Science.gov

Sample records for airborne microwave radiometry

  1. Soil moisture mapping by ground and airborne microwave radiometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poe, G.; Edgerton, A. T.

    1972-01-01

    Extensive ground-based and airborne investigations were undertaken in conjunction with laboratory dielectric measurements of soils and analytical modeling. Radiometric measurements were made in the vicinity of Phoenix, Arizona at observational wavelengths ranging from 0.81 to 21 cm. Ground experiments were conducted with a microwave field laboratory and airborne measurements were obtained from a CV-990 aircraft. Research activities were focused on establishing basic relationships between microwave emission and the distribution of moisture.

  2. Surface temperature and soil moisture retrieval in the Sahel from airborne multifrequency microwave radiometry

    SciTech Connect

    Calvet, J.C.

    1996-03-01

    Bipolarized microwave brightness temperatures of Sahel semiarid landscapes are analyzed at two frequencies: 5.05 and 36.5 GHz. These measurements were performed in Niger, West Africa, by the radiometer PORTOS in the framework of the Hydrologic Atmospheric Pilot Experiment in the Sahel (HAPEX-Sahel), during the end of the rainy season (August--September 1992). The airborne microwave data were collected simultaneously with radiosoundings of the atmosphere, and ground measurements of surface temperature, soil moisture, and biomass of several vegetation types. After estimating the soil roughness parameters, it is shown that two kinds of vegetation canopies must be considered: sparse canopies and patchy canopies including bare soil strips. The mixed soil vegetation microwave emission is analyzed using a random continuous approach. The sparse canopy emission is efficiently described by considering the vegetation layer as homogeneous. Conversely, a simple soil-vegetation mixing equation must be used for the patchy canopies. The problem with retrieving the canopy temperature and the near-surface soil moisture is addressed. For every canopy, soil moisture retrieval is possible. Soil moisture maps are proposed. The canopy temperature can also be retrieved with good accuracy provided both vertical (v) and horizontal (h) polarizations are available. It is shown that the retrieved variables can be used to separate landscape units through a classification procedure.

  3. Airborne full polarization radiometry using the MSFC Advanced Microwave Precipitation Radiometer (AMPR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gasiewski, Al J.; Kunkee, D. B.

    1993-01-01

    The applications of vertically and horizontally polarized brightness temperatures in both atmospheric and surface remote sensing have been long recognized by many investigators, particularly those studying SMMR and SSM/I data. Here, the large contrast between the first two Stokes' parameters (T(sub V) and T(sub H)) can be used for detection of sea ice, measurement of ocean surface wind speed, and measurement of cloud and water vapor opacity. High-resolution aircraft data from instruments such as the NASA/MSFC AMPR is crucial for verifying radiative transfer models and developing retrieval algorithms. Currently, the AMPR is outfitted with single-polarization channels at 10, 18, 37 and 85 GHz. To increase its utility, it is proposed that additional orthogonal linearly polarized channels be added to the AMPR. Since the AMPR's feedhorns are already configured for dual orthogonal linearly polarized modes, this would require only a duplication of the currently existing receivers. To circumvent the resulting polarization basis skew caused by the cross-track scanning mechanism, the technique of Electronic Polarization Basis Rotation is proposed to be implemented. Implementation of EPBR requires precise measurement of the third Stokes parameter and will eliminate polarization skew by allowing the feedhorn basis skew angle to be corrected in software. In addition to upgrading AMPR to dual polarization capability (without skew), the modifications will provide an opportunity to demonstrate EPBR on an airborne platform. This is a highly desirable intermediate step prior to satellite implementation.

  4. Estimation of snow depth and snow water equivalent distribution using airborne microwave radiometry in the Binggou Watershed, the upper reaches of the Heihe River basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Che, Tao; Dai, Liyun; Wang, Jian; Zhao, Kai; Liu, Qiang

    2012-07-01

    We estimated the spatial distribution of snow depth/snow water equivalent (SD/SWE) in a mountainous watershed (Binggou, which is in the upper reaches of the Heihe River basin) by an airborne microwave radiometry observational experiment. Two microwave radiometers measuring at K band (18.7 GHz) and Ka band (36 GHz) were used to estimate the volume scatter from snowpacks and infer SD and SWE. Simultaneously, the snow physical properties (such as snow depth, density, grain size and temperature) over four sites were measured, and a simple multi-layer sample scheme was adopted to obtain the stratigraphic information. The microwave emission model of layered snowpacks (MEMLS) was used to simulate the brightness temperatures of snow cover for each measurement point. By comparing TB data that were simulated by MEMLS and observed by radiometers on the aircraft over the four sites, we obtained the retrieval algorithms of SD and SWE based on brightness temperature differences (TBD) at the K- and Ka-bands that are suitable to the local snow properties. The validation shows that the mean absolute and relative errors of SD estimates are approximately 3.5 cm and 14.8%, respectively. SWE from airborne microwave radiometers show that blowing snow and sun radiation are two main factors that determine the spatial distribution of SWE in Binggou Watershed. The local angle of incidence of the microwave radiometer observation can be influenced by mountainous topography, and a sensitivity analysis suggests that changes in the local angle of incidence (e.g., the nominal angle of incidence) will not significantly influence the estimation of SD/SWE. The snow's stratigraphic condition is not an important factor for estimating SD/SWE in this study because the snow was not very deep in the Binggou Watershed. However, the field sampling scheme should be given more attention to obtain the spatial variations of snow properties and to support pixel-by-pixel validation in next field campaign.

  5. Profiling atmospheric water vapor by microwave radiometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, J. R.; Wilheit, T. T.; Szejwach, G.; Gesell, L. H.; Nieman, R. A.; Niver, D. S.; Krupp, B. M.; Gagliano, J. A.; King, J. L.

    1983-01-01

    High-altitude microwave radiometric observations at frequencies near 92 and 183.3 GHz were used to study the potential of retrieving atmospheric water vapor profiles over both land and water. An algorithm based on an extended kalman-Bucy filter was implemented and applied for the water vapor retrieval. The results show great promise in atmospheric water vapor profiling by microwave radiometry heretofore not attainable at lower frequencies.

  6. Target contrast considerations in millimeter wave radiometry for airborne navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayer, A.

    1971-01-01

    Target signal requirements for aircraft navigation systems that use radiometric receivers which map thermally emitted power radiated by terrain or power radiated by ground-based beacons are discussed. For selected millimeter wavelength bands, microwaves suffer relatively little degradation by absorption or scattering on passage through the atmosphere, despite extreme weather variations. Interest centers on 8-millimeter waves because of component availability, portability (small size), high image resolution, and all-weather capability at this wavelength. The idea of radiometric airborne navigation is introduced. Elements of radiometry, terrain radiation, and atmospheric transmission characteristics are reviewed. Data pertaining to these elements at 8 mm wavelength are collected. Calculation of radiometric contrasts is discussed for some simple models of terrain targets.

  7. Feasibility Study of Radiometry for Airborne Detection of Aviation Hazards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gimmestad, Gary G.; Papanicolopoulos, Chris D.; Richards, Mark A.; Sherman, Donald L.; West, Leanne L.; Johnson, James W. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Radiometric sensors for aviation hazards have the potential for widespread and inexpensive deployment on aircraft. This report contains discussions of three aviation hazards - icing, turbulence, and volcanic ash - as well as candidate radiometric detection techniques for each hazard. Dual-polarization microwave radiometry is the only viable radiometric technique for detection of icing conditions, but more research will be required to assess its usefulness to the aviation community. Passive infrared techniques are being developed for detection of turbulence and volcanic ash by researchers in this country and also in Australia. Further investigation of the infrared airborne radiometric hazard detection approaches will also be required in order to develop reliable detection/discrimination techniques. This report includes a description of a commercial hyperspectral imager for investigating the infrared detection techniques for turbulence and volcanic ash.

  8. Snow water equivalent determination by microwave radiometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, A. T. C.; Foster, J. L.; Hall, D. K.; Rango, A.; Hartline, B. K.

    1981-01-01

    One of the most important parameters for accurate snowmelt runoff prediction is snow water equivalent (SWE) which is contentionally monitored using observations made at widely scattered points in or around specific watersheds. Remote sensors which provide data with better spatial and temporal coverage can be used to improve the SWE estimates. Microwave radiation, which can penetrate through a snowpack, may be used to infer the SWE. Calculations made from a microscopic scattering model were used to simulate the effect of varying SWE on the microwave brightness temperature. Data obtained from truck mounted, airborne and spaceborne systems from various test sites were studied. The simulated SWE compares favorable with the measured SWE. In addition, whether the underlying soil is frozen or thawed can be discriminated successfully on the basis of the polarization of the microwave radiation.

  9. Remote monitoring of soil moisture using airborne microwave radiometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kroll, C. L.

    1973-01-01

    The current status of microwave radiometry is provided. The fundamentals of the microwave radiometer are reviewed with particular reference to airborne operations, and the interpretative procedures normally used for the modeling of the apparent temperature are presented. Airborne microwave radiometer measurements were made over selected flight lines in Chickasha, Oklahoma and Weslaco, Texas. Extensive ground measurements of soil moisture were made in support of the aircraft mission over the two locations. In addition, laboratory determination of the complex permittivities of soil samples taken from the flight lines were made with varying moisture contents. The data were analyzed to determine the degree of correlation between measured apparent temperatures and soil moisture content.

  10. Microwave noise field: active radiometry principles and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polivka, Jiri

    2012-06-01

    Principles of Active Radiometry are presented. Noise radiators are used to generate the low-coherence microwave noise field, and radiometers to evaluate its intensity, polarization and coherence. Several types of noise radiators are described as well as radiometers and antennas. The following applications are introduced: Material evaluation where insertion loss and reflectivity of grainy, irregular and moving objects are preferable. Microwave Coherence Tomography allowing the depth irregularity to be detected in low-loss objects. Near-Field antenna testing, field coherence evaluation, and spatial combining of noise radiators.

  11. Microwave radiometry for cement kiln temperature measurements.

    PubMed

    Stephan, Karl D; Wang, Lingyun; Ryza, Eric

    2007-01-01

    The maximum temperature inside a cement kiln is a critical operating parameter, but is often difficult or impossible to measure. We present here the first data that show a correlation between cement kiln temperature measured using a microwave radiometer and product chemistry over an eight-hour period. The microwave radiometer senses radiation in the 12-13 GHz range and has been described previously [Stephan and Pearce (2002), JMPEE 37: 112-124].

  12. Microwave radiometry for continuous non-contact temperature measurements during microwave heating.

    PubMed

    Stephan, Karl D; Pearce, John A

    2005-01-01

    Temperature measurement during microwave heating in industrial and commercial processes can improve quality, throughput, and energy conservation. Conventional ways of measuring temperature inside a microwave oven cavity are costly, inconvenient, or unsuitable for high-volume industrial applications. In this paper, we describe the theory of microwave radiometry as applied to the measurement of temperature during microwave heating. By extending the theory of radiative transfer to the case of thermal microwave radiation inside a cavity, we show that the same characteristics which make a microwave cavity suitable for heating materials also assist in obtaining meaningful temperature data with microwave radiometry. We present experimental data from the heating of liquid and solid materials which confirm the essential features of the theory, and show agreement between this method and more conventional methods of +/-4 degrees C.

  13. Microwave radiometry in living tissue: what does it measure?

    PubMed

    Cheever, E A; Foster, K R

    1992-06-01

    The sensitivity of microwave radiometry for detecting subcutaneous targets was studied both experimentally and theoretically. The radiometer used a dielectric loaded rectangular waveguide antenna in contact with a lossy dielectric medium. A cylindrical target with dielectric properties and/or temperature different from that of the surrounding medium was located beneath this surface. For most of the studies, the target and the surrounding medium were maintained at constant, but unequal, temperatures (i.e., heat conduction effects were insignificant). The received radiometric signal was calculated as the location and dielectric properties of the target were varied. Finally, the radiometer signal was calculated for the situation with the target maintained at constant temperature but with the surrounding medium modeled by the bioheat equation. Experimental studies were performed using a radiometer operating at 4.7 GHz. The target was a thin walled tube through which a temperature controlled liquid was circulated, located in a temperature controlled fluid tank. The results indicate that microwave radiometry (as used in this study) responds to the temperature averaged over the field pattern of the antenna with very strong weighting of regions near the surface. A simple quasi-static analysis provides a good indication of the sensitivity of the technique for detecting cylindrical targets whose dielectric properties are different from those of the surrounding medium. A simple estimate of thermal conduction around the target suggest that thermal effects greatly increase the apparent size of the target.

  14. Detecting volcanism on Titan and Venus with microwave radiometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, Ralph D.; Le Gall, Alice; Janssen, Michael A.

    2016-05-01

    The detection by spaceborne instrumentation of infrared thermal emission from volcanic eruptions is well-established on Earth, but is challenged on Venus and Titan by their optically-thick atmospheres. Microwave radiometry in principle offers the ability to detect emission from surface thermal anomalies on these worlds due to greater atmospheric transparency: microwaves also offer the prospect of sensing the shallow subsurface and thus may detect warmth from lava flows for longer than surface infrared emission. However, satellite microwave instruments typically have low spatial resolution (10s of km) so volcanic heat is diluted in the wide instrument footprint. We examine the prospects for the detection of volcanic deposits by microwave, given likely planetary eruption rates and lava flow deposit geometries, using Mt Etna as a template. Nondetection of prominent hotspots in Cassini data may imply that the resurfacing rate is lower than ∼2 km3/yr, five times smaller than the expression of an Earth-like fraction of geothermal heat flow as latent heat in extrusive volcanism.

  15. Microwave radiometry in living tissue: What does it measure

    SciTech Connect

    Cheever, E.A. ); Foster, K.R. )

    1992-06-01

    The sensitivity of microwave radiometry for detecting subcutaneous targets was studied both experimentally and theoretically. The radiometer used a dielectric loaded rectangular waveguide antenna in contact with lossy dielectric medium. A cylindrical target with dielectric properties and/or temperature different from that of the surrounding medium were maintained at constant, but unequal, temperatures. The received radiometric signal was calculated as the location and dielectric properties of the target were varied. Finally, the radiometer signal was calculated for the situation with the target maintained at constant temperature but with the surrounding medium modeled by the bioheat equation. Experimental studies were performed using a radiometer operating at 4.7 GHz. The target was a thin walled tube through which a temperature controlled liquid was circulated, located in a temperature controlled fluid tank.

  16. Study of blood flow sensing with microwave radiometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porter, R. A.; Wentz, F. J., III

    1973-01-01

    A study and experimental investigation has been performed to determine the feasibility of measuring regional blood flow and volume in man by means of microwave radiometry. An indication was expected of regional blood flow from measurement of surface and subsurface temperatures with a sensitive radiometer. Following theoretical modeling of biological tissue, to determine the optimum operating frequency for adequate sensing depth, a sensitive microwave radiometer was designed for operation at 793 MHz. A temperature sensitivity of of 0.06 K rms was realized in this equipment. Measurements performed on phantom tissue models, consisting of beef fat and lean beefsteak showed that the radiometer was capable of sensing temperatures from a depth between 3.8 and 5.1 cm. Radiometric and thermodynamic temperature measurements were also performed on the hind thighs of large dogs. These showed that the radiometer could sense subsurface temperatures from a depth of, at least, 1.3 cm. Delays caused by externally-generated RF interference, coupled with the lack of reliable blood flow measurement equipment, prevented correlation of radiometer readings with reginal blood flow. For the same reasons, it was not possible to extend the radiometric observations to human subjects.

  17. Modeling the detectability of vesicoureteral reflux using microwave radiometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arunachalam, Kavitha; Maccarini, Paolo F.; De Luca, Valeria; Bardati, Fernando; Snow, Brent W.; Stauffer, Paul R.

    2010-09-01

    We present the modeling efforts on antenna design, frequency selection and receiver sensitivity estimation to detect vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) using microwave (MW) radiometry as warm urine from the bladder maintained at fever range temperature using a MW hyperthermia device reflows into the kidneys. The radiometer center frequency (fc), frequency band (Δf) and aperture radius (ra) of the physical antenna for kidney temperature monitoring are determined using a simplified universal antenna model with a circular aperture. Anatomical information extracted from the computed tomography (CT) images of children aged 4-6 years is used to construct a layered 3D tissue model. Radiometric antenna efficiency is evaluated in terms of the ratio of the power collected from the target at depth to the total power received by the antenna (η). The power ratio of the theoretical antenna is used to design a microstrip log spiral antenna with directional radiation pattern over fc ± Δf/2. Power received by the log spiral from the deep target is enhanced using a thin low-loss dielectric matching layer. A cylindrical metal cup is proposed to shield the antenna from electromagnetic interference (EMI). Transient thermal simulations are carried out to determine the minimum detectable change in the antenna brightness temperature (δTB) for 15-25 mL urine refluxes at 40-42 °C located 35 mm from the skin surface. Theoretical antenna simulations indicate maximum η over 1.1-1.6 GHz for ra = 30-40 mm. Simulations of the 35 mm radius tapered log spiral yielded a higher power ratio over fc ± Δf/2 for the 35-40 mm deep targets in the presence of an optimal matching layer. Radiometric temperature calculations indicate δTB >= 0.1 K for the 15 mL urine at 40 °C and 35 mm depth. Higher η and δTB were observed for the antenna and matching layer inside the metal cup. Reflection measurements of the log spiral in a saline phantom are in agreement with the simulation data. The numerical study

  18. Modeling the Detectability of Vesicoureteral Reflux using Microwave Radiometry

    PubMed Central

    Arunachalam, Kavitha; Maccarini, Paolo F.; De Luca, Valeria; Bardati, Fernando; Snow, Brent W.; Stauffer, Paul R

    2010-01-01

    We present the modeling efforts on antenna design, frequency selection and receiver sensitivity estimation to detect vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) using microwave (MW) radiometry as the warm urine from the bladder maintained at fever range temperature using a MW hyperthermia device reflows into the kidneys. Radiometer center frequency (fc), frequency band (Δf), and aperture radius (ra) of the physical antenna for kidney temperature monitoring are determined using a simplified universal antenna model with circular aperture. Anatomical information extracted from computed tomography (CT) images of children age 4–6 years is used to construct a layered 3D tissue model. Radiometric antenna efficiency is evaluated in terms of the ratio between the power collected from the target at depth and the total power received by the antenna (η). Power ratio of the theoretical antenna is used to design a microstrip log spiral antenna with directional radiation pattern over fc ± Δf/2. Power received by the log spiral from the deep target is enhanced using a thin low-loss dielectric matching layer. A cylindrical metal cup is proposed to shield the antenna from electromagnetic interference (EMI). Transient thermal simulations are carried out to determine the minimum detectable change in antenna brightness temperature (δTB) for 15–25 mL urine refluxes at 40–42°C located 35 mm from the skin surface. Theoretical antenna simulations indicate maximum η over 1.1–1.6 GHz for ra = 30–40 mm. Simulations of the 35 mm radius tapered log spiral yielded higher power ratio over fc ± Δf/2 for the 35–40 mm deep targets in the presence of an optimal matching layer. Radiometric temperature calculations indicate δTB ≥ 0.1 K for the 15 mL urine at 40°C and 35 mm depth. Higher η and δTB were observed for the antenna and matching layer inside the metal cup. Reflection measurements of the log spiral in saline phantom are in agreement with the simulation data. Numerical study suggests

  19. Modeling the detectability of vesicoureteral reflux using microwave radiometry.

    PubMed

    Arunachalam, Kavitha; Maccarini, Paolo F; De Luca, Valeria; Bardati, Fernando; Snow, Brent W; Stauffer, Paul R

    2010-09-21

    We present the modeling efforts on antenna design, frequency selection and receiver sensitivity estimation to detect vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) using microwave (MW) radiometry as warm urine from the bladder maintained at fever range temperature using a MW hyperthermia device reflows into the kidneys. The radiometer center frequency (f(c)), frequency band (Deltaf) and aperture radius (r(a)) of the physical antenna for kidney temperature monitoring are determined using a simplified universal antenna model with a circular aperture. Anatomical information extracted from the computed tomography (CT) images of children aged 4-6 years is used to construct a layered 3D tissue model. Radiometric antenna efficiency is evaluated in terms of the ratio of the power collected from the target at depth to the total power received by the antenna (eta). The power ratio of the theoretical antenna is used to design a microstrip log spiral antenna with directional radiation pattern over f(c) +/- Deltaf/2. Power received by the log spiral from the deep target is enhanced using a thin low-loss dielectric matching layer. A cylindrical metal cup is proposed to shield the antenna from electromagnetic interference (EMI). Transient thermal simulations are carried out to determine the minimum detectable change in the antenna brightness temperature (deltaT(B)) for 15-25 mL urine refluxes at 40-42 degrees C located 35 mm from the skin surface. Theoretical antenna simulations indicate maximum eta over 1.1-1.6 GHz for r(a) = 30-40 mm. Simulations of the 35 mm radius tapered log spiral yielded a higher power ratio over f(c) +/- Deltaf/2 for the 35-40 mm deep targets in the presence of an optimal matching layer. Radiometric temperature calculations indicate deltaT(B) 0.1 K for the 15 mL urine at 40 degrees C and 35 mm depth. Higher eta and deltaT(B) were observed for the antenna and matching layer inside the metal cup. Reflection measurements of the log spiral in a saline phantom are in agreement

  20. Detection of vesicoureteral reflux using microwave radiometry-system characterization with tissue phantoms.

    PubMed

    Arunachalam, Kavitha; Maccarini, Paolo; De Luca, Valeria; Tognolatti, Piero; Bardati, Fernando; Snow, Brent; Stauffer, Paul

    2011-06-01

    Microwave (MW) radiometry is proposed for passive monitoring of kidney temperature to detect vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) of urine that is externally heated by a MW hyperthermia device and thereafter reflows from the bladder to kidneys during reflux. Here, we characterize in tissue-mimicking phantoms the performance of a 1.375 GHz radiometry system connected to an electromagnetically (EM) shielded microstrip log spiral antenna optimized for VUR detection. Phantom EM properties are characterized using a coaxial dielectric probe and network analyzer (NA). Power reflection and receive patterns of the antenna are measured in layered tissue phantom. Receiver spectral measurements are used to assess EM shielding provided by a metal cup surrounding the antenna. Radiometer and fiberoptic temperature data are recorded for varying volumes (10-30 mL) and temperaturesg (40-46°C) of the urine phantom at 35 mm depth surrounded by 36.5°C muscle phantom. Directional receive pattern with about 5% power spectral density at 35 mm target depth and better than -10 dB return loss from tissue load are measured for the antenna. Antenna measurements demonstrate no deterioration in power reception and effective EM shielding in the presence of the metal cup. Radiometry power measurements are in excellent agreement with the temperature of the kidney phantom. Laboratory testing of the radiometry system in temperature-controlled phantoms supports the feasibility of passive kidney thermometry for VUR detection. PMID:21257366

  1. Remote sensing of snow properties by passive microwave radiometry: GSFC truck experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, A. T. C.; Rango, A.; Shiue, J.

    1980-01-01

    Recent results indicate that microwave radiometry has the potential for inferring the snow depth and water equivalent information from snowpacks. In order to assess this potential for determining the water equivalent of a snowpack, it is necessary to understand the microwave emission and scattering behavior of the snow at various wavelengths under carefully controlled conditions. Truck-mounted microwave instrumentation was used to study the microwave characteristics of the snowpack in the Colorado Rocky Mountain region during the winters of 1977 to 78 and 7978 to 79. The spectral signatures of C, X, K sub u, and K sub a band radiometers with dual polarization were used, together with measurements of snowpack density, temperature an ram profiles, liquid water content, and rough characterization of the crystal sizes. These data compared favorably with calculated results based on recent microscopic scattering models.

  2. Microwave array applicator for radiometry-controlled superficial hyperthermia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stauffer, Paul R.; Jacobsen, Svein; Neuman, Daniel

    2001-06-01

    Hyperthermia therapy has been shown clinically effective for a variety of skin diseases but current heating equipment is inadequate for most patients. This effort describes the design and performance of a flexible microstrip array applicator intended for heating large regions of tissue over contoured anatomy while at the same time monitoring temperature of the underlying tissue by non-invasive radiometric sensing of blackbody radiation from the heated volume. For this dual purpose applicator, an array of broadband Archimedean spiral receive antennas is integrated into an array of Dual Concentric Conductor heating apertures. Applicator heating uniformity is assessed with electric field scans in homogenous muscle phantoms and with measured temperature distributions in clinical treatments of chestwall recurrence of breast carcinoma. The data demonstrate precisely controlled heating out to the perimeter of large (40 x 13 cm2) multiaperture conformal array applicators. Capabilities of the radiometry system are assessed by correlation of brightness temperatures measured in phantom loads of known temperature distribution as seen through an intervening 5 mm thick water bolus at constant 40°C. The radiometer demonstrates excellent sensitivity and an accuracy of +0.1-0.45°C for temperature measurements up to 5 cm deep in phantom when using a one dimensional weighting function analysis and up to 6 independent 500 MHz bandwidths within the 1-4 GHz range. The data clearly indicate that both heating and radiometric thermometry are possible using the same thin and flexible printed circuit board microstrip array applicator. Once development is complete, this dual mode conformal array applicator with multiplexed radiometric display system should provide significantly improved uniformity and ease of heating large area superficial tissue disease.

  3. Satellite remote sensing of global rainfall using passive microwave radiometry

    SciTech Connect

    Ferriday, J.G.

    1994-12-31

    Global rainfall over land and ocean is estimated using measurements of upwelling microwaves by a satellite passive microwave radiometer. Radiative transfer calculations through a cloud model are used to parameterize an inversion technique for retrieving rain rates from brightness temperatures measured by the Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I). The rainfall retrieval technique is based on the interaction between multi-spectral microwave radiances and millimeter sized liquid and frozen hydrometeors distributed in the satellite`s field of view. The rain rate algorithm is sensitive to both hydrometeor emission and scattering while being relatively insensitive to extraneous atmospheric and surface effects. Separate formulations are used over ocean and land to account for different background microwave characteristics and the algorithm corrects for inhomogeneous distributions of rain rates within the satellite`s field of view. Estimates of instantaneous and climate scale rainfall are validated through comparisons with modeled clouds, surface radars, rain gauges and alternative satellite estimates. The accuracy of the rainfall estimates is determined from a combination of validation comparisons, theoretical sampling error calculations, and modeled sensitivity to variations in atmospheric and surface radiative properties. An error budget is constructed for both instantaneous rain rates and climate scale global estimates. At a one degree resolution, the root mean square errors in instantaneous rain rate estimates are 13% over ocean and 20% over land. The root mean square errors in global rainfall totals over a four month period are found to be 46% over ocean and 63% over land. Global rainfall totals are computed on a monthly scale for a three year period from 1987 to 1990. The time series is analyzed for climate scale rainfall distribution and variability.

  4. Remote detection and ecological monitoring of the industrial and natural nuclei activity of radioactive elements based on passive microwave radiometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chistyakova, Liliya K.; Chistyakov, Vyacheslav Y.; Losev, Dmitry V.; Penin, Sergei T.; Tarabrin, Yurij K.; Yakubov, Vladimir P.; Yurjev, Igor A.

    1998-12-01

    The passive remote method of microwave radiometry and its instrumental realization for express diagnostics of radioactive elements in the atmosphere have been discussed. Analysis of the microwave radiation due to ionization and dissociation of atmospheric components interacting with radioactive elements is carried out. The photochemical processes resulting in background microwave radiation power have been discussed. As an example, the results of natural experiment of detecting the atomic hydrogen radiation in the plume of emissions of nuclear cycle processing plants have been presented.

  5. Comparing Water Vapor Trends Derived From Infrared and Microwave Radiometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fishbein, E.; Lambrigtsen, B.; Fetzer, E.

    2005-12-01

    The Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) and Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder. (ATMS) are the primary instruments on NPOESS and NPP for measuring profiles of atmospheric temperature and humidity but have the observations have different error characteristics. CrIS is an infrared radiometer using 6 micron thermal radiances to infer humidity while ATMS uses 183 GHz radiances. CrIS has good vertical resolution and but lose sensitivity with cloudiness while ATMS has poorer vertical resolution but is insensitive to nonprecipitating clouds. The error characteristics of humidity are complicated by the interaction of the errors from the two instruments propagating through a highly nonlinear combined CrIS and ATMS retrieval and are highly state dependent because cloudiness is correlated with relative humidity by dynamical processes involving uplift such as cumulus convection and baroclinic instability. We assess how these error sources impact climate trend analysis using data from the sounders on NASA's Aqua satellite. The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), the Advanced Microwave Sounder-A (AMSU-A) and the Humidity Sounder for Brazil (HSB) fly on the Aqua satellite and have similar capabilities to CrIS and ATMS. We have produced humidity profiles from the AIRS/AMSU/HSB radiances using the AIRS unified retrieval system in four modes of different combinations of instruments: 1) all three instruments, 2) AIRS and AMSU, 3) AMSU and HSB and 4) AIRS alone. These correspond to the 1) CrIS and ATMS operating together using cloud clearing, 2) CrIS and ATMS operating in together but without the microwave humidity profiling channels, 3) ATMS alone and 4) CrIS alone using hole hunting. Trend analysis of zonal means from the four datasets is compared and mapped products are used to illustrate how measurement capabilities affect the derived trends.

  6. Studies of snowpack properties by passive microwave radiometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, A. T. C.; Hall, D. K.; Foster, J. L.; Rango, A.; Schmugge, T. J.

    1978-01-01

    Research involving the microwave characteristics of snow was undertaken in order to expand the information content currently available from remote sensing, namely the measurement of snowcovered area. Microwave radiation emitted from beneath the snow surface can be sensed and thus permits information on internal snowpack properties to be inferred. The intensity of radiation received is a function of the average temperature and emissivity of the snow layers and is commonly referred to as the brightness temperature (T sub b). The T sub b varies with snow grain and crystal sizes, liquid water content and snowpack temperature. The T sub b of the 0.8 cm wavelength channel was found to decrease moreso with increasing snow depth than the 1.4 cm channel. More scattering of the shorter wavelength radiation occurs thus resulting in a lower T sub b for shorter wavelengths in a dry snowpack. The longer 21.0 cm wavelength was used to assess the condition of the underlying ground. Ultimately it may be possible to estimate snow volume over large areas using calibrated brightness temperatures and consequently improve snowmelt runoff predictions.

  7. Studies of snowpack properties by passive microwave radiometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, A. T. C.; Hall, D. K.; Foster, J. L.; Rango, A.; Schmugge, T. J.

    1979-01-01

    Research involving the microwave characteristics of snow was undertaken in order to expand the information content currently available from remote sensing, namely the measurement of snowcovered area. Microwave radiation emitted from beneath the snow surface can be sensed and thus permits information on internal snowpack properties to be inferred. The intensity of radiation received is a function of the average temperature and emissivity of the snow layers and is commonly referred to as the brightness temperature (T sub B). The T sub B varies with snow grain and crystal sizes, liquid water content, and snowpack temperature. The T sub B of the 0.8 cm wavelength channel was found to decrease more so with increasing snow depth than the 1.4 cm channel. More scattering of the shorter wavelength radiation occurs thus resulting in a lower T sub B for shorter wavelengths in a dry snowpack. The longer 21.0 cm wavelength was used to assess the condition of the underlying ground.

  8. Proposed Definitions of Some Technical Terms Frequently Used in Microwave Radiometry for Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiue, James C.; Zukor, Dorothy J. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The use of microwave radiometry for remote sensing is a relatively young field. As a result, there are no standard definitions of many frequently used technical terms; a lot of which are conventional usages carried-over from optical remote sensing, and a lot more are shared with electrical or microwave engineering. Sometimes the divergent notions and assumptions originating from a different field may cause ambiguity or confusions. It is proposed that we establish a list of frequently used terms, together with their 'standard' definitions and hope that they will gradually gain general acceptance by the remote sensing community. It would be even more useful if the IEEE community can set up a standard committee of sort to develop and maintain the standards. To minimize the effort, the existing terms should be kept or reinterpreted as much as possible. For example, the term 'Instantaneous Field of View' (IFOV), originally coming from the optical remote sensing field, is now appearing in microwave remote sensing literature frequently. The IFOV refers to the 'beam width' or the 'diameter' of the beam's geometrical projection on earth surface. Since the definition of 'beam width' is different for an optical system versus a microwave antenna, the use of IFOV in microwave radiometry needed to be clarified. Also, the meaning of the IFOV will be different depending upon whether the beam is scanning or not, and how the scanning takes place, e.g. 'continuous scanning' vs 'stare-and-step scan.' From this one term alone, it is clear that more subtle meanings must be spell out in detail and a 'standard' definition would help in understanding and comparing systems and data in the literature. A selected list of terms with their suggested definitions will be discussed in this presentation.

  9. Polar sea ice observations by means of microwave radiometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gloersen, P.; Chang, T. C.; Wilheit, T. T.; Campbell, W. J.

    1973-01-01

    Principles pertinent to the utilization of 1.55 cm wavelength radiation emanating from the surface of the earth for studying the changing characteristics of polar sea ice are briefly reviewed. Recent data obtained at that wavelength with an imaging radiometer on-board the Nimbus 5 satellite are used to illustrate how the seasonal changes in extent of sea ice in both polar regions may be monitored free of atmospheric interference. Within a season, changes in the compactness of the sea ice are also observed from the satellite. Some substantial areas of the Arctic sea ice canopy identified as first-year ice in the past winter were observed not to melt this summer, a graphic illustration of the eventual formation of multiyear ice in the Arctic. Finally, the microwave emissivity of some of the multiyear ice areas near the North Pole was found to increase significantly in the summer, probably due to liquid water content in the firm layer.

  10. Application of microwave radiometry to improving climate data records.

    SciTech Connect

    Liljegren, J. C.; Cadeddu, M. P.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2007-01-01

    Microwave radiometers deployed by the U. S. Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program provide crucial data for a wide range of research applications. The accuracy and stability of these instruments also makes them ideal for improving climate data records: to detect and correct discontinuities in the long-term climate records, to validate and calibrate the climate data, to characterize errors in the climate records, and to plan for the future Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) Reference Upper-Air network. This paper presents an overview of these capabilities with examples from ARM data. Two-channel microwave radiometers (MWR) operating at 23.8 and 31.4 GHz are deployed at each of eleven ARM Climate Research Facility (ACRF) field sites in the U.S. Southern Great Plains (SGP), Tropical Western Pacific (TWP), North Slope of Alaska (NSA), and with the ARM Mobile Facility in Niamey, Niger for the purpose of retrieving precipitable water vapor (PWV) and liquid water path (LWP). At these locations PWV ranges from as low as 1 mm (1 kg/m{sup 2}) at the NSA to 70 mm or more in the TWP; LWP can exceed 2 mm at many sites. The MWR accommodates this wide dynamic range for all non-precipitating conditions with a root-mean-square error of about 0.4 mm for PWV and 0.02 mm (20 g/m{sup 2}) for LWP. The calibration of the MWR is continuously and autonomously monitored and updated to maintain accuracy. Comparisons of collocated MWRs will be presented. Site-specific linear statistical retrievals are used operationally; more sophisticated retrievals are applied in post-processing the data. Because PWV is an integral measure, derived from both the relative humidity and temperature profiles of the radiosonde, it is a particularly useful reference quantity. Comparison of PWV measured by the MWR with PWV from radiosondes reveals dry biases and diurnal trends as well as general calibration variability in the radiosondes. To correct the bias and reduce the

  11. Airborne Microwave Imaging of River Velocities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plant, William J.

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this project was to determine whether airborne microwave remote sensing systems can measure river surface currents with sufficient accuracy to make them prospective instruments with which to monitor river flow from space. The approach was to fly a coherent airborne microwave Doppler radar, developed by APL/UW, on a light airplane along several rivers in western Washington state over an extended period of time. The fundamental quantity obtained by this system to measure river currents is the mean offset of the Doppler spectrum. Since this scatter can be obtained from interferometric synthetic aperture radars (INSARs), which can be flown in space, this project provided a cost effective means for determining the suitability of spaceborne INSAR for measuring river flow.

  12. Silver halide fiber optic radiometry for temperature monitoring and control of tissues heated by microwave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shenfeld, Ofer; Belotserkovsky, Edward; Goldwasser, Benad; Zur, Albert; Katzir, Abraham

    1993-02-01

    The heating of tissue by microwave radiation has attained a place of importance in various medical fields, such as the treatment of malignancies, urinary retention, and hypothermia. Accurate temperature measurements in these treated tissues is important for treatment planning and for the control of the heating process. It is also important to be able to measure spacial temperature distribution in the tissues because they are heated in a nonuniform way by the microwave radiation. Conventional temperature sensors used today are inaccurate in the presence of microwave radiation and require contact with the heated tissue. Fiber optic radiometry makes it possible to measure temperatures accurately in the presence of microwave radiation and does not require contact with the tissue. Accurate temperature measurements of tissues heated by microwave was obtained using a silver halide optic radiometer, enabling control of the heating process in other regions of the tissue samples. Temperature mappings of the heated tissues were performed and the nonuniform temperature distributions in these tissues was demonstrated.

  13. Microwave radiometry: a new non-invasive method for the detection of vulnerable plaque

    PubMed Central

    Synetos, Andreas; Nikolaou, Charalampia; Stathogiannis, Konstantinos; Tsiamis, Eleftherios; Stefanadis, Christodoulos

    2012-01-01

    Atherosclerosis and its consequences are the most rapidly growing vascular pathology, with myocardial infarction and ischemic cerebrovascular accident to remain a major cause of premature morbidity and death. In order to detect the morphological and functional characteristics of the vulnerable plaques, new imaging modalities have been developed. Intravascular thermography (IVT) is an invasive method, which provides information on the identification of the high-risk atheromatic plaques in coronary arteries. However, the invasive character of IVT excludes the method from primary prevention. Microwave radiometry (MR) is a new non-invasive method, which detects with high accuracy relative changes of temperature in human tissues whereas this thermal heterogeneity is indicative of inflammatory atherosclerotic plaque. Both experimental and clinical studies have proved the effectiveness of MR in detecting vulnerable plaque whereas recent studies have also revealed its association with plaque neoangiogenesis as assessed by contrast enhanced carotid ultrasound (CEUS). PMID:24282729

  14. Estimation of snow water equivalent using microwave radiometry over Arctic first-year sea ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barber, D. G.; Iacozza, J.; Walker, A. E.

    2003-12-01

    The magnitude and spatial distribution of snow on sea ice are both integral components of the ocean-sea-ice-atmosphere system. Although there exists a number of algorithms to estimate the snow water equivalent (SWE) on terrestrial surfaces, to date there is no precise method to estimate SWE on sea ice. Physical snow properties and in situ microwave radiometry at 19, 37 and 85 GHz, V and H polarization were collected for a 10-day period over 20 first-year sea ice sites.We present and compare the in situ physical, electrical and microwave emission properties of snow over smooth Arctic first-year sea ice for 19 of the 20 sites sampled. Physical processes creating the observed vertical patterns in the physical and electrical properties are discussed. An algorithm is then developed from the relationship between the SWE and the brightness temperature measured at 37 GHz (55°) H polarization and the air temperature. The multiple regression between these variables is able to account for over 90% of the variability in the measured SWE. This algorithm is validated with a small in situ data set collected during the 1999 field experiment. We then compare our data against the NASA snow thickness algorithm, designed as part of the NASA Earth Enterprise Program. The results indicated a lack of agreement between the NASA algorithm and the algorithm developed here. This lack of agreement is attributed to differences in scale between the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager and surface radiometers and to differences in the Antarctic versus Arctic snow physical and electrical properties. Copyright

  15. IAP RAS microwave radiometry complex: sounding atmospheric thermal structure from the ground up to 55km.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belikovich, Mikhail; Shvetsov, Alexander; Ryskin, Vitaly; Mukhin, Dmitry; Kulikov, Mikhail; Feigin, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    Thermal structure is the key characteristic of the atmosphere. Depending on the altitude, it is measured by different methods. In troposphere a plethora of in-situ techniques exists while in middle atmosphere remote sensing is primary type of measurement. The remote sensing is conducted in different wavelengths: optical, infrared and microwave. Satellite based measurements are the most popular kind of remote sensing measurements as it provides global coverage. Ground based passive microwave remote sensing technique has its place when one need permanent monitoring with high time resolution in order to study short-term local events like gravity waves. Institute of Applied Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IAP RAS) develops multi-purpose radiometry complex for constant atmospheric monitoring. For now, it measures temperature profiles from ground to 55km, tropospheric water vapor and ozone. It consists of several radiometers with spectral bands ranging from 20 to 112 GHz. In 2015 two radiometers were added in order to measure thermal structure at surface level and troposphere: scanning device operating in 55-59GHz, and device at 50-55GHz. The change led to modifying the retrieval software. The work presents the description of the radiometry complex and corresponding retrieval software. The main part is devoted to new radiometers and enhancements in retrieval procedure. The retrieval algorithms are described: for each device separately and for the whole temperature retrieval part of the complex. The use of the single procedure for the group of radiometers helps to merge the profile with each other correctly. The main issue of the single procedure (numerical complexity aside) is dealing with the possible difference in calibration of the devices. Error analysis of the procedures is conducted. The characteristics of the complex and the retrieval algorithms are presented. The capabilities of the algorithms are shown on simulated and real data; the last one was

  16. Microwave remote sensing: Active and passive. Volume 1 - Microwave remote sensing fundamentals and radiometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulaby, F. T.; Moore, R. K.; Fung, A. K.

    1981-01-01

    The three components of microwave remote sensing (sensor-scene interaction, sensor design, and measurement techniques), and the applications to geoscience are examined. The history of active and passive microwave sensing is reviewed, along with fundamental principles of electromagnetic wave propagation, antennas, and microwave interaction with atmospheric constituents. Radiometric concepts are reviewed, particularly for measurement problems for atmospheric and terrestrial sources of natural radiation. Particular attention is given to the emission by atmospheric gases, clouds, and rain as described by the radiative transfer function. Finally, the operation and performance characteristics of radiometer receivers are discussed, particularly for measurement precision, calibration techniques, and imaging considerations.

  17. Mesoscale monitoring of the soil freeze/thaw boundary from orbital microwave radiometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulaby, Fawwaz T.; Dobson, M. Craig; Kuhn, William R.

    1988-01-01

    The fundamental objectives are to test the feasibility of delineating the lateral boundary between frozen and thawed condition in the surface layer of soil from orbital microwave radiometry and secondly to examine the sensitivity of general circulation models to an explicit parameterization of the boundary condition. Physical models were developed to relate emissivity to scene properties and a simulation package was developed to predict brightness temperature as a function of emissivity and physical temperature in order to address issues of heterogeneity, scaling, and scene dynamics. Radiative transfer models were develped for both bare soil surfaces and those obscured by an intervening layer of vegetation or snow. These models relate the emissivity to the physical properties of the soil and to those of the snow or vegetation cover. A SMMR simulation package was developed to evaluate the adequacy of the emission models and the limiting effects of scaling for realistic scenarios incorporating spatially heterogeneous scenes with dynamic moisture and temperature gradients at the pixel scale.

  18. Characterization of a digital microwave radiometry system for noninvasive thermometry using a temperature-controlled homogeneous test load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arunachalam, K.; Stauffer, P. R.; Maccarini, P. F.; Jacobsen, S.; Sterzer, F.

    2008-07-01

    Microwave radiometry has been proposed as a viable noninvasive thermometry approach for monitoring subsurface tissue temperatures and potentially controlling power levels of multielement heat applicators during clinical hyperthermia treatments. With the evolution of technology, several analog microwave radiometry devices have been developed for biomedical applications. In this paper, we describe a digital microwave radiometer with built-in electronics for signal processing and automatic self-calibration. The performance of the radiometer with an Archimedean spiral receive antenna is evaluated over a bandwidth of 3.7-4.2 GHz in homogeneous and layered water test loads. Controlled laboratory experiments over the range of 30-50 °C characterize measurement accuracy, stability, repeatability and penetration depth sensitivity. The ability to sense load temperature through an intervening water coupling bolus of 6 mm thickness is also investigated. To assess the clinical utility and sensitivity to electromagnetic interference (EMI), experiments are conducted inside standard clinical hyperthermia treatment rooms with no EM shielding. The digital radiometer provided repeatable measurements with 0.075 °C resolution and standard deviation of 0.217 °C for homogeneous and layered tissue loads at temperatures between 32-45 °C. Within the 3.7-4.2 GHz band, EM noise rejection was good other than some interference from overhead fluorescent lights in the same room as the radiometer. The system response obtained for ideal water loads suggests that this digital radiometer should be useful for estimating subcutaneous tissue temperatures under a 6 mm waterbolus used during clinical hyperthermia treatments. The accuracy and stability data obtained in water test loads of several configurations support our expectation that single band radiometry should be sufficient for sub-surface temperature monitoring and power control of large multielement array superficial hyperthermia applicators.

  19. Characterization of a digital microwave radiometry system for noninvasive thermometry using a temperature-controlled homogeneous test load.

    PubMed

    Arunachalam, K; Stauffer, P R; Maccarini, P F; Jacobsen, S; Sterzer, F

    2008-07-21

    Microwave radiometry has been proposed as a viable noninvasive thermometry approach for monitoring subsurface tissue temperatures and potentially controlling power levels of multielement heat applicators during clinical hyperthermia treatments. With the evolution of technology, several analog microwave radiometry devices have been developed for biomedical applications. In this paper, we describe a digital microwave radiometer with built-in electronics for signal processing and automatic self-calibration. The performance of the radiometer with an Archimedean spiral receive antenna is evaluated over a bandwidth of 3.7-4.2 GHz in homogeneous and layered water test loads. Controlled laboratory experiments over the range of 30-50 degrees C characterize measurement accuracy, stability, repeatability and penetration depth sensitivity. The ability to sense load temperature through an intervening water coupling bolus of 6 mm thickness is also investigated. To assess the clinical utility and sensitivity to electromagnetic interference (EMI), experiments are conducted inside standard clinical hyperthermia treatment rooms with no EM shielding. The digital radiometer provided repeatable measurements with 0.075 degrees C resolution and standard deviation of 0.217 degrees C for homogeneous and layered tissue loads at temperatures between 32-45 degrees C. Within the 3.7-4.2 GHz band, EM noise rejection was good other than some interference from overhead fluorescent lights in the same room as the radiometer. The system response obtained for ideal water loads suggests that this digital radiometer should be useful for estimating subcutaneous tissue temperatures under a 6 mm waterbolus used during clinical hyperthermia treatments. The accuracy and stability data obtained in water test loads of several configurations support our expectation that single band radiometry should be sufficient for sub-surface temperature monitoring and power control of large multielement array superficial

  20. Foreword to the Special Issue on the 11th Specialist Meeting on Microwave Radiometry and Remote Sensing Applications (MicroRad 2010)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le Vine, David M; Jackson, Thomas J.; Kim, Edward J.; Lang, Roger H.

    2011-01-01

    The Specialist Meeting on Microwave Radiometry and Remote Sensing of the Environment (MicroRad 2010) was held in Washington, DC from March 1 to 4, 2010. The objective of MicroRad 2010 was to provide an open forum to report and discuss recent advances in the field of microwave radiometry, particularly with application to remote sensing of the environment. The meeting was highly successful, with more than 200 registrations representing 48 countries. There were 80 oral presentations and more than 100 posters. MicroRad has become a venue for the microwave radiometry community to present new research results, instrument designs, and applications to an audience that is conversant in these issues. The meeting was divided into 16 sessions (listed in order of presentation): 1) SMOS Mission; 2) Future Passive Microwave Remote Sensing Missions; 3) Theory and Physical Principles of Electromagnetic Models; 4) Field Experiment Results; 5) Soil Moisture and Vegetation; 6) Snow and Cryosphere; 7) Passive/Active Microwave Remote Sensing Synergy; 8) Oceans; 9) Atmospheric Sounding and Assimilation; 10) Clouds and Precipitation; 11) Instruments and Advanced Techniques I; 12) Instruments and Advanced Techniques II; 13) Cross Calibration of Satellite Radiometers; 14) Calibration Theory and Methodology; 15) New Technologies for Microwave Radiometry; 16) Radio Frequency Interference.

  1. Stratospheric ozone isotopes observed by air-borne and space-borne submillimeter-wave heterodyne radiometry: A sensitivity study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasai, Y.; Urban, J.; Takahashi, C.; Smiles Mission Team

    2003-04-01

    The variation of the isotopic composition of a species in the Earth atmosphere provides us the information on the history of the air masses, because the isotope enrichment or depletion reflects the chemical and physical processes. Since the discovery of the heavy isotope enrichment of ozone in the stratosphere in 1981 considerable progress has been made in understanding the processes that control the isotope enrichment based on atmospheric observations, laboratory experiments, and so on. However, the exact mechanism for the effect remains uncertain and accurate sequentially observations of ozone isotopomer at global scale are still very sparse. Further improvements of measurement precision can be obtained by making use of the new technological development of high-precision submillimeter-wave heterodyne radiometry based on sensitive SIS detector technology. The airborne ASUR instrument (Airborne SUb-millimeter SIS Radiometer) observed lines of asymmetric-18 ozone in the frequency region of 645 GHz with this technology since ~1994. The JEM/SMILES instrument (Japaneses Experiment Module / Superconducting sub-MIllimeter Limb Emission Sounder), to be installed on the International Space Station in 2007, will measure several ozone isotopomer in the stratosphere at global scale from space using very similar frequency bands. An error analysis including the most typical systematic errors is performed.

  2. Applications of airborne remote sensing in atmospheric sciences research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Serafin, R. J.; Szejwach, G.; Phillips, B. B.

    1984-01-01

    This paper explores the potential for airborne remote sensing for atmospheric sciences research. Passive and active techniques from the microwave to visible bands are discussed. It is concluded that technology has progressed sufficiently in several areas that the time is right to develop and operate new remote sensing instruments for use by the community of atmospheric scientists as general purpose tools. Promising candidates include Doppler radar and lidar, infrared short range radiometry, and microwave radiometry.

  3. Determination of precipitation profiles from airborne passive microwave radiometric measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kummerow, Christian; Hakkarinen, Ida M.; Pierce, Harold F.; Weinman, James A.

    1991-01-01

    This study presents the first quantitative retrievals of vertical profiles of precipitation derived from multispectral passive microwave radiometry. Measurements of microwave brightness temperature (Tb) obtained by a NASA high-altitude research aircraft are related to profiles of rainfall rate through a multichannel piecewise-linear statistical regression procedure. Statistics for Tb are obtained from a set of cloud radiative models representing a wide variety of convective, stratiform, and anvil structures. The retrieval scheme itself determines which cloud model best fits the observed meteorological conditions. Retrieved rainfall rate profiles are converted to equivalent radar reflectivity for comparison with observed reflectivities from a ground-based research radar. Results for two case studies, a stratiform rain situation and an intense convective thunderstorm, show that the radiometrically derived profiles capture the major features of the observed vertical structure of hydrometer density.

  4. Evaluating evaporation from field crops using airborne radiometry and ground-based meteorological data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jackson, R. D.; Moran, M.S.; Gay, L.W.; Raymond, L.H.

    1987-01-01

    Airborne measurements of reflected solar and emitted thermal radiation were combined with ground-based measurements of incoming solar radiation, air temperature, windspeed, and vapor pressure to calculate instantaneous evaporation (LE) rates using a form of the Penman equation. Estimates of evaporation over cotton, wheat, and alfalfa fields were obtained on 5 days during a one-year period. A Bowen ratio apparatus, employed simultaneously, provided ground-based measurements of evaporation. Comparison of the airborne and ground techniques showed good agreement, with the greatest difference being about 12% for the instantaneous values. Estimates of daily (24 h) evaporation were made from the instantaneous data. On three of the five days, the difference between the two techniques was less than 8%, with the greatest difference being 25%. The results demonstrate that airborne remote sensing techniques can be used to obtain spatially distributed values of evaporation over agricultural fields. ?? 1987 Springer-Verlag.

  5. Cassini microwave radiometry observations of Enceladus' South Pole: Detection of a warm subsurface?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Gall, A. A.; Leyrat, C.; Janssen, M. A.; Stolzenbach, A.; Wye, L. C.; West, R. D.; Lorenz, R. D.; Mitchell, K. L.

    2012-12-01

    At the beginning of the Cassini mission, the ISS (Imaging Science Subsystem) and CIRS (Composite Infra-Red Spectrometer) instruments discovered a geologically active region at the south pole of Saturn's moon Enceladus (e.g. Porco et al., 2005). Plumes venting material emanate from this region. Six years later, on November 6, 2011, the first-ever Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) image of Enceladus was acquired during the E16 flyby of the moon at the wavelength of 2-cm (Mitchell et al., AGU 2011). The SAR swath is located within the seemingly young South Pole Terrains, not far from the active sulci also known as the "tiger stripes" identified as the sources of the plumes. Concurrently to the SAR image, radiometry data were collected in the passive mode of the instrument with a ground footprint of 25-40 km across the track and ~5 km along. The Cassini radiometer records the thermal emission from the surface in the microwave domain, at 2-cm. More specifically, it measures the brightness temperature of the surface that varies both with the emissivity and the vertical temperature profile below the surface down to a depth, which depends on the electrical properties of the subsurface. Typically, radio instruments sense 10 to 100 wavelengths into an icy crust and can thus provide unique insight into the compositional, thermal and physical (porosity, roughness) state of planetary regoliths at depths much greater than the ones sampled by thermal IR spectrometers. In particular, microwave radiometer can be used to detect possible endogenic activity beneath the surface. The measured calibrated brightness temperatures during E16 cover a range from 33 to 60 K. In order to analyze these dataset, we have modeled the expected thermal emission from Enceladus' surface. In absence of endogenic emission, the temperature structure of any airless satellite results from a balance between solar insolation, heat transport within the subsurface and reradiation outward. The developed thermal

  6. Low cost airborne microwave landing system receiver, task 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hager, J. B.; Vancleave, J. R.

    1979-01-01

    Work performed on the low cost airborne Microwave Landing System (MLS) receiver is summarized. A detailed description of the prototype low cost MLS receiver is presented. This detail includes block diagrams, schematics, board assembly drawings, photographs of subassemblies, mechanical construction, parts lists, and microprocessor software. Test procedures are described and results are presented.

  7. Denitrification in the Arctic mid-winter 2004/2005 observed by airborne submillimeter radiometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleinbohl, Armin; Bremer, Holger; Kullmann, Harry; Kuttippurath, Jayanarayanan; Browell, Edward V.; Canty, Timothy; Salawitch, Ross J.; Toon, Geoffrey C.; Nothol, Justus

    2005-01-01

    We present measurements of unusually low mixing ratios of HNO3 in the exceptionally cold Arctic vortex of late-January and early-February 2005. The measurements were obtained by the airborne submillimeter radiometer ASUR during the polar aura validation experiment (PAVE). The distribution of HNO3 inside the vortex reaches minima below 4 ppbv around 22 km altitude and maxima above 13 ppbv around 16 km altitude, with a considerable spatial variability.

  8. A First-Order Radiative Transfer Model for Microwave Radiometry of Forest Canopies at L-Band

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurum, Mehmet; Lang, Roger H.; O'Neill, Peggy E.; Joseph, Alicia T.; Jackson, Thomas J.; Cosh, Michael H.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, a first-order radiative transfer (RT) model is developed to more accurately account for vegetation canopy scattering by modifying the basic Tau-Omega model (the zero-order RT solution). In order to optimally utilize microwave radiometric data in soil moisture (SM) retrievals over vegetated landscapes, a quantitative understanding of the relationship between scattering mechanisms within vegetation canopies and the microwave brightness temperature is desirable. The first-order RT model is used to investigate this relationship and to perform a physical analysis of the scattered and emitted radiation from vegetated terrain. This model is based on an iterative solution (successive orders of scattering) of the RT equations up to the first order. This formulation adds a new scattering term to the . model. The additional term represents emission by particles (vegetation components) in the vegetation layer and emission by the ground that is scattered once by particles in the layer. The model is tested against 1.4-GHz brightness temperature measurements acquired over deciduous trees by a truck-mounted microwave instrument system called ComRAD in 2007. The model predictions are in good agreement with the data, and they give quantitative understanding for the influence of first-order scattering within the canopy on the brightness temperature. The model results show that the scattering term is significant for trees and modifications are necessary to the . model when applied to dense vegetation. Numerical simulations also indicate that the scattering term has a negligible dependence on SM and is mainly a function of the incidence angle and polarization of the microwave observation. Index Terms Emission,microwave radiometry, scattering, soil, vegetation.

  9. Salinity surveys using an airborne microwave radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paris, J. F.; Droppleman, J. D.; Evans, D. E.

    1972-01-01

    The Barnes PRT-5 infrared radiometer and L-band channel of the multifrequency microwave radiometer are used to survey the distribution of surface water temperature and salinity. These remote sensors were flown repetitively in November 1971 over the outflow of the Mississippi River into the Gulf of Mexico. Data reduction parameters were determined through the use of flight data obtained over a known water area. With these parameters, the measured infrared and microwave radiances were analyzed in terms of the surface temperature and salinity.

  10. Airborne antenna polarization study for the microwave landing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilreath, M. C.

    1976-01-01

    The feasibility of the microwave landing system (MLS) airborne antenna pattern coverage requirements are investigated for a large commercial aircraft using a single omnidirectional antenna. Omnidirectional antennas having vertical and horizontal polarizations were evaluated at several different station locations on a one-eleventh scale model Boeing 737 aircraft. The results obtained during this experimental program are presented which include principal plane antenna patterns and complete volumetric coverage plots.

  11. Numerical 3D modeling of heat transfer in human tissues for microwave radiometry monitoring of brown fat metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Dario B.; Maccarini, Paolo F.; Salahi, Sara; Colebeck, Erin; Topsakal, Erdem; Pereira, Pedro J. S.; Limão-Vieira, Paulo; Stauffer, Paul R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Brown adipose tissue (BAT) plays an important role in whole body metabolism and could potentially mediate weight gain and insulin sensitivity. Although some imaging techniques allow BAT detection, there are currently no viable methods for continuous acquisition of BAT energy expenditure. We present a non-invasive technique for long term monitoring of BAT metabolism using microwave radiometry. Methods A multilayer 3D computational model was created in HFSS™ with 1.5 mm skin, 3–10 mm subcutaneous fat, 200 mm muscle and a BAT region (2–6 cm3) located between fat and muscle. Based on this model, a log-spiral antenna was designed and optimized to maximize reception of thermal emissions from the target (BAT). The power absorption patterns calculated in HFSS™ were combined with simulated thermal distributions computed in COMSOL® to predict radiometric signal measured from an ultra-low-noise microwave radiometer. The power received by the antenna was characterized as a function of different levels of BAT metabolism under cold and noradrenergic stimulation. Results The optimized frequency band was 1.5–2.2 GHz, with averaged antenna efficiency of 19%. The simulated power received by the radiometric antenna increased 2–9 mdBm (noradrenergic stimulus) and 4–15 mdBm (cold stimulus) corresponding to increased 15-fold BAT metabolism. Conclusions Results demonstrated the ability to detect thermal radiation from small volumes (2–6 cm3) of BAT located up to 12 mm deep and to monitor small changes (0.5 °C) in BAT metabolism. As such, the developed miniature radiometric antenna sensor appears suitable for non-invasive long term monitoring of BAT metabolism. PMID:24244831

  12. Numerical 3D modeling of heat transfer in human tissues for microwave radiometry monitoring of brown fat metabolism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, Dario B.; Maccarini, Paolo F.; Salahi, Sara; Colebeck, Erin; Topsakal, Erdem; Pereira, Pedro J. S.; Limão-Vieira, Paulo; Stauffer, Paul R.

    2013-02-01

    Background: Brown adipose tissue (BAT) plays an important role in whole body metabolism and could potentially mediate weight gain and insulin sensitivity. Although some imaging techniques allow BAT detection, there are currently no viable methods for continuous acquisition of BAT energy expenditure. We present a non-invasive technique for long term monitoring of BAT metabolism using microwave radiometry. Methods: A multilayer 3D computational model was created in HFSSTM with 1.5 mm skin, 3-10 mm subcutaneous fat, 200 mm muscle and a BAT region (2-6 cm3) located between fat and muscle. Based on this model, a log-spiral antenna was designed and optimized to maximize reception of thermal emissions from the target (BAT). The power absorption patterns calculated in HFSSTM were combined with simulated thermal distributions computed in COMSOL® to predict radiometric signal measured from an ultra-low-noise microwave radiometer. The power received by the antenna was characterized as a function of different levels of BAT metabolism under cold and noradrenergic stimulation. Results: The optimized frequency band was 1.5-2.2 GHz, with averaged antenna efficiency of 19%. The simulated power received by the radiometric antenna increased 2-9 mdBm (noradrenergic stimulus) and 4-15 mdBm (cold stimulus) corresponding to increased 15-fold BAT metabolism. Conclusions: Results demonstrated the ability to detect thermal radiation from small volumes (2-6 cm3) of BAT located up to 12 mm deep and to monitor small changes (0.5 °C) in BAT metabolism. As such, the developed miniature radiometric antenna sensor appears suitable for non-invasive long term monitoring of BAT metabolism.

  13. Monitoring seasonal variations of soil moisture and vegetation cover using satellite microwave radiometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerr, Y. H.; Njoku, E. G.

    1988-01-01

    The NIMBUS-7 scanning multichannel microwave radiometer measured brightness temperatures at 5 frequencies (6.6, 10.7, 18, 21, 37 GHz), all dual-polarized with a 50 deg incidence angle over Africa since 1978. A 3 yr data set is being processed (1983 to 1985), and a theoretical model was developed, allowing investigation of the microwave emissivity of land features in the frequency range 6.6 to 37 GHz and of the extent to which vegetation and roughness can be determined in order to improve the soil moisture estimation.

  14. Precipitation and Latent Heating Distributions from Satellite Passive Microwave Radiometry. Part 1; Method and Uncertainties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, William S.; Kummerow, Christian D.; Yang, Song; Petty, Grant W.; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Bell, Thomas L.; Braun, Scott A.; Wang, Yansen; Lang, Stephen E.; Johnson, Daniel E.

    2004-01-01

    A revised Bayesian algorithm for estimating surface rain rate, convective rain proportion, and latent heating/drying profiles from satellite-borne passive microwave radiometer observations over ocean backgrounds is described. The algorithm searches a large database of cloud-radiative model simulations to find cloud profiles that are radiatively consistent with a given set of microwave radiance measurements. The properties of these radiatively consistent profiles are then composited to obtain best estimates of the observed properties. The revised algorithm is supported by an expanded and more physically consistent database of cloud-radiative model simulations. The algorithm also features a better quantification of the convective and non-convective contributions to total rainfall, a new geographic database, and an improved representation of background radiances in rain-free regions. Bias and random error estimates are derived from applications of the algorithm to synthetic radiance data, based upon a subset of cloud resolving model simulations, and from the Bayesian formulation itself. Synthetic rain rate and latent heating estimates exhibit a trend of high (low) bias for low (high) retrieved values. The Bayesian estimates of random error are propagated to represent errors at coarser time and space resolutions, based upon applications of the algorithm to TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI) data. Errors in instantaneous rain rate estimates at 0.5 deg resolution range from approximately 50% at 1 mm/h to 20% at 14 mm/h. These errors represent about 70-90% of the mean random deviation between collocated passive microwave and spaceborne radar rain rate estimates. The cumulative algorithm error in TMI estimates at monthly, 2.5 deg resolution is relatively small (less than 6% at 5 mm/day) compared to the random error due to infrequent satellite temporal sampling (8-35% at the same rain rate).

  15. Stable microwave radiometry system for long term monitoring of deep tissue temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stauffer, Paul R.; Rodriques, Dario B.; Salahi, Sara; Topsakal, Erdem; Oliveira, Tiago R.; Prakash, Aniruddh; D'Isidoro, Fabio; Reudink, Douglas; Snow, Brent W.; Maccarini, Paolo F.

    2013-02-01

    Background: There are numerous clinical applications for non-invasive monitoring of deep tissue temperature. We present the design and experimental performance of a miniature radiometric thermometry system for measuring volume average temperature of tissue regions located up to 5cm deep in the body. Methods: We constructed a miniature sensor consisting of EMI-shielded log spiral microstrip antenna with high gain onaxis and integrated high-sensitivity 1.35GHz total power radiometer with 500 MHz bandwidth. We tested performance of the radiometry system in both simulated and experimental multilayer phantom models of several intended clinical measurement sites: i) brown adipose tissue (BAT) depots within 2cm of the skin surface, ii) 3-5cm deep kidney, and iii) human brain underlying intact scalp and skull. The physical models included layers of circulating tissue-mimicking liquids controlled at different temperatures to characterize our ability to quantify small changes in target temperature at depth under normothermic surface tissues. Results: We report SAR patterns that characterize the sense region of a 2.6cm diameter receive antenna, and radiometric power measurements as a function of deep tissue temperature that quantify radiometer sensitivity. The data demonstrate: i) our ability to accurately track temperature rise in realistic tissue targets such as urine refluxed from prewarmed bladder into kidney, and 10°C drop in brain temperature underlying normothermic scalp and skull, and ii) long term accuracy and stability of +0.4°C over 4.5 hours as needed for monitoring core body temperature over extended surgery or monitoring effects of brown fat metabolism over an extended sleep/wake cycle. Conclusions: A non-invasive sensor consisting of 2.6cm diameter receive antenna and integral 1.35GHz total power radiometer has demonstrated sufficient sensitivity to track clinically significant changes in temperature of deep tissue targets underlying normothermic surface

  16. Zeeman effect in atmospheric O2 measured by ground-based microwave radiometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navas-Guzmán, F.; Kämpfer, N.; Murk, A.; Larsson, R.; Buehler, S. A.; Eriksson, P.

    2015-04-01

    In this work we study the Zeeman effect on stratospheric O2 using ground-based microwave radiometer measurements. The interaction of the Earth magnetic field with the oxygen dipole leads to a splitting of O2 energy states, which polarizes the emission spectra. A special campaign was carried out in order to measure this effect in the oxygen emission line centered at 53.07 GHz. Both a fixed and a rotating mirror were incorporated into the TEMPERA (TEMPERature RAdiometer) in order to be able to measure under different observational angles. This new configuration allowed us to change the angle between the observational path and the Earth magnetic field direction. Moreover, a high-resolution spectrometer (1 kHz) was used in order to measure for the first time the polarization state of the radiation due to the Zeeman effect in the main isotopologue of oxygen from ground-based microwave measurements. The measured spectra showed a clear polarized signature when the observational angles were changed, evidencing the Zeeman effect in the oxygen molecule. In addition, simulations carried out with the Atmospheric Radiative Transfer Simulator (ARTS) allowed us to verify the microwave measurements showing a very good agreement between model and measurements. The results suggest some interesting new aspects for research of the upper atmosphere.

  17. A Physical Model to Determine Snowfall over Land by Microwave Radiometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skofronick-Jackson, G.; Kim, M.-J.; Weinman, J. A.; Chang, D.-E.

    2003-01-01

    Because microwave brightness temperatures emitted by snow covered surfaces are highly variable, snowfall above such surfaces is difficult to observe using window channels that occur at low frequencies (v less than 100 GHz). Furthermore, at frequencies v less than or equal to 37 GHz, sensitivity to liquid hydrometeors is dominant. These problems are mitigated at high frequencies (v greater than 100 GHz) where water vapor screens the surface emission and sensitivity to frozen hydrometeors is significant. However the scattering effect of snowfall in the atmosphere at those higher frequencies is also impacted by water vapor in the upper atmosphere. This work describes the methodology and results of physically-based retrievals of snow falling over land surfaces. The theory of scattering by randomly oriented dry snow particles at high microwave frequencies appears to be better described by regarding snow as a concatenation of equivalent ice spheres rather than as a sphere with the effective dielectric constant of an air-ice mixture. An equivalent sphere snow scattering model was validated against high frequency attenuation measurements. Satellite-based high frequency observations from an Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU-B) instrument during the March 5-6, 2001 New England blizzard were used to retrieve snowfall over land. Vertical distributions of snow, temperature and relative humidity profiles were derived from the Pennsylvania State University-National Center for Atmospheric Research (PSU-NCAR) fifth-generation Mesoscale Model (MM5). Those data were applied and modified in a radiative transfer model that derived brightness temperatures consistent with the AMSU-B observations. The retrieved snowfall distribution was validated with radar reflectivity measurements obtained from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Weather Service (NWS) ground-based radar network.

  18. Probing Pluto's Underworld : Predicted Ice Temperatures from Microwave Radiometry Decoupled from Surface Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Gall, Alice; Lorenz, Ralph; Leyrat, Cedric

    2015-11-01

    The Pluto dwarf planet has been successfully observed in July 2015 by the New Horizons spacecraft (NASA) during a close-targeted flyby which reavealed surprising and fascinating landscapes. While data are still being downlinked on the ground, we propose to present a prediction of the observation of the Radio Science Experiment experiment (REX) that occured on July 14, 2015 and aimed at measuring the microwave brightness temperature of Pluto’s night side.Present models admit a wide range of 2015 surface conditions at Pluto and Charon, where the atmospheric pressure may undergo dramatic seasonal variation and for which measurements have been performed by the New Horizons mission. One anticipated observation is the microwave brightness temperature, heretofore anticipated as indicating surface conditions relevant to surface-atmosphere equilibrium. However, drawing on recent experience with Cassini observations at Iapetus and Titan, we call attention to the large electrical skin depth of outer solar system materials such as methane, nitrogen or water ice, such that this observation may indicate temperatures averaged over depths of several or tens of meters beneath the surface.Using a seasonally-forced thermal model to determine microwave emission we predict that the southern hemisphere observations (in the polar night in July 2015) of New Horizons should display relatively warm effective temperatures of about 40 K. This would reflect the deep heat buried over the last century of summer, even if the atmospheric pressure suggests that the surface nitrogen frost point may be much lower. We will present our predictions and discuss their impact for the interpretation of the REX measurements.

  19. Severe storm identification with satellite microwave radiometry: An initial investigation with Nimbus-7 SMMR data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spencer, R. W.; Howland, M. R.

    1984-01-01

    The severe weather characteristics of convective storms as observed by the Nimbus 7 Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) are investigated. Low 37 GHz brightness temperatures (due to scattering of upwelling radiation by precipitation size ice) are related to the occurrence of severe weather (large hail, strong winds or wind damage, tornadoes and funnel clouds) within one hour of the satellite observation time. During 1979 and 1980 over the United States there were 263 storms which had very cold 37 GHz signatures. Of these storms 15% were severe. The SMMR detected hail, wind, and tornadic storms equally well. Critical Success Indices (CSI's) of 0.32, 0.48, and 0.38 are achieved for the thresholding of severe vs. nonsevere low brightness temperature events during 1979, 1980, and the two years combined, respectively. Such scores are comparable to skill scores for early radar detection methods. These results suggest that a future geostationary passive microwave imaging capability at 37 GHz, with sufficient spatial and temporal resolution, would allow the detection of severe convective storms. This capability would provide a useful complement to radar, especially in areas not covered by radar.

  20. Probing Pluto's underworld: Ice temperatures from microwave radiometry decoupled from surface conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leyrat, Cedric; Lorenz, Ralph D.; Le Gall, Alice

    2016-04-01

    Present models admit a wide range of 2015 surface conditions at Pluto and Charon, where the atmospheric pressure may undergo dramatic seasonal variation and for which measurements are imminent from the New Horizons mission. One anticipated observation is the microwave brightness temperature, heretofore anticipated as indicating surface conditions relevant to surface-atmosphere equilibrium. However, drawing on recent experience with Cassini observations at Iapetus and Titan, we call attention to the large electrical skin depth of outer Solar System materials such as methane, nitrogen or water ice, such that this observation may indicate temperatures averaged over depths of several or tens of meters beneath the surface. Using a seasonally-forced thermal model to determine microwave emission we predict that the southern hemisphere observations (in polar night) of New Horizons in July 2015 will suggest effective temperatures of ∼40 K, reflecting deep heat buried over the last century of summer, even if the atmospheric pressure suggests that the surface nitrogen frost point may be much lower.

  1. Mesoscale monitoring of the soil freeze/thaw boundary from orbital microwave radiometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dobson, Craig; Ulaby, Fawwaz T.; Zuerndorfer, Brian; England, Anthony W.

    1990-01-01

    A technique was developed for mapping the spatial extent of frozen soils from the spectral characteristics of the 10.7 to 37 GHz radiobrightness. Through computational models for the spectral radiobrightness of diurnally heated freesing soils, a distinctive radiobrightness signature was identified for frozen soils, and the signature was cast as a discriminant for unsupervised classification. In addition to large area images, local area spatial averages of radiobrightness were calculated for each radiobrightness channel at 7 meteorologic sites within the test region. Local area averages at the meteorologic sites were used to define the preliminary boundaries in the Freeze Indicator discriminate. Freeze Indicator images based upon Nimbus 7, Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) data effectively map temporal variations in the freeze/thaw pattern for the northern Great Plains at the time scale of days. Diurnal thermal gradients have a small but measurable effect upon the SMMR spectral gradient. Scale-space filtering can be used to improve the spatial resolution of a freeze/thaw classified image.

  2. Diurnal variations of mesospheric ozone obtained by ground-based microwave radiometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zommerfelds, W. C.; Kunzi, K. F.; Summers, M. E.; Bevilacqua, R. M.; Strobel, D. F.

    1989-01-01

    From December 1986 until April 1987 ground-based microwave observations of the diurnal variation of mesospheric ozone were made over Bern, Switzerland. These data were of sufficient quality to define the characteristics diurnal behavior of the ozone mixing ratio during winter and equinoctial conditions. The observed diurnal variation of ozone peaks at about 74 km, where its amplitude is about a factor of 6. At 65 km the observed diurnal variation is a factor of 3, whereas at 55 km it is only a factor of 1.4. One-dimensional model calculations accurately reproduce the relative diurnal variation of ozone at equinox, suggesting that the model value of the ozone photolysis rate coefficient is accurate to better that 10 percent. For winter conditions, however, the model underpredicts the observed relative diurnal variation by a factor of 2; a major part of this discrepancy is due to an observed postmidnight increase in ozone. Various suggested changes in model parameters to better produce the ozone abundance vertical profile result in only small differences in the relative diurnal variation, indicating that these observations do not provide a sensitive test of the mesospheric chemistry controlling the abundance of odd oxygen.

  3. Rain-on-snow and ice layer formation detection using passive microwave radiometry: An arctic perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langlois, A.; Royer, A.; Montpetit, B.; Johnson, C. A.; Brucker, L.; Dolant, C.; Richards, A.; Roy, A.

    2015-12-01

    With the current changes observed in the Arctic, an increase in occurrence of rain-on-snow (ROS) events has been reported in the Arctic (land) over the past few decades. Several studies have established that strong linkages between surface temperatures and passive microwaves do exist, but the contribution of snow properties under winter extreme events such as rain-on-snow events (ROS) and associated ice layer formation need to be better understood that both have a significant impact on ecosystem processes. In particular, ice layer formation is known to affect the survival of ungulates by blocking their access to food. Given the current pronounced warming in northern regions, more frequent ROS can be expected. However, one of the main challenges in the study of ROS in northern regions is the lack of meteorological information and in-situ measurements. The retrieval of ROS occurrence in the Arctic using satellite remote sensing tools thus represents the most viable approach. Here, we present here results from 1) ROS occurrence formation in the Peary caribou habitat using an empirically developed ROS algorithm by our group based on the gradient ratio, 2) ice layer formation across the same area using a semi-empirical detection approach based on the polarization ratio spanning between 1978 and 2013. A detection threshold was adjusted given the platform used (SMMR, SSM/I and AMSR-E), and initial results suggest high-occurrence years as: 1981-1982, 1992-1993; 1994-1995; 1999-2000; 2001-2002; 2002-2003; 2003-2004; 2006-2007; 2007-2008. A trend in occurrence for Banks Island and NW Victoria Island and linkages to caribou population is presented.

  4. Retrieval of Atmospheric Temperature from Airborne Microwave Radiometer Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jian; Schreier, Franz; Kenntner, Mareike; Fix, Andreas; Trautmann, Thomas

    2015-06-01

    Atmospheric temperature is a key geophysical parameter associated with fields such as meteorology, climatology, or photochemistry. There exist several techniques to measure temperature profiles. In the case of microwave remote sensing, the vertical temperature profile can be estimated from thermal emission lines of molecular oxygen. The MTP (Microwave Temperature Profiler) instrument is an airborne radiometer developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), United States. The instrument passively measures natural thermal emission from oxygen lines at 3 frequencies and at a selection of 10 viewing angles (from near zenith to near nadir). MTP has participated in hundreds of flights, including on DLR’s Falcon and HALO aircrafts. These flights have provided data of the vertical temperature distribution from the troposphere to the lower stratosphere with a good temporal and spatial resolution. In this work, we present temperature retrievals based on the Tikhonov-type regularized nonlinear least squares fitting method. In particular, Jacobians (i.e. temperature derivatives) are evaluated by means of automatic differentiation. The retrieval performance from the MTP measurements is analyzed by using synthetic data. Besides, the vertical sensitivity of the temperature retrieval is studied by weighting functions characterizing the sensitivity of the transmission at different frequencies with respect to changes of altitude levels.

  5. Airborne microwave Doppler measurements of ocean wave directional spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plant, W. J.; Keller, W. C.; Reeves, A. B.; Uliana, E. A.; Johnson, J. W.

    1987-01-01

    A technique is presented for measuring ocean wave directional spectra from aircraft using microwave Doppler radar. The technique involves backscattering coherent microwave radiation from a patch of sea surface which is small compared to dominant ocean wavelengths in the antenna look direction, and large compared to these lengths in the perpendicular (azimuthal) direction. The mean Doppler shift of the return signal measured over short time intervals is proportional to the mean sea surface velocity of the illuminated patch. Variable sea surface velocities induced by wave motion therefore produce time-varying Doppler shifts in the received signal. The large azimuthal dimension of the patch implies that these variations must be produced by surface waves traveling near the horizontal antenna look direction thus allowing determination of the direction of wave travel. Linear wave theory is used to convert the measured velocities into ocean wave spectral densities. Spectra measured simultaneously with this technique and two laser profilometers, and nearly simultaneous with this technique and two laser profilometers, and nearly simultaneous with a surface buoy, are presented. Applications and limitations of this airborne Doppler technique are discussed.

  6. Ground-based lidar and microwave radiometry synergy for high vertical resolution absolute humidity profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrera-Verdejo, María; Crewell, Susanne; Löhnert, Ulrich; Orlandi, Emiliano; Di Girolamo, Paolo

    2016-08-01

    Continuous monitoring of atmospheric humidity profiles is important for many applications, e.g., assessment of atmospheric stability and cloud formation. Nowadays there are a wide variety of ground-based sensors for atmospheric humidity profiling. Unfortunately there is no single instrument able to provide a measurement with complete vertical coverage, high vertical and temporal resolution and good performance under all weather conditions, simultaneously. For example, Raman lidar (RL) measurements can provide water vapor with a high vertical resolution, albeit with limited vertical coverage, due to sunlight contamination and the presence of clouds. Microwave radiometers (MWRs) receive water vapor information throughout the troposphere, though their vertical resolution is poor. In this work, we present an MWR and RL system synergy, which aims to overcome the specific sensor limitations. The retrieval algorithm combining these two instruments is an optimal estimation method (OEM), which allows for an uncertainty analysis of the retrieved profiles. The OEM combines measurements and a priori information, taking the uncertainty of both into account. The measurement vector consists of a set of MWR brightness temperatures and RL water vapor profiles. The method is applied to a 2-month field campaign around Jülich (Germany), focusing on clear sky periods. Different experiments are performed to analyze the improvements achieved via the synergy compared to the individual retrievals. When applying the combined retrieval, on average the theoretically determined absolute humidity uncertainty is reduced above the last usable lidar range by a factor of ˜ 2 with respect to the case where only RL measurements are used. The analysis in terms of degrees of freedom per signal reveal that most information is gained above the usable lidar range, especially important during daytime when the lidar vertical coverage is limited. The retrieved profiles are further evaluated using

  7. Microwave remote sensing of soil moisture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiue, J. C.; Wang, J. R.

    1988-01-01

    Knowledge of soil moisture is important to many disciplines, such as agriculture, hydrology, and meteorology. Soil moisture distribution of vast regions can be measured efficiently only with remote sensing techniques from airborne or satellite platforms. At low microwave frequencies, water has a much larger dielectric constant than dry soil. This difference manifests itself in surface emissivity (or reflectivity) change between dry and wet soils, and can be measured by a microwave radiometer or radar. The Microwave Sensors and Data Communications Branch is developing microwave remote sensing techniques using both radar and radiometry, but primarily with microwave radiometry. The efforts in these areas range from developing algorithms for data interpretation to conducting feasibility studies for space systems, with a primary goal of developing a microwave radiometer for soil moisture measurement from satellites, such as EOS or the Space Station. These efforts are listed.

  8. Microwave Temperature Profiler Mounted in a Standard Airborne Research Canister

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahoney, Michael J.; Denning, Richard F.; Fox, Jack

    2009-01-01

    Many atmospheric research aircraft use a standard canister design to mount instruments, as this significantly facilitates their electrical and mechanical integration and thereby reduces cost. Based on more than 30 years of airborne science experience with the Microwave Temperature Profiler (MTP), the MTP has been repackaged with state-of-the-art electronics and other design improvements to fly in one of these standard canisters. All of the controlling electronics are integrated on a single 4 5-in. (.10 13- cm) multi-layer PCB (printed circuit board) with surface-mount hardware. Improved circuit design, including a self-calibrating RTD (resistive temperature detector) multiplexer, was implemented in order to reduce the size and mass of the electronics while providing increased capability. A new microcontroller-based temperature controller board was designed, providing better control with fewer components. Five such boards are used to provide local control of the temperature in various areas of the instrument, improving radiometric performance. The new stepper motor has an embedded controller eliminating the need for a separate controller board. The reference target is heated to avoid possible emissivity (and hence calibration) changes due to moisture contamination in humid environments, as well as avoiding issues with ambient targets during ascent and descent. The radiometer is a double-sideband heterodyne receiver tuned sequentially to individual oxygen emission lines near 60 GHz, with the line selection and intermediate frequency bandwidths chosen to accommodate the altitude range of the aircraft and mission.

  9. Classifying airborne radiometry data with Agglomerative Hierarchical Clustering: A tool for geological mapping in context of rainforest (French Guiana)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martelet, G.; Truffert, C.; Tourlière, B.; Ledru, P.; Perrin, J.

    2006-09-01

    In highly weathered environments, it is crucial that geological maps provide information concerning both the regolith and the bedrock, for societal needs, such as land-use, mineral or water resources management. Often, geologists are facing the challenge of upgrading existing maps, as relevant information concerning weathering processes and pedogenesis is currently missing. In rugged areas in particular, where access to the field is difficult, ground observations are sparsely available, and need therefore to be complemented using methods based on remotely sensed data. For this purpose, we discuss the use of Agglomerative Hierarchical Clustering (AHC) on eU, K and eTh airborne gamma-ray spectrometry grids. The AHC process allows primarily to segment the geophysical maps into zones having coherent U, K and Th contents. The analysis of these contents are discussed in terms of geochemical signature for lithological attribution of classes, as well as the use of a dendrogram, which gives indications on the hierarchical relations between classes. Unsupervised classification maps resulting from AHC can be considered as spatial models of the distribution of the radioelement content in surface and sub-surface formations. The source of gamma rays emanating from the ground is primarily related to the geochemistry of the bedrock and secondarily to modifications of the radioelement distribution by weathering and other secondary mechanisms, such as mobilisation by wind or water. The interpretation of the obtained predictive classified maps, their U, K, Th contents, and the dendrogram, in light of available geological knowledge, allows to separate signatures related to regolith and solid geology. Consequently, classification maps can be integrated within a GIS environment and used by the geologist as a support for mapping bedrock lithologies and their alteration. We illustrate the AHC classification method in the region of Cayenne using high-resolution airborne radiometric data

  10. Atmospheric water parameters in mid-latitude cyclones observed by microwave radiometry and compared to model calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katsaros, Kristina B.; Hammarstrand, Ulla; Petty, Grant W.

    1990-01-01

    Existing and experimental algorithms for various parameters of atmospheric water content such as integrated water vapor, cloud water, precipitation, are used to examine the distribution of these quantities in mid latitude cyclones. The data was obtained from signals given by the special sensor microwave/imager (SSM/I) and compared with data from the nimbus scanning multichannel microwave radiometer (SMMR) for North Atlantic cyclones. The potential of microwave remote sensing for enhancing knowledge of the horizontal structure of these storms and to aid the development and testing of the cloud and precipitation aspects of limited area numerical models of cyclonic storms is investigated.

  11. Contributions to oil-spill detection and analysis with radar and microwave radiometry: Results of the Archimedes II campaign

    SciTech Connect

    Bartsch, N.; Gruner, K.; Keydel, W.; Witte, F.

    1987-11-01

    During the Archimedes II campaign in November 1985 (conducted and sponsored by JRC ISPRA) different DFVLR-instruments were flown, an X-band SLAR, an elementary L-band SAR, and microwave radiometers at 32 and 90 GHz. The objective of these measurements was to evaluate the possibility of detection, localization, and qualification of oil pollution with microwave sensors. Examples of measurement results obtained are presented. As a main result, it can be stated that all of these microwave instruments are valuable and necessary tools for oil pollution detection and oil collection systems.

  12. Monitoring the Exchange of Heat and Moisture Between the Land Surface and the Atmosphere in a Field of Corn with Microwave Radiometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hornbuckle, B. K.; Hornbuckle, B. K.; England, A. W.; England, A. W.

    2001-05-01

    Soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer (SVAT) models can be used to produce estimates of plant-available water as well as the fluxes of energy and moisture across the land-atmosphere interface. These estimates could be greatly improved by using independent measurements of key state variables to force the model back to its true state. This process is called data assimilation. Microwave radiometry is sensitive to one of these key state variables, the water content of the top few centimeters of the soil. Although several different SVAT models have been developed in the past, they are not suitable for use with current models of microwave emission. We are integrating high-fidelity biophysically-based SVAT and microwave emission models together into comprehensive point-scale Land Surface Process / Radiobrightness (LSP/R) models. LSP/R models will provide the climate modeling community with the physical insight needed to create accurate yet operational land surface parameterizations which can assimilate radiobrightness observations made by current and future microwave remote sensing satellites. We present an overview of data collected during the Seventh Radiobrightness and Energy Balance EXperiment (REBEX-7) held during the summer of 2000. This data will be used to test the SVAT portion of a LSP/R model for field corn. The experiment site in southeastern Michigan was unusually ideal in terms of crop and soil homogeneity and flat terrain with fetches of more than 400 m in the direction of prevailing winds. Detailed measurements of global short- and long-wave radiation, upwelling short-wave radiation, net radiation, precipitation, wind speed, air temperature, relative humidity, air temperature and water vapor pressure gradients, soil temperature, soil moisture, soil heat flux, vegetation biomass and plant-area index, infrared vegetation and soil temperatures, and soil surface roughness were recorded for mature corn. Estimates of sensible and latent heat flux made using the

  13. A first-order radiative transfer model for microwave radiometry of forest canopies at L-band

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, a first-order radiative transfer (RT) model is developed to more accurately account for vegetation canopy scattering by modifying the basic radiative transfer model (the zero-order RT solution). In order to optimally utilize microwave radiometric data in soil moisture (SM) retrievals ...

  14. Observations of the seasonal variability of soil moisture and vegetation cover over Africa using satellite microwave radiometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Njoku, Eni G.; Patel, Indu R.

    1986-01-01

    Multispectral passive microwave data from the scanning multichannel microwave radiometer (SMMR) on the Nimbus-7 satellite were processed selectively for a 1 yr period over Africa. The data show a wide dynamic range of brightness temperature (180 to 290 K), corresponding to variations in surface features such as moisture, temperature, vegetation, roughness, and large-scale topography. It appears that soil moisture variability is detectable with the SMMR over large regions of Africa. To what extent roughness and vegetation affect this capability is not clear. The lowest SMMR frequency is C-band (6.6 GHz), thus any soil moisture sensitivity at this frequency would be much improved by a sensor at L-band (1 to 2 GHz) less affected by roughness and vegetation.

  15. A First-Order Radiative Transfer Model for Microwave Radiometry of Forest Canopies at L-Band

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurum, Mehmet; Lang, Roger H.; O'Neill, Peggy E.; Joseph, Alicia T.; Jackson, Thomas J.; Cosh, Michael H.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, a new first-order radiative transfer (RT) model is developed to more accurately account for vegetation canopy scattering by modifying the basic r-co model (the zero-order RT solution). In order to optimally utilize microwave radiometric data in soil moisture (SM) retrievals over moderately to densely vegetated landscapes, a quantitative understanding of the relationship between scattering mechanisms within vegetation canopies and the microwave brightness temperature is desirable. A first-order RT model is used to investigate this relationship and to perform a physical analysis of the scattered and emitted radiation from vegetated terrain. The new model is based on an iterative solution (successive orders of scattering) of the RT equations up to the first order. This formulation adds a new scattering term to the i-w model. The additional term represents emission by particles (vegetation components) in the vegetation layer and emission by the ground that is scattered once by particles in the layer. The new model is tested against 1.4 GHz brightness temperature measurements acquired over deciduous trees by a truck-mounted microwave instrument system called ComRAD in 2007. The model predictions are in good agreement with the data and they give quantitative understanding for the influence of first-order scattering within the canopy on the brightness temperature. The model results show that the scattering term is significant for trees and modifications are necessary to the T-w model when applied to dense vegetation. Numerical simulations also indicate that the scattering term has a negligible dependence on SM and is mainly a function of the angle and polarization of the microwave observation.

  16. High altitude airborne remote sensing mission using the advanced microwave precipitation radiometer (AMPR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galliano, J.; Platt, R. H.; Spencer, Roy; Hood, Robbie

    1991-01-01

    The advanced microwave precipitation radiometer (AMPR) is an airborne multichannel imaging radiometer used to better understand how the earth's climate structure works. Airborne data results from the October 1990 Florida thunderstorm mission in Jacksonville, FL, are described. AMPR data on atmospheric precipitation in mesoscale storms were retrieved at 10.7, 19.35, 37.1, and 85.5 GHz onboard the ER-2 aircraft at an altitude of 20 km. AMPR's three higher-frequency data channels were selected to operate at the same frequencies as the spaceborne special sensor microwave/imager (SSM/I) presently in orbit. AMPR uses two antennas to receive the four frequencies: the lowest frequency channel uses a 9.7-in aperture lens antennas, while the three higher-frequency channels share a separate 5.3-in aperture lens antenna. The radiometer's temperature resolution performance is summarized.

  17. Airborne microwave measurements of the southern Greenland ice sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Swift, C.T.; Hayes, P.S.; Herd, J.S.; Jones, W.L.; Delmore, V.E.

    1985-02-01

    Microwave remote sensing measurements were collected over Greenland with the NASA C-130 aircraft used as a platform. The principal instruments were a C band radiometer and an X band scatterometer, which simultaneously collected both active and passive microwave remote sensing data. The data collected fully support the conclusions drawn by others that volume scattering from subsurface ice lenses and glands is the major influence on microwave signature. Both thermal emission and radar backscattering results are self-consistent with rather simple theories of volume scattering. The remote sensing measurements also provide a relative measure of the number density of scatterers; however, additional theoretical work is required to establish the cross section per scatterer in order to measure absolute number density. Along this avenue of thought, the data rule out Rayleigh scattering and strongly support a high frequency model. The measured anisotropy over the ice cap appears to be a new observation, and future exploitation of remote sensing techniques may provide information relating to the average shape of subsurface patterns and information relative to glacial flow. 14 references, 10 figures.

  18. Application of a plane-stratified emission model to predict the effects of vegetation in passive microwave radiometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, K.; Chawn Harlow, R.; Burke, E. J.; Shuttleworth, W. J.

    This paper reports the application to vegetation canopies of a coherent model for the propagation of electromagnetic radiation through a stratified medium. The resulting multi-layer vegetation model is plausibly realistic in that it recognises the dielectric permittivity of the vegetation matter, the mixing of the dielectric permittivities for vegetation and air within the canopy and, in simplified terms, the overall vertical distribution of dielectric permittivity and temperature through the canopy. Any sharp changes in the dielectric profile of the canopy resulted in interference effects manifested as oscillations in the microwave brightness temperature as a function of canopy height or look angle. However, when Gaussian broadening of the top and bottom of the canopy (reflecting the natural variability between plants) was included within the model, these oscillations were eliminated. The model parameters required to specify the dielectric profile within the canopy, particularly the parameters that quantify the dielectric mixing between vegetation and air in the canopy, are not usually available in typical field experiments. Thus, the feasibility of specifying these parameters using an advanced single-criterion, multiple-parameter optimisation technique was investigated by automatically minimizing the difference between the modelled and measured brightness temperatures. The results imply that the mixing parameters can be so determined but only if other parameters that specify vegetation dry matter and water content are measured independently. The new model was then applied to investigate the sensitivity of microwave emission to specific vegetation parameters.

  19. Precipitation and Latent Heating Distributions from Satellite Passive Microwave Radiometry. Part II: Evaluation of Estimates Using Independent Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Song; Olson, William S.; Wang, Jian-Jian; Bell, Thomas L.; Smith, Eric A.; Kummerow, Christian D.

    2006-05-01

    Rainfall rate estimates from spaceborne microwave radiometers are generally accepted as reliable by a majority of the atmospheric science community. One of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) facility rain-rate algorithms is based upon passive microwave observations from the TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI). In Part I of this series, improvements of the TMI algorithm that are required to introduce latent heating as an additional algorithm product are described. Here, estimates of surface rain rate, convective proportion, and latent heating are evaluated using independent ground-based estimates and satellite products. Instantaneous, 0.5°-resolution estimates of surface rain rate over ocean from the improved TMI algorithm are well correlated with independent radar estimates (r ˜0.88 over the Tropics), but bias reduction is the most significant improvement over earlier algorithms. The bias reduction is attributed to the greater breadth of cloud-resolving model simulations that support the improved algorithm and the more consistent and specific convective/stratiform rain separation method utilized. The bias of monthly 2.5°-resolution estimates is similarly reduced, with comparable correlations to radar estimates. Although the amount of independent latent heating data is limited, TMI-estimated latent heating profiles compare favorably with instantaneous estimates based upon dual-Doppler radar observations, and time series of surface rain-rate and heating profiles are generally consistent with those derived from rawinsonde analyses. Still, some biases in profile shape are evident, and these may be resolved with (a) additional contextual information brought to the estimation problem and/or (b) physically consistent and representative databases supporting the algorithm. A model of the random error in instantaneous 0.5°-resolution rain-rate estimates appears to be consistent with the levels of error determined from TMI comparisons with collocated radar. Error

  20. Early breast cancer detection method based on a simulation study of single-channel passive microwave radiometry imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostopoulos, Spiros A.; Savva, Andonis D.; Asvestas, Pantelis A.; Nikolopoulos, Christos D.; Capsalis, Christos N.; Cavouras, Dionisis A.

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the present study is to provide a methodology for detecting temperature alterations in human breast, based on single channel microwave radiometer imaging. Radiometer measurements were simulated by modelling the human breast, the temperature distribution, and the antenna characteristics. Moreover, a simulated lesion of variable size and position in the breast was employed to provide for slight temperature changes in the breast. To detect the presence of a lesion, the temperature distribution in the breast was reconstructed. This was accomplished by assuming that temperature distribution is the mixture of distributions with unknown parameters, which were determined by means of the least squares and the singular value decomposition methods. The proposed method was validated in a variety of scenarios by altering the lesion size and location and radiometer position. The method proved capable in identifying temperature alterations caused by lesions, at different locations in the breast.

  1. Non-Invasive Measurement of Brain Temperature with Microwave Radiometry: Demonstration in a Head Phantom and Clinical Case

    PubMed Central

    Stauffer, Paul R.; Snow, Brent W.; Rodrigues, Dario B.; Salahi, Sara; Oliveira, Tiago R.; Reudink, Doug; Maccarini, Paolo F.

    2014-01-01

    Summary This study characterizes the sensitivity and accuracy of a non-invasive microwave radiometric thermometer intended for monitoring body core temperature directly in brain to assist rapid recovery from hypothermia such as occurs during surgical procedures. To study this approach, a human head model was constructed with separate brain and scalp regions consisting of tissue equivalent liquids circulating at independent temperatures on either side of intact skull. This test setup provided differential surface/deep tissue temperatures for quantifying sensitivity to change in brain temperature independent of scalp and surrounding environment. A single band radiometer was calibrated and tested in a multilayer model of the human head with differential scalp and brain temperature. Following calibration of a 500MHz bandwidth microwave radiometer in the head model, feasibility of clinical monitoring was assessed in a pediatric patient during a 2-hour surgery. The results of phantom testing showed that calculated radiometric equivalent brain temperature agreed within 0.4°C of measured temperature when the brain phantom was lowered 10°C and returned to original temperature (37°C), while scalp was maintained constant over a 4.6-hour experiment. The intended clinical use of this system was demonstrated by monitoring brain temperature during surgery of a pediatric patient. Over the 2-hour surgery, the radiometrically measured brain temperature tracked within 1-2°C of rectal and nasopharynx temperatures, except during rapid cooldown and heatup periods when brain temperature deviated 2-4°C from slower responding core temperature surrogates. In summary, the radiometer demonstrated long term stability, accuracy and sensitivity sufficient for clinical monitoring of deep brain temperature during surgery. PMID:24571829

  2. Precipitation and Latent Heating Distributions from Satellite Passive Microwave Radiometry. Part 2; Evaluation of Estimates Using Independent Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Song; Olson, William S.; Wang, Jian-Jian; Bell, Thomas L.; Smith, Eric A.; Kummerow, Christian D.

    2004-01-01

    Rainfall rate estimates from space-borne k&ents are generally accepted as reliable by a majority of the atmospheric science commu&y. One-of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRh4M) facility rain rate algorithms is based upon passive microwave observations fiom the TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI). Part I of this study describes improvements in the TMI algorithm that are required to introduce cloud latent heating and drying as additional algorithm products. Here, estimates of surface rain rate, convective proportion, and latent heating are evaluated using independent ground-based estimates and satellite products. Instantaneous, OP5resolution estimates of surface rain rate over ocean fiom the improved TMI algorithm are well correlated with independent radar estimates (r approx. 0.88 over the Tropics), but bias reduction is the most significant improvement over forerunning algorithms. The bias reduction is attributed to the greater breadth of cloud-resolving model simulations that support the improved algorithm, and the more consistent and specific convective/stratiform rain separation method utilized. The bias of monthly, 2.5 deg. -resolution estimates is similarly reduced, with comparable correlations to radar estimates. Although the amount of independent latent heating data are limited, TMI estimated latent heating profiles compare favorably with instantaneous estimates based upon dual-Doppler radar observations, and time series of surface rain rate and heating profiles are generally consistent with those derived from rawinsonde analyses. Still, some biases in profile shape are evident, and these may be resolved with: (a) additional contextual information brought to the estimation problem, and/or; (b) physically-consistent and representative databases supporting the algorithm. A model of the random error in instantaneous, 0.5 deg-resolution rain rate estimates appears to be consistent with the levels of error determined from TMI comparisons to collocated radar

  3. Diurnal and Seasonal Cold Lands Signatures in SSM/I-scale Microwave Radiometry of the North Slope of Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Edward J.; England, Anthony W.; Hildebrand, Peter H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, we explore scaling and data assimilation-related issues associated with utilizing passive microwave satellite observations of Cold Lands-in this case, the climatologically and ecologically sensitive arctic tundra. Our approach expands on our earlier work using a one-year dataset from the Radiobrightness Energy Balance Experiment-3 (REBEX-3). REBEX-3 featured a tower-based SSM/I (Special Sensor Microwave/Imager) simulator deployed on the North Slope of Alaska in 1994-95. Two findings are significant here. First, a comparison of tower and satellite signatures at 19 and 37 GHz strongly suggested that the North Slope is radiometrically homogeneous for spatial scales up to SSM/I footprints (approximately 25 km), an unusual and valuable characteristic for monitoring and retrieving land surface conditions. And second, at the plot scale, signatures of snow/no-snow and freeze/thaw transitions were identifiable for tussock tundra land cover, so that even snow-free frozen tundra could be unambiguously distinguished from tundra covered with dry snow, another unusual and valuable characteristic. We present results from analyzing satellite brightness signatures of selected North Slope pixels corresponding to instrumented sites along a transect from the Brooks Range to the Arctic Ocean. A custom EASE (Equal Area Scalable Earth)-Grid processor was used to extract SSMJI data for every orbit with observations of this region during the 1994-95 year. The resulting high temporal-resolution (4-8 points/day), gridded data were then analyzed for evidence of the same diurnal and seasonal signatures seen at the plot scale (through micrometeorological and/or brightness data). Differences between satellite and tower brightness observations are quantified for various conditions at the REBEX-3 site. Such differences from the less-frequent and/or larger-scale satellite observations represent a form of input 'noise' in data assimilation applications. For the other sites, the

  4. Accuracy of retrieving temperature and humidity profiles by ground-based microwave radiometry in truly complex terrain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massaro, G.; Stiperski, I.; Pospichal, B.; Rotach, M. W.

    2015-08-01

    Within the Innsbruck Box project, a ground-based microwave radiometer (RPG-HATPRO) was operated in the Inn Valley (Austria), in very complex terrain, between September 2012 and May 2013 to obtain temperature and humidity vertical profiles of the full troposphere with a specific focus on the valley boundary layer. In order to assess its performance in a deep alpine valley, the profiles obtained by the radiometer with different retrieval algorithms based on different climatologies are compared to local radiosonde data. A retrieval that is improved with respect to the one provided by the manufacturer, based on better resolved data, shows a significantly smaller root mean square error (RMSE), both for the temperature and humidity profiles. The improvement is particularly substantial at the heights close to the mountaintop level and in the upper troposphere. Lower-level inversions, common in an alpine valley, are resolved to a satisfactory degree. On the other hand, upper-level inversions (above 1200 m) still pose a significant challenge for retrieval. For this purpose, specialized retrieval algorithms were developed by classifying the radiosonde climatologies into specialized categories according to different criteria (seasons, daytime, nighttime) and using additional regressors (e.g., measurements from mountain stations). The training and testing on the radiosonde data for these specialized categories suggests that a classification of profiles that reproduces meaningful physical characteristics can yield improved targeted specialized retrievals. A novel and very promising method of improving the profile retrieval in a mountainous region is adding further information in the retrieval, such as the surface temperature at fixed levels along a topographic slope or from nearby mountaintops.

  5. Evaluating the Impact of Vegetation Cover and Atmospheric Characteristics on the Estimation of Snow Water Equivalent from Spaceborne Microwave Radiometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choudhury, Bhaskar J.; Foster, James L.

    2010-01-01

    the above model to regional differences in the atmospheric characteristics. The biases in determining SWE arising due to variations in atmospheric conditions and due to changes in fractional forest cover are not independent, since they interact as {A/(l-f)}. The present calculations also show that improvement in determining snow cover area from the microwave data is likely to occur when these data are corrected for atmospheric effects, as demonstrated by a specific case study.

  6. Assessing Scale Effects on Snow Water Equivalent Retrievals Using Airborne and Spaceborne Passive Microwave Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derksen, C.; Walker, A.; Goodison, B.

    2003-12-01

    The Climate Research Branch (CRB) of the Meteorological Service of Canada (MSC) has a long-standing research program focused on the development of methods to retrieve snow cover information from passive microwave satellite data for Canadian regions. Algorithms that derive snow water equivalent (SWE) have been developed by CRB and are used to operationally generate SWE information over landscape regions including prairie, boreal forest, and taiga. New multi-scale research datasets were acquired in Saskatchewan, Canada during February 2003 to quantify the impact of spatially heterogeneous land cover and snowpack properties on passive microwave SWE retrievals. MSC microwave radiometers (6.9, 19, 37, and 85 GHz) were flown on the National Research Council (NRC) Twin Otter aircraft at two flying heights along a grid of flight lines, covering a 25 by 25 km study area centered on the Old Jack Pine Boreal Ecosystem Research and Monitoring Site (BERMS). Spaceborne Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) and Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) brightness temperatures were also acquired for this region. SWE was derived for all passive microwave datasets using the CRB land cover sensitive algorithm suite. An intensive, coincident ground sampling program characterized in situ snow depth, density, water equivalent and pack structure using a land cover based sampling scheme to isolate the variability in snow cover parameters within and between forest stands and land cover types, and within a single spaceborne passive microwave grid cell. The passive microwave data sets that are the focus of this investigation cover a range of spatial resolutions from 100-150 m for the airborne data to 10 km (AMSR-E) and 25 km (SSM/I) for the satellite data, providing the opportunity to investigate and compare microwave emission characteristics, SWE retrievals and land cover effects at different spatial scales. Initial analysis shows that the small footprint airborne passive microwave

  7. Airborne antenna coverage requirements for the TCV B-737 aircraft. [for operation with microwave landing systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Southall, W. A., Jr.; White, W. F.

    1978-01-01

    The airborne antenna line of sight look angle requirement for operation with a Microwave Landing System (MLS) was studied. The required azimuth and elevation line of sight look angles from an antenna located on an aircraft to three ground based antenna sites at the Wallops Flight Center (FPS-16 radar, MLS aximuth, and MLS elevation) as the aircraft follows specific approach paths selected as representative of MLS operations at the Denver, Colorado, terminal area are presented. These required azimuth and elevation look angles may be interpreted as basic design requirements for antenna of the TCV B-737 airplane for MLS operations along these selected approach paths.

  8. Wide-Band Airborne Microwave and Millimeter-Wave Radiometers to Provide High-Resolution Wet-Tropospheric Path Delay Corrections for Coastal and Inland Water Altimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reising, Steven C.; Kangaslahti, Pekka; Brown, Shannon T.; Tanner, Alan B.; Padmanabhan, Sharmila; Parashare, Chaitali; Montes, Oliver; Dawson, Douglas E.; Gaier, Todd C.; Khayatian, Behrouz; Bosch-Lluis, Xavier; Nelson, Scott P.; Johnson, Thaddeus; Hadel, Victoria; Gilliam, Kyle L.; Razavi, Behzad

    2013-04-01

    Current satellite ocean altimeters include nadir-viewing, co-located 18-34 GHz microwave radiometers to measure wet-tropospheric path delay. Due to the area of the surface instantaneous fields of view (IFOV) at these frequencies, the accuracy of wet path retrievals is substantially degraded near coastlines, and retrievals are not provided over land. Retrievals are flagged as not useful about 40 km from the world's coastlines. A viable approach to improve their capability is to add wide-band millimeter-wave window channels at 90 to 170 GHz, yielding finer spatial resolution for a fixed antenna size. In addition, NASA's Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission in formulation (Phase A) is planned for launch in late 2020. The primary objectives of SWOT are to characterize ocean sub-mesoscale processes on 10-km and larger scales in the global oceans, and to measure the global water storage in inland surface water bodies and the flow rate of rivers. Therefore, an important new science objective of SWOT is to transition satellite radar altimetry into the coastal zone. The addition of millimeter-wave channels near 90, 130 and 166 GHz to current Jason-class radiometers is expected to improve retrievals of wet-tropospheric delay in coastal areas and to enhance the potential for over-land retrievals. The Ocean Surface Topography Science Team Meeting recommended in 2012 to add these millimeter-wave channels to the Jason Continuity of Service (CS) mission. To reduce the risks associated with wet-tropospheric path delay correction over coastal areas and fresh water bodies, we are developing an airborne radiometer with 18.7, 23.8 and 34.0 GHz microwave channels, as well as millimeter-wave window channels at 90, 130 and 166 GHz, and temperature sounding above 118 as well as water vapor sounding below 183 GHz for validation of wet-path delay. For nadir-viewing space-borne radiometers with no moving parts, two-point internal calibration sources are necessary, and the

  9. Potential Application of Airborne Passive Microwave Observations for Monitoring Inland Flooding Caused by Tropical Cyclones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hood, Robbie E.; Radley, C.D.; LaFontaine, F.J.

    2008-01-01

    Inland flooding from tropical cyclones can be a significant factor in storm-related deaths in the United States and other countries. Information collected during NASA tropical cyclone field studies suggest surface water and flooding induced by tropical cyclone precipitation can be detected and therefore monitored using passive microwave airborne radiometers. In particular, the 10.7 GHz frequency of the NASA Advanced Microwave Precipitation Radiometer (AMPR) flown on the NASA ER-2 has demonstrated high resolution detection of anomalous surface water and flooding in numerous situations. This presentation will highlight the analysis of three cases utilizing primarily satellite and airborne radiometer data. Radiometer data from the 1998 Third Convection and Moisture Experiment (CAMEX-3) are utilized to detect surface water during landfalling Hurricane Georges in both the Dominican Republic and Louisiana. A third case is landfalling Tropical Storm Gert in Eastern Mexico during the Tropical Cloud Systems and Processes (TCSP) experiment in 2005. AMPR data are compared to topographic data and vegetation indices to evaluate the significance of the surface water signature visible in the 10.7 GHz information. The results of this study suggest the benefit of an aircraft 10 GHz radiometer to provide real-time observations of surface water conditions as part of a multi-sensor flood monitoring network.

  10. Airborne test flight of HY-2A satellite microwave scatterometer and data analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Juhong; Guo, Maohua; Cui, Songxue; Zhou, Wu

    2016-04-01

    This paper introduces the background, aim, experimental design, configuration and data processing for an airborne test flight of the HY-2 Microwave scatterometer (HSCAT). The aim was to evaluate HSCAT performance and a developed data processing algorithm for the HSCAT before launch. There were three test flights of the scatterometer, on January 15, 18 and 22, 2010, over the South China Sea near Lingshui, Hainan. The test flights successfully generated simultaneous airborne scatterometer normalized radar cross section (NRCS), ASCAT wind, and ship-borne-measured wind datasets, which were used to analyze HSCAT performance. Azimuthal dependence of the NRCS relative to the wind direction was nearly cos(2w), with NRCS minima at crosswind directions, and maxima near upwind and downwind. The NRCS also showed a small diff erence between upwind and downwind directions, with upwind crosssections generally larger than those downwind. The dependence of airborne scatterometer NRCS on wind direction and speed showed favorable consistency with the NASA scatterometer geophysical model function (NSCAT GMF), indicating satisfactory HSCAT performance.

  11. Fourth Airborne Geoscience Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The focus of the workshop was on how the airborne community can assist in achieving the goals of the Global Change Research Program. The many activities that employ airborne platforms and sensors were discussed: platforms and instrument development; airborne oceanography; lidar research; SAR measurements; Doppler radar; laser measurements; cloud physics; airborne experiments; airborne microwave measurements; and airborne data collection.

  12. Airborne Deployment and Calibration of Microwave Atmospheric Sounder on 6U CubeSat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padmanabhan, S.; Brown, S. T.; Lim, B.; Kangaslahti, P.; Russell, D.; Stachnik, R. A.

    2015-12-01

    To accurately predict how the distribution of extreme events may change in the future we need to understand the mechanisms that influence such events in our current climate. Our current observing system is not well-suited for observing extreme events globally due to the sparse sampling and in-homogeneity of ground-based in-situ observations and the infrequent revisit time of satellite observations. Observations of weather extremes, such as extreme precipitation events, temperature extremes, tropical and extra-tropical cyclones among others, with temporal resolution on the order of minutes and spatial resolution on the order of few kms (<10 kms), are required for improved forecasting of extreme weather events. We envision a suite of low-cost passive microwave sounding and imaging sensors on CubeSats that would work in concert with traditional flagship observational systems, such as those manifested on large environmental satellites (i.e. JPSS,WSF,GCOM-W), to monitor weather extremes. A 118/183 GHz sensor would enable observations of temperature and precipitation extremes over land and ocean as well as tropical and extra-tropical cyclones. This proposed project would enable low cost, compact radiometer instrumentation at 118 and 183 GHz that would fit in a 6U Cubesat with the objective of mass-producing this design to enable a suite of small satellites to image the key geophysical parameters needed to improve prediction of extreme weather events. We take advantage of past and current technology developments at JPL viz. HAMSR (High Altitude Microwave Scanning Radiometer), Advanced Component Technology (ACT'08) to enable low-mass, low-power high frequency airborne radiometers. In this paper, we will describe the design and implementation of the 118 GHz temperature sounder and 183 GHz humidity sounder on the 6U CubeSat. In addition, we will discuss the maiden airborne deployment of the instrument during the Plain Elevated Convection at Night (PECAN) experiment. The

  13. Estimating vegetation optical depth using L-band passive microwave airborne data in HiWATER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qi; Chai, Linna

    2014-11-01

    In this study, a relationship between polarization differences of soil emissivity at different incidence angles was constructed from a large quantity of simulated soil emissivity based on the Advanced Integrated Emission Model (AIEM) input parameters include: a frequency of 1.4 GHz (L-band), incident angles varying from 1°to 60° at a 1° interval, a wide range of soil moisture content and land surface roughness parameters. Then, we used this relationship and the ω-τ zero-order radiation transfer model to develop an inversion method of low vegetation optical depth at L-band, this work were under the assumption that there was no significant polarization difference between the vegetation signals. Based on this inversion method of low vegetation optical depth, we used the land surface passive microwave brightness temperature of Heihe Watershed obtained by airborne Polarimetric L-band Multibeam Radiometer (PLMR) in 2012 Heihe Watershed Allied Telemetry Experimental Research (HiWATER) to retrieve the corn optical depth in the flight areas, then the results were compared with the measured corn LAI. Results show that the retrieved corn optical depths were consisted with the measured LAI of corn. It proved that the corn optical depth inversion method proposed in this study was feasible. Moreover, the method was promising to apply to the satellite observations.

  14. Water vapor radiometry research and development phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Resch, G. M.; Chavez, M. C.; Yamane, N. L.; Barbier, K. M.; Chandlee, R. C.

    1985-01-01

    This report describes the research and development phase for eight dual-channel water vapor radiometers constructed for the Crustal Dynamics Project at the Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland, and for the NASA Deep Space Network. These instruments were developed to demonstrate that the variable path delay imposed on microwave radio transmissions by atmospheric water vapor can be calibrated, particularly as this phenomenon affects very long baseline interferometry measurement systems. Water vapor radiometry technology can also be used in systems that involve moist air meteorology and propagation studies.

  15. Investigating Baseline, Alternative and Copula-based Algorithm for combining Airborne Active and Passive Microwave Observations in the SMAP Context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montzka, C.; Lorenz, C.; Jagdhuber, T.; Laux, P.; Hajnsek, I.; Kunstmann, H.; Entekhabi, D.; Vereecken, H.

    2015-12-01

    The objective of the NASA Soil Moisture Active & Passive (SMAP) mission is to provide global measurements of soil moisture and freeze/thaw states. SMAP integrates L-band radar and radiometer instruments as a single observation system combining the respective strengths of active and passive remote sensing for enhanced soil moisture mapping. Airborne instruments will be a key part of the SMAP validation program. Here, we present an airborne campaign in the Rur catchment, Germany, in which the passive L-band system Polarimetric L-band Multi-beam Radiometer (PLMR2) and the active L-band system F-SAR of DLR were flown simultaneously on the same platform on six dates in 2013. The flights covered the full heterogeneity of the area under investigation, i.e. all types of land cover and experimental monitoring sites with in situ sensors. Here, we used the obtained data sets as a test-bed for the analysis of three active-passive fusion techniques: A) The SMAP baseline algorithm: Disaggregation of passive microwave brightness temperature by active microwave backscatter and subsequent inversion to soil moisture, B), the SMAP alternative algorithm: Estimation of soil moisture by passive sensor data and subsequent disaggregation by active sensor backscatter and C) Copula-based combination of active and passive microwave data. For method C empirical Copulas were generated and theoretical Copulas fitted both on the level of the raw products brightness temperature and backscatter as well as two soil moisture products. Results indicate that the regression parameters for method A and B are dependent on the radar vegetation index (RVI). Similarly, for method C the best performance was gained by generating separate Copulas for individual land use classes. For more in-depth analyses longer time series are necessary as can obtained by airborne campaigns, therefore, the methods will be applied to SMAP data.

  16. Broad band airborne water vapor radiometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhn, Peter M.

    An infrared radiometer with a pass band of 280 to 520 cm-1 (35.7 to 19.2 µm) is employed on the NASA Ames Research Center U-2 and C-141A aircraft in the measurement of water vapor burden in the upper troposphere and stratosphere. Coincidentally with altitude changes the water vapor mass mixing ratio is also inferred by observing the change in optical depth over a known vertical distance. Data from the December 1980 U-2 Water Vapor Exchange Experiment over the Panama Canal Zone adds to the concept that overshooting cumulonimbus towers “moisten” the lower stratosphere. The average mass mixing ratio in close proximity to or above such towers ranges from 3.5 to 5.0 parts per million above 18 km while the average background mass mixing ratio is only 2.9 parts per million. Generally the lowest background mixing ratios, averaging 2.6 parts per million occurred in the 18 to 21 km layer. For the same levels background Panama mass mixing ratios averaged from 1.0 to 3.0 parts per million higher than in middle latitudes.

  17. Submillimeter-Wave Cloud Ice Radiometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walter, Steven J.

    1999-01-01

    Submillimeter-wave cloud ice radiometry is a new and innovative technique for characterizing cirrus ice clouds. Cirrus clouds affect Earth's climate and hydrological cycle by reflecting incoming solar energy, trapping outgoing IR radiation, sublimating into vapor, and influencing atmospheric circulation. Since uncertainties in the global distribution of cloud ice restrict the accuracy of both climate and weather models, successful development of this technique could provide a valuable tool for investigating how clouds affect climate and weather. Cloud ice radiometry could fill an important gap in the observational capabilities of existing and planned Earth-observing systems. Using submillimeter-wave radiometry to retrieve properties of ice clouds can be understood with a simple model. There are a number of submillimeter-wavelength spectral regions where the upper troposphere is transparent. At lower tropospheric altitudes water vapor emits a relatively uniform flux of thermal radiation. When cirrus clouds are present, they scatter a portion of the upwelling flux of submillimeter-wavelength radiation back towards the Earth as shown in the diagram, thus reducing the upward flux o f energy. Hence, the power received by a down-looking radiometer decreases when a cirrus cloud passes through the field of view causing the cirrus cloud to appear radiatively cool against the warm lower atmospheric thermal emissions. The reduction in upwelling thermal flux is a function of both the total cloud ice content and mean crystal size. Radiometric measurements made at multiple widely spaced frequencies permit flux variations caused by changes in crystal size to be distinguished from changes in ice content, and polarized measurements can be used to constrain mean crystal shape. The goal of the cloud ice radiometry program is to further develop and validate this technique of characterizing cirrus. A multi-frequency radiometer is being designed to support airborne science and

  18. Radiometry spot measurement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Harry H.; Lawn, Stephen J.

    1994-01-01

    The radiometry spot measurement system (RSMS) has been designed for use in the Diffusive And Radiative Transport in Fires (DARTFire) experiment, currently under development at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The RSMS can measure the radiation emitted from a spot of specific size located on the surface of a distant radiation source within a controlled wavelength range. If the spot is located on a blackbody source, its radiation and temperature can be measured directly or indirectly by the RSMS. This report presents computer simulation results used to verify RSMS performance.

  19. Application of Reflected Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS-R) Signals in the Estimation of Sea Roughness Effects in Microwave Radiometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voo, Justin K.; Garrison, James L.; Yueh, Simon H.; Grant, Michael S.; Fore, Alexander G.; Haase, Jennifer S.; Clauss, Bryan

    2010-01-01

    In February-March 2009 NASA JPL conducted an airborne field campaign using the Passive Active L-band System (PALS) and the Ku-band Polarimetric Scatterometer (PolSCAT) collecting measurements of brightness temperature and near surface wind speeds. Flights were conducted over a region of expected high-speed winds in the Atlantic Ocean, for the purposes of algorithm development for salinity retrievals. Wind speeds encountered were in the range of 5 to 25 m/s during the two weeks deployment. The NASA-Langley GPS delay-mapping receiver (DMR) was also flown to collect GPS signals reflected from the ocean surface and generate post-correlation power vs. delay measurements. This data was used to estimate ocean surface roughness and a strong correlation with brightness temperature was found. Initial results suggest that reflected GPS signals, using small low-power instruments, will provide an additional source of data for correcting brightness temperature measurements for the purpose of sea surface salinity retrievals.

  20. Landsat Radiometry Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This final report summarizes three years of work characterizing the radiometry of the Landsat 4, 5 and 7 Thematic Mappers. It is divided into six sections that are representative of the major areas of effort: 1) Internal Calibrator Lamp Monitoring; 2) Vicarious Calibration; 3) Relative Gain Analysis; 4) Outgassing; 5) Landsat 4 Absolute Calibration; and 6) Landsat 5 Scene Invariant Analysis. Each section provides a summary overview of the work that has been performed at SDSU. Major results are highlighted. In several cases, references are given to publications that have developed from this work, Several team members contributed to this report: Tim Ruggles, Dave Aaron, Shriharsha Madhavan, Esad Micijevic, Cory Mettler, and Jim Dewald. At the end of the report is a summary section.

  1. Soil moisture estimation by airborne active and passive microwave remote sensing: A test-bed for SMAP fusion algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montzka, Carsten; Bogena, Heye; Jagdhuber, Thomas; Hajnsek, Irena; Horn, Ralf; Reigber, Andreas; Hasan, Sayeh; Rüdiger, Christoph; Jaeger, Marc; Vereecken, Harry

    2014-05-01

    The objective of the NASA Soil Moisture Active & Passive (SMAP) mission is to provide global measurements of soil moisture and its freeze/thaw state. The SMAP launch is currently planned for 2014-2015. The SMAP measurement approach is to integrate L-band radar and L-band radiometer as a single observation system combining the respective strengths of active and passive remote sensing for enhanced soil moisture mapping. The radar and radiometer measurements can be effectively combined to derive soil moisture maps that approach the accuracy of radiometer-only retrievals, but with a higher resolution (being able to approach the radar resolution under some conditions). Aircraft and tower-based instruments will be a key part of the SMAP validation program. Here, we present an airborne campaign in the Rur catchment in Germany, in which the passive L-band system Polarimetric L-band Multi-beam Radiometer (PLMR2) and the active L-band system DLR F-SAR were flown on six dates in 2013. The flights covered the full heterogeneity of the area under investigation, i.e. all types of land cover and experimental monitoring sites. These data are used as a test-bed for the analysis of existing and development of new active-passive fusion techniques. A synergistic use of the two signals can help to decouple soil moisture effects from the effects of vegetation (or roughness) in a better way than in the case of a single instrument. In this study, we present and evaluate three approaches for the fusion of active and passive microwave records for an enhanced representation of the soil moisture status: i) estimation of soil moisture by passive sensor data and subsequent disaggregation by active sensor backscatter data, ii) disaggregation of passive microwave brightness temperature by active microwave backscatter and subsequent inversion to soil moisture, and iii) fusion of two single-source soil moisture products from radar and radiometer.

  2. Ground registration of data from an airborne Multifrequency Microwave Radiometer (MfMR). [Colby, Kansas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richter, J. C. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    The agricultural soil moisture experiment was conducted near Colby, Kansas, in July and August 1978. A portion of the data collected was taken with a five band microwave radiometer. A method of locating the radiometer footprints with respect to a ground based coordinate system is documented. The procedure requires that the airplane's flight parameters along with aerial photography be acquired simultaneously with the radiometer data. The software which documented reads in data from the precision radiation thermometer (PRT Model 5) and attaches the scene temperature to the corresponding multifrequency microwave radiometer data. Listings of the programs used in the registration process are included.

  3. Development of Wide-Band Airborne Microwave and Millimeter-Wave Radiometers to Provide High-Resolution Wet-Tropospheric Path Delay Measurements for Coastal and Inland Water Altimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reising, S. C.; Kangaslahti, P.; Brown, S. T.; Tanner, A. B.; Padmanabhan, S.; Parashare, C.; Bosch-Lluis, X.; Nelson, S. P.; Johnson, T. P.; Hadel, V. D.; Dawson, D. E.; Montes, O.; Gaier, T. C.; Khayatian, B.; Gilliam, K. L.; Razavi, B.

    2012-12-01

    across the swath will affect altimeter accuracy. To reduce the risks associated with wet-tropospheric path delay correction over coastal areas and fresh water bodies, we will develop, build and flight test an airborne radiometer with the Advanced Microwave Radiometer (18.7, 23.8 and 34.0 GHz) channels, millimeter-wave (90, 130 and 166 GHz) window channels, and millimeter-wave sounders near 118 and 183 GHz to validate over-land retrievals of wet-path delay. In addition, a high spectral resolution ASIC is under development to substantially reduce the mass and power of millimeter-wave spectrometers. The millimeter-wave radiometer channels will have substantially improved spatial resolution and the potential for multiple fields of view across the radar's swath. This instrument development and airborne flight demonstration will (1) assess wet-tropospheric path delay variability on 10-km and smaller spatial scales, (2) demonstrate millimeter-wave radiometry using both window and sounding channels to improve both coastal and over-land retrievals of wet-tropospheric path delay, and (3) provide an instrument for calibration and validation in support of the SWOT mission.

  4. Microwave radiometry for humanitarian demining: experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Joel T.; Kim, Hyunjin; Wiggins, David R.; Cheon, Yonghun

    2002-08-01

    Previous modeling studies have indicated that a multi-frequency radiometer could prove advantageous for humanitarian demining due to the oscillatory patterns in brightness temperature versus frequency that would be observed in the presence of a sub-surface target. Initial experimental results are reported in this paper from a multi-frequency radiometer (MFRAD) system operating at 19 frequencies in the 2.1-6.5 GHz band. The basic design of MFRAD is reviewed, and the calibration and noise background removal procedures discussed. Experimental results with sub-surface metallic and styrofoam targets are then provided that demonstrate the predicted oscillatory behavior. An FFT-based detection algorithm is also described and applied to measured data. Further plans for experiments and tests with this system are also detailed.

  5. Signatures of Hydrometeor Species from Airborne Passive Microwave Data for Frequencies 10-183 GHz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cecil, Daniel J.; Leppert, Kenneth, II

    2014-01-01

    There are 2 basic precipitation retrieval methods using passive microwave measurements: (1) Emission-based: Based on the tendency of liquid precipitation to cause an increase in brightness temperature (BT) primarily at frequencies below 22 GHz over a radiometrically cold background, often an ocean background (e.g., Spencer et al. 1989; Adler et al. 1991; McGaughey et al. 1996); and (2) Scattering-based: Based on the tendency of precipitation-sized ice to scatter upwelling radiation, thereby reducing the measured BT over a relatively warmer (usually land) background at frequencies generally 37 GHz (e.g., Spencer et al. 1989; Smith et al. 1992; Ferraro and Marks 1995). Passive microwave measurements have also been used to detect intense convection (e.g., Spencer and Santek 1985) and for the detection of hail (e.g., Cecil 2009; Cecil and Blankenship 2012; Ferraro et al. 2014). The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission expands upon the successful Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission program to provide global rainfall and snowfall observations every 3 hours (Hou et al. 2014). One of the instruments on board the GPM Core Observatory is the GPM Microwave Imager (GMI) which is a conically-scanning microwave radiometer with 13 channels ranging from 10-183 GHz. Goal of this study: Determine the signatures of various hydrometeor species in terms of BTs measured at frequencies used by GMI by using data collected on 3 case days (all having intense/severe convection) during the Mid-latitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment conducted over Oklahoma in 2011.

  6. Passive microwave soil moisture research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmugge, T. J.; Oneill, P. E.; Wang, J. R.

    1985-01-01

    The AgRISTARS Soil Moisture Project has made significant progress in the quantification of microwave sensor capabilities for soil moisture remote sensing. The 21-cm wavelength has been verified to be the best single channel for radiometric observations of soil moisture. It has also been found that other remote sensing approaches used in conjunction with L-band passive data are more successful than multiple wavelength microwave radiometry in this application. AgRISTARS studies have also improved current understanding of noise factors affecting the interpretability of microwave emission data. The absorption of soil emission by vegetation has been quantified, although this effect is less important than absorption effects for microwave radiometry.

  7. A young region on Enceladus revealed by 2 cm radiometry?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ries, P.; Janssen, M.

    2014-04-01

    On 5 November 2011, the Cassini spacecraft had a flyby of Enceladus dedicated to its synthetic aperture radar (SAR) instrument. In the course of that flyby, approximately 80% of Enceladus' surface was also observed serendipitously with the microwave radiometer operating concurrently at 2.2 cm. The radiometry data is analyzed and shown to drop sharply in the leading hemisphere's smooth terrain. This drop is also demonstrated in a series of unresolved distant radiometry measurements spread out over the ten years of the Cassini mission. However, the anomaly is absent from distant unresolved RADAR measurements and not visible in SAR imaging. The anomaly is most likely caused by a young surface (<100MYr in age) which has not yet been processed by micrometeoroid impacts below the electromagnetic skin depth (3 m).

  8. Multibaseline gravitational wave radiometry

    SciTech Connect

    Talukder, Dipongkar; Bose, Sukanta; Mitra, Sanjit

    2011-03-15

    We present a statistic for the detection of stochastic gravitational wave backgrounds (SGWBs) using radiometry with a network of multiple baselines. We also quantitatively compare the sensitivities of existing baselines and their network to SGWBs. We assess how the measurement accuracy of signal parameters, e.g., the sky position of a localized source, can improve when using a network of baselines, as compared to any of the single participating baselines. The search statistic itself is derived from the likelihood ratio of the cross correlation of the data across all possible baselines in a detector network and is optimal in Gaussian noise. Specifically, it is the likelihood ratio maximized over the strength of the SGWB and is called the maximized-likelihood ratio (MLR). One of the main advantages of using the MLR over past search strategies for inferring the presence or absence of a signal is that the former does not require the deconvolution of the cross correlation statistic. Therefore, it does not suffer from errors inherent to the deconvolution procedure and is especially useful for detecting weak sources. In the limit of a single baseline, it reduces to the detection statistic studied by Ballmer [Classical Quantum Gravity 23, S179 (2006).] and Mitra et al.[Phys. Rev. D 77, 042002 (2008).]. Unlike past studies, here the MLR statistic enables us to compare quantitatively the performances of a variety of baselines searching for a SGWB signal in (simulated) data. Although we use simulated noise and SGWB signals for making these comparisons, our method can be straightforwardly applied on real data.

  9. Investigation of airborne lidar for avoidance of windshear hazards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Targ, Russell; Bowles, Roland L.

    1988-01-01

    The present generalized windshear hazard index is formulated in terms of wind conditions at the given aircraft position and of remotely-sensed information obtained along the extended flight path. Overall system functional requirements are addressed by comparing microwave Doppler radar, Doppler lidar, and IR radiometry candidate techniques, giving attention to airborne CO2 and Ho:YAG lidar windshear-detection systems; these furnish pilots with data on the line-of-sight component of windshear threats over as much as 1-3 km, for a warning time of 15-45 sec. While the technology for a 10.6-micron, CO2 laser-based lidar is available, additional development is required for 2-micron, Ho:YAG laser-based systems.

  10. Comparisons of Arctic In-Situ Snow and Ice Data with Airborne Passive Microwave Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markus, T.; Cavalien, D. J.; Gasiewski, A.; Sturm, M.; Klein, M.; Maslanik, J.; Stroeve, J.; Heinrichs, J.; Holmgren, J.; Irisov, V.

    2004-01-01

    As part of the AMSR-E sea ice validation campaign in March 2003, aircraft flights over the Arctic sea ice were coordinated with ground measurements of snow and sea ice properties. The surface-based measurements were in the vicinity of Barrow, AK, and at a Navy ice camp located in the Beaufort Sea. The NASA P-3 aircraft was equipped with the NOAA ETL PSR microwave radiometer that has the same frequencies as the AMSR-E sensor. The goal was to validate the standard AMSR-E products ice temperature and snow depth on sea ice. Ground measurements are the only way to validate these parameters. The higher spatial resolution of the PSR instrument (between 30 and 500 m, depending on altitude) enables a better comparison between ground measurements and microwave data because of the expected smaller spatial variability. Maps of PSR data can then be used for further down-scaling to AMSR-E pixel areas. Initial results show a good qualitative agreement between the in-situ snow depths and the PSR data. Detailed studies are underway and latest results will be presented.

  11. Assessment of EOS Aqua AMSR-E Arctic Sea Ice Concentrations using Landsat-7 and Airborne Microwave Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavalieri, Donald J.; Markus, Thorsten; Hall, Dorothy K.; Gasiewski, Albin J.; Klein, Marian; Ivanoff, Alvaro

    2006-01-01

    An assessment of Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) sea ice concentrations under winter conditions using ice concentrations derived from Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) imagery obtained during the March 2003 Arctic sea ice validation field campaign is presented. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Environmental Technology Laboratory's Airborne Polarimetric Scanning Radiometer Measurements, which were made from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration P 3B aircraft during the campaign, were used primarily as a diagnostic tool to understand the comparative results and to suggest improvements to the AMSR-E ice concentration algorithm. Based on the AMSR-E/ETM+ comparisons, a good overall agreement with little bias (approx. 1%) for areas of first year and young sea ice was found. Areas of new ice production result in a negative bias of about 5% in the AMSR-E ice concentration retrievals, with a root mean square error of 8%. Some areas of deep snow also resulted in an underestimate of the ice concentration (approx. 10%). For all ice types combined and for the full range of ice concentrations, the bias ranged from 0% to 3%, and the rms errors ranged from 1% to 7%, depending on the region. The new-ice and deep-snow biases are expected to be reduced through an adjustment of the new-ice and ice-type C algorithm tie points.

  12. A new airborne Ka-band double-antenna microwave radiometer for cloud liquid water content measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jian; Zhao, Kai; Jiang, Tao; Gu, Lingjia

    2013-09-01

    A new type upward-looking airborne double-antenna microwave radiometer (ADAMR) system intended for detecting atmospheric cloud liquid water content (LWC) is developed in this paper. The frequency of this radiometer is 31.65 GHz. For the antenna elevation angle, one is 30°and the other is 90°. In order to detect the signals with low effective noise temperature (<10K) from the LWC, the noise coupling technique is used. Through injecting constant equal noise signal into the two antenna ports respectively, the technique can elevate the small input noise signal power to the detectable range of the square-law detector and thus realize the weak signal detection. Moreover, in order to eliminate the impacts of the system gain fluctuations and obtain a higher sensitivity, an auto-gain compensation method based on the analog-to-digital converter, microcontroller and host computer software techniques is also proposed. Compared with the traditional radiometers, the radiometer topology is greatly simplified and the gain fluctuations can be readily realtime compensated using the compensation method. The laboratory test results show that radiometric sensitivity is better than 0.2 K for 300ms integration time and the instrument is conforming to specifications. Finally, the flight observation experiment results are presented to prove that the designed instrument is able to detect small changes of noise signal in a wide effective range of noise temperature (10-350K) and is a powerful tool for LWC measurement.

  13. Volumetric pattern analysis of fuselage-mounted airborne antennas. Ph.D. Thesis; [prediction analysis techniques for antenna radiation patterns of microwave antennas on commercial aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, C. L.

    1976-01-01

    A volumetric pattern analysis of fuselage-mounted airborne antennas at high frequencies was investigated. The primary goal of the investigation was to develop a numerical solution for predicting radiation patterns of airborne antennas in an accurate and efficient manner. An analytical study of airborne antenna pattern problems is presented in which the antenna is mounted on the fuselage near the top or bottom. Since this is a study of general-type commercial aircraft, the aircraft was modeled in its most basic form. The fuselage was assumed to be an infinitely long perfectly conducting elliptic cylinder in its cross-section and a composite elliptic cylinder in its elevation profile. The wing, cockpit, stabilizers (horizontal and vertical) and landing gear are modeled by "N" sided bent or flat plates which can be arbitrarily attached to the fuselage. The volumetric solution developed utilizes two elliptic cylinders, namely, the roll plane and elevation plane models to approximate the principal surface profile (longitudinal and transverse) at the antenna location. With the belt concept and the aid of appropriate coordinate system transformations the solution can be used to predict the volumetric patterns of airborne antennas in an accurate and efficient manner. Applications of this solution to various airborne antenna problems show good agreement with scale model measurements. Extensive data are presented for a microwave landing antenna system.

  14. Airborne Demonstration of Microwave and Wide-Band Millimeter-Wave Radiometers to Provide High-Resolution Wet-Tropospheric Path Delay Corrections for Coastal and Inland Water Altimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reising, Steven; Kangaslahti, Pekka; Tanner, Alan; Padmanabhan, Sharmila; Montes, Oliver; Parashare, Chaitali; Bosch-Lluis, Xavier; Hadel, Victoria; Johnson, Thaddeus; Brown, Shannon; Khayatian, Behrouz; Dawson, Douglas; Gaier, Todd; Razavi, Behzad

    2014-05-01

    Current satellite ocean altimeters include nadir-viewing, co-located 18-34 GHz microwave radiometers to measure wet-tropospheric path delay. Due to the size of the surface instantaneous fields of view (IFOV) at these frequencies, the accuracy of wet path retrievals is substantially degraded near coastlines, and retrievals are not provided over land. Retrievals are flagged as not useful within approximately 40 km of the world's coastlines. A viable approach to improve their capability is to add wide-band high-frequency millimeter-wave window channels in the 90-180 GHz band, thereby achieving finer spatial resolution for a limited antenna size. In this context, the upcoming NASA/CNES/CSA Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission is in formulation and planned for launch in late 2020. The primary objectives of SWOT are to characterize ocean mesoscale and sub-mesoscale processes on 10-km and larger scales in the global oceans and provide measurements of the global water storage in inland surface water bodies and the flow rate of rivers. Therefore, an important new science objective of SWOT is to transition satellite altimetry from the open ocean into the coastal zone and over inland water. The addition of 90-180 GHz millimeter-wave window-channel radiometers to current Jason-class 18-34 GHz radiometers is expected to improve retrievals of wet-tropospheric delay in coastal areas and to enhance the potential for over-land retrievals. In 2012 the Ocean Surface Topography Science Team Meeting recommended to add high-frequency millimeter-wave radiometers to the Jason Continuity of Service (CS) mission. To reduce the risks of wet-tropospheric path delay measurement over coastal areas and inland water bodies, we have designed, developed and fabricated a new airborne radiometer, combining three high-frequency millimeter-wave window channels at 90, 130 and 168 GHz, along with Jason-series microwave channels at 18.7, 23.8 and 34.0 GHz, and validation channels sounding

  15. Classification of Baltic Sea ice types by airborne multifrequency microwave radiometer

    SciTech Connect

    Kurvonen, L.; Hallikainen, M.

    1996-11-01

    An airborne multifrequency radiometer (24, 34, 48, and 94 GHz, vertical polarization) was used to investigate the behavior of the brightness temperature of different sea ice types in the Gulf of Bothnia (Baltic Sea). The measurements and the main results of the analysis are presented. The measurements were made in dry and wet conditions (air temperature above and below 0 C). The angle of incidence was 45{degree} in all measurements. The following topics are evaluated: (a) frequency dependency of the brightness temperature of different ice types, (b) the capability of the multifrequency radiometer to classify ice types for winter navigation purposes, and (c) the optimum measurement frequencies for mapping sea ice. The weather conditions had a significant impact on the radiometric signatures of some ice types (snow-covered compact pack ice and frost-covered new ice); the impact was the highest at 94 GHz. In all cases the overall classification accuracy was around 90% (the kappa coefficient was from 0.86 to 0.96) when the optimum channel combination (24/34 GHz and 94 GHz) was used.

  16. An airborne study of microwave surface sensing and boundary layer heat and moisture fluxes for FIFE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gogineni, S. P.

    1995-01-01

    The objectives of this work were to perform imaging radar and scatterometer measurements over the Konza Prairie as a part of the First International land surface climatology project Field Experiments (EIFE) and to develop an mm-wave radiometer and the data acquisition system for this radiometer. We collected imaging radar data with the University of Kansas Side-Looking Airborne Radar (SLAR) operating at 9.375 GHz and scatterometer data with a helicopter-mounted scatterometer at 5.3 and 9.6 GHz. We also developed a 35-GHz null-balancing radiometer and data acquisition system. Although radar images showed good delineation of various features of the FIFE site, the data were not useful for quantitative analysis for extracting soil moisture information because of day-to-day changes in the system transfer characteristics. Our scatterometer results show that both C and X bands are sensitive to soil moisture variations over grass-covered soils. Scattering coefficients near vertical are about 4 dB lower for unburned areas because of the presence of a thatch layer, in comparison with those for burned areas. The results of the research have been documented in reports, oral presentations, and published papers.

  17. Quasistationary field of thermal emission and near-field radiometry.

    PubMed

    Reznik, A N; Vaks, V L; Yurasova, N V

    2004-11-01

    We provide a theory of radiometry measurements of the quasistationary (near) field of thermal emission from a heated conducting medium. It explains why the Rytov effect, which essentially is a drastic growth of the thermal field energy near the medium surface, cannot be detected experimentally. However, we discovered a measurable near-field effect: the effective depth of formation of the received emission proves to be less than the skin-layer depth, depending on the size of the receiving antenna and its height above the surface. For such measurements highly effective antennas of a small aperture size are necessary. We developed and investigated a variety of microwave antennas whose parameters were fairly suitable for near-field radiometry. The measurements conducted with these antennas yielded experimental evidence of the fact that the quasistationary thermal field really exists. Near-field radiometry opens further opportunities for investigating media. In particular, we demonstrate here a technique for retrieval of the subsurface temperature profile in water with the help of near-field measurements.

  18. Treatment of airborne asbestos and asbestos-like microfiber particles using atmospheric microwave air plasma.

    PubMed

    Averroes, A; Sekiguchi, H; Sakamoto, K

    2011-11-15

    Atmospheric microwave air plasma was used to treat asbestos-like microfiber particles that had two types of ceramic fiber and one type of stainless fiber. The treated particles were characterized via scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The experiment results showed that one type of ceramic fiber (Alumina:Silica=1:1) and the stainless fiber were spheroidized, but the other type of ceramic fiber (Alumina:Silica=7:3) was not. The conversion of the fibers was investigated by calculating the equivalent diameter, the aspect ratio, and the fiber content ratio. The fiber content ratio in various conditions showed values near zero. The relationship between the normalized fiber vanishing rate and the energy needed to melt the particles completely per unit surface area of projected particles, which is defined as η, was examined and seen to indicate that the normalized fiber vanishing rate decreased rapidly with the increase in η. Finally, some preliminary experiments for pure asbestos were conducted, and the analysis via XRD and phase-contrast microscopy (PCM) showed the availability of the plasma treatment. PMID:21962864

  19. Radiometry in medicine and biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nahm, Kie-Bong; Choi, Eui Y.

    2012-10-01

    Diagnostics in medicine plays a critical role in helping medical professionals deliver proper diagnostic decisions. Most samples in this trade are of the human origin and a great portion of methodologies practiced in biology labs is shared in clinical diagnostic laboratories as well. Most clinical tests are quantitative in nature and recent increase in interests in preventive medicine requires the determination of minimal concentration of target analyte: they exist in small quantities at the early stage of various diseases. Radiometry or the use of optical radiation is the most trusted and reliable means of converting biologic concentrations into quantitative physical quantities. Since optical energy is readily available in varying energies (or wavelengths), the appropriate combination of light and the sample absorption properties provides reliable information about the sample concentration through Beer-Lambert law to a decent precision. In this article, the commonly practiced techniques in clinical and biology labs are reviewed from the standpoint of radiometry.

  20. Absolute Temperature Monitoring Using RF Radiometry in the MRI Scanner.

    PubMed

    El-Sharkawy, Abdel-Monem M; Sotiriadis, Paul P; Bottomley, Paul A; Atalar, Ergin

    2006-11-01

    Temperature detection using microwave radiometry has proven value for noninvasively measuring the absolute temperature of tissues inside the body. However, current clinical radiometers operate in the gigahertz range, which limits their depth of penetration. We have designed and built a noninvasive radiometer which operates at radio frequencies (64 MHz) with ∼100-kHz bandwidth, using an external RF loop coil as a thermal detector. The core of the radiometer is an accurate impedance measurement and automatic matching circuit of 0.05 Ω accuracy to compensate for any load variations. The radiometer permits temperature measurements with accuracy of ±0.1°K, over a tested physiological range of 28° C-40° C in saline phantoms whose electric properties match those of tissue. Because 1.5 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanners also operate at 64 MHz, we demonstrate the feasibility of integrating our radiometer with an MRI scanner to monitor RF power deposition and temperature dosimetry, obtaining coarse, spatially resolved, absolute thermal maps in the physiological range. We conclude that RF radiometry offers promise as a direct, noninvasive method of monitoring tissue heating during MRI studies and thereby providing an independent means of verifying patient-safe operation. Other potential applications include titration of hyper- and hypo-therapies. PMID:18026562

  1. Microwave backscatter and emission observed from Shuttle Imaging Radar B and an airborne 1.4 GHz radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, J. R.; Schiue, J. C.; Schmugge, T. J.; Engman, E. T.; Mo, T.; Lawrence, R. W.

    1985-01-01

    A soil moisture experiment conducted with the Shuttle Imaging Radar B (SIR-B) is reported. SIR-B operated at 1.28 GHz provided the active microwave measurements, while a 4-beam pushbroom 1.4 GHz radiometer gave the complementary passive microwave measurements. The aircraft measurements were made at an altitude of 330 m, resulting in a ground resolution cell of about 100 m diameter. SIR-B ground resolution from 225 km was about 35 m. More than 150 agricultural fields in the San Joaquin Valley of California were examined in the experiment. The effect of surface roughness height on radar backscatter and radiometric measurements was studied.

  2. Comparison of ClO measurements by airborne and spaceborne microwave radiometers in the Arctic winter stratosphere 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Crewell, S.; Fabian, R.; Kuenzi, K.

    1995-06-15

    In February 1993 measurements of chlorine monoxide ClO, one of the key substances in catalytic ozone destruction, were performed over Scandinavia by two microwave receivers, the Submillimeter Atmospheric Sounder (SUMAS) on board the German research aircraft FALCON and the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) on board the Upper Atmospheric Research Satellite (UARS). High ClO concentrations (>1 ppb) inside the polar vortex at approximately 20km altitude were detected by both experiments. A comparison shows good agreement of both sensors in the location of enhanced ClO. 11 refs., 5 figs.

  3. Broadband radiometry for photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folgosi-Correa, M. S.; Caly, J. P.; Nogueira, G. E. C.

    2010-04-01

    The effective irradiance is a useful measure to compare performances of different broadband light sources and to more precisely predict the outcome of a topical photodynamic therapy. The effective irradiance (or effective fluence rate) and the exposition time of the optical radiation usually determine the light dose. The effective irradiance (Eeff) takes into account the spectral irradiance of the source as well as the action spectrum, where the wavelength dependence of both optical diffusion through tissue and photosensitizer are considered. In practice there are no standard action spectra for the currently used photosensitizers. As a consequence, measured values of effective irradiance using different action spectra can not be compared. In order to solve this problem, the basis of the calibration theory developed for the broadband ultraviolet radiometry can be applied, where an experimental radiometer is compared with a standard radiometer. Here is presented a simple set of linear relations in the form Eeff = k . E, where E is the source irradiance and k a real positive value, here denoted as a characteristic of the radiometer, as valuable tools for correction of effective irradiances measured according to different action spectra. As a result, for two effective radiometers with different characteristics k1 and k2, measured values are Eeff and Qeff respectively, and it is easily shown that the value Eeff = Qeff • k1/k2 .

  4. Thermodynamic temperature by primary radiometry.

    PubMed

    Anhalt, Klaus; Machin, Graham

    2016-03-28

    Above the freezing temperature of silver (1234.93 K), the International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90) gives a temperature, T90, in terms of a defining fixed-point blackbody and Planck's law of thermal radiation in ratio form. Alternatively, by using Planck's law directly, thermodynamic temperature can be determined by applying radiation detectors calibrated in absolute terms for their spectral responsivity. With the advent of high-quality semiconductor photodiodes and the development of high-accuracy cryogenic radiometers during the last two decades radiometric detector standards with very small uncertainties in the range of 0.01-0.02% have been developed for direct, absolute radiation thermometry with uncertainties comparable to those for the realization of the ITS-90. This article gives an overview of a number of design variants of different types of radiometer used for primary radiometry and describes their calibration. Furthermore, details and requirements regarding the experimental procedure for obtaining low uncertainty thermodynamic temperatures with these radiometers are presented, noting that such radiometers can also be used at temperatures well below the silver point. Finally, typical results obtained by these methods are reviewed. PMID:26903102

  5. Airborne spectral radiometry for crop health and yield estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Mongain, Eon; Green, S. E.; Walsh, James E.; Burke, J.

    1995-01-01

    Spectral reflectance measurements have been made over sugar beet crops from a helicopter during 1991, 1992, and 1993 using a portable multichannel spectrometer system. In 1994 the studies were extended to demonstrate the potential for the measurement of stress in other crops. The observations are made from an altitude of about 150 m over the spectral range 420 nm to 810 nm, with a bandwidth of 5 nm. Downwelling solar irradiance and upwelling reflected irradiance are monitored by the multichannel spectrometer simultaneously. Both the absolute values of the reflectance at each wavelength and the variance of these reflectance values across each plot are shown to be related to the state of the crop. Concurrent agricultural ground truth consisting of fresh leaf weight and dry matter accumulation, is used in defining the crop yield models. The study aims to determine the appropriate radiometrically derived parameters which could be used as alternative model inputs. Although significant spectral differences exist and can be extracted by conventional band ratio or singular value decomposition techniques, the variance in the samples of ground truth data constrain the ability to define meaningful radiometric parameters. Improved experimental procedures are proposed.

  6. Joint Variability of Airborne Passive Microwave and Ground-based Radar Observations Obtained in the TRMM Kwajalein Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuter, S. E.; Kingsmill, D. E.

    2007-12-01

    The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Kwajalein Experiment (KWAJEX) held July-September 1999 in the west Pacific was designed to obtain an empirical physical characterization of precipitating convective clouds over the tropical ocean. The majority of the precipitation was from mixed-phase clouds. Coordinated data sets were obtained from aircraft and ground-based sensors including passive microwave measurements by the Advanced Microwave Precipitation Radiometer (AMPR) instrument on the NASA DC-8 aircraft and S-band volumetric radar data by the KPOL radar. The AMPR and KPOL data sets were processed to yield a set of 25,049 matching observations at ~ 2 km x 2 km horizontal spatial resolution and within 6 min. The TRMM satellite Microwave Imager (TMI) has a similar set of channels to AMPR but coarser spatial resolution (19 GHz: 35 km, 85 GHz: 7.7 km). During KWAJEX, the 0 deg C level height was nearly constant at ~ 4800 m. Hence, two potential sources of uncertainty in relating passive microwave brightness temperatures (Tbs) to surface precipitation, inhomogeneous beam filling and variations in depth of the rain layer are much smaller sources of error in the KWAJEX data set than for TMI. TRMM was originally designed to yield monthly rainfall estimates over 5 deg x 5 deg grid boxes. The use of these data to yield instantaneous rainrate products at smaller spatial scales is more sensitive to the detailed characteristics of the joint distributions of passive microwave Tbs versus rain rate. KWAJEX data sets reveal poor correlations, very wide scatter, and weak modes in these distributions. The spread of emission Tb values for a given rain-layer reflectivity (e.g., 75 K at 30 dBZ for 19 GHz) is similar or larger within convective compared to stratiform precipitation regions. This result implies that the enhancement in emission Tbs associated with partially melted ice particles can occur whether the particles are concentrated within a thin layer in stratiform

  7. Sensors and methods for weather-independent remote sensing with microwaves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keydel, W.

    1981-01-01

    Sensors and methods of radar and microwave radiometry which operate in the millimeter wave range are discussed. The properties of electromagnetic waves are discussed as well as the resolution capacity and measurement accuracy of sensor systems.

  8. Cokriging with ground-based radiometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkinson, P. M.; Webster, R.; Curran, P. J.

    1992-01-01

    The formulas for cokriging and a coherent coregionalization model are presented. The model is applied to design sampling strategies for surveys using a ground-based radiometer. Results indicate that cokriging based on measured radiation is nine times as efficient as kriging the cover alone. It is concluded that cokriging in conjunction with ground-based radiometry provides an economical and operational technique for using reflectance to estimate the earth surface properties.

  9. Quantum Tunneling Sb-Heterostructures for Millimeter Wave Radiometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulman, Joel N.

    2003-03-01

    Imaging in the millimeter wavelength range has been making rapid progress as high speed electronics increase in frequency. Applications include viewing through adverse visibility conditions (fog, smoke, dust, precipitation) and also the relative transparency of clothing (concealed-weapons-detection) and some building materials (through-the-wall-detection). Atmospheric radiometry (climate assessment and weather prediction) already depend heavily on this wavelength range. Astronomical applications include incorporation in instruments for cosmic microwave background detection. An important ingredient is a diode that "rectifies" in a special way. It must convert input power, i.e., voltage squared, into a DC voltage output -- a "square-law" detector. We have recently found that quantum tunneling through an InAs/AlSb/GaAlSb heterostructure system provides the ideal physical mechanism for this purpose.1,2 We will present our results to date, demonstrating how a close coupling of semiconductor quantum tunneling theory with electrical engineering know-how have brought an "exotic" quantum phenomon to practical and economic application. 1. "Sb-heterostructure interband backward diodes" J.N. Schulman and D.H. Chow. IEEE Electron Device Letters 21, 353-355 (2000). 2. "High-Performance Antimonide-Based Heterostructure Backward Diodes for Millimeter-wave Detection" P. Fay, J. N. Schulman, S. Thomas III, D. H. Chow, Y. K. Boegeman, and K. S. Holabird, IEEE Electron Device Letters 23, 585-587 (2002).

  10. Microwave Interferometric Radiometry in Remote Sensing: an Invited Historical Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin-Neira, M.; LeVine, D. M.; Kerr, Y.; Skou, N.; Peichl, M.; Camps, A.; Corbella, I.; Hallikainen, M.; Font, J.; Wu, J.; Mecklenburg, S.; Drusch, M.

    2014-01-01

    The launch of the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission on 2 November 2009 marked a milestone in remote sensing for it was the first time a radiometer capable of acquiring wide field of view images at every single snapshot, a unique feature of the synthetic aperture technique, made it to space. The technology behind such an achievement was developed, thanks to the effort of a community of researchers and engineers in different groups around the world. It was only because of their joint work that SMOS finally became a reality. The fact that the European Space Agency, together with CNES (Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales) and CDTI (Centro para el Desarrollo Tecnológico e Industrial), managed to get the project through should be considered a merit and a reward for that entire community. This paper is an invited historical review that, within a very limited number of pages, tries to provide insight into some of the developments which, one way or another, are imprinted in the name of SMOS.

  11. Microwave interferometric radiometry in remote sensing: An invited historical review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín-Neira, M.; LeVine, D. M.; Kerr, Y.; Skou, N.; Peichl, M.; Camps, A.; Corbella, I.; Hallikainen, M.; Font, J.; Wu, J.; Mecklenburg, S.; Drusch, M.

    2014-06-01

    The launch of the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission on 2 November 2009 marked a milestone in remote sensing for it was the first time a radiometer capable of acquiring wide field of view images at every single snapshot, a unique feature of the synthetic aperture technique, made it to space. The technology behind such an achievement was developed, thanks to the effort of a community of researchers and engineers in different groups around the world. It was only because of their joint work that SMOS finally became a reality. The fact that the European Space Agency, together with CNES (Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales) and CDTI (Centro para el Desarrollo Tecnológico e Industrial), managed to get the project through should be considered a merit and a reward for that entire community. This paper is an invited historical review that, within a very limited number of pages, tries to provide insight into some of the developments which, one way or another, are imprinted in the name of SMOS.

  12. Analysis of dental materials by photothermal radiometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conde-Contreras, M.; Tiessler, V.; Cucina, A.; Quintana, P.; Alvarado-Gil, Juan J.

    2005-02-01

    The analysis of teeth is an interesting field, given the importance of these pieces for the individual or for humanity in the case of remains recovered from an archeologically site; therefore, the development of non-destructive techniques is important to study these materials. Photothermal techniques are ones of the most interesting possibilities; they are based in the generation of a train of thermal waves inside of a material due to the illumination with modulated light. Among these techniques photothermal radiometry has an outstanding role, since it is a non-contact technique, based in the detection of infrared emission of the samples heated with the laser. The experimental configuration consists of an Ar laser beam that impinges on the surface of the teeth and the infrared radiation generated is measured using a HgCdTe IR detector. Results for the analysis of cracks on teeth and the low frequency profiles are presented. A strong influence of the signal due to the microstructure of teeth is observed. Furthermore, surface effects are analyzed changing the color of teeth when whitening products are applied. The process of whitening is monitored in real time by optical spectroscopy in the visible and by photothermal radiometry.

  13. Advances in radiometry for ocean color

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, S.W.; Clark, D.K.; Johnson, B.C.; Yoon, H.; Lykke, K.R.; Flora, S.J.; Feinholz, M.E.; Souaidia, N.; Pietras, C.; Stone, T.C.; Yarbrough, M.A.; Kim, Y.S.; Barnes, R.A.; Mueller, J.L.

    2004-01-01

    We have presented a number of recent developments in radiometry that directly impact the uncertainties achievable in ocean-color research. Specifically, a new (2000) U. S. national irradiance scale, a new LASER-based facility for irradiance and radiance responsivity calibrations, and applications of the LASER facility for the calibration of sun photometers and characterization of spectrographs were discussed. For meaningful long-time-series global chlorophyll-a measurements, all instruments involved in radiometric measurements, including satellite sensors, vicarious calibration sensors, sensors used in the development of bio-optical algorithms and atmospheric characterization need to be fully characterized and corrected for systematic errors, including, but not limited to, stray light. A unique, solid-state calibration source is under development to reduce the radiometric uncertainties in ocean color instruments, in particular below 400 nm. Lunar measurements for trending of on-orbit sensor channel degradation were described. Unprecedented assessments, within 0.1 %, of temporal stability and drift in a satellite sensor's radiance responsivity are achievable with this approach. These developments advance the field of ocean color closer to the desired goal of reducing the uncertainty in the fundamental radiometry to a small component of the overall uncertainty in the derivation of remotely sensed ocean-color data products such as chlorophyll a.

  14. 100 years of photometry and radiometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardis, Jonathan E.

    2001-06-01

    Measurement of light is an old subject, though the past 100 years have seen significant advances. 100 years ago, photometry - the art and science of measuring light as it is perceived by people - had the greater technological importance. Even today SI (the metric system) retains a base unit for photometry, the candela. However, early work at NBS included pivotal projects in the field of radiometry - the measurement of the physical characteristics of light. These included the validation of Planck's newly-minted theory of blackbody radiation, determining the radiation constants with good accuracy, and the definitive analysis of the spectral responsivity of human vision, so as to relate photometry to radiometry. This latter work has only increased in importance over the past 75 years as the definition of the candela has changed and improved. Today, NIST makes radiometric, and hence photometric measurements, with unprecedented precision. Cryogenic radiometers based on the principle of electrical substitution measure optical flux with uncertainties of 0.02%. Additional facilities enable measurement of spectral responsivity, spectral radiance, and spectral irradiance. Novel detectors, such as light-traps, allow the best accuracy to be transferred from the primary standards to routinely-used instruments and to calibration customers. Filtered detectors are used to realize photometric scales, radiation temperature scales, and other specialized measurements. Indeed, the story of the metrology of light is the story of continuous improvement, both driven by and enabled by advances in technology. We touch upon some of these as a prelude to the other talks in this Conference.

  15. Viking lander camera radiometry calibration report, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolf, M. R.; Atwood, D. L.; Morrill, M. E.

    1977-01-01

    The test methods and data reduction techniques used to determine and remove instrumental signatures from Viking Lander camera radiometry data are described. Gain, offset, and calibration constants are presented in tables.

  16. Radiometry and the Friis transmission equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, Joseph A.

    2013-01-01

    To more effectively tailor courses involving antennas, wireless communications, optics, and applied electromagnetics to a mixed audience of engineering and physics students, the Friis transmission equation—which quantifies the power received in a free-space communication link—is developed from principles of optical radiometry and scalar diffraction. This approach places more emphasis on the physics and conceptual understanding of the Friis equation than is provided by the traditional derivation based on antenna impedance. Specifically, it shows that the wavelength-squared dependence can be attributed to diffraction at the antenna aperture and illustrates the important difference between the throughput (product of area and solid angle) of a single antenna or telescope and the throughput of a transmitter-receiver pair.

  17. Applications of fiberoptic pulsed photothermal radiometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scharf, Vered; Eyal, Ophir; Katzir, Abraham

    1998-10-01

    Pulsed photothermal radiometry is a nondestructive technique for measurements of surface and subsurface thermal parameters of a wide variety of materials. A fiber optic pulsed photothermal radiometric system is constructed and its feasibility is demonstrated. The radiometric system includes a pulsed CO2 laser, an IR detector, and two IR transmitting silver halide optical fibers for delivering IR radiation to and from the sample. A weak laser pulse, absorbed by the sample, initially heats the sample surface. The time evolution of the transient emitted IR radiation is measured and analyzed. The results establish the feasibility of using the fiber optic pulsed photothermal radiometric system to measure coating thickness, to detect flaws, and to diagnose thermal damage in tissue. This fiber optic method would be useful for industrial and medical applications.

  18. Advances in Solar Radiometry and Metrology

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, D.; Andreas, A.; Reda, I.; Gotseff, P.; Wilcox, S.; Stoffel, T.; Anderberg, M.

    2005-01-01

    The Solar Radiometry and Metrology task at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provides traceable optical radiometric calibrations and measurements to photovoltaic (PV) researchers and the PV industry. Traceability of NREL solar radiometer calibrations to the World Radiometric Reference (WRR) was accomplished during the NREL Pyrheliometer Comparison in October 2003. The task has calibrated 10 spectral and more than 180 broadband radiometers for solar measurements. Other accomplishments include characterization of pyranometer thermal offset errors with laboratory and spectral modeling tools; developing a simple scheme to correct pyranometer data for known responsivity variations; and measuring detailed spectral distributions of the NREL High Intensity Pulsed Solar Simulator (HIPSS) as a function of lamp voltage and time. The optical metrology functions support the NREL Measurement and Characterization Task effort for ISO 17025 accreditation of NREL Solar Reference Cell Calibrations. Optical metrology functions have been integrated into the NREL quality system and audited for ISO17025 compliance.

  19. Snow Pack and Lake Ice Pack Remote Sensing using Wideband Autocorrelation Radiometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mousavi, S.; De Roo, R. D.; Sarabandi, K.; England, A. W.

    2015-12-01

    A novel microwave radiometric technique, wideband autocorrelation radiometry (WiBAR), offers a deterministic method of remotely sensing the propagation time τdelay of microwaves through low loss layers at the bottom of the atmosphere. Terrestrial examples are the snow and lake ice packs. This technique is based on the Planck radiation from the surface beneath the pack which travels upwards through the pack towards the radiometer; such a signal we call a direct signal. On the other hand, part of this radiation reflects back from the pack's upper interface then from its lower interface, before traveling towards the radiometer's antenna. Thus, there are two signals received by the radiometer, the direct signal and a delayed copy of it. The microwave propagation time τdelay through the pack yields a measure of its vertical extent. We report a time series of measurements of the ice pack on Lake Superior from February to April 2014 to demonstrate this technique. The observations are done at frequencies from 7 to 10 GHz. At these frequencies, the volume and surface scattering are small in the ice pack. This technique is inherently low-power since there is no transmitter as opposed to active remote sensing techniques. The results of this paper is to present the WiBAR technique and show that the microwave travel time within a dry snow pack and lake ice pack can be deterministically measured for different thicknesses using this technique.

  20. Cassini SAR, radiometry, scatterometry and altimetry observations of Titan's dune fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Gall, A.; Janssen, M. A.; Wye, L. C.; Hayes, A. G.; Radebaugh, J.; Savage, C.; Zebker, H.; Lorenz, R. D.; Lunine, J. I.; Kirk, R. L.; Lopes, R. M. C.; Wall, S.; Callahan, P.; Stofan, E. R.; Farr, T.; the Cassini Radar Team

    2011-06-01

    Large expanses of linear dunes cover Titan's equatorial regions. As the Cassini mission continues, more dune fields are becoming unveiled and examined by the microwave radar in all its modes of operation (SAR, radiometry, scatterometry, altimetry) and with an increasing variety of observational geometries. In this paper, we report on Cassini's radar instrument observations of the dune fields mapped through May 2009 and present our key findings in terms of Titan's geology and climate. We estimate that dune fields cover ˜12.5% of Titan's surface, which corresponds to an area of ˜10 million km 2, roughly the area of the United States. If dune sand-sized particles are mainly composed of solid organics as suggested by VIMS observations (Cassini Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer) and atmospheric modeling and supported by radiometry data, dune fields are the largest known organic reservoir on Titan. Dune regions are, with the exception of the polar lakes and seas, the least reflective and most emissive features on this moon. Interestingly, we also find a latitudinal dependence in the dune field microwave properties: up to a latitude of ˜11°, dune fields tend to become less emissive and brighter as one moves northward. Above ˜11° this trend is reversed. The microwave signatures of the dune regions are thought to be primarily controlled by the interdune proportion (relative to that of the dune), roughness and degree of sand cover. In agreement with radiometry and scatterometry observations, SAR images suggest that the fraction of interdunes increases northward up to a latitude of ˜14°. In general, scattering from the subsurface (volume scattering and surface scattering from buried interfaces) makes interdunal regions brighter than the dunes. The observed latitudinal trend may therefore also be partially caused by a gradual thinning of the interdunal sand cover or surrounding sand sheets to the north, thus allowing wave penetration in the underlying substrate

  1. Cassini SAR, radiometry, scatterometry and altimetry observations of Titan's dune fields

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Le, Gall A.; Janssen, M.A.; Wye, L.C.; Hayes, A.G.; Radebaugh, J.; Savage, C.; Zebker, H.; Lorenz, R.D.; Lunine, J.I.; Kirk, R.L.; Lopes, R.M.C.; Wall, S.; Callahan, P.; Stofan, E.R.; Farr, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Large expanses of linear dunes cover Titan's equatorial regions. As the Cassini mission continues, more dune fields are becoming unveiled and examined by the microwave radar in all its modes of operation (SAR, radiometry, scatterometry, altimetry) and with an increasing variety of observational geometries. In this paper, we report on Cassini's radar instrument observations of the dune fields mapped through May 2009 and present our key findings in terms of Titan's geology and climate. We estimate that dune fields cover ???12.5% of Titan's surface, which corresponds to an area of ???10millionkm2, roughly the area of the United States. If dune sand-sized particles are mainly composed of solid organics as suggested by VIMS observations (Cassini Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer) and atmospheric modeling and supported by radiometry data, dune fields are the largest known organic reservoir on Titan. Dune regions are, with the exception of the polar lakes and seas, the least reflective and most emissive features on this moon. Interestingly, we also find a latitudinal dependence in the dune field microwave properties: up to a latitude of ???11??, dune fields tend to become less emissive and brighter as one moves northward. Above ???11?? this trend is reversed. The microwave signatures of the dune regions are thought to be primarily controlled by the interdune proportion (relative to that of the dune), roughness and degree of sand cover. In agreement with radiometry and scatterometry observations, SAR images suggest that the fraction of interdunes increases northward up to a latitude of ???14??. In general, scattering from the subsurface (volume scattering and surface scattering from buried interfaces) makes interdunal regions brighter than the dunes. The observed latitudinal trend may therefore also be partially caused by a gradual thinning of the interdunal sand cover or surrounding sand sheets to the north, thus allowing wave penetration in the underlying

  2. Status of the Signals of Opportunity Airborne Demonstrator (SoOp-AD)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrison, Jim; Lin, Yao-Cheng; Piepmeier, Jeff; Knuble, Joe; Hersey, Ken; Du Toit, Cornelus; Joseph, Alicia; Deshpande, Manohar; Alikakos, George; O'Brien, Steve; Katzberg, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Root zone soil moisture (RZSM) is not directly measured by any current satellite instrument, despite its importance as a key link between surface hydrology and deeper processes. Presently, model assimilation of surface measurements or indirect estimates using other methods must be used to estimate this value. Signals of Opportunity (SoOp) methods, exploiting reflected P- and S-band communication satellite signals, have many of the benefits of both active and passive microwave remote sensing. Reutilization of active transmitters, with forward-scattering geometry, presents a strong reflected signal even at orbital altitudes. Microwave radiometry is advantageous as it measures emissivity, which is directly related to dielectric constant and sensitive to water content of soil. Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is used in P-band (400 MHz) for soil moisture and biomass, but faces issues in obtaining permission to transmit due to spectrum regulations, particularly over North America and Europe. A primary advantage of SAR is excellent spatial resolution. Signals-of-opportunity (SoOp) reflectometry provides a good compromise between radiometry and SAR by providing decent sensitivity and special resolution for RZSM measurements without issues of spectrum access. Further, a SoOp instrument would not be limited to operating in only a few protected frequencies and is also expected to have less susceptibility to radio-frequency interference (RFI). Although advantageous if available, SoOp techniques do not require the ability to demodulate or decode the communication signals. The SoOp instrument is receive only and therefore requires much less electrical power than a SAR and is more similar to a radiometer in receiver architecture. These unique features of SoOp circumvent past obstacles to a spaceborne P-band remote sensing mission and have the potential to enable new RZSM measurements that are not possible with present technology. We will present the latest development status of a

  3. Microwave emissions from snow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, A. T. C.

    1984-01-01

    The radiation emitted from dry and wet snowpack in the microwave region (1 to 100 GHz) is discussed and related to ground observations. Results from theoretical model calculations match the brightness temperatures obtained by truck mounted, airborne and spaceborne microwave sensor systems. Snow wetness and internal layer structure complicate the snow parameter retrieval algorithm. Further understanding of electromagnetic interaction with snowpack may eventually provide a technique to probe the internal snow properties

  4. Refinement of Phobos Ephemeris Using Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter Radiometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neumann, G. A.; Bills, B. G.; Smith, D. E.; Zuber, M. T.

    2004-01-01

    Radiometric observations from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) can be used to improve the ephemeris of Phobos, with particular interest in refining estimates of the secular acceleration due to tidal dissipation within Mars. We have searched the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) radiometry data for shadows cast by the moon Phobos, finding 7 such profiles during the Mapping and Extended Mission phases, and 5 during the last two years of radiometry operations. Preliminary data suggest that the motion of Phobos has advanced by one or more seconds beyond that predicted by the current ephemerides, and the advance has increased over the 5 years of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) operations.

  5. Atmospheric Compensation for Uplink Arrays via Radiometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nessel, James A.; Acosta, Roberto J.

    2010-01-01

    Uplink arrays for communications applications are gaining increased visibility within the NASA and military community due to the enhanced flexibility and reliability they provide. When compared with the conventional large, single aperture antennas currently comprising the Deep Space Network (DSN), for example, smaller aperture antenna arrays have the benefits of providing fault tolerance (reduced single-point failure), reduced maintenance cost, and enhanced capabilities such as electronic beam-steering and multi-beam operation. However, signal combining of antenna array elements spaced many wavelengths apart becomes problematic due to the inherent instability of earth's turbulent atmosphere, particularly at the frequencies of interest to the DSN (i.e., Ka-band). Degradation in the power combining of the individual elements comprising the array arises due to uncorrelated phase errors introduced as the signals propagate through the troposphere. It is well known that the fundamental source of this error is due to the inhomogeneous distribution of water vapor in the atmosphere [1]. Several techniques have been proposed to circumvent this issue, including the use of phase calibration towers and a moon bounce to generate a feedback loop which would provide a means of intermittent calibration of the system phase errors (thermal drifts, atmosphere) [2,3]. However, these techniques require repositioning of the antenna elements to perform this operation which ultimately results in reduced system availability. And, though they are sufficient for compensating for slow varying phase drifts, they are insufficient to compensate for faster varying phase errors, such as those introduced by the atmosphere. In this paper, preliminary radiometry and interferometry measurements collected by the NASA Glenn Research Center are analyzed and indicate that the use of optimized water vapor radiometers as a feedback system in a communications platform could provide the necessary atmospheric

  6. Microwave remote sensing laboratory design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, E.

    1979-01-01

    Application of active and passive microwave remote sensing to the study of ocean pollution is discussed. Previous research efforts, both in the field and in the laboratory were surveyed to derive guidance for the design of a laboratory program of research. The essential issues include: choice of radar or radiometry as the observational technique; choice of laboratory or field as the research site; choice of operating frequency; tank sizes and material; techniques for wave generation and appropriate wavelength spectrum; methods for controlling and disposing of pollutants used in the research; and pollutants other than oil which could or should be studied.

  7. Airborne Transparencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horne, Lois Thommason

    1984-01-01

    Starting from a science project on flight, art students discussed and investigated various means of moving in space. Then they made acetate illustrations which could be used as transparencies. The projection phenomenon made the illustrations look airborne. (CS)

  8. Microwave remote sensing from space for earth resource surveys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The concepts of radar remote sensing and microwave radiometry are discussed and their utility in earth resource sensing is examined. The direct relationship between the character of the remotely sensed data and the level of decision making for which the data are appropriate is considered. Applications of active and a passive microwave sensing covered include hydrology, land use, mapping, vegetation classification, environmental monitoring, coastal features and processes, geology, and ice and snow. Approved and proposed microwave sensors are described and the use of space shuttle as a development platform is evaluated.

  9. CoSSIR: A New Instrument for Exploring the Utility of Submillimeter-wave Radiometry for Earth Observation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Racette, P. E.; Wang, J. R.; Evans, K. F.; Momosmith, B.; Zhang, Z.

    2004-01-01

    The Conical Scanning Submillimeter-wave Imaging Radiometer (CoSSIR) has been developed to study the application of submillimeter-wave radiometry for remote sensing of cirrus clouds and humidity sounding. Measurements of the global distribution of ice cloud mass and particle size are important for understanding the Earth s energy budget and for evaluating global climate models. The spatial variability and the wide variety of cloud particle shapes and sizes make ice clouds particularly difficult to measure. Ice clouds are essentially undetectable at microwave frequencies due to the low dielectric of ice and small size of the particles relative to wavelength. However, submillimeter wavelengths demonstrate significant response to the presence of ice clouds thus this frequency regime is applicable to measuring ice clouds. Another potentially viable application for submillimeter-wave radiometry is humidity and temperature sounding. The principle of sounding at submillimeter wavelengths is similar to that at microwavelengths. Submillimeter-wave radiometry has the advantage of achieving finer spatial resolution using a smaller antenna aperture which is an important consideration for spaceborne observatories. Submillimeter-wave radiometry also offers the potential of sounding over land and as a surrogate measurement for precipitation. CoSSIR is a new instrument to explore these applications. The CoSSIR is designed to fly aboard the ER-2 aircraft and its modest size (approximately 100 kg) permits it to be configured for other aircraft. A dual-axes gimbals mechanism provides conical, across-track, and along-track scanning capability. In its present configuration CoSSIR has fifteen channels between 183 GHz and 640 GHz. Three channels are centered about the 183 GHz water vapor absorption line, four channels are centered about the 380 GHz water vapor absorption line, and three dual-polarized channels are centered about the 487 GHz oxygen absorption line. Two channels are located

  10. AIS-2 radiometry and a comparison of methods for the recovery of ground reflectance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conel, James E.; Green, Robert O.; Vane, Gregg; Bruegge, Carol J.; Alley, Ronald E.; Curtiss, Brian J.

    1987-01-01

    A field experiment and its results involving Airborne Imaging Spectrometer-2 data are described. The radiometry and spectral calibration of the instrument are critically examined in light of laboratory and field measurements. Three methods of compensating for the atmosphere in the search for ground reflectance are compared. It was found that laboratory determined responsitivities are 30 to 50 percent less than expected for conditions of the flight for both short and long wavelength observations. The combined system atmosphere surface signal to noise ratio, as indexed by the mean response divided by the standard deviation for selected areas, lies between 40 and 110, depending upon how scene averages are taken, and is 30 percent less for flight conditions than for laboratory. Atmospheric and surface variations may contribute to this difference. It is not possible to isolate instrument performance from the present data. As for methods of data reduction, the so-called scene average or log-residual method fails to recover any feature present in the surface reflectance, probably because of the extreme homogeneity of the scene.

  11. An airborne laser polarimeter system (ALPS) for terrestrial physics research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalshoven, James E., Jr.; Dabney, Philip W.

    1988-01-01

    The design of a multispectral polarized laser system for characterizing the depolarization properties of the earth's surface is described. Using a laser as the light source, this airborne system measures the Stokes parameters of the surface to simultaneously arrive at the polarization degree, azimuthal angle, and ellipticity for each wavelength. The technology will be studied for the feasibility of expansion of the sensor to do surface polarization imaging. The data will be used in support of solar polarization studies and to develop laser radiometry as a tool in environmental remote sensing.

  12. Military microwaves '82; Proceedings of the Conference, London, England, October 20-22, 1982

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topics discussed include passive and active IR systems, satellite microwave systems, IR components and subassemblies, microwave systems for RPVs and guided weapons, optical processing, and applications of high-speed digital processing. Consideration is also given to passive and active EW, navigation, millimeter-wave subassemblies, antennas and radomes, radiometry, adaptive antennas, and future prospects for the 1 GHz to 1 micron range. For individual items see A84-36227 to A84-36300

  13. Airborne Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    ATM (Airborne Thematic Mapper) was developed for NSTL (National Space Technology Companies) by Daedalus Company. It offers expanded capabilities for timely, accurate and cost effective identification of areas with prospecting potential. A related system is TIMS, Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner. Originating from Landsat 4, it is also used for agricultural studies, etc.

  14. Passive monitoring using a combination of focused and phased array radiometry: a simulation study.

    PubMed

    Farantatos, Panagiotis; Karanasiou, Irene S; Uzunoglu, Nikolaos

    2011-01-01

    Aim of this simulation study is to use the focusing properties of a conductive ellipsoidal reflector in conjunction with directive phased microwave antenna configurations in order to achieve brain passive monitoring with microwave radiometry. One of the main modules of the proposed setup which ensures the necessary beamforming and focusing on the body and brain areas of interest is a symmetrical axis ellipsoidal conductive wall cavity. The proposed system operates in an entirely non-invasive contactless manner providing temperature and/or conductivity variations monitoring and is designed to also provide hyperthermia treatment. In the present paper, the effect of the use of patch antennas as receiving antennas on the system's focusing properties and specifically the use of phased array setups to achieve scanning of the areas under measurement is investigated. Extensive simulations to compute the electric field distributions inside the whole ellipsoidal reflector and inside two types of human head models were carried out using single and two element microstrip patch antennas. The results show that clear focusing (creation of "hot spots") inside the head models is achieved at 1.53GHz. In the case of the two element antennas, the "hot spot" performs a linear scan around the brain area of interest while the phase difference of the two microstrip patch antennas significantly affects the way the scanning inside the head model is achieved. In the near future, phased array antennas with multiband and more elements will be used in order to enhance the system scanning properties toward the acquisition of tomography images without the need of subject movement.

  15. Passive monitoring using a combination of focused and phased array radiometry: a simulation study.

    PubMed

    Farantatos, Panagiotis; Karanasiou, Irene S; Uzunoglu, Nikolaos

    2011-01-01

    Aim of this simulation study is to use the focusing properties of a conductive ellipsoidal reflector in conjunction with directive phased microwave antenna configurations in order to achieve brain passive monitoring with microwave radiometry. One of the main modules of the proposed setup which ensures the necessary beamforming and focusing on the body and brain areas of interest is a symmetrical axis ellipsoidal conductive wall cavity. The proposed system operates in an entirely non-invasive contactless manner providing temperature and/or conductivity variations monitoring and is designed to also provide hyperthermia treatment. In the present paper, the effect of the use of patch antennas as receiving antennas on the system's focusing properties and specifically the use of phased array setups to achieve scanning of the areas under measurement is investigated. Extensive simulations to compute the electric field distributions inside the whole ellipsoidal reflector and inside two types of human head models were carried out using single and two element microstrip patch antennas. The results show that clear focusing (creation of "hot spots") inside the head models is achieved at 1.53GHz. In the case of the two element antennas, the "hot spot" performs a linear scan around the brain area of interest while the phase difference of the two microstrip patch antennas significantly affects the way the scanning inside the head model is achieved. In the near future, phased array antennas with multiband and more elements will be used in order to enhance the system scanning properties toward the acquisition of tomography images without the need of subject movement. PMID:22254358

  16. Kapitza thermal resistance studied by high-frequency photothermal radiometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horny, Nicolas; Chirtoc, Mihai; Fleming, Austin; Hamaoui, Georges; Ban, Heng

    2016-07-01

    Kapitza thermal resistance is determined using high-frequency photothermal radiometry (PTR) extended for modulation up to 10 MHz. Interfaces between 50 nm thick titanium coatings and silicon or stainless steel substrates are studied. In the used configuration, the PTR signal is not sensitive to the thermal conductivity of the film nor to its optical absorption coefficient, thus the Kapitza resistance is directly determined from single thermal parameter fits. Results of thermal resistances show the significant influence of the nature of the substrate, as well as of the presence of free electrons at the interface.

  17. FOREWORD: New Developments and Applications in Optical Radiometry IV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guenther, B.

    1993-01-01

    The Proceedings published in this special issue of Metrologia are from New Developments and Applications in Optical Radiometry IV, also known as the NEWRAD '92 Conference. The conference was held from 5 7 October 1992 in Baltimore, Maryland, USA, and was organized through the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. The 1992 Conference was the fourth in a series of occasional international meetings held to integrate the activities of the space radiometry community with those of the laboratory metrology community. The location of Maryland was chosen to bring the meeting back to the hemisphere of the Americas where the first of the series was held. NASA/Goddard was chosen as the sponsoring organization for this meeting because of the number and diversity of space measurement programmes which are managed there, and because of its proximity to the United States National Institute of Standards and Technology. The general organization of the meeting included sessions on the Earth Observing System (which I chaired), the Shuttle Atlas I Mission and UV Calibrations (chaired by E Hilsenrath, NASA/Goddard), Cryogenic Radiometry (N Fox, NPL), Detector Radiometry (T Quinn, BIPM), Space-based Applications (J Metzdorf, PTB) and Ground-based Applications (C Cromer, NIST). Thirty-eight papers were presented orally, and poster sessions were also provided. Most of the presentations are represented in these Proceedings. The fifth meeting in this occasional series is scheduled for 19 21 September 1994 in Berlin. The Conference institutional host is the PTB, and the convener is Dr Joachim Fischer, Secretary. The success of the meeting derived principally from the individual contributions of the presenters and the interest and attention of all the participants. The success of these Proceedings is attributable to the individual authors, the guest editors and the referees of the papers. Each paper was subjected to a critical

  18. Vesicoureteral reflux in children: a phantom study of microwave heating and radiometric thermometry of pediatric bladder.

    PubMed

    Birkelund, Yngve; Klemetsen, Øystein; Jacobsen, Svein K; Arunachalam, Kavitha; Maccarini, Paolo; Stauffer, Paul R

    2011-11-01

    We have investigated the use of microwave heating and radiometry to safely heat urine inside a pediatric bladder. The medical application for this research is to create a safe and reliable method to detect vesicoureteral reflux, a pediatric disorder, where urine flow is reversed and flows from the bladder back up into the kidney. Using fat and muscle tissue models, we have performed both experimental and numerical simulations of a pediatric bladder model using planar dual concentric conductor microstrip antennas at 915 MHz for microwave heating. A planar elliptical antenna connected to a 500 MHz bandwidth microwave radiometer centered at 3.5 GHz was used for noninvasive temperature measurement inside tissue. Temperatures were measured in the phantom models at points during the experiment with implanted fiberoptic sensors, and 2-D distributions in cut planes at depth in the phantom with an infrared camera at the end of the experiment. Cycling between 20 s with 20 Watts power for heating, and 10 s without power to allow for undisturbed microwave radiometry measurements, the experimental results show that the target tissue temperature inside the phantom increases fast and that the radiometer provides useful measurements of spatially averaged temperature of the illuminated volume. The presented numerical and experimental results show excellent concordance, which confirms that the proposed system for microwave heating and radiometry is applicable for safe and reliable heating of pediatric bladder.

  19. Vesicouretal reflux in children: A phantom study of microwave heating and radiometric thermometry of pediatric bladder

    PubMed Central

    Birkelund, Yngve; Klemetsen, Øystein; Jacobsen, Svein K.; Arunachalam, Kavitha; Maccarini, Paolo; Stauffer, Paul R.

    2012-01-01

    We have investigated the use of microwave heating and radiometry to safely heat urine inside a pediatric bladder. The medical application for this research is to create a safe and reliable method to detect vesicoureteral reflux, a pediatric disorder, where urine flow is reversed and flows from the bladder back up into the kidney. Using fat and muscle tissue models, we have performed both experimental and numerical simulations of a pediatric bladder model using planar dual concentric conductor microstrip antennas at 915 MHz for microwave heating. A planar elliptical antenna connected to a 500 MHz bandwidth microwave radiometer centered at 3.5 GHz was used for non-invasive temperature measurement inside tissue. Temperatures were measured in the phantom models at points during the experiment with implanted fiberoptic sensors, and 2D distributions in cut planes at depth in the phantom with an infrared camera at the end of the experiment. Cycling between 20 second with 20 Watts power for heating, and 10 seconds without power to allow for undisturbed microwave radiometry measurements, the experimental results show that the target tissue temperature inside the phantom increases fast and that the radiometer provides useful measurements of spatially averaged temperature of the illuminated volume. The presented numerical and experimental results show excellent concordance, which confirms that the proposed system for microwave heating and radiometry is applicable for safe and reliable heating of pediatric bladder. PMID:21900069

  20. Vesicoureteral reflux in children: a phantom study of microwave heating and radiometric thermometry of pediatric bladder.

    PubMed

    Birkelund, Yngve; Klemetsen, Øystein; Jacobsen, Svein K; Arunachalam, Kavitha; Maccarini, Paolo; Stauffer, Paul R

    2011-11-01

    We have investigated the use of microwave heating and radiometry to safely heat urine inside a pediatric bladder. The medical application for this research is to create a safe and reliable method to detect vesicoureteral reflux, a pediatric disorder, where urine flow is reversed and flows from the bladder back up into the kidney. Using fat and muscle tissue models, we have performed both experimental and numerical simulations of a pediatric bladder model using planar dual concentric conductor microstrip antennas at 915 MHz for microwave heating. A planar elliptical antenna connected to a 500 MHz bandwidth microwave radiometer centered at 3.5 GHz was used for noninvasive temperature measurement inside tissue. Temperatures were measured in the phantom models at points during the experiment with implanted fiberoptic sensors, and 2-D distributions in cut planes at depth in the phantom with an infrared camera at the end of the experiment. Cycling between 20 s with 20 Watts power for heating, and 10 s without power to allow for undisturbed microwave radiometry measurements, the experimental results show that the target tissue temperature inside the phantom increases fast and that the radiometer provides useful measurements of spatially averaged temperature of the illuminated volume. The presented numerical and experimental results show excellent concordance, which confirms that the proposed system for microwave heating and radiometry is applicable for safe and reliable heating of pediatric bladder. PMID:21900069

  1. Soil pore-gas sampling by photoacoustic radiometry

    SciTech Connect

    Sollid, J.E.

    1994-11-01

    Concentrations of volatile organics in a soil pore-gas plume were measured using a commercially available multigas monitor. The monitor is a photoacoustic radiometer (PAR) controlled by an on-board, programmable microprocessor. The measurements determine the extent and location of the vapor plume in the subsurface. At least twelve wells surrounding the sources are measured quarterly. The sources are located in former liquid chemical waste disposal pits and shafts at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The primary constituents of the plume are 1,1,1 trichloroethane (TCA), trichloroethene (TCE), and tetrachloroethene or perchloroethene or perchloroethene (PCE). Four quarters of data are presented for TCA. All were used primarily as solvents and degreasers. Previously the composition of the vapor plume was determined by Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometer GCMS methods. Photoacoustic radiometry and gas chromatography are discussed giving the advantages and disadvantages of each method, although in this program they are basically complementary. Gas chromatography is a more qualitative method to determine which analytes are present and the approximate concentration. Photoacoustic radiometry, to function well, requires foreknowledge of constituents and serves best to determine how much is present. Measurements are quicker and more direct with photoacoustic methods. Once the constituents to be measured are known, the cost to monitor is much less using photoacoustics, and the results are available more quickly.

  2. NORSEX 1979 microwave remote sensing data report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hennigar, H. F.; Schaffner, S. K.

    1982-01-01

    Airborne microwave remote sensing measurements obtained by NASA Langley Research Center in support of the 1979 Norwegian Remote Sensing Experiment (NORSEX) are summarized. The objectives of NORSEX were to investigate the capabilities of an active/passive microwave system to measure ice concentration and type in the vicinity of the marginal ice zone near Svalbard, Norway and to apply microwave techniques to the investigation of a thermal oceanic front near Bear Island, Norway. The instruments used during NORSEX include the stepped frequency microwave radiometer, airborne microwave scatterometer, precision radiation thermometer and metric aerial photography. The data are inventoried, summarized, and presented in a user-friendly format. Data summaries are presented as time-history plots which indicate when and where data were obtained as well as the sensor configuration. All data are available on nine-track computer tapes in card-image format upon request to the NASA Langley Technical Library.

  3. A radiometry protocol for UVGI fixtures using a moving-mirror type gonioradiometer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, John; Levin, Robert; Angelo, Robert; Vincent, Richard; Brickner, Philip; Ngai, Peter; Nardell, Edward A

    2012-01-01

    Ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI), 254 nm UV-C, is increasingly used as an infection control strategy to reduce the spread of airborne pathogens such as tuberculosis (TB), influenza viruses, and measles. With the appearance of multidrug-resistant TB and emerging infectious disease such as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and H1N1 influenza viruses, engineering controls using 254 nm UV-C lamps within specialized luminaires, herein designated UVGI fixtures, are being installed in high-risk settings such as homeless shelters, hospitals, jails and prisons, and schools. Studies have established that a relatively uniform spatial distribution of UV-C in the upper room can effectively cleanse the air of aerosolized pathogens. However, for planning purposes, the placement of multiple UVGI fixtures in a space, to achieve uniformity of UV-C energy distribution using currently available lighting software, is not yet practical because no industry-wide standard method exists for radiometric measurement of commercial UVGI fixtures. In this article, standard methods for photometry and reporting of general fluorescent lighting luminaire photometric data are adopted to provide UVGI fixture spatial emission distribution data in an electronic file format. The ultimate expectation of the authors is that the results will lead to a software program for fixture placement, comparable to and as easy to use as the corresponding software used for general interior lighting applications. To accomplish this goal, a radiometry measurement system is developed to obtain the radiant intensity distributions of UVGI fixtures in a three-dimensional space. This system includes a moving-mirror Type C goniometer, a mirror, a radiometer, a desktop computer, the mechanical control hardware, and the data acquisition/presentation software. Repeated measurements were made on each of three exemplary UVGI fixtures, and measurement variation did not exceed ± 2.0%.

  4. Calibration, Sensor Model Improvements and Uncertainty Budget of the Airborne Imaging Spectrometer APEX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hueni, A.

    2015-12-01

    ESA's Airborne Imaging Spectrometer APEX (Airborne Prism Experiment) was developed under the PRODEX (PROgramme de Développement d'EXpériences scientifiques) program by a Swiss-Belgian consortium and entered its operational phase at the end of 2010 (Schaepman et al., 2015). Work on the sensor model has been carried out extensively within the framework of European Metrology Research Program as part of the Metrology for Earth Observation and Climate (MetEOC and MetEOC2). The focus has been to improve laboratory calibration procedures in order to reduce uncertainties, to establish a laboratory uncertainty budget and to upgrade the sensor model to compensate for sensor specific biases. The updated sensor model relies largely on data collected during dedicated characterisation experiments in the APEX calibration home base but includes airborne data as well where the simulation of environmental conditions in the given laboratory setup was not feasible. The additions to the model deal with artefacts caused by environmental changes and electronic features, namely the impact of ambient air pressure changes on the radiometry in combination with dichroic coatings, influences of external air temperatures and consequently instrument baffle temperatures on the radiometry, and electronic anomalies causing radiometric errors in the four shortwave infrared detector readout blocks. Many of these resolved issues might be expected to be present in other imaging spectrometers to some degree or in some variation. Consequently, the work clearly shows the difficulties of extending a laboratory-based uncertainty to data collected under in-flight conditions. The results are hence not only of interest to the calibration scientist but also to the spectroscopy end user, in particular when commercial sensor systems are used for data collection and relevant sensor characteristic information tends to be sparse. Schaepman, et al, 2015. Advanced radiometry measurements and Earth science

  5. Hand-held radiometry: A set of notes developed for use at the Workshop of Hand-held radiometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, R. D.; Pinter, P. J., Jr.; Reginato, R. J.; Idso, S. B. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    A set of notes was developed to aid the beginner in hand-held radiometry. The electromagnetic spectrum is reviewed, and pertinent terms are defined. View areas of multiband radiometers are developed to show the areas of coincidence of adjacent bands. The amounts of plant cover seen by radiometers having different fields of view are described. Vegetation indices are derived and discussed. Response functions of several radiometers are shown and applied to spectrometer data taken over 12 wheat plots, to provide a comparison of instruments and bands within and among instruments. The calculation of solar time is reviewed and applied to the calculation of the local time of LANDSAT satellite overpasses for any particular location in the Northern Hemisphere. The use and misuse of hand-held infrared thermometers are discussed, and a procedure for photographic determination of plant cover is described. Some suggestions are offered concerning procedures to be followed when collecting hand-held spectral and thermal data. A list of references pertinent to hand-held radiometry is included.

  6. Directional Radiometry and Radiative Transfer: the Convoluted Path From Centuries-old Phenomenology to Physical Optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mishchenko, Michael I.

    2014-01-01

    This Essay traces the centuries-long history of the phenomenological disciplines of directional radiometry and radiative transfer in turbid media, discusses their fundamental weaknesses, and outlines the convoluted process of their conversion into legitimate branches of physical optics.

  7. Infrared photothermal radiometry of deep subsurface defects in semiconductor materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez, M. E.; Garcia, J. A.; Mandelis, A.

    2003-01-01

    Photothermal radiometry (PTR) signals obtained with a highly focused laser beam, were used to obtain amplitude and phase PTR two-dimensional and three-dimensional images of a high-resistivity Si wafer with a mechanical damage on the backsurface, probed from the front (intact) surface. The frequency chosen was 5 kHz, corresponding to an optimal phase resolution of the defect. It is shown that the position of the underlying damage is well resolved in both images, with the phase image showing the expected higher sensitivity in terms of a greater extent of the damage region compared to the amplitude image. The results indicate that the change in carrier lifetime is the major contrast mechanism which can thus be calibrated and labeled as a free-carrier recombination lifetime image (under the same surface recombination conditions).

  8. Fiscal Year 2005 Solar Radiometry and Metrology Task Accomplishments

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, D.; Andreas, A.; Reda, I.; Gotseff, P.; Wilcox, S.; Stoffel, T.; Anderberg, M.; Kay, B.; Bowen, A.

    2005-11-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Solar Radiometry and Metrology task provides traceable optical radiometric calibrations and measurements to photovoltaic (PV) researchers and the PV industry. Traceability of NREL solar radiometer calibrations to the World Radiometric Reference (WRR) was accomplished during Pyrheliometer Comparison at NREL in October 2004. Ten spectral and more than 200 broadband radiometers for solar measurements were calibrated this year. We measured detailed spectral distributions of the NREL and PV industry Pulsed Solar Simulators and are analyzing the influence of environmental variables on radiometer uncertainty. New systems for indoor and outdoor solar radiometer calibrations and ultraviolet (UV) spectral measurements and UV radiometer calibrations were purchased and tested. Optical metrology functions support the NREL Measurement and Characterization Task effort for ISO 17025 accreditation of NREL Solar Reference Cell Calibrations and have been integrated into the NREL quality system and audited for ISO17025 compliance.

  9. Refined treatment of single-edge diffraction effects in radiometry.

    PubMed

    Shirley, Eric L

    2016-08-01

    This work treats diffraction corrections in radiometry for cases of point and extended sources in cylindrically symmetrical three-element systems. It considers diffraction effects for spectral power and total power in cases of Planck sources. It improves upon an earlier work by the author by giving a simpler rendering of leading terms in asymptotic expansions for diffraction effects and reliable estimates for the remainders. This work also demonstrates a framework for accelerating the treatment of extended sources and simplifying the calculation of diffraction effects over a range of wavelengths. This is especially important in the short-wavelength region, where dense sampling of wavelength values is in principle necessitated by the rapidly oscillatory behavior of diffraction effects as a function of wavelength. We demonstrate the methodology's efficacy in two radiometric applications. PMID:27505649

  10. Quantifying Boundary Layer Water Vapor with Near-Infrared and Microwave Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millan Valle, L. F.; Lebsock, M. D.; Fishbein, E.; Kalmus, P.; Teixeira, J.

    2015-12-01

    This study investigates the synergy of collocated microwave radiometry and near-infrared imagery to estimate the planetary boundary layer water vapor. Microwave radiometry provides the total column water vapor, while the near-infrared imagery provides the water vapor above the cloud layers. The difference between the two gives the vapor between the surface and the cloud top, which may be interpreted as the boundary layer water vapor. In combining the two data sets, we apply several flags as well as proximity tests to remove pixels with high clouds and / or intrapixel heterogeneity. Comparisons against radiosondes (MAGIC, VOCALS-REX, etc) and ECMWF reanalysis data demonstrate the robustness of these boundary layer water vapor estimates. It is shown that the measured AMSR-MODIS boundary layer water vapor can be analyzed using sea surface temperature and cloud top pressure information by employing simple equations based on the Clausius-Clapeyron relationship.

  11. Microwave Radiometry for Non-Invasive Detection of Vesicoureteral Reflux (VUR) Following Bladder Warming.

    PubMed

    Stauffer, Paul R; Maccarini, Paolo F; Arunachalam, Kavitha; De Luca, Valeria; Salahi, Sara; Boico, Alina; Klemetsen, Oystein; Birkelund, Yngve; Jacobsen, Svein K; Bardati, Fernando; Tognolatti, Piero; Snow, Brent

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) is a serious health problem leading to renal scarring in children. Current VUR detection involves traumatic x-ray imaging of kidneys following injection of contrast agent into bladder via invasive Foley catheter. We present an alternative non-invasive approach for detecting VUR by radiometric monitoring of kidney temperature while gently warming the bladder. METHODS: We report the design and testing of: i) 915MHz square slot antenna array for heating bladder, ii) EMI-shielded log spiral microstrip receive antenna, iii) high-sensitivity 1.375GHz total power radiometer, iv) power modulation approach to increase urine temperature relative to overlying perfused tissues, and v) invivo porcine experiments characterizing bladder heating and radiometric temperature of aaline filled 30mL balloon "kidney" implanted 3-4cm deep in thorax and varied 2-6°C from core temperature. RESULTS: SAR distributions are presented for two novel antennas designed to heat bladder and monitor deep kidney temperatures radiometrically. We demonstrate the ability to heat 180mL saline in in vivo porcine bladder to 40-44°C while maintaining overlying tissues <38°C using time-modulated square slot antennas coupled to the abdomen with room temperature water pad. Pathologic evaluations confirmed lack of acute thermal damage in pelvic tissues for up to three 20min bladder heat exposures. The radiometer clearly recorded 2-6°C changes of 30mL "kidney" targets at depth in 34°C invivo pig thorax. CONCLUSION: A 915MHz antenna array can gently warm in vivo pig bladder without toxicity while a 1.375GHz radiometer with log spiral receive antenna detects ≥2°C rise in 30mL "urine" located 3-4cm deep in thorax, demonstrating more than sufficient sensitivity to detect Grade 4-5 reflux of warmed urine for non-invasive detection of VUR. PMID:22866211

  12. Microwave Radiometry for Non-Invasive Detection of Vesicoureteral Reflux (VUR) Following Bladder Warming.

    PubMed

    Stauffer, Paul R; Maccarini, Paolo F; Arunachalam, Kavitha; De Luca, Valeria; Salahi, Sara; Boico, Alina; Klemetsen, Oystein; Birkelund, Yngve; Jacobsen, Svein K; Bardati, Fernando; Tognolatti, Piero; Snow, Brent

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) is a serious health problem leading to renal scarring in children. Current VUR detection involves traumatic x-ray imaging of kidneys following injection of contrast agent into bladder via invasive Foley catheter. We present an alternative non-invasive approach for detecting VUR by radiometric monitoring of kidney temperature while gently warming the bladder. METHODS: We report the design and testing of: i) 915MHz square slot antenna array for heating bladder, ii) EMI-shielded log spiral microstrip receive antenna, iii) high-sensitivity 1.375GHz total power radiometer, iv) power modulation approach to increase urine temperature relative to overlying perfused tissues, and v) invivo porcine experiments characterizing bladder heating and radiometric temperature of aaline filled 30mL balloon "kidney" implanted 3-4cm deep in thorax and varied 2-6°C from core temperature. RESULTS: SAR distributions are presented for two novel antennas designed to heat bladder and monitor deep kidney temperatures radiometrically. We demonstrate the ability to heat 180mL saline in in vivo porcine bladder to 40-44°C while maintaining overlying tissues <38°C using time-modulated square slot antennas coupled to the abdomen with room temperature water pad. Pathologic evaluations confirmed lack of acute thermal damage in pelvic tissues for up to three 20min bladder heat exposures. The radiometer clearly recorded 2-6°C changes of 30mL "kidney" targets at depth in 34°C invivo pig thorax. CONCLUSION: A 915MHz antenna array can gently warm in vivo pig bladder without toxicity while a 1.375GHz radiometer with log spiral receive antenna detects ≥2°C rise in 30mL "urine" located 3-4cm deep in thorax, demonstrating more than sufficient sensitivity to detect Grade 4-5 reflux of warmed urine for non-invasive detection of VUR.

  13. Microwave radiometry for non-invasive detection of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) following bladder warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stauffer, Paul R.; Maccarini, Paolo F.; Arunachalam, Kavitha; De Luca, Valeria; Salahi, Sara; Boico, Alina; Klemetsen, Oystein; Birkelund, Yngve; Jacobsen, Svein K.; Bardati, Fernando; Tognolotti, Piero; Snow, Brent

    2011-03-01

    Background: Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) is a serious health problem leading to renal scarring in children. Current VUR detection involves traumatic x-ray imaging of kidneys following injection of contrast agent into bladder via invasive Foley catheter. We present an alternative non-invasive approach for detecting VUR by radiometric monitoring of kidney temperature while gently warming the bladder. Methods: We report the design and testing of: i) 915MHz square slot antenna array for heating bladder, ii) EMI-shielded log spiral microstrip receive antenna, iii) high-sensitivity 1.375GHz total power radiometer, iv) power modulation approach to increase urine temperature relative to overlying perfused tissues, and v) invivo porcine experiments characterizing bladder heating and radiometric temperature of aaline filled 30mL balloon "kidney" implanted 3-4cm deep in thorax and varied 2-6°C from core temperature. Results: SAR distributions are presented for two novel antennas designed to heat bladder and monitor deep kidney temperatures radiometrically. We demonstrate the ability to heat 180mL saline in in vivo porcine bladder to 40-44°C while maintaining overlying tissues <38°C using time-modulated square slot antennas coupled to the abdomen with room temperature water pad. Pathologic evaluations confirmed lack of acute thermal damage in pelvic tissues for up to three 20min bladder heat exposures. The radiometer clearly recorded 2-6°C changes of 30mL "kidney" targets at depth in 34°C invivo pig thorax. Conclusion: A 915MHz antenna array can gently warm in vivo pig bladder without toxicity while a 1.375GHz radiometer with log spiral receive antenna detects >=2°C rise in 30mL "urine" located 3-4cm deep in thorax, demonstrating more than sufficient sensitivity to detect Grade 4-5 reflux of warmed urine for non-invasive detection of VUR.

  14. Microwave Radiometry for Non-Invasive Detection of Vesicoureteral Reflux (VUR) Following Bladder Warming

    PubMed Central

    Stauffer, Paul R.; Maccarini, Paolo F.; Arunachalam, Kavitha; De Luca, Valeria; Salahi, Sara; Boico, Alina; Klemetsen, Oystein; Birkelund, Yngve; Jacobsen, Svein K.; Bardati, Fernando; Tognolatti, Piero; Snow, Brent

    2012-01-01

    Background Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) is a serious health problem leading to renal scarring in children. Current VUR detection involves traumatic x-ray imaging of kidneys following injection of contrast agent into bladder via invasive Foley catheter. We present an alternative non-invasive approach for detecting VUR by radiometric monitoring of kidney temperature while gently warming the bladder. Methods We report the design and testing of: i) 915MHz square slot antenna array for heating bladder, ii) EMI-shielded log spiral microstrip receive antenna, iii) high-sensitivity 1.375GHz total power radiometer, iv) power modulation approach to increase urine temperature relative to overlying perfused tissues, and v) invivo porcine experiments characterizing bladder heating and radiometric temperature of aaline filled 30mL balloon “kidney” implanted 3–4cm deep in thorax and varied 2–6°C from core temperature. Results SAR distributions are presented for two novel antennas designed to heat bladder and monitor deep kidney temperatures radiometrically. We demonstrate the ability to heat 180mL saline in in vivo porcine bladder to 40–44°C while maintaining overlying tissues <38°C using time-modulated square slot antennas coupled to the abdomen with room temperature water pad. Pathologic evaluations confirmed lack of acute thermal damage in pelvic tissues for up to three 20min bladder heat exposures. The radiometer clearly recorded 2–6°C changes of 30mL “kidney” targets at depth in 34°C invivo pig thorax. Conclusion A 915MHz antenna array can gently warm in vivo pig bladder without toxicity while a 1.375GHz radiometer with log spiral receive antenna detects ≥2°C rise in 30mL “urine” located 3–4cm deep in thorax, demonstrating more than sufficient sensitivity to detect Grade 4–5 reflux of warmed urine for non-invasive detection of VUR. PMID:22866211

  15. Investigation of Allan variance for determining noise spectral forms with application to microwave radiometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanley, William D.

    1994-01-01

    An investigation of the Allan variance method as a possible means for characterizing fluctuations in radiometric noise diodes has been performed. The goal is to separate fluctuation components into white noise, flicker noise, and random-walk noise. The primary means is by discrete-time processing, and the study focused primarily on the digital processes involved. Noise satisfying the requirements was generated by direct convolution, fast Fourier transformation (FFT) processing in the time domain, and FFT processing in the frequency domain. Some of the numerous results obtained are presented along with the programs used in the study.

  16. Microwave and gamma radiation observations of soil moisture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmugge, T. J.; Njoku, E. G.; Peck, E.; Ulaby, F. T.

    1979-01-01

    The unique dielectric properties of water at microwave wavelengths afford the possibility for remotely sensing the moisture content in the surface layer of the soil. The surface emissivity and reflectivity for the soils at these wavelengths are strong functions of its moisture content. The changes in emissivity can be observed by passive microwave techniques (radiometry) and the change in reflectivity can be observed by active microwave techniques (radar). The difference in the natural terrestrial gamma ray flux measured for wet and dry soil may be used to determine soil moisture. The presence of water moisture in the soil causes an effective increase in soil density, resulting in an increased attenuation of the gamma flux for wet soil and a corresponding lower flux above the ground surface.

  17. Microwave Ovens

    MedlinePlus

    ... Required Reports for the Microwave Oven Manufacturers or Industry Exemption from Certain Reporting and Recordkeeping Requirements for ... Microwave Ovens (PDF) (PDF - 2.5MB) FDA eSubmitter Industry Guidance - Documents of Interest Notifications to Industry (PDF ...

  18. Tower-Perturbation Measurements in Above-Water Radiometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooker, Stanford B. (Editor); Firestone, Elaine R. (Editor); Zibordi, Giuseppe; Berthon, Jean-Francois; DAlimonte, Davide; vanderLinde, Dirk; Brown, James W.

    2003-01-01

    This report documents the scientific activities which took place during June 2001 and June 2002 on the Acqua Alta Oceanographic Tower (AAOT) in the northern Adriatic Sea. The primary objective of these field campaigns was to quantify the effect of platform perturbations (principally reflections of sunlight onto the sea surface) on above-water measurements of water-leaving radiances. The deployment goals documented in this report were to: a) collect an extensive and simultaneous set of above- and in-water optical measurements under predominantly clear-sky conditions; b) establish the vertical properties of the water column using a variety of ancillary measurements, many of which were taken coincidently with the optical measurements; and c) determine the bulk properties of the environment using a diversity of atmospheric, biogeochemical, and meteorological techniques. A preliminary assessment of the data collected during the two field campaigns shows the perturbation in above-water radiometry caused by a large offshore structure is very similar to that caused by a large research vessel.

  19. The Traceable Radiometry Underpinning Terrestrial and Helio Studies (TRUTHS) mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Paul D.; Fox, Nigel P.; Lobb, Daniel; Friend, Jonathan

    2015-10-01

    TRUTHS (Traceable Radiometry Underpinning Terrestrial- and Helio-Studies) is a proposed small satellite mission to enable a space-based climate observing system capable of delivering data of the quality needed to provide the information needed by policy makers to make robust mitigation and adaptation decisions. This is achieved by embedding trust and confidence in the data and derived information (tied to international standards) from both its own measurements and by upgrading the performance and interoperability of other EO platforms, such as the Sentinels by in-flight reference calibration. TRUTHS would provide measurements of incoming (total and spectrally resolved) and global reflected spectrally and spatially (50 m) solar radiation at the 0.3% uncertainty level. These fundamental climate data products can be convolved into the building blocks for many ECVs and EO applications as envisaged by the 2015 ESA science strategy; in a cost effective manner. We describe the scientific drivers for the TRUTHS mission and how the requirements for the climate benchmarking and cross-calibration reference sensor are both complementary and simply implemented, with a small additional complexity on top of heritage calibration schemes. The calibration scheme components and the route to SI-traceable Earth-reflected solar spectral radiance and solar spectral irradiance are described.

  20. History of Solar Radiometry and the World Radiometric Reference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fröhlich, C.

    1991-01-01

    The history of solar radiometry since the first pyrheliometer of Pouillet is presented. After the invention of the Ångström and the Smithsonian pyrheliometers around the turn of this century two different "scales" were in use. Comparisons with absolute cavity radiometers developed in America and Europe have been performed since about 1910 which show remarkably accurate measurements in terms of the SI units. However, these results have never been accepted and several rules have been established to reference radiation measurements in the meteorological community and to remedy the unsatisfactory fact of having different "scales". Unfortunately none of these rules led to a reference close to the SI units of irradiance, confusing the issue even more. With the advent of modern absolute radiometers in the late 1960s the situation improved and led to the definition of the World Radiometric Reference in use by the meteorological community since 1981. This reference has an estimated accuracy of 0,3% and guarantees the worldwide homogeneity of radiation measurements within 0,1% precision.

  1. Volatile organic compound monitoring by photo acoustic radiometry

    SciTech Connect

    Sollid, J.E.; Trujillo, V.L.; Limback, S.P.; Woloshun, K.A.

    1995-12-01

    Two methods for sampling and analyzing volatile organics in subsurface pore gas were developed for use at the Hazardous Waste Disposal Site at Los Alamos National Laboratory. One is Thermal Desorption Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (TDGCMS), the other is Photoacoustic Radiometry (PAR). Presented here are two years worth of experience and lessons learned as both techniques matured. The sampling technique is equally as important as the analysis method. PAR is a nondispersive infrared technique utilizing band pass filters in the region from 1 to 15 {mu}m. A commercial instrument, the Model 1302 Multigas Analyzer, made by Bruel and Kjaer, was adapted for field use. To use the PAR there must be some a priori knowledge of the constellation of analytes to be measured. The TDGCMS method is sensitive to 50 analytes. Hence TDGCMS is used in an initial survey of the site to determine what compounds are present and at what concentration. Once the major constituents of the soil-gas vapor plume are known the PAR can be configured to monitor for the five analytes of most interest. The PAR can analyse a sample in minutes, while in the field. The PAR is also quite precise in controlled situations.

  2. Accurate Radiometry from Space: An Essential Tool for Climate Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, Nigel; Kaiser-Weiss, Andrea; Schmutz, Werner; Thome, Kurtis; Young, Dave; Wielicki, Bruce; Winkler, Rainer; Woolliams, Emma

    2011-01-01

    The Earth s climate is undoubtedly changing; however, the time scale, consequences and causal attribution remain the subject of significant debate and uncertainty. Detection of subtle indicators from a background of natural variability requires measurements over a time base of decades. This places severe demands on the instrumentation used, requiring measurements of sufficient accuracy and sensitivity that can allow reliable judgements to be made decades apart. The International System of Units (SI) and the network of National Metrology Institutes were developed to address such requirements. However, ensuring and maintaining SI traceability of sufficient accuracy in instruments orbiting the Earth presents a significant new challenge to the metrology community. This paper highlights some key measurands and applications driving the uncertainty demand of the climate community in the solar reflective domain, e.g. solar irradiances and reflectances/radiances of the Earth. It discusses how meeting these uncertainties facilitate significant improvement in the forecasting abilities of climate models. After discussing the current state of the art, it describes a new satellite mission, called TRUTHS, which enables, for the first time, high-accuracy SI traceability to be established in orbit. The direct use of a primary standard and replication of the terrestrial traceability chain extends the SI into space, in effect realizing a metrology laboratory in space . Keywords: climate change; Earth observation; satellites; radiometry; solar irradiance

  3. Photothermal radiometry monitoring of light curing in resins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zambrano-Arjona, M. A.; Medina-Esquivel, R.; Alvarado-Gil, J. J.

    2007-10-01

    Real time measurement of thermal diffusivity during the evolution of the light curing process in dental resins is reported using photothermal radiometry. The curing is induced by a non-modulated blue light beam, and at the same time, a modulated red laser beam is sent onto the sample, generating a train of thermal waves that produce modulated infrared radiation. The monitoring of this radiation permits to follow the time evolution of the process. The methodology is applied to two different commercially available light curing resin-based composites. In all cases thermal diffusivity follows a first order kinetics with similar stabilization characteristic times. Analysis of this kinetics permits to exhibit the close relationship of increase in thermal diffusivity with the decrease in monomer concentration and extension of the polymerization in the resin, induced by the curing light. It is also shown that the configuration in which the resin is illuminated by the modulated laser can be the basis for the development of an in situ technique for the determination of the degree of curing.

  4. RFI Risk Reduction Activities Using New Goddard Digital Radiometry Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradley, Damon; Kim, Ed; Young, Peter; Miles, Lynn; Wong, Mark; Morris, Joel

    2012-01-01

    The Goddard Radio-Frequency Explorer (GREX) is the latest fast-sampling radiometer digital back-end processor that will be used for radiometry and radio-frequency interference (RFI) surveying at Goddard Space Flight Center. The system is compact and deployable, with a mass of about 40 kilograms. It is intended to be flown on aircraft. GREX is compatible with almost any aircraft, including P-3, twin otter, C-23, C-130, G3, and G5 types. At a minimum, the system can function as a clone of the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) ground-based development unit [1], or can be a completely independent system that is interfaced to any radiometer, provided that frequency shifting to GREX's intermediate frequency is performed prior to sampling. If the radiometer RF is less than 200MHz, then the band can be sampled and acquired directly by the system. A key feature of GREX is its ability to simultaneously sample two polarization channels simultaneously at up to 400MSPS, 14-bit resolution each. The sampled signals can be recorded continuously to a 23 TB solid-state RAID storage array. Data captures can be analyzed offline using the supercomputing facilities at Goddard Space Flight Center. In addition, various Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) - amenable radiometer signal processing and RFI detection algorithms can be implemented directly on the GREX system because it includes a high-capacity Xilinx Virtex-5 FPGA prototyping system that is user customizable.

  5. Airborne laser sensors and integrated systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabatini, Roberto; Richardson, Mark A.; Gardi, Alessandro; Ramasamy, Subramanian

    2015-11-01

    The underlying principles and technologies enabling the design and operation of airborne laser sensors are introduced and a detailed review of state-of-the-art avionic systems for civil and military applications is presented. Airborne lasers including Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR), Laser Range Finders (LRF), and Laser Weapon Systems (LWS) are extensively used today and new promising technologies are being explored. Most laser systems are active devices that operate in a manner very similar to microwave radars but at much higher frequencies (e.g., LIDAR and LRF). Other devices (e.g., laser target designators and beam-riders) are used to precisely direct Laser Guided Weapons (LGW) against ground targets. The integration of both functions is often encountered in modern military avionics navigation-attack systems. The beneficial effects of airborne lasers including the use of smaller components and remarkable angular resolution have resulted in a host of manned and unmanned aircraft applications. On the other hand, laser sensors performance are much more sensitive to the vagaries of the atmosphere and are thus generally restricted to shorter ranges than microwave systems. Hence it is of paramount importance to analyse the performance of laser sensors and systems in various weather and environmental conditions. Additionally, it is important to define airborne laser safety criteria, since several systems currently in service operate in the near infrared with considerable risk for the naked human eye. Therefore, appropriate methods for predicting and evaluating the performance of infrared laser sensors/systems are presented, taking into account laser safety issues. For aircraft experimental activities with laser systems, it is essential to define test requirements taking into account the specific conditions for operational employment of the systems in the intended scenarios and to verify the performance in realistic environments at the test ranges. To support the

  6. Determination of combustion gas temperatures by infrared radiometry in sooting and nonsooting flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyons, Valerie J.; Gracia-Salcedo, Carmen M.

    1989-01-01

    Flame temperatures in nonsooting and sooting environments were successfully measured by radiometry for pre-mixed propane-oxygen laminar flames stabilized on a water-cooled, porous sintered-bronze burner. The measured temperatures in the nonsooting flames were compared with fine-wire thermocouple measurements. The results show excellent agreement below 1700 K, and when the thermocouple measurements were corrected for radiation effects, the agreement was good for even higher temperatures. The benefits of radiometry are: (1) the flow is not disturbed by an intruding probe, (2) calibration is easily done using a blackbody source, and (3) measurements can be made even with soot present. The theory involved in the radiometry measurements and the energy balance calculations used to correct the thermocouple temperature measurements are discussed.

  7. Modulated IR radiometry for determining thermal properties and basic characteristics of titanium thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Apreutesei, Mihai; Lopes, Claudia; Vaz, Filipe; Macedo, Francisco; Borges, Joel

    2014-07-01

    Titanium thin films of different thicknesses were prepared by direct current magnetron sputtering to study modulated infrared (IR) radiometry as a tool for analyzing film thickness. Thickness was varied by regularly increasing the deposition time, keeping all the other deposition parameters constant. The influence of film thickness on morphological, structural, and electrical properties of the titanium coatings also was investigated. The experimental results revealed a systematic grain growth with increasing film thickness, along with enhanced film crystallinity, which led to increased electrical conductivity. Using the results obtained by modulated IR radiometry, the thickness of each thin film was calculated. These thickness values were then compared with the coating thickness measurements obtained by scanning electron microscopy. The values confirmed the reliability of modulated IR radiometry as an analysis tool for thin films and coatings, and for determining thicknesses in the micrometer range, in particular.

  8. Measurement of Low Amounts of Precipitable Water Vapor Using Ground-Based Millimeterwave Radiometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Racette, Paul E.; Westwater, Ed R.; Han, Yong; Gasiewski, Albin J.; Klein, Marian; Cimini, Domenico; Jones, David C.; Manning, WIll; Kim, Edward J.; Wang, James R.

    2003-01-01

    Extremely dry conditions characterized by amounts of precipitable water vapor (PWV) as as 1-2 mm commonly occur in high-latitude regions during the winter months. While such atmospheres carry only a few percent of the latent heat energy compared to tropical atmospheres, the effects of low vapor amounts on the polar radiation budget - both directly through modulation of longwave radiation and indirectly through the formation of clouds - are considerable. Accurate measurements of precipitable water vapor (PWV) during such dry conditions are needed to improve polar radiation models for use in understanding and predicting change in the climatically sensitive polar regions. To this end, the strong water vapor absorption at 183.310 GHz provides a unique means of measuring low amounts of PWV. Weighting function analysis, forward model calculations based upon a 7-year radiosonde dataset, and retrieval simulations consistently predict that radiometric measurements made using several millimeter-wavelength (MMW) channels near the 183 GHz line, together with established microwave (MW) measurements at the 22.235 GHz water vapor line and -3 1 GHz atmospheric absorption window can be used to determine within 5% uncertainty the full range of PWV expected in the Arctic. This unique collective capability stands in spite of accuracy limitations stemming from uncertainties due to the sensitivity of the vertical distribution of temperature and water vapor at MMW channels. In this study the potential of MMW radiometry using the 183 GHz line for measuring low amounts of PWV is demonstrated both theoretically and experimentally. The study uses data obtained during March 1999 as part of an experiment conducted at the Department of Energy s Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) near Barrow, Alaska. Several radiometers from both NOAA and NASA were deployed during the experiment to provide the first combined MMW and MW ground-based data set during dry arctic conditions. Single-channel retrievals

  9. Deep subsurface electronic defect image contrast and resolution amplification in Si wafers using infrared photocarrier radiometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batista, Jerias; Mandelis, Andreas; Shaughnessy, Derrick; Li, Bincheng

    2004-09-01

    A photocarrier radiometry technique using a secondary subband-gap dc light source is introduced, along with the applications to deep subsurface electronic defect analysis in Si wafers. It is shown that the use of a dc light source, in addition to the modulated laser beam, drastically enhances the potential of the technique in resolving low-level damage otherwise virtually indistinguishable by conventional photothermal techniques. Using this methodology, the overall contrast enhancement was about 386% for amplitude and 5586% in phase over conventional photocarrier radiometry.

  10. Traceable Radiometry Underpinning Terrestrial- and Helio- Studies (TRUTHS)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fox, N.; Aiken, J.; Barnett, J.J.; Briottet, X.; Carvell, R.; Frohlich, C.; Groom, S.B.; Hagolle, O.; Haigh, J.D.; Kieffer, H.H.; Lean, J.; Pollock, D.B.; Quinn, T.; Sandford, M.C.W.; Schaepman, M.; Shine, K.P.; Schmutz, W.K.; Teillet, P.M.; Thome, K.J.; Verstraete, M.M.; Zalewski, E.; ,

    2002-01-01

    The Traceable Radiometry Underpinning Terrestrial- and Helio- Studies (TRUTHS) mission offers a novel approach to the provision of key scientific data with unprecedented radiometric accuracy for Earth Observation (EO) and solar studies, which will also establish well-calibrated reference targets/standards to support other EO missions. This paper will present the TRUTHS mission and its objectives. TRUTHS will be the first satellite mission to calibrate its instrumentation directly to SI in orbit, overcoming the usual uncertainties associated with drifts of sensor gain and spectral shape by using an electrical rather than an optical standard as the basis of its calibration. The range of instruments flown as part of the payload will also provide accurate input data to improve atmospheric radiative transfer codes by anchoring boundary conditions, through simultaneous measurements of aerosols, particulates and radiances at various heights. Therefore, TRUTHS will significantly improve the performance and accuracy of Earth observation missions with broad global or operational aims, as well as more dedicated missions. The provision of reference standards will also improve synergy between missions by reducing errors due to different calibration biases and offer cost reductions for future missions by reducing the demands for on-board calibration systems. Such improvements are important for the future success of strategies such as Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) and the implementation and monitoring of international treaties such as the Kyoto Protocol. TRUTHS will achieve these aims by measuring the geophysical variables of solar and lunar irradiance, together with both polarised and un-polarised spectral radiance of the Moon, and the Earth and its atmosphere.

  11. Traceable Radiometry Underpinning Terrestrial - and Helio- Studies (TRUTHS)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fox, N.; Aiken, J.; Barnett, J.J.; Briottet, X.; Carvell, R.; Frohlich, C.; Groom, S.B.; Hagolle, O.; Haigh, J.D.; Kieffer, H.H.; Lean, J.; Pollock, D.B.; Quinn, T.; Sandford, M.C.W.; Schaepman, M.; Shine, K.P.; Schmutz, W.K.; Teillet, P.M.; Thome, K.J.; Verstraete, M.M.; Zalewski, E.

    2003-01-01

    The Traceable Radiometry Underpinning Terrestrial- and Helio- Studies (TRUTHS) mission offers a novel approach to the provision of key scientific data with unprecedented radiometric accuracy for Earth Observation (EO) and solar studies, which will also establish well-calibrated reference targets/standards to support other EO missions. This paper presents the TRUTHS mission and its objectives. TRUTHS will be the first satellite mission to calibrate its EO instrumentation directly to SI in orbit, overcoming the usual uncertainties associated with drifts of sensor gain and spectral shape by using an electrical rather than an optical standard as the basis of its calibration. The range of instruments flown as part of the payload will also provide accurate input data to improve atmospheric radiative transfer codes by anchoring boundary conditions, through simultaneous measurements of aerosols, particulates and radiances at various heights. Therefore, TRUTHS will significantly improve the performance and accuracy of EO missions with broad global or operational aims, as well as more dedicated missions. The provision of reference standards will also improve synergy between missions by reducing errors due to different calibration biases and offer cost reductions for future missions by reducing the demands for on-board calibration systems. Such improvements are important for the future success of strategies such as Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) and the implementation and monitoring of international treaties such as the Kyoto Protocol. TRUTHS will achieve these aims by measuring the geophysical variables of solar and lunar irradiance, together with both polarised and unpolarised spectral radiance of the Moon, Earth and its atmosphere. Published by Elsevier Ltd of behalf of COSPAR.

  12. Traceable radiometry underpinning terrestrial- and helio-studies (TRUTHS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, N.; Aiken, J.; Barnett, J. J.; Briottet, X.; Carvell, R.; Frohlich, C.; Groom, S. B.; Hagolle, O.; Haigh, J. D.; Kieffer, H. H.; Lean, J.; Pollock, D. B.; Quinn, T.; Sandford, M. C. W.; Schaepman, M.; Shine, K. P.; Schmutz, W. K.; Teillet, P. M.; Thome, K. J.; Verstraete, M. M.; Zalewski, E.

    2003-12-01

    The Traceable Radiometry Underpinning Terrestrial- and Helio- Studies (TRUTHS) mission offers a novel approach to the provision of key scientific data with unprecedented radiometric accuracy for Earth Observation (EO) and solar studies, which will also establish well-calibrated reference targets/standards to support other EO missions. This paper presents the TRUTHS mission and its objectives. TRUTHS will be the first satellite mission to calibrate its EO instrumentation directly to Sl in orbit, overcoming the usual uncertainties associated with drifts of sensor gain and spectral shape by using an electrical rather than an optical standard as the basis of its calibration. The range of instruments flown as part of the payload will also provide accurate input data to improve atmospheric radiative transfer codes by anchoring boundary conditions, through simultaneous measurements of aerosols, particulates and radiances at various heights. Therefore, TRUTHS will significantly improve the performance and accuracy of EO missions with broad global or operational aims, as well as more dedicated missions. The provision of reference standards will also improve synergy between missions by reducing errors due to different calibration biases and offer cost reductions for future missions by reducing the demands for on-board calibration systems. Such improvements are important for the future success of strategies such as Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) and the implementation and monitoring of international treaties such as the Kyoto Protocol. TRUTHS will achieve these aims by measuring the geophysical variables of solar and lunar irradiance, together with both polarised and unpolarised spectral radiance of the Moon, Earth and its atmosphere. Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of COSPAR.

  13. Greenland 1979 microwave remote sensing data catalog report, 14-15 October 1979

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hennigar, H. F.; Hirstein, W. S.; Schaffner, S. K.; Delnore, V. E.; Grantham, W. L.

    1983-01-01

    Microwave remote sensing measurements were cataloged for active and passive instruments in support of the 1979 Greenland Remote Sensing Experiment. Instruments used in this field experiment include the stepped frequency microwave radiometer (4 to 8 GHz) and the airborne microwave scatterometer (14.6 GHz). The microwave signature data are inventoried and cataloged in a user friendly format and are available on 9 track computer compatible tapes upon request.

  14. Microwave detector

    DOEpatents

    Meldner, Heiner W.; Cusson, Ronald Y.; Johnson, Ray M.

    1986-01-01

    A microwave detector (10) is provided for measuring the envelope shape of a microwave pulse comprised of high-frequency oscillations. A biased ferrite (26, 28) produces a magnetization field flux that links a B-dot loop (16, 20). The magnetic field of the microwave pulse participates in the formation of the magnetization field flux. High-frequency insensitive means (18, 22) are provided for measuring electric voltage or current induced in the B-dot loop. The recorded output of the detector is proportional to the time derivative of the square of the envelope shape of the microwave pulse.

  15. Microwave detector

    DOEpatents

    Meldner, H.W.; Cusson, R.Y.; Johnson, R.M.

    1985-02-08

    A microwave detector is provided for measuring the envelope shape of a microwave pulse comprised of high-frequency oscillations. A biased ferrite produces a magnetization field flux that links a B-dot loop. The magnetic field of the microwave pulse participates in the formation of the magnetization field flux. High-frequency insensitive means are provided for measuring electric voltage or current induced in the B-dot loop. The recorded output of the detector is proportional to the time derivative of the square of the envelope shape of the microwave pulse.

  16. First results from ground-based CO2 remote sounding using high-resolution thermal IR laser heterodyne radiometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, Alex; Huebner, Marko; Macleod, Neil; Weidmann, Damien

    2016-04-01

    Over the course of the last decade, the Laser Spectroscopy Group at RAL Space has considerably furthered the passive remote sensing technique of thermal IR Laser Heterodyne Radiometry (LHR), and applied it successfully to the ground-based sounding of atmospheric profiles of a variety of trace gases, including methane. LHR is underpinned by coherent detection technology and ideally shot noise-limited, which can significantly enhance the signal-to-noise ratio of acquired atmospheric spectra over conventional direct detection spectrometers when high spectral (>500,000 resolving power) and high spatial resolutions are needed. These benefits allow probing optimized narrow spectral windows (1 cm-1) with full absorption lineshape information, useful for trace gas vertical profiling. Furthermore, LHR has a high potential for miniaturization into a rugged, unprecedentedly compact package, through hollow waveguide optical integration, facilitating its deployment in ground-based observation networks, as well as on a variety of airborne and spaceborne platforms, whilst retaining its high specifications. This makes LHR well-suited to the remote sounding of key greenhouse gases, in particular carbon dioxide, as observations with high precision and accuracy are crucial to discriminate trends and small variations over a substantial background concentration, and in order to contribute to flux estimations in top-down carbon cycle inversion approaches and anthropogenic emission monitoring. Here, we present a new optical bench-based LHR prototype that has been specifically built to demonstrate CO2 sounding in the thermal IR. The instrument has been coupled to a new permanently installed solar tracker to take a long-term measurement series in solar occultation mode, and to assess the performance of the instrument. We discuss its theoretical performance modelled using an Observation System Simulator, and showcase first results from a 6 months' archive, with observations undergoing

  17. Titan's surface from the Cassini RADAR radiometry data during SAR mode

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paganelli, F.; Janssen, M.A.; Lopes, R.M.; Stofan, E.; Wall, S.D.; Lorenz, R.D.; Lunine, J.I.; Kirk, R.L.; Roth, L.; Elachi, C.

    2008-01-01

    We present initial results on the calibration and interpretation of the high-resolution radiometry data acquired during the Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) mode (SAR-radiometry) of the Cassini Radar Mapper during its first five flybys of Saturn's moon Titan. We construct maps of the brightness temperature at the 2-cm wavelength coincident with SAR swath imaging. A preliminary radiometry calibration shows that brightness temperature in these maps varies from 64 to 89 K. Surface features and physical properties derived from the SAR-radiometry maps and SAR imaging are strongly correlated; in general, we find that surface features with high radar reflectivity are associated with radiometrically cold regions, while surface features with low radar reflectivity correlate with radiometrically warm regions. We examined scatterplots of the normalized radar cross-section ??0 versus brightness temperature, outlining signatures that characterize various terrains and surface features. The results indicate that volume scattering is important in many areas of Titan's surface, particularly Xanadu, while other areas exhibit complex brightness temperature variations consistent with variable slopes or surface material and compositional properties. ?? 2007.

  18. Pushbroom radiometry and its potential using large space antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrington, R. F.; Keafer, L. S., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Electromagnetic radiation is emitted by matter which was heated to a temperature above absolute zero. The amount of blackbody radiation in the microwave frequency region of interest (10 to the 8th power f 10 to the 10th power Hz) emitted by matter can be determined from the Rayleigh-Jeans approximation to Planck's Radiation Law. The amount of electromagnetic radiation from matter which is not a blackbody is a function of the emissivity of the material. The emissivity is a factor less than unity and is a function of several parameters including chemical composition, temperature, frequency, surface characteristics, and viewing angle. A radiometer is an instrument which detects and provides a measure of the electromagnetic radiation being emitted by a material or surface area within the radiometer's antenna beamwidth. Microwave radiometers provide the capability for remote measurements from Earth orbits of geophysical parameters. These measurements will require the use of a microwave imaging radiometer using a large aperture deployable antenna with multiple beams in a pushbroom mode to achieve high spatial resolution and large swath width.

  19. Microwave Dielectric Properties of Soil and Vegetation and Their Estimation From Spaceborne Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dobson, M. Craig; McDonald, Kyle C.

    1996-01-01

    This paper is largely tutorial in nature and provides an overview of the microwave dielectric properties of certain natural terrestrial media (soils and vegetation) and recent results in estimating these properties remotely from airborne and orbital synthetic aperture radar (SAR).

  20. Infrared fiber optic temperature monitoring of biological tissues heated in a microwave oven

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belotserkovsky, Edward; Ashkenasy, Y.; Shenfeld, Ofer; Drizlikh, S.; Zur, Albert; Katzir, Abraham

    1993-05-01

    The heating of tissue by microwave radiation has attained a place of importance in various medical fields such as the treatment of malignancies, urinary retention and hypothermia. Accurate temperature measurements in these treated tissues is important for treatment planning and for the control of the heating process. It is also important to be able to measure spacial temperature distribution in the tissues because they are heated in a non uniform way by the microwave radiation. Fiber optic radiometry makes possible accurate temperature measurement in the presence of microwave radiation and does not require contact with the tissue. Using a IR silver halide fiber optic radiometric temperature sensor we obtained accurate temperature measurements of tissues heated by microwave, enabling us to control the heating process in all regions of the tissue. We also performed temperature mapping of the heated tissues and demonstrated the non-uniform temperature distributions in them.

  1. Efficient Structure Resonance Energy Transfer from Microwaves to Confined Acoustic Vibrations in Viruses.

    PubMed

    Yang, Szu-Chi; Lin, Huan-Chun; Liu, Tzu-Ming; Lu, Jen-Tang; Hung, Wan-Ting; Huang, Yu-Ru; Tsai, Yi-Chun; Kao, Chuan-Liang; Chen, Shih-Yuan; Sun, Chi-Kuang

    2015-12-09

    Virus is known to resonate in the confined-acoustic dipolar mode with microwave of the same frequency. However this effect was not considered in previous virus-microwave interaction studies and microwave-based virus epidemic prevention. Here we show that this structure-resonant energy transfer effect from microwaves to virus can be efficient enough so that airborne virus was inactivated with reasonable microwave power density safe for the open public. We demonstrate this effect by measuring the residual viral infectivity of influenza A virus after illuminating microwaves with different frequencies and powers. We also established a theoretical model to estimate the microwaves power threshold for virus inactivation and good agreement with experiments was obtained. Such structure-resonant energy transfer induced inactivation is mainly through physically fracturing the virus structure, which was confirmed by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. These results provide a pathway toward establishing a new epidemic prevention strategy in open public for airborne virus.

  2. Efficient Structure Resonance Energy Transfer from Microwaves to Confined Acoustic Vibrations in Viruses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Szu-Chi; Lin, Huan-Chun; Liu, Tzu-Ming; Lu, Jen-Tang; Hung, Wan-Ting; Huang, Yu-Ru; Tsai, Yi-Chun; Kao, Chuan-Liang; Chen, Shih-Yuan; Sun, Chi-Kuang

    2015-12-01

    Virus is known to resonate in the confined-acoustic dipolar mode with microwave of the same frequency. However this effect was not considered in previous virus-microwave interaction studies and microwave-based virus epidemic prevention. Here we show that this structure-resonant energy transfer effect from microwaves to virus can be efficient enough so that airborne virus was inactivated with reasonable microwave power density safe for the open public. We demonstrate this effect by measuring the residual viral infectivity of influenza A virus after illuminating microwaves with different frequencies and powers. We also established a theoretical model to estimate the microwaves power threshold for virus inactivation and good agreement with experiments was obtained. Such structure-resonant energy transfer induced inactivation is mainly through physically fracturing the virus structure, which was confirmed by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. These results provide a pathway toward establishing a new epidemic prevention strategy in open public for airborne virus.

  3. A study program on large aperture electronic scanning phased array antennas for the shuttle imaging microwave system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Fundamental phased array theory and performance parameters are discussed in terms of their application to microwave radiometry, and four scanning phased arrays representing current examples of state-of-the-art phased array technology are evaluated for potential use as components of the multispectral antenna system for the space shuttle imaging microwave system (SIMS). A discussion of problem areas, both in performance and fabrication is included, with extrapolations of performance characteristics for phased array antennas of increased sizes up to 20 m by 20 m. The possibility of interlacing two or more phased arrays to achieve a multifrequency aperture is considered, and, finally, a specific antenna system is recommended for use with SIMS.

  4. Microwave detector

    SciTech Connect

    Meldner, H.W.; Cusson, R.Y.; Johnson, R.M.

    1986-12-02

    A detector is described for measuring the envelope shape of a microwave pulse comprised of high-frequency oscillations, the detector comprising: a B-dot loop linking the magnetic field of the microwave pulse; a biased ferrite, that produces a magnetization field flux that links the B-dot loop. The ferrite is positioned within the B-dot loop so that the magnetic field of the microwave pulse interacts with the ferrite and thereby participates in the formation of the magnetization field flux; and high-frequency insensitive means for measuring electric voltage or current induced in the B-dot loop.

  5. Mars Airborne Prospecting Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinkraus, J. M.; Wright, M. W.; Rheingans, B. E.; Steinkraus, D. E.; George, W. P.; Aljabri, A.; Hall, J. L.; Scott, D. C.

    2012-06-01

    One novel approach towards addressing the need for innovative instrumentation and investigation approaches is the integration of a suite of four spectrometer systems to form the Mars Airborne Prospecting Spectrometers (MAPS) for prospecting on Mars.

  6. Microwave generator

    DOEpatents

    Kwan, T.J.T.; Snell, C.M.

    1987-03-31

    A microwave generator is provided for generating microwaves substantially from virtual cathode oscillation. Electrons are emitted from a cathode and accelerated to an anode which is spaced apart from the cathode. The anode has an annular slit there through effective to form the virtual cathode. The anode is at least one range thickness relative to electrons reflecting from the virtual cathode. A magnet is provided to produce an optimum magnetic field having the field strength effective to form an annular beam from the emitted electrons in substantial alignment with the annular anode slit. The magnetic field, however, does permit the reflected electrons to axially diverge from the annular beam. The reflected electrons are absorbed by the anode in returning to the real cathode, such that substantially no reflexing electrons occur. The resulting microwaves are produced with a single dominant mode and are substantially monochromatic relative to conventional virtual cathode microwave generators. 6 figs.

  7. Microwave annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yao-Jen; Cho, T.-C.; Chuang, S.-S.; Hsueh, F.-K.; Lu, Y.-L.; Sung, P.-J.; Chen, S.-J.; Lo, C.-H.; Lai, C.-H.; Current, Michael I.; Tseng, T.-Y.; Chao, T.-S.; Yang, F.-L.

    2012-11-01

    Microwave annealing of dopants in Si has been reported to produce highly activated junctions at temperatures far below those needed for comparable results using conventional thermal processes. However the details of the kinetics and mechanisms for microwave annealing are far from well understood. Comparisons between MWA and RTA of dopants in implanted Si has been investigated to produce highly activated junctions. First, As, 31P, and BF 2 implants in Si substrate were annealed by MWA at temperatures below 550 °C.

  8. Dielectric constants of soils at microwave frequencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geiger, F. E.; Williams, D.

    1972-01-01

    A knowledge of the complex dielectric constant of soils is essential in the interpretation of microwave airborne radiometer data of the earth's surface. Measurements were made at 37 GHz on various soils from the Phoenix, Ariz., area. Extensive data have been obtained for dry soil and soil with water content in the range from 0.6 to 35 percent by dry weight. Measurements were made in a two arm microwave bridge and results were corrected for reflections at the sample interfaces by solution of the parallel dielectric plate problem. The maximum dielectric constants are about a factor of 3 lower than those reported for similar soils at X-band frequencies.

  9. Wavelength-modulated differential photothermal radiometry: Theory and experimental applications to glucose detection in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandelis, Andreas; Guo, Xinxin

    2011-10-01

    A differential photothermal radiometry method, wavelength-modulated differential photothermal radiometry (WM-DPTR), has been developed theoretically and experimentally for noninvasive, noncontact biological analyte detection, such as blood glucose monitoring. WM-DPTR features analyte specificity and sensitivity by combining laser excitation by two out-of-phase modulated beams at wavelengths near the peak and the base line of a prominent and isolated mid-IR analyte absorption band (here the carbon-oxygen-carbon bond in the pyran ring of the glucose molecule). A theoretical photothermal model of WM-DPTR signal generation and detection has been developed. Simulation results on water-glucose phantoms with the human blood range (0-300 mg/dl) glucose concentration demonstrated high sensitivity and resolution to meet wide clinical detection requirements. The model has also been validated by experimental data of the glucose-water system obtained using WM-DPTR.

  10. EBE/ECE Radiometry on COMPASS Tokamak - Design and First Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Zajac, J.; Preinhaelter, J.; Urban, J.; Sestak, D.; Nanobashvili, S.

    2009-11-26

    COMPASS tokamak has started its operation in IPP Prague recently. A new 16-channel radiometry system has been designed and manufactured for the electron Bernstein/cyclotron wave emission (EBE/ECE) experiments. For EBE studies, based on EBW-X-O mode conversion, radiometry in Ka-band (26.5-40 GHz will be used which corresponds to the fundamental EC harmonics for the low-B{sub t}(B{sub o}{approx}1.2 T) tokamak operation. Alternatively, an E-band antenna and front-end (60-73.5/76.5-90 GHz) will be used with the same 16-channel receiver for the conventional second harmonics ECE diagnostics. In the contribution the design of the system is described as well as the initial testing measurements on tokamak COMPASS.

  11. Depth profiling of laser-heated chromophores in biological tissues by pulsed photothermal radiometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milner, Thomas E.; Goodman, Dennis M.; Tanenbaum, B. Samuel; Nelson, J. Stuart

    1995-07-01

    A solution method is proposed to the inverse problem of determining the unknown initial temperature distribution in a laser-exposed test material from measurements provided by infrared radiometry. A Fredholm integral equation of the first kind is derived that relates the temporal evolution of the infrared signal amplitude to the unknown initial temperature distribution in the exposed test material. The singular-value decomposition is used to demonstrate the severely ill-posed nature of the derived inverse problem.

  12. Remote sensing of the atmosphere of Mars using infrared pressure modulation and filter radiometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccleese, D. J.; Schofield, J. T.; Zurek, R. W.; Martonchik, J. V.; Haskins, R. D.

    1986-01-01

    The study of the atmosphere and climate of Mars will soon be advanced considerably by the Mars Observer mission. This paper describes the atmospheric sounder for this mission and how it will measure key Martian atmospheric parameters using IR gas correlation and filter radiometry. The instrument now under development will provide high-resolution vertical profiles of atmospheric temperature, pressure, water vapor, dust, and clouds using limb sounding techniques as well as nadir observations of surface thermal properties and polar radiative balance.

  13. Approach of the measurement of thermal diffusivity of mural paintings by front face photothermal radiometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Candoré, Jean Charles; Bodnar, J. L.; Detalle, Vincent; Remy, B.; Grossel, Philippe

    2010-03-01

    In this paper we present, in an experimental way, the possibilities of front face photothermal radiometry to measure, in situ, the longitudinal thermal diffusivity of mural paintings. First, we present the principle of the method of measurement. Then, we present the experimental device implemented for the study. Finally, we show, using the experimental study of a plaster sample, the photothermal method allows in a particular case, a good approximation of the parameter longitudinal thermal diffusivity.

  14. Titan's surface from Cassini RADAR SAR and high resolution radiometry data of the first five flybys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paganelli, F.; Janssen, M.A.; Stiles, B.; West, R.; Lorenz, R.D.; Lunine, J.I.; Wall, S.D.; Callahan, P.; Lopes, R.M.; Stofan, E.; Kirk, R.L.; Johnson, W.T.K.; Roth, L.; Elachi, C.; ,

    2007-01-01

    The first five Titan flybys with Cassini's Synthetic Aperture RADAR (SAR) and radiometer are examined with emphasis on the calibration and interpretation of the high-resolution radiometry data acquired during the SAR mode (SAR-radiometry). Maps of the 2-cm wavelength brightness temperature are obtained coincident with the SAR swath imaging, with spatial resolution approaching 6 km. A preliminary calibration shows that brightness temperature in these maps varies from 64 to 89 K. Surface features and physical properties derived from the SAR-radiometry maps and SAR imaging are strongly correlated; in general, we find that surface features with high radar reflectivity are associated with radiometrically cold regions, while surface features with low radar reflectivity correlate with radiometrically warm regions. We examined scatterplots of the normalized radar cross-section ??0 versus brightness temperature, finding differing signatures that characterize various terrains and surface features. Implications for the physical and compositional properties of these features are discussed. The results indicate that volume scattering is important in many areas of Titan's surface, particularly Xanadu, while other areas exhibit complex brightness temperature variations consistent with variable slopes or surface material and compositional properties. ?? 2007 Elsevier Inc.

  15. Titan's Surface from Cassini RADAR SAR and High Resolution Radiometry Data of the First Five Flybys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paganelli, F.; Janssen, M. A.; Stiles, B.; West, R.; Lorenz, R. D.; Lunine, J. I.; Wall, S. D.; Callahan, P.; Lopes, R. M.; Stofan, E.; Kirk, R. L.; Johnson, W. T. K.; Roth, L.; Elachi, C.

    2007-01-01

    The first five Titan flybys with Cassini's Synthetic Aperture RADAR (SAR) and radiometer are examined with emphasis on the calibration and interpretation of the high-resolution radiometry data acquired during the SAR mode (SAR-radiometry). Maps of the 2-cm wavelength brightness temperature are obtained coincident with the SAR swath imaging, with spatial resolution approaching 6 km. A preliminary calibration shows that brightness temperature in these maps varies from 64 to 89 K. Surface features and physical properties derived from the SAR-radiometry maps and SAR imaging are strongly correlated; in general, we find that surface features with high radar reflectivity are associated with radiometrically cold regions, while surface features with low radar reflectivity correlate with radiometrically warm regions. We examined scatterplots of the normalized radar cross-section sigma(exp o) versus brightness temperature, finding differing signatures that characterize various terrains and surface features. Implications for the physical and compositional properties of these features are discussed. The results indicate that volume scattering is important in many areas of Titan's surface, particularly Xanadu, while other areas exhibit complex brightness temperature variations consistent with variable slopes or surface material and compositional properties.

  16. L-band radiometry for sea ice applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heygster, G.; Hedricks, S.; Mills, P.; Kaleschke, L.; Stammer, D.; Tonboe, R.

    2009-04-01

    Although sea ice remote sensing has reached the level of operational exploitation with well established retrieval methods, several important tasks are still unsolved. In particular during freezing and melting periods with mixed ice and water surfaces, estimates of ice concentration with passive and active microwave sensors remain challenging. Newly formed thin ice is also hard to distinguish from open water with radiometers for frequencies above 8 GHz. The SMOS configuration (planned launch 2009) with a radiometer at 1.4 GHz is a promising technique to complement observations at higher microwave frequencies. ESA has initiated a project to investigate the possibilities for an additional Level-2 sea ice data product based on SMOS. In detail, the project objectives are (1) to model the L band emission of sea ice, and to assess the potential (2) to retrieve sea ice parameters, especially concentration and thickness, and (3) to use cold water regions for an external calibration of SMOS. Modelling of L band emission: Several models have are investigated. All of them work on the same basic principles and have a vertically-layered, plane-parallel geometry. They are comprised of three basic components: (1) effective permittivities are calculated for each layer based on ice bulk and micro-structural properties; (2) these are integrated across the total depth to derive emitted brightness temperature; (3) scattering terms can also be added because of the granular structure of ice and snow. MEMLS (Microwave Emission Model of Layered Snowpacks (Wiesmann and Matzler 1999)) is one such model that contains all three elements in a single Matlab program. In the absence of knowledge about the internal structure of the sea ice, three-layer (air, ice and water) dielectric slab models which take as input a single effective permittivity for the ice layer are appropriate. By ignoring scattering effects one can derive a simple analytic expression for a dielectric slab as shown by Apinis and

  17. On Antenna-Architectures for Sensitive Radiometry to Support Oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van't Klooster, Cornelis; Cappellin, Cecilia; Pontoppidan, Knud; Heighwood Nielsen, Per; Skou, Niels; Ivashina, Marianna; Iupikov, Oleg; Ihle, Alexander

    and resolution enhancement. Instrument sensors (read: antennas) have to be absolutely accurate, where in comparison telecommunication scenarios require a link budget to be fulfilled. The developments and availability of RF front-end and Analogue to Digital circuitry are an important aspect here, enabling the use of focal plane arrays with several hundreds of elements, as already ongoing within the radio-astronomy studies for the square kilometer arrays. Terrestrial applications in low power circuitries are ongoing in various domains, be it for local networks, sensor networks or other (various, IMEC, Fraunhofer, etc.). Further spin-in is expected. One could consider the resulting microwave push-broom antenna architecture in fact as a sensitive multi-frequency microwave camera, operating in frequency bands of interest. We are investigating currently the pushbroom scenario for 2, possibly 3 bands, from C-band up to Ku-band.

  18. Microwave furnace having microwave compatible dilatometer

    DOEpatents

    Kimrey, Jr., Harold D.; Janney, Mark A.; Ferber, Mattison K.

    1992-01-01

    An apparatus for measuring and monitoring a change in the dimension of a sample being heated by microwave energy is described. The apparatus comprises a microwave heating device for heating a sample by microwave energy, a microwave compatible dilatometer for measuring and monitoring a change in the dimension of the sample being heated by microwave energy without leaking microwaves out of the microwave heating device, and a temperature determination device for measuring and monitoring the temperature of the sample being heated by microwave energy.

  19. Microwave furnace having microwave compatible dilatometer

    DOEpatents

    Kimrey, H.D. Jr.; Janney, M.A.; Ferber, M.K.

    1992-03-24

    An apparatus for measuring and monitoring a change in the dimension of a sample being heated by microwave energy is described. The apparatus comprises a microwave heating device for heating a sample by microwave energy, a microwave compatible dilatometer for measuring and monitoring a change in the dimension of the sample being heated by microwave energy without leaking microwaves out of the microwave heating device, and a temperature determination device for measuring and monitoring the temperature of the sample being heated by microwave energy. 2 figs.

  20. Evaluation the microwave heating of spinel crystals in high-level waste glass

    SciTech Connect

    Christian, J. H.; Washington, A. L.

    2015-08-18

    In this report, the microwave heating of a crystal-free and a partially (24 wt%) trevorite-crystallized waste glass simulant were evaluated. The results show that a 500 mg piece of partially crystallized waste glass can be heated from room-temperature to above 1600 °C (as measured by infrared radiometry) within 2 minutes using a single mode, highly focused, 2.45 GHz microwave, operating at 300 W. X-ray diffraction measurements show that the partially crystallized glass experiences an 87 % reduction in trevorite following irradiation and thermal quenching. When a crystal-free analogue of the same waste glass simulant composition is exposed to the same microwave radiation it could not be heated above 450 °C regardless of the heating time.

  1. Data Management Challenges for Airborne NASA Earth Venture Sub-Orbital Investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyer, A.; Lindsley, C.; Wright, D.; Cook, R. B.; Santhana Vannan, S. K.

    2015-12-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) is developing technology infrastructure to archive airborne remote sensing observations from two of NASA's Earth Venture Sub-orbital Missions. The two missions are CARVE (Carbon in Arctic Reservoirs Vulnerability Experiment) and AirMOSS (Airborne Microwave Observatory of Subcanopy and Subsurface). These missions collected over 140 TB of data from extensive ground-based and airborne instruments. The metadata and documentation requirements necessary for proper archive and dissemination of such transect-based, and often 3-dimensional, airborne data are quite different from traditional field campaign data and satellite remote sensing data streams. Staff at the ORNL DAAC have developed a metadata and data infrastructure for airborne data that enables spatial or keyword-based search and discovery, integration of related satellite- or ground-based data sets, and subsetting and visualization tools for both CARVE and AirMOSS. Here we discuss challenges, progress, and lessons learned.

  2. Submm-Wave Radiometry for Cloud/Humidity/Precipitation Sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Dong L.

    2011-01-01

    Although active sensors can provide cloud profiles at good vertical resolution, clouds are often coupled with dynamics to form fast and organized structures. Lack of understanding of these organized systems leads to great challenge for numerical models. The deficiency is partly reflected, for example, in poorly modeled intraseasonal variations (e.g., MJD). Remote sensing clouds in the middle and upper troposphere has been challenging from space. Vis/IR sensors are sensitive to the topmost cloud layers whereas low-frequency MW techniques are sensitivity to liquid and precipitation at the bottom of cloud layers. The middle-level clouds, mostly in the ice phase, require a sensor that has moderate penetration and sensitivity to cloud scattering, in order to measure cloud water content. Sensors at submm wavelengths provide promising sensitivity and coverage with the spatial resolution needed to measure cloud water content floating in the upper air. In addition, submm-wave sensors are able to provide better measurements of upper-tropospheric humidity than traditional microwave instruments.

  3. Venus surface properties deduced from radar and radiometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, P. G.

    1989-01-01

    The brightness of surface features on side looking radar images of Venus is determined by many factors: the angles of incidence and reflection, polarization, surface geometry and composition, and so forth. The contribution from surface properties themselves can only be deduced by combining several types of measurement. For instance, without additional information, it is impossible to distinguish the effects of changes in surface roughness from those in dielectric constant. In common with the Moon and Mars, the surface of Venus appears to scatter radar waves in two ways: small-scale surface inhomogeneities, i.e., those smaller than the incident wavelength, depolarize and scatter the energy over a wide range of angles. The Pioneer Venus radar mapper experiment made three overlapping sets of measurements of the equatorial region of Venus from 15 deg S latitude to 45 deg N; the backscatter cross section at a range of incidence angles, the shape and intensity of radar echoes from the nadir, and the microwave brightness temperature of the surface. These techniques developed during the analysis of Pioneer Venus data will be used during the Magellan mission to extract measurements of surface slopes and dielectric constants over all areas covered by the SAR and altimeter antennae, with a resolution of about 10 km. A knowledge of the mechanisms that govern surface scattering will also be useful in the analysis of higher resolution side looking radar images, particularly in distinguishing the effects of changing roughness from those caused by a long range surface tilt or changing dielectric constant.

  4. Airborne data acquisition techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Arro, A.A.

    1980-01-01

    The introduction of standards on acceptable procedures for assessing building heat loss has created a dilemma for the contractor performing airborne thermographic surveys. These standards impose specifications on instrumentation, data acquisition, recording, interpretation, and presentation. Under the standard, the contractor has both the obligation of compliance and the requirement of offering his services at a reasonable price. This paper discusses the various aspects of data acquisition for airborne thermographic surveys and various techniques to reduce the costs of this operation. These techniques include the calculation of flight parameters for economical data acquisition, the selection and use of maps for mission planning, and the use of meteorological forecasts for flight scheduling and the actual execution of the mission. The proper consideration of these factors will result in a cost effective data acquisition and will place the contractor in a very competitive position in offering airborne thermographic survey services.

  5. Validation and Further Development of HUT Snow Emission Model for Satellite Microwave Radiometer Data Inversion and Assimilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulliainen, J.; Kontu, A.; Lemmetyinen, J.; Takala, M.; Luojus, K.

    2008-12-01

    Global mapping of terrestrial snow cover and sea ice is an important application area for space-borne microwave radiometry. The algorithms applied e.g. for estimating snow water equivalent (SWE) oare typically empirical formulas obtained by data delineation or by fitting a regression model to brightness temperatures simulated by a physical forward model. On the other hand, algorithms based on the inversion of a forward brightness temperature model have been also applied. In all cases, an essential factor determining the performance of inversion algorithms or giving information on the validity of empirical approaches is the accuracy of forward brightness temperature modelling. The techniques used for modeling the brightness temperature of snow pack are typically based on the radiative transfer equation. In semi-empirical approaches, some simplifications are made to avoid numerical integration, which enables the use of forward models e.g. in iterative inversion algorithms. Relevant semi- empirical models include the HUT snow emission model and the MEMLS model. They consider snow pack as a single layer (HUT model) or as a multi-layer structure (MEMLS). In practice, the use of any model with space-borne or airborne radiometer data requires that snow ground-interactions as well as influence of vegetation and atmosphere have to be considered. This significantly complicates the modeling task. The HUT snow emission model was developed in 1998 to describe the microwave brightness temperature of snow covered forested terrain. Revisions to improve the consideration of snow extinction coefficient have been made in recent years by different research groups. The model treats different emission contributions and their interactions with simple analytical formulas that are derived either through empirical or semi- theoretical considerations. As the model is relatively simple, it can be used for the inversion of space-borne data in the estimation of quantitative snow pack

  6. Active microwaves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, D.; Vidal-Madjar, D.

    1994-01-01

    Research on the use of active microwaves in remote sensing, presented during plenary and poster sessions, is summarized. The main highlights are: calibration techniques are well understood; innovative modeling approaches have been developed which increase active microwave applications (segmentation prior to model inversion, use of ERS-1 scatterometer, simulations); polarization angle and frequency diversity improves characterization of ice sheets, vegetation, and determination of soil moisture (X band sensor study); SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) interferometry potential is emerging; use of multiple sensors/extended spectral signatures is important (increase emphasis).

  7. Airborne oceanographic lidar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Specifications and preliminary design of an Airborne Oceanographic Lidar (AOL) system, which is to be constructed for installation and used on a NASA Wallops Flight Center (WFC) C-54 research aircraft, are reported. The AOL system is to provide an airborne facility for use by various government agencies to demonstrate the utility and practicality of hardware of this type in the wide area collection of oceanographic data on an operational basis. System measurement and performance requirements are presented, followed by a description of the conceptual system approach and the considerations attendant to its development. System performance calculations are addressed, and the system specifications and preliminary design are presented and discussed.

  8. Airborne rain mapping radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, W. J.; Parks, G. S.; Li, F. K.; Im, K. E.; Howard, R. J.

    1988-01-01

    An airborne scanning radar system for remote rain mapping is described. The airborne rain mapping radar is composed of two radar frequency channels at 13.8 and 24.1 GHz. The radar is proposed to scan its antenna beam over + or - 20 deg from the antenna boresight; have a swath width of 7 km; a horizontal spatial resolution at nadir of about 500 m; and a range resolution of 120 m. The radar is designed to be applicable for retrieving rainfall rates from 0.1-60 mm/hr at the earth's surface, and for measuring linear polarization signatures and raindrop's fall velocity.

  9. Real Time Monitoring of Flooding from Microwave Satellite Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galantowicz, John F.; Frey, Herb (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We have developed a new method for making high-resolution flood extent maps (e.g., at the 30-100 m scale of digital elevation models) in real-time from low-resolution (20-70 km) passive microwave observations. The method builds a "flood-potential" database from elevations and historic flood imagery and uses it to create a flood-extent map consistent with the observed open water fraction. Microwave radiometric measurements are useful for flood monitoring because they sense surface water in clear-or-cloudy conditions and can provide more timely data (e.g., compared to radars) from relatively wide swath widths and an increasing number of available platforms (DMSP, ADEOS-II, Terra, NPOESS, GPM). The chief disadvantages for flood mapping are the radiometers' low resolution and the need for local calibration of the relationship between radiances and open-water fraction. We present our method for transforming microwave sensor-scale open water fraction estimates into high-resolution flood extent maps and describe 30-day flood map sequences generated during a retrospective study of the 1993 Great Midwest Flood. We discuss the method's potential improvement through as yet unimplemented algorithm enhancements and expected advancements in microwave radiometry (e.g., improved resolution and atmospheric correction).

  10. NASA Airborne Lidar July 1991

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-05-26

    NASA Airborne Lidar July 1991 Data from the 1991 NASA Langley Airborne Lidar flights following the eruption of Pinatubo in July ... and Osborn [1992a, 1992b]. Project Title:  NASA Airborne Lidar Discipline:  Field Campaigns ...

  11. NASA Airborne Lidar May 1992

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-05-26

    NASA Airborne Lidar May 1992 An airborne Nd:YAG (532 nm) lidar was operated by the NASA Langley Research Center about a year following the June 1991 eruption of ... Osborn [1992a, 1992b].  Project Title:  NASA Airborne Lidar Discipline:  Field Campaigns ...

  12. Simple method for highlighting the temperature distribution into a liquid sample heated by microwave power field

    SciTech Connect

    Surducan, V.; Surducan, E.; Dadarlat, D.

    2013-11-13

    Microwave induced heating is widely used in medical treatments, scientific and industrial applications. The temperature field inside a microwave heated sample is often inhomogenous, therefore multiple temperature sensors are required for an accurate result. Nowadays, non-contact (Infra Red thermography or microwave radiometry) or direct contact temperature measurement methods (expensive and sophisticated fiber optic temperature sensors transparent to microwave radiation) are mainly used. IR thermography gives only the surface temperature and can not be used for measuring temperature distributions in cross sections of a sample. In this paper we present a very simple experimental method for temperature distribution highlighting inside a cross section of a liquid sample, heated by a microwave radiation through a coaxial applicator. The method proposed is able to offer qualitative information about the heating distribution, using a temperature sensitive liquid crystal sheet. Inhomogeneities as smaller as 1°-2°C produced by the symmetry irregularities of the microwave applicator can be easily detected by visual inspection or by computer assisted color to temperature conversion. Therefore, the microwave applicator is tuned and verified with described method until the temperature inhomogeneities are solved.

  13. Airborne Fraunhofer Line Discriminator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gabriel, F. C.; Markle, D. A.

    1969-01-01

    Airborne Fraunhofer Line Discriminator enables prospecting for fluorescent materials, hydrography with fluorescent dyes, and plant studies based on fluorescence of chlorophyll. Optical unit design is the coincidence of Fraunhofer lines in the solar spectrum occurring at the characteristic wavelengths of some fluorescent materials.

  14. Recognizing Airborne Hazards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Christian M.

    1990-01-01

    The heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems in older buildings often do not adequately handle air-borne contaminants. Outlines a three-stage Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) assessment and describes a case in point at a Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, school. (MLF)

  15. Airborne asbestos in buildings.

    PubMed

    Lee, R J; Van Orden, D R

    2008-03-01

    The concentration of airborne asbestos in buildings nationwide is reported in this study. A total of 3978 indoor samples from 752 buildings, representing nearly 32 man-years of sampling, have been analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. The buildings that were surveyed were the subject of litigation related to suits alleging the general building occupants were exposed to a potential health hazard as a result the presence of asbestos-containing materials (ACM). The average concentration of all airborne asbestos structures was 0.01structures/ml (s/ml) and the average concentration of airborne asbestos > or = 5microm long was 0.00012fibers/ml (f/ml). For all samples, 99.9% of the samples were <0.01 f/ml for fibers longer than 5microm; no building averaged above 0.004f/ml for fibers longer than 5microm. No asbestos was detected in 27% of the buildings and in 90% of the buildings no asbestos was detected that would have been seen optically (> or = 5microm long and > or = 0.25microm wide). Background outdoor concentrations have been reported at 0.0003f/ml > or = 5microm. These results indicate that in-place ACM does not result in elevated airborne asbestos in building atmospheres approaching regulatory levels and that it does not result in a significantly increased risk to building occupants.

  16. International Symposium on Airborne Geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mogi, Toru; Ito, Hisatoshi; Kaieda, Hideshi; Kusunoki, Kenichiro; Saltus, Richard W.; Fitterman, David V.; Okuma, Shigeo; Nakatsuka, Tadashi

    2006-05-01

    Airborne geophysics can be defined as the measurement of Earth properties from sensors in the sky. The airborne measurement platform is usually a traditional fixed-wing airplane or helicopter, but could also include lighter-than-air craft, unmanned drones, or other specialty craft. The earliest history of airborne geophysics includes kite and hot-air balloon experiments. However, modern airborne geophysics dates from the mid-1940s when military submarine-hunting magnetometers were first used to map variations in the Earth's magnetic field. The current gamut of airborne geophysical techniques spans a broad range, including potential fields (both gravity and magnetics), electromagnetics (EM), radiometrics, spectral imaging, and thermal imaging.

  17. Ice Water Path Retrieval Using Microwave and Submillimetre Wave Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brath, Manfred; Grützun, Verena; Mendrok, Jana; Fox, Stuart; Eriksson, Patrick; Buehler, Stefan A.

    2016-04-01

    There is an ongoing need for data on ice clouds. The ice water path as an essential climate variable is a fundamental parameter to describe ice clouds. Combined passive microwave and submillimetre wave measurements are capable to sample the size distribution of the ice particles and are sensitive to relevant particle sizes. This makes combined microwave and submillimetre wave measurements useful for estimates of ice water path. Furthermore, instead of being sensitive for the upper ice column as for example for passive visible and passive infrared measurements, combined microwave and submillimetre wave measurements can sample the full ice column. We developed a retrieval algorithm for ice water path based on a neural network approach using combined microwave and submillimetre wave measurements, from about 20 channels in the range between 89 GHz and 664 GHz of the electromagnetic sprectra. We trained a neural network by using 1D radiative transfer simulations which were conducted using the Atmospheric Radiative Transfer Simulator (ARTS). The radiative transfer simulations were fed by atmospheric profiles from a numerical weather prediction model. We will present an analysis of the retrieval. Additionally, we will present results of retrieved IWP from combined ISMAR (International SubMillimetre Airborne Radiometer) and MARSS (Microwave Airborne Radiometer Scanning System) measurements on board of the Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements (FAAM) aircraft during March 2015 over the North Atlantic.

  18. Gulf stream ground truth project - Results of the NRL airborne sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcclain, C. R.; Chen, D. T.; Hammond, D. L.

    1980-01-01

    Results of an airborne study of the waves in the Gulf Stream are presented. These results show that the active microwave sensors (high-flight radar and wind-wave radar) provide consistent and accurate estimates of significant wave height and surface wind speed, respectively. The correlation between the wave height measurements of the high-flight radar and a laser profilometer is excellent.

  19. Photoreactivation in Airborne Mycobacterium parafortuitum

    PubMed Central

    Peccia, Jordan; Hernandez, Mark

    2001-01-01

    Photoreactivation was observed in airborne Mycobacterium parafortuitum exposed concurrently to UV radiation (254 nm) and visible light. Photoreactivation rates of airborne cells increased with increasing relative humidity (RH) and decreased with increasing UV dose. Under a constant UV dose with visible light absent, the UV inactivation rate of airborne M. parafortuitum cells decreased by a factor of 4 as RH increased from 40 to 95%; however, under identical conditions with visible light present, the UV inactivation rate of airborne cells decreased only by a factor of 2. When irradiated in the absence of visible light, cellular cyclobutane thymine dimer content of UV-irradiated airborne M. parafortuitum and Serratia marcescens increased in response to RH increases. Results suggest that, unlike in waterborne bacteria, cyclobutane thymine dimers are not the most significant form of UV-induced DNA damage incurred by airborne bacteria and that the distribution of DNA photoproducts incorporated into UV-irradiated airborne cells is a function of RH. PMID:11526027

  20. Characterization of nano-depth junctions in silicon by using Photo-Carrier Radiometry (PCR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, J. A.; Guo, X.; Mandelis, A.; Shaughnessy, D.; Nicolaides, L.; Salnik, A.

    2008-01-01

    Non-contact, non-intrusive Photo-Carrier Radiometry (PCR) was used for monitoring nano-depth junctions in industrial-grade silicon wafers. The silicon wafers were implanted with arsenic to the dose of 5E1014 cm-2. The junction depth was in the 30 nm to 100 nm range. Quantitative results for PCR sensitivity to the junction depth and implantation energies are presented. This laser-based carrier-wave technique monitors harmonically photo-excited and recombining carriers and shows great potential advantages for the characterization of multiple semiconductor processes such as ion implantation, ultra shallow junction (USJ) depth determination and other Si wafer process steps.

  1. Pulsed photothermal radiometry for noncontact spectroscopy, material testing and inspection measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tam, A. C.

    1984-08-01

    Photothermal Radiometry (PTR) is a sensitive technique for noncontact spectroscopy and inspection. Its principle is the following: a modulated beam of photons (or other particles) produces temperature transients in a sample; the corresponding transients in the infrared thermal radiation emitted from the sample are analyzed. This can provide absolute absorption coefficients, as well as information on thermal diffusivity, layered structure, and dimensions. Variations of PTR are possible with continuously-modulated or pulsed excitation, and with transmission or back-scattering detection. These variations are reviewed. The recent technique of pulsed PTR with backscattering detection is described in more detail, and some important single-ended remote sensing applications are discussed.

  2. Comparison of photoacoustic radiometry to gas chromatography/mass spectrometry methods for monitoring chlorinated hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Sollid, J.E.; Trujillo, V.L.; Limback, S.P.; Woloshun, K.A.

    1996-03-01

    A comparison of two methods of gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS) and a nondispersive infrared technique, photoacoustic radiometry (PAR), is presented in the context of field monitoring a disposal site. First is presented an historical account describing the site and early monitoring to provide an overview. The intent and nature of the monitoring program changed when it was proposed to expand the Radiological Waste Site close to the Hazardous Waste Site. Both the sampling methods and analysis techniques were refined in the course of this exercise.

  3. Airborne Radar Interferometric Repeat-Pass Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hensley, Scott; Michel, Thierry R.; Jones, Cathleen E.; Muellerschoen, Ronald J.; Chapman, Bruce D.; Fore, Alexander; Simard, Marc; Zebker, Howard A.

    2011-01-01

    Earth science research often requires crustal deformation measurements at a variety of time scales, from seconds to decades. Although satellites have been used for repeat-track interferometric (RTI) synthetic-aperture-radar (SAR) mapping for close to 20 years, RTI is much more difficult to implement from an airborne platform owing to the irregular trajectory of the aircraft compared with microwave imaging radar wavelengths. Two basic requirements for robust airborne repeat-pass radar interferometry include the ability to fly the platform to a desired trajectory within a narrow tube and the ability to have the radar beam pointed in a desired direction to a fraction of a beam width. Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR) is equipped with a precision auto pilot developed by NASA Dryden that allows the platform, a Gulfstream III, to nominally fly within a 5 m diameter tube and with an electronically scanned antenna to position the radar beam to a fraction of a beam width based on INU (inertial navigation unit) attitude angle measurements.

  4. [Air-borne disease].

    PubMed

    Lameiro Vilariño, Carmen; del Campo Pérez, Victor M; Alonso Bürger, Susana; Felpeto Nodar, Irene; Guimarey Pérez, Rosa; Pérez Alvarellos, Alberto

    2003-11-01

    Respiratory protection is a factor which worries nursing professionals who take care of patients susceptible of transmitting microorganisms through the air more as every day passes. This type of protection covers the use of surgical or hygienic masks against the transmission of infection by airborne drops to the use of highly effective masks or respirators against the transmission of airborne diseases such as tuberculosis or SARS, a recently discovered disease. The adequate choice of this protective device and its correct use are fundamental in order to have an effective protection for exposed personnel. The authors summarize the main protective respiratory devices used by health workers, their characteristics and degree of effectiveness, as well as the circumstances under which each device is indicated for use. PMID:14705591

  5. MLS airborne antenna research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, C. L.; Burnside, W. D.

    1975-01-01

    The geometrical theory of diffraction was used to analyze the elevation plane pattern of on-aircraft antennas. The radiation patterns for basic elements (infinitesimal dipole, circumferential and axial slot) mounted on fuselage of various aircrafts with or without radome included were calculated and compared well with experimental results. Error phase plots were also presented. The effects of radiation patterns and error phase plots on the polarization selection for the MLS airborne antenna are discussed.

  6. Airborne forest fire research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattingly, G. S.

    1974-01-01

    The research relating to airborne fire fighting systems is reviewed to provide NASA/Langley Research Center with current information on the use of aircraft in forest fire operations, and to identify research requirements for future operations. A literature survey, interview of forest fire service personnel, analysis and synthesis of data from research reports and independent conclusions, and recommendations for future NASA-LRC programs are included.

  7. Mutagenicity of airborne particles.

    PubMed

    Chrisp, C E; Fisher, G L

    1980-09-01

    The physical and chemical properties of airborne particles are important for the interpretation of their potential biologic significance as genotoxic hazards. For polydisperse particle size distributions, the smallest, most respirable particles are generally the most mutagenic. Particulate collection for testing purposes should be designed to reduce artifact formation and allow condensation of mutagenic compounds. Other critical factors such as UV irradiation, wind direction, chemical reactivity, humidity, sample storage, and temperature of combustion are important. Application of chemical extraction methods and subsequent class fractionation techniques influence the observed mutagenic activity. Particles from urban air, coal fly ash, automobile and diesel exhaust, agricultural burning and welding fumes contain primarily direct-acting mutagens. Cigarette smoke condensate, smoke from charred meat and protein pyrolysates, kerosene soot and cigarette smoke condensates contain primarily mutagens which require metabolic activation. Fractionation coupled with mutagenicity testing indicates that the most potent mutagens are found in the acidic fractions of urban air, coal fly ash, and automobile diesel exhaust, whereas mutagens in rice straw smoke and cigarette smoke condensate are found primarily in the basic fractions. The interaction of the many chemical compounds in complex mixtures from airborne particles is likely to be important in determining mutagenic or comutagenic potentials. Because the mode of exposure is generally frequent and prolonged, the presence of tumor-promoting agents in complex mixtures may be a major factor in evaluation of the carcinogenic potential of airborne particles.

  8. Mammalian airborne allergens.

    PubMed

    Aalberse, Rob C

    2014-01-01

    Historically, horse dandruff was a favorite allergen source material. Today, however, allergic symptoms due to airborne mammalian allergens are mostly a result of indoor exposure, be it at home, at work or even at school. The relevance of mammalian allergens in relation to the allergenic activity of house dust extract is briefly discussed in the historical context of two other proposed sources of house dust allergenic activity: mites and Maillard-type lysine-sugar conjugates. Mammalian proteins involved in allergic reactions to airborne dust are largely found in only 2 protein families: lipocalins and secretoglobins (Fel d 1-like proteins), with a relatively minor contribution of serum albumins, cystatins and latherins. Both the lipocalin and the secretoglobin family are very complex. In some instances this results in a blurred separation between important and less important allergenic family members. The past 50 years have provided us with much detailed information on the genomic organization and protein structure of many of these allergens. However, the complex family relations, combined with the wide range of post-translational enzymatic and non-enzymatic modifications, make a proper qualitative and quantitative description of the important mammalian indoor airborne allergens still a significant proteomic challenge. PMID:24925404

  9. Airborne wireless communication systems, airborne communication methods, and communication methods

    DOEpatents

    Deaton, Juan D.; Schmitt, Michael J.; Jones, Warren F.

    2011-12-13

    An airborne wireless communication system includes circuitry configured to access information describing a configuration of a terrestrial wireless communication base station that has become disabled. The terrestrial base station is configured to implement wireless communication between wireless devices located within a geographical area and a network when the terrestrial base station is not disabled. The circuitry is further configured, based on the information, to configure the airborne station to have the configuration of the terrestrial base station. An airborne communication method includes answering a 911 call from a terrestrial cellular wireless phone using an airborne wireless communication system.

  10. Measurement of oceanic chlorophyll by LIDAR, MODIS, fluorometry and above-water radiometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kampel, Milton; Lorenzzetti, João A.; Bentz, Cristina M.; Nunes, Raul A.; Paranhos, Rodolfo; Rudorff, Frederico M.; Politano, Alexandre T.

    2007-09-01

    Comparisons between in situ measurements of surface chlorophyll concentration (CHL) and ocean color remote sensing estimates were conducted during an oceanographic cruise in the Brazilian Southeastern continental shelf and slope in November 2004. In situ estimates were based on fluorometry, above-water radiometry and lidar fluorosensor. Three empirical algorithms were used to estimate chlorophyll a concentration from radiometric measurements: Ocean Chlorophyll 3 bands (OC3M), Ocean Chlorophyll 4 bands (OC4v4), and Ocean Chlorophyll 2 bands (OC2v4). The satellite estimates of chlorophyll a were derived from data collected by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) with a nominal 1.1 km resolution at nadir. Three algorithms were used to estimate chlorophyll concentrations from MODIS data: one empirical - OC3M, and two semi-analytical - Garver, Siegel, Maritorena version 01 (GSM01), and Carder. In this paper, LIDAR, MODIS and in situ above-water radiometry and fluorometry are briefly described and the estimated values of chlorophyll retrieved by these techniques are compared. Chlorophyll concentrations were fairly well estimated by all the methods. In general, the empirical algorithms applied to the satellite and in situ radiometric data showed a tendency for overestimating CHL. The semi-analytical GSM01 algorithm applied to MODIS data performed better than the Carder and the empirical OC3M algorithms.

  11. Determination of thermal and physical properties of port-wine stain lesions using pulsed photothermal radiometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, J. Stuart; Jacques, Steven L.; Wright, William H.

    1992-06-01

    A method for quantitative characterization of port wine stain (PWS) is presented. Pulsed photothermal radiometry (PPTR) uses a non-invasive infrared radiometry system to measure changes in surface temperature induced by pulsed radiation. When a pulsed laser is used to irradiate a PWS, an initial temperature jump (T-jump) is seen due to the heating of the epidermis as a result of melanin absorption. Subsequently, heat generated in the subsurface blood vessels due to hemoglobin absorption is detected by PPTR as a delayed thermal wave as the heat diffuses toward the skin surface. The time delay and magnitude of the delayed PPTR signal indicate the depth and thickness of the PWS. In this report, we present an initial clinical study of PPTR measurements on PWS patients. Computer simulations of various classes of PWS illustrate how the PPTR signal depends on the concentration of epidermal melanin, and depth and thickness of the PWS. The goal of this research is to provide a means of characterizing PWS before initiating therapy, guiding laser dosimetry, and advising the patient as to the time course and efficacy of the planned protocol.

  12. A laboratory module on radiometry, photometry and colorimetry for an undergraduate optics course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polak, Robert D.

    2014-07-01

    The bachelor's degree in Physics at Loyola University Chicago requires both an upper-division course in Optics as well as a companion Optics Laboratory course. Recently, the laboratory course has undergone dramatic changes. Traditional weekly laboratories have been replaced with three laboratory modules, where students focus on a single topic over several weeks after which the students submit a laboratory report written in the style of a journal article following American Institute of Physics style manual. With this method, students are able to gain a deeper understanding of the specific topic areas of radiometry, photometry and colorimetry, lens design and aberrations, and polarization and interference while using industry-standard equipment and simulation software. In particular, this work will provide the details of the laboratory module on radiometry, photometry and colorimetry where students use a photoradiometer and integrating sphere to characterize the optical properties of an LCD monitor, light bulb and a fiber optic light source calculating properties such as luminous flux, luminous intensity, luminance, CIE color coordinates, NTSC ratio, color temperature and luminous efficacy.

  13. Temporal variations of the microwave signatures of sea ice during the late spring and early summer near Mould Bay, NWT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grenfell, T. C.; Lohanick, A. W.

    1985-01-01

    It has been shown that passive microwave imagery obtained from satellite-borne sensors provides an important basis for the study of the polar regions. Because of the optical thinness of high-latitude clouds at microwave frequencies, radiometry can provide all-weather all-time observing capability. However, in order to clarify observational uncertainties and investigate the information content of passive microwave imagery, detailed ground-based observations are needed. Multifrequency data are also required to utilize the strong spectral dependence of both the dielectric properties of liquid water and volume scattering. The present investigation has the aim to provide information of the considered type for the calibration and interpretation of satellite observations of the Arctic during the summer season. Attention is given to instruments and calibration, the field program and the state of the ice cover, and the results.

  14. Airborne Submillimeter Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zmuidzinas, J.

    1998-01-01

    This is the final technical report for NASA-Ames grant NAG2-1068 to Caltech, entitled "Airborne Submillimeter Spectroscopy", which extended over the period May 1, 1996 through January 31, 1998. The grant was funded by the NASA airborne astronomy program, during a period of time after the Kuiper Airborne Observatory was no longer operational. Instead. this funding program was intended to help develop instrument concepts and technology for the upcoming SOFIA (Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy) project. SOFIA, which is funded by NASA and is now being carried out by a consortium lead by USRA (Universities Space Research Association), will be a 747 aircraft carrying a 2.5 meter diameter telescope. The purpose of our grant was to fund the ongoing development of sensitive heterodyne receivers for the submillimeter band (500-1200 GHz), using sensitive superconducting (SIS) detectors. In 1997 July we submitted a proposal to USRA to construct a heterodyne instrument for SOFIA. Our proposal was successful [1], and we are now continuing our airborne astronomy effort with funding from USRA. A secondary purpose of the NAG2-1068 grant was to continue the anaIN'sis of astronomical data collected with an earlier instrument which was flown on the NASA Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO). The KAO instrument and the astronomical studies which were carried out with it were supported primarily under another grant, NAG2-744, which extended over October 1, 1991 through Januarv 31, 1997. For a complete description of the astronomical data and its anailysis, we refer the reader to the final technical report for NAG2-744, which was submitted to NASA on December 1. 1997. Here we report on the SIS detector development effort for SOFIA carried out under NAG2-1068. The main result of this effort has been the demonstration of SIS mixers using a new superconducting material niobium titanium nitride (NbTiN), which promises to deliver dramatic improvements in sensitivity in the 700

  15. Application of multiwavelength pyrometry in microwave processing of materials

    SciTech Connect

    Donnan, R.S.; Samandi, M.

    1996-12-31

    Over the past decade microwave energy has been increasingly used in materials processing, especially for sintering and more recently for the joining of advanced ceramics. However the hostile electromagnetic and plasma environment within a high power (1--6 kW) microwave applicator poses serious problems for very accurate high temperature measurement by precluding the use of existing classes of thermometry. For instance, conventional probe-based thermometry, multiple-wavelength ratio pyrometry and even the more recently developed technologies of optical fiber thermometry by fluoroptics and radiometry, are either incompatible or of restricted application. The main aim of this paper is to propose multiwavelength pyrometry as a viable technique for wide range (500--5,000 K) thermometry in hostile electromagnetic and plasma environments. After briefly reviewing the physical basis of its operation, the experimental set up of the multiwavelength pyrometer is outlined, and consists of a comparatively inexpensive low resolving power grating monochromator and a PbS infrared single element detector. Results are presented that compare the measurements during conventional/microwave heating trials, from this multiwavelength pyrometer and from a K-type thermocouple, a double-wavelength ratio pyrometer and a single wavelength pyrometer aimed at a dummy target (carbon/metal).

  16. NASA's Earth Venture-1 (EV-1) Airborne Science Investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guillory, A.; Denkins, T.; Allen, B. Danette; Braun, Scott A.; Crawford, James H.; Jensen, Eric J.; Miller, Charles E.; Moghaddam, Mahta; Maring, Hal

    2011-01-01

    In 2010, NASA announced the first Earth Venture (EV-1) selections in response to a recommendation made by the National Research Council for low-cost investigations fostering innovation in Earth science. The five EV-1 investigations span the Earth science focus areas of atmosphere, weather, climate, water and energy and, carbon and represent earth science researchers from NASA as well as other government agencies, academia and industry from around the world. The EV-1 missions are: 1) Airborne Microwave Observatory of Subcanopy and Subsurface (AirMOSS), 2) Airborne Tropical Tropopause Experiment (ATTREX), 3) Carbon in Arctic Reservoirs Vulnerability Experiment (CARVE), 4) Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality (DISCOVER-AQ), and 5) Hurricane And Severe Storm Sentinel (HS3). The Earth Venture missions are managed out of the Earth System Science Pathfinder (ESSP) Program Office (Allen, et. al. 2010b)

  17. Airborne Trailblazer: Two decades with NASA Langley's 737 flying laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, Lane E.

    1994-01-01

    This book is the story of a very unique aircraft and the contributions it has made to the air transportation industry. NASA's Boeing 737-100 Transport Systems Research Vehicle started life as the prototype for Boeing's 737 series of aircraft. The airplane was acquired by LaRC in 1974 to conduct research into advanced transport aircraft technologies. In the twenty years that followed, the airplane participated in more than twenty different research projects, evolving from a research tool for a specific NASA program into a national airborne research facility. It played a critical role in developing and gaining acceptance for numerous significant transport technologies including 'glass cockpits,' airborne windshear detection systems, data links for air traffic control communications, the microwave landing system, and the satellite-based global positioning system (GPS).

  18. PHARUS airborne SAR concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snoeij, Paul; Pouwels, Henk; Koomen, Peter J.; Hoogeboom, Peter

    1995-11-01

    PHARUS (phased array universal SAR) is an airborne SAR concept which is being developed in the Netherlands. The PHARUS system differs from other airborne SARs by the use of a phased array antenna, which provides both for the flexibility in the design as well as for a compact, light-weight instrument that can be carried on small aircraft. The concept allows for the construction of airborne SAR systems on a common generic basis but tailored to specific user needs and can be seen as a preparation for future spaceborne SAR systems using solid state transmitters with electronically steerable phased array antenna. The whole approach is aimed at providing an economic and yet technically sophisticated solution to remote sensing or surveying needs of a specific user. The solid state phased array antenna consists of a collection of radiating patches; the design flexibility for a large part resides in the freedom to choose the number of patches, and thereby the essential radar performance parameters such as resolution and swath width. Another consequence of the use of the phased array antenna is the system's compactness and the possibility to rigidly mount it on a small aircraft. The use of small aircraft of course considerably improves the cost/benefit ratio of the use of airborne SAR. Flight altitude of the system is flexible between about 7,000 and 40,000 feet, giving much operational freedom within the meteo and airspace control limits. In the PHARUS concept the airborne segment is complemented by a ground segment, which consists of a SAR processor, possibly extended by a matching image processing package. (A quick look image is available in real-time on board the aircraft.) The SAR processor is UNIX based and runs on easily available hardware (SUN station). Although the additional image processing software is available, the SAR processing software is nevertheless designed to be able to interface with commercially available image processing software, as well as being able

  19. Monitoring Precipitation Contents and Extinction By Using A Ground-based Passive Microwave Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzano, F. S.; Fionda, E.; Ciotti, P.; Consalvi, F.

    In the last decades microwave radiometry has proved to be a valuable tool for retriev- ing atmospheric parameters both from ground-based and from satellite-borne plat- forms. Ground-based microwave radiometry has been mainly investigated for esti- mating temperature, water vapor and cloud liquid profiles in the absence of precip- itation. However, the increasing use of multifrequency radiometers in ground-based stations, especially for communication purposes, rises the question of their potential for retrieving also rainfall rate from ground. This capability might be also useful when weather radars are also present, since radiometric estimates might be used as a further constraint within the radar inversion procedure. One of the main problems of ground- based radiometry for rainfall retrieval is the possible impact of water layers on the receiving antenna whose measurements can be heavily contaminated. The estimate of atmospheric parameters by microwave radiometry may be approached by using both experimental and simulated data. The use of experimental measurements is limited by their scarcity or even their lack. The modeling approach is generally more versatile, even though it requests a thorough insight into the e.m. interaction between the mi- crowave radiation and the scattering medium. The radiative transfer theory has been so far the most used approach to take into account multiple scattering and vertical inho- mogeneity of the atmosphere in the presence of hydrometeor scattering. Following a previous work, the objective of this paper is to investigate about radiometric frequency sets and system configurations best suited for observing both stratiform and convective precipitation. We develop inversion algorithms for ground-based retrieval of surface rainrate, adopting a model-based approach. For both stratiform and convective precip- itation, we use a radiative transfer model (RTM), including spherical liquid, melt and ice hydrometeors. From the solution of

  20. Airborne Oceanographic Lidar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bressel, C.; Itzkan, I.; Nunes, J. E.; Hoge, F.

    1977-01-01

    The Airborne Oceanographic Lidar (AOL), a spatially scanning range-gated device installed on board a NASA C-54 aircraft, is described. The AOL system is capable of measuring topographical relief or water depth (bathymetry) with a range resolution of plus or minus 0.3 m in the vertical dimension. The system may also be used to measure fluorescent spectral signatures from 3500 to 8000 A with a resolution of 100 A. Potential applications of the AOL, including sea state measurements, water transparency assessments, oil spill identification, effluent identification and crop cover assessment are also mentioned.

  1. Microwave alcohol fuel sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, K.; Endo, A.; Morozumi, H.; Shibata, T.

    1984-06-05

    A microwave alcohol fuel sensor comprises a microwave oscillator, a microwave receiver, and a microwave transmission circuit connected to the oscillator and the receiver. The microwave transmission circuit comprises a dielectric substrate and, a strip line mounted on the substrate so that microwaves leak from the substrate to an alcohol gasoline fuel, and the microwaves attenuate by alcohol dielectric loss, whereby output voltage from the receiver corresponds to alcohol content rate. The dielectric substrate is formed tubular so that a constant amount of the fuel is fed the sensor.

  2. Monitoring local heating around an interventional MRI antenna with RF radiometry

    SciTech Connect

    Ertürk, M. Arcan; El-Sharkawy, AbdEl-Monem M.; Bottomley, Paul A.

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: Radiofrequency (RF) radiometry uses thermal noise detected by an antenna to measure the temperature of objects independent of medical imaging technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Here, an active interventional MRI antenna can be deployed as a RF radiometer to measure local heating, as a possible new method of monitoring device safety and thermal therapy. Methods: A 128 MHz radiometer receiver was fabricated to measure the RF noise voltage from an interventional 3 T MRI loopless antenna and calibrated for temperature in a uniformly heated bioanalogous gel phantom. Local heating (ΔT) was induced using the antenna for RF transmission and measured by RF radiometry, fiber-optic thermal sensors, and MRI thermometry. The spatial thermal sensitivity of the antenna radiometer was numerically computed using a method-of-moment electric field analyses. The gel’s thermal conductivity was measured by MRI thermometry, and the localized time-dependent ΔT distribution computed from the bioheat transfer equation and compared with radiometry measurements. A “H-factor” relating the 1 g-averaged ΔT to the radiometric temperature was introduced to estimate peak temperature rise in the antenna’s sensitive region. Results: The loopless antenna radiometer linearly tracked temperature inside a thermally equilibrated phantom up to 73 °C to within ±0.3 °C at a 2 Hz sample rate. Computed and MRI thermometric measures of peak ΔT agreed within 13%. The peak 1 g-average temperature was H = 1.36 ± 0.02 times higher than the radiometric temperature for any media with a thermal conductivity of 0.15–0.50 (W/m)/K, indicating that the radiometer can measure peak 1 g-averaged ΔT in physiologically relevant tissue within ±0.4 °C. Conclusions: Active internal MRI detectors can serve as RF radiometers at the MRI frequency to provide accurate independent measures of local and peak temperature without the artifacts that can accompany MRI thermometry or

  3. Monitoring local heating around an interventional MRI antenna with RF radiometry

    PubMed Central

    Ertürk, M. Arcan; El-Sharkawy, AbdEl-Monem M.; Bottomley, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Radiofrequency (RF) radiometry uses thermal noise detected by an antenna to measure the temperature of objects independent of medical imaging technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Here, an active interventional MRI antenna can be deployed as a RF radiometer to measure local heating, as a possible new method of monitoring device safety and thermal therapy. Methods: A 128 MHz radiometer receiver was fabricated to measure the RF noise voltage from an interventional 3 T MRI loopless antenna and calibrated for temperature in a uniformly heated bioanalogous gel phantom. Local heating (ΔT) was induced using the antenna for RF transmission and measured by RF radiometry, fiber-optic thermal sensors, and MRI thermometry. The spatial thermal sensitivity of the antenna radiometer was numerically computed using a method-of-moment electric field analyses. The gel’s thermal conductivity was measured by MRI thermometry, and the localized time-dependent ΔT distribution computed from the bioheat transfer equation and compared with radiometry measurements. A “H-factor” relating the 1 g-averaged ΔT to the radiometric temperature was introduced to estimate peak temperature rise in the antenna’s sensitive region. Results: The loopless antenna radiometer linearly tracked temperature inside a thermally equilibrated phantom up to 73 °C to within ±0.3 °C at a 2 Hz sample rate. Computed and MRI thermometric measures of peak ΔT agreed within 13%. The peak 1 g-average temperature was H = 1.36 ± 0.02 times higher than the radiometric temperature for any media with a thermal conductivity of 0.15–0.50 (W/m)/K, indicating that the radiometer can measure peak 1 g-averaged ΔT in physiologically relevant tissue within ±0.4 °C. Conclusions: Active internal MRI detectors can serve as RF radiometers at the MRI frequency to provide accurate independent measures of local and peak temperature without the artifacts that can accompany MRI thermometry or

  4. REVIEW ARTICLE: Photometry, radiometry and 'the candela': evolution in the classical and quantum world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwinkels, Joanne C.; Ikonen, Erkki; Fox, Nigel P.; Ulm, Gerhard; Rastello, Maria Luisa

    2010-10-01

    The metrological fields of photometry and radiometry and their associated units are closely linked through the current definition of the base unit of luminous intensity—the candela. These fields are important to a wide range of applications requiring precise and accurate measurements of electromagnetic radiation and, in particular, the amount of radiant energy (light) that is perceived by the human eye. The candela has been one of the base units since the inception of the International System of Units (SI) and is the only base unit that quantifies a fundamental biological process—human vision. This photobiological process spans an enormous dynamic range of light levels from a few-photon interaction involved in triggering the vision mechanism to a level of more than 1015 photons per second that is accommodated by the visual response under bright daylight conditions. This position paper, prepared by members of the Task Group on the SI of the Consultative Committee for Photometry and Radiometry Strategic Planning Working Group (CCPR WG-SP), reviews the evolution of these fields of optical radiation measurements and their consequent impact on definitions and realization of the candela. Over the past several decades, there have been significant developments in sources, detectors, measuring instruments and techniques, that have improved the measurement of photometric and radiometric quantities for classical applications in lighting design, manufacturing and quality control processes involving optical sources, detectors and materials. These improved realizations largely underpin the present (1979) definition of the candela. There is no consensus on whether this radiant-based definition fully satisfies the current and projected needs of the optical radiation community. There is also no consensus on whether a reformulation of the definition of the candela in terms of photon flux will be applicable to the lighting community. However, there have been significant recent

  5. Airborne concentrations of peanut protein.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Rodney M; Barnes, Charles S

    2013-01-01

    Food allergy to peanut is a significant health problem, and there are reported allergic reactions to peanuts despite not eating or having physical contact with peanuts. It is presumed that an allergic reaction may have occurred from inhalation of airborne peanut allergens. The purpose of this study was to detect the possible concentrations of airborne peanut proteins for various preparations and during specific activities. Separate Ara h 1 and Ara h 2 monoclonal enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and a polyclonal sandwich enzyme immunoassay for peanuts were used to detect the amount of airborne peanut protein collected using a Spincon Omni 3000 air collector (Sceptor Industries, Inc., Kansas City, MO) under different peanut preparation methods and situations. Air samples were measured for multiple peanut preparations and scenarios. Detectable amounts of airborne peanut protein were measured using a whole peanut immunoassay when removing the shells of roasted peanut. No airborne peanut allergen (Ara h 1 or Ara h 2) or whole peanut protein above the LLD was measured in any of the other peanut preparation collections. Ara h 1, Ara h 2, and polyclonal peanut proteins were detected from water used to boil peanuts. Small amounts of airborne peanut protein were detected in the scenario of removing shells from roasted peanuts; however, Ara h 1 and Ara h 2 proteins were unable to be consistently detected. Although airborne peanut proteins were detected, the concentration of airborne peanut protein that is necessary to elicit a clinical allergic reaction is unknown.

  6. Airborne ballistic camera tracking systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redish, W. L.

    1976-01-01

    An operational airborne ballistic camera tracking system was tested for operational and data reduction feasibility. The acquisition and data processing requirements of the system are discussed. Suggestions for future improvements are also noted. A description of the data reduction mathematics is outlined. Results from a successful reentry test mission are tabulated. The test mission indicated that airborne ballistic camera tracking systems are feasible.

  7. Airborne concentrations of peanut protein.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Rodney M; Barnes, Charles S

    2013-01-01

    Food allergy to peanut is a significant health problem, and there are reported allergic reactions to peanuts despite not eating or having physical contact with peanuts. It is presumed that an allergic reaction may have occurred from inhalation of airborne peanut allergens. The purpose of this study was to detect the possible concentrations of airborne peanut proteins for various preparations and during specific activities. Separate Ara h 1 and Ara h 2 monoclonal enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and a polyclonal sandwich enzyme immunoassay for peanuts were used to detect the amount of airborne peanut protein collected using a Spincon Omni 3000 air collector (Sceptor Industries, Inc., Kansas City, MO) under different peanut preparation methods and situations. Air samples were measured for multiple peanut preparations and scenarios. Detectable amounts of airborne peanut protein were measured using a whole peanut immunoassay when removing the shells of roasted peanut. No airborne peanut allergen (Ara h 1 or Ara h 2) or whole peanut protein above the LLD was measured in any of the other peanut preparation collections. Ara h 1, Ara h 2, and polyclonal peanut proteins were detected from water used to boil peanuts. Small amounts of airborne peanut protein were detected in the scenario of removing shells from roasted peanuts; however, Ara h 1 and Ara h 2 proteins were unable to be consistently detected. Although airborne peanut proteins were detected, the concentration of airborne peanut protein that is necessary to elicit a clinical allergic reaction is unknown. PMID:23406937

  8. Hermetic packaging for microwave modules. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hollar, D.L.

    1996-10-01

    Microwave assemblies, such as radar modules, require hermetically sealed packaging. Since most of these assemblies are used for airborne applications, the packages must be lightweight. The aluminum alloy A-40 provides the needed characteristics of these applications. This project developed packaging techniques using the A-40 alloy as a housing material and laser welding processes to install connectors, purge tube, and covers on the housings. The completed package successfully passed the hermetic leak requirements and environmental testing. Optimum laser welding parameters were established in addition to all of the related tooling for assembly.

  9. Noise Source for Calibrating a Microwave Polarimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piepmeier, Jeffrey R.; Kim, Edward J.

    2006-01-01

    A correlated-noise source has been developed for use in calibrating an airborne or spaceborne Earth-observing correlation microwave polarimeter that operates in a in a pass band that includes a nominal frequency of 10.7 GHz. Deviations from ideal behavior of the hardware of correlation polarimeters are such as to decorrelate the signals measured by such an instrument. A correlated-noise source provides known input signals, measurements of which can be processed to estimate and correct for the decorrelation effect.

  10. Opto-Thermal Transient Emission Radiometry (OTTER) to image diffusion in nails in vivo.

    PubMed

    Xiao, P; Zheng, X; Imhof, R E; Hirata, K; McAuley, W J; Mateus, R; Hadgraft, J; Lane, M E

    2011-03-15

    This work describes the first application of Opto-Thermal Transient Emission Radiometry (OTTER), an infrared remote sensing technique, to probe the extent to which solvents permeate the human nail in vivo. Decanol, glycerol and butyl acetate were selected as model solvents. After application of the solvents, individually, to human volunteers, OTTER was used to depth profile the solvents. The permeation rate of the solvents was ranked as glycerol>decanol>butyl acetate. It is possible that some of the butyl acetate may have evaporated during the experiment. The ability of decanol to extract lipids from biological tissue is also considered. These preliminary results demonstrate the potential of OTTER as a tool to identify optimal excipients with which to target drugs to the nail. PMID:21251961

  11. Non-invasive Glucose Measurements Using Wavelength Modulated Differential Photothermal Radiometry (WM-DPTR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, X.; Mandelis, A.; Zinman, B.

    2012-11-01

    Wavelength-modulated differential laser photothermal radiometry (WM-DPTR) is introduced for potential development of clinically viable non-invasive glucose biosensors. WM-DPTR features unprecedented glucose-specificity and sensitivity by combining laser excitation by two out-of-phase modulated beams at wavelengths near the peak and the baseline of a prominent and isolated mid-IR glucose absorption band. Measurements on water-glucose phantoms (0 to 300 mg/dl glucose concentration) demonstrate high sensitivity to meet wide clinical detection requirements ranging from hypoglycemia to hyperglycemia. The measurement results have been validated by simulations based on fully developed WM-DPTR theory. For sensitive and accurate glucose measurements, the key is the selection and tight control of the intensity ratio and the phase shift of the two laser beams.

  12. Quantitative characterization of traumatic bruises by combined pulsed photothermal radiometry and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidovič, Luka; Milanič, Matija; Randeberg, Lise L.; Majaron, Boris

    2015-02-01

    We apply diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) and pulsed photothermal radiometry (PPTR) for characterization of the bruise evolution process. While DRS provides information in a wide range of visible wavelengths, the PPTR enables extraction of detailed depth distribution and concentration profiles of selected absorbers (e.g. melanin, hemoglobin). In this study, we simulate experimental DRS spectra and PPTR signals using the Monte Carlo technique and focus on characterization of a suitable fitting approach for their analysis. We find inverse Monte Carlo to be superior to the diffusion approximation approach for the inverse analysis of DRS spectra. The analysis is then augmented with information obtainable by the fitting of the PPTR signal. We show that both techniques can be coupled in a combined fitting approach. The combining of two complementary techniques improves the robustness and accuracy of the inverse analysis, enabling a comprehensive quantitative characterization of the bruise evolution dynamics.

  13. Capturing a failure of an ASIC in-situ, using infrared radiometry and image processing software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruiz, Ronald P.

    2003-01-01

    Failures in electronic devices can sometimes be tricky to locate-especially if they are buried inside radiation-shielded containers designed to work in outer space. Such was the case with a malfunctioning ASIC (Application Specific Integrated Circuit) that was drawing excessive power at a specific temperature during temperature cycle testing. To analyze the failure, infrared radiometry (thermography) was used in combination with image processing software to locate precisely where the power was being dissipated at the moment the failure took place. The IR imaging software was used to make the image of the target and background, appear as unity. As testing proceeded and the failure mode was reached, temperature changes revealed the precise location of the fault. The results gave the design engineers the information they needed to fix the problem. This paper describes the techniques and equipment used to accomplish this failure analysis.

  14. Opto-Thermal Transient Emission Radiometry (OTTER) to image diffusion in nails in vivo.

    PubMed

    Xiao, P; Zheng, X; Imhof, R E; Hirata, K; McAuley, W J; Mateus, R; Hadgraft, J; Lane, M E

    2011-03-15

    This work describes the first application of Opto-Thermal Transient Emission Radiometry (OTTER), an infrared remote sensing technique, to probe the extent to which solvents permeate the human nail in vivo. Decanol, glycerol and butyl acetate were selected as model solvents. After application of the solvents, individually, to human volunteers, OTTER was used to depth profile the solvents. The permeation rate of the solvents was ranked as glycerol>decanol>butyl acetate. It is possible that some of the butyl acetate may have evaporated during the experiment. The ability of decanol to extract lipids from biological tissue is also considered. These preliminary results demonstrate the potential of OTTER as a tool to identify optimal excipients with which to target drugs to the nail.

  15. Pulsed photothermal radiometry for noncontact spectroscopy, material testing and inspection measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tam, A. C.

    1985-02-01

    Photothermal radiometry (PTR) is a sensitive technique for noncontact spectroscopy and inspection. Its principle is the following: a modulated beam of photons (or other particles) produces temperature transients in a sample; the corresponding transients in the IR thermal radiation emitted from the sample are analyzed. This can provide absolute absorption coefficients, as well as information on thermal diffusivity, layered structure and dimensions. Variations of PTR are possible with continuously-modulated or pulsed excitation, and with transmission or back-scattering detection. These variations are reviewed. The recent technique of pulsed PTR with back-scattering detection is described in more detail, and some important single-ended remote-sensing applications are discussed.

  16. Characterization and evaluation of a handheld AC-coupled pulsed photothermal radiometry system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Byungjo; Kim, Chang-Seok; Choi, Bernard; Nelson, J. Stuart

    2006-02-01

    In laser therapy of port wine stain (PWS) birthmarks, measurement of maximum temperature rise is important to determine the maximum permissible light dose for PWS laser therapy. To measure maximum temperature rise on arbitrary PWS skin site, we developed a handheld pulsed photothermal radiometry (PPTR) system, which overcomes in vivo measurement limitations of bench-top PPTR systems. The developed PPTR system consists of an IR lens, an AC-coupled thermoelectrically cooled IR detector, a laser handpiece holder, and a fixed distance measurement port. With system characterization, experimental results were in good agreement with theoretical calculations. Preliminary results for maximum temperature rise demonstrate the feasibility of the PPTR system for PWS skin characterization in the clinic.

  17. Simultaneous measurement of thermal diffusivity and optical absorption coefficient using photothermal radiometry. II Multilayered solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salazar, Agustín; Fuente, Raquel; Apiñaniz, Estibaliz; Mendioroz, Arantza; Celorrio, R.

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this work is to analyze the ability of modulated photothermal radiometry to retrieve the thermal diffusivity and the optical absorption coefficient of layered materials simultaneously. First, we extend the thermal quadrupole method to calculate the surface temperature of semitransparent multilayered materials. Then, this matrix method is used to evaluate the influence of heat losses by convection and radiation, the influence of the use of thin paint layers on the accuracy of thermal diffusivity measurements, and the effect of lateral heat diffusion due to the use of Gaussian laser beams. Finally, we apply the quadrupole method to retrieve (a) the thermal contact resistance in glass stacks and (b) the thermal diffusivity and optical absorption coefficient depth profiles in heterogeneous materials with continuously varying physical properties, as is the case of functionally graded materials and partially cured dental resins.

  18. Beaufort/Bering 1979 microwave remote sensing data catalog report, 14-24 March 1979

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirstein, W. S.; Hennigar, H. F.; Schaffner, S. K.; Delnore, V. E.; Grantham, W. L.

    1983-01-01

    The airborne microwave remote sending measurements obtained by the Langley Research Center in support of the 1979 Sea-Ice Radar Experiment (SIRE) in the Beaufort and Bering Seas are discussed. The remote sensing objective of SIRE was to define correlations between both active and passive microwave signatures and ice phenomena assocated with practical applications in the Arctic. The instruments used by Langley during SIRE include the stepped frequency microwave radiometer (SFMR), the airborne microwave scatterometer (AMSCAT), the precision radiation thermometer (PRT-5), and metric aerial photography. Remote sensing data are inventoried and cataloged in a user-friendly format. The data catalog is presented as time-history plots when and where data were obtained as well as the sensor configuration.

  19. Preliminary results of the LLNL airborne experimental test-bed SAR system

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, M.G.; Mullenhoff, C.J.; Kiefer, R.D.; Brase, J.M.; Wieting, M.G.; Berry, G.L.; Jones, H.E.

    1996-01-16

    The Imaging and Detection Program (IDP) within Laser Programs at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in cooperation with the Hughes Aircraft Company has developed a versatile, high performance, airborne experimental test-bed (AETB) capability. The test-bed has been developed for a wide range of research and development experimental applications including radar and radiometry plus, with additional aircraft modifications, optical systems. The airborne test-bed capability has been developed within a Douglas EA-3B Skywarrior jet aircraft provided and flown by Hughes Aircraft Company. The current test-bed payload consists of an X-band radar system, a high-speed data acquisition, and a real-time processing capability. The medium power radar system is configured to operate in a high resolution, synthetic aperture radar (SAR) mode and is highly configurable in terms of waveforrns, PRF, bandwidth, etc. Antennas are mounted on a 2-axis gimbal in the belly radome of the aircraft which provides pointing and stabilization. Aircraft position and antenna attitude are derived from a dedicated navigational system and provided to the real-time SAR image processor for instant image reconstruction and analysis. This paper presents a further description of the test-bed and payload subsystems plus preliminary results of SAR imagery.

  20. Passive microwave remote sensing of salinity in coastal zones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swift, Calvin T.; Blume, Hans-Juergen C.; Kendall, Bruce M.

    1987-01-01

    The theory of measuring coastal-zone salinity from airborne microwave radiometers is developed. The theory, as presented, shows that precision measurements of salinity favor the lower microwave frequencies. To this end, L- and S-Band systems were built, and the flight results have shown that accuracies of at least one part per thousand were achieved.The aircraft results focus on flights conducted over the Chesapeake Bay and the mouth of the Savanna River off the Georgia Coast. This paper presents no new work, but rather summarizes the capabilities of the remote sensing technique.

  1. Microwave signatures of snow and fresh water ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmugge, T.; Wilheit, T. T.; Gloersen, P.; Meier, M. F.; Frank, D.; Dirmhirn, I.

    1973-01-01

    During March of 1971, the NASA Convair 990 Airborne Observatory carrying microwave radiometers in the wavelength range 0.8 to 21 cm was flown over dry snow with different substrata: Lake ice at Bear Lake in Utah; wet soil in the Yampa River Valley near Steamboat Springs, Colorado; and glacier ice, firm and wet snow on the South Cascade Glacier in Washington. The data presented indicate that the transparency of the snow cover is a function of wavelength. False-color images of microwave brightness temperatures obtained from a scanning radiometer operating at a wavelength of 1.55 cm demonstrate the capability of scanning radiometers for mapping snowfields.

  2. Modeling for Airborne Contamination

    SciTech Connect

    F.R. Faillace; Y. Yuan

    2000-08-31

    The objective of Modeling for Airborne Contamination (referred to from now on as ''this report'') is to provide a documented methodology, along with supporting information, for estimating the release, transport, and assessment of dose to workers from airborne radioactive contaminants within the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) subsurface during the pre-closure period. Specifically, this report provides engineers and scientists with methodologies for estimating how concentrations of contaminants might be distributed in the air and on the drift surfaces if released from waste packages inside the repository. This report also provides dose conversion factors for inhalation, air submersion, and ground exposure pathways used to derive doses to potentially exposed subsurface workers. The scope of this report is limited to radiological contaminants (particulate, volatile and gaseous) resulting from waste package leaks (if any) and surface contamination and their transport processes. Neutron activation of air, dust in the air and the rock walls of the drift during the preclosure time is not considered within the scope of this report. Any neutrons causing such activation are not themselves considered to be ''contaminants'' released from the waste package. This report: (1) Documents mathematical models and model parameters for evaluating airborne contaminant transport within the MGR subsurface; and (2) Provides tables of dose conversion factors for inhalation, air submersion, and ground exposure pathways for important radionuclides. The dose conversion factors for air submersion and ground exposure pathways are further limited to drift diameters of 7.62 m and 5.5 m, corresponding to the main and emplacement drifts, respectively. If the final repository design significantly deviates from these drift dimensions, the results in this report may require revision. The dose conversion factors are further derived by using concrete of sufficient thickness to simulate the drift

  3. Airborne agent concentration analysis

    DOEpatents

    Gelbard, Fred

    2004-02-03

    A method and system for inferring airborne contaminant concentrations in rooms without contaminant sensors, based on data collected by contaminant sensors in other rooms of a building, using known airflow interconnectivity data. The method solves a least squares problem that minimizes the difference between measured and predicted contaminant sensor concentrations with respect to an unknown contaminant release time. Solutions are constrained to providing non-negative initial contaminant concentrations in all rooms. The method can be used to identify a near-optimal distribution of sensors within the building, when then number of available sensors is less than the total number of rooms. This is achieved by having a system-sensor matrix that is non-singular, and by selecting that distribution which yields the lowest condition number of all the distributions considered. The method can predict one or more contaminant initial release points from the collected data.

  4. Airborne Wind Turbine

    SciTech Connect

    2010-09-01

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: Makani Power is developing an Airborne Wind Turbine (AWT) that eliminates 90% of the mass of a conventional wind turbine and accesses a stronger, more consistent wind at altitudes of near 1,000 feet. At these altitudes, 85% of the country can offer viable wind resources compared to only 15% accessible with current technology. Additionally, the Makani Power wing can be economically deployed in deep offshore waters, opening up a resource which is 4 times greater than the entire U.S. electrical generation capacity. Makani Power has demonstrated the core technology, including autonomous launch, land, and power generation with an 8 meter wingspan, 20 kW prototype. At commercial scale, Makani Power aims to develop a 600 kW, 28 meter wingspan product capable of delivering energy at an unsubsidized cost competitive with coal, the current benchmark for low-cost power.

  5. CARABAS - an airborne VHF SAR system

    SciTech Connect

    Larsson, B.; Frolined, P.O.; Gustavsson, A.

    1996-11-01

    There is an increasing interest in imaging radar systems operating at low frequencies, Examples of civilian and military applications are detection of stealth-designed man-made objects, targets hidden under foliage, biomass estimation, and penetration into glaciers or ground. CARABAS (Coherent All Radio Band Sensing) is a new airborne SAR system developed by FOA. It is designed for operation in the lowest part of the VHF band (20-90 NHz), using horizontal polarisation. This frequency region gives the system a good ability to penetrate vegetation and to some extent ground. CARABAS is the first known SAR sensor with a capability of diffraction limited imaging, i.e. a resolution in magnitude of the adopted wavelengths. A Sabreliner business jet aircraft is used as the airborne platform. Critical parts in the development have been the antenna system, the receiver and the processing algorithms. Based upon the experiences gained with CARABAS I a major system upgrade is now taking place. The new CARABAS II system is scheduled to fly in May 1996. This system is designed to give operational performance while CARABAS I was used to verify the feasibility. The first major field campaigns are planned for the second half of 1996. CARABAS II is jointly developed by FOA and Ericsson Microwave Systems AB in Sweden. This paper will give an overview of the system design and data collected with the current radar system, including some results for forested regions. The achieved system performance will be discussed, with a presentation of the major modifications made in the new CARABAS 11 system. 12 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Airborne Cloud Computing Environment (ACCE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardman, Sean; Freeborn, Dana; Crichton, Dan; Law, Emily; Kay-Im, Liz

    2011-01-01

    Airborne Cloud Computing Environment (ACCE) is JPL's internal investment to improve the return on airborne missions. Improve development performance of the data system. Improve return on the captured science data. The investment is to develop a common science data system capability for airborne instruments that encompasses the end-to-end lifecycle covering planning, provisioning of data system capabilities, and support for scientific analysis in order to improve the quality, cost effectiveness, and capabilities to enable new scientific discovery and research in earth observation.

  7. Aperture synthesis concepts in microwave remote sensing of the earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swift, Calvin T.; Le Vine, David M.; Ruf, Christopher S.

    1991-01-01

    The application of aperture synthesis concepts, used for many years in radio astronomy to achieve high image resolution at a reasonable cost, to remote sensing technology is discussed. The electronically scanned thinned array radiometer (ESTAR) is put forward as a viable alternative to improve spatial resolution by an order of magnitude over what is presently achieved by microwave imaging systems that are collecting data from earth orbit. Future developments in airborne sensor technology and potential spacecraft application are described.

  8. Airborne Particulate Threat Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Patrick Treado; Oksana Klueva; Jeffrey Beckstead

    2008-12-31

    Aerosol threat detection requires the ability to discern between threat agents and ambient background particulate matter (PM) encountered in the environment. To date, Raman imaging technology has been demonstrated as an effective strategy for the assessment of threat agents in the presence of specific, complex backgrounds. Expanding our understanding of the composition of ambient particulate matter background will improve the overall performance of Raman Chemical Imaging (RCI) detection strategies for the autonomous detection of airborne chemical and biological hazards. Improving RCI detection performance is strategic due to its potential to become a widely exploited detection approach by several U.S. government agencies. To improve the understanding of the ambient PM background with subsequent improvement in Raman threat detection capability, ChemImage undertook the Airborne Particulate Threat Assessment (APTA) Project in 2005-2008 through a collaborative effort with the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), under cooperative agreement number DE-FC26-05NT42594. During Phase 1 of the program, a novel PM classification based on molecular composition was developed based on a comprehensive review of the scientific literature. In addition, testing protocols were developed for ambient PM characterization. A signature database was developed based on a variety of microanalytical techniques, including scanning electron microscopy, FT-IR microspectroscopy, optical microscopy, fluorescence and Raman chemical imaging techniques. An automated particle integrated collector and detector (APICD) prototype was developed for automated collection, deposition and detection of biothreat agents in background PM. During Phase 2 of the program, ChemImage continued to refine the understanding of ambient background composition. Additionally, ChemImage enhanced the APICD to provide improved autonomy, sensitivity and specificity. Deliverables included a Final Report detailing our

  9. Microwave Radiometer (MWR) Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, VR

    2006-08-01

    The Microwave Radiometer (MWR) provides time-series measurements of column-integrated amounts of water vapor and liquid water. The instrument itself is essentially a sensitive microwave receiver. That is, it is tuned to measure the microwave emissions of the vapor and liquid water molecules in the atmosphere at specific frequencies.

  10. Microwave Workshop for Windows.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Colin

    1998-01-01

    "Microwave Workshop for Windows" consists of three programs that act as teaching aid and provide a circuit design utility within the field of microwave engineering. The first program is a computer representation of a graphical design tool; the second is an accurate visual and analytical representation of a microwave test bench; the third is a more…

  11. The Airborne Conical Scanning Millimeter-Wave Imaging Radiometer (CoSMIR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piepmeier, J. R.; Manning, W.; Wang, J. R.; Racette, P.; Krebs, Carolyn A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Results of the first science flight of the airborne Conical Scanning Millimeter-wave Imaging Radiometer (CoSMIR) for high-altitude observations from the NASA ER-2 is discussed. Imagery collected from the flight demonstrates CoSMIR's unique conical/cross-track imaging mode and provides comparison of CoSMIR measurements to those of the Special Sensor Microwave/Temperature-2 (SSM/T-2) satellite radiometer.

  12. Flight, orientation, and homing abilities of honeybees following exposure to 2. 45-GHz CW microwaves

    SciTech Connect

    Gary, N.E.; Westerdahl, B.B.

    1981-01-01

    Foraging-experienced honeybees retained normal flight, orientation, and memory functions after 30 minutes' exposure to 2.45-GHz CW microwaves at power densities from 3 to 50 mW/cm2. These experiments were conducted at power densities approximating and exceeding those that would be present above receiving antennas of the proposed solar power satellite (SPS) energy transmission system and for a duration exceeding that which honeybees living outside a rectenna might be expected to spend within the rectenna on individual foraging trips. There was no evidence that airborne invertebrates would be significantly affected during transient passage through microwaves associated with SPS ground-based microwave receiving stations.

  13. Airborne GLM Simulator (FEGS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quick, M.; Blakeslee, R. J.; Christian, H. J., Jr.; Stewart, M. F.; Podgorny, S.; Corredor, D.

    2015-12-01

    Real time lightning observations have proven to be useful for advanced warning and now-casting of severe weather events. In anticipation of the launch of the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) onboard GOES-R that will provide continuous real time observations of total (both cloud and ground) lightning, the Fly's Eye GLM Simulator (FEGS) is in production. FEGS is an airborne instrument designed to provide cal/val measurements for GLM from high altitude aircraft. It consists of a 5 x 5 array of telescopes each with a narrow passband filter to isolate the 777.4 nm neutral oxygen emission triplet radiated by lightning. The telescopes will measure the optical radiance emitted by lightning that is transmitted through the cloud top with a temporal resolution of 10 μs. When integrated on the NASA ER-2 aircraft, the FEGS array with its 90° field-of-view will observe a cloud top area nearly equal to a single GLM pixel. This design will allow FEGS to determine the temporal and spatial variation of light that contributes to a GLM event detection. In addition to the primary telescope array, the instrument includes 5 supplementary optical channels that observe alternate spectral emission features and will enable the use of FEGS for interesting lightning physics applications. Here we present an up-to-date summary of the project and a description of its scientific applications.

  14. Lunar phase function at 1064 nm from Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter passive and active radiometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barker, M. K.; Sun, X.; Mazarico, E.; Neumann, G. A.; Zuber, M. T.; Smith, D. E.

    2016-07-01

    We present initial calibration and results of passive radiometry collected by the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter onboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter over the course of 12 months. After correcting for time- and temperature-dependent dark noise and detector responsivity variations, the LOLA passive radiometry measurements are brought onto the absolute radiance scale of the SELENE Spectral Profiler. The resulting photometric precision is estimated to be ∼5%. We leverage the unique ability of LOLA to measure normal albedo to explore the 1064 nm phase function's dependence on various geologic parameters. On a global scale, we find that iron abundance and optical maturity (quantified by FeO and OMAT) are the dominant controlling parameters. Titanium abundance (TiO2), surface roughness on decimeter to decameter scales, and soil thermophysical properties have a smaller effect, but the latter two are correlated with OMAT, indicating that exposure age is the driving force behind their effects in a globally-averaged sense. The phase function also exhibits a dependence on surface slope at ∼300 m baselines, possibly the result of mass wasting exposing immature material and/or less space weathering due to reduced sky visibility. Modeling the photometric function in the Hapke framework, we find that, relative to the highlands, the maria exhibit decreased backscattering, a smaller opposition effect (OE) width, and a smaller OE amplitude. Immature highlands regolith has a higher backscattering fraction and a larger OE width compared to mature highlands regolith. Within the maria, the backscattering fraction and OE width show little dependence on TiO2 and OMAT. Variations in the phase function shape at large phase angles are observed in and around the Copernican-aged Jackson crater, including its dark halo, a putative impact melt deposit. Finally, the phase function of the Reiner Gamma Formation behaves more optically immature than is typical for its composition and OMAT

  15. Lunar Phase Function at 1064 Nm from Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter Passive and Active Radiometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, M. K.; Sun, X.; Mazarico, E.; Neumann, G. A.; Zuber, M. T.; Smith, D. E.

    2016-01-01

    We present initial calibration and results of passive radiometry collected by the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter onboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter over the course of 12 months. After correcting for time- and temperature-dependent dark noise and detector responsivity variations, the LOLA passive radiometry measurements are brought onto the absolute radiance scale of the SELENE Spectral Profiler. The resulting photometric precision is estimated to be 5%. We leverage the unique ability of LOLA to measure normal albedo to explore the 1064 nm phase function's dependence on various geologic parameters. On a global scale, we find that iron abundance and optical maturity (quantified by FeO and OMAT) are the dominant controlling parameters. Titanium abundance (TiO2), surface roughness on decimeter to decameter scales, and soil thermo- physical properties have a smaller effect, but the latter two are correlated with OMAT, indicating that exposure age is the driving force behind their effects in a globally-averaged sense. The phase function also exhibits a dependence on surface slope at approximately 300 m baselines, possibly the result of mass wasting exposing immature material and/or less space weathering due to reduced sky visibility. Modeling the photometric function in the Hapke framework, we find that, relative to the highlands, the maria exhibit decreased backscattering, a smaller opposition effect (OE) width, and a smaller OE amplitude. Immature highlands regolith has a higher backscattering fraction and a larger OE width compared to mature highlands regolith. Within the maria, the backscattering fraction and OE width show little dependence on TiO2 and OMAT. Variations in the phase function shape at large phase angles are observed in and around the Copernican-aged Jackson crater, including its dark halo, a putative impact melt deposit. Finally, the phase function of the Reiner Gamma Formation behaves more optically immature than is typical for its composition

  16. Separability of agricultural crops with airborne scatterometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, N. C.

    1983-01-01

    Backscattering measurements were acquired with airborne scatterometers over a site in Cass County, North Dakota on four days in the 1981 crop growing season. Data were acquired at three frequencies (L-, C- and Ku-bands), two polarizations (like and cross) and ten incidence angles (5 degrees to 50 degrees in 5 degree steps). Crop separability is studied in an hierarchical fashion. A two-class separability measure is defined, which compares within-class to between-class variability, to determine crop separability. The scatterometer channels with the best potential for crop separability are determined, based on this separability measure. Higher frequencies are more useful for discriminating small grains, while lower frequencies tend to separate non-small grains better. Some crops are more separable when row direction is taken into account. The effect of pixel purity is to increase the separability between all crops while not changing the order of useful scatterometer channels. Crude estimates of separability errors are calculated based on these analyses. These results are useful in selecting the parameters of active microwave systems in agricultural remote sensing.

  17. Microwave sintering of ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, W.B.

    1989-01-01

    Successful adaptation of microwave heating to the densification of ceramic materials require a marriage of microwave and materials technologies. Using an interdisciplinary team of microwave and materials engineers, we have successfully demonstrated the ability to density ceramic materials over a wide range of temperatures. Microstructural evolution during microwave sintering has been found to be significantly different from that observed in conventional sintering. Our results and those of others indicate that microwave sintering has the potential to fabricate components to near net shape with mechanical properties equivalent to hot pressed or hot isostatically pressed material. 6 refs., 11 figs.

  18. High brightness microwave lamp

    DOEpatents

    Kirkpatrick, Douglas A.; Dolan, James T.; MacLennan, Donald A.; Turner, Brian P.; Simpson, James E.

    2003-09-09

    An electrodeless microwave discharge lamp includes a source of microwave energy, a microwave cavity, a structure configured to transmit the microwave energy from the source to the microwave cavity, a bulb disposed within the microwave cavity, the bulb including a discharge forming fill which emits light when excited by the microwave energy, and a reflector disposed within the microwave cavity, wherein the reflector defines a reflective cavity which encompasses the bulb within its volume and has an inside surface area which is sufficiently less than an inside surface area of the microwave cavity. A portion of the reflector may define a light emitting aperture which extends from a position closely spaced to the bulb to a light transmissive end of the microwave cavity. Preferably, at least a portion of the reflector is spaced from a wall of the microwave cavity. The lamp may be substantially sealed from environmental contamination. The cavity may include a dielectric material is a sufficient amount to require a reduction in the size of the cavity to support the desired resonant mode.

  19. Efficient Structure Resonance Energy Transfer from Microwaves to Confined Acoustic Vibrations in Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Szu-Chi; Lin, Huan-Chun; Liu, Tzu-Ming; Lu, Jen-Tang; Hung, Wan-Ting; Huang, Yu-Ru; Tsai, Yi-Chun; Kao, Chuan-Liang; Chen, Shih-Yuan; Sun, Chi-Kuang

    2015-01-01

    Virus is known to resonate in the confined-acoustic dipolar mode with microwave of the same frequency. However this effect was not considered in previous virus-microwave interaction studies and microwave-based virus epidemic prevention. Here we show that this structure-resonant energy transfer effect from microwaves to virus can be efficient enough so that airborne virus was inactivated with reasonable microwave power density safe for the open public. We demonstrate this effect by measuring the residual viral infectivity of influenza A virus after illuminating microwaves with different frequencies and powers. We also established a theoretical model to estimate the microwaves power threshold for virus inactivation and good agreement with experiments was obtained. Such structure-resonant energy transfer induced inactivation is mainly through physically fracturing the virus structure, which was confirmed by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. These results provide a pathway toward establishing a new epidemic prevention strategy in open public for airborne virus. PMID:26647655

  20. Microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector

    DOEpatents

    Haddad, Waleed S.; Trebes, James E.

    2007-06-05

    The microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector includes a low power pulsed microwave transmitter with a broad-band antenna for producing a directional beam of microwaves, an index of refraction matching cap placed over the patients head, and an array of broad-band microwave receivers with collection antennae. The system of microwave transmitter and receivers are scanned around, and can also be positioned up and down the axis of the patients head. The microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector is a completely non-invasive device designed to detect and localize blood pooling and clots or to measure blood flow within the head or body. The device is based on low power pulsed microwave technology combined with specialized antennas and tomographic methods. The system can be used for rapid, non-invasive detection of blood pooling such as occurs with hemorrhagic stoke in human or animal patients as well as for the detection of hemorrhage within a patient's body.

  1. Microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector

    DOEpatents

    Haddad, Waleed S.; Trebes, James E.

    2002-01-01

    The microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector includes a low power pulsed microwave transmitter with a broad-band antenna for producing a directional beam of microwaves, an index of refraction matching cap placed over the patients head, and an array of broad-band microwave receivers with collection antennae. The system of microwave transmitter and receivers are scanned around, and can also be positioned up and down the axis of the patients head. The microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector is a completely non-invasive device designed to detect and localize blood pooling and clots or to measure blood flow within the head or body. The device is based on low power pulsed microwave technology combined with specialized antennas and tomographic methods. The system can be used for rapid, non-invasive detection of blood pooling such as occurs with hemorrhagic stroke in human or animal patients as well as for the detection of hemorrhage within a patient's body.

  2. Airborne Laser Polar Nephelometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grams, Gerald W.

    1973-01-01

    A polar nephelometer has been developed at NCAR to measure the angular variation of the intensity of light scattered by air molecules and particles. The system has been designed for airborne measurements using outside air ducted through a 5-cm diameter airflow tube; the sample volume is that which is common to the intersection of a collimated source beam and the detector field of view within the airflow tube. The source is a linearly polarized helium-neon laser beam. The optical system defines a collimated field-of-view (0.5deg half-angle) through a series of diaphragms located behind a I72-mm focal length objective lens. A photomultiplier tube is located immediately behind an aperture in the focal plane of the objective lens. The laser beam is mechanically chopped (on-off) at a rate of 5 Hz; a two-channel pulse counter, synchronized to the laser output, measures the photomultiplier pulse rate with the light beam both on and off. The difference in these measured pulse rates is directly proportional to the intensity of the scattered light from the volume common to the intersection of the laser beam and the detector field-of-view. Measurements can be made at scattering angles from 15deg to 165deg with reference to the direction of propagation of the light beam. Intermediate angles are obtained by selecting the angular increments desired between these extreme angles (any multiple of 0.1deg can be selected for the angular increment; 5deg is used in normal operation). Pulses provided by digital circuits control a stepping motor which sequentially rotates the detector by pre-selected angular increments. The synchronous photon-counting system automatically begins measurement of the scattered-light intensity immediately after the rotation to a new angle has been completed. The instrument has been flown on the NASA Convair 990 airborne laboratory to obtain data on the complex index of refraction of atmospheric aerosols. A particle impaction device is operated simultaneously

  3. UV Laser Photocarrier Radiometry of c-Silicon with Surface Thin Hydrogenated Amorphous Si Film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melnikov, A.; Mandelis, A.; Halliop, B.; Kherani, N. P.

    2015-06-01

    Photocarrier radiometry (PCR) with 355 nm laser excitation was used for the study of c-Si covered with intrinsic thin hydrogenated amorphous Si (i-a-Si:H) on one, or both, sides, with thicknesses ranging from 10 nm to 90 nm. Short wavelength excitation allows one to resolve the contribution of the upper i-a-S layer to the PCR signal due to the very small absorption depth (tens of nm) of the excitation beam. As a result, fundamental transport parameters of the composite structure can be evaluated from the PCR frequency dependence. A theoretical model has been developed to describe the diffuse carrier density wave (CDW) in this two-layer system. The model of the one-dimensional CDW fields for composite electronic solids involves front, interface, and back surface recombination velocities, the diffusion coefficient, recombination lifetimes in the upper and lower layers, and the unoccupied trap density at the interface. Simulations of the transport parameter influence on the PCR signal were performed, and the theoretical model was able to describe the experimental data accurately, therefore, making it possible to evaluate the transport parameters of i-a-Si:H and c-Si as well as to elucidate the role of interface electronic traps in the PCR frequency dependence under short wavelength excitation.

  4. Dental diagnostic clinical instrument ("Canary") development using photothermal radiometry and modulated luminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, R. J.; Sivagurunathan, K.; Garcia, J.; Matvienko, A.; Mandelis, A.; Abrams, S.

    2010-03-01

    Since 1999, our group at the CADIFT, University of Toronto, has developed the application of Frequency Domain Photothermal Radiometry (PTR) and Luminescence (LUM) to dental caries detection. Various cases including artificial caries detection have been studied and some of the inherent advantages of the adaptation of this technique to dental diagnostics in conjunction with modulated luminescence as a dual-probe technique have been reported. Based on these studies, a portable, compact diagnostic instrument for dental clinic use has been designed, assembled and tested. A semiconductor laser, optical fibers, a thermoelectric cooled mid-IR detector, and a USB connected data acquisition card were used. Software lock-in amplifier techniques were developed to compute amplitude and phase of PTR and LUM signals. In order to achieve fast measurement and acceptable signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for clinical application, swept sine waveforms were used. As a result sampling and stabilization time for each measurement point was reduced to a few seconds. A sophisticated software interface was designed to simultaneously record intra-oral camera images with PTR and LUM responses. Preliminary results using this instrument during clinical trials in a dental clinic showed this instrument could detect early caries both from PTR and LUM signals.

  5. Spectroscopic photothermal radiometry as a deep subsurface depth profilometric technique in semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaughnessy, D.; Mandelis, A.

    2003-01-01

    The theoretical and experimental aspects of spectroscopic photothermal radiometry (PTR) of semiconductors are presented and the potential of the technique for depth profilometry is established. A three-dimensional model of the PTR signal from a semiconductor excited by light of arbitrary optical penetration depth is presented. Numerical simulations of the PTR response to the electronic transport parameters and the optical penetration depth of the excitation source are presented. Intensity-modulated frequency scans and two-dimensional surface scans at fixed frequencies have been performed at several different absorption depths on a Si wafer with various degrees of mechanical damage introduced to either the front or the back surface. The electronic transport parameters obtained from fitting the frequency scans to the theoretical model and analysis of the experimental curves show that while the surface recombination velocities extracted from the fits do not vary significantly with excitation wavelength, the carrier recombination lifetime and the overall sensitivity of the photothermal radiometric signal to spatially localized damage is strongly influenced by the proximity of the injected excess carrier density centroid to the defect location. This correlation between the sensitivity of the PTR signal to a localized defect and the proximity of the injected carriers to the defect demonstrates the potential for spectroscopic PTR as a depth profilometric technique for semiconductors.

  6. Three-layer photocarrier radiometry model of ion-implanted silicon wafers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bincheng; Shaughnessy, Derrick; Mandelis, Andreas; Batista, Jerias; Garcia, Jose

    2004-06-01

    A three-dimensional three-layer model is presented for the quantitative understanding of the infrared photocarrier radiometry (PCR) response of ion-implanted semiconductors, specifically Si. In addition to the implanted layer and intact substrate normally assumed in all existing two-layer theoretical models to describe the photothermal response of ion-implanted semiconductors, a surface layer is considered in this three-layer model to represent a thin, less severally damaged region close to the surface. The effects on the PCR signal of several structural, transport, and optical properties of ion-implanted silicon wafers affected significantly by the ion implantation process (minority carrier lifetime, diffusion coefficient, optical absorption coefficient, thickness of the implanted layer, and front surface recombination velocity) are discussed. The dependence of the PCR signal on the ion implantation dose is theoretically calculated and compared to experimental results. Good agreement between experimental data and theoretical calculations is obtained. Both theoretical and experimental results show the PCR dependence on dose can be separated into four regions with the transition across each region defined by the implantation-induced electrical and optical degrees of damage, respectively, as the electrical and optical damage occurs at different dose ranges. It is also shown that the PCR amplitude decreases monotonically with increasing implantation dose. This monotonic dependence provides the potential of the PCR technique for industrial applications in semiconductor metrology.

  7. Geodesy by radio interferometry - Water vapor radiometry for estimation of the wet delay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elgered, G.; Davis, J. L.; Herring, T. A.; Shapiro, I. I.

    1991-01-01

    An important source of error in VLBI estimates of baseline length is unmodeled variations of the refractivity of the neutral atmosphere along the propagation path of the radio signals. This paper presents and discusses the method of using data from a water vapor radiomete (WVR) to correct for the propagation delay caused by atmospheric water vapor, the major cause of these variations. Data from different WVRs are compared with estimated propagation delays obtained by Kalman filtering of the VLBI data themselves. The consequences of using either WVR data or Kalman filtering to correct for atmospheric propagation delay at the Onsala VLBI site are investigated by studying the repeatability of estimated baseline lengths from Onsala to several other sites. The repeatability obtained for baseline length estimates shows that the methods of water vapor radiometry and Kalman filtering offer comparable accuracies when applied to VLBI observations obtained in the climate of the Swedish west coast. For the most frequently measured baseline in this study, the use of WVR data yielded a 13 percent smaller weighted-root-mean-square (WRMS) scatter of the baseline length estimates compared to the use of a Kalman filter. It is also clear that the 'best' minimum elevationi angle for VLBI observations depends on the accuracy of the determinations of the total propagation delay to be used, since the error in this delay increases with increasing air mass.

  8. Measuring the thermal conductivity of liquids using photo-thermal radiometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusiak, A.; Pradere, Ch; Battaglia, J. L.

    2010-01-01

    A method for the estimation of thermal conductivity of liquids is proposed. The measurement is based on the front face-modulated photothermal radiometry usually used for studies of solid deposit (thin film) on substrate systems. The system considered here is in the three-layer form, the intermediate layer being the investigated liquid. An experimental setup has been developed in order to avoid the drawbacks of the classical methods such as flash or hot wire measurement. The measurement is carried out with low-temperature oscillations, and the studied liquid is confined in a specific (low thickness) container. This configuration leads to very low Rayleigh number and permits us to eliminate the convection phenomenon during the experiment and to characterize a very small (~1 µl) volume of liquid. This is an important feature for metrology of expensive or hazardous samples. According to the knowledge of the thermophysical properties of two solid layers external to a liquid, the phase lag between the thermal perturbation and the response of the sample is used as the experimental data. The measurement was validated using two well-known liquids: water and sunflower oil.

  9. Tower-Perturbation Measurements in Above-Water Radiometry. Volume 23

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooker, Stanford B. (Editor); Firestone, Elaine R. (Editor); Zibordi, Giuseppe; Berthon, Jean-Francois; D'Alimonte, Davide; vanderLinde, Dirk; Brown, James W.

    2003-01-01

    This report documents the scientific activities which took place during June 2001 and June 2002 on the Acqua Alta Oceanographic Tower (AAOT) in the northern Adriatic Sea. The primary objective of these field campaigns was to quantify the effect of platform perturbations (principally reflections of sunlight onto the sea surface) on above-water measurements of water-leaving radiances. The deployment goals documented in this report were to: a) collect an extensive and simultaneous set of above- and in-water optical measurements under predominantly clear-sky conditions; b) establish the vertical properties of the water column using a variety of ancillary measurements, many of which were taken coincidently with the optical measurements; and c) determine the bulk properties of the environment using a diversity of atmospheric, biogeochemical, and meteorological techniques. A preliminary assessment of the data collected during the two field campaigns shows the perturbation in above-water radiometry caused by a large offshore structure is very similar to that caused by a large research vessel.

  10. A Bottom-Up Engineered Broadband Optical Nanoabsorber for Radiometry and Energy Harnessing Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaul, Anupama B.; Coles, James B.; Megerian, Krikor G.; Eastwood, Michael; Green, Robert O.; Bandaru, Prabhakar R.

    2013-01-01

    Optical absorbers based on vertically aligned multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), synthesized using electric-field assisted growth, are described here that show an ultra-low reflectance, 100X lower compared to Au-black from wavelength lamba approximately 350 nm - 2.5 micron. A bi-metallic Co/Ti layer was shown to catalyze a high site density of MWCNTs on metallic substrates and the optical properties of the absorbers were engineered by controlling the bottom-up synthesis conditions using dc plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). Reflectance measurements on the MWCNT absorbers after heating them in air to 400deg showed negligible changes in reflectance which was still low, approximately 0.022 % at lamba approximately 2 micron. In contrast, the percolated structure of the reference Au-black samples collapsed completely after heating, causing the optical response to degrade at temperatures as low as 200deg. The high optical absorption efficiency of the MWCNT absorbers, synthesized on metallic substrates, over a broad spectral range, coupled with their thermal ruggedness, suggests they have promise in solar energy harnessing applications, as well as thermal detectors for radiometry.

  11. New contactless method for thermal diffusivity measurements using modulated photothermal radiometry.

    PubMed

    Pham Tu Quoc, S; Cheymol, G; Semerok, A

    2014-05-01

    Modulated photothermal radiometry is a non-destructive and contactless technique for the characterization of materials. It has two major advantages: a good signal-to-noise ratio through a synchronous detection and a low dependence on the heating power and the optical properties of the sample surface. This paper presents a new method for characterizing the thermal diffusivity of a material when the phase shift between a modulated laser power signal and the thermal signal of a plate sample is known at different frequencies. The method is based on a three-dimensional analytical model which is used to determine the temperature amplitude and the phase in the laser heating of the plate. A new simple formula was developed through multi-parametric analysis to determine the thermal diffusivity of the plate with knowledge of the frequency at the minimum phase shift, the laser beam radius r0 and the sample thickness L. This method was developed to control the variation of the thermal diffusivity of nuclear components and it was first applied to determine the thermal diffusivity of different metals: 304 L stainless steel, nickel, titanium, tungsten, molybdenum, zinc, and iron. The experimental results were obtained with 5%-10% accuracy and corresponded well with the reference values. The present paper also demonstrates the limit of application of this method for plate with thickness r0/100 ≤ L ≤ r0/2. The technique is deemed interesting for the characterization of barely accessible components that require a contactless measurement. PMID:24880399

  12. Optical layer development for thin films thermal conductivity measurement by pulsed photothermal radiometry

    SciTech Connect

    Martan, J.

    2015-01-15

    Measurement of thermal conductivity and volumetric specific heat of optically transparent thin films presents a challenge for optical-based measurement methods like pulsed photothermal radiometry. We present two approaches: (i) addition of an opaque optical layer to the surface and (ii) approximate correction of the mathematical model to incorporate semitransparency of the film. Different single layer and multilayer additive optical layers were tested. The materials of the optical layers were chosen according to analysis and measurement of their optical properties: emissivity and absorption coefficient. Presented are thermal properties’ measurement results for 6 different thin films with wide range of thermal conductivity in three configurations of surface: as deposited, added Ti layer, and added Ti/TiAlSiN layer. Measurements were done in dependence on temperature from room temperature to 500 °C. The obtained thermal effusivity evolution in time after the laser pulse shows different effects of the surface layers: apparent effusivity change and time delay. Suitability of different measurement configurations is discussed and results of high temperature testing of different optical layers are presented.

  13. Sensor-independent approach to the vicarious calibration of satellite ocean color radiometry.

    PubMed

    Franz, Bryan A; Bailey, Sean W; Werdell, P Jeremy; McClain, Charles R

    2007-08-01

    The retrieval of ocean color radiometry from space-based sensors requires on-orbit vicarious calibration to achieve the level of accuracy desired for quantitative oceanographic applications. The approach developed by the NASA Ocean Biology Processing Group (OBPG) adjusts the integrated instrument and atmospheric correction system to retrieve normalized water-leaving radiances that are in agreement with ground truth measurements. The method is independent of the satellite sensor or the source of the ground truth data, but it is specific to the atmospheric correction algorithm. The OBPG vicarious calibration approach is described in detail, and results are presented for the operational calibration of SeaWiFS using data from the Marine Optical Buoy (MOBY) and observations of clear-water sites in the South Pacific and southern Indian Ocean. It is shown that the vicarious calibration allows SeaWiFS to reproduce the MOBY radiances and achieve good agreement with radiometric and chlorophyll a measurements from independent in situ sources. We also find that the derived vicarious gains show no significant temporal or geometric dependencies, and that the mission-average calibration reaches stability after approximately 20-40 high-quality calibration samples. Finally, we demonstrate that the performance of the vicariously calibrated retrieval system is relatively insensitive to the assumptions inherent in our approach.

  14. Effective interface state effects in hydrogenated amorphous-crystalline silicon heterostructures using ultraviolet laser photocarrier radiometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melnikov, A.; Mandelis, A.; Halliop, B.; Kherani, N. P.

    2013-12-01

    Ultraviolet photocarrier radiometry (UV-PCR) was used for the characterization of thin-film (nanolayer) intrinsic hydrogenated amorphous silicon (i-a-Si:H) on c-Si. The small absorption depth (approximately 10 nm at 355 nm laser excitation) leads to strong influence of the nanolayer parameters on the propagation and recombination of the photocarrier density wave (CDW) within the layer and the substrate. A theoretical PCR model including the presence of effective interface carrier traps was developed and used to evaluate the transport parameters of the substrate c-Si as well as those of the i-a-Si:H nanolayer. Unlike conventional optoelectronic characterization methods such as photoconductance, photovoltage, and photoluminescence, UV-PCR can be applied to more complete quantitative characterization of a-Si:H/c-Si heterojunction solar cells, including transport properties and defect structures. The quantitative results elucidate the strong effect of a front-surface passivating nanolayer on the transport properties of the entire structure as the result of effective a-Si:H/c-Si interface trap neutralization through occupation. A further dramatic improvement of those properties with the addition of a back-surface passivating nanolayer is observed and interpreted as the result of the interaction of the increased excess bulk CDW with, and more complete occupation and neutralization of, effective front interface traps.

  15. Results in coastal waters with high resolution in situ spectral radiometry: The Marine Optical System ROV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yarbrough, Mark; Feinholz, Michael; Flora, Stephanie; Houlihan, Terrance; Johnson, B. Carol; Kim, Yong S.; Murphy, Marilyn Y.; Ondrusek, Michael; Clark, Dennis

    2007-09-01

    The water-leaving spectral radiance is a basic ocean color remote sensing parameters required for the vicarious calibration. Determination of water-leaving spectral radiance using in-water radiometry requires measurements of the upwelling spectral radiance at several depths. The Marine Optical System (MOS) Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) is a portable, fiber-coupled, high-resolution spectroradiometer system with spectral coverage from 340 nm to 960 nm. MOS was developed at the same time as the Marine Optical Buoy (MOBY) spectrometer system and is optically identical except that it is configured as a profiling instrument. Concerns with instrument self-shadowing because of the large exterior dimensions of the MOS underwater housing led to adapting MOS and ROV technology. This system provides for measurement of the near-surface upwelled spectral radiance while minimizing the effects of shadowing. A major advantage of this configuration is that the ROV provides the capability to acquire measurements 5 cm to 10 cm below the water surface and is capable of very accurate depth control (1 cm) allowing for high vertical resolution observations within the very near-surface. We describe the integrated system and its characterization and calibration. Initial measurements and results from observations of coral reefs in Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, extremely turbid waters in the Chesapeake Bay, Maryland, and in Case 1 waters off Southern Oahu, Hawaii are presented.

  16. Effective interface state effects in hydrogenated amorphous-crystalline silicon heterostructures using ultraviolet laser photocarrier radiometry

    SciTech Connect

    Melnikov, A.; Mandelis, A.; Halliop, B.; Kherani, N. P.

    2013-12-28

    Ultraviolet photocarrier radiometry (UV-PCR) was used for the characterization of thin-film (nanolayer) intrinsic hydrogenated amorphous silicon (i-a-Si:H) on c-Si. The small absorption depth (approximately 10 nm at 355 nm laser excitation) leads to strong influence of the nanolayer parameters on the propagation and recombination of the photocarrier density wave (CDW) within the layer and the substrate. A theoretical PCR model including the presence of effective interface carrier traps was developed and used to evaluate the transport parameters of the substrate c-Si as well as those of the i-a-Si:H nanolayer. Unlike conventional optoelectronic characterization methods such as photoconductance, photovoltage, and photoluminescence, UV-PCR can be applied to more complete quantitative characterization of a-Si:H/c-Si heterojunction solar cells, including transport properties and defect structures. The quantitative results elucidate the strong effect of a front-surface passivating nanolayer on the transport properties of the entire structure as the result of effective a-Si:H/c-Si interface trap neutralization through occupation. A further dramatic improvement of those properties with the addition of a back-surface passivating nanolayer is observed and interpreted as the result of the interaction of the increased excess bulk CDW with, and more complete occupation and neutralization of, effective front interface traps.

  17. Non-invasive detection of osteoporotic bone loss using photothermal radiometry and modulated luminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwan, Chi-Hang; Matvienko, Anna; Mandelis, Andreas

    2008-02-01

    Osteoporosis is a skeletal disorder characterized by a compromised bone strength predisposing a person to an increased risk of fracture. The early detection of osteoporosis is important to a successful treatment. Current prominent bone densitometry techniques include, among others, Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry (DEXA) and Mechanical Response Tissue Analysis (MRTA). However, DEXA uses ionizing radiation and MRTA results are often unreliable. Simultaneous Photothermal Radiometry (PTR) and Modulated Luminescence (LUM) measurements can be a non-ionizing, noninvasive and reliable alternative to the aforementioned diagnostics techniques. Controlled mineral loss was simulated with sequential etching of a human skull bone. During the experiments, a low-power modulated laser illuminated the sample surface. The absorbed incident optical energy was then re-emitted either non-radiatively, in the form of thermal waves (PTR), or radiatively as lumimescence light emission (LUM). The experimental setup consisted of a semiconductor laser (635 nm, 20 mW), two lock-in amplifiers, a mercury-cadmium-telluride IR detector for PTR, a photodiode for LUM and a computer. A one-dimensional, one-layer theoretical model for LUM and PTR was developed to analyze the experimental data and extract optical and thermal properties of the sample.

  18. Passive Microwave Studies of Atmospheric Precipitation and State

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staelin, David H.; Rosenkranz, Philip W.; Shiue, James C. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The principal contributions of this research on novel passive microwave spectral techniques are in the areas of: (1) global precipitation mapping using the opaque spectral bands on research and operational weather satellites, (2) development and analysis of extensive aircraft observational imaging data sets obtained using the MIT instrument NAST-M near 54 and 118 GHz over hurricanes and weather ranging from tropical to polar; simultaneous data from the 8500-channel infrared spectrometer NAST-I was obtained and analyzed separately, (3) estimation of hydrometeor diameters in cell tops using data from aircraft and spacecraft, (4) continued improvement of expressions for atmospheric transmittance at millimeter and sub-millimeter wavelengths, (5) development and airborne use of spectrometers operating near 183- and 425-GHz bands, appropriate to practical systems in geosynchronous orbit, and (6) preliminary studies of the design and performance of future geosynchronous microwave sounders for temperature and humidity profiles and for continuous monitoring of regional precipitation through most clouds. This work was a natural extension of work under NASA Grant NAG5-2545 and its predecessors. This earlier work had developed improved airborne imaging microwave spectrometers and had shown their sensitivity to precipitation altitude and character. They also had prepared the foundations for precipitation estimation using the opaque microwave bands. The field demonstration and improvement of these capabilities was then a central part of the present research reported here, during which period the first AMSU data became available and several hurricanes were overflown by NAST-M, yielding unique data about their microwave signatures. This present work has in turn helped lay the foundation for future progress in incorporating the opaque microwave channels in systems for climatologically precise global precipitation mapping from current and future operational satellites. Extension of

  19. Airborne Sunphotometer Studies of Aerosol Properties and Effects, Including Closure Among Satellite, Suborbital Remote, and In situ Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russlee, Philip B.; Schmid, B.; Redemann, J.; Livingston, J. M.; Bergstrom, R. W.; Ramirez, S. A.; Hipskind, R. Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Airborne sunphotometry has been used to measure aerosols from North America, Europe, and Africa in coordination with satellite and in situ measurements in TARFOX (1996), ACE-2 (1997), PRIDE (2000), and SAFARI 2000. Similar coordinated measurements of Asian aerosols are being conducted this spring in ACE-Asia and are planned for North American aerosols this summer in CLAMS. This paper summarizes the approaches used, key results, and implications for aerosol properties and effects, such as single scattering albedo and regional radiative forcing. The approaches exploit the three-dimensional mobility of airborne sunphotometry to access satellite scenes over diverse surfaces (including open ocean with and without sunglint) and to match exactly the atmospheric layers sampled by airborne in situ measurements and other radiometers. These measurements permit tests of the consistency, or closure, among such diverse measurements as aerosol size-resolved chemical composition; number or mass concentration; light extinction, absorption, and scattering (total, hemispheric back and 180 deg.); and radiative fluxes. In this way the airborne sunphotometer measurements provide a key link between satellite and in situ measurements that helps to understand any discrepancies that are found. These comparisons have led to several characteristic results. Typically these include: (1) Better agreement among different types of remote measurements than between remote and in situ measurements. (2) More extinction derived from transmission measurements than from in situ measurements. (3) Larger aerosol absorption inferred from flux radiometry than from in situ measurements. Aerosol intensive properties derived from these closure studies have been combined with satellite-retrieved fields of optical depth to produce fields of regional radiative forcing. We show results for the North Atlantic derived from AVHRR optical depths and aerosol intensive properties from TARFOX and ACE-2. Companion papers

  20. Airborne laser topographic mapping results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krabill, W. B.; Collins, J. G.; Link, L. E.; Swift, R. N.; Butler, M. L.

    1984-01-01

    The results of terrain mapping experiments utilizing the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Airborne Oceanographic Lidar (AOL) over forested areas are presented. The flight tests were conducted as part of a joint NASA/U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (CE) investigation aimed at evaluating the potential of an airborne laser ranging system to provide cross-sectional topographic data on flood plains that are difficult and expensive to survey using conventional techniques. The data described in this paper were obtained in the Wolf River Basin located near Memphis, TN. Results from surveys conducted under winter 'leaves off' and summer 'leaves on' conditions, aspects of day and night operation, and data obtained from decidous and coniferous tree types are compared. Data processing techniques are reviewed. Conclusions relative to accuracy and present limitations of the AOL, and airborne lidar systems in general, to terrain mapping over forested areas are discussed.

  1. An airborne isothermal haze chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hindman, E. E.

    1981-01-01

    Thermal gradient diffusion cloud chambers (TGDCC) are used to determine the concentrations of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) with critical supersaturations greater than or equal to about 0.2%. The CCN concentrations measured with the airborne IHC were lower than theoretically predicted by factors ranging between 7.9 and 9.0. The CCN concentrations measured with the airborne IHC were lower than the concentrations measured with the larger laboratory IHC's by factors ranging between 3.9 and 7.5. The bounds of the supersaturation ranges of the airborne IHC and the CSU-Mee TGDCC do not overlap. Nevertheless, the slopes of the interpolated data between the bounds agree favorably with the theoretical slopes.

  2. WESTERN AIRBORNE CONTAMINANTS ASSESSMENT PROJECT RESEARCH PLAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of the Western Airborne Contaminants Assessment Project (WACAP) is to assess the deposition of airborne contaminants in Western National Parks, providing regional and local information on exposure, accumulation, impacts, and probable sources. This project is being desig...

  3. Analytical evaluation of ILM sensors. Volume 2: Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirk, R. J.

    1975-01-01

    The applicability of various sensing concepts to independent landing monitor systems was analyzed. Microwave landing system MLS accuracy requirements are presented along with a description of MLS airborne equipment. Computer programs developed during the analysis are described and include: a mathematical computer model for use in the performance assessment of reconnaissance sensor systems; a theoretical formulation of electromagnetic scattering to generate data at high incidence angles; atmospheric attenuation of microwaves; and microwave radiometry, programs

  4. Progress on conformal microwave array applicators for heating chestwall disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stauffer, P. R.; Maccarini, P. F.; Juang, T.; Jacobsen, S. K.; Gaeta, C. J.; Schlorff, J. L.; Milligan, A. J.

    2007-02-01

    Previous studies have reported the computer modeling, CAD design, and theoretical performance of single and multiple antenna arrays of Dual Concentric Conductor (DCC) square slot radiators driven at 915 and 433 MHz. Subsequently, practical CAD designs of microstrip antenna arrays constructed on thin and flexible printed circuit board (PCB) material were reported which evolved into large Conformal Microwave Array (CMA) sheets that could wrap around the surface of the human torso for delivering microwave energy to large areas of superficial tissue. Although uniform and adjustable radiation patterns have been demonstrated from multiple element applicators radiating into simple homogeneous phantom loads, the contoured and heterogeneous tissue loads typical of chestwall recurrent breast cancer have required additional design efforts to achieve good coupling and efficient heating from the increasingly larger conformal array applicators used to treat large area contoured patient anatomy. Thus recent work has extended the theoretical optimization of DCC antennas to improve radiation efficiency of each individual aperture and reduce mismatch reflections, radiation losses, noise, and cross coupling of the feedline distribution network of large array configurations. Design improvements have also been incorporated into the supporting bolus structure to maintain effective coupling of DCC antennas into contoured anatomy and to monitor and control surface temperatures under the entire array. New approaches for non-invasive monitoring of surface and sub-surface tissue temperatures under each independent heat source are described that make use of microwave radiometry and flexible sheet grid arrays of thermal sensors. Efforts to optimize the clinical patient interface and move from planar rectangular shapes to contoured vest applicators that accommodate entire disease in a larger number of patients are summarized. By applying heat more uniformly to large areas of contoured anatomy

  5. Atmospheric limitations to clock synchronization at microwave frequencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Resch, G. M.

    1984-01-01

    Clock synchronization schemes utilizing microwave signals that pass through the Earth's atmosphere are ultimately limited by our ability to correct for the variable delay imposed by the atmosphere. The atmosphere is non-dispersive at microwave frequencies and imposes a delay of roughly 8 nanosec times the cosecant of the elevation angle. This delay is composed of two parts, the delay due to water vapor molecules (i.e., the wet delay), and the delay due to all other atmospheric constituents (i.e., the dry delay). Water vapor contributes approximately 5 to 10% of the total atmospheric delay but is highly variable, not well mixed, and difficult to estimate from surface air measurements. However, the techniques of passive remote sensing using microwave radiometry can be used to estimate the line of sight delay due to water vapor with potential accuracies of 10 to 20 picosec. The devices that are used are called water vapor radiometers and simply measure the power emitted by the water vapor molecule at the 22.2 GHz spectral line. An additional power measurement is usually included at 31.4 GHz in order to compensate for the effect of liquid water (e.g., clouds). The dry atmosphere is generally in something close to hydrostatic equilibrium and its delay contribution at zenith can be estimated quite well from a simple barometric measurement. At low elevation angles one must compensate for refractive bending and possible variations in the vertical refractivity profile. With care these effects can be estimated with accuracies on the order of 30 picosec down to elevation angles of 10 degree.

  6. Airborne Transmission of Bordetella pertussis

    PubMed Central

    Warfel, Jason M.; Beren, Joel; Merkel, Tod J.

    2012-01-01

    Pertussis is a contagious, acute respiratory illness caused by the bacterial pathogen Bordetella pertussis. Although it is widely believed that transmission of B. pertussis occurs via aerosolized respiratory droplets, no controlled study has ever documented airborne transmission of pertussis. We set out to determine if airborne transmission occurs between infected and naive animals, utilizing the baboon model of pertussis. Our results showed that 100% of exposed naive animals became infected even when physical contact was prevented, demonstrating that pertussis transmission occurs via aerosolized respiratory droplets. PMID:22807521

  7. EDITORIAL: The 10th International Conference on New Developments and Applications in Optical Radiometry (NEWRAD 2008) The 10th International Conference on New Developments and Applications in Optical Radiometry (NEWRAD 2008)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikonen, Erkki

    2009-08-01

    This special issue of Metrologia contains selected papers from the NEWRAD 2008 Conference, held in Daejeon, Korea, on 12-16 October 2008. NEWRAD 2008 continues a series of conferences on radiometry entitled 'New Developments and Applications in Optical Radiometry', which have taken place as follows: Cambridge, MA, USA (1985) Teddington, UK (1988) Davos, Switzerland (1990) Baltimore, MD, USA (1992) Berlin, Germany (1994) Tucson, AZ, USA (1997) Madrid, Spain (1999) Gaithersburg, MD, USA (2002) Davos, Switzerland (2005) Daejeon, Korea (2008) As the first NEWRAD Conference arranged in Asia, NEWRAD 2008 opened a new era for this series of conferences. The conference was followed by a Workshop on High Temperature Fixed Points and meetings of the Working Groups of the Consultative Committee for Photometry and Radiometry (CCPR). The organizer of all these events was Dr In Won Lee of the Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science (KRISS). The NEWRAD Scientific Committee thanks him and his team for their tremendous efforts which maintained and developed the high standards of previous NEWRAD Conferences. The specific themes of NEWRAD 2008 included optical measurements related to displays, energy and terahertz applications. Furthermore, half a day of sessions was devoted to both remote sensing and to few-photon sources and detectors. A total of 140 papers were presented, including 11 invited and 30 contributed talks. The conference proceedings containing two-page extended abstracts were distributed to the participants as a paper volume and on a USB memory stick. The authors of selected contributions were invited to submit a full paper for this special issue. The submitted papers were handled by the normal reviewing procedures of Metrologia. On behalf of the Scientific Committee, I thank the reviewers and editorial staff of Metrologia for careful processing of the manuscripts. It is evident that this special issue, like its predecessors, will serve as an important

  8. FOREWORD: The 11th International Conference on New Developments and Applications in Optical Radiometry (NEWRAD 2011) The 11th International Conference on New Developments and Applications in Optical Radiometry (NEWRAD 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikonen, Erkki

    2012-04-01

    The NEWRAD Conferences bring together people from the National Metrology Institutes and the principal user communities of advanced radiometry, including Earth observation and climate communities. The eleventh NEWRAD Conference was held in Hawaii, USA, between 18 and 23 September 2011. The Conference was organized by the Moss Landing Marine Laboratories, Maui, at the Grand Wailea resort. The organization was a joint Pacific effort, where handling of the submitted abstracts and website administration were taken care of by KRISS (Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science) and NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology), respectively. As satellite activities, the working groups of CCPR (Consultative Committee for Photometry and Radiometry) and the MOBY project arranged meetings at the Grand Wailea before and after the Conference. The Conference was attended by more than a hundred registered participants from five continents, which matches the number of foreign participants of NEWRAD 2008 at KRISS. A total of 153 papers were presented at NEWRAD 2011, of which 10 were invited talks and 100 posters. The poster sessions during the extended lunch breaks created a stimulating atmosphere for lively discussions and exchange of ideas. A technical visit was arranged to the astronomical observatory at the summit of Haleakala volcano, where some of the world's most advanced telescope systems are operated. The relaxed Hawaiian life, nearby ocean and excellent weather conditions gave an unprecedented flavour to this NEWRAD Conference. The abstract classification system was renewed for NEWRAD 2011, consisting of the following categories: EAO: Earth observation SSR: Solar/stellar radiometry SBR: Source-based radiometry OPM: Optical properties of materials/components DBR: Detector-based radiometry SFR: Single/few-photon radiometry. The new system worked well for refereeing and program purposes. Conference proceedings containing two-page extended abstracts were

  9. Validation of Rain Rate Retrievals for the Airborne Hurricane Imaging Radiometer (HIRAD)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacob, Maria; Salemirad, Matin; Jones, W. Linwood; Biswas, Sayak; Cecil, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    On board of the NASA's Global Hawk (AV1) aircraft there are two microwave, namely: the passive microwave Hurricane Imaging Radiometer (HIRAD), and the active microwave High-altitude Imaging Wind and Rain Airborne Profiler (HIWRAP). This paper presents results from an unplanned rain rate measurement validation opportunity that occurred in 2013, when the Global Hawk aircraft flew over an intense tropical squall-line that was simultaneously observed, by the Tampa NEXRAD meteorological radar. During this experiment, Global Hawk flying at an altitude of 18 km made 3 passes over the rapidly propagating thunderstorm, while the TAMPA NEXRAD perform volume scans on a 5-minute interval. NEXRAD 2D images of rain rate (mm/hr) were obtained at two altitudes (3 km & 6 km), which serve as surface truth for the HIRAD rain rate retrievals. In this paper, results are presented of the three-way inter-comparison of HIRAD Tb, HIWRAP dbZ and NEXRAD rain rate imagery.

  10. NASA Airborne Lidar 1982-1984 Flights

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-05-26

    NASA Airborne Lidar 1982-1984 Flights Data from the 1982 NASA Langley Airborne Lidar flights following the eruption of El Chichon ... continuing to January 1984. Transcribed from the following NASA Tech Reports: McCormick, M. P., and M. T. Osborn, Airborne lidar ...

  11. Data Management Challenges for Airborne NASA Earth Venture Sub-Orbital (EVS-1) Investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyer, A.; Cook, R. B.; Santhana Vannan, S. K.

    2014-12-01

    The ORNL DAAC is developing a technology infrastructure to archive airborne remote sensing observations from two Earth System Science Pathfinder Missions. The two missions are CARVE: Carbon in Arctic Reservoirs Vulnerability Experiment and AirMOSS: Airborne Microwave Observatory of Subcanopy and Subsurface. The two missions are collecting over 140 TB of data from extensive ground-based and airborne instruments. The metadata and documentation requirements necessary for proper archive and dissemination of such transect-based, and often 3-dimensional, airborne data are quite different from the traditional field campaign and satellite remote sensing data streams. Staff at the ORNL DAAC are currently working with the CARVE and AirMOSS teams as well as investigating cyberinfrastructures from other DAACs to develop a metadata and data infrastructure for airborne data that will enable spatial, flight-line, or keyword-based search and discovery, integration as needed of related satellite- and ground-based data sets, and subsetting and visualization tools for both CARVE and AirMOSS. We discuss challenges, progress, and lessons learned.

  12. SLAPex Freeze/Thaw 2015: The First Dedicated Soil Freeze/Thaw Airborne Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Edward; Wu, Albert; DeMarco, Eugenia; Powers, Jarrett; Berg, Aaron; Rowlandson, Tracy; Freeman, Jacqueline; Gottfried, Kurt; Toose, Peter; Roy, Alexandre; Derksen, Chris; Royer, Alain; Belair, Stephane; Houser, Paul; McDonald, Kyle; Entin, Jared; Lewis, Kristen

    2016-01-01

    Soil freezing and thawing is an important process in the terrestrial water, energy, and carbon cycles, marking the change between two very different hydraulic, thermal, and biological regimes. NASA's Soil Moisture Active/Passive (SMAP) mission includes a binary freeze/thaw data product. While there have been ground-based remote sensing field measurements observing soil freeze/thaw at the point scale, and airborne campaigns that observed some frozen soil areas (e.g., BOREAS), the recently-completed SLAPex Freeze/Thaw (F/T) campaign is the first airborne campaign dedicated solely to observing frozen/thawed soil with both passive and active microwave sensors and dedicated ground truth, in order to enable detailed process-level exploration of the remote sensing signatures and in situ soil conditions. SLAPex F/T utilized the Scanning L-band Active/Passive (SLAP) instrument, an airborne simulator of SMAP developed at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, and was conducted near Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, in October/November, 2015. Future soil moisture missions are also expected to include soil freeze/thaw products, and the loss of the radar on SMAP means that airborne radar-radiometer observations like those that SLAP provides are unique assets for freeze/thaw algorithm development. This paper will present an overview of SLAPex F/T, including descriptions of the site, airborne and ground-based remote sensing, ground truth, as well as preliminary results.

  13. Large area mapping of soil moisture using the ESTAR passive microwave radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, T. J.; Levine, D. M.; Swift, C. T.; Schmugge, T. J.

    1994-01-01

    Investigations designed to study land surface hydrologic-atmospheric interactions, showing the potential of L band passive microwave radiometry for measuring surface soil moisture over large areas, are discussed. Satisfying the data needs of these investigations requires the ability to map large areas rapidly. With aircraft systems this means a need for more beam positions over a wider swath on each flightline. For satellite systems the essential problem is resolution. Both of these needs are currently being addressed through the development and verification of Electronically Scanned Thinned Array Radiometer (ESTAR) technology. The ESTAR L band radiometer was evaluated for soil moisture mapping applications in two studies. The first was conducted over the semiarid rangeland Walnut Gulch watershed located in south eastern Arizona (U.S.). The second was performed in the subhumid Little Washita watershed in south west Oklahoma (U.S.). Both tests showed that the ESTAR is capable of providing soil moisture with the same level of accuracy as existing systems.

  14. Microwave Lightcraft concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Looking like an alien space ship or a flying saucer the Microwave Lightcraft is an unconventional launch vehicle approach for delivering payload to orbit using power transmitted via microwaves. Microwaves re beamed from either a ground station or an orbiting solar power satellite to the lightcraft. The energy received breaks air molecules into a plasma and a magnetohydrodynamic fanjet provides the lifting force. Only a small amount of propellant is required for circulation, attitude control and deorbit.

  15. A general framework of TOPSIS method for integration of airborne geophysics, satellite imagery, geochemical and geological data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abedi, Maysam; Norouzi, Gholam-Hossain

    2016-04-01

    This work presents the promising application of three variants of TOPSIS method (namely the conventional, adjusted and modified versions) as a straightforward knowledge-driven technique in multi criteria decision making processes for data fusion of a broad exploratory geo-dataset in mineral potential/prospectivity mapping. The method is implemented to airborne geophysical data (e.g. potassium radiometry, aeromagnetic and frequency domain electromagnetic data), surface geological layers (fault and host rock zones), extracted alteration layers from remote sensing satellite imagery data, and five evidential attributes from stream sediment geochemical data. The central Iranian volcanic-sedimentary belt in Kerman province at the SE of Iran that is embedded in the Urumieh-Dokhtar Magmatic Assemblage arc (UDMA) is chosen to integrate broad evidential layers in the region of prospect. The studied area has high potential of ore mineral occurrences especially porphyry copper/molybdenum and the generated mineral potential maps aim to outline new prospect zones for further investigation in future. Two evidential layers of the downward continued aeromagnetic data and its analytic signal filter are prepared to be incorporated in fusion process as geophysical plausible footprints of the porphyry type mineralization. The low values of the apparent resistivity layer calculated from the airborne frequency domain electromagnetic data are also used as an electrical criterion in this investigation. Four remote sensing evidential layers of argillic, phyllic, propylitic and hydroxyl alterations were extracted from ASTER images in order to map the altered areas associated with porphyry type deposits, whilst the ETM+ satellite imagery data were used as well to map iron oxide layer. Since potassium alteration is generally the mainstay of porphyry ore mineralization, the airborne potassium radiometry data was used. The geochemical layers of Cu/B/Pb/Zn elements and the first component of PCA

  16. Advanced microwave processing concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Lauf, R.J.; McMillan, A.D.; Paulauskas, F.L.

    1997-04-01

    The purpose of this work is to explore the feasibility of several advanced microwave processing concepts to develop new energy-efficient materials and processes. The project includes two tasks: (1) commercialization of the variable-frequency microwave furnace; and (2) microwave curing of polymeric materials. The variable frequency microwave furnace, whose initial conception and design was funded by the AIM Materials Program, allows the authors, for the first time, to conduct microwave processing studies over a wide frequency range. This novel design uses a high-power traveling wave tube (TWT) originally developed for electronic warfare. By using this microwave source, one can not only select individual microwave frequencies for particular experiments, but also achieve uniform power densities over a large area by the superposition of many different frequencies. Microwave curing of various thermoset resins will be studied because it holds the potential of in-situ curing of continuous-fiber composites for strong, lightweight components or in-situ curing of adhesives, including metal-to-metal. Microwave heating can shorten curing times, provided issues of scaleup, uniformity, and thermal management can be adequately addressed.

  17. Plasma enhanced microwave joining

    SciTech Connect

    Yiin, T.; Barmatz, M.; Sayir, A.

    1995-12-31

    A new method for plasma enhanced microwave joining of high purity (99.8%) alumina has been developed. The controlled application of a plasma between the adjoining surfaces of two rods initially heats the microwave-low-absorbing alumina rods to temperatures high enough for them to absorb microwave energy efficiently. With this technology, the adjacent surfaces of alumina rods can be melted and welded together in less than three minutes using approximately 400 watts of microwave energy. Four point bending tests measured fracture strengths of up to 130 MPa at the joined interface. Optical and SEM micrographs indicated that exaggerated grain growth prevailed for all joints studied.

  18. Advanced microwave processing concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Lauf, R.J.; McMillan, A.D.; Paulauskas, F.L.

    1995-05-01

    The purpose of this work is to explore the feasibility of several advanced microwave processing concepts to develop new energy-efficient materials and processes. The project includes two tasks: (1) commercialization of the variable-frequency microwave furnace; and (2) microwave curing of polymer composites. The variable frequency microwave furnace, whose initial conception and design was funded by the AIC Materials Program, will allow us, for the first time, to conduct microwave processing studies over a wide frequency range. This novel design uses a high-power traveling wave tube (TWT) originally developed for electronic warfare. By using this microwave source, one can not only select individual microwave frequencies for particular experiments, but also achieve uniform power densities over a large area by the superposition of many different frequencies. Microwave curing of thermoset resins will be studied because it hold the potential of in-situ curing of continuous-fiber composites for strong, lightweight components. Microwave heating can shorten curing times, provided issues of scaleup, uniformity, and thermal management can be adequately addressed.

  19. Optothermal transient emission radiometry for studying the changes in epidermal hydration induced during ripening of tomato fruit mutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, X.; Bicanic, D.; Imhof, R.; Xiao, P.; Harbinson, J.

    2004-10-01

    Optothermal transient emission radiometry (OTTER) was used to determine the mean surface hydration and the hydration profile of three mutants (beefsteak, slicing and salad) of harvested tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) that were kept under ambient conditions for as long as 51 days. Maximal sensitivity of OTTER to water in the samples was achieved by using 2.94 μm and 13.1 μm as excitation and emission wavelengths, respectively. The surface hydration increases rapidly and reaches a constant level during the remaining period. The hydrolysis of pectic substances that occur in tomatoes while ripening might be a possible cause for the observed change in hydration.

  20. A stable downward continuation of airborne magnetic data: A case study for mineral prospectivity mapping in Central Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abedi, Maysam; Gholami, Ali; Norouzi, Gholam-Hossain

    2013-03-01

    Previous studies have shown that a well-known multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) technique called Preference Ranking Organization METHod for Enrichment Evaluation (PROMETHEE II) to explore porphyry copper deposits can prioritize the ground-based exploratory evidential layers effectively. In this paper, the PROMETHEE II method is applied to airborne geophysical (potassium radiometry and magnetometry) data, geological layers (fault and host rock zones), and various extracted alteration layers from remote sensing images. The central Iranian volcanic-sedimentary belt is chosen for this study. A stable downward continuation method as an inverse problem in the Fourier domain using Tikhonov and edge-preserving regularizations is proposed to enhance magnetic data. Numerical analysis of synthetic models show that the reconstructed magnetic data at the ground surface exhibits significant enhancement compared to the airborne data. The reduced-to-pole (RTP) and the analytic signal filters are applied to the magnetic data to show better maps of the magnetic anomalies. Four remote sensing evidential layers including argillic, phyllic, propylitic and hydroxyl alterations are extracted from Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) images in order to map the altered areas associated with porphyry copper deposits. Principal component analysis (PCA) based on six Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) images is implemented to map iron oxide layer. The final mineral prospectivity map based on desired geo-data set indicates adequately matching of high potential zones with previous working mines and copper deposits.

  1. Geodesy by radio interferometry: Water vapor radiometry for estimation of the wet delay

    SciTech Connect

    Elgered, G.; Davis, J.L.; Herring, T.A.; Shapiro, I.I. )

    1991-04-10

    An important source of error in very-long-baseline interferometry (VLBI) estimates of baseline length is unmodeled variations of the refractivity of the neutral atmosphere along the propagation path of the radio signals. The authors present and discuss the method of using data from a water vapor readiometer (WVR) to correct for the propagation delay caused by atmospheric water vapor, the major cause of these variations. Data from different WVRs are compared with estimated propagation delays obtained by Kalman filtering of the VLBI data themselves. The consequences of using either WVR data of Kalman filtering to correct for atmospheric propagation delay at the Onsala VLBI site are investigated by studying the repeatability of estimated baseline lengths from Onsala to several other sites. The lengths of the baselines range from 919 to 7,941 km. The repeatability obtained for baseline length estimates shows that the methods of water vapor radiometry and Kalman filtering offer comparable accuracies when applied to VLBI observations obtained in the climate of the Swedish west coast. The use of WVR data yielded a 13% smaller weighted-root-mean-square (WRMS) scatter of the baseline length estimates compared to the use of a Kalman filter. It is also clear that the best minimum elevation angle for VLBI observations depends on the accuracy of the determinations of the total propagation delay to be used, since the error in this delay increases with increasing air mass. For use of WVR data along with accurate determinations of total surface pressure, the best minimum is about 20{degrees}; for use of a model for the wet delay based on the humidity and temperature at the ground, the best minimum is about 35{degrees}.

  2. Potential of thermal infrared radiometry for remote sensing of volcanic ash clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubuisson, P.; Minvielle, F.; Hebin, H.; Thieuleux, F.; Parol, F.; Pelon, J.

    2011-12-01

    This study reports on the optical and microphysical characterization of particles contained in volcanic ash clouds using thermal infrared radiometry. Several works have shown the potential of the split window technique for estimating the effective particle size and optical thickness of semi-transparent clouds from two channels in the infrared atmospheric window (8 - 12 μm). In the present study, this approach is applied to the characterization of volcanic particles. The inversion algorithm is based on LUTs built with an accurate radiative transfer code, including gaseous absorption as well as multiple scattering and absorption by particles. Realistic spectral variations for optical properties of several types of volcanic particle (Ash, H2SO4 ...) and water or ice clouds have been calculated from refractive indices and Mie theory. In addition, this inversion procedure needs to define the altitude, temperature and thickness of the ash cloud. Consequently, meteorological data relative to the atmosphere and the state of ash cloud have been calculated using the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS). This model allows giving a 3D dynamical transport of the ash plume and its vertical distribution. Ash sources and scenes area have been studied in detail with higher resolution using nested grid system of the model. In a first step, a sensitivity study based on radiative transfer calculations is presented in order to illustrate the potential of this approach. This technique is then applied to volcanic plumes in April-May 2010. Brightness temperatures from the MODIS spectroradiometer, the Infrared Imaging Radiometer (IIR) and the SEVIRI radiometer are used for some scenes acquired simultaneously over North / West of Europe with similar spectral or spatial resolutions. Spatial distribution of the retrieved optical thickness and effective size of particles are presented and analyzed. Comparisons between retrievals from IIR, MODIS and SEVIRI are presented. Contributions

  3. New contactless method for thermal diffusivity measurements using modulated photothermal radiometry

    SciTech Connect

    Pham Tu Quoc, S. Cheymol, G.; Semerok, A.

    2014-05-15

    Modulated photothermal radiometry is a non-destructive and contactless technique for the characterization of materials. It has two major advantages: a good signal-to-noise ratio through a synchronous detection and a low dependence on the heating power and the optical properties of the sample surface. This paper presents a new method for characterizing the thermal diffusivity of a material when the phase shift between a modulated laser power signal and the thermal signal of a plate sample is known at different frequencies. The method is based on a three-dimensional analytical model which is used to determine the temperature amplitude and the phase in the laser heating of the plate. A new simple formula was developed through multi-parametric analysis to determine the thermal diffusivity of the plate with knowledge of the frequency at the minimum phase shift, the laser beam radius r{sub 0} and the sample thickness L. This method was developed to control the variation of the thermal diffusivity of nuclear components and it was first applied to determine the thermal diffusivity of different metals: 304 L stainless steel, nickel, titanium, tungsten, molybdenum, zinc, and iron. The experimental results were obtained with 5%–10% accuracy and corresponded well with the reference values. The present paper also demonstrates the limit of application of this method for plate with thickness r{sub 0}/100 ≤ L ≤ r{sub 0}/2. The technique is deemed interesting for the characterization of barely accessible components that require a contactless measurement.

  4. Determination of agar tissue phantoms depth profiles with pulsed photothermal radiometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milanič, Matija; Majaron, Boris; Nelson, J. Stuart

    2007-07-01

    Pulsed photothermal radiometry (PPTR) can be used for non-invasive depth profiling of skin vascular lesions (e.g., port wine stain birthmarks), aimed towards optimizing laser therapy on an individual patient basis. Optimal configuration of the experimental setup must be found and its performance characterized on samples with well defined structure, before introducing the technique into clinical practice. The aim of our study is to determine how sample structure and width of spectruml acquisition band affect the accuracy of measured depth profiles. We have constructed tissue phantoms composed of multiple layers of agar and of thin absorbing layers between the agar layers. Three phantoms had a single absorber layer at various depths between 100 and 500 μm, and one phantom had two absorber layers. In each sample we induced a non-homogeneous temperature profile with a 585 nm pulsed laser and acquired the resulting radiometric signal with a fast InSb infrared camera. We tested two configurations of the acquisition system, one using the customary 3-5 um spectruml band and one with a custom 4.5 μm cut-on filter. The laser-induced temperature depth profiles were reconstructed from measured PPTR signals using a custom algorithm and compared with sample structure as determined by histology and optical coherent tomography (OCT). PPTR determined temperature profiles correlate well with sample structure in all samples. Determination of the absorbing layer depth shows good repeatability with spatial resolution decreasing with depth. Spectruml filtering improved the accuracy of reconstructed profiles for shallow absorption layers (100-200 μm). PPTR technique enables reliable determination of structure in tissue phantoms with thin absorbing layers. Narrowing of the spectruml acquisition band (to 4.5 - 5.3 μm) improves reconstruction of objects near the surface.

  5. Quantitative evaluation of simulated human enamel caries kinetics using photothermal radiometry and modulated luminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellen, Adam; Mandelis, Andreas; Finer, Yoav; Amaechi, Bennett T.

    2011-03-01

    Photothermal radiometry and modulated luminescence (PTR-LUM) is a non-destructive methodology applied toward the detection, monitoring and quantification of dental caries. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of PTRLUM to detect incipient caries lesions and quantify opto-thermophysical properties as a function of treatment time. Extracted human molars (n=15) were exposed to an acid demineralization gel (pH 4.5) for 10 or 40 days in order to simulate incipient caries lesions. PTR-LUM frequency scans (1 Hz - 1 kHz) were performed prior to and during demineralization. Transverse Micro-Radiography (TMR) analysis followed at treatment conclusion. A coupled diffusephoton- density-wave and thermal-wave theoretical model was applied to PTR experimental amplitude and phase data across the frequency range of 4 Hz - 354 Hz, to quantitatively evaluate changes in thermal and optical properties of sound and demineralized enamel. Excellent fits with small residuals were observed experimental and theoretical data illustrating the robustness of the computational algorithm. Increased scattering coefficients and poorer thermophysical properties were characteristic of demineralized lesion bodies. Enhanced optical scattering coefficients of demineralized lesions resulted in poorer luminescence yield due to scattering of both incident and converted luminescent photons. Differences in the rate of lesion progression for the 10-day and 40-day samples points to a continuum of surface and diffusion controlled mechanism of lesion formation. PTR-LUM sensitivity to changes in tooth mineralization coupled with opto-thermophysical property extraction illustrates the technique's potential for non-destructive quantification of enamel caries.

  6. Airborne Imagery Collections Barrow 2013

    DOE Data Explorer

    Cherry, Jessica; Crowder, Kerri

    2015-07-20

    The data here are orthomosaics, digital surface models (DSMs), and individual frames captured during low altitude airborne flights in 2013 at the Barrow Environmental Observatory. The orthomosaics, thermal IR mosaics, and DSMs were generated from the individual frames using Structure from Motion techniques.

  7. Airborne fungi--a resurvey

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, G.H.; Prince, H.E.; Raymer, W.J.

    1983-07-01

    A 15-month survey of airborne fungi at 14 geographical stations was conducted to determine the incidence of different fungal genera. Five of these stations were surveyed 25 years earlier. A comparison between previous studies and present surveys revealed similar organisms at each station with slight shifts in frequency of dominant genera.

  8. Tropospheric and Airborne Emission Spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glavich, Thomas; Beer, Reinhard

    1996-01-01

    X This paper describes the development of two related instruments, the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) and the Airborne Emission Spectrometer (AES). Both instruments are infrared imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometers, used for measuring the state of the lower atmosphere, and in particular the measurement of ozone and ozone sources and sinks.

  9. Airborne chemicals and forest health

    SciTech Connect

    Woodman, J.N.; Cowling, E.B.

    1987-02-01

    Over the past few years the possible contribution of acid rain to the problem of forest decline has been a cause of increasing public concern. Research has begun to determine whether airborne chemicals are causing or contributing to visible damage and mortality in eastern spruce-fir and sugar maple forests and to changes in tree growth, usually without visible symptoms, in other parts of North America. This paper describes some of the complex biological relationships that determine health and productivity of forests and that make it difficult to distinguish effects of airborne chemicals from effects of natural stress. It describes four major research approaches for assessment of the effects of airborne chemicals on forests, and it summarizes current understanding of the known and possible effects of airborne chemicals on forest trees in North America and Europe. It also briefly describes the major air quality and forest health research programs in North America, and it assesses how ell these programs are likely to meet information needs during the coming decade. 69 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

  10. Airborne asbestos in public buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Chesson, J.; Hatfield, J.; Schultz, B.; Dutrow, E.; Blake, J. )

    1990-02-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency sampled air in 49 government-owned buildings (six buildings with no asbestos-containing material, six buildings with asbestos-containing material in generally good condition, and 37 buildings with damaged asbestos-containing material). This is the most comprehensive study to date of airborne asbestos levels in U.S. public buildings during normal building activities. The air outside each building was also sampled. Air samples were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy using a direct transfer preparation technique. The results show an increasing trend in average airborne asbestos levels; outdoor levels are lowest and levels in buildings with damaged asbestos-containing material are highest. However, the measured levels and the differences between indoors and outdoors and between building categories are small in absolute magnitude. Comparable studies from Canada and the UK, although differing in their estimated concentrations, also conclude that while airborne asbestos levels may be elevated in buildings that contain asbestos, levels are generally low. This conclusion does not eliminate the possibility of higher airborne asbestos levels during maintenance or renovation that disturbs the asbestos-containing material.

  11. Analyzing topography effects for l-band radiometry using an improved model approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, X.; Weihermüller, L.; Zhang, L. X.; Jiang, L. M.; Vereecken, H.

    2012-04-01

    Global measurements of soil moisture, the key variables in the water cycle, are provided by spaceborne radiometer based on the long wavelength detection. As one potentially critical factor, topography will induce soil moisture retrieval error over mountain areas from space. Therefore, it is imperative to develop microwave radiative transfer models for L-band over mountain areas characterized by low complexity, and therefore, practical use. To address this issue, we pay close attention to the interactive mechanism between topography and microwave radiation by describing microwave radiation characteristics of terrain scenes. To explore the mechanism of relief effects on L-band, landscape scenes are generated based on Gaussian surfaces ranging from flat terrain to multiple hills within a 35 x 35 km scene. The scattering radiation, one of contributions to the L-band microwave signal, had undergone the fairly reasonable modification that we recalculated the mutual diffuse reflection of adjacent hills instead of the maximal unidirectional diffuse reflection. Therefore, an improved microwave radiative transfer model to simulate relief effects was proposed. Based on the model, the significance of soil moisture and land surface temperature to relief effects in these terrain scenes are analyzed respectively. When the soil becomes wetter the deviation of TB between flat and mountainous terrain is enhanced. In contrast to water content, land surface temperature has a negligible effect with less than 1 K for both polarizations. Besides, the impact of topography on brightness temperature and soil moisture retrieval is predicted. It is shown that the soil moisture retrieval error at L band arisen by topography is more than 4%, the maximum permissible error, and the maximum fractional error of soil moisture retrieval compared to soil moisture in the flat terrain is 77.6%. The results presented indicate the necessity of eliminating relief effects at L-band and our approach provides

  12. Routing architecture and security for airborne networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Hongmei; Xie, Peng; Li, Jason; Xu, Roger; Levy, Renato

    2009-05-01

    Airborne networks are envisioned to provide interconnectivity for terrestial and space networks by interconnecting highly mobile airborne platforms. A number of military applications are expected to be used by the operator, and all these applications require proper routing security support to establish correct route between communicating platforms in a timely manner. As airborne networks somewhat different from traditional wired and wireless networks (e.g., Internet, LAN, WLAN, MANET, etc), security aspects valid in these networks are not fully applicable to airborne networks. Designing an efficient security scheme to protect airborne networks is confronted with new requirements. In this paper, we first identify a candidate routing architecture, which works as an underlying structure for our proposed security scheme. And then we investigate the vulnerabilities and attack models against routing protocols in airborne networks. Based on these studies, we propose an integrated security solution to address routing security issues in airborne networks.

  13. Airborne Soil Moisture determination at regional level: A data fusion mission approach for Catalan territory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Francisco; Corbera, Jordi; Marchan, Juan Fernando; Camps, Adriano

    2010-05-01

    -band radiometry, using a radiometer designed by the Passive Remote Sensing Group of the ‘Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya' (UPC). Spatial resolution enhancement or vegetation cover and surface roughness compensation will be improved by means of data fusion by using the operational CASI and TASI instruments flight simultaneously. Thus, L-band radiometer measurements will be combined with thermal and hyperspectral sensor measurements to obtain surface temperature and vegetation indexes, and thus allow improving the retrieval soil moisture. This airborne soil moisture mission program is supported by a Torres Quevedo grant awarded by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation as well as by ICC/PCOT as one of the Earth Observation Demostration Program on the Water Cycle area of activity (named RADERO-Airborne Radiometry) . Running in parallel of technical and operational identification of drivers, RADERO takes into acount as a third paramount pillar, to guarantee the usefulness of RADERO, the improvement of awareness and feedback with end users. RADERO mission has set up an advisory board to check the mission analysis and design, under the supervision of the Catalan Agriculture Department among other scientific and potential end users.

  14. A multisensor system for airborne surveillance of oil pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edgerton, A. T.; Ketchal, R.; Catoe, C.

    1973-01-01

    The U.S. Coast Guard is developing a prototype airborne oil surveillance system for use in its Marine Environmental Protection Program. The prototype system utilizes an X-band side-looking radar, a 37-GHz imaging microwave radiometer, a multichannel line scanner, and a multispectral low light level system. The system is geared to detecting and mapping oil spills and potential pollution violators anywhere within a 25 nmi range of the aircraft flight track under all but extreme weather conditions. The system provides for false target discrimination and maximum identification of spilled materials. The system also provides an automated detection alarm, as well as a color display to achieve maximum coupling between the sensor data and the equipment operator.

  15. On the determination of atmospheric path length by passive microwave radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webster, W. J., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Microwave radiometer techniques were evaluated for use in atmospheric path length correction of Pacific Plate Motion Experiment interferometer measurements. It is shown that passive microwave radiometry allows precise measurement of the brightness temperature of the sky. It is also noted that the technological requirements of radiometers are very different from the requirements of radio astronomy. The technology was used in the construction of radiometers which are sufficient for use in the path length correction problem. A simulation study shows that, when combined with surface meteorology data, passive microwave radiometer data would allow a determination of the path length correction to better than 2 cm at the zenith. By a careful choice of frequencies, a dual frequency system would allow a measurement of the path length correction to better than 4 cm at zenith angles as great as 60 deg. Because of the wide range of weather conditions to be expected for the PPME sites (which include Alaska, Hawaii and Massachusetts), it will probably be necessary to use a separate correction algorithm for each site.

  16. Improved detectability in medical microwave radio-thermometers as obtained by active antennas.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, Svein; Klemetsen, Øystein

    2008-12-01

    Microwave radiometry is a spectral measurement technique for resolving blackbody radiation of heated matter above absolute zero. The emission levels vary with frequency and are at body temperatures maximized in the infrared spectral band. Medical radio-thermometers are mostly noninvasive short-range instruments that can provide temperature distributions in subcutaneous biological tissues when operated in the microwave region. However, a crucial limitation of the microwave radiometric observation principle is the extremely weak signal level of the thermal noise emitted by the lossy material (-174 dBm/Hz at normal body temperature). To improve the radiometer SNR, we propose to integrate a tiny, moderate gain, low-noise preamplifier (LNA) close to the antenna terminals as to obtain increased detectability of deep seated thermal gradients within the volume under investigation. The concept is verified experimentally in a lossy phantom medium by scanning an active antenna across a thermostatically controlled water phantom with a hot object embedded at 38 mm depth. Three different setups were investigated with decreasing temperature contrasts between the target and ambient medium. As a direct consequence of less ripple on the raw radiometric signal, statistical analysis shows a marked increase in signal-to-clutter ratio of the brightness temperature spatial scan profiles, when comparing active antenna operation with conventional passive setups.

  17. MICROWAVES IN ORGANIC SYNTHESIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effect of microwaves, a non-ionizing radiation, on organic reactions is described both in polar solvents and under solvent-free conditions. The special applications are highlighted in the context of solventless organic synthesis which involve microwave (MW) exposure of neat r...

  18. Microwave device investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choudhury, K. K. D.; Haddad, G. I.; Kwok, S. P.; Masnari, N. A.; Trew, R. J.

    1972-01-01

    Materials, devices and novel schemes for generation, amplification and detection of microwave and millimeter wave energy are studied. Considered are: (1) Schottky-barrier microwave devices; (2) intermodulation products in IMPATT diode amplifiers; and (3) harmonic generation using Read diode varactors.

  19. Television Microwave--1971.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Roger E.

    Since it became a reality just before World War II, terrestrial microwave has improved in systems and equipments, but with the improvements have come higher costs. Television microwave costs are so high because users are demanding more capability, land prices have increased, operating costs are higher, and there is frequency congestion along many…

  20. Microwave processing of ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Katz, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    Recent work in the areas of microwave processing and joining of ceramics is briefly reviewed. Advantages and disadvantages of microwave processing as well as some of the current issues in the field are discussed. Current state and potential for future commercialization of this technology is also addressed.

  1. Microwave processing of ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Katz, J.D.

    1993-04-01

    Recent work in the areas of microwave processing and joining of ceramics is briefly reviewed. Advantages and disadvantages of microwave processing as well as some of the current issues in the field are discussed. Current state and potential for future commercialization of this technology is also addressed.

  2. Variable frequency microwave heating apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Bible, Don W.; Lauf, Robert J.; Johnson, Arvid C.; Thigpen, Larry T.

    1999-01-01

    A variable frequency microwave heating apparatus (10) designed to allow modulation of the frequency of the microwaves introduced into a multi-mode microwave cavity (34) for testing or other selected applications. The variable frequency microwave heating apparatus (10) includes a microwave signal generator (12) and a high-power microwave amplifier (20) or a high-power microwave oscillator (14). A power supply (22) is provided for operation of the high-power microwave oscillator (14) or microwave amplifier (20). A directional coupler (24) is provided for detecting the direction and amplitude of signals incident upon and reflected from the microwave cavity (34). A first power meter (30) is provided for measuring the power delivered to the microwave furnace (32). A second power meter (26) detects the magnitude of reflected power. Reflected power is dissipated in the reflected power load (28).

  3. Variable frequency microwave heating apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Bible, D.W.; Lauf, R.J.; Johnson, A.C.; Thigpen, L.T.

    1999-10-05

    A variable frequency microwave heating apparatus (10) designed to allow modulation of the frequency of the microwaves introduced into a multi-mode microwave cavity (34) for testing or other selected applications. The variable frequency microwave heating apparatus (10) includes a microwave signal generator (12) and a high-power microwave amplifier (20) or a high-power microwave oscillator (14). A power supply (22) is provided for operation of the high-power microwave oscillator (14) or microwave amplifier (20). A directional coupler (24) is provided for detecting the direction and amplitude of signals incident upon and reflected from the microwave cavity (34). A first power meter (30) is provided for measuring the power delivered to the microwave furnace (32). A second power meter (26) detects the magnitude of reflected power. Reflected power is dissipated in the reflected power load (28).

  4. Identification of the photoluminescence response in the frequency domain modulated infrared radiometry signal of ZnTe:Cr bulk crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawlak, M.; Strzałkowski, K.

    2016-09-01

    In this work we investigated the photoluminescence response in the frequency domain modulated infrared radiometry signal observed of ZnTe:Cr bulk crystal. In mid-infrared range, three characteristic phenomena are observed in ZnTe:Cr crystal: absorption and emission of IR photons (2-3 μm) and the free carrier absorption. This implies that the modulated infrared radiometry signal yields information about the effective infrared absorption coefficient (photothermal response) as well about the recombination lifetime of carriers related with the infrared photoluminescence emission. In this paper, the frequency equivalence of the two-term independent exponential photoluminescence decay model in order to explain the measured frequency characteristics is proposed. The measured recombination lifetimes (2.3 μs for two exponential decay model and 1.5 μs for one exponential decay model) are in good agreement with the values given by other authors (about 2.5-3.0 μs). Moreover, we found that the photothermal response is uncorrelated with the photoluminescence one, in contrast, to the photocarrier response.

  5. Microwave hydrology: A trilogy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stacey, J. M.; Johnston, E. J.; Girard, M. A.; Regusters, H. A.

    1985-01-01

    Microwave hydrology, as the term in construed in this trilogy, deals with the investigation of important hydrological features on the Earth's surface as they are remotely, and passively, sensed by orbiting microwave receivers. Microwave wavelengths penetrate clouds, foliage, ground cover, and soil, in varying degrees, and reveal the occurrence of standing liquid water on and beneath the surface. The manifestation of liquid water appearing on or near the surface is reported by a microwave receiver as a signal with a low flux level, or, equivalently, a cold temperature. Actually, the surface of the liquid water reflects the low flux level from the cosmic background into the input terminals of the receiver. This trilogy describes and shows by microwave flux images: the hydrological features that sustain Lake Baykal as an extraordinary freshwater resource; manifestations of subsurface water in Iran; and the major water features of the Congo Basin, a rain forest.

  6. Microwave ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Reijonen, Jani; Thomae, Rainer W.

    2005-07-26

    A compact microwave ion source has a permanent magnet dipole field, a microwave launcher, and an extractor parallel to the source axis. The dipole field is in the form of a ring. The microwaves are launched from the middle of the dipole ring using a coaxial waveguide. Electrons are heated using ECR in the magnetic field. The ions are extracted from the side of the source from the middle of the dipole perpendicular to the source axis. The plasma density can be increased by boosting the microwave ion source by the addition of an RF antenna. Higher charge states can be achieved by increasing the microwave frequency. A xenon source with a magnetic pinch can be used to produce intense EUV radiation.

  7. Estimating Mixing Heights Using Microwave Temperature Profiler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nielson-Gammon, John; Powell, Christina; Mahoney, Michael; Angevine, Wayne

    2008-01-01

    A paper describes the Microwave Temperature Profiler (MTP) for making measurements of the planetary boundary layer thermal structure data necessary for air quality forecasting as the Mixing Layer (ML) height determines the volume in which daytime pollution is primarily concentrated. This is the first time that an airborne temperature profiler has been used to measure the mixing layer height. Normally, this is done using a radar wind profiler, which is both noisy and large. The MTP was deployed during the Texas 2000 Air Quality Study (TexAQS-2000). An objective technique was developed and tested for estimating the ML height from the MTP vertical temperature profiles. In order to calibrate the technique and evaluate the usefulness of this approach, estimates from a variety of measurements during the TexAQS-2000 were compared. Estimates of ML height were used from radiosondes, radar wind profilers, an aerosol backscatter lidar, and in-situ aircraft measurements in addition to those from the MTP.

  8. Crew procedures for microwave landing system operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summers, Leland G.

    1987-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify crew procedures involved in Microwave Landing System (MLS) operations and to obtain a preliminary assessment of crew workload. The crew procedures were identified for three different complements of airborne equipment coupled to an autopilot. Using these three equipment complements, crew tasks were identified for MLS approaches and precision departures and compared to an ILS approach and a normal departure. Workload comparisons between the approaches and departures were made by using a task-timeline analysis program that obtained workload indexes, i.e., the radio of time required to complete the tasks to the time available. The results showed an increase in workload for the MLS scenario for one of the equipment complements. However, even this workload was within the capacity of two crew members.

  9. Basic studies in microwave remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fung, Adrian K.; Bredow, Jonathan

    1992-01-01

    Scattering models were developed in support of microwave remote sensing of earth terrains with particular emphasis on model applications to airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar measurements of forest. Practically useful surface scattering models based on a solution of a pair of integral equations including multiple scattering effects were developed. Comparisons of these models with controlled scattering measurements from statistically known random surfaces indicate that they are valid over a wide range of frequencies. Scattering models treating a forest environment as a two and three layered media were also developed. Extensive testing and comparisons were carried out with the two layered model. Further studies with the three layered model are being carried out. A volume scattering model valid for dense media such as a snow layer was also developed that shows the appropriate trend dependence with the volume fraction of scatterers.

  10. Classification of Tropical Oceanic Precipitation Using High Altitude Aircraft Microwave and Electric Field Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cecil, Daniel J.; LaFontaine, Frank J.; Hood, Robbie E.; Blakeslee, Richard; Mach, Douglas; Heymsfield, Gerald

    2004-01-01

    A physically intuitive and computationally simple precipitation mapping algorithm has been developed for use with the airborne Advanced Microwave Precipitation Radiometer (AMPR). The algorithm is based on microwave emission and scattering properties of precipitation. Specifically, emission by liquid water allows increasing brightness temperatures at low frequencies to be interpreted as increasing rain rates. Scattering by large hydrometeors (particularly graupel and hail) causes relative minima in the brightness temperatures, with progressively larger hydrometeors scattering progressively longer wavelengths. The vigor of convection is therefore ascertained according to which wavelengths are being significantly scattered. The combination of emission and scattering information from four microwave channels is used to assign a precipitation category, which is related to the liquid rain rate, the vertical extent of precipitation, and the vigor of convection. The qualitative precipitation categories output by the passive microwave algorithm have been verified using coincident radar (ER-2 Doppler Radar - EDOP) and electric field measurements (Lightning Instrument Package - LIP). These coincident measurements can subsequently be used to quantify rain rates, hydrometeor contents, and vertical profiles that are typical for each precipitation category. This algorithm has been developed using an airborne platform. Comparisons are being made with other airborne, satellite, and ground-based radar and radiometer data. This technique shows promise both as a research tool and potentially as a real-time analysis tool, which could be applied to either traditional or uninhabited aerial vehicles.

  11. Microwave radiation hazards around large microwave antenna.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klascius, A.

    1973-01-01

    The microwave radiation hazards associated with the use of large antennas become increasingly more dangerous to personnel as the transmitters go to ever higher powers. The near-field area is of the greatest concern. It has spill over from subreflector and reflections from nearby objects. Centimeter waves meeting in phase will reinforce each other and create hot spots of microwave energy. This has been measured in front of and around several 26-meter antennas. Hot spots have been found and are going to be the determining factor in delineating safe areas for personnel to work. Better techniques and instruments to measure these fields are needed for the evaluation of hazard areas.

  12. Investigation of airborne lidar for avoidance of windshear hazards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Targ, Russell; Bowles, Roland L.

    1990-01-01

    A generalized windshear hazard index is defined, which is derived from considerations of wind conditions at the present position of an aircraft and from remotely sensed information along the extended flight path. Candidate airborne sensor technologies based on microwave Doppler radar, Doppler lidar, and infrared radiometric techniques are discussed in the context of overall system functional requirements. Initial results of a performance and technology assessment study for competing lidars are presented. Based on a systems approach to the windshear threat, lidar appears to be a viable technology for windshear detection and avoidance, even in conditions of moderately heavy precipitation. The proposed airborne CO2 and Ho:YAG lidar windshear-detection systems analyzed here can give the pilot information about the line-of-sight component of windshear threat from his present position to a region extending 1 to 3 km in front of the aircraft. This constitutes a warning time of 15 to 45 seconds. The technology necessary to design, build, and test such a brassboard 10.6 micron CO2 lidar is now available. However, for 2-micron systems, additional analytical and laboratory investigations are needed to arrive at optimum 2-micron rare-earth-based laser crystals.

  13. Airborne Systems Technology Application to the Windshear Threat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arbuckle, P. Douglas; Lewis, Michael S.; Hinton, David A.

    1996-01-01

    The general approach and products of the NASA/FAA Airborne Windshear Program conducted by NASA Langley Research Center are summarized, with references provided for the major technical contributions. During this period, NASA conducted 2 years of flight testing to characterize forward-looking sensor performance. The NASA/FAA Airborne Windshear Program was divided into three main elements: Hazard Characterization, Sensor Technology, and Flight Management Systems. Simulation models developed under the Hazard Characterization element are correlated with flight test data. Flight test results comparing the performance and characteristics of the various Sensor Technologies (microwave radar, lidar, and infrared) are presented. Most of the activities in the Flight Management Systems element were conducted in simulation. Simulation results from a study evaluating windshear crew procedures and displays for forward-looking sensor-equipped airplanes are discussed. NASA Langley researchers participated heavily in the FAA process of generating certification guidelines for predictive windshear detection systems. NASA participants felt that more valuable technology products were generated by the program because of this interaction. NASA involvement in the process and the resulting impact on products and technology transfer are discussed in this paper.

  14. Large aperture scanning airborne lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J.; Bindschadler, R.; Boers, R.; Bufton, J. L.; Clem, D.; Garvin, J.; Melfi, S. H.

    1988-01-01

    A large aperture scanning airborne lidar facility is being developed to provide important new capabilities for airborne lidar sensor systems. The proposed scanning mechanism allows for a large aperture telescope (25 in. diameter) in front of an elliptical flat (25 x 36 in.) turning mirror positioned at a 45 degree angle with respect to the telescope optical axis. The lidar scanning capability will provide opportunities for acquiring new data sets for atmospheric, earth resources, and oceans communities. This completed facility will also make available the opportunity to acquire simulated EOS lidar data on a near global basis. The design and construction of this unique scanning mechanism presents exciting technological challenges of maintaining the turning mirror optical flatness during scanning while exposed to extreme temperatures, ambient pressures, aircraft vibrations, etc.

  15. Detection of greenbug infestation on wheat using ground-based radiometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhiming

    Scope of methods of study. The purpose of this greenhouse study was to characterize stress in wheat caused by greenbugs using ground-based radiometry. Experiments were conducted to (a) identify spectral bands and vegetation indices sensitive to greenbug infestation; (b) differentiate stress caused due to greenbugs from water stress; (c) examine the impacts of plant growth stage on detection of greenbug infestation; and (d) compare infestations due to greenbug and Russian wheat aphid. Wheat (variety-TAM 107) was planted (seed spacing 1 in. x 3 in.) in plastic flats with dimension 24 in. x 16 in. x 8.75 in. Fifteen days after sowing, wheat seedlings were infested with greenbugs (biotype-E). Nadir measurement of canopy reflectance started the day after infestation and lasted until most infested plants were dead. Using a 16-band Cropscan radiometer, spectral reflectance data were collected daily (between 13:00--14:00 hours) and 128 vegetation indices were derived in addition to greenbug counts per tiller. Using SAS PROC MIXED, sensitivity of band and vegetation indices was identified based on Threshold Day. Subsequent to Threshold Day there was a consistent significant spectral difference between control and infested plants. Sensitivity of band and vegetation indices was further examined using correlation and relative sensitivity analyses. Findings and conclusions. Results show that it is possible to detect greenbug-induced stress on wheat using hand-held radiometers, such as Cropscan. Band 694 nm and the ratio-based vegetation index (RVI) derived from the band 694 nm and 800 nm were identified as most sensitive to greenbug infestation. Landsat TM bands and their derived vegetation indices also show potential for detecting wheat stress caused by greenbug infestation. Also, RVIs particularly derived using spectral band 694 nm and 800 nm were found useful in differentiating greenbug infestation from water stress. Furthermore, vegetation indices such as Normalized total

  16. FOREWORD: The 9th International Conference on New Developments and Applications in Optical Radiometry (NEWRAD 2005)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gröbner, Julian; Ikonen, Erkki

    2006-04-01

    The ninth NEWRAD Conference was held in Davos, Switzerland, between 16 and 19 October 2005. The Conference was organized by the Physikalisch- Meteorologisches Observatorium Davos, World Radiation Center (PMOD/WRC). The Conference was attended by 169 participants from five continents, which makes it the largest NEWRAD conference to date. The NEWRAD Conference followed the 10th international pyrheliometer comparison IPC-X, which is held every five years at PMOD/WRC. In addition, the 6th UVnet Workshop was held in connection with the NEWRAD Conference on 20 and 21 October. The NEWRAD Conference brings together people from the national metrology institutes and the principal user communities of advanced radiometry, including meteorological and remote-sensing communities. A total of 153 papers were presented, of which eight were keynote or invited talks, and there were 105 posters. Coffee breaks and extended lunch breaks created a stimulating atmosphere for lively discussions and exchange of ideas. Notwithstanding the excellent weather and the tantalizing surroundings of Davos, most participants managed to attend the poster sessions, which were organized during the noon lunch breaks. The conference proceedings can be downloaded from the NEWRAD 2005 website at www.pmodwrc.ch/newrad2005/pdfabstracts/Newrad_Proceedings_2005_A7.pdf. For this and future conferences, a new policy was adopted to publish a selected number of contributions in a special issue of Metrologia. The purpose of the change is to increase the overall impact of this journal. The NEWRAD Scientific Committee invited the contributions to this special issue on the basis of the quality of the extended abstracts, and later the submitted manuscripts were reviewed by the Committee members. On behalf of the Scientific Committee and all the participants, one of us (EI) wishes to thank Werner Schmutz and his colleagues from the Local Organizing Committee for arranging an excellent conference in the beautiful city of

  17. On the detectability of trace chemical species in the martian atmosphere using gas correlation filter radiometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinclair, J. A.; Irwin, P. G. J.; Calcutt, S. B.; Wilson, E. L.

    2015-11-01

    The martian atmosphere is host to many trace gases including water (H2O) and its isotopologues, methane (CH4) and potentially sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrous oxide (N2O) and further organic compounds, which would serve as indirect tracers of geological, chemical and biological processes on Mars. With exception of the recent detection of CH4 by Curiosity, previous detections of these species have been unsuccessful or considered tentative due to the low concentrations of these species in the atmosphere (∼10-9 partial pressures), limited spectral resolving power and/or signal-to-noise and the challenge of discriminating between telluric and martian features when observing from the Earth. In this study, we present radiative transfer simulations of an alternative method for detection of trace gas species - the gas correlation radiometry method. Two potential observing scenarios were explored where a gas correlation filter radiometer (GCFR) instrument: (1) performs nadir and/or limb sounding of the martian atmosphere in the thermal infrared (200-2000 cm-1 from an orbiting spacecraft or (2) performs solar occultation measurements in the near-infrared (2000-5000 cm-1) from a lander on the martian surface. In both scenarios, simulations of a narrowband filter radiometer (without gas correlation) were also generated to serve as a comparison. From a spacecraft, we find that a gas correlation filter radiometer, in comparison to a filter radiometer (FR), offers a greater discrimination between temperature and dust, a greater discrimination between H2O and HDO, and would allow detection of N2O and CH3OH at concentrations of ∼10 ppbv and ∼2 ppbv, respectively, which are lower than previously-derived upper limits. However, the lowest retrievable concentration of SO2 (approximately 2 ppbv) is comparable with previous upper limits and CH4 is only detectable at concentrations of approximately 10 ppbv, which is an order of magnitude higher than the concentration recently measured

  18. Terra and Aqua MODIS Design, Radiometry, and Geometry in Support of Land Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Wolfe, Robert; Barnes, William; Guenther, Bruce; Vermote, Eric; Saleous, Nazmi; Salomonson, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) mission includes the construction and launch of two nearly identical Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instruments. The MODIS proto-flight model (PFM) is onboard the EOS Terra satellite (formerly EOS AM-1) launched on December 18, 1999 and hereafter referred to as Terra MODIS. Flight model-1 (FM1) is onboard the EOS Aqua satellite (formerly EOS PM-1) launched on May 04, 2002 and referred to as Aqua MODIS. MODIS was developed based on the science community s desire to collect multiyear continuous datasets for monitoring changes in the Earth s land, oceans and atmosphere, and the human contributions to these changes. It was designed to measure discrete spectral bands, which includes many used by a number of heritage sensors, and thus extends the heritage datasets to better understand both long- and short-term changes in the global environment (Barnes and Salomonson 1993; Salomonson et al. 2002; Barnes et al. 2002). The MODIS development, launch, and operation were managed by NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Greenbelt, Maryland. The sensors were designed, built, and tested by Raytheon/ Santa Barbara Remote Sensing (SBRS), Goleta, California. Each MODIS instrument offers 36 spectral bands, which span the spectral region from the visible (0.41 m) to long-wave infrared (14.4 m). MODIS collects data at three different nadir spatial resolutions: 0.25, 0.5, and 1 km. Key design specifications, such as spectral bandwidths, typical scene radiances, required signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) or noise equivalent temperature differences (NEDT), and primary applications of each MODIS spectral band are summarized in Table 7.1. These parameters were the basis for the MODIS design. More details on the evolution of the NASA EOS and development of the MODIS instruments are provided in Chap. 1. This chapter focuses on the MODIS sensor design, radiometry, and geometry as they apply to land remote sensing. With near

  19. The effect of tropospheric fluctuations on the accuracy of water vapor radiometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, J. Z.

    1992-01-01

    Line-of-sight path delay calibration accuracies of 1 mm are needed to improve both angular and Doppler tracking capabilities. Fluctuations in the refractivity of tropospheric water vapor limit the present accuracies to about 1 nrad for the angular position and to a delay rate of 3x10(exp -13) sec/sec over a 100-sec time interval for Doppler tracking. This article describes progress in evaluating the limitations of the technique of water vapor radiometry at the 1-mm level. The two effects evaluated here are: (1) errors arising from tip-curve calibration of WVR's in the presence of tropospheric fluctuations and (2) errors due to the use of nonzero beamwidths for water vapor radiometer (WVR) horns. The error caused by tropospheric water vapor fluctuations during instrument calibration from a single tip curve is 0.26 percent in the estimated gain for a tip-curve duration of several minutes or less. This gain error causes a 3-mm bias and a 1-mm scale factor error in the estimated path delay at a 10-deg elevation per 1 g/cm(sup 2) of zenith water vapor column density present in the troposphere during the astrometric observation. The error caused by WVR beam averaging of tropospheric fluctuations is 3 mm at a 10-deg elevation per 1 g/cm(sup 2) of zenith water vapor (and is proportionally higher for higher water vapor content) for current WVR beamwidths (full width at half maximum of approximately 6 deg). This is a stochastic error (which cannot be calibrated) and which can be reduced to about half of its instantaneous value by time averaging the radio signal over several minutes. The results presented here suggest two improvements to WVR design: first, the gain of the instruments should be stabilized to 4 parts in 10(exp 4) over a calibration period lasting 5 hours, and second, the WVR antenna beamwidth should be reduced to about 0.2 deg. This will reduce the error induced by water vapor fluctuations in the estimated path delays to less than 1 mm for the elevation range

  20. Remote Sensing of Methane in the Martian Atmosphere using Infrared Laser Heterodyne Radiometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passmore, R. L.; Bowles, N. E.; Weidmann, D.; Smith, K.

    2011-12-01

    In the last few years, several research teams have reported the detection of methane in the atmosphere of Mars, measuring 10 ppb on average [1][2][3]. The source of the methane is still unknown, but its identification is important as its presence could imply a biological origin. However, the detection limits of current instruments lie below the requirements for an unambiguous determination of concentration mapping and distribution. We investigate the viability of detecting methane in the Martian atmosphere via a high sensitivity remote sensing technique known as passive mid-infrared laser heterodyne radiometry. Although heterodyne spectroscopy is not a new idea, recent advancements in local oscillator technology [4] offer the possibility of significant instrument miniaturisation relevant to space deployment. We present our current work on a laser heterodyne radiometer (LHR) which involves adapting an existing 10 μm laser breadboard design, which was used with much success to study stratospheric ozone [5], to operate at 7.7 μm in order to target the ν4 fundamental band of methane. The core of the LHR consists of a distributed-feedback quantum cascade laser (QCL) operating in continuous-wave mode, which acts as the local oscillator. QCLs are ideal local oscillators for this type of instrument as they emit with high spectral purity and the necessary optical power in the mid-infrared region where characteristic spectral lines of interest lie. Atmospheric modelling of the Martian atmosphere and instrument sensitivity studies enabled simulated methane spectral features to be studied in detail, which subsequently determined the focus for experimental efforts in the laboratory. Testing of the LHR was initially carried out on small gas cells containing pure methane gas, but in order to test the instrument more rigorously for atmospheric studies a larger gas cell was constructed that approximates the Martian atmosphere in the laboratory. Trace quantities of methane were

  1. Magnetic airborne survey - geophysical flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Barros Camara, Erick; Nei Pereira Guimarães, Suze

    2016-06-01

    This paper provides a technical review process in the area of airborne acquisition of geophysical data, with emphasis for magnetometry. In summary, it addresses the calibration processes of geophysical equipment as well as the aircraft to minimize possible errors in measurements. The corrections used in data processing and filtering are demonstrated with the same results as well as the evolution of these techniques in Brazil and worldwide.

  2. Microwave bonding of MEMS component

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barmatz, Martin B. (Inventor); Mai, John D. (Inventor); Jackson, Henry W. (Inventor); Budraa, Nasser K. (Inventor); Pike, William T. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    Bonding of MEMs materials is carried out using microwave. High microwave absorbing films are placed within a microwave cavity, and excited to cause selective heating in the skin of the material. This causes heating in one place more than another. Thereby minimizing the effects of the bonding microwave energy.

  3. Seven years of middle-atmospheric CO in the Arctic by ground based radiometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, Niall; Palm, Mathias; Raffalski, Uwe; Larsson, Richard; Notholt, Justus

    2016-04-01

    During polar winter, carbon monoxide (CO) is a well-suited tracer for middle atmospheric dynamics and for studying the polar vortex boundary: In polar night the chemical reactions involving atmospheric carbon monoxide are negligible due to the lack of sunlight and, as a result, the gas exhibits strong vertical and horizontal gradients in the stratosphere and mesosphere. Due to the upcoming likely gap in satellite profiling instruments, and in order to maintain a long-term global record of atmospheric trace gas concentrations, current and future satellite missions must be inter-calibrated using measurements from ground-based instruments around the globe. The Kiruna Microwave Radiometer (KIMRA), installed at the Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Kiruna, Sweden (67.8 N, 20.4 E), has been measuring microwave spectra of emissions from atmospheric CO since 2007. This contribution presents the CO concentration record which has been retrieved from KIMRA measurements using different temperature datasets: measurements from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program - F18 and model output from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts. The concentration profiles, retrieved between 40 and 80 km altitude, are compared to data from the Microwave Limb Sounder on the Aura satellite and are used to examine the concentration gradient across the polar vortex edge.

  4. Airborne particulate matter in spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Acceptability limits and sampling and monitoring strategies for airborne particles in spacecraft were considered. Based on instances of eye and respiratory tract irritation reported by Shuttle flight crews, the following acceptability limits for airborne particles were recommended: for flights of 1 week or less duration (1 mg/cu m for particles less than 10 microns in aerodynamic diameter (AD) plus 1 mg/cu m for particles 10 to 100 microns in AD); and for flights greater than 1 week and up to 6 months in duration (0.2 mg/cu m for particles less than 10 microns in AD plus 0.2 mg/cu m for particles 10 to 100 microns in AD. These numerical limits were recommended to aid in spacecraft atmosphere design which should aim at particulate levels that are a low as reasonably achievable. Sampling of spacecraft atmospheres for particles should include size-fractionated samples of 0 to 10, 10 to 100, and greater than 100 micron particles for mass concentration measurement and elementary chemical analysis by nondestructive analysis techniques. Morphological and chemical analyses of single particles should also be made to aid in identifying airborne particulate sources. Air cleaning systems based on inertial collection principles and fine particle collection devices based on electrostatic precipitation and filtration should be considered for incorporation into spacecraft air circulation systems. It was also recommended that research be carried out in space in the areas of health effects and particle characterization.

  5. NASA Student Airborne Research Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaller, E. L.; Shetter, R. E.

    2012-12-01

    The NASA Student Airborne Research Program (SARP) is a unique summer internship program for advanced undergraduates and early graduate students majoring in the STEM disciplines. SARP participants acquire hands-on research experience in all aspects of an airborne research campaign, including flying onboard an major NASA resource used for studying Earth system processes. In summer 2012, thirty-two participants worked in four interdisciplinary teams to study surface, atmospheric, and oceanographic processes. Participants assisted in the operation of instruments onboard the NASA P-3B aircraft where they sampled and measured atmospheric gases and imaged land and water surfaces in multiple spectral bands. Along with airborne data collection, students participated in taking measurements at field sites. Mission faculty and research mentors helped to guide participants through instrument operation, sample analysis, and data reduction. Over the eight-week program, each student developed an individual research project from the data collected and delivered a conference-style final presentation on his/her results. We will discuss the results and effectiveness of the program from the first four summers and discuss plans for the future.

  6. Microwave drilling of bones.

    PubMed

    Eshet, Yael; Mann, Ronit Rachel; Anaton, Abby; Yacoby, Tomer; Gefen, Amit; Jerby, Eli

    2006-06-01

    This paper presents a feasibility study of drilling in fresh wet bone tissue in vitro using the microwave drill method [Jerby et al, 2002], toward testing its applicability in orthopaedic surgery. The microwave drill uses a near-field focused energy (typically, power under approximately 200 W at 2.45-GHz frequency) in order to penetrate bone in a drilling speed of approximately 1 mm/s. The effect of microwave drilling on mechanical properties of whole ovine tibial and chicken femoral bones drilled in vitro was studied using three-point-bending strength and fatigue tests. Properties were compared to those of geometrically similar bones that were equivalently drilled using the currently accepted mechanical rotary drilling method. Strength of mid-shaft, elastic moduli, and cycles to failure in fatigue were statistically indistinguishable between specimen groups assigned for microwave and mechanical drilling. Carbonized margins around the microwave-drilled hole were approximately 15% the hole diameter. Optical and scanning electron microscopy studies showed that the microwave drill produces substantially smoother holes in cortical bone than those produced by a mechanical drill. The hot spot produced by the microwave drill has the potential for overcoming two major problems presently associated with mechanical drilling in cortical and trabecular bone during orthopaedic surgeries: formation of debris and rupture of bone vasculature during drilling.

  7. Passive microwave remote and in situ measurements of Arctic and subarctic snow covers in Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, D. K.; Chang, A. T. C.; Foster, J. L.; Sturm, M.; Chacho, E.; Benson, C. S.; Garbeil, H.

    1991-01-01

    Airborne and satellite passive microwave measurements acquired simultaneously with ground measurements of depth, density, and stratigraphy of the snow in central and northern Alaska between March 11 and 19, 1988, are reported. A good correspondence in brightness temperature (TB) trends between the aircraft and satellite data was found. An expected inverse correlation between depth hoar thickness and TB was not found to be strong. A persistent TB minimum in both the aircraft and the satellite data was detected along the northern foothills of the Brooks Range. In an area located at about 68 deg 60 min N, 149 deg 20 min W, the TB as recorded from the aircraft microwave sensor dropped by 55 K. Satellite microwave measurements showed a TB decrease of up to 45 K at approximately the same location. An examination of microwave satellite data from 1978 to 1987 revealed that similar low late-winter values were found in approximately the same locations as those observed in March 1988.

  8. Analysis of remote sensing data collected for detection and mapping of oil spills: Reduction and analysis of multi-sensor airborne data of the NASA Wallops oil spill exercise of November 1978

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Airborne, remotely sensed data of the NASA Wallops controlled oil spill were corrected, reduced and analysed. Sensor performance comparisons were made by registering data sets from different sensors, which were near-coincident in time and location. Multispectral scanner images were, in turn, overlayed with profiles of correlation between airborne and laboratory-acquired fluorosensor spectra of oil; oil-thickness contours derived (by NASA) from a scanning fluorosensor and also from a two-channel scanning microwave radiometer; and synthetic aperture radar X-HH images. Microwave scatterometer data were correlated with dual-channel (UV and TIR) line scanner images of the oil slick.

  9. Microwave coupler and method

    DOEpatents

    Holcombe, Cressie E.

    1985-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a microwave coupler for enhancing the heating or metallurgical treatment of materials within a cold-wall, rapidly heated cavity as provided by a microwave furnace. The coupling material of the present invention is an alpha-rhombohedral-boron-derivative-structure material such as boron carbide or boron silicide which can be appropriately positioned as a susceptor within the furnace to heat other material or be in powder particulate form so that composites and structures of boron carbide such as cutting tools, grinding wheels and the like can be rapidly and efficiently formed within microwave furnaces.

  10. Microwave coupler and method

    DOEpatents

    Holcombe, C.E.

    1984-11-29

    The present invention is directed to a microwave coupler for enhancing the heating or metallurgical treatment of materials within a cold-wall, rapidly heated cavity as provided by a microwave furnace. The coupling material of the present invention is an alpha-rhombohedral-boron-derivative-structure material such as boron carbide or boron silicide which can be appropriately positioned as a susceptor within the furnace to heat other material or be in powder particulate form so that composites and structures of boron carbide such as cutting tools, grinding wheels and the like can be rapidly and efficiently formed within microwave furnaces.

  11. Microwave vision for robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewandowski, Leon; Struckman, Keith

    1994-01-01

    Microwave Vision (MV), a concept originally developed in 1985, could play a significant role in the solution to robotic vision problems. Originally our Microwave Vision concept was based on a pattern matching approach employing computer based stored replica correlation processing. Artificial Neural Network (ANN) processor technology offers an attractive alternative to the correlation processing approach, namely the ability to learn and to adapt to changing environments. This paper describes the Microwave Vision concept, some initial ANN-MV experiments, and the design of an ANN-MV system that has led to a second patent disclosure in the robotic vision field.

  12. Monolithic microwave integrated circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pucel, R. A.

    Monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMICs), a new microwave technology which is expected to exert a profound influence on microwave circuit designs for future military systems as well as for the commercial and consumer markets, is discussed. The book contains an historical discussion followed by a comprehensive review presenting the current status in the field. The general topics of the volume are: design considerations, materials and processing considerations, monolithic circuit applications, and CAD, measurement, and packaging techniques. All phases of MMIC technology are covered, from design to testing.

  13. Microwave sterilization of enterobacteria.

    PubMed

    Rosaspina, S; Anzanel, D; Salvatorelli, G

    1993-01-01

    A new method is described which makes it possible to treat metal materials with microwaves. In consequence scalpel blades as well as cover glasses contaminated with four species of bacteria (Salmonella typhi, Proteus mirabilis, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) were sterilized. With this method sterilization can be achieved quite rapidly (1.5-2 min). Scanning electron microscopy revealed a progressive alteration in the morphology of micro-organisms and this proved proportional to the microwave exposure time. Only in Proteus mirabilis were no modifications found, even after long periods of microwave exposure. PMID:8302204

  14. Microwave thawing apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Fathi, Zakaryae; Lauf, Robert J.; McMillan, April D.

    2004-06-01

    An apparatus for thawing a frozen material includes: a microwave energy source; a microwave applicator which defines a cavity for applying microwave energy from the microwave source to a material to be thawed; and a shielded region which is shielded from the microwave source, the shielded region in fluid communication with the cavity so that thawed material may flow from the cavity into the shielded region.

  15. Application of microwave radiometers for wetlands and estuaries monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Shutko, A.; Haldin, A.; Novichikhin, E.

    1997-06-01

    This paper presents the examples of experimental data obtained with airborne microwave radiometers used for monitoring of wetlands and estuaries located in coastal environments. The international team of researchers has successfully worked in Russia, Ukraine and USA. The data presented relate to a period of time between 1990 and 1995. They have been collected in Odessa Region, Black Sea coast, Ukraine, in Regions of Pittsville and Winfield, Maryland, USA, and in Region of St. Marks, Florida, USA. The parameters discussed are a soil moisture, depth to a shallow water table, vegetation index, salinity of water surface.

  16. Microwave remote sensing of flood inundation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schumann, Guy J.-P.; Moller, Delwyn K.

    Flooding is one of the most costly natural disasters and thus mapping, modeling and forecasting flood events at various temporal and spatial scales is important for any flood risk mitigation plan, disaster relief services and the global (re-)insurance markets. Both computer models and observations (ground-based, airborne and Earth-orbiting) of flood processes and variables are of great value but the amount and quality of information available varies greatly with location, spatial scales and time. It is very well known that remote sensing of flooding, especially in the microwave region of the electromagnetic spectrum, can complement ground-based observations and be integrated with flood models to augment the amount of information available to end-users, decision-makers and scientists. This paper aims to provide a concise review of both the science and applications of microwave remote sensing of flood inundation, focusing mainly on synthetic aperture radar (SAR), in a variety of natural and man-made environments. Strengths and limitations are discussed and the paper will conclude with a brief account on perspectives and emerging technologies.

  17. Airborne gamma radiation measurements of soil moisture during FIFE: Activities and results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peck, Eugene L.

    1992-01-01

    Soil moisture measurements were obtained during the summer of 1987 and 1989 near Manhattan, Kansas, using the National Weather Service (NWS) airborne gamma radiation system. A network of 24 flight lines were established over the research area. Airborne surveys were flown daily during two intensive field campaigns. The data collected was sufficient to modify the NWS standard operational method for estimating soil moisture for the Field Experiment (FIFE) flight lines. The average root mean square error of the soil moisture estimates for shorter FIFE flight lines was found to be 2.5 percent, compared with a reported value of 3.9 percent for NWS flight lines. Techniques were developed to compute soil moisture estimates for portions of the flight lines. Results of comparisons of the airborne gamma radiation soil moisture estimates with those obtained using the NASA Pushbroom Microwave Radiation (PBMR) system and hydrological model are presented. The airborne soil moisture measurements, and real averages computed using all remotely sensed and ground data, have been in support of the research of the many FIFE investigators whose overall goal was the upscale integration of models and the application of satellite remote sensing.

  18. Emitron: microwave diode

    DOEpatents

    Craig, G.D.; Pettibone, J.S.; Drobot, A.T.

    1982-05-06

    The invention comprises a new class of device, driven by electron or other charged particle flow, for producing coherent microwaves by utilizing the interaction of electromagnetic waves with electron flow in diodes not requiring an external magnetic field. Anode and cathode surfaces are electrically charged with respect to one another by electron flow, for example caused by a Marx bank voltage source or by other charged particle flow, for example by a high energy charged particle beam. This produces an electric field which stimulates an emitted electron beam to flow in the anode-cathode region. The emitted electrons are accelerated by the electric field and coherent microwaves are produced by the three dimensional spatial and temporal interaction of the accelerated electrons with geometrically allowed microwave modes which results in the bunching of the electrons and the pumping of at least one dominant microwave mode.

  19. Microwave Oven Observations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumrall, William J.; Richardson, Denise; Yan, Yuan

    1998-01-01

    Explains a series of laboratory activities which employ a microwave oven to help students understand word problems that relate to states of matter, collect data, and calculate and compare electrical costs to heat energy costs. (DDR)

  20. Microwave Radiation Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lesh, J. R.

    1984-01-01

    Direct photon detector responds to microwave frequencies. Method based on trapped-ion frequency-generation standards proposed to detect radio-frequency (RF) radiation at 40.5 GHz. Technique used for directdetection (RF) communication, radar, and radio astronomy.

  1. Microwave sensing from orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kritikos, H. N.; Shiue, J.

    1979-01-01

    Microwave sensors, used in conjunction with the traditional sensors of visible and infrared light to extend present capabilities of global weather forecasts and local storm watches, are discussed. The great advantage of these sensors is that they can penetrate or 'see' through cloud formations to monitor temperature, humidity and wind fields below the clouds. Other uses are that they can penetrate the earth deeper than optical and IR systems; they can control their own angle of incidence; they can detect oil spills; and they can enhance the studies of the upper atmosphere through measurement of temperature, water vapor and other gaseous species. Two types of microwave sensors, active and passive, are examined. Special attention is given to the study of the microwave radiometer and the corresponding temperature resolution as detected by the antenna. It is determined that not only will the microwave remote sensors save lives by allowing close monitoring of developing storms, but also save approximately $172 million/year.

  2. Microwave beam power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faymon, Karl A.

    1989-01-01

    Information on microwave beam power is given in viewgraph form. Information is given on orbit transfer proulsion applications, costs of delivering 100 kWe of usable power, and costs of delivering a 1 kg payload into orbit.

  3. The microwave drill.

    PubMed

    Jerby, E; Dikhtyar, V; Aktushev, O; Grosglick, U

    2002-10-18

    We present a drilling method that is based on the phenomenon of local hot spot generation by near-field microwave radiation. The microwave drill is implemented by a coaxial near-field radiator fed by a conventional microwave source. The near-field radiator induces the microwave energy into a small volume in the drilled material under its surface, and a hot spot evolves in a rapid thermal-runaway process. The center electrode of the coaxial radiator itself is then inserted into the softened material to form the hole. The method is applicable for drilling a variety of nonconductive materials. It does not require fast rotating parts, and its operation makes no dust or noise. PMID:12386331

  4. Microwave fluid flow meter

    DOEpatents

    Billeter, Thomas R.; Philipp, Lee D.; Schemmel, Richard R.

    1976-01-01

    A microwave fluid flow meter is described utilizing two spaced microwave sensors positioned along a fluid flow path. Each sensor includes a microwave cavity having a frequency of resonance dependent upon the static pressure of the fluid at the sensor locations. The resonant response of each cavity with respect to a variation in pressure of the monitored fluid is represented by a corresponding electrical output which can be calibrated into a direct pressure reading. The pressure drop between sensor locations is then correlated as a measure of fluid velocity. In the preferred embodiment the individual sensor cavities are strategically positioned outside the path of fluid flow and are designed to resonate in two distinct frequency modes yielding a measure of temperature as well as pressure. The temperature response can then be used in correcting for pressure responses of the microwave cavity encountered due to temperature fluctuations.

  5. High power microwave generator

    DOEpatents

    Ekdahl, C.A.

    1983-12-29

    A microwave generator efficiently converts the energy of an intense relativistic electron beam (REB) into a high-power microwave emission using the Smith-Purcell effect which is related to Cerenkov radiation. Feedback for efficient beam bunching and high gain is obtained by placing a cylindrical Smith-Purcell transmission grating on the axis of a toroidal resonator. High efficiency results from the use of a thin cold annular highly-magnetized REB that is closely coupled to the resonant structure.

  6. High power microwave generator

    DOEpatents

    Ekdahl, Carl A.

    1986-01-01

    A microwave generator efficiently converts the energy of an intense relativistic electron beam (REB) into a high-power microwave emission using the Smith-Purcell effect which is related to Cerenkov radiation. Feedback for efficient beam bunching and high gain is obtained by placing a cylindrical Smith-Purcell transmission grating on the axis of a toroidal resonator. High efficiency results from the use of a thin cold annular highly-magnetized REB that is closely coupled to the resonant structure.

  7. Spaceborne Microwave Imagers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stacey, J. M.

    1991-01-01

    Monograph presents comprehensive overview of science and technology of spaceborne microwave-imaging systems. Microwave images used as versatile orbiting, remote-sensing systems to investigate atmospheres and surfaces of planets. Detect surface objects through canopies of clouds, measure distributions of raindrops in clouds that their views penetrate, find meandering rivers in rain forests and underground water in arid regions, and provide information on ocean currents, wakes, ice/water boundaries, aircraft, ships, buoys, and bridges.

  8. Synergistic use of active and passive microwave in soil moisture estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Neill, P.; Chauhan, N.; Jackson, T.; Saatchi, S.

    1992-01-01

    Data gathered during the MACHYDRO experiment in central Pennsylvania in July 1990 have been utilized to study the synergistic use of active and passive microwave systems for estimating soil moisture. These data sets were obtained during an eleven-day period with NASA's Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR) and Push-Broom Microwave Radiometer (PBMR) over an instrumented watershed which included agricultural fields with a number of different crop covers. Simultaneous ground truth measurements were also made in order to characterize the state of vegetation and soil moisture under a variety of meteorological conditions. A combination algorithm is presented as applied to a representative corn field in the MACHYDRO watershed.

  9. The Impact of Microwave-Derived Surface Soil Moisture on Watershed Hydrological Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    ONeill, P. E.; Hsu, A. Y.; Jackson, T. J.; Wood, E. F.; Zion, M.

    1997-01-01

    The usefulness of incorporating microwave-derived soil moisture information in a semi-distributed hydrological model was demonstrated for the Washita '92 experiment in the Little Washita River watershed in Oklahoma. Initializing the hydrological model with surface soil moisture fields from the ESTAR airborne L-band microwave radiometer on a single wet day at the start of the study period produced more accurate model predictions of soil moisture than a standard hydrological initialization with streamflow data over an eight-day soil moisture drydown.

  10. The Correlation Radiometer - A New Application in MM-Wave Total Power Radiometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaier, Todd; Tanner, Alan; Kangaslahti, Pekka; Lim, Boon

    2013-01-01

    We describe the design and performance of a 180 GHz correlation radiometer suitable for remote sensing. The radiometer provides continuous comparisons between a the observed signal and a reference load to provide stable radiometric baselines. The radiometer was assembled and tested using parts from the GeoSTAR-II instrument and is fully compatible with operation in a synthetic aperture radiometer or as a standalone technology for use in microwave sounding and imaging. This new radiometer was tested over several days easily demonstrating the required 6 hour stability requirement for observations of mean brightness temperature for a geostationary instrument.

  11. Microwave quantum illumination.

    PubMed

    Barzanjeh, Shabir; Guha, Saikat; Weedbrook, Christian; Vitali, David; Shapiro, Jeffrey H; Pirandola, Stefano

    2015-02-27

    Quantum illumination is a quantum-optical sensing technique in which an entangled source is exploited to improve the detection of a low-reflectivity object that is immersed in a bright thermal background. Here, we describe and analyze a system for applying this technique at microwave frequencies, a more appropriate spectral region for target detection than the optical, due to the naturally occurring bright thermal background in the microwave regime. We use an electro-optomechanical converter to entangle microwave signal and optical idler fields, with the former being sent to probe the target region and the latter being retained at the source. The microwave radiation collected from the target region is then phase conjugated and upconverted into an optical field that is combined with the retained idler in a joint-detection quantum measurement. The error probability of this microwave quantum-illumination system, or quantum radar, is shown to be superior to that of any classical microwave radar of equal transmitted energy.

  12. Microwave quantum illumination.

    PubMed

    Barzanjeh, Shabir; Guha, Saikat; Weedbrook, Christian; Vitali, David; Shapiro, Jeffrey H; Pirandola, Stefano

    2015-02-27

    Quantum illumination is a quantum-optical sensing technique in which an entangled source is exploited to improve the detection of a low-reflectivity object that is immersed in a bright thermal background. Here, we describe and analyze a system for applying this technique at microwave frequencies, a more appropriate spectral region for target detection than the optical, due to the naturally occurring bright thermal background in the microwave regime. We use an electro-optomechanical converter to entangle microwave signal and optical idler fields, with the former being sent to probe the target region and the latter being retained at the source. The microwave radiation collected from the target region is then phase conjugated and upconverted into an optical field that is combined with the retained idler in a joint-detection quantum measurement. The error probability of this microwave quantum-illumination system, or quantum radar, is shown to be superior to that of any classical microwave radar of equal transmitted energy. PMID:25768743

  13. Microwave interaction with air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bollen, W. M.; Pershing, D.

    1985-06-01

    Microwave breakdown studies of gaseous elements have been carried out extensively over a wide range of pressures and for several microwave frequencies using CW and pulsed radiation sources. The main emphasis in these studies was on the determination of the breakdown power threshold and its dependence on the gas pressure and the microwave frequency. The coupling of mircowave energy into the breakdown plasma and neutral gas has not been studied in detail. The reason for this is that, until recently, no high-power microwave sources have been available to perform such studies. Most of the early work performed on breakdown thresholds was performed using high Q-cavities to obtain the necessary electric field to break down the gas. Once breakdown of the gas occurred, the Q of the cavity dropped and the interaction changed. Using the NRL high-power gyrotron facility, we have been able to eliminate the need for cavities and have performed experiments using a focused geometry to examine the coupling of microwave energy to nitrogen gas during breakdown. We have also modeled the experiments using a 1-D computer simulation code. Simulations were performed in a spherical geometry using a self-consistent, nitrogen chemistry, wave optics, microwave breakdown simulation code, MINI. The main emphasis of past work was on the ionization front created during nitrogen breakdown and its motion and plasma properties, as observed experimentally.

  14. Microwaves and Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xia; Huang, Wen-Juan; Chen, Wei-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer's diseases (AD) is the most common type of dementia and a neurodegenerative disease that occurs when the nerve cells in the brain die. The cause and treatment of AD remain unknown. However, AD is a disease that affects the brain, an organ that controls behavior. Accordingly, anything that can interact with the brain may affect this organ positively or negatively, thereby protecting or encouraging AD. In this regard, modern life encompasses microwaves for all issues including industrial, communications, medical and domestic tenders, and among all applications, the cell phone wave, which directly exposes the brain, continues to be the most used. Evidence suggests that microwaves may produce various biological effects on the central nervous system (CNS) and many arguments relay the possibility that microwaves may be involved in the pathophysiology of CNS disease, including AD. By contrast, previous studies have reported some beneficial cognitive effects and that microwaves may protect against cognitive impairment in AD. However, although many of the beneficial effects of microwaves are derived from animal models, but can easily be extrapolated to humans, whether microwaves cause AD is an important issue that is to be addressed in the current review. PMID:27698682

  15. Microwaves and Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xia; Huang, Wen-Juan; Chen, Wei-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer's diseases (AD) is the most common type of dementia and a neurodegenerative disease that occurs when the nerve cells in the brain die. The cause and treatment of AD remain unknown. However, AD is a disease that affects the brain, an organ that controls behavior. Accordingly, anything that can interact with the brain may affect this organ positively or negatively, thereby protecting or encouraging AD. In this regard, modern life encompasses microwaves for all issues including industrial, communications, medical and domestic tenders, and among all applications, the cell phone wave, which directly exposes the brain, continues to be the most used. Evidence suggests that microwaves may produce various biological effects on the central nervous system (CNS) and many arguments relay the possibility that microwaves may be involved in the pathophysiology of CNS disease, including AD. By contrast, previous studies have reported some beneficial cognitive effects and that microwaves may protect against cognitive impairment in AD. However, although many of the beneficial effects of microwaves are derived from animal models, but can easily be extrapolated to humans, whether microwaves cause AD is an important issue that is to be addressed in the current review.

  16. Behavioral effects of microwaves

    SciTech Connect

    Stern, S.

    1980-01-01

    Microwaves can produce sensations of warmth and sound in humans. In other species, they also can serve as cues, they may be avoided, and they can disrupt ongoing behavior. These actions appear to be due to heat produced by energy absorption. The rate of absorption depends on the microwave parameters and the electrical and geometric properties of the subject. We therefore, cannot predict the human response to microwaves based on data from other animals without appropriate scaling considerations. At low levels of exposure, microwaves can produce changes in behavior without large, or even measureable, changes in body temperature. Thermoregulatory behavior may respond to those low levels of heat, and thereby affect other behavior occurring concurrently. There are no data that demonstrate that behavioral effects of microwaves depend on any mechanism other than reactions to heat. Our interpretation of whether a reported behavioral effect indicates that microwaves may be hazardous depends on our having a complete description of the experiment and on our criteria of behavioral toxicity.

  17. Non-mechanical optical path switching and its application to dual beam spectroscopy including gas filter correlation radiometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sachse, Glen W. (Inventor); Wang, Liang-Guo (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A non-mechanical optical switch is developed for alternately switching a monochromatic or quasi-monochromatic light beam along two optical paths. A polarizer polarizes light into a single, e.g., vertical component which is then rapidly modulated into vertical and horizontal components by a polarization modulator. A polarization beam splitter then reflects one of these components along one path and transmits the other along the second path. In the specific application of gas filter correlation radiometry, one path is directed through a vacuum cell and one path is directed through a gas correlation cell containing a desired gas. Reflecting mirrors cause these two paths to intersect at a second polarization beam splitter which reflects one component and transmits the other to recombine them into a polarization modulated beam which can be detected by an appropriate single sensor.

  18. An absolute calibration method of an ethyl alcohol biosensor based on wavelength-modulated differential photothermal radiometry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi Jun; Mandelis, Andreas; Guo, Xinxin

    2015-11-01

    In this work, laser-based wavelength-modulated differential photothermal radiometry (WM-DPTR) is applied to develop a non-invasive in-vehicle alcohol biosensor. WM-DPTR features unprecedented ethanol-specificity and sensitivity by suppressing baseline variations through a differential measurement near the peak and baseline of the mid-infrared ethanol absorption spectrum. Biosensor signal calibration curves are obtained from WM-DPTR theory and from measurements in human blood serum and ethanol solutions diffused from skin. The results demonstrate that the WM-DPTR-based calibrated alcohol biosensor can achieve high precision and accuracy for the ethanol concentration range of 0-100 mg/dl. The high-performance alcohol biosensor can be incorporated into ignition interlocks that could be fitted as a universal accessory in vehicles in an effort to reduce incidents of drinking and driving.

  19. Quantitative Carrier Density Wave Imaging in Silicon Solar Cells Using Photocarrier Radiometry and Lock-in Carrierography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Q. M.; Melnikov, A.; Mandelis, A.

    2016-04-01

    InGaAs camera-based low-frequency homodyne and high-frequency heterodyne lock-in carrierographies (LIC) are introduced for spatially resolved imaging of optoelectronic properties of Si solar cells. Based on the full theory of solar cell photocarrier radiometry (PCR), several simplification steps were performed aiming at the open circuit case, and a concise expression of the base minority carrier density depth profile was obtained. The model shows that solar cell PCR/LIC signals are mainly sensitive to the base minority carrier lifetime. Both homodyne and heterodyne frequency response data at selected locations on a mc-Si solar cell were used to extract the local base minority carrier lifetimes by best fitting local experimental data to theory.

  20. Trap State Effects in PbS Colloidal Quantum Dot Exciton Kinetics Using Photocarrier Radiometry Intensity and Temperature Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing; Mandelis, Andreas; Melnikov, Alexander; Sun, Qiming

    2016-06-01

    Colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) have attracted significant interest for applications in electronic and optoelectronic devices such as photodetectors, light-emitting diodes, and solar cells. However, a poor understanding of charge transport in these nanocrystalline films hinders their practical applications. The photocarrier radiometry (PCR) technique, a frequency-domain photoluminescence method spectrally gated for monitoring radiative recombination photon emissions while excluding thermal infrared photons due to non-radiative recombination, has been applied to PbS CQD thin films for the analysis of charge transport properties. Linear excitation intensity responses of PCR signals were found in the reported experimental conditions. The type and influence of trap states in the coupled PbS CQD thin film were analyzed with PCR temperature- and time-dependent results.

  1. An absolute calibration method of an ethyl alcohol biosensor based on wavelength-modulated differential photothermal radiometry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi Jun; Mandelis, Andreas; Guo, Xinxin

    2015-11-01

    In this work, laser-based wavelength-modulated differential photothermal radiometry (WM-DPTR) is applied to develop a non-invasive in-vehicle alcohol biosensor. WM-DPTR features unprecedented ethanol-specificity and sensitivity by suppressing baseline variations through a differential measurement near the peak and baseline of the mid-infrared ethanol absorption spectrum. Biosensor signal calibration curves are obtained from WM-DPTR theory and from measurements in human blood serum and ethanol solutions diffused from skin. The results demonstrate that the WM-DPTR-based calibrated alcohol biosensor can achieve high precision and accuracy for the ethanol concentration range of 0-100 mg/dl. The high-performance alcohol biosensor can be incorporated into ignition interlocks that could be fitted as a universal accessory in vehicles in an effort to reduce incidents of drinking and driving. PMID:26628164

  2. Passive standoff detection of SF6 at a distance of 5.7 km by differential Fourier transform infrared radiometry.

    PubMed

    Lavoie, Hugo; Puckrin, Eldon; Thériault, Jean-Marc; Bouffard, François

    2005-10-01

    Recent results are presented on the passive detection, identification, and quantification of a vapor cloud of SF6 measured at a horizontal standoff distance of 5.7 km using a dual-beam interferometer optimized for background signal suppression. The measurements were performed at Defense Research and Development Canada (DRDC)-Valcartier during a number of recent open-air experiments. The measurement approach is based on the differential passive standoff detection method that has been developed by DRDC Valcartier during the past few years. This work represents the first such measurement reported in the open literature for a standoff distance as large as 5.7 km. These results clearly demonstrate the capability of the differential radiometry approach to the detection, identification, and quantification of chemical vapor clouds located at long distances from the sensor. PMID:16274529

  3. Passive standoff detection of SF6 at a distance of 5.7 km by differential Fourier transform infrared radiometry.

    PubMed

    Lavoie, Hugo; Puckrin, Eldon; Thériault, Jean-Marc; Bouffard, François

    2005-10-01

    Recent results are presented on the passive detection, identification, and quantification of a vapor cloud of SF6 measured at a horizontal standoff distance of 5.7 km using a dual-beam interferometer optimized for background signal suppression. The measurements were performed at Defense Research and Development Canada (DRDC)-Valcartier during a number of recent open-air experiments. The measurement approach is based on the differential passive standoff detection method that has been developed by DRDC Valcartier during the past few years. This work represents the first such measurement reported in the open literature for a standoff distance as large as 5.7 km. These results clearly demonstrate the capability of the differential radiometry approach to the detection, identification, and quantification of chemical vapor clouds located at long distances from the sensor.

  4. An absolute calibration method of an ethyl alcohol biosensor based on wavelength-modulated differential photothermal radiometry

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yi Jun; Mandelis, Andreas; Guo, Xinxin

    2015-11-15

    In this work, laser-based wavelength-modulated differential photothermal radiometry (WM-DPTR) is applied to develop a non-invasive in-vehicle alcohol biosensor. WM-DPTR features unprecedented ethanol-specificity and sensitivity by suppressing baseline variations through a differential measurement near the peak and baseline of the mid-infrared ethanol absorption spectrum. Biosensor signal calibration curves are obtained from WM-DPTR theory and from measurements in human blood serum and ethanol solutions diffused from skin. The results demonstrate that the WM-DPTR-based calibrated alcohol biosensor can achieve high precision and accuracy for the ethanol concentration range of 0-100 mg/dl. The high-performance alcohol biosensor can be incorporated into ignition interlocks that could be fitted as a universal accessory in vehicles in an effort to reduce incidents of drinking and driving.

  5. Stray light design and analysis of the Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stauder, John L.; Esplin, Roy W.

    1998-11-01

    The Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) instrument is a 10-channel earth limb- viewing sensor that is to measure atmospheric emissions in the spectral range of 1.27 micrometer to 16.9 micrometer. Presented in this paper is the stray light design and analysis of SABER. Unwanted radiation from the earth and atmosphere are suppressed by the use of stray light features that are critical to mission success. These include the use of an intermediate field stop, an inner and outer Lyot stop, and super-polished mirrors. The point source normalized irradiance transmission (PSNIT) curve, which characterizes the sensor's off-axis response, was computed using the stray light analysis program APART. An initial calculation of the non-rejected radiance (NRR) due to emissions and scatter from the earth and atmosphere was made using the PSNIT data. The results indicate that stray light will not impede the mission objectives.

  6. Kinetics of the drying process of an anti-adherent coating using Photothermal Radiometry and Micro-Raman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurtado-Castañeda, D. M.; Fernández, J.; Velázquez, R.; Estévez, M.; Vargas, S.; Rodríguez, R.; Rodríguez, M. E.

    2005-06-01

    The kinetics of the drying process of a new anti-adherent (anti-graffiti) polymeric coating containing organic solvent was determined using Photothermal Radiometry (PTR) and Micro-Raman (μ-R) Spectroscopy. PTR Spectroscopy was used to study, in real time, the kinetics of the drying process in samples protected with coatings with and without anti-adherent molecules. These were applied on a metal and silicon substrates. The PTR spectrum for coating without anti-adherent, shows a single relaxation time, while for coating containing anti-adherent shows two relaxation times corresponding to two different mechanisms: the solvent evaporation and the molecular re-arrangements of the two different molecular species present in the coating; the kinetic of the solvent evaporation is strongly dependent, as expected, on the solvent concentration.

  7. Ocean Colour Radiometry across the Southern Atlantic and South-Eastern Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudorff, N. D.; Kampel, M.; Frouin, R. J.

    2011-12-01

    reference deck sensor. Rrs was estimated at 12 ocean colour bands from 412-681 nm. The best overall fit was between the M02 and MP02 methods. The mean normalized bias (MNB) ranged from 1.91% at 443 nm, with a normalized root mean square error (RMSE) of 35.83% and determination coefficient (R2) of 0.41; to 81.11% (MNB) at 681 nm with a RMSE of 72.86% and R2 of 0.52. The stations with the highest differences were the ones with a combination of adverse conditions, with stronger winds (>7.5 m/s) and higher waves (>2 m), but especially, high illumination variability. Clear sky or overcast conditions, even with strong winds (≈11 m/s) and waves, in general, still showed a good match. However, especially at overcast days, high offsets were observed at all spectra. Even with a simple method for the RSC, the M02 was considered efficient, providing accurate Rrs estimates, for the radiometry measurements sampled across the rough seas of the Southern Ocean.

  8. Satellite Altimetry And Radiometry for Inland Hydrology, Coastal Sea-Level And Environmental Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, Kuo-Hsin

    In this study, we demonstrate three environmental-related applications employing altimetry and remote sensing satellites, and exemplify the prospective usage underlying the current progressivity in mechanical and data analyzing technologies. Our discussion starts from the improved waveform retracking techniques in need for altimetry measurements over coastal and inland water regions. We developed two novel auxiliary procedures, namely the Subwaveform Filtering (SF) method and the Track Offset Correction (TOC), for waveform retracking algorithms to operationally detect altimetry waveform anomalies and further reduce possible errors in determination of the track offset. After that, we present two demonstrative studies related to the ionospheric and tropospheric compositions, respectively, as their variations are the important error sources for satellite electromagnetic signals. We firstly compare the total electron content (TEC) measured by multiple altimetry and GNSS sensors. We conclude that the ionosphere delay measured by Jason-2 is about 6-10 mm shorter than the GPS models. On the other hand, we use several atmospheric variables to study the climate change over high elevation areas. Five types of satellite data and reanalysis models were used to study climate change indicators. We conclude that the spatial distribution of temperature trend among data products is quite different, which is probably due to the choice of various time spans. Following discussions about the measuring techniques and relative bias between data products, we applied our improved altimetry techniques to three environmental science applications with helps of remote sensing imagery. We first manifest the detectability of hydrological events by satellite altimetry and radiometry. The characterization of one-dimensional (along-track) water boundary using former Backscattering Coefficient (BC) method is assisted by the two-dimensional (horizontal) estimate of water extent using the Moderate

  9. A new application of hyperspectral radiometry: the characterization of painted surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Cong; Salvatici, Teresa; Camaiti, Mara; Del Ventisette, Chiara; Moretti, Sandro

    2016-04-01

    Hyperspectral sensors, working in the Visible-Near Infrared and Short Wave Infrared (VNIR-SWIR) regions, are widely employed for geological applications since they can discriminate many inorganic (e.g. mineral phases) and organic compounds (i.e. vegetations and soils) [1]. Their advantage is to work in the portion of the solar spectrum used for remote sensors. Some examples of application of the hyperspectral sensors to the conservation of cultural heritage are also known. These applications concern the detection of gypsum on historical buildings [2], and the monitoring of organic protective materials on stone surfaces [3]. On the contrary, hyperspectral radiometry has not been employed on painted surfaces. Indeed, the characterization of these surfaces is mainly performed with sophisticated, micro-destractive and time-consuming laboratory analyses (i.e. SEM-EDS, FTIR and, GC-MS spectroscopy) or through portable and non-invasive instruments (mid FTIR, micro Raman, XRF, FORS) which work in different spectral ranges [4,5]. In this work the discrimination of many organic and inorganic components from paintings was investigated through a hyperspectral spectroradiometer ,which works in the 350-2500 nm region. The reflectance spectra were collected by the contact reflectance probe, equipped with an internal light source with fixed geometry of illumination and shot. Several standards samples, selected among the most common materials of paintings, were prepared and analysed in order to collect reference spectra. The standards were prepared with powders of 7 pure pigments, films of 5 varnishes (natural and synthetic), and films of 3 dried binding media. Monochromatic painted surfaces have also been prepared and investigated to verify the identification of different compounds on the surface. The results show that the discrimination of pure products is possible in the VNIR-SWIR region, except for compounds with similar composition (e.g. natural resins such as dammar and

  10. Geophex airborne unmanned survey system

    SciTech Connect

    Won, I.J.; Taylor, D.W.A.

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of this effort is to design, construct, and evaluate a portable, remotely-piloted, airborne, geophysical survey system. This nonintrusive system will provide {open_quotes}stand-off{close_quotes} capability to conduct surveys and detect buried objects, structures, and conditions of interest at hazardous locations. This system permits two operators to rapidly conduct geophysical characterization of hazardous environmental sites. During a survey, the operators remain remote from, but within visual distance, of, the site. The sensor system never contacts the Earth, but can be positioned near the ground so that weak anomalies can be detected.

  11. Airborne wavemeter validation and calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goad, Joseph H., Jr.; Rinsland, Pamela L.; Kist, Edward H., Jr.; Geier, Erika B.; Banziger, Curtis G.

    1992-01-01

    This manuscript outlines a continuing effort to validate and verify the performance of an airborne autonomous wavemeter for tuning solid state lasers to a desired wavelength. The application is measuring the vertical profiles of atmospheric water vapor using a differential absorption lidar (DIAL) technique. Improved wavemeter performance data for varying ambient temperatures are presented. This resulted when the electronic grounding and shielding were improved. The results with short pulse duration lasers are also included. These lasers show that similar performance could be obtained with lasers operating in the continuous and the pulsed domains.

  12. Geophex Airborne Unmanned Survey System

    SciTech Connect

    Won, I.J.; Keiswetter, D.

    1995-10-01

    The purpose of this effort is to design, construct, and evaluate a portable, remotely-piloted, airborne, geophysical survey system. This non-intrusive system will provide {open_quotes}stand-off{close_quotes} capability to conduct surveys and detect buried objects, structures, and conditions of interest at hazardous locations. This system permits rapid geophysical characterization of hazardous environmental sites. During a survey, the operators remain remote from, but within visual distance of, the site. The sensor system never contacts the Earth, but can be positioned near the ground so that weak geophysical anomalies can be detected.

  13. Airborne Research Experience for Educators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, V. B.; Albertson, R.; Smith, S.; Stockman, S. A.

    2009-12-01

    The Airborne Research Experience for Educators (AREE) Program, conducted by the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center Office of Education in partnership with the AERO Institute, NASA Teaching From Space Program, and California State University Fullerton, is a complete end-to-end residential research experience in airborne remote sensing and atmospheric science. The 2009 program engaged ten secondary educators who specialize in science, technology, engineering or mathematics in a 6-week Student Airborne Research Program (SARP) offered through NSERC. Educators participated in collection of in-flight remote sensor data during flights aboard the NASA DC-8 as well as in-situ research on atmospheric chemistry (bovine emissions of methane); algal blooms (remote sensing to determine location and degree of blooms for further in-situ analysis); and crop classification (exploration of how drought conditions in Central California have impacted almond and cotton crops). AREE represents a unique model of the STEM teacher-as-researcher professional development experience because it asks educators to participate in a research experience and then translate their experiences into classroom practice through the design, implementation, and evaluation of instructional materials that emphasize the scientific research process, inquiry-based investigations, and manipulation of real data. Each AREE Master Educator drafted a Curriculum Brief, Teachers Guide, and accompanying resources for a topic in their teaching assignment Currently, most professional development programs offer either a research experience OR a curriculum development experience. The dual nature of the AREE model engaged educators in both experiences. Educators’ content and pedagogical knowledge of STEM was increased through the review of pertinent research articles during the first week, attendance at lectures and workshops during the second week, and participation in the airborne and in-situ research studies, data

  14. Cyberinfrastructure for Airborne Sensor Webs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freudinger, Lawrence C.

    2009-01-01

    Since 2004 the NASA Airborne Science Program has been prototyping and using infrastructure that enables researchers to interact with each other and with their instruments via network communications. This infrastructure uses satellite links and an evolving suite of applications and services that leverage open-source software. The use of these tools has increased near-real-time situational awareness during field operations, resulting in productivity improvements and the collection of better data. This paper describes the high-level system architecture and major components, with example highlights from the use of the infrastructure. The paper concludes with a discussion of ongoing efforts to transition to operational status.

  15. Requirements for airborne vector gravimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwarz, K. P.; Colombo, O.; Hein, G.; Knickmeyer, E. T.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of airborne vector gravimetry is the determination of the full gravity disturbance vector along the aircraft trajectory. The paper briefly outlines the concept of this method using a combination of inertial and GPS-satellite data. The accuracy requirements for users in geodesy and solid earth geophysics, oceanography and exploration geophysics are then specified. Using these requirements, accuracy specifications for the GPS subsystem and the INS subsystem are developed. The integration of the subsystems and the problems connected with it are briefly discussed and operational methods are indicated that might reduce some of the stringent accuracy requirements.

  16. Biological monitoring of airborne pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Ditz, D.W. )

    1990-01-01

    Common plants such as grasses, mosses, and even goldenrod may turn out to have a new high-tech role as monitors of airborne pollution from solid waste incinerators. Certain plants that respond to specific pollutants can provide continuous surveillance of air quality over long periods of time: they are bio-indicators. Other species accumulate pollutants and can serve as sensitive indicators of pollutants and of food-chain contamination: they are bio-accumulators. Through creative use of these properties, biological monitoring can provide information that cannot be obtained by current methods such as stack testing.

  17. Toolsets for Airborne Data - URS and New Documentation

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2015-03-23

    ... airborne field missions, documentation, and EOSDIS User Registration System (URS) authentication. This web application features an intuitive user interface for variable selection across different airborne field studies and ...

  18. Investigation of microwave hologram techniques for application to earth resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, R. W.; Bayma, R. W.; Evans, M. B.; Zelenka, J. S.; Doss, H. W.; Ferris, J. E.

    1974-01-01

    An investigation of microwave hologram techniques for application to earth resources was conducted during the period from June 1971 to November 1972. The objective of this investigation has been to verify the feasibility of an orbital microwave holographic radar experiment. The primary advantage of microwave hologram radar (MHR) over the side-looking airborne radar (SLAR) is that of aspect or viewing angle; the MHR has a viewing angle identical with that of photography and IR systems. The combination of these systems can thus extend the multispectral analysis concept to span optical through microwave wavelengths. Another advantage is the capacity of the MHR system to generate range contours by operating in a two-frequency mode. It should be clear that along-track resolution of an MHR can be comparable with SLAR systems, but cross-track resolution will be approximately an order of magnitude coarser than the range resolution achievable with an arbitrary SLAR system. An advantage of the MHR over the SLAR is that less average transmitter power is required. This reduction in power results from the much larger receiving apertures associated with MHR systems.

  19. Modern Microwave and Millimeter-Wave Power Electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barker, Robert J.; Luhmann, Neville C.; Booske, John H.; Nusinovich, Gregory S.

    2005-04-01

    A comprehensive study of microwave vacuum electronic devices and their current and future applications While both vacuum and solid-state electronics continue to evolve and provide unique solutions, emerging commercial and military applications that call for higher power and higher frequencies to accommodate massive volumes of transmitted data are the natural domain of vacuum electronics technology. Modern Microwave and Millimeter-Wave Power Electronics provides systems designers, engineers, and researchers-especially those with primarily solid-state training-with a thoroughly up-to-date survey of the rich field of microwave vacuum electronic device (MVED) technology. This book familiarizes the R&D and academic communities with the capabilities and limitations of MVED and highlights the exciting scientific breakthroughs of the past decade that are dramatically increasing the compactness, efficiency, cost-effectiveness, and reliability of this entire class of devices. This comprehensive text explores a wide range of topics: * Traveling-wave tubes, which form the backbone of satellite and airborne communications, as well as of military electronic countermeasures systems * Microfabricated MVEDs and advanced electron beam sources * Klystrons, gyro-amplifiers, and crossed-field devices * "Virtual prototyping" of MVEDs via advanced 3-D computational models * High-Power Microwave (HPM) sources * Next-generation microwave structures and circuits * How to achieve linear amplification * Advanced materials technologies for MVEDs * A Web site appendix providing a step-by-step walk-through of a typical MVED design process Concluding with an in-depth examination of emerging applications and future possibilities for MVEDs, Modern Microwave and Millimeter-Wave Power Electronics ensures that systems designers and engineers understand and utilize the significant potential of this mature, yet continually developing technology. SPECIAL NOTE: All of the editors' royalties realized from

  20. An Airborne Conical Scanning Millimeter-Wave Imaging Radiometer (CoSMIR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piepmeier, J.; Racette, P.; Wang, J.; Crites, A.; Doiron, T.; Engler, C.; Lecha, J.; Powers, M.; Simon, E.; Triesky, M.; Krebs, Carolyn A. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    An airborne Conical Scanning Millimeter-wave Imaging Radiometer (CoSMIR) for high-altitude observations from the NASA Research Aircraft (ER-2) is discussed. The primary application of the CoSMIR is water vapor profile remote sensing. Four radiometers operating at 50 (three channels), 92, 150, and 183 (three channels) GHz provide spectral coverage identical to nine of the Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder (SSMIS) high-frequency channels. Constant polarization-basis conical and cross-track scanning capabilities are achieved using an elevation-under-azimuth two-axis gimbals.

  1. Meeting Review: Airborne Aerosol Inlet Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumgardner, Darrel; Huebert, Barry; Wilson, Chuck

    1991-01-01

    Proceedings from the Airborne Aerosol Inlet Workshop are presented. The two central topics of discussion were the role of aerosols in atmospheric processes and the difficulties in characterizing aerosols. The following topics were discussed during the working sessions: airborne observations to date; identification of inlet design issues; inlet modeling needs and directions; objectives for aircraft experiments; and future laboratory and wind tunnel studies.

  2. Airborne Relay-Based Regional Positioning System

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyuman; Noh, Hongjun; Lim, Jaesung

    2015-01-01

    Ground-based pseudolite systems have some limitations, such as low vertical accuracy, multipath effects and near-far problems. These problems are not significant in airborne-based pseudolite systems. However, the monitoring of pseudolite positions is required because of the mobility of the platforms on which the pseudolites are mounted, and this causes performance degradation. To address these pseudolite system limitations, we propose an airborne relay-based regional positioning system that consists of a master station, reference stations, airborne relays and a user. In the proposed system, navigation signals are generated from the reference stations located on the ground and are relayed via the airborne relays. Unlike in conventional airborne-based systems, the user in the proposed system sequentially estimates both the locations of airborne relays and his/her own position. Therefore, a delay due to monitoring does not occur, and the accuracy is not affected by the movement of airborne relays. We conducted several simulations to evaluate the performance of the proposed system. Based on the simulation results, we demonstrated that the proposed system guarantees a higher accuracy than airborne-based pseudolite systems, and it is feasible despite the existence of clock offsets among reference stations. PMID:26029953

  3. Airborne Oceanographic Lidar (AOL) (Global Carbon Cycle)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This bimonthly contractor progress report covers the operation, maintenance and data management of the Airborne Oceanographic Lidar and the Airborne Topographic Mapper. Monthly activities included: mission planning, sensor operation and calibration, data processing, data analysis, network development and maintenance and instrument maintenance engineering and fabrication.

  4. Global Test Range: Toward Airborne Sensor Webs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mace, Thomas H.; Freudinger, Larry; DelFrate John H.

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the planned global sensor network that will monitor the Earth's climate, and resources using airborne sensor systems. The vision is an intelligent, affordable Earth Observation System. Global Test Range is a lab developing trustworthy services for airborne instruments - a specialized Internet Service Provider. There is discussion of several current and planned missions.

  5. A Simple Method for Collecting Airborne Pollen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kevan, Peter G.; DiGiovanni, Franco; Ho, Rong H.; Taki, Hisatomo; Ferguson, Kristyn A.; Pawlowski, Agata K.

    2006-01-01

    Pollination is a broad area of study within biology. For many plants, pollen carried by wind is required for successful seed set. Airborne pollen also affects human health. To foster studies of airborne pollen, we introduce a simple device--the "megastigma"--for collecting pollen from the air. This device is flexible, yielding easily obtained data…

  6. The Continuous wavelet in airborne gravimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, X.; Liu, L.

    2013-12-01

    Airborne gravimetry is an efficient method to recover medium and high frequency band of earth gravity over any region, especially inaccessible areas, which can measure gravity data with high accuracy,high resolution and broad range in a rapidly and economical way, and It will play an important role for geoid and geophysical exploration. Filtering methods for reducing high-frequency errors is critical to the success of airborne gravimetry due to Aircraft acceleration determination based on GPS.Tradiontal filters used in airborne gravimetry are FIR,IIR filer and so on. This study recommends an improved continuous wavelet to process airborne gravity data. Here we focus on how to construct the continuous wavelet filters and show their working principle. Particularly the technical parameters (window width parameter and scale parameter) of the filters are tested. Then the raw airborne gravity data from the first Chinese airborne gravimetry campaign are filtered using FIR-low pass filter and continuous wavelet filters to remove the noise. The comparison to reference data is performed to determinate external accuracy, which shows that continuous wavelet filters applied to airborne gravity in this thesis have good performances. The advantages of the continuous wavelet filters over digital filters are also introduced. The effectiveness of the continuous wavelet filters for airborne gravimetry is demonstrated through real data computation.

  7. Airborne Visible Laser Optical Communications Program (AVLOC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, J. H.

    1975-01-01

    The design, development, and operation of airborne and ground-based laser communications and laser radar hardware is described in support of the Airborne Visible Laser Optical Communication program. The major emphasis is placed on the development of a highly flexible test bed for the evaluation of laser communications systems techniques and components in an operational environment.

  8. MAPIR: An Airborne Polarmetric Imaging Radiometer in Support of Hydrologic Satellite Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laymon, C.; Al-Hamdan, M.; Crosson, W.; Limaye, A.; McCracken, J.; Meyer, P.; Richeson, J.; Sims, W.; Srinivasan, K.; Varnevas, K.

    2010-01-01

    In this age of dwindling water resources and increasing demands, accurate estimation of water balance components at every scale is more critical to end users than ever before. Several near-term Earth science satellite missions are aimed at global hydrologic observations. The Marshall Airborne Polarimetric Imaging Radiometer (MAPIR) is a dual beam, dual angle polarimetric, scanning L band passive microwave radiometer system developed by the Observing Microwave Emissions for Geophysical Applications (OMEGA) team at MSFC to support algorithm development and validation efforts in support of these missions. MAPIR observes naturally-emitted radiation from the ground primarily for remote sensing of land surface brightness temperature from which we can retrieve soil moisture and possibly surface or water temperature and ocean salinity. MAPIR has achieved Technical Readiness Level 6 with flight heritage on two very different aircraft, the NASA P-3B, and a Piper Navajo.

  9. Geophex Airborne Unmanned Survey System

    SciTech Connect

    Won, I.L.; Keiswetter, D.

    1995-12-31

    Ground-based surveys place personnel at risk due to the proximity of buried unexploded ordnance (UXO) items or by exposure to radioactive materials and hazardous chemicals. The purpose of this effort is to design, construct, and evaluate a portable, remotely-piloted, airborne, geophysical survey system. This non-intrusive system will provide stand-off capability to conduct surveys and detect buried objects, structures, and conditions of interest at hazardous locations. During a survey, the operators remain remote from, but within visual distance of, the site. The sensor system never contacts the Earth, but can be positioned near the ground so that weak geophysical anomalies can be detected. The Geophex Airborne Unmanned Survey System (GAUSS) is designed to detect and locate small-scale anomalies at hazardous sites using magnetic and electromagnetic survey techniques. The system consists of a remotely-piloted, radio-controlled, model helicopter (RCH) with flight computer, light-weight geophysical sensors, an electronic positioning system, a data telemetry system, and a computer base-station. The report describes GAUSS and its test results.

  10. Airborne cw Doppler lidar (ADOLAR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahm, Stefan; Werner, Christian; Nagel, E.; Herrmann, H.; Klier, M.; Knott, H. P.; Haering, R.; Wildgruber, J.

    1994-12-01

    During the last 10 years the DLR container LDA (Laser Doppler Anemometer) was used for many wind related measurements in the atmospheric boundary layer. The experience out of this were used to construct an airborne Doppler lidar ADOLAR. Based on the available Doppler lidars it is now proposed to perform a campaign to demonstrate the concept of the spaceborne sensor ALADIN, and to answer some questions concerning the signal quality from clouds, water and land. For the continuous wave CO2 laser, the energy is focused by the telescope into the region of investigation. Some of the radiation is back scattered by small aerosol particles drifting with the wind speed through the sensing volume. The back scattered radiation is collected by the telescope and detected by coherent technique. With the laser Doppler method one gets the radial wind component. To determine the magnitude and direction of the horizontal wind, some form of scanning in azimuth and elevation is required. To keep the airborne system compact, the transceiver optics is directly coupled to a wedge scanner which provides the conical scan with the axis in Nadir direction from the aircraft. The system ADOLAR was tested in 1994. Results of the flight over the lake Ammersee are presented and are compared with the data of the inertial reference system of the aircraft.

  11. Airborne thermography applications in Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, Eduardo H.; Selles, Eduardo J.; Costanzo, Marcelo; Franco, Oscar; Diaz, Jose

    2002-03-01

    Forest fires in summer and sheep buried under the snow in winter have become important problems in the south of our country, in the region named Patagonia. We are studying to find a solution by means of an airborne imaging system whose construction we have just finished. It is a 12 channel multispectral airborne scanner system that can be mounted in a Guarani airplane or in a Learjet; the first is a non- pressurized aircraft for flight at low height and the second is a pressurized one for higher flights. The scanner system is briefly described. Their sensors can detect radiation from the ultra violet to the thermal infrared. The images are visualized in real time in a monitor screen and can be stored in the hard disc of the PC for later processing. The use of this scanner for some applications that include the prevention and fighting of forest fires and the study of the possibility of detection of sheep under snow in the Patagonia is now being accomplished. Theoretical and experimental results in fire detection and a theoretical model for studying the possibility of detection of the buried sheep are presented.

  12. MICROWAVE TECHNOLOGY CHEMICAL SYNTHESIS APPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microwave-accelerated chemical syntheses in various solvents as well as under solvent-free conditions have witnessed an explosive growth. The technique has found widespread application predominantly exploiting the inexpensive unmodified household microwave (MW) ovens although th...

  13. Low-noise heterodyne receiver for electron cyclotron emission imaging and microwave imaging reflectometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobias, B.; Domier, C. W.; Luhmann, N. C.; Luo, C.; Mamidanna, M.; Phan, T.; Pham, A.-V.; Wang, Y.

    2016-11-01

    The critical component enabling electron cyclotron emission imaging (ECEI) and microwave imaging reflectometry (MIR) to resolve 2D and 3D electron temperature and density perturbations is the heterodyne imaging array that collects and downconverts radiated emission and/or reflected signals (50-150 GHz) to an intermediate frequency (IF) band (e.g. 0.1-18 GHz) that can be transmitted by a shielded coaxial cable for further filtering and detection. New circuitry has been developed for this task, integrating gallium arsenide (GaAs) monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMICs) mounted on a liquid crystal polymer (LCP) substrate. The improved topology significantly increases electromagnetic shielding from out-of-band interference, leads to 10× improvement in the signal-to-noise ratio, and dramatic cost savings through integration. The current design, optimized for reflectometry and edge radiometry on mid-sized tokamaks, has demonstrated >20 dB conversion gain in upper V-band (60-75 GHz). Implementation of the circuit in a multi-channel electron cyclotron emission imaging (ECEI) array will improve the diagnosis of edge-localized modes and fluctuations of the high-confinement, or H-mode, pedestal.

  14. The National Airborne Field Experiment 2006 (NAFE'06) Dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panciera, R.; Walker, J. P.; Merlin, O.; Kalma, J.; Kim, E.; Hacker, J.

    2007-05-01

    Remote sensing technology has a huge potential for improving hydrologic prediction through soil moisture measurement. This is particularly so given that the first dedicated soil moisture satellite, the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission, is to be launched in late 2007. However, targeted field experiments must be undertaken and the data analysed prior to launch so that immediate use can be made of this data when it becomes available. Consequently, the National Airborne Field Experiment was conducted in the Murrumbidge catchment, located in south-eastern Australia, during November 2006 (NAFE'06). The intent of this experiment was to provide simulated SMOS observations supported by ground measurement of soil moisture and other relevant ground data for i) development of the SMOS retrieval algorithms, ii) developing approaches for downscaling the low resolution data from SMOS to 1km resolution, and iii) testing its assimilation into land surface models for root zone soil moisture retrieval. This paper describes the NAFE'06 data set. The SMOS-type data were collected using a Polarimetric L-band Multi-beam Radiometer (PLMR), together with supporting instruments (thermal imager, tri-spectral scanner, lidar and digital photograph). Flights included 1km resolution passive microwave data across the main 40km x 55km Yanco study area every 2-3 days, for simulation of a SMOS pixel, verification of downscaling techniques and assimilation, and a transect across the area twice a week to provide both 500m multi-angular passive microwave data for SMOS algorithm development and 50m resolution passive microwave data for algorithm verification. This was done alternatively at 6am and 6pm, so that both SMOS overpass times could be tested. A medium resolution flight (250m for PLMR) was also performed once per week across an irrigated portion of the Yanco study area to study the effect of standing water on microwave emission. The NDVI, lidar and aerial photo supporting

  15. Uniform batch processing using microwaves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barmatz, Martin B. (Inventor); Jackson, Henry W. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A microwave oven and microwave heating method generates microwaves within a cavity in a predetermined mode such that there is a known region of uniform microwave field. Samples placed in the region will then be heated in a relatively identical manner. Where perturbations induced by the samples are significant, samples are arranged in a symmetrical distribution so that the cumulative perturbation at each sample location is the same.

  16. Optomechanics with microwave light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehnert, Konrad

    2009-03-01

    Recently, superconducting circuits resonant at microwave frequencies have revolutionized the measurement of astrophysical detectors [1] and superconducting qubits [2]. In this talk, I will describe how we extend this technique to measuring and manipulating nanomechanical oscillators. By strongly coupling the motion of a nanomechanical oscillator to the resonance of the microwave circuit we create structures where the dominant dissipative force acting on the oscillator is the radiation pressure of microwave ``light'' [3]. These devices are ultrasensitive force detectors and they allow us to cool the oscillator towards its motional ground state. [4pt] [1] P. K. Day et al., Nature 425, 817 (2003).[0pt] [2] A. Wallraff et al., Nature 431, 162 (2004).[0pt] [3] J. D. Teufel, J. W. Harlow, C. A. Regal and K. W. Lehnert, Phys. Rev. Lett., 101, 197203 (2008).

  17. Physics of the Microwave Oven

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vollmer, Michael

    2004-01-01

    This is the first of two articles about the physics of microwave ovens. This article deals with the generation of microwaves in the oven and includes the operation of the magnetrons, waveguides and standing waves in resonant cavities. It then considers the absorption of microwaves by foods, discussing the dielectric relaxation of water,…

  18. Microwave-assisted Chemical Transformations

    EPA Science Inventory

    In recent years, there has been a considerable interest in developing sustainable chemistries utilizing green chemistry principles. Since the first published report in 1986 by Gedye and Giguere on microwave assisted synthesis in household microwave ovens, the use of microwaves as...

  19. Microwave remote sensing in atmospheric research and meteorology (invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunzi, K.

    very promising application of sensors operating over a wide wavelength range from 0.3 to 0.03 cm to investigate cirrus clouds allowing for the first time to determine the ice water content and to retrieve information on particle shapes and size distribution, and instruments operating at wavelength down to several hundreds of a centimeter for applications on geostationary satellites. In conclusion microwave radiometry has been extremely successful observing technique, and we can expect these sensors to remain corner stones for remote sensing applications in atmospheric research and meteorology.

  20. Microwave Frequency Polarizers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ha, Vien The; Mirel, Paul; Kogut, Alan J.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the fabrication and analysis of microwave frequency polarizing grids. The grids are designed to measure polarization from the cosmic microwave background. It is effective in the range of 500 to 1500 micron wavelength. It is cryogenic compatible and highly robust to high load impacts. Each grid is fabricated using an array of different assembly processes which vary in the types of tension mechanisms to the shape and size of the grids. We provide a comprehensive study on the analysis of the grids' wire heights, diameters, and spacing.

  1. High power microwave generator

    DOEpatents

    Minich, Roger W.

    1988-01-01

    A device (10) for producing high-powered and coherent microwaves is described. The device comprises an evacuated, cylindrical, and hollow real cathode (20) that is driven to inwardly field emit relativistic electrons. The electrons pass through an internally disposed cylindrical and substantially electron-transparent cylindrical anode (24), proceed toward a cylindrical electron collector electrode (26), and form a cylindrical virtual cathode (32). Microwaves are produced by spatial and temporal oscillations of the cylindrical virtual cathode (32), and by electrons that reflex back and forth between the cylindrical virtual cathode (32) and the cylindrical real cathode (20).

  2. Global deposition of airborne dioxin.

    PubMed

    Booth, Shawn; Hui, Joe; Alojado, Zoraida; Lam, Vicky; Cheung, William; Zeller, Dirk; Steyn, Douw; Pauly, Daniel

    2013-10-15

    We present a global dioxin model that simulates one year of atmospheric emissions, transport processes, and depositions to the earth's terrestrial and marine habitats. We map starting emission levels for each land area, and we also map the resulting deposits to terrestrial and marine environments. This model confirms that 'hot spots' of deposition are likely to be in northern Europe, eastern North America, and in parts of Asia with the highest marine dioxin depositions being the northeast and northwest Atlantic, western Pacific, northern Indian Ocean and the Mediterranean. It also reveals that approximately 40% of airborne dioxin emissions are deposited to marine environments and that many countries in Africa receive more dioxin than they produce, which results in these countries being disproportionately impacted. Since human exposure to dioxin is largely through diet, this work highlights food producing areas that receive higher atmospheric deposits of dioxin than others.

  3. The Sandia Airborne Computer (SANDAC)

    SciTech Connect

    Nava, E.J.

    1992-06-01

    The Sandia Airborne Computer (SANDAC) is a small, modular, high performance, multiprocessor computer originally designed for aerospace applications. It can use a combination of Motorola 68020 and 68040 based processor modules along with AT&T DSP32C based signal processing modules. The system is designed to use up to 15 processors in almost any combination and a complete system can include up to 20 modules. Depending on the mix of processors, total computational throughput can range from 2.5 to greater than 225 Million Instructions Per Second (MIPS). The system is designed so that processors can access all resources in the machine and the inter-processor communication details are completely transparent to the software. In addition to processors, the system includes input/output, memory, and special function modules. Because of its ease of use, small size, durability, and configuration flexibility, SANDAC has been used on applications ranging from missile navigation, guidance, and control systems to medical imaging systems.

  4. Modis-N airborne simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cech, Steven D.

    1992-01-01

    All required work associated with the above referenced contract has been successfully completed at this time. The Modis-N Airborne Simulator has been developed from existing AB184 Wildfire spectrometer parts as well as new detector arrays, optical components, and associated mechanical and electrical hardware. The various instrument components have been integrated into an operational system which has undergone extensive laboratory calibration and testing. The instrument has been delivered to NASA Ames where it will be installed on the NASA ER-2. The following paragraphs detail the specific tasks performed during the contract effort, the results obtained during the integration and testing of the instrument, and the conclusions which can be drawn from this effort.

  5. Airborne thermography or infrared remote sensing.

    PubMed

    Goillot, C C

    1975-01-01

    Airborne thermography is part of the more general remote sensing activity. The instruments suitable for image display are infrared line scanners. A great deal of interest has developed during the past 10 years in airborne thermal remote sensing and many applications are in progress. Infrared scanners on board a satellite are used for observation of cloud cover; airborne infrared scanners are used for forest fire detection, heat budget of soils, detecting insect attack, diseases, air pollution damage, water stress, salinity stress on vegetation, only to cite some main applications relevant to agronomy. Using this system it has become possible to get a 'picture' of our thermal environment.

  6. Non-military microwave applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bierman, Howard

    1990-04-01

    The nonmilitary applications of microwave technology in medicine, communications, and agriculture are discussed. Particular attention is given to a microwave multichannel multipoint video distribution system (a broadcasting system with up to 20 programs drawn from satellites, video tape libraries, and locally generated material); microwaves used in DBS distribution; satellite receivers for data communications; microwave thermography used for early cancer detection, brain temperature measurements, and appendicitis diagnosis; an experimental Doppler radar assembly for guiding robots walking on a factory floor; and an agricultural application where microwaves are used to break down slugs in soil and thus improve potato and grain crops. Schematic diagrams are included.

  7. Six years of mesospheric CO estimated from ground-based frequency-switched microwave radiometry at 57° N compared with satellite instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forkman, P.; Christensen, O. M.; Eriksson, P.; Urban, J.; Funke, B.

    2012-06-01

    Measurements of mesospheric carbon monoxide, CO, provide important information about the dynamics in the mesosphere region since CO has a long lifetime at these altitudes. Ground-based measurements of mesospheric CO made at the Onsala Space Observatory, OSO, (57° N, 12° E) are presented. The dataset covers the period 2002-2008 and is hence uniquely long. The simple and stable 115 GHz frequency-switched radiometer, calibration method, retrieval procedure and error characterization are described. A comparison between our measurements and co-located CO measurements from the satellite sensors ACE-FTS on Scisat (v2.2), MLS on Aura (v3-3), MIPAS on Envisat (V3O_CO_12 + 13 and V4O_CO_200) and SMR on Odin (v225 and v021) is done. Our instrument, OSO, and the four satellite instruments show the same general variation of the vertical distribution of mesospheric CO in both the annual cycle and in shorter time period events with high CO mixing ratios during winter and very low amounts during summer in the observed 55-85 km altitude range. During 2004-2008 the agreement of the OSO instrument and the satellite sensors ACE-FTS, MLS and MIPAS(200) is good in the altitude range 55-70 km. Above 70 km OSO show up to 25% higher CO column values compared to both ACE and MLS. For the time period 2002-2003 CO from MIPAS(12 + 13) is up to 60% lower than OSO between 55 and 70 km. Mesospheric CO from the two versions of SMR deviates up to ±65% when compared to OSO, but the analysis is based on only a few co-locations.

  8. Six years of mesospheric CO estimated from ground-based frequency-switched microwave radiometry at 57° N compared with satellite instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forkman, P.; Christensen, O. M.; Eriksson, P.; Urban, J.; Funke, B.

    2012-11-01

    Measurements of mesospheric carbon monoxide, CO, provide important information about the dynamics in the mesosphere region since CO has a long lifetime at these altitudes. Ground-based measurements of mesospheric CO made at the Onsala Space Observatory, OSO, (57° N, 12° E) are presented. The dataset covers the period 2002-2008 and is hence uniquely long for ground-based observations. The simple and stable 115 GHz frequency-switched radiometer, calibration method, retrieval procedure and error characterization are described. A comparison between our measurements and co-located CO measurements from the satellite sensors ACE-FTS on Scisat (v2.2), MLS on Aura (v3-3), MIPAS on Envisat (V3O_CO_12 + 13 and V4O_CO_200) and SMR on Odin (v225 and v021) is carried out. Our instrument, OSO, and the four satellite instruments show the same general variation of the vertical distribution of mesospheric CO in both the annual cycle and in shorter time period events, with high CO mixing ratios during winter and very low amounts during summer in the observed 55-100 km altitude range. During 2004-2008 the agreement of the OSO instrument and the satellite sensors ACE-FTS, MLS and MIPAS (200) is good in the altitude range 55-70 km. Above 70 km, OSO shows up to 25% higher CO column values compared to both ACE and MLS. For the time period 2002-2004, CO from MIPAS (12 + 13) is up to 50% lower than OSO between 55 and 70 km. Mesospheric CO from the two versions of SMR deviates up to ±65% when compared to OSO, but the analysis is based on only a few co-locations.

  9. Understanding Microwave Radiometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stacey, J. M.

    1986-01-01

    Report presents principles of microwave receivers for observing planetary surfaces from space. Report is tutorial and explains operation of receivers in detail to enable reader to specify and qualify them for spaceborne operation. Gives many examples to illustrate practical design procedures.

  10. Leakage of Microwave Ovens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdul-Razzaq, W.; Bushey, R.; Winn, G.

    2011-01-01

    Physics is essential for students who want to succeed in science and engineering. Excitement and interest in the content matter contribute to enhancing this success. We have developed a laboratory experiment that takes advantage of microwave ovens to demonstrate important physical concepts and increase interest in physics. This experiment…

  11. Variable frequency microwave furnace system

    DOEpatents

    Bible, D.W.; Lauf, R.J.

    1994-06-14

    A variable frequency microwave furnace system designed to allow modulation of the frequency of the microwaves introduced into a furnace cavity for testing or other selected applications. The variable frequency microwave furnace system includes a microwave signal generator or microwave voltage-controlled oscillator for generating a low-power microwave signal for input to the microwave furnace. A first amplifier may be provided to amplify the magnitude of the signal output from the microwave signal generator or the microwave voltage-controlled oscillator. A second amplifier is provided for processing the signal output by the first amplifier. The second amplifier outputs the microwave signal input to the furnace cavity. In the preferred embodiment, the second amplifier is a traveling-wave tube (TWT). A power supply is provided for operation of the second amplifier. A directional coupler is provided for detecting the direction of a signal and further directing the signal depending on the detected direction. A first power meter is provided for measuring the power delivered to the microwave furnace. A second power meter detects the magnitude of reflected power. Reflected power is dissipated in the reflected power load. 5 figs.

  12. Variable frequency microwave furnace system

    DOEpatents

    Bible, Don W.; Lauf, Robert J.

    1994-01-01

    A variable frequency microwave furnace system (10) designed to allow modulation of the frequency of the microwaves introduced into a furnace cavity (34) for testing or other selected applications. The variable frequency microwave furnace system (10) includes a microwave signal generator (12) or microwave voltage-controlled oscillator (14) for generating a low-power microwave signal for input to the microwave furnace. A first amplifier (18) may be provided to amplify the magnitude of the signal output from the microwave signal generator (12) or the microwave voltage-controlled oscillator (14). A second amplifier (20) is provided for processing the signal output by the first amplifier (18). The second amplifier (20) outputs the microwave signal input to the furnace cavity (34). In the preferred embodiment, the second amplifier (20) is a traveling-wave tube (TWT). A power supply (22) is provided for operation of the second amplifier (20). A directional coupler (24) is provided for detecting the direction of a signal and further directing the signal depending on the detected direction. A first power meter (30) is provided for measuring the power delivered to the microwave furnace (32). A second power meter (26) detects the magnitude of reflected power. Reflected power is dissipated in the reflected power load (28).

  13. Principles for Sampling Airborne Radioactivity from Stacks

    SciTech Connect

    Glissmeyer, John A.

    2010-10-18

    This book chapter describes the special processes involved in sampling the airborne effluents from nuclear faciities. The title of the book is Radioactive Air Sampling Methods. The abstract for this chapter was cleared as PNNL-SA-45941.

  14. Airborne Gamma-Spectrometry in Switzerland

    SciTech Connect

    Butterweck, Gernot; Bucher, Benno; Rybach, Ladislaus

    2008-08-07

    Airborne gamma-spectrometry is able to obtain fast radiological information over large areas. The airborne gamma-spectrometry unit deployed in Switzerland by the Swiss National Emergency Operations Centre (NEOC) consists of a Swiss army Super Puma helicopter equipped with four NaI-Detectors with a total volume of 17 liters, associated electronics and a real-time data evaluation and mapping unit developed by the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) and the Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI). The operational readiness of the airborne gamma-spectrometry system is validated in annual exercises of one week duration. Data from 2005 and 2006 exercises are represented in maps of {sup 137}Cs activity concentration for two towns located in southern and western Switzerland. An indicator of man-made radioactivity (MMGC ratio) is demonstrated for an area with four different types of nuclear installations. The intercomparison between airborne gamma-spectrometry and ground measurements showed good agreement between both methods.

  15. SOURCES OF HUMAN EXPOSURE TO AIRBORNE PAH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Personal exposures to airborne particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were studied in several populations in the US, Japan, and Czech Republic. Personal exposure monitors, developed for human exposure biomonitoring studies were used to collect fine particles (<_ 1....

  16. Radiometric Normalization of Large Airborne Image Data Sets Acquired by Different Sensor Types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehrke, S.; Beshah, B. T.

    2016-06-01

    Generating seamless mosaics of aerial images is a particularly challenging task when the mosaic comprises a large number of im-ages, collected over longer periods of time and with different sensors under varying imaging conditions. Such large mosaics typically consist of very heterogeneous image data, both spatially (different terrain types and atmosphere) and temporally (unstable atmo-spheric properties and even changes in land coverage). We present a new radiometric normalization or, respectively, radiometric aerial triangulation approach that takes advantage of our knowledge about each sensor's properties. The current implementation supports medium and large format airborne imaging sensors of the Leica Geosystems family, namely the ADS line-scanner as well as DMC and RCD frame sensors. A hierarchical modelling - with parameters for the overall mosaic, the sensor type, different flight sessions, strips and individual images - allows for adaptation to each sensor's geometric and radiometric properties. Additional parameters at different hierarchy levels can compensate radiome-tric differences of various origins to compensate for shortcomings of the preceding radiometric sensor calibration as well as BRDF and atmospheric corrections. The final, relative normalization is based on radiometric tie points in overlapping images, absolute radiometric control points and image statistics. It is computed in a global least squares adjustment for the entire mosaic by altering each image's histogram using a location-dependent mathematical model. This model involves contrast and brightness corrections at radiometric fix points with bilinear interpolation for corrections in-between. The distribution of the radiometry fixes is adaptive to each image and generally increases with image size, hence enabling optimal local adaptation even for very long image strips as typi-cally captured by a line-scanner sensor. The normalization approach is implemented in HxMap software. It has been

  17. Nonparametric 1-D temperature restoration in lossy media using Tikhonov regularization on sparse radiometry data.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, Svein; Stauffer, Paul R

    2003-02-01

    Microwave thermometry has the potential to characterize thermal gradients in lossy materials down to a few centimeters depth. The problem of retrieving temperature profiles from sets of brightness temperatures is studied using Galerkin expansion of one-dimensional (1-D) temperature profiles combined with Tikhonov regularization and predefined boundary conditions. From a priori knowledge of the temperature field shape, smooth Chebyshev polynomials are used as basis functions in the series expansion. The proposed estimator does not require iterative calculations that are normally performed using conventional numerical methods for signal parameter estimation and is, thus, very fast. Noise effects versus bandwidth limitations (smoothness of solutions) are studied in terms of four performance indexes defined in the text. In general, statistical spread of the temperature estimator increases with increasing number of Chebyshev polynomials. Systematic deviation from true values (bias) decreases as the number of Chebyshev polynomials increases. Results show that smooth temperature profiles can be reproduced using 6-7 Chebyshev polynomials. With additional constraints such as boundary conditions and maxima localization, a three-frequency-band radiometric scan is sufficient to produce acceptable results in regions with low thermal gradients. As the spatial variability of the 1-D temperature profile increases, more radiometric bands (5-6) are required to provide nonbiased estimates.

  18. Downscaling of Airborne Wind Energy Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fechner, Uwe; Schmehl, Roland

    2016-09-01

    Airborne wind energy systems provide a novel solution to harvest wind energy from altitudes that cannot be reached by wind turbines with a similar nominal generator power. The use of a lightweight but strong tether in place of an expensive tower provides an additional cost advantage, next to the higher capacity factor and much lower total mass. This paper investigates the scaling effects of airborne wind energy systems. The energy yield of airborne wind energy systems, that work in pumping mode of operation is at least ten times higher than the energy yield of conventional solar systems. For airborne wind energy systems the yield is defined per square meter wing area. In this paper the dependency of the energy yield on the nominal generator power for systems in the range of 1 kW to 1 MW is investigated. For the onshore location Cabauw, The Netherlands, it is shown, that a generator of just 1.4 kW nominal power and a total system mass of less than 30 kg has the theoretical potential to harvest energy at only twice the price per kWh of large scale airborne wind energy systems. This would make airborne wind energy systems a very attractive choice for small scale remote and mobile applications as soon as the remaining challenges for commercialization are solved.

  19. Challenges and opportunities of airborne metagenomics.

    PubMed

    Behzad, Hayedeh; Gojobori, Takashi; Mineta, Katsuhiko

    2015-05-06

    Recent metagenomic studies of environments, such as marine and soil, have significantly enhanced our understanding of the diverse microbial communities living in these habitats and their essential roles in sustaining vast ecosystems. The increase in the number of publications related to soil and marine metagenomics is in sharp contrast to those of air, yet airborne microbes are thought to have significant impacts on many aspects of our lives from their potential roles in atmospheric events such as cloud formation, precipitation, and atmospheric chemistry to their major impact on human health. In this review, we will discuss the current progress in airborne metagenomics, with a special focus on exploring the challenges and opportunities of undertaking such studies. The main challenges of conducting metagenomic studies of airborne microbes are as follows: 1) Low density of microorganisms in the air, 2) efficient retrieval of microorganisms from the air, 3) variability in airborne microbial community composition, 4) the lack of standardized protocols and methodologies, and 5) DNA sequencing and bioinformatics-related challenges. Overcoming these challenges could provide the groundwork for comprehensive analysis of airborne microbes and their potential impact on the atmosphere, global climate, and our health. Metagenomic studies offer a unique opportunity to examine viral and bacterial diversity in the air and monitor their spread locally or across the globe, including threats from pathogenic microorganisms. Airborne metagenomic studies could also lead to discoveries of novel genes and metabolic pathways relevant to meteorological and industrial applications, environmental bioremediation, and biogeochemical cycles.

  20. Challenges and Opportunities of Airborne Metagenomics

    PubMed Central

    Behzad, Hayedeh; Gojobori, Takashi; Mineta, Katsuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Recent metagenomic studies of environments, such as marine and soil, have significantly enhanced our understanding of the diverse microbial communities living in these habitats and their essential roles in sustaining vast ecosystems. The increase in the number of publications related to soil and marine metagenomics is in sharp contrast to those of air, yet airborne microbes are thought to have significant impacts on many aspects of our lives from their potential roles in atmospheric events such as cloud formation, precipitation, and atmospheric chemistry to their major impact on human health. In this review, we will discuss the current progress in airborne metagenomics, with a special focus on exploring the challenges and opportunities of undertaking such studies. The main challenges of conducting metagenomic studies of airborne microbes are as follows: 1) Low density of microorganisms in the air, 2) efficient retrieval of microorganisms from the air, 3) variability in airborne microbial community composition, 4) the lack of standardized protocols and methodologies, and 5) DNA sequencing and bioinformatics-related challenges. Overcoming these challenges could provide the groundwork for comprehensive analysis of airborne microbes and their potential impact on the atmosphere, global climate, and our health. Metagenomic studies offer a unique opportunity to examine viral and bacterial diversity in the air and monitor their spread locally or across the globe, including threats from pathogenic microorganisms. Airborne metagenomic studies could also lead to discoveries of novel genes and metabolic pathways relevant to meteorological and industrial applications, environmental bioremediation, and biogeochemical cycles. PMID:25953766

  1. Merging Airborne LIDAR Data and Satellite SAR Data for Building Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, T.; Nakagawa, M.

    2015-05-01

    A frequent map revision is required in GIS applications, such as disaster prevention and urban planning. In general, airborne photogrammetry and LIDAR measurements are applied to geometrical data acquisition for automated map generation and revision. However, attribute data acquisition and classification depend on manual editing works including ground surveys. In general, airborne photogrammetry and LiDAR measurements are applied to geometrical data acquisition for automated map generation and revision. However, these approaches classify geometrical attributes. Moreover, ground survey and manual editing works are finally required in attribute data classification. On the other hand, although geometrical data extraction is difficult, SAR data have a possibility to automate the attribute data acquisition and classification. The SAR data represent microwave reflections on various surfaces of ground and buildings. There are many researches related to monitoring activities of disaster, vegetation, and urban. Moreover, we have an opportunity to acquire higher resolution data in urban areas with new sensors, such as ALOS2 PALSAR2. Therefore, in this study, we focus on an integration of airborne LIDAR data and satellite SAR data for building extraction and classification.

  2. Passive Microwave Measurements of Salinity: The Gulf Stream Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LeVine, D. M.; Koblinsky, C.; Haken, M.; Howden, S.; Bingham, F.; Hildebrand, Peter H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Passive microwave sensors at L-band (1.4 GHz) operating from aircraft have demonstrated that salinity can be measured with sufficient accuracy (I psu) to be scientifically meaningful in coastal waters. However, measuring salinity in the open ocean presents unresolved issues largely because of the much greater accuracy (approximately 0.2 psu) required of global maps to be scientifically viable. The development of a satellite microwave instrument to make global measurements of SSS (Sea Surface Salinity) is the focus of a joint JPL/GSFC/NASA ocean research program called Aquarius. In the summer of 1999 a series of measurements called, The Gulf Stream Experiment, were conducted as part of research at the Goddard Space Flight Center to test the potential for passive microwave remote sensing of salinity in the open ocean. The measurements consisted of airborne microwave instruments together with ships and drifters for surface truth. The study area was a 200 km by 100 km rectangle about 250 km east of Delaware Bay between the continental shelf waters and north wall of the Gulf Stream. The primary passive instruments were the ESTAR radiometer (L-band, H-pol) and the SLFMR radiometer (L-band, V-pol). In addition, the instruments on the aircraft included a C-band radiometer (ACMR), an ocean wave scatterometer (ROWS) and an infrared radiometer (for surface temperature). These instruments were mounted on the NASA P-3 Orion aircraft. Sea surface measurements consisted of thermosalinograph data provided by the R/V Cape Henlopen and the MN Oleander, and data from salinity and temperature sensors on three surface drifters deployed from the R/V Cape Henlopen. The primary experiment period was August 26-September 2, 1999. During this period the salinity field within the study area consisted of a gradient on the order of 2-3 psu in the vicinity of the shelf break and a warm core ring with a gradient of 1-2 psu. Detailed maps were made with the airborne sensors on August 28 and 29 and

  3. Low Power Silicon Germanium Electronics for Microwave Radiometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doiron, Terence A.; Krebs, Carolyn (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Space-based radiometric observations of key hydrological parameters (e.g., soil moisture) at the spatial and temporal scales required in the post-2002 era face significant technological challenges. These measurements are based on relatively low frequency thermal microwave emission (at 1.4 GHz for soil moisture and salinity, 10 GHz and up for precipitation, and 19 and 37 GHz for snow). The long wavelengths at these frequencies coupled with the high spatial and radiometric resolutions required by the various global hydrology communities necessitate the use of very large apertures (e.g., greater than 20 m at 1.4 GHz) and highly integrated stable RF electronics on orbit. Radio-interferometric techniques such as Synthetic Thinned Array Radiometry (STAR), using silicon germanium (SiGe) low power radio frequency integrated circuits (RFIC), is one of the most promising technologies to enable very large non-rotating apertures in space. STAR instruments are composed of arrays of small antenna/receiving elements that are arranged so that the collecting area is smaller than an equivalent real aperture system, allowing very high packing densities for launch. A 20 meter aperture at L-band, for example, will require greater than 1000 of these receiving elements. SiGe RFIC's reduce power consumption enough to make an array like this possible in the power-limited environment of space flight. An overview of the state-of-the-art will be given, and current work in the area of SiGe radiometer development for soil moisture remote sensing will be discussed.

  4. Photocarrier Radiometry Investigation of Light-Induced Degradation of Boron-Doped Czochralski-Grown Silicon Without Surface Passivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qian; Li, Bincheng

    2016-04-01

    Light-induced degradation (LID) effects of boron-doped Cz silicon wafers without surface passivation are investigated in details by photocarrier radiometry (PCR). The resistivity of all samples is in the range of 0.006 Ω {\\cdot } {cm} to 38 Ω {\\cdot } {cm}. It is found that light-induced changes in surface state occupation have a great effect on LID under illumination. With the increasing contribution of light-induced changes in surface state occupation, the generation rate of the defect decreases. The light-induced changes in surface state occupation and light-induced degradation dominate the temporal behaviors of the excess carrier density of high- and low-resistivity Si wafers, respectively. Moreover, the temporal behaviors of PCR signals of these samples under laser illumination with different powers, energy of photons, and multiple illuminations were also analyzed to understand the light-induced change of material properties. Based on the nonlinear dependence of PCR signal on the excitation power, a theoretical model taking into account both light-induced changes in surface state occupation and LID processes was proposed to explain those temporal behaviors.

  5. Simultaneous measurement of temperature and emissivity of lunar regolith simulant using dual-channel millimeter-wave radiometry

    SciTech Connect

    McCloy, J. S.; Sundaram, S. K.; Matyas, J.; Woskov, P. P.

    2011-01-01

    Millimeter wave (MMW) radiometry can be used for simultaneous measurement of emissivity and temperature of materials under extreme environments (high temperature, pressure, and corrosive environments). The state-of-the-art dual channel MMW passive radiometer with active interferometric capabilities at 137 GHz described here allows for radiometric measurements of sample temperature and emissivity up to at least 1600 °C with simultaneous measurement of sample surface dynamics. These capabilities have been used to demonstrate dynamic measurement of melting of powders of simulated lunar regolith and static measurement of emissivity of solid samples. The paper presents the theoretical background and basis for the dual-receiver system, describes the hardware in detail, and demonstrates the data analysis. Post-experiment analysis of emissivity versus temperature allows further extraction from the radiometric data of millimeter wave viewing beam coupling factors, which provide corroboratory evidence to the interferometric data of the process dynamics observed. Finally, these results show the promise of the MMW system for extracting quantitative and qualitative process parameters for industrial processes and access to real-time dynamics of materials behavior in extreme environments.

  6. Simultaneous measurement of temperature and emissivity of lunar regolith simulant using dual-channel millimeter-wave radiometry.

    PubMed

    McCloy, J S; Sundaram, S K; Matyas, J; Woskov, P P

    2011-05-01

    Millimeter wave (MMW) radiometry can be used for simultaneous measurement of emissivity and temperature of materials under extreme environments (high temperature, pressure, and corrosive environments). The state-of-the-art dual channel MMW passive radiometer with active interferometric capabilities at 137 GHz described here allows for radiometric measurements of sample temperature and emissivity up to at least 1600 °C with simultaneous measurement of sample surface dynamics. These capabilities have been used to demonstrate dynamic measurement of melting of powders of simulated lunar regolith and static measurement of emissivity of solid samples. The paper presents the theoretical background and basis for the dual-receiver system, describes the hardware in detail, and demonstrates the data analysis. Post-experiment analysis of emissivity versus temperature allows further extraction from the radiometric data of millimeter wave viewing beam coupling factors, which provide corroboratory evidence to the interferometric data of the process dynamics observed. These results show the promise of the MMW system for extracting quantitative and qualitative process parameters for industrial processes and access to real-time dynamics of materials behavior in extreme environments.

  7. Earth Observing-1 Advanced Land Imager Flight Performance Assessment: Absolute Radiometry and Stability During the First Year

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendenhall, J. A.; Lencioni, D. E.

    2002-01-01

    The absolute radiometry of the Advanced Land Imager during the first year on orbit (November 21,2000 - November 21, 2001) is presented. Results derived from solar, lunar, ground truth, and internal reference lamp measurements are presented. An 18% drop in the radiometric response of the Band 1p data since preflight calibration at Lincoln Laboratory is observed using all techniques. This decrease cannot be accounted for by preflight calibration errors, stray light, or contamination of the focal plane. A slight drooping of the VNIR response toward the blue and a 5-12% increase in the Band 5 response is also apparent in all the data. Radiometric response correction factors have been calculated and preflight calibration coefficients have been updated in order to provide +/- 5% agreement between the measured solar, lunar, and ground truth data and the expected values. The radiometric stability of the ALI during the first year of operation is also presented for each spectral band. Internal reference lamp data indicate the focal plane has been stable to within 1% for bands 1p, 1, 2, 5p, 5, 7, pan and 3% for Bands 3,4, 4p since launch. Solar, lunar, and ground truth measurements indicate the optical train and solar diffuser of the instrument has been stable to within 1% since initial measurements on orbit in late December 2000.

  8. Dental depth profilometry using simultaneous frequency-domain infrared photothermal radiometry and laser luminescence for the diagnosis of dental caries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolaides, Lena; Garcia, Jose A.; Mandelis, Andreas; Abrams, Stephen H.

    2001-04-01

    Frequency-domain IR photothermal radiometry is introduced as a dynamic dental diagnostic tool and its main features are compared with modulated laser luminescence for quantifying sound and carious enamel or dentin. Dental caries found in the fissures or grooves of teeth is very difficult to diagnose or quantify with the present clinical techniques. Visual examination and dental radiographs do not detect the presence of decay until there has been significant carious destruction of the tooth. A high-spatial-resolution dynamic experimental imaging set-up, which can provide simultaneous measurements of laser-induced frequency-domain IR photothermal radiometric and luminescence signals form defects in teeth, was developed. Following optical absorption of laser photons, the new set-up can monitor simultaneously and independently the non-radiative conversion, and the radiative de-excitation in turbid media such as hard dental tissue. This work is intended to show the complementarity between modulated luminescence and photothermal frequency scans in detecting carious lesions in teeth. A sound extracted molar with a dentin-enamel interface was introduced to examine the depth profilometric abilities of the method. Occlusal surfaces of teeth with potential areas of demineralization or carious destruction in the fissures were examined and compared to the signals produced by the sound enamel establishing the depth profilometric abilities of the method. The significance to clinical dentistry lies in the potential of this technique to detect and monitor early carious lesions in the pits and fissures of teeth.

  9. Progress in theoretical, experimental, and computational investigations in turbid tissue phantoms and human teeth using laser infrared photothermal radiometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandelis, Andreas

    2002-03-01

    This paper reviews and describes the state-of-the-art in the development of frequency-domain infrared photothermal radiometry (FD-PTR) for biomedical and dental applications. The emphasis is placed on the measurement of the optical and thermal properties of tissue-like materials using FD-PTR. A rigorous three-dimensional thermal-wave formulation with three-dimensional diffuse and coherent photon-density-wave sources is presented, and is applied to data from model tissue phantoms and dental enamel samples. The combined theoretical, experimental and computational methodology shows good promise with regard to its analytical ability to measure optical properties of turbid media uniquely, as compared to PPTR, which exhibits uniqueness problems. From data sets obtained with calibrated test phantoms, the reduced optical scattering and absorption coefficients were found to be within 20% and 10%, respectively, from the independently derived values using Mie scattering theory and spectrophotometric measurements. Furthermore, the state-of-the-art and recent developments in applications of laser infrared FD-PTR to dental caries research is described, with examples and histological studies from carious dental tissue. The correlation of PTR signals with modulated dental luminescence is discussed as a very promising potential quantitative methodology for the clinical diagnosis of sub-surface incipient dental caries. The application of the turbid-medium thermal-wave model to the measurement of the optical absorption and scattering coefficients of enamel is also presented.

  10. Multiband fiber optic radiometry for measuring the temperature and emissivity of gray bodies of low or high emissivity.

    PubMed

    Sade, Sharon; Katzir, Abraham

    2004-03-20

    Infrared fiber optic radiometry was used for noncontact thermometry of gray bodies whose temperature was close to room temperature (40-70 degrees C). We selected three gray bodies, one with high emissivity (epsilon = 0.97), one with medium emissivity (epsilon = 0.71), and one with low emissivity (epsilon = 0.025). We carried out optimization calculations and measurements for a multiband fiber optic radiometer that consisted of a silver halide (AgClBr) infrared-transmitting fiber, a dual-band cooled infrared detector, and a set of 18 narrowband infrared filters that covered the 2-14-microm spectral range. We determined the optimal spectral range, the optimal number of filters to be used, and the optimal chopping scheme. Using these optimal conditions, we performed measurements of the three gray bodies and obtained an accuracy of better than 1 degrees C for body temperature and for room temperature. An accuracy of 0.03 was obtained for body emissivity.

  11. Satellite Microwave Remote Sensing for Environmental Modeling of Mosquito Population Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Ting-Wu; Henebry, Geoffrey M; Kimball, John S; Vanroekel-Patton, Denise L; Hildreth, Michael B; Wimberly, Michael C

    2012-10-01

    Environmental variability has important influences on mosquito life cycles and understanding the spatial and temporal patterns of mosquito populations is critical for mosquito control and vector-borne disease prevention. Meteorological data used for model-based predictions of mosquito abundance and life cycle dynamics are typically acquired from ground-based weather stations; however, data availability and completeness are often limited by sparse networks and resource availability. In contrast, environmental measurements from satellite remote sensing are more spatially continuous and can be retrieved automatically. This study compared environmental measurements from the NASA Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer on EOS (AMSR-E) and in situ weather station data to examine their ability to predict the abundance of two important mosquito species (Aedes vexans and Culex tarsalis) in Sioux Falls, South Dakota, USA from 2005 to 2010. The AMSR-E land parameters included daily surface water inundation fraction, surface air temperature, soil moisture, and microwave vegetation opacity. The AMSR-E derived models had better fits and higher forecasting accuracy than models based on weather station data despite the relatively coarse (25-km) spatial resolution of the satellite data. In the AMSR-E models, air temperature and surface water fraction were the best predictors of Aedes vexans, whereas air temperature and vegetation opacity were the best predictors of Cx. tarsalis abundance. The models were used to extrapolate spatial, seasonal, and interannual patterns of climatic suitability for mosquitoes across eastern South Dakota. Our findings demonstrate that environmental metrics derived from satellite passive microwave radiometry are suitable for predicting mosquito population dynamics and can potentially improve the effectiveness of mosquito-borne disease early warning systems.

  12. Satellite Microwave Remote Sensing for Environmental Modeling of Mosquito Population Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Ting-Wu; Henebry, Geoffrey M; Kimball, John S; Vanroekel-Patton, Denise L; Hildreth, Michael B; Wimberly, Michael C

    2012-10-01

    Environmental variability has important influences on mosquito life cycles and understanding the spatial and temporal patterns of mosquito populations is critical for mosquito control and vector-borne disease prevention. Meteorological data used for model-based predictions of mosquito abundance and life cycle dynamics are typically acquired from ground-based weather stations; however, data availability and completeness are often limited by sparse networks and resource availability. In contrast, environmental measurements from satellite remote sensing are more spatially continuous and can be retrieved automatically. This study compared environmental measurements from the NASA Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer on EOS (AMSR-E) and in situ weather station data to examine their ability to predict the abundance of two important mosquito species (Aedes vexans and Culex tarsalis) in Sioux Falls, South Dakota, USA from 2005 to 2010. The AMSR-E land parameters included daily surface water inundation fraction, surface air temperature, soil moisture, and microwave vegetation opacity. The AMSR-E derived models had better fits and higher forecasting accuracy than models based on weather station data despite the relatively coarse (25-km) spatial resolution of the satellite data. In the AMSR-E models, air temperature and surface water fraction were the best predictors of Aedes vexans, whereas air temperature and vegetation opacity were the best predictors of Cx. tarsalis abundance. The models were used to extrapolate spatial, seasonal, and interannual patterns of climatic suitability for mosquitoes across eastern South Dakota. Our findings demonstrate that environmental metrics derived from satellite passive microwave radiometry are suitable for predicting mosquito population dynamics and can potentially improve the effectiveness of mosquito-borne disease early warning systems. PMID:23049143

  13. Visualizing Airborne and Satellite Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bierwirth, Victoria A.

    2011-01-01

    Remote sensing is a process able to provide information about Earth to better understand Earth's processes and assist in monitoring Earth's resources. The Cloud Absorption Radiometer (CAR) is one remote sensing instrument dedicated to the cause of collecting data on anthropogenic influences on Earth as well as assisting scientists in understanding land-surface and atmospheric interactions. Landsat is a satellite program dedicated to collecting repetitive coverage of the continental Earth surfaces in seven regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Combining these two aircraft and satellite remote sensing instruments will provide a detailed and comprehensive data collection able to provide influential information and improve predictions of changes in the future. This project acquired, interpreted, and created composite images from satellite data acquired from Landsat 4-5 Thematic Mapper (TM) and Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+). Landsat images were processed for areas covered by CAR during the Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCT AS), Cloud and Land Surface Interaction Campaign (CLASIC), Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment-Phase B (INTEXB), and Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI) 2000 missions. The acquisition of Landsat data will provide supplemental information to assist in visualizing and interpreting airborne and satellite imagery.

  14. Medicinal smoke reduces airborne bacteria.

    PubMed

    Nautiyal, Chandra Shekhar; Chauhan, Puneet Singh; Nene, Yeshwant Laxman

    2007-12-01

    This study represents a comprehensive analysis and scientific validation of our ancient knowledge about the effect of ethnopharmacological aspects of natural products' smoke for therapy and health care on airborne bacterial composition and dynamics, using the Biolog microplate panels and Microlog database. We have observed that 1h treatment of medicinal smoke emanated by burning wood and a mixture of odoriferous and medicinal herbs (havan sámagri=material used in oblation to fire all over India), on aerial bacterial population caused over 94% reduction of bacterial counts by 60 min and the ability of the smoke to purify or disinfect the air and to make the environment cleaner was maintained up to 24h in the closed room. Absence of pathogenic bacteria Corynebacterium urealyticum, Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens, Enterobacter aerogenes (Klebsiella mobilis), Kocuria rosea, Pseudomonas syringae pv. persicae, Staphylococcus lentus, and Xanthomonas campestris pv. tardicrescens in the open room even after 30 days is indicative of the bactericidal potential of the medicinal smoke treatment. We have demonstrated that using medicinal smoke it is possible to completely eliminate diverse plant and human pathogenic bacteria of the air within confined space. PMID:17913417

  15. Pulsed Doppler lidar airborne scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dimarzio, C. A.; Mcvicker, D. B.; Morrow, C. E.; Negus, C. C.

    1985-01-01

    This report covers the work accomplished during the reporting period on Pulsed Doppler Lidar Airborne Scanner and describes plans for the next reporting period. The objectives during the current phase of the contract are divided into four phases. Phase 1 includes ground testing of the system and analysis of data from the 1981 Severe Storms Test Flights. Phase 2 consists of preflight preparation and planning for the 1983 flight series. The flight test itself will be performed during Phase 3, and Phase 4 consists of post-flight analysis and operation of the system after that flight test. The range profile from five samples taken during Flight 10, around 1700 Z is given. The lowest curve is taken from data collected upwind of Mt. Shasta at about 10,000 feet of altitude, in a clear atmosphere, where no signals were observed. It thus is a good representation of the noise level as a function of range. The next curve was taken downwind of the mountain, and shows evidence of atmospheric returns. There is some question as to whether the data are valid at all ranges, or some ranges are contaminated by the others.

  16. Performance Basis for Airborne Separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wing, David J.

    2008-01-01

    Emerging applications of Airborne Separation Assistance System (ASAS) technologies make possible new and powerful methods in Air Traffic Management (ATM) that may significantly improve the system-level performance of operations in the future ATM system. These applications typically involve the aircraft managing certain components of its Four Dimensional (4D) trajectory within the degrees of freedom defined by a set of operational constraints negotiated with the Air Navigation Service Provider. It is hypothesized that reliable individual performance by many aircraft will translate into higher total system-level performance. To actually realize this improvement, the new capabilities must be attracted to high demand and complexity regions where high ATM performance is critical. Operational approval for use in such environments will require participating aircraft to be certified to rigorous and appropriate performance standards. Currently, no formal basis exists for defining these standards. This paper provides a context for defining the performance basis for 4D-ASAS operations. The trajectory constraints to be met by the aircraft are defined, categorized, and assessed for performance requirements. A proposed extension of the existing Required Navigation Performance (RNP) construct into a dynamic standard (Dynamic RNP) is outlined. Sample data is presented from an ongoing high-fidelity batch simulation series that is characterizing the performance of an advanced 4D-ASAS application. Data of this type will contribute to the evaluation and validation of the proposed performance basis.

  17. Design definition of a microwave power reception and conversion system for use on a high altitude powered platform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, W. C.

    1981-01-01

    The design definition of a microwave power reception and conversion system for use on high altitude powered platform is presented. The study includes an initial design, construction and test effort on a thin film, printed circuit rectenna. A study of a low altitude demonstration of an airborne rectenna was made starting with the assumption that a fifty foot mechanically steerable parabolic reflector at the Wallops Flight Center would be retrofitted with a low microwave power source consisting of a five kilowatt commercially available magnetron and that a small blimp would be used to support the rectenna.

  18. Webinar: Airborne Data Discovery and Analysis with Toolsets for Airborne Data (TAD)

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-10-18

    Webinar: Airborne Data Discovery and Analysis with Toolsets for Airborne Data (TAD) Wednesday, October 26, 2016 Join us on ... based on high-level parameter groups, mission, platform and flight data ranges are available. Registration is now open.  Access the full ...

  19. Satellite and aircraft passive microwave observations during the Marginal Ice Zone Experiment in 1984

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gloersen, Per; Campbell, William J.

    1988-06-01

    During the Marginal Ice Zone Experiment in the Fram Strait in June-July 1984, a number of aircraft with microwave sensors and the scanning multichannel microwave radiometer (SMMR) on board the Nimbus 7 satellite were used to acquire large-scale and mesoscale ice-ocean observations in conjunction with local surface measurements made by experimenters based on helicopter-equipped ice-strengthened vessels. An analysis of the data acquired during six flights of one such aircraft, the NASA CV-990 airborne laboratory, is discussed in this paper. Included in the instrument complement of the CV-990 were two passive microwave imagers operating at wavelengths of 0.33 and 1.55 cm and the airborne multichannel microwave radiometer (AMMR) operating at wavelengths of 0.81, 1.4, and 1.7 cm for both horizontal and vertical polarizations. Total and multiyear sea ice concentrations calculated from the AMMR data were found to agree with similar calculations using SMMR data. This is the first check of the performance of the SMMR Team ice algorithm for near-melting point conditions. The temperature dependence of the multiyear sea ice concentration determination near the melting point was found to be the same for both airborne and spacecraft instrument data and to be correlated with presence or absence of clouds. Finally, it was found that a spectral gradient ratio using the data from both the 0.33- and 1.55-cm radiometers provides more reliable distinctions between low total ice concentrations and open water storm effects near the ice edge than does either singly.

  20. The cosmic microwave background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silk, Joseph

    1989-01-01

    Recent observational and theoretical investigations of the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR) are reviewed. Particular attention is given to spectral distortions and CMBR temperature anisotropies at large, intermediate, and small angular scales. The implications of the observations for inflationary cosmological models with curvature fluctuation are explored, and it is shown that the limits determined for intermediate-scale CMBR anisotropy almost rule out a baryon-dominated cosmology.