Science.gov

Sample records for airborne imaging systems

  1. Airborne Hyperspectral Imaging System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behar, Alberto E.; Cooper, Moogega; Adler, John; Jacobson, Tobias

    2012-01-01

    A document discusses a hyperspectral imaging instrument package designed to be carried aboard a helicopter. It was developed to map the depths of Greenland's supraglacial lakes. The instrument is capable of telescoping to twice its original length, allowing it to be retracted with the door closed during takeoff and landing, and manually extended in mid-flight. While extended, the instrument platform provides the attached hyperspectral imager a nadir-centered and unobstructed view of the ground. Before flight, the instrument mount is retracted and securely strapped down to existing anchor points on the floor of the helicopter. When the helicopter reaches the destination lake, the door is opened and the instrument mount is manually extended. Power to the instrument package is turned on, and the data acquisition computer is commanded via a serial cable from an onboard user-operated laptop to begin data collection. After data collection is complete, the instrument package is powered down and the mount retracted, allowing the door to be closed in preparation for landing. The present design for the instrument mount consists of a three-segment telescoping cantilever to allow for a sufficient extended length to see around the landing struts and provide a nadir-centered and unobstructed field of view for the hyperspectral imager. This instrument works on the premise that water preferentially absorbs light with longer wavelengths on the red side of the visible spectrum. This property can be exploited in order to remotely determine the depths of bodies of pure freshwater. An imager flying over such a lake receives light scattered from the surface, the bulk of the water column, and from the lake bottom. The strength of absorption of longer-wavelength light depends on the depth of the water column. Through calibration with in situ measurements of the water depths, a depth-determining algorithm may be developed to determine lake depth from these spectral properties of the

  2. Performance metrics for an airborne imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dayton, David C.; Gonglewski, John D.

    2004-11-01

    A series of airborne imaging experiments have been conducted on the island of Maui and at North Oscura Peak in New Mexico. Two platform altitudes were considered 3000 meters and 600 meters, both with a slant range to the target up to 10000 meters. The airborne imaging platform was a Twin Otter aircraft, which circled ground target sites. The second was a fixed platform on a mountain peak overlooking a valley 600 meters below. The experiments were performed during the day using solar illuminated target buildings. Imaging system performance predictions were calculated using standard atmospheric turbulence models, and aircraft boundary layer models. Several different measurement approaches were then used to estimate the actual system performance, and make comparisons with the calculations.

  3. Miniaturized Airborne Imaging Central Server System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, Xiuhong

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, some remote-sensing applications require advanced airborne multi-sensor systems to provide high performance reflective and emissive spectral imaging measurement rapidly over large areas. The key or unique problem of characteristics is associated with a black box back-end system that operates a suite of cutting-edge imaging sensors to collect simultaneously the high throughput reflective and emissive spectral imaging data with precision georeference. This back-end system needs to be portable, easy-to-use, and reliable with advanced onboard processing. The innovation of the black box backend is a miniaturized airborne imaging central server system (MAICSS). MAICSS integrates a complex embedded system of systems with dedicated power and signal electronic circuits inside to serve a suite of configurable cutting-edge electro- optical (EO), long-wave infrared (LWIR), and medium-wave infrared (MWIR) cameras, a hyperspectral imaging scanner, and a GPS and inertial measurement unit (IMU) for atmospheric and surface remote sensing. Its compatible sensor packages include NASA s 1,024 1,024 pixel LWIR quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) imager; a 60.5 megapixel BuckEye EO camera; and a fast (e.g. 200+ scanlines/s) and wide swath-width (e.g., 1,920+ pixels) CCD/InGaAs imager-based visible/near infrared reflectance (VNIR) and shortwave infrared (SWIR) imaging spectrometer. MAICSS records continuous precision georeferenced and time-tagged multisensor throughputs to mass storage devices at a high aggregate rate, typically 60 MB/s for its LWIR/EO payload. MAICSS is a complete stand-alone imaging server instrument with an easy-to-use software package for either autonomous data collection or interactive airborne operation. Advanced multisensor data acquisition and onboard processing software features have been implemented for MAICSS. With the onboard processing for real time image development, correction, histogram-equalization, compression, georeference, and

  4. The Airborne Ocean Color Imager - System description and image processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wrigley, Robert C.; Slye, Robert E.; Klooster, Steven A.; Freedman, Richard S.; Carle, Mark; Mcgregor, Lloyd F.

    1992-01-01

    The Airborne Ocean Color Imager was developed as an aircraft instrument to simulate the spectral and radiometric characteristics of the next generation of satellite ocean color instrumentation. Data processing programs have been developed as extensions of the Coastal Zone Color Scanner algorithms for atmospheric correction and bio-optical output products. The latter include several bio-optical algorithms for estimating phytoplankton pigment concentration, as well as one for the diffuse attenuation coefficient of the water. Additional programs have been developed to geolocate these products and remap them into a georeferenced data base, using data from the aircraft's inertial navigation system. Examples illustrate the sequential data products generated by the processing system, using data from flightlines near the mouth of the Mississippi River: from raw data to atmospherically corrected data, to bio-optical data, to geolocated data, and, finally, to georeferenced data.

  5. Airborne test results for smart pushbroom imaging system with optoelectronic image correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tchernykh, Valerij; Dyblenko, Serguei; Janschek, Klaus; Seifart, Klaus; Harnisch, Bernd

    2004-02-01

    Smart pushbroom imaging system (SMARTSCAN) solves the problem of image correction for satellite pushbroom cameras which are disturbed by satellite attitude instability effects. Satellite cameras with linear sensors are particularly sensitive to attitude errors, which cause considerable image distortions. A novel solution of distortions correction is presented, which is based on the real-time recording of the image motion in the focal plane of the satellite camera. This allows using such smart pushbroom cameras (multi-/hyperspectral) even on moderately stabilised satellites, e.g. small sat's, LEO comsat's. The SMARTSCAN concept uses in-situ measurements of the image motion with additional CCD-sensors in the focal plane and real-time image processing of these measurements by an onboard Joint Transform Optical Correlator. SMARTSCAN has been successfully demonstrated with breadboard models for the Optical Correlator and a Smart Pushbroom Camera at laboratory level (satellite motion simulator on base of a 5 DOF industrial robot) and by an airborne flight demonstration in July 2002. The paper describes briefly the principle of operation of the system and gives a description of the hardware model are provided. Detailed results of the airborne tests and performance analysis are given as well as detailed tests description.

  6. SYSIPHE system: a state of the art airborne hyperspectral imaging system: initial results from the first airborne campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousset-Rouviere, Laurent; Coudrain, Christophe; Fabre, Sophie; Poutier, Laurent; Løke, Trond; Fridman, Andrei; Blaaberg, Søren; Baarstad, Ivar; Skauli, Torbjorn; Mocoeur, Isabelle

    2014-10-01

    SYSIPHE is an airborne hyperspectral imaging system, result of a cooperation between France (Onera and DGA) and Norway (NEO and FFI). It is a unique system by its spatial sampling -0.5m with a 500m swath at a ground height of 2000m- combined with its wide spectral coverage -from 0.4μm to 11.5μm in the atmospheric transmission bands. Its infrared component, named SIELETERS, consists in two high étendue imaging static Fourier transform spectrometers, one for the midwave infrared and one for the longwave infrared. These two imaging spectrometers are closely similar in design, since both are made of a Michelson interferometer, a refractive imaging system, and a large IRFPA (1016x440 pixels). Moreover, both are cryogenically cooled and mounted on their own stabilization platform which allows the line of sight to be controlled and recorded. These data are useful to reconstruct and to georeference the spectral image from the raw interferometric images. The visible and shortwave infrared component, named Hyspex ODIN-1024, consists of two spectrographs for VNIR and SWIR based on transmissive gratings. These share a common fore-optics and a common slit, to ensure perfect registration between the VNIR and the SWIR images. The spectral resolution varies from 5nm in the visible to 6nm in the shortwave infrared. In addition, the STAD, the post processing and archiving system, is developed to provide spectral reflectance and temperature products (SRT products) from calibrated georeferenced and inter-band registered spectral images at the sensor level acquired and pre-processed by SIELETERS and Hyspex ODIN-1024 systems.

  7. An airborne multispectral imaging system based on two consumer-grade cameras for agricultural remote sensing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper describes the design and evaluation of an airborne multispectral imaging system based on two identical consumer-grade cameras for agricultural remote sensing. The cameras are equipped with a full-frame complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) sensor with 5616 × 3744 pixels. One came...

  8. Charge-coupled device data processor for an airborne imaging radar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arens, W. E. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    Processing of raw analog echo data from synthetic aperture radar receiver into images on board an airborne radar platform is discussed. Processing is made feasible by utilizing charge-coupled devices (CCD). CCD circuits are utilized to perform input sampling, presumming, range correlation and azimuth correlation in the analog domain. These radar data processing functions are implemented for single-look or multiple-look imaging radar systems.

  9. Utilization of an Airborne Plant Chlorophyll Imaging System for Detection of Septic System Malfunction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spiering, Bruce A.; Carter, Gregory A.

    2001-01-01

    Malfunctioning, or leaking, sewer systems increase the supply of water and nutrients to surface vegetation. Excess nutrients and harmful bacteria in the effluent pollute ground water and local water bodies and are dangerous to humans and the aquatic ecosystems. An airborne multispectral plant chlorophyll imaging system (PCIS) was used to identify growth patterns in the vegetation covering onsite and public sewer systems. The objective was to evaluate overall performance of the PCIS as well as to determine the best operational configuration for this application. The imaging system was flown in a light aircraft over selected locations Mobile County, Alabama. Calibration panels were used to help characterize instrument performance. Results demonstrated that the PCIS performed well and was capable of detecting septic leakage patterns from altitudes as high as 915 m. From 915 m, 6 of 18 sites were suspected to have sewage leakage. Subsequent ground inspections confirmed leakage on 3 of the 6 sites. From 610 m, 3 of 8 known leakage sites were detected. Tree cover and shadows near residential structures prevented detection of several known malfunctioning systems. Also some leakages known to occur in clear areas were not detected. False detections occurred in areas characterized by surface water drainage problems or recent excavation.

  10. Airborne far-IR minefield imaging system (AFIRMIS): description and preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simard, Jean-Robert; Mathieu, Pierre; Larochelle, Vincent; Bonnier, Deni

    1998-09-01

    In minefield detection, two main types of operation can be identified. First, there is the detection of surface-laid minefield. This scenario is encountered largely in tactical operations (troop movement, beach landing) where the speed at which the minefield is deployed or the strategic barrier that they represent exceed the need to bury them. Second, there is the detection of buried minefield which is encountered mainly in peacekeeping missions or clearance operations. To address these two types of minefield detection process, we propose an airborne far-infrared minefield imaging system (AFIRMIS). This passive and active imaging system fuses the information from the emissivity, the reflectivity and the 3-dimensional profile of the target/background scene in order to improve the probability of detection and to reduce the false alarm rate. This paper describes the proposed imaging system and presents early active imaging results of surface-laid mines.

  11. Design of an in-line, digital holographic imaging system for airborne measurement of clouds.

    PubMed

    Spuler, Scott M; Fugal, Jacob

    2011-04-01

    We discuss the design and performance of an airborne (underwing) in-line digital holographic imaging system developed for characterizing atmospheric cloud water droplets and ice particles in situ. The airborne environment constrained the design space to the simple optical layout that in-line non-beam-splitting holography affords. The desired measurement required the largest possible sample volume in which the smallest desired particle size (∼5 μm) could still be resolved, and consequently the magnification requirement was driven by the pixel size of the camera and this particle size. The resulting design was a seven-element, double-telecentric, high-precision optical imaging system used to relay and magnify a hologram onto a CCD surface. The system was designed to preserve performance and high resolution over a wide temperature range. Details of the optical design and construction are given. Experimental results demonstrate that the system is capable of recording holograms that can be reconstructed with resolution of better than 6.5 μm within a 15 cm(3) sample volume.

  12. Airborne oceanographic lidar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Specifications and preliminary design of an Airborne Oceanographic Lidar (AOL) system, which is to be constructed for installation and used on a NASA Wallops Flight Center (WFC) C-54 research aircraft, are reported. The AOL system is to provide an airborne facility for use by various government agencies to demonstrate the utility and practicality of hardware of this type in the wide area collection of oceanographic data on an operational basis. System measurement and performance requirements are presented, followed by a description of the conceptual system approach and the considerations attendant to its development. System performance calculations are addressed, and the system specifications and preliminary design are presented and discussed.

  13. Joint influences of aerodynamic flow field and aerodynamic heating of the dome on imaging quality degradation of airborne optical systems.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Haosu; Zuo, Baojun; Tian, Yi; Zhang, Wang; Hao, Chenglong; Liu, Chaofeng; Li, Qi; Li, Fan; Zhang, Li; Fan, Zhigang

    2012-12-20

    We investigated the joint influences exerted by the nonuniform aerodynamic flow field surrounding the optical dome and the aerodynamic heating of the dome on imaging quality degradation of an airborne optical system. The Spalart-Allmaras model provided by FLUENT was used for flow computations. The fourth-order Runge-Kutta algorithm based ray tracing program was used to simulate optical transmission through the aerodynamic flow field and the dome. Four kinds of imaging quality evaluation parameters were presented: wave aberration of the exit pupil, point spread function, encircled energy, and modulation transfer function. The results show that the aero-optical disturbance of the aerodynamic flow field and the aerodynamic heating of the dome significantly affect the imaging quality of an airborne optical system.

  14. Algorithms for detection of objects in image sequences captured from an airborne imaging system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kasturi, Rangachar; Camps, Octavia; Tang, Yuan-Liang; Devadiga, Sadashiva; Gandhi, Tarak

    1995-01-01

    This research was initiated as a part of the effort at the NASA Ames Research Center to design a computer vision based system that can enhance the safety of navigation by aiding the pilots in detecting various obstacles on the runway during critical section of the flight such as a landing maneuver. The primary goal is the development of algorithms for detection of moving objects from a sequence of images obtained from an on-board video camera. Image regions corresponding to the independently moving objects are segmented from the background by applying constraint filtering on the optical flow computed from the initial few frames of the sequence. These detected regions are tracked over subsequent frames using a model based tracking algorithm. Position and velocity of the moving objects in the world coordinate is estimated using an extended Kalman filter. The algorithms are tested using the NASA line image sequence with six static trucks and a simulated moving truck and experimental results are described. Various limitations of the currently implemented version of the above algorithm are identified and possible solutions to build a practical working system are investigated.

  15. MITAS: multisensor imaging technology for airborne surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, John D.

    1991-08-01

    MITAS, a unique and low-cost solution to the problem of collecting and processing multisensor imaging data for airborne surveillance operations has been developed, MITAS results from integrating the established and proven real-time video processing, target tracking, and sensor management software of TAU with commercially available image exploitation and map processing software. The MITAS image analysis station (IAS) supports airborne day/night reconnaissance and surveillance missions involving low-altitude collection platforms employing a suite of sensors to perform reconnaissance functions against a variety of ground and sea targets. The system will detect, locate, and recognize threats likely to be encountered in support of counternarcotic operations and in low-intensity conflict areas. The IAS is capable of autonomous, near real-time target exploitation and has the appropriate communication links to remotely located IAS systems for more extended analysis of sensor data. The IAS supports the collection, fusion, and processing of three main imaging sensors: daylight imagery (DIS), forward looking infrared (FLIR), and infrared line scan (IRLS). The MITAS IAS provides support to all aspects of the airborne surveillance mission, including sensor control, real-time image enhancement, automatic target tracking, sensor fusion, freeze-frame capture, image exploitation, target data-base management, map processing, remote image transmission, and report generation.

  16. A Multispectral Image Creating Method for a New Airborne Four-Camera System with Different Bandpass Filters

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hanlun; Zhang, Aiwu; Hu, Shaoxing

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes an airborne high resolution four-camera multispectral system which mainly consists of four identical monochrome cameras equipped with four interchangeable bandpass filters. For this multispectral system, an automatic multispectral data composing method was proposed. The homography registration model was chosen, and the scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT) and random sample consensus (RANSAC) were used to generate matching points. For the difficult registration problem between visible band images and near-infrared band images in cases lacking manmade objects, we presented an effective method based on the structural characteristics of the system. Experiments show that our method can acquire high quality multispectral images and the band-to-band alignment error of the composed multiple spectral images is less than 2.5 pixels. PMID:26205264

  17. SWUIS-A: a versatile low-cost UV/VIS/IR imaging system for airborne astronomy and aeronomy research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durda, Daniel D.; Stern, S. Alan; Tomlinson, William; Slater, David C.; Vilas, Faith

    2000-11-01

    We have developed and successfully flight-tested on 14 different airborne missions the hardware and techniques for routinely conducting valuable astronomical and aeronomical observations from high-performance, two-seater military-type aircraft. The SWUIS-A (Southwest Universal Imaging System- Airborne_ system consists of an image-intensified CCD camera with broad band response from the near-UV to the near IR, high-quality foreoptics, a miniaturized video recorder, and aircraft-to-camera power and telemetry interface with associated camera controls, and associated cables, filters, and other minor equipments. SWUIS-A's suite of high-quality foreoptics gives it selectable, variable focal length/variable field-of-view capabilities. The SWUIS-A camera frames at 60Hz video rates, which is a key requirement for both jitter compensation and high time resolution (useful fro occultation, lightning, and auroral studies). Broadband SWUIS-A image coadds can exceed a limiting magnitude of V=10.5 in<1sec with dark sky conditions. A valuable attribute of SWUIS-A airborne observations is the fact that the astronomer flies with the instrument, thereby providing Space Shuttle-like payload specialist capability to close-the-loop in real-time on the research done on each research mission. Key advantages of the small, high-performance aircraft on which we can fly SWUIS-A include significant cost savings over larger, more conventional airborne platforms, worldwide basing obviating the need for expensive, campaign-style movement of specialized large aircraft and their logistics support teams, and ultimately faster reaction times to transient events. Compared to ground-based instruments, airborne research platforms offer superior atmospheric transmission, the mobility to reach remote and often-times otherwise unreachable locations over the Earth, and virtually- guaranteed good weather for observing the sky. Compared to space-based instruments, airborne platforms typically offer substantial

  18. SWUIS-A: A Versatile, Low-Cost UV/VIS/IR Imaging System for Airborne Astronomy and Aeronomy Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durda, Daniel D.; Stern, S. Alan; Tomlinson, William; Slater, David C.; Vilas, Faith

    2001-01-01

    We have developed and successfully flight-tested on 14 different airborne missions the hardware and techniques for routinely conducting valuable astronomical and aeronomical observations from high-performance, two-seater military-type aircraft. The SWUIS-A (Southwest Universal Imaging System - Airborne) system consists of an image-intensified CCD camera with broad band response from the near-UV to the near IR, high-quality foreoptics, a miniaturized video recorder, an aircraft-to-camera power and telemetry interface with associated camera controls, and associated cables, filters, and other minor equipment. SWUIS-A's suite of high-quality foreoptics gives it selectable, variable focal length/variable field-of-view capabilities. The SWUIS-A camera frames at 60 Hz video rates, which is a key requirement for both jitter compensation and high time resolution (useful for occultation, lightning, and auroral studies). Broadband SWUIS-A image coadds can exceed a limiting magnitude of V = 10.5 in <1 sec with dark sky conditions. A valuable attribute of SWUIS-A airborne observations is the fact that the astronomer flies with the instrument, thereby providing Space Shuttle-like "payload specialist" capability to "close-the-loop" in real-time on the research done on each research mission. Key advantages of the small, high-performance aircraft on which we can fly SWUIS-A include significant cost savings over larger, more conventional airborne platforms, worldwide basing obviating the need for expensive, campaign-style movement of specialized large aircraft and their logistics support teams, and ultimately faster reaction times to transient events. Compared to ground-based instruments, airborne research platforms offer superior atmospheric transmission, the mobility to reach remote and often-times otherwise unreachable locations over the Earth, and virtually-guaranteed good weather for observing the sky. Compared to space-based instruments, airborne platforms typically offer

  19. Airborne Oceanographic Lidar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bressel, C.; Itzkan, I.; Nunes, J. E.; Hoge, F.

    1977-01-01

    The Airborne Oceanographic Lidar (AOL), a spatially scanning range-gated device installed on board a NASA C-54 aircraft, is described. The AOL system is capable of measuring topographical relief or water depth (bathymetry) with a range resolution of plus or minus 0.3 m in the vertical dimension. The system may also be used to measure fluorescent spectral signatures from 3500 to 8000 A with a resolution of 100 A. Potential applications of the AOL, including sea state measurements, water transparency assessments, oil spill identification, effluent identification and crop cover assessment are also mentioned.

  20. Airborne Fraunhofer line discriminator (FLD) luminescence imaging systems and its application to exploration problems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watson, Robert D.; Theisen, Arnold F.; Hemphill, William R.; Barringer, Anthony R.

    1980-01-01

    Experiments with an imaging airborne Fraunhofer line discriminator (FLD) are being conducted to establish the feasibility of delineating the areal extent of luminescent materials on the earth's surface from aircraft and spacecraft. All luminescence measurements are related to a standard set of conditions with rhodamine wt dye used as a reference standard. The FLD has a minimum detectable rhodamine wt concentration of 0.1 parts per billion (ppb) at a signal-to-noise ratio of 5.0. Luminescence, when expressed in a signal-to-noise ratio (R) is related to equivalent ppb rhodamine wt through the relationship ppb=(0.1R-0.4). Luminescent materials imaged from an aircraft altitude of approximately 2400 m above terrain include fluorite in association with molybdenum, Pinenut Mountains, Nevada (R=62.0); mineralized playas, Claunch, New Mexico (R=960.0); uranium and vanadium-bearing outcrops, Big Indian Valley, Utah (R=105.0); uranophane sandstones, Sandia Mountains, New Mexico (R=60.0); phosphate outcrops, Pine Mountain, California (R=76.0); and marine oil slicks, Santa Barbara Channel, California (R=24.0). Correlation between the amount of fluorite in the rocks and soils of the Pinenut Mountains and luminescence, measured by the FLD, is as high as 0.88 at the 95 percent confidence level.

  1. Airborne ballistic camera tracking systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redish, W. L.

    1976-01-01

    An operational airborne ballistic camera tracking system was tested for operational and data reduction feasibility. The acquisition and data processing requirements of the system are discussed. Suggestions for future improvements are also noted. A description of the data reduction mathematics is outlined. Results from a successful reentry test mission are tabulated. The test mission indicated that airborne ballistic camera tracking systems are feasible.

  2. Automatic Calibration of an Airborne Imaging System to an Inertial Navigation Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ansar, Adnan I.; Clouse, Daniel S.; McHenry, Michael C.; Zarzhitsky, Dimitri V.; Pagdett, Curtis W.

    2013-01-01

    This software automatically calibrates a camera or an imaging array to an inertial navigation system (INS) that is rigidly mounted to the array or imager. In effect, it recovers the coordinate frame transformation between the reference frame of the imager and the reference frame of the INS. This innovation can automatically derive the camera-to-INS alignment using image data only. The assumption is that the camera fixates on an area while the aircraft flies on orbit. The system then, fully automatically, solves for the camera orientation in the INS frame. No manual intervention or ground tie point data is required.

  3. A GUI visualization system for airborne lidar image data to reconstruct 3D city model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawata, Yoshiyuki; Koizumi, Kohei

    2015-10-01

    A visualization toolbox system with graphical user interfaces (GUIs) was developed for the analysis of LiDAR point cloud data, as a compound object oriented widget application in IDL (Interractive Data Language). The main features in our system include file input and output abilities, data conversion capability from ascii formatted LiDAR point cloud data to LiDAR image data whose pixel value corresponds the altitude measured by LiDAR, visualization of 2D/3D images in various processing steps and automatic reconstruction ability of 3D city model. The performance and advantages of our graphical user interface (GUI) visualization system for LiDAR data are demonstrated.

  4. DETECTION AND IDENTIFICATION OF TOXIC AIR POLLUTANTS USING FIELD PORTABLE AND AIRBORNE REMOTE IMAGING SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Remote sensing technologies are a class of instrument and sensor systems that include laser imageries, imaging spectrometers, and visible to thermal infrared cameras. These systems have been successfully used for gas phase chemical compound identification in a variety of field e...

  5. Imaging Hidden Water in Three Dimensions Using an Active Airborne Electromagnetic System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wynn, J.

    2001-05-01

    The San Pedro Basin aquifer in southeastern Arizona and northern Mexico is important not only for local agriculture and residential communities, but also because it is the source of the San Pedro River. Declared a Riparian Conservation Area by Congress in 1988, the San Pedro is a critical element of one of four major migratory bird fly-ways over North America. The basin crosses the international frontier, extending into northern Mexico, where about 12,000 acre-ft of water is withdrawn yearly by the Cananea Mine. An additional 11,000 acre-ft is withdrawn by the US Army base at Fort Huachuca and surrounding towns including Sierra Vista. About 6,000 to 8,000 acre-ft of water is also estimated as lost to evapotranspiration, while recharge (mainly from the Huachuca Mountains) ranges from 12,500 to 15,000 acre-ft per year. This apparent net deficit is considered a serious threat by environmental groups to the integrity of the Riparian Conservation Area. Efforts have been underway to develop catchments and to implement water-conservation measures, but these have been hampered by a lack of detailed knowledge of the three-dimensional geometry and extent of the aquifer beneath the entire basin - at least until recently. In an effort to identify subcomponents and interconnectivities within the San Pedro Basin aquifer, the US Army funded several airborne EM surveys, conducted in 1997 and 1999 under the supervision of the US Geological Survey east of Fort Huachuca. These surveys used the Geoterrex GEOTEM system with 20 gated time-domain windows in three perpendicular orientations. The 60+ channel information was inverted using two different methods into conductivity-depth transforms, i.e., conductivity vs. depth along each flight-line. The resulting inversions have been assembled into a three-dimensional map of the aquifer, which in this arid region is quite conductive (the average is 338 micro-S/cm, around 30 ohm-meters). The coverage is about 1,000 square kilometers down to a

  6. Airborne wireless communication systems, airborne communication methods, and communication methods

    DOEpatents

    Deaton, Juan D.; Schmitt, Michael J.; Jones, Warren F.

    2011-12-13

    An airborne wireless communication system includes circuitry configured to access information describing a configuration of a terrestrial wireless communication base station that has become disabled. The terrestrial base station is configured to implement wireless communication between wireless devices located within a geographical area and a network when the terrestrial base station is not disabled. The circuitry is further configured, based on the information, to configure the airborne station to have the configuration of the terrestrial base station. An airborne communication method includes answering a 911 call from a terrestrial cellular wireless phone using an airborne wireless communication system.

  7. Study on airborne multispectral imaging fusion detection technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Na; Gao, Jiaobo; Wang, Jun; Cheng, Juan; Gao, Meng; Gao, Fei; Fan, Zhe; Sun, Kefeng; Wu, Jun; Li, Junna; Gao, Zedong; Cheng, Gang

    2014-11-01

    The airborne multispectral imaging fusion detection technology is proposed in this paper. In this design scheme, the airborne multispectral imaging system consists of the multispectral camera, the image processing unit, and the stabilized platform. The multispectral camera can operate in the spectral region from visible to near infrared waveband (0.4-1.0um), it has four same and independent imaging channels, and sixteen different typical wavelengths to be selected based on the different typical targets and background. The related experiments were tested by the airborne multispectral imaging system. In particularly, the camouflage targets were fused and detected in the different complex environment, such as the land vegetation background, the desert hot background and underwater. In the spectral region from 0.4 um to 1.0um, the three different characteristic wave from sixteen typical spectral are selected and combined according to different backgrounds and targets. The spectral image corresponding to the three characteristic wavelengths is resisted and fused by the image processing technology in real time, and the fusion video with typical target property is outputted. In these fusion images, the contrast of target and background is greatly increased. Experimental results confirm that the airborne multispectral imaging fusion detection technology can acquire multispectral fusion image with high contrast in real time, and has the ability of detecting and identification camouflage objects from complex background to targets underwater.

  8. Simulation system of airborne FLIR searcher

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Kefeng; Li, Yu; Gao, Jiaobo; Wang, Jun; Wang, Jilong; Xie, Junhu; Ding, Na; Sun, Dandan

    2014-11-01

    Airborne Forward looking infra-red (FLIR) searcher simulation system can provide multi-mode simulated test environment that almost actual field environment, and can simulate integrated performance and external interface of airborne FLIR simulation system. Furthermore, the airborne FLIR searcher simulation system can support the algorithm optimization of image processing, and support the test and evaluation of electro-optical system, and also support the line test of software and evaluate the performance of the avionics system. The detailed design structure and information cross-linking relationship of each component are given in this paper. The simulation system is composed of the simulation center, the FLIR actuator, the FLIR emulator, and the display control terminal. The simulation center can generate the simulated target and aircraft flying data in the operation state of the airborne FLIR Searcher. The FLIR actuator can provide simulation scene. It can generate the infrared target and landform based scanning scene, response to the commands from simulation center and the FLIR actuator and operation control unit. The infrared image generated by the FLIR actuator can be processed by the FLIR emulator using PowerPC hardware framework and processing software based on VxWorks system. It can detect multi-target and output the DVI video and the multi-target detection information which corresponds to the working state of the FLIR searcher. Display control terminal can display the multi-target detection information in two-dimension situation format, and realize human-computer interaction function.

  9. Potential of Airborne Imaging Spectroscopy at Czechglobe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanuš, J.; Fabiánek, T.; Fajmon, L.

    2016-06-01

    Ecosystems, their services, structures and functions are affected by complex environmental processes, which are both natural and human-induced and globally changing. In order to understand how ecosystems behave in globally changing environment, it is important to monitor the current status of ecosystems and their structural and functional changes in time and space. An essential tool allowing monitoring of ecosystems is remote sensing (RS). Many ecosystems variables are being translated into a spectral response recorded by RS instruments. It is however important to understand the complexity and synergies of the key ecosystem variables influencing the reflected signal. This can be achieved by analysing high resolution RS data from multiple sources acquired simultaneously from the same platform. Such a system has been recently built at CzechGlobe - Global Change Research Institute (The Czech Academy of Sciences). CzechGlobe has been significantly extending its research infrastructure in the last years, which allows advanced monitoring of ecosystem changes at hierarchical levels spanning from molecules to entire ecosystems. One of the CzechGlobe components is a laboratory of imaging spectroscopy. The laboratory is now operating a new platform for advanced remote sensing observations called FLIS (Flying Laboratory of Imaging Spectroscopy). FLIS consists of an airborne carrier equipped with passive RS systems. The core instrument of FLIS is a hyperspectral imaging system provided by Itres Ltd. The hyperspectral system consists of three spectroradiometers (CASI 1500, SASI 600 and TASI 600) that cover the reflective spectral range from 380 to 2450 nm, as well as the thermal range from 8 to 11.5 μm. The airborne platform is prepared for mounting of full-waveform laser scanner Riegl-Q780 as well, however a laser scanner is not a permanent part of FLIS. In 2014 the installation of the hyperspectral scanners was completed and the first flights were carried out with all

  10. MAPSAR Image Simulation Based on L-band Polarimetric Data from the SAR-R99B Airborne Sensor (SIVAM System)

    PubMed Central

    Mura, José Claudio; Paradella, Waldir Renato; Dutra, Luciano Vieira; dos Santos, João Roberto; Rudorff, Bernardo Friedrich Theodor; de Miranda, Fernando Pellon; da Silva, Mario Marcos Quintino; da Silva, Wagner Fernando

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the methodology applied to generate simulated multipolarized L-band SAR images of the MAPSAR (Multi-Application Purpose SAR) satellite from the airborne SAR R99B sensor (SIVAM System). MAPSAR is a feasibility study conducted by INPE (National Institute for Space Research) and DLR (German Aerospace Center) targeting a satellite L-band SAR innovative mission for assessment, management and monitoring of natural resources. Examples of simulated products and their applications are briefly discussed. PMID:22389590

  11. Multispectral Imaging Systems for Airborne Remote Sensing to Support Agricultural Production Management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Remote sensing has shown promise as a tool for managing agricultural application and production. Earth-observing satellite systems have an advantage for large-scale analysis at regional levels but are limited in spatial resolution. High-resolution satellite systems have been available in recent year...

  12. Canopy induced aberration correction in airborne electro-optical imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harder, James A.; Sprague, Michaelene W.

    2011-11-01

    An increasing number of electro-optical systems are being used by pilots in tactical aircraft. This means that the afore mentioned systems must operate through the aircrafts canopy, unfortunately the canopy functions as a less than ideal lens element in the electro-optical sensor optical path. The canopy serves first and foremost as an aircraft structural component, considerations like minimizing the drag co-efficient and the ability to survive bird strikes take precedence over achieving optimal optical characteristics. This paper describes how the authors characterized the optical characteristics of an aircraft canopy. Families of modulation transfer functions were generated, for various viewing geometries through the canopy and for various electro-optical system entrance pupil diameters. These functions provided us with the means to significantly reduce the effect of the canopy "lens" on the performance of a representative electro-optical system, using an Astigmatic Corrector Lens. A comparison of the electro-optical system performance with and without correction is also presented.

  13. Improved Airborne System for Sensing Wildfires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKeown, Donald; Richardson, Michael

    2008-01-01

    The Wildfire Airborne Sensing Program (WASP) is engaged in a continuing effort to develop an improved airborne instrumentation system for sensing wildfires. The system could also be used for other aerial-imaging applications, including mapping and military surveillance. Unlike prior airborne fire-detection instrumentation systems, the WASP system would not be based on custom-made multispectral line scanners and associated custom- made complex optomechanical servomechanisms, sensors, readout circuitry, and packaging. Instead, the WASP system would be based on commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) equipment that would include (1) three or four electronic cameras (one for each of three or four wavelength bands) instead of a multispectral line scanner; (2) all associated drive and readout electronics; (3) a camera-pointing gimbal; (4) an inertial measurement unit (IMU) and a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver for measuring the position, velocity, and orientation of the aircraft; and (5) a data-acquisition subsystem. It would be necessary to custom-develop an integrated sensor optical-bench assembly, a sensor-management subsystem, and software. The use of mostly COTS equipment is intended to reduce development time and cost, relative to those of prior systems.

  14. Expert system-based mineral mapping in northern Death Valley, California/Nevada, using the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kruse, F. A.; Lefkoff, A. B.; Dietz, J. B.

    1993-01-01

    Integrated analysis of imaging spectrometer data and field spectral measurements were used in conjunction with conventional geologic field mapping to characterize bedrock and surficial geology at the northern end of Death Valley, California and Nevada. A knowledge-based expert system was used to automatically produce image maps showing the principal surface mineralogy from Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data. Linear spectral unmixing of the AVIRIS data allowed further determination of relative mineral, abundances and identification of mineral assemblages and mixtures. The imaging spectrometer data show the spatial distribution of spectrally distinct minerals occurring both as primary rockforming minerals and as alteration and weathering products. Field spectral measurements were used to verify the mineral maps and field mapping was used to extend the remote sensing results. Geographically referenced image maps produced from these data form new base maps from which to develop improved understanding of the processes of deposition and erosion affecting the present land surface.

  15. Geophex airborne unmanned survey system

    SciTech Connect

    Won, I.J.; Taylor, D.W.A.

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of this effort is to design, construct, and evaluate a portable, remotely-piloted, airborne, geophysical survey system. This nonintrusive system will provide {open_quotes}stand-off{close_quotes} capability to conduct surveys and detect buried objects, structures, and conditions of interest at hazardous locations. This system permits two operators to rapidly conduct geophysical characterization of hazardous environmental sites. During a survey, the operators remain remote from, but within visual distance, of, the site. The sensor system never contacts the Earth, but can be positioned near the ground so that weak anomalies can be detected.

  16. Geophex Airborne Unmanned Survey System

    SciTech Connect

    Won, I.J.; Keiswetter, D.

    1995-10-01

    The purpose of this effort is to design, construct, and evaluate a portable, remotely-piloted, airborne, geophysical survey system. This non-intrusive system will provide {open_quotes}stand-off{close_quotes} capability to conduct surveys and detect buried objects, structures, and conditions of interest at hazardous locations. This system permits rapid geophysical characterization of hazardous environmental sites. During a survey, the operators remain remote from, but within visual distance of, the site. The sensor system never contacts the Earth, but can be positioned near the ground so that weak geophysical anomalies can be detected.

  17. Airborne system for testing multispectral reconnaissance technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, Dirk-Roger; Doergeloh, Heinrich; Keil, Heiko; Wetjen, Wilfried

    1999-07-01

    There is an increasing demand for future airborne reconnaissance systems to obtain aerial images for tactical or peacekeeping operations. Especially Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) equipped with multispectral sensor system and with real time jam resistant data transmission capabilities are of high interest. An airborne experimental platform has been developed as testbed to investigate different concepts of reconnaissance systems before their application in UAVs. It is based on a Dornier DO 228 aircraft, which is used as flying platform. Great care has been taken to achieve the possibility to test different kinds of multispectral sensors. Hence basically it is capable to be equipped with an IR sensor head, high resolution aerial cameras of the whole optical spectrum and radar systems. The onboard equipment further includes system for digital image processing, compression, coding, and storage. The data are RF transmitted to the ground station using technologies with high jam resistance. The images, after merging with enhanced vision components, are delivered to the observer who has an uplink data channel available to control flight and imaging parameters.

  18. Field of view selection for optimal airborne imaging sensor performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goss, Tristan M.; Barnard, P. Werner; Fildis, Halidun; Erbudak, Mustafa; Senger, Tolga; Alpman, Mehmet E.

    2014-05-01

    The choice of the Field of View (FOV) of imaging sensors used in airborne targeting applications has major impact on the overall performance of the system. Conducting a market survey from published data on sensors used in stabilized airborne targeting systems shows a trend of ever narrowing FOVs housed in smaller and lighter volumes. This approach promotes the ever increasing geometric resolution provided by narrower FOVs, while it seemingly ignores the influences the FOV selection has on the sensor's sensitivity, the effects of diffraction, the influences of sight line jitter and collectively the overall system performance. This paper presents a trade-off methodology to select the optimal FOV for an imaging sensor that is limited in aperture diameter by mechanical constraints (such as space/volume available and window size) by balancing the influences FOV has on sensitivity and resolution and thereby optimizing the system's performance. The methodology may be applied to staring array based imaging sensors across all wavebands from visible/day cameras through to long wave infrared thermal imagers. Some examples of sensor analysis applying the trade-off methodology are given that highlights the performance advantages that can be gained by maximizing the aperture diameters and choosing the optimal FOV for an imaging sensor used in airborne targeting applications.

  19. Geophex Airborne Unmanned Survey System

    SciTech Connect

    Won, I.L.; Keiswetter, D.

    1995-12-31

    Ground-based surveys place personnel at risk due to the proximity of buried unexploded ordnance (UXO) items or by exposure to radioactive materials and hazardous chemicals. The purpose of this effort is to design, construct, and evaluate a portable, remotely-piloted, airborne, geophysical survey system. This non-intrusive system will provide stand-off capability to conduct surveys and detect buried objects, structures, and conditions of interest at hazardous locations. During a survey, the operators remain remote from, but within visual distance of, the site. The sensor system never contacts the Earth, but can be positioned near the ground so that weak geophysical anomalies can be detected. The Geophex Airborne Unmanned Survey System (GAUSS) is designed to detect and locate small-scale anomalies at hazardous sites using magnetic and electromagnetic survey techniques. The system consists of a remotely-piloted, radio-controlled, model helicopter (RCH) with flight computer, light-weight geophysical sensors, an electronic positioning system, a data telemetry system, and a computer base-station. The report describes GAUSS and its test results.

  20. Airborne Microwave Imaging of River Velocities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plant, William J.

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this project was to determine whether airborne microwave remote sensing systems can measure river surface currents with sufficient accuracy to make them prospective instruments with which to monitor river flow from space. The approach was to fly a coherent airborne microwave Doppler radar, developed by APL/UW, on a light airplane along several rivers in western Washington state over an extended period of time. The fundamental quantity obtained by this system to measure river currents is the mean offset of the Doppler spectrum. Since this scatter can be obtained from interferometric synthetic aperture radars (INSARs), which can be flown in space, this project provided a cost effective means for determining the suitability of spaceborne INSAR for measuring river flow.

  1. Real-time airborne hyperspectral imaging of land mines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanco, Tyler; Achal, Steve; McFee, John E.; Anger, Cliff; Young, Jane

    2007-04-01

    DRDC Suffeld and Itres Research have jointly investigated the use of visible and infrared hyperspectral imaging (HSI) for surface and buried land mine detection since 1989. These studies have demonstrated reliable passive HSI detection of surface-laid mines, based on their reflectance spectra, from airborne and ground-based platforms. Commercial HSI instruments collect and store image data at aircraft speeds, but the data are analysed off- line. This is useful for humanitarian demining, but unacceptable for military countermine operations. We have developed a hardware and software system with algorithms that can process the raw hyperspectral data in real time to detect mines. The custom algorithms perform radiometric correction of the raw data, then classify pixels of the corrected data, referencing a spectral signature library. The classification results are stored and displayed in real time, that is, within a few frame times of the data acquisition. Such real-time mine detection was demonstrated for the first time from a slowly moving land vehicle in March 2000. This paper describes an improved system which can achieve real-time detection of mines from an airborne platform, with its commensurately higher data rates. The system is presently compatible with the Itres family of visible/near infrared, short wave infrared and thermal infrared pushbroom hyperspectral imagers and its broadband thermal infrared pushbroom imager. Experiments to detect mines from an airborne platform in real time were conducted at DRDC Suffield in November 2006. Surface-laid land mines were detected in real time from a slowly moving helicopter with generally good detection rates and low false alarm rates. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first time that land mines have been detected from an airborne platform in real time using hyperspectral imaging.

  2. Airborne Relay-Based Regional Positioning System

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyuman; Noh, Hongjun; Lim, Jaesung

    2015-01-01

    Ground-based pseudolite systems have some limitations, such as low vertical accuracy, multipath effects and near-far problems. These problems are not significant in airborne-based pseudolite systems. However, the monitoring of pseudolite positions is required because of the mobility of the platforms on which the pseudolites are mounted, and this causes performance degradation. To address these pseudolite system limitations, we propose an airborne relay-based regional positioning system that consists of a master station, reference stations, airborne relays and a user. In the proposed system, navigation signals are generated from the reference stations located on the ground and are relayed via the airborne relays. Unlike in conventional airborne-based systems, the user in the proposed system sequentially estimates both the locations of airborne relays and his/her own position. Therefore, a delay due to monitoring does not occur, and the accuracy is not affected by the movement of airborne relays. We conducted several simulations to evaluate the performance of the proposed system. Based on the simulation results, we demonstrated that the proposed system guarantees a higher accuracy than airborne-based pseudolite systems, and it is feasible despite the existence of clock offsets among reference stations. PMID:26029953

  3. CARABAS - an airborne VHF SAR system

    SciTech Connect

    Larsson, B.; Frolined, P.O.; Gustavsson, A.

    1996-11-01

    There is an increasing interest in imaging radar systems operating at low frequencies, Examples of civilian and military applications are detection of stealth-designed man-made objects, targets hidden under foliage, biomass estimation, and penetration into glaciers or ground. CARABAS (Coherent All Radio Band Sensing) is a new airborne SAR system developed by FOA. It is designed for operation in the lowest part of the VHF band (20-90 NHz), using horizontal polarisation. This frequency region gives the system a good ability to penetrate vegetation and to some extent ground. CARABAS is the first known SAR sensor with a capability of diffraction limited imaging, i.e. a resolution in magnitude of the adopted wavelengths. A Sabreliner business jet aircraft is used as the airborne platform. Critical parts in the development have been the antenna system, the receiver and the processing algorithms. Based upon the experiences gained with CARABAS I a major system upgrade is now taking place. The new CARABAS II system is scheduled to fly in May 1996. This system is designed to give operational performance while CARABAS I was used to verify the feasibility. The first major field campaigns are planned for the second half of 1996. CARABAS II is jointly developed by FOA and Ericsson Microwave Systems AB in Sweden. This paper will give an overview of the system design and data collected with the current radar system, including some results for forested regions. The achieved system performance will be discussed, with a presentation of the major modifications made in the new CARABAS 11 system. 12 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Airborne seeker evaluation and test system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jollie, William B.

    1991-08-01

    The Airborne Seeker Evaluation Test System (ASETS) is an airborne platform for development, test, and evaluation of air-to-ground seekers and sensors. ASETS consists of approximately 10,000 pounds of equipment, including sixteen racks of control, display, and recording electronics, and a very large stabilized airborne turret, all carried by a modified C- 130A aircraft. The turret measures 50 in. in diameter and extends over 50 in. below the aircraft. Because of the low ground clearance of the C-130, a unique retractor mechanism was designed to raise the turret inside the aircraft for take-offs and landings, and deploy the turret outside the aircraft for testing. The turret has over 7 cubic feet of payload space and can accommodate up to 300 pounds of instrumentation, including missile seekers, thermal imagers, infrared mapping systems, laser systems, millimeter wave radar units, television cameras, and laser rangers. It contains a 5-axis gyro-stabilized gimbal system that will maintain a line of sight in the pitch, roll, and yaw axes to an accuracy better than +/- 125 (mu) rad. The rack-mounted electronics in the aircraft cargo bay can be interchanged to operate any type of sensor and record the data. Six microcomputer subsystems operate and maintain all of the system components during a test mission. ASETS is capable of flying at altitudes between 200 and 20,000 feet, and at airspeeds ranging from 100 to 250 knots. Mission scenarios can include air-to-surface seeker testing, terrain mapping, surface target measurement, air-to-air testing, atmospheric transmission studies, weather data collection, aircraft or missile tracking, background signature measurements, and surveillance. ASETS is fully developed and available to support test programs.

  5. An Airborne Ultrasonic Imaging System Based on 16 Elements: 150 kHz Piezopolymer Transducer Arrays—Preliminary Simulated and Experimental Results for Cylindrical Targets Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capineri, L.; Bulletti, A.; Calzolai, M.; Giannelli, P.

    2016-12-01

    This paper describes the design and fabrication of a 16-element transducer array for airborne ultrasonic imaging operating at 150 kHz, that can operate both at close range (50 mm) in the near field of a synthetic aperture, and up to 250 mm. The proposed imaging technique is based on a modified version of the delay and sum algorithm implemented with a synthetic aperture where each pixel amplitude is determined by the integration of the signal obtained by the coherent summation of the acquired signals over a delayed window with fixed length. The image reconstruction methods using raw data provides the possibility to detect targets with smaller feature size on the order of one wavelength because the coherent signals summation over the selected window length while the image reconstruction methods using the summation of enveloped signals increases the amplitude response at the expenses of a lower spatial resolution. For the implementation of this system it is important to design compact airborne transducers with large field of view and this can be obtained with a new design of hemi-cylindrical polyvinylidene fluoride film transducers directly mounted on a printed circuit board. This new method is low cost and has repeatable transducer characteristics. The complete system is compact, with a modular architecture, in which eight boards with dual ultrasonic channels are mounted on a mother board. Each daughter board hosts a microcontroller unit and can operate with transducers in the bandwidth 40-200 kHz with on-board data acquisition, pre-processing and transfer on a dedicated bus.

  6. High spectral resolution airborne short wave infrared hyperspectral imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Liqing; Yuan, Liyin; Wang, Yueming; Zhuang, Xiaoqiong

    2016-05-01

    Short Wave InfraRed(SWIR) spectral imager is good at detecting difference between materials and penetrating fog and mist. High spectral resolution SWIR hyperspectral imager plays a key role in developing earth observing technology. Hyperspectral data cube can help band selections that is very important for multispectral imager design. Up to now, the spectral resolution of many SWIR hyperspectral imagers is about 10nm. A high sensitivity airborne SWIR hyperspectral imager with narrower spectral band will be presented. The system consists of TMA telescope, slit, spectrometer with planar blazed grating and high sensitivity MCT FPA. The spectral sampling interval is about 3nm. The IFOV is 0.5mrad. To eliminate the influence of the thermal background, a cold shield is designed in the dewar. The pixel number of spatial dimension is 640. Performance measurement in laboratory and image analysis for flight test will also be presented.

  7. Airborne Hyperspectral Imaging of Seagrass and Coral Reef

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merrill, J.; Pan, Z.; Mewes, T.; Herwitz, S.

    2013-12-01

    This talk presents the process of project preparation, airborne data collection, data pre-processing and comparative analysis of a series of airborne hyperspectral projects focused on the mapping of seagrass and coral reef communities in the Florida Keys. As part of a series of large collaborative projects funded by the NASA ROSES program and the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission and administered by the NASA UAV Collaborative, a series of airborne hyperspectral datasets were collected over six sites in the Florida Keys in May 2012, October 2012 and May 2013 by Galileo Group, Inc. using a manned Cessna 172 and NASA's SIERRA Unmanned Aerial Vehicle. Precise solar and tidal data were used to calculate airborne collection parameters and develop flight plans designed to optimize data quality. Two independent Visible and Near-Infrared (VNIR) hyperspectral imaging systems covering 400-100nm were used to collect imagery over six Areas of Interest (AOIs). Multiple collections were performed over all sites across strict solar windows in the mornings and afternoons. Independently developed pre-processing algorithms were employed to radiometrically correct, synchronize and georectify individual flight lines which were then combined into color balanced mosaics for each Area of Interest. The use of two different hyperspectral sensor as well as environmental variations between each collection allow for the comparative analysis of data quality as well as the iterative refinement of flight planning and collection parameters.

  8. Comparison of mosaicking techniques for airborne images from consumer-grade cameras

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Images captured from airborne imaging systems have the advantages of relatively low cost, high spatial resolution, and real/near-real-time availability. Multiple images taken from one or more flight lines could be used to generate a high-resolution mosaic image, which could be useful for diverse rem...

  9. Airborne Electro-Optical Sensor Simulation System. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayworth, Don

    The total system capability, including all the special purpose and general purpose hardware comprising the Airborne Electro-Optical Sensor Simulation (AEOSS) System, is described. The functional relationship between hardware portions is described together with interface to the software portion of the computer image generation. Supporting rationale…

  10. Downscaling of Airborne Wind Energy Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fechner, Uwe; Schmehl, Roland

    2016-09-01

    Airborne wind energy systems provide a novel solution to harvest wind energy from altitudes that cannot be reached by wind turbines with a similar nominal generator power. The use of a lightweight but strong tether in place of an expensive tower provides an additional cost advantage, next to the higher capacity factor and much lower total mass. This paper investigates the scaling effects of airborne wind energy systems. The energy yield of airborne wind energy systems, that work in pumping mode of operation is at least ten times higher than the energy yield of conventional solar systems. For airborne wind energy systems the yield is defined per square meter wing area. In this paper the dependency of the energy yield on the nominal generator power for systems in the range of 1 kW to 1 MW is investigated. For the onshore location Cabauw, The Netherlands, it is shown, that a generator of just 1.4 kW nominal power and a total system mass of less than 30 kg has the theoretical potential to harvest energy at only twice the price per kWh of large scale airborne wind energy systems. This would make airborne wind energy systems a very attractive choice for small scale remote and mobile applications as soon as the remaining challenges for commercialization are solved.

  11. Auxiliary DCP data acquisition system. [airborne system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, R. V.

    1975-01-01

    An airborne DCP Data Aquisition System has been designed to augment the ERTS satellite data recovery system. The DCP's are data collection platforms located at pertinent sites. With the appropriate sensors they are able to collect, digitally encode and transmit environmental parameters to the ERTS satellite. The satellite in turn relays these transmissions to a ground station for processing. The satellite is available for such relay duty a minimum of two times in a 24-hour period. The equipment is to obtain continuous DCP data during periods of unusual environmental activity--storms, floods, etc. Two circumstances contributed to the decision to design such a system; (1) Wallops Station utilizes surveillance aircraft in support of rocket launches and also in support of earth resources activities; (2) the area in which Wallops is located, the Delaware and Chesapeake Bay areas, are fertile areas for DCP usage. Therefore, by developing an airborne DCP receiving station and installing it on aircraft more continuous DCP data can be provided from sites in the surrounding areas at relatively low cost.

  12. Analysis of airborne MAIS imaging spectrometric data for mineral exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Jinnian; Zheng Lanfen; Tong Qingxi

    1996-11-01

    The high spectral resolution imaging spectrometric system made quantitative analysis and mapping of surface composition possible. The key issue will be the quantitative approach for analysis of surface parameters for imaging spectrometer data. This paper describes the methods and the stages of quantitative analysis. (1) Extracting surface reflectance from imaging spectrometer image. Lab. and inflight field measurements are conducted for calibration of imaging spectrometer data, and the atmospheric correction has also been used to obtain ground reflectance by using empirical line method and radiation transfer modeling. (2) Determining quantitative relationship between absorption band parameters from the imaging spectrometer data and chemical composition of minerals. (3) Spectral comparison between the spectra of spectral library and the spectra derived from the imagery. The wavelet analysis-based spectrum-matching techniques for quantitative analysis of imaging spectrometer data has beer, developed. Airborne MAIS imaging spectrometer data were used for analysis and the analysis results have been applied to the mineral and petroleum exploration in Tarim Basin area china. 8 refs., 8 figs.

  13. Microprocessor-Based Airborne Spectrometer System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kates, John C.

    1980-08-01

    A system for airborne infrared spectral signature measurements has been developed using a Fourier transform spectrometer interfaced to a microprocessor data acquisition, control and display system. The microprocessor is a DEC LSI-ll with 20KW RAM, 4KW EPROM, DMA spectrometer interface, digital magnetic tape, and dot-matrix video graphic display. A real-time executive tailored to the requirements and resources available allows concurrent data acquisition, recording, reduction and display. Using multiple buffers, acquisition of spectrometer data via DMA is overlapped with magnetic tape output. A background task selects the most recent spectrometer data and processes it using an FFT into a raw spectrum. A reference background spectrum is subtracted to isolate the data component, then a reference instrument response function is applied to obtain a calibrated absolute irradiance spectrum. The irradiance spectrum is displayed on the video graphic display and mixed with boresight camera video to show the target spectrum superimposed on the target image. Extensive selftest facilities are incorporated for testing all system components and compatibility with data reduction systems. System calibration is supported by selection of reference blackbody temperatures, apertures, and distances. The instrument response curve obtained during calibration is displayed for verification of correct spectrometer operation or diagnosis of faults.

  14. Airborne electromagnetic imaging of discontinuous permafrost

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Minsley, B.J.; Abraham, J.D.; Smith, B.D.; Cannia, J.C.; Voss, C.I.; Jorgenson, M.T.; Walvoord, M.A.; Wylie, B.K.; Anderson, L.; Ball, L.B.; Deszcz-Pan, M.; Wellman, T.P.; Ager, T.A.

    2012-01-01

    The evolution of permafrost in cold regions is inextricably connected to hydrogeologic processes, climate, and ecosystems. Permafrost thawing has been linked to changes in wetland and lake areas, alteration of the groundwater contribution to streamflow, carbon release, and increased fire frequency. But detailed knowledge about the dynamic state of permafrost in relation to surface and groundwater systems remains an enigma. Here, we present the results of a pioneering ???1,800 line-kilometer airborne electromagnetic survey that shows sediments deposited over the past ???4 million years and the configuration of permafrost to depths of ???100 meters in the Yukon Flats area near Fort Yukon, Alaska. The Yukon Flats is near the boundary between continuous permafrost to the north and discontinuous permafrost to the south, making it an important location for examining permafrost dynamics. Our results not only provide a detailed snapshot of the present-day configuration of permafrost, but they also expose previously unseen details about potential surface-groundwater connections and the thermal legacy of surface water features that has been recorded in the permafrost over the past ???1,000 years. This work will be a critical baseline for future permafrost studies aimed at exploring the connections between hydrogeologic, climatic, and ecological processes, and has significant implications for the stewardship of Arctic environments. ?? 2012 by the American Geophysical Union.

  15. Image quality specification and maintenance for airborne SAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clinard, Mark S.

    2004-08-01

    Specification, verification, and maintenance of image quality over the lifecycle of an operational airborne SAR begin with the specification for the system itself. Verification of image quality-oriented specification compliance can be enhanced by including a specification requirement that a vendor provide appropriate imagery at the various phases of the system life cycle. The nature and content of the imagery appropriate for each stage of the process depends on the nature of the test, the economics of collection, and the availability of techniques to extract the desired information from the data. At the earliest lifecycle stages, Concept and Technology Development (CTD) and System Development and Demonstration (SDD), the test set could include simulated imagery to demonstrate the mathematical and engineering concepts being implemented thus allowing demonstration of compliance, in part, through simulation. For Initial Operational Test and Evaluation (IOT&E), imagery collected from precisely instrumented test ranges and targets of opportunity consisting of a priori or a posteriori ground-truthed cultural and natural features are of value to the analysis of product quality compliance. Regular monitoring of image quality is possible using operational imagery and automated metrics; more precise measurements can be performed with imagery of instrumented scenes, when available. A survey of image quality measurement techniques is presented along with a discussion of the challenges of managing an airborne SAR program with the scarce resources of time, money, and ground-truthed data. Recommendations are provided that should allow an improvement in the product quality specification and maintenance process with a minimal increase in resource demands on the customer, the vendor, the operational personnel, and the asset itself.

  16. Airborne space laser communication system and experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiao-Ming; Zhang, Li-zhong; Meng, Li-Xin

    2015-11-01

    Airborne space laser communication is characterized by its high speed, anti-electromagnetic interference, security, easy to assign. It has broad application in the areas of integrated space-ground communication networking, military communication, anti-electromagnetic communication. This paper introduce the component and APT system of the airborne laser communication system design by Changchun university of science and technology base on characteristic of airborne laser communication and Y12 plan, especially introduce the high communication speed and long distance communication experiment of the system that among two Y12 plans. In the experiment got the aim that the max communication distance 144Km, error 10-6 2.5Gbps - 10-7 1.5Gbps capture probability 97%, average capture time 20s. The experiment proving the adaptability of the APT and the high speed long distance communication.

  17. Thermal Infrared Spectral Imager for Airborne Science Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, William R.; Hook, Simon J.; Mouroulis, Pantazis; Wilson, Daniel W.; Gunapala, Sarath D.; Hill, Cory J.; Mumolo, Jason M.; Eng, Bjorn T.

    2009-01-01

    An airborne thermal hyperspectral imager is under development which utilizes the compact Dyson optical configuration and quantum well infrared photo detector (QWIP) focal plane array. The Dyson configuration uses a single monolithic prism-like grating design which allows for a high throughput instrument (F/1.6) with minimal ghosting, stray-light and large swath width. The configuration has the potential to be the optimal imaging spectroscopy solution for lighter-than-air (LTA) vehicles and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) due to its small form factor and relatively low power requirements. The planned instrument specifications are discussed as well as design trade-offs. Calibration testing results (noise equivalent temperature difference, spectral linearity and spectral bandwidth) and laboratory emissivity plots from samples are shown using an operational testbed unit which has similar specifications as the final airborne system. Field testing of the testbed unit was performed to acquire plots of apparent emissivity for various known standard minerals (such as quartz). A comparison is made using data from the ASTER spectral library.

  18. Airborne infrared hyperspectral imager for intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagueux, Philippe; Puckrin, Eldon; Turcotte, Caroline S.; Gagnon, Marc-André; Bastedo, John; Farley, Vincent; Chamberland, Martin

    2012-09-01

    Persistent surveillance and collection of airborne intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance information is critical in today's warfare against terrorism. High resolution imagery in visible and infrared bands provides valuable detection capabilities based on target shapes and temperatures. However, the spectral resolution provided by a hyperspectral imager adds a spectral dimension to the measurements, leading to additional tools for detection and identification of targets, based on their spectral signature. The Telops Hyper-Cam sensor is an interferometer-based imaging system that enables the spatial and spectral analysis of targets using a single sensor. It is based on the Fourier-transform technology yielding high spectral resolution and enabling high accuracy radiometric calibration. It provides datacubes of up to 320×256 pixels at spectral resolutions as fine as 0.25 cm-1. The LWIR version covers the 8.0 to 11.8 μm spectral range. The Hyper-Cam has been recently used for the first time in two compact airborne platforms: a bellymounted gyro-stabilized platform and a gyro-stabilized gimbal ball. Both platforms are described in this paper, and successful results of high-altitude detection and identification of targets, including industrial plumes, and chemical spills are presented.

  19. Airborne infrared hyperspectral imager for intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puckrin, Eldon; Turcotte, Caroline S.; Gagnon, Marc-André; Bastedo, John; Farley, Vincent; Chamberland, Martin

    2012-06-01

    Persistent surveillance and collection of airborne intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance information is critical in today's warfare against terrorism. High resolution imagery in visible and infrared bands provides valuable detection capabilities based on target shapes and temperatures. However, the spectral resolution provided by a hyperspectral imager adds a spectral dimension to the measurements, leading to additional tools for detection and identification of targets, based on their spectral signature. The Telops Hyper-Cam sensor is an interferometer-based imaging system that enables the spatial and spectral analysis of targets using a single sensor. It is based on the Fourier-transform technology yielding high spectral resolution and enabling high accuracy radiometric calibration. It provides datacubes of up to 320×256 pixels at spectral resolutions as fine as 0.25 cm-1. The LWIR version covers the 8.0 to 11.8 μm spectral range. The Hyper-Cam has been recently used for the first time in two compact airborne platforms: a belly-mounted gyro-stabilized platform and a gyro-stabilized gimbal ball. Both platforms are described in this paper, and successful results of high-altitude detection and identification of targets, including industrial plumes, and chemical spills are presented.

  20. Landsat radiometric continuity using airborne imaging spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCorkel, J.; Angal, A.; Thome, K.; Cook, B.

    2015-12-01

    NASA Goddard's Lidar, Hyperspectral and Thermal Imager (G-LiHT) includes a scanning lidar, an imaging spectrometer and a thermal camera. The Visible Near-Infrared (VNIR) Imaging Spectrometer acquires high resolution spectral measurements (1.5 nm resolution) from 0.4 to 1.0 µm. The SIRCUS-based calibration facility at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center was used to measure the absolute spectral response (ASR) of the G-LiHT's imaging spectrometer. Continuously tunable lasers coupled to an integrating sphere facilitated a radiance-based calibration for the detectors in the reflective solar bands. The transfer of the SIRCUS-based laboratory calibration of G-LiHT's Imaging Spectrometer to the Landsat sensors (Landsat 7 ETM+ and Landsat 8 OLI) is demonstrated using simultaneous overpasses over the Red Lake Playa and McClaw's Playa sites during the commissioning phase of Landsat 8 in March 2013. Solar Lunar Absolute Imaging Spectrometer (SOLARIS) is the calibration demonstration system for the reflected solar instrument of CLARREO. A portable version of SOLARIS, known as Suitcase SOLARIS, also calibrated using a SIRCUS-based setup, was deployed for ground measurements as a part of both the field campaigns. Simultaneous measurements of SOLARIS allow cross-comparison with G-LiHT and Landsat sensors. The transfer of the lab-based calibration of G-LiHT to Landsat sensors show that the sensors agree within 5% with a 1-3% calibration uncertainty of G-LiHT's Imaging Spectrometer.

  1. Calibration of airborne SAR interferograms using multisquint-processed image pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prats, Pau; Mallorqui, Jordi J.; Reigber, Andreas; Broquetas, Antoni

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents two different approaches to detect and correct phase errors appearing in interferometric airborne SAR sensors due to the lack of precision in the navigation system. The first one is intended for interferometric pairs with high coherence, and the second one for low coherent ones. Both techniques are based on a multisquint processing approach, i.e., by processing the same image pairs with different squint angles we can combine the information of different interferograms to obtain the desired phase correction. Airborne single- and repeat-pass interferometric data from the Deutsches Zentrum fur Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR) Experimental airborne SAR is used to validate the method.

  2. Airborne laser sensors and integrated systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabatini, Roberto; Richardson, Mark A.; Gardi, Alessandro; Ramasamy, Subramanian

    2015-11-01

    The underlying principles and technologies enabling the design and operation of airborne laser sensors are introduced and a detailed review of state-of-the-art avionic systems for civil and military applications is presented. Airborne lasers including Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR), Laser Range Finders (LRF), and Laser Weapon Systems (LWS) are extensively used today and new promising technologies are being explored. Most laser systems are active devices that operate in a manner very similar to microwave radars but at much higher frequencies (e.g., LIDAR and LRF). Other devices (e.g., laser target designators and beam-riders) are used to precisely direct Laser Guided Weapons (LGW) against ground targets. The integration of both functions is often encountered in modern military avionics navigation-attack systems. The beneficial effects of airborne lasers including the use of smaller components and remarkable angular resolution have resulted in a host of manned and unmanned aircraft applications. On the other hand, laser sensors performance are much more sensitive to the vagaries of the atmosphere and are thus generally restricted to shorter ranges than microwave systems. Hence it is of paramount importance to analyse the performance of laser sensors and systems in various weather and environmental conditions. Additionally, it is important to define airborne laser safety criteria, since several systems currently in service operate in the near infrared with considerable risk for the naked human eye. Therefore, appropriate methods for predicting and evaluating the performance of infrared laser sensors/systems are presented, taking into account laser safety issues. For aircraft experimental activities with laser systems, it is essential to define test requirements taking into account the specific conditions for operational employment of the systems in the intended scenarios and to verify the performance in realistic environments at the test ranges. To support the

  3. Design of airborne imaging spectrometer based on curved prism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Yunfeng; Xiangli, Bin; Zhou, Jinsong; Wei, Xiaoxiao

    2011-11-01

    A novel moderate-resolution imaging spectrometer spreading from visible wavelength to near infrared wavelength range with a spectral resolution of 10 nm, which combines curved prisms with the Offner configuration, is introduced. Compared to conventional imaging spectrometers based on dispersive prism or diffractive grating, this design possesses characteristics of small size, compact structure, low mass as well as little spectral line curve (smile) and spectral band curve (keystone or frown). Besides, the usage of compound curved prisms with two or more different materials can greatly reduce the nonlinearity inevitably brought by prismatic dispersion. The utilization ratio of light radiation is much higher than imaging spectrometer of the same type based on combination of diffractive grating and concentric optics. In this paper, the Seidel aberration theory of curved prism and the optical principles of Offner configuration are illuminated firstly. Then the optical design layout of the spectrometer is presented, and the performance evaluation of this design, including spot diagram and MTF, is analyzed. To step further, several types of telescope matching this system are provided. This work provides an innovational perspective upon optical system design of airborne spectral imagers; therefore, it can offer theoretic guide for imaging spectrometer of the same kind.

  4. Calibration of the National Ecological Observatory Network's Airborne Imaging Spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leisso, N.; Kampe, T. U.; Karpowicz, B. M.

    2014-12-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is currently under construction by the National Science Foundation. NEON is designed to collect data on the causes and responses to change in the observed ecosystem. The observatory will combine site data collected by terrestrial, instrumental, and aquatic observation systems with airborne remote sensing data. The Airborne Observation Platform (AOP) is designed to collect high-resolution aerial imagery, waveform and discrete LiDAR, and high-fidelity imaging spectroscopic data over the NEON sites annually at or near peak-greenness. Three individual airborne sensor packages will be installed in leased Twin Otter aircraft and used to the collect the NEON sites as NEON enters operations. A key driver to the derived remote sensing data products is the calibration of the imaging spectrometers. This is essential to the overall NEON mission to detect changes in the collected ecosystems over the 30-year expected lifetime. The NEON Imaging Spectrometer (NIS) is a Visible and Shortwave Infrared (VSWIR) grating spectrometer designed by NASA JPL. Spectroscopic data is collected at 5-nm intervals from 380-2500-nm. A single 480 by 640 pixel HgCdTe Focal Plane Array collects dispersed light from a grating tuned for efficiency across the solar-reflective utilized in a push-broom configuration. Primary calibration of the NIS consists of the characterizing the FPA behavior, spectral calibration, and radiometric calibration. To this end, NEON is constructing a Sensor Test Facility to calibrate the NEON sensors. This work discusses the initial NIS laboratory calibration and verification using vicarious calibration techniques during operations. Laboratory spectral calibration is based on well-defined emission lines in conjunction with a scanning monochromator to define the individual spectral response functions. A NIST traceable FEL bulb is used to radiometrically calibrate the imaging spectrometer. An On-board Calibration (OBC) system

  5. Airborne Laser Scanning and Image Processing Techniques for Archaeological Prospection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faltýnová, M.; Nový, P.

    2014-06-01

    Aerial photography was, for decades, an invaluable tool for archaeological prospection, in spite of the limitation of this method to deforested areas. The airborne laser scanning (ALS) method can be nowadays used to map complex areas and suitable complement earlier findings. This article describes visualization and image processing methods that can be applied on digital terrain models (DTMs) to highlight objects hidden in the landscape. Thanks to the analysis of visualized DTM it is possible to understand the landscape evolution including the differentiation between natural processes and human interventions. Different visualization methods were applied on a case study area. A system of parallel tracks hidden in a forest and its surroundings - part of old route called "Devil's Furrow" near the town of Sázava was chosen. The whole area around well known part of Devil's Furrow has not been prospected systematically yet. The data from the airborne laser scanning acquired by the Czech Office for Surveying, Mapping and Cadastre was used. The average density of the point cloud was approximately 1 point/m2 The goal of the project was to visualize the utmost smallest terrain discontinuities, e.g. tracks and erosion furrows, which some were not wholly preserved. Generally we were interested in objects that are clearly not visible in DTMs displayed in the form of shaded relief. Some of the typical visualization methods were tested (shaded relief, aspect and slope image). To get better results we applied image-processing methods that were successfully used on aerial photographs or hyperspectral images in the past. The usage of different visualization techniques on one site allowed us to verify the natural character of the southern part of Devil's Furrow and find formations up to now hidden in the forests.

  6. Investigation of image enhancement techniques for the development of a self-contained airborne radar navigation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phatak, A. V.; Karmali, M. S.

    1983-01-01

    This study was devoted to an investigation of the feasibility of applying advanced image processing techniques to enhance radar image characteristics that are pertinent to the pilot's navigation and guidance task. Millimeter (95 GHz) wave radar images for the overwater (i.e., offshore oil rigs) and overland (Heliport) scenario were used as a data base. The purpose of the study was to determine the applicability of image enhancement and scene analysis algorithms to detect and improve target characteristics (i.e., manmade objects such as buildings, parking lots, cars, roads, helicopters, towers, landing pads, etc.) that would be helpful to the pilot in determining his own position/orientation with respect to the outside world and assist him in the navigation task. Results of this study show that significant improvements in the raw radar image may be obtained using two dimensional image processing algorithms. In the overwater case, it is possible to remove the ocean clutter by thresholding the image data, and furthermore to extract the target boundary as well as the tower and catwalk locations using noise cleaning (e.g., median filter) and edge detection (e.g., Sobel operator) algorithms.

  7. Airborne electronics for automated flight systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graves, G. B., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    The increasing importance of airborne electronics for use in automated flight systems is briefly reviewed with attention to both basic aircraft control functions and flight management systems for operational use. The requirements for high levels of systems reliability are recognized. Design techniques are discussed and the areas of control systems, computing and communications are considered in terms of key technical problems and trends for their solution.

  8. Airborne optical tracking control system design study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-09-01

    The Kestrel LOS Tracking Program involves the development of a computer and algorithms for use in passive tracking of airborne targets from a high altitude balloon platform. The computer receivers track error signals from a video tracker connected to one of the imaging sensors. In addition, an on-board IRU (gyro), accelerometers, a magnetometer, and a two-axis inclinometer provide inputs which are used for initial acquisitions and course and fine tracking. Signals received by the control processor from the video tracker, IRU, accelerometers, magnetometer, and inclinometer are utilized by the control processor to generate drive signals for the payload azimuth drive, the Gimballed Mirror System (GMS), and the Fast Steering Mirror (FSM). The hardware which will be procured under the LOS tracking activity is the Controls Processor (CP), the IRU, and the FSM. The performance specifications for the GMS and the payload canister azimuth driver are established by the LOS tracking design team in an effort to achieve a tracking jitter of less than 3 micro-rad, 1 sigma for one axis.

  9. Determination of pasture quality using airborne hyperspectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pullanagari, R. R.; Kereszturi, G.; Yule, Ian J.; Irwin, M. E.

    2015-10-01

    Pasture quality is a critical determinant which influences animal performance (live weight gain, milk and meat production) and animal health. Assessment of pasture quality is therefore required to assist farmers with grazing planning and management, benchmarking between seasons and years. Traditionally, pasture quality is determined by field sampling which is laborious, expensive and time consuming, and the information is not available in real-time. Hyperspectral remote sensing has potential to accurately quantify biochemical composition of pasture over wide areas in great spatial detail. In this study an airborne imaging spectrometer (AisaFENIX, Specim) was used with a spectral range of 380-2500 nm with 448 spectral bands. A case study of a 600 ha hill country farm in New Zealand is used to illustrate the use of the system. Radiometric and atmospheric corrections, along with automatized georectification of the imagery using Digital Elevation Model (DEM), were applied to the raw images to convert into geocoded reflectance images. Then a multivariate statistical method, partial least squares (PLS), was applied to estimate pasture quality such as crude protein (CP) and metabolisable energy (ME) from canopy reflectance. The results from this study revealed that estimates of CP and ME had a R2 of 0.77 and 0.79, and RMSECV of 2.97 and 0.81 respectively. By utilizing these regression models, spatial maps were created over the imaged area. These pasture quality maps can be used for adopting precision agriculture practices which improves farm profitability and environmental sustainability.

  10. Multipurpose hyperspectral imaging system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A hyperspectral imaging system of high spectral and spatial resolution that incorporates several innovative features has been developed to incorporate a focal plane scanner (U.S. Patent 6,166,373). This feature enables the system to be used for both airborne/spaceborne and laboratory hyperspectral i...

  11. An airborne real-time hyperspectral target detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skauli, Torbjorn; Haavardsholm, Trym V.; Kåsen, Ingebjørg; Arisholm, Gunnar; Kavara, Amela; Opsahl, Thomas Olsvik; Skaugen, Atle

    2010-04-01

    An airborne system for hyperspectral target detection is described. The main sensor is a HySpex pushbroom hyperspectral imager for the visible and near-infrared spectral range with 1600 pixels across track, supplemented by a panchromatic line imager. An optional third sensor can be added, either a SWIR hyperspectral camera or a thermal camera. In real time, the system performs radiometric calibration and georeferencing of the images, followed by image processing for target detection and visualization. The current version of the system implements only spectral anomaly detection, based on normal mixture models. Image processing runs on a PC with a multicore Intel processor and an Nvidia graphics processing unit (GPU). The processing runs in a software framework optimized for large sustained data rates. The platform is a Cessna 172 aircraft based close to FFI, modified with a camera port in the floor.

  12. Calibration Of Airborne Visible/IR Imaging Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vane, G. A.; Chrien, T. G.; Miller, E. A.; Reimer, J. H.

    1990-01-01

    Paper describes laboratory spectral and radiometric calibration of Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) applied to all AVIRIS science data collected in 1987. Describes instrumentation and procedures used and demonstrates that calibration accuracy achieved exceeds design requirements. Developed for use in remote-sensing studies in such disciplines as botany, geology, hydrology, and oceanography.

  13. CALIOPE airborne CO{sub 2} DIAL (CACDI) system design

    SciTech Connect

    Mietz, D.; Archuleta, B.; Archuleta, J.

    1997-09-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory is currently developing an airborne CO{sub 2} Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) system based on second generation technology demonstrated last summer at NTS. The CALIOPE Airborne CO{sub 2} DIAL (CACDI) system requirements have been compiled based on the mission objectives and SONDIAL model trade studies. Subsystem designs have been developed based on flow down from these system requirements, as well as experience gained from second generation ground tests and N-ABLE (Non-proliferation AirBorne Lidar Experiments) airborne experiments. This paper presents the CACDI mission objectives, system requirements, the current subsystem design, and provides an overview of the airborne experimental plan.

  14. Airborne HCl - CO sensing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartle, E. R.; Hall, G.

    1977-01-01

    A system for measuring air pollutants in-situ using an aircraft was designed, fabricated, and tested. The system is based upon a technique called Gas Filter Correlation (GFC) which provides for high sensitivity and specificity in the presence of interfering species. This particular system was designed for measuring hydrochloric acid and carbon monoxide gases emitted from rocket exhaust effluents.

  15. Application of the airborne ocean color imager for commercial fishing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wrigley, Robert C.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of the investigation was to develop a commercial remote sensing system for providing near-real-time data (within one day) in support of commercial fishing operations. The Airborne Ocean Color Imager (AOCI) had been built for NASA by Daedalus Enterprises, Inc., but it needed certain improvements, data processing software, and a delivery system to make it into a commercial system for fisheries. Two products were developed to support this effort: the AOCI with its associated processing system and an information service for both commercial and recreational fisheries to be created by Spectro Scan, Inc. The investigation achieved all technical objectives: improving the AOCI, creating software for atmospheric correction and bio-optical output products, georeferencing the output products, and creating a delivery system to get those products into the hands of commercial and recreational fishermen in near-real-time. The first set of business objectives involved Daedalus Enterprises and also were achieved: they have an improved AOCI and new data processing software with a set of example data products for fisheries applications to show their customers. Daedalus' marketing activities showed the need for simplification of the product for fisheries, but they successfully marketed the current version to an Italian consortium. The second set of business objectives tasked Spectro Scan to provide an information service and they could not be achieved because Spectro Scan was unable to obtain necessary venture capital to start up operations.

  16. Airborne Atmospheric Aerosol Measurement System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, K.; Park, Y.; Eun, H.; Lee, H.

    2015-12-01

    It is important to understand the atmospheric aerosols compositions and size distributions since they greatly affect the environment and human health. Particles in the convection layer have been a great concern in global climate changes. To understand these characteristics satellite, aircraft, and radio sonde measurement methods have usually been used. An aircraft aerosol sampling using a filter and/or impactor was the method commonly used (Jay, 2003). However, the flight speed particle sampling had some technical limitations (Hermann, 2001). Moreover, the flight legal limit, altitude, prohibited airspace, flight time, and cost was another demerit. To overcome some of these restrictions, Tethered Balloon Package System (T.B.P.S.) and Recoverable Sonde System(R.S.S.) were developed with a very light optical particle counter (OPC), impactor, and condensation particle counter (CPC). Not only does it collect and measure atmospheric aerosols depending on altitudes, but it also monitors the atmospheric conditions, temperature, humidity, wind velocity, pressure, GPS data, during the measurement (Eun, 2013). In this research, atmospheric aerosol measurement using T.B.P.S. in Ansan area is performed and the measurement results will be presented. The system can also be mounted to an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) and create an aerial particle concentration map. Finally, we will present measurement data using Tethered Balloon Package System (T.B.P.S.) and R.S.S (Recoverable Sonde System).

  17. Airborne measurements in the longwave infrared using an imaging hyperspectral sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allard, Jean-Pierre; Chamberland, Martin; Farley, Vincent; Marcotte, Frédérick; Rolland, Matthias; Vallières, Alexandre; Villemaire, André

    2008-07-01

    Emerging applications in Defense and Security require sensors with state-of-the-art sensitivity and capabilities. Among these sensors, the imaging spectrometer is an instrument yielding a large amount of rich information about the measured scene. Standoff detection, identification and quantification of chemicals in the gaseous state is one important application. Analysis of the surface emissivity as a means to classify ground properties and usage is another one. Imaging spectrometers have unmatched capabilities to meet the requirements of these applications. Telops has developed the FIRST, a LWIR hyperspectral imager. The FIRST is based on the Fourier Transform technology yielding high spectral resolution and enabling high accuracy radiometric calibration. The FIRST, a man portable sensor, provides datacubes of up to 320×256 pixels at 0.35mrad spatial resolution over the 8-12 μm spectral range at spectral resolutions of up to 0.25cm-1. The FIRST has been used in several field campaigns, including the demonstration of standoff chemical agent detection [http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.788027.1]. More recently, an airborne system integrating the FIRST has been developed to provide airborne hyperspectral measurement capabilities. The airborne system and its capabilities are presented in this paper. The FIRST sensor modularity enables operation in various configurations such as tripod-mounted and airborne. In the airborne configuration, the FIRST can be operated in push-broom mode, or in staring mode with image motion compensation. This paper focuses on the airborne operation of the FIRST sensor.

  18. DETECTION AND IDENTIFICATION OF TOXIC AIR POLLUTANTS USING AIRBORNE LWIR HYPERSPECTRAL IMAGING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Airborne longwave infrared LWIR) hyperspectral imagery was utilized to detect and identify gaseous chemical release plumes at sites in sourthern Texzas. The Airborne Hysperspectral Imager (AHI), developed by the University of Hawaii was flown over a petrochemical facility and a ...

  19. An airborne laser polarimeter system (ALPS) for terrestrial physics research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalshoven, James E., Jr.; Dabney, Philip W.

    1988-01-01

    The design of a multispectral polarized laser system for characterizing the depolarization properties of the earth's surface is described. Using a laser as the light source, this airborne system measures the Stokes parameters of the surface to simultaneously arrive at the polarization degree, azimuthal angle, and ellipticity for each wavelength. The technology will be studied for the feasibility of expansion of the sensor to do surface polarization imaging. The data will be used in support of solar polarization studies and to develop laser radiometry as a tool in environmental remote sensing.

  20. Optimal structural design of the Airborne Infrared Imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyle, Keith B.; Cerrati, Vincent J.; Forman, Steven E.; Sultana, John A.

    1995-09-01

    The airborne infrared imager (AIRI) is a dual-band IR sensor designed to study air defense issues while wing mounted in a pod. The sensor consists of an optical bench attached to a two- axis inertially stabilized gimbal structure in elevation and azimuth. The gimbal assembly operates within an 18-inch diameter globe while meeting strict pointing and tracking requirements. Design conditions for the assembly include operational and nonoperational inertial, thermal, and dynamic loads. Primary design efforts centered on limiting the line-of- sight jitter of the optical system to 50 (mu) rad under the operating environment. An MSC/NASTRAN finite element model was developed for structural response predictions and correlated to experimental data. Design changes were aided by MSC/NASTRAN's optimization routine with the goal of maximizing the fundamental frequency of the gimbal assembly. The final structural design resultsed in a first natural frequency of 79 Hz using a titanium azimuthal gimbal, a stainless steel elevation gimbal, and an aluminum optical bench which met the design and performance requirements.

  1. Transmitter Pulse Estimation and Measurements for Airborne TDEM Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vetrov, A.; Mejzr, I.

    2013-12-01

    The processing and interpretation of Airborne Time Domain EM data requires precise description of the transmitter parameters, including shape, amplitude and length of the transmitted pulse. There are several ways to measure pulse shape of the transmitter loop. Transmitted pulse can be recorded by a current monitor installed on the loop. The current monitor readings do not give exact image due to own time-domain physical characteristics of the current monitor. Another way is to restore the primary pulse shape from the receiver data recorded on-time, if such is possible. The receiver gives exact image of the primary field projection combined with the ground response, which can be minimized at high altitude pass, usually with a transmitter elevation higher than 1500 ft from the ground. The readings on the receiver are depending on receiver position and orientation. Modeling of airborne TDEM transmitter pulse allows us to compare estimated and measured shape of the pulse and apply required corrections. Airborne TDEM system transmitter pulse shape has been studied by authors while developing P-THEM system. The data has been gathered during in-doors and out-doors ground tests in Canada, as well as during flight tests in Canada and in India. The P-THEM system has three-axes receiver that is suspended on a tow-cable in the midpoint between the transmitter and the helicopter. The P-THEM receiver geometry does not require backing coils to dump the primary field. The system records full-wave data from the receiver and current monitor installed on the transmitter loop, including on-time and off-time data. The modeling of the transmitter pulse allowed us to define the difference between estimated and measured values. The higher accuracy pulse shape can be used for better data processing and interpretation. A developed model can be applied to similar systems and configurations.

  2. Detection in urban scenario using combined airborne imaging sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renhorn, Ingmar; Axelsson, Maria; Benoist, Koen; Bourghys, Dirk; Boucher, Yannick; Briottet, Xavier; De Ceglie, Sergio; Dekker, Rob; Dimmeler, Alwin; Dost, Remco; Friman, Ola; Kåsen, Ingebjørg; Maerker, Jochen; van Persie, Mark; Resta, Salvatore; Schwering, Piet; Shimoni, Michal; Haavardsholm, Trym Vegard

    2012-06-01

    The EDA project "Detection in Urban scenario using Combined Airborne imaging Sensors" (DUCAS) is in progress. The aim of the project is to investigate the potential benefit of combined high spatial and spectral resolution airborne imagery for several defense applications in the urban area. The project is taking advantage of the combined resources from 7 contributing nations within the EDA framework. An extensive field trial has been carried out in the city of Zeebrugge at the Belgian coast in June 2011. The Belgian armed forces contributed with platforms, weapons, personnel (soldiers) and logistics for the trial. Ground truth measurements with respect to geometrical characteristics, optical material properties and weather conditions were obtained in addition to hyperspectral, multispectral and high resolution spatial imagery. High spectral/spatial resolution sensor data are used for detection, classification, identification and tracking.

  3. Laser Imaging of Airborne Acoustic Emission by Nonlinear Defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solodov, Igor; Döring, Daniel; Busse, Gerd

    2008-06-01

    Strongly nonlinear vibrations of near-surface fractured defects driven by an elastic wave radiate acoustic energy into adjacent air in a wide frequency range. The variations of pressure in the emitted airborne waves change the refractive index of air thus providing an acoustooptic interaction with a collimated laser beam. Such an air-coupled vibrometry (ACV) is proposed for detecting and imaging of acoustic radiation of nonlinear spectral components by cracked defects. The photoelastic relation in air is used to derive induced phase modulation of laser light in the heterodyne interferometer setup. The sensitivity of the scanning ACV to different spatial components of the acoustic radiation is analyzed. The animated airborne emission patterns are visualized for the higher harmonic and frequency mixing fields radiated by planar defects. The results confirm a high localization of the nonlinear acoustic emission around the defects and complicated directivity patterns appreciably different from those observed for fundamental frequencies.

  4. Prediction and performance measures of atmospheric disturbances on an airborne imaging platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dayton, David C.; Gonglewski, John D.; Martin, Jeffrey B.; Kovacs, Mark A.; Cardani, Joseph C.; Maia, Francisco; Aflalo, Tyson; Shilko, Michael L., Sr.

    2004-02-01

    A series of airborne imaging experiments have been conducted on the island of Maui. The imaging platform was a Twin Otter aircraft, which circled ground target sites. The typical platform altitude was 3000 meters, with a slant range to the target of 9000 meters. This experiment was performed during the day using solar illuminated target buildings, and at night with spotlights used to simulate point sources. Imaging system performance predictions were calculated using standard atmospheric turbulence models, and aircraft boundary layer models. Several different measurement approaches were then used to estimate the actual system performance, and make comparisons with the calculations.

  5. Method of airborne SAR image match integrating multi-information for block adjustment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, S. C.; Huang, G. M.; Zhao, Z.; Lu, L. J.

    2015-06-01

    For the automation of SAR image Block Adjustment, this paper proposed a method of SAR image matching integrating multiinformation. It takes full advantage of SAR image geometric information, feature information, gray-related information and external auxiliary terrain information for SAR image matching. And then Image Tie Points (ITPs) of Block Adjustment can be achieved automatically. The main parts of extracting ITPs automatically include: First, SAR images were rectified geometrically based on the geometric information and external auxiliary terrain information (existed DEM) before match. Second, ground grid points with a certain interval can be get in the block area and approximate ITPs were acquired based on external auxiliary terrain information. Then match reference point was extracted for homologous image blocks with Harris feature detection operator and ITPs were obtained with pyramid matching based on gray-related information. At last, ITPs were transferred from rectified images to original SAR images and used in block adjustment. In the experiment, X band airborne SAR images acquired by Chinese airborne SAR system - CASMSAR system were used to make up the block. The result had showed that the method is effective for block adjustment of SAR data.

  6. 76 FR 76333 - Notification for Airborne Wind Energy Systems (AWES)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-07

    ... Statement can be found in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-19478), as well as... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 77 Notification for Airborne Wind Energy Systems (AWES) AGENCY...,'' to airborne wind energy systems (AWES). In addition, this notice requests information from...

  7. Multipurpose Hyperspectral Imaging System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mao, Chengye; Smith, David; Lanoue, Mark A.; Poole, Gavin H.; Heitschmidt, Jerry; Martinez, Luis; Windham, William A.; Lawrence, Kurt C.; Park, Bosoon

    2005-01-01

    A hyperspectral imaging system of high spectral and spatial resolution that incorporates several innovative features has been developed to incorporate a focal plane scanner (U.S. Patent 6,166,373). This feature enables the system to be used for both airborne/spaceborne and laboratory hyperspectral imaging with or without relative movement of the imaging system, and it can be used to scan a target of any size as long as the target can be imaged at the focal plane; for example, automated inspection of food items and identification of single-celled organisms. The spectral resolution of this system is greater than that of prior terrestrial multispectral imaging systems. Moreover, unlike prior high-spectral resolution airborne and spaceborne hyperspectral imaging systems, this system does not rely on relative movement of the target and the imaging system to sweep an imaging line across a scene. This compact system (see figure) consists of a front objective mounted at a translation stage with a motorized actuator, and a line-slit imaging spectrograph mounted within a rotary assembly with a rear adaptor to a charged-coupled-device (CCD) camera. Push-broom scanning is carried out by the motorized actuator which can be controlled either manually by an operator or automatically by a computer to drive the line-slit across an image at a focal plane of the front objective. To reduce the cost, the system has been designed to integrate as many as possible off-the-shelf components including the CCD camera and spectrograph. The system has achieved high spectral and spatial resolutions by using a high-quality CCD camera, spectrograph, and front objective lens. Fixtures for attachment of the system to a microscope (U.S. Patent 6,495,818 B1) make it possible to acquire multispectral images of single cells and other microscopic objects.

  8. A multisensor system for airborne surveillance of oil pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edgerton, A. T.; Ketchal, R.; Catoe, C.

    1973-01-01

    The U.S. Coast Guard is developing a prototype airborne oil surveillance system for use in its Marine Environmental Protection Program. The prototype system utilizes an X-band side-looking radar, a 37-GHz imaging microwave radiometer, a multichannel line scanner, and a multispectral low light level system. The system is geared to detecting and mapping oil spills and potential pollution violators anywhere within a 25 nmi range of the aircraft flight track under all but extreme weather conditions. The system provides for false target discrimination and maximum identification of spilled materials. The system also provides an automated detection alarm, as well as a color display to achieve maximum coupling between the sensor data and the equipment operator.

  9. A Refined Algorithm On The Estimation Of Residual Motion Errors In Airborne SAR Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Xuelian; Xiang, Maosheng; Yue, Huanyin; Guo, Huadong

    2010-10-01

    Due to the lack of accuracy in the navigation system, residual motion errors (RMEs) frequently appear in the airborne SAR image. For very high resolution SAR imaging and repeat-pass SAR interferometry, the residual motion errors must be estimated and compensated. We have proposed a new algorithm before to estimate the residual motion errors for an individual SAR image. It exploits point-like targets distributed along the azimuth direction, and not only corrects the phase, but also improves the azimuth focusing. But the required point targets are selected by hand, which is time- and labor-consuming. In addition, the algorithm is sensitive to noises. In this paper, a refined algorithm is proposed aiming at these two shortcomings. With real X-band airborne SAR data, the feasibility and accuracy of the refined algorithm are demonstrated.

  10. Comparison of mosaicking techniques for airborne images from consumer-grade cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Huaibo; Yang, Chenghai; Zhang, Jian; Hoffmann, Wesley Clint; He, Dongjian; Thomasson, J. Alex

    2016-01-01

    Images captured from airborne imaging systems can be mosaicked for diverse remote sensing applications. The objective of this study was to identify appropriate mosaicking techniques and software to generate mosaicked images for use by aerial applicators and other users. Three software packages-Photoshop CC, Autostitch, and Pix4Dmapper-were selected for mosaicking airborne images acquired from a large cropping area. Ground control points were collected for georeferencing the mosaicked images and for evaluating the accuracy of eight mosaicking techniques. Analysis and accuracy assessment showed that Pix4Dmapper can be the first choice if georeferenced imagery with high accuracy is required. The spherical method in Photoshop CC can be an alternative for cost considerations, and Autostitch can be used to quickly mosaic images with reduced spatial resolution. The results also showed that the accuracy of image mosaicking techniques could be greatly affected by the size of the imaging area or the number of the images and that the accuracy would be higher for a small area than for a large area. The results from this study will provide useful information for the selection of image mosaicking software and techniques for aerial applicators and other users.

  11. A multiprocessor airborne lidar data system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, C. W.; Bailey, S. A.; Heath, G. E.; Piazza, C. R.

    1988-01-01

    A new multiprocessor data acquisition system was developed for the existing Airborne Oceanographic Lidar (AOL). This implementation simultaneously utilizes five single board 68010 microcomputers, the UNIX system V operating system, and the real time executive VRTX. The original data acquisition system was implemented on a Hewlett Packard HP 21-MX 16 bit minicomputer using a multi-tasking real time operating system and a mixture of assembly and FORTRAN languages. The present collection of data sources produce data at widely varied rates and require varied amounts of burdensome real time processing and formatting. It was decided to replace the aging HP 21-MX minicomputer with a multiprocessor system. A new and flexible recording format was devised and implemented to accommodate the constantly changing sensor configuration. A central feature of this data system is the minimization of non-remote sensing bus traffic. Therefore, it is highly desirable that each micro be capable of functioning as much as possible on-card or via private peripherals. The bus is used primarily for the transfer of remote sensing data to or from the buffer queue.

  12. Chemical detection using the airborne thermal infrared imaging spectrometer (TIRIS)

    SciTech Connect

    Gat, N.; Subramanian, S.; Sheffield, M.; Erives, H.; Barhen, J.

    1997-04-01

    A methodology is described for an airborne, downlooking, longwave infrared imaging spectrometer based technique for the detection and tracking of plumes of toxic gases. Plumes can be observed in emission or absorption, depending on the thermal contrast between the vapor and the background terrain. While the sensor is currently undergoing laboratory calibration and characterization, a radiative exchange phenomenology model has been developed to predict sensor response and to facilitate the sensor design. An inverse problem model has also been developed to obtain plume parameters based on sensor measurements. These models, the sensors, and ongoing activities are described.

  13. Airborne Imaging Spectroscopy of Forest Canopy Chemistry in the Andes-Amazon Corridor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, R.; Anderson, C.; Knapp, D. E.; Asner, G. P.

    2013-12-01

    The Andes-Amazon corridor is one of the most biologically diverse regions on Earth. Elevation gradients provide opportunities to explore the underlying sources and environmental controls on functional diversity of the forest canopy, however plot-based studies have proven highly variable. We used airborne imaging spectroscopy from the Carnegie Airborne Observatory (CAO) Airborne Taxonomic Mapping System (AToMS) to quantify changes canopy functional traits in a series of eleven 25-ha landscapes distributed along a 3300 m elevation gradient from lowland Amazonia to treeline in the Peruvian Andes. Each landscape encompassed a 1 ha field plot in which all trees reaching the canopy were climbed and leaves were sampled for 20 chemical traits. We used partial least squares regression to relate plot-level chemical values with airborne spectroscopy from the 1 ha area. Sixteen chemical traits produced predictable relationships with the spectra and were used to generate maps of the 25 ha landscape. Ten chemical traits were significantly related to elevation at the 25 ha scale. These ten traits displayed 35% greater accuracy (R2) and precision (rmse) when evaluated at the 25 ha scale compared to values derived from tree climbing alone. The results indicate that high-fidelity imaging spectroscopy can be used as surrogate for laborious tree climbing and chemical assays to understand chemical diversity in Amazonian forests. Understanding how these chemicals vary among forest communities throughout the Andes-Amazon corridor will facilitate mapping of functional diversity and the response of canopies to climate change.

  14. Data correction techniques for the airborne large-aperture static image spectrometer based on image registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Geng; Shi, Dalian; Wang, Shuang; Yu, Tao; Hu, Bingliang

    2015-01-01

    We propose an approach to correct the data of the airborne large-aperture static image spectrometer (LASIS). LASIS is a kind of stationary interferometer which compromises flux output and device stability. It acquires a series of interferograms to reconstruct the hyperspectral image cube. Reconstruction precision of the airborne LASIS data suffers from the instability of the plane platform. Usually, changes of plane attitudes, such as yaws, pitches, and rolls, can be precisely measured by the inertial measurement unit. However, the along-track and across-track translation errors are difficult to measure precisely. To solve this problem, we propose a co-optimization approach to compute the translation errors between the interferograms using an image registration technique which helps to correct the interferograms with subpixel precision. To demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach, experiments are run on real airborne LASIS data and our results are compared with those of the state-of-the-art approaches.

  15. An approach to evaluating reactive airborne wind shear systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Joseph P., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    An approach to evaluating reactive airborne windshear detection systems was developed to support a deployment study for future FAA ground-based windshear detection systems. The deployment study methodology assesses potential future safety enhancements beyond planned capabilities. The reactive airborne systems will be an integral part of planned windshear safety enhancements. The approach to evaluating reactive airborne systems involves separate analyses for both landing and take-off scenario. The analysis estimates the probability of effective warning considering several factors including NASA energy height loss characteristics, reactive alert timing, and a probability distribution for microburst strength.

  16. An automated data exploitation system for airborne sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hai-Wen; McGurr, Mike

    2014-06-01

    Advanced wide area persistent surveillance (WAPS) sensor systems on manned or unmanned airborne vehicles are essential for wide-area urban security monitoring in order to protect our people and our warfighter from terrorist attacks. Currently, human (imagery) analysts process huge data collections from full motion video (FMV) for data exploitation and analysis (real-time and forensic), providing slow and inaccurate results. An Automated Data Exploitation System (ADES) is urgently needed. In this paper, we present a recently developed ADES for airborne vehicles under heavy urban background clutter conditions. This system includes four processes: (1) fast image registration, stabilization, and mosaicking; (2) advanced non-linear morphological moving target detection; (3) robust multiple target (vehicles, dismounts, and human) tracking (up to 100 target tracks); and (4) moving or static target/object recognition (super-resolution). Test results with real FMV data indicate that our ADES can reliably detect, track, and recognize multiple vehicles under heavy urban background clutters. Furthermore, our example shows that ADES as a baseline platform can provide capability for vehicle abnormal behavior detection to help imagery analysts quickly trace down potential threats and crimes.

  17. Pointing stability and image quality of the SOFIA Airborne Telescope during initial science missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lampater, Ulrich; Keas, Paul; Brewster, Rick; Herter, Terry; Wolf, Juergen; Pfueller, Enrico; Wiedemann, Manuel; Teufel, Stefan; Harms, Franziska; Jakob, Holger; Roser, Hans-Peter

    2011-09-01

    The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is an airborne observatory for astronomical observations at wavelengths ranging from 0.3-1600 µm. It consists of a telescope with an effective aperture of 2.5 m, which is mounted in a heavily modified Boeing 747SP. The aircraft features an open port cavity that gives the telescope an unobstructed view of the sky. Hence the optical system is subject to both aerodynamic loads from airflow entering the cavity, and to inertial loads introduced by motion of the airborne platform. A complex suspension assembly was designed to stabilize the telescope. Detailed end-to-end simulations were performed to estimate image stability based on the mechatronic design, the expected loads, and optical influence parameters. In December 2010 SOFIA entered its operational phase with a series of Early Science flights, which have relaxed image quality requirements compared to the full operations capability. At the same time, those flights are used to characterize image quality and image stability in order to validate models and to optimize systems. Optimization of systems is not based on analytical models, but on models derived from system identification measurements that are performed on the actual hardware both under controlled conditions and operational conditions. This paper discusses recent results from system identification measurements, improvements to image stability, and plans for the further enhancement of the system.

  18. Benchmarking High Density Image Matching for Oblique Airborne Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavegn, S.; Haala, N.; Nebiker, S.; Rothermel, M.; Tutzauer, P.

    2014-08-01

    Both, improvements in camera technology and new pixel-wise matching approaches triggered the further development of software tools for image based 3D reconstruction. Meanwhile research groups as well as commercial vendors provide photogrammetric software to generate dense, reliable and accurate 3D point clouds and Digital Surface Models (DSM) from highly overlapping aerial images. In order to evaluate the potential of these algorithms in view of the ongoing software developments, a suitable test bed is provided by the ISPRS/EuroSDR initiative Benchmark on High Density Image Matching for DSM Computation. This paper discusses the proposed test scenario to investigate the potential of dense matching approaches for 3D data capture from oblique airborne imagery. For this purpose, an oblique aerial image block captured at a GSD of 6 cm in the west of Zürich by a Leica RCD30 Oblique Penta camera is used. Within this paper, the potential test scenario is demonstrated using matching results from two software packages, Agisoft PhotoScan and SURE from University of Stuttgart. As oblique images are frequently used for data capture at building facades, 3D point clouds are mainly investigated at such areas. Reference data from terrestrial laser scanning is used to evaluate data quality from dense image matching for several facade patches with respect to accuracy, density and reliability.

  19. Proceedings of the Airborne Imaging Spectrometer Data Analysis Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vane, G. (Editor); Goetz, A. F. H. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    The Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) Data Analysis Workshop was held at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory on April 8 to 10, 1985. It was attended by 92 people who heard reports on 30 investigations currently under way using AIS data that have been collected over the past two years. Written summaries of 27 of the presentations are in these Proceedings. Many of the results presented at the Workshop are preliminary because most investigators have been working with this fundamentally new type of data for only a relatively short time. Nevertheless, several conclusions can be drawn from the Workshop presentations concerning the value of imaging spectrometry to Earth remote sensing. First, work with AIS has shown that direct identification of minerals through high spectral resolution imaging is a reality for a wide range of materials and geological settings. Second, there are strong indications that high spectral resolution remote sensing will enhance the ability to map vegetation species. There are also good indications that imaging spectrometry will be useful for biochemical studies of vegetation. Finally, there are a number of new data analysis techniques under development which should lead to more efficient and complete information extraction from imaging spectrometer data. The results of the Workshop indicate that as experience is gained with this new class of data, and as new analysis methodologies are developed and applied, the value of imaging spectrometry should increase.

  20. The NASA/JPL Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Yun-Jin; Lou, Yun-Ling; vanZyl, Jakob

    1996-01-01

    The NASA/JPL airborne SAR (AIRSAR) system operates in the fully polarimetric mode at P-, L- and C-band simultaneously or in the interferometric mode in both L- and C-band simultaneously. The system became operational in late 1987 and flew its first mission aboard a DC-8 aircraft operated by NASA's Ames Research Center in Mountain View, California. Since then, the AIRSAR has flown missions every year and acquired images in North, Central and South America, Europe and Australia. In this paper, we will briefly describe the instrument characteristics, the evolution of the various radar modes, the instrument performance, and improvement in the knowledge of the positioning and attitude information of the radar. In addition, we will summarize the progress of the data processing effort especially in the interferometry processing. Finally, we will address the issue of processing and calibrating the cross-track interferometry (XTI) data.

  1. Development of a new airborne humidigraph system.

    SciTech Connect

    Pekour, Mikhail S.; Schmid, Beat; Chand, Duli; Hubbe, John M.; Kluzek, Celine D.; Nelson, Danny A.; Tomlinson, Jason M.; Cziczo, Daniel J.

    2012-12-06

    Modeling and measurements of aerosol properties is complicated by the hygroscopic behavior of the aerosols adding significant uncertainty to our best estimates of the direct effect aerosols exert on the radiative balance of the atmosphere. Airborne measurements of aerosol hygroscopicity are particularly challenging but critically needed. This motivated the development of a newly designed system which can measure the dependence of the aerosol light scattering coefficient (σsp) on relative humidity (RH), known as f(RH), in real-time at a rapid rate (<10 s) on an aerial platform. The new system has several advantages over existing systems. It consists of three integrating nephelometers and humidity conditioners for simultaneous measurement of the σsp at three different RHs. The humidity is directly controlled in exchanger cells without significant temperature disturbances and without particle dilution, heating or loss of volatile compounds. The single-wavelength nephelometers are illuminated by LED-based light sources thereby minimizing heating of the sample stream. The flexible design of the RH conditioners, consisting of a number of specially designed exchanger cells (driers or humidifiers), enables us to measure f(RH) under hydration or dehydration conditions (always starting with the aerosol in a known state) with a simple system re-configuration. These exchanger cells have been characterized for losses of particles using latex spheres and laboratory generated ammonium sulfate aerosols. Residence times of 6 - 9 s in the exchangers and subsequent lines is sufficient for most aerosols to attain equilibrium with the new water vapor content. The performance of this system has been assessed aboard DOE’s G-1 research aircraft during test flights over California, Oregon, and Washington.

  2. Urban area structuring mapping using an airborne polarimetric SAR image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonetto, Elisabeth; Malak, Charbel

    2009-09-01

    For several years, image classification and pattern recognition algorithms have been developed for the land coverage mapping using radar and multispectral imagery with medium to large pixel size. As several satellites now distribute submetric-pixel and metric-pixel images (for example QUICKBIRD,TERRASAR-X), the research turns to the study of the structure of cities: building structuring, grassy areas, road networks, etc, and the physical description of the urban surfaces. In that context, we propose to underline new potentialities of submetric-pixel polarimetric SAR images. We deal with the characterization of roofs and the mapping of trees. For that purpose, a first analysis based on photo-interpretation and the assessement of several polarimetric descriptors is carried out. Then, an image classification scheme is built using the polarimetric H/alpha-Wishart algorithm, followed by a decision tree. This one is based on the most pertinent polarimetric descriptors and aims at reducing the classification errors. The result proves the potential of such data. Our work relies on an image of a suburban area, acquired by the airborne RAMSES SAR sensor of ONERA.

  3. Airborne measurements of NO2 shipping emissions using imaging DOAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, Andreas C.; Schönhardt, Anja; Richter, Andreas; Seyler, André; Ruhtz, Thomas; Lindemann, Carsten; Wittrock, Folkard; Burrows, John P.

    2014-05-01

    NOx (NO and NO2) play a key role in tropospheric chemistry and affect human health and the environment. Shipping emissions contribute substantially to the global emissions of anthropogenic NOx. Due to globalization and increased trade volume, the relative importance emissions from ships gain even more importance. The Airborne imaging DOAS instrument for Measurements of Atmospheric Pollution (AirMAP), developed at IUP Bremen, has been used to perform measurements of NO2 in the visible spectral range. The observations allow the determination of spatial distributions of column densities of NO2 below the aircraft. Airborne measurements were performed over Northern Germany and adjacent coastal waters during the NOSE (NO2 from Shipping Emissions) campaign in August 2013. The focus of the campaign activities was on shipping emissions, but NO2 over cities and power plants has been measured as well. The measurements have a spatial resolution below the order of 100 × 30 m2, and they reveal the large spatial variability of NO2 and the evolution of NO2 plumes behind point sources. Shipping lanes as well as plumes of individual ships are detected by the AirMAP instrument. In this study, first results from the NOSE campaign are presented for selected measurement areas.

  4. Assessment of lightweight mobile nuclear power systems. [for airborne vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. L.; Rom, F. E.

    1973-01-01

    A review was made of lightweight mobile nuclear power systems (LMNPS). Data cover technical feasibility studies of LMNPS and airborne vehicles, mission studies, and non-technical conditions that are required to develop and use LMNPS.

  5. Overview of Austrian Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) programme and first results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banninger, C.

    1987-01-01

    Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) data collected from eight test areas in Austria were evaluated for their usefulness in forest damage assessment, geobotany, alpine vegetation mapping, and land use classification. Difficulties encountered in installing the SPAM spectral analysis software for use on the image display system and the necessity to adapt existing programs for this task impeded and delayed the analysis of the AIS data. Spectral reflectance curves obtained from a geobotanical test site show a marked increase in reflectance across most of the measured spectrum for metal stressed spruce trees compared with nonstressed spruce trees.

  6. CNR LARA Project: Evaluation of two years of airborne imaging spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Bianchi, R.; Cavalli, R.M.; Fiumi, L.; Marino, C.M.

    1996-10-01

    Since last July 1994 the Daedalus AA5000 MIVIS (Multispectral Infrared and Visible Imaging Spectrometer) instrument, acquired by CNR (Italian National Research Council) in the framework of its LARA (Airborne Laboratory for Environmental Studies) Project, has been intensively operative. A number of MIVIS (Multispectral Infrared and Visible Imaging Spectrometer) deployments have been carried out in Italy and Europe in cooperation with national and international institutions on a variety of sites, including active volcanoes, coastlines, lagoons and ocean, vegetated and cultivated areas, oil polluted surfaces, waste discharges, and archeological sites. Two years of activity have shown the high system efficiency, from the survey to data preprocessing and dissemination. 12 refs., 3 figs.

  7. Detection of single graves by airborne hyperspectral imaging.

    PubMed

    Leblanc, G; Kalacska, M; Soffer, R

    2014-12-01

    Airborne hyperspectral imaging (HSI) was assessed as a potential tool to locate single grave sites. While airborne HSI has shown to be useful to locate mass graves, it is expected the location of single graves would be an order of magnitude more difficult due to the smaller size and reduced mass of the targets. Two clearings were evaluated (through a blind test) as potential sites for containing at least one set of buried remains. At no time prior to submitting the locations of the potential burial sites from the HSI were the actual locations of the sites released or shared with anyone from the analysis team. The two HSI sensors onboard the aircraft span the range of 408-2524nm. A range of indicators that exploit the narrow spectral and spatial resolutions of the two complimentary HSI sensors onboard the aircraft were calculated. Based on the co-occurrence of anomalous pixels within the expected range of the indicators three potential areas conforming to our underlying assumptions of the expected spectral responses (and spatial area) were determined. After submission of the predicted burial locations it was revealed that two of the targets were located within GPS error (10m) of the true burial locations. Furthermore, due to the history of the TPOF site for burial work, investigation of the third target is being considered in the near future. The results clearly demonstrate promise for hyperspectral imaging to aid in the detection of buried remains, however further work is required before these results can justifiably be used in routine scenarios. PMID:25447169

  8. Detection of single graves by airborne hyperspectral imaging.

    PubMed

    Leblanc, G; Kalacska, M; Soffer, R

    2014-12-01

    Airborne hyperspectral imaging (HSI) was assessed as a potential tool to locate single grave sites. While airborne HSI has shown to be useful to locate mass graves, it is expected the location of single graves would be an order of magnitude more difficult due to the smaller size and reduced mass of the targets. Two clearings were evaluated (through a blind test) as potential sites for containing at least one set of buried remains. At no time prior to submitting the locations of the potential burial sites from the HSI were the actual locations of the sites released or shared with anyone from the analysis team. The two HSI sensors onboard the aircraft span the range of 408-2524nm. A range of indicators that exploit the narrow spectral and spatial resolutions of the two complimentary HSI sensors onboard the aircraft were calculated. Based on the co-occurrence of anomalous pixels within the expected range of the indicators three potential areas conforming to our underlying assumptions of the expected spectral responses (and spatial area) were determined. After submission of the predicted burial locations it was revealed that two of the targets were located within GPS error (10m) of the true burial locations. Furthermore, due to the history of the TPOF site for burial work, investigation of the third target is being considered in the near future. The results clearly demonstrate promise for hyperspectral imaging to aid in the detection of buried remains, however further work is required before these results can justifiably be used in routine scenarios.

  9. The U.S. Geological Survey side-looking airborne radar database: an aid to the interpretation of space images

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kover, Allan N.; Schoonmaker, James W.

    1993-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has a database of side-looking airborne radar (SLAR) images of a significant part of the continental United States. These images provide a regional view of terrains and should be an aid to better understanding image data of satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and other systems. The USGS has been systematically collecting SLAR since 1980, initially in analog form, then in both analog and digital format since 1984.

  10. Detection and identification of toxic air pollutants using airborne LWIR hyperspectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, David J.; Feldman, Barry L.; Williams, Tim J.; Pilant, Drew; Lucey, Paul G.; Worthy, L. D.

    2005-01-01

    Airborne longwave infrared (LWIR) hyperspectral imagery was utilized to detect and identify gaseous chemical release plumes at sites in southern Texas. The Airborne Hyperspectral Imager (AHI), developed by the University of Hawai"i, was flown over a petrochemical facility and a confined animal feeding operation on a modified DC-3 during April, 2004. Data collected by the AHI system was successfully used to detect and identify numerous plumes at both sites. Preliminary results indicate the presence of benzene and ammonia and several other organic compounds. Emissions were identified using regression analysis on atmospherically compensated data. Data validation was conducted using facility emission inventories. This technology has great promise for monitoring and inventorying facility emissions, and may be used as means to assist ground inspection teams to focus on actual fugitive emission points.

  11. Airborne Hyperspectral Infrared Imaging Survey of the Southern San Andreas Fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, D. K.; Tratt, D. M.; Buckland, K. N.; Johnson, P. D.

    2014-12-01

    The San Andreas Fault (SAF) between Desert Hot Springs and Bombay Beach has been surveyed with Mako, an airborne hyperspectral imager operating across the wavelength range 7.6-13.2 μm in the thermal-infrared (TIR) spectral region. The data were acquired with a 4-km swath width centered on the SAF, and many tectonic features are recorded in the imagery. Spectral analysis using diagnostic features of minerals can identify rocks, soils and vegetation. Mako imagery can also locate rupture zones and measure slip distances. Designed and built by The Aerospace Corporation, the innovative and highly capable airborne imaging spectrometer used for this work enables low-noise performance (NEΔT ≲ 0.1 K @ 10 μm) at small pixel IFOV (0.55 mrad) and high frame rates, making possible an area-coverage rate of 20 km2 per minute with 2-m ground resolution from 12,500 ft (3.8 km) above-ground altitude. Since its commissioning in 2010, Mako has been used in numerous studies involving other earthquake fault systems (Hector Mine, S. Bristol Mts.), mapping of surface geology, geothermal sources (fumaroles near the Salton Sea), urban surveys, and the detection, quantification, and tracking of natural and anthropogenic gaseous emission plumes. Mako is available for airborne field studies and new applications are of particular interest. It can be flown at any altitude below 20,000 ft to achieve the desired GSD.

  12. Geodetic imaging with airborne LiDAR: the Earth's surface revealed.

    PubMed

    Glennie, C L; Carter, W E; Shrestha, R L; Dietrich, W E

    2013-08-01

    The past decade has seen an explosive increase in the number of peer reviewed papers reporting new scientific findings in geomorphology (including fans, channels, floodplains and landscape evolution), geologic mapping, tectonics and faulting, coastal processes, lava flows, hydrology (especially snow and runoff routing), glaciers and geo-archaeology. A common genesis of such findings is often newly available decimeter resolution 'bare Earth' geodetic images, derived from airborne laser swath mapping, a.k.a. airborne LiDAR, observations. In this paper we trace nearly a half century of advances in geodetic science made possible by space age technology, such as the invention of short-pulse-length high-pulse-rate lasers, solid state inertial measurement units, chip-based high speed electronics and the GPS satellite navigation system, that today make it possible to map hundreds of square kilometers of terrain in hours, even in areas covered with dense vegetation or shallow water. To illustrate the impact of the LiDAR observations we present examples of geodetic images that are not only stunning to the eye, but help researchers to develop quantitative models explaining how terrain evolved to its present form, and how it will likely change with time. Airborne LiDAR technology continues to develop quickly, promising ever more scientific discoveries in the years ahead. PMID:23828665

  13. Geodetic imaging with airborne LiDAR: the Earth's surface revealed.

    PubMed

    Glennie, C L; Carter, W E; Shrestha, R L; Dietrich, W E

    2013-08-01

    The past decade has seen an explosive increase in the number of peer reviewed papers reporting new scientific findings in geomorphology (including fans, channels, floodplains and landscape evolution), geologic mapping, tectonics and faulting, coastal processes, lava flows, hydrology (especially snow and runoff routing), glaciers and geo-archaeology. A common genesis of such findings is often newly available decimeter resolution 'bare Earth' geodetic images, derived from airborne laser swath mapping, a.k.a. airborne LiDAR, observations. In this paper we trace nearly a half century of advances in geodetic science made possible by space age technology, such as the invention of short-pulse-length high-pulse-rate lasers, solid state inertial measurement units, chip-based high speed electronics and the GPS satellite navigation system, that today make it possible to map hundreds of square kilometers of terrain in hours, even in areas covered with dense vegetation or shallow water. To illustrate the impact of the LiDAR observations we present examples of geodetic images that are not only stunning to the eye, but help researchers to develop quantitative models explaining how terrain evolved to its present form, and how it will likely change with time. Airborne LiDAR technology continues to develop quickly, promising ever more scientific discoveries in the years ahead.

  14. Modeling and performance assessment in QinetiQ of EO and IR airborne reconnaissance systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, John W.; Potter, Gary E.

    2002-11-01

    QinetiQ are the technical authority responsible for specifying the performance requirements for the procurement of airborne reconnaissance systems, on behalf of the UK MoD. They are also responsible for acceptance of delivered systems, overseeing and verifying the installed system performance as predicted and then assessed by the contractor. Measures of functional capability are central to these activities. The conduct of these activities utilises the broad technical insight and wide range of analysis tools and models available within QinetiQ. This paper focuses on the tools, methods and models that are applicable to systems based on EO and IR sensors. The tools, methods and models are described, and representative output for systems that QinetiQ has been responsible for is presented. The principle capability applicable to EO and IR airborne reconnaissance systems is the STAR (Simulation Tools for Airborne Reconnaissance) suite of models. STAR generates predictions of performance measures such as GRD (Ground Resolved Distance) and GIQE (General Image Quality) NIIRS (National Imagery Interpretation Rating Scales). It also generates images representing sensor output, using the scene generation software CAMEO-SIM and the imaging sensor model EMERALD. The simulated image 'quality' is fully correlated with the predicted non-imaging performance measures. STAR also generates image and table data that is compliant with STANAG 7023, which may be used to test ground station functionality.

  15. Calibration, Sensor Model Improvements and Uncertainty Budget of the Airborne Imaging Spectrometer APEX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hueni, A.

    2015-12-01

    ESA's Airborne Imaging Spectrometer APEX (Airborne Prism Experiment) was developed under the PRODEX (PROgramme de Développement d'EXpériences scientifiques) program by a Swiss-Belgian consortium and entered its operational phase at the end of 2010 (Schaepman et al., 2015). Work on the sensor model has been carried out extensively within the framework of European Metrology Research Program as part of the Metrology for Earth Observation and Climate (MetEOC and MetEOC2). The focus has been to improve laboratory calibration procedures in order to reduce uncertainties, to establish a laboratory uncertainty budget and to upgrade the sensor model to compensate for sensor specific biases. The updated sensor model relies largely on data collected during dedicated characterisation experiments in the APEX calibration home base but includes airborne data as well where the simulation of environmental conditions in the given laboratory setup was not feasible. The additions to the model deal with artefacts caused by environmental changes and electronic features, namely the impact of ambient air pressure changes on the radiometry in combination with dichroic coatings, influences of external air temperatures and consequently instrument baffle temperatures on the radiometry, and electronic anomalies causing radiometric errors in the four shortwave infrared detector readout blocks. Many of these resolved issues might be expected to be present in other imaging spectrometers to some degree or in some variation. Consequently, the work clearly shows the difficulties of extending a laboratory-based uncertainty to data collected under in-flight conditions. The results are hence not only of interest to the calibration scientist but also to the spectroscopy end user, in particular when commercial sensor systems are used for data collection and relevant sensor characteristic information tends to be sparse. Schaepman, et al, 2015. Advanced radiometry measurements and Earth science

  16. Kalman Filter Based Feature Analysis for Tracking People from Airborne Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirmacek, B.; Reinartz, P.

    2011-09-01

    Recently, analysis of man events in real-time using computer vision techniques became a very important research field. Especially, understanding motion of people can be helpful to prevent unpleasant conditions. Understanding behavioral dynamics of people can also help to estimate future states of underground passages, shopping center like public entrances, or streets. In order to bring an automated solution to this problem, we propose a novel approach using airborne image sequences. Although airborne image resolutions are not enough to see each person in detail, we can still notice a change of color components in the place where a person exists. Therefore, we propose a color feature detection based probabilistic framework in order to detect people automatically. Extracted local features behave as observations of the probability density function (pdf) of the people locations to be estimated. Using an adaptive kernel density estimation method, we estimate the corresponding pdf. First, we use estimated pdf to detect boundaries of dense crowds. After that, using background information of dense crowds and previously extracted local features, we detect other people in non-crowd regions automatically for each image in the sequence. We benefit from Kalman filtering to track motion of detected people. To test our algorithm, we use a stadium entrance image data set taken from airborne camera system. Our experimental results indicate possible usage of the algorithm in real-life man events. We believe that the proposed approach can also provide crucial information to police departments and crisis management teams to achieve more detailed observations of people in large open area events to prevent possible accidents or unpleasant conditions.

  17. Efficient method for the determination of image correspondence in airborne applications using inertial sensors.

    PubMed

    Woods, Matthew; Katsaggelos, Aggelos

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a computationally efficient method for the measurement of a dense image correspondence vector field using supplementary data from an inertial navigation sensor (INS). The application is suited to airborne imaging systems, such as an unmanned air vehicle, where size, weight, and power restrictions limit the amount of onboard processing available. The limited processing will typically exclude the use of traditional, but computationally expensive, optical flow and block matching algorithms, such as Lucas-Kanade, Horn-Schunck, or the adaptive rood pattern search. Alternatively, the measurements obtained from an INS, on board the platform, lead to a closed-form solution to the correspondence field. Airborne platforms are well suited to this application because they already possess INSs and global positioning systems as part of their existing avionics package. We derive the closed-form solution for the image correspondence vector field based on the INS data. We then show, through both simulations and real flight data, that the closed-form inertial sensor solution outperforms traditional optical flow and block matching methods.

  18. Airborne laser systems for atmospheric sounding in the near infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabatini, Roberto; Richardson, Mark A.; Jia, Huamin; Zammit-Mangion, David

    2012-06-01

    This paper presents new techniques for atmospheric sounding using Near Infrared (NIR) laser sources, direct detection electro-optics and passive infrared imaging systems. These techniques allow a direct determination of atmospheric extinction and, through the adoption of suitable inversion algorithms, the indirect measurement of some important natural and man-made atmospheric constituents, including Carbon Dioxide (CO2). The proposed techniques are suitable for remote sensing missions performed by using aircraft, satellites, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV), parachute/gliding vehicles, Roving Surface Vehicles (RSV), or Permanent Surface Installations (PSI). The various techniques proposed offer relative advantages in different scenarios. All are based on measurements of the laser energy/power incident on target surfaces of known geometric and reflective characteristics, by means of infrared detectors and/or infrared cameras calibrated for radiance. Experimental results are presented relative to ground and flight trials performed with laser systems operating in the near infrared (NIR) at λ = 1064 nm and λ = 1550 nm. This includes ground tests performed with 10 Hz and 20 KHz PRF NIR laser systems in a variety of atmospheric conditions, and flight trials performed with a 10 Hz airborne NIR laser system installed on a TORNADO aircraft, flying up to altitudes of 22,000 ft above ground level. Future activities are planned to validate the atmospheric retrieval algorithms developed for CO2 column density measurements, with emphasis on aircraft related emissions at airports and other high air-traffic density environments.

  19. Geometric and radiometric preprocessing of airborne visible/infrared imaging spectrometer (AVIRIS) data in rugged terrain for quantitative data analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Peter; Green, Robert O.; Staenz, Karl; Itten, Klaus I.

    1994-01-01

    A geocoding procedure for remotely sensed data of airborne systems in rugged terrain is affected by several factors: buffeting of the aircraft by turbulence, variations in ground speed, changes in altitude, attitude variations, and surface topography. The current investigation was carried out with an Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) scene of central Switzerland (Rigi) from NASA's Multi Aircraft Campaign (MAC) in Europe (1991). The parametric approach reconstructs for every pixel the observation geometry based on the flight line, aircraft attitude, and surface topography. To utilize the data for analysis of materials on the surface, the AVIRIS data are corrected to apparent reflectance using algorithms based on MODTRAN (moderate resolution transfer code).

  20. Data System for HS3 Airborne Field Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maskey, M.; Mceniry, M.; Berendes, T.; Bugbee, K.; Conover, H.; Ramachandran, R.

    2014-12-01

    Hurricane and Severe Storm Sentinel (HS3) is a NASA airborne field campaign aimed at better understanding the physical processes that control hurricane intensity change. HS3 will help answer questions related to the roles of environmental conditions and internal storm structures to storm intensification. Due to the nature of the questions that HS3 mission is addressing, it involves a variety of in-situ, satellite observations, airborne data, meteorological analyses, and simulation data. This variety of datasets presents numerous data management challenges for HS3. The methods used for airborne data management differ greatly from the methods used for space-borne data. In particular, metadata extraction, spatial and temporal indexing, and the large number of instruments and subsequent variables are a few of the data management challenges unique to airborne missions. A robust data system is required to successfully help HS3 scientist achieve their mission goals. Furthermore, the data system also needs to provide for data management that assists in broader use of HS3 data to enable future research activities. The Global Hydrology Resource Center (GHRC) is considering all these needs and designing a data system for HS3. Experience with past airborne field campaign puts GHRC in a good position to address HS3 needs. However, the scale of this mission along with science requirements separates HS3 from previous field campaigns. The HS3 data system will include automated services for geo-location, metadata extraction, discovery, and distribution for all HS3 data. To answer the science questions, the data system will include a visual data exploration tool that is fully integrated into the data catalog. The tool will allow visually augmenting airborne data with analyses and simulations. Satellite data will provide contextual information during such data explorations. All HS3 tools will be supported by an enterprise service architecture that will allow scaling, easy integration

  1. Formal methods and digital systems validation for airborne systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rushby, John

    1993-01-01

    This report has been prepared to supplement a forthcoming chapter on formal methods in the FAA Digital Systems Validation Handbook. Its purpose is as follows: to outline the technical basis for formal methods in computer science; to explain the use of formal methods in the specification and verification of software and hardware requirements, designs, and implementations; to identify the benefits, weaknesses, and difficulties in applying these methods to digital systems used on board aircraft; and to suggest factors for consideration when formal methods are offered in support of certification. These latter factors assume the context for software development and assurance described in RTCA document DO-178B, 'Software Considerations in Airborne Systems and Equipment Certification,' Dec. 1992.

  2. NASA Goddards LiDAR, Hyperspectral and Thermal (G-LiHT) Airborne Imager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Bruce D.; Corp, Lawrence A.; Nelson, Ross F.; Middleton, Elizabeth M.; Morton, Douglas C.; McCorkel, Joel T.; Masek, Jeffrey G.; Ranson, Kenneth J.; Ly, Vuong; Montesano, Paul M.

    2013-01-01

    The combination of LiDAR and optical remotely sensed data provides unique information about ecosystem structure and function. Here, we describe the development, validation and application of a new airborne system that integrates commercial off the shelf LiDAR hyperspectral and thermal components in a compact, lightweight and portable system. Goddard's LiDAR, Hyperspectral and Thermal (G-LiHT) airborne imager is a unique system that permits simultaneous measurements of vegetation structure, foliar spectra and surface temperatures at very high spatial resolution (approximately 1 m) on a wide range of airborne platforms. The complementary nature of LiDAR, optical and thermal data provide an analytical framework for the development of new algorithms to map plant species composition, plant functional types, biodiversity, biomass and carbon stocks, and plant growth. In addition, G-LiHT data enhance our ability to validate data from existing satellite missions and support NASA Earth Science research. G-LiHT's data processing and distribution system is designed to give scientists open access to both low- and high-level data products (http://gliht.gsfc.nasa.gov), which will stimulate the community development of synergistic data fusion algorithms. G-LiHT has been used to collect more than 6,500 km2 of data for NASA-sponsored studies across a broad range of ecoregions in the USA and Mexico. In this paper, we document G-LiHT design considerations, physical specifications, instrument performance and calibration and acquisition parameters. In addition, we describe the data processing system and higher-level data products that are freely distributed under NASA's Data and Information policy.

  3. The development of airborne video system for monitoring of river environments

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshikawa, Shigeya; Mizutani, Nobuyuki; Mizukami, Masumi; Koyano, Toshirou

    1996-11-01

    Recently, airborne videography is widely used by many monitoring for environmental resources, such as rivers, forests, ocean, and so on. Although airborne videography has a low resolution than aerial photographs, it can effectively reduce the cost of continuous monitoring of wide area. Furthermore video images can easily be processed with personal computer. This paper introduces an airborne video system for monitoring of Class A river environment. This system consists of two sub-systems. One is the data collection system that is composed of a video camera, a Global Positioning System(GPS) and a personal computer. This sub-system records information of rivers by video images and their corresponding location data. A GPS system is used for calculating location data and navigating the airplane to the destination of monitoring site. Other is a simplified digital video editing system. This system runs on a personal computer with Microsoft Windows 3.1. This system can also be used for management and planning of road environment, marine resources, forest resources and for prevention of disasters. 7 refs., 4 figs.

  4. Design criteria and comparison between conventional and subaperture SAR processing in airborne systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prats, Pau; Bara, Marc; Broquetas, Antoni

    2002-02-01

    This paper compares two different approaches for designing airborne SAR systems. The first one is the most common where conventional processing is employed, and therefore wide antenna beams are to be used in order to avoid ambiguities in the final image due to attitude variations. A second approach is proposed to lower the requirements such system imposes based on subaperture processing. The idea is to follow the azimuth variations of the Doppler centroid, without increasing the hardware requirements of the system. As it is shown in this paper, this processing procedure must be complemented with precise radiometric corrections, because the platform may experience small attitude variations, which could increase/decrease the target observation time, inducing a significant azimuth modulation in the final image. This leads to the definition of a new criterion concerning maximum attitude deviations for an airborne platform.

  5. Low cost airborne microwave landing system receiver, task 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hager, J. B.; Vancleave, J. R.

    1979-01-01

    Work performed on the low cost airborne Microwave Landing System (MLS) receiver is summarized. A detailed description of the prototype low cost MLS receiver is presented. This detail includes block diagrams, schematics, board assembly drawings, photographs of subassemblies, mechanical construction, parts lists, and microprocessor software. Test procedures are described and results are presented.

  6. Assess program: Interactive data management systems for airborne research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munoz, R. M.; Reller, J. O., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    Two data systems were developed for use in airborne research. Both have distributed intelligence and are programmed for interactive support among computers and with human operators. The C-141 system (ADAMS) performs flight planning and telescope control functions in addition to its primary role of data acquisition; the CV-990 system (ADDAS) performs data management functions in support of many research experiments operating concurrently. Each system is arranged for maximum reliability in the first priority function, precision data acquisition.

  7. Imaging System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The 1100C Virtual Window is based on technology developed under NASA Small Business Innovation (SBIR) contracts to Ames Research Center. For example, under one contract Dimension Technologies, Inc. developed a large autostereoscopic display for scientific visualization applications. The Virtual Window employs an innovative illumination system to deliver the depth and color of true 3D imaging. Its applications include surgery and Magnetic Resonance Imaging scans, viewing for teleoperated robots, training, and in aviation cockpit displays.

  8. Automated Data Production For A Novel Airborne Multiangle Spectropolarimetric Imager (AIRMSPI)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jovanovic, V .M.; Bull, M.; Diner, D. J.; Geier, S.; Rheingans, B.

    2012-01-01

    A novel polarimetric imaging technique making use of rapid retardance modulation has been developed by JPL as a part of NASA's Instrument Incubator Program. It has been built into the Airborne Multiangle SpectroPolarimetric Imager (AirMSPI) under NASA's Airborne Instrument Technology Transition Program, and is aimed primarily at remote sensing of the amounts and microphysical properties of aerosols and clouds. AirMSPI includes an 8-band (355, 380, 445, 470, 555, 660, 865, 935 nm) pushbroom camera that measures polarization in a subset of the bands (470, 660, and 865 nm). The camera is mounted on a gimbal and acquires imagery in a configurable set of along-track viewing angles ranging between +67 deg and -67 deg relative to nadir. As a result, near simultaneous multi-angle, multi-spectral, and polarimetric measurements of the targeted areas at a spatial resolution ranging from 7 m to 20 m (depending on the viewing angle) can be derived. An automated data production system is being built to support high data acquisition rate in concert with co-registration and orthorectified mapping requirements. To date, a number of successful engineering checkout flights were conducted in October 2010, August-September 2011, and January 2012. Data products resulting from these flights will be presented.

  9. HySpex ODIN-1024: a new high-resolution airborne HSI system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaaberg, Søren; Løke, Trond; Baarstad, Ivar; Fridman, Andrei; Koirala, Pesal

    2014-06-01

    HySpex ODIN-1024 is a next generation state-of the-art airborne hyperspectral imaging system developed by Norsk Elektro Optikk AS. Near perfect coregistration between VNIR and SWIR is achieved by employing a novel common fore-optics design and a thermally stabilized housing. Its unique design and the use of state-of-the-art MCT and sCMOS sensors provide the combination of high sensitivity and low noise, low spatial and spectral misregistration (smile and keystone) and a very high resolution (1024 pixels in the merged data products). In addition to its supreme data quality, HySpex ODIN-1024 includes real-time data processing functionalities such as real-time georeferencing of acquired images. It also features a built-in onboard calibration system to monitor the stability of the instrument. The paper presents data and results from laboratory tests and characterizations, as well as results from airborne measurements.

  10. BioSAR Airborne Biomass Sensing System

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, R.L.; Johnson, P.

    2007-05-24

    This CRADA was developed to enable ORNL to assist American Electronics, Inc. test a new technology--BioSAR. BioSAR is a an airborne, low frequency (80-120 MHz {approx} FM radio frequencies) synthetic aperture radar (SAR) technology which was designed and built for NASA by ZAI-Amelex under Patrick Johnson's direction. At these frequencies, leaves and small branches are nearly transparent and the majority of the energy reflected from the forest and returned to the radar is from the tree trunks. By measuring the magnitude of the back scatter, the volume of the tree trunk and therefore the biomass of the trunks can be inferred. The instrument was successfully tested on tropical rain forests in Panama. Patrick Johnson, with American Electronics, Inc received a Phase II SBIR grant from DOE Office of Climate Change to further test and refine the instrument. Mr Johnson sought ORNL expertise in measuring forest biomass in order for him to further validate his instrument. ORNL provided ground truth measurements of forest biomass at three locations--the Oak Ridge Reservation, Weyerhaeuser Co. commercial pine plantations in North Carolina, and American Energy and Power (AEP) Co. hardwood forests in southern Ohio, and facilitated flights over these forests. After Mr. Johnson processed the signal data from BioSAR instrument, the processed data were given to ORNL and we attempted to derive empirical relationships between the radar signals and the ground truth forest biomass measurements using standard statistical techniques. We were unsuccessful in deriving such relationships. Shortly before the CRADA ended, Mr Johnson discovered that FM signal from local radio station broadcasts had interfered with the back scatter measurements such that the bulk of the signal received by the BioSAR instrument was not backscatter from the radar but rather was local radio station signals.

  11. Towards a Multi-Mission, Airborne Science Data System Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crichton, D. J.; Hardman, S.; Law, E.; Freeborn, D.; Kay-Im, E.; Lau, G.; Oswald, J.

    2011-12-01

    NASA earth science instruments are increasingly relying on airborne missions. However, traditionally, there has been limited common infrastructure support available to principal investigators in the area of science data systems. As a result, each investigator has been required to develop their own computing infrastructures for the science data system. Typically there is little software reuse and many projects lack sufficient resources to provide a robust infrastructure to capture, process, distribute and archive the observations acquired from airborne flights. At NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), we have been developing a multi-mission data system infrastructure for airborne instruments called the Airborne Cloud Computing Environment (ACCE). ACCE encompasses the end-to-end lifecycle covering planning, provisioning of data system capabilities, and support for scientific analysis in order to improve the quality, cost effectiveness, and capabilities to enable new scientific discovery and research in earth observation. This includes improving data system interoperability across each instrument. A principal characteristic is being able to provide an agile infrastructure that is architected to allow for a variety of configurations of the infrastructure from locally installed compute and storage services to provisioning those services via the "cloud" from cloud computer vendors such as Amazon.com. Investigators often have different needs that require a flexible configuration. The data system infrastructure is built on the Apache's Object Oriented Data Technology (OODT) suite of components which has been used for a number of spaceborne missions and provides a rich set of open source software components and services for constructing science processing and data management systems. In 2010, a partnership was formed between the ACCE team and the Carbon in Arctic Reservoirs Vulnerability Experiment (CARVE) mission to support the data processing and data management needs

  12. A Low-Cost Imaging System for Aerial Applicators

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural aircraft provide a readily available and versatile platform for airborne remote sensing. Although various airborne imaging systems are being used for research and commercial applications, most of these systems are either too expensive or too complex to be of practical use for aerial app...

  13. Covariance analysis of the airborne laser ranging system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Englar, T. S., Jr.; Hammond, C. L.; Gibbs, B. P.

    1981-01-01

    The requirements and limitations of employing an airborne laser ranging system for detecting crustal shifts of the Earth within centimeters over a region of approximately 200 by 400 km are presented. The system consists of an aircraft which flies over a grid of ground deployed retroreflectors, making six passes over the grid at two different altitudes. The retroreflector baseline errors are assumed to result from measurement noise, a priori errors on the aircraft and retroreflector positions, tropospheric refraction, and sensor biases.

  14. ANALYZING WATER QUALITY WITH IMAGES ACQUIRED FROM AIRBORNE SENSORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Monitoring different parameters of water quality can be a time consuming and expensive activity. However, the use of airborne light-sensitive (optical) instruments may enhance the abilities of resource managers to monitor water quality in rivers in a timely and cost-effective ma...

  15. Introduction to an airborne remote sensing system equipped onboard the Chinese marine surveillance plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Fang; Wang, Difeng; Pan, Delu; Hao, Zengzhou

    2008-10-01

    The airborne remote sensing system onboard the Chinese Marine Surveillance Plane have three scanners including marine airborne multi-spectrum scanner(MAMS), airborne hyper spectral system(AISA+) and optical-electric platform(MOP) currently. MAMS is developed by Shanghai Institute of Technology and Physics CAS with 11 bands from ultraviolet to infrared and mainly used for inversion of oceanic main factors and pollution information, like chlorophyll, sea surface temperature, red tide, etc. The AISA+ made by Finnish Specim company is a push broom system, consist of a high spectrum scanner head, a miniature GPS/INS sensor and data collecting PC. It is a kind of aviation imaging spectrometer and has the ability of ground target imaging and measuring target spectrum characteristic. The MOP mainly supports for object watching, recording and track. It mainly includes 3 equipments: digital CCD with Sony-DXC390, CANON EOS film camera and digital camera Sony F717. This paper mainly introduces these three remote sensing instruments as well as the ground processing information system, involving the system's hardware and software design, related algorithm research, etc.

  16. The NASA Airborne Science Data And Telemetry System (NASDAT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorenson, C. E.; Forgione, J.; Barnes, C.

    2011-12-01

    A system providing a common core set of facility data services across the NASA Airborne Science Program research aircraft fleet is described. The NASA Airborne Science Data And Telemetry System (NASDAT) is a rugged avionics box that fits in a standard aeronautical radio rack mounting tray, and provides both aircraft and experimenter data interfaces. Ethernet, satcom, and legacy connections are supported. Standardized protocols allow this system to serve as an abstraction layer for interfacing any instrument to any aircraft. Built-in Iridium modems allow low rate baseline global data communications. Built on open standards and dynamically reconfigurable, the NASDAT enables any research platform to participate in the wider sensor web, such that remote experimenters can control their instruments, and display applications can receive near real time data. The production NASDAT was built this year, based in part on prototypes which have been flying on several research aircraft such as the NASA DC-8 and Global Hawk.

  17. Water depth measurement using an airborne pulsed neon laser system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoge, F. E.; Swift, R. N.; Frederick, E. B.

    1980-01-01

    The paper presents the water depth measurement using an airborne pulsed neon laser system. The results of initial base-line field test results of NASA airborne oceanographic lidar in the bathymetry mode are given, with water-truth measurements of depth and beam attenuation coefficients by boat taken at the same time as overflights to aid in determining the system's operational performance. The nadir-angle tests and field-of-view data are presented; this laser bathymetry system is an improvement over prior models in that (1) the surface-to-bottom pulse waveform is digitally recorded on magnetic tape, and (2) wide-swath mapping data may be routinely acquired using a 30 deg full-angle conical scanner.

  18. The Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor (LVIS): An Airborne Laser Altimeter for Mapping Vegetation and Topography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryan, J.; Rabine, David L.

    1998-01-01

    The Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor (LVIS) is an airborne laser altimeter designed to quickly and extensively map surface topography as well as the relative heights of other reflecting surfaces within the laser footprint. Since 1997, this instrument has primarily been used as the airborne simulator for the Vegetation Canopy Lidar (VCL) mission, a spaceborne mission designed to measure tree height, vertical structure and ground topography (including sub-canopy topography). LVIS is capable of operating from 500 m to 10 km above ground level with footprint sizes from 1 to 60 m. Laser footprints can be randomly spaced within the 7 degree telescope field-of-view, constrained only by the operating frequency of the ND:YAG Q-switched laser (500 Hz). A significant innovation of the LVIS altimeter is that all ranging, waveform recording, and range gating are performed using a single digitizer, clock base, and detector. A portion of the outgoing laser pulse is fiber-optically fed into the detector used to collect the return signal and this entire time history of the outgoing and return pulses is digitized at 500 Msamp/sec. The ground return is then located using software digital signal processing, even in the presence of visibly opaque clouds. The surface height distribution of all reflecting surfaces within the laser footprint can be determined, for example, tree height and ground elevation. To date, the LVIS system has been used to monitor topographic change at Long Valley caldera, CA, as part of NASA's Topography and Surface Change program, and to map tree structure and sub-canopy topography at the La Selva Biological Research Station in Costa Rica, as part of the pre-launch calibration activities for the VCL mission. We present results that show the laser altimeter consistently and accurately maps surface topography, including sub-canopy topography, and vegetation height and structure. These results confirm the measurement concept of VCL and highlight the benefits of

  19. Airborne multisensor pod system (AMPS) data: Multispectral data integration and processing hints

    SciTech Connect

    Leary, T.J.; Lamb, A.

    1996-11-01

    The Department of Energy`s Office of Arms Control and Non-Proliferation (NN-20) has developed a suite of airborne remote sensing systems that simultaneously collect coincident data from a US Navy P-3 aircraft. The primary objective of the Airborne Multisensor Pod System (AMPS) Program is {open_quotes}to collect multisensor data that can be used for data research, both to reduce interpretation problems associated with data overload and to develop information products more complete than can be obtained from any single sensor.{close_quotes} The sensors are housed in wing-mounted pods and include: a Ku-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar; a CASI Hyperspectral Imager; a Daedalus 3600 Airborne Multispectral Scanner; a Wild Heerbrugg RC-30 motion compensated large format camera; various high resolution, light intensified and thermal video cameras; and several experimental sensors (e.g. the Portable Hyperspectral Imager of Low-Light Spectroscopy (PHILLS)). Over the past year or so, the Coastal Marine Resource Assessment (CAMRA) group at the Florida Department of Environmental Protection`s Marine Research Institute (FMRI) has been working with the Department of Energy through the Naval Research Laboratory to develop applications and products from existing data. Considerable effort has been spent identifying image formats integration parameters. 2 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Alien Plant Monitoring with Ultralight Airborne Imaging Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Calviño-Cancela, María; Méndez-Rial, Roi; Reguera-Salgado, Javier; Martín-Herrero, Julio

    2014-01-01

    Effective management of invasive plants requires a precise determination of their distribution. Remote sensing techniques constitute a promising alternative to field surveys and hyperspectral sensors (also known as imaging spectrometers, with a large number of spectral bands and high spectral resolution) are especially suitable when very similar categories are to be distinguished (e.g. plant species). A main priority in the development of this technology is to lower its cost and simplify its use, so that its demonstrated aptitude for many environmental applications can be truly realized. With this aim, we have developed a system for hyperspectral imaging (200 spectral bands in the 380–1000 nm range and circa 3 nm spectral resolution) operated on board ultralight aircraft (namely a gyrocopter), which allows a drastic reduction of the running costs and operational complexity of image acquisition, and also increases the spatial resolution of the images (circa 5–8 pixels/m2 at circa 65 km/h and 300 m height). The detection system proved useful for the species tested (Acacia melanoxylon, Oxalis pes-caprae, and Carpobrotus aff. edulis and acinaciformis), with user’s and producer’s accuracy always exceeding 90%. The detection accuracy reported corresponds to patches down to 0.125 m2 (50% of pixels 0.5×0.5 m in size), a very small size for many plant species, making it very effective for initial stages of invasive plant spread. In addition, its low operating costs, similar to those of a 4WD ground vehicle, facilitate frequent image acquisition. Acquired images constitute a permanent record of the status of the study area, with great amount of information that can be analyzed in the future for other purposes, thus greatly facilitating the monitoring of natural areas at detailed spatial and temporal scales for improved management. PMID:25010601

  1. Alien plant monitoring with ultralight airborne imaging spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Calviño-Cancela, María; Méndez-Rial, Roi; Reguera-Salgado, Javier; Martín-Herrero, Julio

    2014-01-01

    Effective management of invasive plants requires a precise determination of their distribution. Remote sensing techniques constitute a promising alternative to field surveys and hyperspectral sensors (also known as imaging spectrometers, with a large number of spectral bands and high spectral resolution) are especially suitable when very similar categories are to be distinguished (e.g. plant species). A main priority in the development of this technology is to lower its cost and simplify its use, so that its demonstrated aptitude for many environmental applications can be truly realized. With this aim, we have developed a system for hyperspectral imaging (200 spectral bands in the 380-1000 nm range and circa 3 nm spectral resolution) operated on board ultralight aircraft (namely a gyrocopter), which allows a drastic reduction of the running costs and operational complexity of image acquisition, and also increases the spatial resolution of the images (circa 5-8 pixels/m(2) at circa 65 km/h and 300 m height). The detection system proved useful for the species tested (Acacia melanoxylon, Oxalis pes-caprae, and Carpobrotus aff. edulis and acinaciformis), with user's and producer's accuracy always exceeding 90%. The detection accuracy reported corresponds to patches down to 0.125 m(2) (50% of pixels 0.5 × 0.5 m in size), a very small size for many plant species, making it very effective for initial stages of invasive plant spread. In addition, its low operating costs, similar to those of a 4WD ground vehicle, facilitate frequent image acquisition. Acquired images constitute a permanent record of the status of the study area, with great amount of information that can be analyzed in the future for other purposes, thus greatly facilitating the monitoring of natural areas at detailed spatial and temporal scales for improved management. PMID:25010601

  2. Positional Accuracy of Airborne Integrated Global Positioning and Inertial Navigation Systems for Mapping in Glen Canyon, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sanchez, Richard D.; Hothem, Larry D.

    2002-01-01

    High-resolution airborne and satellite image sensor systems integrated with onboard data collection based on the Global Positioning System (GPS) and inertial navigation systems (INS) may offer a quick and cost-effective way to gather accurate topographic map information without ground control or aerial triangulation. The Applanix Corporation?s Position and Orientation Solutions for Direct Georeferencing of aerial photography was used in this project to examine the positional accuracy of integrated GPS/INS for terrain mapping in Glen Canyon, Arizona. The research application in this study yielded important information on the usefulness and limits of airborne integrated GPS/INS data-capture systems for mapping.

  3. Airborne change detection system for the detection of route mines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donzelli, Thomas P.; Jackson, Larry; Yeshnik, Mark; Petty, Thomas E.

    2003-09-01

    The US Army is interested in technologies that will enable it to maintain the free flow of traffic along routes such as Main Supply Routes (MSRs). Mines emplaced in the road by enemy forces under cover of darkness represent a major threat to maintaining a rapid Operational Tempo (OPTEMPO) along such routes. One technique that shows promise for detecting enemy mining activity is Airborne Change Detection, which allows an operator to detect suspicious day-to-day changes in and around the road that may be indicative of enemy mining. This paper presents an Airborne Change Detection that is currently under development at the US Army Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate (NVESD). The system has been tested using a longwave infrared (LWIR) sensor on a vertical take-off and landing unmanned aerial vehicle (VTOL UAV) and a midwave infrared (MWIR) sensor on a fixed wing aircraft. The system is described and results of the various tests conducted to date are presented.

  4. Airborne antenna polarization study for the microwave landing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilreath, M. C.

    1976-01-01

    The feasibility of the microwave landing system (MLS) airborne antenna pattern coverage requirements are investigated for a large commercial aircraft using a single omnidirectional antenna. Omnidirectional antennas having vertical and horizontal polarizations were evaluated at several different station locations on a one-eleventh scale model Boeing 737 aircraft. The results obtained during this experimental program are presented which include principal plane antenna patterns and complete volumetric coverage plots.

  5. Inter-agency Working Group for Airborne Data and Telemetry Systems (IWGADTS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webster, Chris; Freudinge, Lawrence; Sorenson, Carl; Myers, Jeff; Sullivan, Don; Oolman, Larry

    2009-01-01

    The Interagency Coordinating Committee for Airborne Geosciences Research and Applications (ICCAGRA) was established to improve cooperation and communication among agencies sponsoring airborne platforms and instruments for research and applications, and to serve as a resource for senior level management on airborne geosciences issues. The Interagency Working Group for Airborne Data and Telecommunications Systems (IWGADTS) is a subgroup to ICCAGRA for the purpose of developing recommendations leading to increased interoperability among airborne platforms and instrument payloads, producing increased synergy among research programs with similar goals, and enabling the suborbital layer of the Global Earth Observing System of Systems.

  6. Algorithms used in the Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nagle, David B.; Wright, C. Wayne

    2016-05-23

    The Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS) analyzes Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL) data—digitized laser-return waveforms, position, and attitude data—to derive point clouds of target surfaces. A full-waveform airborne lidar system, the EAARL seamlessly and simultaneously collects mixed environment data, including submerged, sub-aerial bare earth, and vegetation-covered topographies.ALPS uses three waveform target-detection algorithms to determine target positions within a given waveform: centroid analysis, leading edge detection, and bottom detection using water-column backscatter modeling. The centroid analysis algorithm detects opaque hard surfaces. The leading edge algorithm detects topography beneath vegetation and shallow, submerged topography. The bottom detection algorithm uses water-column backscatter modeling for deeper submerged topography in turbid water.The report describes slant range calculations and explains how ALPS uses laser range and orientation measurements to project measurement points into the Universal Transverse Mercator coordinate system. Parameters used for coordinate transformations in ALPS are described, as are Interactive Data Language-based methods for gridding EAARL point cloud data to derive digital elevation models. Noise reduction in point clouds through use of a random consensus filter is explained, and detailed pseudocode, mathematical equations, and Yorick source code accompany the report.

  7. Algorithms used in the Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nagle, David B.; Wright, C. Wayne

    2016-01-01

    The Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS) analyzes Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL) data—digitized laser-return waveforms, position, and attitude data—to derive point clouds of target surfaces. A full-waveform airborne lidar system, the EAARL seamlessly and simultaneously collects mixed environment data, including submerged, sub-aerial bare earth, and vegetation-covered topographies.ALPS uses three waveform target-detection algorithms to determine target positions within a given waveform: centroid analysis, leading edge detection, and bottom detection using water-column backscatter modeling. The centroid analysis algorithm detects opaque hard surfaces. The leading edge algorithm detects topography beneath vegetation and shallow, submerged topography. The bottom detection algorithm uses water-column backscatter modeling for deeper submerged topography in turbid water.The report describes slant range calculations and explains how ALPS uses laser range and orientation measurements to project measurement points into the Universal Transverse Mercator coordinate system. Parameters used for coordinate transformations in ALPS are described, as are Interactive Data Language-based methods for gridding EAARL point cloud data to derive digital elevation models. Noise reduction in point clouds through use of a random consensus filter is explained, and detailed pseudocode, mathematical equations, and Yorick source code accompany the report.

  8. New calibration techniques for the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chrien, Thomas G.; Green, Robert O.; Chovit, Chris; Eastwood, Mike; Faust, Jessica; Hajek, Pavel; Johnson, Howell; Novack, H. Ian; Sarture, Charles

    1995-01-01

    Recent laboratory calibrations of the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) include new methods for the characterization of the geometric, spectral, temporal and radiometric properties of the sensor. New techniques are desired in order to: (1) increase measurement accuracy and precision, (2) minimize measurement time and expense, (3) prototype new field and inflight calibration systems, (4) resolve measurement ambiguities, and (5) add new measurement dimensions. One of the common features of these new methods is the use of the full data collection and processing power of the AVIRIS instrument and data facility. This allows the collection of large amounts of calibration data in a short period of time and is well suited to modular data analysis routines.

  9. MAPIR: An Airborne Polarmetric Imaging Radiometer in Support of Hydrologic Satellite Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laymon, C.; Al-Hamdan, M.; Crosson, W.; Limaye, A.; McCracken, J.; Meyer, P.; Richeson, J.; Sims, W.; Srinivasan, K.; Varnevas, K.

    2010-01-01

    In this age of dwindling water resources and increasing demands, accurate estimation of water balance components at every scale is more critical to end users than ever before. Several near-term Earth science satellite missions are aimed at global hydrologic observations. The Marshall Airborne Polarimetric Imaging Radiometer (MAPIR) is a dual beam, dual angle polarimetric, scanning L band passive microwave radiometer system developed by the Observing Microwave Emissions for Geophysical Applications (OMEGA) team at MSFC to support algorithm development and validation efforts in support of these missions. MAPIR observes naturally-emitted radiation from the ground primarily for remote sensing of land surface brightness temperature from which we can retrieve soil moisture and possibly surface or water temperature and ocean salinity. MAPIR has achieved Technical Readiness Level 6 with flight heritage on two very different aircraft, the NASA P-3B, and a Piper Navajo.

  10. Airborne imaging sensors for environmental monitoring & surveillance in support of oil spills & recovery efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bostater, Charles R.; Jones, James; Frystacky, Heather; Coppin, Gaelle; Leavaux, Florian; Neyt, Xavier

    2011-11-01

    Collection of pushbroom sensor imagery from a mobile platform requires corrections using inertial measurement units (IMU's) and DGPS in order to create useable imagery for environmental monitoring and surveillance of shorelines in freshwater systems, coastal littoral zones and harbor areas. This paper describes a suite of imaging systems used during collection of hyperspectral imagery in northern Florida panhandle and Gulf of Mexico airborne missions to detect weathered oil in coastal littoral zones. Underlying concepts of pushbroom imagery, the needed corrections for directional changes using DGPS and corrections for platform yaw, pitch, and roll using IMU data is described as well as the development and application of optimal band and spectral regions associated with weathered oil. Pushbroom sensor and frame camera data collected in response to the recent Gulf of Mexico oil spill disaster is presented as the scenario documenting environmental monitoring and surveillance techniques using mobile sensing platforms. Data was acquired during the months of February, March, April and May of 2011. The low altitude airborne systems include a temperature stabilized hyperspectral imaging system capable of up to 1024 spectral channels and 1376 spatial across track pixels flown from 3,000 to 4,500 feet altitudes. The hyperspectral imaging system is collocated with a full resolution high definition video recorder for simultaneous HD video imagery, a 12.3 megapixel digital, a mapping camera using 9 inch film types that yields scanned aerial imagery with approximately 22,200 by 22,200 pixel multispectral imagery (~255 megapixel RGB multispectral images in order to conduct for spectral-spatial sharpening of fused multispectral, hyperspectral imagery. Two high spectral (252 channels) and radiometric sensitivity solid state spectrographs are used for collecting upwelling radiance (sub-meter pixels) with downwelling irradiance fiber optic attachment. These sensors are utilized for

  11. NASA three-laser airborne differential absorption lidar system electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, R. J.; Copeland, G. D.

    1984-01-01

    The system control and signal conditioning electronics of the NASA three laser airborne differential absorption lidar (DIAL) system are described. The multipurpose DIAL system was developed for the remote measurement of gas and aerosol profiles in the troposphere and lower stratosphere. A brief description and photographs of the majority of electronics units developed under this contract are presented. The precision control system; which includes a master control unit, three combined NASA laser control interface/quantel control units, and three noise pulse discriminator/pockels cell pulser units; is described in detail. The need and design considerations for precision timing and control are discussed. Calibration procedures are included.

  12. Airborne Advanced Reconfigurable Computer System (ARCS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bjurman, B. E.; Jenkins, G. M.; Masreliez, C. J.; Mcclellan, K. L.; Templeman, J. E.

    1976-01-01

    A digital computer subsystem fault-tolerant concept was defined, and the potential benefits and costs of such a subsystem were assessed when used as the central element of a new transport's flight control system. The derived advanced reconfigurable computer system (ARCS) is a triple-redundant computer subsystem that automatically reconfigures, under multiple fault conditions, from triplex to duplex to simplex operation, with redundancy recovery if the fault condition is transient. The study included criteria development covering factors at the aircraft's operation level that would influence the design of a fault-tolerant system for commercial airline use. A new reliability analysis tool was developed for evaluating redundant, fault-tolerant system availability and survivability; and a stringent digital system software design methodology was used to achieve design/implementation visibility.

  13. Airborne water vapor DIAL system development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Higdon, Noah S.; Browell, Edward V.; Ponsardin, Patrick; Grossmann, Benoist E.

    1990-01-01

    A differential absorption lidar (DIAL) system developed at NASA Langley Research Center for the remote measurement of atmospheric H2O and aerosols from an aircraft is briefly discussed. This DIAL system utilizes a Nd:YAG laser-pumped dye laser as the off-line transmitter and a narrowband, tunable Alexandrite laser as the on-line transmitter. A 1-m monochromator and a multipass absorption cell are used to position the on-line laser to the center of the H2O line. The receiver system has a 14-in. diameter, f/7 Celestron telescope to collect the backscattered laser light and focus in into the detector optics. Return signals are converted to electrical signals by the optical detector and are digitalized and stored on magnetic tape. The results of fligh tests of the system are shown.

  14. Improved Hurricane Boundary Layer Observations with the Imaging Wind and Rain Airborne Profiler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esteban-Fernandez, Daniel; Changy, P.; Carswell, J.; Contreras, R.; Chu, T.

    2006-01-01

    During the NOAA/NESDIS 2005 Hurricane Season (HS2005) and the 2006 Winter Experiment, the University of Massachusetts (UMass) installed two instruments on the NOAA N42RF WP-3D research aircraft: the Imaging Wind and Rain Airborne Profiler (IWRAP) and the Simultaneous Frequency Microwave Radiometer (SFMR). IWRAP is a dual-band (C- and Ku), dual-polarized pencil-beam airborne radar that profiles the volume backscatter and Doppler velocity from rain and that also measures the ocean backscatter response. It simultaneously profiles along four separate incidence angles while conically scanning at 60 RPM. SFMR is a C-band nadir viewing radiometer that measures the emission from the ocean surface and intervening atmosphere simultaneously at six frequencies. It is designed to obtain the surface wind speed and the column average rain rate. Both instruments have previously been flown during the 2002, 2003 and 2004 hurricane seasons. For the HS2005, the IWRAP system was modified to implement a raw data acquisition system. The importance of the raw data system arises when trying to profile the atmosphere all the way down to the surface with a non-nadir looking radar system. With this particular geometry, problems arise mainly from the fact that both rain and ocean provide a return echo coincident in time through the antenna s main lobe. This paper shows how this limitation has been removed and presents initial results demonstrating its new capabilities to derive the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) wind field within the inner core of hurricanes to much lower altitudes than the ones the original system was capable of, and to analyze the spectral response of the ocean backscatter and the rain under different wind and rain conditions.

  15. Development of an airborne remote sensing system for crop pest management: System integration and verification

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Remote sensing along with Global Positioning Systems, Geographic Information Systems, and variable rate technology has been developed, which scientists can implement to help farmers maximize the economic and environmental benefits of crop pest management through precision agriculture. Airborne remo...

  16. Orientation of airborne laser scanning point clouds with multi-view, multi-scale image blocks.

    PubMed

    Rönnholm, Petri; Hyyppä, Hannu; Hyyppä, Juha; Haggrén, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    Comprehensive 3D modeling of our environment requires integration of terrestrial and airborne data, which is collected, preferably, using laser scanning and photogrammetric methods. However, integration of these multi-source data requires accurate relative orientations. In this article, two methods for solving relative orientation problems are presented. The first method includes registration by minimizing the distances between of an airborne laser point cloud and a 3D model. The 3D model was derived from photogrammetric measurements and terrestrial laser scanning points. The first method was used as a reference and for validation. Having completed registration in the object space, the relative orientation between images and laser point cloud is known. The second method utilizes an interactive orientation method between a multi-scale image block and a laser point cloud. The multi-scale image block includes both aerial and terrestrial images. Experiments with the multi-scale image block revealed that the accuracy of a relative orientation increased when more images were included in the block. The orientations of the first and second methods were compared. The comparison showed that correct rotations were the most difficult to detect accurately by using the interactive method. Because the interactive method forces laser scanning data to fit with the images, inaccurate rotations cause corresponding shifts to image positions. However, in a test case, in which the orientation differences included only shifts, the interactive method could solve the relative orientation of an aerial image and airborne laser scanning data repeatedly within a couple of centimeters.

  17. High Resolution Airborne Laser Scanning and Hyperspectral Imaging with a Small Uav Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallay, Michal; Eck, Christoph; Zgraggen, Carlo; Kaňuk, Ján; Dvorný, Eduard

    2016-06-01

    The capabilities of unmanned airborne systems (UAS) have become diverse with the recent development of lightweight remote sensing instruments. In this paper, we demonstrate our custom integration of the state-of-the-art technologies within an unmanned aerial platform capable of high-resolution and high-accuracy laser scanning, hyperspectral imaging, and photographic imaging. The technological solution comprises the latest development of a completely autonomous, unmanned helicopter by Aeroscout, the Scout B1-100 UAV helicopter. The helicopter is powered by a gasoline two-stroke engine and it allows for integrating 18 kg of a customized payload unit. The whole system is modular providing flexibility of payload options, which comprises the main advantage of the UAS. The UAS integrates two kinds of payloads which can be altered. Both payloads integrate a GPS/IMU with a dual GPS antenna configuration provided by OXTS for accurate navigation and position measurements during the data acquisition. The first payload comprises a VUX-1 laser scanner by RIEGL and a Sony A6000 E-Mount photo camera. The second payload for hyperspectral scanning integrates a push-broom imager AISA KESTREL 10 by SPECIM. The UAS was designed for research of various aspects of landscape dynamics (landslides, erosion, flooding, or phenology) in high spectral and spatial resolution.

  18. The Design and First Airborne Experiment of China Imaging Altimeter (CIALT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yunhua; Xu, Ke; Jiang, Jingshan

    average sea level, the significant wave height, and the backscattering coefficient of ocean surface. Sometimes it can also be used for the monitoring and measurment of sea ice. Usually the nadir looking antenna is used for TRA, and in this case it can just obtain one-dimensional height variation along the track. In this paper, we introduce a new-concept imaging radar altimeter, CIALT, which has been proposed more than two years ago. This imaging radar altimeter is aimed for providing three-dimensional surface information of both earth and ocean with high ground and height resolution. This imaging radar altimeter is off-nadir looking operated and in this manner, a wider swath and a higher space resolution in range direction can be obtained. Three techniques are integrated in this imaging radar altimeter, the first one is a robust onboard height tracker, which are based on the off-set center of gravity (OCOG) algorithm and it can work adaptively both for land and ocean surface; The second one is the synthetic processing in the azimuthal direction, in our design both unfocus and focus algorithms are involved in; The third one is the interferometric technique by which pixel-height information can be obtained. In the case of ocean observtion, a more precise ground height tracker is used. It is the height tracker makes our imaging radar altimeter different from the InSAR systems. The average height information output by height tracker is very useful for retrieving the pixel height information in the course of phase unwrapping. system. Some key issues have been addressed. Finally the first airborne experiment campain of CIALT has been introduced. After extensive processing of the experimental raw data, height tracking curves, high space resolution images, and interferometric information have been successfully obtained. They are also presented in this paper.

  19. Flight Testing of an Advanced Airborne Natural Gas Leak Detection System

    SciTech Connect

    Dawn Lenz; Raymond T. Lines; Darryl Murdock; Jeffrey Owen; Steven Stearns; Michael Stoogenke

    2005-10-01

    ITT Industries Space Systems Division (Space Systems) has developed an airborne natural gas leak detection system designed to detect, image, quantify, and precisely locate leaks from natural gas transmission pipelines. This system is called the Airborne Natural Gas Emission Lidar (ANGEL) system. The ANGEL system uses a highly sensitive differential absorption Lidar technology to remotely detect pipeline leaks. The ANGEL System is operated from a fixed wing aircraft and includes automatic scanning, pointing system, and pilot guidance systems. During a pipeline inspection, the ANGEL system aircraft flies at an elevation of 1000 feet above the ground at speeds of between 100 and 150 mph. Under this contract with DOE/NETL, Space Systems was funded to integrate the ANGEL sensor into a test aircraft and conduct a series of flight tests over a variety of test targets including simulated natural gas pipeline leaks. Following early tests in upstate New York in the summer of 2004, the ANGEL system was deployed to Casper, Wyoming to participate in a set of DOE-sponsored field tests at the Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center (RMOTC). At RMOTC the Space Systems team completed integration of the system and flew an operational system for the first time. The ANGEL system flew 2 missions/day for the duration for the 5-day test. Over the course of the week the ANGEL System detected leaks ranging from 100 to 5,000 scfh.

  20. Development of the NASA High-Altitude Imaging Wind and Rain Airborne Profiler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Lihua; Heymsfield, Gerald; Carswell, James; Schaubert, Dan; McLinden, Matthew; Vega, Manuel; Perrine, Martin

    2011-01-01

    The scope of this paper is the development and recent field deployments of the High-Altitude Imaging Wind and Rain Airborne Profiler (HIWRAP), which was funded under the NASA Instrument Incubator Program (IIP) [1]. HIWRAP is a dual-frequency (Ka- and Ku-band), dual-beam (300 and 400 incidence angles), conical scanning, Doppler radar system designed for operation on the NASA high-altitude (65,000 ft) Global Hawk Unmanned Aerial System (UAS). It utilizes solid state transmitters along with a novel pulse compression scheme that results in a system with compact size, light weight, less power consumption, and low cost compared to radars currently in use for precipitation and Doppler wind measurements. By combining measurements at Ku- and Ka-band, HIWRAP is able to image winds through measuring volume backscattering from clouds and precipitation. In addition, HIWRAP is also capable of measuring surface winds in an approach similar to SeaWinds on QuikScat. To this end, HIWRAP hardware and software development has been completed. It was installed on the NASA WB57 for instrument test flights in March, 2010 and then deployed on the NASA Global Hawk for supporting the Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) field campaign in August-September, 2010. This paper describes the scientific motivations of the development of HIWRAP as well as system hardware, aircraft integration and flight missions. Preliminary data from GRIP science flights is also presented.

  1. Real-time sensor mapping display for airborne imaging sensor test with the adaptive infrared imaging spectroradiometer (AIRIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burton, Megan M.; Cruger, William E.; Gittins, Christopher; Kindle, Harry; Ricks, Timothy P.

    2005-11-01

    Captive flight testing (CFT) of sensors and seekers requires accurate data collection and display for sensor performance evaluation. The U.S. Army Redstone Technical Test Center (RTTC), in support of the U.S. Army Edgewood Chemical Biological Center (ECBC), has developed a data collection suite to facilitate airborne test of hyperspectral chemical/biological sensors. The data collection suite combines global positioning system (GPS) tracking, inertial measurement unit (IMU) data, accurate timing streams, and other test scenario information. This data collection suite also contains an advanced real-time display of aircraft and sensor field-of-view information. The latest evolution of this system has been used in support of the Adaptive InfraRed Imaging Spectroradiometer (AIRIS), currently under development by Physical Sciences Incorporated for ECBC. For this test, images from the AIRIS sensor were overlaid on a digitized background of the test area, with latencies of 1 second or less. Detects of surrogate chemicals were displayed and geo-referenced. Video overlay was accurate and reliable. This software suite offers great versatility in the display of imaging sensor data; support of future tests with the AIRIS sensor are planned as the system evolves.

  2. Validation of Airborne Visible-Infrared Imaging Spectrometer Data at Ray Mine, AZ

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, H.; Baloga, S.

    1999-01-01

    We validate 1997 Airborne Visible-Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) reflectance spectra covering 0.4 meu - 2.4 meu from a stable, flat mineralogically characterized man-made target at Ray Mine, AZ, the site for an EPA/NASA assessment of the utility of remote sensing for monitoring acid drainage from an active open pit mine.

  3. Airborne Tomographic Swath Ice Sounding Processing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Xiaoqing; Rodriquez, Ernesto; Freeman, Anthony; Jezek, Ken

    2013-01-01

    Glaciers and ice sheets modulate global sea level by storing water deposited as snow on the surface, and discharging water back into the ocean through melting. Their physical state can be characterized in terms of their mass balance and dynamics. To estimate the current ice mass balance, and to predict future changes in the motion of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets, it is necessary to know the ice sheet thickness and the physical conditions of the ice sheet surface and bed. This information is required at fine resolution and over extensive portions of the ice sheets. A tomographic algorithm has been developed to take raw data collected by a multiple-channel synthetic aperture sounding radar system over a polar ice sheet and convert those data into two-dimensional (2D) ice thickness measurements. Prior to this work, conventional processing techniques only provided one-dimensional ice thickness measurements along profiles.

  4. Modular airborne remote sampling and sensing system (MARSSS)

    SciTech Connect

    Woods, R.O.

    1982-04-01

    Sandia is developing a modular airborne instrumentation system for the Environmental Protection Agency. This system will allow flexibility in the choice of instruments by standardizing mountings, power supplies and sampling modes. The objective is to make it possible to perform aerial surveys from chartered aircraft that have not been adapted in a more than superficial manner. It will also allow the experimenter to tailor his choice of instruments to the specific problem. Since the equipment will have a stand-alone capability, it can be applied to other problems such as long-term unattended use at remote locations or in toxic or otherwise hazardous environments.

  5. Composite design of an advanced airborne monitoring system

    SciTech Connect

    Busness, K. M.; Alkezweeny, A. J.; Easter, R. C.; Hales, J. M.; Lee, R. N.

    1981-12-01

    Atmospheric chemistry investigations often require a multitude of measurements which can be obtained only through the utilization of airborne sampling platforms. Instrument limitations and the aircraft environment present several considerations for sampling-system design, including such factors as instrument sensitivities and response times, altitude effects, sampling intervals for acquiring samples, and physical compatibility with the aircraft. An aircraft system with an extensive evolutionary instrument array has been in development at PNL for several years during which several special systems have been developed to improve aircraft measurement capabilities. A high-volume air sampling system providing flows of up to 4 m/sup 3//min and simultaneous collection of three filters in parallel has been constructued to reduce filter collection times. A constant pressure inlet system was developed to overcome adverse effects in instrument response resulting from altitude changes. The system functions so that instruments which are connected experinece a constant pre-set pressure regardless of the sampling altitude. This system is particularly useful for airborne operation of a flame photometric sulfur analyzer. Special chemiluminescence NO/NO/sub x/ analyzers utilizing photon counting were built which are capable of fast response and detecton of concentrations in the sub-ppB range.

  6. Co-Registration Airborne LIDAR Point Cloud Data and Synchronous Digital Image Registration Based on Combined Adjustment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Z. H.; Zhang, Y. S.; Zheng, T.; Lai, W. B.; Zou, Z. R.; Zou, B.

    2016-06-01

    Aim at the problem of co-registration airborne laser point cloud data with the synchronous digital image, this paper proposed a registration method based on combined adjustment. By integrating tie point, point cloud data with elevation constraint pseudo observations, using the principle of least-squares adjustment to solve the corrections of exterior orientation elements of each image, high-precision registration results can be obtained. In order to ensure the reliability of the tie point, and the effectiveness of pseudo observations, this paper proposed a point cloud data constrain SIFT matching and optimizing method, can ensure that the tie points are located on flat terrain area. Experiments with the airborne laser point cloud data and its synchronous digital image, there are about 43 pixels error in image space using the original POS data. If only considering the bore-sight of POS system, there are still 1.3 pixels error in image space. The proposed method regards the corrections of the exterior orientation elements of each image as unknowns and the errors are reduced to 0.15 pixels.

  7. Airborne and spaceborne radar images for geologic and environmental mapping in the Amazon rain forest, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, John P.; Hurtak, James J.

    1986-01-01

    Spaceborne and airborne radar image of portions of the Middle and Upper Amazon basin in the state of Amazonas and the Territory of Roraima are compared for purposes of geological and environmental mapping. The contrasted illumination geometries and imaging parameters are related to terrain slope and surface roughness characteristics for corresponding areas that were covered by each of the radar imaging systems. Landforms range from deeply dissected mountain and plateau with relief up to 500 m in Roraima, revealing ancient layered rocks through folded residual mountains to deeply beveled pediplain in Amazonas. Geomorphic features provide distinct textural signatures that are characteristic of different rock associations. The principle drainages in the areas covered are the Rio Negro, Rio Branco, and the Rio Japura. Shadowing effects and low radar sensitivity to subtle linear fractures that are aligned parallel or nearly parallel to the direction of radar illumination illustrate the need to obtain multiple coverage with viewing directions about 90 degrees. Perception of standing water and alluvial forest in floodplains varies with incident angle and with season. Multitemporal data sets acquired over periods of years provide an ideal method of monitoring environmental changes.

  8. An interactive lake survey program. [airborne multispectral sensor image processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, A. Y.

    1977-01-01

    Consideration is given to the development and operation of the interactive lake survey program developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and the Environmental Protection Agency. The program makes it possible to locate, isolate, and store any number of water bodies on the basis of a given digital image. The stored information may be used to generate statistical analyses of each body of water including the lake surface area and the shoreline perimeter. The hardware includes a 360/65 host computer, a Ramtek G100B display controller, and a trackball cursor. The system is illustrated by the LAKELOC operation as it would be applied to a Landsat scene, noting the FARINA and STATUS programs. The water detection algorithm, which increases the accuracy with which water and land data may be separated, is discussed.

  9. The Airborne Conical Scanning Millimeter-Wave Imaging Radiometer (CoSMIR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piepmeier, J. R.; Manning, W.; Wang, J. R.; Racette, P.; Krebs, Carolyn A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Results of the first science flight of the airborne Conical Scanning Millimeter-wave Imaging Radiometer (CoSMIR) for high-altitude observations from the NASA ER-2 is discussed. Imagery collected from the flight demonstrates CoSMIR's unique conical/cross-track imaging mode and provides comparison of CoSMIR measurements to those of the Special Sensor Microwave/Temperature-2 (SSM/T-2) satellite radiometer.

  10. Comparison of multispectral airborne scanner reflectance images with ground surface reflectance measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Kollewe, M.; Bienlein, J.; Kollewe, T.; Spitzer, H.

    1996-11-01

    Simultaneously with an airborne data taking campaign near the city of Nurnberg (FRG), performed with an imaging 11-channel scanner of type Daedalus AADS 1268, ground reference measurements of reflectance spectra were conducted with a spectrally high resolving spectroradiometer of type IRIS at selected test sites. Based on a method developed reflectance images are calculated from the aerial raw data. Thus, physical quantities of the surfaces are generated, which are independent of illumination and registration conditions. The airborne scanner reflectance images are compared with ground reference reflectance measurements. The comparison yields deviations up to 35%. They can partially be explained by an inaccurate calibration of the airborne scanner. In addition, errors appear during calculation of the reflectances due to simplifying model assumptions and an inexact knowledge of the values of the model input parameters. It is shown that calibration of the airborne scanner data with the ground reference measurements improves the results, as compared to calibration based on laboratory testbench measurements. 8 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Preliminary results of the LLNL airborne experimental test-bed SAR system

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, M.G.; Mullenhoff, C.J.; Kiefer, R.D.; Brase, J.M.; Wieting, M.G.; Berry, G.L.; Jones, H.E.

    1996-01-16

    The Imaging and Detection Program (IDP) within Laser Programs at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in cooperation with the Hughes Aircraft Company has developed a versatile, high performance, airborne experimental test-bed (AETB) capability. The test-bed has been developed for a wide range of research and development experimental applications including radar and radiometry plus, with additional aircraft modifications, optical systems. The airborne test-bed capability has been developed within a Douglas EA-3B Skywarrior jet aircraft provided and flown by Hughes Aircraft Company. The current test-bed payload consists of an X-band radar system, a high-speed data acquisition, and a real-time processing capability. The medium power radar system is configured to operate in a high resolution, synthetic aperture radar (SAR) mode and is highly configurable in terms of waveforrns, PRF, bandwidth, etc. Antennas are mounted on a 2-axis gimbal in the belly radome of the aircraft which provides pointing and stabilization. Aircraft position and antenna attitude are derived from a dedicated navigational system and provided to the real-time SAR image processor for instant image reconstruction and analysis. This paper presents a further description of the test-bed and payload subsystems plus preliminary results of SAR imagery.

  12. Calibration and Validation of the National Ecological Observatory Network's Airborne Imaging Spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leisso, N.

    2015-12-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is being constructed by the National Science Foundation and is slated for completion in 2017. NEON is designed to collect data to improve the understanding of changes in observed ecosystems. The observatory will produce data products on a variety of spatial and temporal scales collected from individual sites strategically located across the U.S. including Alaska, Hawaii, and Puerto Rico. Data sources include standardized terrestrial, instrumental, and aquatic observation systems in addition to three airborne remote sensing observation systems installed into leased Twin Otter aircraft. The Airborne Observation Platforms (AOP) are designed to collect 3-band aerial imagery, waveform and discrete LiDAR, and high-fidelity imaging spectroscopy data over the NEON sites annually at or near peak-greenness. The NEON Imaging Spectrometer (NIS) is a Visible and Shortwave Infrared (VSWIR) sensor designed by NASA JPL for ecological applications. Spectroscopic data is collected at 5-nm intervals across the solar-reflective spectral region (380-nm to 2500-nm) in a 34-degree FOV swath. A key uncertainty driver to the derived remote sensing NEON data products is the calibration of the imaging spectrometers. In addition, the calibration and accuracy of the higher-level data product algorithms is essential to the overall NEON mission to detect changes in the collected ecosystems over the 30-year expected lifetime. The typical calibration workflow of the NIS consists of the characterizing the focal plane, spectral calibration, and radiometric calibration. Laboratory spectral calibration is based on well-defined emission lines in conjunction with a scanning monochromator to define the individual spectral response functions. The radiometric calibration is NIST traceable and transferred to the NIS with an integrating sphere calibrated through the use of transfer radiometers. The laboratory calibration is monitored and maintained through

  13. Real-time remote detection and measurement for airborne imaging spectroscopy: a case study with methane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, D. R.; Leifer, I.; Bovensmann, H.; Eastwood, M.; Fladeland, M.; Frankenberg, C.; Gerilowski, K.; Green, R. O.; Kratwurst, S.; Krings, T.; Luna, B.; Thorpe, A. K.

    2015-06-01

    Localized anthropogenic sources of atmospheric CH4 are highly uncertain and temporally variable. Airborne remote measurement is an effective method to detect and quantify these emissions. In a campaign context, the science yield can be dramatically increased by real-time retrievals that allow operators to coordinate multiple measurements of the most active areas. This can improve science outcomes for both single- and multiple-platform missions. We describe a case study of the NASA/ESA CO2 and Methane Experiment (COMEX) campaign in California during June and August/September 2014. COMEX was a multi-platform campaign to measure CH4 plumes released from anthropogenic sources including oil and gas infrastructure. We discuss principles for real-time spectral signature detection and measurement, and report performance on the NASA Next Generation Airborne Visible Infrared Spectrometer (AVIRIS-NG). AVIRIS-NG successfully detected CH4 plumes in real-time at Gb s-1 data rates, characterizing fugitive releases in concert with other in situ and remote instruments. The teams used these real-time CH4 detections to coordinate measurements across multiple platforms, including airborne in situ, airborne non-imaging remote sensing, and ground-based in situ instruments. To our knowledge this is the first reported use of real-time trace gas signature detection in an airborne science campaign, and presages many future applications.

  14. An airborne remote sensing system for urban air quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, L. J.; Friedman, E. J.; Keitz, E. L.; Ward, E. A.

    1974-01-01

    Several NASA sponsored remote sensors and possible airborne platforms were evaluated. Outputs of dispersion models for SO2 and CO pollution in the Washington, D.C. area were used with ground station data to establish the expected performance and limitations of the remote sensors. Aircraft/sensor support requirements are discussed. A method of optimum flight plan determination was made. Cost trade offs were performed. Conclusions about the implementation of various instrument packages as parts of a comprehensive air quality monitoring system in Washington are presented.

  15. Prediction and removal of rotation noise in airborne EM systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kratzer, Terence 12Macnae, James

    2014-03-01

    We aim to eliminate or reduce significant impediments to conductive target detection and conductive cover penetration in airborne electromagnetic (AEM) systems. Existing limitations come from the very high noise encountered at low base frequencies, caused by rotations of vector magnetic field sensors in the Earth's magnetic field. We use the output of tri-axial rotation-rate sensors to predict and subtract the rotation noise from rigidly coupled ARMIT magnetic field sensors. The approach is successful in reducing rotation noise by one to two orders of magnitude at low frequencies.

  16. Airborne tunable diode laser system for trace gas measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sachse, G. W.; Hill, G. F.; Hoell, J. M., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Sachse et al. (1976) have reported the development of an airborne tunable diode laser (TDL) system, named the Differential Absorption CO Monitor (DACOM). The absorption path was 10 m long and located in the free airstream along the fuselage of a C-54 aircraft. The present investigation is concerned with a modification of the DACOM instrument. Differences between the new instrument and the original one are related to a replacement of the external absorption path with a White cell. The instrument has the capability to suppress TDL excess noise. The laser refrigerator has been redesigned to permit an alternative method of cooling the TDL when electric power is not available.

  17. The NASA/JPL Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lou, Yunling; Kim,Yunjin; vanZyl, Jakob

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we will briefly describe the instrument characteristics, the evolution of various radar modes, the instrument performance and improvement in the knowledge of the positioning and attitude information of the NASA/JPL airborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR). This system operates in the fully polarimetric mode in the P, L, and C band simultaneously or in the interferometric mode in both the L and C band simultaneously. We also summarize the progress of the data processing effort, especially in the interferometry processing and we address the issue of processing and calibrating the cross-track interferometry data.

  18. Performance assessment of MEMS adaptive optics in tactical airborne systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyson, Robert K.

    1999-09-01

    Tactical airborne electro-optical systems are severely constrained by weight, volume, power, and cost. Micro- electrical-mechanical adaptive optics provide a solution that addresses the engineering realities without compromising spatial and temporal compensation requirements. Through modeling and analysis, we determined that substantial benefits could be gained for laser designators, ladar, countermeasures, and missile seekers. The developments potential exists for improving seeker imagery resolution 20 percent, extending countermeasures keep-out range by a factor of 5, doubling the range for ladar detection and identification, and compensating for supersonic and hypersonic aircraft boundary layers. Innovative concepts are required for atmospheric pat hand boundary layer compensation. We have developed design that perform these tasks using high speed scene-based wavefront sensing, IR aerosol laser guide stars, and extended-object wavefront beacons. We have developed a number of adaptive optics system configurations that met the spatial resolution requirements and we have determined that sensing and signal processing requirements can be met. With the help of micromachined deformable mirrors and sensor, we will be able to integrate the systems into existing airborne pods and missiles as well as next generation electro-optical systems.

  19. Global registration and moving objects detection in noisy airborne image sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namazi, Nader M.; Scharpf, William J.; Obermark, Jerome; Caron, James N.

    2010-12-01

    This paper presents a method for registration of noisy airborne images for the purpose of the detection of moving objects. A new iterative algorithm is developed and presented for the correction of geometrical distortion caused by global motion in a scene. A binary hypotheses test is subsequently established using a likelihood ratio test (LRT) to classify the pixels in the corrected image as either locally moving (object motion) or not moving (stationary). The paper also incorporates the use of the Expectation-Maximization method for estimation of statistical image features needed by the LRT. We use and present experiments with real image sequences to validate the analytical developments.

  20. A Real-Time Advisory System For Airborne Early Warning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirk, D. B.; Cromwell, M. E.; Donnell, M. L.; Barrett, C. L.

    1987-05-01

    Decision speed and quality can be greatly enhanced by the use of decision augmentation software to assist operators in information analysis and tactical problem solving, dynamic resource allocation, and in determining strategies which optimize overall system performance. One example of such software is the real-time advisory system (RTAS) being constructed to assist in tactical decision-making for airborne early warning (AEW) aircraft, particularly the carrier-based Navy E-2C. Using a vector logic approach, the current AEW RTAS is a real-time backward chaining expert system which provides advice for both threat interception and refueling in the complex Outer Air Battle Scenario. This paper describes the current system, discusses a number of design issues for such a system, and describes ongoing modifications to the current AEW RTAS using SAIC's frame-based knowledge repre-sentation language (KRL).

  1. Airborne Systems Technology Application to the Windshear Threat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arbuckle, P. Douglas; Lewis, Michael S.; Hinton, David A.

    1996-01-01

    The general approach and products of the NASA/FAA Airborne Windshear Program conducted by NASA Langley Research Center are summarized, with references provided for the major technical contributions. During this period, NASA conducted 2 years of flight testing to characterize forward-looking sensor performance. The NASA/FAA Airborne Windshear Program was divided into three main elements: Hazard Characterization, Sensor Technology, and Flight Management Systems. Simulation models developed under the Hazard Characterization element are correlated with flight test data. Flight test results comparing the performance and characteristics of the various Sensor Technologies (microwave radar, lidar, and infrared) are presented. Most of the activities in the Flight Management Systems element were conducted in simulation. Simulation results from a study evaluating windshear crew procedures and displays for forward-looking sensor-equipped airplanes are discussed. NASA Langley researchers participated heavily in the FAA process of generating certification guidelines for predictive windshear detection systems. NASA participants felt that more valuable technology products were generated by the program because of this interaction. NASA involvement in the process and the resulting impact on products and technology transfer are discussed in this paper.

  2. Integrating Smartphone Images and Airborne LIDAR Data for Complete Urban Building Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shenman; Shan, Jie; Zhang, Zhichao; Yan, Jixing; Hou, Yaolin

    2016-06-01

    A complete building model reconstruction needs data collected from both air and ground. The former often has sparse coverage on building façades, while the latter usually is unable to observe the building rooftops. Attempting to solve the missing data issues in building reconstruction from single data source, we describe an approach for complete building reconstruction that integrates airborne LiDAR data and ground smartphone imagery. First, by taking advantages of GPS and digital compass information embedded in the image metadata of smartphones, we are able to find airborne LiDAR point clouds for the corresponding buildings in the images. In the next step, Structure-from-Motion and dense multi-view stereo algorithms are applied to generate building point cloud from multiple ground images. The third step extracts building outlines respectively from the LiDAR point cloud and the ground image point cloud. An automated correspondence between these two sets of building outlines allows us to achieve a precise registration and combination of the two point clouds, which ultimately results in a complete and full resolution building model. The developed approach overcomes the problem of sparse points on building façades in airborne LiDAR and the deficiency of rooftops in ground images such that the merits of both datasets are utilized.

  3. Multisensor airborne imagery collection and processing onboard small unmanned systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linne von Berg, Dale; Anderson, Scott A.; Bird, Alan; Holt, Niel; Kruer, Melvin; Walls, Thomas J.; Wilson, Michael L.

    2010-04-01

    FEATHAR (Fusion, Exploitation, Algorithms, and Targeting for High-Altitude Reconnaissance) is an ONR funded effort to develop and test new tactical sensor systems specifically designed for small manned and unmanned platforms (payload weight < 50 lbs). This program is being directed and executed by the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) in conjunction with the Space Dynamics Laboratory (SDL). FEATHAR has developed and integrated EyePod, a combined long-wave infrared (LWIR) and visible to near infrared (VNIR) optical survey & inspection system, with NuSAR, a combined dual band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) system. These sensors are being tested in conjunction with other ground and airborne sensor systems to demonstrate intelligent real-time cross-sensor cueing and in-air data fusion. Results from test flights of the EyePod and NuSAR sensors will be presented.

  4. An airborne meteorological data collection system using satellite relay (ASDAR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bagwell, J. W.; Lindow, B. G.

    1978-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has developed an airborne data acquisition and communication system for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). This system known as ASDAR, the Aircraft to Satellite Data Relay, consists of a microprocessor based controller, time clock, transmitter and antenna. Together they acquire meteorological and position information from existing aircraft systems on B-747 aircraft, convert and format these, and transmit them to the ground via the GOES meteorological satellite series. The development and application of the ASDAR system is described with emphasis on unique features. Performance to date is exceptional, providing horizon-to-horizon coverage of aircraft flights. The data collected is of high quality and is considered a valuable addition to the data base from which NOAA generates its weather forecasts.

  5. Novel compact airborne platform for remote sensing applications using the Hyper-Cam infrared hyperspectral imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turcotte, Caroline S.; Puckrin, Eldon; Aube, Françoys; Farley, Vincent; Savary, Simon; Chamberland, Martin

    2013-05-01

    High resolution broad-band imagery in the visible and infrared bands provides valuable detection capabilities based on target shapes and temperatures. However, the spectral resolution provided by a hyperspectral imager adds a spectral dimension to the measurements, which leads to an additional means of detecting and identifying targets based on their spectral signature. The Telops Hyper-Cam sensor is an interferometer-based imaging system that enables the spatial and spectral analysis of targets using a single sensor. It is based on the Fourier-transform technology, which yields high spectral resolution and enables a high accuracy radiometric calibration. It provides datacubes of up to 320×256 pixels at spectral resolutions as fine as 0.25 cm-1. The LWIR version covers the 8.0 to 11.8 μm spectral range. The Hyper-Cam has been recently integrated and flown on a novel airborne gyro-stabilized platform inside a fixed-wing aircraft. The new platform, more compact and more advanced than its predecessor, is described in this paper. The first results of target detection and identification are also presented.

  6. Simulated radiance profiles for automating the interpretation of airborne passive multi-spectral infrared images.

    PubMed

    Sulub, Yusuf; Small, Gary W

    2008-10-01

    Methodology is developed for simulating the radiance profiles acquired from airborne passive multispectral infrared imaging measurements of ground sources of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The simulation model allows the superposition of pure-component laboratory spectra of VOCs onto spectral backgrounds that simulate those acquired during field measurements conducted with a downward-looking infrared line scanner mounted on an aircraft flying at an altitude of 2000-3000 ft (approximately 600-900 m). Wavelength selectivity in the line scanner is accomplished through the use of a multichannel Hg:Cd:Te detector with up to 16 integrated optical filters. These filters allow the detection of absorption and emission signatures of VOCs superimposed on the upwelling infrared background radiance within the instrumental field of view (FOV). By combining simulated radiance profiles containing analyte signatures with field-collected background signatures, supervised pattern recognition methods can be employed to train automated classifiers for use in detecting the signatures of VOCs during field measurements. The targeted application for this methodology is the use of the imaging system to detect releases of VOCs during emergency response scenarios. In the work described here, the simulation model is combined with piecewise linear discriminant analysis to build automated classifiers for detecting ethanol and methanol. Field data collected during controlled releases of ethanol, as well as during a methanol release from an industrial facility, are used to evaluate the methodology.

  7. Laboratory and field portable system for calibrating airborne multispectral scanners

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhlow, W.W.

    1981-01-01

    Manufacturers of airborne multispectral scanners suggest procedures for calibration and alignment that are usually awkward and even questionable. For example, the procedures may require: separating the scanner from calibration and alignment sources by 100 feet or more, employing folding mirrors, tampering with the detectors after the procedures are finished, etc. Under the best of conditions such procedures require about three hours yielding questionable confidence in the results; under many conditions, however, procedures commonly take six to eight hours, yielding no satisfactory results. EG and G, Inc. has designed and built a calibration and alignment system for airborne scanners which solves those problems, permitting the procedures to be carried out in about two to three hours. This equipment can be quickly disassembled, transported with the scanner in all but the smallest single engine aircraft, and reassembled in a few hours. The subsystems of this equipment are commonly available from manufacturers of optical and electronic equipment. The other components are easily purchased, or fabricated. The scanner discussed is the Model DS-1260 digital line scanner manufactured by Daedalus Enterprises, Inc. It is a dual-sensor system which is operated in one of two combination of sensors: one spectrometer head (which provides simultaneous coverage in ten visible channels) and one thermal infrared detector, or simply two thermal infrared detectors.

  8. Potential scientific research which will benefit from an airborne Doppler lidar measurement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, W.

    1980-01-01

    Areas of research which can be significantly aided by the Doppler lidar airborne system are described. The need for systematic development of the airborne Doppler lidar is discussed. The technology development associated with the systematic development of the system will have direct application to satellite systems for which the lidar also promises to be an effective instrument for atmospheric research.

  9. MARA (Multimode Airborne Radar Altimeter) system documentation. Volume 1: MARA system requirements document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parsons, C. L. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    The Multimode Airborne Radar Altimeter (MARA), a flexible airborne radar remote sensing facility developed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, is discussed. This volume describes the scientific justification for the development of the instrument and the translation of these scientific requirements into instrument design goals. Values for key instrument parameters are derived to accommodate these goals, and simulations and analytical models are used to estimate the developed system's performance.

  10. Integrating an RGB - CIR Digital Camera With an Airborne Laser Swath Mapping System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, M.; Carter, W.; Shrestha, R.

    2003-12-01

    The National Science Foundation supported Center for Airborne Laser Mapping (NCALM) utilizes the airborne laser swath mapping (ALSM) system jointly owned by the University of Florida (UF) and Florida International University (FIU). The UF/FIU ALSM system is comprised of an Optech Inc. Model 1233 ALTM unit, with supporting GPS receiver and real-time navigation display, mounted in a twin-inline-engine Cessna 337 aircraft. Shortly after taking delivery of the ALSM system, UF researchers, in collaboration with a commercial partner, added a small format digital camera (Kodak 420) to the system, rigidly mounting it to the ALSM sensor head. Software was developed to use the GPS position and orientation parameters from the IMU unit in the ALSM sensor to rectify and mosaic the digital images. The ALSM height and intensity values were combined pixel by pixel with the RGB digital images, to classify surface materials. Based on our experience with the initial camera, and recommendations received at the NCALM workshop, UF researchers decided to upgrade the system to a Redlake MASD Inc. model MS4100 RGB/CIR camera. The MS4100 contains three CCD arrays, which simultaneously capture full spatial resolution images in red and near IR band bands, and a factor of two lower spatial resolution images in the blue and green bands (the blue and green bands share a single CCD array and the color bands are separated with a Bayer filter). The CCD arrays are rectangular with 1920 x 1080 elements, each element being 7.4 x 7.4 micrometers. With a 28 mm focal length lens, and at a flying height of 550 meters, the effective groundel is approximately 15 x 15 cm. The new digital camera should be particularly useful for studies of vegetation, including agricultural and forestry applications, and for computer automated classification of surface materials. Examples of early results using the improved ALSM-digital imaging capabilities will be presented.

  11. The airborne laser ranging system, its capabilities and applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahn, W. D.; Degnan, J. J.; Englar, T. S., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The airborne laser ranging system is a multibeam short pulse laser ranging system on board an aircraft. It simultaneously measures the distances between the aircraft and six laser retroreflectors (targets) deployed on the Earth's surface. The system can interrogate over 100 targets distributed over an area of 25,000 sq, kilometers in a matter of hours. Potentially, a total of 1.3 million individual range measurements can be made in a six hour flight. The precision of these range measurements is approximately + or - 1 cm. These measurements are used in procedure which is basically an extension of trilateration techniques to derive the intersite vector between the laser ground targets. By repeating the estimation of the intersite vector, strain and strain rate errors can be estimated. These quantities are essential for crustal dynamic studies which include determination and monitoring of regional strain in the vicinity of active fault zones, land subsidence, and edifice building preceding volcanic eruptions.

  12. Novel Airborne Imaging Polarimeter Undergoes High-Altitude Flight Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diner, David J.; Pingree, Paula J.; Chipman, Russell A.

    2015-01-01

    Optical and signal processing technologies for high-accuracy polarimetric imaging, aimed at studying the impact of atmospheric haze and clouds on Earth's climate, have been demonstrated on checkout flights aboard NASA's ER-2 aircraft.

  13. SITHON: An Airborne Fire Detection System Compliant with Operational Tactical Requirements

    PubMed Central

    Kontoes, Charalabos; Keramitsoglou, Iphigenia; Sifakis, Nicolaos; Konstantinidis, Pavlos

    2009-01-01

    In response to the urging need of fire managers for timely information on fire location and extent, the SITHON system was developed. SITHON is a fully digital thermal imaging system, integrating INS/GPS and a digital camera, designed to provide timely positioned and projected thermal images and video data streams rapidly integrated in the GIS operated by Crisis Control Centres. This article presents in detail the hardware and software components of SITHON, and demonstrates the first encouraging results of test flights over the Sithonia Peninsula in Northern Greece. It is envisaged that the SITHON system will be soon operated onboard various airborne platforms including fire brigade airplanes and helicopters as well as on UAV platforms owned and operated by the Greek Air Forces. PMID:22399963

  14. SITHON: An Airborne Fire Detection System Compliant with Operational Tactical Requirements.

    PubMed

    Kontoes, Charalabos; Keramitsoglou, Iphigenia; Sifakis, Nicolaos; Konstantinidis, Pavlos

    2009-01-01

    In response to the urging need of fire managers for timely information on fire location and extent, the SITHON system was developed. SITHON is a fully digital thermal imaging system, integrating INS/GPS and a digital camera, designed to provide timely positioned and projected thermal images and video data streams rapidly integrated in the GIS operated by Crisis Control Centres. This article presents in detail the hardware and software components of SITHON, and demonstrates the first encouraging results of test flights over the Sithonia Peninsula in Northern Greece. It is envisaged that the SITHON system will be soon operated onboard various airborne platforms including fire brigade airplanes and helicopters as well as on UAV platforms owned and operated by the Greek Air Forces.

  15. Airborne Multiangle SpectroPolarimeteric Imager (AirMSPI): Calibration and Comparison with Collocated Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seidel, F. C.; Diner, D. J.; Bruegge, C. J.; Rheingans, B. E.; Garay, M. J.; Daugherty, B. J.; Chipman, R. A.; Davis, A.

    2014-12-01

    The Airborne Multiangle SpectroPolarimetric Imager (AirMSPI) is a pushbroom multiangle spectropolarimetric camera with spectral bands near 355, 380, 445, 470, 555, 660, 865, and 935 nm. Flying on NASAs's high-altitude ER-2 aircraft since 2010, AirMSPI uses dual photoelastic modulator (PEM)-based technology to provide accurate measurements of the Stokes linear polarization parameters Q and U in the 470, 660, and 865 nm bands, providing unique observing capabilities for aerosol, cloud, and surface studies. We describe the methodologies used for radiometric and polarimetric calibration and characterization of the AirMSPI instrument, which make use of a combination of laboratory and vicarious techniques. A 1.65 m integrating sphere and overflights of Ivanpah Playa, NV are used for radiometric calibration. Radiometric cross-comparisons with the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS), also flying on the ER-2, are used to validate the radiometric scale. For polarimetric calibration, a well-calibrated Polarization State Generator is used to provide known polarimetric inputs. A high-extinction rotating wiregrid polarizer is used to derive polarimetric calibration coefficients for each pixel, and the results are then validated using partially polarized light generated using tilted glass plates. Examples of collocated multiangular, polarimetric imagery from AirMSPI and hyperspectral imagery from AVIRIS will be shown, presenting new opportunities for atmosphere and surface remote sensing.

  16. Characterization of the airborne activity confinement system prefilter material

    SciTech Connect

    Long, T.A.; Monson, P.R.

    1992-05-01

    A general concern with assessing the effects of postulated severe accidents is predicting and preventing the release of radioactive isotopes to the environment at the Savannah River Site (SRS) reactor. Unless the confinement systems are breached in an accident the Airborne Activity Confinement System forces all of the internal air through the filter compartments. Proper modeling of the radioactivity released to the environment requires knowledge of the filtering characteristics of the demisters, the HEPA`s, and the charcoal beds. An investigation of the mass loading characteristics for a range of particle sizes was performed under the direction of Vince Novick of Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) for the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) in connection with the restart of the K reactor. Both solid and liquid aerosols were used to challenge sample prefilter and HEPA filters. The results of the ANL investigation are reported in this document.

  17. Characterization of the airborne activity confinement system prefilter material

    SciTech Connect

    Long, T.A.; Monson, P.R.

    1992-05-01

    A general concern with assessing the effects of postulated severe accidents is predicting and preventing the release of radioactive isotopes to the environment at the Savannah River Site (SRS) reactor. Unless the confinement systems are breached in an accident the Airborne Activity Confinement System forces all of the internal air through the filter compartments. Proper modeling of the radioactivity released to the environment requires knowledge of the filtering characteristics of the demisters, the HEPA's, and the charcoal beds. An investigation of the mass loading characteristics for a range of particle sizes was performed under the direction of Vince Novick of Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) for the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) in connection with the restart of the K reactor. Both solid and liquid aerosols were used to challenge sample prefilter and HEPA filters. The results of the ANL investigation are reported in this document.

  18. Field-Based and Airborne Hyperspectral Imaging for Applied Research in the State of Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, A.; Buchhorn, M.; Cristobal, J.; Kokaly, R. F.; Graham, P. R.; Waigl, C. F.; Hampton, D. L.; Werdon, M.; Guldager, N.; Bertram, M.; Stuefer, M.

    2015-12-01

    Hyperspectral imagery acquired using Hyspex VNIR-1800 and SWIR-384 camera systems have provided unique information on terrestrial and aquatic biogeochemical parameters, and diagnostic mineral properties in exposed outcrops in selected sites in the state of Alaska. The Hyspex system was configured for in-situ and field scanning by attaching it to a gimbal-mounted rotational stage on a robust tripod. Scans of vertical faces of vegetation and rock outcrops were made close to the campus of the University of Alaska Fairbanks, in an abandoned mine near Fairbanks, and on exposures of Orange Hill in Wrangell-St. Elias National Park. Atmospherically corrected integrated VNIR_SWIR spectra were extracted which helped to study varying nitrogen content in the vegetation, and helped to distinguish the various micas. Processed imagery helped to pull out carbonates, clays, sulfates, and alteration-related minerals. The same instrument was also mounted in airborne configuration on two different aircrafts, a DeHavilland Beaver and a Found Bush Hawk. Test flights were flown over urban and wilderness areas that presented a variety of landcover types. Processed imagery shows promise in mapping man-made surfaces, phytoplankton, and dissolved materials in inland water bodies. Sample data and products are available on the University of Alaska Fairbanks Hyperspectral Imaging Laboratory (HyLab) website at http://hyperspectral.alaska.edu.

  19. Airborne Multisensor Pod System (AMPS) data management overview

    SciTech Connect

    Wiberg, J.D.; Blough, D.K.; Daugherty, W.R.; Hucks, J.A.; Gerhardstein, L.H.; Meitzler, W.D.; Melton, R.B.; Shoemaker, S.V.

    1994-09-01

    An overview of the Data Management Plan for the Airborne Multisensor Pod System (AMPS) pro-grain is provided in this document. The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has been assigned the responsibility of data management for the program, which includes defining procedures for data management and data quality assessment. Data management is defined as the process of planning, acquiring, organizing, qualifying and disseminating data. The AMPS program was established by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Arms Control and Non-Proliferation (DOE/AN) and is integrated into the overall DOE AN-10.1 technology development program. Sensors used for collecting the data were developed under the on-site inspection, effluence analysis, and standoff sensor program, the AMPS program interacts with other technology programs of DOE/NN-20. This research will be conducted by both government and private industry. AMPS is a research and development program, and it is not intended for operational deployment, although the sensors and techniques developed could be used in follow-on operational systems. For a complete description of the AMPS program, see {open_quotes}Airborne Multisensor Pod System (AMPS) Program Plan{close_quotes}. The primary purpose of the AMPS is to collect high-quality multisensor data to be used in data fusion research to reduce interpretation problems associated with data overload and to derive better information than can be derived from any single sensor. To collect the data for the program, three wing-mounted pods containing instruments with sensors for collecting data will be flight certified on a U.S. Navy RP-3A aircraft. Secondary objectives of the AMPS program are sensor development and technology demonstration. Pod system integrators and instrument developers will be interested in the performance of their deployed sensors and their supporting data acquisition equipment.

  20. Dedicated IR imaging fire sensor systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roeser, Hans-Peter; Jahn, Herbert; Briess, Klaus; Lorenz, Eckehard; Skrbek, Wolfgang; Walter, Ingo; Oertel, Dieter

    2000-07-01

    The German Aerospace Center (DLR) and its industrial partners are working on two new spaceborne fire missions: (1) the Bi-spectral IR Detection small satellite mission (BIRD) to be launched in autumn 2000, and (2) the Innovative Infrared Sensor System FOCUS to be flown as an early external payload of the International Space Station. Both BIRD and FOCUS will use MIR/TIR solid state pushbroom imagers with real time digital signal processing providing an adaptive and very high dynamic range in radiometry. Promising results are obtained with the BIRD Airborne Simulator which has been flown at DLR in several airborne campaigns since 1997.

  1. Proceedings of the Third Airborne Imaging Spectrometer Data Analysis Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vane, Gregg (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    Summaries of 17 papers presented at the workshop are published. After an overview of the imaging spectrometer program, time was spent discussing AIS calibration, performance, information extraction techniques, and the application of high spectral resolution imagery to problems of geology and botany.

  2. Progress in Development of an Airborne Turbulence Detection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, David W.; Proctor, Fred H.

    2006-01-01

    Aircraft encounters with turbulence are the leading cause of in-flight injuries (Tyrvanas 2003) and have occasionally resulted in passenger and crew fatalities. Most of these injuries are caused by sudden and unexpected encounters with severe turbulence in and around convective activity (Kaplan et al 2005). To alleviate this problem, the Turbulence Prediction and Warning Systems (TPAWS) element of NASA s Aviation Safety program has investigated technologies to detect and warn of hazardous in-flight turbulence. This effort has required the numerical modeling of atmospheric convection: 1) for characterizing convectively induced turbulence (CIT) environments, 2) for defining turbulence hazard metrics, and 3) as a means of providing realistic three-dimensional data sets that can be used to test and evaluate turbulence detection sensors. The data sets are being made available to industry and the FAA for certification of future airborne turbulence-detection systems (ATDS) with warning capability. Early in the TPAWS project, a radar-based ATDS was installed and flight tested on NASA s research aircraft, a B-757. This ATDS utilized new algorithms and hazard metrics that were developed for use with existing airborne predictive windshear radars, thus avoiding the installation of new hardware. This system was designed to detect and warn of hazardous CIT even in regions with weak radar reflectivity (i.e. 5-15 dBz). Results from an initial flight test of the ATDS were discussed in Hamilton and Proctor (2002a; 2002b). In companion papers (Proctor et al 2002a; 2002b), a numerical simulation of the most significant encounter from that flight test was presented. Since the presentation of these papers a second flight test has been conducted providing additional cases for examination. In this paper, we will present results from NASA s flight test and a numerical model simulation of a turbulence environment encountered on 30 April 2002. Progress leading towards FAA certification of

  3. a New Control Points Based Geometric Correction Algorithm for Airborne Push Broom Scanner Images Without On-Board Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strakhov, P.; Badasen, E.; Shurygin, B.; Kondranin, T.

    2016-06-01

    Push broom scanners, such as video spectrometers (also called hyperspectral sensors), are widely used in the present. Usage of scanned images requires accurate geometric correction, which becomes complicated when imaging platform is airborne. This work contains detailed description of a new algorithm developed for processing of such images. The algorithm requires only user provided control points and is able to correct distortions caused by yaw, flight speed and height changes. It was tested on two series of airborne images and yielded RMS error values on the order of 7 meters (3-6 source image pixels) as compared to 13 meters for polynomial-based correction.

  4. Clocks for airborne systems. [performance of rubidium oscillators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houlding, N.

    1982-01-01

    The potential performance of compact oscillators, needed for the development of accurate clocks for future airborne systems (such as Identification Friend or Foe schemes), is addressed. In particular, extensive testing of rubidium oscillators manufactured by Efratom is discussed. The results indicate that an accuracy of better than 10 microseconds should be achievable in tactical aircraft provided that appropriate measures are adopted to counter the many environmental factors. In a favorable environment a stability of better than 5 x 10 to the -13th power for one day is achievable with present commercial units, but improvements are required to suit operation in an aircraft. With further development of rubidium controlled clocks the ultimate limitation on time accuracy in aircraft will probably be associated with time dissemination, maintenance difficulties and doctrinal hurdles.

  5. Real-time remote detection and measurement for airborne imaging spectroscopy: a case study with methane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, D. R.; Leifer, I.; Bovensmann, H.; Eastwood, M.; Fladeland, M.; Frankenberg, C.; Gerilowski, K.; Green, R. O.; Kratwurst, S.; Krings, T.; Luna, B.; Thorpe, A. K.

    2015-10-01

    Localized anthropogenic sources of atmospheric CH4 are highly uncertain and temporally variable. Airborne remote measurement is an effective method to detect and quantify these emissions. In a campaign context, the science yield can be dramatically increased by real-time retrievals that allow operators to coordinate multiple measurements of the most active areas. This can improve science outcomes for both single- and multiple-platform missions. We describe a case study of the NASA/ESA CO2 and MEthane eXperiment (COMEX) campaign in California during June and August/September 2014. COMEX was a multi-platform campaign to measure CH4 plumes released from anthropogenic sources including oil and gas infrastructure. We discuss principles for real-time spectral signature detection and measurement, and report performance on the NASA Next Generation Airborne Visible Infrared Spectrometer (AVIRIS-NG). AVIRIS-NG successfully detected CH4 plumes in real-time at Gb s-1 data rates, characterizing fugitive releases in concert with other in situ and remote instruments. The teams used these real-time CH4 detections to coordinate measurements across multiple platforms, including airborne in situ, airborne non-imaging remote sensing, and ground-based in situ instruments. To our knowledge this is the first reported use of real-time trace-gas signature detection in an airborne science campaign, and presages many future applications. Post-analysis demonstrates matched filter methods providing noise-equivalent (1σ) detection sensitivity for 1.0 % CH4 column enhancements equal to 141 ppm m.

  6. An Airborne Conical Scanning Millimeter-Wave Imaging Radiometer (CoSMIR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piepmeier, J.; Racette, P.; Wang, J.; Crites, A.; Doiron, T.; Engler, C.; Lecha, J.; Powers, M.; Simon, E.; Triesky, M.; Krebs, Carolyn A. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    An airborne Conical Scanning Millimeter-wave Imaging Radiometer (CoSMIR) for high-altitude observations from the NASA Research Aircraft (ER-2) is discussed. The primary application of the CoSMIR is water vapor profile remote sensing. Four radiometers operating at 50 (three channels), 92, 150, and 183 (three channels) GHz provide spectral coverage identical to nine of the Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder (SSMIS) high-frequency channels. Constant polarization-basis conical and cross-track scanning capabilities are achieved using an elevation-under-azimuth two-axis gimbals.

  7. Development and test of video systems for airborne surveillance of oil spills

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millard, J. P.; Arvesen, J. C.; Lewis, P. L.

    1975-01-01

    Five video systems - potentially useful for airborne surveillance of oil spills - were developed, flight tested, and evaluated. The systems are: (1) conventional black and white TV, (2) conventional TV with false color, (3) differential TV, (4) prototype Lunar Surface TV, and (5) field sequential TV. Wavelength and polarization filtering were utilized in all systems. Greatly enhanced detection of oil spills, relative to that possible with the unaided eye, was achieved. The most practical video system is a conventional TV camera with silicon-diode-array image tube, filtered with a Corning 7-54 filter and a polarizer oriented with its principal axis in the horizontal direction. Best contrast between oil and water was achieved when winds and sea states were low. The minimum detectable oil film thickness was about 0.1 micrometer.

  8. Dual-Frequency Airborne Scanning Rain Radar Antenna System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hussein, Ziad A.; Green, Ken

    2004-01-01

    A compact, dual-frequency, dual-polarization, wide-angle-scanning antenna system has been developed as part of an airborne instrument for measuring rainfall. This system is an upgraded version of a prior single-frequency airborne rain radar antenna system and was designed to satisfy stringent requirements. One particularly stringent combination of requirements is to generate two dual-polarization (horizontal and vertical polarizations) beams at both frequencies (13.405 and 35.605 GHz) in such a way that the beams radiated from the antenna point in the same direction, have 3-dB angular widths that match within 25 percent, and have low sidelobe levels over a wide scan angle at each polarization-and-frequency combination. In addition, the system is required to exhibit low voltage standing-wave ratios at both frequencies. The system (see figure) includes a flat elliptical scanning reflector and a stationary offset paraboloidal reflector illuminated by a common-aperture feed system that comprises a corrugated horn with four input ports one port for each of the four frequency-and-polarization combinations. The feed horn is designed to simultaneously (1) under-illuminate the reflectors 35.605 GHz and (2) illuminate the reflectors with a 15-dB edge taper at 13.405 GHz. The scanning mirror is rotated in azimuth to scan the antenna beam over an angular range of 20 in the cross-track direction for wide swath coverage, and in elevation to compensate for the motion of the aircraft. The design of common-aperture feed horn makes it possible to obtain the required absolute gain and low side-lobe levels in wide-angle beam scanning. The combination of the common-aperture feed horn with the small (0.3) focal-length-to-diameter ratio of the paraboloidal reflector makes it possible for the overall system to be compact enough that it can be mounted on a DC-8 airplane.

  9. [Design of airborne dual channel ultraviolet-visible imaging spectrometer with large field of view, wide spectrum, and high resolution].

    PubMed

    Hao, Ai-Hua; Hu, Bing-Liang; Bai, Jia-Guang; Li, Li-Bo; Yu, Tao; Li, Si-Yuan

    2013-12-01

    The ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis 200-500 nm) imaging spectrometer is an important part of space remote sensing. Based on special requirements and practical application of the airborne UV-VIS spectrometer, a kind of scanning imaging spectrometer using area array CCD is proposed, which can meet the application requirements of large field of view, wide spectrum and high resolution. It overcomes low spatial resolution of traditional line array CCD scanning imaging spectrometer, and limited field of view of the pushbroom imaging spectrometer. In addition, dual channel was designed to reduce stray light. 400-500 nm band includes two order spectrum for 200-250 nm band, and variation of radiance from earth between the shorter wavelength (<290 nm) and the longer wavelength (>310 nm) is above three orders of magnitude. In the structure design of the system, the imaging spectrometer is composed of a two-mirror concentric telescope and two Czerny-Turner plane grating imaging spectrometers. The whole system doesn't use any additional optical elements in addition to spherical mirrors. The whole system has the advantage of simple structure, excellent performance, and very good feasibility. The modulation transfer function value of full spectrum and full field of view is above 0.6.

  10. Image-Based Airborne LiDAR Point Cloud Encoding for 3d Building Model Retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yi-Chen; Lin, Chao-Hung

    2016-06-01

    With the development of Web 2.0 and cyber city modeling, an increasing number of 3D models have been available on web-based model-sharing platforms with many applications such as navigation, urban planning, and virtual reality. Based on the concept of data reuse, a 3D model retrieval system is proposed to retrieve building models similar to a user-specified query. The basic idea behind this system is to reuse these existing 3D building models instead of reconstruction from point clouds. To efficiently retrieve models, the models in databases are compactly encoded by using a shape descriptor generally. However, most of the geometric descriptors in related works are applied to polygonal models. In this study, the input query of the model retrieval system is a point cloud acquired by Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) systems because of the efficient scene scanning and spatial information collection. Using Point clouds with sparse, noisy, and incomplete sampling as input queries is more difficult than that by using 3D models. Because that the building roof is more informative than other parts in the airborne LiDAR point cloud, an image-based approach is proposed to encode both point clouds from input queries and 3D models in databases. The main goal of data encoding is that the models in the database and input point clouds can be consistently encoded. Firstly, top-view depth images of buildings are generated to represent the geometry surface of a building roof. Secondly, geometric features are extracted from depth images based on height, edge and plane of building. Finally, descriptors can be extracted by spatial histograms and used in 3D model retrieval system. For data retrieval, the models are retrieved by matching the encoding coefficients of point clouds and building models. In experiments, a database including about 900,000 3D models collected from the Internet is used for evaluation of data retrieval. The results of the proposed method show a clear superiority

  11. Design considerations for a compact infrared airborne imager to meet alignment and assembly requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spencer, Harvey

    2002-09-01

    Helicopter mounted optical systems require compact packaging, good image performance (approaching the diffraction-limit), and must survive and operate in a rugged shock and thermal environment. The always-present requirement for low weight in an airborne sensor is paramount when considering the optical configuration. In addition, the usual list of optical requirements which must be satisfied within narrow tolerances, including field-of-view, vignetting, boresight, stray light rejection, and transmittance drive the optical design. It must be determined early in the engineering process which internal optical alignment adjustment provisions must be included, which may be included, and which will have to be omitted, since adding alignment features often conflicts with the requirement for optical component stability during operation and of course adds weight. When the system is to be modular and mates with another optical system, a telescope designed by different contractor in this case, additional alignment requirements between the two systems must be specified and agreed upon. Final delivered cost is certainly critical and "touch labor" assembly time must be determined and controlled. A clear plan for the alignment and assembly steps must be devised before the optical design can even begin to ensure that an arrangement of optical components amenable to adjustment is reached. The optical specification document should be written contemporaneously with the alignment plan to insure compatibility. The optics decisions that led to the success of this project are described and the final optical design is presented. A description of some unique pupil alignment adjustments, never performed by us in the infrared, is described.

  12. First test results of the airborne dispersive pushbroom imaging spectrometer APEX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meuleman, K.; Itten, K.; Schaepman, M.

    2009-04-01

    APEX, ESA-Prodex "Airborne Prism Experiment" comprises the development of an airborne dispersive pushbroom imaging spectrometer and has originally been designed as flexible hyperspectral mission simulator and calibrator for existing and upcoming or planned future space missions. The APEX project is co-funded by Switzerland and Belgium and built by a Belgian-Swiss industrial team under the prime RUAG Aerospace (CH), responsible for the total system and the mechanical components, OIP (Oudenaarde, BE) contributing the spectrometer, and Netcetera (Zurich, CH) being responsible for the electronics. RSL (University of Zurich, CH) acts as scientific PI together with the Co-PI VITO (Mol, BE). The APEX sensor is operating between 380 nm and 2500 nm in more than 300 freely configurable bands (up to 512 bands in full spectral mode), by means of two dispersive spectrometer channels. 1000 pixels across track and a total field of view of 28° define the ground pixel size (e.g. 2,5 m from 5000 m AGL). A stabilized platform (Leica PAV-30) reduces major geometric distortions due to aircraft instabilities while a GPS/IMU system (Applanix PosAV 410) measures continuously the sensors' position and orientation allowing direct georeferencing of the acquired data . The system is currently is phase D, the calibration and test phase, and first testflights have been performed on a Do-228 in cooperation of DLR while the acquired data is currently under evaluation. Discussions are ongoing to fly APEX on the new DLR High Altitude Research Aircraft (HALO) as well. The system is currently in phase D, the calibration and test phase, and will deliver first scientific data to users by mid 2009. The APEX processing and archiving facility (PAF) is hosted by VITO in the APEX Operations Center (AOC) at Mol, Belgium . A specific level 0-1 processing software module producing uniform, radiometrically calibrated data has been developed by RSL and is integrated into the PAF by VITO. An APEX Calibration

  13. 3DLASE-M: three-dimensional lidar airborne system emulator, maritime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeWeert, Michael J.

    2014-05-01

    Imaging flash LIDAR (LIght Detection and Ranging) is an effective method for airborne searches of the ocean surface and subsurface volume. The performance of ocean LIDAR depends strongly on the sea surface (e.g., waves, whitecaps, and flotsam), water turbidity, and the characteristics of the objects of interest. Cost-effective design of the LIDAR system and processing algorithms requires a modeling capability that can deal with the physics of light propagation through the air-water interface, into the ocean, and back to the LIDAR receiver. 3DLASE-M is a physics-based LIDAR simulator that yields high-fidelity images for three-dimensional algorithm development and performance predictions.

  14. 3DLASE-M: three-dimensional-LIDAR airborne system emulator -maritime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeWeert, Michael J.

    2014-10-01

    Imaging flash LIDAR (LIght Detection and Ranging) is an effective method for airborne searches of the ocean surface and subsurface volume. The performance of ocean LIDAR depends strongly on the sea surface (e.g., waves, whitecaps, and flotsam), water turbidity, and the characteristics of the objects of interest. Cost-effective design of the LIDAR system and processing algorithms requires a modeling capability that can deal with the physics of light propagation through the air-water interface, into the ocean, and back to the LIDAR receiver. 3DLASE-M is a physics-based LIDAR simulator that yields high-fidelity images for three-dimensional algorithm development and performance predictions.

  15. Long-Term Tracking of a Specific Vehicle Using Airborne Optical Camera Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurz, F.; Rosenbaum, D.; Runge, H.; Cerra, D.; Mattyus, G.; Reinartz, P.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we present two low cost, airborne sensor systems capable of long-term vehicle tracking. Based on the properties of the sensors, a method for automatic real-time, long-term tracking of individual vehicles is presented. This combines the detection and tracking of the vehicle in low frame rate image sequences and applies the lagged Cell Transmission Model (CTM) to handle longer tracking outages occurring in complex traffic situations, e.g. tunnels. The CTM model uses the traffic conditions in the proximities of the target vehicle and estimates its motion to predict the position where it reappears. The method is validated on an airborne image sequence acquired from a helicopter. Several reference vehicles are tracked within a range of 500m in a complex urban traffic situation. An artificial tracking outage of 240m is simulated, which is handled by the CTM. For this, all the vehicles in the close proximity are automatically detected and tracked to estimate the basic density-flow relations of the CTM model. Finally, the real and simulated trajectories of the reference vehicles in the outage are compared showing good correspondence also in congested traffic situations.

  16. Airborne measurements in the infrared using FTIR-based imaging hyperspectral sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puckrin, E.; Turcotte, C. S.; Lahaie, P.; Dubé, D.; Farley, V.; Lagueux, P.; Marcotte, F.; Chamberland, M.

    2009-05-01

    Hyperspectral ground mapping is being used in an ever-increasing extent for numerous applications in the military, geology and environmental fields. The different regions of the electromagnetic spectrum help produce information of differing nature. The visible, near-infrared and short-wave infrared radiation (400 nm to 2.5 μm) has been mostly used to analyze reflected solar light, while the mid-wave (3 to 5 μm) and long-wave (8 to 12 μm or thermal) infrared senses the self-emission of molecules directly, enabling the acquisition of data during night time. Push-broom dispersive sensors have been typically used for airborne hyperspectral mapping. However, extending the spectral range towards the mid-wave and long-wave infrared brings performance limitations due to the self emission of the sensor itself. The Fourier-transform spectrometer technology has been extensively used in the infrared spectral range due to its high transmittance as well as throughput and multiplex advantages, thereby reducing the sensor self-emission problem. Telops has developed the Hyper-Cam, a rugged and compact infrared hyperspectral imager. The Hyper-Cam is based on the Fourier-transform technology yielding high spectral resolution and enabling high accuracy radiometric calibration. It provides passive signature measurement capability, with up to 320x256 pixels at spectral resolutions of up to 0.25 cm-1. The Hyper-Cam has been used on the ground in several field campaigns, including the demonstration of standoff chemical agent detection. More recently, the Hyper-Cam has been integrated into an airplane to provide airborne measurement capabilities. A special pointing module was designed to compensate for airplane attitude and forward motion. To our knowledge, the Hyper-Cam is the first commercial airborne hyperspectral imaging sensor based on Fourier-transform infrared technology. The first airborne measurements and some preliminary performance criteria for the Hyper-Cam are presented in

  17. Airborne measurements in the infrared using FTIR-based imaging hyperspectral sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puckrin, E.; Turcotte, C. S.; Lahaie, P.; Dubé, D.; Lagueux, P.; Farley, V.; Marcotte, F.; Chamberland, M.

    2009-09-01

    Hyperspectral ground mapping is being used in an ever-increasing extent for numerous applications in the military, geology and environmental fields. The different regions of the electromagnetic spectrum help produce information of differing nature. The visible, near-infrared and short-wave infrared radiation (400 nm to 2.5 μm) has been mostly used to analyze reflected solar light, while the mid-wave (3 to 5 μm) and long-wave (8 to 12 μm or thermal) infrared senses the self-emission of molecules directly, enabling the acquisition of data during night time. Push-broom dispersive sensors have been typically used for airborne hyperspectral mapping. However, extending the spectral range towards the mid-wave and long-wave infrared brings performance limitations due to the self emission of the sensor itself. The Fourier-transform spectrometer technology has been extensively used in the infrared spectral range due to its high transmittance as well as throughput and multiplex advantages, thereby reducing the sensor self-emission problem. Telops has developed the Hyper-Cam, a rugged and compact infrared hyperspectral imager. The Hyper-Cam is based on the Fourier-transform technology yielding high spectral resolution and enabling high accuracy radiometric calibration. It provides passive signature measurement capability, with up to 320x256 pixels at spectral resolutions of up to 0.25 cm-1. The Hyper-Cam has been used on the ground in several field campaigns, including the demonstration of standoff chemical agent detection. More recently, the Hyper-Cam has been integrated into an airplane to provide airborne measurement capabilities. A special pointing module was designed to compensate for airplane attitude and forward motion. To our knowledge, the Hyper-Cam is the first commercial airborne hyperspectral imaging sensor based on Fourier-transform infrared technology. The first airborne measurements and some preliminary performance criteria for the Hyper-Cam are presented in

  18. Verification of 3d Building Models Using Mutual Information in Airborne Oblique Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyaruhuma, A. P.; Gerke, M.; Vosselman, G.

    2012-07-01

    This paper describes a method for automatic verification of 3D building models using airborne oblique images. The problem being tackled is identifying buildings that are demolished or changed since the models were constructed or identifying wrong models using the images. The models verified are of CityGML LOD2 or higher since their edges are expected to coincide with actual building edges. The verification approach is based on information theory. Corresponding variables between building models and oblique images are used for deriving mutual information for individual edges, faces or whole buildings, and combined for all perspective images available for the building. The wireframe model edges are projected to images and verified using low level image features - the image pixel gradient directions. A building part is only checked against images in which it may be visible. The method has been tested with models constructed using laser points against Pictometry images that are available for most cities of Europe and may be publically viewed in the so called Birds Eye view of the Microsoft Bing Maps. Results are that nearly all buildings are correctly categorised as existing or demolished. Because we now concentrate only on roofs we also used the method to test and compare results from nadir images. This comparison made clear that especially height errors in models can be more reliably detected in oblique images because of the tilted view. Besides overall building verification, results per individual edges can be used for improving the 3D building models.

  19. Estimation of the Atmospheric Refraction Effect in Airborne Images Using Radiosonde Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beisl, U.; Tempelmann, U.

    2016-06-01

    The influence of the atmospheric refraction on the geometric accuracy of airborne photogrammetric images was already considered in the days of analogue photography. The effect is a function of the varying refractive index on the path from the ground to the image sensor. Therefore the effect depends on the height over ground, the view zenith angle and the atmospheric constituents. It is leading to a gradual increase of the scale towards the borders of the image, i.e. a magnification takes place. Textbooks list a shift of several pixels at the borders of standard wide angle images. As it was the necessity of that time when images could only be acquired at good weather conditions, the effect was calculated using standard atmospheres for good atmospheric conditions, leading to simple empirical formulas. Often the pixel shift caused by refraction was approximated as linear with height and compensated by an adjustment of the focal length. With the advent of sensitive digital cameras, the image dynamics allows for capturing images at adverse weather conditions. So the influence of the atmospheric profiles on the geometric accuracy of the images has to be investigated and the validity of the standard correction formulas has to be checked. This paper compares the results from the standard formulas by Saastamoinen with the results calculated from a broad selection of atmospheres obtained from radiosonde profile data. The geometric deviation is calculated by numerical integration of the refractive index as a function of the height using the refractive index formula by Ciddor. It turns out that the effect of different atmospheric profiles (including inversion situations) is generally small compared to the overall effect except at low camera heights. But there the absolute deviation is small. Since the necessary atmospheric profile data are often not readily available for airborne images a formula proposed by Saastamoinen is verified that uses only camera height, the pressure

  20. Exposure to airborne particulate matter in the subway system.

    PubMed

    Martins, Vânia; Moreno, Teresa; Minguillón, María Cruz; Amato, Fulvio; de Miguel, Eladio; Capdevila, Marta; Querol, Xavier

    2015-04-01

    The Barcelona subway system comprises eight subway lines, at different depths, with different tunnel dimensions, station designs and train frequencies. An extensive measurement campaign was performed in this subway system in order to characterise the airborne particulate matter (PM) measuring its concentration and investigating its variability, both inside trains and on platforms, in two different seasonal periods (warmer and colder), to better understand the main factors controlling it, and therefore the way to improve air quality. The majority of PM in the underground stations is generated within the subway system, due to abrasion and wear of rail tracks, wheels and braking pads caused during the motion of the trains. Substantial variation in average PM concentrations between underground stations was observed, which might be associated to different ventilation and air conditioning systems, characteristics/design of each station and variations in the train frequency. Average PM2.5 concentrations on the platforms in the subway operating hours ranged from 20 to 51 and from 41 to 91 μg m(-3) in the warmer and colder period, respectively, mainly related to the seasonal changes in the subway ventilation systems. The new subway lines with platform screen doors showed PM2.5 concentrations lower than those in the conventional system, which is probably attributable not only to the more advanced ventilation setup, but also to the lower train frequency and the design of the stations. PM concentrations inside the trains were generally lower than those on the platforms, which is attributable to the air conditioning systems operating inside the trains, which are equipped with air filters. This study allows the analysis and quantification of the impact of different ventilation settings on air quality, which provides an improvement on the knowledge for the general understanding and good management of air quality in the subway system.

  1. Exposure to airborne particulate matter in the subway system.

    PubMed

    Martins, Vânia; Moreno, Teresa; Minguillón, María Cruz; Amato, Fulvio; de Miguel, Eladio; Capdevila, Marta; Querol, Xavier

    2015-04-01

    The Barcelona subway system comprises eight subway lines, at different depths, with different tunnel dimensions, station designs and train frequencies. An extensive measurement campaign was performed in this subway system in order to characterise the airborne particulate matter (PM) measuring its concentration and investigating its variability, both inside trains and on platforms, in two different seasonal periods (warmer and colder), to better understand the main factors controlling it, and therefore the way to improve air quality. The majority of PM in the underground stations is generated within the subway system, due to abrasion and wear of rail tracks, wheels and braking pads caused during the motion of the trains. Substantial variation in average PM concentrations between underground stations was observed, which might be associated to different ventilation and air conditioning systems, characteristics/design of each station and variations in the train frequency. Average PM2.5 concentrations on the platforms in the subway operating hours ranged from 20 to 51 and from 41 to 91 μg m(-3) in the warmer and colder period, respectively, mainly related to the seasonal changes in the subway ventilation systems. The new subway lines with platform screen doors showed PM2.5 concentrations lower than those in the conventional system, which is probably attributable not only to the more advanced ventilation setup, but also to the lower train frequency and the design of the stations. PM concentrations inside the trains were generally lower than those on the platforms, which is attributable to the air conditioning systems operating inside the trains, which are equipped with air filters. This study allows the analysis and quantification of the impact of different ventilation settings on air quality, which provides an improvement on the knowledge for the general understanding and good management of air quality in the subway system. PMID:25616190

  2. Preliminary assessment of airborne imaging spectrometer and airborne thematic mapper data acquired for forest decline areas in the Federal Republic of Germany

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herrmann, Karin; Ammer, Ulrich; Rock, Barrett; Paley, Helen N.

    1988-01-01

    This study evaluated the utility of data collected by the high-spectral resolution airborne imaging spectrometer (AIS-2, tree mode, spectral range 0.8-2.2 microns) and the broad-band Daedalus airborne thematic mapper (ATM, spectral range 0.42-13.0 micron) in assessing forest decline damage at a predominantly Scotch pine forest in the FRG. Analysis of spectral radiance values from the ATM and raw digital number values from AIS-2 showed that higher reflectance in the near infrared was characteristic of high damage (heavy chlorosis, limited needle loss) in Scotch pine canopies. A classification image of a portion of the AIS-2 flight line agreed very well with a damage assessment map produced by standard aerial photointerpretation techniques.

  3. Discriminating phytoplankton functional types (PFTs) in the coastal ocean using the inversion algorithm PHYDOTax and airborne imaging spectrometer data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palacios, S. L.; Schafer, C. B.; Broughton, J.; Guild, L. S.; Kudela, R. M.

    2013-12-01

    There is a need in the Biological Oceanography community to discriminate among phytoplankton groups within the bulk chlorophyll pool to understand energy flow through ecosystems, to track the fate of carbon in the ocean, and to detect and monitor-for harmful algal blooms (HABs). The ocean color community has responded to this demand with the development of phytoplankton functional type (PFT) discrimination algorithms. These PFT algorithms fall into one of three categories depending on the science application: size-based, biogeochemical function, and taxonomy. The new PFT algorithm Phytoplankton Detection with Optics (PHYDOTax) is an inversion algorithm that discriminates taxon-specific biomass to differentiate among six taxa found in the California Current System: diatoms, dinoflagellates, haptophytes, chlorophytes, cryptophytes, and cyanophytes. PHYDOTax was developed and validated in Monterey Bay, CA for the high resolution imaging spectrometer, Spectroscopic Aerial Mapping System with On-board Navigation (SAMSON - 3.5 nm resolution). PHYDOTax exploits the high spectral resolution of an imaging spectrometer and the improved spatial resolution that airborne data provides for coastal areas. The objective of this study was to apply PHYDOTax to a relatively lower resolution imaging spectrometer to test the algorithm's sensitivity to atmospheric correction, to evaluate capability with other sensors, and to determine if down-sampling spectral resolution would degrade its ability to discriminate among phytoplankton taxa. This study is a part of the larger Hyperspectral Infrared Imager (HyspIRI) airborne simulation campaign which is collecting Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) imagery aboard NASA's ER-2 aircraft during three seasons in each of two years over terrestrial and marine targets in California. Our aquatic component seeks to develop and test algorithms to retrieve water quality properties (e.g. HABs and river plumes) in both marine and in

  4. Discriminating Phytoplankton Functional Types (PFTs) in the Coastal Ocean Using the Inversion Algorithm Phydotax and Airborne Imaging Spectrometer Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palacios, Sherry L.; Schafer, Chris; Broughton, Jennifer; Guild, Liane S.; Kudela, Raphael M.

    2013-01-01

    There is a need in the Biological Oceanography community to discriminate among phytoplankton groups within the bulk chlorophyll pool to understand energy flow through ecosystems, to track the fate of carbon in the ocean, and to detect and monitor-for harmful algal blooms (HABs). The ocean color community has responded to this demand with the development of phytoplankton functional type (PFT) discrimination algorithms. These PFT algorithms fall into one of three categories depending on the science application: size-based, biogeochemical function, and taxonomy. The new PFT algorithm Phytoplankton Detection with Optics (PHYDOTax) is an inversion algorithm that discriminates taxon-specific biomass to differentiate among six taxa found in the California Current System: diatoms, dinoflagellates, haptophytes, chlorophytes, cryptophytes, and cyanophytes. PHYDOTax was developed and validated in Monterey Bay, CA for the high resolution imaging spectrometer, Spectroscopic Aerial Mapping System with On-board Navigation (SAMSON - 3.5 nm resolution). PHYDOTax exploits the high spectral resolution of an imaging spectrometer and the improved spatial resolution that airborne data provides for coastal areas. The objective of this study was to apply PHYDOTax to a relatively lower resolution imaging spectrometer to test the algorithm's sensitivity to atmospheric correction, to evaluate capability with other sensors, and to determine if down-sampling spectral resolution would degrade its ability to discriminate among phytoplankton taxa. This study is a part of the larger Hyperspectral Infrared Imager (HyspIRI) airborne simulation campaign which is collecting Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) imagery aboard NASA's ER-2 aircraft during three seasons in each of two years over terrestrial and marine targets in California. Our aquatic component seeks to develop and test algorithms to retrieve water quality properties (e.g. HABs and river plumes) in both marine and in

  5. Medium altitude airborne Geiger-mode mapping LIDAR system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clifton, William E.; Steele, Bradley; Nelson, Graham; Truscott, Antony; Itzler, Mark; Entwistle, Mark

    2015-05-01

    Over the past 15 years the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Lincoln Laboratory (MIT/LL), Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) and private industry have been developing airborne LiDAR systems based on arrays of Geiger-mode Avalanche Photodiode (GmAPD) detectors capable of detecting a single photon. The extreme sensitivity of GmAPD detectors allows operation of LiDAR sensors at unprecedented altitudes and area collection rates in excess of 1,000 km2/hr. Up until now the primary emphasis of this technology has been limited to defense applications despite the significant benefits of applying this technology to non-military uses such as mapping, monitoring critical infrastructure and disaster relief. This paper briefly describes the operation of GmAPDs, design and operation of a Geiger-mode LiDAR, a comparison of Geiger-mode and traditional linear mode LiDARs, and a description of the first commercial Geiger-mode LiDAR system, the IntelliEarth™ Geospatial Solutions Geiger-mode LiDAR sensor.

  6. Resolution analyses for selecting an appropriate airborne electromagnetic (AEM) system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, Niels B. 13Lawrie, Ken C.

    2012-07-01

    The choice of an appropriate airborne electromagnetic system for a given task should be based on a comparative analysis of candidate systems, consisting of both theoretical considerations and field studies including test lines. It has become common practice to quantify the system resolution for a series of models relevant to the survey area by comparing the sum over the data of squares of noise-normalised derivatives. We compare this analysis method with a resolution analysis based on the posterior covariance matrix of an inversion formulation. Both of the above analyses depend critically on the noise models of the systems being compared. A reasonable estimate of data noise and other sources of error is therefore of primary importance. However, data processing and noise reduction procedures, as well as other system parameters important for the modelling, are commonly proprietary, and generally it is not possible to verify whether noise figures have been arrived at by reasonable means. Consequently, it is difficult - sometimes impossible - to know if a comparative analysis has a sound basis. Nevertheless, in the real world choices have to be made, a comparative system analysis is necessary and has to be approached in a pragmatic way involving a range of different aspects. In this paper, we concentrate on the resolution analysis perspective and demonstrate that the inversion analysis must be preferred over the derivative analysis because it takes parameter coupling into account, and, furthermore, that the derivative analysis generally overestimates the resolution capability. Finally we show that impulse response data are to be preferred over step response data for near-surface resolution.

  7. The US Geological Survey's side-looking airborne radar acquisition program: Image data from the Rocky Mountains to the Pacific

    SciTech Connect

    Kovar, A.N.; Schoonmaker, J.W. Jr. )

    1993-04-01

    The US Geological Survey (USGS) has been systematically collecting side-looking airborne radar (SLAR) image data for the US since 1980. The image strip swaths, ranging in width from 20 to 46 km, are acquired commercially by X-band (3 cm) radar systems. Data are acquired with 60 percent side-lap for better mosaic preparation and stereoscopic capability. The image strips are assembled into 1[degree] x 2[degree] mosaic quadrangles that are based on the USGS 1:250,000-topographic map series for control, format, and nomenclature. These mosaics present the data in a broad synoptic view that facilitates geologic interpretation. SLAR image mosaics have been prepared for more than 35 percent of the US west of the Rocky Mountain front. In addition to quadrangle mosaics, regional composite mosaics have been prepared as value-added products. These include Pacific Northwest (14 quadrangles), southern California Coastal (from San Francisco to San Diego), Reno-Walker (includes parts of Yellowstone and Grand Teton National Parks), Uinta Basin (Salt Lake City, Price and Grand Junction), and Salton Sea Region (San Diego, Santa Ana, El Centro and Salton Sea). Most of the image data are available on computer compatible tapes and photographic products. To make the data more accessible and reasonably priced, the strip images are being processed into CD-ROM (compact disc, read-only memory). One demonstration CD-ROM includes the mosaics of Las Vegas, Mariposa, Ritzville, Walla Walla, and Pendleton quadrangles.

  8. First results from the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vane, Gregg

    1987-01-01

    After engineering flights aboard the NASA U-2 research aircraft in the winter of 1986 to 1987 and spring of 1987, extensive data collection across the United States was begun with the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) in the summer of 1987 in support of a NASA data evaluation and technology assessment program. This paper presents some of the first results obtained from AVIRIS. Examples of spectral imagery acquired over Mountain View and Mono Lake, California, and the Cuprite Mining District in western Nevada are presented. Sensor performance and data quality are described, and in the final section of this paper, plans for the future are discussed.

  9. Design of an Airborne Portable Remote Imaging Spectrometer (PRISM) for the Coastal Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mouroulis, P.; vanGorp, B.; Green, R. O.; Cohen, D.; Wilson, D.; Randall, D.; Rodriguez, J.; Polanco, O.; Dierssen, H.; Balasubramanian, K.; Vargas, R.; Hein, R.; Sobel, H.; Eastwood, M.

    2010-01-01

    PRISM is a pushbroom imaging spectrometer currently under development at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, intended to address the needs of airborne coastal ocean science research. We describe here the instrument design and the technologies that enable it to achieve its distinguishing characteristics. PRISM covers the 350-1050 nm range with a 3.1 nm sampling and a 33(deg) field of view. The design provides for high signal to noise ratio, high uniformity of response, and low polarization sensitivity. The complete instrument also incorporates two additional wavelength bands at 1240 and 1610 nm in a spot radiometer configuration to aid with atmospheric correction.

  10. Radiometric Normalization of Large Airborne Image Data Sets Acquired by Different Sensor Types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehrke, S.; Beshah, B. T.

    2016-06-01

    Generating seamless mosaics of aerial images is a particularly challenging task when the mosaic comprises a large number of im-ages, collected over longer periods of time and with different sensors under varying imaging conditions. Such large mosaics typically consist of very heterogeneous image data, both spatially (different terrain types and atmosphere) and temporally (unstable atmo-spheric properties and even changes in land coverage). We present a new radiometric normalization or, respectively, radiometric aerial triangulation approach that takes advantage of our knowledge about each sensor's properties. The current implementation supports medium and large format airborne imaging sensors of the Leica Geosystems family, namely the ADS line-scanner as well as DMC and RCD frame sensors. A hierarchical modelling - with parameters for the overall mosaic, the sensor type, different flight sessions, strips and individual images - allows for adaptation to each sensor's geometric and radiometric properties. Additional parameters at different hierarchy levels can compensate radiome-tric differences of various origins to compensate for shortcomings of the preceding radiometric sensor calibration as well as BRDF and atmospheric corrections. The final, relative normalization is based on radiometric tie points in overlapping images, absolute radiometric control points and image statistics. It is computed in a global least squares adjustment for the entire mosaic by altering each image's histogram using a location-dependent mathematical model. This model involves contrast and brightness corrections at radiometric fix points with bilinear interpolation for corrections in-between. The distribution of the radiometry fixes is adaptive to each image and generally increases with image size, hence enabling optimal local adaptation even for very long image strips as typi-cally captured by a line-scanner sensor. The normalization approach is implemented in HxMap software. It has been

  11. Analysis of airborne imaging spectrometer data for the Ruby Mountains, Montana, by use of absorption-band-depth images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brickey, David W.; Crowley, James K.; Rowan, Lawrence C.

    1987-01-01

    Airborne Imaging Spectrometer-1 (AIS-1) data were obtained for an area of amphibolite grade metamorphic rocks that have moderate rangeland vegetation cover. Although rock exposures are sparse and patchy at this site, soils are visible through the vegetation and typically comprise 20 to 30 percent of the surface area. Channel averaged low band depth images for diagnostic soil rock absorption bands. Sets of three such images were combined to produce color composite band depth images. This relative simple approach did not require extensive calibration efforts and was effective for discerning a number of spectrally distinctive rocks and soils, including soils having high talc concentrations. The results show that the high spectral and spatial resolution of AIS-1 and future sensors hold considerable promise for mapping mineral variations in soil, even in moderately vegetated areas.

  12. A low-cost single-camera imaging system for aerial applicators

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural aircraft provide a readily available and versatile platform for airborne remote sensing. Although various airborne imaging systems are available, most of these systems are either too expensive or too complex to be of practical use for aerial applicators. The objective of this study was ...

  13. Hyperspectral imaging system for UAV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Da; Zheng, Yuquan

    2015-10-01

    Hyperspectral imaging system for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) is proposed under airborne remote sensing application background. By the application of Offner convex spherical grating spectral imaging system and using large area array detector push-broom imaging, hyperspectral imaging system with the indicators of 0.4μm to 1.0μm spectral range, 120 spectral bands, 5nm spectral resolution and 1m ground sampling interval (flight altitude 5km) is developed and completed. The Offner convex grating spectral imaging system is selected to achieve non-spectral line bending and colorless distortion design results. The diffraction efficiency is 15%-30% in the range of 0.4μm to 1.0μm wavelength. The system performances are tested by taking spectral and radiometric calibration methods in the laboratory. Based on monochromatic collimated light method for spectral performance parameters calibration of hyperspectral optical remote sensor, the analysis results of spectral calibration data show that the calibration test repeatability is less than 0.2 nm within one hour. The spectral scaling results show that the average spectral resolution of hyperspectral optical remote sensor is 4.94 nm, and the spatial dimension of the high-spectral optical remote sensor spectral resolution is less than 5 nm, the average of the typical spectral bandwidth is about 6 nm, the system average signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is up to 43dB under typical operating conditions. Finally the system functionalities and performance indicators are verified by the aviation flight tests, which it's equipped on UAV. The actual image quality is good, and the spectral position is stable.

  14. Image-Based Airborne Sensors: A Combined Approach for Spectral Signatures Classification through Deterministic Simulated Annealing

    PubMed Central

    Guijarro, María; Pajares, Gonzalo; Herrera, P. Javier

    2009-01-01

    The increasing technology of high-resolution image airborne sensors, including those on board Unmanned Aerial Vehicles, demands automatic solutions for processing, either on-line or off-line, the huge amountds of image data sensed during the flights. The classification of natural spectral signatures in images is one potential application. The actual tendency in classification is oriented towards the combination of simple classifiers. In this paper we propose a combined strategy based on the Deterministic Simulated Annealing (DSA) framework. The simple classifiers used are the well tested supervised parametric Bayesian estimator and the Fuzzy Clustering. The DSA is an optimization approach, which minimizes an energy function. The main contribution of DSA is its ability to avoid local minima during the optimization process thanks to the annealing scheme. It outperforms simple classifiers used for the combination and some combined strategies, including a scheme based on the fuzzy cognitive maps and an optimization approach based on the Hopfield neural network paradigm. PMID:22399989

  15. The use of airborne imaging spectrometer data to determine experimentally induced variation in coniferous canopy chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanberg, Nancy A.; Matson, Pamela A.

    1987-01-01

    It was experimentally determined whether induced differences in forest canopy chemical composition can be detected using data from the Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS). Treatments were applied to an even-aged forest of Douglas fir trees. Work to date has stressed wet chemical analysis of foilage samples and correction of AIS data. Plot treatments were successful in providing a range of foliar N2 concentrations. Much time was spent investigating and correcting problems with the raw AIS data. Initial problems with groups of drop out lines in the AIS data were traced to the tape recorder and the tape drive. Custom adjustment of the tape drive led to recovery of most missing lines. Remaining individual drop out lines were replaced using average of adjacent lines. Application of a notch filter to the Fourier transform of the image in each band satisfactorily removed vertical striping. The aspect ratio was corrected by resampling the image in the line direction using nearest neighbor interpolation.

  16. Validation of Rain Rate Retrievals for the Airborne Hurricane Imaging Radiometer (HIRAD)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacob, Maria; Salemirad, Matin; Jones, W. Linwood; Biswas, Sayak; Cecil, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    On board of the NASA's Global Hawk (AV1) aircraft there are two microwave, namely: the passive microwave Hurricane Imaging Radiometer (HIRAD), and the active microwave High-altitude Imaging Wind and Rain Airborne Profiler (HIWRAP). This paper presents results from an unplanned rain rate measurement validation opportunity that occurred in 2013, when the Global Hawk aircraft flew over an intense tropical squall-line that was simultaneously observed, by the Tampa NEXRAD meteorological radar. During this experiment, Global Hawk flying at an altitude of 18 km made 3 passes over the rapidly propagating thunderstorm, while the TAMPA NEXRAD perform volume scans on a 5-minute interval. NEXRAD 2D images of rain rate (mm/hr) were obtained at two altitudes (3 km & 6 km), which serve as surface truth for the HIRAD rain rate retrievals. In this paper, results are presented of the three-way inter-comparison of HIRAD Tb, HIWRAP dbZ and NEXRAD rain rate imagery.

  17. Next-Generation NASA Airborne Oceanographic Lidar System.

    PubMed

    Wright, C W; Hoge, F E; Swift, R N; Yungel, J K; Schirtzinger, C R

    2001-01-20

    The complete design and flight test of the next-generation Airborne Oceanographic Lidar (AOL-3) is detailed. The application of new technology has allowed major reductions in weight, volume, and power requirements compared with the earlier AOL sensor. Subsystem designs for the new AOL sensor include new technology in fiber optics, spectrometer detector optical train, miniature photomultiplier modules, dual-laser wavelength excitation from a single small laser source, and new receiver optical configuration. The new design reduced telescope size and maintained the same principal fluorescence and water Raman bands but essentially retained a comparable measurement accuracy. A major advancement is the implementation of single-laser simultaneous excitation of two physically separate oceanic target areas: one stimulated by 532 nm and the other by 355 nm. Backscattered fluorescence and Raman signals from both targets are acquired simultaneously by use of the same telescope and spectrometer-detector system. Two digital oscilloscopes provide temporal- and depth-resolved data from each of seven spectral emission bands.

  18. Airborne laser ranging system for monitoring regional crustal deformation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degnan, J. J.

    1981-01-01

    Alternate approaches for making the atmospheric correction without benefit of a ground-based meteorological network are discussed. These include (1) a two-color channel that determines the atmospheric correction by measuring the time delay induced by dispersion between pulses at two optical frequencies; (2) single-color range measurements supported by an onboard temperature sounder, pressure altimeter readings, and surface measurements by a few existing meteorological facilities; and (3) inclusion of the quadratic polynomial coefficients as variables to be solved for along with target coordinates in the reduction of the single-color range data. It is anticipated that the initial Airborne Laser Ranging System (ALRS) experiments will be carried out in Southern California in a region bounded by Santa Barbara on the norht and the Mexican border on the south. The target area will be bounded by the Pacific Ocean to the west and will extend eastward for approximately 400 km. The unique ability of the ALRS to provide a geodetic 'snapshot' of such a large area will make it a valuable geophysical tool.

  19. TELAER: a multi-mode/multi-antenna interferometric airborne SAR system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perna, Stefano; Amaral, Tiago; Berardino, Paolo; Esposito, Carmen; Jackson, Giuseppe; Pauciullo, Antonio; Vaz Junior, Eurico; Wimmer, Christian; Lanari, Riccardo

    2014-05-01

    The present contribution is aimed at showing the capabilities of the TELAER airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) system recently upgraded to the interferometric mode [1]. TELAER is an Italian airborne X-Band SAR system, mounted onboard a LearJet 35A aircraft. Originally equipped with a single TX/RX antenna, it now operates in single-pass interferometric mode thanks to a system upgrading [1] funded by the Italian National Research Council (CNR), via the Italian Ministry of Education, Universities and Research (MIUR), in the framework of a cooperation between CNR and the Italian Agency for Agriculture Subsidy Payments (AGEA). In the frame of such cooperation, CNR has entrusted the Institute for Electromagnetic Sensing of the Environment (IREA) for managing all the activities, included the final flight tests, related to the system upgrading. According to such an upgrading, two additional receiving X-band antennas have been installed in order to allow, simultaneously, single-pass Across-Track and Along-Track interferometry [1]. More specifically, the three antennas are now installed in such a way to produce three different across-track baselines and two different along-track baselines. Moreover, in the frame of the same system upgrading, it has been mounted onboard the Learjet an accurate embedded Global Navigation Satellite System and Inertial Measurement Unit equipment. This allows precise measurement of the tracks described by the SAR antennas during the flight, in order to accurately implement Motion Compensation (MOCO) algorithms [2] during the image formation (focusing) step. It is worth remarking that the TELAER system upgraded to the interferometric mode is very flexible, since the user can set different operational modes characterized by different geometric resolutions and range swaths. In particular, it is possible to reach up to 0.5 m of resolution with a range swath of 2km; conversely, it is possible to enlarge the range swath up to 10 km at expenses of

  20. Orientation of Oblique Airborne Image Sets - Experiences from the Isprs/eurosdr Benchmark on Multi-Platform Photogrammetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerke, M.; Nex, F.; Remondino, F.; Jacobsen, K.; Kremer, J.; Karel, W.; Hu, H.; Ostrowski, W.

    2016-06-01

    During the last decade the use of airborne multi camera systems increased significantly. The development in digital camera technology allows mounting several mid- or small-format cameras efficiently onto one platform and thus enables image capture under different angles. Those oblique images turn out to be interesting for a number of applications since lateral parts of elevated objects, like buildings or trees, are visible. However, occlusion or illumination differences might challenge image processing. From an image orientation point of view those multi-camera systems bring the advantage of a better ray intersection geometry compared to nadir-only image blocks. On the other hand, varying scale, occlusion and atmospheric influences which are difficult to model impose problems to the image matching and bundle adjustment tasks. In order to understand current limitations of image orientation approaches and the influence of different parameters such as image overlap or GCP distribution, a commonly available dataset was released. The originally captured data comprises of a state-of-the-art image block with very high overlap, but in the first stage of the so-called ISPRS/EUROSDR benchmark on multi-platform photogrammetry only a reduced set of images was released. In this paper some first results obtained with this dataset are presented. They refer to different aspects like tie point matching across the viewing directions, influence of the oblique images onto the bundle adjustment, the role of image overlap and GCP distribution. As far as the tie point matching is concerned we observed that matching of overlapping images pointing to the same cardinal direction, or between nadir and oblique views in general is quite successful. Due to the quite different perspective between images of different viewing directions the standard tie point matching, for instance based on interest points does not work well. How to address occlusion and ambiguities due to different views onto

  1. Airborne Asbestos Exposures from Warm Air Heating Systems in Schools.

    PubMed

    Burdett, Garry J; Dewberry, Kirsty; Staff, James

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the concentrations of airborne asbestos that can be released into classrooms of schools that have amosite-containing asbestos insulation board (AIB) in the ceiling plenum or other spaces, particularly where there is forced recirculation of air as part of a warm air heating system. Air samples were collected in three or more classrooms at each of three schools, two of which were of CLASP (Consortium of Local Authorities Special Programme) system-built design, during periods when the schools were unoccupied. Two conditions were sampled: (i) the start-up and running of the heating systems with no disturbance (the background) and (ii) running of the heating systems during simulated disturbance. The simulated disturbance was designed to exceed the level of disturbance to the AIB that would routinely take place in an occupied classroom. A total of 60 or more direct impacts that vibrated and/or flexed the encapsulated or enclosed AIB materials were applied over the sampling period. The impacts were carried out at the start of the sampling and repeated at hourly intervals but did not break or damage the AIB. The target air volume for background samples was ~3000 l of air using a static sampler sited either below or ~1 m from the heater outlet. This would allow an analytical sensitivity (AS) of 0.0001 fibres per millilitre (f ml(-1)) to be achieved, which is 1000 times lower than the EU and UK workplace control limit of 0.1 f ml(-1). Samples with lower volumes of air were also collected in case of overloading and for the shorter disturbance sampling times used at one site. The sampler filters were analysed by phase contrast microscopy (PCM) to give a rapid determination of the overall concentration of visible fibres (all types) released and/or by analytical transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to determine the concentration of asbestos fibres. Due to the low number of fibres, results were reported in terms of both the calculated

  2. Airborne Asbestos Exposures from Warm Air Heating Systems in Schools

    PubMed Central

    Burdett, Garry J.; Dewberry, Kirsty; Staff, James

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the concentrations of airborne asbestos that can be released into classrooms of schools that have amosite-containing asbestos insulation board (AIB) in the ceiling plenum or other spaces, particularly where there is forced recirculation of air as part of a warm air heating system. Air samples were collected in three or more classrooms at each of three schools, two of which were of CLASP (Consortium of Local Authorities Special Programme) system-built design, during periods when the schools were unoccupied. Two conditions were sampled: (i) the start-up and running of the heating systems with no disturbance (the background) and (ii) running of the heating systems during simulated disturbance. The simulated disturbance was designed to exceed the level of disturbance to the AIB that would routinely take place in an occupied classroom. A total of 60 or more direct impacts that vibrated and/or flexed the encapsulated or enclosed AIB materials were applied over the sampling period. The impacts were carried out at the start of the sampling and repeated at hourly intervals but did not break or damage the AIB. The target air volume for background samples was ~3000 l of air using a static sampler sited either below or ~1 m from the heater outlet. This would allow an analytical sensitivity (AS) of 0.0001 fibres per millilitre (f ml−1) to be achieved, which is 1000 times lower than the EU and UK workplace control limit of 0.1 f ml−1. Samples with lower volumes of air were also collected in case of overloading and for the shorter disturbance sampling times used at one site. The sampler filters were analysed by phase contrast microscopy (PCM) to give a rapid determination of the overall concentration of visible fibres (all types) released and/or by analytical transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to determine the concentration of asbestos fibres. Due to the low number of fibres, results were reported in terms of both the calculated

  3. Airborne Multisensor Pod System, Arms control and nonproliferation technologies: Second quarter 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Alonzo, G M; Sanford, N M

    1995-01-01

    This issue focuses on the Airborne Multisensor Pod System (AMPS) which is a collaboration of many of the DOE national laboratories to provide a scientific environment to research multiple sensors and the new information that can be derived from them. The bulk of the research has been directed at nonproliferation applications, but it has also proven useful in environmental monitoring and assessment, and land/water management. The contents of this issue are: using AMPS technology to detect proliferation and monitor resources; combining multisensor data to monitor facilities and natural resources; planning a AMPS mission; SAR pod produces images day or night, rain or shine; MSI pod combines data from multiple sensors; ESI pod will analyze emissions and effluents; and accessing AMPS information on the Internet.

  4. A Parametric Approach for the Geocoding of Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) Data in Rugged Terrain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peter, M.

    1993-01-01

    A geocoding procedure for remotely sensed data of airborne systems in rugged terrain is affected by several factors: buffeting of the aircraft by turbulances, variations in ground speed, changes in altitude, attitude variations, and surface topography.

  5. Scanning infrared remote sensing system for identification, visualization, and quantification of airborne pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harig, Roland; Matz, Gerhard; Rusch, Peter

    2002-02-01

    Remote sensing by Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry allows detection, identification, and quantification of airborne pollutants. In the case of leaks in pipelines or leaks in chemical plants, chemical accidents, terrorism, or war, hazardous compounds are often released into the atmosphere. Various Fourier-transform infrared spectrometers have been developed for the remote detection and identification of hazardous clouds. However, for the localization of a leak and a complete assessment of the situation in the case of the release of a hazardous cloud, information about the position and the size of a cloud is essential. Therefore, an imaging passive remote sensing system comprised of an interferometer (Bruker OPAG 22), a data acquisition, processing, and control system with a digital signal processor (FTIR DSP), an azimuth-elevation-scanning mirror, a video system with a DSP, and a personal computer has been developed. The FTIR DSP system controls the scanning mirror, collects the interferograms, and performs the Fourier transformation. The spectra are transferred to a personal computer and analyzed by a real-time identification algorithm that does not require background spectra for the analysis. The results are visualized by a video image, overlaid by false color images. For each target compound of a spectral library, images of the coefficient of correlation, the signal to noise ratio, the brightness temperature of the background, the difference between the temperature of the ambient air and the brightness temperature of the background, and the noise equivalent column density are produced. The column densities of all directions in which a target compound has been identified may be retrieved by a nonlinear least squares fitting algorithm and an additional false color image is displayed. The system has a high selectivity, low noise equivalent spectral radiance, and it allows identification, visualization, and quantification of pollutant clouds.

  6. Rapid System to Quantitatively Characterize the Airborne Microbial Community

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macnaughton, Sarah J.

    1998-01-01

    Bioaerosols have been linked to a wide range of different allergies and respiratory illnesses. Currently, microorganism culture is the most commonly used method for exposure assessment. Such culture techniques, however, generally fail to detect between 90-99% of the actual viable biomass. Consequently, an unbiased technique for detecting airborne microorganisms is essential. In this Phase II proposal, a portable air sampling device his been developed for the collection of airborne microbial biomass from indoor (and outdoor) environments. Methods were evaluated for extracting and identifying lipids that provide information on indoor air microbial biomass, and automation of these procedures was investigated. Also, techniques to automate the extraction of DNA were explored.

  7. Airborne imaging spectrometer data of the Ruby Mountains, Montana: Mineral discrimination using relative absorption band-depth images

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crowley, J.K.; Brickey, D.W.; Rowan, L.C.

    1989-01-01

    Airborne imaging spectrometer data collected in the near-infrared (1.2-2.4 ??m) wavelength range were used to study the spectral expression of metamorphic minerals and rocks in the Ruby Mountains of southwestern Montana. The data were analyzed by using a new data enhancement procedure-the construction of relative absorption band-depth (RBD) images. RBD images, like bandratio images, are designed to detect diagnostic mineral absorption features, while minimizing reflectance variations related to topographic slope and albedo differences. To produce an RBD image, several data channels near an absorption band shoulder are summed and then divided by the sum of several channels located near the band minimum. RBD images are both highly specific and sensitive to the presence of particular mineral absorption features. Further, the technique does not distort or subdue spectral features as sometimes occurs when using other data normalization methods. By using RBD images, a number of rock and soil units were distinguished in the Ruby Mountains including weathered quartz - feldspar pegmatites, marbles of several compositions, and soils developed over poorly exposed mica schists. The RBD technique is especially well suited for detecting weak near-infrared spectral features produced by soils, which may permit improved mapping of subtle lithologic and structural details in semiarid terrains. The observation of soils rich in talc, an important industrial commodity in the study area, also indicates that RBD images may be useful for mineral exploration. ?? 1989.

  8. Natural-color and color-infrared image mosaics of the Colorado River corridor in Arizona derived from the May 2009 airborne image collection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.

    2013-01-01

    The Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center (GCMRC) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) periodically collects airborne image data for the Colorado River corridor within Arizona (fig. 1) to allow scientists to study the impacts of Glen Canyon Dam water release on the corridor’s natural and cultural resources. These data are collected from just above Glen Canyon Dam (in Lake Powell) down to the entrance of Lake Mead, for a total distance of 450 kilometers (km) and within a 500-meter (m) swath centered on the river’s mainstem and its seven main tributaries (fig. 1). The most recent airborne data collection in 2009 acquired image data in four wavelength bands (blue, green, red, and near infrared) at a spatial resolution of 20 centimeters (cm). The image collection used the latest model of the Leica ADS40 airborne digital sensor (the SH52), which uses a single optic for all four bands and collects and stores band radiance in 12-bits. Davis (2012) reported on the performance of the SH52 sensor and on the processing steps required to produce the nearly flawless four-band image mosaic (sectioned into map tiles) for the river corridor. The final image mosaic has a total of only 3 km of surface defects in addition to some areas of cloud shadow because of persistent inclement weather during data collection. The 2009 four-band image mosaic is perhaps the best image dataset that exists for the entire Arizona part of the Colorado River. Some analyses of these image mosaics do not require the full 12-bit dynamic range or all four bands of the calibrated image database, in which atmospheric scattering (or haze) had not been removed from the four bands. To provide scientists and the general public with image products that are more useful for visual interpretation, the 12-bit image data were converted to 8-bit natural-color and color-infrared images, which also removed atmospheric scattering within each wavelength-band image. The conversion required an evaluation of the

  9. Validation of Rain Rate Retrievals for the Airborne Hurricane Imaging Radiometer (HIRAD)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacob, Maria; Salemirad, Matin; Jones, Linwood; Biswas, Sayak; Cecil, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Global Hawk aircraft (AV1)has two microwave sensors: the passive Hurricane Imaging Radiometer (HIRAD), and the active High-altitude Imaging Wind and Rain Airborne Profiler(HIWRAP). Results are presented for a rain measurement validation opportunity that occurred in 2013, when the AV1 flew over a tropical squall-line that was simultaneously observed by the Tampa NEXRAD radar. During this experiment, Global Hawk made 3 passes over the rapidly propagating thunderstorm, while the TAMPA NEXRAD performed volume scans every 5 minutes. In this poster, the three-way inter-comparison of HIRAD Tb (base temperature), HIWRAP dbZ (decibels relative to equivalent reflectivity) and NEXRAD rain rate imagery are presented. Also, observed HIRAD Tbs are compared with theoretical radiative transfer model results using HIWRAP Rain Rates.

  10. The application of airborne imaging radars (L and X-band) to earth resources problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, B.; Shuchman, R. A.; Bryan, M. L.; Larson, R. W.; Liskow, C. L.; Rendleman, R. A.

    1974-01-01

    A multiplexed synthetic aperture Side-Looking Airborne Radar (SLAR) that simultaneously images the terrain with X-band (3.2 cm) and L-band (23.0 cm) radar wavelengths was developed. The Feasibility of using multiplexed SLAR to obtain useful information for earth resources purposes. The SLAR imagery, aerial photographs, and infrared imagery are examined to determine the qualitative tone and texture of many rural land-use features imaged. The results show that: (1) Neither X- nor L-band SLAR at moderate and low depression angles can directly or indirectly detect pools of water under standing vegetation. (2) Many of the urban and rural land-use categories present in the test areas can be identified and mapped on the multiplexed SLAR imagery. (3) Water resources management can be done using multiplexed SLAR. (4) Drainage patterns can be determined on both the X- and L-band imagery.

  11. Discriminating semiarid vegetation using airborne imaging spectrometer data - A preliminary assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Randall W.; Ustin, Susan L.

    1987-01-01

    A preliminary assessment was made of Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) data for discriminating and characterizing vegetation in a semiarid environment. May and October AIS data sets were acquired over a large alluvial fan in eastern California, on which were found Great Basin desert shrub communities. Maximum likelihood classification of a principal components representation of the May AIS data enabled discrimination of subtle spatial detail in images relating to vegetation and soil characteristics. The spatial patterns in the May AIS classification were, however, too detailed for complete interpretation with existing ground data. A similar analysis of the October AIS data yielded poor results. Comparison of AIS results with a similar analysis of May Landsat Thematic Mapper data showed that the May AIS data contained approximately three to four times as much spectrally coherent information. When only two shortwave infrared TM bands were used, results were similar to those from AIS data acquired in October.

  12. Medical imaging systems

    SciTech Connect

    Frangioni, John V

    2013-06-25

    A medical imaging system provides simultaneous rendering of visible light and diagnostic or functional images. The system may be portable, and may include adapters for connecting various light sources and cameras in open surgical environments or laparascopic or endoscopic environments. A user interface provides control over the functionality of the integrated imaging system. In one embodiment, the system provides a tool for surgical pathology.

  13. Linking morphology to ecosystem structure using air-borne sensors for monitoring the Earth System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taramelli, A.; Giardino, C.; Valentini, E.; Bresciani, M.; Gasperini, L.

    2010-12-01

    Coastal Landscape, and how they change over time, provide the template on which the emerging role of Earth system science (ESS) closely linked with the development of space-borne sensors can stand in the center of a newly emerging science of the Earth's surface, where strong couplings links human dynamics, biology, biochemistry, geochemistry, geomorphology, and fluid dynamics including climate change. Modern views on the behavior of complex systems like the coastal one, allow the interpretation of phenomenological coastal landscape as a stationary landscape-state that correspond to a dynamic equilibrium, and to a self-organized exogenic order of the edge of the chaos. Therefore is essential for a thoroughly understanding of spatiotemporal variations in coastal dynamics and habitat distribution for the source of nonlinearity and complexity in geomorphic system make gathering data appropriate for use in developing and testing models of biological and physical process interacting across a wide range of scale. In this paper a physics based approach was applied to MIVIS (Multi-spectral IR and Visible Imaging Spectrometer) and LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) airborne data, simultaneously acquired on 12 May 2009 in order to integrate geomorphological and ecological observations into a detailed macrophytes map of Lake Trasimeno (Italy). Shallow water vegetation, in fact, plays an essential role in determining how coastal morphology and ecosystems dynamics respond to feedbacks between biological and physical processes. An accurate field campaign was carried out during the airborne survey and a collection of different biophysical parameter has been achieved. The purposes of the field observations were twofold. First, field observations allowed identification of biophysical habitats and properties associated both to radiometric and limnological features. Secondly, field reconnaissance allowed identifying significant parameters involved in optical interpretation of the

  14. Imaging fault slip variation along the central San Andreas fault from satellite, airborne InSAR and GPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Z.; Lundgren, P.; Fielding, E. J.; Hensley, S.

    2011-12-01

    The improved spatiotemporal resolution of surface deformation from recent satellite and airborne InSAR measurements provides great potential to improve our understanding of faulting processes and earthquake hazard for a given fault system. A major plate boundary fault in central California, the central San Andreas fault (CSAF) displays a spectrum of complex fault slip behaviors with creeping in its central segment that decreases towards its northwest and southeast ends where the fault transitions to being locked. In the north the CSAF branches into two sub-parallel faults that are both actively accommodating plate motion. To the south, near the Parkfield transition, large earthquakes have occurred with at least six Mw ~6.0 events since 1857, most recently in 2004. To understand the complexity and variety of fault slip behaviors and fault mechanics, we integrate satellite and airborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) repeat pass interferometry (RPI) observations, with GPS measurements from the Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) and regional campaign networks to estimate fault slip and shallow slip deficits along the CSAF. Existing C-band ERS-1/2, Envisat and Radarsat SAR data provide long archives of SAR data over the region but are subject to severe decorrelation. The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency's ALOS satellite has made less frequent acquisitions (5-6/yr per track) since 2006 but its PALSAR L-band sensor provides much improved coherence compared to shorter wavelength radar data. More recently, the NASA UAVSAR airborne SAR has repeated fault perpendicular adjacent swaths imaged from opposing look directions and fault parallel swath flights over the CSAF over the past three years and provides an improved imaging of fault slip related deformation at finer spatial resolution than previous platforms (~6m at 12 azimuth x 3 range looks). Compared to C-band instruments, the UAVSAR provides nearly complete spatial coverage. Compared to the ALOS mission, the UAVSAR

  15. Imaging Spectrometry-Concepts and System Tradeoffs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herring, M.; Chrien, T.; Duval, V.; Krabach, T.

    1993-01-01

    The concept of imaging spectrometry is finding broad application in scientific instrumentation for earth-based, airborne, and space applications. An imaging spectrometer is characterized by the combination of imaging with complete sampling in the spectral domain. In so doing, material identification can be accomplished and displayed in conjunction with the conventional recognizable image. An image spectrometer incorporates a wide variety of techniques, including focal plane arrays, imaging and spectrometer optics, and spectral dispersing devices. The design of a successful system involves a complex set of tradeoffs incorporating the properties and limitations of the various technologies. For applications in the infrared, additional technologies such as focal plane cooling are required, and the other technologies present more limitations and constraints.

  16. Supervised and unsupervised MRF based 3D scene classification in multiple view airborne oblique images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerke, M.; Xiao, J.

    2013-10-01

    In this paper we develop and compare two methods for scene classification in 3D object space, that is, not single image pixels get classified, but voxels which carry geometric, textural and color information collected from the airborne oblique images and derived products like point clouds from dense image matching. One method is supervised, i.e. relies on training data provided by an operator. We use Random Trees for the actual training and prediction tasks. The second method is unsupervised, thus does not ask for any user interaction. We formulate this classification task as a Markov-Random-Field problem and employ graph cuts for the actual optimization procedure. Two test areas are used to test and evaluate both techniques. In the Haiti dataset we are confronted with largely destroyed built-up areas since the images were taken after the earthquake in January 2010, while in the second case we use images taken over Enschede, a typical Central European city. For the Haiti case it is difficult to provide clear class definitions, and this is also reflected in the overall classification accuracy; it is 73% for the supervised and only 59% for the unsupervised method. If classes are defined more unambiguously like in the Enschede area, results are much better (85% vs. 78%). In conclusion the results are acceptable, also taking into account that the point cloud used for geometric features is not of good quality and no infrared channel is available to support vegetation classification.

  17. Ultrasound Imaging System Video

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In this video, astronaut Peggy Whitson uses the Human Research Facility (HRF) Ultrasound Imaging System in the Destiny Laboratory of the International Space Station (ISS) to image her own heart. The Ultrasound Imaging System provides three-dimension image enlargement of the heart and other organs, muscles, and blood vessels. It is capable of high resolution imaging in a wide range of applications, both research and diagnostic, such as Echocardiography (ultrasound of the heart), abdominal, vascular, gynecological, muscle, tendon, and transcranial ultrasound.

  18. MTU-Kestrel airborne hyperspectral imaging campaigns of the Lake Superior ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafert, J. Bruce; Slough, William J.; Rohde, Charles A.; Pilant, Andrew; Otten, Leonard J.; Meigs, Andrew D.; Jones, Al; Butler, Eugene W.

    1999-10-01

    The clear waters of Lake Superior constitute the heart of one of the most significant fresh water ecosystems in the world. Lake Superior is the world's largest lake by surface area (82,100 km2) holding approximately 10% of the earth's freshwater (12,230 km3) that is not locked into glaciers or ice caps. Although Superior is arguably the most significant fresh water ecosystem on earth, questions relating to the lake and its watershed remain unanswered, including the effects of human habitation, exploitation, and economic potential of the region. There is a great diversity of scientific disciplines with a common interest in remote sensing of the Lake Superior ecosystem which have the need for data at all spatial, spectral, and temporal scales-from scales supplied by satellites, ships or aircraft at low spatial, spectral or temporal resolution, to a requirement for synoptic high resolution spatial (approximately 1 meter)/spectral (1 - 10 nm) data. During May and August of 1998, two week-long data collection campaigns were performed using the Kestrel airborne visible hyperspectral imager to acquire hyperspectral data of a broad taxonomy of ecologically significant targets, including forests, urban areas, lakeshore zones and rivers, mining industry tailing basins, and the Lake itself. We will describe the Kestrel airborne hyperspectral sensor, the collection and data reduction methodology, and flight imagery from both campaigns.

  19. Evaluation of the airborne imaging spectrometer for remote sensing of forest stand conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, Charles E., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Five pairs of plots were established in forest stands with one of each pair trenched and covered to prevent precipitation from reaching the tree roots. High winds and falling limbs destroyed the covers on three of the plots. The two remaining plots were in a red pine plantation and in a natural stand of sugar maple. Trees in both plots developed levels of moisture stress more than nine bars higher than control trees on the dates of overflights with the Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) and the Collins' Airborne Spectroradiometer (CAS). Hemispherical reflectance from stressed and control trees was measured with a Beckman DK2A spectrophotometer. On the day of the AIS overflight, stressed maple foliage was less reflective than the control from 1000 to 1300 nm, but more reflective at wavelengths longer than 1300 nm. Pine foliage was less reflective than the control from 1000 to 1600 nm, but the difference was small at wavelengths longer than 1350 nm. AIS data collected showed brightness values for both maple and pine to be lower than for the controls from 1000 to 1300 nm. CAS data were used to determine the gain in species identification accuracy obtainable with high spectral resolution data.

  20. Airborne hyperspectral systems for solving remote sensing problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodionov, I. D.; Rodionov, A. I.; Vedeshin, L. A.; Vinogradov, A. N.; Egorov, V. V.; Kalinin, A. P.

    2014-12-01

    A retrospective of airborne hyperspectrometer projects carried out in the ZAO Reagent Scientific Technical Center is presented. Hyperspectral devices developed during the period since the end of 1990s to the present day are described. The line of hyperspectrometers designed in recent times covers the ranges from ultraviolet (0.2 μm) to near infrared (1.0 μm). These devices can be mounted on airborne and automobile carriers, including small-size ones. By now, the developments of hyperspectral devices in ZAO Reagent have reached the finished state and have been prepared for serial production. Their technical characteristics permit one to speak of the creation of wide-range high-aperture ultraspectral high spatial resolution equipment with a possibility of real-time data processing on board.

  1. Crude oil, petroleum product, and water discrimination on terrestrial substrates with airborne imaging spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, C. Scott; Krekeler, Mark P. S.

    2011-06-01

    The Deepwater Horizon explosion and subsequent sinking produced the largest oil spill in U.S. history. One of the most prominent portions of the response is mapping the extent to which oil has reached thousands of miles of shoreline. The most common method of detecting oil remains visual spotting from airframes, supplemented by panchromatic / multispectral aerial photography and satellite imagery. While this imagery provides a synoptic view, it is often ambiguous in its ability to discriminate water from hydrocarbon materials. By employing spectral libraries for material identification and discrimination, imaging spectroscopy supplements traditional imaging techniques by providing specific criteria for more accurate petroleum detection and discrimination from water on terrestrial backgrounds. This paper applies a new hydrocarbon-substrate spectral library to SpecTIR HST-3 airborne imaging spectroscopy data from the Hurricane Katrina disaster in 2005. Using common material identification algorithms, this preliminary analysis demonstrates the applicability and limitations of hyperspectral data to petroleum/water discrimination in certain conditions. The current work is also the first application of the petroleum-substrate library to imaging spectroscopy data and shows potential for monitoring long term impacts of Deepwater Horizon.

  2. Airborne Linear Array Image Geometric Rectification Method Based on Unequal Segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J. M.; Li, C. R.; Zhou, M.; Hu, J.; Yang, C. M.

    2016-06-01

    As the linear array sensor such as multispectral and hyperspectral sensor has great potential in disaster monitoring and geological survey, the quality of the image geometric rectification should be guaranteed. Different from the geometric rectification of airborne planar array images or multi linear array images, exterior orientation elements need to be determined for each scan line of single linear array images. Internal distortion persists after applying GPS/IMU data directly to geometrical rectification. Straight lines may be curving and jagged. Straight line feature -based geometrical rectification algorithm was applied to solve this problem, whereby the exterior orientation elements were fitted by piecewise polynomial and evaluated with the straight line feature as constraint. However, atmospheric turbulence during the flight is unstable, equal piecewise can hardly provide good fitting, resulting in limited precision improvement of geometric rectification or, in a worse case, the iteration cannot converge. To solve this problem, drawing on dynamic programming ideas, unequal segmentation of line feature-based geometric rectification method is developed. The angle elements fitting error is minimized to determine the optimum boundary. Then the exterior orientation elements of each segment are fitted and evaluated with the straight line feature as constraint. The result indicates that the algorithm is effective in improving the precision of geometric rectification.

  3. Accounting for surface reflectance in the derivation of vertical column densities of NO2 from airborne imaging DOAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, Andreas Carlos; Schönhardt, Anja; Richter, Andreas; Bösch, Tim; Seyler, André; Constantin, Daniel Eduard; Shaiganfar, Reza; Merlaud, Alexis; Ruhtz, Thomas; Wagner, Thomas; van Roozendael, Michel; Burrows, John. P.

    2016-04-01

    Nitrogen oxides, NOx (NOx = NO + NO2) play a key role in tropospheric chemistry. In addition to their directly harmful effects on the respiratory system of living organisms, they influence the levels of tropospheric ozone and contribute to acid rain and eutrophication of ecosystems. As they are produced in combustion processes, they can serve as an indicator for anthropogenic air pollution. In the late summers of 2014 and 2015, two extensive measurement campaigns were conducted in Romania by several European research institutes, with financial support from ESA. The AROMAT / AROMAT-2 campaigns (Airborne ROmanian Measurements of Aerosols and Trace gases) were dedicated to measurements of air quality parameters utilizing newly developed instrumentation at state-of-the-art. The experiences gained will help to calibrate and validate the measurements taken by the upcoming Sentinel-S5p mission scheduled for launch in 2016. The IUP Bremen contributed to these campaigns with its airborne imaging DOAS (Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy) instrument AirMAP (Airborne imaging DOAS instrument for Measurements of Atmospheric Pollution). AirMAP allows retrieving spatial distributions of trace gas columns densities in a stripe below the aircraft. The measurements have a high spatial resolution of approximately 30 x 80 m2 (along x across track) at a typical flight altitude of 3000 m. Supported by the instrumental setup and the large swath, gapless maps of trace gas distributions above a large city, like Bucharest or Berlin, can be acquired within a time window of approximately two hours. These properties make AirMAP a valuable tool for the validation of trace gas measurements from space. DOAS retrievals yield the density of absorbers integrated along the light path of the measurement. The light path is altered with a changing surface reflectance, leading to enhanced / reduced slant column densities of NO2 depending on surface properties. This effect must be considered in

  4. Atmospheric water mapping with the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS), Mountain Pass, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conel, James E.; Green, Robert O.; Carrere, Veronique; Margolis, Jack S.; Alley, Ronald E.; Vane, Gregg; Bruegge, Carol J.; Gary, Bruce L.

    1988-01-01

    Observations are given of the spatial variation of atmospheric precipitable water using the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) over a desert area in eastern California, derived using a band ratio method and the 940 nm atmospheric water band and 870 nm continuum radiances. The ratios yield total path water from curves of growth supplied by the LOWTRAN 7 atmospheric model. An independent validation of the AVIRIS-derived column abundance at a point is supplied by a spectral hygrometer calibrated with respect to radiosonde observations. Water values conform to topography and fall off with surface elevation. The edge of the water vapor boundary layer defined by topography is thought to have been recovered. The ratio method yields column abundance estimates of good precision and high spatial resolution.

  5. Separating vegetation and soil temperature using airborne multiangular remote sensing image data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qiang; Yan, Chunyan; Xiao, Qing; Yan, Guangjian; Fang, Li

    2012-07-01

    Land surface temperature (LST) is a key parameter in land process research. Many research efforts have been devoted to increase the accuracy of LST retrieval from remote sensing. However, because natural land surface is non-isothermal, component temperature is also required in applications such as evapo-transpiration (ET) modeling. This paper proposes a new algorithm to separately retrieve vegetation temperature and soil background temperature from multiangular thermal infrared (TIR) remote sensing data. The algorithm is based on the localized correlation between the visible/near-infrared (VNIR) bands and the TIR band. This method was tested on the airborne image data acquired during the Watershed Allied Telemetry Experimental Research (WATER) campaign. Preliminary validation indicates that the remote sensing-retrieved results can reflect the spatial and temporal trend of component temperatures. The accuracy is within three degrees while the difference between vegetation and soil temperature can be as large as twenty degrees.

  6. A Preliminary Investigation of Systematic Noise in Data Acquired with the Airborne Imaging Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masuoka, E.

    1985-01-01

    Systematic noise is present in Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) data collected on October 26, 1983 and May 5, 1984 in grating position 0 (1.2 to 1.5 microns). In the October data set the noise occurs as 135 scan lines of low DN's every 270 scan lines. The noise is particularly bad in bands nine through thirty, restricting effective analysis to at best ten of the 32 bands. In the May data the regions of severe noise have been eliminated, but systematic noise is present with three frequencies (3, 106 and 200 scan lines) in all thirty two bands. The periodic nature of the noise in both data sets suggests that it could be removed as part of routine processing. This is necessary before classification routines or statistical analyses are used with these data.

  7. Discrimination of hydrothermal alteration mineral assemblages at Virginia City, Nevada, using the airborne imaging spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutsinpiller, Amy

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to use airborne imaging spectrometer data to discriminate hydrothermal alteration mineral assemblages associated with silver and gold mineralization at Virginia City, NV. The data is corrected for vertical striping and sample gradients, and converted to flat-field logarithmic residuals. Log residual spectra from areas known to be altered are compared to field spectra for kaolinitic, illitic, sericitic, and propylitic alteration types. The areal distributions of these alteration types are estimated using a spectral matching technique. Both visual examination of spectra and the matching techniques are effective in distinguishing kaolinitic, illitic, and propylitic alteration types from each other. However, illitic and sericitic alteration cannot be separated using these techniques because the spectra of illite and sericite are very similar. A principal components analysis of 14 channels in the 2.14-2.38 micron wavelength region is also successful in discriminating and mapping illitic, kaolinitic, and propylitic alteration types.

  8. The use of Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) data to differentiate marsh vegetation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, M. F.; Klemas, V.

    1986-01-01

    The Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) is a high spectral resolution (9.6-nm-wide bands between 0.9 and 2.4 microns) instrument. Analysis of AIS data revealed significant differences in characteristics of the spectral radiance curves of four types of wetland vegetation canopies (trees, broadleaf herbaceous, Spartina alterniflora, and S. patens/Distichlis spicata) in Delaware, enabling them to be distinguished. The single most useful spectral region was that between 1.40 and 1.90 microns. Differences in radiance values at various wavelengths between samples of the same vegetation type could potentially be used to estimate biomass. Thus, high spectral resolution spectrometry appears to have significant value for remote sensing studies of wetland vegetation.

  9. Analysis of Debris Flow Behavior Using Airborne LIDAR and Image Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, G.; Yune, C. Y.; Paik, J.; Lee, S. W.

    2016-06-01

    The frequency of debris flow events caused by severe rainstorms has increased in Korea. LiDAR provides high-resolution topographical data that can represent the land surface more effectively than other methods. This study describes the analysis of geomorphologic changes using digital surface models derived from airborne LiDAR and aerial image data acquired before and after a debris flow event in the southern part of Seoul, South Korea in July 2011. During this event, 30 houses were buried, 116 houses were damaged, and 22 human casualties were reported. Longitudinal and cross-sectional profiles of the debris flow path reconstructed from digital surface models were used to analyze debris flow behaviors such as landslide initiation, transport, erosion, and deposition. LiDAR technology integrated with GIS is a very useful tool for understanding debris flow behavior.

  10. Study of SGD along the French Mediterranean coastline using airborne TIR images and in situ analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Beek, Pieter; Stieglitz, Thomas; Souhaut, Marc

    2015-04-01

    Although submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) has been investigated in many places of the world, very few studies were conducted along the French coastline of the Mediterranean Sea. Almost no information is available on the fluxes of water and chemical elements associated with these SGD and on their potential impact on the geochemical cycling and ecosystems of the coastal zones. In this work, we combined the use of airborne thermal infrared (TIR) images with in situ analyses of salinity, temperature, radon and radium isotopes to study SGD at various sites along the French Mediterranean coastline and in coastal lagoons. These analyses allowed us to detect SGD sites and to quantify SGD fluxes (that include both the fluxes of fresh groundwater and recirculated seawater). In particular, we will show how the Ra isotopes determined in the La Palme lagoon were used to estimate i) the residence time of waters in the lagoon and ii) SGD fluxes.

  11. Visible and infrared linear detector arrays for the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Gary C.

    1987-01-01

    The Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) instrument uses four separate focal plane assemblies consisting of line array detectors that are multiplexed to a common J-FET preamp using a FET switch multiplexing (MUX) technique. A 32-element silicon line array covers the spectral range from 0.41 to 0.70 microns. Three additional 64-element indium antimonide (InSb) line arrays cover the spectral range from 0.68 to 2.45 microns. The spectral sampling interval per detector element is nominally 9.8 nm, giving a total of 224 spectral channels. All focal planes operate at liquid nitrogen temperature and are housed in separate dewars. Electrical performance characteristics include a read noise of less than 1000 e(-) in all channels, response and dark nonuniformity of 5 percent peak to peak, and quantum efficiency of greater than 60 percent.

  12. Determining experimentally induced variation in coniferous canopy chemistry with Airborne Imaging Spectrometer data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanberg, N. A.; Matson, P. A.

    1989-01-01

    Experimental treatments in a Douglas-fir forest in NE New Mexico were carried out to determine whether differences in forest canopy chemistry could be detected using data from the Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS-2). Experimental treatments consisted of nitrogen fertilizer additions, sawdust additions, and control plots. After AIS-2 data were collected, the digital number of a given pixel was extracted from each channel, yielding 128 values that were used to form a spectrum. Four spectra were extracted from each treatment plot. Multiple stepwise linear regressions between first and second difference transformations of AIS-2 spectra and the canopy characteristics of biomass, nitrogen concentration, and nitrogen content were performed. The results showed a coefficient of multiple determination of 0.71 between first-difference AIS-2 spectra and measured nitrogen concentration in foliage, indicating that it may be possible to predict nitrogen concentration in Douglas fir using AIS-2 spectra.

  13. Use of field reflectance data for crop mapping using airborne hyperspectral image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nidamanuri, Rama Rao; Zbell, Bernd

    2011-09-01

    Recent developments in hyperspectral remote sensing technologies enable acquisition of image with high spectral resolution, which is typical to the laboratory or in situ reflectance measurements. There has been an increasing interest in the utilization of in situ reference reflectance spectra for rapid and repeated mapping of various surface features. Here we examined the prospect of classifying airborne hyperspectral image using field reflectance spectra as the training data for crop mapping. Canopy level field reflectance measurements of some important agricultural crops, i.e. alfalfa, winter barley, winter rape, winter rye, and winter wheat collected during four consecutive growing seasons are used for the classification of a HyMAP image acquired for a separate location by (1) mixture tuned matched filtering (MTMF), (2) spectral feature fitting (SFF), and (3) spectral angle mapper (SAM) methods. In order to answer a general research question "what is the prospect of using independent reference reflectance spectra for image classification", while focussing on the crop classification, the results indicate distinct aspects. On the one hand, field reflectance spectra of winter rape and alfalfa demonstrate excellent crop discrimination and spectral matching with the image across the growing seasons. On the other hand, significant spectral confusion detected among the winter barley, winter rye, and winter wheat rule out the possibility of existence of a meaningful spectral matching between field reflectance spectra and image. While supporting the current notion of "non-existence of characteristic reflectance spectral signatures for vegetation", results indicate that there exist some crops whose spectral signatures are similar to characteristic spectral signatures with possibility of using them in image classification.

  14. Preparation of the pointing and control system of the SOFIA Airborne Telescope for early science missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lampater, Ulrich; Herter, Terry; Keas, Paul; Harms, Franziska; Engfer, Christian; Salewsky, Peter; Jakob, Holger; Roeser, Hans-Peter

    2010-07-01

    During observation flights the telescope structure of the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is subject to disturbance excitations over a wide frequency band. The sources can be separated into two groups: inertial excitation caused by vibration of the airborne platform, and aerodynamic excitation that acts on the telescope assembly (TA) through an open port cavity. These disturbance sources constitute a major difference of SOFIA to other ground based and space observatories and achieving the required pointing accuracy of 1 arcsecond cumulative rms or better below 70 Hz in this environment is driving the design of the TA pointing and control system. In the current design it consists of two parts, the rigid body attitude control system and a feed forward based compensator of flexible TA deformation. This paper discusses the characterization and control system tuning of the as-built system. It is a process that integrates the study of the structural dynamic behavior of the TA, the resulting image motion in the focal plane, and the design and implementation of active control systems. Ground tests, which are performed under controlled experimental conditions, and in-flight characterization tests, both leading up to the early science performance capabilities of the observatory, are addressed.

  15. 76 FR 50808 - Airborne Supplemental Navigation Equipment Using the Global Positioning System (GPS)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-16

    ... standard for GPS sensors not augmented by satellite-based or ground- based systems (i.e., TSO-C129a Class B and Class C). The FAA has also published two GPS TSOs augmented by the satellite-based augmentation system (TSO-C145c, Airborne Navigation Sensors Using the Global Positioning System Augmented by...

  16. Aerial Image Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clapp, Robert E.

    1987-09-01

    Aerial images produce the best stereoscopic images of the viewed world. Despite the fact that every optic in existence produces an aerial image, few persons are aware of their existence and possible uses. Constant reference to the eye and other optical systems have produced a psychosis of design that only considers "focal planes" in the design and analysis of optical systems. All objects in the field of view of the optical device are imaged by the device as an aerial image. Use of aerial images in vision and visual display systems can provide a true stereoscopic representation of the viewed world. This paper discusses aerial image systems - their applications and designs and presents designs and design concepts that utilize aerial images to obtain superior visual displays, particularly with application to visual simulation.

  17. Oil Spill Detection along the Gulf of Mexico Coastline based on Airborne Imaging Spectrometer Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arslan, M. D.; Filippi, A. M.; Guneralp, I.

    2013-12-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico between April and July 2010 demonstrated the importance of synoptic oil-spill monitoring in coastal environments via remote-sensing methods. This study focuses on terrestrial oil-spill detection and thickness estimation based on hyperspectral images acquired along the coastline of the Gulf of Mexico. We use AVIRIS (Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer) imaging spectrometer data collected over Bay Jimmy and Wilkinson Bay within Barataria Bay, Louisiana, USA during September 2010. We also employ field-based observations of the degree of oil accumulation along the coastline, as well as in situ measurements from the literature. As part of our proposed spectroscopic approach, we operate on atmospherically- and geometrically-corrected hyperspectral AVIRIS data to extract image-derived endmembers via Minimum Noise Fraction transform, Pixel Purity Index-generation, and n-dimensional visualization. Extracted endmembers are then used as input to endmember-mapping algorithms to yield fractional-abundance images and crisp classification images. We also employ Multiple Endmember Spectral Mixture Analysis (MESMA) for oil detection and mapping in order to enable the number and types of endmembers to vary on a per-pixel basis, in contast to simple Spectral Mixture Analysis (SMA). MESMA thus better allows accounting for spectral variabiltiy of oil (e.g., due to varying oil thicknesses, states of degradation, and the presence of different oil types, etc.) and other materials, including soils and salt marsh vegetation of varying types, which may or may not be affected by the oil spill. A decision-tree approach is also utilized for comparison. Classification results do indicate that MESMA provides advantageous capabilities for mapping several oil-thickness classes for affected vegetation and soils along the Gulf of Mexico coastline, relative to the conventional approaches tested. Oil thickness-mapping results from MESMA

  18. Sunglint effects on the characterization of optically active substances in high spatial resolution airborne hyperspectral images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Streher, A. S.; Faria Barbosa, C. Clemente; Soares Galvão, L.; Goodman, J. A.; Silva, T. S.

    2013-05-01

    Sunglint, also known as the specular reflection of light from water surfaces, is a component of sensor-received radiance that represents a confounding factor on the characterization of water bodies by remote sensing. In airborne remote sensing images, the effect of sunglint can be minimized by optimizing the flight paths, directing the sensor towards or away from the Sun, and by keeping solar zenith angles between 30° and 60°. However, these guidelines cannot always be applied, often due to the irregular spatial pattern of lakes, estuaries and coastlines. The present study assessed the impact of sunglint on the relationship between the optically active substances (OAS) concentration, in optically complex waters, and the spectral information provided by an airborne high spatial resolution hyperspectral sensor (SpecTIR). The Ibitinga reservoir, located in southeastern Brazil (state of São Paulo), was selected as the study area because of its meandering shape. As a result, there is demanding constant changes in data acquisition geometry to achieve complete coverage, therefore not allowing sunglint conditions to be minimized during image acquisition. Field data collection was carried out on October 23 and 24, 2011. During these two days, 15 water stations along the reservoir were sampled, concurrently with the SpecTIR image acquisition in 357 bands (398-2455 nm) and at 3 m spatial resolution. Chlorophyll, pheophytin, total suspended solids, organic and inorganic suspended solids and colored dissolved matter were determined in laboratory. The images were corrected for the atmospheric effects using the Fast Line-of-sight Atmospheric Analysis of Spectral Hypercubes (FLAASH) algorithm and then geometrically corrected. In order to evaluate the sunglint effects on the OAS characterization, the images were corrected for such effects using the deglint algorithm from Goodman et al. (2008). The SpecTIR 662-nm band reflectance was selected to be correlated to the OAS due to

  19. Development of a Cost-Effective Airborne Remote Sensing System for Coastal Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Kim, Duk-jin; Jung, Jungkyo; Kang, Ki-mook; Kim, Seung Hee; Xu, Zhen; Hensley, Scott; Swan, Aaron; Duersch, Michael

    2015-09-30

    Coastal lands and nearshore marine areas are productive and rapidly changing places. However, these areas face many environmental challenges related to climate change and human-induced impacts. Space-borne remote sensing systems may be restricted in monitoring these areas because of their spatial and temporal resolutions. In situ measurements are also constrained from accessing the area and obtaining wide-coverage data. In these respects, airborne remote sensing sensors could be the most appropriate tools for monitoring these coastal areas. In this study, a cost-effective airborne remote sensing system with synthetic aperture radar and thermal infrared sensors was implemented to survey coastal areas. Calibration techniques and geophysical model algorithms were developed for the airborne system to observe the topography of intertidal flats, coastal sea surface current, sea surface temperature, and submarine groundwater discharge.

  20. Development of a Cost-Effective Airborne Remote Sensing System for Coastal Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Duk-jin; Jung, Jungkyo; Kang, Ki-mook; Kim, Seung Hee; Xu, Zhen; Hensley, Scott; Swan, Aaron; Duersch, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Coastal lands and nearshore marine areas are productive and rapidly changing places. However, these areas face many environmental challenges related to climate change and human-induced impacts. Space-borne remote sensing systems may be restricted in monitoring these areas because of their spatial and temporal resolutions. In situ measurements are also constrained from accessing the area and obtaining wide-coverage data. In these respects, airborne remote sensing sensors could be the most appropriate tools for monitoring these coastal areas. In this study, a cost-effective airborne remote sensing system with synthetic aperture radar and thermal infrared sensors was implemented to survey coastal areas. Calibration techniques and geophysical model algorithms were developed for the airborne system to observe the topography of intertidal flats, coastal sea surface current, sea surface temperature, and submarine groundwater discharge. PMID:26437413

  1. Implementation of Waveform Digitization In A Small Footprint, Airborne Lidar Topographic Mapping System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutierrez, R.; Crawford, M. M.; Liadsky, J.

    2004-12-01

    Accurate mapping is critical for applications ranging from geodesy, geomorphology, and forestry to urban planning and natural hazards monitoring. While airborne lidar (Light Detection and Ranging) has had a revolutionary impact on three-dimensional imaging of the earth's surface, there is great potential for developing new capability by replacing the laser range and backscatter intensity information recorded by conventional lidar systems with full waveform digitization. The University of Texas at Austin (UT) owns and operates an Optech ALTM 1225, a small footprint lidar system. In response to an initiative from UT, Optech has developed a module which samples the analog waveform of a laser pulse and converts these samples into digital measurements. The waveform digitizer specifications include a 1-nanosecond sampling interval, 440 samples per return laser waveform (approximately 65 meters of vertical extent), and waveform digitization at the 25kHz laser pulse repetition rate. The digitizer also records the initial T0 pulse that starts the timing cycle. The digitizer unit is an independent module supported by a Pentium-4 computer, two hard drives, and a high-speed data recording system. The digitizer is integrated into the ALTM system so that both full waveform and the conventional first and last returns are recorded for each transmitted laser pulse. This unique capability allows for conventional lidar data to be directly compared to the full waveform. We present examples of full waveform lidar mapping over different environments and discuss future applications.

  2. Medical image processing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dezong; Wang, Jinxiang

    1994-12-01

    In this paper a medical image processing system is described. That system is named NAI200 Medical Image Processing System and has been appraised by Chinese Government. Principles and cases provided here. Many kinds of pictures are used in modern medical diagnoses, for example B-supersonic, X-ray, CT and MRI. Some times the pictures are not good enough for diagnoses. The noises interfere with real situation on these pictures. That means the image processing is needed. A medical image processing system is described in this paper. That system is named NAI200 Medical Image Processing System and has been appraised by Chinese Government. There are four functions in that system. The first part is image processing. More than thirty four programs are involved. The second part is calculating. The areas or volumes of single or multitissues are calculated. Three dimensional reconstruction is the third part. The stereo images of organs or tumors are reconstructed with cross-sections. The last part is image storage. All pictures can be transformed to digital images, then be stored in hard disk or soft disk. In this paper not only all functions of that system are introduced, also the basic principles of these functions are explained in detail. This system has been applied in hospitals. The images of hundreds of cases have been processed. We describe the functions combining real cases. Here we only introduce a few examples.

  3. Multi Spectral Imaging System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spiering, Bruce A. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    An optical imaging system provides automatic co-registration of a plurality of multi spectral images of an object which are generated by a plurality of video cameras or other optical detectors. The imaging system includes a modular assembly of beam splitters, lens tubes, camera lenses and wavelength selective filters which facilitate easy reconfiguration and adjustment of the system for various applications. A primary lens assembly generates a real image of an object to be imaged on a reticle which is positioned at a fixed length from a beam splitter assembly. The beam splitter assembly separates a collimated image beam received from the reticle into multiple image beams, each of which is projected onto a corresponding one of a plurality of video cameras. The lens tubes which connect the beam splitter assembly to the cameras are adjustable in length to provide automatic co-registration of the images generated by each camera.

  4. Spectrographic imaging system

    DOEpatents

    Morris, Michael D.; Treado, Patrick J.

    1991-01-01

    An imaging system for providing spectrographically resolved images. The system incorporates a one-dimensional spatial encoding mask which enables an image to be projected onto a two-dimensional image detector after spectral dispersion of the image. The dimension of the image which is lost due to spectral dispersion on the two-dimensional detector is recovered through employing a reverse transform based on presenting a multiplicity of different spatial encoding patterns to the image. The system is especially adapted for detecting Raman scattering of monochromatic light transmitted through or reflected from physical samples. Preferably, spatial encoding is achieved through the use of Hadamard mask which selectively transmits or blocks portions of the image from the sample being evaluated.

  5. Airborne lidar measurements of wave energy dissipation in a coral reef lagoon system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhi-Cheng; Reineman, Benjamin D.; Lenain, Luc; Melville, W. Kendall; Middleton, Jason H.

    2012-03-01

    Quantification of the turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate in the water column, ɛ, is very important for assessing nutrient uptake rates of corals and therefore the health of coral reef lagoon systems. However, the availability of such data is limited. Recently, at Lady Elliot Island (LEI), Australia, we showed that there was a strong correlation between in situ measurements of surface-wave energy dissipation and ɛ. Previously, Reineman et al. (2009), we showed that a small airborne scanning lidar system could measure the surface wavefield remotely. Here we present measurements demonstrating the use of the same airborne lidar to remotely measure surface wave energy fluxes and dissipation and thereby estimate ɛ in the LEI reef-lagoon system. The wave energy flux and wave dissipation rate across the fore reef and into the lagoon are determined from the airborne measurements of the wavefield. Using these techniques, observed spatial profiles of energy flux and wave energy dissipation rates over the LEI reef-lagoon system are presented. The results show that the high lidar backscatter intensity and point density coming from the high reflectivity of the foam from depth-limited breaking waves coincides with the high wave-energy dissipation rates. Good correlations between the airborne measurements and in situ observations demonstrate that it is feasible to apply airborne lidar systems for large-scale, long-term studies in monitoring important physical processes in coral reef environments. When added to other airborne techniques, the opportunities for efficient monitoring of large reef systems may be expanded significantly.

  6. Natural-color and color-infrared image mosaics of the Colorado River corridor in Arizona derived from the May 2009 airborne image collection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.

    2013-01-01

    The Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center (GCMRC) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) periodically collects airborne image data for the Colorado River corridor within Arizona (fig. 1) to allow scientists to study the impacts of Glen Canyon Dam water release on the corridor’s natural and cultural resources. These data are collected from just above Glen Canyon Dam (in Lake Powell) down to the entrance of Lake Mead, for a total distance of 450 kilometers (km) and within a 500-meter (m) swath centered on the river’s mainstem and its seven main tributaries (fig. 1). The most recent airborne data collection in 2009 acquired image data in four wavelength bands (blue, green, red, and near infrared) at a spatial resolution of 20 centimeters (cm). The image collection used the latest model of the Leica ADS40 airborne digital sensor (the SH52), which uses a single optic for all four bands and collects and stores band radiance in 12-bits. Davis (2012) reported on the performance of the SH52 sensor and on the processing steps required to produce the nearly flawless four-band image mosaic (sectioned into map tiles) for the river corridor. The final image mosaic has a total of only 3 km of surface defects in addition to some areas of cloud shadow because of persistent inclement weather during data collection. The 2009 four-band image mosaic is perhaps the best image dataset that exists for the entire Arizona part of the Colorado River. Some analyses of these image mosaics do not require the full 12-bit dynamic range or all four bands of the calibrated image database, in which atmospheric scattering (or haze) had not been removed from the four bands. To provide scientists and the general public with image products that are more useful for visual interpretation, the 12-bit image data were converted to 8-bit natural-color and color-infrared images, which also removed atmospheric scattering within each wavelength-band image. The conversion required an evaluation of the

  7. Analysis of Coincident HICO and Airborne Hyperspectral Images Over Lake Erie Western Basin HABs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cline, M., Jr.; Becker, R.; Lekki, J.; Bridgeman, T. B.; Tokars, R. P.; Anderson, R. C.

    2015-12-01

    Harmful algal blooms (HABs) produce waterborne toxins that pose a significant threat to people, livestock, and wildlife. 40 million people in both Canada and the U.S. depend on Great Lakes water. In the summer of 2014, in the Lake Erie Western Basin, an HAB of the cyanobacteria Microsystis was so severe that a water-use ban was in effect for the greater Toledo area, Ohio. This shut off the water supply to over 400,000 people from a single water intake. We investigated bloom intensity, composition, and spatial variability by comparing hyperspectral data from NASA's HICO, multispectral data from MODIS spaceborne imagers and NASA GRC's HSI imagers to on-lake ASD radiometer measurements using in situ water quality testing as ground reference data, all acquired on a single day during the bloom in 2014. HICO imagery acquired on Aug 15, 2014 was spatially georeferenced and atmospherically corrected using empirical line method utilizing on-lake ASD spectra. HSI imagery were processed in a similar way. Cyanobacteria Index (CI) images were created from processed images using the Wynne (2010) algorithm, previously used for MODIS and MERIS imagery. This algorithm-generated CI images provide reliable results for both ground level (R²=0.7784), and satellite imagery (R²=0.7794) for seven sampling points in Lake Erie's western basin. Spatial variability in the bloom was high, and was not completely characterized by the lower spatial resolution MODIS data. The ability to robustly atmospherically correct and generate useful CI maps from airborne and satellite sensors can provide a time- and cost-effective method for HABs analysis. Timely processing of these high spatial and spectral resolution remote sensing data can aid in management of water intake resources.

  8. Michigan experimental multispectral mapping system: A description of the M7 airborne sensor and its performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasell, P. G., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    The development and characteristics of a multispectral band scanner for an airborne mapping system are discussed. The sensor operates in the ultraviolet, visual, and infrared frequencies. Any twelve of the bands may be selected for simultaneous, optically registered recording on a 14-track analog tape recorder. Multispectral imagery recorded on magnetic tape in the aircraft can be laboratory reproduced on film strips for visual analysis or optionally machine processed in analog and/or digital computers before display. The airborne system performance is analyzed.

  9. Airborne Wind Shear Detection and Warning Systems: Third Combined Manufacturers' and Technologists' Conference, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vicroy, Dan D. (Compiler); Bowles, Roland L. (Compiler); Schlickenmaier, Herbert (Compiler)

    1991-01-01

    Papers presented at the conference on airborne wind shear detection and warning systems are compiled. The following subject areas are covered: terms of reference; case study; flight management; sensor fusion and flight evaluation; Terminal Doppler Weather Radar data link/display; heavy rain aerodynamics; and second generation reactive systems.

  10. Imager-to-Radiometer In-flight Cross Calibration: RSP Radiometric Comparison with Airborne and Satellite Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCorkel, Joel; Cairns, Brian; Wasilewski, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    This work develops a method to compare the radiometric calibration between a radiometer and imagers hosted on aircraft and satellites. The radiometer is the airborne Research Scanning Polarimeter (RSP), which takes multi-angle, photo-polarimetric measurements in several spectral channels. The RSP measurements used in this work were coincident with measurements made by the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS), which was on the same aircraft. These airborne measurements were also coincident with an overpass of the Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI). First we compare the RSP and OLI radiance measurements to AVIRIS since the spectral response of the multispectral instruments can be used to synthesize a spectrally equivalent signal from the imaging spectrometer data. We then explore a method that uses AVIRIS as a transfer between RSP and OLI to show that radiometric traceability of a satellite-based imager can be used to calibrate a radiometer despite differences in spectral channel sensitivities. This calibration transfer shows agreement within the uncertainty of both the various instruments for most spectral channels.

  11. Hyperspectral imaging utility for transportation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bridgelall, Raj; Rafert, J. Bruce; Tolliver, Denver

    2015-03-01

    The global transportation system is massive, open, and dynamic. Existing performance and condition assessments of the complex interacting networks of roadways, bridges, railroads, pipelines, waterways, airways, and intermodal ports are expensive. Hyperspectral imaging is an emerging remote sensing technique for the non-destructive evaluation of multimodal transportation infrastructure. Unlike panchromatic, color, and infrared imaging, each layer of a hyperspectral image pixel records reflectance intensity from one of dozens or hundreds of relatively narrow wavelength bands that span a broad range of the electromagnetic spectrum. Hence, every pixel of a hyperspectral scene provides a unique spectral signature that offers new opportunities for informed decision-making in transportation systems development, operations, and maintenance. Spaceborne systems capture images of vast areas in a short period but provide lower spatial resolution than airborne systems. Practitioners use manned aircraft to achieve higher spatial and spectral resolution, but at the price of custom missions and narrow focus. The rapid size and cost reduction of unmanned aircraft systems promise a third alternative that offers hybrid benefits at affordable prices by conducting multiple parallel missions. This research formulates a theoretical framework for a pushbroom type of hyperspectral imaging system on each type of data acquisition platform. The study then applies the framework to assess the relative potential utility of hyperspectral imaging for previously proposed remote sensing applications in transportation. The authors also introduce and suggest new potential applications of hyperspectral imaging in transportation asset management, network performance evaluation, and risk assessments to enable effective and objective decision- and policy-making.

  12. Effect of an electrostatic space charge system on airborne dust and subsequent potential transmission of microorganisms to broiler breeder pullets by airborne dust.

    PubMed

    Richardson, L J; Mitchell, B W; Wilson, J L; Hofacre, C L

    2003-01-01

    High levels of dust and microorganisms are known to be associated with animal confinement rearing facilities. Many of the microorganisms are carried by dust particles, thus providing an excellent vector for horizontal disease transmission between birds. Two environmentally controlled rooms containing female broiler breeder pullets (n = 300) were used to evaluate the effectiveness of an electrostatic space charge system (ESCS) in reducing airborne dust and gram-negative bacteria levels over an 8-wk period (starting when the birds were 10 wk old). The ESCS was used to evaluate the effectiveness of reducing airborne microorganism levels by charging airborne dust particles and causing the particles to be attracted to grounded surfaces (i.e., walls, floor, equipment). The use of the ESCS resulted in a 64% mean reduction in gram-negative bacteria. Airborne dust levels were reduced an average of 37% over a 1-wk period in the experimental room compared with the control room on the basis of samples taken every 10 min. The reductions of airborne dust and bacteria in this study are comparable with earlier results obtained with the ESCS in commercial hatching cabinets and experimental caged layer rooms, suggesting the system could also be applied to other types of enclosed animal housing. PMID:12713167

  13. Persistent Scatterer Aided Facade Lattice Extraction in Single Airborne Optical Oblique Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schack, L.; Soergel, U.; Heipke, C.

    2015-03-01

    We present a new method to extract patterns of regular facade structures from single optical oblique images. To overcome the missing three-dimensional information we incorporate structural information derived from Persistent Scatter (PS) point cloud data into our method. Single oblique images and PS point clouds have never been combined before and offer promising insights into the compatibility of remotely sensed data of different kinds. Even though the appearance of facades is significantly different, many characteristics of the prominent patterns can be seen in both types of data and can be transferred across the sensor domains. To justify the extraction based on regular facade patterns we show that regular facades appear rather often in typical airborne oblique imagery of urban scenes. The extraction of regular patterns is based on well established tools like cross correlation and is extended by incorporating a module for estimating a window lattice model using a genetic algorithm. Among others the results of our approach can be used to derive a deeper understanding of the emergence of Persistent Scatterers and their fusion with optical imagery. To demonstrate the applicability of the approach we present a concept for data fusion aiming at facade lattices extraction in PS and optical data.

  14. A building extraction approach for Airborne Laser Scanner data utilizing the Object Based Image Analysis paradigm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomljenovic, Ivan; Tiede, Dirk; Blaschke, Thomas

    2016-10-01

    In the past two decades Object-Based Image Analysis (OBIA) established itself as an efficient approach for the classification and extraction of information from remote sensing imagery and, increasingly, from non-image based sources such as Airborne Laser Scanner (ALS) point clouds. ALS data is represented in the form of a point cloud with recorded multiple returns and intensities. In our work, we combined OBIA with ALS point cloud data in order to identify and extract buildings as 2D polygons representing roof outlines in a top down mapping approach. We performed rasterization of the ALS data into a height raster for the purpose of the generation of a Digital Surface Model (DSM) and a derived Digital Elevation Model (DEM). Further objects were generated in conjunction with point statistics from the linked point cloud. With the use of class modelling methods, we generated the final target class of objects representing buildings. The approach was developed for a test area in Biberach an der Riß (Germany). In order to point out the possibilities of the adaptation-free transferability to another data set, the algorithm has been applied "as is" to the ISPRS Benchmarking data set of Toronto (Canada). The obtained results show high accuracies for the initial study area (thematic accuracies of around 98%, geometric accuracy of above 80%). The very high performance within the ISPRS Benchmark without any modification of the algorithm and without any adaptation of parameters is particularly noteworthy.

  15. Airborne Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) images over disseminated gold deposits, Osgood Mountains, Humboldt County, Nevada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krohn, M. Dennis

    1986-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) acquired airborne Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) images over several disseminated gold deposits in northern Nevada in 1983. The aerial surveys were flown to determine whether TIMS data could depict jasperoids (siliceous replacement bodies) associated with the gold deposits. The TIMS data were collected over the Pinson and Getchell Mines in the Osgood Mountains, the Carlin, Maggie Creek, Bootstrap, and other mines in the Tuscarora Mountains, and the Jerritt Canyon Mine in the Independence Mountains. The TIMS data seem to be a useful supplement to conventional geochemical exploration for disseminated gold deposits in the western United States. Siliceous outcrops are readily separable in the TIMS image from other types of host rocks. Different forms of silicification are not readily separable, yet, due to limitations of spatial resolution and spectral dynamic range. Features associated with the disseminated gold deposits, such as the large intrusive bodies and fault structures, are also resolvable on TIMS data. Inclusion of high-resolution thermal inertia data would be a useful supplement to the TIMS data.

  16. Evaluation of the airborne visible-infrared imaging spectrometer for mapping subtle lithological variation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kruse, Fred A.

    1990-01-01

    The Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS), flown aboard the NASA ER-2 aircraft in 1987 and 1989, used four linear arrays and four individual spectrometers to collect data simultaneously from the 224 bands in a scanned 614 pixel-wide swath perpendicular to the aircraft direction. The research had two goals. One was to evaluate the AVIRIS data. The other was to look at the subtle lithological variation at the two test sites to develop a better understanding of the regional geology and surficial processes. The geometric characteristics of the data, adequacy of the spatial resolution, and adequacy of the spectral sampling interval are evaluated. Geologic differences at the test sites were mapped. They included lithological variation caused by primary sedimentary layering, facies variation, and weathering; and subtle mineralogical differences caused by hydrothermal alterations of igneous and sedimentary rocks. The investigation used laboratory, field, and aircraft spectral measurements; known properties of geological materials; digital image processing and spectrum processing techniques; and field geologic data to evaluate the selected characteristics of the AVIRIS data.

  17. Lineaments from airborne SAR images and the 1988 Saguenay earthquake, Quebec, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, D.W.; Schmitt, L.; Woussen, G.; Duberger, R. )

    1993-08-01

    Airborne SAR images provided essential clues to the tectonic setting of (1) the MbLg 6.5 Saguenay earthquake of 25 November 1988, (2) the Charlevoix-Kamouraska seismic source zone, and (3) some of the low *eve* seismic activity in the Eastern seismic background zone of Canada. The event occurred in the southeastern part of the Canadian Shield in an area where the boundary between the Saguenay graben and the Jacques Cartier horst is not well defined. These two tectonic blocks are both associated with the Iapetan St-Lawrence rift. These blocks exhibit several important structural breaks and distinct domains defined by the lineament orientations, densities, and habits. Outcrop observations confirm that several lineament sets correspond to Precambrian ductile shear zones reactivated as brittle faults during the Phanerozoic. In addition, the northeast and southwest limits of recent seismic activity in the Charlevoix-Kamouraska zone correspond to major elements of the fracture pattern identified on the SAR images. These fractures appear to be related to the interaction of the Charlevoix astrobleme with the tectonic features of the area. 20 refs.

  18. Airborne multiangle spectropolarimetric imager (AirMSPI) observations over California during NASA's polarimeter definition experiment (PODEX)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diner, David J.; Garay, Michael J.; Kalashnikova, Olga V.; Rheingans, Brian E.; Geier, Sven; Bull, Michael A.; Jovanovic, Veljko M.; Xu, Feng; Bruegge, Carol J.; Davis, Ab; Crabtree, Karlton; Chipman, Russell A.

    2013-09-01

    The Airborne Multiangle SpectroPolarimetric Imager (AirMSPI) is an ultraviolet/visible/near-infrared pushbroom camera mounted on a single-axis gimbal to acquire multiangle imagery over a +/-67° along-track range. The instrument flies aboard NASA's high-altitude ER-2 aircraft, and acquires Earth imagery with ~10 m spatial resolution across an 11- km wide swath. Radiance data are obtained in eight spectral bands (355, 380, 445, 470, 555, 660, 865, 935 nm). Dual photoelastic modulators (PEMs), achromatic quarter-wave plates, and wire-grid polarizers also enable imagery of the linear polarization Stokes components Q and U at 470, 660, and 865 nm. During January-February 2013, AirMSPI data were acquired over California as part of NASA's Polarimeter Definition Experiment (PODEX), a field campaign designed to refine requirements for the future Aerosol-Cloud-Ecosystem (ACE) satellite mission. Observations of aerosols, low- and mid-level cloud fields, cirrus, aircraft contrails, and clear skies were obtained over the San Joaquin Valley and the Pacific Ocean during PODEX. Example radiance and polarization images are presented to illustrate some of the instrument's capabilities.

  19. Calibration Design and Assessment of the Airborne Conical Scanning Millimeterwave Imaging Radiometer (CoSMIR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piepmeier, J. R.; Racette, P.; Walker, D. K.; Randa, J.; Krebs, Carolyn A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The airborne Conical Scanning Millimeter-wave Imaging Radiometer (CoSMIR) will provide measurements useful for atmospheric studies and satellite calibration and validation (cal/val). Designed to match the tropospheric sounding channels of the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program QMSP) Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder (SSMIS), the CoSMIR consists of four radiometers operating at 50-54 (3 channels - 50.3, 52.8, and 53.6), 91.655 (dual polarization), 150.0, and 193.31 (3 channels 11, 13, and 16.6) GHz. The design of CoSMIR was primarily driven by its intended initial use as an SSMIS cal/val sensor. In particular, three design features were directly affected by this requirement: frequency planning, calibration target design, and the mechanical gimbals. An initial calibration assessment of CoSMIR was performed to determine any needed improvements. We used a combination of laboratory and field measurements to do this. Laboratory measurements included comparisons to a liquid nitrogen standard, IF amplifier and diode linearity tests, LO leakage and reflection testing, and antenna to calibration target coupling tests. Results of these tests will be reported. We also performed a satellite underflight under DM SP F-15 and have compared CoSMIR imagery to SSM/T-2 and SSM/I imagery. Additional information is included in the original extended abstract.

  20. Recovery of Atmospheric Water Vapor Total Column Abundance from Imaging Spectrometer Data Around 940 nm - Sensitivity Analysis and Application to Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carrere, V.; Conel, J. E.

    1993-01-01

    Twosimple techniques to retrieve path precipitable water fromthe Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) high spectral resolution radiance data (Continuum Interpolated Band Ratio, CIBR, and Narrow/Wide Ratio, N/W), using the 940 nm water absorption band, are compared.

  1. Image Processing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology (MIR) is using a digital image processing system which employs NASA-developed technology. MIR's computer system is the largest radiology system in the world. It is used in diagnostic imaging. Blood vessels are injected with x-ray dye, and the images which are produced indicate whether arteries are hardened or blocked. A computer program developed by Jet Propulsion Laboratory known as Mini-VICAR/IBIS was supplied to MIR by COSMIC. The program provides the basis for developing the computer imaging routines for data processing, contrast enhancement and picture display.

  2. Geodetic Imaging for Rapid Assessment of Earthquakes: Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, W. E.; Shrestha, R. L.; Glennie, C. L.; Sartori, M.; Fernandez-Diaz, J.; National CenterAirborne Laser Mapping Operational Center

    2010-12-01

    To the residents of an area struck by a strong earthquake quantitative information on damage to the infrastructure, and its attendant impact on relief and recovery efforts, is urgent and of primary concern. To earth scientists a strong earthquake offers an opportunity to learn more about earthquake mechanisms, and to compare their models with the real world, in hopes of one day being able to accurately predict the precise locations, magnitudes, and times of large (and potentially disastrous) earthquakes. Airborne laser scanning (also referred to as airborne LiDAR or Airborne Laser Swath Mapping) is particularly well suited for rapid assessment of earthquakes, both for immediately estimating the damage to infrastructure and for providing information for the scientific study of earthquakes. ALS observations collected at low altitude (500—1000m) from a relatively slow (70—100m/sec) aircraft can provide dense (5—15 points/m2) sets of surface features (buildings, vegetation, ground), extending over hundreds of square kilometers with turn around times of several hours to a few days. The actual response time to any given event depends on several factors, including such bureaucratic issues as approval of funds, export license formalities, and clearance to fly over the area to be mapped, and operational factors such as the deployment of the aircraft and ground teams may also take a number of days for remote locations. Of course the need for immediate mapping of earthquake damage generally is not as urgent in remote regions with less infrastructure and few inhabitants. During August 16-19, 2010 the National Center for Airborne Laser Mapping (NCALM) mapped the area affected by the magnitude 7.2 El Mayor-Cucapah Earthquake (Northern Baja California Earthquake), which occurred on April 4, 2010, and was felt throughout southern California, Arizona, Nevada, and Baja California North, Mexico. From initial ground observations the fault rupture appeared to extend 75 km

  3. Simulating and testing autonomous behaviour in multiple airborne sensor systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Moira I.; Hernandez, Marcel L.; Cooper, Matthew

    2007-04-01

    The Multiple Airborne Sensor Targeting and Evaluation Rig (MASTER) is a high fidelity simulation environment in which data fusion, tracking and sensor management algorithms developed within QinetiQ Ltd. can be demonstrated and evaluated. In this paper we report an observer trajectory planning tool that adds considerable functionality to MASTER. This planning tool can coordinate multiple sensor platforms in tracking highly manoeuvring targets. It does this by applying instantaneous thrusts to each platform, the magnitude of which is chosen to gain maximum observability of the target. We use an efficient search technique to determine the thrust that should be applied to each platform at each time step, and the planning horizon can either be one-step (greedy) or two-step. The measure of performance used in evaluating each potential sensor manoeuvre (thrust) is the posterior Cramer-Rao lower bound (PCRLB), which gives the best possible (lowest mean square error) tracking performance. We exploit a recent novel approach to approximating the PCRLB for manoeuvring target tracking (the "best-fitting Gaussian" (BFG) approach: Hernandez et al., 2005). A closed-form expression gives the BFG approximation at each sampling time. Hence, the PCRLB can be approximated with a very low computational overhead. As a result, the planning tool can be implemented as an aid to decision-making in real-time, even in this time-critical airborne domain. The functionality of MASTER enables one to access the performance of the planning tool in a range of sensor-target scenarios, enabling one to determine the minimal sensor requirement in order to satisfy mission requirements.

  4. Portable Airborne Laser System Measures Forest-Canopy Height

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Ross

    2005-01-01

    (PALS) is a combination of laser ranging, video imaging, positioning, and data-processing subsystems designed for measuring the heights of forest canopies along linear transects from tens to thousands of kilometers long. Unlike prior laser ranging systems designed to serve the same purpose, the PALS is not restricted to use aboard a single aircraft of a specific type: the PALS fits into two large suitcases that can be carried to any convenient location, and the PALS can be installed in almost any local aircraft for hire, thereby making it possible to sample remote forests at relatively low cost. The initial cost and the cost of repairing the PALS are also lower because the PALS hardware consists mostly of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) units that can easily be replaced in the field. The COTS units include a laser ranging transceiver, a charge-coupled-device camera that images the laser-illuminated targets, a differential Global Positioning System (dGPS) receiver capable of operation within the Wide Area Augmentation System, a video titler, a video cassette recorder (VCR), and a laptop computer equipped with two serial ports. The VCR and computer are powered by batteries; the other units are powered at 12 VDC from the 28-VDC aircraft power system via a low-pass filter and a voltage converter. The dGPS receiver feeds location and time data, at an update rate of 0.5 Hz, to the video titler and the computer. The laser ranging transceiver, operating at a sampling rate of 2 kHz, feeds its serial range and amplitude data stream to the computer. The analog video signal from the CCD camera is fed into the video titler wherein the signal is annotated with position and time information. The titler then forwards the annotated signal to the VCR for recording on 8-mm tapes. The dGPS and laser range and amplitude serial data streams are processed by software that displays the laser trace and the dGPS information as they are fed into the computer, subsamples the laser range and

  5. Simulation of Terminal-Area Flight Management System Arrivals with Airborne Spacing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callantine, Todd J.; Lee, Paul U.; Mercer, Joey S.; Palmer, Everett A.; Prevot, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    A simulation evaluated the feasibility and potential benefits of using decision support tools to support time-based airborne spacing and merging for aircraft arriving in the terminal area on charted Flight Management System (FMS) routes. Sixteen trials were conducted in each treatment combination of a 2X2 repeated-measures design. In trials 'with ground tools' air traffic controller participants managed traffic using sequencing and spacing tools. In trials 'with air tools' approximately seventy-five percent of aircraft assigned to the primary landing runway were equipped for airborne spacing, including flight simulators flown by commercial pilots. The results indicate that airborne spacing improves spacing accuracy and is feasible for FMS operations and mixed spacing equipage. Controllers and pilots can manage spacing clearances that contain two call signs without difficulty. For best effect, both decision support tools and spacing guidance should exhibit consistently predictable performance, and merging traffic flows should be well coordinated.

  6. Medical imaging systems

    SciTech Connect

    Frangioni, John V.

    2012-07-24

    A medical imaging system provides simultaneous rendering of visible light and fluorescent images. The system may employ dyes in a small-molecule form that remains in a subject's blood stream for several minutes, allowing real-time imaging of the subject's circulatory system superimposed upon a conventional, visible light image of the subject. The system may also employ dyes or other fluorescent substances associated with antibodies, antibody fragments, or ligands that accumulate within a region of diagnostic significance. In one embodiment, the system provides an excitation light source to excite the fluorescent substance and a visible light source for general illumination within the same optical guide that is used to capture images. In another embodiment, the system is configured for use in open surgical procedures by providing an operating area that is closed to ambient light. More broadly, the systems described herein may be used in imaging applications where a visible light image may be usefully supplemented by an image formed from fluorescent emissions from a fluorescent substance that marks areas of functional interest.

  7. Airborne Wireless Optical Communication System in Low Altitude Using an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle and LEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Meiwei; Tong, Zheng; Yu, Xiangyu; Song, Yuhang; Lin, Aobo; Xu, Jing

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate the feasibility of airborne wireless optical communication system using an unmanned aerial vehicle and LEDs. Monte Carlo simulation method is used to evaluate the performance of the communication channel. Considering OOK modulation, we illustrate how the BER performance is affected by the link distance, the divergence angel and the deflection angel of the light source.

  8. On-board Polarimetric Calibration of Airborne Multiangle SpectroPolarimetric Imager (AirMSPI) Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Harten, G.; Diner, D. J.; Bull, M. A.; Tkatcheva, I. N.; Jovanovic, V. M.; Seidel, F. C.; Garay, M. J.; Xu, F.; Davis, A. B.; Rheingans, B. E.; Chipman, R. A.

    2015-12-01

    The Airborne Multiangle SpectroPolarimetric Imager (AirMSPI) aims at characterizing atmospheric aerosols and clouds using highly accurate imaging polarimetry. The instrument is deployed regularly onboard the NASA ER2 high-altitude aircraft, which is an ideal testbed for satellite remote sensing. Flying at 20 km altitude, AirMSPI's pushbroom camera typically provides 11×11 km images at 10 m resolution. The target is observed from multiple along-track angles within ±67° using a gimbal mount. Eight spectral bands within 355-935 nm are recorded simultaneously in different detector rows, 3 of which also measure linear polarization: 470, 660 and 865 nm. Photoelastic modulators (PEMs) encode the polarized and total intensities in each polarimetric pixel as the amplitude and offset of a wavelike intensity pattern, such that the ratio of the two is insensitive to pixel-to-pixel differences. This enables an accuracy in the degree of linear polarization of ~0.001, as measured in the lab. To maintain this accuracy in-flight, an optical probe continuously monitors the PEMs' retardances and controls their driving signals. Before and after observing a target, the instrument also observes a validator, which is an extended, polarized light source, located inside the instrument housing. These data are now incorporated in the data processing pipeline to further improve the calibration of the modulation functions. Highly polarized pixels in Earth data are utilized to transfer the validator results to meet the illumination in Earth scenes, as well as to make fine adjustments at higher temporal resolution. The reprocessed polarization products for the PODEX campaign show significant improvements when intercompared with the Research Scanning Polarimeter (RSP, Goddard Institute for Space Studies). We currently evaluate the impact of the on-board polarimetric calibration on aerosol retrievals, and compare against AERONET reference measurements.

  9. The Airborne Snow Observatory: fusion of imaging spectrometer and scanning lidar for studies of mountain snow cover (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Painter, T. H.; Andreadis, K.; Berisford, D. F.; Goodale, C. E.; Hart, A. F.; Heneghan, C.; Deems, J. S.; Gehrke, F.; Marks, D. G.; Mattmann, C. A.; McGurk, B. J.; Ramirez, P.; Seidel, F. C.; Skiles, M.; Trangsrud, A.; Winstral, A. H.; Kirchner, P.; Zimdars, P. A.; Yaghoobi, R.; Boustani, M.; Khudikyan, S.; Richardson, M.; Atwater, R.; Horn, J.; Goods, D.; Verma, R.; Boardman, J. W.

    2013-12-01

    Snow cover and its melt dominate regional climate and water resources in many of the world's mountainous regions. However, we face significant water resource challenges due to the intersection of increasing demand from population growth and changes in runoff total and timing due to climate change. Moreover, increasing temperatures in desert systems will increase dust loading to mountain snow cover, thus reducing the snow cover albedo and accelerating snowmelt runoff. The two most critical properties for understanding snowmelt runoff and timing are the spatial and temporal distributions of snow water equivalent (SWE) and snow albedo. Despite their importance in controlling volume and timing of runoff, snowpack albedo and SWE are still poorly quantified in the US and not at all in most of the globe, leaving runoff models poorly constrained. Recognizing this need, JPL developed the Airborne Snow Observatory (ASO), an imaging spectrometer and imaging LiDAR system, to quantify snow water equivalent and snow albedo, provide unprecedented knowledge of snow properties, and provide complete, robust inputs to snowmelt runoff models, water management models, and systems of the future. Critical in the design of the ASO system is the availability of snow water equivalent and albedo products within 24 hours of acquisition for timely constraint of snowmelt runoff forecast models. In spring 2013, ASO was deployed for its first year of a multi-year Demonstration Mission of weekly acquisitions in the Tuolumne River Basin (Sierra Nevada) and monthly acquisitions in the Uncompahgre River Basin (Colorado). The ASO data were used to constrain spatially distributed models of varying complexities and integrated into the operations of the O'Shaughnessy Dam on the Hetch Hetchy reservoir on the Tuolumne River. Here we present the first results from the ASO Demonstration Mission 1 along with modeling results with and without the constraint by the ASO's high spatial resolution and spatially

  10. <5cm Ground Resolution DEMs for the Atacama Fault System (Chile), Acquried With the Modular Airborne Camera System (MACS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zielke, O.; Victor, P.; Oncken, O.; Bucher, T. U.; Lehmann, F.

    2011-12-01

    A primary step towards assessing time and size of future earthquakes is the identification of earthquake recurrence patterns in the existing seismic record. Geologic and geomorphic data are commonly analyzed for this purpose, reasoned by the lack of sufficiently long historical or instrumental seismic data sets. Until recently, those geomorphic data sets encompassed field observation, local total station surveys, and aerial photography. Over the last decade, LiDAR-based high-resolution topographic data sets became an additional powerful mean, contributing distinctly to a better understanding of earthquake rupture characteristics (e.g., single-event along-fault slip distribution, along-fault slip accumulation pattern) and their relation to fault geometric complexities. Typical shot densities of such data sets (e.g., airborne-LiDAR data along the San Andreas Fault) permit generation of digital elevation models (DEM) with <50 cm ground resolution, sufficient for depiction of meter-scale tectonic landforms. Identification of submeter-scale features is however prohibited by DEM resolution limitation. Here, we present a high-resolution topographic and visual data set from the Atacama fault system near Antofagasta, Chile. Data were acquired with Modular Airborne Camera System (MACS) - developed by the DLR (German Aerospace Center) in Berlin, Germany. The photogrammetrically derived DEM and True Ortho Images with <5cm ground resolution permit identification of very small-scale geomorphic features, thus enabling fault zone and earthquake rupture characterization at unprecedented detail. Compared to typical LiDAR-DEM, ground resolution is increased by an order of magnitude while the spatial extend of these data set is essentially the same. Here, we present examples of the <5cm resolution data set (DEM and visual results) and further explore resolution capabilities and potential with regards to the aforementioned tectono-geomorphic questions.

  11. Visions image operating system

    SciTech Connect

    Kohler, R.R.; Hanson, A.R.

    1982-01-01

    The image operating system is a complete software environment specifically designed for dynamic experimentation in scene analysis. The IOS consists of a high-level interpretive control language (LISP) with efficient image operators in a noninterpretive language. The image operators are viewed as local operators to be applied in parallel at all pixels to a set of input images. In order to carry out complex image analysis experiments an environment conducive to such experimentation was needed. This environment is provided by the visions image operating system based on a computational structure known as a processing cone proposed by Hanson and Riseman (1974, 1980) and implemented on a VAX-11/780 running VMS. 6 references.

  12. Spaceborne electronic imaging systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Criteria and recommended practices for the design of the spaceborne elements of electronic imaging systems are presented. A spaceborne electronic imaging system is defined as a device that collects energy in some portion of the electromagnetic spectrum with detector(s) whose direct output is an electrical signal that can be processed (using direct transmission or delayed transmission after recording) to form a pictorial image. This definition encompasses both image tube systems and scanning point-detector systems. The intent was to collect the design experience and recommended practice of the several systems possessing the common denominator of acquiring images from space electronically and to maintain the system viewpoint rather than pursuing specialization in devices. The devices may be markedly different physically, but each was designed to provide a particular type of image within particular limitations. Performance parameters which determine the type of system selected for a given mission and which influence the design include: Sensitivity, Resolution, Dynamic range, Spectral response, Frame rate/bandwidth, Optics compatibility, Image motion, Radiation resistance, Size, Weight, Power, and Reliability.

  13. Remote tree species identification in a diverse tropical forest using airborne imaging spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldeck, C.; Asner, G. P.; Kellner, J. R.; Martin, R.; Anderson, C.; Knapp, D. E.

    2013-12-01

    Plant species identification and mapping based on remotely-sensed spectral signatures is a challenging task with the potential to contribute enormously to ecological studies. This task is especially difficult in highly diverse ecosystems such as tropical forests, and for these ecosystems it may be more strategic to direct efforts to identifying crowns of a focal species. We used imaging spectrometer data collected by the Carnegie Airborne Observatory over Barro Colorado Island, Panama, to develop classification models for the identification of tree crowns belonging to selected focal species. We explored alternative methods for detecting crowns of focal species, which included binary, one-class, and biased support vector machines (SVM). Best performance was given by binary and biased SVM, with poor performance observed for one-class SVM. Binary and biased SVM were able to identify crowns of focal species with classification sensitivity and specificity of 87-91% and 89-94%, respectively. The main tradeoff between binary and biased SVM is that construction of binary SVM requires a far greater amount of training data while biased SVM is more difficult to parameterize. Our results show that with sufficient training data, focal species can be mapped with a high degree of accuracy, in terms of both sensitivity and specificity, in this diverse tropical forest.

  14. Roof Reconstruction from Airborne Laser Scanning Data Based on Image Processing Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goebbels, S.; Pohle-Fröhlich, R.

    2016-06-01

    The paper presents a new data-driven approach to generate CityGML building models from airborne laser scanning data. The approach is based on image processing methods applied to an interpolated height map and avoids shortcomings of established methods for plane detection like Hough transform or RANSAC algorithms on point clouds. The improvement originates in an interpolation algorithm that generates a height map from sparse point cloud data by preserving ridge lines and step edges of roofs. Roof planes then are detected by clustering the height map's gradient angles, parameterizations of planes are estimated and used to filter out noise around ridge lines. On that basis, a raster representation of roof facets is generated. Then roof polygons are determined from region outlines, connected to a roof boundary graph, and simplified. Whereas the method is not limited to churches, the method's performance is primarily tested for church roofs of the German city of Krefeld because of their complexity. To eliminate inaccuracies of spires, contours of towers are detected additionally, and spires are rendered as solids of revolution. In our experiments, the new data-driven method lead to significantly better building models than the previously applied model-driven approach.

  15. Evaluation of Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer Data of the Mountain Pass, California carbonatite complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crowley, James; Rowan, Lawrence; Podwysocki, Melvin; Meyer, David

    1988-01-01

    Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data of the Mountain Pass, California carbonatite complex were examined to evaluate the AVIRIS instrument performance and to explore alternative methods of data calibration. Although signal-to-noise estimates derived from the data indicated that the A, B, and C spectrometers generally met the original instrument design objectives, the S/N performance of the D spectrometer was below expectations. Signal-to-noise values of 20 to 1 or lower were typical of the D spectrometer and several detectors in the D spectrometer array were shown to have poor electronic stability. The AVIRIS data also exhibited periodic noise, and were occasionally subject to abrupt dark current offsets. Despite these limitations, a number of mineral absorption bands, including CO3, Al-OH, and unusual rare earth element bands, were observed for mine areas near the main carbonatite body. To discern these bands, two different calibration procedures were applied to remove atmospheric and solar components from the remote sensing data. The two procedures, referred to as the single spectrum and the flat field calibration methods gave distinctly different results. In principle, the single spectrum method should be more accurate; however, additional fieldwork is needed to rigorously determine the degree of calibration success.

  16. Measuring methane concentrations from anthropogenic and natural sources using airborne imaging spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorpe, A. K.; Frankenberg, C.; Roberts, D. A.

    2013-12-01

    Two quantitative retrieval techniques were developed for measuring methane (CH4) enhancements for concentrated plumes using high spatial and moderate spectral resolution data from the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS). An Iterative Maximum a Posteriori Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (IMAP-DOAS) algorithm performed well for a homogenous ocean scene containing natural CH4 emissions from the Coal Oil Point (COP) seeps near Santa Barbara, California. A hybrid approach using Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) was particularly effective for terrestrial surfaces given it could better account for highly variable surface reflectance of complex urban environments. These techniques permitted mapping of a distinct plume at COP consistent with known seep locations and local wind direction, with maximum near surface enhancements of 2.85 ppm CH4 above background. At the Inglewood Oil Field, a CH4 plume was observed immediately downwind of two hydrocarbon storage tanks with a maximum concentration of 8.45 ppm above background. Results from a field campaign using the next generation sensor (AVIRISng) and controlled CH4 releases will also be discussed. AVIRIS-like sensors offer the potential to better constrain both CH4 and CO2 emissions on local and regional scales, including sources of increasing concern like industrial point source emissions and fugitive CH4 from the oil and gas industry. Fig. 1. CH4 plumes and measured enhancements for the COP seeps (top) and hydrocarbon storage tanks (bottom).

  17. Mapping Forest Species Composition Using Imaging Spectrometry and Airborne Laser Scanner Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torabzadeh, H.; Morsdorf, F.; Leiterer, R.; Schaepman, M. E.

    2013-09-01

    Accurate mapping of forest species composition is an important aspect of monitoring and management planning related to ecosystem functions and services associated with water refinement, carbon sequestration, biodiversity, and wildlife habitats. Although different vegetation species often have unique spectral signatures, mapping based on spectral reflectance properties alone is often an ill-posed problem, since the spectral signature is as well influenced by age, canopy gaps, shadows and background characteristics. Thus, reducing the unknown variation by knowing the structural parameters of different species should improve determination procedures. In this study we combine imaging spectrometry (IS) and airborne laser scanning (ALS) data of a mixed needle and broadleaf forest to differentiate tree species more accurately as single-instrument data could do. Since forest inventory data in dense forests involve uncertainties, we tried to refine them by using individual tree crowns (ITC) position and shape, which derived from ALS data. Comparison of the extracted spectra from original field data and the modified one shows how ALS-derived shape and position of ITCs can improve separablity of the different species. The spatially explicit information layers containing both the spectral and structural components from the IS and ALS datasets were then combined by using a non-parametric support vector machine (SVM) classifier.

  18. Mesoscale morphology of airborne core-shell nanoparticle clusters: x-ray laser coherent diffraction imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedersoli, E.; Loh, N. D.; Capotondi, F.; Y Hampton, C.; Sierra, R. G.; Starodub, D.; Bostedt, C.; Bozek, J.; Nelson, A. J.; Aslam, M.; Li, S.; Dravid, V. P.; Martin, A. V.; Aquila, A.; Barty, A.; Fleckenstein, H.; Gumprecht, L.; Liang, M.; Nass, K.; Schulz, J.; White, T. A.; Coppola, N.; Bajt, S.; Barthelmess, M.; Graafsma, H.; Hirsemann, H.; Wunderer, C.; Epp, S. W.; Erk, B.; Rudek, B.; Rudenko, A.; Foucar, L.; Kassemeyer, S.; Lomb, L.; Rolles, D.; Shoeman, R. L.; Steinbrener, J.; Hartmann, R.; Hartmann, A.; Hauser, G.; Holl, P.; Kimmel, N.; Reich, C.; Soltau, H.; Weidenspointner, G.; Benner, W. H.; Farquar, G. R.; Hau-Riege, S. P.; Hunter, M. S.; Ekeberg, T.; Hantke, M.; Maia, F. R. N. C.; Tobias, H. J.; Marchesini, S.; Frank, M.; Strüder, L.; Schlichting, I.; Ullrich, J.; Chapman, H. N.; Bucksbaum, P. H.; Kiskinova, M.; Bogan, M. J.

    2013-08-01

    Unraveling the complex morphology of functional materials like core-shell nanoparticles and its evolution in different environments is still a challenge. Only recently has the single-particle coherent diffraction imaging (CDI), enabled by the ultrabright femtosecond free-electron laser pulses, provided breakthroughs in understanding mesoscopic morphology of nanoparticulate matter. Here, we report the first CDI results for Co@SiO2 core-shell nanoparticles randomly clustered in large airborne aggregates, obtained using the x-ray free-electron laser at the Linac Coherent Light Source. Our experimental results compare favourably with simulated diffraction patterns for clustered Co@SiO2 nanoparticles with ˜10 nm core diameter and ˜30 nm shell outer diameter, which confirms the ability to resolve the mesoscale morphology of complex metastable structures. The findings in this first morphological study of core-shell nanomaterials are a solid base for future time-resolved studies of dynamic phenomena in complex nanoparticulate matter using x-ray lasers.

  19. Imaging the lymphatic system.

    PubMed

    Munn, Lance L; Padera, Timothy P

    2014-11-01

    Visualization of the lymphatic system is clinically necessary during diagnosis or treatment of many conditions and diseases; it is used for identifying and monitoring lymphedema, for detecting metastatic lesions during cancer staging and for locating lymphatic structures so they can be spared during surgical procedures. Imaging lymphatic anatomy and function also plays an important role in experimental studies of lymphatic development and function, where spatial resolution and accessibility are better. Here, we review technologies for visualizing and imaging the lymphatic system for clinical applications. We then describe the use of lymphatic imaging in experimental systems as well as some of the emerging technologies for improving these methodologies.

  20. Imaging the lymphatic system

    PubMed Central

    Munn, Lance L.; Padera, Timothy P.

    2014-01-01

    Visualization of the lymphatic system is clinically necessary during diagnosis or treatment of many conditions and diseases; it is used for identifying and monitoring lymphedema, for detecting metastatic lesions during cancer staging and for locating lymphatic structures so they can be spared during surgical procedures. Imaging lymphatic anatomy and function also plays an important role in experimental studies of lymphatic development and function, where spatial resolution and accessibility are better. Here, we review technologies for visualizing and imaging the lymphatic system for clinical applications. We then describe the use of lymphatic imaging in experimental systems as well as some of the emerging technologies for improving these methodologies. PMID:24956510

  1. Nuclear medicine imaging system

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, G.W.; Brill, A.B.; Bizais, Y.J.C.; Rowe, R.W.; Zubal, I.G.

    1983-03-11

    It is an object of this invention to provide a nuclear imaging system having the versatility to do positron annihilation studies, rotating single or opposed camera gamma emission studies, and orthogonal gamma emission studies. It is a further object of this invention to provide an imaging system having the capability for orthogonal dual multipinhole tomography. It is another object of this invention to provide a nuclear imaging system in which all available energy data, as well as patient physiological data, are acquired simultaneously in list mode.

  2. Quantitative luminescence imaging system

    DOEpatents

    Erwin, David N.; Kiel, Johnathan L.; Batishko, Charles R.; Stahl, Kurt A.

    1990-01-01

    The QLIS images and quantifies low-level chemiluminescent reactions in an electromagnetic field. It is capable of real time nonperturbing measurement and simultaneous recording of many biochemical and chemical reactions such as luminescent immunoassays or enzyme assays. The system comprises image transfer optics, a low-light level digitizing camera with image intensifying microchannel plates, an image process or, and a control computer. The image transfer optics may be a fiber image guide with a bend, or a microscope, to take the light outside of the RF field. Output of the camera is transformed into a localized rate of cumulative digitalized data or enhanced video display or hard-copy images. The system may be used as a luminescent microdosimetry device for radiofrequency or microwave radiation, as a thermal dosimeter, or in the dosimetry of ultra-sound (sonoluminescence) or ionizing radiation. It provides a near-real-time system capable of measuring the extremely low light levels from luminescent reactions in electromagnetic fields in the areas of chemiluminescence assays and thermal microdosimetry, and is capable of near-real-time imaging of the sample to allow spatial distribution analysis of the reaction. It can be used to instrument three distinctly different irradiation configurations, comprising (1) RF waveguide irradiation of a small Petri-dish-shaped sample cell, (2) RF irradiation of samples in a microscope for the microscopie imaging and measurement, and (3) RF irradiation of small to human body-sized samples in an anechoic chamber.

  3. Quantitative luminescence imaging system

    DOEpatents

    Erwin, D.N.; Kiel, J.L.; Batishko, C.R.; Stahl, K.A.

    1990-08-14

    The QLIS images and quantifies low-level chemiluminescent reactions in an electromagnetic field. It is capable of real time nonperturbing measurement and simultaneous recording of many biochemical and chemical reactions such as luminescent immunoassays or enzyme assays. The system comprises image transfer optics, a low-light level digitizing camera with image intensifying microchannel plates, an image process or, and a control computer. The image transfer optics may be a fiber image guide with a bend, or a microscope, to take the light outside of the RF field. Output of the camera is transformed into a localized rate of cumulative digitalized data or enhanced video display or hard-copy images. The system may be used as a luminescent microdosimetry device for radiofrequency or microwave radiation, as a thermal dosimeter, or in the dosimetry of ultra-sound (sonoluminescence) or ionizing radiation. It provides a near-real-time system capable of measuring the extremely low light levels from luminescent reactions in electromagnetic fields in the areas of chemiluminescence assays and thermal microdosimetry, and is capable of near-real-time imaging of the sample to allow spatial distribution analysis of the reaction. It can be used to instrument three distinctly different irradiation configurations, comprising (1) RF waveguide irradiation of a small Petri-dish-shaped sample cell, (2) RF irradiation of samples in a microscope for the microscopic imaging and measurement, and (3) RF irradiation of small to human body-sized samples in an anechoic chamber. 22 figs.

  4. Thermal management of closed computer modules utilizing high density circuitry. [in Airborne Information Management System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoadley, A. W.; Porter, A. J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents data on a preliminary analysis of the thermal dynamic characteristics of the Airborne Information Management System (AIMS), which is a continuing design project at NASA Dryden. The analysis established the methods which will be applied to the actual AIMS boards as they become available. The paper also describes the AIMS liquid cooling system design and presents a thermodynamic computer model of the AIMS cooling system, together with an experimental validation of this model.

  5. What We are Learning about Airborne Particles from MISR Multi-angle Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahn, Ralph

    The NASA Earth Observing System’s Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument has been collecting global observations in 36 angular-spectral channels about once per week for over 14 years. Regarding airborne particles, MISR is contributing in three broad areas: (1) aerosol optical depth (AOD), especially over land surface, including bright desert, (2) wildfire smoke, desert dust, and volcanic ash injection and near-source plume height, and (3) aerosol type, the aggregate of qualitative constraints on particle size, shape, and single-scattering albedo (SSA). Early advances in the retrieval of these quantities focused on AOD, for which surface-based sun photometers provided a global network of ground truth, and plume height, for which ground-based and airborne lidar offered near-coincident validation data. MSIR monthly, global AOD products contributed directly to the advances in modeling aerosol impacts on climate made between the Inter-governmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) third and fourth assessment reports. MISR stereo-derived plume heights are now being used to constrain source inventories for the AeroCom aerosol-climate modeling effort. The remaining challenge for the MISR aerosol effort is to refine and validate our global aerosol type product. Unlike AOD and plume height, aerosol type as retrieved by MISR is a qualitative classification derived from multi-dimensional constraints, so evaluation must be done on a categorical basis. Coincident aerosol type validation data are far less common than for AOD, and, except for rare Golden Days during aircraft field campaigns, amount to remote sensing retrievals from suborbital instruments having uncertainties comparable to those from the MISR product itself. And satellite remote sensing retrievals of aerosol type are much more sensitive to scene conditions such as surface variability and AOD than either AOD or plume height. MISR aerosol type retrieval capability and information content have been

  6. Polarized Imaging Nephelometer for in situ airborne measurements of aerosol light scattering.

    PubMed

    Dolgos, Gergely; Martins, J Vanderlei

    2014-09-01

    Global satellite remote sensing of aerosols requires in situ measurements to enable the calibration and validation of algorithms. In order to improve our understanding of light scattering by aerosol particles, and to enable routine in situ airborne measurements of aerosol light scattering, we have developed an instrument, called the Polarized Imaging Nephelometer (PI-Neph). We designed and built the PI-Neph at the Laboratory for Aerosols, Clouds and Optics (LACO) of the University of Maryland, Baltimore County (UMBC). This portable instrument directly measures the ambient scattering coefficient and phase matrix elements of aerosols, in the field or onboard an aircraft. The measured phase matrix elements are the P(11), phase function, and P(12). Lasers illuminate the sampled ambient air and aerosol, and a wide field of view camera detects scattered light in a scattering angle range of 3° to 176°. The PI-Neph measures an ensemble of particles, supplying the relevant quantity for satellite remote sensing, as opposed to particle-by-particle measurements that have other applications. Comparisons with remote sensing measurements will have to consider aircraft inlet effects. The PI-Neph first measured at a laser wavelength of 532nm, and was first deployed successfully in 2011 aboard the B200 aircraft of NASA Langley during the Development and Evaluation of satellite ValidatiOn Tools by Experimenters (DEVOTE) project. In 2013, we upgraded the PI-Neph to measure at 473nm, 532nm, and 671nm nearly simultaneously. LACO has deployed the PI-Neph on a number of airborne field campaigns aboard three different NASA aircraft. This paper describes the PI-Neph measurement approach and validation by comparing measurements of artificial spherical aerosols with Mie theory. We provide estimates of calibration uncertainties, which show agreement with the small residuals between measurements of P(11) and -P(12)/P(11) and Mie theory. We demonstrate the capability of the PI-Neph to measure

  7. Polarized Imaging Nephelometer for in situ airborne measurements of aerosol light scattering.

    PubMed

    Dolgos, Gergely; Martins, J Vanderlei

    2014-09-01

    Global satellite remote sensing of aerosols requires in situ measurements to enable the calibration and validation of algorithms. In order to improve our understanding of light scattering by aerosol particles, and to enable routine in situ airborne measurements of aerosol light scattering, we have developed an instrument, called the Polarized Imaging Nephelometer (PI-Neph). We designed and built the PI-Neph at the Laboratory for Aerosols, Clouds and Optics (LACO) of the University of Maryland, Baltimore County (UMBC). This portable instrument directly measures the ambient scattering coefficient and phase matrix elements of aerosols, in the field or onboard an aircraft. The measured phase matrix elements are the P(11), phase function, and P(12). Lasers illuminate the sampled ambient air and aerosol, and a wide field of view camera detects scattered light in a scattering angle range of 3° to 176°. The PI-Neph measures an ensemble of particles, supplying the relevant quantity for satellite remote sensing, as opposed to particle-by-particle measurements that have other applications. Comparisons with remote sensing measurements will have to consider aircraft inlet effects. The PI-Neph first measured at a laser wavelength of 532nm, and was first deployed successfully in 2011 aboard the B200 aircraft of NASA Langley during the Development and Evaluation of satellite ValidatiOn Tools by Experimenters (DEVOTE) project. In 2013, we upgraded the PI-Neph to measure at 473nm, 532nm, and 671nm nearly simultaneously. LACO has deployed the PI-Neph on a number of airborne field campaigns aboard three different NASA aircraft. This paper describes the PI-Neph measurement approach and validation by comparing measurements of artificial spherical aerosols with Mie theory. We provide estimates of calibration uncertainties, which show agreement with the small residuals between measurements of P(11) and -P(12)/P(11) and Mie theory. We demonstrate the capability of the PI-Neph to measure

  8. Correction of Airborne Pushbroom Images Orientation Using Bundle Adjustment of Frame Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbieux, K.; Constantin, D.; Merminod, B.

    2016-06-01

    To compute hyperspectral orthophotos of an area, one may proceed like for standard RGB orthophotos : equip an aircraft or a drone with the appropriate camera, a GPS and an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU). The position and attitude data from the navigation sensors, together with the collected images, can be input to a bundle adjustment which refines the estimation of the parameters and allows to create 3D models or orthophotos of the scene. But most of the hyperspectral cameras are pushbrooms sensors : they acquire lines of pixels. The bundle adjustment identifies tie points (using their 2D neighbourhoods) between different images to stitch them together. This is impossible when the input images are lines. To get around this problem, we propose a method that can be used when both a frame RGB camera and a hyperspectral pushbroom camera are used during the same flight. We first use the bundle adjustment theory to obtain corrected navigation parameters for the RGB camera. Then, assuming a small boresight between the RGB camera and the navigation sensors, we can estimate this boresight as well as the corrected position and attitude parameters for the navigation sensors. Finally, supposing that the boresight between these sensors and the pushbroom camera is constant during the flight, we can retrieve it by matching manually corresponding pairs of points between the current projection and a reference. Comparison between the direct georeferencing and the georeferencing with our method on three flights performed during the Leman-Baikal project shows great improvement of the ground accuracy.

  9. Column atmospheric water vapor and vegetation liquid water retrievals from airborne imaging spectrometer data

    SciTech Connect

    Bo-Cai Gao; Goetz, A.F.H. )

    1990-03-20

    High spatial resolution column atmospheric water vapor amounts were derived from spectral data collected by the airborne visible-infrared imaging spectrometer (AVIRIS). The quantitative derivation is made by curve fitting observed spectra with calculated spectra in the 1.14-{mu}m and 0.94-{mu}m water vapor band absorption regions using an atmospheric model, a narrow-band spectral model, and a nonlinear least squares fitting technique. The derivation makes use of the facts that (1) the reflectances of many ground targets vary approximately linearly with wavelength in the 0.94- and 1.14-{mu}m water vapor band absorption regions, (2) the scattered radiation near 1 {mu}m is small compared with the directly reflected radiation when the atmospheric aerosol concentrations are low, and (3) the scattered radiation in the lower part of the atmosphere is subjected to the water vapor absorption. Based on the analyses of an AVIRIS data set that was acquired within an hour of radiosonde launch, it appears that the accuracy approaches the precision. The derived column water vapor amounts are independent of the absolute surface reflectances. It now appears feasible to derive high spatial resolution column water vapor amounts over land areas from satellite altitude with the proposed high resolution imaging spectrometer (HIRIS). Curve fitting of spectra near 1 {mu}m from areas covered with vegetation, using an atmospheric model and a simplified vegetation reflectance model, indicates that both the amount of atmospheric water vapor and the moisture content of vegetation can be retrieved simultaneously because the band centers of liquid water in vegetation and the atmospheric water vapor are offset by approximately 0.05 {mu}m.

  10. Comparison of immersed liquid and air cooling of NASA's Airborne Information Management System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoadley, A. W.; Porter, A. J.

    1992-07-01

    The Airborne Information Management System (AIMS) is currently under development at NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility. The AIMS is designed as a modular system utilizing surface mounted integrated circuits in a high-density configuration. To maintain the temperature of the integrated circuits within manufacturer's specifications, the modules are to be filled with Fluorinert FC-72. Unlike ground based liquid cooled computers, the extreme range of the ambient pressures experienced by the AIMS requires the FC-72 be contained in a closed system. This forces the latent heat absorbed during the boiling to be released during the condensation that must take within the closed module system. Natural convection and/or pumping carries the heat to the outer surface of the AIMS module where the heat transfers to the ambient air. This paper will present an evaluation of the relative effectiveness of immersed liquid cooling and air cooling of the Airborne Information Management System.

  11. Comparison of immersed liquid and air cooling of NASA's Airborne Information Management System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoadley, A. W.; Porter, A. J.

    1992-01-01

    The Airborne Information Management System (AIMS) is currently under development at NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility. The AIMS is designed as a modular system utilizing surface mounted integrated circuits in a high-density configuration. To maintain the temperature of the integrated circuits within manufacturer's specifications, the modules are to be filled with Fluorinert FC-72. Unlike ground based liquid cooled computers, the extreme range of the ambient pressures experienced by the AIMS requires the FC-72 be contained in a closed system. This forces the latent heat absorbed during the boiling to be released during the condensation that must take within the closed module system. Natural convection and/or pumping carries the heat to the outer surface of the AIMS module where the heat transfers to the ambient air. This paper will present an evaluation of the relative effectiveness of immersed liquid cooling and air cooling of the Airborne Information Management System.

  12. Radiation imaging system

    DOEpatents

    Immel, David M.; Bobbit, III, John T.; Plummer, Jean R.; Folsom, Matthew D.; Serrato, Michael G.

    2016-03-22

    A radiation imaging system includes a casing and a camera disposed inside the casing. A first field of view through the casing exposes the camera to light from outside of the casing. An image plate is disposed inside the casing, and a second field of view through the casing to the image plate exposes the image plate to high-energy particles produced by a radioisotope outside of the casing. An optical reflector that is substantially transparent to the high-energy particles produced by the radioisotope is disposed with respect to the camera and the image plate to reflect light to the camera and to allow the high-energy particles produced by the radioisotope to pass through the optical reflector to the image plate.

  13. Radiation imaging system

    DOEpatents

    Bobbitt, III, John T.; Immel, David M.; Folsom, Matthew D.; Plummer, Jean R.; Serrato, Michael G.

    2016-06-28

    A radiation imaging system includes a casing and a camera disposed inside the casing. A first field of view through the casing exposes the camera to light from outside of the casing. An image plate is disposed inside the casing, and a second field of view through the casing to the image plate exposes the image plate to high-energy particles produced by a radioisotope outside of the casing. An optical reflector that is substantially transparent to the high-energy particles produced by the radioisotope is disposed with respect to the camera and the image plate to reflect light to the camera and to allow the high-energy particles produced by the radioisotope to pass through the optical reflector to the image plate.

  14. Use of a new high-speed digital data acquisition system in airborne ice-sounding

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wright, David L.; Bradley, Jerry A.; Hodge, Steven M.

    1989-01-01

    A high-speed digital data acquisition and signal averaging system for borehole, surface, and airborne radio-frequency geophysical measurements was designed and built by the US Geological Survey. The system permits signal averaging at rates high enough to achieve significant signal-to-noise enhancement in profiling, even in airborne applications. The first field use of the system took place in Greenland in 1987 for recording data on a 150 by 150-km grid centered on the summit of the Greenland ice sheet. About 6000-line km were flown and recorded using the new system. The data can be used to aid in siting a proposed scientific corehole through the ice sheet.

  15. Airborne Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    ATM (Airborne Thematic Mapper) was developed for NSTL (National Space Technology Companies) by Daedalus Company. It offers expanded capabilities for timely, accurate and cost effective identification of areas with prospecting potential. A related system is TIMS, Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner. Originating from Landsat 4, it is also used for agricultural studies, etc.

  16. The 94 GHz MMW imaging radar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alon, Yair; Ulmer, Lon

    1993-01-01

    The 94 GHz MMW airborne radar system that provides a runway image in adverse weather conditions is now undergoing tests at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB). This system, which consists of a solid state FMCW transceiver, antenna, and digital signal processor, has an update rate of 10 times per second, 0.35x azimuth resolution and up to 3.5 meter range resolution. The radar B scope (range versus azimuth) image, once converted to C scope (elevation versus azimuth), is compatible with the standard TV presentation and can be displayed on the Head Up Display (HUD) or Head Down Display (HDD) to aid the pilot during landing and takeoff in limited visibility conditions.

  17. High-Rate Data-Capture for an Airborne Lidar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valett, Susan; Hicks, Edward; Dabney, Philip; Harding, David

    2012-01-01

    A high-rate data system was required to capture the data for an airborne lidar system. A data system was developed that achieved up to 22 million (64-bit) events per second sustained data rate (1408 million bits per second), as well as short bursts (less than 4 s) at higher rates. All hardware used for the system was off the shelf, but carefully selected to achieve these rates. The system was used to capture laser fire, single-photon detection, and GPS data for the Slope Imaging Multi-polarization Photo-counting Lidar (SIMPL). However, the system has applications for other laser altimeter systems (waveform-recording), mass spectroscopy, xray radiometry imaging, high-background- rate ranging lidar, and other similar areas where very high-speed data capture is needed. The data capture software was used for the SIMPL instrument that employs a micropulse, single-photon ranging measurement approach and has 16 data channels. The detected single photons are from two sources those reflected from the target and solar background photons. The instrument is non-gated, so background photons are acquired for a range window of 13 km and can comprise many times the number of target photons. The highest background rate occurs when the atmosphere is clear, the Sun is high, and the target is a highly reflective surface such as snow. Under these conditions, the total data rate for the 16 channels combined is expected to be approximately 22 million events per second. For each photon detection event, the data capture software reads the relative time of receipt, with respect to a one-per-second absolute time pulse from a GPS receiver, from an event timer card with 0.1-ns precision, and records that information to a RAID (Redundant Array of Independent Disks) storage device. The relative time of laser pulse firings must also be read and recorded with the same precision. Each of the four event timer cards handles the throughput from four of the channels. For each detection event, a flag is

  18. Two generations of Canadian active imaging systems: ALBEDOS and ELVISS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larochelle, Vincent; Mathieu, Pierre; Simard, Jean-Robert

    1999-07-01

    Search and rescue and general surveillance mission pose a serious challenge to conventional imaging systems used by actual aircraft crews. These systems must often work in low- light and low-visibility conditions to find the identify targets. A new airborne imaging technology has been developed to overcome several deficiencies encountered with common CCD cameras, image intensified system and thermal imaging sensors. The recent developments in laser diode arrays, laser diode beam collimation and gatable micro- channel plate intensifier have made possible the construction of a compact active imagin system, called the Airborne Laser-Based Enhanced Detection and Observation Systems (ALBEDOS). This system proved particularly efficient at night and in degraded weather conditions. In addition, it was demonstrated that range gating, besides eliminating most of the light backscattered by aerosols, provided to some extent immunity to blooming effects specific to highly sensitive cameras. The system was installed on a helicopter and tested in various scenarios in October 1995 to demonstrate its potential. To enhance the surveillance capability over large areas of coverage, to optimize detection of humans and small objects and to improve the effectiveness of the search aircraft, a second-generation payload is presently developed and combines the benefits of two complementary imaging sensors. The Enhanced Low-Light level Visible and IR Surveillance System (ELVISS) consists of an improved range-gated active imager and a high-quality thermal imager, installed in two separate airborne platforms slaved together and controlled by a single user interface. It is expected that such a sensor systems will have a direct impact on improving the response time in finding those in need of assistance or simply in increasing the performance, reliability and efficiency of crews involved in general surveillance operations. This paper explains the concept of range gating, details a preliminary

  19. Airborne thermography or infrared remote sensing.

    PubMed

    Goillot, C C

    1975-01-01

    Airborne thermography is part of the more general remote sensing activity. The instruments suitable for image display are infrared line scanners. A great deal of interest has developed during the past 10 years in airborne thermal remote sensing and many applications are in progress. Infrared scanners on board a satellite are used for observation of cloud cover; airborne infrared scanners are used for forest fire detection, heat budget of soils, detecting insect attack, diseases, air pollution damage, water stress, salinity stress on vegetation, only to cite some main applications relevant to agronomy. Using this system it has become possible to get a 'picture' of our thermal environment.

  20. Geophex Airborne Unmanned Survey System (GAUSS). Topical report, October 1993--March 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    The objectives of the project are to construct a geophysical sensor system based on a remotely operated model helicopter (ROH) and to evaluate the efficacy of the system for characterization of hazardous environmental sites. Geophex Airborne Unmanned Survey System (GAUSS) is a geophysical survey system that uses a ROH as the survey vehicle. We have selected the ROH because of its advantages over fixed wing and ground based vehicles. Lower air speed and superior maneuverability of the ROH make it better suited for geophysical surveys than a fixed wing model aircraft. The ROH can fly close to the ground, allowing detection of weak or subtle anomalies. Unlike ground based vehicles, the ROH can traverse difficult terrain while providing a stable sensor platform. ROH does not touch the ground during the course of a survey and is capable of functioning over water and surf zones. The ROH has been successfully used in the motion picture industry and by geology companies for payload bearing applications. The only constraint to use of the airborne system is that the ROH must remain visible to the pilot. Obstructed areas within a site can be characterized by relocating the base station to alternate positions. GAUSS consists of a ROH with radio controller, a data acquisition and processing (DAP) system, and lightweight digital sensor systems. The objective of our Phase I research was to develop a DAP and sensors suitable for ROH operation. We have constructed these subsystems and integrated them to produce an automated, hand-held geophysical surveying system, referred to as the ``pre-prototype``. We have performed test surveys with the pre-prototype to determine the functionality of the and DAP and sensor subsystems and their suitability for airborne application. The objective of the Phase II effort will be to modify the existing subsystems and integrate them into an airborne prototype. Efficacy of the prototype for geophysical survey of hazardous sites will then be determined.

  1. Airborne Windshear Detection and Warning Systems. Fifth and Final Combined Manufacturers' and Technologists' Conference, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delnore, Victor E. (Compiler)

    1994-01-01

    The Fifth (and Final) Combined Manufacturers' and Technologists' Airborne Windshear Review Meeting was hosted jointly by the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) in Hampton, Virginia, on September 28-30, 1993. The purpose of the meeting was to report on the highly successful windshear experiments conducted by government, academic institutions, and industry; to transfer the results to regulators, manufacturers, and users; and to set initiatives for future aeronautics technology research. The formal sessions covered recent developments in windshear flight testing; windshear modeling, flight management, and ground-based systems; airborne windshear detection systems; certification and regulatory issues; development and applications of sensors for wake vortex detection; and synthetic and enhanced vision systems.

  2. Airborne Windshear Detection and Warning Systems. Fifth and Final Combined Manufacturers' and Technologists' Conference, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delnore, Victor E. (Compiler)

    1994-01-01

    The Fifth Combined Manufacturers' and Technologists' Airborne Windshear Review Meeting was hosted by the NASA Langley Research Center and the Federal Aviation Administration in Hampton, Virginia, on September 28-30, 1993. The purpose was to report on the highly successful windshear experiments conducted by government, academic institutions, and industry; to transfer the results to regulators, manufacturers, and users; and to set initiatives for future aeronautics technology research. The formal sessions covered recent developments in windshear flight testing, windshear modeling, flight management, and ground-based systems, airborne windshear detection systems, certification and regulatory issues, and development and applications of sensors for wake vortices and for synthetic and enhanced vision systems. This report was compiled to record and make available the technology updates and materials from the conference.

  3. Development of an airborne hydrocarbon monitoring system based on FTIR technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mogan, Paul A.; Mattson, Carl B.; Schwindt, Chris J.

    1998-10-01

    The capability to monitor airborne hydrocarbon compounds is essential in order to protect sensitive optical payloads from performance degradation caused by the deposition of surface films. Commonly used hydrocarbon monitoring instrumentation such as flame ionization detectors yield no information about the source or identity of compounds they detect. The Fourier Transform IR Spectrometer (FTIR) with its inherent ability to discriminate a large number of compounds offers a tremendous advantage over other types of instrumentation. The contamination monitoring laboratory at John F. Kennedy Space Center has developed an airborne hydrocarbon monitoring system based on FTIR technology to support the AXAF payload. This system consist of a portable cart suitable for use in Class 1 Division 2 environments. This paper describes the system in detail.

  4. Correlative Stratospheric Ozone Measurements with the Airborne UV DIAL System during TOTE/VOTE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, William B.; Fenn, Marta A.; Browell, Edward V.; McGee, Thomas J.; Singh, Upendra N.; Gross, Michael R.; McDermid, I. Stuart; Froidevaux, Lucien; Wang, Pi-Huang

    1998-01-01

    The airborne UV differential absorption lidar (DIAL) system participated in the Tropical Ozone Transport Experiment/Vortex Ozone Transport Experiment (TOTE/VOTE) in late 1995/early 1996. This mission afforded the opportunity to compare the DIAL system's stratospheric ozone measuring capability with other remote-sensing instruments through correlative measurements over a latitude range from the tropics to the Arctic. These instruments included ground-based DIAL and space-based stratospheric instruments: HALOE; MLS; and SAGE II. The ozone profiles generally agreed within random error estimates for the various instruments in the middle of the profiles in the tropics, but regions of significant systematic differences, especially near or below the tropopause or at the higher altitudes were also found. The comparisons strongly suggest that the airborne UV DIAL system can play a valuable role as a mobile lower-stratospheric ozone validation instrument.

  5. Mapping Land Cover in the Taita Hills, se Kenya, Using Airborne Laser Scanning and Imaging Spectroscopy Data Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piiroinen, R.; Heiskanen, J.; Maeda, E.; Hurskainen, P.; Hietanen, J.; Pellikka, P.

    2015-04-01

    The Taita Hills, located in south-eastern Kenya, is one of the world's biodiversity hotspots. Despite the recognized ecological importance of this region, the landscape has been heavily fragmented due to hundreds of years of human activity. Most of the natural vegetation has been converted for agroforestry, croplands and exotic forest plantations, resulting in a very heterogeneous landscape. Given this complex agro-ecological context, characterizing land cover using traditional remote sensing methods is extremely challenging. The objective of this study was to map land cover in a selected area of the Taita Hills using data fusion of airborne laser scanning (ALS) and imaging spectroscopy (IS) data. Land Cover Classification System (LCCS) was used to derive land cover nomenclature, while the height and percentage cover classifiers were used to create objective definitions for the classes. Simultaneous ALS and IS data were acquired over a 10 km x 10 km area in February 2013 of which 1 km x 8 km test site was selected. The ALS data had mean pulse density of 9.6 pulses/m2, while the IS data had spatial resolution of 1 m and spectral resolution of 4.5-5 nm in the 400-1000 nm spectral range. Both IS and ALS data were geometrically co-registered and IS data processed to at-surface reflectance. While IS data is suitable for determining land cover types based on their spectral properties, the advantage of ALS data is the derivation of vegetation structural parameters, such as tree height and crown cover, which are crucial in the LCCS nomenclature. Geographic object-based image analysis (GEOBIA) was used for segmentation and classification at two scales. The benefits of GEOBIA and ALS/IS data fusion for characterizing heterogeneous landscape were assessed, and ALS and IS data were considered complementary. GEOBIA was found useful in implementing the LCCS based classification, which would be difficult to map using pixel-based methods.

  6. Cardiac Imaging System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Although not available to all patients with narrowed arteries, balloon angioplasty has expanded dramatically since its introduction with an estimated further growth to 562,000 procedures in the U.S. alone by 1992. Growth has fueled demand for higher quality imaging systems that allow the cardiologist to be more accurate and increase the chances of a successful procedure. A major advance is the Digital Cardiac Imaging (DCI) System designed by Philips Medical Systems International, Best, The Netherlands and marketed in the U.S. by Philips Medical Systems North America Company. The key benefit is significantly improved real-time imaging and the ability to employ image enhancement techniques to bring out added details. Using a cordless control unit, the cardiologist can manipulate images to make immediate assessment, compare live x-ray and roadmap images by placing them side-by-side on monitor screens, or compare pre-procedure and post procedure conditions. The Philips DCI improves the cardiologist's precision by expanding the information available to him.

  7. Design and Development of a Scanning Airborne Direct Detection Doppler Lidar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gentry, Bruce; McGill, Matthew; Schwemmer, Geary; Hardesty, Michael; Brewer, Alan; Wilkerson, Thomas; Atlas, Robert; Sirota, Marcos; Lindemann, Scott

    2006-01-01

    In the fall of 2005 we began developing an airborne scanning direct detection molecular Doppler lidar. The instrument is being built as part of the Tropospheric Wind Lidar Technology Experiment (TWiLiTE), a three year project selected by the NASA Earth Sun Technology Office under the Instrument Incubator Program. The TWiLiTE project is a collaboration involving scientists and engineers from NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, NOAA ESRL, Utah State University Space Dynamics Lab, Michigan Aerospace Corporation and Sigma Space Corporation. The TWiLiTE instrument will leverage significant research and development investments made by NASA Goddard and it's partners in the past several years in key lidar technologies and sub-systems (lasers, telescopes, scanning systems, detectors and receivers) required to enable spaceborne global wind lidar measurement. These sub-systems will be integrated into a complete molecular direct detection Doppler wind lidar system designed for autonomous operation on a high altitude aircraft, such as the NASA WB57. The WB57 flies at an altitude of 18 km and from this vantage point the nadir viewing Doppler lidar will be able to profile winds through the full troposphere. The TWiLiTE integrated airborne Doppler lidar instrument will be the first demonstration of a airborne scanning direct detection Doppler lidar and will serve as a critical milestone on the path to a future spaceborne tropospheric wind system. In addition to being a technology testbed for space based tropospheric wind lidar, when completed the TWiLiTE high altitude airborne lidar will be used for studying mesoscale dynamics and storm research (e.g. winter storms, hurricanes) and could be used for calibration and validation of satellite based wind systems such as ESA's Aeolus Atmospheric Dynamics Mission. The TWiLiTE Doppler lidar will have the capability to profile winds in clear air from the aircraft altitude of 18 km to the surface with 250 m vertical resolution and < 2mls

  8. Operational Tree Species Mapping in a Diverse Tropical Forest with Airborne Imaging Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Baldeck, Claire A.; Asner, Gregory P.; Martin, Robin E.; Anderson, Christopher B.; Knapp, David E.; Kellner, James R.; Wright, S. Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Remote identification and mapping of canopy tree species can contribute valuable information towards our understanding of ecosystem biodiversity and function over large spatial scales. However, the extreme challenges posed by highly diverse, closed-canopy tropical forests have prevented automated remote species mapping of non-flowering tree crowns in these ecosystems. We set out to identify individuals of three focal canopy tree species amongst a diverse background of tree and liana species on Barro Colorado Island, Panama, using airborne imaging spectroscopy data. First, we compared two leading single-class classification methods—binary support vector machine (SVM) and biased SVM—for their performance in identifying pixels of a single focal species. From this comparison we determined that biased SVM was more precise and created a multi-species classification model by combining the three biased SVM models. This model was applied to the imagery to identify pixels belonging to the three focal species and the prediction results were then processed to create a map of focal species crown objects. Crown-level cross-validation of the training data indicated that the multi-species classification model had pixel-level producer’s accuracies of 94–97% for the three focal species, and field validation of the predicted crown objects indicated that these had user’s accuracies of 94–100%. Our results demonstrate the ability of high spatial and spectral resolution remote sensing to accurately detect non-flowering crowns of focal species within a diverse tropical forest. We attribute the success of our model to recent classification and mapping techniques adapted to species detection in diverse closed-canopy forests, which can pave the way for remote species mapping in a wider variety of ecosystems. PMID:26153693

  9. Operational Tree Species Mapping in a Diverse Tropical Forest with Airborne Imaging Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Baldeck, Claire A; Asner, Gregory P; Martin, Robin E; Anderson, Christopher B; Knapp, David E; Kellner, James R; Wright, S Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Remote identification and mapping of canopy tree species can contribute valuable information towards our understanding of ecosystem biodiversity and function over large spatial scales. However, the extreme challenges posed by highly diverse, closed-canopy tropical forests have prevented automated remote species mapping of non-flowering tree crowns in these ecosystems. We set out to identify individuals of three focal canopy tree species amongst a diverse background of tree and liana species on Barro Colorado Island, Panama, using airborne imaging spectroscopy data. First, we compared two leading single-class classification methods--binary support vector machine (SVM) and biased SVM--for their performance in identifying pixels of a single focal species. From this comparison we determined that biased SVM was more precise and created a multi-species classification model by combining the three biased SVM models. This model was applied to the imagery to identify pixels belonging to the three focal species and the prediction results were then processed to create a map of focal species crown objects. Crown-level cross-validation of the training data indicated that the multi-species classification model had pixel-level producer's accuracies of 94-97% for the three focal species, and field validation of the predicted crown objects indicated that these had user's accuracies of 94-100%. Our results demonstrate the ability of high spatial and spectral resolution remote sensing to accurately detect non-flowering crowns of focal species within a diverse tropical forest. We attribute the success of our model to recent classification and mapping techniques adapted to species detection in diverse closed-canopy forests, which can pave the way for remote species mapping in a wider variety of ecosystems.

  10. [Estimating Leaf Area Index of Crops Based on Hyperspectral Compact Airborne Spectrographic Imager (CASI) Data].

    PubMed

    Tang, Jian-min; Liao, Qin-hong; Liu, Yi-qing; Yang, Gui-jun; Feng, Hai-kuanr; Wang, Ji-hua

    2015-05-01

    The fast estimation of leaf area index (LAI) is significant for learning the crops growth, monitoring the disease and insect, and assessing the yield of crops. This study used the hyperspectral compact airborne spectrographic imager (CASI) data of Zhangye city, in Heihe River basin, on July 7, 2012, and extracted the spectral reflectance accurately. The potential of broadband and red-edge vegetation index for estimating the LAI of crops was comparatively investigated by combined with the field measured data. On this basis, the sensitive wavebands for estimating the LAI of crops were selected and two new spectral indexes (NDSI and RSI) were constructed, subsequently, the spatial distribution of LAI in study area was analyzed. The result showed that broadband vegetation index NDVI had good effect for estimating the LAI when the vegetation coverage is relatively lower, the R2 and RMSE of estimation model were 0. 52, 0. 45 (p<0. 01) , respectively. For red-edge vegetation index, CIred edge took the different crop types into account fully, thus it gained the same estimation accuracy with NDVI. NDSI(569.00, 654.80) and RSI(597.60, 654.80) were constructed by using waveband combination algorithm, which has superior estimation results than NDVI and CIred edge. The R2 of estimation model used NDSI(569.00, 654.80) was 0. 77(p<0. 000 1), it mainly used the wavebands near the green peak and red valley of vegetation spectrum. The spatial distribution map of LAI was made according to the functional relationship between the NDSI(569.00, 654.80) and LAI. After analyzing this map, the LAI values were lower in the northwest of study area, this indicated that more fertilizer should be increased in this area. This study can provide technical support for the agricultural administrative department to learn the growth of crops quickly and make a suitable fertilization strategy. PMID:26415459

  11. Advanced imaging system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This document describes the Advanced Imaging System CCD based camera. The AIS1 camera system was developed at Photometric Ltd. in Tucson, Arizona as part of a Phase 2 SBIR contract No. NAS5-30171 from the NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. The camera project was undertaken as a part of the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) project. This document is intended to serve as a complete manual for the use and maintenance of the camera system. All the different parts of the camera hardware and software are discussed and complete schematics and source code listings are provided.

  12. Scorpion image segmentation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joseph, E.; Aibinu, A. M.; Sadiq, B. A.; Bello Salau, H.; Salami, M. J. E.

    2013-12-01

    Death as a result of scorpion sting has been a major public health problem in developing countries. Despite the high rate of death as a result of scorpion sting, little report exists in literature of intelligent device and system for automatic detection of scorpion. This paper proposed a digital image processing approach based on the floresencing characteristics of Scorpion under Ultra-violet (UV) light for automatic detection and identification of scorpion. The acquired UV-based images undergo pre-processing to equalize uneven illumination and colour space channel separation. The extracted channels are then segmented into two non-overlapping classes. It has been observed that simple thresholding of the green channel of the acquired RGB UV-based image is sufficient for segmenting Scorpion from other background components in the acquired image. Two approaches to image segmentation have also been proposed in this work, namely, the simple average segmentation technique and K-means image segmentation. The proposed algorithm has been tested on over 40 UV scorpion images obtained from different part of the world and results obtained show an average accuracy of 97.7% in correctly classifying the pixel into two non-overlapping clusters. The proposed 1system will eliminate the problem associated with some of the existing manual approaches presently in use for scorpion detection.

  13. Imaging spectrometry of the Earth and other solar system bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vane, Gregg

    1993-01-01

    Imaging spectrometry is a relatively new tool for remote sensing of the Earth and other bodies of the solar system. The technique dates back to the late 1970's and early 1980's. It is a natural extension of the earlier multi-spectral imagers developed for remote sensing that acquire images in a few, usually broad spectral bands. Imaging spectrometers combine aspects of classical spectrometers and imaging systems, making it possible to acquire literally hundreds of images of an object, each image in a separate, narrow spectral band. It is thus possible to perform spectroscopy on a pixel-by-pixel basis with the data acquired with an imaging spectrometer. Two imaging spectrometers have flown in space and several others are planned for future Earth and planetary missions. The French-built Phobos Infrared Spectrometer (ISM) was part of the payload of the Soviet Mars mission in 1988, and the JPL-built Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) is currently en route to Jupiter aboard the Galileo spacecraft. Several airborne imaging spectrometers have been built in the past decade including the JPL-built Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) which is the only such sensor that covers the full solar reflected portion of the spectrum in narrow, contiguous spectral bands. NASA plans two imaging spectrometers for its Earth Observing System, the Moderate and the High Resolution Imaging Spectrometers (MODIS and HIRIS). A brief overview of the applications of imaging spectrometry to Earth science will be presented to illustrate the value of the tool to remote sensing and indicate the types of measurements that are required. The system design for AVIRS and a planetary imaging spectrometer will be presented to illustrate the engineering considerations and challenges that must be met in building such instruments. Several key sensor technology areas will be discussed in which miniaturization and/or enhanced performance through micromachining and nanofabrication may

  14. Airborne imaging lidar, detection and classification of surface and subsurface objects in a marine environment

    SciTech Connect

    Cianciotto, F.T.P.

    1996-11-01

    The current problem of imaging objects located within a body of water is overcome by the use of a Gated Imaging Lidar System. Due to variation of suspended particulate matter within a body of water, normal visible video reconnaissance has proven to be highly unreliable. By using nanosecond short pulsed, low repetition rate blue-green laser signals that are exclusively tuned for specific water conditions, Lidar systems are capable of reproducing clear images from oceanic surface to significant depths. One of the major advantages of gated Lidar is that back scatter from layers above and below the region to be searched is basically reduced to zero. This discrimination in layer searching greatly increase the signal to noise ratio of the system, substantially increasing the likelihood of target recognition. Imaging Lidar systems have been successfully used for numerous military applications, studying of marine life forms, and oil spill detection and classification. Gated imaging Lidar systems are light weight with low power consumption and can be operated by personnel with minimal instruction. 6 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Diagnostic Features of Lava Flows in Satellite and Airborne Images (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowland, S. K.; Bruno, B. C.; Comeau, D.; Mouginis-Mark, P. J.; Fagents, S. A.; Harris, A. J.

    2013-12-01

    Characteristic surface features on lava flows can be seen in, and measured from, nadir and oblique airborne and space borne images. Some are diagnostic of volumetric flow rate, lava-transport mode, rheology, and composition. These in turn can be used to infer eruption styles, magma chamber stress regimes, volcanic histories, etc. Where independent methods can determine these properties, the image-based methods can be refined and (tentatively) extended to other planets. For example, the planimetric outline of a lava flow is determined by the lava's volumetric flow rate and rheology, the strength of the cooled skin relative to that of the fluid interior, and the extent to which a flow can conform to, or over-run, pre-existing topography. Fluid, skin-strength-dominated lava such as pāhoehoe, has a very convoluted outline; more viscous, interior-strength-dominated lava such as ';a';ā (as well as more silicic compositions) have more linear outlines. This can be quantified by the fractal dimension, which increases with convolution. Spatial resolution and degradation of the flow margin are important caveats. Flow margins are relatively easy to measure with IKONOS and QuickBird (Earth), HiRISE (Mars), and LROC NAC (Moon) data, all of which have spatial resolutions < 1 m. They become more difficult to measure in Landsat (30 m), THEMIS vis. (Mars; 18 m), or Magellan (75 m; Venus) data. Also useful is the ratio between the radius of curvature of the flow front and the flow length, which is small for long narrow (fluid) flows, and large for short stubby (viscous) flows. Even incipient channels display shear zones across which there were sharp velocity gradients, and these are preserved on flow surfaces. Tube-fed flows may display lines of skylights that indicate master tubes. Whether a flow is channel-fed ';a';ā or tube-fed pāhoehoe is determined by the volumetric flow rate, which is almost always directly related to the eruption rate. This may be related to the driving

  16. Estimation of Separation Buffers for Wind-Prediction Error in an Airborne Separation Assistance System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Consiglio, Maria C.; Hoadley, Sherwood T.; Allen, B. Danette

    2009-01-01

    Wind prediction errors are known to affect the performance of automated air traffic management tools that rely on aircraft trajectory predictions. In particular, automated separation assurance tools, planned as part of the NextGen concept of operations, must be designed to account and compensate for the impact of wind prediction errors and other system uncertainties. In this paper we describe a high fidelity batch simulation study designed to estimate the separation distance required to compensate for the effects of wind-prediction errors throughout increasing traffic density on an airborne separation assistance system. These experimental runs are part of the Safety Performance of Airborne Separation experiment suite that examines the safety implications of prediction errors and system uncertainties on airborne separation assurance systems. In this experiment, wind-prediction errors were varied between zero and forty knots while traffic density was increased several times current traffic levels. In order to accurately measure the full unmitigated impact of wind-prediction errors, no uncertainty buffers were added to the separation minima. The goal of the study was to measure the impact of wind-prediction errors in order to estimate the additional separation buffers necessary to preserve separation and to provide a baseline for future analyses. Buffer estimations from this study will be used and verified in upcoming safety evaluation experiments under similar simulation conditions. Results suggest that the strategic airborne separation functions exercised in this experiment can sustain wind prediction errors up to 40kts at current day air traffic density with no additional separation distance buffer and at eight times the current day with no more than a 60% increase in separation distance buffer.

  17. Adaptive Stress Testing of Airborne Collision Avoidance Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Ritchie; Kochenderfer, Mykel J.; Mengshoel, Ole J.; Brat, Guillaume P.; Owen, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a scalable method to efficiently search for the most likely state trajectory leading to an event given only a simulator of a system. Our approach uses a reinforcement learning formulation and solves it using Monte Carlo Tree Search (MCTS). The approach places very few requirements on the underlying system, requiring only that the simulator provide some basic controls, the ability to evaluate certain conditions, and a mechanism to control the stochasticity in the system. Access to the system state is not required, allowing the method to support systems with hidden state. The method is applied to stress test a prototype aircraft collision avoidance system to identify trajectories that are likely to lead to near mid-air collisions. We present results for both single and multi-threat encounters and discuss their relevance. Compared with direct Monte Carlo search, this MCTS method performs significantly better both in finding events and in maximizing their likelihood.

  18. Simulation research on ATP system of airborne laser communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zhongyi; Huang, Hailong

    2015-02-01

    The compound axis tracking control circuits model of the ATP system was established and simulation was run on the tracking control performance of the ATP system. It was found through simulation that with the fixed coarse tracking error, the dynamic lag error in the coarse tracking servo system could be suppressed to 120μrad and with the fixed fine tracking error, the dynamic lag error in the fine tracking servo system could be restrained to 2.73μrad, and the vibration residual could be controlled within 1.5μrad.

  19. The development of an airborne information management system for flight test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bever, Glenn

    1992-01-01

    An airborne information management system is being developed at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility. This system will improve the state of the art in management data acquisition on-board research aircraft. The design centers around highly distributable, high-speed microprocessors that allow data compression, digital filtering, and real-time analysis. This paper describes the areas of applicability, approach to developing the system, potential for trouble areas, and reasons for this development activity. System architecture (including the salient points of what makes it unique), design philosophy, and tradeoff issues are also discussed.

  20. PHARUS airborne SAR concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snoeij, Paul; Pouwels, Henk; Koomen, Peter J.; Hoogeboom, Peter

    1995-11-01

    PHARUS (phased array universal SAR) is an airborne SAR concept which is being developed in the Netherlands. The PHARUS system differs from other airborne SARs by the use of a phased array antenna, which provides both for the flexibility in the design as well as for a compact, light-weight instrument that can be carried on small aircraft. The concept allows for the construction of airborne SAR systems on a common generic basis but tailored to specific user needs and can be seen as a preparation for future spaceborne SAR systems using solid state transmitters with electronically steerable phased array antenna. The whole approach is aimed at providing an economic and yet technically sophisticated solution to remote sensing or surveying needs of a specific user. The solid state phased array antenna consists of a collection of radiating patches; the design flexibility for a large part resides in the freedom to choose the number of patches, and thereby the essential radar performance parameters such as resolution and swath width. Another consequence of the use of the phased array antenna is the system's compactness and the possibility to rigidly mount it on a small aircraft. The use of small aircraft of course considerably improves the cost/benefit ratio of the use of airborne SAR. Flight altitude of the system is flexible between about 7,000 and 40,000 feet, giving much operational freedom within the meteo and airspace control limits. In the PHARUS concept the airborne segment is complemented by a ground segment, which consists of a SAR processor, possibly extended by a matching image processing package. (A quick look image is available in real-time on board the aircraft.) The SAR processor is UNIX based and runs on easily available hardware (SUN station). Although the additional image processing software is available, the SAR processing software is nevertheless designed to be able to interface with commercially available image processing software, as well as being able

  1. Mapping methane concentrations from a controlled release experiment using the next generation Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRISng)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorpe, A. K.; Frankenberg, C.; Roberts, D. A.; Aubrey, A. D.; Green, R. O.; Hulley, G. C.; Hook, S. J.

    2014-12-01

    Airborne imaging spectrometers like the next generation Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRISng) are well suited for monitoring local methane sources by covering large regions with the high spatial resolution necessary to resolve emissions. As part of a field campaign with controlled methane releases at the Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center (RMOTC), a number of methane plumes were clearly visible at multiple flux rates and flight altitudes. Images of plumes appeared consistent with wind directions measured at ground stations and were present for fluxes as low as 14.2 cubic meters of methane per hour, equivalent to 0.09 kt/year. Direct comparison of results from AVIRISng and plume dispersion models is ongoing and will be used to assess the potential of constraining emission fluxes using AVIRISng. Methane plumes observed at RMOTC with the Hyperspectral Thermal Emission Spectrometer (HyTES) will also be presented. This controlled release experiment was used to determine the methane sensitivity of AVIRISng and inform sensor design for future imaging spectrometers that could constrain natural and anthropogenic methane emissions on local and regional scales. Imaging spectrometers permit direct attribution of emissions to individual point sources which is particularly useful given the large uncertainties associated with anthropogenic emissions, including industrial point source emissions and fugitive methane from the oil and gas industry. Figure caption: a. AVIRISng true color image indicating tube trailer (TT), meteorological tower (MT), and release point (RP). b. Prominent methane plume and measured enhancements for 70.8 cubic meters per hour methane flux is consistent with wind speed and direction (see arrow) measured by meteorological tower. A linear transect is shown in red and corresponds to enhancements shown in c. d. True color image showing release point (RP). e. Smaller methane plume for 14.2 cubic meters per hour flux. f. Methane

  2. Gross-merchantable timber volume estimation using an airborne lidar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maclean, G. A.; Krabill, W. B.

    1986-01-01

    A preliminary study to determine the utility of an airborne laser as a tool for use by forest managers to estimate gross-merchantable timber volume was conducted near the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center, Wallops Flight Facility utilizing the NASA Airborne Oceanographic Lidar (AOL) system. Measured timber volume was regressed against the cross-sectional area of an AOL-generated profile of forest at the same location. The AOL profile area was found to be a very significant variable in the estimation of gross-merchantable timber volume. Significant improvements were obtained when the data were stratified by species. The overall R-squared value obtained was 0.921 with the regression significant at the one percent level.

  3. Evaluation of Various Spectral Inputs for Estimation of Forest Biochemical and Structural Properties from Airborne Imaging Spectroscopy Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homolová, L.; Janoutová, R.; Malenovský, Z.

    2016-06-01

    In this study we evaluated various spectral inputs for retrieval of forest chlorophyll content (Cab) and leaf area index (LAI) from high spectral and spatial resolution airborne imaging spectroscopy data collected for two forest study sites in the Czech Republic (beech forest at Štítná nad Vláří and spruce forest at Bílý Kříž). The retrieval algorithm was based on a machine learning method - support vector regression (SVR). Performance of the four spectral inputs used to train SVR was evaluated: a) all available hyperspectral bands, b) continuum removal (CR) 645 - 710 nm, c) CR 705 - 780 nm, and d) CR 680 - 800 nm. Spectral inputs and corresponding SVR models were first assessed at the level of spectral databases simulated by combined leaf-canopy radiative transfer models PROSPECT and DART. At this stage, SVR models using all spectral inputs provided good performance (RMSE for Cab < 10 μg cm-2 and for LAI < 1.5), with consistently better performance for beech over spruce site. Since application of trained SVRs on airborne hyperspectral images of the spruce site produced unacceptably overestimated values, only the beech site results were analysed. The best performance for the Cab estimation was found for CR bands in range of 645 - 710 nm, whereas CR bands in range of 680 - 800 nm were the most suitable for LAI retrieval. The CR transformation reduced the across-track bidirectional reflectance effect present in airborne images due to large sensor field of view.

  4. The Utility and Validity of Kinematic GPS Positioning for the Geosar Airborne Terrain Mapping Radar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freedman, Adam; Hensley, Scott; Chapin, Elaine; Kroger, Peter; Hussain, Mushtaq; Allred, Bruce

    1999-01-01

    GeoSAR is an airborne, interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (IFSAR) system for terrain mapping, currently under development by a consortium including NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Calgis, Inc., a California mapping sciences company, and the California Department of Conservation (CaIDOC), with funding provided by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Topographic Engineering Center (TEC) and the U.S. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). IFSAR data processing requires high-accuracy platform position and attitude knowledge. On 9 GeoSAR, these are provided by one or two Honeywell Embedded GPS Inertial Navigation Units (EGI) and an Ashtech Z12 GPS receiver. The EGIs provide real-time high-accuracy attitude and moderate-accuracy position data, while the Ashtech data, post-processed differentially with data from a nearby ground station using Ashtech PNAV software, provide high-accuracy differential GPS positions. These data are optimally combined using a Kalman filter within the GeoSAR motion measurement software, and the resultant position and orientation information are used to process the dual frequency (X-band and P-band) radar data to generate high-accuracy, high -resolution terrain imagery and digital elevation models (DEMs). GeoSAR requirements specify sub-meter level planimetric and vertical accuracies for the resultant DEMS. To achieve this, platform positioning errors well below one meter are needed. The goal of GeoSAR is to obtain 25 cm or better 3-D positions from the GPS systems on board the aircraft. By imaging a set of known point target corner-cube reflectors, the GeoSAR system can be calibrated. This calibration process yields the true position of the aircraft with an uncertainty of 20- 50 cm. This process thus allows an independent assessment of the accuracy of our GPS-based positioning systems. We will present an overview of the GeoSAR motion measurement system, focusing on the use of GPS and the blending of position data from the

  5. Pilot interaction with automated airborne decision making systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammer, John M.

    1990-01-01

    Ways in which computers can aid the decision making of an human operator of an aerospace system are investigated. The approach taken is to aid rather than replace the human operator, because operational experience has shown that humans can enhance the effectiveness of systems. As systems become more automated, the role of the operator has shifted to that of a manager and problem solver. This shift has created the research area of how to aid the human in this role. Published research in four areas is described. A discussion is presented of the DC-8 flight simulator at Georgia Tech.

  6. Concept of Operations for Real-time Airborne Management System

    SciTech Connect

    Barr, Jonathan L.; Taira, Randal Y.; Orr, Heather M.

    2013-03-04

    The purpose of this document is to describe the operating concepts, capabilities, and benefits of RAMS including descriptions of how the system implementations can improve emergency response, damage assessment, task prioritization, and situation awareness. This CONOPS provides general information on operational processes and procedures required to utilize RAMS, and expected performance benefits of the system. The primary audiences for this document are the end users of RAMS (including flight operators and incident commanders) and the RAMS management team. Other audiences include interested offices within the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), and officials from other state and local jurisdictions who want to implement similar systems.

  7. Flame Imaging System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, Heidi L. (Inventor); Smith, Harvey S. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A system for imaging a flame and the background scene is discussed. The flame imaging system consists of two charge-coupled-device (CCD) cameras. One camera uses a 800 nm long pass filter which during overcast conditions blocks sufficient background light so the hydrogen flame is brighter than the background light, and the second CCD camera uses a 1100 nm long pass filter, which blocks the solar background in full sunshine conditions such that the hydrogen flame is brighter than the solar background. Two electronic viewfinders convert the signal from the cameras into a visible image. The operator can select the appropriate filtered camera to use depending on the current light conditions. In addition, a narrow band pass filtered InGaAs sensor at 1360 nm triggers an audible alarm and a flashing LED if the sensor detects a flame, providing additional flame detection so the operator does not overlook a small flame.

  8. Low Gravity Guidance System for Airborne Microgravity Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rieke, W. J.; Emery, E. F.; Boyer, E. O.; Hegedus, C.; ODonoghue, D. P.

    1996-01-01

    Microgravity research techniques have been established to achieve a greater understanding of the role of gravity in the fundamentals of a variety of physical phenomena and material processing. One technique in use at the NASA Lewis Research Center involves flying Keplarian trajectories with a modified Lear Jet and DC-9 aircraft to achieve a highly accurate Microgravity environment by neutralizing accelerations in all three axis of the aircraft. The Low Gravity Guidance System (LGGS) assists the pilot and copilot in flying the trajectories by displaying the aircraft acceleration data in a graphical display format. The Low Gravity Guidance System is a microprocessor based system that acquires and displays the aircraft acceleration information. This information is presented using an electroluminescent display mounted over the pilot's instrument panel. The pilot can select the Microgravity range that is required for a given research event. This paper describes the characteristics, design, calibration and testing of the Low Gravity Guidance System Phase 3, significant lessons from earlier systems and the developmental work on future systems.

  9. Advanced imaging communication system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilbert, E. E.; Rice, R. F.

    1977-01-01

    Key elements of system are imaging and nonimaging sensors, data compressor/decompressor, interleaved Reed-Solomon block coder, convolutional-encoded/Viterbi-decoded telemetry channel, and Reed-Solomon decoding. Data compression provides efficient representation of sensor data, and channel coding improves reliability of data transmission.

  10. Airborne Geodetic Imaging Using the L-band UAVSAR Instrument (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hensley, S.; Zebker, H. A.; Jones, C. E.; Michel, T.; Chapman, B. D.; Muellerschoen, R.; Fore, A.; Simard, M.

    2009-12-01

    Radar interferometry using both airborne and spaceborne platforms has become an integral tool in geodetics sciences over the past 3 decades for both fine resolution topographic mapping and for measuring surface deformation from a variety of both natural and anthropogenic sources. The UAVSAR instrument, employing an L-band actively electronically scanned antenna, had its genesis in the ESTO Instrument Incubator Program and after 3 years of development has begun the regular collection of science data in support of various geodetic applications. System design was motivated by solid Earth applications where repeat pass radar interferometry can be used to measure subtle deformation of the surface, however flexibility and extensibility to support other applications were also major design drivers. Initial testing and deployments are being carried out with the NASA Gulfstream III aircraft, which has been modified to accommodate the radar pod and has been equipped with precision autopilot capability developed by NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. With this the aircraft can fly within a 10 m diameter tube on any specified trajectory necessary for repeat-pass radar interferometric applications. To maintain the required pointing for repeat-pass interferometric applications we have employed an actively scanned antenna steered using INU measurement data. This talk will present some early deformation results made by the UAVSAR instrument over volcanoes (Mt St Helens), landslides near Parkfield CA, ice sheet motion in Greenland and Iceland, anthropogenic induced surface deformation from oil pumping near Lost Hills, CA and changes in agricultural surfaces in California’s San Joaquin Valley. This research was conducted at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  11. A fast smoothing algorithm for post-processing of surface reflectance spectra retrieved from airborne imaging spectrometer data.

    PubMed

    Gao, Bo-Cai; Liu, Ming

    2013-10-14

    Surface reflectance spectra retrieved from remotely sensed hyperspectral imaging data using radiative transfer models often contain residual atmospheric absorption and scattering effects. The reflectance spectra may also contain minor artifacts due to errors in radiometric and spectral calibrations. We have developed a fast smoothing technique for post-processing of retrieved surface reflectance spectra. In the present spectral smoothing technique, model-derived reflectance spectra are first fit using moving filters derived with a cubic spline smoothing algorithm. A common gain curve, which contains minor artifacts in the model-derived reflectance spectra, is then derived. This gain curve is finally applied to all of the reflectance spectra in a scene to obtain the spectrally smoothed surface reflectance spectra. Results from analysis of hyperspectral imaging data collected with the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data are given. Comparisons between the smoothed spectra and those derived with the empirical line method are also presented.

  12. Pilot interaction with automated airborne decision making systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rouse, W. B.; Chu, Y. Y.; Greenstein, J. S.; Walden, R. S.

    1976-01-01

    An investigation was made of interaction between a human pilot and automated on-board decision making systems. Research was initiated on the topic of pilot problem solving in automated and semi-automated flight management systems and attempts were made to develop a model of human decision making in a multi-task situation. A study was made of allocation of responsibility between human and computer, and discussed were various pilot performance parameters with varying degrees of automation. Optimal allocation of responsibility between human and computer was considered and some theoretical results found in the literature were presented. The pilot as a problem solver was discussed. Finally the design of displays, controls, procedures, and computer aids for problem solving tasks in automated and semi-automated systems was considered.

  13. Airborne digital holographic system for cloud particle measurements.

    PubMed

    Fugal, Jacob P; Shaw, Raymond A; Saw, Ewe Wei; Sergeyev, Aleksandr V

    2004-11-10

    An in-line holographic system for in situ detection of atmospheric cloud particles [Holographic Detector for Clouds (HOLODEC)] has been developed and flown on the National Center for Atmospheric Research C-130 research aircraft. Clear holograms are obtained in daylight conditions at typical aircraft speeds of 100 m s(-1). The instrument is fully digital and is interfaced to a control and data-acquisition system in the aircraft via optical fiber. It is operable at temperatures of less than -30 degrees C and at typical cloud humidities. Preliminary data from the experiment show its utility for studies of the three-dimensional spatial distribution of cloud particles and ice crystal shapes.

  14. Application of the Hardman methodology to the Single Channel Ground-Airborne Radio System (SINCGARS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The HARDMAN methodology was applied to the various configurations of employment for an emerging Army multipurpose communications system. The methodology was used to analyze the manpower, personnel and training (MPT) requirements and associated costs, of the system concepts responsive to the Army's requirement for the Single Channel Ground-Airborne Radio System (SINCGARS). The scope of the application includes the analysis of two conceptual designs Cincinnati Electronics and ITT Aerospace/Optical Division for operating and maintenance support addressed through the general support maintenance echelon.

  15. Flight Tests of the DELICAT Airborne LIDAR System for Remote Clear Air Turbulence Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrancken, Patrick; Wirth, Martin; Ehret, Gerhard; Witschas, Benjamin; Veerman, Henk; Tump, Robert; Barny, Hervé; Rondeau, Philippe; Dolfi-Bouteyre, Agnès; Lombard, Laurent

    2016-06-01

    An important aeronautics application of lidar is the airborne remote detection of Clear Air Turbulence which cannot be performed with onboard radar. We report on a DLR-developed lidar system for the remote detection of such turbulent areas in the flight path of an aircraft. The lidar, consisting of a high-power UV laser transmitter and a direct detection system, was installed on a Dutch research aircraft. Flight tests executed in 2013 demonstrated the performance of the lidar system to detect local subtle variations in the molecular backscatter coefficient indicating the turbulence some 10 to 15 km ahead.

  16. Pilot interaction with automated airborne decision making systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rouse, W. B.; Hammer, J. M.; Morris, N. M.; Brown, E. N.; Yoon, W. C.

    1983-01-01

    The use of advanced software engineering methods (e.g., from artificial intelligence) to aid aircraft crews in procedure selection and execution is investigated. Human problem solving in dynamic environments as effected by the human's level of knowledge of system operations is examined. Progress on the development of full scale simulation facilities is also discussed.

  17. Tactical Imaging System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mocenter, Michael M.

    1990-02-01

    The ability to send photographic information to command centers is a vital element in performing effective near real-time reconnaissance and surveillance operations. This imagery, in conjunction with other battlefield data, provides the battlefield commander with up-to-date intelligence for making decisions. Until recently, the ability to provide this real-time information was severely restricted by the logistics of physically moving, developing, and then disseminating the film. This time delay resulted in out-of-date, stale intelligence. This problem situation has eased recently due to technological developments that have been instrumental in facilitating the dissemination of near real-time information to forward operating areas and behind enemy lines. The Naval Air Development Center (NAVAIRDEVCEN) has capitalized on these developments and established the Tactical Imaging System (TIS). This miniaturized, man-pack, SATCOM/HF transmitting system provides near real-time tactical imagery. It consists of an image sensor, image intensifier, zoom lens, and image transmission processor. This paper provides an overview of the TIS components, specifications, operations, and future developments and applications. The TIS will have potential application in areas such as identification (friend or foe), reconnaissance, surveillance, and battlefield assessment. Under the TIS program, NAVAIRDEVCEN has developed hands-on experience in still video images and related technologies, including fleet satellite communications, HF transmission, image compression algorithms, VSLI integrated circuitry design, and day/night imagery techniques. NAVAIRDEVCEN has developed a complete, miniaturized system to conduct operational demonstrations, and to demonstrate operational tactics and utilization concepts. This paper provides an overview of the TIS components, specifications, operations, and future developments and applications.

  18. Mapped minerals at Questa, New Mexico, using airborne visible-infrared imaging spectrometer (AVIRIS) data -- Preliminary report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Livo, K. Eric; Clark, Roger N.

    2002-01-01

    This preliminary study for the First Quarterly Report has spectrally mapped hydrothermally altered minerals useful in assisting in assessment of water quality of the Red River. Airborne Visible-Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data was analyzed to characterize mined and unmined ground at Questa, New Mexico. AVIRIS data covers the Red River drainage north of the river, from between the town of Questa on the west, to east of the town of Red River. The data was calibrated and analyzed using U.S. Geological Survey custom software and spectral mineral library. AVIRIS data was tested for spectral features that matched similar features in the spectral mineral library. Goodness-of-fit and band-depth were calculated for each comparison of spectral features and used to identify surface mineralogy. Mineral distribution, mineral associations, and AVIRIS pixel spectra were examined. Mineral maps show the distribution of iron hydroxides, iron sulfates, clays, micas, carbonates, and other minerals. Initial results show a system of alteration suites that overprint each other. Quartz-sericite-pyrite (QSP) alteration grading out to propylitic alteration (epidote and calcite) was identified at the Questa Mine (molybdenum porphyry) and a similar alteration pattern was mapped at the landslide (?scar?) areas. Supergene weathering overprints the altered rock, as shown by jarosite, kaolinite, and gypsum. In the spectral analysis, hydrothermally altered ground appears to be more extensive at the unmined Goat Hill Gulch and the mined ground, than the ?scars? to the east. Though the ?scars? have similar overall altered mineral suites, there are differences between the ?scars? in sericite, kaolinite, jarosite, gypsum, and calcite abundance. Fieldwork has verified the results at the central unmined ?scar? areas.

  19. Emergency Response Equipment and Related Training: Airborne Radiological Computer System (Model II)

    SciTech Connect

    David P. Colton

    2007-02-28

    The materials included in the Airborne Radiological Computer System, Model-II (ARCS-II) were assembled with several considerations in mind. First, the system was designed to measure and record the airborne gamma radiation levels and the corresponding latitude and longitude coordinates, and to provide a first overview look of the extent and severity of an accident's impact. Second, the portable system had to be light enough and durable enough that it could be mounted in an aircraft, ground vehicle, or watercraft. Third, the system must control the collection and storage of the data, as well as provide a real-time display of the data collection results to the operator. The notebook computer and color graphics printer components of the system would only be used for analyzing and plotting the data. In essence, the provided equipment is composed of an acquisition system and an analysis system. The data can be transferred from the acquisition system to the analysis system at the end of the data collection or at some other agreeable time.

  20. ATLAS: an airborne active linescan system for high-resolution topographic mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willetts, David V.; Kightley, Peter J.; Mole, S. G.; Pearson, Guy N.; Pearson, P.; Coffey, Adrian S.; Stokes, Tim J.; Tapster, Paul R.; Westwood, M.

    2004-12-01

    High resolution ground mapping is of interest for survey and management of long linear features such as roads, railways and pipelines, and for georeferencing of areas such as flood plains for hydrological purposes. ATLAS (Airborne Topographic Laser System) is an active linescan system operating at the eyesafe wavelength of 1.5μm. Built for airborne survey, it is currently certified for use on a Twin Squirrel helicopter for operation from low levels to heights above 500 feet allowing commercial survey in built up areas. The system operates at a pulse repetition frequency of 56kHz with a line completed in 15ms, giving 36 points/m2 at the surface at the design flight speed. At each point the range to the ground is measured together with the scan angle of the system. This data is combined with a system attitude measurement from an integrated inertial navigation system and with system position derived from differential GPS data aboard the platform. A recording system captures the data with a synchronised time-stamp to enable post-processed reconstruction of a cloud of data points that will give a three-dimensional representation of the terrain, allowing the points to be located with respect to absolute Earth referenced coordinates to a precision of 5cm in three axes. This paper summarises the design, harmonisation, evaluation and performance of the system, and shows examples of survey data.

  1. Development of the Advance Warning Airborne System(AWAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adamson, H. Patrick

    1992-01-01

    The thermal characteristics of microbursts are utilized by the AWAS IR and OAT features to provide predictive warning of hazardous microbursts ahead of the aircraft during landing or take off. The AWAS was evaluated satisfactorily in 1990 on a Cessna Citation that was intentionally flown into a number of wind shear events. The events were detected, and both the IR and OAT thermal features were shown to be effective. In 1991, AWAS units were flown on three American Airline MD-80's and three Northwest Airlines DC-9's to study and to decrease the nuisance alert response of the system. The AWAS was also flown on the NASA B737 during the summer of 1991. The results of these flights were inconclusive and disappointing. The results were not as promising as before because NASA conducted research flights which were outside of the normal operating envelope for which the AWAS is designed to operate. In an attempt to compensate for these differences in airspeed and mounting location, the automatic features of the system were sometimes overridden by NASA personnel during the flight. Each of these critical factors is discussed in detail. The effect of rain on the OAT signals is presented as a function of the air speed. Use of a 4 pole 1/20 Hertz filter is demonstrated by both the IR and thermal data. Participation in the NASA 1992 program was discussed. FAA direction in the continuing Certification program requires the addition of a reactive feature to the AWAS predictive system. This combined system will not require flight guidance on newer aircraft. The features of AWAS-IV, with the NASA algorithm included, were presented. Expected completion of the FAA Certification plan was also described.

  2. Airborne Antenna System for Minimum-Cycle-Slip GPS Reception

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, C. Wayne

    2009-01-01

    A system that includes a Global Positioning System (GPS) antenna and associated apparatus for keeping the antenna aimed upward has been developed for use aboard a remote-sensing-survey airplane. The purpose served by the system is to enable minimum- cycle-slip reception of GPS signals used in precise computation of the trajectory of the airplane, without having to restrict the airplane to maneuvers that increase the flight time needed to perform a survey. Cycle slip signifies loss of continuous track of the phase of a signal. Minimum-cycle-slip reception is desirable because maintaining constant track of the phase of the carrier signal from each available GPS satellite is necessary for surveying to centimeter or subcentimeter precision. Even a loss of signal for as short a time as a nanosecond can cause cycle slip. Cycle slips degrade the quality and precision of survey data acquired during a flight. The two principal causes of cycle slip are weakness of signals and multipath propagation. Heretofore, it has been standard practice to mount a GPS antenna rigidly on top of an airplane, and the radiation pattern of the antenna is typically hemispherical, so that all GPS satellites above the horizon are viewed by the antenna during level flight. When the airplane must be banked for a turn or other maneuver, the reception hemisphere becomes correspondingly tilted; hence, the antenna no longer views satellites that may still be above the Earth horizon but are now below the equatorial plane of the tilted reception hemisphere. Moreover, part of the reception hemisphere (typically, on the inside of a turn) becomes pointed toward ground, with a consequent increase in received noise and, therefore, degradation of GPS measurements. To minimize the likelihood of loss of signal and cycle slip, bank angles of remote-sensing survey airplanes have generally been limited to 10 or less, resulting in skidding or slipping uncoordinated turns. An airplane must be banked in order to make

  3. International Symposium on Airborne Geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mogi, Toru; Ito, Hisatoshi; Kaieda, Hideshi; Kusunoki, Kenichiro; Saltus, Richard W.; Fitterman, David V.; Okuma, Shigeo; Nakatsuka, Tadashi

    2006-05-01

    Airborne geophysics can be defined as the measurement of Earth properties from sensors in the sky. The airborne measurement platform is usually a traditional fixed-wing airplane or helicopter, but could also include lighter-than-air craft, unmanned drones, or other specialty craft. The earliest history of airborne geophysics includes kite and hot-air balloon experiments. However, modern airborne geophysics dates from the mid-1940s when military submarine-hunting magnetometers were first used to map variations in the Earth's magnetic field. The current gamut of airborne geophysical techniques spans a broad range, including potential fields (both gravity and magnetics), electromagnetics (EM), radiometrics, spectral imaging, and thermal imaging.

  4. Quantitative Luminescence Imaging System

    SciTech Connect

    Batishko, C.R.; Stahl, K.A.; Fecht, B.A.

    1992-12-31

    The goal of the MEASUREMENT OF CHEMILUMINESCENCE project is to develop and deliver a suite of imaging radiometric instruments for measuring spatial distributions of chemiluminescence. Envisioned deliverables include instruments working at the microscopic, macroscopic, and life-sized scales. Both laboratory and field portable instruments are envisioned. The project also includes development of phantoms as enclosures for the diazoluminomelanin (DALM) chemiluminescent chemistry. A suite of either phantoms in a variety of typical poses, or phantoms that could be adjusted to a variety of poses, is envisioned. These are to include small mammals (rats), mid-sized mammals (monkeys), and human body parts. A complete human phantom that can be posed is a long-term goal of the development. Taken together, the chemistry and instrumentation provide a means for imaging rf dosimetry based on chemiluminescence induced by the heat resulting from rf energy absorption. The first delivered instrument, the Quantitative Luminescence Imaging System (QLIS), resulted in a patent, and an R&D Magazine 1991 R&D 100 award, recognizing it as one of the 100 most significant technological developments of 1991. The current status of the project is that three systems have been delivered, several related studies have been conducted, two preliminary human hand phantoms have been delivered, system upgrades have been implemented, and calibrations have been maintained. Current development includes sensitivity improvements to the microscope-based system; extension of the large-scale (potentially life-sized targets) system to field portable applications; extension of the 2-D large-scale system to 3-D measurement; imminent delivery of a more refined human hand phantom and a rat phantom; rf, thermal and imaging subsystem integration; and continued calibration and upgrade support.

  5. Pilot interaction with automated airborne decision making systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammer, John M.; Wan, C. Yoon; Vasandani, Vijay

    1987-01-01

    The current research is focused on detection of human error and protection from its consequences. A program for monitoring pilot error by comparing pilot actions to a script was described. It dealt primarily with routine errors (slips) that occurred during checklist activity. The model to which operator actions were compared was a script. Current research is an extension along these two dimensions. The ORS fault detection aid uses a sophisticated device model rather than a script. The newer initiative, the model-based and constraint-based warning system, uses an even more sophisticated device model and is to prevent all types of error, not just slips or bad decision.

  6. A high gain antenna system for airborne satellite communication applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maritan, M.; Borgford, M.

    1990-01-01

    A high gain antenna for commercial aviation satellites communication is discussed. Electromagnetic and practical design considerations as well as candidate systems implementation are presented. An evaluation of these implementation schemes is given, resulting in the selection of a simple top mounted aerodynamic phased array antenna with a remotely located beam steering unit. This concept has been developed into a popular product known as the Canadian Marconi Company CMA-2100. A description of the technical details is followed by a summary of results from the first production antennas.

  7. Artificial Immune System Approach for Airborne Vehicle Maneuvering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaneshige, John T. (Inventor); Krishnakumar, Kalmanje S. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A method and system for control of a first aircraft relative to a second aircraft. A desired location and desired orientation are estimated for the first aircraft, relative to the second aircraft, at a subsequent time, t=t2, subsequent to the present time, t=t1, where the second aircraft continues its present velocity during a subsequent time interval, t1.ltoreq.t.ltoreq.t2, or takes evasive action. Action command sequences are examined, and an optimal sequence is chosen to bring the first aircraft to the desired location and desired orientation relative to the second aircraft at time t=t2. The method applies to control of combat aircraft and/or of aircraft in a congested airspace.

  8. A knowledge-based expert system for scheduling of airborne astronomical observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nachtsheim, P. R.; Gevarter, W. B.; Stutz, J. C.; Banda, C. P.

    1985-01-01

    The Kuiper Airborne Observatory Scheduler (KAOS) is a knowledge-based expert system developed at NASA Ames Research Center to assist in route planning of a C-141 flying astronomical observatory. This program determines a sequence of flight legs that enables sequential observations of a set of heavenly bodies derived from a list of desirable objects. The possible flight legs are constrained by problems of observability, avoiding flyovers of warning and restricted military zones, and running out of fuel. A significant contribution of the KAOS program is that it couples computational capability with a reasoning system.

  9. Modelling climate change effects on a Dutch coastal groundwater system using airborne electromagnetic measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faneca Sànchez, M.; Gunnink, J. L.; van Baaren, E. S.; Oude Essink, G. H. P.; Siemon, B.; Auken, E.; Elderhorst, W.; de Louw, P. G. B.

    2012-12-01

    The forecast of climate change effects on the groundwater system in coastal areas is of key importance for policy makers. The Dutch water system has been deeply studied because of its complex system of low-lying areas, dunes, land won to the sea and dikes, but nowadays large efforts are still being done to find out the best techniques to describe complex fresh-brackish-saline groundwater dynamic systems. In this paper, we describe a methodology consisting of high-resolution airborne electromagnetic (EM) measurements used in a 3-D variable-density transient groundwater model for a coastal area in the Netherlands. We used the airborne EM measurements in combination with borehole-logging data, electrical conductivity cone penetration tests and groundwater samples to create a 3-D fresh-brackish-saline groundwater distribution of the study area. The EM measurements proved to be an improvement compared to older techniques and provided quality input for the model. With the help of the built 3-D variable-density groundwater model, we removed the remaining inaccuracies of the 3-D chloride field and predicted the effects of three climate scenarios on the groundwater and surface water system. Results showed significant changes in the groundwater system, and gave direction for future water policy. Future research should provide more insight in the improvement of data collection for fresh-brackish-saline groundwater systems as it is of high importance to further improve the quality of the model.

  10. Modelling climate change effects on a Dutch coastal groundwater system using airborne Electro Magnetic measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faneca Sànchez, M.; Gunnink, J. L.; van Baaren, E. S.; Oude Essink, G. H. P.; Siemon, B.; Auken, E.; Elderhorst, W.; de Louw, P. G. B.

    2012-05-01

    The forecast of climate change effects on the groundwater system in coastal areas is of key importance for policy makers. The Dutch water system has been deeply studied because of its complex system of low-lying areas, dunes, land won to the sea and dikes, but nowadays large efforts are still being done to find out the best techniques to describe complex fresh-brackish-saline groundwater dynamic systems. In this article, we describe a methodology consisting of high-resolution airborne Electro Magnetic (EM) measurements used in a 3-D variable-density transient groundwater model for a coastal area in the Netherlands. We used the Airborne EM measurements in combination with borehole-logging data, Electrical Conductivity Cone Penetration Tests and groundwater samples to create a 3-D fresh-brackish-saline groundwater distribution of the study area. The EM measurements proved to be an improvement compared to older techniques and provided quality input for the model. With the help of the built 3-D variable-density groundwater model, we removed the remaining inaccuracies of the 3-D chloride field and predicted the effects of three climate scenarios on the groundwater and surface water system. Results showed significant changes in the groundwater system, and gave direction for future water policy. Future research should provide more insight in the improvement of data collection for fresh-brackish-saline groundwater systems as it is of high importance to further improve the quality of the model.

  11. Lidar System for Airborne Measurement of Clouds and Aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGill, Matthew; Scott, V. Stanley; Izquierdo, Luis Ramos; Marzouk, Joe

    2008-01-01

    A lidar system for measuring optical properties of clouds and aerosols at three wavelengths is depicted. The laser transmitter is based on a Nd:YVO4 laser crystal pumped by light coupled to the crystal via optical fibers from laser diodes that are located away from the crystal to aid in dissipating the heat generated in the diodes and their drive circuits. The output of the Nd:YVO4 crystal has a wavelength of 1064 nm, and is made to pass through frequency-doubling and frequency-tripling crystals. As a result, the net laser output is a collinear superposition of beams at wavelengths of 1064, 532, and 355 nm. The laser operates at a pulse-repetition rate of 5 kHz, emitting per-pulse energies of 50 microJ at 1064 nm, 25 microJ at 532 nm and 50 microJ at 355 nm. An important feature of this system is an integrating sphere located between the laser output and the laser beam expander lenses. The integrating sphere collects light scattered from the lenses. Three energy-monitor detectors are located at ports inside the integrating sphere. Each of these detectors is equipped with filters such that the laser output energy is measured independently for each wavelength. The laser output energy is measured on each pulse to enable the most accurate calibration possible. The 1064-nm and 532-nm photodetectors are, more specifically, single photon-counting modules (SPCMs). When used at 1064 nm, these detectors have approximately 3% quantum efficiency and low thermal noise (fewer than 200 counts per second). When used at 532 nm, the SPCMs have quantum efficiency of about 60%. The photodetector for the 355-nm channel is a photon-counting photomultiplier tube having a quantum efficiency of about 20%. The use of photon-counting detectors is made feasible by the low laser pulse energy. The main advantage of photon-counting is ease of inversion of data without need for complicated calibration schemes like those necessary for analog detectors. The disadvantage of photon-counting detectors

  12. Internally controlled PCR system for detection of airborne microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Usachev, Evgeny V; Agranovski, Igor E

    2012-05-01

    Recently, we reported the outcomes of feasibility studies of a technological approach allowing rapid detection of a wide range of bioaerosols by combining a personal bioaerosol sampler with a real-time PCR technology. The protocol was found suitable for detection of targeted microorganisms within relatively short time periods. Considering the crucial importance of the PCR procedure quality control, the current paper reports the results of the development of an internally controlled PCR system for utilization by the above technology. The suggested strategy is based on utilization of only two fluorescent dyes, which are used respectively for target and internal amplification control (IAC) DNA amplification. A bacteriophage T4 and recombinant phage fd (M13) were used in this research as target and IAC, respectively. The constructed IAC was added directly to the collection liquid of the personal bioaerosol sampler enabling quality control to be present throughout the entire sampling-analysis procedures. For performance evaluation, serial ten-fold dilutions of T4 phage were aerosolized and sampled over a 10 minutes time period. The results showed that T4 phage could be reliably detected at the concentration of around 200 PFU per litre of air over the 10 minutes sampling period. The developed PCR assay demonstrated high specificity and no cross reaction. It is concluded that the recombinant phage fd is suitable for utilization as an internal control enabling to significantly minimize false negative results for bioaerosol detection procedures. PMID:22565862

  13. Optimization of an air–liquid interface exposure system for assessing toxicity of airborne nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Latvala, Siiri; Hedberg, Jonas; Möller, Lennart; Odnevall Wallinder, Inger; Karlsson, Hanna L.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The use of refined toxicological methods is currently needed for characterizing the risks of airborne nanoparticles (NPs) to human health. To mimic pulmonary exposure, we have developed an air–liquid interface (ALI) exposure system for direct deposition of airborne NPs on to lung cell cultures. Compared to traditional submerged systems, this allows more realistic exposure conditions for characterizing toxicological effects induced by airborne NPs. The purpose of this study was to investigate how the deposition of silver NPs (AgNPs) is affected by different conditions of the ALI system. Additionally, the viability and metabolic activity of A549 cells was studied following AgNP exposure. Particle deposition increased markedly with increasing aerosol flow rate and electrostatic field strength. The highest amount of deposited particles (2.2 μg cm–2) at cell‐free conditions following 2 h exposure was observed for the highest flow rate (390 ml min–1) and the strongest electrostatic field (±2 kV). This was estimated corresponding to deposition efficiency of 94%. Cell viability was not affected after 2 h exposure to clean air in the ALI system. Cells exposed to AgNPs (0.45 and 0.74 μg cm–2) showed significantly (P < 0.05) reduced metabolic activities (64 and 46%, respectively). Our study shows that the ALI exposure system can be used for generating conditions that were more realistic for in vitro exposures, which enables improved mechanistic and toxicological studies of NPs in contact with human lung cells.Copyright © 2016 The Authors Journal of Applied Toxicology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:26935862

  14. Preliminary evaluation of the airborne imaging spectrometer for vegetation analysis in the Klamath National Forest of northeastern California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strahler, A. H.; Woodcock, C. E.; Avila, F. X.

    1985-01-01

    The experiences and results associated with a project entitled Preliminary Evaluation of the Airborne Imaging Spectrometer for Vegetation Analysis is documented. The primary goal of the project was to provide ground truth, manual interpretation, and computer processing of data from an experimental flight of the Airborne Infrared Spectrometer (AIS) to determine the extent to which high spectral resolution remote sensing could differentiate among plant species, and especially species of conifers, for a naturally vegetated test site. Through the course of the research, JPL acquired AIS imagery of the test areas in the Klamath National Forest, northeastern California, on two overflights of both the Dock Well and Grass Lake transects. Over the next year or so, three generations of data was also received: first overflight, second overflight, and reprocessed second overflight. Two field visits were made: one trip immediately following the first overflight to note snow conditions and temporally-related vegetation states at the time of the sensor overpass; and a second trip about six weeks later, following acquisition of prints of the images from the first AIS overpass.

  15. The Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor (LVIS): A Medium-Altitude, Digitization-Only, Airborne Laser Altimeter for Mapping Vegetation and Topography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blair, J. Bryan; Rabine, David L.; Hofton, Michelle A.

    1999-01-01

    The Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor (LVIS) is an airborne, scanning laser altimeter designed and developed at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. LVIS operates at altitudes up to 10 km above ground, and is capable of producing a data swath up to 1000 m wide nominally with 25 m wide footprints. The entire time history of the outgoing and return pulses is digitized, allowing unambiguous determination of range and return pulse structure. Combined with aircraft position and attitude knowledge, this instrument produces topographic maps with decimeter accuracy and vertical height and structure measurements of vegetation. The laser transmitter is a diode-pumped Nd:YAG oscillator producing 1064 nm, 10 nsec, 5 mJ pulses at repetition rates up to 500 Hz. LVIS has recently demonstrated its ability to determine topography (including sub-canopy) and vegetation height and structure on flight missions to various forested regions in the U.S. and Central America. The LVIS system is the airborne simulator for the Vegetation Canopy Lidar (VCL) mission (a NASA Earth remote sensing satellite due for launch in 2000), providing simulated data sets and a platform for instrument proof-of-concept studies. The topography maps and return waveforms produced by LVIS provide Earth scientists with a unique data set allowing studies of topography, hydrology, and vegetation with unmatched accuracy and coverage.

  16. Concentration and characterization of airborne particles in Tehran's subway system.

    PubMed

    Kamani, Hosein; Hoseini, Mohammad; Seyedsalehi, Mahdi; Mahdavi, Yousef; Jaafari, Jalil; Safari, Gholam Hosein

    2014-06-01

    Particulate matter is an important air pollutant, especially in closed environments like underground subway stations. In this study, a total of 13 elements were determined from PM10 and PM2.5 samples collected at two subway stations (Imam Khomeini and Sadeghiye) in Tehran's subway system. Sampling was conducted in April to August 2011 to measure PM concentrations in platform and adjacent outdoor air of the stations. In the Imam Khomeini station, the average concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 were 94.4 ± 26.3 and 52.3 ± 16.5 μg m(-3) in the platform and 81.8 ± 22.2 and 35 ± 17.6 μg m(-3) in the outdoor air, respectively. In the Sadeghiye station, mean concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 were 87.6 ± 23 and 41.3 ± 20.4 μg m(-3) in the platform and 73.9 ± 17.3 and 30 ± 15 μg m(-3), in the outdoor air, respectively. The relative contribution of elemental components in each particle fraction were accounted for 43% (PM10) and 47.7% (PM2.5) in platform of Imam Khomeini station and 15.9% (PM10) and 18.5% (PM2.5) in the outdoor air of this station. Also, at the Sadeghiye station, each fraction accounted for 31.6% (PM10) and 39.8% (PM2.5) in platform and was 11.7% (PM10) and 14.3% (PM2.5) in the outdoor. At the Imam Khomeini station, Fe was the predominant element to represent 32.4 and 36 % of the total mass of PM10 and PM2.5 in the platform and 11.5 and 13.3% in the outdoor, respectively. At the Sadeghiye station, this element represented 22.7 and 29.8% of total mass of PM10 and PM2.5 in the platform and 8.7 and 10.5% in the outdoor air, respectively. Other major crustal elements were 5.8% (PM10) and 5.3% (PM2.5) in the Imam Khomeini station platform and 2.3 and 2.4% in the outdoor air, respectively. The proportion of other minor elements was significantly lower, actually less than 7% in total samples, and V was the minor concentration in total mass of PM10 and PM2.5 in both platform stations. PMID:24573466

  17. Imaging system fundamentals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holst, Gerald C.

    2011-05-01

    Point-and-shoot, TV studio broadcast, and thermal infrared imaging cameras have significantly different applications. A parameter that applies to all imaging systems is Fλ/d, where F is the focal ratio, λ is the wavelength, and d is the detector size. Fλ/d uniquely defines the shape of the camera modulation transfer function. When Fλ/d<2, aliased signal corrupts the imagery. Mathematically, the worst case analysis assumes that the scene contains all spatial frequencies with equal amplitudes. This quantifies the potential for aliasing and is called the spurious response. Digital data cannot be seen; it resides in a computer. Cathode ray tubes, flat panel displays, and printers convert the data into an analog format and are called reconstruction filters. The human visual system is an additional reconstruction filter. Different displays and variable viewing distance affect the perceived image quality. Simulated imagery illustrates different Fλ/d ratios, displays, and sampling artifacts. Since the human visual system is primarily sensitive to intensity variations, aliasing (a spatial frequency phenomenon) is not considered bothersome in most situations.

  18. Imaging Spectroscopy Instrumentation for Earth Science and Solar System Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Robert; Vane, Gregg

    2016-07-01

    Spectroscopy is a powerful analytical method based in physics that is used to investigate questions and test hypotheses across an extraordinary range of scientific disciplines as well as for quantitative applications. In the late 1970's the concept for an instrument that measured spectra for every point in an image was conceived and proposed using the most advanced infrared detector array available at the time. The Airborne Imaging Spectrometer as developed and first flew in 1982. New discoveries were made with the first flights of this instrument. Since that time increasingly advanced airborne and space imaging spectrometer have been developed and deployed. These instruments have been used for science and applications on Earth and for science and exploration throughout the solar system. This talk presents the advances in imaging spectrometer instrumentation and key discoveries of imaging spectrometers for Earth and elsewhere in our solar system. It also presents examples of new imaging spectrometer architectures enabled by new detectors and spectrometer design forms as well as some of the science and applications objectives that can be pursued ranging 50 micron spatial imaging for planetary surface rovers to spectroscopic instruments measuring exoplanet composition and structure.

  19. Cirrus cloud detection from airborne imaging spectrometer data using the 1.38 micron water vapor band

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gao, Bo-Cai; Goetz, Alexander F. H.; Wiscombe, Warren J.

    1993-01-01

    Using special images acquired by the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) at 20 km altitude, we show that wavelengths close to the center of the strong 1.38 micron water vapor band are useful for detecting thin cirrus clouds. The detection makes use of the fact that cirrus clouds are located above almost all the atmospheric water vapor. Because of the strong water vapor absorption in the lower atmosphere, AVIRIS channels near 1.38 micron receive little scattered solar radiance from the surface of low level clouds. When cirrus clouds are present, however, these channels receive large amounts of scattered solar radiance from the cirrus clouds. Our ability to determine cirrus cloud cover using space-based remote sensing will be improved if channels near the center of the 1.38 micron water vapor band are added to future satellites.

  20. A comparison of LOWTRAN-7 corrected Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data with ground spectral measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, Peng-Yang; Greeley, Ronald

    1992-01-01

    Atmospheric correction of imaging spectroscopy data is required for quantitative analysis. Different models were proposed for atmospheric correction of these data. LOWTRAN-7 is a low-resolution model and computer code for predicting atmospheric transmittance and background radiance from 0 to 50,00 cm(sup -1) which was developed by the Air Force Geophysics Laboratory. The Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data used are radiometrically calibrated and include the 28 Sep. 1989 Providence Fan flight line segment 07, California. It includes a dark gravel surface defined as a calibration site by the Geologic Remote Sensing Field Experiment (GRSFE). Several ground measurements of portable spectrometer DAEDALUS AA440 Spectrafax were taken during the GRSFE, July 1989 field campaign. Comparisons of the LOWTRAN-7 corrected AVIRIS data with the ground spectrometer measurement were made.

  1. Identification of damage in buildings based on gaps in 3D point clouds from very high resolution oblique airborne images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vetrivel, Anand; Gerke, Markus; Kerle, Norman; Vosselman, George

    2015-07-01

    Point clouds generated from airborne oblique images have become a suitable source for detailed building damage assessment after a disaster event, since they provide the essential geometric and radiometric features of both roof and façades of the building. However, they often contain gaps that result either from physical damage or from a range of image artefacts or data acquisition conditions. A clear understanding of those reasons, and accurate classification of gap-type, are critical for 3D geometry-based damage assessment. In this study, a methodology was developed to delineate buildings from a point cloud and classify the present gaps. The building delineation process was carried out by identifying and merging the roof segments of single buildings from the pre-segmented 3D point cloud. This approach detected 96% of the buildings from a point cloud generated using airborne oblique images. The gap detection and classification methods were tested using two other data sets obtained with Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) images with a ground resolution of around 1-2 cm. The methods detected all significant gaps and correctly identified the gaps due to damage. The gaps due to damage were identified based on the surrounding damage pattern, applying Gabor wavelets and a histogram of gradient orientation features. Two learning algorithms - SVM and Random Forests were tested for mapping the damaged regions based on radiometric descriptors. The learning model based on Gabor features with Random Forests performed best, identifying 95% of the damaged regions. The generalization performance of the supervised model, however, was less successful: quality measures decreased by around 15-30%.

  2. An Integrated Data Acquisition / User Request/ Processing / Delivery System for Airborne Remote Sensing Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, B.; Chu, A.; Tung, W.

    2003-12-01

    Airborne science data has historically played an important role in the development of the scientific underpinnings for spaceborne missions. When the science community determines the need for new types of spaceborne measurements, airborne campaigns are often crucial in risk mitigation for these future missions. However, full exploitation of the acquired data may be difficult due to its experimental and transitory nature. Externally to the project, most problematic (in particular, for those not involved in requesting the data acquisitions) may be the difficulty in searching for, requesting, and receiving the data, or even knowing the data exist. This can result in a rather small, insular community of users for these data sets. Internally, the difficulty for the project is in maintaining a robust processing and archival system during periods of changing mission priorities and evolving technologies. The NASA/JPL Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR) has acquired data for a large and varied community of scientists and engineers for 15 years. AIRSAR is presently supporting current NASA Earth Science Enterprise experiments, such as the Soil Moisture EXperiment (SMEX) and the Cold Land Processes experiment (CLPX), as well as experiments conducted as many as 10 years ago. During that time, it's processing, data ordering, and data delivery system has undergone evolutionary change as the cost and capability of resources has improved. AIRSAR now has a fully integrated data acquisition/user request/processing/delivery system through which most components of the data fulfillment process communicate via shared information within a database. The integration of these functions has reduced errors and increased throughput of processed data to customers.

  3. Benefits of Sharing Information from Commercial Airborne Forward-Looking Sensors in the Next Generation Air Transportation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaffner, Philip R.; Harrah, Steven; Neece, Robert T.

    2012-01-01

    The air transportation system of the future will need to support much greater traffic densities than are currently possible, while preserving or improving upon current levels of safety. Concepts are under development to support a Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) that by some estimates will need to support up to three times current capacity by the year 2025. Weather and other atmospheric phenomena, such as wake vortices and volcanic ash, constitute major constraints on airspace system capacity and can present hazards to aircraft if encountered. To support safe operations in the NextGen environment advanced systems for collection and dissemination of aviation weather and environmental information will be required. The envisioned NextGen Network Enabled Weather (NNEW) infrastructure will be a critical component of the aviation weather support services, providing access to a common weather picture for all system users. By taking advantage of Network Enabled Operations (NEO) capabilities, a virtual 4-D Weather Data Cube with aviation weather information from many sources will be developed. One new source of weather observations may be airborne forward-looking sensors, such as the X-band weather radar. Future sensor systems that are the subject of current research include advanced multi-frequency and polarimetric radar, a variety of Lidar technologies, and infrared imaging spectrometers.

  4. A Performance Assessment of a Tactical Airborne Separation Assistance System using Realistic, Complex Traffic Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Jeremy C.; Neitzke, Kurt W.; Bussink, Frank J. L.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the results from a study that investigates the performance of aspects of an Airborne Separation Assistance System (ASAS) under varying demand levels using realistic traffic patterns. This study only addresses the tactical aspects of an ASAS using aircraft state data (latitude, longitude, altitude, heading and speed) to detect and resolve projected conflicts. The main focus of this paper is to determine the extent to which sole reliance on the proposed tactical ASAS can maintain aircraft separation at demand levels up to three times current traffic. The effect of mixing ASAS equipped aircraft with non-equipped aircraft that do not have the capability to self-separate is also investigated.

  5. Airborne antenna coverage requirements for the TCV B-737 aircraft. [for operation with microwave landing systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Southall, W. A., Jr.; White, W. F.

    1978-01-01

    The airborne antenna line of sight look angle requirement for operation with a Microwave Landing System (MLS) was studied. The required azimuth and elevation line of sight look angles from an antenna located on an aircraft to three ground based antenna sites at the Wallops Flight Center (FPS-16 radar, MLS aximuth, and MLS elevation) as the aircraft follows specific approach paths selected as representative of MLS operations at the Denver, Colorado, terminal area are presented. These required azimuth and elevation look angles may be interpreted as basic design requirements for antenna of the TCV B-737 airplane for MLS operations along these selected approach paths.

  6. An Airborne Scanning LiDAR System for Ocean and Coastal Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reineman, B. D.; Lenain, L.; Castel, D.; Melville, W. K.

    2008-12-01

    We have developed an airborne scanning LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) system and demonstrated its functionality for terrestrial and oceanographic measurements. Differential GPS (DGPS) and an Inertial Navigation System (INS) are synchronized with the LiDAR, providing end result vertical rms errors of approximately 6~cm. Flying 170~m above the surface, we achieve a point density of ~ 0.7 m-2 and a swath width of 90 to 120~m over ocean and 200~m over land. Georeferencing algorithms were developed in-house and earth-referenced data are available several hours after acquisition. Surveys from the system are compared with ground DGPS surveys and existing airborne surveys of fixed targets. Twelve research flights in a Piper Twin Comanche from August 2007 to July 2008 have provided topography of the Southern California coastline and sea surface wave fields in the nearshore ocean environment. Two of the flights also documented the results of the October 2007 landslide on Mt.~Soledad in La Jolla, California. Eight research flights aboard a Cessna Caravan surveyed the topography, lagoon, reef, and surrounding seas of Lady Elliot Island (LEI) in Australia's Great Barrier Reef in April 2008. We describe applications for the system, including coastal topographic surveys, wave measurements, reef research, and ship wake studies.

  7. Heart Imaging System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Johnson Space Flight Center's device to test astronauts' heart function in microgravity has led to the MultiWire Gamma Camera, which images heart conditions six times faster than conventional devices. Dr. Jeffrey Lacy, who developed the technology as a NASA researcher, later formed Proportional Technologies, Inc. to develop a commercially viable process that would enable use of Tantalum-178 (Ta-178), a radio-pharmaceutical. His company supplies the generator for the radioactive Ta-178 to Xenos Medical Systems, which markets the camera. Ta-178 can only be optimally imaged with the camera. Because the body is subjected to it for only nine minutes, the radiation dose is significantly reduced and the technique can be used more frequently. Ta-178 also enables the camera to be used on pediatric patients who are rarely studied with conventional isotopes because of the high radiation dosage.

  8. NASA'S Coastal and Ocean Airborne Science Testbed (COAST): Early Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guild, L. S.; Dungan, J. L.; Edwards, M.; Russell, P. B.; Morrow, J. H.; Kudela, R. M.; Myers, J. S.; Livingston, J.; Lobitz, B.; Torres-Perez, J.

    2012-12-01

    The NASA Coastal and Ocean Airborne Science Testbed (COAST) project advances coastal ecosystems research and ocean color calibration and validation capability by providing a unique airborne payload optimized for remote sensing in the optically complex coastal zone. The COAST instrument suite combines a customized imaging spectrometer, sunphotometer system, and a new bio-optical radiometer package to obtain ocean/coastal/atmosphere data simultaneously in flight for the first time. The imaging spectrometer (Headwall) is optimized in the blue region of the spectrum to emphasize remote sensing of marine and freshwater ecosystems. Simultaneous measurements supporting empirical atmospheric correction of image data is accomplished using the Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS-14). Coastal Airborne In situ Radiometers (C-AIR, Biospherical Instruments, Inc.), developed for COAST for airborne campaigns from field-deployed microradiometer instrumentation, will provide measurements of apparent optical properties at the land/ocean boundary including optically shallow aquatic ecosystems. Ship-based measurements allowed validation of airborne measurements. Radiative transfer modeling on in-water measurements from the HyperPro and Compact-Optical Profiling System (C-OPS, the in-water companion to C-AIR) profiling systems allows for comparison of airborne and in-situ water leaving radiance measurements. Results of the October 2011 Monterey Bay COAST mission include preliminary data on coastal ocean color products, coincident spatial and temporal data on aerosol optical depth and water vapor column content, as well as derived exact water-leaving radiances.

  9. Initial evaluation of airborne water vapour measurements by the IAGOS-GHG CRDS system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filges, Annette; Gerbig, Christoph; Smit, Herman G. J.; Krämer, Martina; Spelten, Nicole

    2013-04-01

    Accurate and reliable airborne measurements of water vapour are still a challenge. Presently, no airborne humidity sensor exists that covers the entire range of water vapour content between the surface and the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere (UT/LS) region with sufficient accuracy and time resolution. Nevertheless , these data are a pre-requisite to study the underlying processes in the chemistry and physics of the atmosphere. The DENCHAR project (Development and Evaluation of Novel Compact Hygrometer for Airborne Research) addresses this deficit by developing and characterizing novel or improved compact airborne hygrometers for different airborne applications within EUFAR (European Facility for Airborne Research). As part of the DENCHAR inter-comparison campaign in Hohn (Germany), 23 May - 1 June 2011, a commercial gas analyzer (G2401-m, Picarro Inc.,US), based on cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS), was installed on a Learjet to measure water vapour, CO2, CH4 and CO. The CRDS components are identical to those chosen for integration aboard commercial airliner within IAGOS (In-service Aircraft for a Global Observing System). Thus the campaign allowed for the initial assessment validation of the long-term IAGOS H2O measurements by CRDS against reference instruments with a long performance record (FISH, the Fast In-situ Stratospheric Hygrometer, and CR2 frostpoint hygrometer, both research centre Juelich). The inlet system, a one meter long 1/8" FEP-tube connected to a Rosemount TAT housing (model 102BX, deiced) installed on a window plate of the aircraft, was designed to eliminate sampling of larger aerosols, ice particles, and water droplets, and provides about 90% of ram-pressure. In combination with a lowered sample flow of 0.1 slpm (corresponding to a 4 second response time), this ensured a fully controlled sample pressure in the cavity of 140 torr throughout an aircraft altitude operating range up to 12.5 km without the need of an upstream sampling pump

  10. An airborne FLIR detection and warning system for low altitude wind shear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinclair, Peter C.; Kuhn, Peter M.

    1991-01-01

    It is shown through some preliminary flight measurement research that a forward looking infrared radiometer (FLIR) system can be used to successfully detect the cool downdraft of downbursts (microbusts/macrobursts) and thunderstorm gust front outflows that are responsible for most of the low altitude wind shear (LAWS) events. The FLIR system provides a much greater safety margin for the pilot than that provided by reactive designs such as inertial air speed systems. Preliminary results indicate that an advanced airborne FLIR system could provide the pilot with remote indication of microburst (MB) hazards along the flight path ahead of the aircraft. Results of a flight test of a prototype FLIR system show that a minimum warning time of one to four minutes (5 to 10 km), depending on aircraft speed, is available to the pilot prior to the microburst encounter.

  11. Airborne Digital Sensor System and GPS-aided inertial technology for direct geopositioning in rough terrain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sanchez, Richard D.

    2004-01-01

    High-resolution airborne digital cameras with onboard data collection based on the Global Positioning System (GPS) and inertial navigation systems (INS) technology may offer a real-time means to gather accurate topographic map information by reducing ground control and eliminating aerial triangulation. Past evaluations of this integrated system over relatively flat terrain have proven successful. The author uses Emerge Digital Sensor System (DSS) combined with Applanix Corporation?s Position and Orientation Solutions for Direct Georeferencing to examine the positional mapping accuracy in rough terrain. The positional accuracy documented in this study did not meet large-scale mapping requirements owing to an apparent system mechanical failure. Nonetheless, the findings yield important information on a new approach for mapping in Antarctica and other remote or inaccessible areas of the world.

  12. Time-delay compensation for stabilization imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yueting; Xu, Zhihai; Li, Qi; Feng, Huajun

    2014-05-01

    The spatial resolution of imaging systems for airborne and space-borne remote sensing are often limited by image degradation resulting from mechanical vibrations of platforms during image exposure. A straightforward way to overcome this problem is to actively stabilize the optical axis or drive the focal plane synchronous to the motion image during exposure. Thus stabilization imaging system usually consists of digital image motion estimation and micromechanical compensation. The performance of such kind of visual servo system is closely related to precision of motion estimation and time delay. Large time delay results in larger phase delay between motion estimation and micromechanical compensation, and leads to larger uncompensated residual motion and limited bandwidth. The paper analyzes the time delay caused by image acquisition period and introduces a time delay compensation method based on SVM (Support Vector Machine) motion prediction. The main idea to cancel the time delay is to predict the current image motion from delayed measurements. A support vector machine based method is designed to predict the image motion. A prototype of stabilization imaging system has been implemented in the lab. To analyze the influences of time delay on system performance and to verify the proposed time delay cancelation method, comparative experiments over various frequencies of vibration are taken. The experimental results show that, the accuracy of motion compensation and the bandwidth of the system can be significantly improved with time delay cancelation.

  13. Three-dimensional imaging system combining vision and ultrasonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wykes, Catherine; Chou, Tsung N.

    1994-11-01

    Vision systems are being applied to a wide range of inspection problems in manufacturing. In 2D systems, a single video camera captures an image of the object and application of suitable image processing techniques enables information about dimension, shape and the presence of features and flaws to be extracted from the image. This can be used to recognize, inspect and/or measure the part. 3D measurement is also possible with vision systems but requires the use of either two or more cameras, or structured lighting (i.e. stripes or grids) and the processing of such images is necessarily considerably more complex, and therefore slower and more expensive than 3D imaging. Ultrasonic imaging is widely used in medical and NDT applications to give 3D images; in these systems, the ultrasound is propagated into a liquid or a solid. Imaging using air-borne ultrasound is much less advanced, mainly due to the limited availability of suitable sensors. Unique 2D ultrasonic ranging systems using in-house built phased arrays have been developed in Nottingham which enable both the range and bearing of targets to be measured. The ultrasonic/vision system will combine the excellent lateral resolution of a vision system with the straightforward range acquisition of the ultrasonic system. The system is expected to extend the use of vision systems in automation, particularly in the area of automated assembly where it can eliminate the need for expensive jigs and orienting part-feeders.

  14. Issues on utility management simulation system for miscellaneous airborne electromechanical devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Juan; Liu, Qiaozhen; Wang, Zhanlin

    2006-11-01

    UMS for miscellaneous airborne electromechanical devices is the part and parcel of VMS. The object of utility management is airborne electromechanical devices which ensure that air engine, avionics and other systems work in order. This paper works over several items about UMS by introducing advanced simulation and its correlative technologies. Firstly, message transmission software of 1553B bus is designed and the bus characteristics are tested. Also, the problem of time synchronization is solved by testing network delay. Secondly, in order to obtain high performance of distributed process ability, heuristic job dispatching algorithm and hydrodynamic load balancing strategy are adopted, which solve the static job dispatch and dynamic job scheduling respectively. The hydrodynamic load balancing strategy is aiming to fulfill the resources usage in the whole system and accomplishes best resources sharing. Thirdly, this paper establishes and realizes the demo environment for visual simulation of the electromechanical subsystems. Adopting tree-mode during the software design makes the system scalable and reconstruction. As multithreading synchronization is resolved, real-time performance of simulation. is ensured during.

  15. An integrated GPS-FID system for airborne gas detection of pipeline right-of-ways

    SciTech Connect

    Gehue, H.L.; Sommer, P.

    1996-12-31

    Pipeline integrity, safety and environmental concerns are of prime importance in the Canadian natural gas industry. Terramatic Technology Inc. (TTI) has developed an integrated GPS/FID gas detection system known as TTI-AirTrac{trademark} for use in airborne gas detection (AGD) along pipeline right-of-ways. The Flame Ionization Detector (FID), which has traditionally been used to monitor air quality for gas plants and refineries, has been integrated with the Global Positioning System (GPS) via a 486 DX2-50 computer and specialized open architecture data acquisition software. The purpose of this technology marriage is to be able to continuously monitor air quality during airborne pipeline inspection. Event tagging from visual surveillance is used to determine an explanation of any delta line deviations (DLD). These deviations are an indication of hydrocarbon gases present in the plume that the aircraft has passed through. The role of the GPS system is to provide mapping information and coordinate data for ground inspections. The ground based inspection using a handheld multi gas detector will confirm whether or not a leak exists.

  16. High spatial resolution imaging of methane and other trace gases with the airborne Hyperspectral Thermal Emission Spectrometer (HyTES)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hulley, Glynn C.; Duren, Riley M.; Hopkins, Francesca M.; Hook, Simon J.; Vance, Nick; Guillevic, Pierre; Johnson, William R.; Eng, Bjorn T.; Mihaly, Jonathan M.; Jovanovic, Veljko M.; Chazanoff, Seth L.; Staniszewski, Zak K.; Kuai, Le; Worden, John; Frankenberg, Christian; Rivera, Gerardo; Aubrey, Andrew D.; Miller, Charles E.; Malakar, Nabin K.; Sánchez Tomás, Juan M.; Holmes, Kendall T.

    2016-06-01

    Currently large uncertainties exist associated with the attribution and quantification of fugitive emissions of criteria pollutants and greenhouse gases such as methane across large regions and key economic sectors. In this study, data from the airborne Hyperspectral Thermal Emission Spectrometer (HyTES) have been used to develop robust and reliable techniques for the detection and wide-area mapping of emission plumes of methane and other atmospheric trace gas species over challenging and diverse environmental conditions with high spatial resolution that permits direct attribution to sources. HyTES is a pushbroom imaging spectrometer with high spectral resolution (256 bands from 7.5 to 12 µm), wide swath (1-2 km), and high spatial resolution (˜ 2 m at 1 km altitude) that incorporates new thermal infrared (TIR) remote sensing technologies. In this study we introduce a hybrid clutter matched filter (CMF) and plume dilation algorithm applied to HyTES observations to efficiently detect and characterize the spatial structures of individual plumes of CH4, H2S, NH3, NO2, and SO2 emitters. The sensitivity and field of regard of HyTES allows rapid and frequent airborne surveys of large areas including facilities not readily accessible from the surface. The HyTES CMF algorithm produces plume intensity images of methane and other gases from strong emission sources. The combination of high spatial resolution and multi-species imaging capability provides source attribution in complex environments. The CMF-based detection of strong emission sources over large areas is a fast and powerful tool needed to focus on more computationally intensive retrieval algorithms to quantify emissions with error estimates, and is useful for expediting mitigation efforts and addressing critical science questions.

  17. Analysis of Snow Albedo, Grain Size and Radiative Forcing based on the Airborne Snow Observatory (ASO) Imaging Spectroscopy Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seidel, F. C.; Painter, T. H.

    2013-12-01

    Climate is expected to be most vulnerable in mountainous and arctic regions where the atmosphere and the hydrosphere are directly linked to the cryosphere. A combination of modeling and large-scale observational efforts is required to investigate related scientific questions. NASA's Airborne Snow Observatory (ASO) at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory addresses some of these needs by establishing new quantitative observational capabilities in regional mapping of mountain snow properties. In addition, ASO's key products showed that we are able to achieve societal benefits by improving water resources management. We will show the first analysis of snow optical products (albedo, grain size, and radiative forcing) from the spring 2013 ASO campaign in the Sierra Nevada, CA, USA. In addition, we will present the retrieval methods used to derive these products based on airborne imaging spectroscopy, LiDAR, as well as radiative transfer models. The preliminary findings provide new important insights into the temporal and spatial aspects of Western US mountain snow and its melt.

  18. Hyperspectral range imaging for transportation systems evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bridgelall, Raj; Rafert, J. B.; Atwood, Don; Tolliver, Denver D.

    2016-04-01

    Transportation agencies expend significant resources to inspect critical infrastructure such as roadways, railways, and pipelines. Regular inspections identify important defects and generate data to forecast maintenance needs. However, cost and practical limitations prevent the scaling of current inspection methods beyond relatively small portions of the network. Consequently, existing approaches fail to discover many high-risk defect formations. Remote sensing techniques offer the potential for more rapid and extensive non-destructive evaluations of the multimodal transportation infrastructure. However, optical occlusions and limitations in the spatial resolution of typical airborne and space-borne platforms limit their applicability. This research proposes hyperspectral image classification to isolate transportation infrastructure targets for high-resolution photogrammetric analysis. A plenoptic swarm of unmanned aircraft systems will capture images with centimeter-scale spatial resolution, large swaths, and polarization diversity. The light field solution will incorporate structure-from-motion techniques to reconstruct three-dimensional details of the isolated targets from sequences of two-dimensional images. A comparative analysis of existing low-power wireless communications standards suggests an application dependent tradeoff in selecting the best-suited link to coordinate swarming operations. This study further produced a taxonomy of specific roadway and railway defects, distress symptoms, and other anomalies that the proposed plenoptic swarm sensing system would identify and characterize to estimate risk levels.

  19. Extracting dynamic spatial data from airborne imaging sensors to support traffic flow estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toth, C. K.; Grejner-Brzezinska, D.

    The recent transition from analog to totally digital data acquisition and processing techniques in airborne surveying represents a major milestone in the evolution of spatial information science and practice. On one hand, the improved quality of the primary sensor data can provide the foundation for better automation of the information extraction processes. This phenomenon is also strongly supported by continuously expanding computer technology, which offers almost unlimited processing power. On the other hand, the variety of the data, including rich information content and better temporal characteristics, acquired by the new digital sensors and coupled with rapidly advancing processing techniques, is broadening the applications of airborne surveying. One of these new application areas is traffic flow extraction aimed at supporting better traffic monitoring and management. Transportation mapping has always represented a significant segment of civilian mapping and is mainly concerned with road corridor mapping for design and engineering purposes, infrastructure mapping and facility management, and more recently, environmental mapping. In all these cases, the objective of the mapping is to extract the static features of the object space, such as man-made and natural objects, typically along the road network. In contrast, the traffic moving in the transportation network represents a very dynamic environment, which complicates the spatial data extraction processes as the signals of moving vehicles should be identified and removed. Rather than removing and discarding the signals, however, they can be turned into traffic flow information. This paper reviews initial research efforts to extract traffic flow information from laserscanner and digital camera sensors installed in airborne platforms.

  20. Performance evaluation of four directional emissivity analytical models with thermal SAIL model and airborne images.

    PubMed

    Ren, Huazhong; Liu, Rongyuan; Yan, Guangjian; Li, Zhao-Liang; Qin, Qiming; Liu, Qiang; Nerry, Françoise

    2015-04-01

    Land surface emissivity is a crucial parameter in the surface status monitoring. This study aims at the evaluation of four directional emissivity models, including two bi-directional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) models and two gap-frequency-based models. Results showed that the kernel-driven BRDF model could well represent directional emissivity with an error less than 0.002, and was consequently used to retrieve emissivity with an accuracy of about 0.012 from an airborne multi-angular thermal infrared data set. Furthermore, we updated the cavity effect factor relating to multiple scattering inside canopy, which improved the performance of the gap-frequency-based models.

  1. Use of airborne and terrestrial lidar to detect ground displacement hazards to water systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stewart, J.P.; Hu, Jiawen; Kayen, R.E.; Lembo, A.J.; Collins, B.D.; Davis, C.A.; O'Rourke, T. D.

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the use of multiepoch airborne and terrestrial lidar to detect and measure ground displacements of sufficient magnitude to damage buried pipelines and other water system facilities that might result, for example, from earthquake or rainfall-induced landslides. Lidar scans are performed at three sites with coincident measurements by total station surveying. Relative horizontal accuracy is evaluated by measurements of lateral dimensions of well defined objects such as buildings and tanks; we find misfits ranging from approximately 5 to 12 cm, which is consistent with previous work. The bias and dispersion of lidar elevation measurements, relative to total station surveying, is assessed at two sites: (1) a power plant site (PP2) with vegetated steeply sloping terrain; and (2) a relatively flat and unvegetated site before and after trenching operations were performed. At PP2, airborne lidar showed minimal elevation bias and a standard deviation of approximately 70 cm, whereas terrestrial lidar did not produce useful results due to beam divergence issues and inadequate sampling of the study region. At the trench site, airborne lidar showed minimal elevation bias and reduced standard deviation relative to PP2 (6-20 cm), whereas terrestrial lidar was nearly unbiased with very low dispersion (4-6 cm). Pre- and posttrench bias-adjusted normalized residuals showed minimal to negligible correlation, but elevation change was affected by relative bias between epochs. The mean of elevation change bias essentially matches the difference in means of pre- and posttrench elevation bias, whereas elevation change standard deviation is sensitive to the dispersion of individual epoch elevations and their correlation coefficient. The observed lidar bias and standard deviations enable reliable detection of damaging ground displacements for some pipelines types (e.g., welded steel) but not all (e.g., concrete with unwelded, mortared joints). ?? ASCE 2009.

  2. The development of an airborne instrumentation computer system for flight test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bever, G. A.

    1984-01-01

    Instrumentation interfacing frequently requires the linking of intelligent systems together, as well as requiring the link itself to be intelligent. The airborne instrumentation computer system (AICS) was developed to address this requirement. Its small size, approximately 254 by 133 by 140 mm (10 by 51/4 by 51/2 in), standard bus, and modular board configuration give it the ability to solve instrumentation interfacing and computation problems without forcing a redesign of the entire unit. This system has been used on the F-15 aircraft digital electronic engine control (DEEC) and its follow on engine model derivative (EMD) project and in an OV-1C Mohawk aircraft stall speed warning system. The AICS is presently undergoing configuration for use on an F-104 pace aircraft and on the advanced fighter technology integration (AFTI) F-111 aircraft.

  3. Helmet-Mounted Display Research Capabilities of the NASA/Army Rotorcraft Aircrew Systems Concepts Airborne Laboratory (RASCAL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobsen, R. A.; Bivens, C. C.; Rediess, N. A.; Hindson, W. S.; Aiken, E. W.; Aiken, Edwin W. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    The Rotorcraft Aircrew Systems Concepts Airborne Laboratory (RASCAL) is a UH-60A Black Hawk helicopter that is being modified by the US Army and NASA for flight systems research. The principal systems that are being installed in the aircraft are a Helmet Mounted Display (HMD) and imaging system, and a programmable full authority Research Flight Control System (RFCS). In addition, comprehensive instrumentation of both the rigid body of the helicopter and the rotor system is provided. The paper will describe the capabilities of these systems and their current state of development. A brief description of initial research applications is included. The wide (40 X 60 degree) field-of-view HMD system has been provided by Kaiser Electronics. It can be configured as a monochromatic system for use in bright daylight conditions, a two color system for darker ambients, or a full color system for use in night viewing conditions. Color imagery is achieved using field sequential video and a mechanical color wheel. In addition to the color symbology, high resolution computer-gene rated imagery from an onboard Silicon Graphics Reality Engine Onyx processor is available for research in virtual reality applications. This synthetic imagery can also be merged with real world video from a variety of imaging systems that can be installed easily on the front of the helicopter. These sensors include infrared or tv cameras, or potentially small millimeter wave radars. The Research Flight Control System is being developed for the aircraft by a team of contractors led by Boeing Helicopters. It consists of a full authority high bandwidth fly-by-wire actuators that drive the main rotor swashplate actuators and the tail rotor actuator in parallel. This arrangement allows the basic mechanical flight control system of the Black Hawk to be retained so that the safety pilot can monitor the operation of the system through the action of his own controls. The evaluation pilot will signal the fly

  4. Airborne system for fast measurements of upwelling and downwelling spectral actinic flux densities.

    PubMed

    Jäkel, Evelyn; Wendisch, Manfred; Kniffka, Anke; Trautmann, Thomas

    2005-01-20

    An airborne system for fast measurements of spectral actinic flux densities in the wavelength range 305-700 nm is introduced. The system is called the Actinic Flux Density Meter (AFDM). The AFDM utilizes the diode array technique and measures downwelling and upwelling spectral actinic flux densities separately with a time resolution of less than 1 s. For airborne measurements this means a spatial resolution of approximately 60 m, assuming an average aircraft velocity of 60 m/s. Thus the AFDM resolves fast changes in the actinic radiation field, which are of special importance for conditions of inhomogeneous clouds or surface reflection. Laboratory characterization measurements of the AFDM are presented, and a method to correct the nonideal angular response of the optical inlets is introduced. Furthermore, exemplar field data sampled simultaneously with spectral irradiance measurements are shown. The horizontal variability of the measured spectra of actinic flux density is quantified, and profile measurements for overcast situations are presented. Finally, the effects of clouds on the spectral actinic flux density are discussed.

  5. A hardware/software simulation for the video tracking system of the Kuiper Airborne Observatory telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boozer, G. A.; Mckibbin, D. D.; Haas, M. R.; Erickson, E. F.

    1984-01-01

    This simulator was created so that C-141 Kuiper Airborne Observatory investigators could test their Airborne Data Acquisition and Management System software on a system which is generally more accessible than the ADAMS on the plane. An investigator can currently test most of his data acquisition program using the data computer simulator in the Cave. (The Cave refers to the ground-based computer facilities for the KAO and the associated support personnel.) The main Cave computer is interfaced to the data computer simulator in order to simulate the data-Exec computer communications. However until now, there has been no way to test the data computer interface to the tracker. The simulator described here simulates both the KAO Exec and tracker computers with software which runs on the same Hewlett-Packard (HP) computer as the investigator's data acquisition program. A simulator control box is hardwired to the computer to provide monitoring of tracker functions, to provide an operator panel similar to the real tracker, and to simulate the 180 deg phase shifting of the chopper squre-wave reference with beam switching. If run in the Cave, one can use their Exec simulator and this tracker simulator.

  6. Airborne imaging for heritage documentation using the Fotokite tethered flying camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verhoeven, Geert; Lupashin, Sergei; Briese, Christian; Doneus, Michael

    2014-05-01

    Since the beginning of aerial photography, researchers used all kinds of devices (from pigeons, kites, poles, and balloons to rockets) to take still cameras aloft and remotely gather aerial imagery. To date, many of these unmanned devices are still used for what has been referred to as Low-Altitude Aerial Photography or LAAP. In addition to these more traditional camera platforms, radio-controlled (multi-)copter platforms have recently added a new aspect to LAAP. Although model airplanes have been around for several decades, the decreasing cost, increasing functionality and stability of ready-to-fly multi-copter systems has proliferated their use among non-hobbyists. As such, they became a very popular tool for aerial imaging. The overwhelming amount of currently available brands and types (heli-, dual-, tri-, quad-, hexa-, octo-, dodeca-, deca-hexa and deca-octocopters), together with the wide variety of navigation options (e.g. altitude and position hold, waypoint flight) and camera mounts indicate that these platforms are here to stay for some time. Given the multitude of still camera types and the image quality they are currently capable of, endless combinations of low- and high-cost LAAP solutions are available. In addition, LAAP allows for the exploitation of new imaging techniques, as it is often only a matter of lifting the appropriate device (e.g. video cameras, thermal frame imagers, hyperspectral line sensors). Archaeologists were among the first to adopt this technology, as it provided them with a means to easily acquire essential data from a unique point of view, whether for simple illustration purposes of standing historic structures or to compute three-dimensional (3D) models and orthophotographs from excavation areas. However, even very cheap multi-copters models require certain skills to pilot them safely. Additionally, malfunction or overconfidence might lift these devices to altitudes where they can interfere with manned aircrafts. As such, the

  7. Nanoscale Images of Airborne PM2.5: Aerosol Dynamics with the LCLS X-ray Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogan, M. J.

    2012-12-01

    It is now possible to capture images of individual airborne PM2.5 particles - including soot, NaCl particles and engineered nanoparticles - with 20-40 nm resolution (Loh et al Nature 2012). Ions released during the imaging process provide information on the chemical content of the isolated particles. The scattering signal used to compose the image also provides the fractal dimension of individual particles. This new paradigm of aerosol dynamics is enabled by the incredible brightness and ultrashort pulses available at X-ray free electron laser (FEL) facilities, such as the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) and the FLASH FEL facility in Hamburg. Femtosecond long x-ray pulses deliver sufficient photons (10^12 per pulse) to detect scattered X-rays off individual particles injected at >100 m/s into vacuum through an aerodynamic lens stack. The intensity of the scattered X-rays measured by an area detector is fed into lensless imaging algorithms to reconstruct an image of the particle that caused the scattering. X-ray FELs can peer inside the individual airborne particles and are a sensitive probe of particle crystallinity. The development of this method and applications to imaging micron-sized soot, water droplets and biological aerosols will be discussed. A primary long-term goal of the research is to take snapshots of airborne particles as they change their size, shape and chemical make-up in response to their environment. "Fractal morphology, imaging and mass spectrometry of single aerosol particles in flight" ND Loh, C Hampton, A Martin, D Starodub, R Sierra, A Barty, A Aquila, J Schulz, L Lomb, J Steinbrener, R Shoeman, S Kassemeyer, C Bostedt, J. Bozek, S Epp, B. Erk, R Hartmann, D Rolles, A Rudenko, B Rudek, L Foucar, N Kimmel, G Weidenspointner, G Hauser, P Holl, E. Pedersoli, M Liang, M Hunter, L Gumprecht, N Coppola, C Wunderer, H Graafsma, F Maia, T Ekeberg, M Hantke, H Fleckenstein, H. Hirsemann, K Nass, T White, H Tobias, G Farquar, W Benner, S Hau

  8. High-resolution satellite and airborne thermal infrared imaging of precursory unrest and 2009 eruption of Redoubt Volcano, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wessels, Rick L.; Vaughan, R. Greg; Patrick, Matthew R.; Coombs, Michelle L.

    2013-01-01

    A combination of satellite and airborne high-resolution visible and thermal infrared (TIR) image data detected and measured changes at Redoubt Volcano during the 2008–2009 unrest and eruption. The TIR sensors detected persistent elevated temperatures at summit ice-melt holes as seismicity and gas emissions increased in late 2008 to March 2009. A phreatic explosion on 15 March was followed by more than 19 magmatic explosive events from 23 March to 4 April that produced high-altitude ash clouds and large lahars. Two (or three) lava domes extruded and were destroyed between 23 March and 4 April. After 4 April, the eruption extruded a large lava dome that continued to grow until at least early July 2009.

  9. Use of high spectral resolution airborne visible/infrared imaging spectrometer data for geologic mapping: An overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carrere, Veronique

    1991-01-01

    Specific examples of the use of AVIRIS (Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer) high spectral resolution data for mapping, alteration related to ore deposition and to hydrocarbon seepage, and alluvial fans are presented. Correction for atmospheric effects was performed using flat field correction, log residuals, and radiative transfer modeling. Minerals of interest (alunite, kaolinite, gypsum, carbonate iron oxides, etc.) were mapped based upon the wavelength position, depth and width of characteristic absorption features. Results were checked by comparing to existing maps, results from other sensors (Thematic Mapper (TM) and TIMS (Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner)), and laboratory spectra of samples collected in the field. Alteration minerals were identified and mapped. The signal to noise ratio of acquired AVIRIS data, long to 2.0 microns, was insufficient to map minerals of interest.

  10. Evaluation of airborne image data and LIDAR main stem data for monitoring physical resources within the Colorado River ecosystem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Rosiek, Mark R.; Galuszka, Donna M.

    2002-01-01

    This study evaluated near-infrared LIDAR data acquired over the main-stem channel at four long-term monitoring sites within the Colorado River ecosystem (CRE) to determine the ability of these data to provide reliable indications in changes in water elevation over time. Our results indicate that there is a good correlation between the LIDAR water-surface elevations and ground measurements of water-edge elevation, but there are also inherent errors in the LIDAR data. The elevation errors amount to about 50 cm and therefore temporal changes in water-surface elevation that exceed this value by the majority of data at a particular location can be deemed significant or real. This study also evaluated airborne image data for producing photogrammetric elevation data and for automated mapping of sand bars and debris flows within the CRE. The photogrammetric analyses show that spatial resolutions of ≤ 10 cm are required to produce vertical accuracies

  11. Integrating airborne LiDAR dataset and photographic images towards the construction of 3D building model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Idris, R.; Latif, Z. A.; Hamid, J. R. A.; Jaafar, J.; Ahmad, M. Y.

    2014-02-01

    A 3D building model of man-made objects is an important tool for various applications such as urban planning, flood mapping and telecommunication. The reconstruction of 3D building models remains difficult. No universal algorithms exist that can extract all objects in an image successfully. At present, advances in remote sensing such as airborne LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) technology have changed the conventional method of topographic mapping and increased the interest of these valued datasets towards 3D building model construction. Airborne LiDAR has proven accordingly that it can provide three dimensional (3D) information of the Earth surface with high accuracy. In this study, with the availability of open source software such as Sketch Up, LiDAR datasets and photographic images could be integrated towards the construction of a 3D building model. In order to realize the work an area comprising residential areas situated at Putrajaya in the Klang Valley region, Malaysia, covering an area of two square kilometer was chosen. The accuracy of the derived 3D building model is assessed quantitatively. It is found that the difference between the vertical height (z) of the 3D building models derived from LiDAR dataset and ground survey is approximately ± 0.09 centimeter (cm). For the horizontal component (RMSExy), the accuracy estimates derived for the 3D building models were ± 0.31m. The result also shows that the qualitative assessment of the 3D building models constructed seems feasible for the depiction in the standard of LOD 3 (Level of details).

  12. Geophex Airborne Unmanned Survey System (GAUSS). Topical report, October 1993--September 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-31

    This document is a Final Technical Report that describes the results of the Geophex Airborne Unmanned Survey System (GAUSS) research project. The objectives were to construct a geophysical data acquisition system that uses a remotely operated unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) and to evaluate its effectiveness for characterization of hazardous environmental sites. The GAUSS is a data acquisition system that mitigates the potential risk to personnel during geophysical characterization of hazardous or radioactive sites. The fundamental basis of the GAUSS is as follows: (1) an unmanned survey vehicle carries geophysical sensors into a hazardous location, (2) the pilot remains outside the hazardous site and operates the vehicle using radio control, (3) geophysical measurements and their spatial locations are processed by an automated data-acquisition system which displays data on an off-site monitor in real-time, and (4) the pilot uses the display to direct the survey vehicle for complete site coverage. The objective of our Phase I research was to develop a data acquisition and processing (DAP) subsystem and geophysical sensors suitable for UAV deployment. We integrated these two subsystems to produce an automated, hand-held geophysical surveying system. The objective of the Phase II effort was to modify the subsystems and integrate them into an airborne prototype. The completed GAUSS DAP system consists of a UAV platform, a laser tracking and ranging subsystem, a telemetry subsystem, light-weight geophysical sensors, a base-station computer (BC), and custom-written survey control software (SCS). We have utilized off-the-shelf commercial products, where possible, to reduce cost and design time.

  13. NASA's Coastal and Ocean Airborne Science Testbed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guild, L. S.; Dungan, J. L.; Edwards, M.; Russell, P. B.; Morrow, J. H.; Hooker, S.; Myers, J.; Kudela, R. M.; Dunagan, S.; Soulage, M.; Ellis, T.; Clinton, N. E.; Lobitz, B.; Martin, K.; Zell, P.; Berthold, R. W.; Smith, C.; Andrew, D.; Gore, W.; Torres, J.

    2011-12-01

    The Coastal and Ocean Airborne Science Testbed (COAST) Project is a NASA Earth-science flight mission that will advance coastal ecosystems research by providing a unique airborne payload optimized for remote sensing in the optically complex coastal zone. Teaming NASA Ames scientists and engineers with Biospherical Instruments, Inc. (San Diego) and UC Santa Cruz, the airborne COAST instrument suite combines a customized imaging spectrometer, sunphotometer system, and a new bio-optical radiometer package to obtain ocean/coastal/atmosphere data simultaneously in flight for the first time. The imaging spectrometer (Headwall) is optimized in the blue region of the spectrum to emphasize remote sensing of marine and freshwater ecosystems. Simultaneous measurements supporting empirical atmospheric correction of image data will be accomplished using the Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS-14). Based on optical detectors called microradiometers, the NASA Ocean Biology and Biogeochemistry Calibration and Validation (cal/val) Office team has deployed advanced commercial off-the-shelf instrumentation that provides in situ measurements of the apparent optical properties at the land/ocean boundary including optically shallow aquatic ecosystems (e.g., lakes, estuaries, coral reefs). A complimentary microradiometer instrument package (Biospherical Instruments, Inc.), optimized for use above water, will be flown for the first time with the airborne instrument suite. Details of the October 2011 COAST airborne mission over Monterey Bay demonstrating this new airborne instrument suite capability will be presented, with associated preliminary data on coastal ocean color products, coincident spatial and temporal data on aerosol optical depth and water vapor column content, as well as derived exact water-leaving radiances.

  14. Dual-aureole and sun spectrometer system for airborne measurements of aerosol optical properties.

    PubMed

    Zieger, Paul; Ruhtz, Thomas; Preusker, Rene; Fischer, Jürgen

    2007-12-10

    We have designed an airborne spectrometer system for the simultaneous measurement of the direct sun irradiance and the aureole radiance in two different solid angles. The high-resolution spectral radiation measurements are used to derive vertical profiles of aerosol optical properties. Combined measurements in two solid angles provide better information about the aerosol type without additional and elaborate measuring geometries. It is even possible to discriminate between absorbing and nonabsorbing aerosol types. Furthermore, they allow to apply additional calibration methods and simplify the detection of contaminated data (e.g., by thin cirrus clouds). For the characterization of the detected aerosol type a new index is introduced that is the slope of the aerosol phase function in the forward scattering region. The instrumentation is a flexible modular setup, which has already been successfully applied in airborne and ground-based field campaigns. We describe the setup as well as the calibration of the instrument. In addition, example vertical profiles of aerosol optical properties--including the aureole measurements--are shown and discussed.

  15. Performance of the NASA Airborne Radar with the Windshear Database for Forward-Looking Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Switzer, George F.; Britt, Charles L.

    1996-01-01

    This document describes the simulation approach used to test the performance of the NASA airborne windshear radar. An explanation of the actual radar hardware and processing algorithms provides an understanding of the parameters used in the simulation program. This report also contains a brief overview of the NASA airborne windshear radar experimental flight test results. A description of the radar simulation program shows the capabilities of the program and the techniques used for certification evaluation. Simulation of the NASA radar is comprised of three steps. First, the choice of the ground clutter data must be made. The ground clutter is the return from objects in or nearby an airport facility. The choice of the ground clutter also dictates the aircraft flight path since ground clutter is gathered while in flight. The second step is the choice of the radar parameters and the running of the simulation program which properly combines the ground clutter data with simulated windshear weather data. The simulated windshear weather data is comprised of a number of Terminal Area Simulation System (TASS) model results. The final step is the comparison of the radar simulation results to the known windshear data base. The final evaluation of the radar simulation is based on the ability to detect hazardous windshear with the aircraft at a safe distance while at the same time not displaying false alerts.

  16. Validation of Rain Rate Retrievals for the Airborne Hurricane Imaging Radiometer (HIRAD)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacob, Maria Marta; Salemirad, Matin; Jones, W. Linwood; Biswas, Sayak; Cecil, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Hurricane and Severe Storm Sentinel (HS3) mission is an aircraft field measurements program using NASA's unmanned Global Hawk aircraft system for remote sensing and in situ observations of Atlantic and Caribbean Sea hurricanes. One of the principal microwave instruments is the Hurricane Imaging Radiometer (HIRAD), which measures surface wind speeds and rain rates. For validation of the HIRAD wind speed measurement in hurricanes, there exists a comprehensive set of comparisons with the Stepped Frequency Microwave Radiometer (SFMR) with in situ GPS dropwindsondes [1]. However, for rain rate measurements, there are only indirect correlations with rain imagery from other HS3 remote sensors (e.g., the dual-frequency Ka- & Ku-band doppler radar, HIWRAP), which is only qualitative in nature. However, this paper presents results from an unplanned rain rate measurement validation opportunity that occurred in 2013, when HIRAD flew over an intense tropical squall line that was simultaneously observed by the Tampa NEXRAD meteorological radar (Fig. 1). During this experiment, Global Hawk flying at an altitude of 18 km made 3 passes over the rapidly propagating thunderstorm, while the TAMPA NEXRAD perform volume scans on a 5-minute interval. Using the well-documented NEXRAD Z-R relationship, 2D images of rain rate (mm/hr) were obtained at two altitudes (3 km & 6 km), which serve as surface truth for the HIRAD rain rate retrievals. A preliminary comparison of HIRAD rain rate retrievals (image) for the first pass and the corresponding closest NEXRAD rain image is presented in Fig. 2 & 3. This paper describes the HIRAD instrument, which 1D synthetic-aperture thinned array radiometer (STAR) developed by NASA Marshall Space Flight Center [2]. The rain rate retrieval algorithm, developed by Amarin et al. [3], is based on the maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) technique, which compares the observed Tb's at the HIRAD operating frequencies of 4, 5, 6 and 6.6 GHz with

  17. Acoustic imaging system

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Richard W.

    1979-01-01

    An acoustic imaging system for displaying an object viewed by a moving array of transducers as the array is pivoted about a fixed point within a given plane. A plurality of transducers are fixedly positioned and equally spaced within a laterally extending array and operatively directed to transmit and receive acoustic signals along substantially parallel transmission paths. The transducers are sequentially activated along the array to transmit and receive acoustic signals according to a preestablished sequence. Means are provided for generating output voltages for each reception of an acoustic signal, corresponding to the coordinate position of the object viewed as the array is pivoted. Receptions from each of the transducers are presented on the same display at coordinates corresponding to the actual position of the object viewed to form a plane view of the object scanned.

  18. Airborne asbestos fibers detection in microscope images using re-initialization free active contours.

    PubMed

    Theodosiou, Zenonas; Tsapatsoulis, Nicolas; Bujak-Pietrek, Stella; Szadkowska-Stanczyk, Irena

    2010-01-01

    Breathing in asbestos fibers can lead to a number of diseases, the fibers become trapped in the lung and cannot be removed by either coughing or the person's immune system. Atmospheric concentrations of carcinogenic asbestos fibers, have traditionally been measured visually using phase contrast microscopy. However, because this measurement method requires great skill, and has poor reproducibility and objectivity, the development of automatic counting methods has been long anticipated. In this paper we proposed an automated fibers detection method based on a variational formulation of geometric active contours that forces the level set function to be close to signed distance function and therefore completely eliminates the need of the costly re-initialization procedure. The method was evaluated using a ground truth of 29 manually annotated images. The results were encouraging for the further development of the proposed method.

  19. Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS). A description of the sensor, ground data processing facility, laboratory calibration, and first results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vane, Gregg (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    The papers in this document were presented at the Imaging Spectroscopy 2 Conference of the 31st International Symposium on Optical and Optoelectronic Applied Science and Engineering, in San Diego, California, on 20 and 21 August 1987. They describe the design and performance of the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) sensor and its subsystems, the ground data processing facility, laboratory calibration, and first results.

  20. Nuclear medicine imaging system

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, Gerald W.; Brill, A. Bertrand; Bizais, Yves J.; Rowe, R. Wanda; Zubal, I. George

    1986-01-07

    A nuclear medicine imaging system having two large field of view scintillation cameras mounted on a rotatable gantry and being movable diametrically toward or away from each other is disclosed. In addition, each camera may be rotated about an axis perpendicular to the diameter of the gantry. The movement of the cameras allows the system to be used for a variety of studies, including positron annihilation, and conventional single photon emission, as well as static orthogonal dual multi-pinhole tomography. In orthogonal dual multi-pinhole tomography, each camera is fitted with a seven pinhole collimator to provide seven views from slightly different perspectives. By using two cameras at an angle to each other, improved sensitivity and depth resolution is achieved. The computer system and interface acquires and stores a broad range of information in list mode, including patient physiological data, energy data over the full range detected by the cameras, and the camera position. The list mode acquisition permits the study of attenuation as a result of Compton scatter, as well as studies involving the isolation and correlation of energy with a range of physiological conditions.

  1. Nuclear medicine imaging system

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, Gerald W.; Brill, A. Bertrand; Bizais, Yves J. C.; Rowe, R. Wanda; Zubal, I. George

    1986-01-01

    A nuclear medicine imaging system having two large field of view scintillation cameras mounted on a rotatable gantry and being movable diametrically toward or away from each other is disclosed. In addition, each camera may be rotated about an axis perpendicular to the diameter of the gantry. The movement of the cameras allows the system to be used for a variety of studies, including positron annihilation, and conventional single photon emission, as well as static orthogonal dual multi-pinhole tomography. In orthogonal dual multi-pinhole tomography, each camera is fitted with a seven pinhole collimator to provide seven views from slightly different perspectives. By using two cameras at an angle to each other, improved sensitivity and depth resolution is achieved. The computer system and interface acquires and stores a broad range of information in list mode, including patient physiological data, energy data over the full range detected by the cameras, and the camera position. The list mode acquisition permits the study of attenuation as a result of Compton scatter, as well as studies involving the isolation and correlation of energy with a range of physiological conditions.

  2. High-resolution airborne gravity imaging over James Ross Island (West Antarctica)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jordan, T.A.; Ferraccioli, F.; Jones, P.C.; Smellie, J.L.; Ghidella, M.; Corr, H. F. J.; Zakrajsek, A.F.

    2007-01-01

    James Ross Island (JRI) exposes a Miocene-Recent alkaline basaltic volcanic complex that developed in a back-arc, east of the northern Antarctic Peninsula. JRI has been the focus of several geological studies because it provides a window on Neogene magmatic processes and paleoenvironments. However, little is known about its internal structure. New airborne gravity data were collected as part of the first high-resolution aerogeophysical survey flown over the island and reveal a prominent negative Bouguer gravity anomaly over Mt Haddington. This is intriguing as basaltic volcanoes are typically associated with positive Bouguer anomalies, linked to underlying mafic intrusions. The negative Bouguer anomaly may be associated with a hitherto unrecognised low-density sub-surface body, such as a breccia-filled caldera, or a partially molten magma chamber.

  3. Evaluation of a cubicle containment system in preventing gaseous and particulate airborne cross-contamination

    SciTech Connect

    White, W.J.; Hughes, H.C.; Singh, S.B.; Lang, C.M.

    1983-12-01

    The effectiveness of a cubicle containment system in preventing gaseous and particulate cross-contamination in animal facilities was evaluated using several techniques. Using a nitrous oxide dilution technique, no airborne cross-contamination was found between cubicles as long as all cubicle doors were kept closed. If the doors to the cubicle in which the gas was released were partially or completely opened, low concentrations of nitrous oxide could be detected in adjacent cubicles. These concentrations increased when the air exchange rates in the cubicle were decreased. Similar results were obtained when particulate transfer was measured using aerosolized Staphlococcus epidermidis and a slit to agar sampling technique. Air flows and point air velocities within the cubicle and the animal room were also studied. A trial of Sendai virus transmission between cubicles revealed no intercubicle transmission after 3 weeks of exposure. Overall, the cubicle containment system appeared to be an effective means of achieving limited biohazard containment, applicable to many research housing needs.

  4. Evaluation of a cubicle containment system in preventing gaseous and particulate airborne cross-contamination.

    PubMed

    White, W J; Hughes, H C; Singh, S B; Lang, C M

    1983-12-01

    The effectiveness of a cubicle containment system in preventing gaseous and particulate cross-contamination in animal facilities was evaluated using several techniques. Using a nitrous oxide dilution technique, no airborne cross-contamination was found between cubicles as long as all cubicle doors were kept closed. If the doors to the cubicle in which the gas was released were partially or completely opened, low concentrations of nitrous oxide could be detected in adjacent cubicles. These concentrations increased when the air exchange rates in the cubicle were decreased. Similar results were obtained when particulate transfer was measured using aerosolized Staphlococcus epidermidis and a slit to agar sampling technique. Air flows and point air velocities within the cubicle and the animal room were also studied. A trial of Sendai virus transmission between cubicles revealed no intercubicle transmission after 3 weeks of exposure. Overall, the cubicle containment system appeared to be an effective means of achieving limited biohazard containment, applicable to many research housing needs.

  5. Airborne Imaging in the Yukon River Basin to Characterize SWOT Mission Phenomenology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moller, D.; Pavelsky, T.; Arvesen, J. C.

    2015-12-01

    Remote sensing offers intriguing tools to track Arctic hydrology, but current techniques are largely limited to tracking either inundation or water surface elevation only. For the first time, the proposed Surface Water Ocean Topography (SWOT) satellite mission will provide regular, simultaneous observations of inundation extent and water level from space. SWOT is unique and distinct from precursor altimetry missions in some notable regards: 1) 100km+ of swath will provide complete ocean coverage, 2) in addition to the ocean product, land surface water will be mapped for storage measurement and discharge estimation and 3) Ka-band single-pass interferometry will produce the height measurements introducing a new measurement technique. This new approach introduces additional algorithmic, characterization and calibration/validation needs for which the Ka-band SWOT Phenomenology Airborne Radar (KaSPAR) was developed. In May 2015, AirSWOT (comprised of KaSPAR and a color infrared (CIR) high resolution aerial camera) was part of an intensive field campaign including observations of inundation extent and water level and in situ hydrologic measurements in two rivers and 20 lakes within the Yukon River Basin, Alaska. One goal is to explore the fundamental phenomenology of the SWOT measurement. This includes assessment of the effects of vegetation layover and attenuation, wind roughening and classification. Further KaSPAR-derived inundation extent will to be validated using a combination of ground surveys and coregistered CIR imagery. Ultimately, by combining measurements of changing inundation extent and water level between two collection dates, it will be possible to validate lake water storage variations against storage changes computed from in situ water levels and inundation area derived from AirSWOT. Our paper summarizes the campaign, the airborne and in situ measurements and presents some initial KaSPAR and CIR imagery from the Yukon flats region.

  6. Mapping hydrothermally altered rocks in the Northern Grapevine Mountains, Nevada and California with the airborne imaging spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kruse, Fred A.

    1987-01-01

    Seven flightlines of Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) data were analyzed for an area of hydrothermally altered rocks. The data were reduced to reflectance relative to an average spectrum, and an automated procedure was used to produce a color coded image displaying absorption band information. Individual spectra were extracted from the AIS images to determine the detailed mineralogy. Two alteration types were mapped based upon mineralogy identified using the AIS data. The primary alteration type is quartz sericite pyrite alteration which occurs in northwest-trending zones in quartz monzonite porphyry. The AIS data allow identification of sericite (muscovite) based upon a strong absorption feature near 2.21 micron and weaker absorption features near 2.35 and 2.45 micron. The second alteration type occurs as a zone of argillic alteration associated with a granitic intrusion. Montmorillonite was identified based on a weak to moderate absorption feature near 2.2 micron and the absence of the two absorption features at longer wavelengths characteristic of sericite. Montmorillonite could be identified only where concentrations of sericite did not mask the montmorillonite spectrum.

  7. Optimized Design of the SGA-WZ Strapdown Airborne Gravimeter Temperature Control System

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Juliang; Wang, Minghao; Cai, Shaokun; Zhang, Kaidong; Cong, Danni; Wu, Meiping

    2015-01-01

    The temperature control system is one of the most important subsystems of the strapdown airborne gravimeter. Because the quartz flexible accelerometer based on springy support technology is the core sensor in the strapdown airborne gravimeter and the magnet steel in the electromagnetic force equilibrium circuits of the quartz flexible accelerometer is greatly affected by temperature, in order to guarantee the temperature control precision and minimize the effect of temperature on the gravimeter, the SGA-WZ temperature control system adopts a three-level control method. Based on the design experience of the SGA-WZ-01, the SGA-WZ-02 temperature control system came out with a further optimized design. In 1st level temperature control, thermoelectric cooler is used to conquer temperature change caused by hot weather. The experiments show that the optimized stability of 1st level temperature control is about 0.1 °C and the max cool down capability is about 10 °C. The temperature field is analyzed in the 2nd and 3rd level temperature control using the finite element analysis software ANSYS. The 2nd and 3rd level temperature control optimization scheme is based on the foundation of heat analysis. The experimental results show that static accuracy of SGA-WZ-02 reaches 0.21 mGal/24 h, with internal accuracy being 0.743 mGal/4.8 km and external accuracy being 0.37 mGal/4.8 km compared with the result of the GT-2A, whose internal precision is superior to 1 mGal/4.8 km and all of them are better than those in SGA-WZ-01. PMID:26633407

  8. Development and implementation of software systems for imaging spectroscopy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boardman, J.W.; Clark, R.N.; Mazer, A.S.; Biehl, L.L.; Kruse, F.A.; Torson, J.; Staenz, K.

    2006-01-01

    Specialized software systems have played a crucial role throughout the twenty-five year course of the development of the new technology of imaging spectroscopy, or hyperspectral remote sensing. By their very nature, hyperspectral data place unique and demanding requirements on the computer software used to visualize, analyze, process and interpret them. Often described as a marriage of the two technologies of reflectance spectroscopy and airborne/spaceborne remote sensing, imaging spectroscopy, in fact, produces data sets with unique qualities, unlike previous remote sensing or spectrometer data. Because of these unique spatial and spectral properties hyperspectral data are not readily processed or exploited with legacy software systems inherited from either of the two parent fields of study. This paper provides brief reviews of seven important software systems developed specifically for imaging spectroscopy.

  9. Airborne reconnaissance XV; Proceedings of the Meeting, San Diego, CA, July 23, 24, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Augustyn, T.W.; Henkel, P.A.

    1991-01-01

    Recent advances in airborne reconnaissance are reported focusing on reconnaissance requiremnts; image processing and exploitation, image acquisition and recording; and advanced development. Particular attention is given to low-intensity conflict aircraft systems; low-cost, low-risk approach to tactical reconnaissance; mission verification systems for FMS applications; tactical reconnaissance mission survivability requirements; high-bandwidth recording in a hostile environment; direct-drive film magazines; a CCD performance model for airborne reconnaissance, and an Ericsson digital recce management system.

  10. Target detection algorithm for airborne thermal hyperspectral data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marwaha, R.; Kumar, A.; Raju, P. L. N.; Krishna Murthy, Y. V. N.

    2014-11-01

    Airborne hyperspectral imaging is constantly being used for classification purpose. But airborne thermal hyperspectral image usually is a challenge for conventional classification approaches. The Telops Hyper-Cam sensor is an interferometer-based imaging system that helps in the spatial and spectral analysis of targets utilizing a single sensor. It is based on the technology of Fourier-transform which yields high spectral resolution and enables high accuracy radiometric calibration. The Hypercam instrument has 84 spectral bands in the 868 cm-1 to 1280 cm-1 region (7.8 μm to 11.5 μm), at a spectral resolution of 6 cm-1 (full-width-half-maximum) for LWIR (long wave infrared) range. Due to the Hughes effect, only a few classifiers are able to handle high dimensional classification task. MNF (Minimum Noise Fraction) rotation is a data dimensionality reducing approach to segregate noise in the data. In this, the component selection of minimum noise fraction (MNF) rotation transformation was analyzed in terms of classification accuracy using constrained energy minimization (CEM) algorithm as a classifier for Airborne thermal hyperspectral image and for the combination of airborne LWIR hyperspectral image and color digital photograph. On comparing the accuracy of all the classified images for airborne LWIR hyperspectral image and combination of Airborne LWIR hyperspectral image with colored digital photograph, it was found that accuracy was highest for MNF component equal to twenty. The accuracy increased by using the combination of airborne LWIR hyperspectral image with colored digital photograph instead of using LWIR data alone.

  11. Detection of oil slicks at night with airborne infrared imagers. Final report, October 1993-April 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Daniels, G.M.; Hover, G.L.

    1994-12-01

    The detection of oil slicks on the ocean is a Coast Guard priority. Daytime detection in clear weather is routine; but nighttime detection requires sophisticated imaging sensors. Infrared imagers have demonstrated some capability to detect oil slicks at night in the marine environment. Infrared imagers sense the thermal radiation, and its variations, in a scene rather than the reflected radiation. Gimbal-mounted thermal imagers operating in the 8-12 micron region are currently flown on Coast Guard aircraft. This study compared the performance of these imagers with hand-held imagers operating in the 3-5 micron region. The comparison was primarily theoretical with semi-quantitative support from an uncalibrated data base of infrared images taken wit various sensors. It was found theoretically, and supported by image data, that the 8-12 micron instruments produced images with better water-oil contrast at night. This differential behavior was theoretically predicted to hold over a wide range of environmental conditions. The differential behavior was traced to the fact that the optical properties of water and oil are more different in the 8-12 than in the 3-5 micron bands. The utility of night-vision imagers or low-light level TVs was also assessed. Calculations indicated that typical water-oil contrasts would not be seen with current sensors. Image data appearing to contradict this conclusion was found to be defective in the sense that the conditions of the experiments were not representative of operational conditions. It is recommended that: the use of 8-12 micron imagers be continued for oil slick searches at night and the potential of new night-time imaging devices be assessed.

  12. Failure detection of liquid cooled electronics in sealed packages. [in airborne information management system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoadley, A. W.; Porter, A. J.

    1991-01-01

    The theory and experimental verification of a method of detecting fluid-mass loss, expansion-chamber pressure loss, or excessive vapor build-up in NASA's Airborne Information Management System (AIMS) are presented. The primary purpose of this leak-detection method is to detect the fluid-mass loss before the volume of vapor on the liquid side causes a temperature-critical part to be out of the liquid. The method detects the initial leak after the first 2.5 pct of the liquid mass has been lost, and it can be used for detecting subsequent situations including the leaking of air into the liquid chamber and the subsequent vapor build-up.

  13. How Cities Breathe: Ground-Referenced, Airborne Hyperspectral Imaging Precursor Measurements To Space-Based Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leifer, Ira; Tratt, David; Quattrochi, Dale; Bovensmann, Heinrich; Gerilowski, Konstantin; Buchwitz, Michael; Burrows, John

    2013-01-01

    Methane's (CH4) large global warming potential (Shindell et al., 2012) and likely increasing future emissions due to global warming feedbacks emphasize its importance to anthropogenic greenhouse warming (IPCC, 2007). Furthermore, CH4 regulation has far greater near-term climate change mitigation potential versus carbon dioxide CO2, the other major anthropogenic Greenhouse Gas (GHG) (Shindell et al., 2009). Uncertainties in CH4 budgets arise from the poor state of knowledge of CH4 sources - in part from a lack of sufficiently accurate assessments of the temporal and spatial emissions and controlling factors of highly variable anthropogenic and natural CH4 surface fluxes (IPCC, 2007) and the lack of global-scale (satellite) data at sufficiently high spatial resolution to resolve sources. Many important methane (and other trace gases) sources arise from urban and mega-urban landscapes where anthropogenic activities are centered - most of humanity lives in urban areas. Studying these complex landscape tapestries is challenged by a wide and varied range of activities at small spatial scale, and difficulty in obtaining up-to-date landuse data in the developed world - a key desire of policy makers towards development of effective regulations. In the developing world, challenges are multiplied with additional political access challenges. As high spatial resolution satellite and airborne data has become available, activity mapping applications have blossomed - i.e., Google maps; however, tap a minute fraction of remote sensing capabilities due to limited (three band) spectral information. Next generation approaches that incorporate high spatial resolution hyperspectral and ultraspectral data will allow detangling of the highly heterogeneous usage megacity patterns by providing diagnostic identification of chemical composition from solids (refs) to gases (refs). To properly enable these next generation technologies for megacity include atmospheric radiative transfer modeling

  14. Airborne gravity gradiometer surveying of petroleum systems under Lake Tanganyika, Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Doug; Chowdhury, Priyanka Roy; Lowe, Sharon Jenny; Christensen, Asbjorn Norlund

    2016-02-01

    The Lake Tanganyika South petroleum exploration block covers the southern portion of the Tanzanian side of Lake Tanganyika and is located within the East African Rift System. The rifting process has formed rotated fault blocks which provide numerous play types in the resulting basins. Interpretation of 2D seismic data from 1984 indicated that sufficient sediment thickness is present for hydrocarbon generation. The prospectivity of the lake sediment sequence is enhanced by large oil discoveries further north along the rift system at Lake Albert in Uganda. Airborne gravity gradiometry (AGG) has been used in the Lake Albert region to delineate the structural framework of sedimentary basins. Based on this analogy, in 2010 Beach Energy commissioned CGG to fly a FALCON AGG and high-resolution airborne magnetic survey over the Lake Tanganyika South block to provide data for mapping the basin architecture and estimating the depth to magnetic basement. A total of nearly 28000 line kilometres of data were acquired. The subsequent interpretation incorporated the AGG and magnetic data with available 2D seismic data, elevation model data, bathymetry, Landsat and regional geology information. The integrated data interpretation revealed that the Lake Tanganyika rifting structures occur as half-grabens that were formed through reactivation of Precambrian fault structures. Two major depocentres were identified in the magnetic depth-to-basement map in the north and in the west-central part of the survey area with sediment thicknesses in excess of 4 km and 3 km, respectively. Smaller, shallower depocentres (with less than 3 km of sediment) occur in the south-western region. This information was used to plan a 2100 km 2D marine seismic survey that was recorded in 2012. An interpretation of the results from the seismic survey confirmed a rifting structure similar to that encountered further north at Lake Albert in Uganda. Several targets were identified from the seismic sections for

  15. OSPACS: Ultrasound image management system

    PubMed Central

    Stott, Will; Ryan, Andy; Jacobs, Ian J; Menon, Usha; Bessant, Conrad; Jones, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    Background Ultrasound scanning uses the medical imaging format, DICOM, for electronically storing the images and data associated with a particular scan. Large health care facilities typically use a picture archiving and communication system (PACS) for storing and retrieving such images. However, these systems are usually not suitable for managing large collections of anonymized ultrasound images gathered during a clinical screening trial. Results We have developed a system enabling the accurate archiving and management of ultrasound images gathered during a clinical screening trial. It is based upon a Windows application utilizing an open-source DICOM image viewer and a relational database. The system automates the bulk import of DICOM files from removable media by cross-validating the patient information against an external database, anonymizing the data as well as the image, and then storing the contents of the file as a field in a database record. These image records may then be retrieved from the database and presented in a tree-view control so that the user can select particular images for display in a DICOM viewer or export them to external media. Conclusion This system provides error-free automation of ultrasound image archiving and management, suitable for use in a clinical trial. An open-source project has been established to promote continued development of the system. PMID:18570637

  16. Improved Atmospheric Boundary Layer Observations of Tropical Cyclones with the Imaging Wind and Rain Airborne Profiler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fernandez, D. Esteban; Chang, P.; Carswel, J.; Contreras, R.; Chu, T.; Asuzu, P.; Black, P.; Marks, F.

    2006-01-01

    The Imaging Wind and Rain Arborne Profilers (IWRAP) is a dual-frequency, conically-scanning Doppler radar that measures high-resolution, dual-polarized, multi-beam C- and Ku-band reflectivity and Doppler velocity profiles of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) within the inner core of hurricanes.From the datasets acquired during the 2002 through 20O5 hurricane seasons as part of the ONR Coupled Boundary Layer Air-Sea Transfer (CBLAST) program and the NOAA/NESDIS Ocean Winds and Rain experiments, very high resolution radar observations of hurricanes have been acquired and made available to the CBLAST community. Of particular interest am the ABL wind fields and 3-D structures found within the inner core of hurricanes. As a result of these analysis, a limitation in the ability to retrieve the ABL wind field at very low altitudes was identified. This paper shows how this limitation has been removed and presents initial results demonstrating its new capabilities to derive the ABL wind field within the inner are of hurricanes to much lower altitudes than the ones the original system was capable of.

  17. Land cover classification of VHR airborne images for citrus grove identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amorós López, J.; Izquierdo Verdiguier, E.; Gómez Chova, L.; Muñoz Marí, J.; Rodríguez Barreiro, J. Z.; Camps Valls, G.; Calpe Maravilla, J.

    Managing land resources using remote sensing techniques is becoming a common practice. However, data analysis procedures should satisfy the high accuracy levels demanded by users (public or private companies and governments) in order to be extensively used. This paper presents a multi-stage classification scheme to update the citrus Geographical Information System (GIS) of the Comunidad Valenciana region (Spain). Spain is the first citrus fruit producer in Europe and the fourth in the world. In particular, citrus fruits represent 67% of the agricultural production in this region, with a total production of 4.24 million tons (campaign 2006-2007). The citrus GIS inventory, created in 2001, needs to be regularly updated in order to monitor changes quickly enough, and allow appropriate policy making and citrus production forecasting. Automatic methods are proposed in this work to facilitate this update, whose processing scheme is summarized as follows. First, an object-oriented feature extraction process is carried out for each cadastral parcel from very high spatial resolution aerial images (0.5 m). Next, several automatic classifiers (decision trees, artificial neural networks, and support vector machines) are trained and combined to improve the final classification accuracy. Finally, the citrus GIS is automatically updated if a high enough level of confidence, based on the agreement between classifiers, is achieved. This is the case for 85% of the parcels and accuracy results exceed 94%. The remaining parcels are classified by expert photo-interpreters in order to guarantee the high accuracy demanded by policy makers.

  18. Multi-stage robust scheme for citrus identification from high resolution airborne images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amorós-López, Julia; Izquierdo Verdiguier, Emma; Gómez-Chova, Luis; Muñoz-Marí, Jordi; Zoilo Rodríguez-Barreiro, Jorge; Camps-Valls, Gustavo; Calpe-Maravilla, Javier

    2008-10-01

    Identification of land cover types is one of the most critical activities in remote sensing. Nowadays, managing land resources by using remote sensing techniques is becoming a common procedure to speed up the process while reducing costs. However, data analysis procedures should satisfy the accuracy figures demanded by institutions and governments for further administrative actions. This paper presents a methodological scheme to update the citrus Geographical Information Systems (GIS) of the Comunidad Valenciana autonomous region, Spain). The proposed approach introduces a multi-stage automatic scheme to reduce visual photointerpretation and ground validation tasks. First, an object-oriented feature extraction process is carried out for each cadastral parcel from very high spatial resolution (VHR) images (0.5m) acquired in the visible and near infrared. Next, several automatic classifiers (decision trees, multilayer perceptron, and support vector machines) are trained and combined to improve the final accuracy of the results. The proposed strategy fulfills the high accuracy demanded by policy makers by means of combining automatic classification methods with visual photointerpretation available resources. A level of confidence based on the agreement between classifiers allows us an effective management by fixing the quantity of parcels to be reviewed. The proposed methodology can be applied to similar problems and applications.

  19. Airborne Wind Profiling With the Data Acquisition and Processing System for a Pulsed 2-Micron Coherent Doppler Lidar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beyon, Jeffrey Y.; Koch, Grady J.; Kavaya, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    A pulsed 2-micron coherent Doppler lidar system at NASA Langley Research Center in Virginia flew on the NASA's DC-8 aircraft during the NASA Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) during the summer of 2010. The participation was part of the project Doppler Aerosol Wind Lidar (DAWN) Air. Selected results of airborne wind profiling are presented and compared with the dropsonde data for verification purposes. Panoramic presentations of different wind parameters over a nominal observation time span are also presented for selected GRIP data sets. The realtime data acquisition and analysis software that was employed during the GRIP campaign is introduced with its unique features.

  20. [Building Change Detection Based on Multi-Level Rules Classification with Airborne LiDAR Data and Aerial Images].

    PubMed

    Gong, Yi-long; Yan, Li

    2015-05-01

    The present paper proposes a new building change detection method combining Lidar point cloud with aerial image, using multi-level rules classification algorithm, to solve building change detection problem between these two kinds of heterogeneous data. Then, a morphological post-processing method combined with area threshold is proposed. Thus, a complete building change detection processing flow that can be applied to actual production is proposed. Finally, the effectiveness of the building change detection method is evaluated, processing the 2010 airborne LiDAR point cloud data and 2009 high resolution aerial image of Changchun City, Jilin province, China; in addition, compared with the object-oriented building change detection method based on support vector machine (SVM) classification, more analysis and evaluation of the suggested method is given. Experiment results show that the performance of the proposed building change detection method is ideal. Its Kappa index is 0. 90, and correctness is 0. 87, which is higher than the object-oriented building change detection method based on SVM classification.

  1. Source Attribution of Methane Emission from Petroleum Production Operations using High-Resolution Airborne Thermal-Infrared Imaging Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tratt, D. M.; Buckland, K. N.; Young, S. J.; Riley, D.; Leifer, I.

    2012-12-01

    High spatio-spectral resolution airborne thermal-infrared (TIR) imaging spectrometry is shown to be effective in detecting and tracking gaseous emissions from petroleum production facilities. The high spatial resolution (1-2 m) of the sensor permits unequivocal trace-back of emission plumes to their source. The high spectral resolution (44 nm across the 7.5-13.5 μm TIR band) enables precise identification and discrimination of primary and subsidiary plume components through the application of spectral matched filtering and adaptive coherence estimation techniques. Operation in the TIR spectral region allows operations to be conducted throughout the diurnal cycle, since the measurement relies on observation of emissive radiation and the intrinsic thermal contrast between the fugitive plume gases and the underlying scene. Methane plumes associated with petroleum production operations and natural emissions have been identified in a variety of environmental settings. The accompanying figure shows a grayscale thermal image of a marine production platform off the California coast. A gas plume (identified as methane) being released from a venting boom is shown superimposed in false color.

  2. Ice-volcano interactions during the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption, as revealed by airborne imaging radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magnússon, E.; Gudmundsson, M. T.; Roberts, M. J.; Sigurã°Sson, G.; HöSkuldsson, F.; Oddsson, B.

    2012-07-01

    During the eruption of the ice-covered Eyjafjallajökull volcano, a series of images from an airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) were obtained by the Icelandic Coast Guard. Cloud obscured the summit from view during the first three days of the eruption, making the weather-independent SAR a valuable monitoring resource. Radar images revealed the development of ice cauldrons in a 200 m thick ice cover within the summit caldera, as well as the formation of cauldrons to the immediate south of the caldera. Additionally, radar images were used to document the subglacial and supraglacial passage of floodwater to the north and south of the eruption site. The eruption breached the ice surface about four hours after its onset at about 01:30 UTC on 14 April 2010. The first SAR images, obtained between 08:55 and 10:42 UTC, show signs of limited supraglacial drainage from the eruption site. Floodwater began to drain from the ice cap almost 5.5 h after the beginning of the eruption, implying storage of meltwater at the eruption site due to initially constricted subglacial drainage from the caldera. Heat transfer rates from magma to ice during early stages of cauldron formation were about 1 MW m-2 in the radial direction and about 4 MW m-2 vertically. Meltwater release was characterized by accumulation and drainage with most of the volcanic material in the ice cauldrons being drained in hyperconcentrated floods. After the third day of the eruption, meltwater generation at the eruption site diminished due to an insulating lag of tephra.

  3. Case studies of aerosol remote sensing with the Airborne Multiangle SpectroPolarimetric Imager (AirMSPI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diner, D. J.; Xu, F.; Garay, M. J.; Martonchik, J. V.; Kalashnikova, O. V.; Davis, A. B.; Rheingans, B.; Geier, S.; Jovanovic, V.; Bull, M.

    2012-12-01

    The Airborne Multiangle SpectroPolarimetric Imager (AirMSPI) is an 8-band (355, 380, 445, 470, 555, 660, 865, 935 nm) pushbroom camera, measuring polarization in the 470, 660, and 865 nm bands, mounted on a gimbal to acquire multiangular observations over a ±67° along-track range with 10-m spatial resolution across an 11-km wide swath. Among the instrument objectives are exploration of methodologies for combining multiangle, multispectral, polarimetric, and imaging observations to retrieve the optical depth and microphysical properties of tropospheric aerosols. AirMSPI was integrated on NASA's ER-2 high-altitude aircraft in 2010 and has successfully completed a number of flights over land and ocean targets in the Southern California vicinity. In this paper, we present case studies of AirMSPI imagery, interpreted using vector radiative transfer theory. AirMSPI observations over California's Central Valley are compared with model calculations using aerosol properties reported by the Fresno AERONET sunphotometer. Because determination of the radiative impact of different types of aerosols requires accurate attribution of the source of the reflected light along with characterization of the aerosol optical and microphysical properties, we explore the sensitivity of the Fresno measurements to variations in different aerosol properties, demonstrating the value of combining intensity and polarimetry at multiple view angles and spectral bands for constraining particle microphysical properties. Images over ocean to be presented include scenes over nearly cloud-free skies and scenes containing scattered clouds. It is well known that imperfect cloud screening confounds the determination of aerosol impact on radiation; it is perhaps less well appreciated that the effect of cloud reflections in the water can also be problematic. We calculate the magnitude of this effect in intensity and polarization and discuss its potential impact on aerosol retrievals, underscoring the value

  4. Data products of NASA Goddard's LiDAR, hyperspectral, and thermal airborne imager (G-LiHT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corp, Lawrence A.; Cook, Bruce D.; McCorkel, Joel; Middleton, Elizabeth M.

    2015-06-01

    Scientists in the Biospheric Sciences Laboratory at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center have undertaken a unique instrument fusion effort for an airborne package that integrates commercial off the shelf LiDAR, Hyperspectral, and Thermal components. G-LiHT is a compact, lightweight and portable system that can be used on a wide range of airborne platforms to support a number of NASA Earth Science research projects and space-based missions. G-LiHT permits simultaneous and complementary measurements of surface reflectance, vegetation structure, and temperature, which provide an analytical framework for the development of new algorithms for mapping plant species composition, plant functional types, biodiversity, biomass, carbon stocks, and plant growth. G-LiHT and its supporting database are designed to give scientists open access to the data that are needed to understand the relationship between ecosystem form and function and to stimulate the advancement of synergistic algorithms. This system will enhance our ability to design new missions and produce data products related to biodiversity and climate change. G-LiHT has been operational since 2011 and has been used to collect data for a number of NASA and USFS sponsored studies, including NASA's Carbon Monitoring System (CMS) and the American ICESat/GLAS Assessment of Carbon (AMIGA-Carb). These acquisitions target a broad diversity of forest communities and ecoregions across the United States and Mexico. Here, we will discuss the components of G-LiHT, their calibration and performance characteristics, operational implementation, and data processing workflows. We will also provide examples of higher level data products that are currently available.

  5. X-Ray Imaging System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1986-01-01

    The FluoroScan Imaging System is a high resolution, low radiation device for viewing stationary or moving objects. It resulted from NASA technology developed for x-ray astronomy and Goddard application to a low intensity x-ray imaging scope. FlouroScan Imaging Systems, Inc, (formerly HealthMate, Inc.), a NASA licensee, further refined the FluoroScan System. It is used for examining fractures, placement of catheters, and in veterinary medicine. Its major components include an x-ray generator, scintillator, visible light image intensifier and video display. It is small, light and maneuverable.

  6. Tree species identification in an African Savanna with airborne imaging spectroscopy and LiDAR from the Carnegie Airborne Observatory (CAO) using stacked support vector machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldeck, C. A.; Colgan, M.; Féret, J.; Asner, G. P.

    2012-12-01

    Airborne remote sensing data provide promising opportunities for species identification of individual tree and shrub crowns across large areas which cannot be mapped from the ground. Previous investigations of the potential for species identification of crowns from airborne data have focused on pixel-level information (0.5-1m2), and thus have been unable to take advantage of the structural information that exist at the crown level. Hyperspectral data consisting of 58 bands from 517 to 1054nm and LiDAR (light detection and ranging) data providing vegetation height information were acquired over several landscapes within Kruger National Park, South Africa, by the CAO in 2008 at 1.1m spatial resolution. Over 1,000 individual trees and shrubs were mapped and identified in the field to construct species spectral and structural libraries. We used stacked support vector machines (SVM) that incorporate pixel-level spectral information and crown-level structural information to predict species identity for individual tree crowns. The addition of a crown-level classification step that incorporates crown structural information significantly improved model accuracy by ~6% and our prediction accuracy of the final model was ~75% for 16 species classes. This model was then used to predict the species identity of individual crowns across multiple airborne-mapped landscapes, made possible by an automated crown segmentation algorithm. The resultant species maps will make it possible to examine the environmental controls over individual species distributions and tree community composition, and provide important landscape-scale species distribution information relevant to park management and conservation.

  7. Mars Airborne Prospecting Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinkraus, J. M.; Wright, M. W.; Rheingans, B. E.; Steinkraus, D. E.; George, W. P.; Aljabri, A.; Hall, J. L.; Scott, D. C.

    2012-06-01

    One novel approach towards addressing the need for innovative instrumentation and investigation approaches is the integration of a suite of four spectrometer systems to form the Mars Airborne Prospecting Spectrometers (MAPS) for prospecting on Mars.

  8. Minimizing Intra-Campaign Biases in Airborne Laser Altimetry By Thorough Calibration of Lidar System Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonntag, J. G.; Chibisov, A.; Krabill, K. A.; Linkswiler, M. A.; Swenson, C.; Yungel, J.

    2015-12-01

    Present-day airborne lidar surveys of polar ice, NASA's Operation IceBridge foremost among them, cover large geographical areas. They are often compared with previous surveys over the same flight lines to yield mass balance estimates. Systematic biases in the lidar system, especially those which vary from campaign to campaign, can introduce significant error into these mass balance estimates and must be minimized before the data is released by the instrument team to the larger scientific community. NASA's Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM) team designed a thorough and novel approach in order to minimize these biases, and here we describe two major aspects of this approach. First, we conduct regular ground vehicle-based surveys of lidar calibration targets, and overfly these targets on a near-daily basis during field campaigns. We discuss our technique for conducting these surveys, in particular the measures we take specifically to minimize systematic height biases in the surveys, since these can in turn bias entire campaigns of lidar data and the mass balance estimates based on them. Second, we calibrate our GPS antennas specifically for each instrument installation in a remote-sensing aircraft. We do this because we recognize that the metallic fuselage of the aircraft can alter the electromagnetic properties of the GPS antenna mounted to it, potentially displacing its phase center by several centimeters and biasing lidar results accordingly. We describe our technique for measuring the phase centers of a GPS antenna installed atop an aircraft, and show results which demonstrate that different installations can indeed alter the phase centers significantly.

  9. Use of airborne imaging spectrometer data to map minerals associated with hydrothermally altered rocks in the northern grapevine mountains, Nevada, and California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kruse, F.A.

    1988-01-01

    Three flightlines of Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) data, acquired over the northern Grapevine Mountains, Nevada, and California, were used to map minerals associated with hydrothermally altered rocks. The data were processed to remove vertical striping, normalized using an equal area normalization, and reduced to reflectance relative to an average spectrum derived from the data. An algorithm was developed to automatically calculate the absorption band parameters band position, band depth, and band width for the strongest absorption feature in each pixel. These parameters were mapped into an intensity, hue, saturation (IHS) color system to produce a single color image that summarized the absorption band information, This image was used to map areas of potential alteration based upon the predicted relationships between the color image and mineral absorption band. Individual AIS spectra for these areas were then examined to identify specific minerals. Two types of alteration were mapped with the AIS data. Areas of quartz-sericite-pyrite alteration were identified based upon a strong absorption feature near 2.21 ??m, a weak shoulder near 2.25 ??m, and a weak absorption band near 2.35 ??m caused by sericite (fine-grained muscovite). Areas of argillic alteration were defined based on the presence of montmorillonite, identified by a weak to moderate absorption feature near 2.21 ??m and the absence of the 2.35 ??m band. Montmorillonite could not be identified in mineral mixtures. Calcite and dolomite were identified based on sharp absorption features near 2.34 and 2.32 ??m, respectively. Areas of alteration identified using the AIS data corresponded well with areas mapped using field mapping, field reflectance spectra, and laboratory spectral measurements. ?? 1988.

  10. High speed imaging television system

    DOEpatents

    Wilkinson, William O.; Rabenhorst, David W.

    1984-01-01

    A television system for observing an event which provides a composite video output comprising the serially interlaced images the system is greater than the time resolution of any of the individual cameras.

  11. Backscatter absorption gas imaging system

    DOEpatents

    McRae, T.G. Jr.

    A video imaging system for detecting hazardous gas leaks. Visual displays of invisible gas clouds are produced by radiation augmentation of the field of view of an imaging device by radiation corresponding to an absorption line of the gas to be detected. The field of view of an imager is irradiated by a laser. The imager receives both backscattered laser light and background radiation. When a detectable gas is present, the backscattered laser light is highly attenuated, producing a region of contrast or shadow on the image. A flying spot imaging system is utilized to synchronously irradiate and scan the area to lower laser power requirements. The imager signal is processed to produce a video display.

  12. Backscatter absorption gas imaging system

    DOEpatents

    McRae, Jr., Thomas G.

    1985-01-01

    A video imaging system for detecting hazardous gas leaks. Visual displays of invisible gas clouds are produced by radiation augmentation of the field of view of an imaging device by radiation corresponding to an absorption line of the gas to be detected. The field of view of an imager is irradiated by a laser. The imager receives both backscattered laser light and background radiation. When a detectable gas is present, the backscattered laser light is highly attenuated, producing a region of contrast or shadow on the image. A flying spot imaging system is utilized to synchronously irradiate and scan the area to lower laser power requirements. The imager signal is processed to produce a video display.

  13. G-LiHT: Goddard's LiDAR, Hyperspectral and Thermal Airborne Imager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Bruce; Corp, Lawrence; Nelson, Ross; Morton, Douglas; Ranson, Kenneth J.; Masek, Jeffrey; Middleton, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Scientists at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center have developed an ultra-portable, low-cost, multi-sensor remote sensing system for studying the form and function of terrestrial ecosystems. G-LiHT integrates two LIDARs, a 905 nanometer single beam profiler and 1550 nm scanner, with a narrowband (1.5 nanometers) VNIR imaging spectrometer and a broadband (8-14 micrometers) thermal imager. The small footprint (approximately 12 centimeters) LIDAR data and approximately 1 meter ground resolution imagery are advantageous for high resolution applications such as the delineation of canopy crowns, characterization of canopy gaps, and the identification of sparse, low-stature vegetation, which is difficult to detect from space-based instruments and large-footprint LiDAR. The hyperspectral and thermal imagery can be used to characterize species composition, variations in biophysical variables (e.g., photosynthetic pigments), surface temperature, and responses to environmental stressors (e.g., heat, moisture loss). Additionally, the combination of LIDAR optical, and thermal data from G-LiHT is being used to assess forest health by sensing differences in foliage density, photosynthetic pigments, and transpiration. Low operating costs (approximately $1 ha) have allowed us to evaluate seasonal differences in LiDAR, passive optical and thermal data, which provides insight into year-round observations from space. Canopy characteristics and tree allometry (e.g., crown height:width, canopy:ground reflectance) derived from G-LiHT data are being used to generate realistic scenes for radiative transfer models, which in turn are being used to improve instrument design and ensure continuity between LiDAR instruments. G-LiHT has been installed and tested in aircraft with fuselage viewports and in a custom wing-mounted pod that allows G-LiHT to be flown on any Cessna 206, a common aircraft in use throughout the world. G-LiHT is currently being used for forest biomass and growth estimation

  14. Airborne dust and aeroallergen concentration in a horse stable under two different management systems.

    PubMed

    Woods, P S; Robinson, N E; Swanson, M C; Reed, C E; Broadstone, R V; Derksen, F J

    1993-05-01

    Airborne dust concentration (ADC) was measured in 2 different horse management systems using an Andersen cascade impactor in the box-stall, and a personal Marple cascade impactor attached to the halter to measure ADC in the breathing zone. The levels of aeroallergens implicated in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were measured by radioallergosorbent-inhibition immunoassay. A conventional management system (System C) utilising hay feed and straw bedding, and a recommended environment (System R) utilising wood shaving bedding and a complete pelleted diet were studied. In the stall, total and respirable ADC (geometric mean) were significantly higher in System C (2.55 mg/m3; 0.44 mg/m3, respectively) than in System R (0.70 mg/m3; 0.20 mg/m3, respectively). In System C, the total and respirable ADC in the breathing zone (17.51 mg/m3; 9.28 mg/m3) were much higher than in the stall, but values in both regions were similar in System R (0.52 mg/m3; 0.30 mg/m3). Major aeroallergens were significantly higher in System C than in System R: Micropolyspora faeni (1423 ng/m3 and 705 ng/m3), Aspergillus fumigatus (1823 ng/m3 and 748 ng/m3), and mite allergens (1420 ng/m3 and 761 ng/m3). Measurement of ADC with personal samplers indicates that the very high inhalation challenge in the breathing zone is not reflected in measurements of stall air quality. When compared with System C, System R produced only 3% of the respirable dust burden in the breathing zone and a decreased aeroallergen challenge.

  15. Airborne differential absorption lidar system for measurements of atmospheric water vapor and aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Arlen F.; Allen, Robert J.; Mayo, M. Neale; Butler, Carolyn F.; Grossman, Benoist E.; Ismail, Syed; Grant, William B.; Browell, Edward V.; Higdon, Noah S.; Mayor, Shane D.; Ponsardin, Patrick; Hueser, Alene W.

    1994-01-01

    An airborne differential absorption lidar (DIAL) system has been developed at the NASA Langley Research Center for remote measurements of atmospheric water vapor (H2O) and aerosols. A solid-state alexandrite laser with a 1-pm linewidth and greater than 99.85% spectral purity was used as the on-line transmitter. Solid-state avalanche photodiode detector technology has replaced photomultiplier tubes in the receiver system, providing an average increase by a factor of 1.5-2.5 in the signal-to-noise ratio of the H2O measurement. By incorporating advanced diagnostic and data-acquisition instrumentation into other subsystems, we achieved additional improvements in system operational reliability and measurement accuracy. Laboratory spectroscopic measurements of H2O absorption-line parameters were performed to reduce the uncertainties in our knowledge of the absorption cross sections. Line-center H2O absorption cross sections were determined, with errors of 3-6%, for more than 120 lines in the 720-nm region. Flight tests of the system were conducted during 1989-1991 on the NASA Wallops Flight Facility Electra aircraft, and extensive intercomparison measurements were performed with dew-point hygrometers and H2O radiosondes. The H2O distributions measured with the DIAL system differed by less than 10% from the profiles determined with the in situ probes in a variety of atmospheric conditions.

  16. Airborne differential absorption lidar system for measurements of atmospheric water vapor and aerosols.

    PubMed

    Higdon, N S; Browell, E V; Ponsardin, P; Grossmann, B E; Butler, C F; Chyba, T H; Mayo, M N; Allen, R J; Heuser, A W; Grant, W B; Ismail, S; Mayor, S D; Carter, A F

    1994-09-20

    An airborne differential absorption lidar (DIAL) system has been developed at the NASA Langley Research Center for remote measurements of atmospheric water vapor (H(2)O) and aerosols. A solid-state alexandrite laser with a 1-pm linewidth and > 99.85% spectral purity was used as the on-line transmitter. Solid-state avalanche photodiode detector technology has replaced photomultiplier tubes in the receiver system, providing an average increase by a factor of 1.5-2.5 in the signal-to-noise ratio of the H(2)O measurement. By incorporating advanced diagnostic and data-acquisition instrumentation into other subsystems, we achieved additional improvements in system operational reliability and measurement accuracy. Laboratory spectroscopic measurements of H(2)O absorption-line parameters were perfo med to reduce the uncertainties in our knowledge of the absorption cross sections. Line-center H(2)O absorption cross sections were determined, with errors of 3-6%, for more than 120 lines in the 720-nm region. Flight tests of the system were conducted during 1989-1991 on the NASA Wallops Flight Facility Electra aircraft, and extensive intercomparison measurements were performed with dew-point hygrometers and H(2)O radiosondes. The H(2)O distributions measured with the DIAL system differed by ≤ 10% from the profiles determined with the in situ probes in a variety of atmospheric conditions.

  17. Airborne differential absorption lidar system for measurements of atmospheric water vapor and aerosols.

    PubMed

    Higdon, N S; Browell, E V; Ponsardin, P; Grossmann, B E; Butler, C F; Chyba, T H; Mayo, M N; Allen, R J; Heuser, A W; Grant, W B; Ismail, S; Mayor, S D; Carter, A F

    1994-09-20

    An airborne differential absorption lidar (DIAL) system has been developed at the NASA Langley Research Center for remote measurements of atmospheric water vapor (H(2)O) and aerosols. A solid-state alexandrite laser with a 1-pm linewidth and > 99.85% spectral purity was used as the on-line transmitter. Solid-state avalanche photodiode detector technology has replaced photomultiplier tubes in the receiver system, providing an average increase by a factor of 1.5-2.5 in the signal-to-noise ratio of the H(2)O measurement. By incorporating advanced diagnostic and data-acquisition instrumentation into other subsystems, we achieved additional improvements in system operational reliability and measurement accuracy. Laboratory spectroscopic measurements of H(2)O absorption-line parameters were perfo med to reduce the uncertainties in our knowledge of the absorption cross sections. Line-center H(2)O absorption cross sections were determined, with errors of 3-6%, for more than 120 lines in the 720-nm region. Flight tests of the system were conducted during 1989-1991 on the NASA Wallops Flight Facility Electra aircraft, and extensive intercomparison measurements were performed with dew-point hygrometers and H(2)O radiosondes. The H(2)O distributions measured with the DIAL system differed by ≤ 10% from the profiles determined with the in situ probes in a variety of atmospheric conditions. PMID:20941181

  18. Comparative analysis of different retrieval methods for mapping grassland leaf area index using airborne imaging spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atzberger, Clement; Darvishzadeh, Roshanak; Immitzer, Markus; Schlerf, Martin; Skidmore, Andrew; le Maire, Guerric

    2015-12-01

    Fine scale maps of vegetation biophysical variables are useful status indicators for monitoring and managing national parks and endangered habitats. Here, we assess in a comparative way four different retrieval methods for estimating leaf area index (LAI) in grassland: two radiative transfer model (RTM) inversion methods (one based on look-up-tables (LUT) and one based on predictive equations) and two statistical modelling methods (one partly, the other entirely based on in situ data). For prediction, spectral data were used that had been acquired over Majella National Park in Italy by the airborne hyperspectral HyMap instrument. To assess the performance of the four investigated models, the normalized root mean squared error (nRMSE) and coefficient of determination (R2) between estimates and in situ LAI measurements are reported (n = 41). Using a jackknife approach, we also quantified the accuracy and robustness of empirical models as a function of the size of the available calibration data set. The results of the study demonstrate that the LUT-based RTM inversion yields higher accuracies for LAI estimation (R2 = 0.91, nRMSE = 0.18) as compared to RTM inversions based on predictive equations (R2 = 0.79, nRMSE = 0.38). The two statistical methods yield accuracies similar to the LUT method. However, as expected, the accuracy and robustness of the statistical models decrease when the size of the calibration database is reduced to fewer samples. The results of this study are of interest for the remote sensing community developing improved inversion schemes for spaceborne hyperspectral sensors applicable to different vegetation types. The examples provided in this paper may also serve as illustrations for the drawbacks and advantages of physical and empirical models.

  19. Characterizing Geology and Mineralization at High Latitudes in Alaska Using Airborne and Field-Based Imaging Spectrometer Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoefen, T. M.; Kokaly, R. F.; Graham, G. E.; Kelley, K. D.; Buchhorn, M.; Johnson, M. R.; Hubbard, B. E.; Goldfarb, R. J.; Prakash, A.

    2015-12-01

    Passive optical remote sensing of high latitude regions faces many challenges including a short acquisition season and poor illumination. Identification of surface minerals can be complicated by steep terrain and vegetation cover. In July 2014, the HyMap* imaging spectrometer was flown over two study areas in Alaska. Contemporaneously, field spectra and samples of geologic units were collected, including altered and unaltered parts of intrusions hosting mid-Cretaceous porphyry copper deposits at Orange Hill and Bond Creek in the eastern Alaska Range. The HyMap radiance data were converted to surface reflectance using a radiative transfer correction program and reflectance spectra of calibration sites. Reflectance data were analyzed with the Material Identification and Characterization Algorithm (MICA), a module of USGS PRISM (Processing Routines in IDL for Spectroscopic Measurements; speclab.cr.usgs.gov). Large areas of abundant epidote/chlorite, muscovite/illite, calcite, kaolinite, montmorillonite, and (or) pyrophyllite were mapped, which are minerals typically formed during alteration of host rocks surrounding porphyry copper deposits. A map showing the wavelength position of the muscovite/illite absorption feature was made. Shifts in wavelength position have been related to the aluminum composition of micas and areas of high metal concentrations in past studies. In July 2015, rock and spectral sampling was continued in areas with surface exposures of copper- and molybdenum-bearing sulfides. Also, high-spatial resolution (~6 cm pixel size) imaging spectrometer data were collected at the Orange Hill deposit using the University of Alaska, Fairbanks (UAF) HySpex imaging spectrometer (www.hyperspectral.alaska.edu). Laboratory, field, and airborne spectra are being examined to define indicators of mineralization. The study results will be used to assess the effectiveness of spectroscopic remote sensing for geologic mapping and exploration targeting in Alaska and

  20. The detection and measurement of microburst wind shear by an airborne lidar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Paul A.; Bowles, Roland L.; Targ, Russell

    1993-01-01

    The NASA Lockheed Missiles and Space Company (LMSC) Coherent Lidar Airborne Shear Sensor (CLASS) employs coherent lidar technology as a basis for a forward-looking predictive wind shear detection system. Line of sight wind velocities measured ahead of the aircraft are combined with aircraft state parameters to relate the measured wind change (or shear) ahead of an aircraft to its performance loss or gain. In this way the system can predict whether a shear detected ahead of the aircraft poses a significant threat to the aircraft and provide an advance warning to the flight crew. Installed aboard NASA's Boeing 737 research aircraft, the CLASS system is flown through convective microburst wind shears in Denver, Co., and Orlando, Fl. Some preliminary flight test results are presented. It is seen that the system was able to detect and measure wind shears ahead of the aircraft in the relatively dry Denver environment, but its performance was degraded in the high humidity and heavy rain in Orlando.

  1. Airborne water vapor DIAL system and measurements of water and aerosol profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Higdon, Noah S.; Browell, Edward V.

    1991-01-01

    The Lidar Applications Group at NASA Langley Research Center has developed a differential absorption lidar (DIAL) system for the remote measurement of atmospheric water vapor (H2O) and aerosols from an aircraft. The airborne H2O DIAL system is designed for extended flights to perform mesoscale investigations of H2O and aerosol distributions. This DIAL system utilizes a Nd:YAG-laser-pumped dye laser as the off-line transmitter and a narrowband, tunable Alexandrite laser as the on-line transmitter. The dye laser has an oscillator/amplifier configuration which incorporates a grating and prism in the oscillator cavity to narrow the output linewidth to approximately 15 pm. This linewidth can be maintained over the wavelength range of 725 to 730 nm, and it is sufficiently narrow to satisfy the off-line spectral requirements. In the Alexandrite laser, three intracavity tuning elements combine to produce an output linewidth of 1.1 pm. These spectral devices include a five-plate birefringent tuner, a 1-mm thick solid etalon and a 1-cm air-spaced etalon. A wavelength stability of +/- 0.35 pm is achieved by active feedback control of the two Fabry-Perot etalons using a frequency stabilized He-Ne laser as a wavelength reference. The three tuning elements can be synchronously scanned over a 150 pm range with microprocessor-based scanning electronics. Other aspects of the DIAL system are discussed.

  2. Development and Evaluation of an Airborne Separation Assurance System for Autonomous Aircraft Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barhydt, Richard; Palmer, Michael T.; Eischeid, Todd M.

    2004-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center is developing an Autonomous Operations Planner (AOP) that functions as an Airborne Separation Assurance System for autonomous flight operations. This development effort supports NASA s Distributed Air-Ground Traffic Management (DAG-TM) operational concept, designed to significantly increase capacity of the national airspace system, while maintaining safety. Autonomous aircraft pilots use the AOP to maintain traffic separation from other autonomous aircraft and managed aircraft flying under today's Instrument Flight Rules, while maintaining traffic flow management constraints assigned by Air Traffic Service Providers. AOP is designed to facilitate eventual implementation through careful modeling of its operational environment, interfaces with other aircraft systems and data links, and conformance with established flight deck conventions and human factors guidelines. AOP uses currently available or anticipated data exchanged over modeled Arinc 429 data buses and an Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast 1090 MHz link. It provides pilots with conflict detection, prevention, and resolution functions and works with the Flight Management System to maintain assigned traffic flow management constraints. The AOP design has been enhanced over the course of several experiments conducted at NASA Langley and is being prepared for an upcoming Joint Air/Ground Simulation with NASA Ames Research Center.

  3. Aviation System Capacity Program Terminal Area Productivity Project: Ground and Airborne Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giulianetti, Demo J.

    2001-01-01

    Ground and airborne technologies were developed in the Terminal Area Productivity (TAP) project for increasing throughput at major airports by safely maintaining good-weather operating capacity during bad weather. Methods were demonstrated for accurately predicting vortices to prevent wake-turbulence encounters and to reduce in-trail separation requirements for aircraft approaching the same runway for landing. Technology was demonstrated that safely enabled independent simultaneous approaches in poor weather conditions to parallel runways spaced less than 3,400 ft apart. Guidance, control, and situation-awareness systems were developed to reduce congestion in airport surface operations resulting from the increased throughput, particularly during night and instrument meteorological conditions (IMC). These systems decreased runway occupancy time by safely and smoothly decelerating the aircraft, increasing taxi speed, and safely steering the aircraft off the runway. Simulations were performed in which optimal trajectories were determined by air traffic control (ATC) and communicated to flight crews by means of Center TRACON Automation System/Flight Management System (CTASFMS) automation to reduce flight delays, increase throughput, and ensure flight safety.

  4. UAVSAR: A New NASA Airborne SAR System for Science and Technology Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosen, Paul A.; Hensley, Scott; Wheeler, Kevin; Sadowy, Greg; Miller, Tim; Shaffer, Scott; Muellerschoen, Ron; Jones, Cathleen; Zebker, Howard; Madsen, Soren

    2006-01-01

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory is currently building a reconfigurable, polarimetric L-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR), specifically designed to acquire airborne repeat track SAR data for differential interferometric measurements. Differentian interferometry can provide key deformation measurements, important for studies of earthquakes, volcanoes and other dynamically changing phenomena. Using precision real-time GPS and a sensor controlled flight management system, the system will be able to fly predefined paths with great precision. The expected performance of the flight control system will constrain the flight path to be within a 10 m diameter tube about the desired flight track. The radar will be designed to be operable on a UAV (Unpiloted Aria1 Vehicle) but will initially be demonstrated on a NASA Gulfstream III. The radar will be fully polarimetric, with a range bandwidth of 80 MHz (2 m range resolution), and will support a 16 km range swath. The antenna will be electronically steered along track to assure that the antenna beam can be directed independently, regardless of the wind direction and speed. Other features supported by the antenna include elevation monopulse and pulse-to-pulse re-steering capabilities that will enable some novel modes of operation. The system will nominally operate at 45,000 ft (13800 m). The program began as an Instrument Incubator Project (IIP) funded by NASA Earth Science and Technology Office (ESTO).

  5. X-Ray Imaging System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The Model 60007A InnerView Real-time X-ray Imaging System, produced by National Imaging Systems, a division of FlouroScan Imaging Systems, Inc. (formerly HealthMate, Inc.), Northbrook, IL, is a third generation spinoff from x-ray astronomy technology. Goddard Space Flight Center developed the original technology into the Lixiscope, a small, portable, minimal radiation x-ray instrument that could be used at the scene of an accident. FlouroScan Imaging Systems, Inc., adapted this technology to develop the FlouroScan, a low-intensity, x-ray system that could be used without the lead aprons, film badges and lead-lined walls that conventional systems require. The InnerView is a spinoff of non-destructive testing and product inspection.

  6. Airborne Particulate Threat Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Patrick Treado; Oksana Klueva; Jeffrey Beckstead

    2008-12-31

    Aerosol threat detection requires the ability to discern between threat agents and ambient background particulate matter (PM) encountered in the environment. To date, Raman imaging technology has been demonstrated as an effective strategy for the assessment of threat agents in the presence of specific, complex backgrounds. Expanding our understanding of the composition of ambient particulate matter background will improve the overall performance of Raman Chemical Imaging (RCI) detection strategies for the autonomous detection of airborne chemical and biological hazards. Improving RCI detection performance is strategic due to its potential to become a widely exploited detection approach by several U.S. government agencies. To improve the understanding of the ambient PM background with subsequent improvement in Raman threat detection capability, ChemImage undertook the Airborne Particulate Threat Assessment (APTA) Project in 2005-2008 through a collaborative effort with the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), under cooperative agreement number DE-FC26-05NT42594. During Phase 1 of the program, a novel PM classification based on molecular composition was developed based on a comprehensive review of the scientific literature. In addition, testing protocols were developed for ambient PM characterization. A signature database was developed based on a variety of microanalytical techniques, including scanning electron microscopy, FT-IR microspectroscopy, optical microscopy, fluorescence and Raman chemical imaging techniques. An automated particle integrated collector and detector (APICD) prototype was developed for automated collection, deposition and detection of biothreat agents in background PM. During Phase 2 of the program, ChemImage continued to refine the understanding of ambient background composition. Additionally, ChemImage enhanced the APICD to provide improved autonomy, sensitivity and specificity. Deliverables included a Final Report detailing our

  7. Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS): Sensor improvements for 1994 and 1995

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarture, C. M.; Chrien, T. G.; Green, R. O.; Eastwood, M. L.; Raney, J. J.; Hernandez, M. A.

    1995-01-01

    AVIRIS is a NASA-sponsored Earth-remote-sensing imaging spectrometer designed, built and operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). While AVIRIS has been operational since 1989, major improvements have been completed in most of the sensor subsystems during the winter maintenance cycles. As a consequence of these efforts, the capabilities of AVIRIS to reliably acquire and deliver consistently high quality, calibrated imaging spectrometer data continue to improve annually, significantly over those in 1989. Improvements to AVIRIS prior to 1994 have been described previously. This paper details recent and planned improvements to AVIRIS in the sensor task.

  8. Internal wave observations made with an airborne synthetic aperture imaging radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elachi, C.; Apel, J. R.

    1976-01-01

    Synthetic aperture L-band radar flown aboard the NASA CV-990 has observed periodic striations on the ocean surface off the coast of Alaska which have been interpreted as tidally excited oceanic internal waves of less than 500 m length. These radar images are compared to photographic imagery of similar waves taken from Landsat 1. Both the radar and Landsat images reveal variations in reflectivity across each wave in a packet that range from low to high to normal. The variations point to the simultaneous existence of two mechanisms for the surface signatures of internal waves: roughening due to wave-current interactions, and smoothing due to slick formation.

  9. Laboratory testing of airborne brake wear particle emissions using a dynamometer system under urban city driving cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagino, Hiroyuki; Oyama, Motoaki; Sasaki, Sousuke

    2016-04-01

    To measure driving-distance-based mass emission factors for airborne brake wear particulate matter (PM; i.e., brake wear particles) related to the non-asbestos organic friction of brake assembly materials (pads and lining), and to characterize the components of brake wear particles, a brake wear dynamometer with a constant-volume sampling system was developed. Only a limited number of studies have investigated brake emissions under urban city driving cycles that correspond to the tailpipe emission test (i.e., JC08 or JE05 mode of Japanese tailpipe emission test cycles). The tests were performed using two passenger cars and one middle-class truck. The observed airborne brake wear particle emissions ranged from 0.04 to 1.4 mg/km/vehicle for PM10 (particles up to 10 μm (in size), and from 0.04 to 1.2 mg/km/vehicle for PM2.5. The proportion of brake wear debris emitted as airborne brake wear particles was 2-21% of the mass of wear. Oxygenated carbonaceous components were included in the airborne PM but not in the original friction material, which indicates that changes in carbon composition occurred during the abrasion process. Furthermore, this study identified the key tracers of brake wear particles (e.g., Fe, Cu, Ba, and Sb) at emission levels comparable to traffic-related atmospheric environments.

  10. Alternate particle removal technologies for the Airborne Activity Confinement System at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Brockmann, J.E.; Adkins, C.L.J.; Gelbard, F. )

    1991-09-01

    This report presents a review of the filtration technologies available for the removal of particulate material from a gas stream. It was undertaken to identify alternate filtration technologies that may be employed in the Airborne Activity Confinement System (AACS) at the Savannah River Plant. This report is organized into six sections: (1) a discussion of the aerosol source term and its definition, (2) a short discussion of particle and gaseous contaminant removal mechanisms, (3) a brief overview of particle removal technologies, (4) a discussion of the existing AACS and its potential shortcomings, (5) an enumeration of issues to be addressed in upgrading the AACS, and, (6) a detailed discussion of the identified technologies. The purpose of this report is to identity available options to the existing particle removal system. This system is in continuous operation during routine operation of the reactor. As will be seen, there are a number of options and the selection of any technology or combination of technologies will depend on the design aerosol source term (yet to be appropriately defined) as well as the flow requirements and configuration. This report does not select a specific technology. It focuses on particulate removal and qualitatively on the removal of radio-iodine and mist elimination. Candidate technologies have been selected from industrial and nuclear gas cleaning applications.

  11. Underwater laser imaging system (UWLIS)

    SciTech Connect

    DeLong, M.

    1994-11-15

    Practical limitations with underwater imaging systems area reached when the noise in the back scattered radiation generated in the water between the imaging system and the target obscures the spatial contrast and resolution necessary for target discovery and identification. The advent of high power lasers operating in the blue-green portion of the visible spectrum (oceanic transmission window) has led to improved experimental illumination systems for underwater imaging. Range-gated and synchronously scanned devices take advantage of the unique temporal and spatial coherence properties of laser radiation, respectively, to overcome the deleterious effects of common volume back scatter.

  12. Advanced Land Imager Assessment System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chander, Gyanesh; Choate, Mike; Christopherson, Jon; Hollaren, Doug; Morfitt, Ron; Nelson, Jim; Nelson, Shar; Storey, James; Helder, Dennis; Ruggles, Tim; Kaita, Ed; Levy, Raviv; Ong, Lawrence; Markham, Brian; Schweiss, Robert

    2008-01-01

    The Advanced Land Imager Assessment System (ALIAS) supports radiometric and geometric image processing for the Advanced Land Imager (ALI) instrument onboard NASA s Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) satellite. ALIAS consists of two processing subsystems for radiometric and geometric processing of the ALI s multispectral imagery. The radiometric processing subsystem characterizes and corrects, where possible, radiometric qualities including: coherent, impulse; and random noise; signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs); detector operability; gain; bias; saturation levels; striping and banding; and the stability of detector performance. The geometric processing subsystem and analysis capabilities support sensor alignment calibrations, sensor chip assembly (SCA)-to-SCA alignments and band-to-band alignment; and perform geodetic accuracy assessments, modulation transfer function (MTF) characterizations, and image-to-image characterizations. ALIAS also characterizes and corrects band-toband registration, and performs systematic precision and terrain correction of ALI images. This system can geometrically correct, and automatically mosaic, the SCA image strips into a seamless, map-projected image. This system provides a large database, which enables bulk trending for all ALI image data and significant instrument telemetry. Bulk trending consists of two functions: Housekeeping Processing and Bulk Radiometric Processing. The Housekeeping function pulls telemetry and temperature information from the instrument housekeeping files and writes this information to a database for trending. The Bulk Radiometric Processing function writes statistical information from the dark data acquired before and after the Earth imagery and the lamp data to the database for trending. This allows for multi-scene statistical analyses.

  13. Multilingual system using Internet imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Tadashi; Hata, Yoshitsugu; Iida, Ryouji; Kakugawa, Hirotsugu; Ae, Tadashi; Murakami, Hisae

    2000-12-01

    In these years, multilingual system becomes important, but, most computer environment cannot handle all languages (scripts) in ths world. This paper presents a multilingual imaging system on the Internet. In this system, characters are converted into bitmaps, and therefore, we can display multilingual text on WWW browsers. In order to convert multilingual plain text into bitmap images, we have developed software named ctext2pgm and VFlib. VFlib is a software component to rasterize fonts in various file formats, and ctext2pgm generates bitmap image files form multilingual plain texts. Ctext2pgm is an application program of VFlib, and it supports about 30 languages. We also introduce a language education system for various languages. This is an example of the multilingual system using internet imaging.

  14. Changes in airborne fungi from the outdoors to indoor air; large HVAC systems in nonproblem buildings in two different climates.

    PubMed

    Kemp, P C; Neumeister-Kemp, H G; Esposito, B; Lysek, G; Murray, F

    2003-01-01

    Little is known about the changes in occurrence and distribution of airborne fungi as they are transported in the airstream from the outdoor air through the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system to the indoor air. To better understand this, airborne fungi were analyzed in the HVAC systems of two large office buildings in different climate zones. Fungal samples were taken in each of the walk-in chambers of the HVAC systems using a six-stage Andersen Sampler with malt extract agar. Results showed that fungal species changed with different locations in the HVAC systems. The outdoor air intake produced the greatest filtration effect for both the counts and species of outdoor air fungi. The colony forming unit (CFU) counts and species diversity was further reduced in the air directly after the filters. The cooling coils also had a substantial filtration effect. However, in room air the CFU counts were double and the mixture of fungal species was different from the air leaving the HVAC system at the supply air outlet in most locations. Diffusion of outdoor air fungi to the indoors did not explain the changes in the mixture of airborne fungi from the outdoor air to the indoor air, and some of the fungi present in the indoor air did not appear to be transported indoors by the HVAC systems.

  15. EDITORIAL: Imaging Systems and Techniques Imaging Systems and Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giakos, George; Yang, Wuqiang; Petrou, M.; Nikita, K. S.; Pastorino, M.; Amanatiadis, A.; Zentai,