... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Subsistence hunting and trapping....

  8. 50 CFR 36.14 - Subsistence hunting and trapping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM ALASKA NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGES Subsistence Uses § 36.14... Alaska National Wildlife Refuges in compliance with applicable State and Federal laws. To the extent... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Subsistence hunting and trapping....

  9. The Hunt for Dwarf Galaxies' Ancestors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    formation had already occurred by this time.Finally, the authors compared the properties of these 73 scaled-back dwarfs to those of high-redshift galaxies that we have already detected with the Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescopes, as well as to the detection limits of the upcoming James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) mission launching in 2018.Patej and Loeb find that, when scaled back to redshifts of z = 6 or 7, the dwarf galaxies would be too faint to detect with current telescopes despite being roughly the same size as high-redshift galaxies weve already detected. But the capabilities of JWST will push into this regime: according to Patej and Loebs calculations, JWST would be able to detect 13 of the 73 galaxies in the sample at a redshift of z = 6, and 9/73 at a redshift of z = 7.Furthermore, the fraction of detectable galaxies would increase if these ancient dwarfs contained large numbers of Population-III-like, massive, bright stars. But even without such a boost, the hunt for the ancestors of local dwarf galaxies appears to be well within JWSTs capabilities!CitationAnna Patej and Abraham Loeb 2015 ApJ 815 L28. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/815/2/L28

  10. Can hunting of translocated nuisance Canada geese reduce local conflicts?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holevinski, R.A.; Malecki, R.A.; Curtis, P.D.

    2006-01-01

    Resident Canada geese (Branta canadensis) nest or reside in the temperate latitudes of North America. In past years, translocation-the capture and subsequent release of geese at distant locations-has been used to establish resident goose populations and to reduce nuisance problems. However, with new special hunting seasons designed to target resident Canada geese, we can now evaluate translocation as a management tool when hunting is allowed at release sites. We selected 2 study sites, representative of urban and suburban locations with nuisance resident geese, in central and western New York, USA. In June 2003, we translocated 80 neck-banded adult geese, 14 radiomarked adult females, and 83 juveniles 150 km east and southwest from urban and suburban problem sites in western New York to state-owned Wildlife Management Areas. At these same capture sites, we used 151 neck-banded adult geese, 12 radiomarked females, and 100 juveniles as controls to compare dispersal movements and harvest vulnerability to translocated geese. All observations (n = 45) of translocated radiomarked geese were <20 km from release sites, in areas where hunting was permitted. Only 25 of 538 observations (4.6%) of radiomarked geese at control sites were in areas open to hunting. The remainder of observations occurred at nonhunting locations within 10 km of control sites. More translocated adult geese (23.8%) were harvested than control geese (6.6%; ??2 = 72.98, P = 0.0009). More translocated juvenile geese were harvested (22.9%) than juvenile controls (5.0%; ??2 = 72.30, P = 0.0005). Only 7 (8.8%) translocated adult geese returned to the original capture sites during Canada goose hunting seasons. Translocation of adult and juvenile geese in family groups may alleviate nuisance problems at conflict sites through increased harvest, reducing the number of birds returning in subsequent years.

  11. Hunting statistics: what data for what use? An account of an international workshop

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, J.D.; Lancia, R.A.; Lebreton, J.D.

    2001-01-01

    Hunting interacts with the underlying dynamics of game species in several different ways and is, at the same time, a source of valuable information not easily obtained from populations that are not subjected to hunting. Specific questions, including the sustainability of hunting activities, can be addressed using hunting statistics. Such investigations will frequently require that hunting statistics be combined with data from other sources of population-level information. Such reflections served as a basis for the meeting, ?Hunting Statistics: What Data for What Use,? held on January 15-18, 2001 in Saint-Benoist, France. We review here the 20 talks held during the workshop and the contribution of hunting statistics to our knowledge of the population dynamics of game species. Three specific topics (adaptive management, catch-effort models, and dynamics of exploited populations) were highlighted as important themes and are more extensively presented as boxes.

  12. Airborne Particulate Threat Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Patrick Treado; Oksana Klueva; Jeffrey Beckstead

    2008-12-31

    Aerosol threat detection requires the ability to discern between threat agents and ambient background particulate matter (PM) encountered in the environment. To date, Raman imaging technology has been demonstrated as an effective strategy for the assessment of threat agents in the presence of specific, complex backgrounds. Expanding our understanding of the composition of ambient particulate matter background will improve the overall performance of Raman Chemical Imaging (RCI) detection strategies for the autonomous detection of airborne chemical and biological hazards. Improving RCI detection performance is strategic due to its potential to become a widely exploited detection approach by several U.S. government agencies. To improve the understanding of the ambient PM background with subsequent improvement in Raman threat detection capability, ChemImage undertook the Airborne Particulate Threat Assessment (APTA) Project in 2005-2008 through a collaborative effort with the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), under cooperative agreement number DE-FC26-05NT42594. During Phase 1 of the program, a novel PM classification based on molecular composition was developed based on a comprehensive review of the scientific literature. In addition, testing protocols were developed for ambient PM characterization. A signature database was developed based on a variety of microanalytical techniques, including scanning electron microscopy, FT-IR microspectroscopy, optical microscopy, fluorescence and Raman chemical imaging techniques. An automated particle integrated collector and detector (APICD) prototype was developed for automated collection, deposition and detection of biothreat agents in background PM. During Phase 2 of the program, ChemImage continued to refine the understanding of ambient background composition. Additionally, ChemImage enhanced the APICD to provide improved autonomy, sensitivity and specificity. Deliverables included a Final Report detailing our

  13. Spring snow goose hunting influences body composition of waterfowl staging in Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearse, Aaron T.; Krapu, Gary L.; Cox, Robert R., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    A spring hunt was instituted in North America to reduce abundance of snow geese (Chen caerulescens) by increasing mortality of adults directly, yet disturbance from hunting activities can indirectly influence body condition and ultimately, reproductive success. We estimated effects of hunting disturbance by comparing body composition of snow geese and non-target species, greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons) and northern pintails (Anas acuta) collected in portions of south-central Nebraska that were open (eastern Rainwater Basin, ERB) and closed (western Rainwater Basin, WRB; and central Platte River Valley, CPRV) to snow goose hunting during springs 1998 and 1999. Lipid content of 170 snow geese was 25% (57 g) less in areas open to hunting compared to areas closed during hunting season but similar in all areas after hunting was concluded in the ERB. Protein content of snow geese was 3% (14 g) less in the region open to hunting. Greater white-fronted geese had 24% (76 g; n = 129) less lipids in the hunted portion of the study area during hunting season, and this difference persisted after conclusion of hunting season. We found little difference in lipid or protein content of northern pintails in relation to spring hunting. Indirect effects of spring hunting may be considered a collateral benefit regarding efforts to reduce overabundant snow goose populations. Disrupted nutrient storage observed in greater white-fronted geese represents an unintended consequence of spring hunting that has potential to adversely affect reproduction for this and other species of waterbirds staging in the region.

  14. Airborne GLM Simulator (FEGS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quick, M.; Blakeslee, R. J.; Christian, H. J., Jr.; Stewart, M. F.; Podgorny, S.; Corredor, D.

    2015-12-01

    Real time lightning observations have proven to be useful for advanced warning and now-casting of severe weather events. In anticipation of the launch of the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) onboard GOES-R that will provide continuous real time observations of total (both cloud and ground) lightning, the Fly's Eye GLM Simulator (FEGS) is in production. FEGS is an airborne instrument designed to provide cal/val measurements for GLM from high altitude aircraft. It consists of a 5 x 5 array of telescopes each with a narrow passband filter to isolate the 777.4 nm neutral oxygen emission triplet radiated by lightning. The telescopes will measure the optical radiance emitted by lightning that is transmitted through the cloud top with a temporal resolution of 10 μs. When integrated on the NASA ER-2 aircraft, the FEGS array with its 90° field-of-view will observe a cloud top area nearly equal to a single GLM pixel. This design will allow FEGS to determine the temporal and spatial variation of light that contributes to a GLM event detection. In addition to the primary telescope array, the instrument includes 5 supplementary optical channels that observe alternate spectral emission features and will enable the use of FEGS for interesting lightning physics applications. Here we present an up-to-date summary of the project and a description of its scientific applications.

  15. Airborne rescue system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haslim, Leonard A. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    The airborne rescue system includes a boom with telescoping members for extending a line and collar to a rescue victim. The boom extends beyond the tip of the helicopter rotor so that the victim may avoid the rotor downwash. The rescue line is played out and reeled in by winch. The line is temporarily retained under the boom. When the boom is extended, the rescue line passes through clips. When the victim dons the collar and the tension in the line reaches a predetermined level, the clips open and release the line from the boom. Then the rescue line can form a straight line between the victim and the winch, and the victim can be lifted to the helicopter. A translator is utilized to push out or pull in the telescoping members. The translator comprises a tape and a rope. Inside the telescoping members the tape is curled around the rope and the tape has a tube-like configuration. The tape and rope are provided from supply spools.

  16. Photoacoustic study of airborne and model aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alebić-Juretić, A.; Zetzsch, C.; Dóka, O.; Bicanic, D.

    2003-01-01

    Airborne particulates of either natural or anthropogenic origin constitute a significant portion of atmospheric pollution. Environmental xenobiotics, among which are polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and pesticides, often adsorb to aerosols and as such are transported through the atmosphere with the physicochemical properties of the aerosols determining the lifetime of these organic compounds. As an example, the resistance of some PAHs against the photolysis is explained by the effect of the aerosol's "inner filter" that reduces the intensity of incident light reaching the mineral particles. On the other hand, some constituents of the aerosols can act as catalytic and/or stoichiometric reagents in atmospheric reactions on the solid surfaces. In the study described here the photoacoustic (PA) spectroscopy in the UV-Vis was used to investigate natural and model aerosols. The PA spectra obtained from coal and wood ashes and of Saharan sand, all three representatives of airborne aerosols, provide the evidence for the existence of the "inner filter." Furthermore, valuable information about the different nature of the interaction between the model aerosols and adsorbed organics (e.g., PAH-pyranthrene and silica, alumina, and MgO) has been obtained. Finally, the outcome of the study conducted with powdered mixtures of chalk and black carbon suggests that the PA method is a candidate method for determination of carbon content in stack ashes.

  17. The Hunt for Natural Skin Whitening Agents

    PubMed Central

    Smit, Nico; Vicanova, Jana; Pavel, Stan

    2009-01-01

    Skin whitening products are commercially available for cosmetic purposes in order to obtain a lighter skin appearance. They are also utilized for clinical treatment of pigmentary disorders such as melasma or postinflammatory hyperpigmentation. Whitening agents act at various levels of melanin production in the skin. Many of them are known as competitive inhibitors of tyrosinase, the key enzyme in melanogenesis. Others inhibit the maturation of this enzyme or the transport of pigment granules (melanosomes) from melanocytes to surrounding keratinocytes. In this review we present an overview of (natural) whitening products that may decrease skin pigmentation by their interference with the pigmentary processes. PMID:20054473

  18. Laser Communications Airborne Testbed: Potential For An Air-To-Satellite Laser Communications Link

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldmann, Robert J.

    1988-05-01

    The Laser Communications Airborne Testbed (LCAT) offers an excellent opportunity for testing of an air-to-satellite laser communications link with the NASA Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS). The direct detection laser portion of the ACTS is suitable for examining the feasibility of an airborne terminal. Development of an airborne laser communications terminal is not currently part of the ACTS program; however, an air-to-satellite link is of interest. The Air Force performs airborne laser communications experiments to examine the potential usefulness of this technology to future aircraft. Lasers could be used, for example, by future airborne command posts and reconnaissance aircraft to communicate via satellite over long distances and transmit large quantities of data in the fastest way possible from one aircraft to another or to ground sites. Lasers are potentially secure, jam resistant and hard to detect and in this regard increase the survivability of the users. Under a contract awarded by Aeronautical Systems Division's Avionics Laboratory, a C-135E testbed aircraft belonging to ASD's 4950th Test Wing will be modified to create a Laser Communications Airborne Testbed. The contract is for development and fabrication of laser testbed equipment and support of the aircraft modification effort by the Test Wing. The plane to be modified is already in use as a testbed for other satellite communications projects and the LCAT effort will expand those capabilities. This analysis examines the characteristics of an LCAT to ACTS direct detection communications link. The link analysis provides a measure of the feasibility of developing an airborne laser terminal which will interface directly to the LCAT. Through the existence of the LCAT, the potential for development of an air-to-satellite laser communications terminal for the experimentation with the ACTS system is greatly enhanced.

  19. 77 FR 29515 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Supplemental Proposals for Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-17

    ... 2012 On April 17, 2012, we published in the Federal Register (77 FR 23094) a proposal to amend 50 CFR... Register (75 FR 53536), we finalized new guidelines for duck zones and split seasons for use by States in..., proposed rule (77 FR 23094): National Environmental Policy Act; Endangered Species Act;...

  20. Airborne Laser Polar Nephelometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grams, Gerald W.

    1973-01-01

    A polar nephelometer has been developed at NCAR to measure the angular variation of the intensity of light scattered by air molecules and particles. The system has been designed for airborne measurements using outside air ducted through a 5-cm diameter airflow tube; the sample volume is that which is common to the intersection of a collimated source beam and the detector field of view within the airflow tube. The source is a linearly polarized helium-neon laser beam. The optical system defines a collimated field-of-view (0.5deg half-angle) through a series of diaphragms located behind a I72-mm focal length objective lens. A photomultiplier tube is located immediately behind an aperture in the focal plane of the objective lens. The laser beam is mechanically chopped (on-off) at a rate of 5 Hz; a two-channel pulse counter, synchronized to the laser output, measures the photomultiplier pulse rate with the light beam both on and off. The difference in these measured pulse rates is directly proportional to the intensity of the scattered light from the volume common to the intersection of the laser beam and the detector field-of-view. Measurements can be made at scattering angles from 15deg to 165deg with reference to the direction of propagation of the light beam. Intermediate angles are obtained by selecting the angular increments desired between these extreme angles (any multiple of 0.1deg can be selected for the angular increment; 5deg is used in normal operation). Pulses provided by digital circuits control a stepping motor which sequentially rotates the detector by pre-selected angular increments. The synchronous photon-counting system automatically begins measurement of the scattered-light intensity immediately after the rotation to a new angle has been completed. The instrument has been flown on the NASA Convair 990 airborne laboratory to obtain data on the complex index of refraction of atmospheric aerosols. A particle impaction device is operated simultaneously

  1. [Differentiation of hunting accident and suicide with rifles].

    PubMed

    Karger, B

    1996-02-01

    Criterias for the differentiation between hunting accidents and suicides are explained and discussed. A thorough investigation of this kind should always include autopsy, examination of the firearm, determination of the shooting distance and examination of the scene including an effort to reconstruct the events. Typical findings in suicides are contact shots, entrance wounds of the head, chest or upper abdomen, downward trajectories and evidence (gunshot residue, backspatter) suggesting a hand had been used to steady the muzzle. Typical findings in hunting accidents are entrance wounds of the extremities, the lower abdomen or the back, worn out or defective safety devices, upward trajectories and trajectories that are incompatible with possible and intended positions of the firearm. Each case has to be examined individually and the findings should be interpreted as an entity. PMID:8852071

  2. Extraterritorial hunting expeditions to intense fire scars by feral cats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGregor, Hugh W.; Legge, Sarah; Jones, Menna E.; Johnson, Christopher N.

    2016-03-01

    Feral cats are normally territorial in Australia’s tropical savannahs, and hunt intensively with home-ranges only two to three kilometres across. Here we report that they also undertake expeditions of up to 12.5 km from their home ranges to hunt for short periods over recently burned areas. Cats are especially likely to travel to areas burned at high intensity, probably in response to vulnerability of prey soon after such fires. The movements of journeying cats are highly directed to specific destinations. We argue that the effect of this behaviour is to increase the aggregate impact of cats on vulnerable prey. This has profound implications for conservation, considering the ubiquity of feral cats and global trends of intensified fire regimes.

  3. Dimorphic foraging behaviors and the evolution of hominid hunting.

    PubMed

    Fessler, Daniel M T

    2002-01-01

    In contemporary foraging societies men typically hunt more than women. This observation has played an important role in many reconstructions of hominid evolution. The gender difference in human hunting, likely a product of both ecological and cultural factors, is mirrored by a similar sex difference among nonhuman primates. Existing explanations of such primate behavioral dimorphism are augmented by the recognition of an additional factor that may contribute to differences between males and females in the value of meat. Episodic female immunosuppression is a normal part of reproduction. Because meat is a source of pathogens, females can be expected to exhibit less constant attraction to meat. Sexual dimorphism in the attraction to meat may then contribute to dimorphic foraging specializations, a divergence that is likely augmented by the differential value of insectivory across the sexes. With the rise of cultural transmission of foraging knowledge, dimorphic foraging behaviors would have been reinforced, creating a more comprehensive gender-based division of labor. PMID:12680308

  4. Rodney Hunt supplies gates to Idaho Power's Swan Falls

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    Rodney Hunt Co. shipped two 30-foot by 28-foot fabricated steel roller gates to Idaho Power Co.'s Swan Falls Dam Project, where they will be installed as draft tube gates. Rodney Hunt said the gates, each weighing approximately 55 tons, are the largest roller gates the company has manufactured. The company supplied the gates under the terms of a contract worth more than $500,000. The gates were ordered as part of Idaho Power's rehabilitation of Swan Falls Dam, which will double the power plant's capacity to 25 MW. New units will begin producing power in 1993, and the project will be completed in 1994. Elsewhere on the Snake River, Idaho Power intends to increase the capacity of its Twin Falls project to 52 MW from 10 MW. Construction is scheduled to start in June 1993.

  5. Extraterritorial hunting expeditions to intense fire scars by feral cats

    PubMed Central

    McGregor, Hugh W.; Legge, Sarah; Jones, Menna E.; Johnson, Christopher N.

    2016-01-01

    Feral cats are normally territorial in Australia’s tropical savannahs, and hunt intensively with home-ranges only two to three kilometres across. Here we report that they also undertake expeditions of up to 12.5 km from their home ranges to hunt for short periods over recently burned areas. Cats are especially likely to travel to areas burned at high intensity, probably in response to vulnerability of prey soon after such fires. The movements of journeying cats are highly directed to specific destinations. We argue that the effect of this behaviour is to increase the aggregate impact of cats on vulnerable prey. This has profound implications for conservation, considering the ubiquity of feral cats and global trends of intensified fire regimes. PMID:26932268

  6. Extraterritorial hunting expeditions to intense fire scars by feral cats.

    PubMed

    McGregor, Hugh W; Legge, Sarah; Jones, Menna E; Johnson, Christopher N

    2016-01-01

    Feral cats are normally territorial in Australia's tropical savannahs, and hunt intensively with home-ranges only two to three kilometres across. Here we report that they also undertake expeditions of up to 12.5 km from their home ranges to hunt for short periods over recently burned areas. Cats are especially likely to travel to areas burned at high intensity, probably in response to vulnerability of prey soon after such fires. The movements of journeying cats are highly directed to specific destinations. We argue that the effect of this behaviour is to increase the aggregate impact of cats on vulnerable prey. This has profound implications for conservation, considering the ubiquity of feral cats and global trends of intensified fire regimes. PMID:26932268

  7. Applicability of Age-Based Hunting Regulations for African Leopards

    PubMed Central

    Balme, Guy Andrew; Hunter, Luke; Braczkowski, Alex Richard

    2012-01-01

    In species in which juvenile survival depends strongly on male tenure, excessive trophy hunting can artificially elevate male turnover and increase infanticide, potentially to unsustainable levels. Simulation models show that the likelihood of safe harvests can be improved by restricting offtakes to males old enough to have reared their first cohort of offspring to independence; in the case of African leopards, males were ≥7 years old. Here, we explore the applicability of an age-based approach for regulating trophy hunting of leopards. We conducted a structured survey comprising photographs of known-age leopards to assess the ability of wildlife practitioners to sex and age leopards. We also evaluated the utility of four phenotypic traits for use by trophy hunters to age male leopards in the field. Our logistic regression models showed that male leopard age affected the likelihood of survey respondents identifying the correct sex; notably, males <2 years were typically misidentified as females, while mature males (≥4 years) were sexed correctly. Mature male leopards were also more likely to be aged correctly, as were portrait photographs. Aging proficiency was also influenced by the profession of respondents, with hunters recording the lowest scores. A discriminant model including dewlap size, the condition of the ears, and the extent of facial scarring accurately discriminated among male leopard age classes. Model classification rates were considerably higher than the respective scores attained by survey respondents, implying that the aging ability of hunters could theoretically improve with appropriate training. Dewlap size was a particularly reliable indicator of males ≥7 years and a review of online trophy galleries suggested its wider utility as an aging criterion. Our study demonstrated that an age-based hunting approach is practically applicable for leopards. However, implementation would require major reform within the regulatory framework and the

  8. An airborne isothermal haze chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hindman, E. E.

    1981-01-01

    Thermal gradient diffusion cloud chambers (TGDCC) are used to determine the concentrations of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) with critical supersaturations greater than or equal to about 0.2%. The CCN concentrations measured with the airborne IHC were lower than theoretically predicted by factors ranging between 7.9 and 9.0. The CCN concentrations measured with the airborne IHC were lower than the concentrations measured with the larger laboratory IHC's by factors ranging between 3.9 and 7.5. The bounds of the supersaturation ranges of the airborne IHC and the CSU-Mee TGDCC do not overlap. Nevertheless, the slopes of the interpolated data between the bounds agree favorably with the theoretical slopes.

  9. Airborne laser topographic mapping results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krabill, W. B.; Collins, J. G.; Link, L. E.; Swift, R. N.; Butler, M. L.

    1984-01-01

    The results of terrain mapping experiments utilizing the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Airborne Oceanographic Lidar (AOL) over forested areas are presented. The flight tests were conducted as part of a joint NASA/U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (CE) investigation aimed at evaluating the potential of an airborne laser ranging system to provide cross-sectional topographic data on flood plains that are difficult and expensive to survey using conventional techniques. The data described in this paper were obtained in the Wolf River Basin located near Memphis, TN. Results from surveys conducted under winter 'leaves off' and summer 'leaves on' conditions, aspects of day and night operation, and data obtained from decidous and coniferous tree types are compared. Data processing techniques are reviewed. Conclusions relative to accuracy and present limitations of the AOL, and airborne lidar systems in general, to terrain mapping over forested areas are discussed.

  10. WESTERN AIRBORNE CONTAMINANTS ASSESSMENT PROJECT RESEARCH PLAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of the Western Airborne Contaminants Assessment Project (WACAP) is to assess the deposition of airborne contaminants in Western National Parks, providing regional and local information on exposure, accumulation, impacts, and probable sources. This project is being desig...

  11. Demography, not inheritance, drives phenotypic change in hunted bighorn sheep

    PubMed Central

    Traill, Lochran W.; Schindler, Susanne; Coulson, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Selective harvest, such as trophy hunting, can shift the distribution of a quantitative character such as body size. If the targeted character is heritable, then there will be an evolutionary response to selection, and where the trait is not, then any response will be plastic or demographic. Identifying the relative contributions of these different mechanisms is a major challenge in wildlife conservation. New mathematical approaches can provide insight not previously available. Here we develop a size- and age-based two-sex integral projection model based on individual-based data from a long-term study of hunted bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) at Ram Mountain, Canada. We simulate the effect of trophy hunting on body size and find that the inheritance of body mass is weak and that any perceived decline in body mass of the bighorn population is largely attributable to demographic change and environmental factors. To our knowledge, this work provides the first use of two-sex integral projection models to investigate the potential eco-evolutionary consequences of selective harvest. PMID:25114219

  12. Palestine Saw-scaled Vipers hunt disadvantaged avian migrants.

    PubMed

    Yosef, Reuven; Zduniak, Piotr

    2015-11-01

    The selection of an ambush-cum-foraging site and proper prey are indispensable for maintaining an adequate energy intake by sit-and-wait predators to optimize survival and future fitness. This is important for snakes, where an ambush site has suitable ambience. We studied the foraging strategy of the Palestine Saw-scaled Viper (Echis coloratus) at an avian migratory stopover site. Following initial observations, we hypothesized that vipers are able to discern the body mass of a perched bird and hunt accordingly. We implemented an experiment where vipers chose between four groups of migratory Blackcaps with different body mass. Prey choice by vipers of both age classes was not random and adults focused on Blackcaps with the lightest body mass. Juveniles displayed a variability of prey choice but selected mainly birds from the lightest categories. We concluded that Saw-scaled Vipers hunt prey based on thermal cues; juveniles practice on different prey groups prior to perfecting their foraging techniques i.e., hunting is a learned process; and that they prefer birds with the lowest body mass. The last because Blackcaps, when on migration, save energy by entering a state of deep torpor in which they sacrifice their vigilance capabilities. PMID:26319368

  13. Ice island detection and characterization with airborne synthetic aperture radar

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffries, M.O.; Sackinger, W.M. )

    1990-04-15

    A 1:300,000 scale airborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image of an area of the Arctic Ocean adjacent to the Queen Elizabeth Islands, Canadian High Arctic, is examined to determine the number and characteristics of ice islands in the image and to assess the capability of airborne and satellite SAR to detect ice islands. Twelve ice islands have been identified, and their dimensions range from as large as 5.7 km by 8.7 km to as small as 0.15 km by 0.25 km. A significant SAR characteristic of the shelf ice portions of ice islands is a return with a ribbed texture of alternating lighter and darker grey tones resulting from the indulating shelf ice surfaces of the ice islands. The appearance of the ribbed texture varies according to the ice islands' orientation relative to the illumination direction and consequently the incidence angle. Some ice islands also include extensive areas of textureless dark tone attached to the shelf ice. The weak returns correspond to (1) multiyear landfast sea ice that was attached to the front of the Ward Hunt Ice Shelf at the time of calving and which has remained attached since then and (2) multiyear pack ice that has become attached and consolidated since the calving, indicating that ice islands can increase their area and mass significantly as they drift. Ice islands are easily discernible in SAR images and for the future SAR represents a promising technique to obtain a census of ice islands in the Arctic Ocean. However, any SAR-based census probably will be conservative because ice islands smaller than 300-400 m across are likely to remain undetected, particularly in areas of heavy ice ridging which produces strong SAR clutter.

  14. Deer hunting on Pennsylvania's public and private lands: A two-tiered system of hunters?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stedman, R.C.; Bhandari, P.; Luloff, A.E.; Diefenbach, D.R.; Finley, J.C.

    2008-01-01

    Recreational hunting is crucial for controlling white-tailed deer populations. Public land is increasingly important as access to private lands declines. However, differences between public and private land hunters remain unknown. Our study of Pennsylvania hunters revealed differences between private and public land hunters that may pose problems for management. Hunters who only hunted public land had lower harvest rates, especially of antlerless deer, spent less time hunting, were less committed to hunting, were more likely to hunt alone, less likely to belong to a hunting camp, and more likely to live in urban areas. They were less likely to believe that high deer populations could damage forest ecosystems, and less willing to harvest antlerless deer. The implications of these findings, in the context of already-declining hunter capacity to keep deer populations in check, and concomitant declining access to private land, are discussed. Copyright ?? Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  15. NASA Airborne Lidar 1982-1984 Flights

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-05-26

    NASA Airborne Lidar 1982-1984 Flights Data from the 1982 NASA Langley Airborne Lidar flights following the eruption of El Chichon ... continuing to January 1984. Transcribed from the following NASA Tech Reports: McCormick, M. P., and M. T. Osborn, Airborne lidar ...

  16. Provisioning of Game Meat to Rural Communities as a Benefit of Sport Hunting in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    White, Paula A.; Belant, Jerrold L.

    2015-01-01

    Sport hunting has reportedly multiple benefits to economies and local communities; however, few of these benefits have been quantified. As part of their lease agreements with the Zambia Wildlife Authority, sport hunting operators in Zambia are required to provide annually to local communities free of charge i.e., provision a percentage of the meat obtained through sport hunting. We characterized provisioning of game meat to rural communities by the sport hunting industry in Zambia for three game management areas (GMAs) during 2004–2011. Rural communities located within GMAs where sport hunting occurred received on average > 6,000 kgs per GMA of fresh game meat annually from hunting operators. To assess hunting industry compliance, we also compared the amount of meat expected as per the lease agreements versus observed amounts of meat provisioned from three GMAs during 2007–2009. In seven of eight annual comparisons of these GMAs, provisioning of meat exceeded what was required in the lease agreements. Provisioning occurred throughout the hunting season and peaked during the end of the dry season (September–October) coincident with when rural Zambians are most likely to encounter food shortages. We extrapolated our results across all GMAs and estimated 129,771 kgs of fresh game meat provisioned annually by the sport hunting industry to rural communities in Zambia at an approximate value for the meat alone of >US$600,000 exclusive of distribution costs. During the hunting moratorium (2013–2014), this supply of meat has halted, likely adversely affecting rural communities previously reliant on this food source. Proposed alternatives to sport hunting should consider protein provisioning in addition to other benefits (e.g., employment, community pledges, anti-poaching funds) that rural Zambian communities receive from the sport hunting industry. PMID:25693191

  17. Social and ecological change over a decade in a village hunting system, central Gabon.

    PubMed

    Coad, L; Schleicher, J; Milner-Gulland, E J; Marthews, T R; Starkey, M; Manica, A; Balmford, A; Mbombe, W; Diop Bineni, T R; Abernethy, K A

    2013-04-01

    Despite widespread recognition of the major threat to tropical forest biological diversity and local food security posed by unsustainable bushmeat hunting, virtually no long-term studies tracking the socioecological dynamics of hunting systems have been conducted. We interviewed local hunters and collected detailed hunting data to investigate changes in offtake and hunter characteristics over 10 years (2001-2010) in Dibouka and Kouagna villages, central Gabon, in the context of hunter recollections of longer term trends since the 1950s. To control for changes in hunter behavior, such as trap location and characteristics, we report hunting offtake data per trap. Our results suggest the hunting area was already highly depleted by 2001; local hunters reported that 16 large-bodied prey species had become rare or locally extirpated over the last 60 years. Overall, we observed no significant declines in hunting offtake or changes in species composition from 2001 to 2010, and offtakes per trap increased slightly between 2004 and 2010. However, trapping distance from the villages increased, and there was a switch in hunting techniques; a larger proportion of the catch was hunted with guns in 2010. The number of hunters declined by 20% from 2004 to 2010, and male livelihood activities shifted away from hunting. Hunters with the lowest hunting incomes in 2004 were more likely than successful hunters to have moved away from the village by 2010 (often in response to alternative employment opportunities). Therefore, changes in trap success (potentially related to biological factors) were interacting with system-level changes in hunter number and composition (related to external socioeconomic factors) to produce a relatively static overall offtake. Our results highlight the importance of understanding the small-scale context of hunting to correctly interpret changes or apparent stasis in hunting effort and offtake over time. PMID:23369059

  18. Lead exposure in bald eagles from big game hunting, the continental implications and successful mitigation efforts.

    PubMed

    Bedrosian, Bryan; Craighead, Derek; Crandall, Ross

    2012-01-01

    Studies suggest hunter discarded viscera of big game animals (i.e., offal) is a source of lead available to scavengers. We investigated the incidence of lead exposure in bald eagles in Wyoming during the big game hunting season, the influx of eagles into our study area during the hunt, the geographic origins of eagles exposed to lead, and the efficacy of using non-lead rifle ammunition to reduce lead in eagles. We tested 81 blood samples from bald eagles before, during and after the big game hunting seasons in 2005-2010, excluding 2008, and found eagles had significantly higher lead levels during the hunt. We found 24% of eagles tested had levels indicating at least clinical exposure (>60 ug/dL) during the hunt while no birds did during the non-hunting seasons. We performed driving surveys from 2009-2010 to measure eagle abundance and found evidence to suggest that eagles are attracted to the study area during the hunt. We fitted 10 eagles with satellite transmitters captured during the hunt and all migrated south after the cessation of the hunt. One returned to our study area while the remaining nine traveled north to summer/breed in Canada. The following fall, 80% returned to our study area for the hunting season, indicating that offal provides a seasonal attractant for eagles. We fitted three local breeding eagles with satellite transmitters and none left their breeding territories to feed on offal during the hunt, indicating that lead ingestion may be affecting migrants to a greater degree. During the 2009 and 2010 hunting seasons we provided non-lead rifle ammunition to local hunters and recorded that 24% and 31% of successful hunters used non-lead ammunition, respectively. We found the use of non-lead ammunition significantly reduced lead exposure in eagles, suggesting this is a viable solution to reduce lead exposure in eagles. PMID:23284837

  19. Lead Exposure in Bald Eagles from Big Game Hunting, the Continental Implications and Successful Mitigation Efforts

    PubMed Central

    Bedrosian, Bryan; Craighead, Derek; Crandall, Ross

    2012-01-01

    Studies suggest hunter discarded viscera of big game animals (i.e., offal) is a source of lead available to scavengers. We investigated the incidence of lead exposure in bald eagles in Wyoming during the big game hunting season, the influx of eagles into our study area during the hunt, the geographic origins of eagles exposed to lead, and the efficacy of using non-lead rifle ammunition to reduce lead in eagles. We tested 81 blood samples from bald eagles before, during and after the big game hunting seasons in 2005–2010, excluding 2008, and found eagles had significantly higher lead levels during the hunt. We found 24% of eagles tested had levels indicating at least clinical exposure (>60 ug/dL) during the hunt while no birds did during the non-hunting seasons. We performed driving surveys from 2009–2010 to measure eagle abundance and found evidence to suggest that eagles are attracted to the study area during the hunt. We fitted 10 eagles with satellite transmitters captured during the hunt and all migrated south after the cessation of the hunt. One returned to our study area while the remaining nine traveled north to summer/breed in Canada. The following fall, 80% returned to our study area for the hunting season, indicating that offal provides a seasonal attractant for eagles. We fitted three local breeding eagles with satellite transmitters and none left their breeding territories to feed on offal during the hunt, indicating that lead ingestion may be affecting migrants to a greater degree. During the 2009 and 2010 hunting seasons we provided non-lead rifle ammunition to local hunters and recorded that 24% and 31% of successful hunters used non-lead ammunition, respectively. We found the use of non-lead ammunition significantly reduced lead exposure in eagles, suggesting this is a viable solution to reduce lead exposure in eagles. PMID:23284837

  20. Provisioning of game meat to rural communities as a benefit of sport hunting in Zambia.

    PubMed

    White, Paula A; Belant, Jerrold L

    2015-01-01

    Sport hunting has reportedly multiple benefits to economies and local communities; however, few of these benefits have been quantified. As part of their lease agreements with the Zambia Wildlife Authority, sport hunting operators in Zambia are required to provide annually to local communities free of charge i.e., provision a percentage of the meat obtained through sport hunting. We characterized provisioning of game meat to rural communities by the sport hunting industry in Zambia for three game management areas (GMAs) during 2004-2011. Rural communities located within GMAs where sport hunting occurred received on average > 6,000 kgs per GMA of fresh game meat annually from hunting operators. To assess hunting industry compliance, we also compared the amount of meat expected as per the lease agreements versus observed amounts of meat provisioned from three GMAs during 2007-2009. In seven of eight annual comparisons of these GMAs, provisioning of meat exceeded what was required in the lease agreements. Provisioning occurred throughout the hunting season and peaked during the end of the dry season (September-October) coincident with when rural Zambians are most likely to encounter food shortages. We extrapolated our results across all GMAs and estimated 129,771 kgs of fresh game meat provisioned annually by the sport hunting industry to rural communities in Zambia at an approximate value for the meat alone of >US$600,000 exclusive of distribution costs. During the hunting moratorium (2013-2014), this supply of meat has halted, likely adversely affecting rural communities previously reliant on this food source. Proposed alternatives to sport hunting should consider protein provisioning in addition to other benefits (e.g., employment, community pledges, anti-poaching funds) that rural Zambian communities receive from the sport hunting industry. PMID:25693191

  1. Hunting influences the diel patterns in habitat selection by northern pintails Anas acuta

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Casazza, Michael L.; Coates, Peter S.; Miller, Michael R.; Overton, Cory T.; Yparraguirre, Daniel R.

    2012-01-01

    Northern pintail Anas acuta (hereafter pintail) populations wintering within Suisun Marsh, a large estuarine managed wetland near San Francisco Bay, California,USA, have declined markedly over the last four decades. The reasons for this decline are unclear. Information on how hunting and other factors influence the selection of vegetation types and sanctuaries would be beneficial to manage pintail populations in SuisunMarsh. During 1991-1993, we radio-marked and relocated female pintails (individuals: N = 203, relocations: N = 7,688) within Suisun Marsh to investigate habitat selection during the non-breeding months (winter). We calculated selection ratios for different vegetation types and for sanctuaries, and examined differences in those ratios between hunting season (i.e. hunting and non-hunting), age (hatchyear and after-hatch-year), and time of day (daylight or night hours). We found that diel patterns in selection were influenced by hunting disturbance. For example, prior to the hunting season and during daylight hours, pintails selected areas dominated by brass buttons Cotula coronopifolia, a potentially important food source, usually outside of sanctuary boundaries. However, during the hunting season, pintails did not select brass buttons during daylight hours, but instead highly selected permanent pools, mostly within sanctuaries. Also, during the hunting season, pintails showed strong selection for brass buttons at night. Sanctuaries provided more area of permanent water pools than within hunting areas and appeared to function as important refugia during daylight hours of the hunting season. Wildlife managers should encourage large protected permanent pools adjacent to hunted wetlands to increase pintail numbers within wetland environments and responsibly benefit hunting opportunities while improving pintail conservation.

  2. Hunting behavior of wild chimpanzees in the Taï National Park.

    PubMed

    Boesch, C; Boesch, H

    1989-04-01

    Hunting is often considered one of the major behaviors that shaped early hominids' evolution, along with the shift toward a drier and more open habitat. We suggest that a precise comparison of the hunting behavior of a species closely related to man might help us understand which aspects of hunting could be affected by environmental conditions. The hunting behavior of wild chimpanzees is discussed, and new observations on a population living in the tropical rain forest of the Taï National Park, Ivory Coast, are presented. Some of the forest chimpanzees' hunting performances are similar to those of savanna-woodlands populations; others are different. Forest chimpanzees have a more specialized prey image, intentionally search for more adult prey, and hunt in larger groups and with a more elaborate cooperative level than savanna-woodlands chimpanzees. In addition, forest chimpanzees tend to share meat more actively and more frequently. These findings are related to some theories on aspects of hunting behavior in early hominids and discussed in order to understand some factors influencing the hunting behavior of wild chimpanzees. Finally, the hunting behavior of primates is compared with that of social carnivores. PMID:2540662

  3. Airborne Imagery Collections Barrow 2013

    DOE Data Explorer

    Cherry, Jessica; Crowder, Kerri

    2015-07-20

    The data here are orthomosaics, digital surface models (DSMs), and individual frames captured during low altitude airborne flights in 2013 at the Barrow Environmental Observatory. The orthomosaics, thermal IR mosaics, and DSMs were generated from the individual frames using Structure from Motion techniques.

  4. Airborne fungi--a resurvey

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, G.H.; Prince, H.E.; Raymer, W.J.

    1983-07-01

    A 15-month survey of airborne fungi at 14 geographical stations was conducted to determine the incidence of different fungal genera. Five of these stations were surveyed 25 years earlier. A comparison between previous studies and present surveys revealed similar organisms at each station with slight shifts in frequency of dominant genera.

  5. Tropospheric and Airborne Emission Spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glavich, Thomas; Beer, Reinhard

    1996-01-01

    X This paper describes the development of two related instruments, the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) and the Airborne Emission Spectrometer (AES). Both instruments are infrared imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometers, used for measuring the state of the lower atmosphere, and in particular the measurement of ozone and ozone sources and sinks.

  6. AARD - Autonomous Airborne Refueling Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ewers, Dick

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph document reviews the Autonomous Airborne Refueling Demonstration program, and NASA Dryden's work in the program. The primary goal of the program is to make one fully automatic probe-to-drogue engagement using the AARD system. There are pictures of the aircraft approaching to the docking.

  7. Airborne asbestos in public buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Chesson, J.; Hatfield, J.; Schultz, B.; Dutrow, E.; Blake, J. )

    1990-02-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency sampled air in 49 government-owned buildings (six buildings with no asbestos-containing material, six buildings with asbestos-containing material in generally good condition, and 37 buildings with damaged asbestos-containing material). This is the most comprehensive study to date of airborne asbestos levels in U.S. public buildings during normal building activities. The air outside each building was also sampled. Air samples were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy using a direct transfer preparation technique. The results show an increasing trend in average airborne asbestos levels; outdoor levels are lowest and levels in buildings with damaged asbestos-containing material are highest. However, the measured levels and the differences between indoors and outdoors and between building categories are small in absolute magnitude. Comparable studies from Canada and the UK, although differing in their estimated concentrations, also conclude that while airborne asbestos levels may be elevated in buildings that contain asbestos, levels are generally low. This conclusion does not eliminate the possibility of higher airborne asbestos levels during maintenance or renovation that disturbs the asbestos-containing material.

  8. Exposure to airborne asbestos in buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, R.J.; Van Orden, D.R.; Corn, M.; Crump, K.S. )

    1992-08-01

    The concentration of airborne asbestos in buildings and its implication for the health of building occupants is a major public health issue. A total of 2892 air samples from 315 public, commercial, residential, school, and university buildings has been analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. The buildings that were surveyed were the subject of litigation related to suits alleging the general building occupants were exposed to a potential health hazard as a result of exposure to the presence of asbestos containing materials (ACM). The average concentration of all asbestos structures was 0.02 structures/ml (s/ml) and the average concentration of asbestos greater than or equal to 5 microns long was 0.00013 fibers/ml (f/ml). The concentration of asbestos was higher in schools than in other buildings. In 48% of indoor samples and 75% of outdoor samples, no asbestos fibers were detected. The observed airborne concentration in 74% of the indoor samples and 96% of the outdoor samples is below the Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act clearance level of 0.01 s/ml. Finally, using those fibers which could be seen optically, all indoor samples and all outdoor samples are below the Occupational Safety and Health Administration permissible exposure level of 0.1 f/ml for fibers greater than or equal to 5 microns in length. These results provide substantive verification of the findings of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency public building study which found very low ambient concentrations of asbestos fibers in buildings with ACM, irrespective of the condition of the material in the buildings.

  9. Satellite and airborne IR sensor validation by an airborne interferometer

    SciTech Connect

    Gumley, L.E.; Delst, P.F. van; Moeller, C.C.

    1996-11-01

    The validation of in-orbit longwave IR radiances from the GOES-8 Sounder and inflight longwave IR radiances from the MODIS Airborne Simulator (MAS) is described. The reference used is the airborne University of Wisconsin High Resolution Interferometer Sounder (HIS). The calibration of each sensor is described. Data collected during the Ocean Temperature Interferometric Survey (OTIS) experiment in January 1995 is used in the comparison between sensors. Detailed forward calculations of at-sensor radiance are used to account for the difference in GOES-8 and HIS altitude and viewing geometry. MAS radiances and spectrally averaged HIS radiances are compared directly. Differences between GOES-8 and HIS brightness temperatures, and GOES-8 and MAS brightness temperatures, are found to be with 1.0 K for the majority of longwave channels examined. The same validation approach will be used for future sensors such as the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS). 11 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. Hunting Mirages in the Southern Sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1996-02-01

    apparent displacement in the direction opposite to the Sun, about as much as predicted by the theory. The effect was obviously due to the gravitational attraction of the stellar photons when they passed near the Sun on their way to us. This was a direct confirmation of a new phenomenon and represented a milestone in physics. In the 1930's, astronomer Fritz Zwicky (1898 - 1974), of Swiss nationality and working at the Mount Wilson Observatory in California, realised that the same effect may also happen far out in space where galaxies and large galaxy clusters may be sufficiently compact and massive to bend the light from even more distant objects. However, it was only five decades later, in 1979, that his ideas were observationally confirmed when the first example of a cosmic mirage was discovered. In this connection, it is of particular interest, that this gravitational lensing effect may not only result in double or multiple images of the same object, but also that the intensities of these images increase significantly, just as it is the case with an ordinary optical lens. Distant galaxies, galaxy clusters, etc. may thereby act as natural telescopes which allow us to observe objects that would otherwise have been too faint to be detected with currently available astronomical telescopes. How to find cosmic mirages Several thousand quasars have so far been discovered. Most astronomers believe that they represent the incredibly bright and energetic centres of distant galaxies. Their distances can be estimated by measuring the velocities with which they recede from us. From their apparent brightness measured at the telescope, it is then easy to calculate their `intrinsic luminosity', that is the amount of energy they actually radiate. Some quasars emit more energy than others and the most active ones are known as Highly Luminous Quasars (HLQ's) . Most of these may indeed be exceedingly luminous, but it is quite likely that some appear to be so luminous, because their images

  11. What Enables Size-Selective Trophy Hunting of Wildlife?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Although rarely considered predators, wildlife hunters can function as important ecological and evolutionary agents. In part, their influence relates to targeting of large reproductive adults within prey populations. Despite known impacts of size-selective harvests, however, we know little about what enables hunters to kill these older, rarer, and presumably more wary individuals. In other mammalian predators, predatory performance varies with knowledge and physical condition, which accumulates and declines, respectively, with age. Moreover, some species evolved camouflage as a physical trait to aid in predatory performance. In this work, we tested whether knowledge-based faculty (use of a hunting guide with accumulated experience in specific areas), physical traits (relative body mass [RBM] and camouflage clothing), and age can predict predatory performance. We measured performance as do many hunters: size of killed cervid prey, using the number of antler tines as a proxy. Examining ∼4300 online photographs of hunters posing with carcasses, we found that only the presence of guides increased the odds of killing larger prey. Accounting for this effect, modest evidence suggested that unguided hunters presumably handicapped with the highest RBM actually had greater odds of killing large prey. There was no association with hunter age, perhaps because of our coarse measure (presence of grey hair) and the performance trade-offs between knowledge accumulation and physical deterioration with age. Despite its prevalence among sampled hunters (80%), camouflage had no influence on size of killed prey. Should these patterns be representative of other areas and prey, and our interpretations correct, evolutionarily-enlightened harvest management might benefit from regulatory scrutiny on guided hunting. More broadly, we suggest that by being nutritionally and demographically de-coupled from prey and aided by efficient killing technology and road access, wildlife hunters in the

  12. Hunting, Food Preparation, and Consumption of Rodents in Lao PDR

    PubMed Central

    Suwannarong, Kanokwan; Chapman, Robert S.; Lantican, Cecile; Michaelides, Tula; Zimicki, Susan

    2015-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted in 29 villages of Khamkeuth District in Bolikhamxay Province in the Lao PDR during March to May 2013. The study aimed to determine the characteristics associated with rodent consumption and related behaviors among different ethnic groups, ages, and genders. Five-hundred-eighty-four (584) males and females from 18-50 years of age participated in this study. Half of them were Hmong (292, 50%) while 152 respondents were Lao-Tai (26%) or other ethnic groups (140, 24%). Most of the respondents (79.5%) had farming as their main occupation. Prevalences of the studied outcomes were high: 39.9 for hunting or capturing rodents in the previous year, 77.7% for preparing rodents as food, and 86.3% for rodent consumption. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that likelihood of these types of rodent contact was more consistently associated with behavioral factors (gathering things from the forest and elsewhere, cultivation-related activities, and taking measures to prevent rodent-borne disease) than with socio-demographic, environmental, or cultural factors. The strongest associations were observed for gathering things; these associations were consistently positive and statistically significant. Although this study did not directly assess rodent-borne zoonosis risk, we believe that study findings raise concern that such risk may be substantial in the study area and other similar areas. Further epidemiological studies on the association between rodent-borne disease infection and rodent hunting, preparation for food, and consumption are recommended. Moreover, further studies are needed on the association between these potential exposure factors (i.e., rodent hunting, preparation for food, and consumption) and rodent-borne infections, especially among ethnic groups like the Hmong in Lao PDR and those in neighboring countries with similar socio-demographic, environmental, behavioral and cultural contexts. PMID:26196134

  13. Hunting, Food Preparation, and Consumption of Rodents in Lao PDR.

    PubMed

    Suwannarong, Kanokwan; Chapman, Robert S; Lantican, Cecile; Michaelides, Tula; Zimicki, Susan

    2015-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted in 29 villages of Khamkeuth District in Bolikhamxay Province in the Lao PDR during March to May 2013. The study aimed to determine the characteristics associated with rodent consumption and related behaviors among different ethnic groups, ages, and genders. Five-hundred-eighty-four (584) males and females from 18-50 years of age participated in this study. Half of them were Hmong (292, 50%) while 152 respondents were Lao-Tai (26%) or other ethnic groups (140, 24%). Most of the respondents (79.5%) had farming as their main occupation. Prevalences of the studied outcomes were high: 39.9 for hunting or capturing rodents in the previous year, 77.7% for preparing rodents as food, and 86.3% for rodent consumption. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that likelihood of these types of rodent contact was more consistently associated with behavioral factors (gathering things from the forest and elsewhere, cultivation-related activities, and taking measures to prevent rodent-borne disease) than with socio-demographic, environmental, or cultural factors. The strongest associations were observed for gathering things; these associations were consistently positive and statistically significant. Although this study did not directly assess rodent-borne zoonosis risk, we believe that study findings raise concern that such risk may be substantial in the study area and other similar areas. Further epidemiological studies on the association between rodent-borne disease infection and rodent hunting, preparation for food, and consumption are recommended. Moreover, further studies are needed on the association between these potential exposure factors (i.e., rodent hunting, preparation for food, and consumption) and rodent-borne infections, especially among ethnic groups like the Hmong in Lao PDR and those in neighboring countries with similar socio-demographic, environmental, behavioral and cultural contexts. PMID:26196134

  14. Hunting by male lions: ecological influences and socioecological implications.

    PubMed

    Funston; Mills; Biggs; Richardson

    1998-12-01

    In the Kruger National Park, male lions, Panthera leo, acquire most of their food by hunting rather than scavenging. This study, the most intensive to date of male lion ecology, showed that in savanna woodlands, with high buffalo, Syncerus caffer, densities, male lions were frequent and successful hunters. The main prey species of all male group types, but particularly nonterritorial males, was buffalo. By contrast, females preyed more frequently on the most abundant medium-sized ungulates, such as wildebeest, Connochaetes taurinus, and zebra, Equus burchelli. Thus intraspecific prey selection separation was based primarily on intersexual and, to a lesser extent, social differences. Furthermore, both nonterritorial males and pride females located their favoured prey, buffalo and medium-sized ungulates, respectively, more often than other prey. We investigated the influence of several ecological variables on the socioecology of male lions, particularly as we had determined that territorial males spent little time with their pride females and tended to hunt by themselves in their respective male coalitions. Further analysis showed that in a range of ecosystems in southern and eastern Africa the proportion of time territorial males spent with, and thus scavenged from, their pride females was strongly influenced by vegetation structure, and therefore probably by the assemblage of available ungulates. In open systems, territorial males were, therefore, likely to be encountered with pride females, whereas in more wooded areas they were likely to be encountered away from their pride females. We suggest that this is because vegetation structure influences food/prey availability and hunting success and influences territory maintenance and/or cub defence. (c) 1998 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:9933529

  15. 50 CFR 32.2 - What are the requirements for hunting on areas of the National Wildlife Refuge System?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... the field, which we identify in 50 CFR 20.21(j), while on Waterfowl Production Areas, or on certain.... Where we allow turkey and deer hunting, you may use slugs and shot containing lead to hunt these...

  16. Science in 60 – The Hunt for Antarctic Meteorites

    SciTech Connect

    Lanza, Nina

    2015-12-08

    She's the "coolest" thing in science, searching the ice sheets of Antarctica for meteorites from outer space. Los Alamos National Laboratory scientist Nina Lanza has signed up to spend nearly six weeks in a tent on the Antarctic ice sheet. Why would anyone do such a thing? For science, obviously! In the premiere episode of Los Alamos National Laboratory's "Science in 60" video series, Lanza gives us the low-down in 60 seconds on the why and how of hunting meteorites on the ice.

  17. Pursuing the impossible: an interview with Tim Hunt.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Tim Hunt took an undergraduate degree in Natural Sciences at Cambridge in 1964, and his PhD and subsequent work focussed on the control of protein synthesis until 1982, when his adventitious discovery of the central cell cycle regulator cyclin, while he was teaching at the Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole, redirected him to the study of cell cycle regulation. From 1990 to his retirement Tim worked in the Clare Hall Laboratories of Cancer Research UK. He shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine with Lee Hartwell and Paul Nurse in 2001, and talked to us about the series of coincidences that led him to the prizewinning discovery. PMID:26253553

  18. Flight performance during hunting excursions in Eleonora's falcon Falco eleonorae.

    PubMed

    Hedenström, A; Rosén, M; Akesson, S; Spina, F

    1999-08-01

    Among birds, falcons are high-performance flyers, in many cases adapted for aerial hunting and hence suitable targets for investigating limits to flight performance. Using an optical range finder, we measured flight tracks of Eleonora's falcon (Falco eleonorae), a species breeding in the Mediterranean region and specialised for hunting autumn passage bird migrants, when commuting between their nesting colony and offshore hunting areas (straight transportation flight) and when searching for prey (transecting and searching flight). Airspeed during searching flight was significantly slower than during straight transportation and transecting flight, but there was no significant difference in airspeed between the latter two flight modes. Straight transportation flight was significantly faster than predicted minimum power speed. Also, during straight transportation flight, the falcons responded to head- and tailwinds by increasing their airspeed when flying into the wind. However, they did not show any significant airspeed adjustments with respect to the angle between the track and the heading, as would be expected in birds trying to maintain a constant track direction. Mean sustainable climb rate (during (greater than or equal to) 240 s) was 1.4+/-0.31 m s-1 (mean +/- s.d., N=13), which is rather a high rate for a bird the size of an Eleonora's falcon. The climb rate was used to calculate maximum load-carrying capacity and maximum sustained horizontal flapping flight speed. The mean wingbeat frequency during powered climbing flight was 4.68 Hz, which was used to estimate the mass-specific muscle work. When falcons were leaving the colony for offshore hunting, they gained altitude by slope-soaring when there was an onshore wind. We formulated a simple criterion for the required gliding-flight rate of climb during an initial slope-soaring episode when minimizing the energy cost of reaching a certain altitude far out over the sea (which is where the prey is to be found

  19. Criticisms of the psychopathological interpretation of witch hunts: a review.

    PubMed

    Schoeneman, T J

    1982-08-01

    The psychopathological interpretation of the European witch hunts of the 16th and 17th centuries, which has been prominent in histories of psychiatry, contends that demonology overwhelmed psychiatry in the late middle Ages, with the result that the mentally ill were executed by the thousands as witches. The author reviews the criticisms and contrary evidence that have been brought to bear on this paradigm in the past 20 years, including critiques of its data collection and interpretation, historical evidence which has failed to support its contentions, and questions about its implicit approach to the history and philosophy of science. PMID:7046480

  20. Airborne rotary separator study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drnevich, R. F.; Nowobilski, J. J.

    1992-12-01

    Several air breathing propulsion concepts for future earth-to-orbit transport vehicles utilize air collection and enrichment, and subsequent storage of liquid oxygen for later use in the vehicle mission. Work performed during the 1960's established the feasibility of substantially reducing weight and volume of a distillation type air separator system by operating the distillation elements in high 'g' fields obtained by rotating the separator assembly. The purpose of this study was to evaluate various fuels and fuel combinations with the objective of minimizing the weight and increase the ready alert capability of the plane. Fuels will be used to provide energy as well as act as heat sinks for the on-board heat rejection system. Fuel energy was used to provide power for air separation as well as to produce refrigeration for liquefaction of oxygen enriched air, besides its primary purpose of vehicle propulsion. The heat generated in the cycle was rejected to the fuel and water which is also carried on board the vehicle.The fuels that were evaluated include JP4, methane, and hydrogen. Hydrogen served as a comparison to the JP4 and methane cases.

  1. Airborne rotary separator study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drnevich, R. F.; Nowobilski, J. J.

    1992-01-01

    Several air breathing propulsion concepts for future earth-to-orbit transport vehicles utilize air collection and enrichment, and subsequent storage of liquid oxygen for later use in the vehicle mission. Work performed during the 1960's established the feasibility of substantially reducing weight and volume of a distillation type air separator system by operating the distillation elements in high 'g' fields obtained by rotating the separator assembly. The purpose of this study was to evaluate various fuels and fuel combinations with the objective of minimizing the weight and increase the ready alert capability of the plane. Fuels will be used to provide energy as well as act as heat sinks for the on-board heat rejection system. Fuel energy was used to provide power for air separation as well as to produce refrigeration for liquefaction of oxygen enriched air, besides its primary purpose of vehicle propulsion. The heat generated in the cycle was rejected to the fuel and water which is also carried on board the vehicle.The fuels that were evaluated include JP4, methane, and hydrogen. Hydrogen served as a comparison to the JP4 and methane cases.

  2. Hunting Mirages in the Southern Sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1996-02-01

    apparent displacement in the direction opposite to the Sun, about as much as predicted by the theory. The effect was obviously due to the gravitational attraction of the stellar photons when they passed near the Sun on their way to us. This was a direct confirmation of a new phenomenon and represented a milestone in physics. In the 1930's, astronomer Fritz Zwicky (1898 - 1974), of Swiss nationality and working at the Mount Wilson Observatory in California, realised that the same effect may also happen far out in space where galaxies and large galaxy clusters may be sufficiently compact and massive to bend the light from even more distant objects. However, it was only five decades later, in 1979, that his ideas were observationally confirmed when the first example of a cosmic mirage was discovered. In this connection, it is of particular interest, that this gravitational lensing effect may not only result in double or multiple images of the same object, but also that the intensities of these images increase significantly, just as it is the case with an ordinary optical lens. Distant galaxies, galaxy clusters, etc. may thereby act as natural telescopes which allow us to observe objects that would otherwise have been too faint to be detected with currently available astronomical telescopes. How to find cosmic mirages Several thousand quasars have so far been discovered. Most astronomers believe that they represent the incredibly bright and energetic centres of distant galaxies. Their distances can be estimated by measuring the velocities with which they recede from us. From their apparent brightness measured at the telescope, it is then easy to calculate their `intrinsic luminosity', that is the amount of energy they actually radiate. Some quasars emit more energy than others and the most active ones are known as Highly Luminous Quasars (HLQ's) . Most of these may indeed be exceedingly luminous, but it is quite likely that some appear to be so luminous, because their images

  3. Lead Exposure in Free-Flying Turkey Vultures Is Associated with Big Game Hunting in California

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Terra R.; Johnson, Christine K.

    2011-01-01

    Predatory and scavenging birds are at risk of lead exposure when they feed on animals injured or killed by lead ammunition. While lead ammunition has been banned from waterfowl hunting in North America for almost two decades, lead ammunition is still widely used for hunting big game and small game animals. In this study, we evaluated the association between big game hunting and blood lead concentration in an avian scavenger species that feeds regularly on large mammals in California. We compared blood lead concentration in turkey vultures within and outside of the deer hunting season, and in areas with varying wild pig hunting intensity. Lead exposure in turkey vultures was significantly higher during the deer hunting season compared to the off-season, and blood lead concentration was positively correlated with increasing wild pig hunting intensity. Our results link lead exposure in turkey vultures to deer and wild pig hunting activity at these study sites, and we provide evidence that spent lead ammunition in carrion poses a significant risk of lead exposure to scavengers. PMID:21494326

  4. Looking for Answers: Developing a Critical Reflective Scavenger Hunt for College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartman, Kathleen A.; Stewart, Thomas C.

    2003-01-01

    Describes a scavenger hunt assignment in a freshman orientation course. Uses the idea of the scavenger hunt as a way to locate and utilize campus resources and gain insight into the grading and self-evaluation process. Contains four resources, with sample assignments appended. (NB)

  5. 3 CFR 8567 - Proclamation 8567 of September 24, 2010. National Hunting and Fishing Day, 2010

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Proclamation 8567 of September 24, 2010. National Hunting and Fishing Day, 2010 8567 Proclamation 8567 Presidential Documents Proclamations Proclamation 8567 of September 24, 2010 Proc. 8567 National Hunting and Fishing Day, 2010By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation...

  6. An Empirical Study of the Influence of the Concept of "Job-Hunting" on Graduates' Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Chengwen; Hu, Guiying

    2008-01-01

    The concept of job-hunting is an important factor affecting university students' employment. This empirical study shows that while hunting for a job, graduates witness negative correlation between their expectation of the nature of work and the demand for occupational types and the accessibility to a post and monthly income; positive correlation…

  7. 76 FR 43339 - Hunt Fee at Caddo Lake National Wildlife Refuge, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-20

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Hunt Fee at Caddo Lake National Wildlife Refuge, TX AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Intent to Implement a Hunt Fee. SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish and...: By U.S. mail to: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Attn: Visitor Services, 500 Gold Ave., SW.,...

  8. Can hunting data be used to estimate unbiased population parameters? A case study on brown bears.

    PubMed

    Leclerc, Martin; Van de Walle, Joanie; Zedrosser, Andreas; Swenson, Jon E; Pelletier, Fanie

    2016-06-01

    Quantifying temporal changes in harvested populations is critical for applied and fundamental research. Unbiased data are required to detect true changes in phenotypic distribution or population size. Because of the difficulty of collecting detailed individual data from wild populations, data from hunting records are often used. Hunting records, however, may not represent a random sample of a population. We aimed to detect and quantify potential bias in hunting records. We compared data from a long-term monitoring project with hunting records of brown bears (Ursus arctos) in Sweden and investigated temporal trends (1996-2013) in the ratio of yearlings to adult females, yearling mass and adult female mass. Data from hunting records underestimated the decline in yearling and adult female mass over time, most likely owing to the legal protection of family groups from hunting, but reflected changes in the ratio of yearlings to adult females more reliably. Although hunting data can be reliable to approximate population abundance in some circumstances, hunting data can represent a biased sample of a population and should be used with caution in management and conservation decisions. PMID:27303052

  9. Can hunting data be used to estimate unbiased population parameters? A case study on brown bears

    PubMed Central

    Van de Walle, Joanie; Zedrosser, Andreas; Swenson, Jon E.; Pelletier, Fanie

    2016-01-01

    Quantifying temporal changes in harvested populations is critical for applied and fundamental research. Unbiased data are required to detect true changes in phenotypic distribution or population size. Because of the difficulty of collecting detailed individual data from wild populations, data from hunting records are often used. Hunting records, however, may not represent a random sample of a population. We aimed to detect and quantify potential bias in hunting records. We compared data from a long-term monitoring project with hunting records of brown bears (Ursus arctos) in Sweden and investigated temporal trends (1996–2013) in the ratio of yearlings to adult females, yearling mass and adult female mass. Data from hunting records underestimated the decline in yearling and adult female mass over time, most likely owing to the legal protection of family groups from hunting, but reflected changes in the ratio of yearlings to adult females more reliably. Although hunting data can be reliable to approximate population abundance in some circumstances, hunting data can represent a biased sample of a population and should be used with caution in management and conservation decisions. PMID:27303052

  10. 50 CFR 32.1 - Opening of wildlife refuge areas to hunting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Opening of wildlife refuge areas to hunting. 32.1 Section 32.1 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM HUNTING AND FISHING General Provisions § 32.1 Opening of wildlife refuge areas to...

  11. 50 CFR 32.1 - Opening of wildlife refuge areas to hunting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Opening of wildlife refuge areas to hunting. 32.1 Section 32.1 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM HUNTING AND FISHING General Provisions § 32.1 Opening of wildlife refuge areas to...

  12. 50 CFR 18.30 - Polar bear sport-hunted trophy import permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... paragraph, the definitions in 50 CFR 10.12, 18.3, and 23.3 apply to this section. (1) Sport-hunted trophy... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Polar bear sport-hunted trophy import... IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MARINE MAMMALS Special Exceptions § 18.30 Polar bear...

  13. 75 FR 18413 - 2009-2010 Refuge-Specific Hunting and Sport Fishing Regulations-Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-12

    .... According to the July 9, 2007, final rule published in the Federal Register (72 FR 37346), we went from 487... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 32 RIN 1018-AW49 2009-2010 Refuge-Specific Hunting and Sport...: The Fish and Wildlife Service adds two refuges to the list of areas open for hunting and/or...

  14. 76 FR 3937 - 2010-2011 Refuge-Specific Hunting and Sport Fishing Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-21

    .... Response to Comments Received In the September 15, 2010, Federal Register (75 FR 56360), we published a... Interior Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 32 2010-2011 Refuge-Specific Hunting and Sport Fishing...-2011 Refuge-Specific Hunting and Sport Fishing Regulations AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service,...

  15. 50 CFR 23.74 - How can I trade internationally in personal sport-hunted trophies?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... personal sport-hunted trophies? 23.74 Section 23.74 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE... trade internationally in personal sport-hunted trophies? (a) U.S. and foreign general provisions. Except as provided for personal and household effects in § 23.15, the import, export, or re-export of...

  16. 50 CFR 23.74 - How can I trade internationally in personal sport-hunted trophies?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... personal sport-hunted trophies? 23.74 Section 23.74 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE... trade internationally in personal sport-hunted trophies? (a) U.S. and foreign general provisions. Except as provided for personal and household effects in § 23.15, the import, export, or re-export of...

  17. 50 CFR 23.74 - How can I trade internationally in personal sport-hunted trophies?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... personal sport-hunted trophies? 23.74 Section 23.74 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE... trade internationally in personal sport-hunted trophies? (a) U.S. and foreign general provisions. Except as provided for personal and household effects in § 23.15, the import, export, or re-export of...

  18. 50 CFR 23.74 - How can I trade internationally in personal sport-hunted trophies?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... personal sport-hunted trophies? 23.74 Section 23.74 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE... trade internationally in personal sport-hunted trophies? (a) U.S. and foreign general provisions. Except as provided for personal and household effects in § 23.15, the import, export, or re-export of...

  19. 50 CFR 23.74 - How can I trade internationally in personal sport-hunted trophies?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... personal sport-hunted trophies? 23.74 Section 23.74 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE... trade internationally in personal sport-hunted trophies? (a) U.S. and foreign general provisions. Except as provided for personal and household effects in § 23.15, the import, export, or re-export of...

  20. 50 CFR 18.30 - Polar bear sport-hunted trophy import permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... paragraph, the definitions in 50 CFR 10.12, 18.3, and 23.3 apply to this section. (1) Sport-hunted trophy... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Polar bear sport-hunted trophy import... IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MARINE MAMMALS Special Exceptions § 18.30 Polar bear...

  1. 50 CFR 18.30 - Polar bear sport-hunted trophy import permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... paragraph, the definitions in 50 CFR 10.12, 18.3, and 23.3 apply to this section. (1) Sport-hunted trophy... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Polar bear sport-hunted trophy import... IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MARINE MAMMALS Special Exceptions § 18.30 Polar bear...

  2. 50 CFR 18.30 - Polar bear sport-hunted trophy import permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... paragraph, the definitions in 50 CFR 10.12, 18.3, and 23.3 apply to this section. (1) Sport-hunted trophy... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Polar bear sport-hunted trophy import... IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MARINE MAMMALS Special Exceptions § 18.30 Polar bear...

  3. Hunted woolly monkeys (Lagothrix poeppigii) show threat-sensitive responses to human presence.

    PubMed

    Papworth, Sarah; Milner-Gulland, E J; Slocombe, Katie

    2013-01-01

    Responding only to individuals of a predator species which display threatening behaviour allows prey species to minimise energy expenditure and other costs of predator avoidance, such as disruption of feeding. The threat sensitivity hypothesis predicts such behaviour in prey species. If hunted animals are unable to distinguish dangerous humans from non-dangerous humans, human hunting is likely to have a greater effect on prey populations as all human encounters should lead to predator avoidance, increasing stress and creating opportunity costs for exploited populations. We test the threat sensitivity hypothesis in wild Poeppigi's woolly monkeys (Lagothrix poeppigii) in Yasuní National Park, Ecuador, by presenting human models engaging in one of three behaviours "hunting", "gathering" or "researching". These experiments were conducted at two sites with differing hunting pressures. Visibility, movement and vocalisations were recorded and results from two sites showed that groups changed their behaviours after being exposed to humans, and did so in different ways depending on the behaviour of the human model. Results at the site with higher hunting pressure were consistent with predictions based on the threat sensitivity hypothesis. Although results at the site with lower hunting pressure were not consistent with the results at the site with higher hunting pressure, groups at this site also showed differential responses to different human behaviours. These results provide evidence of threat-sensitive predator avoidance in hunted primates, which may allow them to conserve both time and energy when encountering humans which pose no threat. PMID:23614003

  4. The Jensen and The Hunt and Sternberg Comments: From Penetrating to Absurd

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Templer, Donald I.; Arikawa, Hiroko

    2006-01-01

    We praised the comments of Jensen and regard most of the contentions of Hunt and Sternberg as absurd. It is ridiculous to question the validity of the skin color map and its application since meaningful group differences and meaningful correlations between temperature and skin color were found. It was inappropriate for Hunt and Sternberg to…

  5. Embargo on Lion Hunting Trophies from West Africa: An Effective Measure or a Threat to Lion Conservation?

    PubMed Central

    Bouché, Philippe; Crosmary, William; Kafando, Pierre; Doamba, Benoit; Kidjo, Ferdinand Claude; Vermeulen, Cédric; Chardonnet, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    The W-Arly-Pendjari (WAP) ecosystem, shared among Benin, Burkina Faso and Niger, represents the last lion stronghold of West Africa. To assess the impact of trophy hunting on lion populations in hunting areas of the WAP, we analyzed trends in harvest rates from 1999 to 2014. We also investigated whether the hunting areas with higher initial hunting intensity experienced steeper declines in lion harvest between 1999 and 2014, and whether lion densities in hunting areas were lower than in national parks. Lion harvest rate remained overall constant in the WAP. At initial hunting intensities below 1.5 lions/1000km2, most hunting areas experienced an increase in lion harvest rate, although that increase was of lower magnitude for hunting areas with higher initial hunting intensity. The proportion of hunting areas that experienced a decline in lion harvest rate increased at initial hunting intensities above 1.5 lions/1000km2. In 2014, the lion population of the WAP was estimated with a spoor count at 418 (230–648) adults and sub-adult individuals, comparable to the 311 (123–498) individuals estimated in the previous 2012 spoor survey. We found no significant lion spoor density differences between national parks and hunting areas. Hunting areas with higher mean harvest rates did not have lower lion densities. The ratio of large adult males, females and sub-adults was similar between the national parks and the hunting areas. These results suggested that the lion population was not significantly affected by hunting in the WAP. We concluded that a quota of 1 lion/1000km2 would be sustainable for the WAP. Based on our results, an import embargo on lion trophies from the WAP would not be justified. It could ruin the incentive of local actors to conserve lions in hunting areas, and lead to a drastic reduction of lion range in West Africa. PMID:27182985

  6. Embargo on Lion Hunting Trophies from West Africa: An Effective Measure or a Threat to Lion Conservation?

    PubMed

    Bouché, Philippe; Crosmary, William; Kafando, Pierre; Doamba, Benoit; Kidjo, Ferdinand Claude; Vermeulen, Cédric; Chardonnet, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    The W-Arly-Pendjari (WAP) ecosystem, shared among Benin, Burkina Faso and Niger, represents the last lion stronghold of West Africa. To assess the impact of trophy hunting on lion populations in hunting areas of the WAP, we analyzed trends in harvest rates from 1999 to 2014. We also investigated whether the hunting areas with higher initial hunting intensity experienced steeper declines in lion harvest between 1999 and 2014, and whether lion densities in hunting areas were lower than in national parks. Lion harvest rate remained overall constant in the WAP. At initial hunting intensities below 1.5 lions/1000km2, most hunting areas experienced an increase in lion harvest rate, although that increase was of lower magnitude for hunting areas with higher initial hunting intensity. The proportion of hunting areas that experienced a decline in lion harvest rate increased at initial hunting intensities above 1.5 lions/1000km2. In 2014, the lion population of the WAP was estimated with a spoor count at 418 (230-648) adults and sub-adult individuals, comparable to the 311 (123-498) individuals estimated in the previous 2012 spoor survey. We found no significant lion spoor density differences between national parks and hunting areas. Hunting areas with higher mean harvest rates did not have lower lion densities. The ratio of large adult males, females and sub-adults was similar between the national parks and the hunting areas. These results suggested that the lion population was not significantly affected by hunting in the WAP. We concluded that a quota of 1 lion/1000km2 would be sustainable for the WAP. Based on our results, an import embargo on lion trophies from the WAP would not be justified. It could ruin the incentive of local actors to conserve lions in hunting areas, and lead to a drastic reduction of lion range in West Africa. PMID:27182985

  7. Large aperture scanning airborne lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J.; Bindschadler, R.; Boers, R.; Bufton, J. L.; Clem, D.; Garvin, J.; Melfi, S. H.

    1988-01-01

    A large aperture scanning airborne lidar facility is being developed to provide important new capabilities for airborne lidar sensor systems. The proposed scanning mechanism allows for a large aperture telescope (25 in. diameter) in front of an elliptical flat (25 x 36 in.) turning mirror positioned at a 45 degree angle with respect to the telescope optical axis. The lidar scanning capability will provide opportunities for acquiring new data sets for atmospheric, earth resources, and oceans communities. This completed facility will also make available the opportunity to acquire simulated EOS lidar data on a near global basis. The design and construction of this unique scanning mechanism presents exciting technological challenges of maintaining the turning mirror optical flatness during scanning while exposed to extreme temperatures, ambient pressures, aircraft vibrations, etc.

  8. [Witch trials in the Salem as a medical error. Witch hunts in the XVII century and the medical art].

    PubMed

    Werner, Wiktor

    2005-01-01

    That article concerns with the influences of medical practitioners in witch hunts in the Salem (1692). Witch trials in England and English colonies in the XVII century were mainly criminal trials. Witchcraft had been there considered principally as a crime-tool rather then the crime itself. Witches were usually accused of crimes such as the murder and the disease sending. Physicians normally played in that situations the role of court experts. They decided if analyzed disease had normal or abnormal, artificial origin. In the Salem an medical practitioner judged that an illness which touched some children had come from the acts of sorcery. That was the beginning of a long and bloody witch hunt. Death sentences in the Salem trial were also justified with applying medical and physical categories to show the objectivity of a witchcraft. Salem judges were sure that by using "objective" categories they had been able to proof the existence of material relations between the witch and bewitched persons without the possibility of error. PMID:17144196

  9. Spring hunting changes the regional movements of migrating greater snow geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bechet, A.; Giroux, J.-F.; Gauthier, G.; Nichols, J.D.; Hines, J.E.

    2003-01-01

    1. Human-induced disturbance such as hunting may influence the migratory behaviour of long-distance migrants. In 1999 and 2000 a spring hunt of greater snow geese Anser caerulescens atlanticus occurred for the first time in North America since 1916, aimed at stopping population growth to protect natural habitats. 2. We evaluated the impact of this hunt on the staging movements of geese along a 600-km stretch of the St. Lawrence River in southern Quebec, Canada. 3. We tracked radio-tagged female geese in three contiguous regions of the staging area from the south-west to the north-east: Lake St Pierre, Upper Estuary and Lower Estuary, in spring 1997 (n = 37) and 1998 (n = 70) before the establishment of hunting, and in 1999 (n = 60) and 2000 (n = 59) during hunting. 4. We used multi-state capture-recapture models to estimate the movement probabilities of radio-tagged females among these regions. To assess disturbance level, we tracked geese during their feeding trips and estimated the probability of completing a foraging bout without being disturbed. 5. In the 2 years without hunting, migration was strongly unidirectional from the south-west to the north-east, with very low westward movement probabilities. Geese gradually moved from Lake St Pierre to Upper Estuary and then from Upper Estuary to Lower Estuary. 6. In contrast, during the 2 years with hunting westward movement was more than four times more likely than in preceding years. Most of these backward movements occurred shortly after the beginning of the hunt, indicating that geese moved back to regions where they had not previously experienced hunting. 7. Overall disturbance level increased in all regions in years with hunting relative to years without hunting. 8. Synthesis and applications. We conclude that spring hunting changed the stopover scheduling of this long-distance migrant and might further impact population dynamics by reducing prenuptial fattening. The spring hunt may also have increased crop

  10. Magnetic airborne survey - geophysical flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Barros Camara, Erick; Nei Pereira Guimarães, Suze

    2016-06-01

    This paper provides a technical review process in the area of airborne acquisition of geophysical data, with emphasis for magnetometry. In summary, it addresses the calibration processes of geophysical equipment as well as the aircraft to minimize possible errors in measurements. The corrections used in data processing and filtering are demonstrated with the same results as well as the evolution of these techniques in Brazil and worldwide.

  11. 50 CFR 32.3 - What are the procedures for publication of refuge-specific hunting regulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... liberalize existing State laws or regulations. (d) Refuge-specific hunting regulations are subject to change... refuge-specific season dates and times after the State establishes its hunting seasons by publication... regulations may be amended or new conditions imposed at any time during the hunting season when...

  12. 50 CFR 32.3 - What are the procedures for publication of refuge-specific hunting regulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... liberalize existing State laws or regulations. (d) Refuge-specific hunting regulations are subject to change... refuge-specific season dates and times after the State establishes its hunting seasons by publication... regulations may be amended or new conditions imposed at any time during the hunting season when...

  13. 50 CFR 32.3 - What are the procedures for publication of refuge-specific hunting regulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... liberalize existing State laws or regulations. (d) Refuge-specific hunting regulations are subject to change... refuge-specific season dates and times after the State establishes its hunting seasons by publication... regulations may be amended or new conditions imposed at any time during the hunting season when...

  14. 50 CFR 32.3 - What are the procedures for publication of refuge-specific hunting regulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... liberalize existing State laws or regulations. (d) Refuge-specific hunting regulations are subject to change... refuge-specific season dates and times after the State establishes its hunting seasons by publication... regulations may be amended or new conditions imposed at any time during the hunting season when...

  15. The relative importance of direct and indirect effects of hunting mortality on the population dynamics of brown bears.

    PubMed

    Gosselin, Jacinthe; Zedrosser, Andreas; Swenson, Jon E; Pelletier, Fanie

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing evidence of indirect effects of hunting on populations. In species with sexually selected infanticide (SSI), hunting may decrease juvenile survival by increasing male turnover. We aimed to evaluate the relative importance of direct and indirect effects of hunting via SSI on the population dynamics of the Scandinavian brown bear (Ursus arctos). We performed prospective and retrospective demographic perturbation analyses for periods with low and high hunting pressures. All demographic rates, except yearling survival, were lower under high hunting pressure, which led to a decline in population growth under high hunting pressure (λ = 0.975; 95% CI = 0.914-1.011). Hunting had negative indirect effects on the population through an increase in SSI, which lowered cub survival and possibly also fecundity rates. Our study suggests that SSI could explain 13.6% of the variation in population growth. Hunting also affected the relative importance of survival and fecundity of adult females for population growth, with fecundity being more important under low hunting pressure and survival more important under high hunting pressure. Our study sheds light on the importance of direct and indirect effects of hunting on population dynamics, and supports the contention that hunting can have indirect negative effects on populations through SSI. PMID:25392469

  16. 43 CFR 2932.14 - Do I need a Special Recreation Permit to hunt, trap, or fish?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... hunt, trap, or fish? 2932.14 Section 2932.14 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public... hunt, trap, or fish? (a) If you hold a valid State license, you do not need a Special Recreation Permit to hunt, trap, or fish. You must comply with State license requirements for these activities....

  17. 43 CFR 2932.14 - Do I need a Special Recreation Permit to hunt, trap, or fish?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... hunt, trap, or fish? 2932.14 Section 2932.14 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public... hunt, trap, or fish? (a) If you hold a valid State license, you do not need a Special Recreation Permit to hunt, trap, or fish. You must comply with State license requirements for these activities....

  18. 43 CFR 2932.14 - Do I need a Special Recreation Permit to hunt, trap, or fish?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... hunt, trap, or fish? 2932.14 Section 2932.14 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public... hunt, trap, or fish? (a) If you hold a valid State license, you do not need a Special Recreation Permit to hunt, trap, or fish. You must comply with State license requirements for these activities....

  19. 43 CFR 2932.14 - Do I need a Special Recreation Permit to hunt, trap, or fish?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... hunt, trap, or fish? 2932.14 Section 2932.14 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public... hunt, trap, or fish? (a) If you hold a valid State license, you do not need a Special Recreation Permit to hunt, trap, or fish. You must comply with State license requirements for these activities....

  20. Airborne microorganisms from waste containers.

    PubMed

    Jedlicka, Sabrina S; Stravitz, David M; Lyman, Charles E

    2012-01-01

    In physician's offices and biomedical labs, biological waste is handled every day. This waste is disposed of in waste containers designed for holding red autoclave bags. The containers used in these environments are closed hands-free containers, often with a step pedal. While these containers protect the user from surface-borne microorganisms, the containers may allow airborne microorganisms to escape via the open/close mechanism because of the air current produced upon open/close cycles. In this study, the air current was shown to be sufficient to allow airborne escape of microorganisms held in the container, including Aspergillus niger. However, bacterial cultures, such as Escherichia coli and Lactococcus lactis did not escape. This may be due to the choice of bacterial cultures and the absence of solid waste, such as dust or other particulate matter in the waste containers, that such strains of bacteria could travel on during aerosolization. We compared these results to those obtained using a re-designed receptacle, which mimimizes air currents, and detected no escaping microorganisms. This study highlights one potential source of airborne contamination in labs, hospitals, and other environments that dispose of biological waste. PMID:23047084

  1. Airborne lidar global positioning investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krabill, W. B.

    1988-01-01

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) network of satellites shows high promise of revolutionizing methods for conducting surveying, navigation, and positioning. This is especially true in the case of airborne or satellite positioning. A single GPS receiver (suitably adapted for aircraft deployment) can yield positioning accuracies (world-wide) in the order of 30 to 50 m vertically, as well as horizontally. This accuracy is dramatically improved when a second GPS receiver is positioned at a known horizontal and vertical reference. Absolute horizontal and vertical positioning of 1 to 2 m are easily achieved over areas of separation of tens of km. If four common satellites remain in lock in both receivers, then differential phase pseudo-ranges on the GPS L-band carrier can be utilized to achieve accuracies of + or - 10 cm and perhaps as good as + or - 2 cm. The initial proof of concept investigation for airborne positioning using the phase difference between the airborne and stationary GPS receivers was conducted and is examined.

  2. NASA Student Airborne Research Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaller, E. L.; Shetter, R. E.

    2012-12-01

    The NASA Student Airborne Research Program (SARP) is a unique summer internship program for advanced undergraduates and early graduate students majoring in the STEM disciplines. SARP participants acquire hands-on research experience in all aspects of an airborne research campaign, including flying onboard an major NASA resource used for studying Earth system processes. In summer 2012, thirty-two participants worked in four interdisciplinary teams to study surface, atmospheric, and oceanographic processes. Participants assisted in the operation of instruments onboard the NASA P-3B aircraft where they sampled and measured atmospheric gases and imaged land and water surfaces in multiple spectral bands. Along with airborne data collection, students participated in taking measurements at field sites. Mission faculty and research mentors helped to guide participants through instrument operation, sample analysis, and data reduction. Over the eight-week program, each student developed an individual research project from the data collected and delivered a conference-style final presentation on his/her results. We will discuss the results and effectiveness of the program from the first four summers and discuss plans for the future.

  3. Airborne particulate matter in spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Acceptability limits and sampling and monitoring strategies for airborne particles in spacecraft were considered. Based on instances of eye and respiratory tract irritation reported by Shuttle flight crews, the following acceptability limits for airborne particles were recommended: for flights of 1 week or less duration (1 mg/cu m for particles less than 10 microns in aerodynamic diameter (AD) plus 1 mg/cu m for particles 10 to 100 microns in AD); and for flights greater than 1 week and up to 6 months in duration (0.2 mg/cu m for particles less than 10 microns in AD plus 0.2 mg/cu m for particles 10 to 100 microns in AD. These numerical limits were recommended to aid in spacecraft atmosphere design which should aim at particulate levels that are a low as reasonably achievable. Sampling of spacecraft atmospheres for particles should include size-fractionated samples of 0 to 10, 10 to 100, and greater than 100 micron particles for mass concentration measurement and elementary chemical analysis by nondestructive analysis techniques. Morphological and chemical analyses of single particles should also be made to aid in identifying airborne particulate sources. Air cleaning systems based on inertial collection principles and fine particle collection devices based on electrostatic precipitation and filtration should be considered for incorporation into spacecraft air circulation systems. It was also recommended that research be carried out in space in the areas of health effects and particle characterization.

  4. Competition drives sophisticated hunting skills of archerfish in the wild.

    PubMed

    Rischawy, Ingo; Blum, Michael; Schuster, Stefan

    2015-07-20

    Several animals are renowned for their cognitive skills, such as tool use, metacognition or social learning. However, it remains puzzling why some species excel whereas others - sometimes even closely related ones - do not. Archerfish show a remarkable assembly of skills in the context of their unique hunting behavior in which they down aerial prey with shots of water. Hoping to find ecological factors behind these skills, we have over the past years regularly traveled to archerfish mangrove habitats in Thailand (Figure 1A). One of our most consistent findings was the presence of other surface-feeding fish, particularly the similar-sized halfbeak Zenarchopterus buffonis, wherever we spotted groups of archerfish (Figure 1A; Supplemental movie S1). We describe here that Zenarchopterus is superbly equipped with water-wave detectors, rapidly detects the impact of prey even in the dark, is active at all times, is usually more numerous than archerfish and supplements its capabilities with visual skills. Without sophisticated additions to their hunting technique archerfish would thus lose most of their downed prey to halfbeaks. We suggest that the evolution of several skills of archerfish may have thus been influenced not only by intraspecific competition [5] but also by competition with other surface-feeding fish species. PMID:26196481

  5. Pack hunting by a common soil amoeba on nematodes.

    PubMed

    Geisen, Stefan; Rosengarten, Jamila; Koller, Robert; Mulder, Christian; Urich, Tim; Bonkowski, Michael

    2015-11-01

    Soils host the most complex communities on Earth, including the most diverse and abundant eukaryotes, i.e. heterotrophic protists. Protists are generally considered as bacterivores, but evidence for negative interactions with nematodes both from laboratory and field studies exist. However, direct impacts of protists on nematodes remain unknown. We isolated the soil-borne testate amoeba Cryptodifflugia operculata and found a highly specialized and effective pack-hunting strategy to prey on bacterivorous nematodes. Enhanced reproduction in presence of prey nematodes suggests a beneficial predatory life history of these omnivorous soil amoebae. Cryptodifflugia operculata appears to selectively impact the nematode community composition as reductions of nematode numbers were species specific. Furthermore, we investigated 12 soil metatranscriptomes from five distinct locations throughout Europe for 18S ribosomal RNA transcripts of C. operculata. The presence of C. operculata transcripts in all samples, representing up to 4% of the active protist community, indicates a potential ecological importance of nematophagy performed by C. operculata in soil food webs. The unique pack-hunting strategy on nematodes that was previously unknown from protists, together with molecular evidence that these pack hunters are likely to be abundant and widespread in soils, imply a considerable importance of the hitherto neglected trophic link 'nematophagous protists' in soil food webs. PMID:26079718

  6. Hunting strategies used in the semi-arid region of northeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Rômulo RN; Mendonça, Lívia ET; Confessor, Maine VA; Vieira, Washington LS; Lopez, Luiz CS

    2009-01-01

    Hunting for wild animals is stimulated by the many different human uses of faunal resources, and these animals constitute important subsistence items in local communities in the Caatinga region. In order to gain access to these resources, hunters have developed a series of techniques and strategies that are described in the present work. The principal hunting techniques encountered were: waiting, especially directed towards hunting diurnal birds; calling ("arremedo"), a technique in which the hunters imitate the animal's call to attract it to close range; hunting with dogs, a technique mostly used for capturing mammals; tracking, a technique used by only a few hunters who can recognize and follow animal tracks; and "facheado", in which the hunters go out at night with lanterns to catch birds in their nests. Additionally, many animal species are captured using mechanical traps. The types of traps used by the interviewees were: dead-fall traps ("quixó"), iron-jaw snap traps ("arataca"), wooden cages with bait ("arapuca"), iron-cage traps ("gaiola'), "visgo", multi-compartment bird cages ("alçapão"), buried ground traps with pivoted tops ("fojo"), and nooses and cages for carnivorous. The choice of which technique to use depends on the habits of the species being hunted, indicating that the hunters possess a wide knowledge of the biology of these animals. From a conservation perspective, active hunting techniques (waiting, imitation, hunting with dogs, and "facheado") have the greatest impact on the local fauna. The use of firearm and dogs brought greater efficiency to hunting activities. Additional studies concerning these hunting activities will be useful to contribute to proposals for management plans regulating hunting in the region – with the objective of attaining sustainable use of faunal resources of great importance to the local human communities. PMID:19386121

  7. Complementary benefits of tourism and hunting to communal conservancies in Namibia.

    PubMed

    Naidoo, Robin; Weaver, L Chris; Diggle, Richard W; Matongo, Greenwell; Stuart-Hill, Greg; Thouless, Chris

    2016-06-01

    Tourism and hunting both generate substantial revenues for communities and private operators in Africa, but few studies have quantitatively examined the trade-offs and synergies that may result from these two activities. We evaluated financial and in-kind benefit streams from tourism and hunting on 77 communal conservancies in Namibia from 1998 to 2013, where community-based wildlife conservation has been promoted as a land-use that complements traditional subsistence agriculture. We used data collected annually for all communal conservancies to characterize whether benefits were derived from hunting or tourism. We classified these benefits into 3 broad classes and examined how benefits flowed to stakeholders within communities under the status quo and under a simulated ban on hunting. Across all conservancies, total benefits from hunting and tourism increased at roughly the same rate, although conservancies typically started generating benefits from hunting within 3 years of formation as opposed to after 6 years for tourism. Disaggregation of data revealed that the main benefits from hunting were income for conservancy management and food in the form of meat for the community at large. The majority of tourism benefits were salaried jobs at lodges. A simulated ban on trophy hunting significantly reduced the number of conservancies that could cover their operating costs, whereas eliminating income from tourism did not have as severe an effect. Given that the benefits generated from hunting and tourism typically begin at different times in a conservancy's life-span (earlier vs. later, respectively) and flow to different segments of local communities, these 2 activities together may provide the greatest incentives for conservation on communal lands in Namibia. A singular focus on either hunting or tourism would reduce the value of wildlife as a competitive land-use option and have grave repercussions for the viability of community-based conservation efforts in Namibia

  8. Hunting strategies used in the semi-arid region of northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Alves, Rômulo R N; Mendonça, Lívia E T; Confessor, Maine V A; Vieira, Washington L S; Lopez, Luiz C S

    2009-01-01

    Hunting for wild animals is stimulated by the many different human uses of faunal resources, and these animals constitute important subsistence items in local communities in the Caatinga region. In order to gain access to these resources, hunters have developed a series of techniques and strategies that are described in the present work. The principal hunting techniques encountered were: waiting, especially directed towards hunting diurnal birds; calling ("arremedo"), a technique in which the hunters imitate the animal's call to attract it to close range; hunting with dogs, a technique mostly used for capturing mammals; tracking, a technique used by only a few hunters who can recognize and follow animal tracks; and "facheado", in which the hunters go out at night with lanterns to catch birds in their nests. Additionally, many animal species are captured using mechanical traps. The types of traps used by the interviewees were: dead-fall traps ("quixó"), iron-jaw snap traps ("arataca"), wooden cages with bait ("arapuca"), iron-cage traps ("gaiola'), "visgo", multi-compartment bird cages ("alçapão"), buried ground traps with pivoted tops ("fojo"), and nooses and cages for carnivorous. The choice of which technique to use depends on the habits of the species being hunted, indicating that the hunters possess a wide knowledge of the biology of these animals. From a conservation perspective, active hunting techniques (waiting, imitation, hunting with dogs, and "facheado") have the greatest impact on the local fauna. The use of firearm and dogs brought greater efficiency to hunting activities. Additional studies concerning these hunting activities will be useful to contribute to proposals for management plans regulating hunting in the region - with the objective of attaining sustainable use of faunal resources of great importance to the local human communities. PMID:19386121

  9. Survival rate of airborne Mycobacterium bovis.

    PubMed

    Gannon, B W; Hayes, C M; Roe, J M

    2007-04-01

    Despite years of study the principle transmission route of bovine tuberculosis to cattle remains unresolved. The distribution of pathological lesions, which are concentrated in the respiratory system, and the very low dose of Mycobacterium bovis needed to initiate infection from a respiratory tract challenge suggest that the disease is spread by airborne transmission. Critical to the airborne transmission of a pathogenic microorganism is its ability to survive the stresses incurred whilst airborne. This study demonstrates that M. bovis is resistant to the stresses imposed immediately after becoming airborne, 94% surviving the first 10 min after aerosolisation. Once airborne the organism is robust, its viability decreasing with a half-life of approximately 1.5 hours. These findings support the hypothesis that airborne transmission is the principle route of infection for bovine tuberculosis. PMID:17045316

  10. Effects of hunting on survival of American woodcock in the Northeast

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McAuley, D.G.; Longcore, J.R.; Clugston, D.A.; Allen, R.B.; Weik, A.; Williamson, S.; Dunn, J.; Palmer, B.; Evans, K.; Staats, W.; Sepik, G.F.; Halteman, W.

    2005-01-01

    Numbers of American woodcock (Scolopax minor) males counted on the annual singing ground survey (SGS) have declined over the last 35 years at an average rate of 2.3% per year in the Eastern Region and 1.8% per year in the Central Region. Although hunting was not thought to be a cause of these declines, mortality caused by hunters can be controlled. Furthermore, there has been no research on effects of hunting mortality on woodcock populations at local and regional levels on the breeding grounds. We used radiotelemetry to determine survival rates and causes of mortality for 913 woodcock captured during fall 1997?2000 on 7 areas in Maine, New Hampshire, Pennsylvania, and Vermont, USA. Three of 7 sites were closed to hunting. For all sites and all years combined, 176 woodcock died, and 130 were censored, of which 39 were censored mortalities. Predation was the major (n = 134, 76%) cause of mortality. Mammals accounted for 56% of the predation, raptors accounted for 25%, and 19% was attributed to unknown predators. On hunted sites, 36% of the total mortality (n = 102) was caused by hunting, 63% by predation, and 1 bird starved. Kaplan-Meier survival curves did not differ between hunted and non-hunted sites among years (P = 0.46). Overall, point estimates of survival did not differ (P = 0.217) between hunted (SR = 0.636, SE = 0.04) and nonhunted sites (SR = 0.661, SE = 0.08). We modeled hazard rates from hunting and natural mortality events using program MARK. Akaike's Information Criterion supported using a model with common constant hazards from both hunting and natural causes for groups of sites. Groupings of sites for hazard rates from natural causes were not influenced by whether a site was hunted or not. Models detected no effects of woodcock age and sex (P = 0.52) on survival. Proportional hazards models comparing hunted and nonhunted sites found no effects of age and sex (P = 0.45), interactions of age, sex, capture weight, and bill length (P > 0.269). Our data

  11. Wildlife uses and hunting patterns in rural communities of the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Subsistence hunting is a traditional practice providing food and many other goods for households in the Yucatan Peninsula, southeast Mexico. Economic, demographic, and cultural change in this region drive wildlife habitat loss and local extinctions. Improving our understanding about current practices of wildlife use may support better management strategies for conserving game species and their habitat. We aimed to evaluate if wildlife use remained relevant for the subsistence of rural residents of the Yucatan Peninsula, as well as if local hunting practices were related to environmental, geographical, and cultural factors. Methods Fieldwork was done between March 2010 and March 2011. Information was obtained through conversations, interviews, and participant observation. Record forms allowed recording animals hunted, biomass extracted, distance intervals to hunting sites, habitat types and seasonality of wildlife harvests. Data were analyzed using one-way Analysis of Variance, and Generalized Linear Models. Results Forty-six terrestrial vertebrate species were used for obtaining food, medicine, tools, adornments, pets, ritual objects, and for sale and mitigating damage. We recorded 968 animals taken in 664 successful hunting events. The Great Curassow, Ocellated Turkey, paca, white-tailed deer, and collared peccary were the top harvested species, providing 80.7% of biomass (10,190 kg). The numbers of animals hunted and biomass extracted declined as hunting distances increased from villages. Average per capita consumption was 4.65 ± 2.7 kg/person/year. Hunting frequencies were similar in forested and agricultural areas. Discussion Wildlife use, hunting patterns, and technologies observed in our study sites were similar to those recorded in previous studies for rural Mayan and mestizo communities in the Yucatan Peninsula and other Neotropical sites. The most heavily hunted species were those providing more products and by-products for residents. Large

  12. Hunting alters seedling functional trait composition in a Neotropical forest.

    PubMed

    Kurten, Erin L; Wright, S Joseph; Carson, Walter P

    2015-07-01

    Defaunation alters trophic interactions between plants and vertebrates, whichmay disrupt trophic cascades, thereby favoring a subset of plant species and reducing diversity. If particular functional traits characterize the favored plant species,.then defaunation may alter community-wide patterns of functional trait composition. Changes in plant functional traits occurring with defaunation may help identify the species interactions affected by defaunation and the potential for other cascading effects of defaunation. We tested the hypotheses that defaunation would (1) disrupt seed dispersal, thereby favoring species whose dispersal agents are not affected (e.g., small birds, bats, and abiotic agents), (2) reduce seed predation, thereby favoring larger-seeded species, and (3) reduce herbivory, thereby favoring species with lower leaf mass per area (LMA), leaf toughness, and wood density. We examined how these six traits responded to vertebrate defaunation caused by hunters or by experimental exclosures among more than-30 000 woody seedlings in a lowland tropical moist forest. Exclosures reduced terrestrial frugivores, granivores, and herbivores, while hunters also reduced volant and arboreal frugivores and granivores. The comparison of exclosures and hunting allowed us to parse the impacts of arboreal and volant species (reduced by hunters only) and terrestrial species (reduced by both hunters and exclosures). The loss of terrestrial vertebrates alone had limited effects on plant trait composition. The additional loss of volant and arboreal vertebrates caused significant shifts in plant species composition towards communities with more species dispersed abiotically, including lianas and low wood-density tree species, and fewer species dispersed by large vertebrates. In contrast to previous studies, community seed mass did not decline significantly in hunted sites. Our exclosure results suggest this is because reducing seed predators disproportionately benefits large

  13. Nonlinear effects of group size on the success of wolves hunting elk

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    MacNulty, D.R.; Smith, D.W.; Mech, L.D.; Vucetich, J.A.; Packer, C.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the popular view that social predators live in groups because group hunting facilitates prey capture, the apparent tendency for hunting success to peak at small group sizes suggests that the formation of large groups is unrelated to prey capture. Few empirical studies, however, have tested for nonlinear relationships between hunting success and group size, and none have demonstrated why success trails off after peaking. Here, we use a unique dataset of observations of individually known wolves (Canis lupus) hunting elk (Cervus elaphus) in Yellowstone National Park to show that the relationship between success and group size is indeed nonlinear and that individuals withholding effort (free riding) is why success does not increase across large group sizes. Beyond 4 wolves, hunting success leveled off, and individual performance (a measure of effort) decreased for reasons unrelated to interference from inept hunters, individual age, or size. But performance did drop faster among wolves with an incentive to hold back, i.e., nonbreeders with no dependent offspring, those performing dangerous predatory tasks, i.e., grabbing and restraining prey, and those in groups of proficient hunters. These results suggest that decreasing performance was free riding and that was why success leveled off in groups with >4 wolves that had superficially appeared to be cooperating. This is the first direct evidence that nonlinear trends in group hunting success reflect a switch from cooperation to free riding. It also highlights how hunting success per se is unlikely to promote formation and maintenance of large groups. ?? 2011 The Author.

  14. Nonlinear effects of group size on the success of wolves hunting elk

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    MacNulty, Daniel R.; Smith, Douglas W.; Mech, L. David; Vucetich, John A.; Packer, Craig

    2012-01-01

    Despite the popular view that social predators live in groups because group hunting facilitates prey capture, the apparent tendency for hunting success to peak at small group sizes suggests that the formation of large groups is unrelated to prey capture. Few empirical studies, however, have tested for nonlinear relationships between hunting success and group size, and none have demonstrated why success trails off after peaking. Here, we use a unique dataset of observations of individually known wolves (Canis lupus) hunting elk (Cervus elaphus) in Yellowstone National Park to show that the relationship between success and group size is indeed nonlinear and that individuals withholding effort (free riding) is why success does not increase across large group sizes. Beyond 4 wolves, hunting success leveled off, and individual performance (a measure of effort) decreased for reasons unrelated to interference from inept hunters, individual age, or size. But performance did drop faster among wolves with an incentive to hold back, i.e., nonbreeders with no dependent offspring, those performing dangerous predatory tasks, i.e., grabbing and restraining prey, and those in groups of proficient hunters. These results suggest that decreasing performance was free riding and that was why success leveled off in groups with >4 wolves that had superficially appeared to be cooperating. This is the first direct evidence that nonlinear trends in group hunting success reflect a switch from cooperation to free riding. It also highlights how hunting success per se is unlikely to promote formation and maintenance of large groups.

  15. Hunted Woolly Monkeys (Lagothrix poeppigii) Show Threat-Sensitive Responses to Human Presence

    PubMed Central

    Papworth, Sarah; Milner-Gulland, E. J.; Slocombe, Katie

    2013-01-01

    Responding only to individuals of a predator species which display threatening behaviour allows prey species to minimise energy expenditure and other costs of predator avoidance, such as disruption of feeding. The threat sensitivity hypothesis predicts such behaviour in prey species. If hunted animals are unable to distinguish dangerous humans from non-dangerous humans, human hunting is likely to have a greater effect on prey populations as all human encounters should lead to predator avoidance, increasing stress and creating opportunity costs for exploited populations. We test the threat sensitivity hypothesis in wild Poeppigi's woolly monkeys (Lagothrix poeppigii) in Yasuní National Park, Ecuador, by presenting human models engaging in one of three behaviours “hunting”, “gathering” or “researching”. These experiments were conducted at two sites with differing hunting pressures. Visibility, movement and vocalisations were recorded and results from two sites showed that groups changed their behaviours after being exposed to humans, and did so in different ways depending on the behaviour of the human model. Results at the site with higher hunting pressure were consistent with predictions based on the threat sensitivity hypothesis. Although results at the site with lower hunting pressure were not consistent with the results at the site with higher hunting pressure, groups at this site also showed differential responses to different human behaviours. These results provide evidence of threat-sensitive predator avoidance in hunted primates, which may allow them to conserve both time and energy when encountering humans which pose no threat. PMID:23614003

  16. Resumption of traditional drive hunting of dolphins in the Solomon Islands in 2013.

    PubMed

    Oremus, Marc; Leqata, John; Baker, C Scott

    2015-05-01

    The 'drive hunting' of dolphins has a long history in the Solomon Islands, specifically at the island of Malaita. In 2010, the most active village, Fanalei, suspended hunting in exchange for financial compensation from an international non-governmental organization but resumed hunting again in early 2013. Here, we report on a visit to Fanalei in March 2013 to document the species and number of dolphins killed in the renewed hunting. Detailed records for the 2013 hunting, up to the time of our visit, included at least 1500 pantropical spotted dolphins (Stenella attenuata), 159 spinner dolphins (Stenella longirostris) and 15 'bottlenose' dolphins, probably Tursiops truncatus. Molecular identification confirmed two of the species, pantropical spotted and spinner dolphins. A summary of all available records from 1976 to 2013 documented a minimum total of 15 454 dolphins killed by the Fanalei villagers alone. We also found the local price of a dolphin tooth had increased from about US$0.14 (SBD$1) in 2004 to about US$0.70 (SBD$5) in 2013. The large number of dolphins killed and the apparent incentive for future hunting offered by the increasing commercial value of teeth, highlight an urgent need to monitor hunts and assess the abundance and trends in local populations. PMID:26064656

  17. Toward a new understanding of the links between poverty and illegal wildlife hunting.

    PubMed

    Duffy, Rosaleen; St John, Freya A V; Büscher, Bram; Brockington, Dan

    2016-02-01

    Conservation organizations have increasingly raised concerns about escalating rates of illegal hunting and trade in wildlife. Previous studies have concluded that people hunt illegally because they are financially poor or lack alternative livelihood strategies. However, there has been little attempt to develop a richer understanding of the motivations behind contemporary illegal wildlife hunting. As a first step, we reviewed the academic and policy literatures on poaching and illegal wildlife use and considered the meanings of poverty and the relative importance of structure and individual agency. We placed motivations for illegal wildlife hunting within the context of the complex history of how wildlife laws were initially designed and enforced to indicate how hunting practices by specific communities were criminalized. We also considered the nature of poverty and the reasons for economic deprivation in particular communities to indicate how particular understandings of poverty as material deprivation ultimately shape approaches to illegal wildlife hunting. We found there is a need for a much better understanding of what poverty is and what motivates people to hunt illegally. PMID:26332105

  18. Does hunting regulate cougar populations? A test of the compensatory mortality hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Cooley, Hilary S; Wielgus, Robert B; Koehler, Gary M; Robinson, Hugh S; Maletzke, Benjamin T

    2009-10-01

    Many wildlife species are managed based on the compensatory mortality hypothesis, which predicts that harvest mortality (especially adult male mortality) will trigger density-dependent responses in reproduction, survival, and population growth caused via reduced competition for resources. We tested the compensatory mortality hypothesis on two cougar (Puma concolor) populations in Washington, USA (one heavily hunted and one lightly hunted). We estimated population growth, density, survival, and reproduction to determine the effects of hunting on cougar population demography based on data collected from 2002 to 2007. In the heavily hunted population, the total hunting mortality rate (mean +/- SD) was 0.24 +/- 0.05 (0.35 +/- 0.08 for males, 0.16 +/- 0.05 for females). In the lightly hunted population, the total hunting mortality rate was 0.11 +/- 0.04 (0.16 +/- 0.06 for males, 0.07 +/- 0.05 for females). The compensatory mortality hypothesis predicts that higher mortality will result in higher maternity, kitten survival, reproductive success, and lower natural mortality. We found no differences in rates of maternity or natural mortality between study areas, and kitten survival was lower in the heavily hunted population. We rejected the compensatory mortality hypothesis because vital rates did not compensate for hunting mortality. Heavy harvest corresponded with increased immigration, reduced kitten survival, reduced female population growth, and a younger overall age structure. Light harvest corresponded with increased emigration, higher kitten survival, increased female population growth, and an older overall age structure. Managers should not assume the existence of compensatory mortality when developing harvest prescriptions for cougars. PMID:19886499

  19. The Trophy Hunting of African Lions: Scale, Current Management Practices and Factors Undermining Sustainability

    PubMed Central

    Lindsey, Peter Andrew; Balme, Guy Andrew; Funston, Paul; Henschel, Philipp; Hunter, Luke; Madzikanda, Hilary; Midlane, Neil; Nyirenda, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    The trophy hunting of lions Panthera leo is contentious due to uncertainty concerning conservation impacts and because of highly polarised opinions about the practice. African lions are hunted across at least ∼558,000 km2, which comprises 27–32% of the lion range in countries where trophy hunting of the species is permitted. Consequently, trophy hunting has potential to impart significant positive or negative impacts on lions. Several studies have demonstrated that excessive trophy harvests have driven lion population declines. There have been several attempts by protectionist non-governmental organisations to reduce or preclude trophy hunting via restrictions on the import and export of lion trophies. We document the management of lion hunting in Africa and highlight challenges which need addressing to achieve sustainability. Problems include: unscientific bases for quota setting; excessive quotas and off-takes in some countries; fixed quotas which encourage over-harvest; and lack of restrictions on the age of lions that can be hunted. Key interventions needed to make lion hunting more sustainable, include implementation of: enforced age restrictions; improved trophy monitoring; adaptive management of quotas and a minimum length of lion hunts of at least 21 days. Some range states have made important steps towards implementing such improved management and off-takes have fallen steeply in recent years. For example age restrictions have been introduced in Tanzania and in Niassa in Mozambique, and are being considered for Benin and Zimbabwe, several states have reduced quotas, and Zimbabwe is implementing trophy monitoring. However, further reforms are needed to ensure sustainability and reduce conservation problems associated with the practice while allowing retention of associated financial incentives for conservation. PMID:24058491

  20. Hunting, livelihoods and declining wildlife in the Hponkanrazi Wildlife Sanctuary, North Myanmar.

    PubMed

    Rao, Madhu; Htun, Saw; Zaw, Than; Myint, Than

    2010-08-01

    The Hponkanrazi Wildlife Sanctuary, North Myanmar and three contiguous protected areas, comprise some of the largest expanses of natural forest remaining in the region. Demand for wildlife products has resulted in unsustainable exploitation of commercially valuable species resulting in local extirpation of vulnerable species. Camera trap, track and sign, and questionnaire-based surveys were used to examine (a) wildlife species targeted by hunters, (b) the importance of wild meat for household consumption, and (c) the significance of hunting as a livelihood activity for resident villages. Certain commercially valuable species highly preferred by hunters were either completely absent from hunt records (tiger, musk deer and otter) or infrequently obtained during actual hunts (bear, pangolin). Species obtained by hunters were commonly occurring species such as muntjacs with low commercial value and not highly preferred by hunters. Fifty eight percent of respondents (n = 84) indicated trade, 27% listed subsistence use and 14% listed human-wildlife conflict as the main reason for hunting (n = 84). Average amount of wild meat consumed per month is not significantly higher during the hunting season compared to the planting season (paired t-test, P > 0.05). Throughout the year, the average amount of fish consumed per month was higher than livestock or wild meat (Friedman test, P < 0.0001). Hunting is driven largely by trade and wild meat, while not a critical source of food for a large number of families could potentially be an important, indirect source of access to food for hunting families. Findings and trends from this study are potentially useful in helping design effective conservation strategies to address globally prevalent problems of declining wildlife populations and dependent human communities. The study provides recommendations to reduce illegal hunting and protect vulnerable species by strengthening park management through enforcement, increasing the

  1. Hunting, Livelihoods and Declining Wildlife in the Hponkanrazi Wildlife Sanctuary, North Myanmar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Madhu; Htun, Saw; Zaw, Than; Myint, Than

    2010-08-01

    The Hponkanrazi Wildlife Sanctuary, North Myanmar and three contiguous protected areas, comprise some of the largest expanses of natural forest remaining in the region. Demand for wildlife products has resulted in unsustainable exploitation of commercially valuable species resulting in local extirpation of vulnerable species. Camera trap, track and sign, and questionnaire-based surveys were used to examine (a) wildlife species targeted by hunters, (b) the importance of wild meat for household consumption, and (c) the significance of hunting as a livelihood activity for resident villages. Certain commercially valuable species highly preferred by hunters were either completely absent from hunt records (tiger, musk deer and otter) or infrequently obtained during actual hunts (bear, pangolin). Species obtained by hunters were commonly occurring species such as muntjacs with low commercial value and not highly preferred by hunters. Fifty eight percent of respondents ( n = 84) indicated trade, 27% listed subsistence use and 14% listed human-wildlife conflict as the main reason for hunting ( n = 84). Average amount of wild meat consumed per month is not significantly higher during the hunting season compared to the planting season (paired t-test, P > 0.05). Throughout the year, the average amount of fish consumed per month was higher than livestock or wild meat (Friedman test, P < 0.0001). Hunting is driven largely by trade and wild meat, while not a critical source of food for a large number of families could potentially be an important, indirect source of access to food for hunting families. Findings and trends from this study are potentially useful in helping design effective conservation strategies to address globally prevalent problems of declining wildlife populations and dependent human communities. The study provides recommendations to reduce illegal hunting and protect vulnerable species by strengthening park management through enforcement, increasing the

  2. Geophex airborne unmanned survey system

    SciTech Connect

    Won, I.J.; Taylor, D.W.A.

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of this effort is to design, construct, and evaluate a portable, remotely-piloted, airborne, geophysical survey system. This nonintrusive system will provide {open_quotes}stand-off{close_quotes} capability to conduct surveys and detect buried objects, structures, and conditions of interest at hazardous locations. This system permits two operators to rapidly conduct geophysical characterization of hazardous environmental sites. During a survey, the operators remain remote from, but within visual distance, of, the site. The sensor system never contacts the Earth, but can be positioned near the ground so that weak anomalies can be detected.

  3. Airborne wavemeter validation and calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goad, Joseph H., Jr.; Rinsland, Pamela L.; Kist, Edward H., Jr.; Geier, Erika B.; Banziger, Curtis G.

    1992-01-01

    This manuscript outlines a continuing effort to validate and verify the performance of an airborne autonomous wavemeter for tuning solid state lasers to a desired wavelength. The application is measuring the vertical profiles of atmospheric water vapor using a differential absorption lidar (DIAL) technique. Improved wavemeter performance data for varying ambient temperatures are presented. This resulted when the electronic grounding and shielding were improved. The results with short pulse duration lasers are also included. These lasers show that similar performance could be obtained with lasers operating in the continuous and the pulsed domains.

  4. High sensitive airborne radioiodine monitor.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Yoshimune; Yamasaki, Tadashi; Hanafusa, Ryuji

    2013-11-01

    Airborne radioiodine monitoring includes a problem in that commercial radioactive gas monitors have inadequate sensitivity. To solve this problem, we designed a highly sensitive monitoring system. The higher counting efficiency and lower background made it possible to perform the low-level monitoring. The characteristics of the system were investigated using gaseous (125)I. The minimum detectable activity concentration was 1 × 10(-4)Bq cm(-3) for 1 min counting, which is one tenth of the legal limit for the radiation controlled areas in Japan. PMID:23602709

  5. Geophex Airborne Unmanned Survey System

    SciTech Connect

    Won, I.J.; Keiswetter, D.

    1995-10-01

    The purpose of this effort is to design, construct, and evaluate a portable, remotely-piloted, airborne, geophysical survey system. This non-intrusive system will provide {open_quotes}stand-off{close_quotes} capability to conduct surveys and detect buried objects, structures, and conditions of interest at hazardous locations. This system permits rapid geophysical characterization of hazardous environmental sites. During a survey, the operators remain remote from, but within visual distance of, the site. The sensor system never contacts the Earth, but can be positioned near the ground so that weak geophysical anomalies can be detected.

  6. Cyberinfrastructure for Airborne Sensor Webs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freudinger, Lawrence C.

    2009-01-01

    Since 2004 the NASA Airborne Science Program has been prototyping and using infrastructure that enables researchers to interact with each other and with their instruments via network communications. This infrastructure uses satellite links and an evolving suite of applications and services that leverage open-source software. The use of these tools has increased near-real-time situational awareness during field operations, resulting in productivity improvements and the collection of better data. This paper describes the high-level system architecture and major components, with example highlights from the use of the infrastructure. The paper concludes with a discussion of ongoing efforts to transition to operational status.

  7. Biological monitoring of airborne pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Ditz, D.W. )

    1990-01-01

    Common plants such as grasses, mosses, and even goldenrod may turn out to have a new high-tech role as monitors of airborne pollution from solid waste incinerators. Certain plants that respond to specific pollutants can provide continuous surveillance of air quality over long periods of time: they are bio-indicators. Other species accumulate pollutants and can serve as sensitive indicators of pollutants and of food-chain contamination: they are bio-accumulators. Through creative use of these properties, biological monitoring can provide information that cannot be obtained by current methods such as stack testing.

  8. Airborne Research Experience for Educators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, V. B.; Albertson, R.; Smith, S.; Stockman, S. A.

    2009-12-01

    The Airborne Research Experience for Educators (AREE) Program, conducted by the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center Office of Education in partnership with the AERO Institute, NASA Teaching From Space Program, and California State University Fullerton, is a complete end-to-end residential research experience in airborne remote sensing and atmospheric science. The 2009 program engaged ten secondary educators who specialize in science, technology, engineering or mathematics in a 6-week Student Airborne Research Program (SARP) offered through NSERC. Educators participated in collection of in-flight remote sensor data during flights aboard the NASA DC-8 as well as in-situ research on atmospheric chemistry (bovine emissions of methane); algal blooms (remote sensing to determine location and degree of blooms for further in-situ analysis); and crop classification (exploration of how drought conditions in Central California have impacted almond and cotton crops). AREE represents a unique model of the STEM teacher-as-researcher professional development experience because it asks educators to participate in a research experience and then translate their experiences into classroom practice through the design, implementation, and evaluation of instructional materials that emphasize the scientific research process, inquiry-based investigations, and manipulation of real data. Each AREE Master Educator drafted a Curriculum Brief, Teachers Guide, and accompanying resources for a topic in their teaching assignment Currently, most professional development programs offer either a research experience OR a curriculum development experience. The dual nature of the AREE model engaged educators in both experiences. Educators’ content and pedagogical knowledge of STEM was increased through the review of pertinent research articles during the first week, attendance at lectures and workshops during the second week, and participation in the airborne and in-situ research studies, data

  9. A case of Ramsay Hunt syndrome diagnosed after kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Park, Yoo Min; Kim, Da Rae; Park, Ji Yoon; Kim, Seul Ki; Kim, Se Yun; Kim, Jin Sug; Lee, Yu Ho; Kim, Yang-Gyun; Jeong, Kyung-Hwan; Moon, Ju-Young; Lee, Sang-Ho; Ihm, Chun-Gyoo; Lee, Tae-Won

    2015-12-01

    We report the first case of Ramsay Hunt syndrome (RHS) diagnosed after kidney transplantation in Korea. RHS is a disease caused by latent varicella-zoster characterized to involve geniculate ganglion of the seventh cranial nerve. Patients who have undergone kidney transplantation can be easily affected by viral infections because of their immune-compromised status. A 35-year-old man with hypertensive end-stage renal disease underwent kidney transplantation. Two months after surgery, the recipient was diagnosed with RHS and treated with antivirals and steroids. However, after using the antiviral agents for the recommended duration, facial paralysis occurred as a new presentation and he required further treatment. Otalgia and periauricular vesicles improved, but the facial palsy remained. PMID:26779429

  10. Pediatric Ramsay Hunt Syndrome: Analysis of Three Cases

    PubMed Central

    Aydoğdu, İmran; Ataç, Enes; Saltürk, Ziya; Atar, Yavuz; Özdemir, Erdi; Uyar, Yavuz; Arslanoğlu, Ahmet; Berkiten, Güler

    2015-01-01

    Ramsay Hunt syndrome (RHS) is a disorder characterized by herpetic eruptions on the auricle, facial paralysis, and vestibulocochlear dysfunction and is attributed to varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection in the geniculate ganglion. Although it is a common cause of acute peripheral facial paralysis, children are not usually affected. The diagnosis is based on history and physical findings. Treatment of RHS uses a combination of high-dose corticosteroids and acyclovir. This paper presents three cases diagnosed as RHS in the pediatric age group in association with the literature review. The aim of this paper is to emphasize the importance of careful examination and early initiation of therapy in suspected cases of RHS. PMID:26435868

  11. The emergence of defective predators who never hunt by themselves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xueting; Pan, Qiuhui; Kang, Yibin; He, Mingfeng

    2013-06-01

    We propose a lattice Monte Carlo model of two populations, predators and prey. We divide predators into cooperative predators and defective predators. Cooperative predators participate in hunting. On the other hand, defective predators only participate to dominate, i.e. take possession of, the food when a kill has already been made by a cooperative predator. Numerous factors have been taken into account in our research, such as individual mobility, predation and hunger time. The model we have constructed displays the features of the population that evolve through time and the spatial distribution of the population. We focus on the emergence of defective predators and how the parameters affect the system. The results indicate that prey can profit from the appearance of these defective predators in some specific situations. It has even been shown that the emergence of defective predators can sometimes save endangered systems.

  12. Hunt for improved carbon capture picks up speed

    SciTech Connect

    2010-01-01

    A high-throughput metal-organic framework synthesis instrument in action. Berkeley Lab chemist Jeffrey Long's lab will soon host a round-the-clock, robotically choreographed hunt for carbon-hungry materials. The Berkeley Lab chemist leads a diverse team of scientists whose goal is to quickly discover materials that can efficiently strip carbon dioxide from a power plant's exhaust, before it leaves the smokestack and contributes to climate change. They're betting on a recently discovered class of materials called metal-organic frameworks, which boast a record-shattering internal surface area. A sugar cube-sized piece, if unfolded and flattened, would more than blanket a football field. The crystalline material can also be tweaked to absorb specific molecules. More: http://newscenter.lbl.gov/feature-stories/2010/05/26/carbon-capture-search/

  13. Coalbed gas; Hunt for quality basins goes abroad

    SciTech Connect

    Kuuskraa, V.A.; Boyer, C.M. II; Kelafant, J.A. )

    1992-10-05

    This paper reports that spurred on by success of the U.S. coalbed gas industry, a worldwide hunt for the next San Juan-type coalbed gas basin is under way. This search is taking both major and independent exploration companies form Australia to Zimbabwe. The goal is to find high quality coal basins and areas that not only contain large volumes of gas in place but also have the potential for high gas production rates. Given the widespread distribution of coal-bearing strata around the world, a reasonable assumption is that high-quality basins with commercial levels of coalbed gas production do exist. Thick, gassy coal seams are present on all populated continents as documented by coal production statistics and numerous methane-related mining disasters. In some countries, such as China, the potential gas resources contained in the coal seams may dwarf the conventional gas resource base.

  14. The 2013 Thomas Hunt Morgan Medal: Thomas Douglas Petes.

    PubMed

    Jinks-Robertson, Sue; Hieter, Philip

    2013-05-01

    The Genetics Society of America annually honors members who have made outstanding contributions to genetics. The Thomas Hunt Morgan Medal recognizes a lifetime contribution to the science of genetics. The Genetics Society of America Medal recognizes particularly outstanding contributions to the science of genetics over the past 32 years. The George W. Beadle Award recognizes distinguished service to the field of genetics and the community of geneticists. The Elizabeth W. Jones Award for Excellence in Education recognizes individuals or groups who have had a significant, sustained impact on genetics education at any level, from kindergarten through graduate school and beyond. The Novitski Prize recognizes an extraordinary level of creativity and intellectual ingenuity in solving significant problems in biological research through the application of genetic methods. We are pleased to announce the 2013 awards. PMID:23633133

  15. The 2012 Thomas Hunt Morgan medal: Kathryn V. Anderson.

    PubMed

    Wolfner, Mariana F; Schedl, Tim

    2012-06-01

    The Genetics Society of America annually honors members who have made outstanding contributions to genetics. The Thomas Hunt Morgan Medal recognizes a lifetime contribution to the science of genetics. The Genetics Society of America Medal recognizes particularly outstanding contributions to the science of genetics over the past 31 years. The George W. Beadle Medal recognizes distinguished service to the field of genetics and the community of geneticists. The Elizabeth W. Jones Award for Excellence in Education recognizes individuals or groups who have had a significant, sustained impact on genetics education at any level, from kindergarten through graduate school and beyond. The Novitski Prize recognizes an extraordinary level of creativity and intellectual ingenuity in solving significant problems in biological research through the application of genetic methods. We are pleased to announce the 2012 awards. PMID:22701044

  16. Effects of controlled dog hunting on movements of female white-tailed deer.

    SciTech Connect

    D'Angelo, Gino, J.; Kilgo, John, C.; Comer, Christopher, E.; Drennan, Cory, D.; Osborn, David, A.; Miller, Karl, V.

    2003-12-31

    D'Angelo, Gino, J., John C. Kilgo, Christopher E. Comer, Cory D. Drennan, David A. Osborn, and Karl V. Miller. 2003. Effects of controlled dog hunting on movements of female white-tailed deer. In: Proceedings of the Annu. Conf. Southeast. Assoc. Fish and Wildl. Agencies. 57:317-325. This article explores the relationship between controlled dog hunting and the movements of female white tailed deer at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina. The data suggests that short term, controlled dog hunting has little long-term effect on adult, female white-tailed deer movement on the Savannah River Site.

  17. Establishing hunting regulations and allowable harvest of mallards in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Geis, A.D.; Martinson, R.K.; Anderson, D.R.

    1969-01-01

    As a major part of establishing hunting regulations each year in the United States, data for the mallard ( A m platyrhymhos) are examined extensively to estimate the effect of various harvest strategies on the breeding population the following spring. This requires estimates of the breeding-population level and of the production, harvest, and mortality rates. Predictions made at the time hunting regulations are established have been in general agreement with more reliable estimates made after the hunting season when data from banding, kill, and wing surveys are available.

  18. Anxiety and Depression Symptoms Among Farmers: The HUNT Study, Norway.

    PubMed

    Torske, Magnhild Oust; Hilt, Bjørn; Glasscock, David; Lundqvist, Peter; Krokstad, Steinar

    2016-01-01

    Agriculture has undergone profound changes, and farmers face a wide variety of stressors. Our aim was to study the levels of anxiety and depression symptoms among Norwegian farmers compared with other occupational groups. Working participants in the HUNT3 Survey (The Nord-Trøndelag Health Study, 2006-2008), aged 19-66.9 years, were included in this cross-sectional study. We compared farmers (women, n = 317; men, n = 1,100) with HUNT3 participants working in other occupational groups (women, n = 13,429; men, n = 10,026), classified according to socioeconomic status. We used the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) to measure anxiety and depression symptoms. Both male and female farmers had higher levels of depression symptoms than the general working population, but the levels of anxiety symptoms did not differ. The differences in depression symptom levels between farmers and the general working population increased with age. In an age-adjusted logistic regression analysis, the odds ratio (OR) for depression caseness (HADS-D ≥8) when compared with the general working population was 1.49 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.22-1.83) in men and 1.29 (95% CI: 0.85-1.95) in women. Male farmers had a higher OR of depression caseness than any other occupational group (OR = 1.94, 95% CI: 1.52-2.49, using higher-grade professionals as reference). Female farmers had an OR similar to men (2.00, 95% CI: 1.26-3.17), but lower than other manual occupations. We found that farmers had high levels of depression symptoms and average levels of anxiety symptoms compared with other occupational groups. PMID:26488439

  19. Anxiety and Depression Symptoms Among Farmers: The HUNT Study, Norway

    PubMed Central

    Torske, Magnhild Oust; Hilt, Bjørn; Glasscock, David; Lundqvist, Peter; Krokstad, Steinar

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Agriculture has undergone profound changes, and farmers face a wide variety of stressors. Our aim was to study the levels of anxiety and depression symptoms among Norwegian farmers compared with other occupational groups. Working participants in the HUNT3 Survey (The Nord-Trøndelag Health Study, 2006–2008), aged 19–66.9 years, were included in this cross-sectional study. We compared farmers (women, n = 317; men, n = 1,100) with HUNT3 participants working in other occupational groups (women, n = 13,429; men, n = 10,026), classified according to socioeconomic status. We used the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) to measure anxiety and depression symptoms. Both male and female farmers had higher levels of depression symptoms than the general working population, but the levels of anxiety symptoms did not differ. The differences in depression symptom levels between farmers and the general working population increased with age. In an age-adjusted logistic regression analysis, the odds ratio (OR) for depression caseness (HADS-D ≥8) when compared with the general working population was 1.49 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.22–1.83) in men and 1.29 (95% CI: 0.85–1.95) in women. Male farmers had a higher OR of depression caseness than any other occupational group (OR = 1.94, 95% CI: 1.52–2.49, using higher-grade professionals as reference). Female farmers had an OR similar to men (2.00, 95% CI: 1.26–3.17), but lower than other manual occupations. We found that farmers had high levels of depression symptoms and average levels of anxiety symptoms compared with other occupational groups. PMID:26488439

  20. Airborne Visible Laser Optical Communications Program (AVLOC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, J. H.

    1975-01-01

    The design, development, and operation of airborne and ground-based laser communications and laser radar hardware is described in support of the Airborne Visible Laser Optical Communication program. The major emphasis is placed on the development of a highly flexible test bed for the evaluation of laser communications systems techniques and components in an operational environment.

  1. Global Test Range: Toward Airborne Sensor Webs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mace, Thomas H.; Freudinger, Larry; DelFrate John H.

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the planned global sensor network that will monitor the Earth's climate, and resources using airborne sensor systems. The vision is an intelligent, affordable Earth Observation System. Global Test Range is a lab developing trustworthy services for airborne instruments - a specialized Internet Service Provider. There is discussion of several current and planned missions.

  2. Airborne Relay-Based Regional Positioning System

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyuman; Noh, Hongjun; Lim, Jaesung

    2015-01-01

    Ground-based pseudolite systems have some limitations, such as low vertical accuracy, multipath effects and near-far problems. These problems are not significant in airborne-based pseudolite systems. However, the monitoring of pseudolite positions is required because of the mobility of the platforms on which the pseudolites are mounted, and this causes performance degradation. To address these pseudolite system limitations, we propose an airborne relay-based regional positioning system that consists of a master station, reference stations, airborne relays and a user. In the proposed system, navigation signals are generated from the reference stations located on the ground and are relayed via the airborne relays. Unlike in conventional airborne-based systems, the user in the proposed system sequentially estimates both the locations of airborne relays and his/her own position. Therefore, a delay due to monitoring does not occur, and the accuracy is not affected by the movement of airborne relays. We conducted several simulations to evaluate the performance of the proposed system. Based on the simulation results, we demonstrated that the proposed system guarantees a higher accuracy than airborne-based pseudolite systems, and it is feasible despite the existence of clock offsets among reference stations. PMID:26029953

  3. The Continuous wavelet in airborne gravimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, X.; Liu, L.

    2013-12-01

    Airborne gravimetry is an efficient method to recover medium and high frequency band of earth gravity over any region, especially inaccessible areas, which can measure gravity data with high accuracy,high resolution and broad range in a rapidly and economical way, and It will play an important role for geoid and geophysical exploration. Filtering methods for reducing high-frequency errors is critical to the success of airborne gravimetry due to Aircraft acceleration determination based on GPS.Tradiontal filters used in airborne gravimetry are FIR,IIR filer and so on. This study recommends an improved continuous wavelet to process airborne gravity data. Here we focus on how to construct the continuous wavelet filters and show their working principle. Particularly the technical parameters (window width parameter and scale parameter) of the filters are tested. Then the raw airborne gravity data from the first Chinese airborne gravimetry campaign are filtered using FIR-low pass filter and continuous wavelet filters to remove the noise. The comparison to reference data is performed to determinate external accuracy, which shows that continuous wavelet filters applied to airborne gravity in this thesis have good performances. The advantages of the continuous wavelet filters over digital filters are also introduced. The effectiveness of the continuous wavelet filters for airborne gravimetry is demonstrated through real data computation.

  4. A Simple Method for Collecting Airborne Pollen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kevan, Peter G.; DiGiovanni, Franco; Ho, Rong H.; Taki, Hisatomo; Ferguson, Kristyn A.; Pawlowski, Agata K.

    2006-01-01

    Pollination is a broad area of study within biology. For many plants, pollen carried by wind is required for successful seed set. Airborne pollen also affects human health. To foster studies of airborne pollen, we introduce a simple device--the "megastigma"--for collecting pollen from the air. This device is flexible, yielding easily obtained data…

  5. Airborne Oceanographic Lidar (AOL) (Global Carbon Cycle)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This bimonthly contractor progress report covers the operation, maintenance and data management of the Airborne Oceanographic Lidar and the Airborne Topographic Mapper. Monthly activities included: mission planning, sensor operation and calibration, data processing, data analysis, network development and maintenance and instrument maintenance engineering and fabrication.

  6. Meeting Review: Airborne Aerosol Inlet Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumgardner, Darrel; Huebert, Barry; Wilson, Chuck

    1991-01-01

    Proceedings from the Airborne Aerosol Inlet Workshop are presented. The two central topics of discussion were the role of aerosols in atmospheric processes and the difficulties in characterizing aerosols. The following topics were discussed during the working sessions: airborne observations to date; identification of inlet design issues; inlet modeling needs and directions; objectives for aircraft experiments; and future laboratory and wind tunnel studies.

  7. A theoretical model for airborne radars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faubert, D.

    1989-11-01

    This work describes a general theory for the simulation of airborne (or spaceborne) radars. It can simulate many types of systems including Airborne Intercept and Airborne Early Warning radars, airborne missile approach warning systems etc. It computes the average Signal-to-Noise ratio at the output of the signal processor. In this manner, one obtains the average performance of the radar without having to use Monte Carlo techniques. The model has provision for a waveform without frequency modulation and one with linear frequency modulation. The waveform may also have frequency hopping for Electronic Counter Measures or for clutter suppression. The model can accommodate any type of encounter including air-to-air, air-to-ground (look-down) and rear attacks. It can simulate systems with multiple phase centers on receive for studying advanced clutter or jamming interference suppression techniques. An Airborne Intercept radar is investigated to demonstrate the validity and the capability of the model.

  8. Geophex Airborne Unmanned Survey System

    SciTech Connect

    Won, I.L.; Keiswetter, D.

    1995-12-31

    Ground-based surveys place personnel at risk due to the proximity of buried unexploded ordnance (UXO) items or by exposure to radioactive materials and hazardous chemicals. The purpose of this effort is to design, construct, and evaluate a portable, remotely-piloted, airborne, geophysical survey system. This non-intrusive system will provide stand-off capability to conduct surveys and detect buried objects, structures, and conditions of interest at hazardous locations. During a survey, the operators remain remote from, but within visual distance of, the site. The sensor system never contacts the Earth, but can be positioned near the ground so that weak geophysical anomalies can be detected. The Geophex Airborne Unmanned Survey System (GAUSS) is designed to detect and locate small-scale anomalies at hazardous sites using magnetic and electromagnetic survey techniques. The system consists of a remotely-piloted, radio-controlled, model helicopter (RCH) with flight computer, light-weight geophysical sensors, an electronic positioning system, a data telemetry system, and a computer base-station. The report describes GAUSS and its test results.

  9. Balancing Acts

    MedlinePlus

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Special Section: Focus on Communication Balancing Acts Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of ... from the National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (NIDCD). It involves simulated trips down the ...

  10. Acting Atoms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farin, Susan Archie

    1997-01-01

    Describes a fun game in which students act as electrons, protons, and neutrons. This activity is designed to help students develop a concrete understanding of the abstract concept of atomic structure. (DKM)

  11. ACT Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page helpful? Also known as: ACT; Activated Coagulation Time Formal name: Activated Clotting Time Related tests: ... in the blood called platelets and proteins called coagulation factors are activated in a sequence of steps ...

  12. Energy cost and return for hunting in African wild dogs and cheetahs

    PubMed Central

    Hubel, Tatjana Y.; Myatt, Julia P.; Jordan, Neil R.; Dewhirst, Oliver P.; McNutt, J. Weldon; Wilson, Alan M.

    2016-01-01

    African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) are reported to hunt with energetically costly long chase distances. We used high-resolution GPS and inertial technology to record 1,119 high-speed chases of all members of a pack of six adult African wild dogs in northern Botswana. Dogs performed multiple short, high-speed, mostly unsuccessful chases to capture prey, while cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) undertook even shorter, higher-speed hunts. We used an energy balance model to show that the energy return from group hunting and feeding substantially outweighs the cost of multiple short chases, which indicates that African wild dogs are more energetically robust than previously believed. Comparison with cheetah illustrates the trade-off between sheer athleticism and high individual kill rate characteristic of cheetahs, and the energetic robustness of frequent opportunistic group hunting and feeding by African wild dogs. PMID:27023457

  13. Prevalence of intestinal parasites in shelter and hunting dogs in Catalonia, Northeastern Spain.

    PubMed

    Ortuño, Anna; Scorza, Valeria; Castellà, Joaquim; Lappin, Mike

    2014-03-01

    To compare the prevalence of intestinal parasites in shelter and hunting dogs in Catalonia, Northeastern Spain, fresh faecal samples from 81 shelter dogs and 88 hunting dogs were collected and analysed by faecal flotation. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites was 71.6% in each population. In the shelter dog group, 67.9% of dogs were positive for intestinal protozoa and 9.8% were positive for helminths. In the hunting dog group, 20.4% of dogs were positive for intestinal protozoa and 63.6% were positive for helminths. A subset of Giardia-positive samples was evaluated by PCR; Giardia assemblages C or D were detected. These results suggest that comprehensive parasite control measures should be implemented in both shelter and hunting dogs in Catalonia. PMID:24445136

  14. A 9,000-year-old caribou hunting structure beneath Lake Huron

    PubMed Central

    O’Shea, John M.; Lemke, Ashley K.; Sonnenburg, Elizabeth P.; Reynolds, Robert G.; Abbott, Brian D.

    2014-01-01

    Some of the most pivotal questions in human history necessitate the investigation of archaeological sites that are now under water. Nine thousand years ago, the Alpena-Amberley Ridge (AAR) beneath modern Lake Huron was a dry land corridor that connected northeast Michigan to southern Ontario. The newly discovered Drop 45 Drive Lane is the most complex hunting structure found to date beneath the Great Lakes. The site and its associated artifacts provide unprecedented insight into the social and seasonal organization of prehistoric caribou hunting. When combined with environmental and simulation studies, it is suggested that distinctly different seasonal strategies were used by early hunters on the AAR, with autumn hunting being carried out by small groups, and spring hunts being conducted by larger groups of cooperating hunters. PMID:24778246

  15. A 9,000-year-old caribou hunting structure beneath Lake Huron.

    PubMed

    O'Shea, John M; Lemke, Ashley K; Sonnenburg, Elizabeth P; Reynolds, Robert G; Abbott, Brian D

    2014-05-13

    Some of the most pivotal questions in human history necessitate the investigation of archaeological sites that are now under water. Nine thousand years ago, the Alpena-Amberley Ridge (AAR) beneath modern Lake Huron was a dry land corridor that connected northeast Michigan to southern Ontario. The newly discovered Drop 45 Drive Lane is the most complex hunting structure found to date beneath the Great Lakes. The site and its associated artifacts provide unprecedented insight into the social and seasonal organization of prehistoric caribou hunting. When combined with environmental and simulation studies, it is suggested that distinctly different seasonal strategies were used by early hunters on the AAR, with autumn hunting being carried out by small groups, and spring hunts being conducted by larger groups of cooperating hunters. PMID:24778246

  16. Energy cost and return for hunting in African wild dogs and cheetahs.

    PubMed

    Hubel, Tatjana Y; Myatt, Julia P; Jordan, Neil R; Dewhirst, Oliver P; McNutt, J Weldon; Wilson, Alan M

    2016-01-01

    African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) are reported to hunt with energetically costly long chase distances. We used high-resolution GPS and inertial technology to record 1,119 high-speed chases of all members of a pack of six adult African wild dogs in northern Botswana. Dogs performed multiple short, high-speed, mostly unsuccessful chases to capture prey, while cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) undertook even shorter, higher-speed hunts. We used an energy balance model to show that the energy return from group hunting and feeding substantially outweighs the cost of multiple short chases, which indicates that African wild dogs are more energetically robust than previously believed. Comparison with cheetah illustrates the trade-off between sheer athleticism and high individual kill rate characteristic of cheetahs, and the energetic robustness of frequent opportunistic group hunting and feeding by African wild dogs. PMID:27023457

  17. Effect of hunting on annual survival of grey ducks in New Zealand

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barker, R.J.; Hines, J.E.; Nichols, J.D.

    1991-01-01

    We used band recovery data from grey ducks (Anas superciliosa) banded in New Zealand between 1957 and 1974 to test 2 null hypotheses: (1) hunting mortality is completely additive to natural sources of mortality, and (2) hunting mortality is completely compensated by changes in natural mortality. We modeled annual survival as a function of survival in the absence of hunting and the probability of death from hunting. The complete compensation hypothesis was rejected, but we were unable to reject the completely additive hypothesis. There was no evidence of sex- or age-specificity for the relationship between kill rate and annual survival rate. We used simulated data to evaluate model performance. Parameter estimates were unbiased despite the inclusion of estimates that lay outside the bounds of the parameter space, although model-based variance estimates were consistently less than empirical variances. Our results imply that harvest-restrictions may be useful in effecting change in annual survival rates of grey ducks.

  18. Red-tailed monkeys (Cercopithecus ascanius) hunt green pigeons (Treron calva) in the Kalinzu Forest in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Furuichi, Takeshi

    2006-04-01

    Red-tailed monkeys (Cercopithecus ascanius) were observed hunting green pigeons (Treron calva) in the Kalinzu Forest in Uganda. During 2 h 39 min, I observed two cases of successful hunting and one case of unsuccessful hunting in a Ficus saussureana tree. Red-tailed monkeys stalked the pigeons until they were within 2-3 m, and then jumped and caught them. In both successful cases, blue monkeys (C. mitis) ran to the hunting site from adjacent trees in order to poach the prey, and the red-tailed monkeys fled. One of these red-tailed monkeys dropped the pigeon while fleeing, and the blue monkey climbed down from the tree to search for it. This is the first record of cercopithecoid monkeys hunting birds that are outside of the nest and moving freely, and also the first record of red-tailed monkeys hunting vertebrates. However rare it may be, the repeated hunting attempts using similar techniques and the immediate attempt of blue monkeys to poach the prey suggest that this type of hunting was not a one-time event that happened by chance. Blue monkeys and an adult chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) in and around the fig tree did not attempt to hunt. The hunting of volant birds may be enabled by the small body size and the quick movements of red-tailed monkeys. PMID:16467957

  19. Isotopic evidence for Last Glacial climatic impacts on Neanderthal gazelle hunting territories at Amud Cave, Israel.

    PubMed

    Hartman, Gideon; Hovers, Erella; Hublin, Jean-Jacques; Richards, Michael

    2015-07-01

    The Middle Paleolithic site of Amud Cave, Israel, was occupied by Neanderthals at two different time periods, evidenced by two chronologically and stratigraphically distinct depositional sub-units (B4 and B2/B1) during MIS 4 and MIS 3, respectively. The composition of both hunted large fauna and naturally-deposited micromammalian taxa is stable at the site over time, despite a ∼ 10 ky gap between the two occupation phases. However, while gazelle is the most ubiquitous hunted species throughout the occupation, isotopic analysis showed that there is a marked change in Neanderthal hunting ranges between the early (B4) and late (B2/B1) phases. Hunting ranges were reconstructed by comparing oxygen, carbon, and strontium isotopes from gazelle tooth enamel with modern isotope data from the Amud Cave region. This region is characterized by extensive topographic, lithological, and pedological heterogeneity. During the early occupation phase negative oxygen isotope values, low radiogenic (87)Sr/(86)Sr ratios, and low Sr concentrations reveal restricted gazelle hunting in the high elevations west of Amud Cave. In the late occupation phase, hunting ranges became more diverse, but concentrate at low elevations closer to the site. Climatic proxies indicate that conditions were drier in the early occupation phase, which may have pushed gazelle populations into higher, more productive foraging areas. This study showed that Neanderthals adjusted their hunting territories considerably in relation to varying environmental conditions over the course of occupation in Amud Cave. It highlights the utility of multiple isotope analysis in enhancing the resolution of behavioral interpretations based on faunal remains and in reconstructing past hunting behaviors of Paleolithic hominins. PMID:25957654

  20. Effects of hunting and season of fire on wild turkey populations in South Carolina.

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, William, F.; Kilgo, John, C.; Guynn, David, C.; Davis, James, R.

    2002-07-31

    This report assesses impacts to wild turkey populations from hunting and prescribed fire. The objectives of the study were as follows: (1) To compare survival rates and causes of mortality of wild turkey gobblers between hunted and unhunted populations; (2) To determine the effects of dormant versus growing season prescribed burns on nesting success, survival and habitat use of wild turkey hens; (3) To determine the effects of dormant versus growing season prescribed burns on the availability of wild turkey plant foods.

  1. Spatial tools for modeling the sustainability of subsistence hunting in tropical forests.

    PubMed

    Levi, Taal; Shepard, Glenn H; Ohl-Schacherer, Julia; Wilmers, Christopher C; Peres, Carlos A; Yu, Douglas W

    2011-07-01

    Subsistence hunting provides a crucial food source for rural populations in tropical forests, but it is often practiced unsustainably. We use the empirical observation that subsistence hunters are central-place foragers to develop three "bio-demographic" hunting models of increasing complexity and realism for assessing the sustainability of hunting of an indicator species. In all our models, we calculate the spatial pattern of depletion of an indicator species (here, a large-bodied primate) across a landscape. Specifically, we show how to identify the area surrounding a human settlement that is expected to suffer local extinction. Our approach is an improvement over well-known sustainability indices of hunting, which are prone to error and do not provide clear links to policy prescriptions. Our first approach models the long-term effect of a single settlement and (1) can be parameterized with easily obtainable field data (such as settlement maps and knowledge of the major weapon used), (2) is simple enough to be used without requiring technical skill, and (3) reveals the asymptotic relationship between local human density and the level of game depletion. Our second model allows multiple settlements with overlapping hunting zones over large spatial scales. Our third model additionally allows temporal changes in human population size and distribution and source-sink dynamics in game populations. Using transect and hunting data from two Amazonian sites, we show that the models accurately predict the spatial distribution of primate depletion. To make these methods accessible, we provide software-based tools, including a toolbox for ArcGIS, to assist in managing and mapping the spatial extent of hunting. The proposed application of our models is to allow the quantitative assessment of settlement stabilization approaches to managing hunting in Amazonia. PMID:21830720

  2. Sharp gene pool transition in a population affected by phenotype-based selective hunting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brigatti, E.; Sá Martins, J. S.; Roditi, I.

    2005-06-01

    We use a microscopic model of population dynamics, a modified version of the well known Penna model, to study some aspects of microevolution. This research is motivated by recent reports on the effect of selective hunting on the gene pool of bighorn sheep living in the Ram Mountain region, in Canada. Our model finds a sharp transition in the structure of the gene pool as some threshold for the number of animals hunted is reached.

  3. Drivers of change in hunter offtake and hunting strategies in Sendje, Equatorial Guinea.

    PubMed

    Gill, David J C; Fa, John E; Rowcliffe, J Marcus; Kümpel, Noëlle F

    2012-12-01

    Economic development in Africa is expected to increase levels of bushmeat hunting through rising demand for meat and improved transport infrastructure. However, few studies have tracked long-term changes in hunter behavior as a means of testing this prediction. We evaluated changes in hunter behavior in a rural community in Equatorial Guinea over a period of rapid national economic growth, during which time road access to the regional capital greatly improved. We conducted offtake surveys (Supporting Information) over 3 7-week periods at the same time of year in 1998, 2003, and 2010 and conducted hunter and household interviews (Supporting Information) in 2003 and 2010. We tested whether relations existed among catch, hunting effort, hunting strategy, and income earned through hunting and other livelihoods in 2003 and 2010. Although village offtake increased from 1775 kg in 1998 to 4172 kg in 2003, it decreased in 2010 to 1361 kg. Aggregate catch per unit effort (i.e., number of carcasses caught per hunter and per trap) decreased from 2003 to 2010, and the majority of hunters reported a decrease in abundance of local fauna. Although these results are indicative of unsustainable hunting, cumulative changes in offtake and catch per unit effort were driven by a contraction in the total area hunted following an out-migration of 29 of the village's hunters, most of whom left to gain employment in the construction industry, after 2003. Hunters operating in both 2003 and 2010 hunted closer to the village because an increased abundance of elephants posed a danger and because they desired to earn income through other activities. Our study provides an example of national economic development contributing to a reduction in the intensity and extent of hunting. PMID:22830627

  4. 50 CFR 18.30 - Polar bear sport-hunted trophy import permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... CFR 10.12, 18.3, and 23.3 apply to this section. (1) Sport-hunted trophy means a mount, rug or other... Division of Management Authority at the address provided at 50 CFR 2.1(b). You must use an official... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Polar bear sport-hunted trophy...

  5. Resumption of traditional drive hunting of dolphins in the Solomon Islands in 2013

    PubMed Central

    Oremus, Marc; Leqata, John; Baker, C. Scott

    2015-01-01

    The ‘drive hunting’ of dolphins has a long history in the Solomon Islands, specifically at the island of Malaita. In 2010, the most active village, Fanalei, suspended hunting in exchange for financial compensation from an international non-governmental organization but resumed hunting again in early 2013. Here, we report on a visit to Fanalei in March 2013 to document the species and number of dolphins killed in the renewed hunting. Detailed records for the 2013 hunting, up to the time of our visit, included at least 1500 pantropical spotted dolphins (Stenella attenuata), 159 spinner dolphins (Stenella longirostris) and 15 ‘bottlenose’ dolphins, probably Tursiops truncatus. Molecular identification confirmed two of the species, pantropical spotted and spinner dolphins. A summary of all available records from 1976 to 2013 documented a minimum total of 15 454 dolphins killed by the Fanalei villagers alone. We also found the local price of a dolphin tooth had increased from about US$0.14 (SBD$1) in 2004 to about US$0.70 (SBD$5) in 2013. The large number of dolphins killed and the apparent incentive for future hunting offered by the increasing commercial value of teeth, highlight an urgent need to monitor hunts and assess the abundance and trends in local populations. PMID:26064656

  6. American Indians, hunting and fishing rates, risk, and the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Burger, J.

    1999-05-01

    Hunting, fishing, and recreational rates of 276 American Indians attending a festival at Fort Hall, near the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), were examined. Nearly half of the sample lived on the Fort Hall Reservation, and half were American Indians from elsewhere in the western United States. An additional 44 White people attending the festival were also interviewed. The hypothesis that there are differences in hunting, fishing, and recreational rates as a function of tribal affiliation, educational level, gender, and age was examined. Information on hunting and fishing rates are central for understanding potential exposure scenarios for American Indians if the Department of Energy`s INEEL lands are ever opened to public access, and the data are important because of the existence of tribal treaties that govern the legal and cultural rights of the Shoshone-Bannock regarding INEEL lands. Variations in hunting, fishing, and photography rates were explained by tribal affiliation (except fishing), gender, age, and schooling. Hunting rates were significantly higher for Indians (both those living on Fort Hall and others) than Whites. Men engaged in significantly higher rates of outdoor activities than women (except for photography). Potential and current hunting and fishing on and adjacent to INEEL was more similar among the local Whites and Fort Hall Indians than between these two groups and other American Indians.

  7. How much land is needed for feral pig hunting in Hawai'i?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hess, Steven C.; Jacobi, James D.

    2014-01-01

    Hunting is often considered to be incompatible with conservation of native biota and watershed functions in Hawai'i. Management actions for conservation generally exclude large non-native mammals from natural areas, thereby reducing the amount of land area available for hunting activities and the maintenance of sustainable game populations. An approach which may be useful in addressing the necessary minimum amount of land area allocated for hunting in Hawai'i is to determine the amount of land area necessary for sustaining populations of hunted animals to meet current levels harvested by the public. We ask: What is the total amount of land necessary to provide sustained-yield hunting of game meat for food at the current harvest level on Hawai'i Island if only feral pigs (Sus scrofa) were to be harvested? We used a simplistic analysis to estimate that 1 317.6 km2-1 651.4 km2 would be necessary to produce 187 333.6 kg of feral pig meat annually based on the range of dressed weight per whole pig, the proportion of a pig population that can be sustainably removed annually, and the density of pig populations in the wild. This amount of area comprises 12.6-15.8% of the total land area of Hawai'i Island, but more likely represents 27.6-43.5% of areas that may be compatible with sustained-yield hunting.

  8. Who Bites the Bullet First? The Susceptibility of Leopards Panthera pardus to Trophy Hunting

    PubMed Central

    Braczkowski, Alex Richard; Balme, Guy Andrew; Dickman, Amy; Macdonald, David Whyte; Fattebert, Julien; Dickerson, Tristan; Johnson, Paul; Hunter, Luke

    2015-01-01

    Reliable data is fundamentally important for managing large carnivore populations, and vital for informing hunting quota levels if those populations are subject to trophy hunting. Camera-trapping and spoor counts can provide reliable population estimates for many carnivores, but governments typically lack the resources to implement such surveys over the spatial scales required to inform robust quota setting. It may therefore be prudent to shift focus away from estimating population size and instead focus on monitoring population trend. In this paper we assess the susceptibility of African leopards Panthera pardus to trophy hunting. This has management ramifications, particularly if the use of harvest composition is to be explored as a metric of population trend. We explore the susceptibility of different leopard age and sex cohorts to trophy hunting; first by examining their intrinsic susceptibility to encountering trophy hunters using camera-traps as surrogates, and second by assessing their extrinsic susceptibility using photographic questionnaire surveys to determine their attractiveness to hunters. We show that adult male and female leopards share similar incident rates to encountering hunters but adult males are the most susceptible to hunting due to hunter preference for large trophies. In contrast, sub-adult leopards rarely encounter hunters and are the least attractive trophies. We suggest that our findings be used as a foundation for the exploration of a harvest composition scheme in the Kwazulu-Natal and Limpopo provinces where post mortem information is collected from hunted leopards and submitted to the local provincial authorities. PMID:25860139

  9. Effects of trophy hunting on lion and leopard populations in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Packer, C; Brink, H; Kissui, B M; Maliti, H; Kushnir, H; Caro, T

    2011-02-01

    Tanzania holds most of the remaining large populations of African lions (Panthera leo) and has extensive areas of leopard habitat (Panthera pardus), and both species are subjected to sizable harvests by sport hunters. As a first step toward establishing sustainable management strategies, we analyzed harvest trends for lions and leopards across Tanzania's 300,000 km(2) of hunting blocks. We summarize lion population trends in protected areas where lion abundance has been directly measured and data on the frequency of lion attacks on humans in high-conflict agricultural areas. We place these findings in context of the rapidly growing human population in rural Tanzania and the concomitant effects of habitat loss, human-wildlife conflict, and cultural practices. Lion harvests declined by 50% across Tanzania between 1996 and 2008, and hunting areas with the highest initial harvests suffered the steepest declines. Although each part of the country is subject to some form of anthropogenic impact from local people, the intensity of trophy hunting was the only significant factor in a statistical analysis of lion harvest trends. Although leopard harvests were more stable, regions outside the Selous Game Reserve with the highest initial leopard harvests again showed the steepest declines. Our quantitative analyses suggest that annual hunting quotas be limited to 0.5 lions and 1.0 leopard/1000 km(2) of hunting area, except hunting blocks in the Selous Game Reserve, where harvests should be limited to 1.0 lion and 3.0 leopards/1000 km(2) . PMID:20825444

  10. American Indians, hunting and fishing rates, risk, and the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory.

    PubMed

    Burger, J

    1999-05-01

    Hunting, fishing, and recreational rates of 276 American Indians attending a festival at Fort Hall, near the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), were examined. Nearly half of the sample lived on the Fort Hall Reservation, and half were American Indians from elsewhere in the western United States. An additional 44 White people attending the festival were also interviewed. The hypothesis that there are differences in hunting, fishing, and recreational rates as a function of tribal affiliation, educational level, gender, and age was examined. Information on hunting and fishing rates are central for understanding potential exposure scenarios for American Indians if the Department of Energy's INEEL lands are ever opened to pubic access, and the data are important because of the existence of tribal treaties that govern the legal and cultural rights of the Shoshone-Bannock regarding INEEL lands. Variations in hunting, fishing, and photography rates were explained by tribal affiliation (except fishing), gender, age, and schooling. Hunting rates were significantly higher for Indians (both those living on Fort Hall and others) than Whites. Men engaged in significantly higher rates of outdoor activities than women (except for photography). Potential and current hunting and fishing on and adjacent to INEEL was more similar among the local Whites and Fort Hall Indians than between these two groups and other American Indians. PMID:10330305

  11. Extent and ecological consequences of hunting in Central African rainforests in the twenty-first century

    PubMed Central

    Abernethy, K. A.; Coad, L.; Taylor, G.; Lee, M. E.; Maisels, F.

    2013-01-01

    Humans have hunted wildlife in Central Africa for millennia. Today, however, many species are being rapidly extirpated and sanctuaries for wildlife are dwindling. Almost all Central Africa's forests are now accessible to hunters. Drastic declines of large mammals have been caused in the past 20 years by the commercial trade for meat or ivory. We review a growing body of empirical data which shows that trophic webs are significantly disrupted in the region, with knock-on effects for other ecological functions, including seed dispersal and forest regeneration. Plausible scenarios for land-use change indicate that increasing extraction pressure on Central African forests is likely to usher in new worker populations and to intensify the hunting impacts and trophic cascade disruption already in progress, unless serious efforts are made for hunting regulation. The profound ecological changes initiated by hunting will not mitigate and may even exacerbate the predicted effects of climate change for the region. We hypothesize that, in the near future, the trophic changes brought about by hunting will have a larger and more rapid impact on Central African rainforest structure and function than the direct impacts of climate change on the vegetation. Immediate hunting regulation is vital for the survival of the Central African rainforest ecosystem. PMID:23878333

  12. Modis-N airborne simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cech, Steven D.

    1992-01-01

    All required work associated with the above referenced contract has been successfully completed at this time. The Modis-N Airborne Simulator has been developed from existing AB184 Wildfire spectrometer parts as well as new detector arrays, optical components, and associated mechanical and electrical hardware. The various instrument components have been integrated into an operational system which has undergone extensive laboratory calibration and testing. The instrument has been delivered to NASA Ames where it will be installed on the NASA ER-2. The following paragraphs detail the specific tasks performed during the contract effort, the results obtained during the integration and testing of the instrument, and the conclusions which can be drawn from this effort.

  13. Airborne imaging spectrometer development tasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolten, John

    The tasks that must be completed to design and build an airborne imaging spectrometer are listed. The manpower and resources required to do these tasks must be estimated by the people responsible for that work. The tasks are broken down by instrument subsystem or discipline. The instrument performance can be assessed at various stages during the development. The initial assessment should be done with the preliminary computer model. The instrument calibration facilities should be designed, but no calibration facilities are needed. The intermediate assessment can be done when the front end has been assembled. The preliminary instrument calibration facility should be available at this stage. The final assessment can only be done when the instrument is complete and ready for flight. For this, the final instrument calibration facility and the flight qualification facilities must be ready. The final assessment is discussed in each discipline under the section on integration and test.

  14. Research on MLS airborne antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, C. L.; Burnside, W. D.

    1976-01-01

    Numerical solutions for the radiation patterns of antennas mounted on aircraft are developed. The airborne antenna problems associated with the Microwave Landing System (MLS) are emphasized. Based on the requirements of the MLS, volumetric pattern solutions are essential. Previous attempts at solving for the volumetric patterns were found to be far too complex and very inefficient. However as a result of previous efforts, it is possible to combine the elevation and roll plane pattern solutions to give the complete volumetric pattern. This combination is described as well as the aircraft simulation models used in the analysis. A numerical technique is presented to aid in the simulation of the aircraft studied. Finally, a description of the input data used in the computer code is given.

  15. Global deposition of airborne dioxin.

    PubMed

    Booth, Shawn; Hui, Joe; Alojado, Zoraida; Lam, Vicky; Cheung, William; Zeller, Dirk; Steyn, Douw; Pauly, Daniel

    2013-10-15

    We present a global dioxin model that simulates one year of atmospheric emissions, transport processes, and depositions to the earth's terrestrial and marine habitats. We map starting emission levels for each land area, and we also map the resulting deposits to terrestrial and marine environments. This model confirms that 'hot spots' of deposition are likely to be in northern Europe, eastern North America, and in parts of Asia with the highest marine dioxin depositions being the northeast and northwest Atlantic, western Pacific, northern Indian Ocean and the Mediterranean. It also reveals that approximately 40% of airborne dioxin emissions are deposited to marine environments and that many countries in Africa receive more dioxin than they produce, which results in these countries being disproportionately impacted. Since human exposure to dioxin is largely through diet, this work highlights food producing areas that receive higher atmospheric deposits of dioxin than others. PMID:23962732

  16. Airborne remote sensing of forest biomes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sader, Steven A.

    1987-01-01

    Airborne sensor data of forest biomes obtained using an SAR, a laser profiler, an IR MSS, and a TM simulator are presented and examined. The SAR was utilized to investigate forest canopy structures in Mississippi and Costa Rica; the IR MSS measured forest canopy temperatures in Oregon and Puerto Rico; the TM simulator was employed in a tropical forest in Puerto Rico; and the laser profiler studied forest canopy characteristics in Costa Rica. The advantages and disadvantages of airborne systems are discussed. It is noted that the airborne sensors provide measurements applicable to forest monitoring programs.

  17. Changing patterns of goose harvest on California public hunting areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fleskes, J.P.; Hicks, J.M.; Gilmer, D.S.

    1994-01-01

    We summarized hunter visits, success, and the magnitude and species-subspecies composition of tho goose harvest recorded on California public hunting areas (PHAs) during 1950-89. Of six geographic regions, the Northeast accounted for the largest portion of the PHA harvest (55%); most of the remainder occurred in the Sacramento (30%) and Imperial (10%) Valley regions. Harvest, hunter visits, and success were low during the 1950s, but increased during the 1960s as new PHAs were added and data from Tule Lake and Lower Klamath National Wildlife Refuges (NWRs), where about half of California's PHA goose harvest occurs, became available. Success and harvest reflected declining goose abundance during the 1970s; however, hunter visits remained high on most PHAs because ducks were abundant. During the 1980s, declining populations of greater white-fronted geese, Anser albifrons frontalis, and cackling Canada geese, Branta canadensis minima, prompted restrictive regulations resulting in low harvest and success. Hunter visits were further reduced because of declining duck abundance and overall declines in hunter numbers. White-fronted geese were most prominent in the Northeast and Suisun Marsh harvest, but the lesser snow goose, Chen caerulescens caerulescens, was more important in other regions. Overall, the cackling Canada goose was the third most common goose harvested. The harvest of most geese peaked during 1965-74, coinciding with a peak in hunter visits, and then declined. However, the harvest of Canada geese (includes unknown proportions of western, B. c. moffitti, Taverner's, B. c. taverneri, and lesser, B. c. parvipes) and Ross' geese, Chen rossi, increased slightly throughout the study period. PHA harvest averaged 9-15% of the total state goose harvest during 1960-89. Success on PHAs was greater than statewide success until the 1980's, when restrictive regulations were imposed in zones encompassing many Sacramento Valley and San Joaquin Basin PHAs. White

  18. A new 'Jackson Hunt' model for monotectic composite growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stöcker, C.; Ratke, L.

    1999-06-01

    Directional solidification of monotectic alloys can lead under certain conditions of growth velocity and temperature gradient in the melt to composite microstructures with a rodlike appearance. For a theoretical description most researchers applied the Jackson and Hunt model of rod eutectic growth and predicted a relation between the mean rod distance R and the solidification velocity v0, as v0R2=const. similar to eutectics. The comparison between theory and experiments always led to discrepancies not yet resolved. In the approach presented here we propose an additional mode of mass transport in front of the zone coupled growth, since in our mind the main difference between monotectic and eutectic solidification is the liquid phase state of the (rod) L2 phase growing simultaneously within a nearly perfectly pure solid matrix. We assume that the thermocapillary effect causes convection at the surface of the liquid L2 phase. This Marangoni convection induces a flow field in front of the solidification front and has a strong influence on the solute transport, depending on the local temperature gradient and the Peclet number. We find a new relation between R and v0 in the case of small Peclet numbers and discuss some consequences on the stability of composite growth.

  19. A hydrodynamic sensory antenna used by killifish for nocturnal hunting

    PubMed Central

    Schwarz, Jason S.; Reichenbach, Tobias; Hudspeth, A. J.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY The perception of sensory stimuli by an animal requires several steps, commencing with the capture of stimulus energy by an antenna that, as the interface between the physical world and the nervous system, modifies the stimulus in ways that enhance the animal's perception. The mammalian external ear, for example, collects sound and spectrally alters it to increase sensitivity and improve the detection of directionality. In view of the morphological diversity of the lateral-line system across species and its accessibility to observation and experimental intervention, we sought to investigate the role of antennal structures on the response characteristics of the lateral line. The surface-feeding killifish Aplocheilus lineatus is able to hunt in darkness by detecting surface capillary waves with the lateral-line system atop its head. This cephalic lateral line consists of a stereotyped array of 18 mechanosensitive neuromasts bordered by fleshy ridges. By recording microphonic potentials, we found that each neuromast has a unique receptive field defined by its sensitivity to stimulation of the water's surface. The ridges help determine these receptive fields by altering the flow of water over each neuromast. Modification of the hydrodynamic environment by the addition of a supplemental ridge changes the pattern of water movement, perturbs the receptive fields of adjacent neuromasts and impairs the fish's localization ability. On the basis of electrophysiological, hydrodynamic and behavioral evidence, we propose that the ridges constitute a hydrodynamic antenna for the cephalic lateral line. PMID:21562172

  20. Trajectory Hunting: Analysis of UARS Measurements Showing Rapid Chlorine Activation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danilin, M. Y.; Santee, M. L.; Rodriquez, J. M.; Ko, M. K. W.; Mergenthaler, J. M.; Kumer, J. B.; Tabazadeh, A.

    1998-01-01

    Trajectory hunting (i.e., a technique to find air parcels sampled at least twice over the course of a few days) is applied to analyze Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) measurements in conjunction with the AER photochemical box model. In this study, we investigate rapid chlorine activation in the Arctic lower stratosphere on 29 Dec. 1992 associated with a polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) event. Six air parcels that have been sampled twice were followed along 5-day trajectories at the 465 K (approx. 46 mb) and 585 K (approxi. 22 mb) levels. A detailed sensitivity study with the AER photochemical box model along these trajectories leads to the following conclusions for the episode considered: 1) model results are in better agreement with UARS measurements at these levels if the U.K. Meteorological Office (UKMO) temperature is decreased by at least 1-2 K; 2) the NAT (nitric acid trihydrate) PSC formation scheme produces results in better agreement with observations than the STS (supercooled ternary solution) scheme; 3) the model can explain the UARS measurements at 585 K, but under-estimates the ClO abundance at 465 K, suggesting some inconsistency between the UARS measurements at this level.

  1. Trajectory Hunting: Analysis of UARS Measurements showing Rapid Chlorine Activation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danilin, M.Y.; Santee, M. L.; Rodriquez, J. M.; Ko, M. K. W.; Mergenthaler, J. M.; Kumer, J. B.; Tabazadeh, A.

    1998-01-01

    Trajectory hunting (i.e., a technique to find air parcels sampled at least twice over the course of a few days) is applied to analyze Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) measurements in conjunction with the AER photochemical box model. In this study, we investigate rapid chlorine activation in the Arctic lower stratosphere on 29 Dec 1992 associated with a polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) event. Six air parcels that have been sampled twice were followed along 5-day trajectories at the 465 K (approximately 46 mb) and 585 K (approximately 22 mb) levels. A detailed sensitivity study with the AER. photochemical box model along these trajectories leads to the following conclusions for the episode considered: (1) model results are in better agreement with UARS measurements at these levels if the UKMO temperature is decreased by at least 1-2 K; (2) the NAT (nitric acid trihydrate) PSC formation scheme produces results in better agreement with observations than the STS (supercooled ternary solution) scheme; (3) the model can explain the UARS measurements at 585 K, but under-estimates the ClO abundance at 465 K, suggesting some inconsistency between the UARS measurements at this level.

  2. Bilateral Ramsay Hunt syndrome in a diabetic patient.

    PubMed

    Syal, Rajan; Tyagi, Isha; Goyal, Amit

    2004-12-01

    BACKGROUND: Herpes zoster oticus accounts for about 10% cases of facial palsy, which is usually unilateral and complete and full recovery occurs in only about 20% of untreated patients. Bilateral herpes zoster oticus can sometime occur in immunocompromised patients, though incidence is very rare. CASE PRESENTATION: Diabetic male, 57 year old presented to us with bilateral facial palsy due to herpes zoster oticus. Patient was having bilateral mild to moderate sensorineural hearing loss. Patient was treated with appropriate metabolic control, anti-inflammatory drugs and intravenous acyclovir. Due to uncontrolled diabetes, glucocorticoids were not used in this patient. Significant improvement in hearing status and facial nerve functions were seen in this patient. CONCLUSIONS: Herpes zoster causes severe infections in diabetic patients and can be a cause of bilateral facial palsy and bilateral Ramsay Hunt syndrome. Herpes zoster in diabetic patients should be treated with appropriate metabolic control, NSAIDS and intravenous acyclovir, which we feel should be started at the earliest. Glucocorticoids should be avoided in diabetic patients. PMID:15575957

  3. Bilateral Ramsay Hunt syndrome in a diabetic patient

    PubMed Central

    Syal, Rajan; Tyagi, Isha; Goyal, Amit

    2004-01-01

    Background Herpes zoster oticus accounts for about 10% cases of facial palsy, which is usually unilateral and complete and full recovery occurs in only about 20% of untreated patients. Bilateral herpes zoster oticus can sometime occur in immunocompromised patients, though incidence is very rare. Case presentation Diabetic male, 57 year old presented to us with bilateral facial palsy due to herpes zoster oticus. Patient was having bilateral mild to moderate sensorineural hearing loss. Patient was treated with appropriate metabolic control, anti-inflammatory drugs and intravenous acyclovir. Due to uncontrolled diabetes, glucocorticoids were not used in this patient. Significant improvement in hearing status and facial nerve functions were seen in this patient. Conclusions Herpes zoster causes severe infections in diabetic patients and can be a cause of bilateral facial palsy and bilateral Ramsay Hunt syndrome. Herpes zoster in diabetic patients should be treated with appropriate metabolic control, NSAIDS and intravenous acyclovir, which we feel should be started at the earliest. Glucocorticoids should be avoided in diabetic patients. PMID:15575957

  4. LEECH: Hunting for Planets with LBTI-LMIRcam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leisenring, Jarron; Skemer, A.; LEECH Survey Team

    2014-01-01

    In Spring 2013, the LEECH (LBTI Exozodi Exoplanet Common Hunt) survey began its 100-night campaign from the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) atop Mt Graham, Arizona. This survey benefits from the many technological achievements of the LBT, including two 8.4-meter mirrors on a single fixed mount, dual adaptive secondary mirrors for high Strehl performance, and a cold beam combiner to dramatically reducing the telescope's overall background emissivity. LEECH neatly complements other high-contrast planet imaging efforts by observing stars at L’ (3.8 microns) with LMIRcam, as opposed to the shorter wavelength near-infrared bands (1-2.4 microns) of other similar surveys. This portion of the spectrum offers deeper mass sensitivity for intermediate age (several hundred Myr-old) systems, since their Jovian-mass planets radiate predominantly in the mid-infrared. The goals of LEECH are to (1) discover new exoplanets, (2) characterize the atmospheres of newly discovered exoplanets, (3) characterize the architectures of nearby planetary systems, and (4) establish meaningful constraints on the prevalence of wide-separation exoplanets.

  5. Duck harvest on public hunting areas in California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gilmer, D.S.; Hicks, J.M.; Fleskes, J.P.; Connelly, D.P.

    1989-01-01

    We summarized hunter visits and success, and the magnitude and species composition of the duck harvest recorded on California public hunting areas (PHAs) during 1950-87. Hunter visits and harvest increased during 1950-74 as new PHAs were added, then declined concurrently with duck populations. Of six geographic regions, the Sacramento Valley, with numerous PHAs and the largest duck concentrations, accounted for the largest portion of PHA hunter visits (28%) and harvest (35%). Duck population levels, regulations, and hunter numbers affected PHA hunter success. Success was highest during 1955-59 but declined with no consistent trend after 1960. Species vulnerability, abundance, distribution, and hunter preference affected harvest composition. Northern pintails, Anas acuta, averaged 27% of the PHA harvest but declined in importance after 1974. Green-winged teal, A. crecca, the most important species in southern regions, averaged 21% of the PHA harvest. Mallards, A. platyrhynchos, averaged 16% of the PHA harvest but increased in importance after 1974 to become the most common duck bagged after 1983. PHA harvest comprised a small (4-16%) portion of the total state harvest. However, this portion increased from 1950-70 because of increased hunter visits to new PHAs and after 1970 because hunter success on PHAs did not decline as on other areas. PHA hunters tended to harvest fewer preferred species and more vulnerable species, as proportions of total bag, than did other hunters. The continued decline in numbers of waterfowl hunters presents important challenges for management of waterfowl areas in California.

  6. Airborne Gamma-Spectrometry in Switzerland

    SciTech Connect

    Butterweck, Gernot; Bucher, Benno; Rybach, Ladislaus

    2008-08-07

    Airborne gamma-spectrometry is able to obtain fast radiological information over large areas. The airborne gamma-spectrometry unit deployed in Switzerland by the Swiss National Emergency Operations Centre (NEOC) consists of a Swiss army Super Puma helicopter equipped with four NaI-Detectors with a total volume of 17 liters, associated electronics and a real-time data evaluation and mapping unit developed by the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) and the Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI). The operational readiness of the airborne gamma-spectrometry system is validated in annual exercises of one week duration. Data from 2005 and 2006 exercises are represented in maps of {sup 137}Cs activity concentration for two towns located in southern and western Switzerland. An indicator of man-made radioactivity (MMGC ratio) is demonstrated for an area with four different types of nuclear installations. The intercomparison between airborne gamma-spectrometry and ground measurements showed good agreement between both methods.

  7. Principles for Sampling Airborne Radioactivity from Stacks

    SciTech Connect

    Glissmeyer, John A.

    2010-10-18

    This book chapter describes the special processes involved in sampling the airborne effluents from nuclear faciities. The title of the book is Radioactive Air Sampling Methods. The abstract for this chapter was cleared as PNNL-SA-45941.

  8. SOURCES OF HUMAN EXPOSURE TO AIRBORNE PAH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Personal exposures to airborne particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were studied in several populations in the US, Japan, and Czech Republic. Personal exposure monitors, developed for human exposure biomonitoring studies were used to collect fine particles (<_ 1....

  9. New England's Other Witch-hunt: The Hartford Witch-hunt of the 1660s and Changing Patterns in Witchcraft Prosecution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodward, Walter W.

    2003-01-01

    Classifies witchcraft prosecution into three periods in New England during the seventeenth century. Focuses on the witch-hunt in Hartford, Connecticut, the trial of Katherine Harrison, and the period of skepticism toward witchcraft prosecution. Addresses the role of Governor John Winthrop, Jr. in this skepticism and the legal procedures in…

  10. Mapping of airborne Doppler radar data

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, W.; Dodge, P.; Marks, F.D. Jr.; Hildebrand, P.H. NOAA, Miami, FL )

    1994-04-01

    Two sets of equations are derived to (1) map airborne Doppler radar data from an aircraft-relative coordinate system to an earth-relative coordinate system, and (2) remove the platform motion from the observed Doppler velocities. These equations can be applied to data collected by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration WP-3D system, the National Center for Atmospheric Research Electra Doppler Radar (ELDORA) system, and other airborne radar systems.

  11. Differences between Pygmy and Non-Pygmy Hunting in Congo Basin Forests.

    PubMed

    Fa, John E; Olivero, Jesús; Farfán, Miguel Angel; Lewis, Jerome; Yasuoka, Hirokazu; Noss, Andrew; Hattori, Shiho; Hirai, Masaaki; Kamgaing, Towa O W; Carpaneto, Giuseppe; Germi, Francesco; Márquez, Ana Luz; Duarte, Jesús; Duda, Romain; Gallois, Sandrine; Riddell, Michael; Nasi, Robert

    2016-01-01

    We use data on game harvest from 60 Pygmy and non-Pygmy settlements in the Congo Basin forests to examine whether hunting patterns and prey profiles differ between the two hunter groups. For each group, we calculate hunted animal numbers and biomass available per inhabitant, P, per year (harvest rates) and killed per hunter, H, per year (extraction rates). We assess the impact of hunting of both hunter groups from estimates of numbers and biomass of prey species killed per square kilometre, and by examining the proportion of hunted taxa of low, medium and high population growth rates as a measure of their vulnerability to overhunting. We then map harvested biomass (kg-1P-1Yr-1) of bushmeat by Pygmies and non-Pygmies throughout the Congo Basin. Hunting patterns differ between Pygmies and non-Pygmies; Pygmies take larger and different prey and non-Pygmies sell more for profit. We show that non-Pygmies have a potentially more severe impact on prey populations than Pygmies. This is because non-Pygmies hunt a wider range of species, and twice as many animals are taken per square kilometre. Moreover, in non-Pygmy settlements there was a larger proportion of game taken of low population growth rate. Our harvest map shows that the non-Pygmy population may be responsible for 27 times more animals harvested than the Pygmy population. Such differences indicate that the intense competition that may arise from the more widespread commercial hunting by non-Pygmies is a far more important constraint and source of conflict than are protected areas. PMID:27589384

  12. Integrating Sustainable Hunting in Biodiversity Protection in Central Africa: Hot Spots, Weak Spots, and Strong Spots

    PubMed Central

    Fa, John E.; Olivero, Jesús; Farfán, Miguel Ángel; Márquez, Ana Luz; Vargas, Juan Mario; Real, Raimundo; Nasi, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Wild animals are a primary source of protein (bushmeat) for people living in or near tropical forests. Ideally, the effect of bushmeat harvests should be monitored closely by making regular estimates of offtake rate and size of stock available for exploitation. However, in practice, this is possible in very few situations because it requires both of these aspects to be readily measurable, and even in the best case, entails very considerable time and effort. As alternative, in this study, we use high-resolution, environmental favorability models for terrestrial mammals (N = 165) in Central Africa to map areas of high species richness (hot spots) and hunting susceptibility. Favorability models distinguish localities with environmental conditions that favor the species' existence from those with detrimental characteristics for its presence. We develop an index for assessing Potential Hunting Sustainability (PHS) of each species based on their ecological characteristics (population density, habitat breadth, rarity and vulnerability), weighted according to restrictive and permissive assumptions of how species' characteristics are combined. Species are classified into five main hunting sustainability classes using fuzzy logic. Using the accumulated favorability values of all species, and their PHS values, we finally identify weak spots, defined as high diversity regions of especial hunting vulnerability for wildlife, as well as strong spots, defined as high diversity areas of high hunting sustainability potential. Our study uses relatively simple models that employ easily obtainable data of a species' ecological characteristics to assess the impacts of hunting in tropical regions. It provides information for management by charting the geography of where species are more or less likely to be at risk of extinction from hunting. PMID:25372705

  13. Integrating sustainable hunting in biodiversity protection in Central Africa: hot spots, weak spots, and strong spots.

    PubMed

    Fa, John E; Olivero, Jesús; Farfán, Miguel Ángel; Márquez, Ana Luz; Vargas, Juan Mario; Real, Raimundo; Nasi, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Wild animals are a primary source of protein (bushmeat) for people living in or near tropical forests. Ideally, the effect of bushmeat harvests should be monitored closely by making regular estimates of offtake rate and size of stock available for exploitation. However, in practice, this is possible in very few situations because it requires both of these aspects to be readily measurable, and even in the best case, entails very considerable time and effort. As alternative, in this study, we use high-resolution, environmental favorability models for terrestrial mammals (N = 165) in Central Africa to map areas of high species richness (hot spots) and hunting susceptibility. Favorability models distinguish localities with environmental conditions that favor the species' existence from those with detrimental characteristics for its presence. We develop an index for assessing Potential Hunting Sustainability (PHS) of each species based on their ecological characteristics (population density, habitat breadth, rarity and vulnerability), weighted according to restrictive and permissive assumptions of how species' characteristics are combined. Species are classified into five main hunting sustainability classes using fuzzy logic. Using the accumulated favorability values of all species, and their PHS values, we finally identify weak spots, defined as high diversity regions of especial hunting vulnerability for wildlife, as well as strong spots, defined as high diversity areas of high hunting sustainability potential. Our study uses relatively simple models that employ easily obtainable data of a species' ecological characteristics to assess the impacts of hunting in tropical regions. It provides information for management by charting the geography of where species are more or less likely to be at risk of extinction from hunting. PMID:25372705

  14. Chaos and crises in a model for cooperative hunting: A symbolic dynamics approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, Jorge; Januário, Cristina; Martins, Nuno; Sardanyés, Josep

    2009-12-01

    In this work we investigate the population dynamics of cooperative hunting extending the McCann and Yodzis model for a three-species food chain system with a predator, a prey, and a resource species. The new model considers that a given fraction σ of predators cooperates in prey's hunting, while the rest of the population 1-σ hunts without cooperation. We use the theory of symbolic dynamics to study the topological entropy and the parameter space ordering of the kneading sequences associated with one-dimensional maps that reproduce significant aspects of the dynamics of the species under several degrees of cooperative hunting. Our model also allows us to investigate the so-called deterministic extinction via chaotic crisis and transient chaos in the framework of cooperative hunting. The symbolic sequences allow us to identify a critical boundary in the parameter spaces (K ,C0) and (K ,σ) which separates two scenarios: (i) all-species coexistence and (ii) predator's extinction via chaotic crisis. We show that the crisis value of the carrying capacity Kc decreases at increasing σ, indicating that predator's populations with high degree of cooperative hunting are more sensitive to the chaotic crises. We also show that the control method of Dhamala and Lai [Phys. Rev. E 59, 1646 (1999)] can sustain the chaotic behavior after the crisis for systems with cooperative hunting. We finally analyze and quantify the inner structure of the target regions obtained with this control method for wider parameter values beyond the crisis, showing a power law dependence of the extinction transients on such critical parameters.

  15. Geo-Spatial Aspects of Acceptance of Illegal Hunting of Large Carnivores in Scandinavia

    PubMed Central

    Gangaas, Kristin E.; Kaltenborn, Bjørn P.; Andreassen, Harry P.

    2013-01-01

    Human-carnivore conflicts are complex and are influenced by: the spatial distribution of the conflict species; the organisation and intensity of management measures such as zoning; historical experience with wildlife; land use patterns; and local cultural traditions. We have used a geographically stratified sampling of social values and attitudes to provide a novel perspective to the human – wildlife conflict. We have focused on acceptance by and disagreements between residents (measured as Potential Conflict Index; PCI) towards illegal hunting of four species of large carnivores (bear, lynx, wolf, wolverine). The study is based on surveys of residents in every municipality in Sweden and Norway who were asked their opinion on illegal hunting. Our results show how certain social values are associated with acceptance of poaching, and how these values differ geographically independent of carnivore abundance. Our approach differs from traditional survey designs, which are often biased towards urban areas. Although these traditional designs intend to be representative of a region (i.e. a random sample from a country), they tend to receive relatively few respondents from rural areas that experience the majority of conflict with carnivores. Acceptance of poaching differed significantly between Norway (12.7–15.7% of respondents) and Sweden (3.3–4.1% of respondents). We found the highest acceptance of illegal hunting in rural areas with free-ranging sheep and strong hunting traditions. Disagreements between residents (as measured by PCI) were highest in areas with intermediate population density. There was no correlation between carnivore density and either acceptance of illegal hunting or PCI. A strong positive correlation between acceptance of illegal hunting and PCI showed that areas with high acceptance of illegal hunting are areas with high potential conflict between people. Our results show that spatially-stratified surveys are required to reveal the large scale

  16. Sexual dimorphism in relation to big-game hunting and economy in modern human populations.

    PubMed

    Collier, S

    1993-08-01

    Postcranial skeletal data from two recent Eskimo populations are used to test David Frayer's model of sexual dimorphism reduction in Europe between the Upper Paleolithic and Mesolithic. Frayer argued that a change from big-game hunting and adoption of new technology in the Mesolithic reduced selection for large body size in males and led to a reduction in skeletal sexual dimorphism. Though aspects of Frayer's work have been criticized in the literature, the association of big-game hunting and high sexual dimorphism is untested. This study employs univariate and multivariate analysis to test that association by examining sexual dimorphism of cranial and postcranial bones of two recent Alaskan Eskimo populations, one being big-game (whale and other large marine mammal) hunting people, and the second being salmon fishing, riverine people. While big-game hunting influences skeletal robusticity, it cannot be said to lead to greater sexual dimorphism generally. The two populations had different relative sexual dimorphism levels for different parts of the body. Notably, the big-game hunting (whaling) Eskimos had the lower multivariate dimorphism in the humerus, which could be expected to be the structure under greatest exertion by such hunting in males. While the exertions of the whale hunting economic activities led to high skeletal robusticity, as predicted by Frayer's model, this was true of the females as well as the males, resulting in low sexual dimorphism in some features. Females are half the sexual dimorphism equation, and they cannot be seen as constants in any model of economic behavior. PMID:8372937

  17. Hunting, Exotic Carnivores, and Habitat Loss: Anthropogenic Effects on a Native Carnivore Community, Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Farris, Zach J; Golden, Christopher D; Karpanty, Sarah; Murphy, Asia; Stauffer, Dean; Ratelolahy, Felix; Andrianjakarivelo, Vonjy; Holmes, Christopher M; Kelly, Marcella J

    2015-01-01

    The wide-ranging, cumulative, negative effects of anthropogenic disturbance, including habitat degradation, exotic species, and hunting, on native wildlife has been well documented across a range of habitats worldwide with carnivores potentially being the most vulnerable due to their more extinction prone characteristics. Investigating the effects of anthropogenic pressures on sympatric carnivores is needed to improve our ability to develop targeted, effective management plans for carnivore conservation worldwide. Utilizing photographic, line-transect, and habitat sampling, as well as landscape analyses and village-based bushmeat hunting surveys, we provide the first investigation of how multiple forms of habitat degradation (fragmentation, exotic carnivores, human encroachment, and hunting) affect carnivore occupancy across Madagascar's largest protected area: the Masoala-Makira landscape. We found that as degradation increased, native carnivore occupancy and encounter rates decreased while exotic carnivore occupancy and encounter rates increased. Feral cats (Felis species) and domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) had higher occupancy than half of the native carnivore species across Madagascar's largest protected landscape. Bird and small mammal encounter rates were negatively associated with exotic carnivore occupancy, but positively associated with the occupancy of four native carnivore species. Spotted fanaloka (Fossa fossana) occupancy was constrained by the presence of exotic feral cats and exotic small Indian civet (Viverricula indica). Hunting was intense across the four study sites where hunting was studied, with the highest rates for the small Indian civet (mean=90 individuals consumed/year), the ring-tailed vontsira (Galidia elegans) (mean=58 consumed/year), and the fosa (Cryptoprocta ferox) (mean=31 consumed/year). Our modeling results suggest hunters target intact forest where carnivore occupancy, abundance, and species richness, are highest. These various

  18. Geo-spatial aspects of acceptance of illegal hunting of large carnivores in Scandinavia.

    PubMed

    Gangaas, Kristin E; Kaltenborn, Bjørn P; Andreassen, Harry P

    2013-01-01

    Human-carnivore conflicts are complex and are influenced by: the spatial distribution of the conflict species; the organisation and intensity of management measures such as zoning; historical experience with wildlife; land use patterns; and local cultural traditions. We have used a geographically stratified sampling of social values and attitudes to provide a novel perspective to the human - wildlife conflict. We have focused on acceptance by and disagreements between residents (measured as Potential Conflict Index; PCI) towards illegal hunting of four species of large carnivores (bear, lynx, wolf, wolverine). The study is based on surveys of residents in every municipality in Sweden and Norway who were asked their opinion on illegal hunting. Our results show how certain social values are associated with acceptance of poaching, and how these values differ geographically independent of carnivore abundance. Our approach differs from traditional survey designs, which are often biased towards urban areas. Although these traditional designs intend to be representative of a region (i.e. a random sample from a country), they tend to receive relatively few respondents from rural areas that experience the majority of conflict with carnivores. Acceptance of poaching differed significantly between Norway (12.7-15.7% of respondents) and Sweden (3.3-4.1% of respondents). We found the highest acceptance of illegal hunting in rural areas with free-ranging sheep and strong hunting traditions. Disagreements between residents (as measured by PCI) were highest in areas with intermediate population density. There was no correlation between carnivore density and either acceptance of illegal hunting or PCI. A strong positive correlation between acceptance of illegal hunting and PCI showed that areas with high acceptance of illegal hunting are areas with high potential conflict between people. Our results show that spatially-stratified surveys are required to reveal the large scale

  19. Challenges and opportunities of airborne metagenomics.

    PubMed

    Behzad, Hayedeh; Gojobori, Takashi; Mineta, Katsuhiko

    2015-05-01

    Recent metagenomic studies of environments, such as marine and soil, have significantly enhanced our understanding of the diverse microbial communities living in these habitats and their essential roles in sustaining vast ecosystems. The increase in the number of publications related to soil and marine metagenomics is in sharp contrast to those of air, yet airborne microbes are thought to have significant impacts on many aspects of our lives from their potential roles in atmospheric events such as cloud formation, precipitation, and atmospheric chemistry to their major impact on human health. In this review, we will discuss the current progress in airborne metagenomics, with a special focus on exploring the challenges and opportunities of undertaking such studies. The main challenges of conducting metagenomic studies of airborne microbes are as follows: 1) Low density of microorganisms in the air, 2) efficient retrieval of microorganisms from the air, 3) variability in airborne microbial community composition, 4) the lack of standardized protocols and methodologies, and 5) DNA sequencing and bioinformatics-related challenges. Overcoming these challenges could provide the groundwork for comprehensive analysis of airborne microbes and their potential impact on the atmosphere, global climate, and our health. Metagenomic studies offer a unique opportunity to examine viral and bacterial diversity in the air and monitor their spread locally or across the globe, including threats from pathogenic microorganisms. Airborne metagenomic studies could also lead to discoveries of novel genes and metabolic pathways relevant to meteorological and industrial applications, environmental bioremediation, and biogeochemical cycles. PMID:25953766

  20. Challenges and Opportunities of Airborne Metagenomics

    PubMed Central

    Behzad, Hayedeh; Gojobori, Takashi; Mineta, Katsuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Recent metagenomic studies of environments, such as marine and soil, have significantly enhanced our understanding of the diverse microbial communities living in these habitats and their essential roles in sustaining vast ecosystems. The increase in the number of publications related to soil and marine metagenomics is in sharp contrast to those of air, yet airborne microbes are thought to have significant impacts on many aspects of our lives from their potential roles in atmospheric events such as cloud formation, precipitation, and atmospheric chemistry to their major impact on human health. In this review, we will discuss the current progress in airborne metagenomics, with a special focus on exploring the challenges and opportunities of undertaking such studies. The main challenges of conducting metagenomic studies of airborne microbes are as follows: 1) Low density of microorganisms in the air, 2) efficient retrieval of microorganisms from the air, 3) variability in airborne microbial community composition, 4) the lack of standardized protocols and methodologies, and 5) DNA sequencing and bioinformatics-related challenges. Overcoming these challenges could provide the groundwork for comprehensive analysis of airborne microbes and their potential impact on the atmosphere, global climate, and our health. Metagenomic studies offer a unique opportunity to examine viral and bacterial diversity in the air and monitor their spread locally or across the globe, including threats from pathogenic microorganisms. Airborne metagenomic studies could also lead to discoveries of novel genes and metabolic pathways relevant to meteorological and industrial applications, environmental bioremediation, and biogeochemical cycles. PMID:25953766

  1. A Balancing Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Tamika; Mobley, Mary; Huttenlock, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    It's the season for the job hunt, whether one is looking for their first job or taking the next step along their career path. This article presents first-person accounts to see how teachers balance the rewards and challenges of working in different types of schools. Tamica Lewis, a third-grade teacher, states that faculty at her school is…

  2. Pulsed Doppler lidar airborne scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dimarzio, C. A.; Mcvicker, D. B.; Morrow, C. E.; Negus, C. C.

    1985-01-01

    This report covers the work accomplished during the reporting period on Pulsed Doppler Lidar Airborne Scanner and describes plans for the next reporting period. The objectives during the current phase of the contract are divided into four phases. Phase 1 includes ground testing of the system and analysis of data from the 1981 Severe Storms Test Flights. Phase 2 consists of preflight preparation and planning for the 1983 flight series. The flight test itself will be performed during Phase 3, and Phase 4 consists of post-flight analysis and operation of the system after that flight test. The range profile from five samples taken during Flight 10, around 1700 Z is given. The lowest curve is taken from data collected upwind of Mt. Shasta at about 10,000 feet of altitude, in a clear atmosphere, where no signals were observed. It thus is a good representation of the noise level as a function of range. The next curve was taken downwind of the mountain, and shows evidence of atmospheric returns. There is some question as to whether the data are valid at all ranges, or some ranges are contaminated by the others.

  3. Pulsed Doppler lidar airborne scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimarzio, C. A.; McVicker, D. B.; Morrow, C. E.; Negus, C. C.

    1985-10-01

    This report covers the work accomplished during the reporting period on Pulsed Doppler Lidar Airborne Scanner and describes plans for the next reporting period. The objectives during the current phase of the contract are divided into four phases. Phase 1 includes ground testing of the system and analysis of data from the 1981 Severe Storms Test Flights. Phase 2 consists of preflight preparation and planning for the 1983 flight series. The flight test itself will be performed during Phase 3, and Phase 4 consists of post-flight analysis and operation of the system after that flight test. The range profile from five samples taken during Flight 10, around 1700 Z is given. The lowest curve is taken from data collected upwind of Mt. Shasta at about 10,000 feet of altitude, in a clear atmosphere, where no signals were observed. It thus is a good representation of the noise level as a function of range. The next curve was taken downwind of the mountain, and shows evidence of atmospheric returns. There is some question as to whether the data are valid at all ranges, or some ranges are contaminated by the others.

  4. Performance Basis for Airborne Separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wing, David J.

    2008-01-01

    Emerging applications of Airborne Separation Assistance System (ASAS) technologies make possible new and powerful methods in Air Traffic Management (ATM) that may significantly improve the system-level performance of operations in the future ATM system. These applications typically involve the aircraft managing certain components of its Four Dimensional (4D) trajectory within the degrees of freedom defined by a set of operational constraints negotiated with the Air Navigation Service Provider. It is hypothesized that reliable individual performance by many aircraft will translate into higher total system-level performance. To actually realize this improvement, the new capabilities must be attracted to high demand and complexity regions where high ATM performance is critical. Operational approval for use in such environments will require participating aircraft to be certified to rigorous and appropriate performance standards. Currently, no formal basis exists for defining these standards. This paper provides a context for defining the performance basis for 4D-ASAS operations. The trajectory constraints to be met by the aircraft are defined, categorized, and assessed for performance requirements. A proposed extension of the existing Required Navigation Performance (RNP) construct into a dynamic standard (Dynamic RNP) is outlined. Sample data is presented from an ongoing high-fidelity batch simulation series that is characterizing the performance of an advanced 4D-ASAS application. Data of this type will contribute to the evaluation and validation of the proposed performance basis.

  5. Medicinal smoke reduces airborne bacteria.

    PubMed

    Nautiyal, Chandra Shekhar; Chauhan, Puneet Singh; Nene, Yeshwant Laxman

    2007-12-01

    This study represents a comprehensive analysis and scientific validation of our ancient knowledge about the effect of ethnopharmacological aspects of natural products' smoke for therapy and health care on airborne bacterial composition and dynamics, using the Biolog microplate panels and Microlog database. We have observed that 1h treatment of medicinal smoke emanated by burning wood and a mixture of odoriferous and medicinal herbs (havan sámagri=material used in oblation to fire all over India), on aerial bacterial population caused over 94% reduction of bacterial counts by 60 min and the ability of the smoke to purify or disinfect the air and to make the environment cleaner was maintained up to 24h in the closed room. Absence of pathogenic bacteria Corynebacterium urealyticum, Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens, Enterobacter aerogenes (Klebsiella mobilis), Kocuria rosea, Pseudomonas syringae pv. persicae, Staphylococcus lentus, and Xanthomonas campestris pv. tardicrescens in the open room even after 30 days is indicative of the bactericidal potential of the medicinal smoke treatment. We have demonstrated that using medicinal smoke it is possible to completely eliminate diverse plant and human pathogenic bacteria of the air within confined space. PMID:17913417

  6. Visualizing Airborne and Satellite Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bierwirth, Victoria A.

    2011-01-01

    Remote sensing is a process able to provide information about Earth to better understand Earth's processes and assist in monitoring Earth's resources. The Cloud Absorption Radiometer (CAR) is one remote sensing instrument dedicated to the cause of collecting data on anthropogenic influences on Earth as well as assisting scientists in understanding land-surface and atmospheric interactions. Landsat is a satellite program dedicated to collecting repetitive coverage of the continental Earth surfaces in seven regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Combining these two aircraft and satellite remote sensing instruments will provide a detailed and comprehensive data collection able to provide influential information and improve predictions of changes in the future. This project acquired, interpreted, and created composite images from satellite data acquired from Landsat 4-5 Thematic Mapper (TM) and Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+). Landsat images were processed for areas covered by CAR during the Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCT AS), Cloud and Land Surface Interaction Campaign (CLASIC), Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment-Phase B (INTEXB), and Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI) 2000 missions. The acquisition of Landsat data will provide supplemental information to assist in visualizing and interpreting airborne and satellite imagery.

  7. Sink populations in carnivore management: cougar demography and immigration in a hunted population.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Hugh S; Wielgus, Robert B; Cooley, Hilary S; Cooley, Skye W

    2008-06-01

    Carnivores are widely hunted for both sport and population control, especially where they conflict with human interests. It is widely believed that sport hunting is effective in reducing carnivore populations and related human-carnivore conflicts, while maintaining viable populations. However, the way in which carnivore populations respond to harvest can vary greatly depending on their social structure, reproductive strategies, and dispersal patterns. For example, hunted cougar (Puma concolor) populations have shown a great degree of resiliency. Although hunting cougars on a broad geographic scale (> 2000 km2) has reduced densities, hunting of smaller areas (i.e., game management units, < 1000 km2), could conceivably fail because of increased immigration from adjacent source areas. We monitored a heavily hunted population from 2001 to 2006 to test for the effects of hunting at a small scale (< 1000 km2) and to gauge whether population control was achieved (lambda < or = 1.0) or if hunting losses were negated by increased immigration allowing the population to remain stable or increase (lambda > or = 1.0). The observed growth rate of 1.00 was significantly higher than our predicted survival/fecundity growth rates (using a Leslie matrix) of 0.89 (deterministic) and 0.84 (stochastic), with the difference representing an 11-16% annual immigration rate. We observed no decline in density of the total population or the adult population, but a significant decrease in the average age of independent males. We found that the male component of the population was increasing (observed male population growth rate, lambda(OM) = 1.09), masking a decrease in the female component (lambda(OF) = 0.91). Our data support the compensatory immigration sink hypothesis; cougar removal in small game management areas (< 1000 km2) increased immigration and recruitment of younger animals from adjacent areas, resulting in little or no reduction in local cougar densities and a shift in population

  8. Perennial water stratification and the role of basal freshwater flow in the mass balance of the Ward Hunt Ice Shelf, Canadian High Arctic

    SciTech Connect

    Jefferies, M.O.

    1992-03-01

    A pronounced perennial water stratification in Disraeli Fjord behind the Ward Hunt Ice Shelf on the north coast of Ellesmere Island is described. The ice shelf acts as a hanging dam at the mouth of the fjord and minimizes mixing between inflowing meltwater runoff and the seawater. Consequently, a 4 1 -m-deep layer of low salinity water, interposed between a 2- to 3-m-thick fjord surface ice layer and deeper seawater, is impounded behind the ice shelf. Highly negative delta 18O Values and high tritium activity in the low salinity water indicate it is derived primarily from snow-meltwater. Highly negative delta 18O values and high tritium values in a 5-m-thick basal ice layer in Hobson's Choice Ice Island, which broke off the East Ward Hunt Ice Shelf in 1982-83, might be evidence that basal accretion from freshwater flowing out of Disraeli Fjord below the ice shelf occurred prior to the calving. Using the known chronology of tritium occurrence in precipitation since 1952 and the measured levels in the basal ice, mean basal accretion rates of 96-141 mm yr-1 (water equivalent, w.e.) are calculated. The record of ablation and accumulation at the surface of the East Ward Hunt Ice Shelf for the period 1966-1982 shows an accumulated loss at the surface of 1.26 m (w.e.) at a mean annual rate of 74 mm yr-1. Therefore, despite many consecutive warm summers with considerable surface melting and runoff, the calculated basal accretion exceeds the surface loss and the ice shelf has increased, or at least maintained, its thickness. The thickening has been possible because of the feedback system created by the location of the ice shelf across the mouth of the fjord, the resultant water stratification and the outflow of freshwater below the ice shelf.

  9. Inversely tracking indoor airborne particles to locate their release sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tengfei (Tim); Li, Hongzhu; Wang, Shugang

    2012-08-01

    Airborne particles can have numerous adverse effects on human health. Knowing the release locations of airborne particulate sources is helpful in minimizing pollutant exposure. This paper describes a proposal to locate indoor particulate sources by two inverse models: the quasi-reversibility (QR) model and the zone prescription of contaminant sources with the Lagrangian-reversibility (LR) model. The QR model reverses the time marching direction of the Eulerian governing equation and replaces the second-order diffusion term with a fourth-order stabilization term. The zone prescription LR model traces individual particulate motion in a Lagrangian reference frame after reversing the flow field. The particle trajectories are solved backward to the initial release once the conservative forces acting on particles are reversed. The tracked particles are proposed to be placed at the zone boundary of the largest concentration contour within the domain at a given time, which is provided as the initially known information. By connecting all particles at t = 0, a zone is formed that can prescribe the actual contaminant source. This study finds that both models can accurately locate particulate sources released instantaneously at a spot. The QR model performs slightly better than the LR model but is much more computationally demanding.

  10. Functional Responses of Retaliatory Killing versus Recreational Sport Hunting of Leopards in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Swanepoel, Lourens H.; Somers, Michael J.; Dalerum, Fredrik

    2015-01-01

    Predation strategies in response to altering prey abundances can dramatically influence the demographic effects of predation. Despite this, predation strategies of humans are rarely incorporated into quantitative assessments of the demographic impacts of humans killing carnivores. This scarcity largely seems to be caused by a lack of data. In this study, we contrasted predation strategies exhibited by people involved in retaliatory killing and recreational sport hunting of leopards (Panthera pardus) in the Waterberg District Municipality, South Africa. We predicted a specialist predation strategy exemplified by a type II functional response for retaliatory killing, and a generalist strategy exemplified by a type III functional response for recreational sport hunting. We could not distinguish between a type I, a type II, or a type III functional response for retaliatory killing, but the most parsimonious model for recreational sport hunting corresponded to a type I functional response. Kill rates were consistently higher for retaliatory killing than for recreational sport hunting. Our results indicate that retaliatory killing of leopards may have severe demographic consequences for leopard populations, whereas the demographic consequences of recreational sport hunting likely are less dramatic. PMID:25905623

  11. Influence of group size on the success of wolves hunting bison.

    PubMed

    MacNulty, Daniel R; Tallian, Aimee; Stahler, Daniel R; Smith, Douglas W

    2014-01-01

    An intriguing aspect of social foraging behaviour is that large groups are often no better at capturing prey than are small groups, a pattern that has been attributed to diminished cooperation (i.e., free riding) in large groups. Although this suggests the formation of large groups is unrelated to prey capture, little is known about cooperation in large groups that hunt hard-to-catch prey. Here, we used direct observations of Yellowstone wolves (Canis lupus) hunting their most formidable prey, bison (Bison bison), to test the hypothesis that large groups are more cooperative when hunting difficult prey. We quantified the relationship between capture success and wolf group size, and compared it to previously reported results for Yellowstone wolves hunting elk (Cervus elaphus), a prey that was, on average, 3 times easier to capture than bison. Whereas improvement in elk capture success levelled off at 2-6 wolves, bison capture success levelled off at 9-13 wolves with evidence that it continued to increase beyond 13 wolves. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that hunters in large groups are more cooperative when hunting more formidable prey. Improved ability to capture formidable prey could therefore promote the formation and maintenance of large predator groups, particularly among predators that specialize on such prey. PMID:25389760

  12. Influence of Group Size on the Success of Wolves Hunting Bison

    PubMed Central

    MacNulty, Daniel R.; Tallian, Aimee; Stahler, Daniel R.; Smith, Douglas W.

    2014-01-01

    An intriguing aspect of social foraging behaviour is that large groups are often no better at capturing prey than are small groups, a pattern that has been attributed to diminished cooperation (i.e., free riding) in large groups. Although this suggests the formation of large groups is unrelated to prey capture, little is known about cooperation in large groups that hunt hard-to-catch prey. Here, we used direct observations of Yellowstone wolves (Canis lupus) hunting their most formidable prey, bison (Bison bison), to test the hypothesis that large groups are more cooperative when hunting difficult prey. We quantified the relationship between capture success and wolf group size, and compared it to previously reported results for Yellowstone wolves hunting elk (Cervus elaphus), a prey that was, on average, 3 times easier to capture than bison. Whereas improvement in elk capture success levelled off at 2–6 wolves, bison capture success levelled off at 9–13 wolves with evidence that it continued to increase beyond 13 wolves. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that hunters in large groups are more cooperative when hunting more formidable prey. Improved ability to capture formidable prey could therefore promote the formation and maintenance of large predator groups, particularly among predators that specialize on such prey. PMID:25389760

  13. Assessing the energy landscape of CAPRI targets by FunHunt.

    PubMed

    London, Nir; Schueler-Furman, Ora

    2007-12-01

    RosettaDock has repeatedly created high-resolution structures of protein complexes in the CAPRI experiment, thanks to the explicit modeling of conformational changes of the monomers at the side chain level. These models can be selected based on their energy. During the search for the lowest-energy model, RosettaDock samples a deep funnel around the native orientation, but additional funnels may appear in the energy landscape, especially in cases where backbone conformational changes occur upon binding. We have previously developed FunHunt, a Support Vector Machine-based classifier that distinguishes the energy funnels around the native orientation from other funnels in the energy landscape. Here we assess the ability of FunHunt to help in model selection in the CAPRI experiment. For all of 12 recent CAPRI targets, FunHunt clearly identifies a near-native funnel in comparison to the funnel around the lowest energy model identified by the RosettaDock global search protocol. FunHunt is also able to choose a near-native orientation among models submitted by predictor groups, demonstrating its general applicability for model selection. This suggests that FunHunt will be a valuable tool in coming CAPRI rounds for the selection of models, and for the definition of regions that need further refinement with restricted backbone flexibility. PMID:17803233

  14. Toxigenic Corynebacterium ulcerans isolated from a hunting dog and its diphtheria toxin antibody titer.

    PubMed

    Katsukawa, Chihiro; Komiya, Takako; Umeda, Kaoru; Goto, Minami; Yanai, Tokuma; Takahashi, Motohide; Yamamoto, Akihiko; Iwaki, Masaaki

    2016-03-01

    Toxigenic Corynebacterium ulcerans is a zoonotic pathogen that produces diphtheria toxin and causes a diphtheria-like illness in humans. The organism is known to infect and circulate among dogs, which can then transmit it to humans. Furthermore, previous studies have found that C. ulcerans is carried by wild animals, including game animals. In the present study, we tested hunting and companion dogs for the presence of toxigenic C. ulcerans and succeeded in isolating the bacterium from a hunting dog. Moreover, several hunting dogs had serum diphtheria antitoxin titers that were higher than the titers required for protection in humans, suggesting a history of exposure to toxigenic Corynebacterium strains. Notably, ribotyping, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and tox gene sequencing demonstrated that the isolate from the hunting dog clustered with previously characterized C. ulcerans strains isolated from wild animals, as opposed to groups of isolates from humans and companion dogs. Interestingly, the wild animal cluster also contains an isolate from an outdoor breeding dog, which could have formed a bridge between isolates from wild animals and those from companion dogs. The results presented herein provide insight into the mechanism by which the zoonotic pathogen C. ulcerans circulates among wild animals, hunting and companion dogs, and humans. PMID:26853714

  15. Changes in horn size of Stone's sheep over four decades correlate with trophy hunting pressure.

    PubMed

    Douhard, Mathieu; Festa-Bianchet, Marco; Pelletier, Fanie; Gaillard, Jean-michel; Bonenfanti, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Selective harvest may lead to rapid evolutionary change. For large herbivores, trophy hunting removes males with large horns. That artificial selection, operating in opposition to sexual selection, can lead to undesirable consequences for management and conservation. There have been no comparisons of long-term changes in trophy size under contrasting harvest pressures. We analyzed horn measurements of Stone's rams (Ovis dalli stonei) harvested over 37 years in two large regions of British Columbia, Canada, with marked differences in hunting pressure to identify when selective hunting may cause a long-term decrease in horn growth. Under strong selective harvest, horn growth early in life and the number of males harvested declined by 12% and 45%, respectively, over the study period. Horn shape also changed over time: horn length became shorter for a given base circumference, likely because horn base is not a direct target of hunter selection. In contrast, under relatively lower hunting pressure, there were no detectable temporal trends in early horn growth, number of males harvested, or horn length relative to base circumference. Trophy hunting is an important recreational activity and can generate substantial revenues for conservation. By providing a reproductive advantage to males with smaller horns and reducing the availability of desirable trophies, however, excessive harvest may have the undesirable long-term consequences of reducing both the harvest and the horn size of rams. These consequences can be avoided by limiting offtake. PMID:27039527

  16. Subsistence hunting of Cuniculus paca in the middle of the Solimões River, Amazonas, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Valsecchi, J; El Bizri, H R; Figueira, J E C

    2014-08-01

    Ungulates, large primates and caviomorfs are cited by Amazonian hunters as preferred species. In this research, paca (Cuniculus paca) hunting was investigated in relation to water levels and the lunar cycle. In eight years of monitoring in the Amanã Sustainable Development Reserve, the killing of 625 pacas was registered in five monitored communities. Paca hunting took place mainly at night and the most commonly used method is "spotlighting". A positive correlation between the number of pacas killed and water level (rs=0.890; p<0.0001) was found. At least 37% of the pacas were hunted when moon illumination level was less than 10%, before moonrise or after moonset. In the Boa Esperança community, capture of paca tended to decrease on nights with high moon illumination (rs= -0.663; p=0.067). At the same time, an expressive catch-per-unity-effort decrease was also observed in this community (r2= -0.881; p<0.001), allowing us to predict unsustainable hunting levels for the next decade. The stock of animals in these areas could be continuously replaced if surrounding areas consisted of continuous forests. However, continuous hunting and deforestation force local hunters to travel longer distances to kill prey such as pacas. The confirmation of the relation between paca habits and lunar illumination and water level, a pattern described by local hunters, demonstrates the potential value of participatory research and the possibility of integrating traditional knowledge into scientific knowledge. PMID:25296203

  17. Lead pollution from waterfowl hunting in wetlands and rice fields in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Romano, Marcelo; Ferreyra, Hebe; Ferreyroa, Gisele; Molina, Fernando V; Caselli, Andrea; Barberis, Ignacio; Beldoménico, Pablo; Uhart, Marcela

    2016-03-01

    The pollution of wetlands by lead derived from waterfowl hunting with lead shot was investigated. We determined soil pellet density and Pb concentration in soil, water and vegetation in natural wetlands and rice fields in central-eastern Santa Fe province, Argentina. Pellet density varied greatly among hunting sites (between 5.5-141 pellets/m(2)) and pellets were present in some control sites. Soil Pb concentration in most hunting sites (approximately 10-20 mg kg(-1)) was not much higher than in control sites (~5-10 mg kg(-1)), with the exception of the site with highest pellet density, which also had a high Pb soil concentration. In water, on the other hand, Pb concentration was similar in all sites (~4-7 μg L(-1)), both control and hunting, and higher than reference values for aquatic media. Lead was also present in vegetation, including grasses and rice crops, in almost all cases. Most soil-collection sites were slightly acidic, and were frequently flooded. These results strongly suggest that metallic Pb from spent shot is oxidized and dissolved due to wetland conditions. Thus, the pollutant is readily mobilized and distributed across all wetland areas, effectively homogenizing its concentration in locations with and without hunting activities. The replacement of lead by nontoxic materials in pellets appears to be the only effective way to prevent Pb pollution in wetlands. PMID:26745298

  18. Large carnivores response to recreational big game hunting along the Yellowstone National Park and Absaroka-Beartooth Wilderness boundary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruth, T.E.; Smith, D.W.; Haroldson, M.A.; Buotte, P.C.; Schwartz, C.C.; Quigley, H.B.; Cherry, S.; Tyres, D.; Frey, K.

    2003-01-01

    The Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem contains the rare combination of an intact guild of native large carnivores, their prey, and differing land management policies (National Park versus National Forest; no hunting versus hunting). Concurrent field studies on large carnivores allowed us to investigate activities of humans and carnivores on Yellowstone National Park's (YNP) northern boundary. Prior to and during the backcountry big-game hunting season, we monitored movements of grizzly bears (Ursus arctos), wolves (Canis lupus), and cougars (Puma concolor) on the northern boundary of YNP. Daily aerial telemetry locations (September 1999), augmented with weekly telemetry locations (August and October 1999), were obtained for 3 grizzly bears, 7 wolves in 2 groups of 1 pack, and 3 cougars in 1 family group. Grizzly bears were more likely located inside the YNP boundary during the pre-hunt period and north of the boundary once hunting began. The cougar family tended to be found outside YNP during the pre-hunt period and moved inside YNP when hunting began. Wolves did not significantly change their movement patterns during the pre-hunt and hunting periods. Qualitative information on elk (Cervus elaphus) indicated they moved into YNP once hunting started, suggesting that cougars followed living prey or responded to hunting activity, grizzly bears focused on dead prey (e.g., gut piles, crippled elk), and wolves may have taken advantage of both. Measures of association (Jacob's Index) were positive within carnivore species but inconclusive among species. Further collaborative research and the use of new technologies such as Global Positioning System (GPS) telemetry collars will advance our ability to understand these species, the carnivore community and its interactions, and human influences on carnivores.

  19. NASA's Coastal and Ocean Airborne Science Testbed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guild, L. S.; Dungan, J. L.; Edwards, M.; Russell, P. B.; Morrow, J. H.; Hooker, S.; Myers, J.; Kudela, R. M.; Dunagan, S.; Soulage, M.; Ellis, T.; Clinton, N. E.; Lobitz, B.; Martin, K.; Zell, P.; Berthold, R. W.; Smith, C.; Andrew, D.; Gore, W.; Torres, J.

    2011-12-01

    The Coastal and Ocean Airborne Science Testbed (COAST) Project is a NASA Earth-science flight mission that will advance coastal ecosystems research by providing a unique airborne payload optimized for remote sensing in the optically complex coastal zone. Teaming NASA Ames scientists and engineers with Biospherical Instruments, Inc. (San Diego) and UC Santa Cruz, the airborne COAST instrument suite combines a customized imaging spectrometer, sunphotometer system, and a new bio-optical radiometer package to obtain ocean/coastal/atmosphere data simultaneously in flight for the first time. The imaging spectrometer (Headwall) is optimized in the blue region of the spectrum to emphasize remote sensing of marine and freshwater ecosystems. Simultaneous measurements supporting empirical atmospheric correction of image data will be accomplished using the Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS-14). Based on optical detectors called microradiometers, the NASA Ocean Biology and Biogeochemistry Calibration and Validation (cal/val) Office team has deployed advanced commercial off-the-shelf instrumentation that provides in situ measurements of the apparent optical properties at the land/ocean boundary including optically shallow aquatic ecosystems (e.g., lakes, estuaries, coral reefs). A complimentary microradiometer instrument package (Biospherical Instruments, Inc.), optimized for use above water, will be flown for the first time with the airborne instrument suite. Details of the October 2011 COAST airborne mission over Monterey Bay demonstrating this new airborne instrument suite capability will be presented, with associated preliminary data on coastal ocean color products, coincident spatial and temporal data on aerosol optical depth and water vapor column content, as well as derived exact water-leaving radiances.

  20. Information flow, opinion polling and collective intelligence in house-hunting social insects.

    PubMed

    Franks, Nigel R; Pratt, Stephen C; Mallon, Eamonn B; Britton, Nicholas F; Sumpter, David J T

    2002-11-29

    The sharing and collective processing of information by certain insect societies is one of the reasons that they warrant the superlative epithet 'super-organisms' (Franks 1989, Am. Sci. 77, 138-145). We describe a detailed experimental and mathematical analysis of information exchange and decision-making in, arguably, the most difficult collective choices that social insects face: namely, house hunting by complete societies. The key issue is how can a complete colony select the single best nest-site among several alternatives? Individual scouts respond to the diverse information they have personally obtained about the quality of a potential nest-site by producing a recruitment signal. The colony then deliberates over (i.e. integrates) different incoming recruitment signals associated with different potential nest-sites to achieve a well-informed collective decision. We compare this process in honeybees and in the ant Leptothorax albipennis. Notwithstanding many differences - for example, honeybee colonies have 100 times more individuals than L. albipennis colonies - there are certain similarities in the fundamental algorithms these societies appear to employ when they are house hunting. Scout honeybees use the full power of the waggle dance to inform their nest-mates about the distance and direction of a potential nest-site (and they indicate the quality of a nest-site indirectly through the vigour of their dance), and yet individual bees perhaps only rarely make direct comparisons of such sites. By contrast, scouts from L. albipennis colonies often compare nest-sites, but they cannot directly inform one another of their estimation of the quality of a potential site. Instead, they discriminate between sites by initiating recruitment sooner to better ones. Nevertheless, both species do make use of forms of opinion polling. For example, scout bees that have formerly danced for a certain site cease such advertising and monitor the dances of others at random. That is

  1. A rare case of Ramsay Hunt syndrome following temporomandibular joint surgery.

    PubMed

    Lehman, H; Rushinek, H

    2015-08-01

    Surgical approaches to the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) have been designed specifically to minimize injury to the temporal branch of the facial nerve. In spite of this, facial nerve dysfunction occurs in 1-32% of patients undergoing TMJ surgery. Ramsay Hunt syndrome is characterized by peripheral facial paralysis that often involves other cranial nerves, mostly cranial nerve VIII. The pathology is attributed to the reactivation of latent varicella zoster virus in the geniculate ganglion. The diagnosis is based mostly on history and physical findings. Surgical procedures have been known to reactivate varicella zoster virus, but Ramsay Hunt syndrome subsequent to TMJ surgery has not been described yet. This report describes a case of Ramsay Hunt syndrome associated with TMJ surgery. Because of the relatively high incidence of facial nerve dysfunction associated with TMJ surgery, patients with varicella zoster virus reactivation may initially be misdiagnosed with iatrogenic facial palsy, or vice versa. PMID:25864001

  2. Animal movements in the Kenya Rift and evidence for the earliest ambush hunting by hominins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kübler, Simon; Owenga, Peter; Reynolds, Sally C.; Rucina, Stephen M.; King, Geoffrey C. P.

    2015-09-01

    Animal movements in the Kenya Rift Valley today are influenced by a combination of topography and trace nutrient distribution. These patterns would have been the same in the past when hominins inhabited the area. We use this approach to create a landscape reconstruction of Olorgesailie, a key site in the East African Rift with abundant evidence of large-mammal butchery between ~1.2 and ~0.5 Ma BP. The site location in relation to limited animal routes through the area show that hominins were aware of animal movements and used the location for ambush hunting during the Lower to Middle Pleistocene. These features explain the importance of Olorgesailie as a preferred location of repeated hominin activity through multiple changes in climate and local environmental conditions, and provide insights into the cognitive and hunting abilities of Homo erectus while indicating that their activities at the site were aimed at hunting, rather than scavenging.

  3. Varicella-zoster virus distribution in Ramsay Hunt syndrome revealed by polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Murakami, S; Nakashiro, Y; Mizobuchi, M; Hato, N; Honda, N; Gyo, K

    1998-03-01

    The pathogenesis of facial nerve paralysis and vestibulo-cochlear dysfunction of Ramsay Hunt syndrome remains unclear as varicella-zoster virus (VZV) has not been demonstrated in the lesions. Using the polymerase chain reaction, we detected VZV genomes not only in the vesicles on the auricles or oral cavity but also in the facial nerve sheath, middle ear mucosa and cerebrospinal fluid from patients with Ramsay Hunt syndrome. The VZV genome was undetectable in the same kinds of clinical samples obtained from control patients with facial nerve paralysis of other etiologies. The results indicated that VZV spreads widely in the neural components, mucocutaneous tissue and cerebrospinal fluid. The present study will facilitate better understanding of the pathogenesis of facial nerve paralysis, vertigo, hearing impairment and other cranial nerve dysfunction of Ramsay Hunt syndrome. PMID:9583779

  4. Animal movements in the Kenya Rift and evidence for the earliest ambush hunting by hominins.

    PubMed

    Kübler, Simon; Owenga, Peter; Reynolds, Sally C; Rucina, Stephen M; King, Geoffrey C P

    2015-01-01

    Animal movements in the Kenya Rift Valley today are influenced by a combination of topography and trace nutrient distribution. These patterns would have been the same in the past when hominins inhabited the area. We use this approach to create a landscape reconstruction of Olorgesailie, a key site in the East African Rift with abundant evidence of large-mammal butchery between ~1.2 and ~0.5 Ma BP. The site location in relation to limited animal routes through the area show that hominins were aware of animal movements and used the location for ambush hunting during the Lower to Middle Pleistocene. These features explain the importance of Olorgesailie as a preferred location of repeated hominin activity through multiple changes in climate and local environmental conditions, and provide insights into the cognitive and hunting abilities of Homo erectus while indicating that their activities at the site were aimed at hunting, rather than scavenging. PMID:26369499

  5. Animal movements in the Kenya Rift and evidence for the earliest ambush hunting by hominins

    PubMed Central

    Kübler, Simon; Owenga, Peter; Reynolds, Sally C.; Rucina, Stephen M.; King, Geoffrey C. P.

    2015-01-01

    Animal movements in the Kenya Rift Valley today are influenced by a combination of topography and trace nutrient distribution. These patterns would have been the same in the past when hominins inhabited the area. We use this approach to create a landscape reconstruction of Olorgesailie, a key site in the East African Rift with abundant evidence of large-mammal butchery between ~1.2 and ~0.5 Ma BP. The site location in relation to limited animal routes through the area show that hominins were aware of animal movements and used the location for ambush hunting during the Lower to Middle Pleistocene. These features explain the importance of Olorgesailie as a preferred location of repeated hominin activity through multiple changes in climate and local environmental conditions, and provide insights into the cognitive and hunting abilities of Homo erectus while indicating that their activities at the site were aimed at hunting, rather than scavenging. PMID:26369499

  6. Mapping permafrost with airborne electromagnetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minsley, B. J.; Ball, L. B.; Bloss, B. R.; Kass, A.; Pastick, N.; Smith, B. D.; Voss, C. I.; Walsh, D. O.; Walvoord, M. A.; Wylie, B. K.

    2014-12-01

    Permafrost is a key characteristic of cold region landscapes, yet detailed assessments of how the subsurface distribution of permafrost impacts the environment, hydrologic systems, and infrastructure are lacking. Data acquired from several airborne electromagnetic (AEM) surveys in Alaska provide significant new insight into the spatial extent of permafrost over larger areas (hundreds to thousands of square kilometers) than can be mapped using ground-based geophysical methods or through drilling. We compare several AEM datasets from different areas of interior Alaska, and explore the capacity of these data to infer geologic structure, permafrost extent, and related hydrologic processes. We also assess the impact of fires on permafrost by comparing data from different burn years within similar geological environments. Ultimately, interpretations rely on understanding the relationship between electrical resistivity measured by AEM surveys and the physical properties of interest such as geology, permafrost, and unfrozen water content in the subsurface. These relationships are often ambiguous and non-unique, so additional information is useful for reducing uncertainty. Shallow (upper ~1m) permafrost and soil characteristics identified from remotely sensed imagery and field observations help to constrain and aerially extend near-surface AEM interpretations, where correlations between the AEM and remote sensing data are identified using empirical multivariate analyses. Surface nuclear magnetic resonance (sNMR) measurements quantify the contribution of unfrozen water at depth to the AEM-derived electrical resistivity models at several locations within one survey area. AEM surveys fill a critical data gap in the subsurface characterization of permafrost environments and will be valuable in future mapping and monitoring programs in cold regions.

  7. Active airborne contamination control using electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Veatch, B.D.

    1994-06-01

    In spite of our best efforts, radioactive airborne contamination continues to be a formidable problem at many of the Department of Energy (DOE) weapons complex sites. For workers that must enter areas with high levels of airborne contamination, personnel protective equipment (PPE) can become highly restrictive, greatly diminishing productivity. Rather than require even more restrictive PPE for personnel in some situations, the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) is actively researching and developing methods to aggressively combat airborne contamination hazards using electrophoretic technology. With appropriate equipment, airborne particulates can be effectively removed and collected for disposal in one simple process. The equipment needed to implement electrophoresis is relatively inexpensive, highly reliable, and very compact. Once airborne contamination levels are reduced, less PPE is required and a significant cost savings may be realized through decreased waste and maximized productivity. Preliminary ``cold,`` or non-radioactive, testing results at the RFP have shown the technology to be effective on a reasonable scale, with several potential benefits and an abundance of applications.

  8. Airborne laser communication technology and flight test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Li-xin; Zhang, Li-zhong; Li, Xiao-ming; Li, Ying-chao; Jiang, Hui-lin

    2015-11-01

    Reconnaissance aircraft is an important node of the space-air-ground integrated information network, on which equipped with a large number of high-resolution surveillance equipment, and need high speed communications equipment to transmit detected information in real time. Currently RF communication methods cannot meet the needs of communication bandwidth. Wireless laser communication has outstanding advantages high speed, high capacity, security, etc., is an important means to solve the high-speed information transmission of airborne platforms. In this paper, detailed analysis of how the system works, the system components, work processes, link power and the key technologies of airborne laser communication were discussed. On this basis, a prototype airborne laser communications was developed, and high-speed, long-distance communications tests were carried out between the two fixed-wing aircraft, and the airborne precision aiming, atmospheric laser communication impacts on laser communication were tested. The experiments ultimately realize that, the communication distance is 144km, the communication rate is 2.5Gbps. The Airborne laser communication experiments provide technical basis for the application of the conversion equipment.

  9. Airborne Gravimetry and Downward Continuation (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jekeli, C.; Yang, H.; Kwon, J.

    2009-12-01

    Measuring the Earth’s gravity field using airborne instrumentation is fully operational and has been widely practiced for nearly three decades since its official debut in the early 1980s (S. Hammer: “Airborne Gravity is Here!”) coinciding with the precision kinematic positioning capability of GPS. Airborne gravimetry is undertaken for both efficient geophysical exploration purposes, as well as the determination of the regional geoid to aid in the modernization of height systems. Especially for the latter application, downward continuation of the data and combination with existing terrestrial gravimetry pose theoretical as well as practical challenges, which, on the other hand, create multiple processing possibilities. Downward continuation may be approached in various ways from the viewpoint of potential theory and the boundary-value problem to using gradients either estimated locally or computed from existing models. Logistical constraints imposed by the airborne survey, instrumental noise, and the intrinsic numerical instability of downward continuation all conspire to impact the final product in terms of achievable resolution and accuracy. In this paper, we review the theory of airborne gravimetry and the methodology of downward continuation, and provide a numerical comparison of possible schemes and their impact on geoid determination.

  10. 33 CFR 165.1310 - Strait of Juan de Fuca and adjacent coastal waters of Northwest Washington; Makah Whale Hunting...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... adjacent coastal waters of Northwest Washington; Makah Whale Hunting-Regulated Navigation Area. 165.1310... and adjacent coastal waters of Northwest Washington; Makah Whale Hunting—Regulated Navigation Area. (a.... Datum: NAD 1983. (b) During a whale hunt, while the international numeral pennant five (5) is flown by...

  11. 33 CFR 165.1310 - Strait of Juan de Fuca and adjacent coastal waters of Northwest Washington; Makah Whale Hunting...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... adjacent coastal waters of Northwest Washington; Makah Whale Hunting-Regulated Navigation Area. 165.1310... and adjacent coastal waters of Northwest Washington; Makah Whale Hunting—Regulated Navigation Area. (a.... Datum: NAD 1983. (b) During a whale hunt, while the international numeral pennant five (5) is flown by...

  12. 33 CFR 165.1310 - Strait of Juan de Fuca and adjacent coastal waters of Northwest Washington; Makah Whale Hunting...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... adjacent coastal waters of Northwest Washington; Makah Whale Hunting-Regulated Navigation Area. 165.1310... and adjacent coastal waters of Northwest Washington; Makah Whale Hunting—Regulated Navigation Area. (a.... Datum: NAD 1983. (b) During a whale hunt, while the international numeral pennant five (5) is flown by...

  13. 33 CFR 165.1310 - Strait of Juan de Fuca and adjacent coastal waters of Northwest Washington; Makah Whale Hunting...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... adjacent coastal waters of Northwest Washington; Makah Whale Hunting-Regulated Navigation Area. 165.1310... and adjacent coastal waters of Northwest Washington; Makah Whale Hunting—Regulated Navigation Area. (a.... Datum: NAD 1983. (b) During a whale hunt, while the international numeral pennant five (5) is flown by...

  14. 50 CFR 92.12 - Relationship to the process for developing national hunting regulations for migratory game birds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... national hunting regulations for migratory game birds. 92.12 Section 92.12 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED... developing national hunting regulations for migratory game birds. (a) Flyway councils. (1) Proposed annual... published in the Federal Register for public review and comment, similar to the annual migratory game...

  15. 50 CFR 92.12 - Relationship to the process for developing national hunting regulations for migratory game birds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... national hunting regulations for migratory game birds. 92.12 Section 92.12 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED... developing national hunting regulations for migratory game birds. (a) Flyway councils. (1) Proposed annual... published in the Federal Register for public review and comment, similar to the annual migratory game...

  16. 50 CFR 92.12 - Relationship to the process for developing national hunting regulations for migratory game birds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... national hunting regulations for migratory game birds. 92.12 Section 92.12 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED... developing national hunting regulations for migratory game birds. (a) Flyway councils. (1) Proposed annual... published in the Federal Register for public review and comment, similar to the annual migratory game...

  17. 50 CFR 92.12 - Relationship to the process for developing national hunting regulations for migratory game birds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... national hunting regulations for migratory game birds. 92.12 Section 92.12 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED... developing national hunting regulations for migratory game birds. (a) Flyway councils. (1) Proposed annual... published in the Federal Register for public review and comment, similar to the annual migratory game...

  18. 50 CFR 92.12 - Relationship to the process for developing national hunting regulations for migratory game birds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... national hunting regulations for migratory game birds. 92.12 Section 92.12 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED... developing national hunting regulations for migratory game birds. (a) Flyway councils. (1) Proposed annual... published in the Federal Register for public review and comment, similar to the annual migratory game...

  19. 50 CFR 32.3 - What are the procedures for publication of refuge-specific hunting regulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What are the procedures for publication of refuge-specific hunting regulations? 32.3 Section 32.3 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM HUNTING AND FISHING General Provisions § 32.3 What...

  20. 50 CFR 32.7 - What refuge units are open to hunting and/or sport fishing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .../or sport fishing? 32.7 Section 32.7 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE... Provisions § 32.7 What refuge units are open to hunting and/or sport fishing? Refuge units open to hunting and/or sport fishing in accordance with the provisions of subpart A of this part and §§...