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Sample records for airborne microwave remote

  1. Remote monitoring of soil moisture using airborne microwave radiometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kroll, C. L.

    1973-01-01

    The current status of microwave radiometry is provided. The fundamentals of the microwave radiometer are reviewed with particular reference to airborne operations, and the interpretative procedures normally used for the modeling of the apparent temperature are presented. Airborne microwave radiometer measurements were made over selected flight lines in Chickasha, Oklahoma and Weslaco, Texas. Extensive ground measurements of soil moisture were made in support of the aircraft mission over the two locations. In addition, laboratory determination of the complex permittivities of soil samples taken from the flight lines were made with varying moisture contents. The data were analyzed to determine the degree of correlation between measured apparent temperatures and soil moisture content.

  2. The NASA Airborne Earth Science Microwave Imaging Radiometer (AESMIR): A New Sensor for Earth Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Edward

    2003-01-01

    The Airborne Earth Science Microwave Imaging Radiometer (AESMIR) is a versatile new airborne imaging radiometer recently developed by NASA. The AESMIR design is unique in that it performs dual-polarized imaging at all standard passive microwave frequency bands (6-89 GHz) using only one sensor headscanner package, providing an efficient solution for Earth remote sensing applications (snow, soil moisture/land parameters, precipitation, ocean winds, sea surface temperature, water vapor, sea ice, etc.). The microwave radiometers themselves will incorporate state-of-the-art receivers, with particular attention given to instrument calibration for the best possible accuracy and sensitivity. The single-package design of AESMIR makes it compatible with high-altitude aircraft platforms such as the NASA ER-2s. The arbitrary 2-axis gimbal can perform conical and cross-track scanning, as well as fixed-beam staring. This compatibility with high-altitude platforms coupled with the flexible scanning configuration, opens up previously unavailable science opportunities for convection/precip/cloud science and co-flying with complementary instruments, as well as providing wider swath coverage for all science applications. By designing AESMIR to be compatible with these high-altitude platforms, we are also compatible with the NASA P-3, the NASA DC-8, C-130s and ground-based deployments. Thus AESMIR can provide low-, mid-, and high- altitude microwave imaging. Parallel filter banks allow AESMIR to simultaneously simulate the exact passbands of multiple satellite radiometers: SSM/I, TMI, AMSR, Windsat, SSMI/S, and the upcoming GPM/GMI and NPOESS/CMIS instruments --a unique capability among aircraft radiometers. An L-band option is also under development, again using the same scanner. With this option, simultaneous imaging from 1.4 to 89 GHz will be feasible. And, all receivers except the sounding channels will be configured for 4-Stokes polarimetric operation using high-speed digital

  3. High altitude airborne remote sensing mission using the advanced microwave precipitation radiometer (AMPR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galliano, J.; Platt, R. H.; Spencer, Roy; Hood, Robbie

    1991-01-01

    The advanced microwave precipitation radiometer (AMPR) is an airborne multichannel imaging radiometer used to better understand how the earth's climate structure works. Airborne data results from the October 1990 Florida thunderstorm mission in Jacksonville, FL, are described. AMPR data on atmospheric precipitation in mesoscale storms were retrieved at 10.7, 19.35, 37.1, and 85.5 GHz onboard the ER-2 aircraft at an altitude of 20 km. AMPR's three higher-frequency data channels were selected to operate at the same frequencies as the spaceborne special sensor microwave/imager (SSM/I) presently in orbit. AMPR uses two antennas to receive the four frequencies: the lowest frequency channel uses a 9.7-in aperture lens antennas, while the three higher-frequency channels share a separate 5.3-in aperture lens antenna. The radiometer's temperature resolution performance is summarized.

  4. Airborne Microwave Imaging of River Velocities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plant, William J.

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this project was to determine whether airborne microwave remote sensing systems can measure river surface currents with sufficient accuracy to make them prospective instruments with which to monitor river flow from space. The approach was to fly a coherent airborne microwave Doppler radar, developed by APL/UW, on a light airplane along several rivers in western Washington state over an extended period of time. The fundamental quantity obtained by this system to measure river currents is the mean offset of the Doppler spectrum. Since this scatter can be obtained from interferometric synthetic aperture radars (INSARs), which can be flown in space, this project provided a cost effective means for determining the suitability of spaceborne INSAR for measuring river flow.

  5. NORSEX 1979 microwave remote sensing data report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hennigar, H. F.; Schaffner, S. K.

    1982-01-01

    Airborne microwave remote sensing measurements obtained by NASA Langley Research Center in support of the 1979 Norwegian Remote Sensing Experiment (NORSEX) are summarized. The objectives of NORSEX were to investigate the capabilities of an active/passive microwave system to measure ice concentration and type in the vicinity of the marginal ice zone near Svalbard, Norway and to apply microwave techniques to the investigation of a thermal oceanic front near Bear Island, Norway. The instruments used during NORSEX include the stepped frequency microwave radiometer, airborne microwave scatterometer, precision radiation thermometer and metric aerial photography. The data are inventoried, summarized, and presented in a user-friendly format. Data summaries are presented as time-history plots which indicate when and where data were obtained as well as the sensor configuration. All data are available on nine-track computer tapes in card-image format upon request to the NASA Langley Technical Library.

  6. Microwave remote sensing of soil moisture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiue, J. C.; Wang, J. R.

    1988-01-01

    Knowledge of soil moisture is important to many disciplines, such as agriculture, hydrology, and meteorology. Soil moisture distribution of vast regions can be measured efficiently only with remote sensing techniques from airborne or satellite platforms. At low microwave frequencies, water has a much larger dielectric constant than dry soil. This difference manifests itself in surface emissivity (or reflectivity) change between dry and wet soils, and can be measured by a microwave radiometer or radar. The Microwave Sensors and Data Communications Branch is developing microwave remote sensing techniques using both radar and radiometry, but primarily with microwave radiometry. The efforts in these areas range from developing algorithms for data interpretation to conducting feasibility studies for space systems, with a primary goal of developing a microwave radiometer for soil moisture measurement from satellites, such as EOS or the Space Station. These efforts are listed.

  7. Applications of airborne remote sensing in atmospheric sciences research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Serafin, R. J.; Szejwach, G.; Phillips, B. B.

    1984-01-01

    This paper explores the potential for airborne remote sensing for atmospheric sciences research. Passive and active techniques from the microwave to visible bands are discussed. It is concluded that technology has progressed sufficiently in several areas that the time is right to develop and operate new remote sensing instruments for use by the community of atmospheric scientists as general purpose tools. Promising candidates include Doppler radar and lidar, infrared short range radiometry, and microwave radiometry.

  8. Airborne Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    NASA imaging technology has provided the basis for a commercial agricultural reconnaissance service. AG-RECON furnishes information from airborne sensors, aerial photographs and satellite and ground databases to farmers, foresters, geologists, etc. This service produces color "maps" of Earth conditions, which enable clients to detect crop color changes or temperature changes that may indicate fire damage or pest stress problems.

  9. Technology transfer of NASA microwave remote sensing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akey, N. D.

    1981-01-01

    Viable techniques for effecting the transfer from NASA to a user agency of state-of-the-art airborne microwave remote sensing technology for oceanographic applications were studied. A detailed analysis of potential users, their needs and priorities; platform options; airborne microwave instrument candidates; ancillary instrumentation; and other, less obvious factors that must be considered were studied. Conclusions and recommendations for the development of an orderly and effective technology transfer of an airborne microwave system that could meet the specific needs of the selected user agencies are reported.

  10. Using Airborne Microwave Remotely Sensed Root-Zone Soil Moisture and Flux Measurements to Improve Regional Predictions of Carbon Fluxes in a Terrestrial Biosphere Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, K.; Antonarakis, A. S.; Medvigy, D.; Burgin, M. S.; Crow, W. T.; Milak, S.; Jaruwatanadilok, S.; Truong-Loi, M.; Moghaddam, M.; Saatchi, S. S.; Cuenca, R. H.; Moorcroft, P. R.

    2013-12-01

    North American ecosystems are critical components of the global carbon cycle, exchanging large amounts of carbon dioxide and other gases with the atmosphere. Net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of CO2 between atmosphere and ecosystems quantifies these carbon fluxes, but current continental-scale estimates contain high levels of uncertainty. Root-zone soil moisture (RZSM) and its spatial and temporal heterogeneity influences NEE and improved estimates can help reduce uncertainty in NEE estimates. We used the RZSM measurements from the Airborne Microwave Observatory of Subcanopy and Subsurface (AirMOSS) mission, and the carbon, water and energy fluxes observed by the eddy-covariance flux towers to constrain the Ecosystem Demography Model 2.2 (ED2.2) to improve its predictions of carbon fluxes. The parameters of the ED2.2 model were first optimized at seven flux tower sites in North America, which represent six different biomes, by constraining the model against a suite of flux measurements and forest inventory measurements through a Bayesian Markov-Chain Monte Carlo framework. We further applied the AirMOSS RZSM products to constrain the ED2.2 model to achieve better estimates of regional NEE. Evaluation against flux tower measurements and forest dynamics measurements shows that the constrained ED2.2 model produces improved predictions of monthly to annual carbon fluxes. The remote sensing based RZSM can further help improve the spatial patterns and temporal variations of model NEE. The results demonstrate that model-data fusion can substantially improve model performance and highlight the important role of RZSM in regulating the spatial and temporal heterogeneities of carbon fluxes.

  11. Instrument description of the airborne microwave temperature profiler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denning, Richard F.; Guidero, Steven L.; Parks, Gary S.; Gary, Bruce L.

    1989-01-01

    The microwave temperature profiler (MTP) is a passive microwave radiometer installed in the NASA ER-2 aircraft and used to measure profiles of air temperature versus altitude. It operates at 57.3 and 58.8 GHz, where oxygen molecules emit thermal radiation. Brightness temperature is measured at a selection of viewing elevation angles every 14 s. MTP was the only remote sensing experiment aboard the ER-2 during the Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment. This paper describes hardware, calibration, and performance aspects of the MTP.

  12. AESMIR: A New NASA Airborne Microwave Imager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Edward J.; Hood, Robbie; Hildebrand, Peter H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Airborne Earth Science Microwave Imaging Radiometer (AESMIR) is a versatile new airborne imaging radiometer under development by NASA. The AESMIR design is unique in that it will perform dual-polarized imaging at all AMSR frequency bands (6.9 through 89 GHz) using only one sensor head/scanner package, providing an efficient solution for AMSR-type science applications (snow, soil moisture/land parameters, precip, ocean winds, SST, water vapor, sea ice, etc.). The microwave radiometers themselves will incorporate state-of-the-art receivers, with particular attention given to instrument calibration for the best possible accuracy and sensitivity. The single-package design of AESMIR makes it compatible with high-altitude aircraft platforms such as the NASA ER-2s and the Proteus. The arbitrary 2-axis gimbal can perform conical and cross-track scanning, as well as fixed-beam staring. This compatibility with high-altitude platforms coupled with the flexible scanning configuration, opens up previously unavailable science opportunities for convection/precip/cloud science and co-flying with complementary instruments, as well as providing wider swath coverage for all science applications. By designing AESMIR to be compatible with these high-altitude platforms, we are also compatible with the NASA P-3, the NASA DC-8, and ground-based deployments. Thus AESMIR can provide low-, mid-, and high altitude microwave imaging.

  13. Salinity surveys using an airborne microwave radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paris, J. F.; Droppleman, J. D.; Evans, D. E.

    1972-01-01

    The Barnes PRT-5 infrared radiometer and L-band channel of the multifrequency microwave radiometer are used to survey the distribution of surface water temperature and salinity. These remote sensors were flown repetitively in November 1971 over the outflow of the Mississippi River into the Gulf of Mexico. Data reduction parameters were determined through the use of flight data obtained over a known water area. With these parameters, the measured infrared and microwave radiances were analyzed in terms of the surface temperature and salinity.

  14. Microwave remote sensing of flood inundation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schumann, Guy J.-P.; Moller, Delwyn K.

    Flooding is one of the most costly natural disasters and thus mapping, modeling and forecasting flood events at various temporal and spatial scales is important for any flood risk mitigation plan, disaster relief services and the global (re-)insurance markets. Both computer models and observations (ground-based, airborne and Earth-orbiting) of flood processes and variables are of great value but the amount and quality of information available varies greatly with location, spatial scales and time. It is very well known that remote sensing of flooding, especially in the microwave region of the electromagnetic spectrum, can complement ground-based observations and be integrated with flood models to augment the amount of information available to end-users, decision-makers and scientists. This paper aims to provide a concise review of both the science and applications of microwave remote sensing of flood inundation, focusing mainly on synthetic aperture radar (SAR), in a variety of natural and man-made environments. Strengths and limitations are discussed and the paper will conclude with a brief account on perspectives and emerging technologies.

  15. Basic studies in microwave remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fung, Adrian K.; Bredow, Jonathan

    1992-01-01

    Scattering models were developed in support of microwave remote sensing of earth terrains with particular emphasis on model applications to airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar measurements of forest. Practically useful surface scattering models based on a solution of a pair of integral equations including multiple scattering effects were developed. Comparisons of these models with controlled scattering measurements from statistically known random surfaces indicate that they are valid over a wide range of frequencies. Scattering models treating a forest environment as a two and three layered media were also developed. Extensive testing and comparisons were carried out with the two layered model. Further studies with the three layered model are being carried out. A volume scattering model valid for dense media such as a snow layer was also developed that shows the appropriate trend dependence with the volume fraction of scatterers.

  16. Passive Microwave Remote Sensing of Soil Moisture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Njoku, Eni G.; Entekhabi, Dara

    1994-01-01

    Microwave remote sensing provides a unique capability for direct observation of soil moisture... This Paper outlines the basic principles of the passive microwave technique for soil moisture sensing, and reviews briefly the status of current retrieval methods.

  17. Microwave remote sensing of snowpack properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rango, A. (Editor)

    1980-01-01

    Topic concerning remote sensing capabilities for providing reliable snow cover data and measurement of snow water equivalents are discussed. Specific remote sensing technqiues discussed include those in the microwave region of the electromagnetic spectrum.

  18. Microwave remote sensing laboratory design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, E.

    1979-01-01

    Application of active and passive microwave remote sensing to the study of ocean pollution is discussed. Previous research efforts, both in the field and in the laboratory were surveyed to derive guidance for the design of a laboratory program of research. The essential issues include: choice of radar or radiometry as the observational technique; choice of laboratory or field as the research site; choice of operating frequency; tank sizes and material; techniques for wave generation and appropriate wavelength spectrum; methods for controlling and disposing of pollutants used in the research; and pollutants other than oil which could or should be studied.

  19. Aperture synthesis concepts in microwave remote sensing of the earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swift, Calvin T.; Le Vine, David M.; Ruf, Christopher S.

    1991-01-01

    The application of aperture synthesis concepts, used for many years in radio astronomy to achieve high image resolution at a reasonable cost, to remote sensing technology is discussed. The electronically scanned thinned array radiometer (ESTAR) is put forward as a viable alternative to improve spatial resolution by an order of magnitude over what is presently achieved by microwave imaging systems that are collecting data from earth orbit. Future developments in airborne sensor technology and potential spacecraft application are described.

  20. Passive microwave remote sensing of salinity in coastal zones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swift, Calvin T.; Blume, Hans-Juergen C.; Kendall, Bruce M.

    1987-01-01

    The theory of measuring coastal-zone salinity from airborne microwave radiometers is developed. The theory, as presented, shows that precision measurements of salinity favor the lower microwave frequencies. To this end, L- and S-Band systems were built, and the flight results have shown that accuracies of at least one part per thousand were achieved.The aircraft results focus on flights conducted over the Chesapeake Bay and the mouth of the Savanna River off the Georgia Coast. This paper presents no new work, but rather summarizes the capabilities of the remote sensing technique.

  1. Upgraded airborne scanner for commercial remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Sheng-Huei; Rubin, Tod D.

    1994-06-01

    Traditional commercial remote sensing has focused on the geologic market, with primary focus on mineral identification and mapping in the visible through short-wave infrared spectral regions (0.4 to 2.4 microns). Commercial remote sensing users now demand airborne scanning capabilities spanning the entire wavelength range from ultraviolet through thermal infrared (0.3 to 12 microns). This spectral range enables detection, identification, and mapping of objects and liquids on the earth's surface and gases in the air. Applications requiring this range of wavelengths include detection and mapping of oil spills, soil and water contamination, stressed vegetation, and renewable and non-renewable natural resources, and also change detection, natural hazard mitigation, emergency response, agricultural management, and urban planning. GER has designed and built a configurable scanner that acquires high resolution images in 63 selected wave bands in this broad wavelength range.

  2. Recent advances in airborne terrestrial remote sensing with the NASA airborne visible/infrared imaging spectrometer (AVIRIS), airborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR), and thermal infrared multispectral scanner (TIMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vane, Gregg; Evans, Diane L.; Kahle, Anne B.

    1989-01-01

    Significant progress in terrestrial remote sensing from the air has been made with three NASA-developed sensors that collectively cover the solar-reflected, thermal infrared, and microwave regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. These sensors are the airborne visible/infrared imaging spectrometer (AVIRIS), the thermal infrared mapping spectrometer (TIMS) and the airborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR), respectively. AVIRIS and SAR underwent extensive in-flight engineering testing in 1987 and 1988 and are scheduled to become operational in 1989. TIMS has been in operation for several years. These sensors are described.

  3. Retrieval of Atmospheric Temperature from Airborne Microwave Radiometer Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jian; Schreier, Franz; Kenntner, Mareike; Fix, Andreas; Trautmann, Thomas

    2015-06-01

    Atmospheric temperature is a key geophysical parameter associated with fields such as meteorology, climatology, or photochemistry. There exist several techniques to measure temperature profiles. In the case of microwave remote sensing, the vertical temperature profile can be estimated from thermal emission lines of molecular oxygen. The MTP (Microwave Temperature Profiler) instrument is an airborne radiometer developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), United States. The instrument passively measures natural thermal emission from oxygen lines at 3 frequencies and at a selection of 10 viewing angles (from near zenith to near nadir). MTP has participated in hundreds of flights, including on DLR’s Falcon and HALO aircrafts. These flights have provided data of the vertical temperature distribution from the troposphere to the lower stratosphere with a good temporal and spatial resolution. In this work, we present temperature retrievals based on the Tikhonov-type regularized nonlinear least squares fitting method. In particular, Jacobians (i.e. temperature derivatives) are evaluated by means of automatic differentiation. The retrieval performance from the MTP measurements is analyzed by using synthetic data. Besides, the vertical sensitivity of the temperature retrieval is studied by weighting functions characterizing the sensitivity of the transmission at different frequencies with respect to changes of altitude levels.

  4. Airborne multidimensional integrated remote sensing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Weiming; Wang, Jianyu; Shu, Rong; He, Zhiping; Ma, Yanhua

    2006-12-01

    In this paper, we present a kind of airborne multidimensional integrated remote sensing system that consists of an imaging spectrometer, a three-line scanner, a laser ranger, a position & orientation subsystem and a stabilizer PAV30. The imaging spectrometer is composed of two sets of identical push-broom high spectral imager with a field of view of 22°, which provides a field of view of 42°. The spectral range of the imaging spectrometer is from 420nm to 900nm, and its spectral resolution is 5nm. The three-line scanner is composed of two pieces of panchromatic CCD and a RGB CCD with 20° stereo angle and 10cm GSD(Ground Sample Distance) with 1000m flying height. The laser ranger can provide height data of three points every other four scanning lines of the spectral imager and those three points are calibrated to match the corresponding pixels of the spectral imager. The post-processing attitude accuracy of POS/AV 510 used as the position & orientation subsystem, which is the aerial special exterior parameters measuring product of Canadian Applanix Corporation, is 0.005° combined with base station data. The airborne multidimensional integrated remote sensing system was implemented successfully, performed the first flying experiment on April, 2005, and obtained satisfying data.

  5. Beaufort/Bering 1979 microwave remote sensing data catalog report, 14-24 March 1979

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirstein, W. S.; Hennigar, H. F.; Schaffner, S. K.; Delnore, V. E.; Grantham, W. L.

    1983-01-01

    The airborne microwave remote sending measurements obtained by the Langley Research Center in support of the 1979 Sea-Ice Radar Experiment (SIRE) in the Beaufort and Bering Seas are discussed. The remote sensing objective of SIRE was to define correlations between both active and passive microwave signatures and ice phenomena assocated with practical applications in the Arctic. The instruments used by Langley during SIRE include the stepped frequency microwave radiometer (SFMR), the airborne microwave scatterometer (AMSCAT), the precision radiation thermometer (PRT-5), and metric aerial photography. Remote sensing data are inventoried and cataloged in a user-friendly format. The data catalog is presented as time-history plots when and where data were obtained as well as the sensor configuration.

  6. Microwave remote sensing of ionized air.

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, S.; Gopalsami, N.; Heifetz, A.; Elmer, T.; Fiflis, P.; Koehl, E. R.; Chien, H. T.; Raptis, A. C.

    2011-07-01

    We present observations of microwave scattering from ambient room air ionized with a negative ion generator. The frequency dependence of the radar cross section of ionized air was measured from 26.5 to 40 GHz (Ka-band) in a bistatic mode with an Agilent PNA-X series (model N5245A) vector network analyzer. A detailed calibration scheme is provided to minimize the effect of the stray background field and system frequency response on the target reflection. The feasibility of detecting the microwave reflection from ionized air portends many potential applications such as remote sensing of atmospheric ionization and remote detection of radioactive ionization of air.

  7. Microwave Remote Sensing of Falling Snow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Min-Jeong; Wang, J. R.; Meneghini, R.; Johnson, B.; Tanelli, S.; Roman-Nieves, J. I.; Sekelsky, S. M.; Skofronick-Jackson, G.

    2005-01-01

    This study analyzes passive and active microwave measurements during the 2003 Wakasa Bay field experiment for understanding of the electromagnetic characteristics of frozen hydrometeors at millimeter-wave frequencies. Based on these understandings, parameterizations of the electromagnetic scattering properties of snow at millimeter-wave frequencies are developed and applied to the hydrometeor profiles obtained by airborne radar measurements. Calculated brightness temperatures and radar reflectivity are compared with the millimeter-wave measurements.

  8. Low cost airborne microwave landing system receiver, task 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hager, J. B.; Vancleave, J. R.

    1979-01-01

    Work performed on the low cost airborne Microwave Landing System (MLS) receiver is summarized. A detailed description of the prototype low cost MLS receiver is presented. This detail includes block diagrams, schematics, board assembly drawings, photographs of subassemblies, mechanical construction, parts lists, and microprocessor software. Test procedures are described and results are presented.

  9. Passive Microwave Remote Sensing of Soil Moisture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Njoku, Eni G.; Entekhabi, Dara

    1996-01-01

    Microwave remote sensing provides a unique capability for direct observation of soil moisture. Remote measurements from space afford the possibility of obtaining frequent, global sampling of soil moisture over a large fraction of the Earth's land surface. Microwave measurements have the benefit of being largely unaffected by cloud cover and variable surface solar illumination, but accurate soil moisture estimates are limited to regions that have either bare soil or low to moderate amounts of vegetation cover. A particular advantage of passive microwave sensors is that in the absence of significant vegetation cover soil moisture is the dominant effect on the received signal. The spatial resolutions of passive Microwave soil moisture sensors currently considered for space operation are in the range 10-20 km. The most useful frequency range for soil moisture sensing is 1-5 GHz. System design considerations include optimum choice of frequencies, polarizations, and scanning configurations, based on trade-offs between requirements for high vegetation penetration capability, freedom from electromagnetic interference, manageable antenna size and complexity, and the requirement that a sufficient number of information channels be available to correct for perturbing geophysical effects. This paper outlines the basic principles of the passive microwave technique for soil moisture sensing, and reviews briefly the status of current retrieval methods. Particularly promising are methods for optimally assimilating passive microwave data into hydrologic models. Further studies are needed to investigate the effects on microwave observations of within-footprint spatial heterogeneity of vegetation cover and subsurface soil characteristics, and to assess the limitations imposed by heterogeneity on the retrievability of large-scale soil moisture information from remote observations.

  10. Microwave remote sensing of soil water content

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cihlar, J.; Ulaby, F. T.

    1975-01-01

    Microwave remote sensing of soils to determine water content was considered. A layered water balance model was developed for determining soil water content in the upper zone (top 30 cm), while soil moisture at greater depths and near the surface during the diurnal cycle was studied using experimental measurements. Soil temperature was investigated by means of a simulation model. Based on both models, moisture and temperature profiles of a hypothetical soil were generated and used to compute microwave soil parameters for a clear summer day. The results suggest that, (1) soil moisture in the upper zone can be predicted on a daily basis for 1 cm depth increments, (2) soil temperature presents no problem if surface temperature can be measured with infrared radiometers, and (3) the microwave response of a bare soil is determined primarily by the moisture at and near the surface. An algorithm is proposed for monitoring large areas which combines the water balance and microwave methods.

  11. Microwave remote sensing of snowpacks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stiles, W. H.; Ulaby, F. T.

    1980-01-01

    The interaction mechanisms responsible for the microwave backscattering and emission behavior of snow were investigated, and models were developed relating the backscattering coefficient (sigma) and apparent temperature (T) to the physical parameters of the snowpack. The microwave responses to snow wetness, snow water equivalent, snow surface roughness, and to diurnal variations were investigated. Snow wetness was shown to have an increasing effect with increasing frequency and angle of incidence for both active and passive cases. Increasing snow wetness was observed to decrease the magnitude sigma and increase T. Snow water equivalent was also observed to exhibit a significant influence sigma and T. Snow surface configuration (roughness) was observed to be significant only for wet snow surface conditions. Diurnal variations were as large as 15 dB for sigma at 35 GHz and 120 K for T at 37 GHz. Simple models for sigma and T of a snowpack scene were developed in terms of the most significant ground-truth parameters. The coefficients for these models were then evaluated; the fits to the sigma and T measurements were generally good. Finally, areas of needed additional observations were outlined and experiments were specified to further the understanding of the microwave-snowpack interaction mechanisms.

  12. Improved microwave radiometry for remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leber, A.; Flattau, T.

    1979-01-01

    Significant improvements in the gain stability and overall performance of microwave radiometers have been achieved with the use of a self-balancing gain modulation technique. This technique, in combination with automatic thermal calibration, is particularly well suited for remote sensing radiometric applications. The essential features of such a radiometer, including typical data obtained from a spaceborne satellite, is presented to show the instrument's utility.

  13. Airborne remote sensing of forest biomes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sader, Steven A.

    1987-01-01

    Airborne sensor data of forest biomes obtained using an SAR, a laser profiler, an IR MSS, and a TM simulator are presented and examined. The SAR was utilized to investigate forest canopy structures in Mississippi and Costa Rica; the IR MSS measured forest canopy temperatures in Oregon and Puerto Rico; the TM simulator was employed in a tropical forest in Puerto Rico; and the laser profiler studied forest canopy characteristics in Costa Rica. The advantages and disadvantages of airborne systems are discussed. It is noted that the airborne sensors provide measurements applicable to forest monitoring programs.

  14. Airborne antenna polarization study for the microwave landing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilreath, M. C.

    1976-01-01

    The feasibility of the microwave landing system (MLS) airborne antenna pattern coverage requirements are investigated for a large commercial aircraft using a single omnidirectional antenna. Omnidirectional antennas having vertical and horizontal polarizations were evaluated at several different station locations on a one-eleventh scale model Boeing 737 aircraft. The results obtained during this experimental program are presented which include principal plane antenna patterns and complete volumetric coverage plots.

  15. Airborne Remote Sensing for Earth Science Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aubrey, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Topics covered include: Passive Remote Sensing Methods, Imaging Spectroscopy Approach, Remote Measurement via Spectral Fitting, Imaging Spectroscopy Mapping Wetland Dominants 2010 LA (AVIRIS), Deepwater Horizon Response I, Deepwater Horizon Response II, AVIRIS Ocean Color Studies.

  16. Remote sensing of soil moisture with microwave radiometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmugge, T.; Gloersen, P.; Wilheit, T.; Geiger, F.

    1974-01-01

    Microwave radiometry has been used for the remote sensing of soil moisture in a series of aircraft flights over an agricultural test area in the vicinity of Phoenix, Arizona. The radiometers covered the wavelength range 0.8-21 cm. Ground truth in the form of gravimetric measurements of the soil moisture in the top 15 cm were obtained for 200 fields at this site. The results indicate that it is possible to monitor moisture variations with airborne radiometers. The emission is a function of the radiometer wavelength and the distribution of the moisture in the soil. At a wavelength of 1.55 cm there is little or no variation in the emission for soil moisture values below 10 or 15% moisture content by weight. Above this value, there is a linear decrease in the emission with a slope of approximately 3 K for each percentage point increase in soil moisture.

  17. Assessment of Superflux relative to remote sensing. [airborne remote sensing of the Chesapeake Bay plume and shelf regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, J. W.

    1981-01-01

    The state-of-the-art advancements in remote sensor technology due to the Superflux program are examined. Three major individual sensor technologies benefitted from the program: laser fluorosensors, optical-range scanners, and passive microwave sensors. Under Superflux, convincing evidence was obtained that the airborne oceanographic lidar fluorosensor can map chlorophyll, i.e., is linear, over a wide range from less than 0.5 to 5.0 mg/cu m. The lidar oceanographic probe dual-excitation concept for addressing phytoplankton color group composition was also demonstrated convincingly. Algorithm development, real time capabilities, and multisensor integration are also addressed.

  18. Microwave remote sensing: Active and passive. Volume 1 - Microwave remote sensing fundamentals and radiometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulaby, F. T.; Moore, R. K.; Fung, A. K.

    1981-01-01

    The three components of microwave remote sensing (sensor-scene interaction, sensor design, and measurement techniques), and the applications to geoscience are examined. The history of active and passive microwave sensing is reviewed, along with fundamental principles of electromagnetic wave propagation, antennas, and microwave interaction with atmospheric constituents. Radiometric concepts are reviewed, particularly for measurement problems for atmospheric and terrestrial sources of natural radiation. Particular attention is given to the emission by atmospheric gases, clouds, and rain as described by the radiative transfer function. Finally, the operation and performance characteristics of radiometer receivers are discussed, particularly for measurement precision, calibration techniques, and imaging considerations.

  19. Microwave Remote Sensing of Soil Moisture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmugge, T. J.

    1985-01-01

    Because of the large contrast between the dielectric constant of liquid water and that of dry soil at microwave wavelength, there is a strong dependence of the thermal emission and radar backscatter from the soil on its moisture content. This dependence provides a means for the remote sensing of the moisture content in a surface layer approximately 5 cm thick. The feasibility of these techniques is demonstrated from field, aircraft and spacecraft platforms. The soil texture, surface roughness, and vegetative cover affect the sensitivity of the microwave response to moisture variations with vegetation being the most important. It serves as an attenuating layer which can totally obscure the surface. Research indicates that it is possible to obtain five or more levels of moisture discrimination and that a mature corn crop is the limiting vegetation situation.

  20. Ocean waves. [remote sensing microwave measurement methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartsch, N.; Vogel, M.; Kjelaas, A. G.; Parr, H.; Thomas, J.; Valenzuela, G.; Williams, P. D. L.; Shemdin, O. H.

    1978-01-01

    Ocean wave data can be obtained from such active microwave probe techniques as monostatic HF and VHF, bistatic HF, HF synthetic aperture radar, altimeters, satellite and airborne synthetic aperture radar, carrier wave or pulsed dual-frequency radars, and coastal surveillance radar. Approaches to texture analysis of ocean wave imagery are discussed, with attention given to transform techniques or spatial frequency analysis, and the analysis of second-order gray level statistics. In addition, recommendations are made for further work on the modulation of short gravity waves by longer waves as a function of wind speed and wave direction, and the derivation of transfer functions for the ocean response of dual-frequency radars.

  1. Remote Sensing Crop Leaf Area Index Using Unmanned Airborne Vehicles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Remote sensing with unmanned airborne vehicles (UAVs) has more potential for within-season crop management than conventional satellite imagery because: (1) pixels have very high resolution, (2) cloud cover would not prevent acquisition during critical periods of growth, and (3) quick delivery of inf...

  2. Development of an airborne remote sensing system for aerial applicators

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An airborne remote sensing system was developed and tested for recording aerial images of field crops, which were analyzed for variations of crop health or pest infestation. The multicomponent system consists of a multi-spectral camera system, a camera control system, and a radiometer for normalizi...

  3. Remote sensing using an airborne biosensor

    SciTech Connect

    Ligler, F.S.; Anderson, G.P.; Davidson, P.T.; Stenger, D.A.; Ives, J.T.; King, K.D.; Page, G.; Whelan, J.P.

    1998-08-15

    There is no current method for remote identification of aerosolized bacteria. In particular, such a capability is required to warn of a biological warfare attack prior to human exposure. A fiber optic biosensor, capable of running four simultaneous immunoassays, was integrated with an automated fluidics unit, a cyclone-type air sampler, a radio transceiver, and batteries on a small, remotely piloted airplane capable of carrying a 4.5-kg payload. The biosensor system was able to collect aerosolized bacteria in flight, identify them, and transmit the data to the operator on the ground. The results demonstrate the feasibility of integrating a biosensor into a portable, remotely operated system for environmental analysis.

  4. Airborne microwave measurements of the southern Greenland ice sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Swift, C.T.; Hayes, P.S.; Herd, J.S.; Jones, W.L.; Delmore, V.E.

    1985-02-01

    Microwave remote sensing measurements were collected over Greenland with the NASA C-130 aircraft used as a platform. The principal instruments were a C band radiometer and an X band scatterometer, which simultaneously collected both active and passive microwave remote sensing data. The data collected fully support the conclusions drawn by others that volume scattering from subsurface ice lenses and glands is the major influence on microwave signature. Both thermal emission and radar backscattering results are self-consistent with rather simple theories of volume scattering. The remote sensing measurements also provide a relative measure of the number density of scatterers; however, additional theoretical work is required to establish the cross section per scatterer in order to measure absolute number density. Along this avenue of thought, the data rule out Rayleigh scattering and strongly support a high frequency model. The measured anisotropy over the ice cap appears to be a new observation, and future exploitation of remote sensing techniques may provide information relating to the average shape of subsurface patterns and information relative to glacial flow. 14 references, 10 figures.

  5. Microwave remote sensing and radar polarization signatures of natural fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mo, Tsan

    1989-01-01

    Theoretical models developed for simulation of microwave remote sensing of the Earth surface from airborne/spaceborne sensors are described. Theoretical model calculations were performed and the results were compared with data of field measurements. Data studied included polarimetric images at the frequencies of P band, L band, and C band, acquired with airborne polarimeters over a agricultural field test site. Radar polarization signatures from bare soil surfaces and from tree covered fields were obtained from the data. The models developed in this report include: (1) Small perturbation model of wave scatterings from randomly rough surfaces, (2) Physical optics model, (3) Geometrical optics model, and (4) Electromagnetic wave scattering from dielectric cylinders of finite lengths, which replace the trees and branches in the modeling of tree covered field. Additionally, a three-layer emissivity model for passive sensing of a vegetation covered soil surface is also developed. The effects of surface roughness, soil moisture contents, and tree parameters on the polarization signatures were investigated.

  6. Passive microwave remote sensing of the ocean - A review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swift, C. T.

    1980-01-01

    This paper reviews the current status of passive microwave remote sensing of the ocean. The physics of emission and instrumentation are highlighted in order to establish a relationship between the thermal emission and retrieved geophysical parameters. A discussion then follows on measurements of temperature, salinity, windspeed, etc. using passive microwave systems. These measurements are related to the accuracy and spatial resolution required by the users. The status of passive microwave remote sensing is summarized and recommendations for future research are presented.

  7. An airborne remote sensing system for urban air quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, L. J.; Friedman, E. J.; Keitz, E. L.; Ward, E. A.

    1974-01-01

    Several NASA sponsored remote sensors and possible airborne platforms were evaluated. Outputs of dispersion models for SO2 and CO pollution in the Washington, D.C. area were used with ground station data to establish the expected performance and limitations of the remote sensors. Aircraft/sensor support requirements are discussed. A method of optimum flight plan determination was made. Cost trade offs were performed. Conclusions about the implementation of various instrument packages as parts of a comprehensive air quality monitoring system in Washington are presented.

  8. Assessing Scale Effects on Snow Water Equivalent Retrievals Using Airborne and Spaceborne Passive Microwave Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derksen, C.; Walker, A.; Goodison, B.

    2003-12-01

    The Climate Research Branch (CRB) of the Meteorological Service of Canada (MSC) has a long-standing research program focused on the development of methods to retrieve snow cover information from passive microwave satellite data for Canadian regions. Algorithms that derive snow water equivalent (SWE) have been developed by CRB and are used to operationally generate SWE information over landscape regions including prairie, boreal forest, and taiga. New multi-scale research datasets were acquired in Saskatchewan, Canada during February 2003 to quantify the impact of spatially heterogeneous land cover and snowpack properties on passive microwave SWE retrievals. MSC microwave radiometers (6.9, 19, 37, and 85 GHz) were flown on the National Research Council (NRC) Twin Otter aircraft at two flying heights along a grid of flight lines, covering a 25 by 25 km study area centered on the Old Jack Pine Boreal Ecosystem Research and Monitoring Site (BERMS). Spaceborne Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) and Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) brightness temperatures were also acquired for this region. SWE was derived for all passive microwave datasets using the CRB land cover sensitive algorithm suite. An intensive, coincident ground sampling program characterized in situ snow depth, density, water equivalent and pack structure using a land cover based sampling scheme to isolate the variability in snow cover parameters within and between forest stands and land cover types, and within a single spaceborne passive microwave grid cell. The passive microwave data sets that are the focus of this investigation cover a range of spatial resolutions from 100-150 m for the airborne data to 10 km (AMSR-E) and 25 km (SSM/I) for the satellite data, providing the opportunity to investigate and compare microwave emission characteristics, SWE retrievals and land cover effects at different spatial scales. Initial analysis shows that the small footprint airborne passive microwave

  9. Remote measurement of microwave distribution based on optical detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Zhong; Ding, Wenzheng; Yang, Sihua; Chen, Qun; Xing, Da

    2016-01-01

    In this letter, we present the development of a remote microwave measurement system. This method employs an arc discharge lamp that serves as an energy converter from microwave to visible light, which can propagate without transmission medium. Observed with a charge coupled device, quantitative microwave power distribution can be achieved when the operators and electronic instruments are in a distance from the high power region in order to reduce the potential risk. We perform the experiments using pulsed microwaves, and the results show that the system response is dependent on the microwave intensity over a certain range. Most importantly, the microwave distribution can be monitored in real time by optical observation of the response of a one-dimensional lamp array. The characteristics of low cost, a wide detection bandwidth, remote measurement, and room temperature operation make the system a preferred detector for microwave applications.

  10. Testing of CMA-2000 Microwave Landing System (MLS) airborne receiver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labreche, L.; Murfin, A. J.

    1989-09-01

    Microwave landing system (MLS) is a precision approach and landing guidance system which provides position information and various air to ground data. Position information is provided on a wide coverage sector and is determined by an azimuth angle measurement, an elevation angle measurement, and a range measurement. MLS performance standards and testing of the MLS airborne receiver is mainly governed by Technical Standard Order TSO-C104 issued by the Federal Aviation Administration. This TSO defines detailed test procedures for use in determining the required performance under standard and stressed conditions. It also imposes disciplines on software development and testing procedures. Testing performed on the CMA-2000 MLS receiver and methods used in its validation are described. A computer automated test system has been developed to test for compliance with RTCA/DO-177 Minimum Operation Performance Standards. Extensive software verification and traceability tests designed to ensure compliance with RTCA/DO-178 are outlined.

  11. Airborne microwave measurements at 89 and 157 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, David C.; English, Stephen J.; Saunders, Roger W.; Prigent, Catherine; Guillou, C.; Chedin, Alain; Claud, C.

    1993-08-01

    In support of the AMSU-B program, the UK Meteorological Office (UKMO) in collaboration with Laboratoire de Meteorologie Dynamique (LMD) have developed the Microwave Airborne Scanning Radiometer System (MARSS) which operates at 89 and 157 GHz, near the 'window' channels of AMSU-B. This total power radiometer is flown on board the C-130 aircraft of the UKMO which is well- equipped with sensors measuring thermodynamical and cloud microphysical parameters up to a height of 9 km. The instrument has a scanning cycle time of approximately 3 seconds, during which time the radiometer takes 9 upward and 9 downward views as well as two views of internal calibration targets. It has been found that the Liebe MPM model gives more consistent agreement with the observed brightness temperatures than other published transmission models.

  12. Comparison between laboratory and airborne BRDF measurements for remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgiev, Georgi T.; Gatebe, Charles K.; Butler, James J.; King, Michael D.

    2006-08-01

    Samples from soil and leaf litter were obtained at a site located in the savanna biome of South Africa (Skukuza; 25.0°S, 31.5°E) and their bidirectional reflectance distribution functions (BRDF) were measured using the out-of-plane scatterometer located in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Diffuser Calibration Facility (DCaF). BRDF was measured using P and S incident polarized light over a range of incident and scatter angles. A monochromator-based broadband light source was used in the ultraviolet (uv) and visible (vis) spectral ranges. The diffuse scattered light was collected using an uv-enhanced silicon photodiode detector with output fed to a computer-controlled lock-in amplifier. Typical measurement uncertainties of the reported laboratory BRDF measurements are found to be less than 1% (k=1). These laboratory results were compared with airborne measurements of BRDF from NASA's Cloud Absorption Radiometer (CAR) instrument over the same general site where the samples were obtained. This study presents preliminary results of the comparison between these laboratory and airborne BRDF measurements and identifies areas for future laboratory and airborne BRDF measurements. This paper presents initial results in a study to try to understand BRDF measurements from laboratory, airborne, and satellite measurements in an attempt to improve the consistency of remote sensing models.

  13. Airborne microwave Doppler measurements of ocean wave directional spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plant, W. J.; Keller, W. C.; Reeves, A. B.; Uliana, E. A.; Johnson, J. W.

    1987-01-01

    A technique is presented for measuring ocean wave directional spectra from aircraft using microwave Doppler radar. The technique involves backscattering coherent microwave radiation from a patch of sea surface which is small compared to dominant ocean wavelengths in the antenna look direction, and large compared to these lengths in the perpendicular (azimuthal) direction. The mean Doppler shift of the return signal measured over short time intervals is proportional to the mean sea surface velocity of the illuminated patch. Variable sea surface velocities induced by wave motion therefore produce time-varying Doppler shifts in the received signal. The large azimuthal dimension of the patch implies that these variations must be produced by surface waves traveling near the horizontal antenna look direction thus allowing determination of the direction of wave travel. Linear wave theory is used to convert the measured velocities into ocean wave spectral densities. Spectra measured simultaneously with this technique and two laser profilometers, and nearly simultaneous with this technique and two laser profilometers, and nearly simultaneous with a surface buoy, are presented. Applications and limitations of this airborne Doppler technique are discussed.

  14. Microwave Remote Sensing and the Cold Land Processes Field Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Edward J.; Cline, Don; Davis, Bert; Hildebrand, Peter H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    -oriented understanding, land surface models and microwave remote sensing. The experimental design is a multi-sensor, multi-scale (1-ha to 160,000 km ^ {2}) approach to providing the comprehensive data set necessary to address several experiment objectives. A description focusing on the microwave remote sensing components (ground, airborne, and spaceborne) of the experiment will be presented.

  15. Location of the Rhine plume front by airborne remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruddick, K. G.; Lahousse, L.; Donnay, E.

    1994-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility of using airborne remote sensing to locate the Rhine plume front. Interest in fronts arises from the desire to predict the fate of pollutants and biological nutrients discharged from rivers into the open sea. Observations were made during flights over the Dutch coastal waters using a vertically-mounted video camera and a side-looking airborne radar (SLAR) designed for oil slick detection. Comparison of radar images with visual observations of the sea colour discontinuity and foam line establish that fronts can indeed be detected by SLAR because of high radar backscatter along the convergence line, where the fresh water jet impinges on saltier water. This provides a sound basis for future investigations using Synthetic Aperture Radar as mounted on ERS-1. An estimation of errors is given, identifying priorities for improvement of the technique. The accuracy achieved is considered sufficient for the validation of hydrodynamic models.

  16. Automation of hyperspectral airborne remote sensing data processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozoderov, V. V.; Egorov, V. D.

    2014-12-01

    An automated system is proposed for discriminating the spectral radiances registered by the hyperspectral airborne instruments based on average spectra and their interclass variability while distinguishing pixels related to the illuminated and shaded elements of the crown trees for various species and ages. Maps of the ground-based inventory for the selected area of airborne remote sensing are used as prior information. The system automatically forms databases of the selected classes of objects using the contours of these objects drawn on the image under processing. An opportunity to distinguish these classes is demonstrated in the red edge region of the spectra transition from the chlorophyll spectral band to the maximum of the spectral vegetation reflectivity.

  17. Multispectral microwave imaging radar for remote sensing applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, R. W.; Rawson, R.; Ausherman, D.; Bryan, L.; Porcello, L.

    1974-01-01

    A multispectral airborne microwave radar imaging system, capable of obtaining four images simultaneously is described. The system has been successfully demonstrated in several experiments and one example of results obtained, fresh water ice, is given. Consideration of the digitization of the imagery is given and an image digitizing system described briefly. Preliminary results of digitization experiments are included.

  18. Microwave remote sensing from space for earth resource surveys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The concepts of radar remote sensing and microwave radiometry are discussed and their utility in earth resource sensing is examined. The direct relationship between the character of the remotely sensed data and the level of decision making for which the data are appropriate is considered. Applications of active and a passive microwave sensing covered include hydrology, land use, mapping, vegetation classification, environmental monitoring, coastal features and processes, geology, and ice and snow. Approved and proposed microwave sensors are described and the use of space shuttle as a development platform is evaluated.

  19. Modular airborne remote sampling and sensing system (MARSSS)

    SciTech Connect

    Woods, R.O.

    1982-04-01

    Sandia is developing a modular airborne instrumentation system for the Environmental Protection Agency. This system will allow flexibility in the choice of instruments by standardizing mountings, power supplies and sampling modes. The objective is to make it possible to perform aerial surveys from chartered aircraft that have not been adapted in a more than superficial manner. It will also allow the experimenter to tailor his choice of instruments to the specific problem. Since the equipment will have a stand-alone capability, it can be applied to other problems such as long-term unattended use at remote locations or in toxic or otherwise hazardous environments.

  20. TCR backscattering characterization for microwave remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riccio, Giovanni; Gennarelli, Claudio

    2014-05-01

    A Trihedral Corner Reflector (TCR) is formed by three mutually orthogonal metal plates of various shapes and is a very important scattering structure since it exhibits a high monostatic Radar Cross Section (RCS) over a wide angular range. Moreover it is a handy passive device with low manufacturing costs and robust geometric construction, the maintenance of its efficiency is not difficult and expensive, and it can be used in all weather conditions (i.e., fog, rain, smoke, and dusty environment). These characteristics make it suitable as reference target and radar enhancement device for satellite- and ground-based microwave remote sensing techniques. For instance, TCRs have been recently employed to improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the backscattered signal in the case of urban ground deformation monitoring [1] and dynamic survey of civil infrastructures without natural corners as the Musmeci bridge in Basilicata, Italy [2]. The region of interest for the calculation of TCR's monostatic RCS is here confined to the first quadrant containing the boresight direction. The backscattering term is presented in closed form by evaluating the far-field scattering integral involving the contributions related to the direct illumination and the internal bouncing mechanisms. The Geometrical Optics (GO) laws allow one to determine the field incident on each TCR plate and the patch (integration domain) illuminated by it, thus enabling the use of a Physical Optics (PO) approximation for the corresponding surface current densities to consider for integration on each patch. Accordingly, five contributions are associated to each TCR plate: one contribution is due to the direct illumination of the whole internal surface; two contributions originate by the impinging rays that are simply reflected by the other two internal surfaces; and two contributions are related to the impinging rays that undergo two internal reflections. It is useful to note that the six contributions due to the

  1. Microwave Temperature Profiler Mounted in a Standard Airborne Research Canister

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahoney, Michael J.; Denning, Richard F.; Fox, Jack

    2009-01-01

    Many atmospheric research aircraft use a standard canister design to mount instruments, as this significantly facilitates their electrical and mechanical integration and thereby reduces cost. Based on more than 30 years of airborne science experience with the Microwave Temperature Profiler (MTP), the MTP has been repackaged with state-of-the-art electronics and other design improvements to fly in one of these standard canisters. All of the controlling electronics are integrated on a single 4 5-in. (.10 13- cm) multi-layer PCB (printed circuit board) with surface-mount hardware. Improved circuit design, including a self-calibrating RTD (resistive temperature detector) multiplexer, was implemented in order to reduce the size and mass of the electronics while providing increased capability. A new microcontroller-based temperature controller board was designed, providing better control with fewer components. Five such boards are used to provide local control of the temperature in various areas of the instrument, improving radiometric performance. The new stepper motor has an embedded controller eliminating the need for a separate controller board. The reference target is heated to avoid possible emissivity (and hence calibration) changes due to moisture contamination in humid environments, as well as avoiding issues with ambient targets during ascent and descent. The radiometer is a double-sideband heterodyne receiver tuned sequentially to individual oxygen emission lines near 60 GHz, with the line selection and intermediate frequency bandwidths chosen to accommodate the altitude range of the aircraft and mission.

  2. Multiresolution processing for fractal analysis of airborne remotely sensed data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaggi, S.; Quattrochi, D.; Lam, N.

    1992-01-01

    Images acquired by NASA's Calibrated Airborne Multispectral Scanner are used to compute the fractal dimension as a function of spatial resolution. Three methods are used to determine the fractal dimension: Shelberg's (1982, 1983) line-divider method, the variogram method, and the triangular prism method. A description of these methods and the result of applying these methods to a remotely-sensed image is also presented. The scanner data was acquired over western Puerto Rico in January, 1990 over land and water. The aim is to study impacts of man-induced changes on land that affect sedimentation into the near-shore environment. The data were obtained over the same area at three different pixel sizes: 10 m, 20 m, and 30 m.

  3. Airborne imaging spectrometer - A new tool for remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vane, G.; Goetz, A. F. H.; Wellman, J. B.

    1983-01-01

    The first of a new class of remote sensing instruments is described. The Airborne Imaging Spectrometer represents the first use of two-dimensional area arrays in a scientific application. The instrument images 32 cross-track pixels simultaneously, each in 128 spectral bands in the 1.2 to 2.4 micro region. The IFOV of the instrument is 1.9 mrad and the spectral sampling interval is 9.6 nanometers. Plans include upgrading the detector from the current 32 x 32 element HgCdTe CCD array to a 64 x 64 element array in 1984. Science and engineering data are currently being actively gathered with the instrument.

  4. Airborne imaging spectrometer - A new tool for remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vane, G.; Goetz, A. F. H.; Wellman, J. B.

    1984-01-01

    The first of a new class of remote sensing instruments is described. The Airborne Imaging Spectrometer represents the first use of two-dimensional integrated infrared area arrays in a scientific application. The instrument images 32 cross-track pixels simultaneously, each in 128 spectral bands in the 1.2- to 2.4-micron region. The IFOV of the instrument is 1.9 mrad/pixel and the spectral sampling interval is 9.6 nm. Plans include upgrading the detector from the current 32 x 32 element HgCdTe CCD array to a 64 x 64 element array in 1985. Science and engineering data are currently being actively gathered with the instrument.

  5. Airborne remote sensing of coal waste and acid mine drainage

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, K.E.; Lee, T.S.

    1996-07-01

    High resolution airborne remote sensing data, spatial resolution of 2m X 2m, were used to study the stream quality degradation due to the coal mines in Taebaek city, one of the major coalfields in Korea. In order to circumvent the severe topographic effect and small scale of the water stream, principal components with the least variances were utilized. They showed the subtle details in the image that were obscured by higher contrast due to the topographic effect. Through maximum likelihood classification of those components, yellowboy and mine waste could be effectively identified. Areas affected by acid mine drainage and mine waste could be also located by identifying areas of dead or dying vegetation using vegetation index map.

  6. Second International Airborne Remote Sensing Conference and Exhibition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    cloud cover analysis, Quadantid meteor shower studies, extra-solar far infrared ionic structure lines measurement, Cape Kennedy launch support, and studies in air pollution, The Products and Services Exhibit showcased new sensor and image processing technologies, aircraft data collection services, unmanned vehicle technology, platform equipment, turn-key services, software a workstations, GPS services, publications, and processing and integration systems by 58 exhibitors. The participation of aircraft users and crews provided unique dialogue between those who plan data collection a operate the remote sensing technology, and those who supply the data processing and integration equipment. Research results using hyperspectral imagery, radar and optical sensors, lidar, digital aerial photography, a integrated systems were presented. Major research and development programs and campaigns we reviewed, including CNR's LARA Project and European Space Agency's 1991-1995 Airborne Campaign. The pre-conference short courses addressed airborne video, photogrammetry, hyperspectral data analysis, digital orthophotography, imagery and GIS integration, IFSAR, GPS, and spectrometer calibration.

  7. Remote sensing of soil moisture using airborne hyperspectral data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finn, Michael P.; Lewis, Mark (David); Bosch, David D.; Giraldo, Mario; Yamamoto, Kristina H.; Sullivan, Dana G.; Kincaid, Russell; Luna, Ronaldo; Allam, Gopala Krishna; Kvien, Craig; Williams, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    Landscape assessment of soil moisture is critical to understanding the hydrological cycle at the regional scale and in broad-scale studies of biophysical processes affected by global climate changes in temperature and precipitation. Traditional efforts to measure soil moisture have been principally restricted to in situ measurements, so remote sensing techniques are often employed. Hyperspectral sensors with finer spatial resolution and narrow band widths may offer an alternative to traditional multispectral analysis of soil moisture, particularly in landscapes with high spatial heterogeneity. This preliminary research evaluates the ability of remotely sensed hyperspectral data to quantify soil moisture for the Little River Experimental Watershed (LREW), Georgia. An airborne hyperspectral instrument with a short-wavelength infrared (SWIR) sensor was flown in 2005 and 2007 and the results were correlated to in situ soil moisture values. A significant statistical correlation (R 2 value above 0.7 for both sampling dates) for the hyperspectral instrument data and the soil moisture probe data at 5.08 cm (2 inches) was determined. While models for the 20.32 cm (8 inches) and 30.48 cm (12 inches) depths were tested, they were not able to estimate soil moisture to the same degree.

  8. Remote sensing of soil moisture using airborne hyperspectral data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finn, M.; Lewis, M.; Bosch, D.; Giraldo, Mario; Yamamoto, K.; Sullivan, D.; Kincaid, R.; Luna, R.; Allam, G.; Kvien, Craig; Williams, M.

    2011-01-01

    Landscape assessment of soil moisture is critical to understanding the hydrological cycle at the regional scale and in broad-scale studies of biophysical processes affected by global climate changes in temperature and precipitation. Traditional efforts to measure soil moisture have been principally restricted to in situ measurements, so remote sensing techniques are often employed. Hyperspectral sensors with finer spatial resolution and narrow band widths may offer an alternative to traditional multispectral analysis of soil moisture, particularly in landscapes with high spatial heterogeneity. This preliminary research evaluates the ability of remotely sensed hyperspectral data to quantify soil moisture for the Little River Experimental Watershed (LREW), Georgia. An airborne hyperspectral instrument with a short-wavelength infrared (SWIR) sensor was flown in 2005 and 2007 and the results were correlated to in situ soil moisture values. A significant statistical correlation (R2 value above 0.7 for both sampling dates) for the hyperspectral instrument data and the soil moisture probe data at 5.08 cm (2 inches) was determined. While models for the 20.32 cm (8 inches) and 30.48 cm (12 inches) depths were tested, they were not able to estimate soil moisture to the same degree.

  9. Active microwave remote sensing of oceans, chapter 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A rationale is developed for the use of active microwave sensing in future aerospace applications programs for the remote sensing of the world's oceans, lakes, and polar regions. Summaries pertaining to applications, local phenomena, and large-scale phenomena are given along with a discussion of orbital errors.

  10. Passive Microwave Remote Sensing for Land Applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Land applications, in particular soil moisture retrieval, have been hampered by the lack of low frequency passive microwave observations and the coarse spatial resolution of existing sensors. The next decade could see several improved operational and exploratory missions using new technologies as w...

  11. Using optical and microwave, modeled and airborne data to identify water leaks from rural aqueducts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Frances M.; Malthus, Tim J.; Woodhouse, Iain H.; Hedger, Richard D.

    2003-03-01

    The development of techniques for the detection of water leaks from underground pipelines is seen as a high profile activity by water companies and regulators. This is due to increasing water demands and problems with current leak detection methods. In this paper optical reflectance and microwave backscatter models (SAIL + PROSPECT and RT2) were used to try and identify optimal indices for detecting water leaks amongst a variety of different land cover types at different growth stages. Results suggest that red/near infrared and red/middle infrared ratios show potential for leak detection. Given the sensitivity of L-band radar to moisture, and the ability to separate contributions from canopy and ground surface, it is possible to detect saturated soils through vegetation canopies. The results of both approaches are used to infer limits of detection in terms of season and meteorological conditions for a range of land covers. Preliminary findings suggest that leaks may be optimally detected when canopy height is low, surrounding soil is dry, and the leak has been present for more than 14 days. The modelled data is compared with L - band fully polarimetric E-SAR data, and 200 channel HYMAP hyperspectral airborne data which were acquired over an 8km section of the Vrynwy aqueduct (UK), which included a high concentration of leaks. Data was acquired as part of the British National Space Centre (BNSC) and Natural Environmental Research Council (NERC), SAR and Hyperspectral Airborne Campaign (SHAC) in June 2000. The results from this work suggest that remote sensing is both an effective and feasible tool for leak identification.

  12. Investigating Baseline, Alternative and Copula-based Algorithm for combining Airborne Active and Passive Microwave Observations in the SMAP Context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montzka, C.; Lorenz, C.; Jagdhuber, T.; Laux, P.; Hajnsek, I.; Kunstmann, H.; Entekhabi, D.; Vereecken, H.

    2015-12-01

    The objective of the NASA Soil Moisture Active & Passive (SMAP) mission is to provide global measurements of soil moisture and freeze/thaw states. SMAP integrates L-band radar and radiometer instruments as a single observation system combining the respective strengths of active and passive remote sensing for enhanced soil moisture mapping. Airborne instruments will be a key part of the SMAP validation program. Here, we present an airborne campaign in the Rur catchment, Germany, in which the passive L-band system Polarimetric L-band Multi-beam Radiometer (PLMR2) and the active L-band system F-SAR of DLR were flown simultaneously on the same platform on six dates in 2013. The flights covered the full heterogeneity of the area under investigation, i.e. all types of land cover and experimental monitoring sites with in situ sensors. Here, we used the obtained data sets as a test-bed for the analysis of three active-passive fusion techniques: A) The SMAP baseline algorithm: Disaggregation of passive microwave brightness temperature by active microwave backscatter and subsequent inversion to soil moisture, B), the SMAP alternative algorithm: Estimation of soil moisture by passive sensor data and subsequent disaggregation by active sensor backscatter and C) Copula-based combination of active and passive microwave data. For method C empirical Copulas were generated and theoretical Copulas fitted both on the level of the raw products brightness temperature and backscatter as well as two soil moisture products. Results indicate that the regression parameters for method A and B are dependent on the radar vegetation index (RVI). Similarly, for method C the best performance was gained by generating separate Copulas for individual land use classes. For more in-depth analyses longer time series are necessary as can obtained by airborne campaigns, therefore, the methods will be applied to SMAP data.

  13. Development of an airborne remote sensing system for crop pest management: System integration and verification

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Remote sensing along with Global Positioning Systems, Geographic Information Systems, and variable rate technology has been developed, which scientists can implement to help farmers maximize the economic and environmental benefits of crop pest management through precision agriculture. Airborne remo...

  14. Systems and methods for remote long standoff biometric identification using microwave cardiac signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGrath, William R. (Inventor); Talukder, Ashit (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Systems and methods for remote, long standoff biometric identification using microwave cardiac signals are provided. In one embodiment, the invention relates to a method for remote biometric identification using microwave cardiac signals, the method including generating and directing first microwave energy in a direction of a person, receiving microwave energy reflected from the person, the reflected microwave energy indicative of cardiac characteristics of the person, segmenting a signal indicative of the reflected microwave energy into a waveform including a plurality of heart beats, identifying patterns in the microwave heart beats waveform, and identifying the person based on the identified patterns and a stored microwave heart beats waveform.

  15. First Airborne Laser Remote Measurements of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Browell, E. V.; Dobbs, M. E.; Dobler, J.; Kooi, S.; Choi, Y.; Harrison, F. W.; Moore, B.; Zaccheo, T. S.

    2008-12-01

    A unique, multi-frequency, single-beam, laser absorption spectrometer (LAS) that operates at 1.57 μm has been developed for a future space-based mission to determine the global distribution of sources and sinks of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2). A prototype of the space-based LAS system was developed by ITT, and it has been successfully flight tested in five airborne campaigns conducted in different geographic regions over the last three years. Flight tests were conducted over Oklahoma, Michigan, New Hampshire, and Virginia under a wide range of atmospheric conditions. Remote LAS measurements were compared to high-quality in situ measurements obtained from instrumentation on the same aircraft on spirals under the ground track of the LAS. LAS flights were conducted over a wide range of land and water reflectances and in the presence of scattered clouds. An extensive data set of CO2 measurements has been obtained for evaluating the LAS performance. LAS CO2 measurements with a signal-to-noise in excess of 250 were obtained for a 1-s average over land and for a 10-s average over water. Absolute comparisons of CO2 remote and in situ measurements showed agreement over a range of altitudes to better than 2 percent. LAS oxygen (O2) measurements, which are needed to convert LAS CO2 density measurements to CO2 mixing ratios (XCO2), have been made in the 1.26-μm region in horizontal ground-based experiments and in initial flight tests. Details of flight test campaigns and measured versus modeled results are presented in this paper.

  16. Applications of Microwaves to Remote Sensing of Terrain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porter, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    A survey and study was conducted to define the role that microwaves may play in the measurement of a variety of terrain-related parameters. The survey consisted of discussions with many users and researchers in the field of remote sensing. In addition, a survey questionnaire was prepared and replies were solicited from these and other users and researchers. The results of the survey, and associated bibliography, were studied and conclusions were drawn as to the usefulness of radiometric systems for remote sensing of terrain.

  17. Remote Strain Sensing of CFRP Using Microwave Frequency Domain Reflectometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, William C.; Moore, Jason P.; Juarez, Peter D.

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Advanced Composites Project is investigating technologies that increase automated remote inspection of aircraft composite structures. Therefore, microwave Frequency Domain Reflectometry (FDR) is being investigated as a method of enabling rapid remote measurement of strain occurring at the first ply of a composite fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) structure using Radio Frequency (RF) Electro-Magnetic (EM) radiation. While microwave reflectometry has been used to detect disbonds in CFRP structures, its use in detecting strain has been limited. This work will present data demonstrating the measurement of the reactance changes due to loading conditions that are indicative of strain in a CFRP structure. In addition, the basic EM signature will be presented along with an analysis of temperature and humidity effects.

  18. Microwave remote sensing of flash droughts during crop growing seasons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Xing; Ma, Zhuguo; Pan, Ming; Shi, Chunxiang

    2015-04-01

    Severe short-term droughts frequently occurred over China in recent years, with devastating impacts on crop production. Short-term droughts during the crop growing seasons sometimes occur together with abnormally high temperature, and positive feedbacks between the land and atmosphere often intensify the drought conditions. These droughts are recently termed as "flash droughts" due to their rapid development, unusual intensity and devastating impacts. This study assesses the capability of microwave remote sensing in detecting soil moisture droughts over China and in providing early warnings. The 22-year (1992-2013) satellite surface soil moisture retrievals produced by the European Space Agency Climate Change Initiative (ESA CCI) are compared against the in-situ observations at 312 stations in China, the ERA Interim and GLDAS soil moisture reanalysis, and the observed rainfall deficit. Both the reanalysis and remote sensing products can only detect less than 60% of drought months over most in-situ stations, but they capture the responses of inter-annual drought variations to ENSO at river basin scales quite well. As compared with reanalysis, the satellite products provide independent drought information over sparsely observed regions such as northwestern China, and the active microwave product with better vegetation penetration works the best in southern China. This study suggests that the microwave remote sensing data is useful for soil moisture drought monitor as well as verification for drought modeling or forecasting.

  19. Guidelines for spaceborne microwave remote sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litman, V.; Nicholas, J.

    1982-01-01

    A handbook was developed to provide information and support to the spaceborne remote sensing and frequency management communities: to guide sensor developers in the choice of frequencies; to advise regulators on sensor technology needs and sharing potential; to present sharing analysis models and, through example, methods for determining sensor sharing feasibility; to introduce developers to the regulatory process; to create awareness of proper assignment procedures; to present sensor allocations; and to provide guidelines on the use and limitations of allocated bands. Controlling physical factors and user requirements and the regulatory environment are discussed. Sensor frequency allocation achievable performance and usefulness are reviewed. Procedures for national and international registration, the use of non-allocated bands and steps for obtaining new frequency allocations, and procedures for reporting interference are also discussed.

  20. Analysis of remote sensing data collected for detection and mapping of oil spills: Reduction and analysis of multi-sensor airborne data of the NASA Wallops oil spill exercise of November 1978

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Airborne, remotely sensed data of the NASA Wallops controlled oil spill were corrected, reduced and analysed. Sensor performance comparisons were made by registering data sets from different sensors, which were near-coincident in time and location. Multispectral scanner images were, in turn, overlayed with profiles of correlation between airborne and laboratory-acquired fluorosensor spectra of oil; oil-thickness contours derived (by NASA) from a scanning fluorosensor and also from a two-channel scanning microwave radiometer; and synthetic aperture radar X-HH images. Microwave scatterometer data were correlated with dual-channel (UV and TIR) line scanner images of the oil slick.

  1. AIRBORNE, OPTICAL REMOTE SENSNG OF METHANE AND ETHANE FOR NATURAL GAS PIPELINE LEAK DETECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Jerry Myers

    2005-04-15

    Ophir Corporation was awarded a contract by the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory under the Project Title ''Airborne, Optical Remote Sensing of Methane and Ethane for Natural Gas Pipeline Leak Detection'' on October 14, 2002. The scope of the work involved designing and developing an airborne, optical remote sensor capable of sensing methane and, if possible, ethane for the detection of natural gas pipeline leaks. Flight testing using a custom dual wavelength, high power fiber amplifier was initiated in February 2005. Ophir successfully demonstrated the airborne system, showing that it was capable of discerning small amounts of methane from a simulated pipeline leak. Leak rates as low as 150 standard cubic feet per hour (scf/h) were detected by the airborne sensor.

  2. [Atmospheric Influences Analysis on the Satellite Passive Microwave Remote Sensing].

    PubMed

    Qiu, Yu-bao; Shi, Li-juan; Shi, Jian-cheng; Zhao, Shao-jie

    2016-02-01

    Passive microwave remote sensing offers its all-weather work capabilities, but atmospheric influences on satellite microwave brightness temperature were different under different atmospheric conditions and environments. In order to clarify atmospheric influences on Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-Earth Observing System (AMSR-E), atmospheric radiation were simulated based on AMSR-E configuration under clear sky and cloudy conditions, by using radiative transfer model and atmospheric conditions data. Results showed that atmospheric water vapor was the major factor for atmospheric radiation under clear sky condition. Atmospheric transmittances were almost above 0.98 at AMSR-E's low frequencies (< 18.7 GHz) and the microwave brightness temperature changes caused by atmosphere can be ignored in clear sky condition. Atmospheric transmittances at 36.5 and 89 GHz were 0.896 and 0.756 respectively. The effects of atmospheric water vapor needed to be corrected when using microwave high-frequency channels to inverse land surface parameters in clear sky condition. But under cloud cover or cloudy conditions, cloud liquid water was the key factor to cause atmospheric radiation. When sky was covered by typical stratus cloud, atmospheric transmittances at 10.7, 18.7 and 36.5 GHz were 0.942, 0.828 and 0.605 respectively. Comparing with the clear sky condition, the down-welling atmospheric radiation caused by cloud liquid water increased up to 75.365 K at 36.5 GHz. It showed that the atmospheric correction under different clouds covered condition was the primary work to improve the accuracy of land surface parameters inversion of passive microwave remote sensing. The results also provided the basis for microwave atmospheric correction algorithm development. Finally, the atmospheric sounding data was utilized to calculate the atmospheric transmittance of Hailaer Region, Inner Mongolia province, in July 2013. The results indicated that atmospheric transmittances were close to 1

  3. Remote sensing of soil moisture with microwave radiometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmugge, T.; Wilheit, T.; Webster, W., Jr.; Gloerson, P.

    1976-01-01

    Results are presented that were derived from measurements made by microwave radiometers during the March 1972 and February 1973 flights of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Convair-9900 aircraft over agricultural test sites in the southwestern part of United States. The purpose of the missions was to study the use of microwave radiometers for the remote sensing of soil moisture. The microwave radiometers covered the 0.8- to 21-cm wavelength range. The results show a good linear correlation between the observed microwave brightness temperature and moisture content of the 0- to 1-cm layer of the soil. The results at the largest wavelength (21 cm) show the greatest sensitivity to soil moisture variations and indicate the possibility of sensing these variations through a vegetative canopy. The effect of soil texture on the emission from the soil was also studied and it was found that this effect can be compensated for by expressing soil moisture as a percent of field capacity for the soil. The results were compared with calculations based on a radiative transfer model for layered dielectrics and the agreement is very good at the longer wavelengths. At the shorter wavelengths, surface roughness effects are larger and the agreement becomes poorer.

  4. Determination of precipitation profiles from airborne passive microwave radiometric measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kummerow, Christian; Hakkarinen, Ida M.; Pierce, Harold F.; Weinman, James A.

    1991-01-01

    This study presents the first quantitative retrievals of vertical profiles of precipitation derived from multispectral passive microwave radiometry. Measurements of microwave brightness temperature (Tb) obtained by a NASA high-altitude research aircraft are related to profiles of rainfall rate through a multichannel piecewise-linear statistical regression procedure. Statistics for Tb are obtained from a set of cloud radiative models representing a wide variety of convective, stratiform, and anvil structures. The retrieval scheme itself determines which cloud model best fits the observed meteorological conditions. Retrieved rainfall rate profiles are converted to equivalent radar reflectivity for comparison with observed reflectivities from a ground-based research radar. Results for two case studies, a stratiform rain situation and an intense convective thunderstorm, show that the radiometrically derived profiles capture the major features of the observed vertical structure of hydrometer density.

  5. Passive microwave remote sensing for sea ice research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Techniques for gathering data by remote sensors on satellites utilized for sea ice research are summarized. Measurement of brightness temperatures by a passive microwave imager converted to maps of total sea ice concentration and to the areal fractions covered by first year and multiyear ice are described. Several ancillary observations, especially by means of automatic data buoys and submarines equipped with upward looking sonars, are needed to improve the validation and interpretation of satellite data. The design and performance characteristics of the Navy's Special Sensor Microwave Imager, expected to be in orbit in late 1985, are described. It is recommended that data from that instrument be processed to a form suitable for research applications and archived in a readily accessible form. The sea ice data products required for research purposes are described and recommendations for their archival and distribution to the scientific community are presented.

  6. Microwave remote sensing measurements of oil pollution on the ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Croswell, W. F.; Blume, H.-J. C.; Johnson, J. W.

    1981-01-01

    Microwave and optical remote sensors were flown over fresh and weathered crude oil released from a surface research vessel and also over a slick formed on the sea by frozen oleyl alcohol cubes released from a helicopter. For the crude oil experiments, microwave radiometric measurements at 1.43, 2.65, 22, and 31 GHz are reported, along with the variable incidence angle scattering measurements at 13.9 GHz. For these experiments, unusual depressions in the L-band brightness temperature were observed, possibly related to dispersants applied to the crude oil. Similar depressions, but with much larger values, were observed over the oleyl alcohol monomolecular slicks. Images obtained at 31 and 22 GHz were used to infer oil volume, yielding values which bound the known amounts spilled. Ku band measurements obtained in repeated passes over crude oil slicks are also discussed.

  7. Development of a Cost-Effective Airborne Remote Sensing System for Coastal Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Kim, Duk-jin; Jung, Jungkyo; Kang, Ki-mook; Kim, Seung Hee; Xu, Zhen; Hensley, Scott; Swan, Aaron; Duersch, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Coastal lands and nearshore marine areas are productive and rapidly changing places. However, these areas face many environmental challenges related to climate change and human-induced impacts. Space-borne remote sensing systems may be restricted in monitoring these areas because of their spatial and temporal resolutions. In situ measurements are also constrained from accessing the area and obtaining wide-coverage data. In these respects, airborne remote sensing sensors could be the most appropriate tools for monitoring these coastal areas. In this study, a cost-effective airborne remote sensing system with synthetic aperture radar and thermal infrared sensors was implemented to survey coastal areas. Calibration techniques and geophysical model algorithms were developed for the airborne system to observe the topography of intertidal flats, coastal sea surface current, sea surface temperature, and submarine groundwater discharge. PMID:26437413

  8. Development of a Cost-Effective Airborne Remote Sensing System for Coastal Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Duk-jin; Jung, Jungkyo; Kang, Ki-mook; Kim, Seung Hee; Xu, Zhen; Hensley, Scott; Swan, Aaron; Duersch, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Coastal lands and nearshore marine areas are productive and rapidly changing places. However, these areas face many environmental challenges related to climate change and human-induced impacts. Space-borne remote sensing systems may be restricted in monitoring these areas because of their spatial and temporal resolutions. In situ measurements are also constrained from accessing the area and obtaining wide-coverage data. In these respects, airborne remote sensing sensors could be the most appropriate tools for monitoring these coastal areas. In this study, a cost-effective airborne remote sensing system with synthetic aperture radar and thermal infrared sensors was implemented to survey coastal areas. Calibration techniques and geophysical model algorithms were developed for the airborne system to observe the topography of intertidal flats, coastal sea surface current, sea surface temperature, and submarine groundwater discharge. PMID:26437413

  9. Analysis of interference to remote passive microwave sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyd, Douglas; Tillotson, Tom

    1986-01-01

    The final acts of the 1979 World Administrative Radio Conference (WARC) were analyzed to determine potential interference to remote passive microwave sensors. Using interferer populations determined from the U.S. Government and FCC Master File Lists and assuming uniform geographical distribution of interferers, the level of interference from shared services and active services in adjacent and subharmonic bands was calculated for each of the 22 passive sensing bands. In addition, due to the theoretically large antennas required for passive sensing, an analysis was performed to determine if smaller antennas, i.e., relaxed resolution requirements, would have an effect on interference and to what extent.

  10. A microwave pressure sounder. [for remote measurement of atmospheric pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peckham, G. E.; Flower, D. A.

    1981-01-01

    A technique for the remote measurement of atmospheric surface pressure will be described. Such measurements could be made from a satellite in polar orbit and would cover many areas for which conventional meteorological data are not available. An active microwave instrument is used to measure the strength of return echoes from the ocean surface at a number of frequencies near the 60 GHz oxygen absorption band. Factors which affect the accuracy with which surface pressure can be deduced from these measurements will be discussed and an instrument designed to test the method by making measurements from an aircraft will be described.

  11. Active microwave remote sensing of earth/land, chapter 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Geoscience applications of active microwave remote sensing systems are examined. Major application areas for the system include: (1) exploration of petroleum, mineral, and ground water resources, (2) mapping surface and structural features, (3) terrain analysis, both morphometric and genetic, (4) application in civil works, and (5) application in the areas of earthquake prediction and crustal movements. Although the success of radar surveys has not been widely publicized, they have been used as a prime reconnaissance data base for mineral exploration and land-use evaluation in areas where photography cannot be obtained.

  12. PROGRAM ASPECT - FOR REMOTE SENSING OF AIRBORNE PLUMES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The SAFEGUARD program is a multi-sensor program for the detection and imaging of chemical plumes and vapors. The system is composed of an airborne sensor suite including an infrared line scanner and a high-speed fourier transform infrared spectrometer. Both systems are integrat...

  13. Airborne Remote Sensing of River Flow and Morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuckerman, S.; Anderson, S. P.; McLean, J.; Redford, R.

    2014-12-01

    River morphology, surface slope and flow are some of the fundamental measurements required for surface water monitoring and hydrodynamic research. This paper describes a method of combining bathymetric lidar with space-time processing of mid-wave infrared (MWIR) imagery to simultaneously measure bathymetry, currents and surface slope from an airborne platform. In May 2014, Areté installed a Pushbroom Imaging Lidar for Littoral Surveillance (PILLS) and a FLIR SC8000 MWIR imaging system sampling at 2 Hz in a small twin-engine aircraft. Data was collected over the lower Colorado River between Picacho Park and Parker. PILLS is a compact bathymetric lidar based on streak-tube sensor technology. It provides channel and bank topography and water surface elevation at 1 meter horizontal scales and 25 cm vertical accuracy. Surface currents are derived from the MWIR imagery by tracking surface features using a cross correlation algorithm. This approach enables the retrieval of currents along extended reaches at the forward speed of the aircraft with spatial resolutions down to 5 m with accuracy better than 10 cm/s. The fused airborne data captures current and depth variability on scales of meters over 10's of kilometers collected in just a few minutes. The airborne MWIR current retrievals are combined with the bathymetric lidar data to calculate river discharge which is then compared with real-time streamflow stations. The results highlight the potential for improving our understanding of complex river environments with simultaneous collections from multiple airborne sensors.

  14. Airborne Dial Remote Sensing of the Arctic Ozone Layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wirth, Martin; Renger, Wolfgang; Ehret, Gerhard

    1992-01-01

    A combined ozone and aerosol LIDAR was developed at the Institute of Physics of the Atmosphere at the DLR in Oberpfaffenhofen. It is an airborne version, that, based on the DIAL-principle, permits the recording of two-dimensional ozone profiles. This presentation will focus on the ozone-part; the aerosol subsection will be treated later.

  15. Remote sensing of soil moisture using airborne hyperspectral data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Institute for Technology Development (ITD) has developed an airborne hyperspectral sensor system that collects electromagnetic reflectance data of the terrain. The system consists of sensors for three different sections of the electromagnetic spectrum; the Ultra-Violet (UV), Visible/Near Infrare...

  16. Real-time remote detection and measurement for airborne imaging spectroscopy: a case study with methane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, D. R.; Leifer, I.; Bovensmann, H.; Eastwood, M.; Fladeland, M.; Frankenberg, C.; Gerilowski, K.; Green, R. O.; Kratwurst, S.; Krings, T.; Luna, B.; Thorpe, A. K.

    2015-06-01

    Localized anthropogenic sources of atmospheric CH4 are highly uncertain and temporally variable. Airborne remote measurement is an effective method to detect and quantify these emissions. In a campaign context, the science yield can be dramatically increased by real-time retrievals that allow operators to coordinate multiple measurements of the most active areas. This can improve science outcomes for both single- and multiple-platform missions. We describe a case study of the NASA/ESA CO2 and Methane Experiment (COMEX) campaign in California during June and August/September 2014. COMEX was a multi-platform campaign to measure CH4 plumes released from anthropogenic sources including oil and gas infrastructure. We discuss principles for real-time spectral signature detection and measurement, and report performance on the NASA Next Generation Airborne Visible Infrared Spectrometer (AVIRIS-NG). AVIRIS-NG successfully detected CH4 plumes in real-time at Gb s-1 data rates, characterizing fugitive releases in concert with other in situ and remote instruments. The teams used these real-time CH4 detections to coordinate measurements across multiple platforms, including airborne in situ, airborne non-imaging remote sensing, and ground-based in situ instruments. To our knowledge this is the first reported use of real-time trace gas signature detection in an airborne science campaign, and presages many future applications.

  17. Remote sensing for non-renewable resources - Satellite and airborne multiband scanners for mineral exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goetz, Alexander F. H.

    1986-01-01

    The application of remote sensing techniques to mineral exploration involves the use of both spatial (morphological) as well as spectral information. This paper is directed toward a discussion of the uses of spectral image information and emphasizes the newest airborne and spaceborne sensor developments involving imaging spectrometers.

  18. An airborne multispectral imaging system based on two consumer-grade cameras for agricultural remote sensing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper describes the design and evaluation of an airborne multispectral imaging system based on two identical consumer-grade cameras for agricultural remote sensing. The cameras are equipped with a full-frame complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) sensor with 5616 × 3744 pixels. One came...

  19. A high-resolution airborne four-camera imaging system for agricultural remote sensing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper describes the design and testing of an airborne multispectral digital imaging system for remote sensing applications. The system consists of four high resolution charge coupled device (CCD) digital cameras and a ruggedized PC equipped with a frame grabber and image acquisition software. T...

  20. Remote Sensing of Leaf Area Index from Unmanned Airborne Vehicles (UAVs)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Remote sensing with unmanned airborne vehicles (UAVs) has potential for rangeland management because: (1) pixels have very high spatial resolution, (2) cloud cover would not prevent acquisition during critical periods of plant growth, and (3) information is quickly delivered to the user. Winter whe...

  1. ASPIS, A Flexible Multispectral System for Airborne Remote Sensing Environmental Applications

    PubMed Central

    Papale, Dario; Belli, Claudio; Gioli, Beniamino; Miglietta, Franco; Ronchi, Cesare; Vaccari, Francesco Primo; Valentini, Riccardo

    2008-01-01

    Airborne multispectral and hyperspectral remote sensing is a powerful tool for environmental monitoring applications. In this paper we describe a new system (ASPIS) composed by a 4-CCD spectral sensor, a thermal IR camera and a laser altimeter that is mounted on a flexible Sky-Arrow airplane. A test application of the multispectral sensor to estimate durum wheat quality is also presented.

  2. Daily evapotranspiration estimates from extrapolating instantaneous airborne remote sensing ET values

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, six extrapolation methods have been compared for their ability to estimate daily crop evapotranspiration (ETd) from instantaneous latent heat flux estimates derived from digital airborne multispectral remote sensing imagery. Data used in this study were collected during an experiment...

  3. Remote Sensing Crop Leaf Area Index Using Unmanned Airborne Vehicles (UAV's)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Remote sensing with unmanned airborne vehicles (UAVs) has more potential for within-season crop management than conventional satellite imagery because: (1) pixels have very high resolution, (2) cloud cover would not prevent acquisition during critical periods of growth, and (3) quick delivery of inf...

  4. Remote Sensing Leaf Area Index of Winter Wheat from Unmanned Airborne Vehicles (UAVs)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Remote sensing with unmanned airborne vehicles (UAVs) has more potential for within-season crop management than conventional satellite imagery because: (1) pixels have very high resolution, (2) cloud cover would not prevent acquisition during critical periods of growth, and (3) quick delivery of inf...

  5. Airborne hyperspectral systems for solving remote sensing problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodionov, I. D.; Rodionov, A. I.; Vedeshin, L. A.; Vinogradov, A. N.; Egorov, V. V.; Kalinin, A. P.

    2014-12-01

    A retrospective of airborne hyperspectrometer projects carried out in the ZAO Reagent Scientific Technical Center is presented. Hyperspectral devices developed during the period since the end of 1990s to the present day are described. The line of hyperspectrometers designed in recent times covers the ranges from ultraviolet (0.2 μm) to near infrared (1.0 μm). These devices can be mounted on airborne and automobile carriers, including small-size ones. By now, the developments of hyperspectral devices in ZAO Reagent have reached the finished state and have been prepared for serial production. Their technical characteristics permit one to speak of the creation of wide-range high-aperture ultraspectral high spatial resolution equipment with a possibility of real-time data processing on board.

  6. Soil surface roughness characterization for microwave remote sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzahn, P.; Rieke-Zapp, D.; Ludwig, R.

    2012-04-01

    With this poster we present a simple and efficient method to measure soil surface roughness in an agricultural environment. Micro scale soil surface roughness is a crucial parameter in many environmental applications. In recent studies it is strongly recognized that soil surface roughness significantly influences the backscatter of agricultural surface, especially on bare fields. Indeed, while different roughness indices depend on their measurement length, no satisfying roughness parametrization and measurement technique has been found yet, introducing large uncertainty in the interpretation of the radar backscattering. In this study, we introduce a photogrammetric system which consists of a customized consumer grade Canon EOS 5d camera and a reference frame providing ground control points. With the system one can generate digital surface models (DSM) with a minimum size of 1 x 2.5 m2, extendable to any desired size, with a ground x,y- resolution of 2 mm. Using this approach, we generated a set of DSM with sizes ranging from 2.5 m2 to 22 m2, acquired over different roughness conditions representing ploughed, harrowed as well as crusted fields on different test sites. For roughness characterization we calculated in microwave remote sensing common roughness indices such as the RMS- height s and the autocorrelation length l. In an extensive statistical investigation we show the behavior of the roughness indices for different acquisition sizes of the proposed method. Results indicate, compared to results from profiles generated out of the dataset, that using a three dimensional measuring device, the calculated roughness indices are more robust in their estimation. In addition, a strong directional dependency of the proposed roughness indices was observed which could be related to the orientation of the seedbed rows to the acqusition direction. In a geostatistical analysis, we decomposed the acquired roughness indices into different scales, yielding a roughness quantity

  7. Retrieving of surface parameters with microwave remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jiemin; Gao, Feng; Li, Xin; Koike, Toshio

    2003-07-01

    In addition to investigate the rainfall over the Tibetan Plateau, Microwave Imager observations on board of the satellite Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) have been also used to retrieve land surface parameters, such as sur-face temperature (Te), vegetation water content (Wc), and volumetric soil surface moisture (Mv). A three dimensional Look-up Table (LUT) scheme, by using one band brightness temperature, a 'Polarization Index' (PI), and an 'Index for Soil Wetness' (ISW), was developed for this purpose, which can retrieve the three basic parameters Te, Wc, and Mv simultaneously. Considered that there are still clouds as well as heavy rainfall disturbance in deriving surface parameters over the Tibetan Plateau, 10-day composite TMI images were used. For the five months from May to September 1998, the distribution of surface parameters of each ten days on the mesoscale intensive experimental region of GAME-Tibet was evaluated. The results were compared with field observations; particularly, for the most concerned surface soil moisture, the results are quite acceptable. 3-D LUT is an easy and effective method to be used in the passive microwave remote sensing.

  8. Radiometer system requirements for microwave remote sensing from satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juang, Jeng-Nan

    1990-01-01

    An area of increasing interest is the establishment of a significant research program in microwave remote sensing from satellites, particularly geosynchronous satellites. Due to the relatively small resolution cell sizes, a severe requirement is placed on beam efficiency specifications for the radiometer antenna. Geostationary satellite microwave radiometers could continuously monitor several important geophysical parameters over the world's oceans. These parameters include the columnar content of atmospheric liquid water (both cloud and rain) and water vapor, air temperature profiles, and possibly sea surface temperature. Two principle features of performance are of concern. The first is the ability of the radiometer system to resolve absolute temperatures with a very small absolute error, a capability that depends on radiometer system stability, on frequency bandwidth, and on footprint dwell time. The second is the ability of the radiometer to resolve changes in temperature from one resolution cell to the next when these temperatures are subject to wide variation over the overall field-of-view of the instrument. Both of these features are involved in the use of the radiometer data to construct high-resolution temperature maps with high absolute accuracy.

  9. Airborne antenna coverage requirements for the TCV B-737 aircraft. [for operation with microwave landing systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Southall, W. A., Jr.; White, W. F.

    1978-01-01

    The airborne antenna line of sight look angle requirement for operation with a Microwave Landing System (MLS) was studied. The required azimuth and elevation line of sight look angles from an antenna located on an aircraft to three ground based antenna sites at the Wallops Flight Center (FPS-16 radar, MLS aximuth, and MLS elevation) as the aircraft follows specific approach paths selected as representative of MLS operations at the Denver, Colorado, terminal area are presented. These required azimuth and elevation look angles may be interpreted as basic design requirements for antenna of the TCV B-737 airplane for MLS operations along these selected approach paths.

  10. Progress in the development of airborne remote sensing instrumentation for the National Ecological Observatory Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kampe, Thomas U.; McCorkel, Joel; Hamlin, Louise; Green, Robert O.; Krause, Keith S.; Johnson, Brian R.

    2011-09-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is a planned facility of the National Science Foundation with the mission to enable understanding and forecasting of the impacts of climate change, land use change and invasive species on continental-scale ecology. Airborne remote sensing plays a critical role by providing measurements at the scale of individual shrubs and larger plants over hundreds of square kilometers. The NEON Airborne Observation Platform is designed to bridge scales from organism and stand scales, as captured by plot and tower observations, to the scale of satellite based remote sensing. Fused airborne spectroscopy and waveform LiDAR is used to quantify vegetation composition and structure. Panchromatic photography at better than 30 cm resolution will retrieve fine-scale information on land use, roads, impervious surfaces, and built structures. NEON will build three airborne systems to allow for regular coverage of NEON sites and the capacity to respond to investigator requests for specific projects. The system design achieves a balance between performance and development cost and risk, taking full advantage of existing commercial airborne LiDAR and camera components. To reduce risk during NEON construction, an imaging spectrometer design verification unit is being developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory to demonstrate that operational and performance requirements can be met. As part of this effort, NEON is also focusing on science algorithm development, computing hardware prototyping and early airborne test flights with similar technologies. This paper presents an overview of the development status of the NEON airborne instrumentation in the context of the NEON mission.

  11. Passive microwave remote sensing of forests: A model investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrazzoli, P.; Guerriero, L.

    1996-03-01

    In the recent years, several studies have been carried out to investigate the potential of microwave sensors in forest parameter monitoring. A stimulus has been given by the increasing impact of some environmental problems, like desertification, climatic change, and carbon dioxide concentration. These problems have some connections with forests extension and health; on the other hand, optical systems, which proved their effectiveness in sensing leaf parameters, are not able to sense the woody biomass. A model, based on the radiative transfer theory and the matrix doubling algorithm, is described and used to compute the emissivity e of forests. According to model simulations, the L-band emissivity trend versus forest biomass is more gradual than that of the backscatter coefficient. This gradual behavior is observed, in absence of leaves, also at C and X bands, while leaves anticipate saturation and make e higher in coniferous forests and lower in deciduous forests. Model results are successfully validated by some available experimental data. Operational aspects, concerning the potential of airborne and spaceborne radiometers in identifying forest type and estimating biomass, are discussed.

  12. The Australian National Airborne Field Experiment 2005: Soil Moisture Remote Sensing at 60 Meter Resolution and Up

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, E. J.; Walker, J. P.; Panciera, R.; Kalma, J. D.

    2006-01-01

    Spatially-distributed soil moisture observations have applications spanning a wide range of spatial resolutions from the very local needs of individual farmers to the progressively larger areas of interest to weather forecasters, water resource managers, and global climate modelers. To date, the most promising approach for space-based remote sensing of soil moisture makes use of passive microwave emission radiometers at L-band frequencies (1-2 GHz). Several soil moisture-sensing satellites have been proposed in recent years, with the European Space Agency's Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission scheduled to be launched first in a couple years. While such a microwave-based approach has the advantage of essentially allweather operation, satellite size limits spatial resolution to 10's of km. Whether used at this native resolution or in conjunction with some type of downscaling technique to generate soil moisture estimates on a finer-scale grid, the effects of subpixel spatial variability play a critical role. The soil moisture variability is typically affected by factors such as vegetation, topography, surface roughness, and soil texture. Understanding and these factors is the key to achieving accurate soil moisture retrievals at any scale. Indeed, the ability to compensate for these factors ultimately limits the achievable spatial resolution and/or accuracy of the retrieval. Over the last 20 years, a series of airborne campaigns in the USA have supported the development of algorithms for spaceborne soil moisture retrieval. The most important observations involved imagery from passive microwave radiometers. The early campaigns proved that the retrieval worked for larger and larger footprints, up to satellite-scale footprints. These provided the solid basis for proposing the satellite missions. More recent campaigns have explored other aspects such as retrieval performance through greater amounts of vegetation. All of these campaigns featured extensive ground

  13. Microwave Remote Sensing Modeling of Ocean Surface Salinity and Winds Using an Empirical Sea Surface Spectrum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yueh, Simon H.

    2004-01-01

    Active and passive microwave remote sensing techniques have been investigated for the remote sensing of ocean surface wind and salinity. We revised an ocean surface spectrum using the CMOD-5 geophysical model function (GMF) for the European Remote Sensing (ERS) C-band scatterometer and the Ku-band GMF for the NASA SeaWinds scatterometer. The predictions of microwave brightness temperatures from this model agree well with satellite, aircraft and tower-based microwave radiometer data. This suggests that the impact of surface roughness on microwave brightness temperatures and radar scattering coefficients of sea surfaces can be consistently characterized by a roughness spectrum, providing physical basis for using combined active and passive remote sensing techniques for ocean surface wind and salinity remote sensing.

  14. Microwave remote sensing in atmospheric research and meteorology (invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunzi, K.

    Remote sensing techniques to investigate the atmosphere are widely used. Sensors operating in the microwave range (wavelength from 10 to 0.1 cm) of the electromagnetic spectrum were among the first instruments used on the ground and on air- and space borne platforms for this purpose. These instruments measure the thermal emission from molecular resonances or use the absorption and scattering properties of water droplets or particles to obtain information on atmospheric parameters and composition. In the seventies the sensors NEMS and SCAMS on the Nimbus-5 and 6 satellites have demonstrated the big advantage of these instruments to obtain temperature profiles, amounts of water vapor and liquid water nearly unaffected by cloud coverage. The frequency bands and observing geometries selected for these early instruments are still used to day very successfully for the operational sensors on the polar orbiting satellites of the DMSP and NOAA series. In the eighties and nineties the very much improved sensor technology allowed to extend the spectral range to wavelength near 0.01 cm. It is now possible to observe key constituents of importance in atmospheric chemistry, and in particular related to stratospheric ozone. Such sensors have been flown on UARS (MLS), several space shuttle missions (MAS) and on stratospheric balloons using limb sounding geometry, and also on research aircraft (NASA DC-9, the DLR Falcon and others), furthermore microwave radiometers are considered key sensors for the ground based, global Network for the Detection of Stratospheric Change (NDSC). The next generation of sensors on future satellites such as AURA (MLS) and the international space station (SMILES) are making use of higher frequencies and superconducting receiver technology. This will allow to measure more minor constituents with higher accuracy and better temporal resolution. Today the receiver technology is very mature down to wavelength of 0.03 cm. Planned future applications include a

  15. Airborne remote sensing to detect greenbug stress to wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetation indices calculated from the quantity of reflected electromagnetic radiation have been used to quantify levels of stress to plants. Greenbugs cause stress to wheat plants and therefore multi-spectral remote sensing may be useful for detecting greenbug infested wheat fields. The objective...

  16. Estimating Crop Residue Distribution Using Airborne and Satellite Remote Sensing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crop residue management and reduced tillage are commonly accepted best management practices that improve soil quality through the sequestration of soil organic carbon. A major goal of this study was to evaluate remote sensing data for rapid quantification of conservation tillage at the field and wa...

  17. Microwave spectroscopy of chemical warfare agents: prospects for remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samuels, Alan C.; Jensen, James O.; Suenram, Richard D.; Hight Walker, Angela R.; Woolard, Dwight L.

    1999-07-01

    The high level of interest in the sensor development community in millimeter wave technology development demonstrates the potential for several multipurpose applications of millimeter wave sensors. The potential for remote sensing of hazardous chemical materials based on their millimeter wave rotational signatures is yet another possible applications, offering certain distinct advantages over FTIR remote sensing. The high specificity of the rotational spectra to the molecular structures affords the capability of detecting chemical warfare (CW) agents and degradation products in complex mixtures including water vapor and smoke, an important consideration in military applications. Furthermore, the rotational modes are not complicated by electronic or vibrational transitions, reducing the potential for false alarms. We have conducted microwave spectroscopic measurements on two CW nerve agents (sarin and soman) and one blister agent (H-mustard). The assignment of the observed band furnishes us with an extremely accurate tool for predicting the rotational spectrum of these agents at any arbitrary frequency. By factoring in the effects of pressure (Lorentzian broadening and intensity reduction), we present the predicted spectral signatures of the CW agents in the 80 - 300 GHz region. This frequency regime is important for atmospheric monitoring as it exploits the wide bandwidth capability of millimeter wave sensors as well as the atmospheric windows that occur in this region.

  18. Airborne Remote Sensing (ARS) for Agricultural Research and Commercialization Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narayanan, Ram; Bowen, Brent D.; Nickerson, Jocelyn S.

    2002-01-01

    Tremendous advances in remote sensing technology and computing power over the last few decades are now providing scientists with the opportunity to investigate, measure, and model environmental patterns and processes with increasing confidence. Such advances are being pursued by the Nebraska Remote Sensing Facility, which consists of approximately 30 faculty members and is very competitive with other institutions in the depth of the work that is accomplished. The development of this facility targeted at applications, commercialization, and education programs in the area of precision agriculture provides a unique opportunity. This critical area is within the scope of NASA goals and objectives of NASA s Applications, Technology Transfer, Commercialization, and Education Division and the Earth Science Enterprise. This innovative integration of Aerospace (Aeronautics) Technology Enterprise applications with other NASA enterprises serves as a model of cross-enterprise transfer of science with specific commercial applications.

  19. Potential Application of Airborne Passive Microwave Observations for Monitoring Inland Flooding Caused by Tropical Cyclones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hood, Robbie E.; Radley, C.D.; LaFontaine, F.J.

    2008-01-01

    Inland flooding from tropical cyclones can be a significant factor in storm-related deaths in the United States and other countries. Information collected during NASA tropical cyclone field studies suggest surface water and flooding induced by tropical cyclone precipitation can be detected and therefore monitored using passive microwave airborne radiometers. In particular, the 10.7 GHz frequency of the NASA Advanced Microwave Precipitation Radiometer (AMPR) flown on the NASA ER-2 has demonstrated high resolution detection of anomalous surface water and flooding in numerous situations. This presentation will highlight the analysis of three cases utilizing primarily satellite and airborne radiometer data. Radiometer data from the 1998 Third Convection and Moisture Experiment (CAMEX-3) are utilized to detect surface water during landfalling Hurricane Georges in both the Dominican Republic and Louisiana. A third case is landfalling Tropical Storm Gert in Eastern Mexico during the Tropical Cloud Systems and Processes (TCSP) experiment in 2005. AMPR data are compared to topographic data and vegetation indices to evaluate the significance of the surface water signature visible in the 10.7 GHz information. The results of this study suggest the benefit of an aircraft 10 GHz radiometer to provide real-time observations of surface water conditions as part of a multi-sensor flood monitoring network.

  20. Observational results of microwave temperature profile measurements from the airborne Antarctic ozone experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gary, Bruce L.

    1988-01-01

    The Microwave Temperature Profiler, MTP, is installed on NASA's ER-2 aircraft. MTP measures profiles of air temperature versus altitude. Temperatures are obtained every 13.7 seconds for 15 altitudes in an altitude region that is approximately 5 km thick (at high flight levels). MTP is a passive microwave radiometer, operating at the frequencies 57.3 and 58.8 GHz. Thermal emission from oxygen molecules provides the signal that is converted to air temperature. MTP is unique in that it is the only airborne instrument of its kind. The MTP instrument was used during the Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment, AAOE, to enable potential vorticity to be measured along the flight track. Other uses for the MTP data have become apparent. The most intriguing unexpected use is the detection and characterization of mountain waves that were encountered during flights over the Palmer Peninsula. Mountain waves that propagate into the polar vortex may have implications for the formation of the ozone hole. Upward excursions of air parcels lead to a brief cooling. This can begin the process of cloud formation. It is important to determine how much additional formation of polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) material is possible by the passage of air parcels through a mountain wave pattern that endures for long periods. Other mountain wave effects have been suggested, such as a speeding up of the vortex, and a consequent cooling of large air volumes (which in turn might add to PSC production).

  1. Real-time remote detection and measurement for airborne imaging spectroscopy: a case study with methane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, D. R.; Leifer, I.; Bovensmann, H.; Eastwood, M.; Fladeland, M.; Frankenberg, C.; Gerilowski, K.; Green, R. O.; Kratwurst, S.; Krings, T.; Luna, B.; Thorpe, A. K.

    2015-10-01

    Localized anthropogenic sources of atmospheric CH4 are highly uncertain and temporally variable. Airborne remote measurement is an effective method to detect and quantify these emissions. In a campaign context, the science yield can be dramatically increased by real-time retrievals that allow operators to coordinate multiple measurements of the most active areas. This can improve science outcomes for both single- and multiple-platform missions. We describe a case study of the NASA/ESA CO2 and MEthane eXperiment (COMEX) campaign in California during June and August/September 2014. COMEX was a multi-platform campaign to measure CH4 plumes released from anthropogenic sources including oil and gas infrastructure. We discuss principles for real-time spectral signature detection and measurement, and report performance on the NASA Next Generation Airborne Visible Infrared Spectrometer (AVIRIS-NG). AVIRIS-NG successfully detected CH4 plumes in real-time at Gb s-1 data rates, characterizing fugitive releases in concert with other in situ and remote instruments. The teams used these real-time CH4 detections to coordinate measurements across multiple platforms, including airborne in situ, airborne non-imaging remote sensing, and ground-based in situ instruments. To our knowledge this is the first reported use of real-time trace-gas signature detection in an airborne science campaign, and presages many future applications. Post-analysis demonstrates matched filter methods providing noise-equivalent (1σ) detection sensitivity for 1.0 % CH4 column enhancements equal to 141 ppm m.

  2. Airborne test flight of HY-2A satellite microwave scatterometer and data analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Juhong; Guo, Maohua; Cui, Songxue; Zhou, Wu

    2016-04-01

    This paper introduces the background, aim, experimental design, configuration and data processing for an airborne test flight of the HY-2 Microwave scatterometer (HSCAT). The aim was to evaluate HSCAT performance and a developed data processing algorithm for the HSCAT before launch. There were three test flights of the scatterometer, on January 15, 18 and 22, 2010, over the South China Sea near Lingshui, Hainan. The test flights successfully generated simultaneous airborne scatterometer normalized radar cross section (NRCS), ASCAT wind, and ship-borne-measured wind datasets, which were used to analyze HSCAT performance. Azimuthal dependence of the NRCS relative to the wind direction was nearly cos(2w), with NRCS minima at crosswind directions, and maxima near upwind and downwind. The NRCS also showed a small diff erence between upwind and downwind directions, with upwind crosssections generally larger than those downwind. The dependence of airborne scatterometer NRCS on wind direction and speed showed favorable consistency with the NASA scatterometer geophysical model function (NSCAT GMF), indicating satisfactory HSCAT performance.

  3. Earth Science Microwave Remote Sensing at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Edward; Busalacchi, Antonio J. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) was established as NASA's first space flight center in 1959. Its 12,000 personnel are active in the Earth and space sciences, astronomy, space physics, tracking and communications. GSFC's mission is to expand our knowledge of the Earth and its environment, the solar system, and the universe through observations from space. The main Goddard campus is located in Greenbelt, Maryland, USA, just north of Washington, D.C. The Wallops Flight Facility (operational since 1945), located on the Atlantic coast of Virginia was consolidated with the Goddard Space Flight Center in 1982. Wallops is now NASA's principal facility for management and implementation of suborbital research programs, and supports a wide variety of airborne science missions as well. As the lead Center for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise (ESE)--a long-term, coordinated research effort to study the Earth as a global environmental system--GSFC scientists and engineers are involved in a wide range of Earth Science remote sensing activities. Their activities range from basic geoscience research to the development of instruments and technology for space missions, as well as the associated Calibration/Validation (Cal/Val) work. The shear breadth of work in these areas precludes an exhaustive description here. Rather, this article presents selected brief overviews of microwave-related Earth Science applications and the ground-based, airborne, and space instruments that are in service, under development, or otherwise significantly involving GSFC. Likewise, contributing authors are acknowledged for each section, but the results and projects they describe represent the cumulative efforts of many persons at GSFC as well as at collaborating institutions. For further information, readers are encouraged to consult the listed websites and references.

  4. Airborne remote sensing for geology and the environment: Present and future. Bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, K.; Knepper, D.H.

    1994-12-31

    In 1988, a group of leading experts from government, academia, and industry attended a workshop on airborne remote sensing sponsored by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and hosted by the Branch of Geophysics. The report has arranged the six resulting working-group reports under two main headings: (1) Geologic Remote Sensing, for the reports on geologic mapping, mineral resoures, and fossil fuels and geothermal resources; and (2) Environmental Remote Sensing, for the reports on environmental geology, geologic hazards, and water resources. The intent of the workshop was to provide an evaluation of demonstrated capabilities, their direct extensions, and possible future applications, and this was the organizational format used for the geologic remote sensing reports. A final section examines future advances and limitations in the field.

  5. Flight Tests of the DELICAT Airborne LIDAR System for Remote Clear Air Turbulence Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrancken, Patrick; Wirth, Martin; Ehret, Gerhard; Witschas, Benjamin; Veerman, Henk; Tump, Robert; Barny, Hervé; Rondeau, Philippe; Dolfi-Bouteyre, Agnès; Lombard, Laurent

    2016-06-01

    An important aeronautics application of lidar is the airborne remote detection of Clear Air Turbulence which cannot be performed with onboard radar. We report on a DLR-developed lidar system for the remote detection of such turbulent areas in the flight path of an aircraft. The lidar, consisting of a high-power UV laser transmitter and a direct detection system, was installed on a Dutch research aircraft. Flight tests executed in 2013 demonstrated the performance of the lidar system to detect local subtle variations in the molecular backscatter coefficient indicating the turbulence some 10 to 15 km ahead.

  6. Airborne remote sensors applied to engineering geology and civil works design investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gelnett, R. H.

    1975-01-01

    The usefulness of various airborne remote sensing systems in the detection and identification of regional and specific geologic structural features that may affect the design and location of engineering structures on major civil works projects is evaluated. The Butler Valley Dam and Blue Lake Project in northern California was selected as a demonstration site. Findings derived from the interpretation of various kinds of imagery used are given.

  7. A New Airborne Lidar for Remote Sensing of Canopy Fluorescence and Vertical Profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ounis, A.; Bach, J.; Mahjoub, A.; Daumard, F.; Moya, I.; Goulas, Y.

    2016-06-01

    We report the development of a new lidar system for airborne remote sensing of chlorophyll fluorescence (ChlF) and vertical profile of canopies. By combining laserinduced fluorescence (LIF), sun-induced fluorescence (SIF) and canopy height distribution, the new instrument will low the simultaneous assessment of gross primary production (GPP), photosynthesis efficiency and above ground carbon stocks. Technical issues of the lidar development are discussed and expected performances are presented.

  8. Remote sensor response study in the regime of the microwave radiation-induced magnetoresistance oscillations

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, Tianyu; Mani, R. G.; Wegscheider, W.

    2013-11-04

    A concurrent remote sensing and magneto-transport study of the microwave excited two dimensional electron system (2DES) at liquid helium temperatures has been carried out using a carbon detector to remotely sense the microwave activity of the 2D electron system in the GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure during conventional magneto-transport measurements. Various correlations are observed and reported between the oscillatory magnetotransport and the remotely sensed reflection. In addition, the oscillatory remotely sensed signal is shown to exhibit a power law type variation in its amplitude, similar to the radiation-induced magnetoresistance oscillations.

  9. Active-Passive Microwave Remote Sensing of Martian Permafrost and Subsurface Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raizer, V.; Linkin, V. M.; Ozorovich, Y. R.; Smythe, W. D.; Zoubkov, B.; Babkin, F.

    2000-01-01

    The investigation of permafrost formation global distribution and their appearance in h less than or equal 1 m thick subsurface layer would be investigated successfully by employment of active-passive microwave remote sensing techniques.

  10. AIRBORNE, OPTICAL REMOTE SENSING OF METHANE AND ETHANE FOR NATURAL GAS PIPELINE LEAK DETECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Jerry Myers

    2003-11-12

    Ophir Corporation was awarded a contract by the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory under the Project Title ''Airborne, Optical Remote Sensing of Methane and Ethane for Natural Gas Pipeline Leak Detection'' on October 14, 2002. This second six-month technical report summarizes the progress made towards defining, designing, and developing the hardware and software segments of the airborne, optical remote methane and ethane sensor. The most challenging task to date has been to identify a vendor capable of designing and developing a light source with the appropriate output wavelength and power. This report will document the work that has been done to identify design requirements, and potential vendors for the light source. Significant progress has also been made in characterizing the amount of light return available from a remote target at various distances from the light source. A great deal of time has been spent conducting laboratory and long-optical path target reflectance measurements. This is important since it helps to establish the overall optical output requirements for the sensor. It also reduces the relative uncertainty and risk associated with developing a custom light source. The data gathered from the optical path testing has been translated to the airborne transceiver design in such areas as: fiber coupling, optical detector selection, gas filters, and software analysis. Ophir will next, summarize the design progress of the transceiver hardware and software development. Finally, Ophir will discuss remaining project issues that may impact the success of the project.

  11. Microwave Remote Sensing of Soil Moisture for Estimation of Soil Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattikalli, Nandish M.; Engman, Edwin T.; Jackson, Thomas J.

    1997-01-01

    Surface soil moisture dynamics was derived using microwave remote sensing, and employed to estimate soil physical and hydraulic properties. The L-band ESTAR radiometer was employed in an airborne campaign over the Little Washita watershed, Oklahoma during June 10-18, 1992. Brightness temperature (TB) data were employed in a soil moisture inversion algorithm which corrected for vegetation and soil effects. Analyses of spatial TB and soil moisture dynamics during the dry-down period revealed a direct relationship between changes in TB, soil moisture and soil texture. Extensive regression analyses were carried out which yielded statistically significant quantitative relationships between ratio of percent sand to percent clay (RSC, a term derived to quantify soil texture) and saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat) in terms of change components of TB and surface soil moisture. Validation of results indicated that both RSC and Ksat can be estimated with reasonable accuracy. These findings have potential applications for deriving spatial distributions of RSC and Ksat over large areas.

  12. Application of Terrestrial Microwave Remote Sensing to Agricultural Drought Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crow, W. T.; Bolten, J. D.

    2014-12-01

    Root-zone soil moisture information is a valuable diagnostic for detecting the onset and severity of agricultural drought. Current attempts to globally monitor root-zone soil moisture are generally based on the application of soil water balance models driven by observed meteorological variables. Such systems, however, are prone to random error associated with: incorrect process model physics, poor parameter choices and noisy meteorological inputs. The presentation will describe attempts to remediate these sources of error via the assimilation of remotely-sensed surface soil moisture retrievals from satellite-based passive microwave sensors into a global soil water balance model. Results demonstrate the ability of satellite-based soil moisture retrieval products to significantly improve the global characterization of root-zone soil moisture - particularly in data-poor regions lacking adequate ground-based rain gage instrumentation. This success has lead to an on-going effort to implement an operational land data assimilation system at the United States Department of Agriculture's Foreign Agricultural Service (USDA FAS) to globally monitor variations in root-zone soil moisture availability via the integration of satellite-based precipitation and soil moisture information. Prospects for improving the performance of the USDA FAS system via the simultaneous assimilation of both passive and active-based soil moisture retrievals derived from the upcoming NASA Soil Moisture Active/Passive mission will also be discussed.

  13. Observational results using the microwave temperature profiler during the Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gary, Bruce L.

    1989-01-01

    The Microwave Temperature Profiler (MTP) measures profiles of air temperature versus altitude. The altitude coverage is about 5 km at a flight altitude of 20 km (66,000 feet), and the profiles are obtained every 14 s. The MTP instrument is installed on NASA's ER-2 aircraft, which flew 13 missions over Antarctica during the Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment. Altitude temperature profiles were used to derive potential temperature cross sections. These cross sections have been useful in detecting atmospheric waves. Many wave encounters have been identified as 'mountain waves'. The mountain waves are found to extend from the lowest altitudes measured to the highest (about 24 km). The southern part of the Palmer Peninsula was found to be associated with mountain waves more than half the time. Altitude temperature profiles were also used to measure the lapse rate along the flight track. Lapse rate versus latitude plots do not show significant changes at the ozone hole boundary.

  14. AIRBORNE, OPTICAL REMOTE SENSING OF METHANE AND ETHANE FOR NATURAL GAS PIPLINE LEAK DETECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Jerry Myers

    2004-05-12

    Ophir Corporation was awarded a contract by the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory under the Project Title ''Airborne, Optical Remote Sensing of Methane and Ethane for Natural Gas Pipeline Leak Detection'' on October 14, 2002. The third six-month technical report contains a summary of the progress made towards finalizing the design and assembling the airborne, remote methane and ethane sensor. The vendor has been chosen and is on contract to develop the light source with the appropriate linewidth and spectral shape to best utilize the Ophir gas correlation software. Ophir has expanded upon the target reflectance testing begun in the previous performance period by replacing the experimental receiving optics with the proposed airborne large aperture telescope, which is theoretically capable of capturing many times more signal return. The data gathered from these tests has shown the importance of optimizing the fiber optic receiving fiber to the receiving optic and has helped Ophir to optimize the design of the gas cells and narrowband optical filters. Finally, Ophir will discuss remaining project issues that may impact the success of the project.

  15. Aerosol Optical Retrieval and Surface Reflectance from Airborne Remote Sensing Data over Land

    PubMed Central

    Bassani, Cristiana; Cavalli, Rosa Maria; Pignatti, Stefano

    2010-01-01

    Quantitative analysis of atmospheric optical properties and surface reflectance can be performed by applying radiative transfer theory in the Atmosphere-Earth coupled system, for the atmospheric correction of hyperspectral remote sensing data. This paper describes a new physically-based algorithm to retrieve the aerosol optical thickness at 550nm (τ550) and the surface reflectance (ρ) from airborne acquired data in the atmospheric window of the Visible and Near-Infrared (VNIR) range. The algorithm is realized in two modules. Module A retrieves τ550 with a minimization algorithm, then Module B retrieves the surface reflectance ρ for each pixel of the image. The method was tested on five remote sensing images acquired by an airborne sensor under different geometric conditions to evaluate the reliability of the method. The results, τ550 and ρ, retrieved from each image were validated with field data contemporaneously acquired by a sun-sky radiometer and a spectroradiometer, respectively. Good correlation index, r, and low root mean square deviations, RMSD, were obtained for the τ550 retrieved by Module A (r2 = 0.75, RMSD = 0.08) and the ρ retrieved by Module B (r2 ≤ 0.9, RMSD ≤ 0.003). Overall, the results are encouraging, indicating that the method is reliable for optical atmospheric studies and the atmospheric correction of airborne hyperspectral images. The method does not require additional at-ground measurements about at-ground reflectance of the reference pixel and aerosol optical thickness. PMID:22163558

  16. Introduction to an airborne remote sensing system equipped onboard the Chinese marine surveillance plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Fang; Wang, Difeng; Pan, Delu; Hao, Zengzhou

    2008-10-01

    The airborne remote sensing system onboard the Chinese Marine Surveillance Plane have three scanners including marine airborne multi-spectrum scanner(MAMS), airborne hyper spectral system(AISA+) and optical-electric platform(MOP) currently. MAMS is developed by Shanghai Institute of Technology and Physics CAS with 11 bands from ultraviolet to infrared and mainly used for inversion of oceanic main factors and pollution information, like chlorophyll, sea surface temperature, red tide, etc. The AISA+ made by Finnish Specim company is a push broom system, consist of a high spectrum scanner head, a miniature GPS/INS sensor and data collecting PC. It is a kind of aviation imaging spectrometer and has the ability of ground target imaging and measuring target spectrum characteristic. The MOP mainly supports for object watching, recording and track. It mainly includes 3 equipments: digital CCD with Sony-DXC390, CANON EOS film camera and digital camera Sony F717. This paper mainly introduces these three remote sensing instruments as well as the ground processing information system, involving the system's hardware and software design, related algorithm research, etc.

  17. Aerosol optical retrieval and surface reflectance from airborne remote sensing data over land.

    PubMed

    Bassani, Cristiana; Cavalli, Rosa Maria; Pignatti, Stefano

    2010-01-01

    Quantitative analysis of atmospheric optical properties and surface reflectance can be performed by applying radiative transfer theory in the Atmosphere-Earth coupled system, for the atmospheric correction of hyperspectral remote sensing data. This paper describes a new physically-based algorithm to retrieve the aerosol optical thickness at 550 nm (τ(550)) and the surface reflectance (ρ) from airborne acquired data in the atmospheric window of the Visible and Near-Infrared (VNIR) range. The algorithm is realized in two modules. Module A retrieves τ(550) with a minimization algorithm, then Module B retrieves the surface reflectance ρ for each pixel of the image. The method was tested on five remote sensing images acquired by an airborne sensor under different geometric conditions to evaluate the reliability of the method. The results, τ(550) and ρ, retrieved from each image were validated with field data contemporaneously acquired by a sun-sky radiometer and a spectroradiometer, respectively. Good correlation index, r, and low root mean square deviations, RMSD, were obtained for the τ(550) retrieved by Module A (r(2) = 0.75, RMSD = 0.08) and the ρ retrieved by Module B (r(2) ≤ 0.9, RMSD ≤ 0.003). Overall, the results are encouraging, indicating that the method is reliable for optical atmospheric studies and the atmospheric correction of airborne hyperspectral images. The method does not require additional at-ground measurements about at-ground reflectance of the reference pixel and aerosol optical thickness. PMID:22163558

  18. Intercomparisons between passive and active microwave remote sensing, and hydrological modeling for soil moisture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, E. F.; Lin, D.-S.; Mancini, M.; Thongs, D.; Troch, P. A.; Jackson, T. J.; Famiglietti, J. S.; Engman, E. T.

    1993-01-01

    Soil moisture estimations from a distributed hydrological model and two microwave sensors were compared with ground measurements collected during the MAC-HYDRO'90 experiment. The comparison was done with the purpose of evaluating the performance of the hydrological model and examining the limitations of remote sensing techniques used in soil moisture estimation. An image integration technique was used to integrate and analyze rainfall, soil properties, land cover, topography, and remote sensing imagery. Results indicate that the hydrological model and microwave sensors successfully picked up temporal variations of soil moisture and that the spatial soil moisture pattern may be remotely sensed with reasonable accuracy using existing algorithms.

  19. Intercomparisons between passive and active microwave remote sensing, and hydrological modeling for soil moisture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, E. F.; Lin, D.-S.; Mancini, M.; Thongs, D.; Troch, P. A.; Jackson, T. J.; Famiglietti, J. S.; Engman, E. T.

    1993-05-01

    Soil moisture estimates from a distributed hydrological model and two microwave remote sensors (Push Broom Microwave Radiometer and Synthetic Aperture Radar) were compared with the ground measurements collected during the MAC-HYDRO'90 experiment over a 7.4-km2 watershed in central Pennsylvania. Various information, including rainfall, soil properties, land cover, topography and remote sensing imagery, were integrated and analyzed using an image integration technique. It is found that the hydrological model and both microwave sensors successfully pick up the temporal variation of soil moisture. Results also indicate the spatial soil moisture pattern can be remotely sensed within reasonable accuracy using existing algorithms. Watershed averaged soil moisture estimates from the hydrological model are wetter than remotely sensed data. It is difficult to conclude which instrument yield better performance for the studied case. The choice will be based on the intended applications and information that is available.

  20. Data processing of remotely sensed airborne hyperspectral data using the Airborne Processing Library (APL): Geocorrection algorithm descriptions and spatial accuracy assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, Mark A.; Taylor, Benjamin H.; Grant, Michael G.; Shutler, Jamie D.

    2014-03-01

    Remote sensing airborne hyperspectral data are routinely used for applications including algorithm development for satellite sensors, environmental monitoring and atmospheric studies. Single flight lines of airborne hyperspectral data are often in the region of tens of gigabytes in size. This means that a single aircraft can collect terabytes of remotely sensed hyperspectral data during a single year. Before these data can be used for scientific analyses, they need to be radiometrically calibrated, synchronised with the aircraft's position and attitude and then geocorrected. To enable efficient processing of these large datasets the UK Airborne Research and Survey Facility has recently developed a software suite, the Airborne Processing Library (APL), for processing airborne hyperspectral data acquired from the Specim AISA Eagle and Hawk instruments. The APL toolbox allows users to radiometrically calibrate, geocorrect, reproject and resample airborne data. Each stage of the toolbox outputs data in the common Band Interleaved Lines (BILs) format, which allows its integration with other standard remote sensing software packages. APL was developed to be user-friendly and suitable for use on a workstation PC as well as for the automated processing of the facility; to this end APL can be used under both Windows and Linux environments on a single desktop machine or through a Grid engine. A graphical user interface also exists. In this paper we describe the Airborne Processing Library software, its algorithms and approach. We present example results from using APL with an AISA Eagle sensor and we assess its spatial accuracy using data from multiple flight lines collected during a campaign in 2008 together with in situ surveyed ground control points.

  1. The Geologic Remote Sensing Field Experiment (GRSFE): The first geology multisensor airborne campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Diane L.; Arvidson, Raymond E.

    1991-01-01

    The primary objective of the Geologic Remote Sensing Field Experiment (GRSFE) is to acquire relevant data for geological sites that can be used to test models for extraction of surface property information from remote sensing data for earth, Mars and Venus in support of the Earth Observing System (EOS), Mars Observer, and Magellan, respectively. Over forty scientists from eight universities and three NASA centers are participating in GRSFE which is co-sponsored by the NASA Planetary Geology and Geophysics Program and the NASA Geology Program. Highlights of the airborne campaign included the first simultaneous acquisition of Airborne Visible and Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVRIS) and Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) data on September 29, 1989, and acquisition of Advanced Solid-State Array Spectroradiometer (ASAS), Polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR), and Airborne Terrain Laser Altimeter System (ATLAS) data all within three months of each other. The sites covered were Lunar Crater Volcanic Field and Fish Lake Valley in Nevada; and Cima Volcanic Field, Death Valley, and Ubehebe Crater in California. Coincident field measurements included meteorological and atmospheric measurements, visible/near-infrared and thermal spectra, and characterization of geology and vegetation cover. The GRSFE airborne and field data will be reduced to a suite of standard products and submitted, along with appropriate documentation, to the Planetary Data System (PDS) and the Pilot Land Data System (PLDS). These data will be used for a variety of investigations including paleoclimatic studies in the arid southwestern United States, and analysis of Magellan data. GRSFE data will also be used to support Mars Observer Laser Altimeter (MOLA) and Mars Rover Sample Return (MRSR) simulation studies.

  2. Passive microwave airborne measurements of the sea surface response at 89 and 157 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillou, C.; English, S. J.; Prigent, C.; Jones, D. C.

    1996-02-01

    Microwave measurements of the ocean-roughened surface have been collected during several recent international experiments using an airborne radiometer observing at 89 and 157 GHz. The purpose of this project is to test and validate the sea emissivity model required for the future humidity sounder, advanced microwave sounder unit B, over a wide range of atmospheric and surface conditions. In this paper, the measurements are statistically analyzed and compared with a geometric optics model with special emphasis on the sensitivity to the input parameters. This model is shown to provide good overall agreement with the data when coupled to the wave slope description of Cox and Munk (1954), the liquid water dielectric permittivity of Liebe et al. (1991), and the foam coverage of Monahan and Lu (1990), after increasing the theoretical predictions by a bias of about 2.5 K at 89 GHz and 1.7 K at 157 GHz. In addition, an empirical emissivity algorithm derived from low-frequency observations (Hollinger, 1971; Stogryn, 1972) and widely used for satellite retrieval purposes is shown to be inappropriate for use at millimeter frequencies.

  3. Colorimetric Detection of an Airborne Remote Photocatalytic Reaction Using a Stratified Ag Nanoparticle Sheet.

    PubMed

    Degawa, Ryo; Wang, Pangpang; Tanaka, Daisuke; Park, Susie; Sakai, Nobuyuki; Tatsuma, Tetsu; Okamoto, Koichi; Tamada, Kaoru

    2016-08-16

    Photocatalysts are practically used for decomposition of harmful and fouling organic compounds. Among the photocatalytic reactions, remote oxidation via airborne species is a relatively slow process, so that a sensitive technique for its detection has been awaiting. Here, we investigated an airborne remote photocatalytic reaction of a TiO2 photocatalyst modified with Pt nanoparticles as co-catalysts via the color change caused by a decomposition of a multilayered silver nanoparticle sheet. The silver nanoparticle sheet fabricated by the Langmuir-Schaefer method on a gold substrate exhibits a unique multicolor depending upon the number of layers. The color originates from multiple light trapping in the stratified sheets that has a metamaterial characteristic along with an intra- and interlayer coupling of localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR). The stepwise decomposition of the sheets was confirmed by the colorimetric data, which exhibited not only a monotonic decrease but also a maximized absorption of light when the film thickness reached the optimal thickness for light trapping or when the oxidation of the Ag core started. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectroscopy data provided a complete view of the decomposition process of this inorganic-organic nanocomposite film, and simulation by the transfer-matrix method explained a simultaneous plasmonic response rationally. The influence of the humidity and gas flow rate on the airborne remote photocatalytic reaction kinetics was examined by this colorimetric detection method, and it suggests that H2O in air plays an essential role in the reaction. PMID:27445001

  4. Calibration of passive remote observing optical and microwave instrumentation; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, Apr. 3-5, 1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guenther, Bruce W. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    Various papers on the calibration of passive remote observing optical and microwave instrumentation are presented. Individual topics addressed include: on-board calibration device for a wide field-of-view instrument, calibration for the medium-resolution imaging spectrometer, cryogenic radiometers and intensity-stabilized lasers for EOS radiometric calibrations, radiometric stability of the Shuttle-borne solar backscatter ultraviolet spectrometer, ratioing radiometer for use with a solar diffuser, requirements of a solar diffuser and measurements of some candidate materials, reflectance stability analysis of Spectralon diffuse calibration panels, stray light effects on calibrations using a solar diffuser, radiometric calibration of SPOT 23 HRVs, surface and aerosol models for use in radiative transfer codes. Also addressed are: calibrated intercepts for solar radiometers used in remote sensor calibration, radiometric calibration of an airborne multispectral scanner, in-flight calibration of a helicopter-mounted Daedalus multispectral scanner, technique for improving the calibration of large-area sphere sources, remote colorimetry and its applications, spatial sampling errors for a satellite-borne scanning radiometer, calibration of EOS multispectral imaging sensors and solar irradiance variability.

  5. An airborne remote sensing platform of the Helsinki University of Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Nikulainen, M.; Hallikainen, M.; Kemppinen, M.; Tauriainen, S.

    1996-10-01

    In 1994 Helsinki University of Technology acquired a Short SC7 Skyvan turboprop aircraft to be modified to carry remote sensing instruments. As the aircraft is originally designed to carry heavy and space consuming cargo, a modification program was implemented to make the aircraft feasible for remote sensing operations. The twelve-month long modification program had three design objectives: flexibility, accessibility and cost efficiency. The aircraft interior and electrical system were modified. Furthermore, the aircraft is equipped with DGPS-navigation system, multi-channel radiometer system and side looking airborne radar. Future projects include installation of local area network, attitude GPS system, imaging spectrometer and 1.4 GHz radiometer. 6 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Fourth Airborne Geoscience Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The focus of the workshop was on how the airborne community can assist in achieving the goals of the Global Change Research Program. The many activities that employ airborne platforms and sensors were discussed: platforms and instrument development; airborne oceanography; lidar research; SAR measurements; Doppler radar; laser measurements; cloud physics; airborne experiments; airborne microwave measurements; and airborne data collection.

  7. Algorithms research of airborne long linear multi-elements whisk broom remote sensing image geometric correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Bin; Ma, Yan-hua; Li, Sheng-hong

    2015-10-01

    Multi-Element scanning imaging is an imaging method that is conventionally used in space-born spectrometer. By multipixel scanning at the same time, increased exposure time can be achieved and the picture quality can be enhanced. But when this imaging method is applied in airborne remote sensing image systems, corresponding imaging model and correction algorithms must be built, because of the poor posture stability of airborne platform and different characteristics and requirements. This paper builds a geometric correction model of airborne long linear multi-element scanning imaging system by decomposing the process of imaging and also deduced related correction algorithms. The sampling moment of linear CCD can be treated as push broom imaging and a single pixel imaging during the whole whisk broom period can be treated as whisk broom imaging. Based on this kind of decomposition, col-linearity equation correction algorithm and a kind of new tangent correction algorithm are deduced. As shown in the simulation experiment result, combining with position and attitude date collected by the posture position measurement system, these algorithms can map pixel position from image coordinate to WGS84 coordinate with high precision. In addition, some error factors and correction accuracy are roughly analyzed.

  8. Microwave remote sensing of snow experiment description and preliminary results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulaby, F. T. (Principal Investigator); Stiles, W. H.; Hanson, B. C.

    1977-01-01

    The active and passive microwave responses to snow were investigated at a site near Steamboat Springs, Colorado during the February and March winter months. The microwave equipment was mounted atop truck-mounted booms. Data were acquired at numerous frequencies, polarizations, and angles of incidence for a variety of snow conditions. The experiment description, the characteristics of the microwave and ground truth instruments, and the results of a preliminary analysis of a small portion of the total data volume acquired in Colorado are documented.

  9. Remote sensing of vegetation and soil using microwave ellipsometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Auer, S. O.; Schutt, J. B. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A method is described of determining vegetation height and water content of vegetation from the intensity and state of elliptical polarization of a reflected train of microwaves. The method comprises the steps of reflecting a circularly polarized train of microwaves from vegetation at a predetermined angle of incidence and detecting the reflected train of microwaves. The ratio of the intensities of the electric field vector components is determined, the phase difference of the components is measured, and the refractive index and thickness of the layer of vegetation are computed from a formula. The refractive index is given essentially by the water content of the vegetation.

  10. Peformance evaluation of a passive microwave imaging system. [for remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcallum, W. E.

    1973-01-01

    A test program was conducted to evaluate the passive microwave imaging system for possible application in the NASA Earth Resources Program. In addition to test data analysis, the report gives a brief description of the radiometer, its software, and the ground support equipment. The microwave image quality is adequate for remote sensing applications studies. Instrument problems are described, and suggestions are given for possible improvements and potential applications.

  11. A radio picture of the earth. [microwave remote sensing from satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webster, W. J., Jr.; Wilheit, T. T.; Chang, T. C.; Gloersen, P.; Schmugge, T. J.

    1975-01-01

    A technique called passive microwave remote sensing can be used to obtain a new view of the planet earth by means of radio telescopes carried aboard artificial satellites. An important relationship between the observed radio brightness temperature and the surface conditions provides the basis for the new technique. A radio image is presented of the entire earth on the basis of Nimbus microwave-image data taken January 12-16, 1973.

  12. Satellite and airborne aerosol remote sensing in the presence of clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redemann, Jens; Russell, Philip; Zhang, Qin; Livingston, John; Shinozuka, Yohei; Mattoo, Shana; Remer, Lorraine

    2010-05-01

    Our ability to assess aerosol effects on climate using remote sensing data depends on the discrimination between cloudy and cloud-free viewing elements. Aerosol microphysical and related radiative properties have been shown to vary rapidly in the immediate vicinity of clouds, a circumstance that further complicates the distinction of cloudy from cloud-free pixels and the assessment of direct and indirect aerosol effects on climate. In this paper we will discuss the utility of simultaneous airborne and satellite aerosol remote sensing and each method's caveats in the presence of clouds. In a few select case studies, we will show how MODIS aerosol retrievals vary as a function of distance from clouds and we will discuss which of the variations found in the MODIS aerosol data can be verified using airborne remote sensing observations. In a case study of aerosol measurements near cloud edges within a dissipating stratiform cloud deck near the California coast in March 2004, we find that the MODIS-derived visible AOD agrees well with the sunphotometer-derived measurements, but that the SWIR (1240-2130nm) AOD increases near cloud edges are of the order of 0.03 and as such three times as large as the sunphotometer-derived values. The implications for the recently discussed "bluing" of aerosols near cloud edges, i.e., a preferential apparent increase in the visible reflectances of clear-sky pixels due to 3-D radiative transfer effects in the vicinity of clouds, are discussed. From a compilation of MODIS validation studies using airborne sunphotometer measurements in a large number of field campaigns we show that the agreement between sunphotometer and MODIS derived aerosol properties varies only slightly with the satellite-derived cloud fraction. We show further how the comparison of MODIS AOD to AOD derived from the CALIPSO backscatter lidar shows a significant dependence on cloud fraction, suggesting that the current version CALIPSO and MODIS data sets can only be

  13. Experiment of monitoring thermal discharge drained from nuclear plant through airborne infrared remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Difeng; Pan, Delu; Li, Ning

    2009-07-01

    The State Development and Planning Commission has approved nuclear power projects with the total capacity of 23,000 MW. The plants will be built in Zhejiang, Jiangsu, Guangdong, Shandong, Liaoning and Fujian Province before 2020. However, along with the nuclear power policy of accelerated development in our country, the quantity of nuclear plants and machine sets increases quickly. As a result the environment influence of thermal discharge will be a problem that can't be slid over. So evaluation of the environment influence and engineering simulation must be performed before station design and construction. Further more real-time monitoring of water temperature need to be arranged after fulfillment, reflecting variety of water temperature in time and provided to related managing department. Which will help to ensure the operation of nuclear plant would not result in excess environment breakage. At the end of 2007, an airborne thermal discharge monitoring experiment has been carried out by making use of MAMS, a marine multi-spectral scanner equipped on the China Marine Surveillance Force airplane. And experimental subject was sea area near Qin Shan nuclear plant. This paper introduces the related specification and function of MAMS instrument, and decrypts design and process of the airborne remote sensing experiment. Experiment showed that applying MAMS to monitoring thermal discharge is viable. The remote sensing on a base of thermal infrared monitoring technique told us that thermal discharge of Qin Shan nuclear plant was controlled in a small scope, never breaching national water quality standard.

  14. Remote Sensing of Wind Fields and Aerosol Distribution with Airborne Scanning Doppler Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothermel, Jeffry; Cutten, Dean R.; Johnson, Steven C.; Jazembski, Maurice; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The coherent Doppler laser radar (lidar), when operated from an airborne platform, is a unique tool for the study of atmospheric and surface processes and features. This is especially true for scientific objectives requiring measurements in optically-clear air, where other remote sensing technologies such as Doppler radar are typically at a disadvantage. The atmospheric lidar remote sensing groups of several US institutions, led by Marshall Space Flight Center, have developed an airborne coherent Doppler lidar capable of mapping the wind field and aerosol structure in three dimensions. The instrument consists of an eye-safe approx. 1 Joule/pulse lidar transceiver, telescope, scanner, inertial measurement unit, and flight computer system to orchestrate all subsystem functions and tasks. The scanner is capable of directing the expanded lidar beam in a variety of ways, in order to extract vertically-resolved wind fields. Horizontal resolution is approx. 1 km; vertical resolution is even finer. Winds are obtained by measuring backscattered, Doppler-shifted laser radiation from naturally-occurring aerosol particles (of order 1 micron diameter). Measurement coverage depends on aerosol spatial distribution and composition. Velocity accuracy has been verified to be approx. 1 meter per second. A variety of applications have been demonstrated during the three flight campaigns conducted during 1995-1998. Examples will be shown during the presentation. In 1995, boundary layer winds over the ocean were mapped with unprecedented resolution. In 1996, unique measurements were made of. flow over the complex terrain of the Aleutian Islands; interaction of the marine boundary layer jet with the California coastal mountain range; a weak dry line in Texas - New Mexico; the angular dependence of sea surface scattering; and in-flight radiometric calibration using the surface of White Sands National Monument. In 1998, the first measurements of eyewall and boundary layer winds within a

  15. AIRBORNE, OPTICAL REMOTE SENSING OF METHANE AND ETHANE FOR NATURAL GAS PIPELINE LEAK DETECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Jerry Myers

    2003-05-13

    Ophir Corporation was awarded a contract by the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory under the Project Title ''Airborne, Optical Remote Sensing of Methane and Ethane for Natural Gas Pipeline Leak Detection'' on October 14, 2002. This six-month technical report summarizes the progress for each of the proposed tasks, discusses project concerns, and outlines near-term goals. Ophir has completed a data survey of two major natural gas pipeline companies on the design requirements for an airborne, optical remote sensor. The results of this survey are disclosed in this report. A substantial amount of time was spent on modeling the expected optical signal at the receiver at different absorption wavelengths, and determining the impact of noise sources such as solar background, signal shot noise, and electronic noise on methane and ethane gas detection. Based upon the signal to noise modeling and industry input, Ophir finalized the design requirements for the airborne sensor, and released the critical sensor light source design requirements to qualified vendors. Responses from the vendors indicated that the light source was not commercially available, and will require a research and development effort to produce. Three vendors have responded positively with proposed design solutions. Ophir has decided to conduct short path optical laboratory experiments to verify the existence of methane and absorption at the specified wavelength, prior to proceeding with the light source selection. Techniques to eliminate common mode noise were also evaluated during the laboratory tests. Finally, Ophir has included a summary of the potential concerns for project success and has established future goals.

  16. Application research of using CASI/SASI airborne hyperspectral remote sensing on lithology identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jiajing; Qin, Kai

    2016-04-01

    Remote sensing provides an advanced method for lithology identification, which is one of the important research fields in geological prospecting. In theory, each lithology is of individual spectrum characteristics. Based on the spectral differences between them, we can identify different lithologies by remote sensing images. At present, the studies on lithology identification by remote sensing are primarily conducted on the multispectral images, such as Landsat 7 ETM+, SPOT-5, QuickBird and WorldView-2. Hyperspectral remote sensing images provide richer information, making it easier to identify the lithologies, but studied rarely. CASI/SASI is an airborne hyperspectral system covering a wavelength range of 0.38-2.45μm. With hundreds of bands, the hyperspectral images are useful to identify the spectrum characteristics of lithology. In addition, images are of high spatial resolution, with CASI of about 1m and SASI of about 2-2.5m, which make lithology identification more accurate. CASI/SASI hyperspectral data was collected in Beishan metallogenic belt in northwest China, as same as the ground spectral data of the lithologies. After data preprocessing, we divided different lithologies using CASI/SASI hyperspectral images and lithology spectrum, identified some important lithologies related to mineralization, and successfully found a few new ore clues.

  17. Airborne Deployment and Calibration of Microwave Atmospheric Sounder on 6U CubeSat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padmanabhan, S.; Brown, S. T.; Lim, B.; Kangaslahti, P.; Russell, D.; Stachnik, R. A.

    2015-12-01

    To accurately predict how the distribution of extreme events may change in the future we need to understand the mechanisms that influence such events in our current climate. Our current observing system is not well-suited for observing extreme events globally due to the sparse sampling and in-homogeneity of ground-based in-situ observations and the infrequent revisit time of satellite observations. Observations of weather extremes, such as extreme precipitation events, temperature extremes, tropical and extra-tropical cyclones among others, with temporal resolution on the order of minutes and spatial resolution on the order of few kms (<10 kms), are required for improved forecasting of extreme weather events. We envision a suite of low-cost passive microwave sounding and imaging sensors on CubeSats that would work in concert with traditional flagship observational systems, such as those manifested on large environmental satellites (i.e. JPSS,WSF,GCOM-W), to monitor weather extremes. A 118/183 GHz sensor would enable observations of temperature and precipitation extremes over land and ocean as well as tropical and extra-tropical cyclones. This proposed project would enable low cost, compact radiometer instrumentation at 118 and 183 GHz that would fit in a 6U Cubesat with the objective of mass-producing this design to enable a suite of small satellites to image the key geophysical parameters needed to improve prediction of extreme weather events. We take advantage of past and current technology developments at JPL viz. HAMSR (High Altitude Microwave Scanning Radiometer), Advanced Component Technology (ACT'08) to enable low-mass, low-power high frequency airborne radiometers. In this paper, we will describe the design and implementation of the 118 GHz temperature sounder and 183 GHz humidity sounder on the 6U CubeSat. In addition, we will discuss the maiden airborne deployment of the instrument during the Plain Elevated Convection at Night (PECAN) experiment. The

  18. Synergy between optical and microwave remote sensing to derive soil and vegetation parameters from MAC Europe 1991 Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taconet, O.; Benallegue, M.; Vidal, A.; Vidal-Madjar, D.; Prevot, L.; Normand, M.

    1993-01-01

    The ability of remote sensing for monitoring vegetation density and soil moisture for agricultural applications is extensively studied. In optical bands, vegetation indices (NDVI, WDVI) in visible and near infrared reflectances are related to biophysical quantities as the leaf area index, the biomass. In active microwave bands, the quantitative assessment of crop parameters and soil moisture over agricultural areas by radar multiconfiguration algorithms remains prospective. Furthermore the main results are mostly validated on small test sites, but have still to be demonstrated in an operational way at a regional scale. In this study, a large data set of radar backscattering has been achieved at a regional scale on a French pilot watershed, the Orgeval, along two growing seasons in 1988 and 1989 (mainly wheat and corn). The radar backscattering was provided by the airborne scatterometer ERASME, designed at CRPE, (C and X bands and HH and VV polarizations). Empirical relationships to estimate water crop and soil moisture over wheat in CHH band under actual field conditions and at a watershed scale are investigated. Therefore, the algorithms developed in CHH band are applied for mapping the surface conditions over wheat fields using the AIRSAR and TMS images collected during the MAC EUROPE 1991 experiment. The synergy between optical and microwave bands is analyzed.

  19. Monitoring drought for grassland and cropland using multi-sensor microwave remote sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, A.; Jia, G.

    2012-12-01

    Remote sensing drought indices derived from optical and infrared bands have been successfully used in monitoring drought throughout the world; however the application of microwave remote sensing sensor in drought monitoring has not been thoroughly investigated. In this study, we propose a microwave remote sensing drought index, the Microwave Integrated Drought Index (MIDI), especially for short-term drought monitoring over northern China. The index combined three variables: the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) precipitation, land surface temperature (LST) and soil moisture (SM) obtained by the Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (VUA-NASA) from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) on-board Aqua satellite. The microwave remotely sensed variables were linearly scaled from 0 to 1 for each pixel based on absolute minimum and maximum values for each variable over time, in order to discriminate the weather-related component from the ecosystem component. The microwave indices were evaluated with the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), an in-situ meteorological data based drought index. Pearson correlation analyses were performed between the remotely sensed drought indices values and different time scale SPI values for the growing season from 2003 to 2010 to assess the capability of remotely sensed drought indices in monitoring drought over three different climate regions in northern China. There was significant spatial variability in the correlations between remote sensing drought indices and SPI, generally, the Precipitation Condition Index (PCI) showed the highest correlation with 1-month SPI (r around 0.70) whether compared to remote sensing drought indices or different time scale SPI; while correlations between Soil Moisture Condition Index (SMCI), Land Surface Temperature (TCI) and SPI exhibited different trends among three climate regions. The MIDI with proper weights of three components nearly possessed the

  20. A survey of natural aggregate properties and characteristics important in remote sensing and airborne geophysics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knepper, D.H., Jr.; Langer, W.H.; Miller, S.

    1995-01-01

    Natural aggregate is vital to the construction industry. Although natural aggregate is a high volume/low value commodity that is abundant, new sources are becoming increasingly difficult to find and develop because of rigid industry specifications, political considerations, development and transportation costs, and environmental concerns. There are two primary sources of natural aggregate: (1) exposed or near-surface bedrock that can be crushed, and (2) deposits of sand and gravel. Remote sensing and airborne geophysics detect surface and near-surface phenomena, and may be useful for detecting and mapping potential aggregate sources; however, before a methodology for applying these techniques can be developed, it is necessary to understand the type, distribution, physical properties, and characteristics of natural aggregate deposits. The distribution of potential aggregate sources is closely tied to local geologic history. Conventional exploration for natural aggregate deposits has been largely a ground-based operation, although aerial photographs and topographic maps have been extensively used to target possible deposits. Today, the exploration process also considers factors such as the availability of the land, space and water supply for processing, political and environmental factors, and distance from the market; exploration and planning cannot be separated. There are many physical properties and characteristics by which to judge aggregate material for specific applications; most of these properties and characteristics pertain only to individual aggregate particles. The application of remote sensing and airborne geophysical measurements to detecting and mapping potential aggregate sources, however, is based on intrinsic bulk physical properties and extrinsic characteristics of the deposits that can be directly measured, mathematically derived from measurement, or interpreted with remote sensing and geophysical data. ?? 1995 Oxford UniversityPress.

  1. Satellite Remote Sensing: Passive-Microwave Measurements of Sea Ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parkinson, Claire L.; Zukor, Dorothy J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Satellite passive-microwave measurements of sea ice have provided global or near-global sea ice data for most of the period since the launch of the Nimbus 5 satellite in December 1972, and have done so with horizontal resolutions on the order of 25-50 km and a frequency of every few days. These data have been used to calculate sea ice concentrations (percent areal coverages), sea ice extents, the length of the sea ice season, sea ice temperatures, and sea ice velocities, and to determine the timing of the seasonal onset of melt as well as aspects of the ice-type composition of the sea ice cover. In each case, the calculations are based on the microwave emission characteristics of sea ice and the important contrasts between the microwave emissions of sea ice and those of the surrounding liquid-water medium.

  2. Electrically scanning microwave radiometers. [for satellite-borne remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mix, R. F.

    1974-01-01

    The electrically scanning microwave radiometer (ESMR) developed for and currently used onboard the Nimbus 5 meteorological satellite is described, along with the ESMR developed for the Nimbus F satellite. They serve for synoptic mapping of microwave emissions from the earth's surface, the instrument on Nimbus 5 measuring these emissions at a wavelength of 1.55 cm (19.35 GHz) and the instrument on Nimbus F, at a wavelength of 0.81 cm (37 GHz). Radiative transfer characteristics measured at these wavelengths are sufficiently different from IR measurements to permit derivation and interpretation of unique meteorological, geomorphological, and oceanographic data.

  3. Implications of RFI at L-Band on Passive Microwave Remote Sensing of Soil Moisture from Space: Experience with ESTAR During SGP97

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LeVine, David M.

    2000-01-01

    Passive microwave remote sensing in the protected band at 1.413 GHz (L-band) is important for monitoring parameters of the ocean and land surface such as soil moisture and sea surface salinity. These parameters are needed for understanding energy exchange between the surface and atmosphere and therefore are important for improving our understanding of weather and climate change. Although the band at 1.413 GHz is protected for passive use, airborne radiometers experience problems with RFI. For example, during the Southern Great Plains Experiment (1997) the ESTAR radiometer experienced significant RFI associated with airports, presumably air traffic control radar. This is a potential problem for future sensors in space planned for remote sensing of the earth surface in this frequency band.

  4. Remote, non-contacting personnel bio-identification using microwave radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGrath, William R. (Inventor); Talukder, Ashit (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A system to remotely identify a person by utilizing a microwave cardiogram, where some embodiments segment a signal representing cardiac beats into segments, extract features from the segments, and perform pattern identification of the segments and features with a pre-existing data set. Other embodiments are described and claimed.

  5. Microwave remote sensing of short-term droughts during crop growing seasons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Xing; Ma, Zhuguo; Pan, Ming; Shi, Chunxiang

    2015-06-01

    Severe short-term (monthly to seasonal) droughts frequently occurred over China in recent years, with devastating impacts on crop production. This study assesses the capability of microwave remote sensing in detecting soil moisture (agricultural) droughts over China and in providing early warnings. The 22 year (1992-2013) European Space Agency satellite soil moisture retrievals are compared against the in situ observations at 312 stations in China, the global soil moisture reanalysis, and the observed rainfall deficit. Both the reanalysis and remote sensing products can only detect less than 60% of drought months at in situ station scale, but they capture the interannual variations of short-term drought area at river basin scales quite well. As compared with reanalysis, the passive and merged microwave products have better drought detection over sparsely vegetated regions in northwestern China and the active microwave product with better vegetation penetration works the best in eastern China.

  6. Satellite remote sensing of global rainfall using passive microwave radiometry

    SciTech Connect

    Ferriday, J.G.

    1994-12-31

    Global rainfall over land and ocean is estimated using measurements of upwelling microwaves by a satellite passive microwave radiometer. Radiative transfer calculations through a cloud model are used to parameterize an inversion technique for retrieving rain rates from brightness temperatures measured by the Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I). The rainfall retrieval technique is based on the interaction between multi-spectral microwave radiances and millimeter sized liquid and frozen hydrometeors distributed in the satellite`s field of view. The rain rate algorithm is sensitive to both hydrometeor emission and scattering while being relatively insensitive to extraneous atmospheric and surface effects. Separate formulations are used over ocean and land to account for different background microwave characteristics and the algorithm corrects for inhomogeneous distributions of rain rates within the satellite`s field of view. Estimates of instantaneous and climate scale rainfall are validated through comparisons with modeled clouds, surface radars, rain gauges and alternative satellite estimates. The accuracy of the rainfall estimates is determined from a combination of validation comparisons, theoretical sampling error calculations, and modeled sensitivity to variations in atmospheric and surface radiative properties. An error budget is constructed for both instantaneous rain rates and climate scale global estimates. At a one degree resolution, the root mean square errors in instantaneous rain rate estimates are 13% over ocean and 20% over land. The root mean square errors in global rainfall totals over a four month period are found to be 46% over ocean and 63% over land. Global rainfall totals are computed on a monthly scale for a three year period from 1987 to 1990. The time series is analyzed for climate scale rainfall distribution and variability.

  7. [Remote sensing of chlorophyll fluorescence at airborne level based on unmanned airship platform and hyperspectral sensor].

    PubMed

    Yang, Pei-Qi; Liu, Zhi-Gang; Ni, Zhuo-Ya; Wang, Ran; Wang, Qing-Shan

    2013-11-01

    The solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (ChlF) has a close relationship with photosynthetic and is considered as a probe of plant photosynthetic activity. In this study, an airborne fluorescence detecting system was constructed by using a hyperspectral imager on board an unmanned airship. Both Fraunhofer Line Discriminator (FLD) and 3FLD used to extract ChlF require the incident solar irradiance, which is always difficult to receive at airborne level. Alternative FLD (aFLD) can overcome the problem by selecting non-fluorescent emitter in the image. However, aFLD is based on the assumption that reflectance is identical around the Fraunhofer line, which is not realistic. A new method, a3FLD, is proposed, which assumes that reflectance varies linearly with the wavelength around Fraunhofer line. The result of simulated data shows that ChlF retrieval error of a3FLD is significantly lower than that of aFLD when vegetation reflectance varies near the Fraunhofer line. The results of hyperspectral remote sensing data with the airborne fluorescence detecting system show that the relative values of retrieved ChlF of 5 kinds of plants extracted by both aFLD and a3FLD are consistent with vegetation growth stage and the ground-level ChlF. The ChlF values of aFLD are about 15% greater than a3FLD. In addition, using aFLD, some non-fluorescent objects have considerable ChlF value, while a3FLD can effectively overcome the problem. PMID:24555390

  8. Microwave Dielectric Properties of Soil and Vegetation and Their Estimation From Spaceborne Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dobson, M. Craig; McDonald, Kyle C.

    1996-01-01

    This paper is largely tutorial in nature and provides an overview of the microwave dielectric properties of certain natural terrestrial media (soils and vegetation) and recent results in estimating these properties remotely from airborne and orbital synthetic aperture radar (SAR).

  9. Light weight airborne imaging spectrometer remote sensing system for mineral exploration in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Taixia; Zhang, Lifu; Cen, Yi; Wang, Jinnian; Tong, Qingxi

    2014-05-01

    Imaging spectrometers provide the unique combination of both spatially contiguous spectra and spectrally contiguous images of the Earth's surface that allows spatial mapping of these minerals. One of the successful applications of imaging spectrometers remote sensing identified was geological mapping and mineral exploration. A Light weight Airborne Imaging Spectrometer System (LAISS) has been developed in China. The hardware of the compact LAISS include a VNIR imaging spectrometer, a SWIR imaging spectrometer, a high resolution camera and a position and attitude device. The weight of the system is less than 20kg. The VNIR imaging spectrometer measures incoming radiation in 344 contiguous spectral channels in the 400-1000 nm wavelength range with spectral resolution of better than 5 nm and creates images of 464 pixels for a line of targets with a nominal instantaneous field of view (IFOV) of ~1 mrad. The SWIR imaging spectrometer measures incoming radiation in the 1000-2500 nm wavelength range with spectral resolution of better than 10 nm with a nominal instantaneous field of view (IFOV) of ~2 mrad. The 400 to 2500nm spectral range provides abundant information about many important Earth-surface minerals. A ground mineral scan experiment and an UAV carried flying experiment has been done. The experiment results show the LAISS have achieved relative high performance levels in terms of signal to noise ratio and image quality. The potential applications for light weight airborne imaging spectrometer system in mineral exploration are tremendous.

  10. The airborne Laser Absorption Spectrometer - A new instrument of remote measurement of atmospheric trace gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shumate, M. S.; Menzies, R. T.

    1978-01-01

    The Laser Absorption Spectrometer is a portable instrument developed by JPL for remote measurement of trace gases from an aircraft platform. It contains two carbon dioxide lasers, two optical heterodyne receivers, appropriate optics to aim the lasers at the ground and detect the backscattered energy, and signal processing and recording electronics. Operating in the differential-absorption mode, it is possible to monitor one atmospheric gas at a time and record the data in real time. The system can presently measure ozone, ethylene, water vapor, and chlorofluoromethanes with high sensitivity. Airborne measurements were made in early 1977 from the NASA/JPL twin-engine Beechcraft and in May 1977 from the NASA Convair 990 during the ASSESS-II Shuttle Simulation Study. These flights resulted in measurements of ozone concentrations in the lower troposphere which were compared with ground-based values provided by the Air Pollution Control District. This paper describes the details of the instrument and results of the airborne measurements.

  11. Actual evapotranspiration estimation by means of airborne and satellite remote sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciraolo, Giuseppe; D'Urso, Guido; Minacapilli, Mario

    2006-09-01

    During the last the two decades, the scientific community developed detailed mathematical models for simulating land surface energy fluxes and crop evapotranspiration rates by means of a energy balance approach. These models can be applied in large areas and with a spatial distributed approach using surface brightness temperature and some ancillary data retrieved from satellite/airborne remote sensed imagery. In this paper a district scale application in combination with multispectral (LandaSat 7 TM data) and hyperspectral airborne MIVIS data has been carried out to test the potentialities of two different energy balance models to estimate evapotranspiration fluxes from a set of typical Mediterranean crops (wine, olive, citrus). The impact of different spatial and radiometric resolutions of MIVIS (3m x 3m) and LandSat (60m x 60m) on models-derived fluxes has been investigated to understand the roles and the main conceptual differences between the two models which respectively use a "single-layer" (SEBAL) and a "two-layer" (TS) schematisation.

  12. Proposed Definitions of Some Technical Terms Frequently Used in Microwave Radiometry for Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiue, James C.; Zukor, Dorothy J. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The use of microwave radiometry for remote sensing is a relatively young field. As a result, there are no standard definitions of many frequently used technical terms; a lot of which are conventional usages carried-over from optical remote sensing, and a lot more are shared with electrical or microwave engineering. Sometimes the divergent notions and assumptions originating from a different field may cause ambiguity or confusions. It is proposed that we establish a list of frequently used terms, together with their 'standard' definitions and hope that they will gradually gain general acceptance by the remote sensing community. It would be even more useful if the IEEE community can set up a standard committee of sort to develop and maintain the standards. To minimize the effort, the existing terms should be kept or reinterpreted as much as possible. For example, the term 'Instantaneous Field of View' (IFOV), originally coming from the optical remote sensing field, is now appearing in microwave remote sensing literature frequently. The IFOV refers to the 'beam width' or the 'diameter' of the beam's geometrical projection on earth surface. Since the definition of 'beam width' is different for an optical system versus a microwave antenna, the use of IFOV in microwave radiometry needed to be clarified. Also, the meaning of the IFOV will be different depending upon whether the beam is scanning or not, and how the scanning takes place, e.g. 'continuous scanning' vs 'stare-and-step scan.' From this one term alone, it is clear that more subtle meanings must be spell out in detail and a 'standard' definition would help in understanding and comparing systems and data in the literature. A selected list of terms with their suggested definitions will be discussed in this presentation.

  13. Airborne full polarization radiometry using the MSFC Advanced Microwave Precipitation Radiometer (AMPR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gasiewski, Al J.; Kunkee, D. B.

    1993-01-01

    The applications of vertically and horizontally polarized brightness temperatures in both atmospheric and surface remote sensing have been long recognized by many investigators, particularly those studying SMMR and SSM/I data. Here, the large contrast between the first two Stokes' parameters (T(sub V) and T(sub H)) can be used for detection of sea ice, measurement of ocean surface wind speed, and measurement of cloud and water vapor opacity. High-resolution aircraft data from instruments such as the NASA/MSFC AMPR is crucial for verifying radiative transfer models and developing retrieval algorithms. Currently, the AMPR is outfitted with single-polarization channels at 10, 18, 37 and 85 GHz. To increase its utility, it is proposed that additional orthogonal linearly polarized channels be added to the AMPR. Since the AMPR's feedhorns are already configured for dual orthogonal linearly polarized modes, this would require only a duplication of the currently existing receivers. To circumvent the resulting polarization basis skew caused by the cross-track scanning mechanism, the technique of Electronic Polarization Basis Rotation is proposed to be implemented. Implementation of EPBR requires precise measurement of the third Stokes parameter and will eliminate polarization skew by allowing the feedhorn basis skew angle to be corrected in software. In addition to upgrading AMPR to dual polarization capability (without skew), the modifications will provide an opportunity to demonstrate EPBR on an airborne platform. This is a highly desirable intermediate step prior to satellite implementation.

  14. Observations of Atmospheric Temperature Structure from an Airborne Microwave Temperature Profiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haggerty, J. A.; Schick, K. E.; Young, K.; Lim, B.; Ahijevych, D.

    2014-12-01

    A newly-designed Microwave Temperature Profiler (MTP) was developed at JPL for the NSF-NCAR Gulfstream-V aircraft. The MTP is a scanning microwave radiometer that measures thermal emission in the 50-60 GHz oxygen complex. It scans from near-zenith to near-nadir, measuring brightness temperatures forward, above, and below the aircraft at 17 s intervals. A statistical retrieval method derives temperature profiles from the measurements, using proximate radiosonde profiles as a priori information. MTP data examples from recent experiments, comparisons with simultaneous temperature profiles from the Airborne Vertical Atmospheric Profiling System (AVAPS), and a method for blending MTP and AVAPS temperature profiles will be presented. The Mesoscale Predictability Experiment (MPEX; May-June, 2013) investigated the utility of sub-synoptic observations to extend convective-scale predictability and otherwise enhance skill in regional numerical weather prediction over short forecast periods. This project relied on MTP and AVAPS profiles to characterize atmospheric structure on fine spatial scales. Comparison of MTP profiles with AVAPS profiles confirms uncertainty specifications of MTP. A profile blending process takes advantage of the high resolution of AVAPS profiles below the aircraft while utilizing MTP profiles above the aircraft. Ongoing research with these data sets examines double tropopause structure in association with the sub-tropical jet, mountain lee waves, and fluxes at the tropopause. The attached figure shows a mountain lee wave signature in the MTP-derived isentrope field along the flight track during an east-west segment over the Rocky Mountains. A vertically propagating wave with westward tilt is evident on the leeward side of the mountains at around 38 ksec. The Deep Propagating Gravity Wave Experiment over New Zealand (DEEPWAVE; June-July, 2014) investigated the dynamics of gravity waves from the surface to the lower thermosphere. MTP and AVAPS

  15. Mapping mine tailings using airborne geophysical and hyperspectral remote sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Jiali

    Mine tailings are the waste products from mining operations. Most mine tailings contain a considerable amount of reactive sulphides which can cause acid mine drainage (AMD) when exposed to air and water. AMD constitutes a threat both to the environment and to public health. Increased awareness of AMD has led to growing activities in mine-tailing monitoring and reclamation worldwide. Mining companies in Canada are required to provide information to provincial governments about their waste disposal and control activities. There is an urgent need to develop new automated ways to provide information on short- to long-term evolution of tailings, thus enabling the mining companies to monitor their tailings more effectively. The overall goal of the thesis is to explore the potential of hyperspectral remote sensing and geophysical techniques for mapping variations within and immediately outside of the tailings. Data used for this study are from three sources: airborne geophysical data, hyperspectral casi and Probe-1 data, and field data. This study has contributed to both the remote sensing data analysis techniques and the understanding of mine-tailing surface and subsurface processes. Specifically, this study has the following important findings: (1) Airborne magnetic and electromagnetic data can provide information regarding the subsurface distribution of mine tailings on the basis of sulphide mineral content. A procedure has been developed in this study to use these data sources for rapidly surveying large tailings areas. This procedure can minimize expenditures for mining companies when designing remedial plans for the closure of the mines. This study has also identified regions of enhanced conductivity that extend beyond the tailing containment area. This information indicates seepage pathways, and is important for monitoring the effectiveness of tailing containment structures. (2) High-spatial-resolution hyperspectral casi (Compact Airborne Spectrographic Imagery

  16. Remote Sensing of Snow-covered Sea Ice with Ultra-wideband Airborne Radars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, S.; Gogineni, P. S.; Gomez-Garcia, D.; Leuschen, C.; Hale, R.; Rodriguez-Morales, F.; Paden, J. D.; Li, J.

    2015-12-01

    The extent and thickness of sea ice and snow play a critical role in the Earth's climate system. Both sea ice and snow have high albedo and control the heat exchange between the atmosphere and ocean and atmosphere and land. In terms of hydrology, the presence of sea ice and snow modulates the flow and the salinity of ocean water. This in turn can modify the weather patterns around the globe. Understanding the formation, coverage and the properties of sea ice and snow are important for both short-term and long-term climate modeling. The advancements in high-frequency electronics and digital signal processing enabled the development of ultra-wideband radars by the Center for Remote Sensing of Ice Sheets (CReSIS) for airborne measurements of snow and ice properties over large areas. CReSIS recently developed and deployed two ultra-wideband airborne radars, namely the Multichannel Coherent Radar Depth Sounder/Imager (MCoRDS/I) and the Snow Radar. The MCoRDS/I is designed to operate over the frequency range of 180-450 MHz for sounding land ice and imaging its ice-bed interface. We also took advantage of the deployment to explore the potential of UWB MCoRDS/I in sounding sea ice and collected data on flight lines flown as part of NASA Operation IceBridge mission during Spring 2015. Preliminary results show we sounded sea ice under favorable conditions. We will perform detailed processing and analysis of data over the next few months and we will compare results obtained are compared with existing altimetry-derived data products. The new snow radar, on the other hand, operating from 2 to 18 GHz, was deployed on the NRL Twin Otter aircraft in Barrow, AK. It was shown to have a vertical resolution of down to 1.5 cm which opens up the potential for thin snow measurement on both sea ice and land. Both of these new radars will be further optimized for future airborne missions to demonstrate their capabilities for sea ice and snow measurements. We will also show new technical

  17. High-precision geometric correction of airborne remote sensing revisited: the multiquadric interpolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehlers, Manfred; Fogel, David N.

    1994-12-01

    For a geographic analysis of multispectral scanner data from aircraft and their integration in spatial databases and geographic integration systems (GIS), geometric registration/rectification of the scanner imagery is required as a first step. Usually, one has to rely on global mapping functions such as polynomial equations as provided by most commercial image processing systems. These techniques have been proven to be very effective and accurate for satellite images. However, there are a umber of shortcomings when this method is applied to aircraft data. We see the multiquadric interpolation method as a promising alternative. The multiquadric function was first developed for the interpolation of irregular surfaces. It could be modified, however, to be used for image correction of remotely sensed data. In this form, it is particularly suited for the rectification of remote sensing images of large scale and locally varying geometric distortions. The multiquadric interpolation method yields a perfect fit at the used control points (CPs). With this, it is necessary to withhold independent test points that can be used for accuracy assessment. Within the registration/rectification process, all CPs contribute to the geometric warping of any given pixel in the image. Their effects, however, are weighted inversely to the distances between CPs and the current pixel location. The paper presents the multiquadric interpolation techniques and demonstrates successful application with airborne scanner data.

  18. The research of a gyro-stabilized platform and POS application technology in airborne remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jiang; Du, Qi

    2009-07-01

    The distortion of the collected images usually takes place since the attitude changes along with the flying aerocraft on airborne remote sensing. In order to get original images without distortion, it is necessary to use professional gyro-stabilized platform. In addition to this, another solution of correcting the original image distortion is to utilize later geometric rectification using position & orientation system ( POS ) data. The third way is to utilize medium-accuracy stabilized platform to control the distortion at a tolerant range, and then make use of the data obtained by high-solution posture measure system to correct the low-quality remote sensing images. The third way which takes advantage of both techniques is better than using only one of the two other ways. This paper introduces several kinds of structural forms of gyro-stabilized platforms, and POS acquiring instruments respectively. Then, the essay will make some analysis of their advantages and disadvantages, key technologies and the application experiment of the third method. After the analysis, the thesis discusses the design of the gyro-stabilized platform. The thesis provides crucial information not only for the application technology of gyro-stabilized platform and POS but also for future development.

  19. Application of high spatial resolution airborne hyperspectral remote sensing data in thematic information extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Hong-gen; Ma, Hong-chao; Li, De-ren; Song, Yan

    2006-10-01

    The airborne hyperspectral remote sensing data, such as PHI, OMIS, has the virtues of high spatial and spectral resolution. Hence, from the view of target classification we can consider that it can provide the ability of discriminating targets more detailedly than other data. So it's important to extract thematic information and update database using this kind of data. Whereas, the hyperspectral data has abundant bands and high between-band correlation, the traditional classification methods such as maximum likelihood classifier (MLC) and spectral angle mapper (SAM) have performed poorly in thematic information extraction. For this reason, we present a new method for thematic information extraction with hyperspectral remote sensing data. We perform classification by means of combining the self-organizing map (SOM) neural network which is considered as full-pixel technique with linear spectral mixture analysis (LSMA) which is considered as mixed-pixel technique. The SOM neural network is improved from some aspects to classify the pure data and find the mixed data. And then the mixed data are unmixed and classified by LSMA. The result of experiment shows that we can have the better performance in thematic information extraction with PHI by this means.

  20. Airborne and satellite remote sensing of the mid-infrared water vapour continuum.

    PubMed

    Newman, Stuart M; Green, Paul D; Ptashnik, Igor V; Gardiner, Tom D; Coleman, Marc D; McPheat, Robert A; Smith, Kevin M

    2012-06-13

    Remote sensing of the atmosphere from space plays an increasingly important role in weather forecasting. Exploiting observations from the latest generation of weather satellites relies on an accurate knowledge of fundamental spectroscopy, including the water vapour continuum absorption. Field campaigns involving the Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements research aircraft have collected a comprehensive dataset, comprising remotely sensed infrared radiance observations collocated with accurate measurements of the temperature and humidity structure of the atmosphere. These field measurements have been used to validate the strength of the infrared water vapour continuum in comparison with the latest laboratory measurements. The recent substantial changes to self-continuum coefficients in the widely used MT_CKD (Mlawer-Tobin-Clough-Kneizys-Davies) model between 2400 and 3200 cm(-1) are shown to be appropriate and in agreement with field measurements. Results for the foreign continuum in the 1300-2000 cm(-1) band suggest a weak temperature dependence that is not currently included in atmospheric models. A one-dimensional variational retrieval experiment is performed that shows a small positive benefit from using new laboratory-derived continuum coefficients for humidity retrievals. PMID:22547235

  1. Airborne Thermal Remote Sensing for Estimation of Groundwater Discharge to a River.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chuankun; Liu, Jie; Hu, Yue; Wang, Heshun; Zheng, Chunmiao

    2016-05-01

    Traditional methods for studying surface water and groundwater interactions have usually been limited to point measurements, such as geochemical sampling and seepage measurement. A new methodology is presented for quantifying groundwater discharge to a river, by using river surface temperature data obtained from airborne thermal infrared remote sensing technology. The Hot Spot Analysis toolkit in ArcGIS was used to calculate the percentage of groundwater discharge to a river relative to the total flow of the river. This methodology was evaluated in the midstream of the Heihe River in the arid and semiarid northwest China. The results show that the percentage of groundwater discharge relative to the total streamflow was as high as 28%, which is in good agreement with the results from previous geochemical studies. The data analysis methodology used in this study is based on the assumption that the river water is fully mixed except in the areas of extremely low flow velocity, which could lead to underestimation of the amount of groundwater discharge. Despite this limitation, this remote sensing-based approach provides an efficient means of quantifying the surface water and groundwater interactions on a regional scale. PMID:26281027

  2. Remote sensing of tropospheric gases and aerosols with airborne DIAL system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Browell, E. V.

    1983-01-01

    The multipurpose airborne DIAL system developed at NASA Langley Research Center is characterized, and the published results of tropospheric O3, H2O, and aerosol-backscatter remote-sensing experiments performed in 1980 and 1981 are summarized. The system comprises two tunable dye lasers pumped by frequency-doubled Nd:YAG lasers, dielectric-coated steering optics, a 36-cm-diameter Cassegrain receiver telescope, gateable photomultiplier tubes, and a minicomputer data-processing unit for real-time calculation of gas concentrations and backscattering profiles. The transmitted energy of the 100-microsec-separated dye-laser pulses is 40, 80, or 50 mJ/pulse at around 300, 600, or 720-nm wavelength, respectively. Good agreement was found between DIAL-remote-sensed and in-situ H2O and O3 profiles of the lower troposphere and O3 profiles of the tropopause region, and the usefulness of DIAL backscattering measurements in the study of boundary-layer and tropospheric dynamics is demonstrated. The feasibility of DIAL sensing of power-plant or urban plume SO2, of urban-area (or rural-area column-content) NO2, and of temperature and H2O (simultaneously using a third laser) has been suggested by simulation studies.

  3. An Airborne A-Band Spectrometer for Remote Sensing Of Aerosol and Cloud Optical Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitts, Michael; Hostetler, Chris; Poole, Lamont; Holden, Carl; Rault, Didier

    2000-01-01

    Atmospheric remote sensing with the O2 A-band has a relatively long history, but most of these studies were attempting to estimate surface pressure or cloud-top pressure. Recent conceptual studies have demonstrated the potential of spaceborne high spectral resolution O2 A-band spectrometers for retrieval of aerosol and cloud optical properties. The physical rationale of this new approach is that information on the scattering properties of the atmosphere is embedded in the detailed line structure of the O2 A-band reflected radiance spectrum. The key to extracting this information is to measure the radiance spectrum at very high spectral resolution. Instrument performance requirement studies indicate that, in addition to high spectral resolution, the successful retrieval of aerosol and cloud properties from A-band radiance spectra will also require high radiometric accuracy, instrument stability, and high signal-to-noise measurements. To experimentally assess the capabilities of this promising new remote sensing application, the NASA Langley Research Center is developing an airborne high spectral resolution A-band spectrometer. The spectrometer uses a plane holographic grating with a folded Littrow geometry to achieve high spectral resolution (0.5 cm-1) and low stray light in a compact package. This instrument will be flown in a series of field campaigns beginning in 2001 to evaluate the overall feasibility of this new technique. Results from these campaigns should be particularly valuable for future spaceborne applications of A-band spectrometers for aerosol and cloud retrievals.

  4. Estimation of Snow Parameters Based on Passive Microwave Remote Sensing and Meteorological Information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsang, Leung; Hwang, Jenq-Neng

    1996-01-01

    A method to incorporate passive microwave remote sensing measurements within a spatially distributed snow hydrology model to provide estimates of the spatial distribution of Snow Water Equivalent (SWE) as a function of time is implemented. The passive microwave remote sensing measurements are at 25 km resolution. However, in mountain regions the spatial variability of SWE over a 25 km footprint is large due to topographic influences. On the other hand, the snow hydrology model has built-in topographic information and the capability to estimate SWE at a 1 km resolution. In our work, the snow hydrology SWE estimates are updated and corrected using SSM/I passive microwave remote sensing measurements. The method is applied to the Upper Rio Grande River Basin in the mountains of Colorado. The change in prediction of SWE from hydrology modeling with and without updating is compared with measurements from two SNOTEL sites in and near the basin. The results indicate that the method incorporating the remote sensing measurements into the hydrology model is able to more closely estimate the temporal evolution of the measured values of SWE as a function of time.

  5. Stereological characterization of dry alpine snow for microwave remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Robert E.; Dozier, Jeff

    1989-01-01

    A persistent problem in investigations of electromagnetic properties of snow, from reflectance at visible wavelengths to emission and backscattering in the microwave, has been the proper characterization of the snow's physical properties. It is suggested that the granular and laminar structure of snow can be measured in its aggregated state by stereology performed on sections prepared from snow specimens, and that these kinds of measurements can be incorporated into models of the electromagnetic properties. With careful sampling, anisotropy in the snow microstructure at various scales can be quantified. It is shown how stereological parameters can be averaged over orientation and optical depth for radiative transfer modeling.

  6. Estimation of snow-cover parameters using a combination of microwave and optical remote sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghedira, H.; Arevalo, J. C.; Khanbilvardi, R.

    2004-05-01

    Snow-cover parameters are being increasingly used as input to hydrological models. Furthermore, an accurate knowledge of the onset of snow melts and snow water equivalent values are important variables in different hydrological applications such as flooding prediction, reservoir management and agricultural activities. However, the traditional field sampling methods and the ground-based data collection are often very sparse, time consuming, and expensive compared to the coverage provided by remote sensing techniques. Various remote sensing techniques have been evaluated and proven to be an effective tool for snow mapping. In particular, microwave remote sensing techniques have been investigated by numerous researchers using various sensors and have been demonstrated to be effective for monitoring snow pack parameters such as spatial and temporal distribution, snow water equivalent, depth, and snow condition (wet/dry state). Those researches have resulted that the microwave brightness temperature and the microwave backscattering are related to the snow cover structure with different correlation degrees. The primary objective of this research is to produce a spatial estimation of snow water equivalent in a timely fashion with sufficient spatial and temporal resolution using multi-source microwave and optical data. The final product of this project will be an additional tool for flood warning and water resource forecasts, which can be an additional input to the actual hydrological models. The contribution of remote sensing snow related information into the advanced hydrologic prediction system (AHPS) operated by NWS/NOAA (with 4 km grid resolution) will be also evaluated. The study area is located in the north of the state of New York (42-44 N and 73-78 W). A variety of multitemporal remote sensing data (SSM/I, RADARSAT and AVHRR) acquired during three successive winters (1999-2000, 2000-2001, and 2001-2002) have been provided for this project.

  7. Remote Sensing of Vegetation Species Diversity: The Utility of Integrated Airborne Hyperspectral and Lidar Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, Keith Stuart

    The change, reduction, or extinction of species is a major issue currently facing the Earth. Efforts are underway to measure, monitor, and protect habitats that contain high species diversity. Remote sensing technology shows extreme value for monitoring species diversity by mapping ecosystems and using those land cover maps or other derived data as proxies to species number and distribution. The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) Airborne Observation Platform (AOP) consists of remote sensing instruments such as an imaging spectrometer, a full-waveform lidar, and a high-resolution color camera. AOP collected data over the Ordway-Swisher Biological Station (OSBS) in May 2014. A majority of the OSBS site is covered by the Sandhill ecosystem, which contains a very high diversity of vegetation species and is a native habitat for several threatened fauna species. The research presented here investigates ways to analyze the AOP data to map ecosystems at the OSBS site. The research attempts to leverage the high spatial resolution data and study the variability of the data within a ground plot scale along with integrating data from the different sensors. Mathematical features are derived from the data and brought into a decision tree classification algorithm (rpart), in order to create an ecosystem map for the site. The hyperspectral and lidar features serve as proxies for chemical, functional, and structural differences in the vegetation types for each of the ecosystems. K-folds cross validation shows a training accuracy of 91%, a validation accuracy of 78%, and a 66% accuracy using independent ground validation. The results presented here represent an important contribution to utilizing integrated hyperspectral and lidar remote sensing data for ecosystem mapping, by relating the spatial variability of the data within a ground plot scale to a collection of vegetation types that make up a given ecosystem.

  8. Scanning infrared remote sensing system for identification, visualization, and quantification of airborne pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harig, Roland; Matz, Gerhard; Rusch, Peter

    2002-02-01

    Remote sensing by Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry allows detection, identification, and quantification of airborne pollutants. In the case of leaks in pipelines or leaks in chemical plants, chemical accidents, terrorism, or war, hazardous compounds are often released into the atmosphere. Various Fourier-transform infrared spectrometers have been developed for the remote detection and identification of hazardous clouds. However, for the localization of a leak and a complete assessment of the situation in the case of the release of a hazardous cloud, information about the position and the size of a cloud is essential. Therefore, an imaging passive remote sensing system comprised of an interferometer (Bruker OPAG 22), a data acquisition, processing, and control system with a digital signal processor (FTIR DSP), an azimuth-elevation-scanning mirror, a video system with a DSP, and a personal computer has been developed. The FTIR DSP system controls the scanning mirror, collects the interferograms, and performs the Fourier transformation. The spectra are transferred to a personal computer and analyzed by a real-time identification algorithm that does not require background spectra for the analysis. The results are visualized by a video image, overlaid by false color images. For each target compound of a spectral library, images of the coefficient of correlation, the signal to noise ratio, the brightness temperature of the background, the difference between the temperature of the ambient air and the brightness temperature of the background, and the noise equivalent column density are produced. The column densities of all directions in which a target compound has been identified may be retrieved by a nonlinear least squares fitting algorithm and an additional false color image is displayed. The system has a high selectivity, low noise equivalent spectral radiance, and it allows identification, visualization, and quantification of pollutant clouds.

  9. Advanced Microwave Precipitation Radiometer (AMPR) for remote observation of precipitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galliano, J. A.; Platt, R. H.

    1990-01-01

    The design, development, and tests of the Advanced Microwave Precipitation Radiometer (AMPR) operating in the 10 to 85 GHz range specifically for precipitation retrieval and mesoscale storm system studies from a high altitude aircraft platform (i.e., ER-2) are described. The primary goals of AMPR are the exploitation of the scattering signal of precipitation at frequencies near 10, 19, 37, and 85 GHz together to unambiguously retrieve precipitation and storm structure and intensity information in support of proposed and planned space sensors in geostationary and low earth orbit, as well as storm-related field experiments. The development of AMPR will have an important impact on the interpretation of microwave radiances for rain retrievals over both land and ocean for the following reasons: (1) A scanning instrument, such as AMPR, will allow the unambiguous detection and analysis of features in two dimensional space, allowing an improved interpretation of signals in terms of cloud features, and microphysical and radiative processes; (2) AMPR will offer more accurate comparisons with ground-based radar data by feature matching since the navigation of the ER-2 platform can be expected to drift 3 to 4 km per hour of flight time; and (3) AMPR will allow underflights of the SSM/I satellite instrument with enough spatial coverage at the same frequencies to make meaningful comparisons of the data for precipitation studies.

  10. Microwave remote sensing and its application to soil moisture detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newton, R. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Experimental measurements were utilized to demonstrate a procedure for estimating soil moisture, using a passive microwave sensor. The investigation showed that 1.4 GHz and 10.6 GHz can be used to estimate the average soil moisture within two depths; however, it appeared that a frequency less than 10.6 GHz would be preferable for the surface measurement. Average soil moisture within two depths would provide information on the slope of the soil moisture gradient near the surface. Measurements showed that a uniform surface roughness similar to flat tilled fields reduced the sensitivity of the microwave emission to soil moisture changes. Assuming that the surface roughness was known, the approximate soil moisture estimation accuracy at 1.4 GHz calculated for a 25% average soil moisture and an 80% degree of confidence, was +3% and -6% for a smooth bare surface, +4% and -5% for a medium rough surface, and +5.5% and -6% for a rough surface.

  11. An Open Source Software and Web-GIS Based Platform for Airborne SAR Remote Sensing Data Management, Distribution and Sharing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Changyong, Dou; Huadong, Guo; Chunming, Han; Ming, Liu

    2014-03-01

    With more and more Earth observation data available to the community, how to manage and sharing these valuable remote sensing datasets is becoming an urgent issue to be solved. The web based Geographical Information Systems (GIS) technology provides a convenient way for the users in different locations to share and make use of the same dataset. In order to efficiently use the airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) remote sensing data acquired in the Airborne Remote Sensing Center of the Institute of Remote Sensing and Digital Earth (RADI), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), a Web-GIS based platform for airborne SAR data management, distribution and sharing was designed and developed. The major features of the system include map based navigation search interface, full resolution imagery shown overlaid the map, and all the software adopted in the platform are Open Source Software (OSS). The functions of the platform include browsing the imagery on the map navigation based interface, ordering and downloading data online, image dataset and user management, etc. At present, the system is under testing in RADI and will come to regular operation soon.

  12. Discrimination of soil hydraulic properties by combined thermal infrared and microwave remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandegriend, A. A.; Oneill, P. E.

    1986-01-01

    Using the De Vries models for thermal conductivity and heat capacity, thermal inertia was determined as a function of soil moisture for 12 classes of soil types ranging from sand to clay. A coupled heat and moisture balance model was used to describe the thermal behavior of the top soil, while microwave remote sensing was used to estimate the soil moisture content of the same top soil. Soil hydraulic parameters are found to be very highly correlated with the combination of soil moisture content and thermal inertia at the same moisture content. Therefore, a remotely sensed estimate of the thermal behavior of the soil from diurnal soil temperature observations and an independent remotely sensed estimate of soil moisture content gives the possibility of estimating soil hydraulic properties by remote sensing.

  13. Active Microwave Remote Sensing Observations of Weddell Sea Ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drinkwater, Mark R.

    1997-01-01

    Since July 1991, the European Space Agency's ERS-1 and ERS-2 satellites have acquired radar data of the Weddell Sea, Antarctica. The Active Microwave Instrument on board ERS has two modes; SAR and Scatterometer. Two receiving stations enable direct downlink and recording of high bit-rate, high resolution SAR image data of this region. When not in an imaging mode, when direct SAR downlink is not possible, or when a receiving station is inoperable, the latter mode allows normalized radar cross-section data to be acquired. These low bit-rate ERS scatterometer data are tape recorded, downlinked and processed off-line. Recent advances in image generation from Scatterometer backscatter measurements enable complementary medium-scale resolution images to be made during periods when SAR images cannot be acquired. Together, these combined C-band microwave image data have for the first time enabled uninterrupted night and day coverage of the Weddell Sea region at both high (25 m) and medium-scale (-20 km) resolutions. C-band ERS-1 radar data are analyzed in conjunction with field data from two simultaneous field experiments in 1992. Satellite radar signature data are compared with shipborne radar data to extract a regional and seasonal signature database for recognition of ice types in the images. Performance of automated sea-ice tracking algorithms is tested on Antarctic data to evaluate their success. Examples demonstrate that both winter and summer ice can be effectively tracked. The kinematics of the main ice zones within the Weddell Sea are illustrated, together with the complementary time-dependencies in their radar signatures. Time-series of satellite images are used to illustrate the development of the Weddell Sea ice cover from its austral summer minimum (February) to its winter maximum (September). The combination of time-dependent microwave signatures and ice dynamics tracking enable various drift regimes to be defined which relate closely to the circulation of the

  14. Developing a Scalable Remote Sampling Design for the NEON Airborne Observation Platform (AOP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musinsky, J.; Wasser, L. A.; Kampe, T. U.; Leisso, N.; Krause, K.; Petroy, S. B.; Cawse-Nicholson, K.; van Aardt, J. A.; Serbin, S.

    2013-12-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) airborne observation platform (AOP) will collect co-registered high-resolution hyperspectral imagery, discrete and waveform LiDAR, and high-resolution digital photography for more than 60 terrestrial and 23 aquatic sites spread across the continental United States, Puerto Rico, Alaska and Hawaii on an annual basis over the next 30 years. These data, to be made freely available to the public, will facilitate the scaling of field-based biological, physical and chemical measurements to regional and continental scales, enabling a better understanding of the relationships between climate variability and change, land use change and invasive species, and their ecological consequences in areas not directly sampled by the NEON facilities. However, successful up-scaling of in situ measurements requires a flight sampling design that captures environmental heterogeneity and diversity (i.e., ecological and topographic gradients), is sensitive to temporal system variation (e.g., phenology), and can respond to major disturbance events. Alignment of airborne campaigns - composed of two payloads for nominal science acquisitions and one payload for PI-driven rapid-response campaigns -- with other ground, airborne (e.g., AVIRIS) and satellite (e.g., Landsat, MODIS) collections will further facilitate scaling between sensors and data sources of varying spatial and spectral resolution and extent. This presentation will discuss the approach, challenges and future goals associated with the development of NEON AOP's sampling design, using examples from the 2013 nominal flight campaigns in the Central Plains (NEON Domain 10) and the Pacific Southwest (Domain 17), and the rapid response flight campaign of the High Park Fire site outside of Fort Collins, CO. Determination of the specific flight coverage areas for each campaign involved analysis of the landscape scale ecological, geophysical and bioclimatic attributes and trends most closely

  15. Supporting relief efforts of the 2010 Haitian earthquake using an airborne multimodal remote sensing platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faulring, Jason W.; McKeown, Donald M.; van Aardt, Jan; Casterline, May V.; Bartlett, Brent D.; Raqueno, Nina

    2011-06-01

    The small island nation of Haiti was devastated in early 2010 following a massive 7.0 earthquake that brought about widespread destruction of infrastructure, many deaths and large-scale displacement of the population in the nation's major cities. The World Bank and ImageCat, Inc tasked the Rochester Institute of Technology's (RIT) Wildfire Airborne Sensor Platform (WASP) to gather a multi-spectral and multi-modal assessment of the disaster over a seven-day period to be used for relief and reconstruction efforts. Traditionally, private sector aerial remote sensing platforms work on processing and product delivery timelines measured in days, a scenario that has the potential to reduce the value of the data in time-sensitive situations such as those found in responding to a disaster. This paper will describe the methodologies and practices used by RIT to deliver an open set of products typically within a twenty-four hour period from when they were initially collected. Response to the Haiti disaster can be broken down into four major sections: 1) data collection and logistics, 2) transmission of raw data from a remote location to a central processing and dissemination location, 3) rapid image processing of a massive amount of raw data, and 4) dissemination of processed data to global organizations utilizing it to provide the maximum benefit. Each section required it's own major effort to ensure the success of the overall mission. A discussion of each section will be provided along with an analysis of methods that could be implemented in future exercises to increase efficiency and effectiveness.

  16. Monitoring Ephemeral Streams Using Airborne Very High Resolution Multispectral Remote Sensing in Arid Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamada, Y.; O'Connor, B. L.

    2012-12-01

    Development in arid environments often results in the loss and degradation of the ephemeral streams that provide habitat and critical ecosystem functions such as water delivery, sediment transport, and groundwater recharge. Quantification of these ecosystem functions is challenging because of the episodic nature of runoff events in desert landscapes and the large spatial scale of watersheds that potentially can be impacted by large-scale development. Low-impact development guidelines and regulatory protection of ephemeral streams are often lacking due to the difficulty of accurately mapping and quantifying the critical functions of ephemeral streams at scales larger than individual reaches. Renewable energy development in arid regions has the potential to disturb ephemeral streams at the watershed scale, and it is necessary to develop environmental monitoring applications for ephemeral streams to help inform land management and regulatory actions aimed at protecting and mitigating for impacts related to large-scale land disturbances. This study focuses on developing remote sensing methodologies to identify and monitor impacts on ephemeral streams resulting from the land disturbance associated with utility-scale solar energy development in the desert southwest of the United States. Airborne very high resolution (VHR) multispectral imagery is used to produce stereoscopic, three-dimensional landscape models that can be used to (1) identify and map ephemeral stream channel networks, and (2) support analyses and models of hydrologic and sediment transport processes that pertain to the critical functionality of ephemeral streams. Spectral and statistical analyses are being developed to extract information about ephemeral channel location and extent, micro-topography, riparian vegetation, and soil moisture characteristics. This presentation will demonstrate initial results and provide a framework for future work associated with this project, for developing the necessary

  17. Characterization of vegetation by microwave and optical remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daughtry, C. S. T. (Principal Investigator); Ranson, K. J.; Biehl, L. L.

    1986-01-01

    Two series of carefully controlled experiments were conducted. First, plots of important crops (corn, soybeans, and sorghum), prairie grasses (big bluestem, switchgrass, tal fescue, orchardgrass, bromegrass), and forage legumes (alfalfa, red clover, and crown vetch) were manipulated to produce wide ranges of phytomass, leaf area index, and canopy architecture. Second, coniferous forest canopies were simulated using small balsam fir trees grown in large pots of soil and arranged systematically on a large (5 m) platform. Rotating the platform produced many new canopies for frequency and spatial averaging of the backscatter signal. In both series of experiments, backscatter of 5.0 GHz (C-Band) was measured as a function of view angle and polarization. Biophysical measurements included leaf area index, fresh and dry phytomass, water content of canopy elements, canopy height, and soil roughness and moisture content. For a subset of the above plots, additional measurements were acquired to exercise microwave backscatter models. These measurements included size and shape of leaves, stems, and fruit and the probability density function of leaf and stem angles. The relationships of the backscattering coefficients and the biophysical properties of the canopies were evaluated using statistical correlations, analysis of variance, and regression analysis. Results from the corn density and balsam fir experiments are discussed and analyses of data from the other experiments are summarized.

  18. A summary of microwave remote sensing investigations planned for BOREAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, Kyle C.

    1993-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem - Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) is a multidisciplinary field and remote sensing study that will be implemented jointly by the United States and Canada. The goal of BOREAS is to obtain an improved understanding of the interactions between the boreal forest biome and the atmosphere in order to clarify their roles in global change. Specific objectives are to improve the understanding of the processes that govern the exchanges of water, energy, heat, carbon, and trace gases between boreal ecosystems and the atmosphere, and to develop and validate remote sensing algorithms for transferring the understanding of these processes from local to regional scales. Two principal field sites, both within Canada, were selected. The northern site is located near Thompson, Manitoba, and the southern site encompasses Prince Albert National Park in Saskatchewan. The growing season in the northern site tends to be limited by growing-degree days while the southern site is limited by soil moisture and fire frequency. Most of the field work will occur at these two sites during 1993 and 1994 as part of six field campaigns. The first of these campaigns is scheduled for August 1993 and will involve instrument installation and an operational shakedown. Three large scale Intensive Field Campaigns (IFC's) are scheduled for 1994, along with two smaller scale Focused Field Campaigns (FFC's). The first 1994 campaign will be an FFC designed to capture the biome under completely frozen conditions during the winter. The second FFC and the first IFC are scheduled to capture the spring thaw period. Another IFC will take place in the summer during a period of maximum water stress. Finally, the third FFC will be scheduled to capture the collapse into senescence during the fall.

  19. Optical design of high resolution and large format CCD airborne remote sensing camera on unmanned aerial vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Yixian; Cheng, Xiaowei; Shao, Jie

    2010-11-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicle remote sensing (UAVRS) is lower in cost, flexible on task arrangement and automatic and intelligent in application, it has been used widely for mapping, surveillance, reconnaissance and city planning. Airborne remote sensing missions require sensors with both high resolution and large fields of view, large format CCD digital airborne imaging systems are now a reality. A refractive system was designed to meet the requirements with the help of code V software, It has a focal length of 150mm, F number of 5.6, waveband of 0.45~0.7um, and field of view reaches 20°. It is shown that the value of modulation transfer function is higher than 0.5 at 55lp/mm, distortion is less than 0.1%, image quality reaches the diffraction limit. The system with large format CCD and wide field can satisfy the demand of the wide ground overlay area and high resolution. The optical system with simpler structure, smaller size and lighter weight, can be used in airborne remote sensing.

  20. A Nadir-adjusted Airborne Multi Spectral Imaging System (NAMSIS) for high-resolution remote sensing of carbon fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Z.; Scott, S.; Rahman, A. F.

    2012-12-01

    Satellite remote sensing is widely used in vegetation monitoring, water stress detection and carbon cycle modeling. However, image pixels from high temporal resolution satellite sensors (such as MODIS) have coarse spatial resolution, much larger than the canopies they are supposed to characterize. An alternative solution for on-demand high spatial resolution remote sensing is sensors onboard low-flying aircrafts. Airborne remote sensing has been traditionally used in crop management studies. In this presentation we demonstrate the application of a relatively low-cost airborne sensor system with customized spectral band combinations for studying forest carbon fluxes. Our team has developed an Inertia Measurement Unit (IMU) controlled automated system to detach aircraft movements (pitch and roll) and engine vibration from the six-band programmable imager, in order to maintain the sensor at nadir view at all times during the flight. Flight lines are configured by a GPS-controleld system to simulate MODIS pixels. A feature-based algorithm is used to automatically generate a mosaic of individual images along the flight lines. This algorithm eliminates the need to mosiac and georeference images manually. An empirical line method is used to calculate reflectance from the raw data. Images from this airborne system produce reflectance values that are comparable with MODIS reflectance product. These high spatial resolution (~0.5 m) images deliver detailed information about tree species and phenological conditions within each MODIS pixel, and thus permit a high resolution spatio-temporal assessment of forest carbon fluxes.

  1. Remote tree species identification in a diverse tropical forest using airborne imaging spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldeck, C.; Asner, G. P.; Kellner, J. R.; Martin, R.; Anderson, C.; Knapp, D. E.

    2013-12-01

    Plant species identification and mapping based on remotely-sensed spectral signatures is a challenging task with the potential to contribute enormously to ecological studies. This task is especially difficult in highly diverse ecosystems such as tropical forests, and for these ecosystems it may be more strategic to direct efforts to identifying crowns of a focal species. We used imaging spectrometer data collected by the Carnegie Airborne Observatory over Barro Colorado Island, Panama, to develop classification models for the identification of tree crowns belonging to selected focal species. We explored alternative methods for detecting crowns of focal species, which included binary, one-class, and biased support vector machines (SVM). Best performance was given by binary and biased SVM, with poor performance observed for one-class SVM. Binary and biased SVM were able to identify crowns of focal species with classification sensitivity and specificity of 87-91% and 89-94%, respectively. The main tradeoff between binary and biased SVM is that construction of binary SVM requires a far greater amount of training data while biased SVM is more difficult to parameterize. Our results show that with sufficient training data, focal species can be mapped with a high degree of accuracy, in terms of both sensitivity and specificity, in this diverse tropical forest.

  2. Operational considerations for the application of remotely sensed forest data from LANDSAT or other airborne platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, G. R.; Fethe, T. P.

    1975-01-01

    Research in the application of remotely sensed data from LANDSAT or other airborne platforms to the efficient management of a large timber based forest industry was divided into three phases: (1) establishment of a photo/ground sample correlation, (2) investigation of techniques for multi-spectral digital analysis, and (3) development of a semi-automated multi-level sampling system. To properly verify results, three distinct test areas were selected: (1) Jacksonville Mill Region, Lower Coastal Plain, Flatwoods, (2) Pensacola Mill Region, Middle Coastal Plain, and (3) Mississippi Mill Region, Middle Coastal Plain. The following conclusions were reached: (1) the probability of establishing an information base suitable for management requirements through a photo/ground double sampling procedure, alleviating the ground sampling effort, is encouraging, (2) known classification techniques must be investigated to ascertain the level of precision possible in separating the many densities involved, and (3) the multi-level approach must be related to an information system that is executable and feasible.

  3. Remote detection of water stress in orchard canopies using MODIS/ASTER airborne simulator (MASTER) data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Tao; Riaño, David; Koltunov, Alexander; Whiting, Michael L.; Ustin, Susan L.

    2011-09-01

    Vegetation canopy water content (CWC) is an important parameter for monitoring natural and agricultural ecosystems. Previous studies focused on the observation of annual or monthly variations in CWC but lacked temporal details to study vegetation physiological activities within a diurnal cycle. This study provides an evaluation of detecting vegetation diurnal water stress using airborne data acquired with the MASTER instrument. Concurrent with the morning and afternoon acquisitions of MASTER data, an extensive field campaign was conducted over almond and pistachio orchards in southern San Joaquin Valley of California to collect CWC measurements. Statistical analysis of the field measurements indicated a significant decrease of CWC from morning to afternoon. Field measured CWC was linearly correlated to the normalized difference infrared index (NDII) calculated with atmospherically corrected MASTER reflectance data using either FLAASH or empirical line (EL). Our regression analysis demonstrated that both atmospheric corrections led to a root mean square error (RMSE) of approximately 0.035 kg/m2 for the estimation of CWC (R2=0.42 for FLAASH images and R2=0.45 for EL images). Remote detection of the subtle decline in CWC awaits an improved prediction of CWC. Diurnal CWC maps revealed the spatial patterns of vegetation water status in response to variations in irrigation treatment.

  4. Estimation of Soil Moisture Profile using a Simple Hydrology Model and Passive Microwave Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soman, Vishwas V.; Crosson, William L.; Laymon, Charles; Tsegaye, Teferi

    1998-01-01

    Soil moisture is an important component of analysis in many Earth science disciplines. Soil moisture information can be obtained either by using microwave remote sensing or by using a hydrologic model. In this study, we combined these two approaches to increase the accuracy of profile soil moisture estimation. A hydrologic model was used to analyze the errors in the estimation of soil moisture using the data collected during Huntsville '96 microwave remote sensing experiment in Huntsville, Alabama. Root mean square errors (RMSE) in soil moisture estimation increase by 22% with increase in the model input interval from 6 hr to 12 hr for the grass-covered plot. RMSEs were reduced for given model time step by 20-50% when model soil moisture estimates were updated using remotely-sensed data. This methodology has a potential to be employed in soil moisture estimation using rainfall data collected by a space-borne sensor, such as the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite, if remotely-sensed data are available to update the model estimates.

  5. Microwave Interferometric Radiometry in Remote Sensing: an Invited Historical Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin-Neira, M.; LeVine, D. M.; Kerr, Y.; Skou, N.; Peichl, M.; Camps, A.; Corbella, I.; Hallikainen, M.; Font, J.; Wu, J.; Mecklenburg, S.; Drusch, M.

    2014-01-01

    The launch of the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission on 2 November 2009 marked a milestone in remote sensing for it was the first time a radiometer capable of acquiring wide field of view images at every single snapshot, a unique feature of the synthetic aperture technique, made it to space. The technology behind such an achievement was developed, thanks to the effort of a community of researchers and engineers in different groups around the world. It was only because of their joint work that SMOS finally became a reality. The fact that the European Space Agency, together with CNES (Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales) and CDTI (Centro para el Desarrollo Tecnológico e Industrial), managed to get the project through should be considered a merit and a reward for that entire community. This paper is an invited historical review that, within a very limited number of pages, tries to provide insight into some of the developments which, one way or another, are imprinted in the name of SMOS.

  6. Microwave interferometric radiometry in remote sensing: An invited historical review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín-Neira, M.; LeVine, D. M.; Kerr, Y.; Skou, N.; Peichl, M.; Camps, A.; Corbella, I.; Hallikainen, M.; Font, J.; Wu, J.; Mecklenburg, S.; Drusch, M.

    2014-06-01

    The launch of the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission on 2 November 2009 marked a milestone in remote sensing for it was the first time a radiometer capable of acquiring wide field of view images at every single snapshot, a unique feature of the synthetic aperture technique, made it to space. The technology behind such an achievement was developed, thanks to the effort of a community of researchers and engineers in different groups around the world. It was only because of their joint work that SMOS finally became a reality. The fact that the European Space Agency, together with CNES (Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales) and CDTI (Centro para el Desarrollo Tecnológico e Industrial), managed to get the project through should be considered a merit and a reward for that entire community. This paper is an invited historical review that, within a very limited number of pages, tries to provide insight into some of the developments which, one way or another, are imprinted in the name of SMOS.

  7. Sea surface signature of tropical cyclones using microwave remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kil, Bumjun; Burrage, Derek; Wesson, Joel; Howden, Stephan

    2013-06-01

    Measuring the sea surface during tropical cyclones (TC) is challenging due to severe weather conditions that prevent shipboard measurements and clouds which mask the sea surface for visible satellite sensors. However, sea surface emission in the microwave L-band can penetrate rain and clouds and be measured from space. The European Space Agency (ESA) MIRAS L-band radiometer on the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite enables a view of the sea surface from which the effects of tropical cyclones on sea surface emissivity can be measured. The emissivity at these frequencies is a function of sea surface salinity (SSS), sea surface temperature (SST), sea surface roughness, polarization, and angle of emission. If the latter four variables can be estimated, then models of the sea surface emissivity can be used to invert SSS from measured brightness temperature (TB). Actual measured TB from space also has affects due to the ionosphere and troposphere, which have to be compensated for, and components due to the galactic and cosmic background radiation those have to be removed. In this research, we study the relationships between retrieved SSS from MIRAS, and SST and precipitation collected by the NASA TMI sensor from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite during Hurricane Isaac, in August 2012. During the slower movement of the storm, just before landfall on the vicinity of the Louisiana Shelf, higher precipitation amounts were associated with lower SSS and slightly increased SST. This increased trend of SST and lower SSS under regions of high precipitation are indicative of inhibited vertical mixing. The SMOS Level 2 SSS were filtered by a stepwise process with removal of high uncertainty in TB under conditions of strong surface roughness which are known to create noise. The signature of increased SST associated with increasing precipitation was associated with decreased SSS during the storm. Although further research is required, this study

  8. RESPONSES OF AIRBORNE BIOTA TO MICROWAVE TRANSMISSION FROM SATELLITE POWER SYSTEM (SPS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of this program is to determine whether microwave irradiation adversely alters a wide-range of complex avian behavior modes that are essential to their survival. Effects of microwaves (2.45 GHz) have been studied extensively in mammalian species, e.g., rats, mice, rabbit...

  9. High Spatial Resolution Airborne Multispectral Thermal Infrared Remote Sensing Data for Analysis of Urban Landscape Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Estes, Maurice G., Jr.; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    We have used airborne multispectral thermal infrared (TIR) remote sensing data collected at a high spatial resolution (i.e., 10m) over several cities in the United States to study thermal energy characteristics of the urban landscape. These TIR data provide a unique opportunity to quantify thermal responses from discrete surfaces typical of the urban landscape and to identify both the spatial arrangement and patterns of thermal processes across the city. The information obtained from these data is critical to understanding how urban surfaces drive or force development of the Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect, which exists as a dome of elevated air temperatures that presides over cities in contrast to surrounding non-urbanized areas. The UHI is most pronounced in the summertime where urban surfaces, such as rooftops and pavement, store solar radiation throughout the day, and release this stored energy slowly after sunset creating air temperatures over the city that are in excess of 2-4'C warmer in contrast with non-urban or rural air temperatures. The UHI can also exist as a daytime phenomenon with surface temperatures in downtown areas of cities exceeding 38'C. The implications of the UHI are significant, particularly as an additive source of thermal energy input that exacerbates the overall production of ground level ozone over cities. We have used the Airborne Thermal and Land Applications Sensor (ATLAS), flown onboard a Lear 23 jet aircraft from the NASA Stennis Space Center, to acquire high spatial resolution multispectral TIR data (i.e., 6 bandwidths between 8.2-12.2 (um) over Huntsville, Alabama, Atlanta, Georgia, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, Salt Lake City, Utah, and Sacramento, California. These TIR data have been used to produce maps and other products, showing the spatial distribution of heating and cooling patterns over these cities to better understand how the morphology of the urban landscape affects development of the UHI. In turn, these data have been used

  10. CASI/SASI airborne hyperspectral remote sensing anomaly extraction of metallogenic prediction research in Gansu Beishan South Beach area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Che, Yongfei; Zhao, Yingjun

    2014-11-01

    Hyperspectral remote sensing has one of the technical advantages atlas. The known deposits of Gansu Beishan South Beach deposits as the study area, based on the theory of wall rock alteration, using airborne hyperspectral remote sensing data (CASI/SASI), extracted mineralization alteration information and analysis. Based on airborne hyperspectral remote sensing mineral mapping results in the study area, Combining analysising of possible mineral formation fluid properties, spatial distribution characteristics and time evolution with analysising of mineral formation environment (lithology and tectonic environment), construction of the South Beach gold deposit location model, the deposit location model as a guide, comprehensive analysis of mineralization geological background and surface geochemical data, delineated mineralization favorable areas. The field investigation showed that signs of altered development of strong in the delineation of the mineralization favorable areas and metallogenic potential of better, is worth paying attention to the prospecting target area. Further explanation that the hyperspectral remote sensing can provide accurate and reliable information for the prospecting, and is worthy of further mining the ore prospecting potential.

  11. Use of airborne remote sensing to detect riverside Brassica rapa to aid in risk assessment of transgenic crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, Luisa M.; Mason, David C.; Allainguillaume, Joel; Wilkinson, Mike J.

    2009-11-01

    High resolution descriptions of plant distribution have utility for many ecological applications but are especially useful for predictive modeling of gene flow from transgenic crops. Difficulty lies in the extrapolation errors that occur when limited ground survey data are scaled up to the landscape or national level. This problem is epitomized by the wide confidence limits generated in a previous attempt to describe the national abundance of riverside Brassica rapa (a wild relative of cultivated rapeseed) across the United Kingdom. Here, we assess the value of airborne remote sensing to locate B. rapa over large areas and so reduce the need for extrapolation. We describe results from flights over the river Nene in England acquired using Airborne Thematic Mapper (ATM) and Compact Airborne Spectrographic Imager (CASI) imagery, together with ground truth data. It proved possible to detect 97% of flowering B. rapa on the basis of spectral profiles. This included all stands of plants that occupied >2m square (>5 plants), which were detected using single-pixel classification. It also included very small populations (<5 flowering plants, 1-2m square) that generated mixed pixels, which were detected using spectral unmixing. The high detection accuracy for flowering B. rapa was coupled with a rather large false positive rate (43%). The latter could be reduced by using the image detections to target fieldwork to confirm species identity, or by acquiring additional remote sensing data such as laser altimetry or multitemporal imagery.

  12. Icepod: A modular approach to the development of an airborne remote sensing and data acquisition platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frearson, N.; Bell, R. E.; Tinto, K. J.; Zappa, C. J.

    2013-12-01

    The New York Air National Guard [NYANG] provides regular airborne support to the National Science Foundation [NSF] moving science parties and their equipment onto and around the ice-sheets in both polar regions during the respective summer seasons. Icepod has been developed to utilize this readily available resource, providing the aircraft with a modular external pod attached to the rear-paratrooper door on either side of the NYANG's ski-equipped LC-130s. The pod is divided into five separate bays each approximately a 2ft cube within which can be mounted an array of remote sensors. Power, heating, sensor control and data management services are provided to each bay. An Ethernet network is used to transfer commands and data packets between the individual sensors and data acquisition system located inside the aircraft. Data for each sensor is stored on ruggedized and removable hard-drives that can be taken off the aircraft at the end of a flight for further analysis. In its current configuration the pod is equipped for the remote sensing of ice sheets and their margins and the bay's contain two radar systems, radar antennas, a vibration isolated optics bay including a scanning laser, Infra-red camera and high-definition visible wave camera. Sensor data is geo-referenced using GNSS and orientation sensors located inside the pod. A Pyrometer provides the downward looking IR Camera with the current sky temperature. In January 2013, the Icepod system was flight certified at the Stratton air base in Schenectady, New York. The system deployed to Greenland in April and July 2013 to test the instrumentation suite over ice and its ease of deployment with the NYANG. Icepod can be operated in two modes, a traditional dedicated science flight mode and a piggy-back mode. In piggy-back mode science parties and their cargo are delivered to their destinations with Icepod installed but stowed. Once they have been delivered the Icepod is deployed and measurements can be taken on the

  13. Vineyard zonal management for grape quality assessment by combining airborne remote sensed imagery and soil sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonilla, I.; Martínez De Toda, F.; Martínez-Casasnovas, J. A.

    2014-10-01

    Vineyard variability within the fields is well known by grape growers, producing different plant responses and fruit characteristics. Many technologies have been developed in last recent decades in order to assess this spatial variability, including remote sensing and soil sensors. In this paper we study the possibility of creating a stable classification system that better provides useful information for the grower, especially in terms of grape batch quality sorting. The work was carried out during 4 years in a rain-fed Tempranillo vineyard located in Rioja (Spain). NDVI was extracted from airborne imagery, and soil conductivity (EC) data was acquired by an EM38 sensor. Fifty-four vines were sampled at véraison for vegetative parameters and before harvest for yield and grape analysis. An Isocluster unsupervised classification in two classes was performed in 5 different ways, combining NDVI maps individually, collectively and combined with EC. The target vines were assigned in different zones depending on the clustering combination. Analysis of variance was performed in order to verify the ability of the combinations to provide the most accurate information. All combinations showed a similar behaviour concerning vegetative parameters. Yield parameters classify better by the EC-based clustering, whilst maturity grape parameters seemed to give more accuracy by combining all NDVIs and EC. Quality grape parameters (anthocyanins and phenolics), presented similar results for all combinations except for the NDVI map of the individual year, where the results were poorer. This results reveal that stable parameters (EC or/and NDVI all-together) clustering outcomes in better information for a vineyard zonal management strategy.

  14. Using High-Resolution Airborne Remote Sensing to Study Aerosol Near Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levy, Robert; Munchak, Leigh; Mattoo, Shana; Marshak, Alexander; Wilcox, Eric; Gao, Lan; Yorks, John; Platnick, Steven

    2016-01-01

    The horizontal space in between clear and cloudy air is very complex. This so-called twilight zone includes activated aerosols that are not quite clouds, thin cloud fragments that are not easily observable, and dying clouds that have not quite disappeared. This is a huge challenge for satellite remote sensing, specifically for retrieval of aerosol properties. Identifying what is cloud versus what is not cloud is critically important for attributing radiative effects and forcings to aerosols. At the same time, the radiative interactions between clouds and the surrounding media (molecules, surface and aerosols themselves) will contaminate retrieval of aerosol properties, even in clear skies. Most studies on aerosol cloud interactions are relevant to moderate resolution imagery (e.g. 500 m) from sensors such as MODIS. Since standard aerosol retrieval algorithms tend to keep a distance (e.g. 1 km) from the nearest detected cloud, it is impossible to evaluate what happens closer to the cloud. During Studies of Emissions, Atmospheric Composition, Clouds and Climate Coupling by Regional Surveys (SEAC4RS), the NASA ER-2 flew with the enhanced MODIS Airborne Simulator (eMAS), providing MODIS-like spectral observations at high (50 m) spatial resolution. We have applied MODIS-like aerosol retrieval for the eMAS data, providing new detail to characterization of aerosol near clouds. Interpretation and evaluation of these eMAS aerosol retrievals is aided by independent MODIS-like cloud retrievals, as well as profiles from the co-flying Cloud Physics Lidar (CPL). Understanding aerosolcloud retrieval at high resolution will lead to better characterization and interpretation of long-term, global products from lower resolution (e.g.MODIS) satellite retrievals.

  15. Microwave remote sensing of physically buried objects in the Negev desert: Implications for subsurface Martian exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniels, Julian; Blumberg, Dan G.; Vulfson, Leonid D.; Kotlyar, Alex L.; Freiliker, Valentin; Ronen, Gefen; Ben-Asher, Jiftach

    2003-03-01

    We report the remote detection of a physically buried specular reflecting object using microwave radar at Ashalim in the northern region of the Negev desert, Israel. Such detection provides an important terrestrial analogy for the potential detection of specularly reflecting subsurfaces under the desiccated regolith on Mars, such as ground-ice and liquid water. At Ashalim, a scatterometer operating in the P-band (441 MHz, 68 cm) was mounted on a cherry picker truck at a height of 8 m and used to detect two triangular aluminum mesh reflectors (forming a one meter square area reflector) buried down to a depth of 8 cm in dry sand. The decrease in measured backscattered power with increasing burial depth of the reflector is clearly evident. The experimental results compare well with a theoretical model that incorporates radar absorption effects arising in the sandy subsurface layer and radar interference effects arising from phase differences between reflections from the surface and buried reflector. This experiment and the associated modeling approach is the first of a series of planned experiments, which we outline for the detection and the theoretical evaluation of buried reflectors using remote microwave and VHF radar. We identify many potential subject areas for subsurface remote sensing in the Martian domain, particularly groundwater/ground-ice.

  16. Using Multi-Dimensional Microwave Remote Sensing Information for the Retrieval of Soil Surface Roughness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzahn, P.; Ludwig, R.

    2016-06-01

    In this Paper the potential of multi parametric polarimetric SAR (PolSAR) data for soil surface roughness estimation is investigated and its potential for hydrological modeling is evaluated. The study utilizes microwave backscatter collected from the Demmin testsite in the North-East Germany during AgriSAR 2006 campaign using fully polarimetric L-Band airborne SAR data. For ground truthing extensive soil surface roughness in addition to various other soil physical properties measurements were carried out using photogrammetric image matching techniques. The correlation between ground truth roughness indices and three well established polarimetric roughness estimators showed only good results for Re[ρRRLL] and the RMS Height s. Results in form of multitemporal roughness maps showed only satisfying results due to the fact that the presence and development of particular plants affected the derivation. However roughness derivation for bare soil surfaces showed promising results.

  17. Inversion algorithms for the microwave remote sensing of soil moisture. Experiments with swept frequency microwaves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hancock, G. D.; Waite, W. P.

    1984-01-01

    Two experiments were performed employing swept frequency microwaves for the purpose of investigating the reflectivity from soil volumes containing both discontinuous and continuous changes in subsurface soil moisture content. Discontinuous moisture profiles were artificially created in the laboratory while continuous moisture profiles were induced into the soil of test plots by the environment of an agricultural field. The reflectivity for both the laboratory and field experiments was measured using bi-static reflectometers operated over the frequency ranges of 1.0 to 2.0 GHz and 4.0 to 8.0 GHz. Reflectivity models that considered the discontinuous and continuous moisture profiles within the soil volume were developed and compared with the results of the experiments. This comparison shows good agreement between the smooth surface models and the measurements. In particular the comparison of the smooth surface multi-layer model for continuous moisture profiles and the yield experiment measurements points out the sensitivity of the specular component of the scattered electromagnetic energy to the movement of moisture in the soil.

  18. Correlating rainfall with remotely sensed microwave radiation using physically based models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Camillo, P. J.; Schmugge, T. J.

    1984-01-01

    This simulation study evaluates the response of a 21-cm radiometer, measuring the radiation emitted by a bare soil, to varying accumulations of rain. It is shown that correlations between the decrease in emissivity after a rain storm and the total accumulation depend strongly on the physical characteristics of the soil which affect its capacity to hold water. These are primarily soil texture and pre-rain soil moisture. A method is also discussed which would use the numerical models with remotely sensed microwave brightness and surface physical temperatures, along with conventional weather data, to estimate the total accumulation.

  19. Future Challenges for Microwave Remote Sensing in Support of Earth Sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hildebrand, Peter H.; Zukor, Dorothy J. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The presentation will include an overview of leading Earth Science scientific problems that can be addressed using microwave remote sensing, including soil moisture, precipitation, sea salinity, sea surface winds, atmospheric profiling, etc. Using this basis of scientific measurement, the presentation will outline current technological impediments to implementing new measurement system, concentrating on a few example approaches to new technology, such as the conceptual design tradeoffs and capability improvements represented by a fleet of inexpensive nano-satellites, versus geostationary large aperture sensing systems. The outlook for measurement capabilities will be traded against the expected technological hurdles.

  20. Airborne Sunphotometer Studies of Aerosol Properties and Effects, Including Closure Among Satellite, Suborbital Remote, and In situ Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russlee, Philip B.; Schmid, B.; Redemann, J.; Livingston, J. M.; Bergstrom, R. W.; Ramirez, S. A.; Hipskind, R. Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Airborne sunphotometry has been used to measure aerosols from North America, Europe, and Africa in coordination with satellite and in situ measurements in TARFOX (1996), ACE-2 (1997), PRIDE (2000), and SAFARI 2000. Similar coordinated measurements of Asian aerosols are being conducted this spring in ACE-Asia and are planned for North American aerosols this summer in CLAMS. This paper summarizes the approaches used, key results, and implications for aerosol properties and effects, such as single scattering albedo and regional radiative forcing. The approaches exploit the three-dimensional mobility of airborne sunphotometry to access satellite scenes over diverse surfaces (including open ocean with and without sunglint) and to match exactly the atmospheric layers sampled by airborne in situ measurements and other radiometers. These measurements permit tests of the consistency, or closure, among such diverse measurements as aerosol size-resolved chemical composition; number or mass concentration; light extinction, absorption, and scattering (total, hemispheric back and 180 deg.); and radiative fluxes. In this way the airborne sunphotometer measurements provide a key link between satellite and in situ measurements that helps to understand any discrepancies that are found. These comparisons have led to several characteristic results. Typically these include: (1) Better agreement among different types of remote measurements than between remote and in situ measurements. (2) More extinction derived from transmission measurements than from in situ measurements. (3) Larger aerosol absorption inferred from flux radiometry than from in situ measurements. Aerosol intensive properties derived from these closure studies have been combined with satellite-retrieved fields of optical depth to produce fields of regional radiative forcing. We show results for the North Atlantic derived from AVHRR optical depths and aerosol intensive properties from TARFOX and ACE-2. Companion papers

  1. Allometric Relationships in Soybean to Estimate the Effect of Vegetation on Microwave Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spencer, A. J.; Hornbuckle, B. K.; Patton, J.

    2011-12-01

    Microwave remote sensing is capable of developing soil moisture maps through satellite data. The resulting maps are useful indicators of hydrologic conditions. Water concentrations are deterministic of flooding events and potential agricultural resources. The emitted microwave radiation of soil is influenced by its moisture content. Models have been developed to incorporate parameters besides soil moisture that affect the emitted microwave radiation. We are interested in one of these parameters known as the optical depth. Optical depth is the effect of the canopy on the observed emission of microwaves. The vegetation directly competes with soil moisture as a contributor to the emitted microwave radiation and the optical depth appears within every term in the present satellite retrieval algorithm. Optical depth has been shown to be directly proportional to the amount of water contained within vegetation tissue. Allometry is a way to effectively and efficiently measure vegetation water content through the way the parts of the organism change in proportion to each other in response to growth. Vegetation water content is difficult to measure without taking destructive measurements, in addition to involving too much time and manual labor. Therefore, another component of vegetation can be measured in relation to vegetation water content which can then be related to optical depth. In our study we worked in soybean, a major crop in many areas of the world. We compared soybean vegetation water content to an estimate of the volume of an individual plant expressed as the product of canopy height and stem diameter squared (Zc*Sd2), both of which can be measured easily and nondestructively. We also wished to determine whether vegetation water content remained constant as a percentage to total biomass over the length of the growing season. Agricultural yield is most likely a function of the total dry mass of vegetation. Establishing the relationship between vegetation water

  2. COMET: a planned airborne mission to simultaneously measure CO2 and CH4 columns using airborne remote sensing and in-situ techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fix, A.; Amediek, A.; Büdenbender, C.; Ehret, G.; Wirth, M.; Quatrevalet, M.; Rapp, M.; Gerilowski, K.; Bovensmann, H.; Gerbig, C.; Pfeilsticker, K.; Zöger, M.; Giez, A.

    2013-12-01

    To better predict future trends in the cycles of the most important anthropogenic greenhouse gases, CO2 and CH4, there is a need to measure and understand their distribution and variation on various scales. To address these requirements it is envisaged to deploy a suite of state-of-the-art airborne instruments that will be capable to simultaneously measure the column averaged dry-air mixing ratios (XGHG) of both greenhouse gases along the flight path. As the measurement platform serves the research aircraft HALO, a modified Gulfstream G550, operated by DLR. This activity is dubbed CoMet (CO2 and Methane Mission). The instrument package of CoMet will consist of active and passive remote sensors as well as in-situ instruments to complement the column measurements by highly-resolved profile information. As an active remote sensing instrument CHARM-F, the integrated-path differential absorption lidar currently under development at DLR, will provide both, XCO2 and XCH4, below flight altitude. The lidar instrument will be complemented by MAMAP which is a NIR/SWIR absorption spectrometer developed by University of Bremen and which is also capable to derive XCH4 and XCO2. As an additional passive instrument, mini-DOAS operated by University of Heidelberg will contribute with additional context information about the investigated air masses. In order to compare the remote sensing instruments with integrated profile information, in-situ instrumentation is indispensable. The in-situ package will therefore comprise wavelength-scanned Cavity-Ring-Down Spectroscopy (CRDS) for the detection of CO2, CH4, CO and H2O and a flask sampler for collection of atmospheric samples and subsequent laboratory analysis. Furthermore, the BAsic HALO Measurement And Sensor System (BAHAMAS) will provide an accurate set of meteorological and aircraft state parameters for each scientific flight. Within the frame of the first CoMet mission scheduled for the 2015 timeframe it is planned to concentrate

  3. The science benefits of and the antenna requirements for microwave remote sensing from geostationary orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stutzman, Warren L. (Editor); Brown, Gary S. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    The primary objective of the Large Space Antenna (LSA) Science Panel was to evaluate the science benefits that can be realized with a 25-meter class antenna in a microwave/millimeter wave remote sensing system in geostationary orbit. The panel concluded that a 25-meter or larger antenna in geostationary orbit can serve significant passive remote sensing needs in the 10 to 60 GHz frequency range, including measurements of precipitation, water vapor, atmospheric temperature profile, ocean surface wind speed, oceanic cloud liquid water content, and snow cover. In addition, cloud base height, atmospheric wind profile, and ocean currents can potentially be measured using active sensors with the 25-meter antenna. Other environmental parameters, particularly those that do not require high temporal resolution, are better served by low Earth orbit based sensors.

  4. Vegetation effects on airborne passive microwave response to soil moisture: A case study for the Rur catchment, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasan, Sayeh; Montzka, Carsten; Bogena, Heye; Rüdiger, Chris; Ali, Muhammad; Verrecken, Harry

    2013-04-01

    Soil water content stored in the upper soil layer, is a key determinant of a large number of applications, including numerical weather prediction, flood forecasting, agricultural drought assessment, water resources management, greenhouse gas accounting and civil protection. Passive microwave sensors implemented on airborne and spaceborne platforms have been shown to provide useful retrievals of near-surface soil moisture variations at regional and global scales. Polarimetric L-band Multibeam Radiometer (PLMR2) of the Forschungszentrum Jülich was flown in line with the F-SAR sensor from the German Aerospace Center (DLR) in the TERENO (Terrestrial Environmental Observatories) Rur site, Germany to prepare for the calibration and validation of the NASA Soil Moisture Active and Passive (SMAP) satellite mission. Brightness temperature observed by the PLMR2 was mapped at three different altitudes (1200m 1000m and 700m). The L-band Microwave Emission of the Biosphere (L-MEB) model was used to retrieve surface soil moisture (SSM) from the PLMR2 brightness temperature measurements. Leaf Area Index (LAI) was estimated from multispectral RapidEye imagery of the same day with 5m resolution. Different approaches were analyzed for transferring the LAI into vegetation opacity. Comparison of SSM to ground measurement at different test sites within the TERENO observatory shows that most of the captured soil moisture values are in good agreement with ground measurements.

  5. Effects of the Ionosphere on Passive Microwave Remote Sensing of Ocean Salinity from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LeVine, D. M.; Abaham, Saji; Hildebrand, Peter H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Among the remote sensing applications currently being considered from space is the measurement of sea surface salinity. The salinity of the open ocean is important for understanding ocean circulation and for modeling energy exchange with the atmosphere. Passive microwave remote sensors operating near 1.4 GHz (L-band) could provide data needed to fill the gap in current coverage and to complement in situ arrays being planned to provide subsurface profiles in the future. However, the dynamic range of the salinity signal in the open ocean is relatively small and propagation effects along the path from surface to sensor must be taken into account. In particular, Faraday rotation and even attenuation/emission in the ionosphere can be important sources of error. The purpose or this work is to estimate the magnitude of these effects in the context of a future remote sensing system in space to measure salinity in L-band. Data will be presented as a function of time location and solar activity using IRI-95 to model the ionosphere. The ionosphere presents two potential sources of error for the measurement of salinity: Rotation of the polarization vector (Faraday rotation) and attenuation/emission. Estimates of the effect of these two phenomena on passive remote sensing over the oceans at L-band (1.4 GHz) are presented.

  6. Synergies of the European Microwave Remote Sensing Missions SMOS and ASCAT for Monitoring Soil Moisture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scipal, K.; Wagner, W.

    2003-04-01

    The lack of global soil moisture observations is one of the most glaring and pressing deficiencies in current research activities of related fields, from climate monitoring and ecological applications to the quantification of biogeophysical fluxes. This has implications for important issues of the international political agenda like managing global water resources, securing food production and studying climate change. Currently it is held that only microwave remote sensing offers the potential to produce reliable global scale soil moisture information economically. Recognising the urgent need for a soil moisture mission several international initiatives are planning satellite missions dedicated to monitor the global hydrological cycle among them two European microwave satellites. ESA is planning to launch the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity Mission SMOS, in 2006. SMOS will measure soil moisture over land and ocean salinity over the oceans. The mission rests on a passive microwave sensor (radiometer) operated in L-band which is currently believed to hold the largest potential for soil moisture retrieval. One year before (2005) EUMETSAT will launch the Meteorological Operational satellite METOP which carries the active microwave system Advanced Scatterometer ASCAT on board. ASCAT has been designed to retrieve winds over the oceans but recent research has established its capability to retrieve soil moisture. Although currently it is hold that, using active microwave techniques, the effect of surface roughness dominates that of soil moisture (while the converse is true for radiometers), the ERS scatterometer was successfully used to derive global soil moisture information at a spatial resolution of 50 km with weekly to decadal temporal resolution. The quality of the soil moisture products have been assessed by independent experts in several pilot projects funded by the European Space Agency. There is evidence to believe that both missions will provide a flow of

  7. Ground registration of data from an airborne Multifrequency Microwave Radiometer (MfMR). [Colby, Kansas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richter, J. C. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    The agricultural soil moisture experiment was conducted near Colby, Kansas, in July and August 1978. A portion of the data collected was taken with a five band microwave radiometer. A method of locating the radiometer footprints with respect to a ground based coordinate system is documented. The procedure requires that the airplane's flight parameters along with aerial photography be acquired simultaneously with the radiometer data. The software which documented reads in data from the precision radiation thermometer (PRT Model 5) and attaches the scene temperature to the corresponding multifrequency microwave radiometer data. Listings of the programs used in the registration process are included.

  8. Remote Sensing of the Arctic Coast of Alaska Using Airborne Lidar Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbs, A.; Richmond, B. M.; Palaseanu, M.; Erikson, L. H.; Jones, B. M.; Brock, J. C.

    2013-12-01

    As part of a U.S. Geological Survey assessment of coastal change hazards, over 11,000 km2 of airborne lidar elevation data were collected along the Arctic coast of Alaska between 2009 and 2012. Data coverage includes the barrier islands and mainland coast between Icy Cape and the U.S.-Canadian border, from the shoreline to ~1.5 km inland. Data coverage extends further inland to around 3 km on the Barrow Peninsula and along the coast of the Teshekpuk Lake Special Area (TLSA) where coastal erosion rates are among the highest in the world (> 18 m/yr). Nominal point density is 1.5 m and vertical accuracy is better than 30 cm. Data were not collected over most river deltas or large embayments, with the exception of Admiralty Bay, Smith Bay (Ikpikpik Delta), Kogru River, and the Fish Creek portion of Colville River Delta. The primary use of the lidar data is to establish a modern shoreline position to be used for change analyses with historical shoreline positions. However, the lidar DEM provides a wealth of topographic and intensity data that can be used for morphological mapping of the remote arctic coast. This is one of the first comprehensive lidar datasets collected in a continuous permafrost environment. Many periglacial landscape features, such as patterned ground, ice-wedge polygons, and thermokarst lakes and former lake basins (recent and relict) are discernible in the dataset. Traditional coastal landscape features including shoreline position, beach width, slope, and bluff height and morphology are also distinct. Here we present an overview of the dataset and an assessment of methodologies developed for characterizing and classifying a variety of landscape features including overall complexity, geometry and morphology of polygonal tundra (polygon spacing, high center vs. low center), coastal bluff morphology (vertical or overhanging, convex vs. concave), drainage patterns and hydrologic connectivity. We also investigate the dataset to estimate offsets between

  9. Regionalization of Methane Emissions in the Amazon Basin with Multi-temporal Microwave Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melack, J. M.; Hess, L. L.; Forsberg, B. R.; Hamilton, S. K.; Novo, E. M.

    2002-12-01

    Remote sensing of the Amazon basin with passive and active microwave techniques were applied to determine the temporally varying extent of inundation and associated vegetation, and used in conjunction with field measurements to calculate regional rates of methane emission from wetlands to the atmosphere. Monthly inundation areas were derived from analysis of the 37-GHz polarization difference observed by the Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (1979 -87) for the mainstem Amazon floodplain in Brazil, the Llanos de Moxos (Beni and Mamore rivers) in Bolivia, the Bananal Island (Araguaia River) and Roraima savannas. Data from the Japanese Earth Resources Satellite-1, L-band synthetic aperture radar were used to determine inundation and wetland vegetation for Amazon basin less than 500 m above sea level at high water (May-June 1996) and low water (October 1995). Although all the measurements of methane emission from aquatic habitats have been performed in the deeply inundated, central basin in open water, flooded forests or floating macrophytes, our basin-wide remote sensing has revealed large areas of seasonally flooded savannas. Therefore, improvements in basin-wide estimates of methane emission will require field studies in wetlands such as those in Bolivia, Roraima and the Bananal.

  10. Microwave remote plasma enhanced-atomic layer deposition system with multicusp confinement chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Dechana, A.; Thamboon, P.; Boonyawan, D.

    2014-10-15

    A microwave remote Plasma Enhanced-Atomic Layer Deposition system with multicusp confinement chamber is established at the Plasma and Beam Physics research facilities, Chiang Mai, Thailand. The system produces highly-reactive plasma species in order to enhance the deposition process of thin films. The addition of the multicusp magnetic fields further improves the plasma density and uniformity in the reaction chamber. Thus, the system is more favorable to temperature-sensitive substrates when heating becomes unwanted. Furthermore, the remote-plasma feature, which is generated via microwave power source, offers tunability of the plasma properties separately from the process. As a result, the system provides high flexibility in choice of materials and design experiments, particularly for low-temperature applications. Performance evaluations of the system were carried on coating experiments of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layers onto a silicon wafer. The plasma characteristics in the chamber will be described. The resulted Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films—analyzed by Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry in channeling mode and by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy techniques—will be discussed.

  11. Research on estimation crop planting area by integrating the optical and microwave remote sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jiang; Yu, Fan; Liu, Dandan; Tian, Jing; Zhang, Weicheng; Wang, Qiang; Yang, Jinling; Zhang, Lei

    2015-12-01

    Considering the problem in monitoring agricultural condition in the semi-arid areas of Northwest of China, we propose a new method for estimation of crop planting area, using the single phase optical and microwave remote sensing data collaboratively, which have demonstrated their respective advantages in the extraction of surface features. In the model, the ASAR backscatter coefficient is normalized by the incident angle at first, then the classifier based on Bayesian network is developed, and the VV, VH polarization of ASAR and all the 7 TM bands are taken as the input of the classifier to get the class labels of each pixel of the images. Moreover the crop planting areas can be extracted by the classification results. At last, the model is validated for the necessities of normalization by the incident angle and integration of TM and ASAR respectively. It results that the estimation accuracy of crop planting area of corn and other crops garden are 98.47% and 78.25% respectively using the proposed method, with an improvement of estimation accuracy of about 3.28% and 4.18% relative to single TM classification. These illustrate that synthesis of optical and microwave remote sensing data is efficient and potential in estimation crop planting area.

  12. Microwave remote plasma enhanced-atomic layer deposition system with multicusp confinement chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dechana, A.; Thamboon, P.; Boonyawan, D.

    2014-10-01

    A microwave remote Plasma Enhanced-Atomic Layer Deposition system with multicusp confinement chamber is established at the Plasma and Beam Physics research facilities, Chiang Mai, Thailand. The system produces highly-reactive plasma species in order to enhance the deposition process of thin films. The addition of the multicusp magnetic fields further improves the plasma density and uniformity in the reaction chamber. Thus, the system is more favorable to temperature-sensitive substrates when heating becomes unwanted. Furthermore, the remote-plasma feature, which is generated via microwave power source, offers tunability of the plasma properties separately from the process. As a result, the system provides high flexibility in choice of materials and design experiments, particularly for low-temperature applications. Performance evaluations of the system were carried on coating experiments of Al2O3 layers onto a silicon wafer. The plasma characteristics in the chamber will be described. The resulted Al2O3 films—analyzed by Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry in channeling mode and by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy techniques—will be discussed.

  13. Low-cost microwave radiometry for remote sensing of soil moisture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chikando, Eric Ndjoukwe

    2007-12-01

    Remote sensing is now widely regarded as a dominant means of studying the Earth and its surrounding atmosphere. This science is based on blackbody theory, which states that all objects emit broadband electromagnetic radiation proportional to their temperature. This thermal emission is detectable by radiometers---highly sensitive receivers capable of measuring extremely low power radiation across a continuum of frequencies. In the particular case of a soil surface, one important parameter affecting the emitted radiation is the amount of water content or, soil moisture. A high degree of precision is required when estimating soil moisture in order to yield accurate forecasting of precipitations and short-term climate variability such as storms and hurricanes. Rapid progress within the remote sensing community in tackling current limitations necessitates an awareness of the general public towards the benefits of the science. Information about remote sensing instrumentation and techniques remain inaccessible to many higher-education institutions due to the high cost of instrumentation and the current general inaccessibility of the science. In an effort to draw more talent within the field, more affordable and reliable scientific instrumentation are needed. This dissertation introduces the first low-cost handheld microwave instrumentation fully capable of surface soil moisture studies. The framework of this research is two-fold. First, the development of a low-cost handheld microwave radiometer using the well-known Dicke configuration is examined. The instrument features a super-heterodyne architecture and is designed following a microwave integrated circuit (MIC) system approach. Validation of the instrument is performed by applying it to various soil targets and comparing measurement results to gravimetric technique measured data; a proven scientific method for determining volumetric soil moisture content. Second, the development of a fully functional receiver RF front

  14. Annual South American Forest Loss Estimates (1989-2011) Based on Passive Microwave Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Marle, M.; van der Werf, G.; de Jeu, R.; Liu, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Vegetation dynamics, such as forest loss, are an important factor in global climate, but long-term and consistent information on these dynamics on continental scales is lacking. We have quantified large-scale forest loss over the 90s and 00s in the tropical biomes of South America using a passive-microwave satellite-based vegetation product. Our forest loss estimates are based on remotely sensed vegetation optical depth (VOD), which is an indicator of vegetation water content simultaneously retrieved with soil moisture. The advantage of low-frequency microwave remote sensing is that aerosols and clouds do not affect the observations. Furthermore, the longer wavelengths of passive microwaves penetrate deeper into vegetation than other products derived from optical and thermal sensors. This has the consequence that both woody parts of vegetation and leaves can be observed. The merged VOD product of AMSR-E and SSM/I observations, which covers over 23 years of daily observations, is used. We used this data stream and an outlier detection algorithm to quantify spatial and temporal variations in forest loss dynamics. Qualitatively, our results compared favorably to the newly developed Global Forest Change (GFC) maps based on Landsat data (r2=0.96), and this allowed us to convert the VOD outlier count to forest loss. Our results are spatially explicit with a 0.25-degree resolution and annual time step and we will present our estimates on country level. The added benefit of our results compared to GFC is the longer time period. The results indicate a relatively steady increase in forest loss in Brazil from 1989 until 2003, followed by two high forest loss years and a declining trend afterwards. This contrasts with other South American countries such as Bolivia and Peru, where forest losses increased in almost the whole 00s in comparison with the 90s.

  15. Comparing land surface phenology derived from satellite and GPS network microwave remote sensing.

    PubMed

    Jones, Matthew O; Kimball, John S; Small, Eric E; Larson, Kristine M

    2014-08-01

    The land surface phenology (LSP) start of season (SOS) metric signals the seasonal onset of vegetation activity, including canopy growth and associated increases in land-atmosphere water, energy and carbon (CO2) exchanges influencing weather and climate variability. The vegetation optical depth (VOD) parameter determined from satellite passive microwave remote sensing provides for global LSP monitoring that is sensitive to changes in vegetation canopy water content and biomass, and insensitive to atmosphere and solar illumination constraints. Direct field measures of canopy water content and biomass changes desired for LSP validation are generally lacking due to the prohibitive costs of maintaining regional monitoring networks. Alternatively, a normalized microwave reflectance index (NMRI) derived from GPS base station measurements is sensitive to daily vegetation water content changes and may provide for effective microwave LSP validation. We compared multiyear (2007-2011) NMRI and satellite VOD records at over 300 GPS sites in North America, and their derived SOS metrics for a subset of 24 homogenous land cover sites to investigate VOD and NMRI correspondence, and potential NMRI utility for LSP validation. Significant correlations (P<0.05) were found at 276 of 305 sites (90.5 %), with generally favorable correspondence in the resulting SOS metrics (r (2)=0.73, P<0.001, RMSE=36.8 days). This study is the first attempt to compare satellite microwave LSP metrics to a GPS network derived reflectance index and highlights both the utility and limitations of the NMRI data for LSP validation, including spatial scale discrepancies between local NMRI measurements and relatively coarse satellite VOD retrievals. PMID:24005849

  16. High-Resolution Daily Flood Extent Depiction from Microwave Remote Sensing: Global Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galantowicz, J. F.

    2015-12-01

    The need for frequent, accurate, high-resolution characterization of the temporal and spatial progression of flood hazards is evident, but has been beyond the capabilities of remote sensing methods. The surface is too often obscured by cloud cover for visual and infrared sensors and observations from radar sensors are too infrequent to create consistent historical databases or for monitoring current conditions. Passive microwave sensors, such as SSM/I, AMSR-E, and AMSR-2, acquire useful data during clear and cloudy conditions, have revisit periods of up to twice daily, and provide a continuous record of data from 1987 to the present. In this presentation, we will describe results from a flood mapping system capable of producing high-resolution (100-m) flood extent depictions from lower resolution (10-40-km) microwave data. The system uses the strong sensitivity of microwave data to surface water extent combined with land surface and atmospheric data to derive daily flooded fraction estimates globally on a sensor footprint basis. The system downscales flooded fraction to make a high-resolution Boolean flood extent depiction that is both spatially continuous and consistent with the lower resolution data (see Figure). The downscaling step is based on a relative floodability index derived from higher resolution topographic and hydrological data and processed to represent the minimum total water fraction threshold above which each grid point is expected to be flooded given microwave-derived water fraction inputs. We have completed daily, 100-m resolution flood maps for Africa for the 9.3-year AMSR-E period and will soon complete global flood maps fo the same period. We will present animations of daily flood extents during major events and discuss: validation of the flood maps against imagery derived from MODIS and Landsat data; analyses of minimum detectable flood size; statistical analyses of flooding over time; applications for this novel historical dataset; and

  17. Signatures of Hydrometeor Species from Airborne Passive Microwave Data for Frequencies 10-183 GHz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cecil, Daniel J.; Leppert, Kenneth, II

    2014-01-01

    There are 2 basic precipitation retrieval methods using passive microwave measurements: (1) Emission-based: Based on the tendency of liquid precipitation to cause an increase in brightness temperature (BT) primarily at frequencies below 22 GHz over a radiometrically cold background, often an ocean background (e.g., Spencer et al. 1989; Adler et al. 1991; McGaughey et al. 1996); and (2) Scattering-based: Based on the tendency of precipitation-sized ice to scatter upwelling radiation, thereby reducing the measured BT over a relatively warmer (usually land) background at frequencies generally 37 GHz (e.g., Spencer et al. 1989; Smith et al. 1992; Ferraro and Marks 1995). Passive microwave measurements have also been used to detect intense convection (e.g., Spencer and Santek 1985) and for the detection of hail (e.g., Cecil 2009; Cecil and Blankenship 2012; Ferraro et al. 2014). The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission expands upon the successful Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission program to provide global rainfall and snowfall observations every 3 hours (Hou et al. 2014). One of the instruments on board the GPM Core Observatory is the GPM Microwave Imager (GMI) which is a conically-scanning microwave radiometer with 13 channels ranging from 10-183 GHz. Goal of this study: Determine the signatures of various hydrometeor species in terms of BTs measured at frequencies used by GMI by using data collected on 3 case days (all having intense/severe convection) during the Mid-latitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment conducted over Oklahoma in 2011.

  18. Investigation of Arctic mixed-phase clouds during VERDI and RACEPAC: Combining airborne remote sensing and in situ observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrlich, André; Wendisch, Manfred

    2015-04-01

    To improve our understanding of Arctic mixed-phase clouds in sea-ice covered areas the airborne research campaign Vertical distribution of ice in Arctic mixed-phase clouds (VERDI, April/May 2012) and the Radiation-Aerosol-Cloud Experiment in the Arctic Circle (RACEPAC, April/May 2014) were initiated by a collaboration of German and French research institutes. The aircraft operated by the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Germany were based in Inuvik, Canada from where the research flights of in total 149 flight hours (62 h during VERDI, 87 h during RACEPAC) were able to cover a wide area above the Canadian Beaufort. The aim of both campaigns was to combine remote sensing and in-situ cloud, aerosol and trace gas measurements to investigate interactions between radiation, cloud and aerosol particles. Remote sensing instrumentation contained a backscatter lidar and spectral solar radiation measurements including a hyperspectral camera. In-situ sampling was highlighted by a suit of comprehensive cloud particle probes, aerosol particle counters and mass spectroscopy as well as trace gas detectors. While during VERDI remote sensing and in-situ measurements were performed by one aircraft (Polar 5) subsequently, for RACEPAC two identical aircraft (Polar 5 & 6, Basler BT-67) were coordinated at different altitudes to horizontally collocate both remote sensing and in-situ measurements. In this way not only the combined analysis of radiative and microphysical processes in the clouds can by studied more reliably, also remote sensing methods can be validated efficiently. Here we will illustrate the scientific strategy of both projects including instrumentation and flight patterns of the research flights. Beside flight missions dedicated to sample low level clouds by remote sensing and in situ probing, flights were also coordinated with satellite overpasses and ground based stations. Exemplary results will be highlighted.

  19. Remote Sensing of Chlorophyll Fluorescence by the Airborne Plant Fluorescence Sensor (APFS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yee, J. H.; Boldt, J.; Cook, W. B.; Morgan, F., II; Demajistre, R.; Cook, B. D.; Corp, L. A.

    2014-12-01

    Solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (ChlF) by terrestrial vegetation is linked closely to photosynthetic efficiency that can be exploited to monitor the plant health status and to assess the terrestrial carbon budget from space. The weak, broad continuum ChlF signal can be detected from the amount of fill-in of strong O2 absorption lines or Fraunhofer lines in the reflected solar spectral radiation. The Johns Hopkins University, Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) Airborne Plant Fluorescence Sensor (APFS) is designed and constructed specifically for airborne and groundbased ChlF measurements using the line fill-in ChlF measurement technique. In this paper, we will present the design of this triple etalon Fabry-Perot imaging instrument and the results of its vegetation fluorescence measurements obtained from the ground in the laboratory and from a NASA Langley King Air during our 2014 airborne campaign over vegetated targets in North Carolina and Virginia.

  20. Remote sensing and airborne geophysics in the assessment of natural aggregate resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knepper, D.H., Jr.; Langer, W.H.; Miller, S.H.

    1994-01-01

    Natural aggregate made from crushed stone and deposits of sand and gravel is a vital element of the construction industry in the United States. Although natural aggregate is a high volume/low value commodity that is relatively abundant, new sources of aggregate are becoming increasingly difficult to find and develop because of rigid industry specifications, political considerations, development and transporation costs, and environmental concerns, especially in urban growth centers where much of the aggregate is used. As the demand for natural aggregate increases in response to urban growth and the repair and expansion of the national infrastructure, new sources of natural aggregate will be required. The USGS has recognized the necessity of developing the capability to assess the potential for natural aggregate sources on Federal lands; at present, no methodology exists for systematically describing and evaluating potential sources of natural aggregate. Because remote sensing and airborne geophysics can detect surface and nearsurface phenomena, these tools may useful for detecting and mapping potential sources of natural aggregate; however, before a methodology for applying these tools can be developed, it is necessary to understand the type, distribution, physical properties, and characteristics of natural aggregate deposits, as well as the problems that will be encountered in assessing their potential value. There are two primary sources of natural aggregate: (1) exposed or near-surface igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary bedrock that can be crushed, and (2) deposits of sand and gravel that may be used directly or crushed and sized to meet specifications. In any particular area, the availability of bedrock suitable for crushing is a function of the geologic history of the area - the processes that formed, deformed, eroded and exposed the bedrock. Deposits of sand and gravel are primarily surficial deposits formed by the erosion, transportation by water and ice

  1. Remote sensing of large scale methane emission sources with the Methane Airborne MAPper (MAMAP) instrument over the Kern River and Kern Front Oil fields and validation through airborne in-situ measurements - Initial results from COMEX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerilowski, K.; Krautwurst, S.; Kolyer, R.; Jonsson, H.; Krings, T.; Horstjann, M.; Leifer, I.; Schuettemeyer, D.; Fladeland, M. M.; Burrows, J. P.; Bovensmann, H.

    2014-12-01

    During three flights performed with the MAMAP (Methane Airborne MAPper) airborne remote sensing instrument in the framework of the CO2 and MEthane Experiment (COMEX) - a NASA and ESA funded campaign in support of HyspIRI and CarbonSat mission definition activities - large scale methane plumes were detected over the Kern River and Kern Front Oil fields in the period between June 3 and 13, 2014. MAMAP was installed for these flights aboard of the Center for Interdisciplinary Remotely-Piloted Aircraft Studies (CIRPAS) Twin Otter aircraft, together with a Picarro fast in-situ greenhouse gas (GHG) analyzer (operate by the Ames Research Center, ARC), a 5 hole turbulence probe as well as a atmospheric measurement package (operated by CIRPAS), measuring aerosols, temperature, dew-point and other atmospheric parameters. Data collected with the in-situ GHG analyzer will be used for validation of MAMAP remotely sensed data by acquiring vertical cross sections of the discovered plumes at a fixed downwind distance. Precise airborne wind information from the turbulence probe together with ground based wind data from the nearby airport will be used to estimate emission rates from the remote sensed and in-situ measured data. Remote sensed and in-situ data as well as initial flux estimates for the three flights will be presented.

  2. Investigating Land Surface Phenology Derived from Satellite and GPS Network Microwave Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, M. O.; Kimball, J. S.; Small, E. E.; Larson, K. M.

    2013-12-01

    The land surface phenology (LSP) start of season (SOS) metric signals the seasonal onset of vegetation activity, including canopy growth and associated increases in land-atmosphere water, energy and carbon (CO2) exchanges influencing weather and climate variability. The Vegetation Optical Depth (VOD) parameter determined from satellite passive microwave remote sensing provides for global LSP monitoring that is sensitive to changes in vegetation canopy water content and biomass, and insensitive to atmosphere and solar illumination constraints. Direct field measures of canopy water content and biomass changes desired for LSP validation are generally lacking due to prohibitive costs of maintaining regional monitoring networks. Alternatively, a Normalized Microwave Reflectance Index (NMRI) derived from GPS base station measurements is sensitive to daily vegetation water content changes and may provide for effective microwave LSP validation as a relatively high spatial (1000m2) and temporal resolution vegetation phenology measure. We compared NMRI (1.2 and 1.5 GHz) and satellite microwave (AMSR-E sensor) 18.7 GHz frequency VOD records (2007 to 2011) at over 300 GPS sites in North America and their derived SOS metrics for a subset of 24 homogenous land cover sites. Significant correlations were found at 276 of 305 sites, with generally favorable correspondence in the resulting SOS metrics. We also investigated the temporal dynamics of nine NMRI sites within a single 25km resolution VOD pixel and with corresponding 250m MODIS NDVI measures of the three dominant land covers within the pixel to assess the spatial scale discrepancies between these high, moderate, and coarse resolution retrievals. This study is the first attempt to compare satellite microwave LSP metrics to a GPS network derived reflectance index and highlights both the utility and limitations of the NMRI data for LSP validation. Integration of GPS base stations and the NMRI into current phenology observation

  3. Remote-Sensing of Precipitation Characteristics Using Multi-frequency Microwave Links and Polarimetric Radar Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eastment, J. D.; Bradford, W. J.; Goddard, J. W.; Willis, M. J.

    2002-05-01

    The Radio Communications Research Unit at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL) currently operates two separate experimental studies aimed at characterising the properties of rainfall using microwave remote-sensing. The first study involves the use of dual-frequency microwave measurements of precipitation-induced attenuation on a number of radio paths spanning a river catchment area to estimate path-integrated rainfall rate. This data is of interest for hydrological research connected with urban drainage, river level management and flood forecasting. Dual-frequency attenuation measurements have been employed because theoretical modelling showed them to be far less sensitive to rainfall drop-size distribution effects than single-frequency data. The experimental network comprises 9 microwave links spanning the frequency range 13 to 38 GHz installed on 5 different paths covering the catchment area of the rivers Croal and Irwell near Bolton in North-West England. For each transmitter-receiver link, excess path attenuation relative to the clear-air value is determined from measurements of received signal power level at a rate of 1 Hz. These data are logged by local computers at each receiver site, and periodically downloaded by modem to RAL for archiving and quality control. Analysis by colleagues at the Universities of Essex and Salford has shown that, due to the path-integrated nature of the attenuation measurements and the wide area-coverage obtained by a suitable choice of the multiple-path geometry, a small number of dual-frequency links can provide comparable hydrological data to that obtained from the more conventional dense network of rain-gauges. The second study employs a scanning polarimetric Doppler radar developed by RAL to measure the spatial distribution of hydrometeors along various operational microwave and mm-wave communication links within a 50 km radius of the University of St. Andrews in South-East Scotland. The UK Radiocommunications Agency and

  4. Cloud-to-Ground Lightning Estimates Derived from SSMI Microwave Remote Sensing and NLDN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winesett, Thomas; Magi, Brian; Cecil, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Lightning observations are collected using ground-based and satellite-based sensors. The National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN) in the United States uses multiple ground sensors to triangulate the electromagnetic signals created when lightning strikes the Earth's surface. Satellite-based lightning observations have been made from 1998 to present using the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) on the NASA Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite, and from 1995 to 2000 using the Optical Transient Detector (OTD) on the Microlab-1 satellite. Both LIS and OTD are staring imagers that detect lightning as momentary changes in an optical scene. Passive microwave remote sensing (85 and 37 GHz brightness temperatures) from the TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI) has also been used to quantify characteristics of thunderstorms related to lightning. Each lightning detection system has fundamental limitations. TRMM satellite coverage is limited to the tropics and subtropics between 38 deg N and 38 deg S, so lightning at the higher latitudes of the northern and southern hemispheres is not observed. The detection efficiency of NLDN sensors exceeds 95%, but the sensors are only located in the USA. Even if data from other ground-based lightning sensors (World Wide Lightning Location Network, the European Cooperation for Lightning Detection, and Canadian Lightning Detection Network) were combined with TRMM and NLDN, there would be enormous spatial gaps in present-day coverage of lightning. In addition, a globally-complete time history of observed lightning activity is currently not available either, with network coverage and detection efficiencies varying through the years. Previous research using the TRMM LIS and Microwave Imager (TMI) showed that there is a statistically significant correlation between lightning flash rates and passive microwave brightness temperatures. The physical basis for this correlation emerges because lightning in a thunderstorm occurs where ice is first

  5. Geometric correction of airborne remote sensing data: An operational procedure to geocode MIVIS data

    SciTech Connect

    Avanzi, G.; Bianchi, R.; Cavalli, R.M.

    1996-11-01

    Study to develop a software methodology to geocode MIVIS hyperspectral images collected by the CNR LARA Project. Gol of the study is to integrate the airborne Position and Attitude System with the image data to obtain geoceded images at a medium-small scale (1: 15000 - 1: 10000). 4 refs., 4 figs.

  6. Remote identification of potential boll weevil host plants: Airborne multispectral detection of regrowth cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Regrowth cotton plants can serve as potential hosts for boll weevils during and beyond the production season. Effective methods for timely areawide detection of these host plants are critically needed to expedite eradication in south Texas. We acquired airborne multispectral images of experimental...

  7. Fusion of remotely sensed data from airborne and ground-based sensors for cotton regrowth study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The study investigated the use of aerial multispectral imagery and ground-based hyperspectral data for the discrimination of different crop types and timely detection of cotton plants over large areas. Airborne multispectral imagery and ground-based spectral reflectance data were acquired at the sa...

  8. Scattering in remote sensing in the visible and microwave spectral range and in traffic control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böttger, U.; Kühne, R.; Thiessenhusene, K.-U.

    2003-05-01

    The treatment of scattering processes in remote sensing for interpretation of satellite data is demonstrated in the visible and microwave spectral range comparing the two spectral ranges. Analogies and distinctions in the treatment of the scattering processes are shown. Based on this cognition an approach for traffic simulation is outlined. Simulating the traffic of a part of a city, a whole city or a larger area in an acceptable time is one of the tasks in recent traffic research. One possible approach is the areal treatment of the road network. That means that single streets are not resolved but are introduced into simulations only by parameters that correspond to a specific traffic area resistance. The aim of this work is to outline such a possibility using experiences obtained from the theory of radiative transport to simulate scattering processes and applying them to the very complex system of traffic simulation.

  9. Sea-surface temperature and salinity mapping from remote microwave radiometric measurements of brightness temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hans-Juergen, C. B.; Kendall, B. M.; Fedors, J. C.

    1977-01-01

    A technique to measure remotely sea surface temperature and salinity was demonstrated with a dual frequency microwave radiometer system. Accuracies in temperature of 1 C and in salinity of part thousand for salinity greater than 5 parts per thousand were attained after correcting for the influence of extraterrestrial background radiation, atmospheric radiation and attenuation, sea-surface roughness, and antenna beamwidth. The radiometers, operating at 1.43 and 2.65 GHz, comprise a third-generation system using null balancing and feedback noise injection. Flight measurements from an aircraft at an altitude of 1.4 km over the lower Chesapeake Bay and coastal areas of the Atlantic Ocean resulted in contour maps of sea-surface temperature and salinity with a spatial resolution of 0.5 km.

  10. ESA activities in the use of microwaves for the remote sensing of the Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maccoll, D.

    1984-01-01

    The program of activities under way in the European Space Agency (ESA) directed towards Remote Sensing of the oceans and troposphere is discussed. The initial project is the launch of a satellite named ERS-1 with a primary payload of microwave values in theee C- and Ku-bands. This payload is discussed in depth. The secondary payload includes precision location experiments and an instrument to measure sea surface temperature, which are described. The important topic of calibration is extensively discussed, and a review of activities directed towards improvements to the instruments for future satellites is presented. Some discussion of the impact of the instrument payload on the spacecraft design follows and the commitment of ESA to the provision of a service of value to the ultimate user is emphasized.

  11. Microwave backscattering theory and active remote sensing of the ocean surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, G. S.; Miller, L. S.

    1977-01-01

    The status is reviewed of electromagnetic scattering theory relative to the interpretation of microwave remote sensing data acquired from spaceborne platforms over the ocean surface. Particular emphasis is given to the assumptions which are either implicit or explicit in the theory. The multiple scale scattering theory developed during this investigation is extended to non-Gaussian surface statistics. It is shown that the important statistic for the case is the probability density function of the small scale heights conditioned on the large scale slopes; this dependence may explain the anisotropic scattering measurements recently obtained with the AAFE Radscat. It is noted that present surface measurements are inadequate to verify or reject the existing scattering theories. Surface measurements are recommended for qualifying sensor data from radar altimeters and scatterometers. Additional scattering investigations are suggested for imaging type radars employing synthetically generated apertures.

  12. Converting Snow Depth to SWE: The Fusion of Simulated Data with Remote Sensing Retrievals and the Airborne Snow Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bormann, K.; Marks, D. G.; Painter, T. H.; Hedrick, A. R.; Deems, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    Snow cover monitoring has greatly benefited from remote sensing technology but, despite their critical importance, spatially distributed measurements of snow water equivalent (SWE) in mountain terrain remain elusive. Current methods of monitoring SWE rely on point measurements and are insufficient for distributed snow science and effective management of water resources. Many studies have shown that the spatial variability in SWE is largely controlled by the spatial variability in snow depth. JPL's Airborne Snow Observatory mission (ASO) combines LiDAR and spectrometer instruments to retrieve accurate and very high-resolution snow depth measurements at the watershed scale, along with other products such as snow albedo. To make best use of these high-resolution snow depths, spatially distributed snow density data are required to leverage SWE from the measured snow depths. Snow density is a spatially and temporally variable property that cannot yet be reliably extracted from remote sensing techniques, and is difficult to extrapolate to basin scales. However, some physically based snow models have shown skill in simulating bulk snow densities and therefore provide a pathway for snow depth to SWE conversion. Leveraging model ability where remote sensing options are non-existent, ASO employs a physically based snow model (iSnobal) to resolve distributed snow density dynamics across the basin. After an adjustment scheme guided by in-situ data, these density estimates are used to derive the elusive spatial distribution of SWE from the observed snow depth distributions from ASO. In this study, we describe how the process of fusing model data with remote sensing retrievals is undertaken in the context of ASO along with estimates of uncertainty in the final SWE volume products. This work will likely be of interest to those working in snow hydrology, water resource management and the broader remote sensing community.

  13. Satellite Microwave Remote Sensing for Environmental Modeling of Mosquito Population Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Ting-Wu; Henebry, Geoffrey M; Kimball, John S; Vanroekel-Patton, Denise L; Hildreth, Michael B; Wimberly, Michael C

    2012-10-01

    Environmental variability has important influences on mosquito life cycles and understanding the spatial and temporal patterns of mosquito populations is critical for mosquito control and vector-borne disease prevention. Meteorological data used for model-based predictions of mosquito abundance and life cycle dynamics are typically acquired from ground-based weather stations; however, data availability and completeness are often limited by sparse networks and resource availability. In contrast, environmental measurements from satellite remote sensing are more spatially continuous and can be retrieved automatically. This study compared environmental measurements from the NASA Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer on EOS (AMSR-E) and in situ weather station data to examine their ability to predict the abundance of two important mosquito species (Aedes vexans and Culex tarsalis) in Sioux Falls, South Dakota, USA from 2005 to 2010. The AMSR-E land parameters included daily surface water inundation fraction, surface air temperature, soil moisture, and microwave vegetation opacity. The AMSR-E derived models had better fits and higher forecasting accuracy than models based on weather station data despite the relatively coarse (25-km) spatial resolution of the satellite data. In the AMSR-E models, air temperature and surface water fraction were the best predictors of Aedes vexans, whereas air temperature and vegetation opacity were the best predictors of Cx. tarsalis abundance. The models were used to extrapolate spatial, seasonal, and interannual patterns of climatic suitability for mosquitoes across eastern South Dakota. Our findings demonstrate that environmental metrics derived from satellite passive microwave radiometry are suitable for predicting mosquito population dynamics and can potentially improve the effectiveness of mosquito-borne disease early warning systems. PMID:23049143

  14. Satellite Microwave Remote Sensing for Environmental Modeling of Mosquito Population Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Chuang, Ting-Wu; Henebry, Geoffrey M.; Kimball, John S.; VanRoekel-Patton, Denise L.; Hildreth, Michael B.; Wimberly, Michael C.

    2012-01-01

    Environmental variability has important influences on mosquito life cycles and understanding the spatial and temporal patterns of mosquito populations is critical for mosquito control and vector-borne disease prevention. Meteorological data used for model-based predictions of mosquito abundance and life cycle dynamics are typically acquired from ground-based weather stations; however, data availability and completeness are often limited by sparse networks and resource availability. In contrast, environmental measurements from satellite remote sensing are more spatially continuous and can be retrieved automatically. This study compared environmental measurements from the NASA Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer on EOS (AMSR-E) and in situ weather station data to examine their ability to predict the abundance of two important mosquito species (Aedes vexans and Culex tarsalis) in Sioux Falls, South Dakota, USA from 2005 to 2010. The AMSR-E land parameters included daily surface water inundation fraction, surface air temperature, soil moisture, and microwave vegetation opacity. The AMSR-E derived models had better fits and higher forecasting accuracy than models based on weather station data despite the relatively coarse (25-km) spatial resolution of the satellite data. In the AMSR-E models, air temperature and surface water fraction were the best predictors of Aedes vexans, whereas air temperature and vegetation opacity were the best predictors of Cx. tarsalis abundance. The models were used to extrapolate spatial, seasonal, and interannual patterns of climatic suitability for mosquitoes across eastern South Dakota. Our findings demonstrate that environmental metrics derived from satellite passive microwave radiometry are suitable for predicting mosquito population dynamics and can potentially improve the effectiveness of mosquito-borne disease early warning systems. PMID:23049143

  15. Assessment of EOS Aqua AMSR-E Arctic Sea Ice Concentrations using Landsat-7 and Airborne Microwave Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavalieri, Donald J.; Markus, Thorsten; Hall, Dorothy K.; Gasiewski, Albin J.; Klein, Marian; Ivanoff, Alvaro

    2006-01-01

    An assessment of Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) sea ice concentrations under winter conditions using ice concentrations derived from Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) imagery obtained during the March 2003 Arctic sea ice validation field campaign is presented. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Environmental Technology Laboratory's Airborne Polarimetric Scanning Radiometer Measurements, which were made from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration P 3B aircraft during the campaign, were used primarily as a diagnostic tool to understand the comparative results and to suggest improvements to the AMSR-E ice concentration algorithm. Based on the AMSR-E/ETM+ comparisons, a good overall agreement with little bias (approx. 1%) for areas of first year and young sea ice was found. Areas of new ice production result in a negative bias of about 5% in the AMSR-E ice concentration retrievals, with a root mean square error of 8%. Some areas of deep snow also resulted in an underestimate of the ice concentration (approx. 10%). For all ice types combined and for the full range of ice concentrations, the bias ranged from 0% to 3%, and the rms errors ranged from 1% to 7%, depending on the region. The new-ice and deep-snow biases are expected to be reduced through an adjustment of the new-ice and ice-type C algorithm tie points.

  16. Spatial Variations in CO2 Mixing Ratios Over a Heterogenous Landscape - Linking Airborne Measurements With Remote Sensing Derived Biophysical Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Y.; Vadrevu, K. P.; Vay, S. A.; Woo, J.

    2006-12-01

    North American terrestrial ecosystems are major sources and sinks of carbon. Precise measurement of atmospheric CO2 concentrations plays an important role in the development and testing of carbon cycle models quantifying the influence of terrestrial CO2 exchange on the North American carbon budget. During the summer 2004 Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment North America (INTEX-NA) campaign, regional scale in-situ measurements of atmospheric CO2 were made from the NASA DC-8 affording the opportunity to explore how land surface heterogeneity relates to the airborne observations utilizing remote-sensing data products and GIS-based methods. These 1 Hz data reveal the seasonal biospheric uptake of CO2 over portions of the U.S. continent, especially east of 90°W below 2 km, compared to higher mixing ratios over water as well as within the upper troposphere where well-mixed, aged air masses were sampled. In this study, we use several remote sensing derived biophysical parameters from the LANDSAT, NOAA AVHRR, and MODIS sensors to specify spatiotemporal patterns of land use cover and vegetation characteristics for linking the airborne measurements of CO2 data with terrestrial sources of carbon. Also, CO2 flux footprint outputs from a 3-D Lagrangian atmospheric model have been integrated with satellite remote sensing data to infer CO2 variations across heterogeneous landscapes. In examining the landscape mosaic utilizing these available tools, preliminary results suggest that the lowest CO2 mixing ratios observed during INTEX-NA were over agricultural fields in Illinois dominated by corn then secondarily soybean crops. Low CO2 concentrations are attributable to sampling during the peak growing season over such C4 plants as corn having a higher photosynthetic rate via the C4-dicarboxylic acid pathway of carbon fixation compared to C3 plants such as soybeans. In addition to LANDSAT derived land cover data, results from comparisons of the airborne CO2 observations

  17. Airborne Particles: What We Have Learned About Their Role in Climate from Remote Sensing, and Prospects for Future Advances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahn, Ralph A.

    2013-01-01

    Desert dust, wildfire smoke, volcanic ash, biogenic and urban pollution particles, all affect the regional-scale climate of Earth in places and at times; some have global-scale impacts on the column radiation balance, cloud properties, atmospheric stability structure, and circulation patterns. Remote sensing has played a central role in identifying the sources and transports of airborne particles, mapping their three-dimensional distribution and variability, quantifying their amount, and constraining aerosol air mass type. The measurements obtained from remote sensing have strengths and limitations, and their value for characterizing Earths environment is enhanced immensely when they are combined with direct, in situ observations, and used to constrain aerosol transport and climate models. A similar approach has been taken to study the role particles play in determining the climate of Mars, though based on far fewer observations. This presentation will focus what we have learned from remote sensing about the impacts aerosol have on Earths climate; a few points about how aerosols affect the climate of Mars will also be introduced, in the context of how we might assess aerosol-climate impacts more generally on other worlds.

  18. Remote sensing of evapotranspiration over crops using combined airborne and ground-based observations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Remote sensing of evapotranspiration (ET) over crops could be valuable for managing scarce water resources, especially for irrigated lands. In the past decade remote sensing techniques have advanced to allow frequent estimation of ET at spatial scales useful for many farms. These techniques include ...

  19. Volumetric pattern analysis of fuselage-mounted airborne antennas. Ph.D. Thesis; [prediction analysis techniques for antenna radiation patterns of microwave antennas on commercial aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, C. L.

    1976-01-01

    A volumetric pattern analysis of fuselage-mounted airborne antennas at high frequencies was investigated. The primary goal of the investigation was to develop a numerical solution for predicting radiation patterns of airborne antennas in an accurate and efficient manner. An analytical study of airborne antenna pattern problems is presented in which the antenna is mounted on the fuselage near the top or bottom. Since this is a study of general-type commercial aircraft, the aircraft was modeled in its most basic form. The fuselage was assumed to be an infinitely long perfectly conducting elliptic cylinder in its cross-section and a composite elliptic cylinder in its elevation profile. The wing, cockpit, stabilizers (horizontal and vertical) and landing gear are modeled by "N" sided bent or flat plates which can be arbitrarily attached to the fuselage. The volumetric solution developed utilizes two elliptic cylinders, namely, the roll plane and elevation plane models to approximate the principal surface profile (longitudinal and transverse) at the antenna location. With the belt concept and the aid of appropriate coordinate system transformations the solution can be used to predict the volumetric patterns of airborne antennas in an accurate and efficient manner. Applications of this solution to various airborne antenna problems show good agreement with scale model measurements. Extensive data are presented for a microwave landing antenna system.

  20. Status of microwave process development for RH-TRU (remote-handled transuranic) wastes at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    White, T.L.; Youngblood, E.L.; Berry, J.B.; Mattus, A.J.

    1990-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Waste Handling and Packaging Plant is developing a microwave process to reduce and solidify remote-handled transuranic (RH-TRU) liquids and sludges presently stored in large tanks at ORNL. Testing has recently begun on an in-drum microwave process using nonradioactive RH-TRU surrogates. The microwave process development effort has focused on an in-drum process to dry the RH-TRU liquids and sludges in the final storage container and then melt the salt residues to form a solid monolith. A 1/3-scale proprietary microwave applicator was designed, fabricated, and tested to demonstrate the essential features of the microwave design and to provide input into the design of the full-scale applicator. The microwave fields are uniform in one dimension to reduce the formation of hot spots on the microwaved wasteform. The final wasteform meets the waste acceptance criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, a federal repository for defense transuranic wastes near Carlsbad, New Mexico. 7 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  1. Spatial Modeling and Variability Analysis for Modeling and Prediction of Soil and Crop Canopy Coverage Using Multispectral Imagery from an Airborne Remote Sensing System

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Based on a previous study on an airborne remote sensing system with automatic camera stabilization for crop management, multispectral imagery was acquired using the MS-4100 multispectral camera at different flight altitudes over a 115 ha cotton field. After the acquired images were geo-registered an...

  2. Towards a Soil Moisture Climate Record from Active and Passive Microwave Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scipal, K.; de Jeu, R.; Dorigo, W.; Su, B.

    2009-04-01

    The latest IPCC assessment report identified soil moisture as an emerging essential climate variable and stressed the need to fosters activities to "assemble, quality check reprocess, and re-analyse" respective datasets "relevant to decadal prediction" Satellite remote sensing can be a powerful data source to fulfil those needs. Unfortunately, methodological problems, lack of validation and limitations in computing have frequently delayed the research process to retrieve soil moisture from space observations. But research in these fields evolved, resulting in several global soil moisture datasets. Today validated global soil moisture data sets are publicly available from active (ERS-1/2, METOP) and passive (SMMR, SSM/I, TMI, AMSR-E) microwave remote sensing instruments. These data sets reach back for more than 30 years. In addition, in the near future dedicated soil moisture sensors such as the SMOS mission will provide experimental soil moisture products in an unprecedented quality. The available data sets are based on different sensors and retrieval concepts. It is now the time to harmonize these different sets to create one long term consistent global soil moisture dataset. Within the ESA project WACMOS (Water Cycle Multi-mission Observation Strategy) respective activities are reinforced. More specifically the objective of the WACMOS soil moisture observatory is to establish a solid scientific basis for the development of long-term coherent soil moisture products. To this end we exploit the triple collocation error estimation technique to assess the error and systematic biases between the different data sets and use a cumulative distribution function matching approach to harmonise the observations. The proposed methodology has the advantage that it can easily be adapted to a new observation record such as observations of the SMOS mission. In this paper we will present first results based on data records from the ERS-1/2 and the AMSR-E missions. We will discuss

  3. Airborne multispectral remote sensing data to estimate several oenological parameters in vineyard production. A case study of application of remote sensing data to precision viticulture in central Italy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tramontana, Gianluca; Girard, Filippo; Belli, Claudio; Comandini, Maria Cristina; Pietromarchi, Paolo; Tiberi, Domenico; Papale, Dario

    2010-05-01

    It is widely recognized that environmental differences within the vineyard, with respect to soils, microclimate, and topography, can influence grape characteristics and crop yields. Besides, the central Italy landscape is characterized by a high level of fragmentation and heterogeneity It requires stringent Remote sensing technical features in terms of spectral, geometric and temporal resolution to aimed at supporting applications for precision viticulture. In response to the needs of the Italian grape and wine industry for an evaluation of precision viticulture technologies, the DISAFRI (University of Tuscia) and the Agricultural Research Council - Oenological research unit (ENC-CRA) jointly carried out an experimental study during the year 2008. The study was carried out on 2 areas located in the town of Velletri, near Rome; for each area, two varieties (red and white grape) were studied: Nero d'Avola and Sauvignon blanc in first area , Merlot and Sauvignon blanc in second. Remote sensing data were acquired in different periods using a low cost multisensor Airborne remote sensing platform developed by DISAFRI (ASPIS-2 Advanced Spectroscopic Imager System). ASPIS-2, an evolution of the ASPIS sensor (Papale et al 2008, Sensors), is a multispectral sensor based on 4 CCD and 3 interferential filters per CCD. The filters are user selectable during the flight and in this way Aspis is able to acquire data in 12 bands in the visible and near infrared regions with a bandwidth of 10 or 20 nm. To the purposes of this study 7 spectral band were acquired and 15 vegetation indices calculated. During the ripeness period several vegetative and oenochemical parameters were monitored. Anova test shown that several oenochemical variables, such as sugars, total acidity, polyphenols and anthocyanins differ according to the variety taken into consideration. In order to evaluate the time autocorrelation of several oenological parameters value, a simple linear regression between

  4. Airborne remote sensing of canopy water thickness scaled from leaf spectrometer data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, E. Raymond, Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The reflectance ratio of the middle-infrared band (MIR) to the near-infrared band (NIR) is linearly related to the log(10) equivalent water thickness (EWT) for single leaves of different morphologies, whereas the MIR/NIR radiance ratio is correlated with the leaf area index (LAI). The hypothesis that the MIR/NIR ratio measures canopy EWT was tested by reanalyzing airborne Thematic Mapper Simulator and field data obtained across a large gradient of LAI in western Oregon, U.S.A. The measured airborne MIR/NIR reflectance ratios for canopies were not significantly different from the predicted ratios using leaf data for canopy EWT, except for two desert woodland sites. The interpretation of the MIR/NIR ratio is scale-dependent, because leaf EWT is determined primarily by variations in LAI.

  5. Airborne Optical and Thermal Remote Sensing for Wildfire Detection and Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Allison, Robert S; Johnston, Joshua M; Craig, Gregory; Jennings, Sion

    2016-01-01

    For decades detection and monitoring of forest and other wildland fires has relied heavily on aircraft (and satellites). Technical advances and improved affordability of both sensors and sensor platforms promise to revolutionize the way aircraft detect, monitor and help suppress wildfires. Sensor systems like hyperspectral cameras, image intensifiers and thermal cameras that have previously been limited in use due to cost or technology considerations are now becoming widely available and affordable. Similarly, new airborne sensor platforms, particularly small, unmanned aircraft or drones, are enabling new applications for airborne fire sensing. In this review we outline the state of the art in direct, semi-automated and automated fire detection from both manned and unmanned aerial platforms. We discuss the operational constraints and opportunities provided by these sensor systems including a discussion of the objective evaluation of these systems in a realistic context. PMID:27548174

  6. Mining in subarctic Canada: airborne PM2.5 metal concentrations in two remote First Nations communities.

    PubMed

    Liberda, Eric N; Tsuji, Leonard J S; Peltier, Richard E

    2015-11-01

    Airborne particulate matter arising from upwind mining activities is a concern for First Nations communities in the western James Bay region of Ontario, Canada. Aerosol chemical components were collected in 2011 from two communities in northern Ontario. The chemical and mass concentration data of particulate matter collected during this study shows a significant difference in PM2.5 in Attawapiskat compared to Fort Albany. Elemental profiles indicate enhanced levels of some tracers thought to arise from mining activities, such as, K, Ni, and crustal materials. Both communities are remote and isolated from urban and industrial pollution sources, however, Attawapiskat First Nation has significantly enhanced levels of particulate matter, and it is likely that some of this arises from upwind mining activities. PMID:26255141

  7. Linking terrace geomorphology and canopy characteristics in the Peruvian Amazon using high resolution airborne remote sensing (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chadwick, K.; Asner, G. P.

    2013-12-01

    The Peruvian Amazon is home to over half a million square kilometers of forest, nearly three quarters of which is supported by terrace landforms with variable histories. Characteristics of these terrace ecosystems have been contrasted with neighboring floodplain systems along riverine transportation corridors, but the ecological complexity within these terrace landscapes has remained largely unexplored. Airborne remote measurements provide an opportunity to consider the relationship between forest canopy characteristics and geomorphic gradients at high resolution over large spatial extents. In 2011 the Carnegie Airborne Observatory (CAO) was used to map a large section of intact lowland humid tropical forest in the southwestern Peruvian Amazon, including over nine thousand hectares of terrace forest. The CAO collected high-fidelity imaging spectroscopy data with its Visible-Shortwave Imaging Spectrometer (VSWIR) and digital elevation and canopy structure data with its high-resolution dual waveform LiDAR. These data, supplemented with field data collection, were used to quantify relationships between forest canopy traits and geomorphic gradients. Results suggest that both spectral properties of the canopy with known relationships to canopy chemistry, including pigment and nutrient concentrations, and canopy structural traits, including vegetation height and leaf area, are associated with geomorphic characteristics of this terrace landscape.

  8. Relationships between evaprorative fraction and remotely sensed vegetation index and microwave brightness temperature for semiarid rangelands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kustas, W. P.; Schimugge, T. J.; Humes, K. S.; Jackson, T. J.; Parry, R.; Weltz, M. A.; Moran, M. S.

    1993-01-01

    Measurements of the microwave brightness temperature (TB) with the Pushbroom Microwave Radiometer (PBMR) over the Walnut Gulch Experiment Watershed were made on selected days during the MONSOON 90 field campaign. The PBMR is an L-band instrument (21-cm wavelength) that can provide estimates of near-surface soil moisture over a variety of surfaces. Aircraft observations in the visible and near-infrared wavelengths collected on selected days also were used to compute a vegetation index. Continuous micrometeorological measurements and daily soil moisture samples were obtained at eight locations during experimental period. Two sites were instrumented with time domain reflectometry probes to monitor the soil moisture profile. The fraction of available energy used for evapotranspiration was computed by taking the ratio of latent heat flux (LE) to the sum of net radiation (Rn) and soil heat flux (G). This ratio is commonly called the evaporative fraction (EF) and normally varies between 0 and 1 under daytime convective conditions with minimal advection. A wide range of environmental conditions existed during the field campaign, resulting in average EF values for the study area varying from 0.4 to 0.8 and values of TB ranging from 220 to 280 K. Comparison between measured TB and EF for the eight locations showed an inverse relationship. Other days were included in the analysis by estimating TB with the soil moisture data. Because transpiration from the vegetation is more strongly coupled to root zone soil moisture, significant scatter in this relationship existed at high values of TB or dry near-surface soil moisture conditions. The variation in EF under dry near-surface soil moisture conditions was correlated to the amount of vegetation cover estimated with a remotely sensed vegetation index. These findings indicate that information obtained from optical and microwave data can be used for quantifying the energy balance of semiarid areas. The microwave data can indicate

  9. Classification of Baltic Sea ice types by airborne multifrequency microwave radiometer

    SciTech Connect

    Kurvonen, L.; Hallikainen, M.

    1996-11-01

    An airborne multifrequency radiometer (24, 34, 48, and 94 GHz, vertical polarization) was used to investigate the behavior of the brightness temperature of different sea ice types in the Gulf of Bothnia (Baltic Sea). The measurements and the main results of the analysis are presented. The measurements were made in dry and wet conditions (air temperature above and below 0 C). The angle of incidence was 45{degree} in all measurements. The following topics are evaluated: (a) frequency dependency of the brightness temperature of different ice types, (b) the capability of the multifrequency radiometer to classify ice types for winter navigation purposes, and (c) the optimum measurement frequencies for mapping sea ice. The weather conditions had a significant impact on the radiometric signatures of some ice types (snow-covered compact pack ice and frost-covered new ice); the impact was the highest at 94 GHz. In all cases the overall classification accuracy was around 90% (the kappa coefficient was from 0.86 to 0.96) when the optimum channel combination (24/34 GHz and 94 GHz) was used.

  10. An airborne study of microwave surface sensing and boundary layer heat and moisture fluxes for FIFE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gogineni, S. P.

    1995-01-01

    The objectives of this work were to perform imaging radar and scatterometer measurements over the Konza Prairie as a part of the First International land surface climatology project Field Experiments (EIFE) and to develop an mm-wave radiometer and the data acquisition system for this radiometer. We collected imaging radar data with the University of Kansas Side-Looking Airborne Radar (SLAR) operating at 9.375 GHz and scatterometer data with a helicopter-mounted scatterometer at 5.3 and 9.6 GHz. We also developed a 35-GHz null-balancing radiometer and data acquisition system. Although radar images showed good delineation of various features of the FIFE site, the data were not useful for quantitative analysis for extracting soil moisture information because of day-to-day changes in the system transfer characteristics. Our scatterometer results show that both C and X bands are sensitive to soil moisture variations over grass-covered soils. Scattering coefficients near vertical are about 4 dB lower for unburned areas because of the presence of a thatch layer, in comparison with those for burned areas. The results of the research have been documented in reports, oral presentations, and published papers.

  11. FireMapper 2.0: a multispectral uncooled infrared imaging system for airborne wildfire mapping and remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, James W.; Riggan, Philip J.; Griffin, Stephanie A.; Grush, Ronald C.; Grush, William H.; Pena, James

    2003-11-01

    FireMapper®2.0 is a second-generation airborne system developed specifically for wildfire mapping and remote sensing. Its design is based on lessons learned from two years of flight-testing of a research FireMapper® system by the Pacific uthwest Research Station of the USDA Forest Service. The new, operational design features greater coverage and improved performance with a rugged sensor that is less than one third the size and weight of the original research sensor. The sensor obtains thermal infrared images in two narrow spectral bands and one wide spectral band with the use of a single uncooled microbolometer detector array. The dynamic range of the sensor is designed to accurately measure scene temperatures from normal backgrounds, for remote sensing and disaster management applications, up to flaming fronts without saturating. All three channels are extremely linear and are calibrated in-flight with a highly accurate absolute calibration system. Airborne testing of the research system has led to improved displays and simplified operator interfaces. These features facilitate the operational use of the FireMapper®2.0 system on both fixed wing aircraft and helicopters with minimal operator inputs. The operating system features custom software to display and zoom in on the images in realtime as they are obtained. Selected images can also be saved and recalled for detailed study. All images are tagged with GPS date, time, latitude, longitude, altitude, and heading and can be recorded on a portable USB hard drive upon operator command. The operating system can also be used to replay previously recorded image sequences. The FireMapper® 2.0 was designed and fabricated by Space Instruments, Inc. as part of a Research Joint Venture with the USDA Forest Service.

  12. Remote sensing of phytoplankton density and diversity in Narragansett Bay using an airborne fluorosensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farmer, F. H.; Brown, C. A., Jr.; Jarrett, O., Jr.; Campbell, J. W.; Staton, W. L.

    1979-01-01

    An aircraft-borne remote system is presented that utilizes narrow-band light from multiple dye lasers to excite selected algae photopigments and then measures the resultant flourescence emitted from chlorophyll a at 685 nm. Tests were conducted with both pure and mixed cultures of marine algae from a series of field tests taken from piers and bridges of Narragansett Bay, and a prototype remote fluorosensor was flown over the Bay during the 1978 winter-spring diatom bloom. Remote fluorescence obtained at hover points over sea-truth stations showed correlations with in situ fluorescence, total chlorophyll a, and cell count. It was concluded that the ratio of remote fluorescence to direct chlorophyll a concentration was less variable than expected, and the distribution of total chlorophyll a between two major photoplankton color groups showed three distinct areas, within the Bay, of green and golden-brown species.

  13. Airborne multi-spectral remote sensing with ground truth for areawide pest management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scientists and researchers have been developing, integrating, and evaluating multiple strategies and technologies into a systems approach for management of field crop insect pests. Remote sensing along with Global Positioning Systems, Geographic Information Systems, and variable rate technology are...

  14. Airborne multispectral remote sensing with ground truth for areawide pest management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scientists and engineers in areawide pest management programs have been developing, integrating, and evaluating multiple strategies and technologies into a systems approach for management of field crop insect pests. Remote sensing along with global positioning systems, geographic information system...

  15. A change detection approach to flood mapping in urban areas using very high-resolution microwave remote sensing imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giustarini, L.; Hostache, R.; Matgen, P.; Schumann, G.; Bates, P. D.; Mason, D. C.

    2012-04-01

    Very high-resolution Synthetic Aperture Radar sensors represent an alternative to aerial photography for delineating floods in built-up environments where flood risk is highest. However, even with currently available SAR image resolutions of 3 m and higher, signal returns from man-made structures hamper the accurate mapping of flooded areas. Enhanced image processing algorithms and a better exploitation of image archives are required to facilitate the use of microwave remote sensing data for monitoring flood dynamics in urban areas. This work presents a new way to efficiently process SAR data for enhanced flood detection. The purpose is to develop a fully automatic image classification method based on image statistics that can be applied to all existing SAR data sets and to different types of flooded regions, including urban settlements. A hybrid methodology combining radiometric thresholding, region growing and change detection is introduced as an approach enabling the automated, objective and reliable flood extent extraction from very high-resolution urban SAR images. The method is based on the calibration of a statistical distribution of "open water" backscatter values inferred from SAR images of floods. SAR images acquired during dry conditions enable the identification of i) areas that are located in "shadow" regions and are therefore not visible to the sensor and ii) areas that systematically behave as specular reflectors (e.g. smooth tarmac, permanent water bodies). Change detection with respect to a pre-flood reference image thereby reduces over-detection of inundated areas. A case study of the July 2007 Severn River flood (UK) observed by the very high-resolution SAR sensor on board TerraSAR-X as well as airborne photography highlights advantages and limitations of the proposed method. We conclude that the fully automated SAR-based flood mapping technique overcomes some limitations of state-of-the-art methods normally used. However, further technological

  16. An Integrated Data Acquisition / User Request/ Processing / Delivery System for Airborne Remote Sensing Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, B.; Chu, A.; Tung, W.

    2003-12-01

    Airborne science data has historically played an important role in the development of the scientific underpinnings for spaceborne missions. When the science community determines the need for new types of spaceborne measurements, airborne campaigns are often crucial in risk mitigation for these future missions. However, full exploitation of the acquired data may be difficult due to its experimental and transitory nature. Externally to the project, most problematic (in particular, for those not involved in requesting the data acquisitions) may be the difficulty in searching for, requesting, and receiving the data, or even knowing the data exist. This can result in a rather small, insular community of users for these data sets. Internally, the difficulty for the project is in maintaining a robust processing and archival system during periods of changing mission priorities and evolving technologies. The NASA/JPL Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR) has acquired data for a large and varied community of scientists and engineers for 15 years. AIRSAR is presently supporting current NASA Earth Science Enterprise experiments, such as the Soil Moisture EXperiment (SMEX) and the Cold Land Processes experiment (CLPX), as well as experiments conducted as many as 10 years ago. During that time, it's processing, data ordering, and data delivery system has undergone evolutionary change as the cost and capability of resources has improved. AIRSAR now has a fully integrated data acquisition/user request/processing/delivery system through which most components of the data fulfillment process communicate via shared information within a database. The integration of these functions has reduced errors and increased throughput of processed data to customers.

  17. Airborne methane remote measurements reveal heavy-tail flux distribution in Four Corners region.

    PubMed

    Frankenberg, Christian; Thorpe, Andrew K; Thompson, David R; Hulley, Glynn; Kort, Eric Adam; Vance, Nick; Borchardt, Jakob; Krings, Thomas; Gerilowski, Konstantin; Sweeney, Colm; Conley, Stephen; Bue, Brian D; Aubrey, Andrew D; Hook, Simon; Green, Robert O

    2016-08-30

    Methane (CH4) impacts climate as the second strongest anthropogenic greenhouse gas and air quality by influencing tropospheric ozone levels. Space-based observations have identified the Four Corners region in the Southwest United States as an area of large CH4 enhancements. We conducted an airborne campaign in Four Corners during April 2015 with the next-generation Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (near-infrared) and Hyperspectral Thermal Emission Spectrometer (thermal infrared) imaging spectrometers to better understand the source of methane by measuring methane plumes at 1- to 3-m spatial resolution. Our analysis detected more than 250 individual methane plumes from fossil fuel harvesting, processing, and distributing infrastructures, spanning an emission range from the detection limit [Formula: see text] 2 kg/h to 5 kg/h through [Formula: see text] 5,000 kg/h. Observed sources include gas processing facilities, storage tanks, pipeline leaks, and well pads, as well as a coal mine venting shaft. Overall, plume enhancements and inferred fluxes follow a lognormal distribution, with the top 10% emitters contributing 49 to 66% to the inferred total point source flux of 0.23 Tg/y to 0.39 Tg/y. With the observed confirmation of a lognormal emission distribution, this airborne observing strategy and its ability to locate previously unknown point sources in real time provides an efficient and effective method to identify and mitigate major emissions contributors over a wide geographic area. With improved instrumentation, this capability scales to spaceborne applications [Thompson DR, et al. (2016) Geophys Res Lett 43(12):6571-6578]. Further illustration of this potential is demonstrated with two detected, confirmed, and repaired pipeline leaks during the campaign. PMID:27528660

  18. Design of an Airborne Portable Remote Imaging Spectrometer (PRISM) for the Coastal Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mouroulis, P.; vanGorp, B.; Green, R. O.; Cohen, D.; Wilson, D.; Randall, D.; Rodriguez, J.; Polanco, O.; Dierssen, H.; Balasubramanian, K.; Vargas, R.; Hein, R.; Sobel, H.; Eastwood, M.

    2010-01-01

    PRISM is a pushbroom imaging spectrometer currently under development at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, intended to address the needs of airborne coastal ocean science research. We describe here the instrument design and the technologies that enable it to achieve its distinguishing characteristics. PRISM covers the 350-1050 nm range with a 3.1 nm sampling and a 33(deg) field of view. The design provides for high signal to noise ratio, high uniformity of response, and low polarization sensitivity. The complete instrument also incorporates two additional wavelength bands at 1240 and 1610 nm in a spot radiometer configuration to aid with atmospheric correction.

  19. Remote detection of heated ethanol plumes by airborne passive Fourier transform infrared spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Tarumi, Toshiyasu; Small, Gary W; Combs, Roger J; Kroutil, Robert T

    2003-11-01

    Methodology is developed for the automated detection of heated plumes of ethanol vapor with airborne passive Fourier transform infrared spectrometry. Positioned in a fixed-wing aircraft in a downward-looking mode, the spectrometer is used to detect ground sources of ethanol vapor from an altitude of 2000-3000 ft. Challenges to the use of this approach for the routine detection of chemical plumes include (1) the presence of a constantly changing background radiance as the aircraft flies, (2) the cost and complexity of collecting the data needed to train the classification algorithms used in implementing the plume detection, and (3) the need for rapid interferogram scans to minimize the ground area viewed per scan. To address these challenges, this work couples a novel ground-based data collection and training protocol with the use of signal processing and pattern recognition methods based on short sections of the interferogram data collected by the spectrometer. In the data collection, heated plumes of ethanol vapor are released from a portable emission stack and viewed by the spectrometer from ground level against a synthetic background designed to simulate a terrestrial radiance source. Classifiers trained with these data are subsequently tested with airborne data collected over a period of 2.5 years. Two classifier architectures are compared in this work: support vector machines (SVM) and piecewise linear discriminant analysis (PLDA). When applied to the airborne test data, the SVM classifiers perform best, failing to detect ethanol in only 8% of the cases in which it is present. False detections occur at a rate of less than 0.5%. The classifier performs well in spite of differences between the backgrounds associated with the ground-based and airborne data collections and the instrumental drift arising from the long time span of the data collection. Further improvements in classification performance are judged to require increased sophistication in the ground

  20. Remotely Measured Terrestrial Chlorophyll Fluorescence Using Airborne G-LiHT and APFS Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, W. B.; Yee, J. H.; Corp, L. A.; Cook, B. D.; Huemmrich, K. F.

    2014-12-01

    In September 2014 the Goddard Lidar, Hyperspectral and Thermal (G-LiHT) and the APL/JHU Airborne Plant Fluorescence Sensor (APFS) were flown together on a NASA Langley King Air over vegetated targets in North Carolina and Virginia. The instruments provided high spatial and spectral resolution data in the visible and near infrared, down-welling irradiance, elevation maps, and thermal imagery. Ground validation data was also collected concurrently. Here we report the results of these measurements and show the feasibility of using these types of instruments for collection the fluorescence and other information essential for ecological and carbon cycle studies.

  1. Using Airborne Remote Sensing to Increase Situational Awareness in Civil Protection and Humanitarian Relief - the Importance of User Involvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Römer, H.; Kiefl, R.; Henkel, F.; Wenxi, C.; Nippold, R.; Kurz, F.; Kippnich, U.

    2016-06-01

    Enhancing situational awareness in real-time (RT) civil protection and emergency response scenarios requires the development of comprehensive monitoring concepts combining classical remote sensing disciplines with geospatial information science. In the VABENE++ project of the German Aerospace Center (DLR) monitoring tools are being developed by which innovative data acquisition approaches are combined with information extraction as well as the generation and dissemination of information products to a specific user. DLR's 3K and 4k camera system which allow for a RT acquisition and pre-processing of high resolution aerial imagery are applied in two application examples conducted with end users: a civil protection exercise with humanitarian relief organisations and a large open-air music festival in cooperation with a festival organising company. This study discusses how airborne remote sensing can significantly contribute to both, situational assessment and awareness, focussing on the downstream processes required for extracting information from imagery and for visualising and disseminating imagery in combination with other geospatial information. Valuable user feedback and impetus for further developments has been obtained from both applications, referring to innovations in thematic image analysis (supporting festival site management) and product dissemination (editable web services). Thus, this study emphasises the important role of user involvement in application-related research, i.e. by aligning it closer to user's requirements.

  2. Road Asphalt Pavements Analyzed by Airborne Thermal Remote Sensing: Preliminary Results of the Venice Highway

    PubMed Central

    Pascucci, Simone; Bassani, Cristiana; Palombo, Angelo; Poscolieri, Maurizio; Cavalli, Rosa

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a fast procedure for evaluating asphalt pavement surface defects using airborne emissivity data. To develop this procedure, we used airborne multispectral emissivity data covering an urban test area close to Venice (Italy).For this study, we first identify and select the roads' asphalt pavements on Multispectral Infrared Visible Imaging Spectrometer (MIVIS) imagery using a segmentation procedure. Next, since in asphalt pavements the surface defects are strictly related to the decrease of oily components that cause an increase of the abundance of surfacing limestone, the diagnostic absorption emissivity peak at 11.2μm of the limestone was used for retrieving from MIVIS emissivity data the areas exhibiting defects on asphalt pavements surface.The results showed that MIVIS emissivity allows establishing a threshold that points out those asphalt road sites on which a check for a maintenance intervention is required. Therefore, this technique can supply local government authorities an efficient, rapid and repeatable road mapping procedure providing the location of the asphalt pavements to be checked.

  3. Evaluation of the airborne imaging spectrometer for remote sensing of forest stand conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, Charles E., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Five pairs of plots were established in forest stands with one of each pair trenched and covered to prevent precipitation from reaching the tree roots. High winds and falling limbs destroyed the covers on three of the plots. The two remaining plots were in a red pine plantation and in a natural stand of sugar maple. Trees in both plots developed levels of moisture stress more than nine bars higher than control trees on the dates of overflights with the Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) and the Collins' Airborne Spectroradiometer (CAS). Hemispherical reflectance from stressed and control trees was measured with a Beckman DK2A spectrophotometer. On the day of the AIS overflight, stressed maple foliage was less reflective than the control from 1000 to 1300 nm, but more reflective at wavelengths longer than 1300 nm. Pine foliage was less reflective than the control from 1000 to 1600 nm, but the difference was small at wavelengths longer than 1350 nm. AIS data collected showed brightness values for both maple and pine to be lower than for the controls from 1000 to 1300 nm. CAS data were used to determine the gain in species identification accuracy obtainable with high spectral resolution data.

  4. Airborne remote sensing of surface waves in the marginal ice zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutherland, Peter; Gascard, Jean-Claude

    2016-04-01

    The propagation of ocean surface waves into sea ice is an important physical process in an increasingly ice-free Arctic basin. Wave-fetch-ice feedbacks are a key unknown in climate-scale simulations of Arctic sea ice, and wave effects are one of the greatest sources of uncertainty in operational ice models. We will present a technique developed for measuring waves in sea ice using airborne scanning lidar. Applying this technique to data taken during the CryoSat Validation Experiment, 2006, we were able to observe the spatial directional spectra of surface waves propagating tens of kilometres into the marginal ice zone. Wave energy attenuation and the evolution of spectral spreading were observed. Co-located visible imagery was then used to relate floe size distributions to the wave spectra. The broader-scale implications of our results, which are particularly relevant to discerning between scattering-based and dissipative wave attenuation models, will be discussed. Suggestions for minor modifications to future airborne campaigns, that would allow significantly improved capture of wave processes, will also be presented.

  5. Annual South American forest loss estimates based on passive microwave remote sensing (1990-2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Marle, M. J. E.; van der Werf, G. R.; de Jeu, R. A. M.; Liu, Y. Y.

    2015-07-01

    Consistent forest loss estimates are important to understand the role of forest loss and deforestation in the global carbon cycle, for biodiversity studies, and to estimate the mitigation potential of reducing deforestation. To date, most studies have relied on optical satellite data and new efforts have greatly improved our quantitative knowledge on forest dynamics. However, most of these studies yield results for only a relatively short time period or are limited to certain countries. We have quantified large-scale forest losses over a 21 year period (1990-2010) in the tropical biomes of South America using remotely sensed vegetation optical depth (VOD). This passive microwave satellite-based indicator of vegetation water content and vegetation density has a much coarser spatial resolution than optical but its temporal resolution is higher and VOD is not impacted by aerosols and cloud cover. We used the merged VOD product of the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) and Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) observations, and developed a change detection algorithm to quantify spatial and temporal variations in forest loss dynamics. Our results compared favorably to the newly developed Global Forest Change (GFC) maps based on Landsat data and available for the 2001 onwards period (r2 = 0.90 when comparing annual country-level estimates), which allowed us to convert our results to forest loss area and compute these from 1990 onwards. We found that South American forest exhibited substantial interannual variability without a clear trend during the 1990s, but increased from 2000 until 2004. After 2004, forest loss decreased again, except for two smaller peaks in 2007 and 2010. For a large part, these trends were driven by changes in Brazil, which was responsible for 56 % of the total South American forest loss over our study period according to our results. One of the key findings of our study is that while forest losses decreased in Brazil after 2005

  6. Annual South American forest loss estimates based on passive microwave remote sensing (1990-2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Marle, M. J. E.; van der Werf, G. R.; de Jeu, R. A. M.; Liu, Y. Y.

    2016-02-01

    Consistent forest loss estimates are important to understand the role of forest loss and deforestation in the global carbon cycle, for biodiversity studies, and to estimate the mitigation potential of reducing deforestation. To date, most studies have relied on optical satellite data and new efforts have greatly improved our quantitative knowledge on forest dynamics. However, most of these studies yield results for only a relatively short time period or are limited to certain countries. We have quantified large-scale forest loss over a 21-year period (1990-2010) in the tropical biomes of South America using remotely sensed vegetation optical depth (VOD). This passive microwave satellite-based indicator of vegetation water content and vegetation density has a much coarser spatial resolution than optical data but its temporal resolution is higher and VOD is not impacted by aerosols and cloud cover. We used the merged VOD product of the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) and Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) observations, and developed a change detection algorithm to quantify spatial and temporal variations in forest loss dynamics. Our results compared reasonably well with the newly developed Landsat-based Global Forest Change (GFC) maps, available for the 2001 onwards period (r2 = 0.90 when comparing annual country-level estimates). This allowed us to convert our identified changes in VOD to forest loss area and compute these from 1990 onwards. We also compared these calibrated results to PRODES (r2 = 0.60 when comparing annual state-level estimates). We found that South American forest exhibited substantial interannual variability without a clear trend during the 1990s, but increased from 2000 until 2004. After 2004, forest loss decreased again, except for two smaller peaks in 2007 and 2010. For a large part, these trends were driven by changes in Brazil, which was responsible for 56 % of the total South American forest loss area over our study

  7. Validating a Satellite Microwave Remote Sensing Based Global Record of Daily Landscape Freeze-Thaw Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimball, J. S.; Kim, Y.; McDonald, K. C.

    2012-12-01

    The freeze-thaw (FT) parameter from satellite microwave remote sensing quantifies the predominant landscape frozen or thawed state and is closely linked to surface energy budget and hydrologic activity, vegetation growth, terrestrial carbon budgets and land-atmosphere trace gas exchange. A global Earth System Data Record of daily landscape FT status (FT-ESDR) was developed using a temporal change classification of overlapping 37 GHz brightness temperature (Tb) series from the Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) and Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I), and encompassing land areas where seasonal frozen temperatures influence ecosystem processes. A temporally consistent, long-term (>30 yr) FT record was created by ensuring cross-sensor consistency through pixel-wise adjustment of the SMMR Tb record based on empirical analyses of overlapping SMMR and SSM/I measurements. The FT-ESDR is designed to determine the FT status of the composite landscape vegetation-snow-soil medium with sufficient accuracy to characterize frozen temperature constraints to surface water mobility, vegetation productivity and land-atmosphere CO2 fluxes. A multi-tier validation scheme was applied using in situ temperature measurements, other satellite FT retrievals and synergistic biophysical data. These results are incorporated into the product metadata structure, including mean daily spatial classification accuracies and annual quality assessment (QA) maps accounting for landscape heterogeneity, algorithm limitations and sensor retrieval gaps. The resulting FT-ESDR shows mean annual spatial classification accuracies of 91 (+/-8.6) and 84 (+/-9.3) percent for PM and AM overpass retrievals. Accuracy is reduced during seasonal transition periods when FT heterogeneity is maximized within the relatively coarse (~25-km) satellite footprint. The QA rankings range from low (estimated accuracy <70%) to best (>90%) categories; mean annual QA results for the 1979-2011 period show relative

  8. Sensitivity study for a remotely piloted microwave-powered sailplane used as a high-altitude observation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turriziani, R. V.

    1979-01-01

    The sensitivity of several performance characteristics of a proposed design for a microwave-powered, remotely piloted, high-altitude sailplane to changes in independently varied design parameters was investigated. Results were expressed as variations from baseline values of range, final climb altitude and onboard storage of radiated energy. Calculated range decreased with increases in either gross weight or parasite drag coefficient; it also decreased with decreases in lift coefficient, propeller efficiency, or microwave beam density. The sensitivity trends for range and final climb altitude were very similar. The sensitivity trends for stored energy were reversed from those for range, except for decreasing microwave beam density. Some study results for single parameter variations were combined to estimate the effect of the simultaneous variation of several parameters: for two parameters, this appeared to give reasonably accurate results.

  9. Multispectral Imaging Systems for Airborne Remote Sensing to Support Site-Specific Agricultural Management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Remote sensing has shown promise as a tool for site-specific management in agricultural application and production. Earth-observing satellite systems have an advantage for large-scale analysis at regional levels but are limited in spatial resolution. High-resolution satellite systems have been avail...

  10. Crop residue modeling and mapping using Landsat, ALI, hyperion and airborne remote sensing data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Various studies have demonstrated that spectral indices derived from Landsat TM data can be used effectively to quantify crop residue cover if adequately calibrated using in situ data. However, recent developments in remote sensing technologies may possibly accelerate research related to residue cov...

  11. Multispectral Imaging Systems for Airborne Remote Sensing to Support Agricultural Production Management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Remote sensing has shown promise as a tool for managing agricultural application and production. Earth-observing satellite systems have an advantage for large-scale analysis at regional levels but are limited in spatial resolution. High-resolution satellite systems have been available in recent year...

  12. DETECTION AND IDENTIFICATION OF TOXIC AIR POLLUTANTS USING FIELD PORTABLE AND AIRBORNE REMOTE IMAGING SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Remote sensing technologies are a class of instrument and sensor systems that include laser imageries, imaging spectrometers, and visible to thermal infrared cameras. These systems have been successfully used for gas phase chemical compound identification in a variety of field e...

  13. Vegetation Water Content Mapping in a Diverse Agricultural Landscape: The National Airborne Field Experiment 2006

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mapping land cover and vegetation characteristics on a regional scale is critical to soil moisture retrieval using microwave remote sensing. In aircraft-based experiments such as the National Airborne Field Experiment 2006 (NAFE’06), it is challenging to provide accurate high resolution vegetation i...

  14. Data Management Challenges for Airborne NASA Earth Venture Sub-Orbital Investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyer, A.; Lindsley, C.; Wright, D.; Cook, R. B.; Santhana Vannan, S. K.

    2015-12-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) is developing technology infrastructure to archive airborne remote sensing observations from two of NASA's Earth Venture Sub-orbital Missions. The two missions are CARVE (Carbon in Arctic Reservoirs Vulnerability Experiment) and AirMOSS (Airborne Microwave Observatory of Subcanopy and Subsurface). These missions collected over 140 TB of data from extensive ground-based and airborne instruments. The metadata and documentation requirements necessary for proper archive and dissemination of such transect-based, and often 3-dimensional, airborne data are quite different from traditional field campaign data and satellite remote sensing data streams. Staff at the ORNL DAAC have developed a metadata and data infrastructure for airborne data that enables spatial or keyword-based search and discovery, integration of related satellite- or ground-based data sets, and subsetting and visualization tools for both CARVE and AirMOSS. Here we discuss challenges, progress, and lessons learned.

  15. Passive and Active Microwave Remote Sensing of Precipitation and Latent Heating Distributions in the Tropics from TRMM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, William S.; Kummerow, Christian D.; Yang, Song; Haddad, Ziad S.; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Wang, Yansen; Lang, Stephen E.; Braun, Scott A.; Chiu, Christine; Wang, Jian-Jian

    2002-01-01

    Passive and active microwave remote sensing data are analyzed to identify signatures of precipitation and vertical motion in tropical convection. A database of cloud/radiative model simulations is used to quantify surface rain rates and latent heating profiles that are consistent with these signatures. At satellite footprint-scale (approximately 10 km), rain rate and latent heating estimates are subject to significant random errors, but by averaging the estimates in space and time, random errors are substantially reduced, Bias errors have been minimized by improving the microphysics in the supporting cloud/radiative model simulations, and by imposing a consistent definition of remotely-sensed and model-simulated convective/stratiform rain coverage. Remotely-sensed precipitation and latent heating distributions in the tropics are derived from Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) and Special Sensor Microwave/ Imager (SSM/ I) sensor data. The prototype Version 6 TRMM passive microwave algorithm typically yields average heating profiles with maxima between 6 and 7 km altitude for organized mesoscale convective systems. Retrieved heating profiles for individual convective systems are compared to coincident estimates based upon a combination of dual-Doppler radar and rawinsonde data. Also, large-scale latent heating distributions are compared to estimates derived from a simpler technique that utilizes observations of surface rain rate and stratiform rain proportion to infer vertical heating structure. Results of these tests will be presented at the conference.

  16. Multi-trophic invasion resistance in Hawaii: bioacoustics, field surveys, and airborne remote sensing.

    PubMed

    Boelman, Natalie T; Asner, Gregory P; Hart, Patrick J; Martin, Roberta E

    2007-12-01

    We used airborne imaging spectroscopy and scanning light detection and ranging (LiDAR), along with bioacoustic recordings, to determine how a plant species invasion affects avian abundance and community composition across a range of Hawaiian submontane ecosystems. Total avian abundance and the ratio of native to exotic avifauna were highest in habitats with the highest canopy cover and height. Comparing biophysically equivalent sites, stands dominated by native Metrosideros polymorpha trees hosted larger native avian communities than did mixed stands of Metrosideros and the invasive tree Morella faya. A multi-trophic analysis strongly suggests that native avifauna provide biotic resistance against the invasion of Morella trees and exotic birds, thus slowing invasion "meltdowns" that disrupt the functioning of native Hawaiian ecosystems. PMID:18213957

  17. The relationship among sea surface roughness variations, oceanographic analyses, and airborne remote sensing analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oertel, G. F.; Wade, T. L.

    1981-01-01

    The synthetic aperture radar (SAR) was studied to determine whether it could image large scale estuaries and oceanic features such as fronts and to explain the electromagnetic interaction between SAR and the individual surface front features. Fronts were observed to occur at the entrance to the Chesapeake Bay. The airborne measurements consisted of data collection by SAR onboard an F-4 aircraft and real aperture side looking radar (SLAR) in Mohawk aircraft. A total of 89 transects were flown. Surface roughness and color as well as temperature and salinity were evaluated. Cross-frontal surveys were made. Frontal shear and convergence flow were obtained. Surface active organic materials, it was indicated, are present at the air-sea interface. In all, 2000 analyses were conducted to characterize the spatial and temporal variabilities associated with water mass boundaries.

  18. Estimating sediment and caesium-137 fluxes in the Ribble Estuary through time-series airborne remote sensing.

    PubMed

    Wakefield, R; Tyler, A N; McDonald, P; Atkin, P A; Gleizon, P; Gilvear, D

    2011-03-01

    High spatial and temporal resolution airborne imagery were acquired for the Ribble Estuary, North West England in 1997 and 2003, to assess the application of time-series airborne remote sensing to quantify total suspended sediment and radionuclide fluxes during a flood and ebb tide sequence. Concomitant measurements of suspended particulate matter (SPM) and water column turbidity were obtained during the time-series image acquisition for the flood and ebb tide sequence on the 17th July 2003 to verify the assumption of a vertically well mixed estuary and thus justifying the vertical extrapolation of spatially integrated estimate of surface SPM. The ¹³⁷Cs activity concentrations were calculated from a relatively stable relationship between SPM and ¹³⁷Cs for the Ribble Estuary. Total estuary wide budgets of sediment and ¹³⁷Cs were obtained by combining the image-derived estimates of surface SPM and ¹³⁷Cs with estimates of water volume from a two-dimensional hydrodynamic model (VERSE) developed for the Ribble Estuary. These indicate that around 10,000 tons of sediment and 2.72 GBq of ¹³⁷Cs were deposited over the tidal sequence monitored in July 2003. This compared favourably with bed height elevation change estimated from field work. An uncertainty analysis on the total sediment and ¹³⁷Cs flux yielded a total budget of the order of 40% on the final estimate. The results represent a novel approach to providing a spatially integrated estimate of the total net sediment and radionuclide flux in an intertidal environment over a flood and ebb tide sequence. PMID:21195513

  19. A mathematical characterization of vegetation effect on microwave remote sensing from the Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choe, Y.; Tsang, L.

    1983-01-01

    In passive microwave remote sensing of the earth, a theoretical model that utilizes the radiative transfer equations was developed to account for the volume scattering effects of the vegetation canopy. Vegetation canopies such as alfalfa, sorghum, and corn are simulated by a layer of ellipsoidal scatterers and cylindrical structures. The ellipsoidal scatterers represent the leaves of vegetation and are randomly positioned and oriented. The orientation of ellipsoids is characterized by a probability density function of Eulerian angles of rotation. The cylindrical structures represent the stalks of vegetation and their radii are assumed to be much smaller than their lengths. The underlying soil is represented by a half-space medium with a homogeneous permittivity and uniform temperature profile. The radiative transfer quations are solved by a numerical method using a Gaussian quadrature formula to compute both the vertical and horizontal polarized brightness temperature as a function of observation angle. The theory was applied to the interpretation of experimental data obtained from sorghum covered fields near College Station, Texas.

  20. Interpretation of air pollution data as measured by an airborne remote sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, G. L.; Young, G. R.; Green, R. N.

    1974-01-01

    The investigation described is a continuation of the work reported by Smith et al. (1974) in which a single source was studied. In the current study, multiple sources of known location are considered. The study is concerned with the strength of each source and the resulting pollution concentration field. The characteristics of the remotely sensed data are discussed along with the parameter estimation procedure, the estimation of pollution parameters, and a numerical example.

  1. Airborne Geophysics and Remote Sensing Applied to Study Greenland Ice Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Csatho, Beata M.

    2003-01-01

    Overview of project: we combined and jointly analysed geophysical, remote sensing and glaciological data for investigating the temporal changes in ice flow and the role of geologic control on glacial drainage. The project included two different studies, the investigation of recent changes of the Kangerlussuaq glacier and the study of geologic control of ice flow in NW Greenland, around the Humboldt, Petermann and Ryder glaciers.

  2. Airborne Remote Observations of L-Band Radio Frequency Interference and Implications for Satellite Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laymon, Charles; Srinivasan, Karthik; Limaye, Ashutosh

    2011-01-01

    Passive remote sensing of the Earth s surface and atmosphere from space has significant importance in operational and research environmental studies, in particular for the scientific understanding, monitoring and prediction of climate change and its impacts. Passive remote sensing requires the measurement of naturally occurring radiations, usually of very low power levels, which contain essential information on the physical process under investigation. As such, these sensed radio frequency bands are a unique natural resource enabling space borne passive sensing of the atmosphere and the Earth s surface that deserves adequate allocation to the Earth Exploration Satellite Service and absolute protection from interference. Unfortunately, radio frequency interference (RFI) is an increasing problem for Earth remote sensing, particularly for passive observations of natural emissions. Because these natural signals tend to be very weak, even low levels of interference received by a passive sensor may degrade the fidelity of scientific data. The characteristics of RFI (low-level interference and radar-pulse noise) are not well known because there has been no systematic surveillance, spectrum inventory or mapping of RFI. While conducting a flight experiment over central Tennessee in May 2010, RFI, a concern for any instrument operating in the passive L band frequency, was observed across 16 subbands between 1402-1427 MHz. Such a survey provides rare characterization data from which to further develop mitigation technologies as well as to identify bandwidths to avoid in future sensor formulation.

  3. A new algorithm to measure sea ice concentration from passive microwave remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Repina, Irina; Sharkov, Evgeniy; Komarova, Nataliya; Raev, Mikhail; Tikhonov, Vasilii; Boyarskiy, Dmitriy

    Studies of spatial and temporal properties of sea ice distribution in polar regions help to monitor global environmental changes and reveal their natural and anthropogenic factors, as well as make forecasts of weather, marine transportation and fishing conditions, assess perspectives of mineral mining on the continental shelf, etc. Contact methods of observation are often insufficient to meet the goals, very complicated technically and organizationally and not always safe for people involved. Remote sensing techniques are believed to be the best alternative. Its include monitoring of polar regions by means of passive microwave sensing with the aim to determine spatial distribution, types, thickness and snow cover of ice. However, the algorithms employed today to retrieve sea ice characteristics from passive microwave sensing data for different reasons give significant errors, especially in summer period and also near ice edges and in cases of open ice. One of the error sources is the current practice of using empirical dependencies and adjustment coefficients for the retrieval of ice characteristics and neglecting the physics of the process. We discuss an electrodynamic model of the sea surface - sea ice - snow cover - atmosphere system developed with account taken of physical and structural properties of the ambient. Model calculations of ice brightness temperature in different concentrations and snow covers are in good agreement with SSM/I measurement data. On the base of this model we develop a new algorithm for the retrieval of sea ice concentration from passive microwave sensing data - Variation Arctic Sea Ice Algorithm (VASIA). In contrast to the well-known techniques (NASA TEAM, Bootstrap, ASI, NORSEX et al), it takes into account the real physical parameters of ice, snow and open water rather than empirical and adjustment coefficients. Satellite data were provided by the POLE-RT-Fields SSM/I and SSMIS data collection for polar regions retrieved from the

  4. The NASA/NSERC Student Airborne Research Program Land Focus Group - a Paid Training Program in Multi-Disciplinary STEM Research for Terrestrial Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kefauver, S. C.; Ustin, S.; Davey, S. W.; Furey, B. J.; Gartner, A.; Kurzweil, D.; Siebach, K. L.; Slawsky, L.; Snyder, E.; Trammell, J.; Young, J.; Schaller, E.; Shetter, R. E.

    2011-12-01

    The Student Airborne Research Program (SARP) of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the National Suborbital Education and Research Center (NSERC) is a unique six week multidisciplinary paid training program which directly integrates students into the forefront of airborne remote sensing science. Students were briefly trained with one week of lectures and laboratory exercises and then immediately incorporated into ongoing research projects which benefit from access to the DC-8 airborne platform and the MODIS-ASTER Airborne Simulator (MASTER) sensor. Students were split into three major topical categories of Land, Ocean, and Air for the data collection and project portions of the program. This poster details the techniques and structure used for the student integration into ongoing research, professional development, hypothesis building and results as developed by the professor and mentor of the Land focus group. Upon assignment to the Land group, students were issued official research field protocols and split into four field specialty groups with additional specialty reading assignments. In the field each group spent more time in their respective specialty, but also participated in all field techniques through pairings with UC Davis research team members using midday rotations. After the field campaign, each specialty group then gave summary presentations on the techniques, preliminary results, and significance to overall group objectives of their specialty. Then students were required to submit project proposals within the bounds of Land airborne remote sensing science and encouraging, but not requiring the use of the field campaign data. These proposals are then reviewed by the professor and mentor and students are met with one by one to discuss the skills of each student and objectives of the proposed research project. The students then work under the supervision of the mentor and benefit again from professor feedback in a formal

  5. Identification and Atmospheric Transport of Microcystin Around Southern California Using Airborne Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conlin, J.; Kudela, R. M.; Broughton, J.

    2014-12-01

    Microcystin, a hepatotoxin produced by the cyanobacteria Microcystis, has been known to contaminate fresh water sources around southern California. Ingesting this toxin can cause death in animals and illnesses in humans, which has promoted the World Health Organization (WHO) and California to establish preliminary guidelines for microcystin concentrations in the water (1 μg/L in drinking water and 0.8 μg/L for recreational exposure respectively). However, very few studies have been done to assess the effects of this toxin when aerosolized, even though Fitzgeorge et al. (1994) describes the toxin as potentially 12x more deadly if inhaled rather than swallowed. This project aimed to identify areas with the potential for high microcystin concentrations using airborne data and then model the potential atmospheric transport of the toxin. After applying the Master Scattering Line Height (MSLH) and Aphanizomenon-Microcystis Index (AMI) algorithms to Airborne Visible/ Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS), multiple water bodies were identified as having the potential for Microcystis, although many of the observed water bodies had AMI values indicating the presence of Aphanizomenon-- a non-toxic cyanobacteria that is usually present before Microcystis. A relationship between toxins and biomass was developed and used to estimate the amount of phycocyanin and dissolved microcystin in the water. Brevetoxin, common in the Florida 'red tides', was used as a proxy to estimate the amount of microcystin that becomes aerosolized given a known water concentration (Kirkpatrick et al, 2010). These amounts were then run and averaged with the HYSPLIT dispersion model for 4 hours, 12 hours, and 24 hours. The final results show that most areas are exposed to less than 0.1 ng/m^3 after 4 hours. As a worst case scenario, one final model was run to show the exposure amount when Pinto Lake was observed to have the maximum amount of microcystin recorded in 2007. The results show that after 4

  6. Mapping Weathering and Alteration Minerals in the Comstock and Geiger Grade Areas using Visible to Thermal Infrared Airborne Remote Sensing Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughan, Greg R.; Calvin, Wendy M.

    2005-01-01

    To support research into both precious metal exploration and environmental site characterization a combination of high spatial/spectral resolution airborne visible, near infrared, short wave infrared (VNIR/SWIR) and thermal infrared (TIR) image data were acquired to remotely map hydrothermal alteration minerals around the Geiger Grade and Comstock alteration regions, and map the mineral by-products of weathered mine dumps in Virginia City. Remote sensing data from the Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS), SpecTIR Corporation's airborne hyperspectral imager (HyperSpecTIR), the MODIS-ASTER airborne simulator (MASTER), and the Spatially Enhanced Broadband Array Spectrograph System (SEBASS) were acquired and processed into mineral maps based on the unique spectral signatures of image pixels. VNIR/SWIR and TIR field spectrometer data were collected for both calibration and validation of the remote data sets, and field sampling, laboratory spectral analyses and XRD analyses were made to corroborate the surface mineralogy identified by spectroscopy. The resulting mineral maps show the spatial distribution of several important alteration minerals around each study area including alunite, quartz, pyrophyllite, kaolinite, montmorillonite/muscovite, and chlorite. In the Comstock region the mineral maps show acid-sulfate alteration, widespread propylitic alteration and extensive faulting that offsets the acid-sulfate areas, in contrast to the larger, dominantly acid-sulfate alteration exposed along Geiger Grade. Also, different mineral zones within the intense acid-sulfate areas were mapped. In the Virginia City historic mining district the important weathering minerals mapped include hematite, goethite, jarosite and hydrous sulfate minerals (hexahydrite, alunogen and gypsum) located on mine dumps. Sulfate minerals indicate acidic water forming in the mine dump environment. While there is not an immediate threat to the community, there are clearly sources of

  7. Analysis of Vegetation Within A Semi-Arid Urban Environment Using High Spatial Resolution Airborne Thermal Infrared Remote Sensing Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Ridd, Merrill K.

    1998-01-01

    High spatial resolution (5 m) remote sensing data obtained using the airborne Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) sensor for daytime and nighttime have been used to measure thermal energy responses for 2 broad classes and 10 subclasses of vegetation typical of the Salt Lake City, Utah urban landscape. Polygons representing discrete areas corresponding to the 10 subclasses of vegetation types have been delineated from the remote sensing data and are used for analysis of upwelling thermal energy for day, night, and the change in response between day and night or flux, as measured by the TIMS. These data have been used to produce three-dimensional graphs of energy responses in W/ sq m for day, night, and flux, for each urban vegetation land cover as measured by each of the six channels of the TIMS sensor. Analysis of these graphs provides a unique perspective for both viewing and understanding thermal responses, as recorded by the TIMS, for selected vegetation types common to Salt Lake City. A descriptive interpretation is given for each of the day, night, and flux graphs along with an analysis of what the patterns mean in reference to the thermal properties of the vegetation types surveyed in this study. From analyses of these graphs, it is apparent that thermal responses for vegetation can be highly varied as a function of the biophysical properties of the vegetation itself, as well as other factors. Moreover, it is also seen where vegetation, particularly trees, has a significant influence on damping or mitigating the amount of thermal radiation upwelling into the atmosphere across the Salt Lake City urban landscape. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.

  8. Airborne multispectral and hyperspectral remote sensing: Examples of applications to the study of environmental and engineering problems

    SciTech Connect

    Bianchi, R.; Marino, C.M.

    1997-10-01

    The availability of a new aerial survey capability carried out by the CNR/LARA (National Research Council - Airborne Laboratory for the Environmental Research) by a new spectroradiometer AA5000 MIVIS (Multispectral Infrared and Visible Imaging Spectrometer) on board a CASA 212/200 aircraft, enable the scientists to obtain innovative data sets, for different approach to the definitions and the understanding of a variety of environmental and engineering problems. The 102 MIVIS channels spectral bandwidths are chosen to meet the needs of scientific research for advanced applications of remote sensing data. In such configuration MIVIS can offer significant contributions to problem solving in wide sectors such as geologic exploration, agricultural crop studies, forestry, land use mapping, idrogeology, oceanography and others. LARA in 1994-96 has been active over different test-sites in joint-venture with JPL, Pasadena, different European Institutions and Italian University and Research Institutes. These aerial surveys allow the national and international scientific community to approach the use of Hyperspectral Remote Sensing in environmental problems of very large interest. The sites surveyed in Italy, France and Germany include a variety of targets such as quarries, landfills, karst cavities areas, landslides, coastlines, geothermal areas, etc. The deployments gathered up to now more than 300 GBytes of MIVIS data in more than 30 hours of VLDS data recording. The purpose of this work is to present and to comment the procedures and the results at research and at operational level of the past campaigns with special reference to the study of environmental and engineering problems.

  9. Passive Microwave Remote Sensing of Falling Snow and Associated GPM Field Campaigns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skofronick-Jackson, Gail

    2011-01-01

    Retrievals of falling snow from space represent one of the next important challenges for the atmospheric, hydrological, and energy budget scientific communities. Historically, retrievals of falling snow have been difficult due to the relative insensitivity of satellite rain-based channels as used in the past. We emphasize the use of high frequency passive microwave channels (85-200 GHz) since these are more sensitive to the ice in clouds and have been used to estimate falling snow from space. While satellite-based remote sensing provides global coverage of falling snow events and the science is relatively new, retrievals are still undergoing development with challenges remaining. There are several current satellite sensors, though not specifically designed for estimating falling snow, are capable of measuring snow from space. These include NOAA's AMSU-B, the MHS sensors, and CloudSat radar. They use high frequency (greater than 85 GHz) passive and active microwave and millimeter-wave channels that are sensitive to the scattering from ice and snow particles in the atmosphere. Sensors with water vapor channels near 183 GHz center line provide opaqueness to the Earth's surface features that can contaminate the falling snow signatures, especially over snow covered surface. In addition, the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission scheduled for launch in 2013 is specifically designed to measure both liquid rain and frozen snow precipitation. Since falling snow from space is the next precipitation measurement challenge from space, information must be determined in order to guide retrieval algorithm development for these current and future missions. This information includes thresholds of detection for various sensor channel configurations, snow event system characteristics, and surface types. For example, can a lake effect snow system with low cloud tops having an ice water content (IWC) at the surface of 1.0 gram per cubic meter be detected? If this information is

  10. Passive remote sensing of large-scale methane emissions from Oil Fields in California's San Joaquin Valley and validation by airborne in-situ measurements - Results from COMEX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerilowski, Konstantin; Krautwurst, Sven; Thompson, David R.; Thorpe, Andrew K.; Kolyer, Richard W.; Jonsson, Haflidi; Krings, Thomas; Frankenberg, Christian; Horstjann, Markus; Leifer, Ira; Eastwood, Michael; Green, Robert O.; Vigil, Sam; Fladeland, Matthew; Schüttemeyer, Dirk; Burrows, John P.; Bovensmann, Heinrich

    2016-04-01

    The CO2 and MEthane EXperiment (COMEX) was a NASA and ESA funded campaign in support of the HyspIRI and CarbonSat mission definition activities. As a part of this effort, seven flights were performed between June 3 and September 4, 2014 with the Methane Airborne MAPper (MAMAP) remote sensing instrument (operated by the University of Bremen in cooperation with the German Research Centre for Geosciences - GFZ) over the Kern River, Kern Front, and Poso Creek Oil Fields located in California's San Joaquin Valley. MAMAP was installed for the flights aboard the Center for Interdisciplinary Remotely-Piloted Aircraft Studies (CIRPAS) Twin Otter aircraft, together with: a Picarro fast in-situ greenhouse gas (GHG) analyzer operated by the NASA Ames Research Center, ARC; a 5-hole turbulence probe; and an atmospheric measurement package operated by CIRPAS measuring aerosols, temperature, dew-point, and other atmospheric parameters. Three of the flights were accompanied by the Next Generation Airborne Visual InfraRed Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS-NG), operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), California Institute of Technology, installed aboard a second Twin Otter aircraft. Large-scale, high-concentration CH4 plumes were detected by the MAMAP instrument over the fields and tracked over several kilometers. The spatial distribution of the MAMAP observed plumes was compared to high spatial resolution CH4 anomaly maps derived by AVIRIS-NG imaging spectroscopy data. Remote sensing data collected by MAMAP was used to infer CH4 emission rates and their distributions over the three fields. Aggregated emission estimates for the three fields were compared to aggregated emissions inferred by subsequent airborne in-situ validation measurements collected by the Picarro instrument. Comparison of remote sensing and in-situ flux estimates will be presented, demonstrating the ability of airborne remote sensing data to provide accurate emission estimates for concentrations above the

  11. New Small Satellite Capabilities for Microwave Atmospheric Remote Sensing: The Earth Observing Nanosatellite-Microwave (EON-MW)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackwell, W. J.

    2015-12-01

    Four nanosatellite advanced technology missions flying microwave radiometers for high-resolution atmospheric sensing are in varying stages of development. Microwave instrumentation is particularly well suited for implementation on a very small satellite, as the sensor requirements for power, pointing, and spatial resolution (aperture size) can be accommodated by a nanosatellite platform. The first mission, the Microsized Microwave Atmospheric Satellite (MicroMAS), was developed to demonstrate temperature sounding in nine channels near 118 GHz on a 3U CubeSat (10x10x34 cm; 4.25 kg). MicroMAS was recently released from the International Space Station (ISS) for a 100-day mission, and while an eventual transmitter failure prevented demonstration of the radiometer payload, all key spacecraft subsystems provided on-orbit data to validate performance. Two 3U CubeSat follow-on missions, MicroMAS-2 (12 channels near 90, 118, 183, and 206 GHz; cross-track scanning) and MiRaTA (12 channels near 60, 183, and 206 GHz; no scanning; GPSRO onboard), will launch in 2016 for further demonstration. Building upon this work, the Earth Observing Nanosatellite-Microwave mission is being formulated by MIT Lincoln Laboratory for the NOAA National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service as part of the Polar Follow-On (PFO) budget request to extend JPSS for two more missions, and provides a means to mitigate the risk of a gap in continuity of weather observations. The PFO request aims to achieve robustness in the polar satellite system to ensure continuity of NOAA's polar weather observations. The baseline EON-MW design accommodates a scanning 22-channel high-resolution microwave spectrometer on a 12U (22x22x34 cm, 20 kg) CubeSat platform to provide data continuity with the existing AMSU and ATMS microwave sounding systems. EON-MW will nominally be launched into a sun-synchronous orbit for a two to three year mitigation mission in 2019 that will also extend technology

  12. Airborne in situ vertical profiling of HDO/H216O in the subtropical troposphere during the MUSICA remote sensing validation campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyroff, C.; Sanati, S.; Christner, E.; Zahn, A.; Balzer, M.; Bouquet, H.; McManus, J. B.; González-Ramos, Y.; Schneider, M.

    2015-01-01

    Vertical profiles of water vapor (H2O) and its isotope ratio D / H expressed as δ D(H2O were measured in situ by the ISOWAT II diode-laser spectrometer during the MUlti-platform remote Sensing of Isotopologues for investigating the Cycle of Atmospheric water (MUSICA) airborne campaign. We present recent modifications of the instrument design. The instrument calibration on the ground as well as in flight is described. Based on the calibration measurements, the humidity-dependent uncertainty of our airborne data is determined. For the majority of the airborne data we achieved an accuracy (uncertainty of the mean) of Δ(δ D) ≈ 10‰. Vertical profiles between 150 and ~7000 m were obtained during 7 days in July and August 2013 over the subtropical North Atlantic Ocean near Tenerife. The flights were coordinated with ground-based (Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change, NDACC) and space-based (Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer, IASI) FTIR remote-sensing measurements of δ D(H2O) as a means to validate the remote sensing humidity and δ D(H2O) data products. The results of the validation are presented in detail in a separate paper (Schneider et al., 2014). The profiles were obtained with a high vertical resolution of around 3 m. By analyzing humidity and δ D(H2O) correlations we were able to identify different layers of airmasses with specific isotopic signatures. The results are discussed.

  13. Airborne in situ vertical profiling of HDO / H216O in the subtropical troposphere during the MUSICA remote sensing validation campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyroff, C.; Sanati, S.; Christner, E.; Zahn, A.; Balzer, M.; Bouquet, H.; McManus, J. B.; Gonzalez-Ramos, Y.; Schneider, M.

    2015-05-01

    Vertical profiles of water vapor (H2O) and its isotope ratio D / H expressed as δD(H2O) were measured in situ by the ISOWAT II diode-laser spectrometer during the MUlti-platform remote Sensing of Isotopologues for investigating the Cycle of Atmospheric water (MUSICA) airborne campaign. We present recent modifications of the instrument design. The instrument calibration on the ground as well as in flight is described. Based on the calibration measurements, the humidity-dependent uncertainty of our airborne data is determined. For the majority of the airborne data we achieved an accuracy (uncertainty of the mean) of Δ(δD) ≈10‰. Vertical profiles between 150 and ~7000 m were obtained during 7 days in July and August 2013 over the subtropical North Atlantic Ocean near Tenerife. The flights were coordinated with ground-based (Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change, NDACC) and space-based (Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer, IASI) FTIR remote sensing measurements of δD(H2O) as a means to validate the remote sensing humidity and δD(H2O) data products. The results of the validation are presented in detail in a separate paper (Schneider et al., 2014). The profiles were obtained with a high vertical resolution of around 3 m. By analyzing humidity and δD(H2O) correlations we were able to identify different layers of air masses with specific isotopic signatures. The results are discussed.

  14. Airborne remote sensing of photosynthetic light use efficiency and carbon uptake along an Arctic transect in Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atherton, J.; Hill, T. C.; Prieto-Blanco, A.; Wade, T.; Clement, R.; Moncrieff, J.; Williams, M. D.; Disney, M.; Nichol, C. J.

    2009-12-01

    It is critical to understand the dynamics of ecosystem carbon uptake through seasonal changes and in response to environmental drivers. In this study we utilised aircraft based remote sensing and CO2/H2O flux monitoring systems to quantify changes in photosynthesis along an Arctic transect. The University of Edinburgh's (UK) research aircraft (a Diamond HK 36 TTC-ECO Dimona) was deployed in the Arctic during summer 2008 to carry out a series of transect-flights over a birch-mire mosaic site near Kevo, Finland as part of the Arctic Biosphere Atmosphere Coupling at Multiple Scales (ABACUS) project. The aircraft is equipped with automated dual field-of-view (hyperspectral) radiometers and CO2/H2O flux and meteorological instrumentation. Vegetation indices known to be related to photosynthetic light use efficiency (LUE), including the well established Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI) and Solar-induced Fluorescence (SiF) as well as the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) were calculated from the spectral data and matched in space to the CO2 flux measurements. We explored spatial relationships between NDVI and CO2 flux, LUE (CO2 flux / Absorbed Photosynthetically Active Radiation) and PRI and finally SiF (calculated using the Fraunhofer infilling method) and relevant environmental drivers. Our results highlight the unique ability of an airborne platform to quantify ecosystem physiology across a landscape and demonstrate how such measurements can bridge the spatial gap between ground and satellite-based observations.

  15. Analysis of potential debris flow source areas on Mount Shasta, California, by using airborne and satellite remote sensing data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crowley, J.K.; Hubbard, B.E.; Mars, J.C.

    2003-01-01

    Remote sensing data from NASA's Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) and the first spaceborne imaging spectrometer, Hyperion, show hydrothermally altered rocks mainly composed of natroalunite, kaolinite, cristobalite, and gypsum on both the Mount Shasta and Shastina cones. Field observations indicate that much of the visible altered rock consists of talus material derived from fractured rock zones within and adjacent to dacitic domes and nearby lava flows. Digital elevation data were utilized to distinguish steeply sloping altered bedrock from more gently sloping talus materials. Volume modeling based on the imagery and digital elevation data indicate that Mount Shasta drainage systems contain moderate volumes of altered rock, a result that is consistent with Mount Shasta's Holocene record of mostly small to moderate debris flows. Similar modeling for selected areas at Mount Rainier and Mount Adams, Washington, indicates larger altered rock volumes consistent with the occurrence of much larger Holocene debris flows at those volcanoes. The availability of digital elevation and spectral data from spaceborne sensors, such as Hyperion and the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflectance Radiometer (ASTER), greatly expands opportunities for studying potential debris flow source characteristics at stratovolcanoes around the world. ?? 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Tracking Snowmelt Events in Remote High Asia Using Passive Microwave Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, T.; Bookhagen, B.

    2015-12-01

    While snowfall can comprise a significant percentage of the yearly water budget in High Asia, Snow-Water Equivalent (SWE) is poorly constrained due to lack of in-situ measurements and complex terrain that limits the efficacy of modeling and observations. Over the past few decades, SWE has been estimated with the SSMI/S and AMSR passive microwave (PM) sensors, with low reliability in High Asia. Despite problematic SWE volume estimation, PM data contains information on the buildup and melt of snowpack, which is difficult to measure in-situ, particularly in remote areas. We present a new methodology for tracking the timing, frequency, and relative intensity of melt events across High Asia. To measure SWE, we use raw swath data from the SSMI/S (1987-2015, F08, F11, F13, F17), AMSR (2002-2011), and GPM (2014-2015) satellites. This allows us to improve both spatial and temporal resolution over daily gridded products by leveraging multiple overpasses per day in an imperfectly overlapping grid pattern. We then examine SWE estimates, intra-day PM variance, and the interacting impacts of satellite look angles and topography on measured PM at arbitrary point locations. We develop a more thorough understanding of the uncertainties in our SWE estimates by examining the impacts of aspect, relief, slope, and elevation across the Tibetan Plateau on Tb and SWE estimates. High Asia, with its large topographic gradients and low relief at high elevations provides an excellent context to examine a wide range of topographic settings and terrain complexities to better constrain our analysis of sensor bias. We find that slopes above ~10° have a strong impact on SWE variability. We also find a consistent intra- and inter-day variability within constant-SWE periods, as defined as periods without precipitation and with constant temperatures below 0°C. Using this measure of native sensor variability, we filter our SWE time series to identify events of snowmelt which are outside of the

  17. Ground-based microwave remote sensing of temperature inversions in the Bergen valley, Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, Tobias; Esau, Igor; Reuder, Joachim

    2014-05-01

    The temperature profiles in the urbanized Bergen valley, Norway, are characterized by wintertime temperature inversions, which have a strong impact on the surface layer air quality in the city. We present the results from two years of vertical temperature profile measurements obtained with the ground-based microwave temperature profiler MTP-5HE and show the advantages of ground-based remote sensing with this instrument for the monitoring of atmospheric temperature inversions. From a subset of the final, filtered dataset we found that the mean difference between temperatures measured with the MTP-5HE and an automatic meteorological station (AMS) on a nearby mountain was as low as -0.03 ± 0.78 K during inversion free conditions and -0.06 ± 0.71 K during ground-based temperature inversions. The only selection criterion for this subset was a wind speed of more than 5 m/s and to ensure comparability between the location of the AMS and the central valley atmosphere. We found two regimes of ground-based inversions: Non-persistent inversions lasting shorter than 2 hours that are mostly thinner than 100 m and more persistent inversions often reaching 270 m above sea level. The height of the shorter inversions was consistent with the maximum height of inversions found in a previous study based on tethersonde measurements. Ground-based inversions mostly occurred during situations characterized by weak winds in the ERA-Interim reanalysis, to a large degree independent from wind direction. A distinct south-easterly tail in the ERA-Interim wind distribution with wind speeds as high as 16 m/s might have been connected to a wake effect from a nearby mountain. The strong channeling effect within the valley that was also found in previous studies was evident. The ground-based remote sensing was particularly useful for the monitoring of elevated temperature inversions between 170 m and 720 m above sea level. This kind of inversions has not been observed in this valley before. They

  18. Regional Characterization of Landscape Freeze/Thaw Transitions Using Spaceborne Microwave Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podest, E.; McDonald, K. C.; Kimball, J. S.

    2005-12-01

    Boreal forests contain much of the Earth's terrestrial carbon storage in vegetation and seasonally frozen and permafrost soils. The annual freeze/thaw cycle drives the length of the growing season in these landscapes and is a major factor determining annual productivity and associated CO2 exchange with the atmosphere. Satellite microwave remote sensing is sensitive to landscape freeze/thaw state and is an effective tool for this purpose since large inaccessible areas can be monitored regardless of atmospheric conditions or solar illumination. We examined the spatial and temporal characteristics of the seasonal freeze/thaw transition across Alaska and Canada using time series spaceborne radar backscatter measurements from ERS (C-band, 100m, VV-polarization) and JERS (L-band, 100m, HH-polarization), and SeaWinds on QuikSCAT (Ku-band, 25km, HH and VV polarization) sensors. We examined remote sensing based freeze/thaw dynamics in relation to terrain, elevation and land cover complexity, and the relative effects of fire disturbance on these processes, as well as sensor frequency and spatial scale on sensor retrieval accuracy. All sensors examined were sensitive to landscape freeze/thaw state transitions, though sensitivity varies by sensor frequency and landscape component (e.g. vegetation, snow). The study regions analyzed exhibit high spatial heterogeneity in freeze/thaw dynamics associated with complex topography, surface water and land cover composition. Freeze/thaw spatial heterogeneity was detected at high (100m) resolution data. The backscatter freeze-thaw response was inversely proportional to elevation, with the seasonal thaw wave initiating at lower elevations and extending to higher elevations. The observed radar thaw signal also varied by aspect and land cover, with south-facing and deciduous forest sites thawing earlier relative to north-facing and coniferous forest sites. Relatively coarse resolution (25km) SeaWinds data provide for daily assessment of

  19. Airborne remote sensing of tropospheric water vapor using a near infrared DIAL system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ehret, G.; Kiemle, C.; Renger, W.; Simmet, G.

    1992-01-01

    Summarized here are the results of airborne water vapor measurements in the lower middle and upper troposphere using the Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) technique in the near infrared. The measurements were performed in July 1990 in Southern Bavaria between Allersberg and Straubing from 20 to 23 UTC taking advantage of night time conditions. The tropospheric H2O profiles were range investigated both horizontally and vertically. With the DIAL system that was used, water vapor measurements in the upper troposphere have been carried out for the first time. To calibrate the H2O-retrievals, effective absorption cross sections of selected H2O lines in terms of altitude around 724 nm were calculated using line parameter data from the literature (B. E. Grossmann et al). The frequency of the on-line measurements was adjusted by the spectra of a Polyacenic Semiconductor (PAS) cell filled with H2O. We found that the calibration error ranged between 0.005 and 0.015 cm(exp -1). The systematic errors of the H2O as a function of altitude were estimated below 7 km and 12 percent accuracy in the upper troposphere. The vertical H2O profile agrees well with in situ measurements in the investigated range between the top of the planetary boundary layer (PBL) up to near the tropopause. Horizontal and vertical H2O profiles are calculated by means of averaging single lidar returns. Typical horizontal resolutions range from 4 km in the lower to 11 km in the upper troposphere with vertical resolutions varying from 0.3 km up to 1 km, respectively, in order to satisfy a 5 - 10 percent accuracy in the statistical error. The measurement sensibility of the water vapor mixing ration in the upper troposphere is 0.01 g/kg.

  20. Assessing stream temperature variation in the Pacific Northwest using airborne thermal infrared remote sensing.

    PubMed

    Tan, Jing; Cherkauer, Keith A

    2013-01-30

    The objective of this paper is to evaluate the temporal and spatial variability of stream temperatures and how stream temperatures are affected by land use through the use of airborne thermal infrared (TIR) imagery. Both five-meter and fifteen-meter MODIS/ASTER (MASTER) imagery were acquired along the main channel of the Green-Duwamish River in Washington State, U.S. in multiple straight line passes with image overlaps occurring at time intervals of between 3 and 45 min. Five- and fifteen-meter data were collected on August 25th, 2001, with a few additional five-meter images collected on August 27th. Image overlaps were studied to evaluate the time dependence between acquisition time and observed water temperature. Temperature change between adjacent images over the course of a few minutes was found to be negligible, but became significant at times greater than 45 min, with an estimated increase in water temperature of 2-3 °C between the first and last image collected for the complete five-meter resolution survey. Images captured from different days help identify persistent localized temperature differences. While accounting for temperature changes that occurred during the acquisition process, we still found that average stream reach temperatures increased with urbanization, while variability decreased. The same occurred in the immediate presence of a reservoir. This study suggests that urbanization affects stream temperature not only through the removal of riparian zone vegetation, but also through changes to sources in in-stream variability including the presence of rocks, woody debris and sandbars. PMID:23262409

  1. Using Google Earth for Rapid Dissemination of Airborne Remote Sensing Lidar and Photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, C. W.; Nayegandhi, A.; Brock, J. C.

    2006-12-01

    In order to visualize and disseminate vast amounts of lidar and digital photography data, we present a unique method that make these data layers available via the Google Earth interface. The NASA Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL) provides unprecedented capabilities to survey coral reefs, nearshore benthic habitats, coastal vegetation, and sandy beaches. The EAARL sensor suite includes a water-penetrating lidar that provides high-resolution topographic information, a down-looking color digital camera, a down-looking high-resolution color-infrared (CIR) digital camera, and precision kinematic GPS receivers which provide for sub-meter geo-referencing of each laser and multispectral sample. Google Earth "kml" files are created for each EAARL multispectral and processed lidar image. A hierarchical structure of network links allows the user to download high-resolution images within the region of interest. The first network link (kmz file) downloaded by the user contains a color coded flight path and "minute marker" icons along the flight path. Each "minute" icon provides access to the image overlays, and additional network links for each second along the flight path as well as flight navigation information. Layers of false-color-coded lidar Digital Elevation Model (DEM) data are made available in 2 km by 2km tiles. These layers include canopy-top, bare-Earth, submerged topography, and links to any other lidar products. The user has the option to download the x,y,z ascii point data or a DEM in the Geotif file format for each tile. The NASA EAARL project captured roughly 250,000 digital photographs in five flights conducted a few days after Hurricane Katrina made landfall along the Gulf Coast in 2005. All of the photos and DEM layers are georeferenced and viewable online using Google Earth.

  2. A monostatic microwave transmission experiment for line integrated precipitation and humidity remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chwala, Christian; Kunstmann, Harald; Hipp, Susanne; Siart, Uwe

    2014-07-01

    Near-surface water vapor and precipitation are central hydrometeorological observables which are still difficult to quantify accurately above the point scale. Both play an important role in modeling and remote sensing of the hydrologic cycle. We present details on the development of a new microwave transmission experiment that is capable of providing line integrated estimates of both humidity and precipitation near the surface. The system is located at a hydrometeorological test site (TERENO-prealpine) in Southern Germany. Path length is kept short at 660 m to minimize the likelihood of different precipitation types and intensities along the path. It uses a monostatic configuration with a combined transmitter/receiver unit and a 70 cm trihedral reflector. The transmitter/receiver unit simultaneously operates at 22.235 GHz and 34.8 GHz with a pulse repetition rate of 25 kHz and alternating horizontal and vertical polarization, which enable the analysis of the impact of the changing drop size distribution on the rain rate retrieval. Due to the coherence and the high phase stability of the system, it allows for a sensitive observation of the propagation phase delay. Thereof, time series of line integrated refractivity can be determined. This proxy is then post-processed to absolute humidity and compared to station observations. We present the design of the system and show an analysis of selected periods for both, precipitation and humidity observations. The theoretically expected dependence of attenuation and differential attenuation on the DSD was reproduced with experimental data. A decreased performance was observed when using a fixed A-R power law. Humidity data derived from the phase delay measurement showed good agreement with in situ measurements.

  3. Autonomous and Remote-Controlled Airborne and Ground-Based Robotic Platforms for Adaptive Geophysical Surveying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spritzer, J. M.; Phelps, G. A.

    2011-12-01

    Low-cost autonomous and remote-controlled robotic platforms have opened the door to precision-guided geophysical surveying. Over the past two years, the U.S. Geological Survey, Senseta, NASA Ames Research Center, and Carnegie Mellon University Silicon Valley, have developed and deployed small autonomous and remotely controlled vehicles for geophysical investigations. The purpose of this line of investigation is to 1) increase the analytical capability, resolution, and repeatability, and 2) decrease the time, and potentially the cost and map-power necessary to conduct near-surface geophysical surveys. Current technology has advanced to the point where vehicles can perform geophysical surveys autonomously, freeing the geoscientist to process and analyze the incoming data in near-real time. This has enabled geoscientists to monitor survey parameters; process, analyze and interpret the incoming data; and test geophysical models in the same field session. This new approach, termed adaptive surveying, provides the geoscientist with choices of how the remainder of the survey should be conducted. Autonomous vehicles follow pre-programmed survey paths, which can be utilized to easily repeat surveys on the same path over large areas without the operator fatigue and error that plague man-powered surveys. While initial deployments with autonomous systems required a larger field crew than a man-powered survey, over time operational experience costs and man power requirements will decrease. Using a low-cost, commercially available chassis as the base for autonomous surveying robotic systems promise to provide higher precision and efficiency than human-powered techniques. An experimental survey successfully demonstrated the adaptive techniques described. A magnetic sensor was mounted on a small rover, which autonomously drove a prescribed course designed to provide an overview of the study area. Magnetic data was relayed to the base station periodically, processed and gridded. A

  4. Active remote sensing of snow using NMM3D/DMRT and comparison with CLPX II airborne data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Xu, X.; Liang, D.; Tsang, L.; Andreadis, K.M.; Josberger, E.G.; Lettenmaier, D.P.; Cline, D.W.; Yueh, S.H.

    2010-01-01

    We applied the Numerical Maxwell Model of three-dimensional simulations (NMM3D) in the Dense Media Radiative Theory (DMRT) to calculate backscattering coefficients. The particles' positions are computer-generated and the subsequent Foldy-Lax equations solved numerically. The phase matrix in NMM3D has significant cross-polarization, particularly when the particles are densely packed. The NMM3D model is combined with DMRT in calculating the microwave scattering by dry snow. The NMM3D/DMRT equations are solved by an iterative solution up to the second order in the case of small to moderate optical thickness. The numerical results of NMM3D/DMRT are illustrated and compared with QCA/DMRT. The QCA/DMRT and NMM3D/DMRT results are also applied to compare with data from two specific datasets from the second Cold Land Processes Experiment (CLPX II) in Alaska and Colorado. The data are obtained at the Ku-band (13.95 GHz) observations using airborne imaging polarimetric scatterometer (POLSCAT). It is shown that the model predictions agree with the field measurements for both co-polarization and cross-polarization. For the Alaska region, the average snow depth and snow density are used as the inputs for DMRT. The grain size, selected from within the range of the ground measurements, is used as a best-fit parameter within the range. For the Colorado region, we use the Variable Infiltration Capacity Model (VIC) to obtain the input snow profiles for NMM3D/DMRT. ?? 2010 IEEE.

  5. Using remote sensing and ancillary data to extend airborne electromagnetic resistivity surveys for regional permafrost interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastick, N.; Wylie, B. K.; Minsley, B. J.; Jorgenson, T. T.; Ji, L.; Walvoord, M. A.; Smith, B. D.; Abraham, J. D.; Rose, J.

    2011-12-01

    Permafrost has a significant impact on high latitude ecosystems and is spatially heterogeneous. However, only generalized maps of permafrost extent are available. Due to its impacts on subsurface hydrology, lake water levels, vegetation communities, and surface soil deformations, understanding the spatial extents and depth of permafrost are critical. Electrical resistivity increases dramatically as a soil freezes and can be used as a proxy for permafrost presence particularly if the underlying soils and geologic characteristics are understood. An airborne electromagnetic survey (AEM) was conducted over a portion of the Yukon Flats ecoregion in central Alaska with measurements taken in both reconnaissance lines and contiguous block area coverage. The AEM was flown in June 2010 and subsurface resistivity models were derived by inverting the AEM data. Landsat TM at-sensor reflectance, thermal, and spectral index data from late August to early September 2008, Digital Elevation Models (DEM) and derivatives, and other ancillary data were used in a regression tree model to predict near surface electrical resistivity at the 0-1m and the 0-2.6m depth intervals. AEM locations from homogenous landsat 90 m by 90 m windows were randomly separated into a training set for model development (n = 8,848) and an impendent test data set (n = 988) for model accuracy assessment. Model development and independent test accuracies for 0-1 m electric resistivity had training and test R2 values of 0.90 and 0.87, respectively, and for the 0-2.6m electric resistivity training and test R2 values were also 0.90 and 0.87, respectively, which indicated accurate prediction models. Important variables for stratifying the various piecewise regressions were elevation and averaged 2000-2008 ecosystem performance anomalies. Important independent variables used in the multiple regression equations were the Normalized Difference Infrared Index (NDII), NDII7 (NDII using band 7), soil moisture mapped from

  6. A Decade Remote Sensing River Bathymetry with the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research LiDAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinzel, P. J.; Legleiter, C. J.; Nelson, J. M.; Skinner, K.

    2012-12-01

    Since 2002, the first generation of the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research LiDAR (EAARL-A) sensor has been deployed for mapping rivers and streams. We present and summarize the results of comparisons between ground truth surveys and bathymetry collected by the EAARL-A sensor in a suite of rivers across the United States. These comparisons include reaches on the Platte River (NE), Boise and Deadwood Rivers (ID), Blue and Colorado Rivers (CO), Klamath and Trinity Rivers (CA), and the Shenandoah River (VA). In addition to diverse channel morphologies (braided, single thread, and meandering) these rivers possess a variety of substrates (sand, gravel, and bedrock) and a wide range of optical characteristics which influence the attenuation and scattering of laser energy through the water column. Root mean square errors between ground truth elevations and those measured by the EAARL-A ranged from 0.15-m in rivers with relatively low turbidity and highly reflective sandy bottoms to over 0.5-m in turbid rivers with less reflective substrates. Mapping accuracy with the EAARL-A has proved challenging in pools where bottom returns are either absent in waveforms or are of such low intensity that they are treated as noise by waveform processing algorithms. Resolving bathymetry in shallow depths where near surface and bottom returns are typically convolved also presents difficulties for waveform processing routines. The results of these evaluations provide an empirical framework to discuss the capabilities and limitations of the EAARL-A sensor as well as previous generations of post-processing software for extracting bathymetry from complex waveforms. These experiences and field studies not only provide benchmarks for the evaluation of the next generation of bathymetric LiDARs for use in river mapping, but also highlight the importance of developing and standardizing more rigorous methods to characterize substrate reflectance and in-situ optical properties at study sites

  7. Spaceborne Microwave Instrument for High Resolution Remote Sensing of the Earth's Surface Using a Large-Aperture Mesh Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Njoku, E.; Wilson, W.; Yueh, S.; Freeland, R.; Helms, R.; Edelstein, W.; Sadowy, G.; Farra, D.; West, R.; Oxnevad, K.

    2001-01-01

    This report describes a two-year study of a large-aperture, lightweight, deployable mesh antenna system for radiometer and radar remote sensing of the Earth from space. The study focused specifically on an instrument to measure ocean salinity and Soil moisture. Measurements of ocean salinity and soil moisture are of critical . importance in improving knowledge and prediction of key ocean and land surface processes, but are not currently obtainable from space. A mission using this instrument would be the first demonstration of deployable mesh antenna technology for remote sensing and could lead to potential applications in other remote sensing disciplines that require high spatial resolution measurements. The study concept features a rotating 6-m-diameter deployable mesh antenna, with radiometer and radar sensors, to measure microwave emission and backscatter from the Earth's surface. The sensors operate at L and S bands, with multiple polarizations and a constant look angle, scanning across a wide swath. The study included detailed analyses of science requirements, reflector and feedhorn design and performance, microwave emissivity measurements of mesh samples, design and test of lightweight radar electronic., launch vehicle accommodations, rotational dynamics simulations, and an analysis of attitude control issues associated with the antenna and spacecraft, The goal of the study was to advance the technology readiness of the overall concept to a level appropriate for an Earth science emission.

  8. Remote sensing of ocean pollution. (Latest citations from the Aerospace database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of remote sensing for the control and monitoring of ocean pollution. Citations discuss remote sensing techniques and instrumentations, including airborne and satellite-borne photography, microwave radiometry, laser fluorescence, and radar imagery. Topics include oil spills, marine ecosystems, land-based pollutants, ocean dumping, remote sensing capability and reliability, and pollution transport. (Contains a minimum of 109 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  9. Atmospheric profiles of Black Carbon at remote locations using light-weight airborne Aethalometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, A. D.; Močnik, G.; Drinovec, L.; Lenarcic, M.

    2012-12-01

    While measurements of atmospheric aerosols are routinely performed at ground-level around the world, there is far less knowledge of their concentrations at altitude: yet this data is a crucial requirement for our understanding of the dispersion of pollutants of anthropogenic origin, with their associated effects on radiative forcing, cloud condensation, and other adverse phenomena. Black Carbon (BC) is a unique tracer for combustion emissions, and can be detected rapidly and with great sensitivity by filter-based optical methods. It has no non-combustion sources and is not transformed by atmospheric processes. Recent technical advances have developed light-weight miniaturized instruments which can be operated on light aircraft or carried aboard commercial passenger flights. From January to April 2012, a single-seat ultra-light aircraft flew around the world on a scientific, photographic and environmental-awareness mission. The flight track crossed all seven continents and all major oceans, with altitudes up to 8.9 km ASL. The aircraft carried a custom-developed high-sensitivity dual-wavelength light-weight Aethalometer, operating at 370 and 880 nm with special provision to compensate for the effects of changing pressure, temperature and humidity. The instrument recorded BC concentrations with high temporal resolution and sensitivity better than 5 ng/m3. We present examples of data from flight tracks over remote oceans, uninhabited land masses, and densely populated areas, analyzing the spectral dependence of absorption to infer the contributions to BC from fossil fuel vs. biomass combustion, and aggregating the data into vertical profiles. The regional and long range transport of BC may be investigated using back-trajectories. We have also operated miniature instruments in the passenger cabins of long-distance commercial aircraft. Since there are no combustion sources within the cabin, any BC in the ventilation air must necessarily have originated from the outside

  10. Airborne passive remote sensing of large-scale methane emissions from oil fields in California's San Joaquin Valley and validation by airborne in-situ measurements - Initial results from COMEX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerilowski, Konstantin; Krautwurst, Sven; Kolyer, Richard W.; Thompson, David R.; Jonsson, Haflidi; Krings, Thomas; Horstjann, Markus; Leifer, Ira; Eastwood, Michael; Green, Robert O.; Vigil, Sam; Schüttemeyer, Dirk; Fladeland, Matthew; Burrows, John P.; Bovensmann, Heinrich

    2015-04-01

    On several flights performed over the Kern River, Kern Front, and Poso Creek Oil Fields in California between June 3 and September 4, 2014, in the framework of the CO2 and MEthane Experiment (COMEX) - a NASA and ESA funded campaign in support of the HyspIRI and CarbonSat mission definition activities - the Methane Airborne MAPper (MAMAP) remote sensing instrument (operated by the University of Bremen in cooperation with the German Research Centre for Geosciences - GFZ) detected large-scale, high-concentration, methane plumes. MAMAP was installed for the flights aboard the Center for Interdisciplinary Remotely-Piloted Aircraft Studies (CIRPAS) Twin Otter aircraft, together with a Picarro fast in-situ greenhouse gas (GHG) analyzer (operated by the NASA Ames Research Center, ARC), a 5-hole turbulence probe and an atmospheric measurement package (operated by CIRPAS), measuring aerosols, temperature, dew-point, and other atmospheric parameters. Some of the flights were accompanied by the next generation of the Airborne Visible InfraRed Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS-NG), operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), California Institute of Technology, installed aboard a second Twin Otter aircraft (operated by Twin Otter International). Data collected with the in-situ GHG analyzer were used for validation of the MAMAP and AVIRIS-NG remotely sensed data. The in-situ measurements were acquired in vertical cross sections of the discovered plumes at fixed distances downwind of the sources. Emission rates are estimated from both the remote and in-situ data using wind information from the turbulence probe together with ground-based wind data from the nearby airport. Remote sensing and in-situ data as well as initial flux estimates for selected flights will be presented.

  11. Foreword to the Special Issue on the 11th Specialist Meeting on Microwave Radiometry and Remote Sensing Applications (MicroRad 2010)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le Vine, David M; Jackson, Thomas J.; Kim, Edward J.; Lang, Roger H.

    2011-01-01

    The Specialist Meeting on Microwave Radiometry and Remote Sensing of the Environment (MicroRad 2010) was held in Washington, DC from March 1 to 4, 2010. The objective of MicroRad 2010 was to provide an open forum to report and discuss recent advances in the field of microwave radiometry, particularly with application to remote sensing of the environment. The meeting was highly successful, with more than 200 registrations representing 48 countries. There were 80 oral presentations and more than 100 posters. MicroRad has become a venue for the microwave radiometry community to present new research results, instrument designs, and applications to an audience that is conversant in these issues. The meeting was divided into 16 sessions (listed in order of presentation): 1) SMOS Mission; 2) Future Passive Microwave Remote Sensing Missions; 3) Theory and Physical Principles of Electromagnetic Models; 4) Field Experiment Results; 5) Soil Moisture and Vegetation; 6) Snow and Cryosphere; 7) Passive/Active Microwave Remote Sensing Synergy; 8) Oceans; 9) Atmospheric Sounding and Assimilation; 10) Clouds and Precipitation; 11) Instruments and Advanced Techniques I; 12) Instruments and Advanced Techniques II; 13) Cross Calibration of Satellite Radiometers; 14) Calibration Theory and Methodology; 15) New Technologies for Microwave Radiometry; 16) Radio Frequency Interference.

  12. Acute health impacts of airborne particles estimated from satellite remote sensing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhaoxi; Liu, Yang; Hu, Mu; Pan, Xiaochuan; Shi, Jing; Chen, Feng; He, Kebin; Koutrakis, Petros; Christiani, David C

    2013-01-01

    Satellite-based remote sensing provides a unique opportunity to monitor air quality from space at global, continental, national and regional scales. Most current research focused on developing empirical models using ground measurements of the ambient particulate. However, the application of satellite-based exposure assessment in environmental health is still limited, especially for acute effects, because the development of satellite PM(2.5) model depends on the availability of ground measurements. We tested the hypothesis that MODIS AOD (aerosol optical depth) exposure estimates, obtained from NASA satellites, are directly associated with daily health outcomes. Three independent healthcare databases were used: unscheduled outpatient visits, hospital admissions, and mortality collected in Beijing metropolitan area, China during 2006. We use generalized linear models to compare the short-term effects of air pollution assessed by ground monitoring (PM(10)) with adjustment of absolute humidity (AH) and AH-calibrated AOD. Across all databases we found that both AH-calibrated AOD and PM(10) (adjusted by AH) were consistently associated with elevated daily events on the current day and/or lag days for cardiovascular diseases, ischemic heart diseases, and COPD. The relative risks estimated by AH-calibrated AOD and PM(10) (adjusted by AH) were similar. Additionally, compared to ground PM(10), we found that AH-calibrated AOD had narrower confidence intervals for all models and was more robust in estimating the current day and lag day effects. Our preliminary findings suggested that, with proper adjustment of meteorological factors, satellite AOD can be used directly to estimate the acute health impacts of ambient particles without prior calibrating to the sparse ground monitoring networks. PMID:23220016

  13. Acute health impacts of airborne particles estimated from satellite remote sensing✩

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhaoxi; Liu, Yang; Hu, Mu; Pan, Xiaochuan; Shi, Jing; Chen, Feng; He, Kebin; Koutrakis, Petros; Christiani, David C.

    2013-01-01

    Satellite-based remote sensing provides a unique opportunity to monitor air quality from space at global, continental, national and regional scales. Most current research focused on developing empirical models using ground measurements of the ambient particulate. However, the application of satellite-based exposure assessment in environmental health is still limited, especially for acute effects, because the development of satellite PM2.5 model depends on the availability of ground measurements. We tested the hypothesis that MODIS AOD (aerosol optical depth) exposure estimates, obtained from NASA satellites, are directly associated with daily health outcomes. Three independent healthcare databases were used: unscheduled outpatient visits, hospital admissions, and mortality collected in Beijing metropolitan area, China during 2006. We use generalized linear models to compare the short-term effects of air pollution assessed by ground monitoring (PM10) with adjustment of absolute humidity (AH) and AH-calibrated AOD. Across all databases we found that both AH-calibrated AOD and PM10 (adjusted by AH) were consistently associated with elevated daily events on the current day and/or lag days for cardiovascular diseases, ischemic heart diseases, and COPD. The relative risks estimated by AH-calibrated AOD and PM10 (adjusted by AH) were similar. Additionally, compared to ground PM10, we found that AH-calibrated AOD had narrower confidence intervals for all models and was more robust in estimating the current day and lag day effects. Our preliminary findings suggested that, with proper adjustment of meteorological factors, satellite AOD can be used directly to estimate the acute health impacts of ambient particles without prior calibrating to the sparse ground monitoring networks. PMID:23220016

  14. Multi-resolution processing for fractal analysis of airborne remotely sensed data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaggi, S.; Quattrochi, D.; Lam, N.

    1992-01-01

    Fractal geometry is increasingly becoming a useful tool for modeling natural phenomenon. As an alternative to Euclidean concepts, fractals allow for a more accurate representation of the nature of complexity in natural boundaries and surfaces. Since they are characterized by self-similarity, an ideal fractal surface is scale-independent; i.e. at different scales a fractal surface looks the same. This is not exactly true for natural surfaces. When viewed at different spatial resolutions parts of natural surfaces look alike in a statistical manner and only for a limited range of scales. Images acquired by NASA's Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner are used to compute the fractal dimension as a function of spatial resolution. Three methods are used to determine the fractal dimension - Schelberg's line-divider method, the variogram method, and the triangular prism method. A description of these methods and the results of applying these methods to a remotely-sensed image is also presented. Five flights were flown in succession at altitudes of 2 km (low), 6 km (mid), 12 km (high), and then back again at 6 km and 2 km. The area selected was the Ross Barnett reservoir near Jackson, Mississippi. The mission was flown during the predawn hours of 1 Feb. 1992. Radiosonde data was collected for that duration to profile the characteristics of the atmosphere. This corresponds to 3 different pixel sizes - 5m, 15m, and 30m. After, simulating different spatial sampling intervals within the same image for each of the 3 image sets, the results are cross-correlated to compare the extent of detail and complexity that is obtained when data is taken at lower spatial intervals.

  15. Concept and integration of an on-line quasi-operational airborne hyperspectral remote sensing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schilling, Hendrik; Lenz, Andreas; Gross, Wolfgang; Perpeet, Dominik; Wuttke, Sebastian; Middelmann, Wolfgang

    2013-10-01

    Modern mission characteristics require the use of advanced imaging sensors in reconnaissance. In particular, high spatial and high spectral resolution imaging provides promising data for many tasks such as classification and detecting objects of military relevance, such as camouflaged units or improvised explosive devices (IEDs). Especially in asymmetric warfare with highly mobile forces, intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR) needs to be available close to real-time. This demands the use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in combination with downlink capability. The system described in this contribution is integrated in a wing pod for ease of installation and calibration. It is designed for the real-time acquisition and analysis of hyperspectral data. The main component is a Specim AISA Eagle II hyperspectral sensor, covering the visible and near-infrared (VNIR) spectral range with a spectral resolution up to 1.2 nm and 1024 pixel across track, leading to a ground sampling distance below 1 m at typical altitudes. The push broom characteristic of the hyperspectral sensor demands an inertial navigation system (INS) for rectification and georeferencing of the image data. Additional sensors are a high resolution RGB (HR-RGB) frame camera and a thermal imaging camera. For on-line application, the data is preselected, compressed and transmitted to the ground control station (GCS) by an existing system in a second wing pod. The final result after data processing in the GCS is a hyperspectral orthorectified GeoTIFF, which is filed in the ERDAS APOLLO geographical information system. APOLLO allows remote access to the data and offers web-based analysis tools. The system is quasi-operational and was successfully tested in May 2013 in Bremerhaven, Germany.

  16. Husbandry Trace Gas Emissions from a Dairy Complex By Mobile in Situ and Airborne and Spaceborne Remote Sensing: A Comex Campaign Focus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leifer, I.; Tratt, D. M.; Bovensmann, H.; Buckland, K. N.; Burrows, J. P.; Frash, J.; Gerilowski, K.; Iraci, L. T.; Johnson, P. D.; Kolyer, R.; Krautwurst, S.; Krings, T.; Leen, J. B.; Hu, C.; Melton, C.; Vigil, S. A.; Yates, E. L.; Zhang, M.

    2014-12-01

    Recent field study reviews on the greenhouse gas methane (CH4) found significant underestimation from fossil fuel industry and husbandry. The 2014 COMEX campaign seeks to develop methods to derive CH4 and carbon dioxide (CO2) from remote sensing data by combining hyperspectral imaging (HSI) and non-imaging spectroscopy (NIS) with in situ airborne and surface data. COMEX leverages synergies between high spatial resolution HSI column abundance maps and moderate spectral/spatial resolution NIS. Airborne husbandry data were collected for the Chino dairy complex (East Los Angeles Basin) by NIS-MAMAP, HSI-Mako thermal-infrared (TIR); AVIRIS NG shortwave IR (SWIR), with in situ surface mobile-AMOG Surveyor (AutoMObile greenhouse Gas)-and airborne in situ from a Twin Otter and the AlphaJet. AMOG Surveyor uses in situ Integrated Cavity Off Axis Spectroscopy (OA-ICOS) to measure CH4, CO2, H2O, H2S and NH3 at 5-10 Hz, 2D winds, and thermal anomaly in an adapted commuter car. OA-ICOS provides high precision and accuracy with excellent stability. NH3 and CH4 emissions were correlated at dairy size-scales but not sub-dairy scales in surface and Mako data, showing fine-scale structure and large variations between the numerous dairies in the complex (herd ~200,000-250,000) embedded in an urban setting. Emissions hotspots were consistent between surface and airborne surveys. In June, surface and MAMAP data showed a weak overall plume, while surface and Mako data showed a stronger plume in late (hotter) July. Multiple surface plume transects using NH3 fingerprinting showed East and then NE advection out of the LA Basin consistent with airborne data. Long-term trends were investigated in satellite data. This study shows the value of synergistically combined NH3 and CH4 remote sensing data to the task of CH4 source attribution using airborne and space-based remote sensing (IASI for NH3) and top of atmosphere sensitivity calculations for Sentinel V and Carbon Sat (CH4).

  17. Microwave remote sensing: Active and passive. Volume 2 - Radar remote sensing and surface scattering and emission theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulaby, F. T.; Moore, R. K.; Fung, A. K.

    1982-01-01

    The fundamental principles of radar backscattering measurements are presented, including measurement statistics, Doppler and pulse discrimination techniques, and associated ambiguity functions. The operation of real and synthetic aperture sidelooking airborne radar systems is described, along with the internal and external calibration techniques employed in scattering measurements. Attention is given to the physical mechanisms responsible for the scattering emission behavior of homogeneous and inhomogeneous media, through a discussion of surface roughness, dielectric properties and inhomogeneity, and penetration depth. Simple semiempirical models are presented. Theoretical models involving greater mathematical sophistication are also given for extended ocean and bare soil surfaces, and the more general case of a vegetation canopy over a rough surface.

  18. Airborne Multi-wavelength High Spectral Resolution Lidar for Process Studies and Assessment of Future Satellite Remote Sensing Concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hostetler, C. A.; Ferrare, R. A.; Hair, J. W.; Cook, A. L.; Harper, D. B.; Mack, T. L.; Hare, R. J.; Cleckner, C. S.; Rogers, R.; Mueller, D.; Chemyakin, E.; Burton, S. P.; Obland, M. D.; Scarino, A. J.; Cairns, B.; Russell, P. B.; Redemann, J.; Shinozuka, Y.; Schmid, B.; Berg, L. K.; Fast, J. D.; Flynn, C. J.

    2012-12-01

    NASA Langley recently developed the world's first airborne multi-wavelength high spectral resolution lidar (HSRL). This lidar employs the HSRL technique at 355 and 532 nm to make independent, unambiguous retrievals of aerosol extinction and backscatter. It also employs the standard backscatter technique at 1064 nm and is polarization-sensitive at all three wavelengths. This instrument, dubbed HSRL-2 (the second-generation HSRL developed by NASA Langley), is a prototype for the lidar on NASA's planned Aerosols-Clouds-Ecosystems (ACE) mission. HSRL-2 completed its first science mission in July 2012, the Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) conducted by the Department of Energy (DOE) in Hyannis, MA. TCAP presents an excellent opportunity to assess some of the remote sensing concepts planned for ACE: HSRL-2 was deployed on the Langley King Air aircraft with another ACE-relevant instrument, the NASA GISS Research Scanning Polarimeter (RSP), and flights were closely coordinated with the DOE's Gulfstream-1 aircraft, which deployed a variety of in situ aerosol and trace gas instruments and the new Spectrometer for Sky-Scanning, Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research (4STAR). The DOE also deployed their Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Mobile Facility and their Mobile Aerosol Observing System at a ground site located on the northeastern coast of Cape Cod for this mission. In this presentation we focus on the capabilities, data products, and applications of the new HSRL-2 instrument. Data products include aerosol extinction, backscatter, depolarization, and optical depth; aerosol type identification; mixed layer depth; and range-resolved aerosol microphysical parameters (e.g., effective radius, index of refraction, single scatter albedo, and concentration). Applications include radiative closure studies, studies of aerosol direct and indirect effects, investigations of aerosol-cloud interactions, assessment of chemical transport models, air quality studies, present (e.g., CALIPSO

  19. Identifying trout refuges in the Indian and Hudson Rivers in northern New York through airborne thermal infrared remote sensing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ernst, Anne G.; Baldigo, Barry P.; Calef, Fred J.; Freehafer, Douglas A.; Kremens, Robert L.

    2015-01-01

    The locations and sizes of potential cold-water refuges for trout were examined in 2005 along a 27-kilometer segment of the Indian and Hudson Rivers in northern New York to evaluate the extent of refuges, the effects of routine flow releases from an impoundment, and how these refuges and releases might influence trout survival in reaches that otherwise would be thermally stressed. This river segment supports small populations of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis), brown trout (Salmo trutta), and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and also receives regular releases of reservoir-surface waters to support rafting during the summer, when water temperatures in both the reservoir and the river frequently exceed thermal thresholds for trout survival. Airborne thermal infrared imaging was supplemented with continuous, in-stream temperature loggers to identify potential refuges that may be associated with tributary inflows or groundwater seeps and to define the extent to which the release flows decrease the size of existing refuges. In general, the release flows overwhelmed the refuge areas and greatly decreased the size and number of the areas. Mean water temperatures were unaffected by the releases, but small-scale heterogeneity was diminished. At a larger scale, water temperatures in the upper and lower segments of the reach were consistently warmer than in the middle segment, even during passage of release waters. The inability of remote thermal infrared images to consistently distinguish land from water (in shaded areas) and to detect groundwater seeps (away from the shallow edges of the stream) limited data analysis and the ability to identify potential thermal refuge areas.

  20. Airborne Remote-Sensing of Atmoshperic CH4 and CO2 Column Mixing Ratio With MAMap - First Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tretner, A.; Gerilowski, K.; Bovensmann, H.; Buchwitz, M.; Erzinger, J.; Burrows, J.

    2007-12-01

    The Methane Airborne Mapper (MAMap) performs quantitative CO2 and CH4 remote sensing measurements of the atmospheric column between an aircraft and the Earth's surface. Its two spectrometers cover wavelenghts of 1.59-1.62μm for CO2, 1.63-1.75μm for CH4 and 760nm for O2. A CH4 detection limit of <35ppbv and a resolution of <5% (at atmospheric background concentration of 1750ppbv) have been ascertained, which makes it possible to detect small changes within the atmospheric CH4 column at a local and regional scale. The atmospheric column mixing ratios of CH4 and CO2 were calculated using the WFM-DOAS algorithm which is known from the retrieval of CH4 and CO2 column concentrations from nadir measurements by SCIAMACHY. MAMap addresses the uncertainties in the current greenhouse gas emission budgets and provides a link between local ground-based small-scale and global satellite-based measurements. The aim of future MAMap research programs is the detection and quantification of CH4 and CO2 emission sources of both natural and anthropogenic origin. MAMap is designed for flexible operations at various planes, e.g. the DLR Dornier 228, the DLR 'Falcon' or the DLR Gulfstream 'HALO' aircraft. The results presented here were performed with a Cessna aircraft T207 at a flight height of 700m and a flight speed of 200km/h. The related ground pixel size covers 18m (across-track) x 10m (along track, albedo 0.18). The preliminary assessment of the sensor sensitivity under field campaign conditions includes measurements over a variety of natural and anthropogenic CH4 and CO2 emission sources, like coal-fired power plants, landfill sites, wetlands, a large number of different land surface types and a simulated CH4 source (CH4 released from a pressured gas bottle). First results will be reported.

  1. Fusion of full waveform Laserscanning and airborne hyperspectral remote sensing data for the characterization of forest stands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buddenbaum, Henning

    2010-05-01

    Hyperspectral data offer the maximum spectral reflectance information available from remote sensing. A continuous spectrum of narrow bands with near-laboratory quality is recorded for each pixel. This data can be used for difficult classification tasks or detailed quantitative analyses, e.g. determination of chlorophyll or water content in leaves. But in forested areas, discerning between different age classes of the same tree species is still error-prone. Airborne Laserscanning measures the three-dimensional position of every reflecting object and can be used to map tree heights and crown volumes. These are highly correlated with tree age and timber volume. In addition, Laserscanner data can be used to differentiate between coniferous and deciduous trees either by analysing crown shapes that lead to different surface roughness or by exploiting the intensity information of laser echoes from the crowns. But a more detailed determination of tree species is not possible using Laserscanning alone. The combination of hyperspectral and Laserscanning data promises the possibility to map both tree species and age classes. We used a HyMap data set with 122 bands recorded in 2003 and a full waveform Laserscanning recorded in 2005 in the same area, Idarwald Forest in South-western Germany. To combine both datasets, we defined voxels above the HyMap pixels, containing the mean laser intensity in slices of 50 cm height. These voxels form a second hyperspectral dataset of 76 bands with the same geometry as the HyMap image, so that they could be fused into a 198 band image. The joined image performed better in a classification of tree species and age classes than each of the single images and also better than a dataset consisting of the hyperspectral image and a tree height map. Apart from classification, it can also be used to derive tree heights and crown base heights and to estimate biomass, leaf area index and timber volume and to characterize the vertical forest structure.

  2. Selectable Hyperspectral Airborne Remote-sensing Kit (SHARK) on the Vision II turbine rotorcraft UAV over the Florida Keys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holasek, R. E.; Nakanishi, K.; Swartz, B.; Zacaroli, R.; Hill, B.; Naungayan, J.; Herwitz, S.; Kavros, P.; English, D. C.

    2013-12-01

    As part of the NASA ROSES program, the NovaSol Selectable Hyperspectral Airborne Remote-sensing Kit (SHARK) was flown as the payload on the unmanned Vision II helicopter. The goal of the May 2013 data collection was to obtain high resolution visible and near-infrared (visNIR) hyperspectral data of seagrasses and coral reefs in the Florida Keys. The specifications of the SHARK hyperspectral system and the Vision II turbine rotorcraft will be described along with the process of integrating the payload to the vehicle platform. The minimal size, weight, and power (SWaP) specifications of the SHARK system is an ideal match to the Vision II helicopter and its flight parameters. One advantage of the helicopter over fixed wing platforms is its inherent ability to take off and land in a limited area and without a runway, enabling the UAV to be located in close proximity to the experiment areas and the science team. Decisions regarding integration times, waypoint selection, mission duration, and mission frequency are able to be based upon the local environmental conditions and can be modified just prior to take off. The operational procedures and coordination between the UAV pilot, payload operator, and scientist will be described. The SHARK system includes an inertial navigation system and digital elevation model (DEM) which allows image coordinates to be calculated onboard the aircraft in real-time. Examples of the geo-registered images from the data collection will be shown. SHARK mounted below VTUAV. SHARK deployed on VTUAV over water.

  3. Snowpack Microstructure Characterization and Partial Coherent and Fully Coherent Forward Scattering Models in Microwave Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, S.; Tsang, L.; Xu, X.; Ding, K. H.

    2015-12-01

    In this paper we describe partial coherent model and fully coherent snowpack scattering model based on numerical simulation of Maxwell's equation. In medium characterization, we derive the correlation functions from the pair distribution functions of sticky spheres and multiple-size spheres used in QCA. We show that both the Percus-Yevick pair functions and the bicontinuous model have tails in the correlation functions that are distinctly different from the traditional exponential correlation functions. The methodologies of using ground measurements of grain size distributions and correlation functions to obtain model parameters are addressed. The DMRT theory has been extended to model the backscattering enhancement. We developed the methodology of cyclical corrections beyond first order to all orders of multiple scattering. This enables the physical modeling of combined active and passive microwave remote sensing of snow over the same scene. The bicontinuous /DMRT is applied to compare with data acquired in the NoSREx campaign, and the model results are validated against coincidental active and passive measurements using the same set of physical parameters of snow in all frequency and polarization channels. The DMRT is a partially coherent approach that one accounts for the coherent wave interaction only within few wavelengths as represented by phase matrix. However, the phase information of field is lost in propagating the specific intensity via RT and this hinders the use of DMRT in coherent synthetic aperture radar (SAR) analysis, including InSAR, PolInSAR and Tomo-SAR. One can alternatively calculate the scattering matrix of the terrestrial snowpack above ground by solving the volume integral equations directly with half space Green's function. The scattering matrix of the snowpack is computed for each realization giving rise to the speckle statistics. The resulting bistatic scattering automatically includes the backscattering enhancement effects. Tomograms of

  4. Observations of deep convection from an airborne high-frequency (92 and 183 GHz) passive microwave radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hakkarinen, I. M.; Adler, R. F.

    1984-01-01

    Spencer et al. (1983) have reported that very low Nimbus-7 Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) brightness temperatures at 37 GHz over land coincide with heavy thunderstorm rainfall, while Wilheit et al. (1982) used an aircraft-mounted radiometer operating at 92 and 183 GHz to observe convective precipitation associated with a tropical storm over the ocean. A scanning version of the instrument employed by Wilheit et al. is the Advanced Microwave Moisture Sounder (AMMS). The present paper has the objective to summarize the preliminary results of AMMS observations of convective raining clouds and to determine whether empirical relationships between rain rate and microwave brightness temperature, such as those developed for 37 GHz satellite data by Spencer et al., can be extended to higher microwave frequencies.

  5. Estimation of snow temperature and mean crystal radius from remote multispectral passive microwave measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, A. T. C.

    1978-01-01

    Variation in crystal size and physical temperature of snowfield observations from space give large variations in the microwave brightness temperature. Since the brightness temperature is a function of wavelength, the microwave brightness temperature can be used to extract the snow temperature and mean crystal radius profiles. The Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR), to be launched on board the Nimbus-G and Seasat-A spacecraft, will make observations in wavelengths of 0.8, 1.4, 1.7, 2.8, and 4.6 cm. A statistical retrieval method was developed to determine the snowfield temperature profile and mean crystal size by using the scanning multifrequency microwave radiometer on board a spacecraft. The estimated errors for retrieval are approximately 1.5 K for temperature and 0.001 for crystal radius in the presence of 1 K rms noise for each SMMR channel.

  6. Remote sensing of snow properties by passive microwave radiometry: GSFC truck experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, A. T. C.; Rango, A.; Shiue, J.

    1980-01-01

    Recent results indicate that microwave radiometry has the potential for inferring the snow depth and water equivalent information from snowpacks. In order to assess this potential for determining the water equivalent of a snowpack, it is necessary to understand the microwave emission and scattering behavior of the snow at various wavelengths under carefully controlled conditions. Truck-mounted microwave instrumentation was used to study the microwave characteristics of the snowpack in the Colorado Rocky Mountain region during the winters of 1977 to 78 and 7978 to 79. The spectral signatures of C, X, K sub u, and K sub a band radiometers with dual polarization were used, together with measurements of snowpack density, temperature an ram profiles, liquid water content, and rough characterization of the crystal sizes. These data compared favorably with calculated results based on recent microscopic scattering models.

  7. Sensors and methods for weather-independent remote sensing with microwaves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keydel, W.

    1981-01-01

    Sensors and methods of radar and microwave radiometry which operate in the millimeter wave range are discussed. The properties of electromagnetic waves are discussed as well as the resolution capacity and measurement accuracy of sensor systems.

  8. Study of MARS for Explorations of Landing Sites Using Microwave Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calla, O. P. N.

    2015-10-01

    Highlight the role of Microwave Sensors in exploration of Mars and the type of Sensors that could be used for providing information about Mars and give some details of the laboratory experiments using terrestrial analog of martian soil.

  9. Microwave and X-ray observations of delayed brightenings at sites remote from the primary flare locations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakajima, H.; Dennis, B. R.; Hoyng, P.; Nelson, G.; Kosugi, T.; Kai, K.

    1984-01-01

    Five examples of solar flares observed with the 17-GHz interferometer at Nobeyama in which a secondary microwave burst occurred at a distance of 100,000 km to 1,000,000 km from the primary flare site are presented. The secondary microwave burst in all five cases had a similar time profile to the primary burst with a delay of 2 to 25 s. The velocity of a triggering agent inferred from this delay and spatial separation is 10,000 km to 100,000 km/s. The intensity of the secondary burst was a factor of 3 to 25 smaller than that of the primary burst in all events except for one case in which it was a factor of 2 larger. The polarization degree of the secondary burst at 17 GHz was 35%, significantly higher than the average value for typical impulsive bursts. Two of the events were accompanied by meterwave type III/V bursts located high in the corona between the primary and secondary sites. For two of the other events, X-ray images of he secondary source were obtained with the hard-X-ray imaging spectrometer on the Solar Maximum Mission. These observations strongly suggest that the distant microwave bursts were produced by electrons with energies of 10 keV to 100 keV which were channeled along a huge loop from the main flare site to the remote location.

  10. Design study for remotely piloted, high-altitude airplanes powered by microwave energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, C. E. K., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    A design study has been conducted for unmanned, microwave-powered airplanes that must fly with long endurance at high altitude. They are proposed to conduct communications-relay, observation, or various scientific missions above approximately 55,000 feet altitude. The special characteristics of the microwave-power system and high-altitude, low-speed vehicle are reviewed. Examples of both sizing and performance analysis are used to suggest design procedure guidelines.

  11. Microwave remote sensing of sea ice in the AIDJEX Main Experiment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Campbell, W.J.; Wayenberg, J.; Ramseyer, J.B.; Ramseier, R.O.; Vant, M.R.; Weaver, R.; Redmond, A.; Arsenaul, L.; Gloersen, P.; Zwally, H.J.; Wilheit, T.T.; Chang, T.C.; Hall, D.; Gray, L.; Meeks, D.C.; Bryan, M.L.; Barath, F.T.; Elachi, C.; Leberl, F.; Farr, Tom

    1978-01-01

    During the AIDJEX Main Experiment, April 1975 through May 1976, a comprehensive microwave sensing program was performed on the sea ice of the Beaufort Sea. Surface and aircraft measurements were obtained during all seasons using a wide variety of active and passive microwave sensors. The surface program obtained passive microwave measurements of various ice types using four antennas mounted on a tracked vehicle. In three test regions, each with an area of approximately 1.5 ?? 104 m2, detailed ice crystallographic, dielectric properties, and brightness temperatures of first-year, multiyear, and first-year/multiyear mixtures were measured. A NASA aircraft obtained passive microwave measurements of the entire area of the AIDJEX manned station array (triangle) during each of 18 flights. This verified the earlier reported ability to distinguish first-year and multiyear ice types and concentration and gave new information on ways to observe ice mixtures and thin ice types. The active microwave measurements from aircraft included those from an X- and L-band radar and from a scatterometer. The former is used to study a wide variety of ice features and to estimate deformations, while both are equally usable to observe ice types. With the present data, only the scatterometer can be used to distinguish positively multiyear from first-year and various types of thin ice. This is best done using coupled active and passive microwave sensing. ?? 1978 D. Reidel Publishing Company.

  12. Observations of cloud liquid water path over oceans: Optical and microwave remote sensing methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Bing; Rossow, William B.

    1994-01-01

    Published estimates of cloud liquid water path (LWP) from satellite-measured microwave radiation show little agreement, even about the relative magnitudes of LWP in the tropics and midlatitudes. To understand these differences and to obtain more reliable estimate, optical and microwave LWP retrieval methods are compared using the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) and special sensor microwave/imager (SSM/I) data. Errors in microwave LWP retrieval associated with uncertainties in surface, atmosphere, and cloud properties are assessed. Sea surface temperature may not produce great LWP errors, if accurate contemporaneous measurements are used in the retrieval. An uncertainty of estimated near-surface wind speed as high as 2 m/s produces uncertainty in LWP of about 5 mg/sq cm. Cloud liquid water temperature has only a small effect on LWP retrievals (rms errors less than 2 mg/sq cm), if errors in the temperature are less than 5 C; however, such errors can produce spurious variations of LWP with latitude and season. Errors in atmospheric column water vapor (CWV) are strongly coupled with errors in LWP (for some retrieval methods) causing errors as large as 30 mg/sq cm. Because microwave radiation is much less sensitive to clouds with small LWP (less than 7 mg/sq cm) than visible wavelength radiation, the microwave results are very sensitive to the process used to separate clear and cloudy conditions. Different cloud detection sensitivities in different microwave retrieval methods bias estimated LWP values. Comparing ISCCP and SSM/I LWPs, we find that the two estimated values are consistent in global, zonal, and regional means for warm, nonprecipitating clouds, which have average LWP values of about 5 mg/sq cm and occur much more frequently than precipitating clouds. Ice water path (IWP) can be roughly estimated from the differences between ISCCP total water path and SSM/I LWP for cold, nonprecipitating clouds. IWP in the winter hemisphere is about

  13. Using airborne HIAPER Pole-to-Pole Observations (HIPPO) to evaluate model and remote sensing estimates of atmospheric carbon dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frankenberg, Christian; Kulawik, Susan S.; Wofsy, Steven C.; Chevallier, Frédéric; Daube, Bruce; Kort, Eric A.; O'Dell, Christopher; Olsen, Edward T.; Osterman, Gregory

    2016-06-01

    In recent years, space-borne observations of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) have been increasingly used in global carbon-cycle studies. In order to obtain added value from space-borne measurements, they have to suffice stringent accuracy and precision requirements, with the latter being less crucial as it can be reduced by just enhanced sample size. Validation of CO2 column-averaged dry air mole fractions (XCO2) heavily relies on measurements of the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON). Owing to the sparseness of the network and the requirements imposed on space-based measurements, independent additional validation is highly valuable. Here, we use observations from the High-Performance Instrumented Airborne Platform for Environmental Research (HIAPER) Pole-to-Pole Observations (HIPPO) flights from 01/2009 through 09/2011 to validate CO2 measurements from satellites (Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite - GOSAT, Thermal Emission Sounder - TES, Atmospheric Infrared Sounder - AIRS) and atmospheric inversion models (CarbonTracker CT2013B, Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate (MACC) v13r1). We find that the atmospheric models capture the XCO2 variability observed in HIPPO flights very well, with correlation coefficients (r2) of 0.93 and 0.95 for CT2013B and MACC, respectively. Some larger discrepancies can be observed in profile comparisons at higher latitudes, in particular at 300 hPa during the peaks of either carbon uptake or release. These deviations can be up to 4 ppm and hint at misrepresentation of vertical transport. Comparisons with the GOSAT satellite are of comparable quality, with an r2 of 0.85, a mean bias μ of -0.06 ppm, and a standard deviation σ of 0.45 ppm. TES exhibits an r2 of 0.75, μ of 0.34 ppm, and σ of 1.13 ppm. For AIRS, we find an r2 of 0.37, μ of 1.11 ppm, and σ of 1.46 ppm, with latitude-dependent biases. For these comparisons at least 6, 20, and 50 atmospheric soundings have been averaged for GOSAT, TES, and AIRS

  14. Recent improvements in retrieving near-surface air temperature and humidity using microwave remote sensing (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, J. B.

    2010-12-01

    Detailed studies of the energy and water cycles require accurate estimation of the turbulent fluxes of moisture and heat across the atmosphere-ocean interface at regional to basin scale. Providing estimates of these latent and sensible heat fluxes over the global ocean necessitates the use of satellite or reanalysis-based estimates of near surface variables. Recent studies have shown that errors in the surface (10 meter) estimates of humidity and temperature are currently the largest sources of uncertainty in the production of turbulent fluxes from satellite observations. Therefore, emphasis has been placed on reducing the systematic errors in the retrieval of these parameters from microwave radiometers. This study discusses recent improvements in the retrieval of air temperature and humidity through improvements in the choice of algorithms (linear vs. nonlinear) and the choice of microwave sensors. Particular focus is placed on improvements using a neural network approach with a single sensor (Special Sensor Microwave/Imager) and the use of combined sensors from the NASA AQUA satellite platform. The latter algorithm utilizes the unique sampling available on AQUA from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) and the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU-A). Current estimates of uncertainty in the near-surface humidity and temperature from single and multi-sensor approaches are discussed and used to estimate errors in the turbulent fluxes.

  15. On direct passive microwave remote sensing of sea spray aerosol production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savelyev, I. B.; Anguelova, M. D.; Frick, G. M.; Dowgiallo, D. J.; Hwang, P. A.; Caffrey, P. F.; Bobak, J. P.

    2014-11-01

    This study addresses and attempts to mitigate persistent uncertainty and scatter among existing approaches for determining the rate of sea spray aerosol production by breaking waves in the open ocean. The new approach proposed here utilizes passive microwave emissions from the ocean surface, which are known to be sensitive to surface roughness and foam. Direct, simultaneous, and collocated measurements of the aerosol production and microwave emissions were collected aboard the FLoating Instrument Platform (FLIP) in deep water ~ 150 km off the coast of California over a period of ~ 4 days. Vertical profiles of coarse-mode aerosol (0.25-23.5 μm) concentrations were measured with a forward-scattering spectrometer and converted to surface flux using dry deposition and vertical gradient methods. Back-trajectory analysis of eastern North Pacific meteorology verified the clean marine origin of the sampled air mass over at least 5 days prior to measurements. Vertical and horizontal polarization surface brightness temperature were measured with a microwave radiometer at 10.7 GHz frequency. Data analysis revealed a strong sensitivity of the brightness temperature polarization difference to the rate of aerosol production. An existing model of microwave emission from the ocean surface was used to determine the empirical relationship and to attribute its underlying physical basis to microwave emissions from surface roughness and foam within active and passive phases of breaking waves. A possibility of and initial steps towards satellite retrievals of the sea spray aerosol production are briefly discussed in concluding remarks.

  16. On direct passive microwave remote sensing of sea spray aerosol production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savelyev, I. B.; Anguelova, M. D.; Frick, G. M.; Dowgiallo, D. J.; Hwang, P. A.; Caffrey, P. F.; Bobak, J. P.

    2014-06-01

    This study addresses and attempts to mitigate persistent uncertainty and scatter among existing approaches for determining the rate of sea spray aerosol production by breaking waves in the open ocean. The new approach proposed here utilizes passive microwave emissions from the ocean surface, which are known to be sensitive to surface roughness and foam. Direct, simultaneous, and collocated measurements of the aerosol production and microwave emissions were collected on-board FLoating Instrument Platform (FLIP) in deep water ∼150 km off the coast of California over a period of ∼4 days. Vertical profiles of coarse-mode aerosol (0.25-23.5 μm) concentrations were measured with a forward scattering spectrometer and converted to surface flux using dry deposition and vertical gradient methods. Back trajectory analysis of Northeast Pacific meteorology verified the clean marine origin of the sampled air mass over at least 5 days prior to measurements. Vertical and horizontal polarization surface brightness temperatures were measured with a microwave radiometer at 10.7 GHz frequency. Data analysis revealed a strong sensitivity of the brightness temperature polarization difference to the rate of aerosol production. An existing model of microwave emission from the ocean surface was used to determine the empirical relationship and to attribute its underlying physical basis to microwave emissions from surface roughness and foam within active and passive phases of breaking waves. A possibility of and initial steps towards satellite retrievals of the sea spray aerosol production are briefly discussed in concluding remarks.

  17. Recent Improvements in Retrieving Near-Surface Air Temperature and Humidity Using Microwave Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, J. Brent

    2010-01-01

    Detailed studies of the energy and water cycles require accurate estimation of the turbulent fluxes of moisture and heat across the atmosphere-ocean interface at regional to basin scale. Providing estimates of these latent and sensible heat fluxes over the global ocean necessitates the use of satellite or reanalysis-based estimates of near surface variables. Recent studies have shown that errors in the surface (10 meter)estimates of humidity and temperature are currently the largest sources of uncertainty in the production of turbulent fluxes from satellite observations. Therefore, emphasis has been placed on reducing the systematic errors in the retrieval of these parameters from microwave radiometers. This study discusses recent improvements in the retrieval of air temperature and humidity through improvements in the choice of algorithms (linear vs. nonlinear) and the choice of microwave sensors. Particular focus is placed on improvements using a neural network approach with a single sensor (Special Sensor Microwave/Imager) and the use of combined sensors from the NASA AQUA satellite platform. The latter algorithm utilizes the unique sampling available on AQUA from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) and the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU-A). Current estimates of uncertainty in the near-surface humidity and temperature from single and multi-sensor approaches are discussed and used to estimate errors in the turbulent fluxes.

  18. Snow Depth Spatial Distribution Using Microwave Remote Sensing at the Puna Tsang River Basin in Bhutan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duran-Ballen, S.; Tsutsui, H.; Koike, T.

    2012-12-01

    Spatial distribution of snow amount derived from satellite observations has been previously achieved for flat region. But for mountainous regions, spatial distribution of snow amount has not been addressed because remote sensing instruments are very sensitive to the effect of the terrain slope; and because there is no available data for validation. This study focuses on the estimation of snow amount using a microwave radiative transfer model (RTM) in mountain region. AMSR-E satellite observations of brightness temperature (Tb) at 18.7GHz and 36.5GHz frequencies are compared to calculated values of Tb in Lookup Tables generated by the RTM model. The model uses a snow algorithm to derive the snow depth and temperature spatial distribution over the target region. This snow algorithm has been previously validated in a flat region using in-situ recorded snow-depth data. In this study, the local slope in mountainous terrain, where the local incidence angle is different than the 55 degree incidence angle from the satellite, is taken into account. The local incidence angle is calculated from the scalar product between the radiometer scanning vector and the surface normal vector of the local slope. The terrain DEM is used to calculate the slope and aspect of each terrain grid. Then, with the geolocation of the satellite as it passes over, the local incidence angle is computed. AMSR-E data resolution is about 25x25 km but at this resolution we can not meaningfully express the topographic terrain. Therefore, a DEM resolution of 1x1 km is used. To overcome the difference of spatial resolution between the satellite observation and the terrain grid, the approach is to estimate the Tb for the 18.7GHz and 36.5GHz frequencies with the local incidence angle for each terrain grid. Then, an averaged Tb for each footprint is computed from the weighted average of the Tb of each terrain grid based on the count of occurrence of the same local incidence angle. Then, the averaged Tb is

  19. Applications of remote sensing for water quality and biological measurements in coastal waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. W.; Harriss, R. C.

    1979-01-01

    Potential applications of remote sensing technology to the study of coastal marine environments are reviewed, emphasizing water quality and biological measurements. Parameters measurable by airborne or spaceborne remote sensors include particulates, measured by visual or multispectral photography, chlorophyll a, measured by the Ocean Color Scanner or Coastal Zone Color Scanner, temperature distributions, by IR or microwave sensors, and salinity, by means of microwave radiometers. Research projects in which wide area synoptic or repetitive remote sensing can make a major contribution include the study of estuarine and continental shelf sediment transport dynamics, marine pollutant transport, marine phytoplankton dynamics and ocean fronts.

  20. High fidelity remote sensing of snow properties from MODIS and the Airborne Snow Observatory: Snowflakes to Terabytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Painter, T.; Mattmann, C. A.; Brodzik, M.; Bryant, A. C.; Goodale, C. E.; Hart, A. F.; Ramirez, P.; Rittger, K. E.; Seidel, F. C.; Zimdars, P. A.

    2012-12-01

    The response of the cryosphere to climate forcings largely determines Earth's climate sensitivity. However, our understanding of the strength of the simulated snow albedo feedback varies by a factor of three in the GCMs used in the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, mainly caused by uncertainties in snow extent and the albedo of snow-covered areas from imprecise remote sensing retrievals. Additionally, the Western US and other regions of the globe depend predominantly on snowmelt for their water supply to agriculture, industry and cities, hydroelectric power, and recreation, against rising demand from increasing population. In the mountains of the Upper Colorado River Basin, dust radiative forcing in snow shortens snow cover duration by 3-7 weeks. Extended to the entire upper basin, the 5-fold increase in dust load since the late-1800s results in a 3-week earlier peak runoff and a 5% annual loss of total runoff. The remotely sensed dynamics of snow cover duration and melt however have not been factored into hydrological modeling, operational forecasting, and policymaking. To address these deficiencies in our understanding of snow properties, we have developed and validated a suite of MODIS snow products that provide accurate fractional snow covered area and radiative forcing of dust and carbonaceous aerosols in snow. The MODIS Snow Covered Area and Grain size (MODSCAG) and MODIS Dust Radiative Forcing in Snow (MODDRFS) algorithms, developed and transferred from imaging spectroscopy techniques, leverage the complete MODIS surface reflectance spectrum. The two most critical properties for understanding snowmelt runoff and timing are the spatial and temporal distributions of snow water equivalent (SWE) and snow albedo. We have created the Airborne Snow Observatory (ASO), an imaging spectrometer and scanning LiDAR system, to quantify SWE and snow albedo, generate unprecedented knowledge of snow properties, and provide complete

  1. Extended ocular hazard distances associated with intrabeam aided viewing of the Sandia remote sensing system, airborne aura laser (Big Sky Variant).

    SciTech Connect

    Augustoni, Arnold L.

    2004-08-01

    A laser hazard analysis to determine the Extended Ocular Hazard Distances associated with a possible intrabeam aided viewing of the Sandia Remote Sensing System (SRSS) airborne AURA laser (Big Sky Laser Technology) was performed based on the 2000 version of the American National Standard Institute's (ANSI) Standard Z136.1, for the Safe Use of Lasers and the 2000 version of the ANSI Standard Z136.6, for the Safe Use of Lasers Outdoors. The AURA lidar system is installed in the instrument pod of a Proteus airframe and is used to perform laser interaction experiments and tests at various national test sites. The targets are located at various distances (ranges) from the airborne platform. Nominal Ocular Hazard Distance (NOHD) and maximum ''eye-safe'' dwell times for various operational altitudes associated with unaided intrabeam exposure of ground personnel were determined and presented in a previous SAND report. Although the target areas are controlled and the use of viewing aids are prohibited there is the possibility of the unauthorized use of viewing aids such as binoculars. This aided viewing hazard analysis is supplemental to the previous SAND report for the laser hazard analysis of the airborne AURA.

  2. An intercomparison of available soil moisture estimates from thermal-infrared and passive microwave remote sensing and land-surface modeling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Remotely-sensed soil moisture studies have mainly focused on retrievals using active and passive microwave (MW) sensors whose measurements provided a direct relationship to soil moisture (SM). MW sensors present obvious advantages such as the ability to retrieve through non-precipitating cloud cover...

  3. Orbiting multi-beam microwave radiometer for soil moisture remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiue, J. C.; Lawrence, R. W.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of soil moisture and other factors on soil surface emissivity are reviewed and design concepts for a multibeam microwave radiometer with a 15 m antenna are described. Characteristic antenna gain and radiation patterns are shown and losses due to reflector roughness are estimated.

  4. The advanced microwave precipitation radiometer: A new aircraft radiometer for passive precipitation remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hood, Robbie E.; Spencer, Roy W.; James, Mark W.

    1991-01-01

    Past studies of passive microwave measurements of precipitating systems have yielded broad empirical relationships between hydrometeors and microwave transmission. In general, these relationships fall into two categories of passive microwave precipitation retrievals rely upon the observed effect of liquid precipitation to increase the brightness temperature of a radiometrically cold background such as an ocean surface. A scattering-based method is based upon the effect that frozen hydrometeors tend to decrease the brightness temperature of a radiometrically warm background such as land. One step toward developing quantitative brightness temperature-rain rate relationships is the recent construction of a new aircraft instrument sponsored by National Aeronautics and Space Administration/Marshall Space Flight Center (NASA/MSFC). This instrument is the Advanced Microwave Precipitation Radiometer (AMPR) designed and built by Georgia Tech Research Institute to fly aboard high altitude research aircraft such as the NASA ER-2. The AMPR and its accompanying data acquisition system are mounted in the Q-bay compartment of the NASA ER-2.

  5. Microwave Remote Sensing of Ocean Surface Wind Speed and Rain Rates over Tropical Storms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swift, C. T.; Dehority, D. C.; Black, P. G.; Chien, J. Z.

    1984-01-01

    The value of using narrowly spaced frequencies within a microwave band to measure wind speeds and rain rates over tropical storms with radiometers is reviewed. The technique focuses on results obtained in the overflights of Hurricane Allen during 5 and 8 of August, 1980.

  6. The information of oil and gas micro-seepage in Dongsheng region of inner Mongolia based on the airborne hyperspectral remote sensing image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Shu-Fang; Chen, Jian-Ping; Zhou, Mi

    2008-11-01

    The technology of hyper-spectral remote sensing which has higher spatial resolution characteristic, and optimizes the qualification of identifying and extracting salt mines, not only enhances the capacity of natural scenes detection and recognition, but also advances the level of quantitative remote sensing. It has important meaning for using the technology of hyper-spectral remote sensing to quantitative extraction. The paper investigate gas micro-seepage based on the Airborne Hyper-spectral Remote Sensing in Dongsheng of Inner Mongolia on the basis of gas micro-seepage theory using EO-1 Hyperion data collected by Satellite-Borne Sensor which has highest spatial resolution presently in the world. On the basis of data pretreated this paper adopts band math extracted the distribution of oil and gas micro-seepage using diagnostic assimilating spectrum of alteration minerals by the numbers. With eigenvector length model evaluates the research area comprehensive index, oil and gas micro-seepage information model of the research area is established and key regions of oil and gas micro-seepage are confirmed, which offers academic gist for oil and gas resource exploitation of Dongsheng.

  7. Wave theory for microwave remote sensing of a half-space random medium with three-dimensional variations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsang, L.; Kong, J. A.

    1979-01-01

    The two-variable expansion technique is used to solve for the mean Green's functions from the Dyson equation under the nonlinear approximation for a half-space random medium with three-dimensional correlation functions. The Bethe-Salpeter equations are then solved under the ladder approximation. The radiative transfer equations, which have been applied extensively in the study of microwave remote sensing problems, are derived under these approximations. The limiting cases of large and small horizontal correlation lengths are discussed. It is found that there is only one propagation constant except for the case of large horizontal correlation lengths, in which there are two propagation constants. It is shown that boundary layer appears in first-order solutions and does not appear in zeroth-order solutions.

  8. The development of a stepped frequency microwave radiometer and its application to remote sensing of the Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrington, R. F.

    1980-01-01

    The design, development, application, and capabilities of a variable frequency microwave radiometer are described. This radiometer demonstrated the versatility, accuracy, and stability required to provide contributions to the geophysical understanding of ocean and ice processes. A closed-loop feedback method was used, whereby noise pulses were added to the received electromagnetic radiation to achieve a null balance in a Dicke switched radiometer. Stability was achieved through the use of a constant temperature enclosure around the low loss microwave front end. The Dicke reference temperature was maintained to an absolute accuracy of 0.1 K using a closed-loop proportional temperature controller. A microprocessor based digital controller operates the radiometer and records the data on computer compatible tapes. This radiometer exhibits an absolute accuracy of better than 0.5 K when the sensitivity is 0.1 K. The sensitivity varies between 0.0125 K and 1.25 K depending upon the bandwidth and integration time selected by the digital controller. Remote sensing experiments were conducted from an aircraft platform and the first radiometeric mapping of an ocean polar front; exploratory experiments to measure the thickness of lake ice; first discrimination between first year and multiyear ice below 10 GHz; and the first known measurements of frequency sensitive characteristics of sea ice.

  9. Microwave remote sensing of soil moisture, volume 1. [Guymon, Oklahoma and Dalhart, Texas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcfarland, M. J. (Principal Investigator); Theis, S. W.; Rosenthal, W. D.; Jones, C. L.

    1982-01-01

    Multifrequency sensor data from NASA's C-130 aircraft were used to determine which of the all weather microwave sensors demonstrated the highest correlation to surface soil moisture over optimal bare soil conditions, and to develop and test techniques which use visible/infrared sensors to compensate for the vegetation effect in this sensor's response to soil moisture. The L-band passive microwave radiometer was found to be the most suitable single sensor system to estimate soil moisture over bare fields. The perpendicular vegetation index (PVI) as determined from the visible/infrared sensors was useful as a measure of the vegetation effect on the L-band radiometer response to soil moisture. A linear equation was developed to estimate percent field capacity as a function of L-band emissivity and the vegetation index. The prediction algorithm improves the estimation of moisture significantly over predictions from L-band emissivity alone.

  10. Passive microwave remote sensing of soil moisture from an aircraft platform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, T. J.; Schmugge, T. J.; Oneill, P.

    1984-01-01

    A series of experiments were conducted over several years using an aircraft platform to study the relationship between passive microwave data and surface soil moisture. Sensor systems included thermal infrared and multifrequency passive microwave instruments. Aircraft measurements were obtained concurrently with ground observations of soil moisture and land cover. Test sites included areas in both humid and semiarid regions of the United States that were typical of these regions. Data analyses indicated that the basic cause and effect relationships between the sensor measurements and soil moisture can be extrapolated from theory and small scale tests to larger resolution elements observed by the aircraft. Pastures in different climatic regions showed similar responses. Vegetation canopy attenuation was verified. Based on these studies the optimal surface soil moisture sensor using passive techniques was a 21-cm wavelength radiometer.

  11. Dielectric properties in microwave remote plasma sustained in argon: Expanding plasma conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Jauberteau, J. L.; Jauberteau, I.

    2012-11-15

    This work is devoted to the study of the relative permittivity in argon expanding plasma produced below a microwave discharge sustained in a quartz tube and working at 2.45 GHz. We discuss results and explain the microwave propagation within the reactor, outside the quartz tube. It is shown that at low pressures (133 Pa) and at powers ranging from 100 W to 400 W, the wave frequency remains lower than the plasma frequency anywhere in the expanding plasma. Under these conditions, the real part of the relative permittivity is negative and the wave is reflected. Surprisingly, in these conditions, the plasma is produced inside and outside the quartz tube, below the wave launcher. This effect can be explained considering a surface wave propagating at the surface of the quartz tube then into the reactor, on the external surface of the expanding plasma below the quartz tube.

  12. Comparison of remote measurements of infrared surface temperatures and microwave soil moisture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, Eileen M.; Carlson, Toby N.

    1987-01-01

    Scatterometric measurements of active microwave soil water content and radiometric measurements of thermal IR surface temperatures were made simultaneously fron an aircraft flying 400 m over an agricultural region of France after harvesting. The surface temperatures were used to deterine soil moisture availability estimates according to the Carlson (1986) model. Surface temperature or soil moisture availability and microwave soil moisture were correlated. The standard error in the IR temperature and soil moisture availability due to influences other than soil moisture is found to be + or - 2 C. The standard deviation of the temperature/moisture availability is greater than this standard error. It is shown that correlations between soil water content and moisture availability improve with increasing spatial or temporal variance in the measure surface temperatures.

  13. On the use of passive microwaves at 37 GHz in remote sensing of vegetation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerr, Y. H.; Njoku, E. G.

    1993-01-01

    Recently, a number of studies have investigated the use of the 37 GHz channels of the Nimbus-7 Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) for vegetation monitoring and for studying synergisms between the SMMR and the NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR). The approaches are promising but raise a number of issues concerning interpretation of the results, specifically on the relative effects of vegetation and other surface and atmospheric characteristics on the observed signal. This article analyzes the 37 GHz Microwave Polarization Difference Temperature (MPDT) in terms of its sensitivity to surface and atmospheric parameters. For this, a radiative transfer model is used which indicates some limitations of the MPDT index and suggests the importance of accounting for atmospheric effects in the data analysis. An alternative approach to the MPDT, including lower SMMR frequencies than 37 GHz, is discussed.

  14. Remote identification of potential polar bear maternal denning habitat in northern Alaska using airborne LiDAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, B. M.; Durner, G. M.; Stoker, J.; Shideler, R.; Perham, C.; Liston, G. E.

    2013-12-01

    Polar bear (Ursus maritimus) populations throughout the Arctic are being threatened by reductions in critical sea ice habitat. Throughout much of their range, polar bears give birth to their young in winter dens that are excavated in snowdrifts. New-born cubs, which are unable to survive exposure to Arctic winter weather, require 2-3 months of the relatively warm, stable, and undisturbed environment of the den for their growth. In the southern Beaufort Sea (BS), polar bears may den on the Alaskan Arctic Coastal Plain (ACP).The proportion of dens occurring on land has increased because of reductions in stable multi-year ice, increases in unconsolidated ice, and lengthening of the fall open-water period. Large portions of the ACP are currently being used for oil and gas activities and proposed projects will likely expand this footprint in the near future. Since petroleum exploration and development activities increase during winter there is the potential for human activities to disturb polar bears in maternal dens. Thus, maps showing the potential distribution of terrestrial denning habitat can help to mitigate negative interactions. Prior remote sensing efforts have consisted of manual interpretation of vertical aerial photography and automated classification of Interferometric Synthetic Aperture (IfSAR) derived digital terrain models (DTM) (5-m spatial resolution) focused on the identification of snowdrift forming landscape features. In this study, we assess the feasibility of airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data (2-m spatial resolution) for the automated classification of potential polar bear maternal denning habitat in a 1,400 km2 area on the central portion of the ACP. The study region spans the BS coast from the Prudhoe Bay oilfield in the west to near Point Thompson in the east and extends inland from 10 to 30 km. Approximately 800 km2 of the study area contains 19 known den locations, 51 field survey sites with information on bank height and

  15. Design considerations for remotely piloted, high-altitude airplanes powered by microwave energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, C. E. K., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Several types of systems have been considered in a design study of unmanned, microwave-powered, long-endurance, high-altitude airplanes. The study includes vehicles that use power from a continuously transmitted beam and other aircraft that receive intermittent power during cycles of boost-glide flight. Simple design algorithms are presented. Examples of sizing and performance analyses are used to suggest design-procedure guidelines.

  16. Joint Variability of Airborne Passive Microwave and Ground-based Radar Observations Obtained in the TRMM Kwajalein Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuter, S. E.; Kingsmill, D. E.

    2007-12-01

    The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Kwajalein Experiment (KWAJEX) held July-September 1999 in the west Pacific was designed to obtain an empirical physical characterization of precipitating convective clouds over the tropical ocean. The majority of the precipitation was from mixed-phase clouds. Coordinated data sets were obtained from aircraft and ground-based sensors including passive microwave measurements by the Advanced Microwave Precipitation Radiometer (AMPR) instrument on the NASA DC-8 aircraft and S-band volumetric radar data by the KPOL radar. The AMPR and KPOL data sets were processed to yield a set of 25,049 matching observations at ~ 2 km x 2 km horizontal spatial resolution and within 6 min. The TRMM satellite Microwave Imager (TMI) has a similar set of channels to AMPR but coarser spatial resolution (19 GHz: 35 km, 85 GHz: 7.7 km). During KWAJEX, the 0 deg C level height was nearly constant at ~ 4800 m. Hence, two potential sources of uncertainty in relating passive microwave brightness temperatures (Tbs) to surface precipitation, inhomogeneous beam filling and variations in depth of the rain layer are much smaller sources of error in the KWAJEX data set than for TMI. TRMM was originally designed to yield monthly rainfall estimates over 5 deg x 5 deg grid boxes. The use of these data to yield instantaneous rainrate products at smaller spatial scales is more sensitive to the detailed characteristics of the joint distributions of passive microwave Tbs versus rain rate. KWAJEX data sets reveal poor correlations, very wide scatter, and weak modes in these distributions. The spread of emission Tb values for a given rain-layer reflectivity (e.g., 75 K at 30 dBZ for 19 GHz) is similar or larger within convective compared to stratiform precipitation regions. This result implies that the enhancement in emission Tbs associated with partially melted ice particles can occur whether the particles are concentrated within a thin layer in stratiform

  17. MICROWAVE REMOTE SENSING OF PLANETARY ATMOSPHERES: THE 50 YEARS FROM MARINER 2 TO NASA-JUNO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steffes, Paul G.

    2013-10-01

    In November 2012, the world celebrated the 50th anniversary of spacecraft-based exploration of planets and satellites other our own. The first successful interplanetary mission (Mariner 2) included the first spaceborne microwave radiometer for studying planetary atmospheres which measured the 1.3 and 2.0 cm emission spectrum of Venus (also known as the Cytherean spectrum), These measurements, plus accompanying earth-based observations of the centimeter-wavelength spectrum were used to establish early models of the composition and structure of Venus. Shortly thereafter, measurements of the microwave emission spectrum of Jupiter (also known as the Jovian spectrum) from 1.18 to 1.58 cm were conducted. In both sets of observations, wavelengths near the 1.35 cm water-vapor resonance were selected in hope of detecting the spectral signature of water vapor, but none was found. Thus the question remained, “where’s the water?” The NASA-Juno mission is the first mission since Mariner 2 to carry a microwave radiometer instrument designed specifically for atmospheric sensing. It is expected to finally detect water in the Jovian atmosphere.

  18. Galactic Noise and Passive Microwave Remote Sensing from Space At L-Band

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LeVine, David M.; Abraham, Saji; Hildebrand Peter H. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The spectral window at L-band (1.4 GHz) is important for passive remote sensing of soil moisture and ocean salinity from space, parameters that are needed to understand the hydrologic cycle and ocean circulation. At this frequency, radiation from extraterrestrial (mostly galactic) sources is strong and, unlike the constant cosmic background, this radiation is spatially variable. This paper presents a modern radiometric map of the celestial sky at L-band and a solution for the problem of determining what portion of the sky is seen by a radiometer in orbit. The data for the radiometric map is derived from recent radio astronomy surveys and is presented as equivalent brightness temperature suitable for remote sensing applications. Examples using orbits and antennas representative of those contemplated for remote sensing of soil moisture and sea surface salinity from space are presented to illustrate the signal levels to be expected. Near the galactic plane, the contribution can exceed several Kelvin.

  19. Global Mapping of Landscape Freeze-Thaw Status Using Spaceborne Microwave Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Y.; Kimball, J. S.; McDonald, K. C.; Glassy, J.

    2009-12-01

    The freeze-thaw (F/T) status of the landscape is closely linked to surface energy budget and hydrological activity, vegetation phenology, terrestrial carbon budgets and land-atmosphere trace gas exchange. Spaceborne microwave radars and radiometers are ideally suited for global F/T monitoring due to insensitivity to signal degradation by atmospheric contamination, and solar illumination effects are uniquely capable of detecting the distinct change in landscape dielectric properties between predominantly frozen and thawed states, and provide a surrogate measure of a range of biophysical processes associated with the F/T signal, especially at high latitudes. In this study, we utilized multi-frequency satellite microwave radiometry from the Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) and Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for EOS (AMSR-E), and SeaWinds Ku-band scatterometry to map global patterns and daily variations in terrestrial F/T cycles using a temporal change detection based classification of daily brightness temperatures and radar backscatter involving seasonal threshold and temporal edge detection algorithms. We developed a global F/T classification domain by examining biophysical cold temperature constraints to vegetation growing seasons and land cover, open water and terrain heterogeneity. We evaluated daily F/T patterns from individual sensors using various band frequencies, polarizations and AM/PM overpass data. The F/T classification accuracy was assessed relative to surface air temperatures from WMO weather stations, regional climate patterns and terrain heterogeneity. The microwave sensors produced similar F/T spatial and temporal patterns, with mean annual classification accuracy of 85 (+/-5) % relative to in situ weather station records, while global F/T time series and corresponding annual frozen/unfrozen periods were quantified over a 20 year record. These results are being used to construct a consistent, systematic long-term global record of F

  20. Detection of Severe Rain on Snow events using passive microwave remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grenfell, T. C.; Putkonen, J.

    2007-12-01

    Severe wintertime rain-on-snow (ROS) events create a strong ice layer or layers in the snow on arctic tundra that act as a barrier to ungulate grazing. These events are linked with large-scale ungulate herd declines via starvation and reduced calf production rate when the animals are unable to penetrate through the resulting ice layer. ROS events also produce considerable perturbation in the mean wintertime soil temperature beneath the snow pack. ROS is a sporadic but well-known and significant phenomenon that is currently very poorly documented. Characterization of the distribution and occurrence of severe rain-on-snow events is based only on anecdotal evidence, indirect observations of carcasses found adjacent to iced snow packs, and irregular detection by a sparse observational weather network. We have analyzed in detail a particular well-identified ROS event that took place on Banks Island in early October 2003 that resulted in the death of 20,000 musk oxen. We make use of multifrequency passive microwave imagery from the special sensing microwave imager satellite sensor suite (SSM/I) in conjunction with a strong-fluctuation-theory (SFT) emissivity model. We show that a combination of time series analysis and cluster analysis based on microwave spectral gradients and polarization ratios provides a means to detect the stages of the ROS event resulting from the modification of the vertical structure of the snow pack, specifically wetting the snow, the accumulation of liquid water at the base of the snow during the rain event, and the subsequent modification of the snowpack after refreezing. SFT model analysis provides quantitative confirmation of our interpretation of the evolution of the microwave properties of the snowpack as a result of the ROS event. In particular, in addition to the grain coarsening due to destructive metamorphism, we detect the presence of the internal water and ice layers, directly identifying the physical properties producing the

  1. Making Carbon Emissions Remotely Sensible: Flux Observations of Carbon from an Airborne Laboratory (FOCAL), its Near-Surface Survey of Carbon Gases and Isotopologues on Alaska's North Slope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobosy, R.; Dumas, E. J.; Sayres, D. S.; Healy, C. E.; Munster, J. B.; Baker, B.; Anderson, J. G.

    2014-12-01

    Detailed process-oriented study of the mechanisms of conversion in the Arctic of fossil carbon to atmospheric gas is progressing, but necessarily limited to a few point locations and requiring detailed subsurface measurements inaccessible to remote sensing. Airborne measurements of concentration, transport and flux of these carbon gases at sufficiently low altitude to reflect surface variations can tie such local measurements to remotely observable features of the landscape. Carbon dioxide and water vapor have been observable for over 20 years from low-altitude small aircraft in the Arctic and elsewhere. Methane has been more difficult, requiring large powerful aircraft or limited flask samples. Recent developments in spectroscopy, however, have reduced the power and weight required to measure methane at rates suitable for eddy-covariance flux estimates. The Flux Observations of Carbon from an Airborne Laboratory (FOCAL) takes advantage of Integrated Cavity-Output Spectroscopy (ICOS) to measure CH4, CO2, and water vapor in a new airborne system. The system, moreover, measures these gases' stable isotopologues every two seconds or faster helping to separate thermogenic from biogenic emissions. Paired with the Best Airborne Turbulence (BAT) probe developed for small aircraft by NOAA's Air Resources Laboratory and a light twin-engine aircraft adapted by Aurora Flight Sciences Inc., the FOCAL measures at 6 m spacing, covering 100 km in less than 30 minutes. It flies between 10 m and 50 m above ground interspersed with profiles to the top of the boundary layer and beyond. This presentation gives an overview of the magnitude and variation in fluxes and concentrations of CH4, CO2, and H2O with space, time, and time of day in a spatially extensive survey, more than 7500 km total in 15 flights over roughly a 100 km square during the month of August 2013. An extensive data set such as this at low altitude with high-rate sampling addresses features that repeat on 1 km scale

  2. Fusion of remotely sensed data from airborne and ground-based sensors to enhance detection of cotton plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The study investigated the use of aerial multispectral imagery and ground-based hyperspectral data for the discrimination of different crop types and timely detection of cotton plants over large areas. Airborne multispectral imagery and ground-based spectral reflectance data were acquired at the sa...

  3. Airborne Passive Remote Sensing of the Troposphere in Nashville/Middle Tennessee Area During the 1995 Southern Oxidants Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rider, D. M.; Worden, H. M.; Beer, R.; Nandi, S.; Sparks, L. C.

    1998-01-01

    In July of 1995 the Airborne Emission Spectrometer was deployed to Nashville, Tennessee to participate in the 1995 Ozone Study Intensive Campaign of the Southern Oxidants Study. AES is a high resolution mid-infrared interferometer that measures the spectrum of upwelling radiation in the 650-4250 cm-1 range.

  4. Airborne Passive Microwave Measurements from the AMISA 2008 Science Campaign for Modeling of Arctic Sea Ice Heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zucker, M. L.; Gasiewski, A. J.; CenterEnvironmental Technology

    2011-12-01

    While climate changes in the Arctic are occurring more rapidly than anywhere else on Earth model-based predictions of sea ice extent are at once both more optimistic than the data suggest and exhibit a high degree of variability. It is believed that this high level of uncertainty is the result of an inadequate quantitative understanding of surface heating mechanisms, which in large part is due to a lack of high spatial resolution data on boundary layer and surface energy processes during melt and freezeup. In August 2008 the NASA Arctic Mechanisms of Interactions between the Surface and Atmosphere (AMISA) campaign, in conjunction with the Swedish-led Arctic Summer Cloud-Ocean Study (ASCOS) conducted coordinated high spatial resolution measurements of geophysical parameters in the Arctic relevant to atmospheric-sea ice interaction. The IPY-approved AMISA campaign used airborne radiometers, including the Polarimetric Scanning Radiometer (PSR) system, a suite of L-band to V-band fixed-beam radiometers for cloud liquid and water vapor measurement, short and longwave radiation sensors, meteorological parameters from cloud size distribution probes, GPS dropsondes, and aerosol sensors. Calibration of the PSR is achieved through periodic observations of stable references such as thermal blackbody targets and noise diodes. A combination of methods using both infrequent external thermal blackbody views and brief frequent internal noise sources has proven practical for airborne systems such as the PSR and is proposed for spaceborne systems such as GeoMAS. Once radiometric data is calibrated it is then rasterized into brightness temperature images which are then geo-located and imported into Google EarthTM. An example brightness temperature map from the AMISA 2008 campaign is included in this abstract. The analysis of this data provides a basis for the development of a heat flux model needed to decrease the uncertainly in weather and climate predictions within the Arctic. In

  5. Remote distinction of a noxious weed (musk thistle: Carduus nutans) using airborne hyperspectral imagery and the support vector machine classifier

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Remote detection of invasive plant species using geospatial imagery may significantly improve monitoring, planning, and management practices by eliminating shortfalls such as observer bias and accessibility involved in ground-based surveys. The use of remote sensing for accurate mapping invasion ex...

  6. Evaluation of an airborne remote sensing platform consisting of two consumer-grade cameras for crop identification

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Remote sensing systems based on consumer-grade cameras have been increasingly used in scientific research and remote sensing applications because of their low cost and ease of use. However, the performance of consumer-grade cameras for practical applications have not been well documented in related ...

  7. Use of land surface remotely sensed satellite and airborne data for environmental exposure assessment in cancer research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maxwell, S.K.; Meliker, J.R.; Goovaerts, P.

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, geographic information systems (GIS) have increasingly been used for reconstructing individual-level exposures to environmental contaminants in epidemiological research. Remotely sensed data can be useful in creating space-time models of environmental measures. The primary advantage of using remotely sensed data is that it allows for study at the local scale (e.g., residential level) without requiring expensive, time-consuming monitoring campaigns. The purpose of our study was to identify how land surface remotely sensed data are currently being used to study the relationship between cancer and environmental contaminants, focusing primarily on agricultural chemical exposure assessment applications. We present the results of a comprehensive literature review of epidemiological research where remotely sensed imagery or land cover maps derived from remotely sensed imagery were applied. We also discuss the strengths and limitations of the most commonly used imagery data (aerial photographs and Landsat satellite imagery) and land cover maps. ?? 2010 Nature Publishing Group All rights reserved.

  8. Remote sensing of precipitable water over the oceans from Nimbus-7 microwave measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prabhakara, C.; Change, H. D.; Chang, A. T. C.

    1981-01-01

    Global maps of precipitable water over derived from scanning multichannel microwave radiometer (SMMR) data reveal salient features associated with ocean currents and the large scale general circulation in the atmosphere. Nimbus-7 SMMR brightness temperature measurements in the 21 and 18 GHz channels are used to sense the precipitable water in the atmospheric over oceans. The difference in the brightness temperature (T sub 21 -T sub 18), both in the horizontal and vertical polarization, is found to be essentially a function of the precipitable water in the atmosphere. An equation, based on the physical consideration of the radiative transfer in the microwave region, is developed to relate the precipitable water to (T sub 21 - T sub 18). It shows that the signal (T sub 21- T sub 18) does not suffer severely from the noise introduced by variations in the sea surface temperature, surface winds, and liquid water content in non rain clouds. The rms deviation between the estimated precipitable water from SMMR data and that given by the closely coincident ship radiosondes is about 0.25 g/ sq cm

  9. Atmospheric effect on microwave polarimetric passive remote sensing of ocean surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeang, Chen-Pang; Yueh, Simon H.; Ding, Kung-Hau; Kong, Jin Au

    1999-03-01

    A theoretical emission model of combined ocean surface and atmosphere is presented to predict the microwave emissivity of the ocean. The modeled ocean surface is one-dimensional with a random rough profile. The electromagnetic scattering from the surface is calculated based on the extended boundary condition method. Realizations of rough surfaces are created using Monte Carlo simulations. The bistatic scattering coefficients are computed from the ensemble average. The millimeter-wave propagation model is used to evaluate the absorption of microwave radiation at all height levels in the atmosphere. An expression for the observed brightness temperatures is derived by solving the radiative transfer equations. The radiative transfer model results show a good agreement with the measured data from the 1995 NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory WIND radiometer (WINDRAD) campaign. An approximate model is provided to estimate the atmospheric effect on the ocean brightness temperatures based on the overall atmospheric attenuation. The approximate model also compares well with the WINDRAD data. Further comparisons are made between the approximate formula and the radiative transfer results on the ratio of the third Stokes parameter in the atmosphere to the one in free space by varying the atmospheric conditions, surface roughness, and radiation frequencies. The approximate formula shows its usefulness for the prediction of the ocean brightness temperatures.

  10. Monitoring boreal ecosystem phenology with integrated active/passive microwave remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDonald, K. C.; Njoku, E.; Kimball, J.; Running, S.; Thompson, C.; Lee, J. K.

    2002-01-01

    The important role of the high latitudes in the functioning of global processes is becoming well established. The size and remoteness of arctic and boreal ecosystems, however, pose a challenge to quantification of both terrestrial ecosystem processes and their feedbacks to regional and global climate conditions. Boreal and arctic regions form a complex land cover mosaic where vegetation structure, condition and distribution are strongly regulated by environmental factors such as moisture availability, permafrost, growing season length, disturbance and soil nutrients.

  11. Airborne Remote Sensing of Sea Surface Temperature Using the Ball Experimental Sea Surface Temperature (BESST) Radiometer With A Discussion of the 2013 Marginal Ice Zone Observation Processes EXperiment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tooth, M.; Emery, W. J.

    2014-12-01

    Airborne remote sensing has opened up new possibilities for scientists to study oceanic and atmospheric problems that are relevant to industry, environmental groups, and the scientific community as a whole. Data obtained from these platforms can provide much higher resolution imagery in comparison to satellite observations that allow for more detailed analyses of important regions. Sea surface temperature (SST) data obtained from instruments like the BESST radiometer can be used to provide more insight into issues like natural disasters and oceanographic problems of interest; such as the influence of melting sea ice on SST. During the 2013 Marginal Ice Zone Observation Processes EXperiment (MIZOPEX), BESST was flown on a Scan Eagle UAS in the Alaskan Marginal Ice Zone to acquire SST data. These observations will be discussed, along with possible future uses for the BESST radiometer.

  12. Snow water equivalent determination by microwave radiometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, A. T. C.; Foster, J. L.; Hall, D. K.; Rango, A.; Hartline, B. K.

    1981-01-01

    One of the most important parameters for accurate snowmelt runoff prediction is snow water equivalent (SWE) which is contentionally monitored using observations made at widely scattered points in or around specific watersheds. Remote sensors which provide data with better spatial and temporal coverage can be used to improve the SWE estimates. Microwave radiation, which can penetrate through a snowpack, may be used to infer the SWE. Calculations made from a microscopic scattering model were used to simulate the effect of varying SWE on the microwave brightness temperature. Data obtained from truck mounted, airborne and spaceborne systems from various test sites were studied. The simulated SWE compares favorable with the measured SWE. In addition, whether the underlying soil is frozen or thawed can be discriminated successfully on the basis of the polarization of the microwave radiation.

  13. A physical algorithm to measure sea ice concentration from passive microwave remote sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tikhonov, V. V.; Repina, I. A.; Raev, M. D.; Sharkov, E. A.; Ivanov, V. V.; Boyarskii, D. A.; Alexeeva, T. A.; Komarova, N. Yu.

    2015-10-01

    A conceptually new algorithm of sea ice concentration retrieval in polar regions from satellite microwave radiometry data is discussed. The algorithm design favorably contrasts with that of known modern algorithms. Its design is based on a physical emission model of the "sea surface - sea ice - snow cover - atmosphere" system. No tie-points are used in the algorithm. All the calculation expressions are derived from theoretical modeling. The design of the algorithm minimizes the impact of atmospheric variability on sea ice concentration retrieval. Beside estimating sea ice concentration, the algorithm makes it possible to indicate ice areas with melting snow and melt ponds. The algorithm is simple to use, no complicated or time consuming calculations are involved.

  14. Passive microwave remote sensing of soil moisture - The effect of tilled row structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, J. R.; Newton, R. W.; Rouse, J. W., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The tilled row structure in agricultural fields is one of the important factors affecting observations of microwave emission from such fields. Measurements of this effect were performed with L-band and X-band radiometers mounted on a mobile truck on a bare 40 m x 45 m row tilled field; the soil moisture content during measurements ranged from 10 to 30% by dry weight. Results showed that the variations of the antenna temperatures with incident angle changed with the azimuth angle measured from the row direction. It is found that the observed difference between horizontally and vertically polarized antenna temperatures is due to the change in the local angle of field emission within the antenna field of view caused by the large-scale row structure.

  15. Ground-based microwave remote sensing of water vapor in the mesosphere and stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Croskey, Charles L.; Olivero, John J.; Martone, Joseph P.

    1991-01-01

    A ground-based, portable microwave radiometer that will be used to measure water vapor in the 30-80-km altitude region, and is to operate 24 hr a day, is described. The thermally excited 22.235-GHz rotational-transition line of water vapor is employed. The emission from this region produces a signal with an apparent brightness temperature of the order 0.1 to 0.5 K. A steerable reflector is used to provide optimal viewing angles, depending on the geographic location and season. Periodic tipping curve scans by this reflector permit determination of the amount of tropospheric correction that is applied to the data. All local oscillators in the receiver are crystal-controlled so that narrow-band spectral analysis of the received line shape can be performed.

  16. The Passive Microwave Remote Sensing of Soil Moisture: the Effect of Tilled Row Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, J. R.; Newton, R. W.; Rouse, J. W.

    1979-01-01

    The tilled rowstructure is known to be one of the important factors affecting the observations of the microwave emission from a natural surface. Measurements of this effect were carried out with both I and X band radiometers mounted on a mobile truck on a bare 40 m x 45 m row tilled field. The soil moisture content during the measurements ranged from approximately 10 percent to approximately 30 percent by dry weight. The results of these measurements showed that the variations of the antenna temperatures with incident angle theta changed with the azimuthal angle a measured from the row direction. A numerical calculation based on a composite surface roughness was made and found to predict the observed features within the model's limit of accuracy. It was concluded that the difference between the horizontally and vertically polarized temperatures was due to the change in the local angle of field emission within the antenna field of view caused by the large scale row structure.

  17. Passive Microwave Remote Sensing of Rainfall Considering the Effects of Wind and Nonprecipitating Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Qihang Li.; Bras, Rafael L.; Veneziano, Daniele

    1996-01-01

    It has long been shown both in theory and in observation that emission from rain drops in a raining cloud results in upwelling brightness temperature above that caused by the sea surface alone. High brightness temperatures at microwave frequencies (e.g. 37 and 19 GHz) have usually been quantitatively associated with rainfall using physical or statistical models. By comparing concurrent special sensor microwave/imager and radar data, however, we noticed many cases where there is no appreciable rainfall in a field of view (FOV) which exhibits high brightness temperature (T(sub B)) at 37 and 19 GHz. On the basis of calculations and past literature it is shown that such high brightness temperatures can be caused by nonprecipitating clouds and by wind. The effect of the wind is to create wave and high-emissivity foam on the sea surface. A model is developed to relate T(sub B) to the fractional coverage of rain, f, within a FOV. The parameters of the model are calibrated by fitting the model to the observed brightness temperature and fractional rain coverage data. The critical parameter of the model, T(sub B min.), which is the threshold brightness temperature for the presence of rain, depends on the strength of the storm. The strength of the storm is characterized by the fraction of the FOVs within a large area that have T(sub B) higher than 240 K, which is readily obtainable from satellite data alone. The instantaneous FOV rain rate R can then be obtained through the f approximately R relationship which is empirically derived using radar data. An algorithm has been proposed based on the T(sub B) approximately f and f approximately R relationship. Application of the algorithm to TOGA-COARE and Darwin storms results in reasonable instantaneous FOV rain estimate. When averaged over the entire radar scan, a more accurate and unbiased areal rain estimate can be achieved.

  18. Recent glacier surface snowpack melt in Novaya Zemlya and Severnaya Zemlya derived from active and passive microwave remote sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Meng

    The warming rate in the Russian High Arctic (RHA) (36˜158°E, 73˜82°N) is outpacing the pan-Arctic average, and its effect on the small glaciers across this region needs further examination. The temporal variation and spatial distribution of surface melt onset date (MOD) and total melt days (TMD) throughout the Novaya Zemlya (NovZ) and Severnaya Zemlya (SevZ) archipelagoes serve as good indicators of ice mass ablation and glacier response to regional climate change in the RHA. However, due to the harsh environment, long-term glaciological observations are limited, necessitating the application of remotely sensed data to study the surface melt dynamics. The high sensitivity to liquid water and the ability to work without solar illumination and penetrate non-precipitating clouds make microwave remote sensing an ideal tool to detect melt in this region. This work extracts resolution-enhanced passive and active microwave data from different periods and retrieves a decadal melt record for NovZ and SevZ. The high correlation among passive and active data sets instills confidence in the results. The mean MOD is June 20th on SevZ and June 10th on NovZ during the period of 1992-2012. The average TMDs are 47 and 67 days on SevZ and NovZ from 1995 to 2011, respectively. NovZ had large interannual variability in the MOD, but its TMD generally increased. SevZ MOD is found to be positively correlated to local June reanalysis air temperature at 850hPa geopotential height and occurs significantly earlier (˜0.73 days/year, p-value < 0.01) from 1992 to 2011. SevZ also experienced a longer TMD trend (˜0.75 days/year, p-value < 0.05) from 1995 to 2011. Annual mean TMD on both islands are positively correlated with regional summer mean reanalysis air temperature and negatively correlated to local sea ice extent. These strong correlations might suggest that the Russian High Arctic glaciers are vulnerable to the continuously diminishing sea ice extent, the associated air temperature

  19. Landscape Temperature and Frozen/Thawed Condition over Alaska with Infrared and Active/Passive Microwave Remote Sensing: Determination of Thermal Controls on Land-Atmosphere Carbon Flux in Support of CARVE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steiner, N.; McDonald, K. C.; Schroeder, R.; Miller, C. E.; Dinardo, S.

    2013-12-01

    The freeze/thaw (F/T) state of the Earth's land surface has a considerable influence on the terrestrial water, energy and carbon cycles. This is especially true in F/T dominated areas such as the Arctic and boreal regions where F/T cycles will often bracket negative and positive modes in carbon flux between the surface and atmosphere. Observations from a Forward-Looking Infrared (FLIR) thermal imaging camera, flown during the Carbon in Arctic Reservoirs Vulnerability Experiment (CARVE) in the summer of 2013, are used to determine the temperature and F/T state of the surface at a high resolution. We assess the high-resolution data product with concurrent satellite-based observations in the thermal-infrared using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and in the microwave from a combination of C-band active and passive instruments. Passive and active microwave observation are provided by the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR2) on JAXA's Shizuku (GCOM-W1) satellite and Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT) aboard the European Organization for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT) MetOp-A respectively. In addition to the evaluation airborne thermal observations we provide comparisons of the satellite land surface temperature and F/T products because F/T determination from surface kinetic temperature is based on different physical properties than similar microwave data-records. The high resolution surface observations are also used to illustrate how small-scale thermal features, important in biogeochemical cycling, will scale to coarse resolution satellite products. The accuracy of remote sensing data-sets are evaluated using shallow soil temperatures from stations in the Alaska Ecological Transect (ALECTRA), Soil Climate Analysis Network (SCAN), and Snowpack Telemetry (SNOTEL) networks. The spatial and temporal co-registration and covariant analysis of all gridded datasets are performed within SciDB (www.scidb.org), an array

  20. Satellite and airborne oil spill remote sensing: State of the art and application to the BP DeepWater Horizon oil spill

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leifer, I.; Clark, R.; Jones, C.; Holt, B.; Svejkovsky, J.; Swayze, G.

    2011-01-01

    The vast, persistent, and unconstrained oil release from the DeepWater Horizon (DWH) challenged the spill response, which required accurate quantitative oil assessment at synoptic and operational scales. Experienced observers are the mainstay of oil spill response. Key limitations are weather, scene illumination geometry, and few trained observers, leading to potential observer bias. Aiding the response was extensive passive and active satellite and airborne remote sensing, including intelligent system augmentation, reviewed herein. Oil slick appearance strongly depends on many factors like emulsion composition and scene geometry, yielding false positives and great thickness uncertainty. Oil thicknesses and the oil to water ratios for thick slicks were derived quantitatively with a new spectral library approach based on the shape and depth of spectral features related to C-H vibration bands. The approach used near infrared, imaging spectroscopy data from the AVIRIS (Airborne Visual/InfraRed Imaging Spectrometer) instrument on the NASA ER-2 stratospheric airplane. Extrapolation to the total slick used MODIS satellite visual-spectrum broadband data, which observes sunglint reflection from surface slicks; i.e., indicates the presence of oil and/or surfactant slicks. Oil slick emissivity is less than seawater's allowing MODIS thermal infrared (TIR) nighttime identification; however, water temperature variations can cause false positives. Some strong emissivity features near 6.7 and 9.7 ??m could be analyzed as for the AVIRIS short wave infrared features, but require high spectral resolution data. TIR spectral trends can allow fresh/weathered oil discrimination. Satellite Synthetic Aperture Radar (SSAR) provided synoptic data under all-sky conditions by observing oil dampening of capillary waves; however, SSAR typically cannot discriminate thick from thin oil slicks. Airborne UAVSAR's significantly greater signal-to-noise ratio and fine spatial resolution allowed

  1. Development of a low altitude airborne remote sensing system for supporting the processing of satellite remotely sensed data intended for archaeological investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agapiou, Athos; Hadjimitsis, Diofantos G.; Georgopoulos, Andreas; Themistocleous, Kyriacos; Alexakis, Dimitris D.; Papadavid, George

    2012-10-01

    Earth observation techniques intended for archaeological research, such as satellite images and ground geophysical surveys are well established in the literature. In contrast, low altitude airborne systems for supporting archaeological research are still very limited. The "ICAROS" project, funded by the Cyprus Research Promotion Foundation, aims to develop an airborne system for archaeological investigations. The system will incorporate both a GER 1500 field spectroradiometer and NIR camera in a balloon system operated from the ground. The GER 1500 field spectroradiometer has the capability to record reflectance values from 400 nm up to 1050 nm (blue/green/red and NIR band). The Field of View (FOV) of the instrument is 4o while a calibrated spectralon panel will be used in order to minimize illumination errors during the data collection. Existing atmospheric conditions will be monitored using sun-photometer and meteorological station. The overall methodology of the project and the preliminary results from different cases studies in Cyprus are presented and discussed in this paper. Some practical problems are also discussed and the overall results are compared with satellite and ground measurements. Spectroradiometric measurements and NIR images will be taken from different heights from the balloon system. The results will be compared with different satellite images.

  2. Microwave system for secret remote inspection of person (MS-SRIP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, Andrey; Averianov, Valery; Gorshkov, Igor; Evsenin, Alexey

    2006-05-01

    Laboratory prototype of the device for secret remote detection of objects on human body has been created. The device is intended for detection of non-metallic and metallic objects hidden under clothes: weapons, explosives etc. The work of the device is based on active probing of the examined area with continuous electromagnetic radiation with stepped frequency change in the range up to ~30 GHz, with subsequent detection and analysis of the scattered electromagnetic waves. Such analysis allows one to obtain three-dimensional image of the body and of the objects hidden under clothes, and to categorize them by the degree of danger based on the dielectric constant of the hidden objects.

  3. Monitoring Freeze-Thaw States in the Pan-Arctic: Application of Microwave Remote Sensing to Monitoring Hydrologic and Ecological Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, K. C.; Kimball, J. S.

    2004-12-01

    The transition of the landscape between predominantly frozen and non-frozen conditions in seasonally frozen environments impacts climate, hydrological, ecological and biogeochemical processes profoundly. Satellite microwave remote sensing is uniquely capable of detecting and monitoring a range of related biophysical processes associated with the measurement of landscape freeze/thaw status. We present the development, physical basis, current techniques and selected hydrological applications of satellite-borne microwave remote sensing of landscape freeze/thaw states for the terrestrial cryosphere. Major landscape hydrological processes embracing the remotely-sensed freeze/thaw signal include timing and spatial dynamics of seasonal snowmelt and associated soil thaw, runoff generation and flooding, ice breakup in large rivers and lakes, and timing and length of vegetation growing seasons and associated productivity and trace gas exchange. Employing both active and passive microwave sensors, we apply a selection of temporal change classification algorithms to examine a variety of hydrologic processes. We investigate contemporaneous and retrospective applications of the QuikSCAT scatterometer, and the SSM/I and SMMR radiometers to this end. Results illustrate the strong correspondence between regional thawing, seasonal ice break up for rivers, and the springtime pulse in river flow. We present the physical principles of microwave sensitivity to landscape freeze/thaw state, recent progress in applying these principles toward satellite remote sensing of freeze/thaw processes over broad regions, and potential for future global monitoring of this significant phenomenon of the global cryosphere. This work was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, and at the University of Montana, Missoula, under contract to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  4. Modeling multi-layer effects in passive microwave remote sensing of dry snow using Dense Media Radiative Transfer Theory (DMRT) based on quasicrystalline approximation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liang, D.; Xu, X.; Tsang, L.; Andreadis, K.M.; Josberger, E.G.

    2008-01-01

    The Dense Media Radiative Transfer theory (DMRT) of Quasicrystalline Approximation of Mie scattering by sticky particles is used to study the multiple scattering effects in layered snow in microwave remote sensing. Results are illustrated for various snow profile characteristics. Polarization differences and frequency dependences of multilayer snow model are significantly different from that of the single-layer snow model. Comparisons are also made with CLPX data using snow parameters as given by the VIC model. ?? 2007 IEEE.

  5. Determination of land surface temperature and soil moisture from Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission/Microwave Imager remote sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Jun; Su, Zhongbo; Ma, Yaoming

    2003-01-01

    An analytical algorithm for the determination of land surface temperature and soil moisture from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission/Microwave Imager (TRMM/TMI) remote sensing data has been developed in this study. The error analyses indicate that the uncertainties of the enrolled parameters will not cause serious errors in the proposed algorithm. By applying the proposed algorithm to TRMM/TMI remote sensing data collected during the Global Energy and Water Experiment (GEWEX) Asian Monsoon Experiment (GAME)/Tibet Intensive Observation Period field campaign in 1998 (IOP'98), the temporal and regional distributions of land surface temperature and volumetric soil moisture are evaluated over the central Tibetan plateau area. To validate the proposed method, the ground-measured surface temperature and volumetric soil moisture are compared to TRMM/TMI-derived land surface temperature and soil Fresnel reflectivity respectively. The results show that the estimated surface temperature is in good agreement with ground measurements; their difference and correlation coefficient are 0.52 ± 2.41 K and 0.80, respectively. A quasi-linear relationship exists between estimated Fresnel reflectivity and ground-measured volumetric soil moisture with a correlation coefficient 0.82. The land surface thermal status can also be clearly identified from the regional distribution of the estimated land surface temperature; the mountainous area and water bodies have a very lower surface temperature, while the river basin shows a higher surface temperature compared to the mountainous area. The southeastern part of the selected area has lower soil moisture, while the river basin exhibits high soil moisture. It is therefore concluded that the proposed algorithm is successful for the retrieval of land surface temperature and soil moisture using TRMM/TMI data over the study area.

  6. Airborne remote spectrometry support to rescue personnel at Ground Zero after the World Trade Center attack on September 11, 2001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simi, Christopher G.; Hill, Anthony B.; Kling, Henry; Zadnik, Jerome A.; Sviland, Marc D.; Williams, Mary M.; Lewis, Paul E.

    2002-11-01

    In order to assist Rescue and Recovery personnel after 11 September 2001, Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate was requested to collect a variety of airborne electro-optic data of the WTC site. The immediate objective was to provide FDNY with geo-rectified high-resolution and solar reflective hyperspectral data to help map the debris-field. Later data collections included calibrated MWIR data. This thermal data provided accurate temperature profiles, which could be warped to the high-resolution data. This paper will describe the assets and software used to help provide the FDNY data products, which were incorporated into their GIS database.

  7. Fast Numerical Algorithms for 3-D Scattering from PEC and Dielectric Random Rough Surfaces in Microwave Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lisha

    We present fast and robust numerical algorithms for 3-D scattering from perfectly electrical conducting (PEC) and dielectric random rough surfaces in microwave remote sensing. The Coifman wavelets or Coiflets are employed to implement Galerkin's procedure in the method of moments (MoM). Due to the high-precision one-point quadrature, the Coiflets yield fast evaluations of the most off-diagonal entries, reducing the matrix fill effort from O(N2) to O( N). The orthogonality and Riesz basis of the Coiflets generate well conditioned impedance matrix, with rapid convergence for the conjugate gradient solver. The resulting impedance matrix is further sparsified by the matrix-formed standard fast wavelet transform (SFWT). By properly selecting multiresolution levels of the total transformation matrix, the solution precision can be enhanced while matrix sparsity and memory consumption have not been noticeably sacrificed. The unified fast scattering algorithm for dielectric random rough surfaces can asymptotically reduce to the PEC case when the loss tangent grows extremely large. Numerical results demonstrate that the reduced PEC model does not suffer from ill-posed problems. Compared with previous publications and laboratory measurements, good agreement is observed.

  8. Ambient vibration monitoring of slender structures by microwave interferometer remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gikas, Vassilis

    2012-11-01

    This paper examines the potential of microwave radar interferometry for monitoring the dynamic behaviour of large civil engineering works. It provides an overview of the method, its principles of operation with particular emphasis given on the IBIS-S system. Two areas of application are considered and the results of the analyses are presented and discussed. The first experimental study involves the monitoring of the dynamic response of a tall power plant chimney due to wind load. The second example examines the dynamic behaviour of a long cable-stayed bridge. In this case, the focus is placed on the effects that individual traffic events impose on the vibration response of the main span of the bridge deck and the bridge pylons. Analysis of the results provides detailed displacement time-histories and the dominant frequencies observed at the top of the chimney and along the bridge deck and the top of the towers. Also, cross-comparisons and discussions with the results obtained at the same structures using different sensor configurations are provided.

  9. Soil Moisture Retrieval Through Changing Corn Using Active/Passive Microwave Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    ONeill, P. E.; Joseph, A.; DeLannoy, G.; Lang, R.; Utku, C.; Kim, E.; Houser, P.; Gish, T.

    2003-01-01

    An extensive field experiment was conducted from May-early October, 2002 at the heavily instrumented USDA-ARS (U.S. Dept. of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service) OPE3 (Optimizing Production Inputs for Economic and Environmental Enhancement) test site in Beltsville, MD to acquire data needed to address active/passive microwave algorithm, modeling, and ground validation issues for accurate soil moisture retrieval. During the experiment, a tower-mounted 1.4 GHz radiometer (Lrad) and a truck-mounted dual-frequency (1.6 and 4.75 GHz) radar system were deployed on the northern edge of the site. The soil in this portion of the field is a sandy loam (silt 23.5%, sand 60.3%, clay 16.1%) with a measured bulk density of 1.253 g/cu cm. Vegetation cover in the experiment consisted of a corn crop which was measured from just after planting on April 17, 2002 through senescence and harvesting on October 2. Although drought conditions prevailed during the summer, the corn yield was near average, with peak biomass reached in late July.

  10. SPATIO-TEMPORAL EVOLUTION AND TIME-STABLE CHARACTERISTICS OF SOIL MOISTURE WITHIN REMOTE SENSING FOOTPRINTS WITH VARYING SOIL, SLOPE, AND VEGETATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Air-borne passive microwave remote sensors measure soil moisture at the footprint scale, a scale of several hundred square meters or kilometers that encompasses different characteristic combinations of soil, topography, vegetation, and climate. Studies of within-footprint variability of soil moistur...

  11. Development of a one-dimensional electro-thermophysical model of the snow sea-ice system: Arctic climate processes and microwave remote sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanesiak, John Michael

    Snow covered sea ice plays a crucial role in the earth's climate. This includes polar biology, local, regional and world weather and ocean circulations as well as indigenous people's way of life. Recent research has indicated significant climate change in the polar regions, especially the Canadian arctic. Polar climate processes are also among the most poorly misrepresented within global circulation models (GCMs). The goal of this thesis is to improve our understanding and capability to simulate arctic climate processes in a predictive sense. An electro-thermophysical relationship exists between the thermophysical characteristics (climate variables and processes) and electrical properties (dielectrics) that control microwave remote sensing of snow-covered first- year sea ice (FYI). This work explicitly links microwave dielectrics and a thermodynamic model of snow and sea ice by addressing four key issues. These includes: (1)ensure the existing one-dimensional sea ice models treat the surface energy balance (SEB) and snow/ice thermodynamics in the appropriate time scales we see occurring in field experiments, (2)ensure the snow/ice thermodynamics are not compromised by differences in environmental and spatial representation within components of the SEB, (3)ensure the snow layer is properly handled in the modeling environment, and (4)how we can make use of satellite microwave remote sensing data within the model environment. Results suggest that diurnal processes are critical and need to be accounted for in modeling snow-covered FYI, similar to time scales acting in microwave remote sensing signatures. Output from the coupled snow sea-ice model provides the required input to microwave dielectric models of snow and sea ice to predict microwave penetration depths within the snow and sea ice (an Electro-Thermophysical model of the Snow Sea Ice System (ETSSIS)). Results suggest ETSSIS can accurately simulate microwave penetration depths in the cold dry snow season and

  12. Assessment of Superflux relative to fisheries research and monitoring. [airborne remote sensing of the Chesapeake bay plume and shelf regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, J. P.

    1981-01-01

    Some of the findings of the Superflux program relative to fishery research and monitoring are reviewed. The actual and potential influences of the plume on the shelf ecosystem contiguous to the mouth of Chesapeake Bay are described and insights derived from the combined use of in situ and remotely sensed data are presented.

  13. Airborne Multispectral and Thermal Remote Sensing for Detecting the Onset of Crop Stress Caused by Multiple Factors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Remote sensing technology has been developed and applied to provide spatiotemporal information on crop stress for precision management. A series of multispectral images over a field planted cotton, corn and soybean were obtained by a Geospatial Systems MS4100 camera mounted on an Air Tractor 402B ai...

  14. Development of a rainfall model to study rainfall over South Africa using satellite microwave remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Anoop Kumar; Rawat, Kishan Singh

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a rainfall model is developed to study rainfall over South Africa (10° to 40°E, 35° to 20°S) using a set of rainfall signatures derived from Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Microwave Imager (TMI) observations at 0.25 deg×0.25 deg spatial grid. Based on measurements at 19-, 21-, and 85-GHz channels of TMI, the scattering index (SI) is derived. Polarization corrected temperature (PCT) is calculated using measurements at the 85-GHz channel. SI, PCT, and their combinations are tested as rain signatures over South Africa. These rain signatures (i.e., PCT and SI and their combinations) are collocated against precipitation radar (PR) onboard TRMM to derive a relationship between rain rate and rain signatures. Rainfall retrieval is attempted using linear as well as nonlinear regressions. The results have been validated using an independent dataset of PR. It is reported that a nonlinear regression outperforms a linear algorithm. Statistical validation with an independent dataset of PR exhibits the correlation coefficients (CCs) of 0.60, 0.64, and 0.66, and root mean square errors (RMSEs) of 5.82, 6.42, and 5.76 mm/h from observations of SI, PCT, and a combination of SI and PCT, respectively, using linear regressions. When nonlinear regression is used, the CC of 0.69, 0.68, and 0.70 and RMSE of 4.75, 4.89, and 4.38 mm/h are observed from the SI, PCT, and the combination of SI and PCT, respectively.

  15. Model-estimated microwave emissions from rain systems for remote sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, Mikhail T.; Meischner, Peter F.

    1996-12-01

    A simple model for estimating the upward and downward microwave emission from rain layer types above ground is presented. The emission properties of the rain layers are estimated from physical quantities such as the optical depth, the single-scattering albedo, the physical temperature, and a given drop size distribution for Mie scattering calculations. The underlying surface is characterized by the emissivity and the physical temperature. The transparency coefficient q and the reflection coefficient r of the rain layer are expressed by these physical quantities. The brightness temperature then is given by the physical temperature T, q, and r. The radiation transfer is estimated by the method of layer addition, described by Sobolev [1956], which avoids the necessity of solving the equation of radiation transfer. The accuracy of this simple model was estimated by comparisons with three-dimensional Monte Carlo calculations. The error is estimated to be less than 3 K for common situations and less than 8 K for unrealistic high optical depths. It is shown that any one of the quantities rain rate, rain layer depth, and physical temperature can be estimated with sufficient accuracy if the others are known. The basic model has been extended for application to inhomogeneous cloud layers and to include differences in brightness temperatures for horizontal and vertical polarizations for oblate raindrops. The main intended application of this model is rain rate estimation from space with low data processing efforts, especially for the Priroda mission. The model was tested for the downwelling emission during the field experiment CLEOPATRA by measurements with a polarimetric weather radar and rain gauges. The results verify the principles, and promising agreement was found at least for stratiform rain. The polarimetric extension of the model too showed promising results under quite different measurement conditions in Russia and southern Germany.

  16. Passive microwave remote sensing of rainfall with SSM/I: Algorithm development and implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferriday, James G.; Avery, Susan K.

    1994-01-01

    A physically based algorithm sensitive to emission and scattering is used to estimate rainfall using the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I). The algorithm is derived from radiative transfer calculations through an atmospheric cloud model specifying vertical distributions of ice and liquid hydrometeors as a function of rain rate. The algorithm is structured in two parts: SSM/I brightness temperatures are screened to detect rainfall and are then used in rain-rate calculation. The screening process distinguishes between nonraining background conditions and emission and scattering associated with hydrometeors. Thermometric temperature and polarization thresholds determined from the radiative transfer calculations are used to detect rain, whereas the rain-rate calculation is based on a linear function fit to a linear combination of channels. Separate calculations for ocean and land account for different background conditions. The rain-rate calculation is constructed to respond to both emission and scattering, reduce extraneous atmospheric and surface effects, and to correct for beam filling. The resulting SSM/I rain-rate estimates are compared to three precipitation radars as well as to a dynamically simulated rainfall event. Global estimates from the SSM/I algorithm are also compared to continental and shipboard measurements over a 4-month period. The algorithm is found to accurately describe both localized instantaneous rainfall events and global monthly patterns over both land and ovean. Over land the 4-month mean difference between SSM/I and the Global Precipitation Climatology Center continental rain gauge database is less than 10%. Over the ocean, the mean difference between SSM/I and the Legates and Willmott global shipboard rain gauge climatology is less than 20%.

  17. SLAPex Freeze/Thaw 2015: The First Dedicated Soil Freeze/Thaw Airborne Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Edward; Wu, Albert; DeMarco, Eugenia; Powers, Jarrett; Berg, Aaron; Rowlandson, Tracy; Freeman, Jacqueline; Gottfried, Kurt; Toose, Peter; Roy, Alexandre; Derksen, Chris; Royer, Alain; Belair, Stephane; Houser, Paul; McDonald, Kyle; Entin, Jared; Lewis, Kristen

    2016-01-01

    Soil freezing and thawing is an important process in the terrestrial water, energy, and carbon cycles, marking the change between two very different hydraulic, thermal, and biological regimes. NASA's Soil Moisture Active/Passive (SMAP) mission includes a binary freeze/thaw data product. While there have been ground-based remote sensing field measurements observing soil freeze/thaw at the point scale, and airborne campaigns that observed some frozen soil areas (e.g., BOREAS), the recently-completed SLAPex Freeze/Thaw (F/T) campaign is the first airborne campaign dedicated solely to observing frozen/thawed soil with both passive and active microwave sensors and dedicated ground truth, in order to enable detailed process-level exploration of the remote sensing signatures and in situ soil conditions. SLAPex F/T utilized the Scanning L-band Active/Passive (SLAP) instrument, an airborne simulator of SMAP developed at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, and was conducted near Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, in October/November, 2015. Future soil moisture missions are also expected to include soil freeze/thaw products, and the loss of the radar on SMAP means that airborne radar-radiometer observations like those that SLAP provides are unique assets for freeze/thaw algorithm development. This paper will present an overview of SLAPex F/T, including descriptions of the site, airborne and ground-based remote sensing, ground truth, as well as preliminary results.

  18. Predicting the aquatic stage sustainability of a restored backwater channel combining in-situ and airborne remotely sensed bathymetric models.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jérôme, Lejot; Jérémie, Riquier; Hervé, Piégay

    2014-05-01

    As other large river floodplain worldwide, the floodplain of the Rhône has been deeply altered by human activities and infrastructures over the last centuries both in term of structure and functioning. An ambitious restoration plan of selected by-passed reaches has been implemented since 1999, in order to improve their ecological conditions. One of the main action aimed to increase the aquatic areas in floodplain channels (i.e. secondary channels, backwaters, …). In practice, fine and/or coarse alluvium were dredged, either locally or over the entire cut-off channel length. Sometimes the upstream or downstream alluvial plugs were also removed to reconnect the restored feature to the main channel. Such operation aims to restore forms and associated habitats of biotic communities, which are no more created or maintained by the river itself. In this context, assessing the sustainability of such restoration actions is a major issue. In this study, we focus on 1 of the 24 floodplain channels which have been restored along the Rhône River since 1999, the Malourdie channel (Chautagne reach, France). A monitoring of the geomorphologic evolution of the channel has been conducted during a decade to assess the aquatic stage sustainability of this former fully isolated channel, which has been restored as a backwater in 2004. Two main types of measures were performed: (a) water depth and fine sediment thickness were surveyed with an auger every 10 m along the channel centerline in average every year and a half allowing to establish an exponential decay model of terrestrialization rates through time; (b) three airborne campaigns (2006, 2007, 2012) by Ultra Aerial Vehicle (UAV) provided images from which bathymetry were inferred in combination with observed field measures. Coupling field and airborne models allows us to simulate different states of terrestrialization at the scale of the whole restore feature (e.g. 2020/2030/2050). Raw results indicate that terrestrialization

  19. Norwegian remote sensing experiment in a marginal ice zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farrelly, B.; Johannessen, J.A.; Svendsen, E.; Kloster, K.; Horjen, I.; Matzler, C.; Crawford, J.; Harrington, R.; Jones, L.; Swift, C.; Delnore, V.E.; Cavalieri, D.; Gloersen, P.; Hsiao, S.V.; Shemdin, O.H.; Thompson, T.W.; Ramseier, R.O.; Johannessen, O.M.; Campbell, W.J.

    1983-01-01

    The Norwegian Remote Sensing Experiment in the marginal ice zone north of Svalbard took place in fall 1979. Coordinated passive and active microwave measurements were obtained from shipborne, airborne, and satellite instruments together with in situ observations. The obtained spectra of emissivity (frequency range, 5 to 100 gigahertz) should improve identification of ice types and estimates of ice concentration. Mesoscale features along the ice edge were revealed by a 1.215-gigahertz synthetic aperture radar. Ice edge location by the Nimbus 7 scanning multichannel microwave radiometer was shown to be accurate to within 10 kilometers.

  20. Interferometric synthetic aperture microwave radiometry for the remote sensing of the earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruf, Christopher S.; Swift, Calvin T.; Tanner, Alan B.; Le Vine, David M.

    1988-01-01

    Interferometric aperture synthesis is presented as an alternative to real aperture measurements of the earth's brightness temperature from low earth orbit. The signal-to-noise performance of a single interferometric measurement is considered, and the noise characteristics of the brightness temperature image produced from the interferometer measurements are discussed. The sampling requirements of the measurements and the resulting effects of the noise in the measurements on the image are described. The specific case of the electronically steered thinned array radiometer (ESTAR) currently under construction is examined. The ESTAR prototype is described in detail sufficient to permit a performance evaluation of its spatial and temperature resolution. Critical aspects of an extension of the ESTAR sensor to a larger spaceborne system are considered. Of particular importance are the number and placement of antenna elements in the imaging array. A comparison of the implementation methodologies of radio astronomy and earth remote sensing is presented along with the effects of the source brightness distribution, the antenna array configuration and the method used for array scanning.

  1. Airborne remote sensing of spatiotemporal change (1955-2004) in indigenous and exotic forest cover in the Taita Hills, Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellikka, Petri K. E.; Lötjönen, Milla; Siljander, Mika; Lens, Luc

    2009-08-01

    We studied changes in area and species composition of six indigenous forest fragments in the Taita Hills, Kenya using 1955 and 1995 aerial photography with 2004 airborne digital camera mosaics. The study area is part of Eastern Arc Mountains, a global biodiversity hot spot that boasts an outstanding diversity of flora and fauna and a high level of endemism. While a total of 260 ha (50%) of indigenous tropical cloud forest was lost to agriculture and bushland between 1955 and 2004, large-scale planting of exotic pines, eucalyptus, grevillea, black wattle and cypress on barren land during the same period resulted in a balanced total forest area. In the Taita Hills, like in other Afrotropical forests, indigenous forest loss may adversely affect ecosystem services.

  2. Estimating Land Surface Fluxes Using Microwave and Thermal Remote Sensing Data During SMEX02/SMACEX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, F.; Kustas, W. P.; Jackson, T. J.; Bindlish, R.; Prueger, J. H.

    2005-05-01

    A two-source (soil + vegetation) energy balance model using microwave-derived near-surface soil moisture (TSMSM) as input was applied to a corn and soybean production region in central Iowa. Six days of the Polarimetric Scanning Radiometer (PSR) derived soil moisture data and Landsat derived vegetation information as well as local meteorological data were used to run the model. These data were acquired during the Soil Moisture Experiment in 2002 (SMEX02) and the Soil Moisture Atmosphere Coupling Experiment (SMACEX). The PSR derived soil moisture maps at 800 m resolution which were resampled to 30 m. At this higher resolution, a flux footprint model was applied to weight pixels within the source area of the flux tower measurements. The root mean square difference (RMSD) values between TSMSM estimated and tower measured net radiation, Rn, and soil heat flux, G, were within 25 Wm-2. The TSMSM model also produced reasonable estimates of sensible heat (H) and latent heat flux (LE) with both RMSD values for H and LE being within 55 Wm-2. The TSMSM model output was also compared with estimates from the two-source model version using radiometric surface temperature observations (TSMTH) from Landsat. The results from two Landsat overpasses under partial canopy cover on July 1, 2002, and near full cover on July 8 indicate that TSMSM gave similar results (slightly better) to TSMTH for July 1, but did not perform as well for July 8. When the two models were in good agreement, the surface temperature estimated from TSMSM agreed closely with the Landsat radiometric temperature observations. By contrast, when TSMSM output gave greater differences with TSMTH flux estimates and tower measurements such as July 8, the TSMSM model generally computed lower LE and higher H than TSMTH and the tower measurements. This resulted in TSMSM producing significantly higher surface temperatures than Landsat radiometric temperature observations. Both soil moisture and fractional vegetation cover

  3. Tropospheric Passive Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keafer, L. S., Jr. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    The long term role of airborne/spaceborne passive remote sensing systems for tropospheric air quality research and the identification of technology advances required to improve the performance of passive remote sensing systems were discussed.

  4. Assessment of Superflux relative to marine science and oceanography. [airborne remote sensing of the Chesapeake Bay plume and shelf regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esaias, W. E.

    1981-01-01

    A general assessment of the Superflux project is made in relation to marine science and oceanography. It is commented that the program clearly demonstrated the effectiveness of state-of-the-art technology required to study highly dynamic estuarine plumes, and the necessity of a broadly interdisciplinary, interactive remote sensing and shipboard program required to significantly advance the understanding of transport processes and impacts of estuarine outflows.

  5. Quantitative comparison of airborne remote-sensed and in situ Rhodamine WT dye and temperature during RIVET & IB09

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenain, L.; Clark, D. B.; Guza, R. T.; Hally-Rosendahl, K.; Statom, N.; Feddersen, F.

    2012-12-01

    The transport and evolution of temperature, sediment, chlorophyll, fluorescent dye, and other tracers is of significant oceanographic interest, particularly in complex coastal environments such as the nearshore, river mouths, and tidal inlets. Remote sensing improves spatial coverage over in situ observations, and ground truthing remote sensed observations is critical for its use. Here, we present remotely sensed observations of Rhodamine WT dye and Sea Surface Temperature (SST) using the SIO Modular Aerial Sensing System (MASS) and compare them with in situ observations from the IB09 (0-300 m seaward of the surfzone, Imperial Beach, CA, October 2009) and RIVET (New River Inlet, NC, May 2012) field experiments. Dye concentrations are estimated from a unique multispectral camera system that measures the emission and absorption wavelengths of Rhodamine WT dye. During RIVET, dye is also characterized using a pushbroom hyperspectral imaging system (SPECIM AISAEagle VNIR 400-990 nm) while SST is estimated using a long-wave infrared camera (FLIR SC6000HS) coupled with an infrared pyrometer (Heitronics KT19.85II). Repeated flight passes over the dye plume were conducted approximately every 5 min for up to 4.5 hr in duration with a swath width ranging from 400 to 2000 m (altitude dependent), and provided a unique spatio-temporal depiction of the plume. A dye proxy is developed using the measured radiance at the emission and absorption wavelengths of the Rhodamine WT dye. During IB09 and RIVET, in situ dye and temperature were measured with two GPS-tracked jet skis, a small boat, and moored observations. The in situ observations are compared with the remotely sensed data in these two complex coastal environments. Funding was provided by the Office of Naval Research.

  6. Evaluation of Surface Energy Balance models for mapping evapotranspiration using very high resolution airborne remote sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, George

    Agriculture is the largest (90%) consumer of all fresh water in the world. The consumptive use of water by vegetation represented by the process evapotranspiration (ET) has a vital role in the dynamics of water, carbon and energy fluxes of the biosphere. Consequently, mapping ET is essential for making water a sustainable resource and also for monitoring ecosystem response to water stress and changing climate. Over the past three decades, numerous thermal remote sensing based ET mapping algorithms were developed and these have brought a significant theoretical and technical advancement in the spatial modeling of ET. Though these algorithms provided a robust, economical, and efficient tool for ET estimations at field and regional scales, yet the uncertainties in flux estimations were large, making evaluation a difficult task. The main objective of this study was to evaluate and improve the performance of widely used remote sensing based energy balance models, namely: the Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land (SEBAL), Mapping Evapotranspiration at high Resolution and with Internalized Calibration (METRIC), and Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS). Data used in this study was collected as part of a multi-disciplinary and multi-institutional field campaign BEAREX (Bushland Evapotranspiration and Agricultural Remote Sensing Experiment) that was conducted during 2007 and 2008 summer cropping seasons at the USDA-ARS Conservation and Production Research Laboratory (CPRL) in Bushland, Texas. Seventeen high resolution remote sensing images taken from multispectral sensors onboard aircraft and field measurements of the agro-meteorological variables from the campaign were used for model evaluation and improvement. Overall relative error measured in terms of mean absolute percent difference (MAPD) for instantaneous ET (mm h -1) were 22.7%, 23.2%, and 12.6% for SEBAL, METRIC, and SEBS, respectively. SEBAL and METRIC performances for irrigated fields representing higher ET

  7. Cross-Product Comparison of Multiple Resolution Microwave Remote Sensing Data Sets Supporting Global Mapping of Inundated Wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podest, E.; Schroeder, R.; McDonald, K. C.; Pinto, N.; Willacy, K.; Whitcomb, J.; Moghaddam, M.; Hess, L. L.; Zimmermann, R.

    2010-12-01

    Inundated vegetation and open water bodies are common features across the landscape and exert major impacts on hydrologic processes and surface-atmosphere carbon exchange. Their carbon dioxide and methane emissions can have a large impact on global climate. It is therefore of great importance to assess their spatial extent and temporal variations in order to improve upon carbon balance estimates. Despite their importance in the global cycling of carbon and water and climate forecasting, they remain poorly characterized and modeled, primarily because of the scarcity of suitable regional-to-global remote sensing data for characterizing wetlands distribution and dynamics. Spaceborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) offers an effective tool for characterizing these ecosystems since it is particularly sensitive to surface water and to vegetation structure, and it allows monitoring large inaccessible areas on a temporal basis regardless of atmospheric conditions or solar illumination. We are assembling a multi-year Earth System Data Record (ESDR) of global inundated wetlands to facilitate investigations on their role in climate, biogeochemistry, hydrology, and biodiversity. The ESDR is comprised of (1) fine-resolution (100m) maps of wetland extent, vegetation type, and seasonal inundation extent, derived from L-band SAR data from the Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) Phased Array L-Band SAR (PALSAR) and the Japanese Earth Resources Satellite (JERS) SAR, for continental-scale areas covering crucial wetland regions, and (2) global multi-temporal mappings of inundation extent at 25 km resolution derived from data sets from combined passive and active microwave remote sensing instruments (AMSR-E, QuikSCAT). We present a comparative analysis of the high-resolution SAR-based data sets and the coarse resolution inundation data sets for wetland ecosystems in the Amazonian tropics and the northern high latitudes of Alaska, Canada, and Eurasia. We compare information content

  8. Investigation of Arctic mixed-phase clouds by combining airborne remote sensing and in situ observations during VERDI, RACEPAC and ACLOUD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrlich, André; Bierwirth, Eike; Borrmann, Stephan; Crewell, Susanne; Herber, Andreas; Hoor, Peter; Jourdan, Olivier; Krämer, Martina; Lüpkes, Christof; Mertes, Stephan; Neuber, Roland; Petzold, Andreas; Schnaiter, Martin; Schneider, Johannes; Weigel, Ralf; Weinzierl, Bernadett; Wendisch, Manfred

    2016-04-01

    To improve our understanding of Arctic mixed-phase clouds a series of airborne research campaigns has been initiated by a collaboration of German research institutes. Clouds in areas dominated by a close sea-ice cover were observed during the research campaign Vertical distribution of ice in Arctic mixed-phase clouds (VERDI, April/May 2012) and the Radiation-Aerosol-Cloud Experiment in the Arctic Circle (RACEPAC, April/May 2014) which both were based in Inuvik, Canada. The aircraft (Polar 5 & 6, Basler BT-67) operated by the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Germany did cover a wide area above the Canadian Beaufort with in total 149 flight hours (62h during VERDI, 87h during RACEPAC). For May/June 2017 a third campaign ACLOUD (Arctic Clouds - Characterization of Ice, aerosol Particles and Energy fluxes) with base in Svalbard is planned within the Transregional Collaborative Research Centre TR 172 ArctiC Amplification: Climate Relevant Atmospheric and SurfaCe Processes, and Feedback Mechanisms (AC)3 to investigate Arctic clouds in the transition zone between open ocean and sea ice. The aim of all campaigns is to combine remote sensing and in-situ cloud, aerosol and trace gas measurements to investigate interactions between radiation, cloud and aerosol particles. While during VERDI remote sensing and in-situ measurements were performed by one aircraft subsequently, for RACEPAC and ACLOUD two identical aircraft are coordinated at different altitudes to horizontally collocate both remote sensing and in-situ measurements. The campaign showed that in this way radiative and microphysical processes in the clouds can by studied more reliably and remote sensing methods can be validated efficiently. Here we will illustrate the scientific strategy of the projects including the progress in instrumentation. Differences in the general synoptic and sea ice situation and related changes in cloud properties at the different locations and seasons will be

  9. Use of in situ and modelled soil moisture estimates to evaluate microwave remotely sensed products in southwestern France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albergel, C.; Rüdiger, C.; Calvet, J.-C.; Carrer, D.; Pellarin, T.

    2009-04-01

    A long term data acquisition effort of profile soil moisture is currently underway at 13 automatic weather stations located in southwestern France. This ground network was developed in order to validate remote sensing and model soil moisture estimates. As a first step, an exponential filter and its recursive formulation were used in order to estimate the Soil Water Index (SWI) from in-situ surface soil moisture measurements (SSM, at a depth of 5 cm) and comparing those to observations at 30cm. Most often than not, the estimated SWI correlates well with the in-situ measurements. The only parameter required is a characteristic time length T, where a single value of T=6 days allows to estimate soil moisture at a depth of 30cm from observations at 5cm for the whole group of station. A synthetic soil moisture data set covering continental France is also used. From this data set the added value of using the filter to estimate the SWI is demonstrated. Also, soil moisture measured in-situ at 5 cm is used to evaluate the normalized SSM estimates derived from coarse-resolution (25 km) active microwave data of the ASCAT scatterometer instrument (onboard METOP), issued by EUMETSAT, for a period of 6 months (April-September) in 2007. In order to remove the seasonal trend, the satellite and the in-situ time series soil moisture observations are transformed into normalised anomalies. Nine stations present significant correlation levels. For two stations, a significant correlation is obtained when considering only part of the ASCAT data. The soil moisture measured in-situ at those stations, at 30 cm, is used to estimate the characteristic time length (T) of an exponential filter applied to the ASCAT product. The best correlation between a soil water index derived from ASCAT and the in-situ soil moisture observations at 30 cm is obtained with a T-value of 14 days.

  10. The Relationship Between Fossil and Dairy Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Complex Urban Land-Use Patterns by In Situ and Remote Sensing Data from Surface Mobile, Airborne, and Satellite Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leifer, I.; Melton, C.; Tratt, D. M.; Kuze, A.; Buckland, K. N.; Butz, A.; Deguchi, A.; Eastwood, M. L.; Fischer, M. L.; Frash, J.; Fladeland, M. M.; Gore, W.; Iraci, L. T.; Johnson, P. D.; Kataoka, F.; Kolyer, R.; Leen, J. B.; Quattrochi, D. A.; Shiomi, K.; Suto, H.; Tanaka, T.; Thompson, D. R.; Yates, E. L.; Van Damme, M.; Yokota, T.

    2015-12-01

    The GOSAT-COMEX-IASI Experiment (Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite-CO2and Methane EXperiment) demonstrated a novel approach to airborne-surface mobile in situ data fusion for interpretation and validation of satellite and airborne remote sensing data of greenhouse gases and direct calculation of flux. Key data were collected for the Chino Dairy in the Los Angeles Basin, California and for the Kern River Oil Fields adjacent to Bakersfield, California. In situ surface and remote sensing greenhouse gas and ammonia observations were compared with IASI and GOSAT retreivals, while hyperspectral imaging data from the AVIRIS, AVIRIS NG, and Mako airborne sensors were analyzed to relate emissions and land use. Figure - platforms participating in the experiment. TANSO-FTS aboard the Ibuki satellite (GOSAT) provided targeted pixels to measure column greenhouse gases. AMOG is the AutoMObile Gas Surveyor which supports a suite of meteorology and in situ trace gas sensors for mobile high speed measurement. AVIRIS, the Airborne Visual InfraRed Imaging Spectrometer aboard the NASA ER-2 airplane collected hyperspectral imaging data at 20 m resolution from 60,000 ft. Mako is a thermal infrared imaging spectrometer that was flown on the Twin Otter International. AJAX is a fighter jet outfitted for science sporting meteorology and greenhouse gas sensors. RAMVan is an upward looking FTIR for measuring column methane and ammonia and other trace gases.

  11. Comparison of Reflected Solar Radiance Using Aqua Modis and Airborne Remote Sensing (case : Deep Convective Clouds and Cirrus Clouds)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krisna, T. C.; Ehrlich, A.; Werner, F.; Wendisch, M.

    2015-12-01

    Deep Convective Clouds (DCCs) have key role in the tropical region. Despite they only have small spatial coverage, but they account most of the total precipitation in these region which often make flooding. There are such of aviation accidents caused by strong vertical wind, hailing, icing and lightning inside the clouds. Pollutions caused by biomass burning and land degradation can change the aerosol properties as well as cloud properties, therefore will influence the radiation and formation of the DCCs. Those are the major reasons that better understanding of DCCs formation and life cycle are necessary. Between Sept. 01 - Oct. 14, ACRIDICON (Aerosol, Cloud, Precipitation, and Radiation Interactions and Dynamics of Concevtive Clouds Systems) campaign was conducted over Amazonia. It is suitable area to be the site-study due to has strong contrast environtment (pristine and polluted), regular convection activities and stable meteorological condition. In this study we focus on the 2 satellite validation missions designed to fly collocated but in different altitude with A-TRAIN constellation. In order to study DCCs-solar radiation interaction, we use SMART (Spectral Modular Airborne Radiation Measurements System) installed on HALO (High Altitude and Long-Range Research Aircraft) which measures spectral Irradiance (F) and Radiance (I) at the wavelength between 300-2200 nm corresponding to satellite. Due to the limitation in spatial and temporal, airborne measurements only give snapshots of atmosphere condition and DCCs formation, therefore we use multi-satellite data as DCCs have high vertical and horizontal distance, long temporal development and complex form. The comparison of AQUA MODIS and SMART Radiance at 645 nm (non-absorbing) in the clear-sky condition gives strong agreement, but in the multilayer-cloud condition gives worse and results in high underestimation (-86%) in SMART data especially at lower altitude. The bias is caused by interference from clouds

  12. Remote sensing of multi-level wind fields with high-energy airborne scanning coherent Doppler lidar.

    PubMed

    Rothermel, J; Olivier, L; Banta, R; Hardesty, R M; Howell, J; Cutten, D; Johnson, S; Menzies, R; Tratt, D M

    1998-01-19

    The atmospheric lidar remote sensing groups of NOAA Environmental Technology Laboratory, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, and Jet Propulsion Laboratory have developed and flown a scanning, 1 Joule per pulse, CO2 coherent Doppler lidar capable of mapping a three-dimensional volume of atmospheric winds and aerosol backscatter in the planetary boundary layer, free troposphere, and lower stratosphere. Applications include the study of severe and non-severe atmospheric flows, intercomparisons with other sensors, and the simulation of prospective satellite Doppler lidar wind profilers. Examples of wind measurements are given for the marine boundary layer and near the coastline of the western United States. PMID:19377577

  13. Remote Sensing of Multi-Level Wind Fields with High-Energy Airborne Scanning Coherent Doppler Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothermel, Jeffry; Olivier, Lisa D.; Banta, Robert M.; Hardesty, R. Michael; Howell, James N.; Cutten, Dean R.; Johnson, Steven C.; Menzies, Robert T.; Tratt, David M.

    1997-01-01

    The atmospheric lidar remote sensing groups of NOAA Environmental Technology Laboratory, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, and Jet Propulsion Laboratory have developed and flown a scanning, 1 Joule per pulse, CO2 coherent Doppler lidar capable of mapping a three-dimensional volume of atmospheric winds and aerosol backscatter in the troposphere and lower stratosphere. Applications include the study of severe and non-severe atmospheric flows, intercomparisons with other sensors, and the simulation of prospective satellite Doppler lidar wind profilers. Examples of wind measurements are given for the marine boundary layer and near the coastline of the western United States.

  14. The Airborne Multiangle SpectroPolarimetric Imager (AirMSPI): a new tool for aerosol and cloud remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diner, D. J.; Xu, F.; Garay, M. J.; Martonchik, J. V.; Rheingans, B. E.; Geier, S.; Davis, A.; Hancock, B. R.; Jovanovic, V. M.; Bull, M. A.; Capraro, K.; Chipman, R. A.; McClain, S. C.

    2013-08-01

    The Airborne Multiangle SpectroPolarimetric Imager (AirMSPI) is an eight-band (355, 380, 445, 470, 555, 660, 865, 935 nm) pushbroom camera, measuring polarization in the 470, 660, and 865 nm bands, mounted on a gimbal to acquire multiangular observations over a ±67° along-track range. The instrument has been flying aboard the NASA ER-2 high altitude aircraft since October 2010. AirMSPI employs a photoelastic modulator-based polarimetric imaging technique to enable accurate measurements of the degree and angle of linear polarization in addition to spectral intensity. A description of the AirMSPI instrument and ground data processing approach is presented. Example images of clear, hazy, and cloudy scenes over the Pacific Ocean and California land targets obtained during flights between 2010 and 2012 are shown, and quantitative interpretations of the data using vector radiative transfer theory and scene models are provided to highlight the instrument's capabilities for determining aerosol and cloud microphysical properties and cloud 3-D spatial distributions. Sensitivity to parameters such as aerosol particle size distribution, ocean surface wind speed and direction, cloud-top and cloud-base height, and cloud droplet size is discussed. AirMSPI represents a major step toward realization of the type of imaging polarimeter envisioned to fly on NASA's Aerosol-Cloud-Ecosystem (ACE) mission in the next decade.

  15. The Airborne Multiangle SpectroPolarimetric Imager (AirMSPI): a new tool for aerosol and cloud remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diner, D. J.; Xu, F.; Garay, M. J.; Martonchik, J. V.; Rheingans, B. E.; Geier, S.; Davis, A.; Hancock, B. R.; Jovanovic, V. M.; Bull, M. A.; Capraro, K.; Chipman, R. A.; McClain, S. C.

    2013-02-01

    The Airborne Multiangle SpectroPolarimetric Imager (AirMSPI) is an eight-band (355, 380, 445, 470, 555, 660, 865, 935 nm) pushbroom camera, measuring polarization in the 470, 660, and 865 nm bands, mounted on a gimbal to acquire multiangular observations over a ± 67° along-track range. The instrument has been flying aboard the NASA ER-2 high altitude aircraft since October 2010. AirMSPI employs a photoelastic modulator-based polarimetric imaging technique to enable accurate measurements of the degree and angle of linear polarization in addition to spectral intensity. A description of the AirMSPI instrument and ground data processing approach is presented. Example images of clear, hazy, and cloudy scenes over the Pacific Ocean and California land targets obtained during flights between 2010 and 2012 are shown, and quantitative interpretations of the data using vector radiative transfer theory and scene models are provided to highlight the instrument's capabilities for determining aerosol and cloud microphysical properties and cloud 3-D spatial distributions. Sensitivity to parameters such as aerosol particle size distribution, ocean surface wind speed and direction, cloud-top and cloud-base height, and cloud droplet size is discussed. AirMSPI represents a major step toward realization of the type of imaging polarimeter envisioned to fly on NASA's Aerosol-Cloud-Ecosystem (ACE) mission in the next decade.

  16. Modeling of mean radiant temperature based on comparison of airborne remote sensing data with surface measured data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yu-Cheng; Chen, Chih-Yu; Matzarakis, Andreas; Liu, Jin-King; Lin, Tzu-Ping

    2016-06-01

    Assessment of outdoor thermal comfort is becoming increasingly important due to the urban heat island effect, which strongly affects the urban thermal environment. The mean radiant temperature (Tmrt) quantifies the effect of the radiation environment on humans, but it can only be estimated based on influencing parameters and factors. Knowledge of Tmrt is important for quantifying the heat load on human beings, especially during heat waves. This study estimates Tmrt using several methods, which are based on climatic data from a traditional weather station, microscale ground surface measurements, land surface temperature (LST) and light detection and ranging (LIDAR) data measured using airborne devices. Analytical results reveal that the best means of estimating Tmrt combines information about LST and surface elevation information with meteorological data from the closest weather station. The application in this method can eliminate the inconvenience of executing a wide range ground surface measurement, the insufficient resolution of satellite data and the incomplete data of current urban built environments. This method can be used to map a whole city to identify hot spots, and can be contributed to understanding human biometeorological conditions quickly and accurately.

  17. Extending airborne electromagnetic surveys for regional active layer and permafrost mapping with remote sensing and ancillary data, Yukon Flats ecoregion, central Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pastick, Neal J.; Jorgenson, M. Torre; Wylie, Bruce K.; Minsley, Burke J.; Ji, Lei; Walvoord, Michelle A.; Smith, Bruce D.; Abraham, Jared D.; Rose, Joshua R.

    2013-01-01

    Machine-learning regression tree models were used to extrapolate airborne electromagnetic resistivity data collected along flight lines in the Yukon Flats Ecoregion, central Alaska, for regional mapping of permafrost. This method of extrapolation (r = 0.86) used subsurface resistivity, Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) at-sensor reflectance, thermal, TM-derived spectral indices, digital elevation models and other relevant spatial data to estimate near-surface (0–2.6-m depth) resistivity at 30-m resolution. A piecewise regression model (r = 0.82) and a presence/absence decision tree classification (accuracy of 87%) were used to estimate active-layer thickness (ALT) (< 101 cm) and the probability of near-surface (up to 123-cm depth) permafrost occurrence from field data, modelled near-surface (0–2.6 m) resistivity, and other relevant remote sensing and map data. At site scale, the predicted ALTs were similar to those previously observed for different vegetation types. At the landscape scale, the predicted ALTs tended to be thinner on higher-elevation loess deposits than on low-lying alluvial and sand sheet deposits of the Yukon Flats. The ALT and permafrost maps provide a baseline for future permafrost monitoring, serve as inputs for modelling hydrological and carbon cycles at local to regional scales, and offer insight into the ALT response to fire and thaw processes.

  18. Analysis of airborne particulate matter (PM2.5) over Hong Kong using remote sensing and GIS.

    PubMed

    Shi, Wenzhong; Wong, Man Sing; Wang, Jingzhi; Zhao, Yuanling

    2012-01-01

    Airborne fine particulates (PM(2.5); particulate matter with diameter less than 2.5 μm) are receiving increasing attention for their potential toxicities and roles in visibility and health. In this study, we interpreted the behavior of PM(2.5) and its correlation with meteorological parameters in Hong Kong, during 2007-2008. Significant diurnal variations of PM(2.5) concentrations were observed and showed a distinctive bimodal pattern with two marked peaks during the morning and evening rush hour times, due to dense traffic. The study observed higher PM(2.5) concentrations in winter when the northerly and northeasterly winds bring pollutants from the Chinese mainland, whereas southerly monsoon winds from the sea bring fresh air to the city in summer. In addition, higher concentrations of PM(2.5) were observed in rush hours on weekdays compared to weekends, suggesting the influence of anthropogenic activities on fine particulate levels, e.g., traffic-related local PM(2.5) emissions. To understand the spatial pattern of PM(2.5) concentrations in the context of the built-up environment of Hong Kong, we utilized MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT) 500 m data and visibility data to derive aerosol extinction profile, then converted to aerosol and PM(2.5) vertical profiles. A Geographic Information Systems (GIS) prototype was developed to integrate atmospheric PM(2.5) vertical profiles with 3D GIS data. An example of the query function in GIS prototype is given. The resulting 3D database of PM(2.5) concentrations provides crucial information to air quality regulators and decision makers to comply with air quality standards and in devising control strategies. PMID:22969323

  19. Case studies of aerosol remote sensing with the Airborne Multiangle SpectroPolarimetric Imager (AirMSPI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diner, D. J.; Xu, F.; Garay, M. J.; Martonchik, J. V.; Kalashnikova, O. V.; Davis, A. B.; Rheingans, B.; Geier, S.; Jovanovic, V.; Bull, M.

    2012-12-01

    The Airborne Multiangle SpectroPolarimetric Imager (AirMSPI) is an 8-band (355, 380, 445, 470, 555, 660, 865, 935 nm) pushbroom camera, measuring polarization in the 470, 660, and 865 nm bands, mounted on a gimbal to acquire multiangular observations over a ±67° along-track range with 10-m spatial resolution across an 11-km wide swath. Among the instrument objectives are exploration of methodologies for combining multiangle, multispectral, polarimetric, and imaging observations to retrieve the optical depth and microphysical properties of tropospheric aerosols. AirMSPI was integrated on NASA's ER-2 high-altitude aircraft in 2010 and has successfully completed a number of flights over land and ocean targets in the Southern California vicinity. In this paper, we present case studies of AirMSPI imagery, interpreted using vector radiative transfer theory. AirMSPI observations over California's Central Valley are compared with model calculations using aerosol properties reported by the Fresno AERONET sunphotometer. Because determination of the radiative impact of different types of aerosols requires accurate attribution of the source of the reflected light along with characterization of the aerosol optical and microphysical properties, we explore the sensitivity of the Fresno measurements to variations in different aerosol properties, demonstrating the value of combining intensity and polarimetry at multiple view angles and spectral bands for constraining particle microphysical properties. Images over ocean to be presented include scenes over nearly cloud-free skies and scenes containing scattered clouds. It is well known that imperfect cloud screening confounds the determination of aerosol impact on radiation; it is perhaps less well appreciated that the effect of cloud reflections in the water can also be problematic. We calculate the magnitude of this effect in intensity and polarization and discuss its potential impact on aerosol retrievals, underscoring the value

  20. Analysis of Airborne Particulate Matter (PM2.5) over Hong Kong Using Remote Sensing and GIS

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Wenzhong; Wong, Man Sing; Wang, Jingzhi; Zhao, Yuanling

    2012-01-01

    Airborne fine particulates (PM2.5; particulate matter with diameter less than 2.5 μm) are receiving increasing attention for their potential toxicities and roles in visibility and health. In this study, we interpreted the behavior of PM2.5 and its correlation with meteorological parameters in Hong Kong, during 2007–2008. Significant diurnal variations of PM2.5 concentrations were observed and showed a distinctive bimodal pattern with two marked peaks during the morning and evening rush hour times, due to dense traffic. The study observed higher PM2.5 concentrations in winter when the northerly and northeasterly winds bring pollutants from the Chinese mainland, whereas southerly monsoon winds from the sea bring fresh air to the city in summer. In addition, higher concentrations of PM2.5 were observed in rush hours on weekdays compared to weekends, suggesting the influence of anthropogenic activities on fine particulate levels, e.g., traffic-related local PM2.5 emissions. To understand the spatial pattern of PM2.5 concentrations in the context of the built-up environment of Hong Kong, we utilized MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT) 500 m data and visibility data to derive aerosol extinction profile, then converted to aerosol and PM2.5 vertical profiles. A Geographic Information Systems (GIS) prototype was developed to integrate atmospheric PM2.5 vertical profiles with 3D GIS data. An example of the query function in GIS prototype is given. The resulting 3D database of PM2.5 concentrations provides crucial information to air quality regulators and decision makers to comply with air quality standards and in devising control strategies. PMID:22969323

  1. Variations of mesoscale and large-scale sea ice morphology in the 1984 Marginal Ice Zone Experiment as observed by microwave remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, W. J.; Josberger, E. G.; Gloersen, P.; Johannessen, O. M.; Guest, P. S.

    1987-01-01

    The data acquired during the summer 1984 Marginal Ice Zone Experiment in the Fram Strait-Greenland Sea marginal ice zone, using airborne active and passive microwave sensors and the Nimbus 7 SMMR, were analyzed to compile a sequential description of the mesoscale and large-scale ice morphology variations during the period of June 6 - July 16, 1984. Throughout the experiment, the long ice edge between northwest Svalbard and central Greenland meandered; eddies were repeatedly formed, moved, and disappeared but the ice edge remained within a 100-km-wide zone. The ice pack behind this alternately diffuse and compact edge underwent rapid and pronounced variations in ice concentration over a 200-km-wide zone. The high-resolution ice concentration distributions obtained in the aircraft images agree well with the low-resolution distributions of SMMR images.

  2. High resolution mapping of the tropospheric NO2 distribution in three Belgian cities based on airborne APEX remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tack, Frederik; Merlaud, Alexis; Fayt, Caroline; Danckaert, Thomas; Iordache, Daniel; Meuleman, Koen; Deutsch, Felix; Adriaenssens, Sandy; Fierens, Frans; Van Roozendael, Michel

    2015-04-01

    An approach is presented to retrieve tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) vertical column densities (VCDs) and to map the NO2 two dimensional distribution at high resolution, based on Airborne Prism EXperiment (APEX) observations. APEX, developed by a Swiss-Belgian consortium on behalf of ESA (European Space Agency), is a pushbroom hyperspectral imager with a high spatial (approximately 3 m at 5000 m ASL), spectral (413 to 2421 nm in 533 narrow, contiguous spectral bands) and radiometric (14-bit) resolution. VCDs are derived, following a similar approach as described in the pioneering work of Popp et al. (2012), based on (1) spectral calibration and spatial binning of the observed radiance spectra in order to improve the spectral resolution and signal-to-noise ratio, (2) Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) analysis of the pre-processed spectra in the visible wavelength region, with a reference spectrum containing low NO2 absorption, in order to quantify the abundance of NO2 along the light path, based on its molecular absorption structures and (3) radiative transfer modeling for air mass factor calculation in order to convert slant to vertical columns. This study will be done in the framework of the BUMBA (Belgian Urban NO2 Monitoring Based on APEX hyperspectral data) project. Dedicated flights with APEX mounted in a Dornier DO-228 airplane, operated by Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR), are planned to be performed in Spring 2015 above the three largest and most heavily polluted Belgian cities, i.e. Brussels, Antwerp and Liège. The retrieved VCDs will be validated by comparison with correlative ground-based and car-based DOAS observations. Main objectives are (1) to assess the operational capabilities of APEX to map the NO2 field over an urban area at high spatial and spectral resolution in a relatively short time and cost-effective way, and to characterise all aspects of the retrieval approach; (2) to use the APEX NO2 measurements

  3. Data Management Challenges for Airborne NASA Earth Venture Sub-Orbital (EVS-1) Investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyer, A.; Cook, R. B.; Santhana Vannan, S. K.

    2014-12-01

    The ORNL DAAC is developing a technology infrastructure to archive airborne remote sensing observations from two Earth System Science Pathfinder Missions. The two missions are CARVE: Carbon in Arctic Reservoirs Vulnerability Experiment and AirMOSS: Airborne Microwave Observatory of Subcanopy and Subsurface. The two missions are collecting over 140 TB of data from extensive ground-based and airborne instruments. The metadata and documentation requirements necessary for proper archive and dissemination of such transect-based, and often 3-dimensional, airborne data are quite different from the traditional field campaign and satellite remote sensing data streams. Staff at the ORNL DAAC are currently working with the CARVE and AirMOSS teams as well as investigating cyberinfrastructures from other DAACs to develop a metadata and data infrastructure for airborne data that will enable spatial, flight-line, or keyword-based search and discovery, integration as needed of related satellite- and ground-based data sets, and subsetting and visualization tools for both CARVE and AirMOSS. We discuss challenges, progress, and lessons learned.

  4. Airborne multispectral and thermal remote sensing for detecting the onset of crop stress caused by multiple factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yanbo; Thomson, Steven J.

    2010-10-01

    Remote sensing technology has been developed and applied to provide spatiotemporal information on crop stress for precision management. A series of multispectral images over a field planted cotton, corn and soybean were obtained by a Geospatial Systems MS4100 camera mounted on an Air Tractor 402B airplane equipped with Camera Link in a Magma converter box triggered by Terraverde Dragonfly® flight navigation and imaging control software. The field crops were intentionally stressed by applying glyphosate herbicide via aircraft and allowing it to drift near-field. Aerial multispectral images in the visible and near-infrared bands were manipulated to produce vegetation indices, which were used to quantify the onset of herbicide induced crop stress. The vegetation indices normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and soil adjusted vegetation index (SAVI) showed the ability to monitor crop response to herbicide-induced injury by revealing stress at different phenological stages. Two other fields were managed with irrigated versus nonirrigated treatments, and those fields were imaged with both the multispectral system and an Electrophysics PV-320T thermal imaging camera on board an Air Tractor 402B aircraft. Thermal imagery indicated water stress due to deficits in soil moisture, and a proposed method of determining crop cover percentage using thermal imagery was compared with a multispectral imaging method. Development of an image fusion scheme may be necessary to provide synergy and improve overall water stress detection ability.

  5. Is the Wilkins Ice Shelf a Firn Aquifer? Spaceborne Observation of Subsurface Winter Season Liquid Meltwater Storage on the Antarctic Peninsula using Multi-Frequency Active and Passive Microwave Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, J.; Scambos, T.; Forster, R. R.; Long, D. G.; Ligtenberg, S.; van den Broeke, M.; Vaughan, D. G.

    2015-12-01

    Near-surface liquid meltwater on ice shelves has been inferred to influence ice shelf stability if it induces hydrofracture and is linked to disintegration events on the Larsen B and the Wilkins ice shelves on the Antarctic Peninsula during the summer months. While the initial Wilkins disintegration event occurred in March of 2009, two smaller disintegration events followed in May and in July of that year. It has long been assumed meltwater refreezes soon after surface melt processes cease. Given this assumption, an earlier hypothesis for the two winter season disintegration events was hydrofracture via a brine infiltration layer. Two lines of evidence supported this hypothesis 1) early airborne radar surveys did not record a reflection from the bottom of the ice shelf, and 2) a shallow core drilled in 1972 on the Wilkins encountered liquid water at a depth of ~7 m. The salinity of the water and the temperature at the base of the core, however, were not described. The recent discovery of winter season liquid meltwater storage on the Greenland ice sheet has changed perceptions on meltwater longevity at depth in firn. Evidence of Greenland's firn aquifer includes liquid meltwater encountered in shallow firn cores at 5 m depth and a lack of reflections from the base of the ice sheet in airborne surveys. Thus, previous lines of evidence suggesting brine infiltration may alternatively suggest the presence of a perennial firn aquifer. We recently demonstrated the capability for observation of Greenland's firn aquifer from space using multi-frequency active and passive microwave remote sensing. This research exploits the retrieval technique developed for Greenland to provide the first spaceborne mappings of winter season liquid meltwater storage on the Wilkins. We combine L-band brightness temperature and backscatter data from the MIRAS instrument (1.4 GHz) aboard ESA's Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity mission and the radar (1.3 GHZ) and radiometer(1.4 GHz) aboard NASA

  6. A13K-0336: Airborne Multi-Wavelength High Spectral Resolution Lidar for Process Studies and Assessment of Future Satellite Remote Sensing Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hostetler, Chris A.; Ferrare, Rich A.; Hair, Johnathan W.; Cook, Anthony L.; Harper, David B.; Mack, Terry L.; Hare, Richard J.; Cleckner, Craig S.; Rogers, Raymond R.; Muller, Detlef; Chemyakin, Eduard; Burton, Sharon P.; Obland, Michael D.; Scarino, Amy J.; Cairns, Brian; Russell, Phil; Redermann, Jens; Shinozuka, Y.; Schmid, Beat; Fast, Jerome; Berg, Larry; Flynn, Connor; Wagener, Rick; Gregory, Laurie

    2012-01-01

    NASA Langley recently developed the world's first airborne multi-wavelength high spectral resolution lidar (HSRL). This lidar employs the HSRL technique at 355 and 532 nm to make independent, unambiguous retrievals of aerosol extinction and backscatter. It also employs the standard backscatter technique at 1064 nm and is polarization-sensitive at all three wavelengths. This instrument, dubbed HSRL-2 (the secondgeneration HSRL developed by NASA Langley), is a prototype for the lidar on NASA's planned Aerosols- Clouds-Ecosystems (ACE) mission. HSRL-2 completed its first science mission in July 2012, the Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) conducted by the Department of Energy (DOE) in Hyannis, MA. TCAP presents an excellent opportunity to assess some of the remote sensing concepts planned for ACE: HSRL-2 was deployed on the Langley King Air aircraft with another ACE-relevant instrument, the NASA GISS Research Scanning Polarimeter (RSP), and flights were closely coordinated with the DOE's Gulfstream-1 aircraft, which deployed a variety of in situ aerosol and trace gas instruments and the new Spectrometer for Sky-Scanning, Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research (4STAR). The DOE also deployed their Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Mobile Facility and their Mobile Aerosol Observing System at a ground site located on the northeastern coast of Cape Cod for this mission. In this presentation we focus on the capabilities, data products, and applications of the new HSRL-2 instrument. Data products include aerosol extinction, backscatter, depolarization, and optical depth; aerosol type identification; mixed layer depth; and rangeresolved aerosol microphysical parameters (e.g., effective radius, index of refraction, single scatter albedo, and concentration). Applications include radiative closure studies, studies of aerosol direct and indirect effects, investigations of aerosol-cloud interactions, assessment of chemical transport models, air quality studies, present (e.g., CALIPSO

  7. Airborne infrared video radiometry as a low-cost tool for remote sensing of the environment, two mapping examples from Israel of urban heat islands and mineralogical site

    SciTech Connect

    Ben-Dor, E.; Saaroni, H.; Ochana, D.

    1996-10-01

    In this study we examined the capability of a laboratory infrared video camera for use in remote sensing of the environment. The instrument used, INFRAMETRICS 760, was mounted onboard a Bell 206 helicopter. Under the flight conditions examined, the radiometer proved itself to be very stable and produced high-quality thermal images in a real-time mode. We studied two different environmental aspects, as follows: (1) Urban heat island of the most dense city in Israel, Tel-Aviv- and (2) lithological distribution of a well-known mineralogical site in Israel, Makhtesh Ramon. The radiometer used in both studies was able to produce a temperature presentation, rather than a gray scale from an altitude of 7,000 and 10,000 feet and at 70 knots air speed. The instrument produced a high-quality set of data in terms of signal-to-noise, stability, temperature accuracy and spatial resolution. In the Tel-Aviv case, the results showed that the urban heat island of the city can be depicted in a very high spatial and thermal resolutions domain and that a significant correlation exists between ground objects and the surrounding air temperature values. Based on the flight results, we could generated an isotherm map of the city that, for the first time, located the urban heat island of the city both in meso- and microscales. In the case of Makhtesh Ramon, we found that under field conditions, the radiometer, coupled with a VIS-CCD camera can provide significant ATI parameters of typical rocks that characterize tile study area. Although more study is planned and suggested based on the current data, it was concluded that the airborne thermal video radiometry, is a promising, inexpensive tool for monitoring the environment on a real-time basis. 10 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Extrapolation of in situ data from 1-km squares to adjacent squares using remote sensed imagery and airborne lidar data for the assessment of habitat diversity and extent.

    PubMed

    Lang, M; Vain, A; Bunce, R G H; Jongman, R H G; Raet, J; Sepp, K; Kuusemets, V; Kikas, T; Liba, N

    2015-03-01

    Habitat surveillance and subsequent monitoring at a national level is usually carried out by recording data from in situ sample sites located according to predefined strata. This paper describes the application of remote sensing to the extension of such field data recorded in 1-km squares to adjacent squares, in order to increase sample number without further field visits. Habitats were mapped in eight central squares in northeast Estonia in 2010 using a standardized recording procedure. Around one of the squares, a special study site was established which consisted of the central square and eight surrounding squares. A Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) image was used for correlation with in situ data. An airborne light detection and ranging (lidar) vegetation height map was also included in the classification. A series of tests were carried out by including the lidar data and contrasting analytical techniques, which are described in detail in the paper. Training accuracy in the central square varied from 75 to 100 %. In the extrapolation procedure to the surrounding squares, accuracy varied from 53.1 to 63.1 %, which improved by 10 % with the inclusion of lidar data. The reasons for this relatively low classification accuracy were mainly inherent variability in the spectral signatures of habitats but also differences between the dates of imagery acquisition and field sampling. Improvements could therefore be made by better synchronization of the field survey and image acquisition as well as by dividing general habitat categories (GHCs) into units which are more likely to have similar spectral signatures. However, the increase in the number of sample kilometre squares compensates for the loss of accuracy in the measurements of individual squares. The methodology can be applied in other studies as the procedures used are readily available. PMID:25648761

  9. Environmental hazards and distribution of radioactive black sand along the Rosetta coastal zone in Egypt using airborne spectrometric and remote sensing data.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, M F; Aziz, A M; Ghieth, B M

    2014-11-01

    High-resolution airborne gamma ray spectrometry, conducted in 2003, was used to estimate radioactive elements spatial abundance along the Rosetta coastal zone area. It was noticed that both Uranium and Thorium are concentrated in the black sand deposits along the beach. In contrary, Potassium was observed in high level abundance at the cultivated Nile Delta lands due to the accumulated usage of fertilizers. Exposure Rate (ER), Absorbed Dose Rate (ADR) and Annual Effective Dose Rate (AEDR) were calculated to evaluate the radiation background influence in human. Results indicated that the human body in the study sites is subjected to radiation hazards exceeds the accepted limit for long duration exposure. In addition, the areas covered by the highest concentration of Uranium and Thorium show the highest level of radiogenic heat production. Detection the environmental hazards of the radioactive black sands in the study site encouraged this research to monitor the spatial and temporal distribution of these sediments. The Landsat Thematic Mapper images acquired in 1990, 2003 and 2013 were analyzed using remote sensing image processing techniques. Image enhancements, classification and changes detection indicated a positive significant relationship between the patterns of coastline changes and distribution of the radioactive black sand in the study sites. The radioactive black sands are usually concentrated in the eroded areas. Therefore, in 1990 high concentration of the radioactive black sands were observed along the eastern and western flanks of the Rosetta promontory. Distribution of these sediments decreased due to the construction of the protective sea walls. Most of the radioactive black sands are transported toward the east in Abu Khashaba bay under the effect of the longshore currents and toward the west in Alexandria and Abu Quir bay under the action of the seasonal reverse currents. PMID:25011074

  10. An algorithm for the estimation of bounds on the emissivity and temperatures from thermal multispectral airborne remotely sensed data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaggi, S.; Quattrochi, D.; Baskin, R.

    1992-01-01

    The effective flux incident upon the detectors of a thermal sensor, after it has been corrected for atmospheric effects, is a function of a non-linear combination of the emissivity of the target for that channel and the temperature of the target. The sensor system cannot separate the contribution from the emissivity and the temperature that constitute the flux value. A method that estimates the bounds on these temperatures and emissivities from thermal data is described. This method is then tested with remotely sensed data obtained from NASA's Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) - a 6 channel thermal sensor. Since this is an under-determined set of equations i.e. there are 7 unknowns (6 emissivities and 1 temperature) and 6 equations (corresponding to the 6 channel fluxes), there exist theoretically an infinite combination of values of emissivities and temperature that can satisfy these equations. Using some realistic bounds on the emissivities, bounds on the temperature are calculated. These bounds on the temperature are refined to estimate a tighter bound on the emissivity of the source. An error analysis is also carried out to quantitatively determine the extent of uncertainty introduced in the estimate of these parameters. This method is useful only when a realistic set of bounds can be obtained for the emissivities of the data. In the case of water the lower and upper bounds were set at 0.97 and 1.00 respectively. Five flights were flown in succession at altitudes of 2 km (low), 6 km (mid), 12 km (high), and then back again at 6 km and 2 km. The area selected with the Ross Barnett reservoir near Jackson, Mississippi. The mission was flown during the predawn hours of 1 Feb. 1992. Radiosonde data was collected for that duration to profile the characteristics of the atmosphere. Ground truth temperatures using thermometers and radiometers were also obtained over an area of the reservoir. The results of two independent runs of the radiometer data averaged

  11. A stratospheric intrusion at the subtropical jet over the Mediterranean Sea: air-borne remote sensing observations and model results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weigel, K.; Hoffmann, L.; Günther, G.; Khosrawi, F.; Olschewski, F.; Preusse, P.; Spang, R.; Stroh, F.; Riese, M.

    2012-09-01

    Remote sensing measurements from the Cryogenic Infrared Spectrometers and Telescope for the Atmosphere - New Frontiers (CRISTA-NF) during a flight on 29 July 2006 are presented. This flight is part of the AMMA-SCOUT-O3 measurement campaign, where CRISTA-NF was deployed on the high-flying research aircraft M55-Geophysica. The flight path was located over Italy and the Mediterranean Sea and crossed over the subtropical jet twice. Measurements of temperature, and the volume mixing ratios of water vapor (H2O), ozone (O3), nitric acid (HNO3) and peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) are available with a vertical resolution of up to 500 m between about 6 to 21 km altitude. CRISTA-NF observes these trace gases simultaneously and provides a quasi-2-D view of the transition region between the troposphere and the stratosphere. The observation of these different trace gases allows to determine tropospheric and stratospheric air masses. As expected, higher abundances are found where the main source of the trace gases is located: in the stratosphere for O3 and in the troposphere for H2O and PAN. Tracer-tracer correlations between O3 and PAN are used to identify the mixed tropospheric and lowermost stratospheric air at the subtropical jet and around the thermal tropopause north of the jet. An intrusion of stratospheric air into the troposphere associated with the subtropical jet is found in the CRISTA-NF observations. The observations indicate that the intrusion is connected to a tropopause fold which is not resolved in the ECMWF analysis data. The intrusion was reproduced in a simulation with the Chemical Lagrangian Model of the Stratosphere (CLaMS). The CLaMS simulation shows, that the lowermost stratospheric air masses in the intrusion where transported along the the subtropical jet. The tropospheric air masses around the intrusion originate from the vicinity of the Asian monsoon anticyclone. This work discusses the nature of the observed processes at the subtropical jet based on the

  12. Use of field and airborne advanced remote sensing data for the characterisation of surface erosional stages in agricultural semi-arid soils (central Spain) at various scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milewski, Robert; Chabrillat, Sabine; Schmid, Thomas; Rodriguez, Manuel; Schuett, Brigitta

    2014-05-01

    The interest in the use of non-invasive remote sensing methods such as visible-near infrared reflectance spectroscopy for the remote determination of mineralogical composition in soils and planetary surfaces has been demonstrated since the 1970s with the development of databases in the laboratory of minerals spectra. Nowadays, quantitative soil spectroscopy has been shown to be a powerful tool for the identification and prediction of soil properties, and has been used in many soil science applications. With the upcoming launch of the next generation of hyperspectral satellite systems such as the German EnMAP (Environmental Mapping) satellite in 2017, new potential toward the quantitative analyses of chemical and physical soil attributes of the Earth's soil surface composition based on reflectance spectroscopy will be opened. In particular, in arid and semi-arid agricultural regions sensitive to soil erosion processes, the analyses of the spatial distribution of combined varying surface soil properties based on advanced hyperspectral methodology could be used to infer erosion and deposition stages in selected areas, although it was never thoroughly demonstrated. To fully utilize the potential of this technology for the assessment of surface soil erosional stages, new adapted approaches have to be developed, providing the context for this study. This research focuses on a semi-arid, agricultural area in Central Spain near Toledo and Madrid, in which airborne hyperspectral and LiDAR data have been obtained. The study area is under the influence of a Mediterranean climate with extended agricultural rainfed uses on mostly evolved soils. There, soil erosion features can be observed that are representative for areas throughout Southern Europe. Such erosion features are associated with different soil horizons and rock outcrops with contrasted physical and chemical characteristic. They are exposed at the surface as a consequence of human induced soil erosion which is

  13. Satellite passive microwave remote sensing for estimating diurnal variation of leaf water content, as a proxy of evapotranspiration, in the Dry Chaco Forest, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barraza Bernadas, V.; Grings, F.; Ferrazzoli, P.; Carbajo, A.; Fernandez, R.; Karszenbaum, H.

    2012-12-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) is a key component of water cycle, which is strongly linked with environmental condition and vegetation functioning. Since it is very difficult to robustly estimate it from remote sensing data at regional scale it is usually inferred from other proxies using water balance. This work describes a procedure to estimate ET in a dry forest by monitoring diurnal variation of leaf water content (LWC), using multitemporal passive microwave remote sensing observations. Hourly observations provide the opportunity to monitor repetitive diurnal variations of passive microwave observations, which can only be accounted by changes in LWC (which is itself related to water vapor that enters to the atmosphere from land surface). To this end, we calculated the vegetation frequency index (FI) as FI= 2*(TBKa-TBX)/ ((TBKa +TBX)), where TBKa and TBX indicate brightness temperatures at 37 and 10.6 GHz respectively. There is both theoretical and experimental evidence that link this index to microwave to LWC. The index was computed for vertical polarization, because it presents higher correlation with vegetation state. At diurnal temporal scale, changes in LWC are commonly very small. Nevertheless, it was previously shown that passive remote sensing data (FI computed using Ku and Ka bands) acquired at different hours can be used to estimate the seasonal changes in ET. In this work, we present a procedure based on the hourly changes of FI, which are interpreted as changes in LWC. In order to present a quantitative estimation, the discrete forest model described in (Ferrazzoli and Guerriero, 1996) has been used to simulate the variations of FI with LWC. To illustrate the procedure, AMSR-E and WINDSAT data from 2007-2009 at X and Ka bands were used, and up to four observations per day at four different local times (2.30 am, 7.00 am, 2.30 pm and 7.00 pm) were analyzed. The region addressed is the area of the Dry Chaco forest located in Bermejo River Basin in Argentina

  14. Active and passive microwave measurements in Hurricane Allen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delnore, V. E.; Bahn, G. S.; Grantham, W. L.; Harrington, R. F.; Jones, W. L.

    1985-01-01

    The NASA Langley Research Center analysis of the airborne microwave remote sensing measurements of Hurricane Allen obtained on August 5 and 8, 1980 is summarized. The instruments were the C-band stepped frequency microwave radiometer and the Ku-band airborne microwave scatterometer. They were carried aboard a NOAA aircraft making storm penetrations at an altitude of 3000 m and are sensitive to rain rate, surface wind speed, and surface wind vector. The wind speed is calculated from the increase in antenna brightness temperature above the estimated calm sea value. The rain rate is obtained from the difference between antenna temperature increases measured at two frequencies, and wind vector is determined from the sea surface normalized radar cross section measured at several azimuths. Comparison wind data were provided from the inertial navigation systems aboard both the C-130 aircraft at 3000 m and a second NOAA aircraft (a P-3) operating between 500 and 1500 m. Comparison rain rate data were obtained with a rain radar aboard the P-3. Evaluation of the surface winds obtained with the two microwave instruments was limited to comparisons with each other and with the flight level winds. Two important conclusions are drawn from these comparisons: (1) the radiometer is accurate when predicting flight level wind speeds and rain; and (2) the scatterometer produces well behaved and consistent wind vectors for the rain free periods.

  15. Windshear detection and avoidance - Airborne systems survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowles, Roland L.

    1990-01-01

    Functional requirements for airborne windshear detection and warning systems are discussed in terms of the threat posed to civil aircraft operations. A preliminary set of performance criteria for predictive windshear detection and warning systems is defined. Candidate airborne remote sensor technologies based on microwave Doppler radar, Doppler laser radar (lidar), and infrared radiometric techniques are discussed in the context of overall system requirements, and the performance of each sensor is assessed for representative microburst environments and ground clutter conditions. Preliminary simulation results demonstrate that all three sensors show potential for detecting windshear, and provide adequate warning time to allow flight crews to avoid the affected area or escape from the encounter. Radar simulation and analysis show that by using bin-to-bin automatic gain control, clutter filtering, limited detection range, and suitable antenna tilt management, windshear from wet microbursts can be accurately detected. Although a performance improvement can be obtained at higher radar frequency, the baseline X-band system also detected the presence of windshear hazard for a dry microburst. Simulation results of end-to-end performance for competing coherent lidar systems are presented.

  16. Microwave remote sensing of rain-on-snow events in the subarctic with AMSR2 and GPM observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brucker, L.; Munchak, S. J.

    2014-12-01

    Climate change in high northern latitudes is predicted to be greater in winter than in summer, and to have increasing, widespread impacts in northern ecosystems. Some of the resulting unknowns are the effects of an increasing frequency of sudden, short-lasting winter warming events, which can lead to rain on snow (ROS). Very little is known about ROS in northern regions, and even less about its cumulative impact on surface energy balance, permafrost, snow melt, and hydrological processes. Since, wintertime warming events have become more frequent in sub-Arctic regions, ROS event characteristics (frequency, extent, and duration) may represent new and relevant climate indicators. However, ROS event detection is challenging.In this presentation, we propose new approaches to monitor the occurrence of ROS events using satellite passive and active microwave sensors. Specifically, we utilize observations from Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 (AMSR2), Global Precipitation Measurements (GPM) Microwave Imager (GMI), and GPM Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR). GPM was launched in February, 2014. It operates multiple radiometers (in the frequency range 10 - 183 GHz), and two radars (Ku and Ka bands). GPM observations are used to quantify rainfall or snowfall rates and are thus appropriate to monitor ROS events up to 66° North.Our satellite monitoring of the ROS event is based on both temporal and spectral variations in the satellite observations. We discuss the observed ROS radiometric signatures using a Multi-Layer microwave emission model based on the Dense Media Radiative Transfer theory (DMRT-ML). In addition, our monitoring is evaluated against atmospheric reanalysis from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) ERA-Interim, and NASA Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA). This initial evaluation in winter months shows that the proposed ROS detection using microwave sensors occur in areas that are shown

  17. Application of NASA's modern era retrospective-analysis in Global Wetlands Mappings Derived from Coarse-Resolution Satellite Microwave Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröder, R.; McDonald, K. C.; Podest, E.; Jones, L. A.; Kimball, J. S.; Pinto, N.; Zimmermann, R.; Küppers, M.

    2011-12-01

    The sensitivity of Earth's wetlands to observed shifts in global precipitation and temperature patterns and their ability to produce large quantities of methane gas are key global change questions. Global methane emissions are typically estimated via process-based models calibrated to individual wetland sites. Regardless of the complexity of these process-based models, accurate geographical distribution and seasonality of recent global wetland extent are typically not accounted for in such an approach, which may explain the large variations in estimated global methane emissions as well as the significant interannual variations in the observed atmospheric growth rate of methane. Spatially comprehensive ground observation networks of large-scale inundation patterns are very sparse because they require large fiscal, technological and human resources. Satellite remote sensing of global inundation dynamics thus can support the ability for a complete synoptic view of past and current inundation dynamics over large areas that otherwise could not be assessed. Coarse-resolution (~25km) satellite data from passive and active microwave instruments are well suited for the global observation of large-scale inundation patterns because they are primarily sensitive to the associated dielectric properties of the landscape and cover large areas within a relatively short amount of time (up to daily repeat in high latitudes). This study summarizes a new remote sensing technique for quantifying global daily surface water fractions based on combined passive-active microwave remote sensing data sets from the AMSR-E and QuikSCAT instruments over a 7 year period (July 2002 - July 2009). We apply these data with ancillary land cover maps from MODIS to: 1) define the potential global domain of surface water impacted land; 2) establish land cover driven predictive equations for implementing a dynamic mixture model adjusted to total column water vapor obtained from NASA's modern era

  18. Spaceborne microwave remote sensing of seasonal freeze-thaw processes in theterrestrial high l atitudes : relationships with land-atmosphere CO2 exchange

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDonald, Kyle C.; Kimball, John S.; Zhao, Maosheng; Njoku, Eni; Zimmermann, Reiner; Running, Steven W.

    2004-01-01

    Landscape transitions between seasonally frozen and thawed conditions occur each year over roughly 50 million square kilometers of Earth's Northern Hemisphere. These relatively abrupt transitions represent the closest analog to a biospheric and hydrologic on/off switch existing in nature, affecting surface meteorological conditions, ecological trace gas dynamics, energy exchange and hydrologic activity profoundly. We utilize time series satellite-borne microwave remote sensing measurements from the Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) to examine spatial and temporal variability in seasonal freeze/thaw cycles for the pan-Arctic basin and Alaska. Regional measurements of spring thaw timing are derived using daily brightness temperature measurements from the 19 GHz, horizontally polarized channel, separately for overpasses with 6 AM and 6 PM equatorial crossing times. Spatial and temporal patterns in regional freeze/thaw dynamics show distinct differences between North America and Eurasia, and boreal forest and Arctic tundra biomes. Annual anomalies in the timing of thawing in spring also correspond closely to seasonal atmospheric CO2 concentration anomalies derived from NOAA CMDL arctic and subarctic monitoring stations. Classification differences between AM and PM overpass data average approximately 5 days for the region, though both appear to be effective surrogates for monitoring annual growing seasons at high latitudes.

  19. Spaceborne Microwave Remote Sensing of Seasonal Freeze-Thaw Processes in the Terrestrial High Latitudes: Relationships with Land-Atmosphere CO2 exchange

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDonald, Kyle C.; Kimball, John S.; Zhao, Maosheng; Njoku, Eni; Zimmermann, Reiner; Running, Steven W.

    2004-01-01

    Landscape transitions between seasonally frozen and thawed conditions occur each year over roughly 50 million square kilometers of Earth's Northern Hemisphere. These relatively abrupt transitions represent the closest analog to a biospheric and hydrologic on/off switch existing in nature, affecting surface meteorological conditions, ecological trace gas dynamics, energy exchange and hydrologic activity profoundly. We utilize time series satellite-borne microwave remote sensing measurements from the Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) to examine spatial and temporal variability in seasonal freeze/thaw cycles for the pan-Arctic basin and Alaska. Regional measurements of spring thaw timing are derived using daily brightness temperature measurements from the 19 GHz, horizontally polarized channel, separately for overpasses with 6 AM and 6 PM equatorial crossing times. Spatial and temporal patterns in regional freeze/thaw dynamics show distinct differences between North America and Eurasia, and boreal forest and Arctic tundra biomes. Annual anomalies in the timing of thawing in spring also correspond closely to seasonal atmospheric CO2 concentration anomalies derived from NOAA CMDL arctic and subarctic monitoring stations. Classification differences between AM and PM overpass data average approximately 5 days for the region, though both appear to be effective surrogates for monitoring annual growing seasons at high latitudes.

  20. Airborne gamma radiation measurements of soil moisture during FIFE: Activities and results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peck, Eugene L.

    1992-01-01

    Soil moisture measurements were obtained during the summer of 1987 and 1989 near Manhattan, Kansas, using the National Weather Service (NWS) airborne gamma radiation system. A network of 24 flight lines were established over the research area. Airborne surveys were flown daily during two intensive field campaigns. The data collected was sufficient to modify the NWS standard operational method for estimating soil moisture for the Field Experiment (FIFE) flight lines. The average root mean square error of the soil moisture estimates for shorter FIFE flight lines was found to be 2.5 percent, compared with a reported value of 3.9 percent for NWS flight lines. Techniques were developed to compute soil moisture estimates for portions of the flight lines. Results of comparisons of the airborne gamma radiation soil moisture estimates with those obtained using the NASA Pushbroom Microwave Radiation (PBMR) system and hydrological model are presented. The airborne soil moisture measurements, and real averages computed using all remotely sensed and ground data, have been in support of the research of the many FIFE investigators whose overall goal was the upscale integration of models and the application of satellite remote sensing.

  1. Comparisons of remotely sensed and model-simulated soil moisture over a heterogeneous watershed

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, D.S.; Wood, E.F. . Dept. of Civil Engineering and Operations Research); Troch, P.A. . Lab. of Hydrology and Water Management); Mancini, M. ); Jackson, T.J. . ARS Hydrology Lab.)

    1994-05-01

    Soil moisture estimates from a distributed hydrologic model and two microwave airborne sensors (Push Broom Microwave Radiometer and Synthetic Aperture Radar) are compared with ground measurements on two different scales, using data collected during afield experiment over a 7.4-km[sup 2] heterogeneous watershed located in central Pennsylvania. It is found that both microwave sensors and the hydrologic model successfully reflect the temporal variation of soil moisture. Watershed-averaged soil moistures estimated by the microwave sensors are in good agreement with ground measurements. The hydrologic model initialized by streamflow records yields estimates that are wetter than observations. The preliminary test of utilizing remotely sensed information as a feedback to correct the initial state of the hydrologic model shows promising results.

  2. An Airborne Conical Scanning Millimeter-Wave Imaging Radiometer (CoSMIR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piepmeier, J.; Racette, P.; Wang, J.; Crites, A.; Doiron, T.; Engler, C.; Lecha, J.; Powers, M.; Simon, E.; Triesky, M.; Krebs, Carolyn A. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    An airborne Conical Scanning Millimeter-wave Imaging Radiometer (CoSMIR) for high-altitude observations from the NASA Research Aircraft (ER-2) is discussed. The primary application of the CoSMIR is water vapor profile remote sensing. Four radiometers operating at 50 (three channels), 92, 150, and 183 (three channels) GHz provide spectral coverage identical to nine of the Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder (SSMIS) high-frequency channels. Constant polarization-basis conical and cross-track scanning capabilities are achieved using an elevation-under-azimuth two-axis gimbals.

  3. Microwave emissions from snow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, A. T. C.

    1984-01-01

    The radiation emitted from dry and wet snowpack in the microwave region (1 to 100 GHz) is discussed and related to ground observations. Results from theoretical model calculations match the brightness temperatures obtained by truck mounted, airborne and spaceborne microwave sensor systems. Snow wetness and internal layer structure complicate the snow parameter retrieval algorithm. Further understanding of electromagnetic interaction with snowpack may eventually provide a technique to probe the internal snow properties

  4. Retrieval techniques and information content analysis to improve remote sensing of atmospheric water vapor, liquid water and temperature from ground-based microwave radiometer measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahoo, Swaroop

    Observation of profiles of temperature, humidity and winds with sufficient accuracy and fine vertical and temporal resolution are needed to improve mesoscale weather prediction, track conditions in the lower to mid-troposphere, predict winds for renewable energy, inform the public of severe weather and improve transportation safety. In comparing these thermodynamic variables, the absolute atmospheric temperature varies only by 15%; in contrast, total water vapor may change by up to 50% over several hours. In addition, numerical weather prediction (NWP) models are initialized using water vapor profile information, so improvements in their accuracy and resolution tend to improve the accuracy of NWP. Current water vapor profile observation systems are expensive and have insufficient spatial coverage to observe humidity in the lower to mid-troposphere. To address this important scientific need, the principal objective of this dissertation is to improve the accuracy, vertical resolution and revisit time of tropospheric water vapor profiles retrieved from microwave and millimeter-wave brightness temperature measurements. This dissertation advances the state of knowledge of retrieval of atmospheric water vapor from microwave brightness temperature measurements. It focuses on optimizing two information sources of interest for water vapor profile retrieval, i.e. independent measurements and background data set size. From a theoretical perspective, it determines sets of frequencies in the ranges of 20-23, 85-90 and 165-200 GHz that are optimal for water vapor retrieval from each of ground-based and airborne radiometers. The maximum number of degrees of freedom for the selected frequencies for ground-based radiometers is 5-6, while the optimum vertical resolution is 0.5 to 1.5 km. On the other hand, the maximum number of degrees of freedom for airborne radiometers is 8-9, while the optimum vertical resolution is 0.2 to 0.5 km. From an experimental perspective, brightness

  5. Diurnal variations of stratospheric ozone measured by ground-based microwave remote sensing at the Mauna Loa NDACC site: measurement validation and GEOSCCM model comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parrish, A.; Boyd, I. S.; Nedoluha, G. E.; Bhartia, P. K.; Frith, S. M.; Kramarova, N. A.; Connor, B. J.; Bodeker, G. E.; Froidevaux, L.; Shiotani, M.; Sakazaki, T.

    2014-07-01

    There is presently renewed interest in diurnal variations of stratospheric and mesospheric ozone for the purpose of supporting homogenization of records of various ozone measurements that are limited by the technique employed to being made at certain times of day. We have made such measurements for 19 years using a passive microwave remote sensing technique at the Mauna Loa Observatory (MLO) in Hawaii, which is a primary station in the Network for Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC). We have recently reprocessed these data with hourly time resolution to study diurnal variations. We inspected differences between pairs of the ozone spectra (e.g., day and night) from which the ozone profiles are derived to determine the extent to which they may be contaminated by diurnally varying systematic instrumental or measurement effects. These are small, and we have reduced them further by selecting data that meet certain criteria that we established. We have calculated differences between profiles measured at different times: morning-night, afternoon-night, and morning-afternoon and have intercompared these with like profiles derived from the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (Aura-MLS), the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite Microwave Limb Sounder (UARS-MLS), the Superconducting Submillimeter-Wave Limb-Emission Sounder (SMILES), and Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet version 2 (SBUV/2) measurements. Differences between averages of coincident profiles are typically < 1.5% of typical nighttime values over most of the covered altitude range with some exceptions. We calculated averages of ozone values for each hour from the Mauna Loa microwave data, and normalized these to the average for the first hour after midnight for comparison with corresponding values calculated with the Goddard Earth Observing System Chemistry Climate Model (GEOSCCM). We found that the measurements and model output mostly agree to better than 1.5% of the midnight value, with one noteworthy exception

  6. International Symposium on Remote Sensing of Environment, 12th, Manila, Philippines, April 20-26, 1978, Proceedings. Volumes 1, 2 & 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The papers outline the remote sensing activities being carried out in a number of countries throughout the world, and present details on a variety of individual projects. Topics studied include a worldwide approach to remote sensing and mineral exploration, a land use information system based on statistical inference, acoustic radar and remote sensing in the boundary layer, procedure for land-use analysis in developing countries, an airborne geochemical system, remote sensing of snowpack with microwave radiometers for hydrologic applications, wheat production forecasts based on Landsat data, airborne lidar aerosol measurements over the U.S. and Europe, Landsat inventory of agricultural and forest resources in Bangladesh, application of satellite imagery to flood plain mapping in Thailand, and vegetation mapping of Nigeria from radar.

  7. Ground-Based Passive Microwave Remote Sensing Observations of Soil Moisture at S and L Band with Insight into Measurement Accuracy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laymon, Charles A.; Crosson, William L.; Jackson, Thomas J.; Manu, Andrew; Tsegaye, Teferi D.; Soman, V.; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Accurate estimates of spatially heterogeneous algorithm variables and parameters are required in determining the spatial distribution of soil moisture using radiometer data from aircraft and satellites. A ground-based experiment in passive microwave remote sensing of soil moisture was conducted in Huntsville, Alabama from July 1-14, 1996 to study retrieval algorithms and their sensitivity to variable and parameter specification. With high temporal frequency observations at S and L band, we were able to observe large scale moisture changes following irrigation and rainfall events, as well as diurnal behavior of surface moisture among three plots, one bare, one covered with short grass and another covered with alfalfa. The L band emitting depth was determined to be on the order of 0-3 or 0-5 cm below 0.30 cubic centimeter/cubic centimeter with an indication of a shallower emitting depth at higher moisture values. Surface moisture behavior was less apparent on the vegetated plots than it was on the bare plot because there was less moisture gradient and because of difficulty in determining vegetation water content and estimating the vegetation b parameter. Discrepancies between remotely sensed and gravimetric, soil moisture estimates on the vegetated plots point to an incomplete understanding of the requirements needed to correct for the effects of vegetation attenuation. Quantifying the uncertainty in moisture estimates is vital if applications are to utilize remotely-sensed soil moisture data. Computations based only on the real part of the complex dielectric constant and/or an alternative dielectric mixing model contribute a relatively insignificant amount of uncertainty to estimates of soil moisture. Rather, the retrieval algorithm is much more sensitive to soil properties, surface roughness and biomass.

  8. Wearable microwave radiometers for remote fire detection: System-on-Chip (SoC) design and proof of the concept.

    PubMed

    Tasselli, G; Alimenti, F; Fonte, A; Zito, D; Roselli, L; De Rossi, D; Lanatà, A; Neri, B; Tognetti, A

    2008-01-01

    The paper reports the present status of the project aimed at the realization of a wearable low-cost low-power System-on-Chip (SoC) 13-GHz passive microwave radiometer in CMOS 90 nm technology. This sensor has been thought to be inserted into the firemen jacket in order to help them in the detection of a hidden fire behind a door or a wall, especially where the IR technology fail. With respect of the prior art, the SoC is further developed and a proof of the concept is provided by means of a discrete-component prototype. PMID:19162822

  9. Analytical study of the cruise performance of a class of remotely piloted, microwave-powered, high-altitude airplane platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, C. E. K., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Each cycle of the flight profile consists of climb while the vehicle is tracked and powered by a microwave beam, followed by gliding flight back to a minimum altitude. Parameter variations were used to define the effects of changes in the characteristics of the airplane aerodynamics, the power transmission systems, the propulsion system, and winds. Results show that wind effects limit the reduction of wing loading and increase the lift coefficient, two effective ways to obtain longer range and endurance for each flight cycle. Calculated climb performance showed strong sensitivity to some power and propulsion parameters. A simplified method of computing gliding endurance was developed.

  10. Investigation of temporal-spatial parameters of an urban heat island on the basis of passive microwave remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaikine, M. N.; Kuznetsova, I. N.; Kadygrov, E. N.; Miller, E. A.

    2006-02-01

    Quantitative measurements of the impact of an urban environment on the thermal state of the atmospheric boundary layer are presented. Temperature profiles up to the height of 600 m were obtained in a continuous series of measurements by three microwave profilers MTP-5 located in different areas of Moscow. The influence of this large city on urban heat island (UHI) parameters was estimated on occasions with stationary atmospheric processes and during cases with frontal passage. Two types of UHI were identified: one with a dome of urban warmth at all levels, and another with a low warm dome in combination with a lens of cold air above.

  11. Characterization of Inundated Wetlands with Microwave Remote Sensing: Cross-Product Comparison for Uncertainty Assessment in Tropical Wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, K. C.; Jensen, K.; Alvarez, J.; Azarderakhsh, M.; Schroeder, R.; Podest, E.; Chapman, B. D.; Zimmermann, R.

    2015-12-01

    We have been assembling a global-scale Earth System Data Record (ESDR) of natural Inundated Wetlands to facilitate investigations on their role in climate, biogeochemistry, hydrology, and biodiversity. The ESDR comprises (1) Fine-resolution (100 meter) maps, delineating wetland extent, vegetation type, and seasonal inundation dynamics for regional to continental-scale areas, and (2) global coarse-resolution (~25 km), multi-temporal mappings of inundated area fraction (Fw) across multiple years. During March 2013, the NASA/JPL L-band polarimetric airborne imaging radar, UAVSAR, conducted airborne studies over regions of South America including portions of the western Amazon basin. We collected UAVSAR datasets over regions of the Amazon basin during that time to support systematic analyses of error sources related to the Inundated Wetlands ESDR. UAVSAR datasets were collected over Pacaya Samiria, Peru, Madre de Dios, Peru, and the Napo River in Ecuador. We derive landcover classifications from the UAVSAR datasets emphasizing wetlands regions, identifying regions of open water and inundated vegetation. We compare the UAVSAR-based datasets with those comprising the ESDR to assess uncertainty associated with the high resolution and the coarse resolution ESDR components. Our goal is to create an enhanced ESDR of inundated wetlands with statistically robust uncertainty estimates. The ESDR documentation will include a detailed breakdown of error sources and associated uncertainties within the data record. This work was carried out in part within the framework of the ALOS Kyoto & Carbon Initiative. PALSAR data were provided by JAXA/EORC and the Alaska Satellite Facility. Portions of this work were conducted at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under contract to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  12. Ocean experiments and remotely sensed images of chemically dispersed oil spills

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Croswell, W. F.; Fedors, J. C.; Hoge, F. E.; Swift, R. N.; Johnson, J. C.

    1983-01-01

    A series of experiments was performed at sea where the effectiveness of dispersants applied from a helicopter was tested on fresh and weathered crude oils released from a surface research vessel. In conjunction with these experiments, remote sensing measurements using an array of airborne optical and microwave sensors were performed in order to aid in the interpretation of the dispersant effectiveness and to obtain quantitative images of oil on the sea under controlled conditions. Surface oil thickness and volume are inferred from airborne measurements using a dual-channel microwave imaging radiometer, aerial color photography, and an airborne oceanographic lidar. The remotely sensed measurements are compared with point sampled data obtained using a research vessel. The mass balance computations of surface versus subsurface oil volume using remotely sensed and point sampled data are consistent with each other and with the volumes of oil released. Data collected by the several techniques concur in indicating that, for the oils used and under the sea conditions encountered, the dispersant and application method are primarily useful when applied to fresh oil.

  13. Using high-resolution soil moisture modelling to assess the uncertainty of microwave remotely sensed soil moisture products at the correct spatial and temporal support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wanders, N.; Karssenberg, D.; Bierkens, M. F. P.; Van Dam, J. C.; De Jong, S. M.

    2012-04-01

    Soil moisture is a key variable in the hydrological cycle and important in hydrological modelling. When assimilating soil moisture into flood forecasting models, the improvement of forecasting skills depends on the ability to accurately estimate the spatial and temporal patterns of soil moisture content throughout the river basin. Space-borne remote sensing may provide this information with a high temporal and spatial resolution and with a global coverage. Currently three microwave soil moisture products are available: AMSR-E, ASCAT and SMOS. The quality of these satellite-based products is often assessed by comparing them with in-situ observations of soil moisture. This comparison is however hampered by the difference in spatial and temporal support (i.e., resolution, scale), because the spatial resolution of microwave satellites is rather low compared to in-situ field measurements. Thus, the aim of this study is to derive a method to assess the uncertainty of microwave satellite soil moisture products at the correct spatial support. To overcome the difference in support size between in-situ soil moisture observations and remote sensed soil moisture, we used a stochastic, distributed unsaturated zone model (SWAP, van Dam (2000)) that is upscaled to the support of different satellite products. A detailed assessment of the SWAP model uncertainty is included to ensure that the uncertainty in satellite soil moisture is not overestimated due to an underestimation of the model uncertainty. We simulated unsaturated water flow up to a depth of 1.5m with a vertical resolution of 1 to 10 cm and on a horizontal grid of 1 km2 for the period Jan 2010 - Jun 2011. The SWAP model was first calibrated and validated on in-situ data of the REMEDHUS soil moisture network (Spain). Next, to evaluate the satellite products, the model was run for areas in the proximity of 79 meteorological stations in Spain, where model results were aggregated to the correct support of the satellite

  14. A Melting Layer Model for Passive/Active Microwave Remote Sensing Applications. Part 1; Model Formulation and Comparison with Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, William S.; Bauer, Peter; Viltard, Nicolas F.; Johnson, Daniel E.; Tao, Wei-Kuo

    2000-01-01

    In this study, a 1-D steady-state microphysical model which describes the vertical distribution of melting precipitation particles is developed. The model is driven by the ice-phase precipitation distributions just above the freezing level at applicable gridpoints of "parent" 3-D cloud-resolving model (CRM) simulations. It extends these simulations by providing the number density and meltwater fraction of each particle in finely separated size categories through the melting layer. The depth of the modeled melting layer is primarily determined by the initial material density of the ice-phase precipitation. The radiative properties of melting precipitation at microwave frequencies are calculated based upon different methods for describing the dielectric properties of mixed phase particles. Particle absorption and scattering efficiencies at the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Microwave Imager frequencies (10.65 to 85.5 GHz) are enhanced greatly for relatively small (approx. 0.1) meltwater fractions. The relatively large number of partially-melted particles just below the freezing level in stratiform regions leads to significant microwave absorption, well-exceeding the absorption by rain at the base of the melting layer. Calculated precipitation backscatter efficiencies at the Precipitation Radar frequency (13.8 GHz) increase in proportion to the particle meltwater fraction, leading to a "bright-band" of enhanced radar reflectivities in agreement with previous studies. The radiative properties of the melting layer are determined by the choice of dielectric models and the initial water contents and material densities of the "seeding" ice-phase precipitation particles. Simulated melting layer profiles based upon snow described by the Fabry-Szyrmer core-shell dielectric model and graupel described by the Maxwell-Garnett water matrix dielectric model lead to reasonable agreement with radar-derived melting layer optical depth distributions. Moreover, control profiles

  15. Investigation of atmospheric boundary layer temperature, turbulence, and wind parameters on the basis of passive microwave remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadygrov, Evgeny N.; Shur, Genrih N.; Viazankin, Anton S.

    2003-06-01

    The MTP-5, a microwave temperature profiler, has been widely used since 1991 for investigation of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). The MTP-5 is an angular scanning single-channel instrument with a central frequency of about 60 GHz, designed to provide continuous, unattended observations. It can measure the thermal emission of the atmosphere with high sensitivity (0.03 K at 1 s integration time) from different zenith angles. On the basis of this measurement, it is possible to retrieve temperature profiles at the altitude range up to 600 m, to calculate wind speed and wind direction at the lowest 250 m, and to get information about some parameters of atmospheric turbulence. This report presents some applications of the MTP-5 instrument data collected in 1998-2001 within a number of international field projects: the dynamics of ABL temperature inversion in a mountain valley (Mesoscale Alpine Program (MAP)), as well as along an island coast (north part of Sakhalin Island, Russia-Japan Project); continuous measurements of the ABL temperature profile provided from a special scientific train that crossed the territory of Russia (the Transcontinental Observations of the Chemistry of the Atmosphere Project (TROICA)); and simultaneous measurements of the ABL temperature profile provided over the central and northern part of Moscow in a continuous mode (the Global Urban Research Meteorology and Environment Project (GURME)). In 1999, two MTP-5 instruments were installed on a platform that was rotating in the azimuth direction at the 310 m Obninsk Meteorological Research Tower (Meteo Tower) to validate the method and microwave equipment for measurement of wind speed and wind direction and investigation of atmospheric turbulence. Spectral analyses of the integrated signal provided an opportunity to estimate the inertial subrange low-frequency limit and its height dependence for thermal turbulence at the lowest 200 m layer. Wavelet analysis of the signal made it possible to

  16. Diurnal variations of stratospheric ozone measured by ground-based microwave remote sensing at the Mauna Loa NDACC site: measurement validation and GEOSCCM model comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parrish, A.; Boyd, I. S.; Nedoluha, G. E.; Bhartia, P. K.; Frith, S. M.; Kramarova, N. A.; Connor, B. J.; Bodeker, G. E.; Froidevaux, L.; Shiotani, M.; Sakazaki, T.

    2013-12-01

    There is presently renewed interest in diurnal variations of stratospheric and mesospheric ozone for the purpose of supporting homogenization of records of various ozone measurements that are limited by the technique employed to being made at certain times of day. We have made such measurements for 18 yr using a passive microwave remote sensing technique at the Mauna Loa Observatory in Hawaii, which is a primary station in the Network for Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC). We have recently reprocessed these data with hourly time resolution to study diurnal variations. We inspected differences between pairs of the ozone spectra (e.g. day and night) from which the ozone profiles are derived to determine the extent to which they may be contaminated by diurnally varying systematic instrumental or measurement effects. These are small, and we have reduced them further by selecting data that meet certain criteria that we established. We have calculated differences between profiles measured at different times: morning-night, afternoon-night, and morning-afternoon and have intercompared these with like profiles derived from Aura-MLS, UARS-MLS, SMILES, and SBUV/2 measurements. Differences between averages of coincident profiles are typically <1.5% of typical nightime values over most of the covered altitude range with some exceptions. We calculated averages of ozone values for each hour from the Mauna Loa microwave data, and normalized these to the average for the first hour after midnight for comparison with corresponding values calculated with the Goddard Earth Observing System Chemistry Climate Model (GEOSCCM). We found that the measurements and model output mostly agree to better than 1.5% of the midnight value, with one noteworthy exception: the measured morning-night values are significantly (2-3%) higher than the modeled ones from 3.2 to 1.8 hPa (~39-43 km), and there is evidence that the measured values are increasing compared to the modeled values

  17. Mapping UK snow accumulation using satellite passive microwave and visible-infrared remote sensing observations: two case studies from 2009 and 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Richard

    2010-05-01

    In February 2009, an unusually significant snow storm deposited considerable amounts of snow in the UK for the first time in several years. A more persistent event deposited larger amounts of snow between December 2009 and January 2010; during this time snow cover duration exceeded a month in some locations and on 7 January, England Scotland and Wales were almost completely covered in snow as observed by NASA's Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Such widespread snow cover has not been observed since 1963 and 1979. Information about snow quantity and distribution in the UK is sparse and while some official observations are made, most observations are made through community-based observers or via more esoteric online social networks. Furthermore, daily snow accumulation maps are not easily obtainable for the UK. Coupled with unusually cold temperatures which began in mid December, these case studies provide an excellent opportunity to re-evaluate the role of satellite passive microwave observations for estimating snow water equivalent in the UK. Satellite remote sensing observations were obtained for the two snow event periods. MODIS observations are used to determine the location of the snow when cloud does not obscure the field of view. Passive microwave observations from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer - EOS (AMSR-E) are used to estimate SWE. In the first instance, AMSR-E estimates from the standard NASA algorithm are tested. On account of the documented radio frequency interference at 10 GHz the estimates are deemed unsuitable. A re-configured algorithm is developed at the native sampling resolution (10 km in along and across track) projected to a UTM grid. The re-configured approach to estimate SWE uses 18, 23 36 and 89GHz channels (vertical and horizontal polarization) and uses a frequency ratio approach, rather than difference, to minimize the physical temperature effect on brightness temperatures at 18, 36 and 89 GHz. It also

  18. Investigation of airborne lidar for avoidance of windshear hazards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Targ, Russell; Bowles, Roland L.

    1988-01-01

    The present generalized windshear hazard index is formulated in terms of wind conditions at the given aircraft position and of remotely-sensed information obtained along the extended flight path. Overall system functional requirements are addressed by comparing microwave Doppler radar, Doppler lidar, and IR radiometry candidate techniques, giving attention to airborne CO2 and Ho:YAG lidar windshear-detection systems; these furnish pilots with data on the line-of-sight component of windshear threats over as much as 1-3 km, for a warning time of 15-45 sec. While the technology for a 10.6-micron, CO2 laser-based lidar is available, additional development is required for 2-micron, Ho:YAG laser-based systems.

  19. MAPIR: An Airborne Polarmetric Imaging Radiometer in Support of Hydrologic Satellite Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laymon, C.; Al-Hamdan, M.; Crosson, W.; Limaye, A.; McCracken, J.; Meyer, P.; Richeson, J.; Sims, W.; Srinivasan, K.; Varnevas, K.

    2010-01-01

    In this age of dwindling water resources and increasing demands, accurate estimation of water balance components at every scale is more critical to end users than ever before. Several near-term Earth science satellite missions are aimed at global hydrologic observations. The Marshall Airborne Polarimetric Imaging Radiometer (MAPIR) is a dual beam, dual angle polarimetric, scanning L band passive microwave radiometer system developed by the Observing Microwave Emissions for Geophysical Applications (OMEGA) team at MSFC to support algorithm development and validation efforts in support of these missions. MAPIR observes naturally-emitted radiation from the ground primarily for remote sensing of land surface brightness temperature from which we can retrieve soil moisture and possibly surface or water temperature and ocean salinity. MAPIR has achieved Technical Readiness Level 6 with flight heritage on two very different aircraft, the NASA P-3B, and a Piper Navajo.

  20. Land cover/use classification of Cairns, Queensland, Australia: A remote sensing study involving the conjunctive use of the airborne imaging spectrometer, the large format camera and the thematic mapper simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heric, Matthew; Cox, William; Gordon, Daniel K.

    1987-01-01

    In an attempt to improve the land cover/use classification accuracy obtainable from remotely sensed multispectral imagery, Airborne Imaging Spectrometer-1 (AIS-1) images were analyzed in conjunction with Thematic Mapper Simulator (NS001) Large Format Camera color infrared photography and black and white aerial photography. Specific portions of the combined data set were registered and used for classification. Following this procedure, the resulting derived data was tested using an overall accuracy assessment method. Precise photogrammetric 2D-3D-2D geometric modeling techniques is not the basis for this study. Instead, the discussion exposes resultant spectral findings from the image-to-image registrations. Problems associated with the AIS-1 TMS integration are considered, and useful applications of the imagery combination are presented. More advanced methodologies for imagery integration are needed if multisystem data sets are to be utilized fully. Nevertheless, research, described herein, provides a formulation for future Earth Observation Station related multisensor studies.

  1. The Western Airborne Contaminant Assessment Project (WACAP): An interdisciplinary evaluation of the impacts of airborne contaminants in Western U.S. National Parks

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Western Airborne Contaminants Assessment Project (WACAP) was initiated in 2002 by the National Park Service to determine if airborne contaminants were having an impact on remote western ecosystems. Multiple sample media (snow, water, sediment, fish and terrestrial vegetation...

  2. Rough surface effects on active and passive microwave remote sensing of soil moisture at L-band using 3D fast solution of Maxwell's equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Haogang; Liao, Tien-Hao; Shi, Jiancheng; Yu, Zherui

    2014-11-01

    The forthcoming Water Cycle Observation Mission (WCOM) is to understand the water cycle system among land, atmosphere, and ocean. In both active and passive microwave remote sensing of soil moisture, the surface roughness plays an important role. Electromagnetic models of roughness provide tables of emissivities and backscattering coefficients that can be used to retrieve soil moisture. In this paper, a fast and accurate three dimensional solution of Maxwell's equations is developed and employed to solve rough soil surface scattering problem at L-band. The algorithm combines QR Pre-Ranked Multilevel UV(MLUV) factorization and Hierarchical Fast Far Field Approximation. It is implemented using OpenMP interface for fast parallel calculation. In this algorithm, 1) QR based rank predetermined algorithm is derived to further compress the UV matrix pairs obtained using coarse-coarse sampling; 2) at the finer levels, MLUV is used straightforwardly to factorize the interactions between groups, while at the coarsest level, interactions between groups in the interaction list are calculated using an elegantly derived Hierarchical Fast Far Field Approximation (HFAFFA) to accelerate the calculation of interactions between large groups while keeping the accuracy of this approximation; 3) OpenMP interface is used to parallelize this new algorithm. Numerical results including the incoherent bistatic scattering coefficients and the emissivity demonstrate the efficiency of this method.

  3. Comparison between Neural Network and Fuzzy Logic system for Soil Moisture Estimation using Microwave Remote Sensing Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakhankar, T. Y.; Ghedira, H.; Khanbilvardi, R. M.

    2004-12-01

    Artificial neural networks and Fuzzy logic have been applied to a wide range of problems in several disciplines. They have been successfully applied to image processing, and have shown a great potential in the classification of remote sensing data. However, a successful application of these methods in remote sensing data classification requires a good comprehension of the effect of their internal parameters and especially those that are related to the algorithm structure and to the training process. In this work we report the application of backpropagation neural network and fuzzy logic in estimating the soil moisture level using Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data. The potential of SAR images in spatial soil moisture estimation depends on the ability of these algorithms to define the complex relationship that exists between the backscattered energy and the moisture content of the soil. A study area located in Oklahoma (97d35'W, 36d15'N) has been chosen for this project. Several textural measures derived from Radarsat-1 images acquired in Scansar Mode during the summer of 1997 were used as input for two algorithms. The soil moisture data measured by ESTAR Instrument (Electronically Scanned Thinned Array Radiometer) during the SGP97 campaign (operated by NASA) were used as truth data in the training process. The effect of some parameters related to the training process on classification performance was investigated for both methods. The preliminary results showed that for neural networks, the variations of the number of hidden layers and the number of nodes by layer have no significant effect on classification accuracy. However, the retained threshold value used in the output layer affects significantly the overall classification. Concerning, the fuzzy logic algorithm, the preliminary results showed that the cluster radius selection have a significant effect on classification accuracy.

  4. A Melting Layer Model for Passive/Active Microwave Remote Sensing Applications. Part 2; Simulation of TRMM Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, William S.; Bauer, Peter; Kummerow, Christian D.; Tao, Wei-Kuo

    2000-01-01

    The one-dimensional, steady-state melting layer model developed in Part I of this study is used to calculate both the microphysical and radiative properties of melting precipitation, based upon the computed concentrations of snow and graupel just above the freezing level at applicable horizontal gridpoints of 3-dimensional cloud resolving model simulations. The modified 3-dimensional distributions of precipitation properties serve as input to radiative transfer calculations of upwelling radiances and radar extinction/reflectivities at the TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI) and Precipitation Radar (PR) frequencies, respectively. At the resolution of the cloud resolving model grids (approx. 1 km), upwelling radiances generally increase if mixed-phase precipitation is included in the model atmosphere. The magnitude of the increase depends upon the optical thickness of the cloud and precipitation, as well as the scattering characteristics of ice-phase precipitation aloft. Over the set of cloud resolving model simulations utilized in this study, maximum radiance increases of 43, 28, 18, and 10 K are simulated at 10.65, 19.35 GHz, 37.0, and 85.5 GHz, respectively. The impact of melting on TMI-measured radiances is determined not only by the physics of the melting particles but also by the horizontal extent of the melting precipitation, since the lower-frequency channels have footprints that extend over 10''s of kilometers. At TMI resolution, the maximum radiance increases are 16, 15, 12, and 9 K at the same frequencies. Simulated PR extinction and reflectivities in the melting layer can increase dramatically if mixed-phase precipitation is included, a result consistent with previous studies. Maximum increases of 0.46 (-2 dB) in extinction optical depth and 5 dBZ in reflectivity are simulated based upon the set of cloud resolving model simulations.

  5. RF/microwave system high-fidelity modeling and simulation: application to airborne multi-channel receiver system for angle of arrival estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chen; Rajan, Sreeraman; Young, Anne; O'Regan, Christina

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, a high-fidelity RF modeling and simulation framework is demonstrated to model an airborne multi-channel receiver system that is used to estimate the angle of arrival (AoA) of received signals from a stationary emitter. The framework is based on System Tool Kit (STK®), Matlab and SystemVue®. The SystemVue-based multi-channel receiver estimates the AoA of incoming signals using adjacent channel amplitude and phase comparisons, and it estimates the Doppler frequency shift of the aircraft by processing the transmitted and received signals. The estimated AoA and Doppler frequency are compared with the ground-truth data provided by STK to validate the efficacy of the modeling process. Unlike other current RF electronic warfare simulation frameworks, the received signal described herein is formed using the received power, the propagation delay and the transmitted waveform, and does not require information such as Doppler frequency shift or radial velocity of the moving platform from the scenario; hence, the simulation is more computationally efficient. In addition, to further reduce the overall modeling and simulation time, since the high-fidelity model computation is costly, the high-fidelity electronic system model is evoked only when the received power is higher than a predetermined threshold.

  6. Spatiotemporal analysis of soil moisture in using active and passive remotely sensed data and ground observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, H.; Fang, B.; Lakshmi, V.

    2015-12-01

    Abstract: Soil moisture plays a vital role in ecosystem, biological processes, climate, weather and agriculture. The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) improves data by combining the advantages and avoiding the limitation of passive microwave remote sensing (low resolution), and active microwave (challenge of soil moisture retrieval). This study will advance the knowledge of the application of soil moisture by using the Soil Moisture Active Passive Validation Experiment 2012 (SMAPVEX12) data as well as data collected at Walnut Gulch Arizona in August 2015 during SMAPVEX15. Specifically, we will analyze the 5m radar data from Unmanned Airborne Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR) to study spatial variability within the PALS radiometer pixel. SMAPVEX12/15 and SMAP data will also be analyzed to evaluate disaggregation algorithms. The analytical findings will provide valuable information for policy-makers to initiate and adjust protocols and regulations for protecting land resources and improving environmental conditions. Keywords: soil moisture, Remote Sensing (RS), spatial statistic

  7. Remote Sensing of Aerosol Backscatter and Earth Surface Targets By Use of An Airborne Focused Continuous Wave CO2 Doppler Lidar Over Western North America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jarzembski, Maurice A.; Srivastava, Vandana; Goodman, H. Michael (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Airborne lidar systems are used to determine wind velocity and to measure aerosol or cloud backscatter variability. Atmospheric aerosols, being affected by local and regional sources, show tremendous variability. Continuous wave (cw) lidar can obtain detailed aerosol loading with unprecedented high resolution (3 sec) and sensitivity (1 mg/cubic meter) as was done during the 1995 NASA Multi-center Airborne Coherent Atmospheric Wind Sensor (MACAWS) mission over western North America and the Pacific Ocean. Backscatter variability was measured at a 9.1 micron wavelength cw focused CO2 Doppler lidar for approximately 52 flight hours, covering an equivalent horizontal distance of approximately 30,000 km in the troposphere. Some quasi-vertical backscatter profiles were also obtained during various ascents and descents at altitudes that ranged from approximately 0.1 to 12 km. Similarities and differences for aerosol loading over land and ocean were observed. Mid-tropospheric aerosol backscatter background mode was approximately 6 x 10(exp -11)/ms/r, consistent with previous lidar datasets. While these atmospheric measurements were made, the lidar also retrieved a distinct backscatter signal from the Earth's surface from the unfocused part of the focused cw lidar beam during aircraft rolls. Atmospheric backscatter can be highly variable both spatially and temporally, whereas, Earth-surface backscatter is relatively much less variant and can be quite predictable. Therefore, routine atmospheric backscatter measurements by an airborne lidar also give Earth surface backscatter which can allow for investigating the Earth terrain. In the case where the Earth's surface backscatter is coming from a well-known and fairly uniform region, then it can potentially offer lidar calibration opportunities during flight. These Earth surface measurements over varying Californian terrain during the mission were compared with laboratory backscatter measurements using the same lidar of various

  8. Remote sensing observations of daytime column NO sub 2 during the Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment, August 22 to October 2, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Wahner, A.; Jakoubek, R.O.; Mount, G.H.; Ravishankara, A.R.; Schmeltekopf, A.L. )

    1989-11-30

    A sensitive absorption spectrograph was flown on the NASA DC-8 aircraft as part of the 1987 Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment to measure column abundances of O{sub 3}, NO{sub 2}, OClO, and BrO inside the Antarctic polar vortex. The instrument functioned successfully on all flights. Slant column NO{sub 2} measurements were made every 300 s whenever light levels permitted observation with an absolute accuracy better than 20% and with a detection limit of 3.4 {times} 10{sup 15} cm{sup {minus}2} slant column. These measurements are presented and compared with TOMS total ozone along the flight track.

  9. Environmental Public Health Survelliance for Exposure to Respiratory Health Hazards: A Joint NASA/CDC Project to Use Remote Sensing Data for Estimating Airborne Particulate Matter Over the Atlanta, Georgia Metropolitan Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Rickman, Douglas; Mohammad, Al-Hamdan; Crosson, William; Estes, Maurice, Jr.; Limaye, Ashutosh; Qualters, Judith

    2008-01-01

    Describes the public health surveillance efforts of NASA, in a joint effort with the Center for Disease Control (CDC). NASA/MSFC and the CDC are partners in linking nvironmental and health data to enhance public health surveillance. The use of NASA technology creates value - added geospatial products from existing environmental data sources to facilitate public health linkages. The venture sought to provide remote sensing data for the 5-country Metro-Atlanta area and to integrate this environmental data with public health data into a local network, in an effort to prevent and control environmentally related health effects. Remote sensing data used environmental data (Environmental Protection Agency [EPA] Air Quality System [AQS] ground measurements and MODIS Aerosol Optical Depth [AOD]) to estimate airborne particulate matter over Atlanta, and linked this data with health data related to asthma. The study proved the feasibility of linking environmental data (MODIS particular matter estimates and AQS) with health data (asthma). Algorithms were developed for QC, bias removal, merging MODIS and AQS particulate matter data, as well as for other applications. Additionally, a Business Associate Agreement was negotiated for a health care provider to enable sharing of Protected Health Information.

  10. Effect of microphysics scheme in cloud resolving models in passive microwave remote sensing of precipitation over ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ju-Hye; Shin, Dong-Bin; Kummerow, Christian

    2014-05-01

    Physically-based rainfall retrievals from passive microwave sensors often make use of cloud resolving models (CRMs) to build a-priori databases of potential rain structures. Each CRM, however, has its own assumptions on the cloud microphysics. Hence, approximated microphysics may cause uncertainties in the a-priori information resulting in inaccurate rainfall estimates. This study first builds a-priori databases by combining the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Precipitation Radar (PR) observations and simulations from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model with six different cloud microphysics schemes. The microphysics schemes include the Purdue Lin (LIN), WRF-Single-Moment 6 (WSM6), Goddard Cumulus Ensemble (GCE), Thompson (THOM), WRF-Double-Moment 6 (WDM6), and Morrison (MORR) schemes. As expected, the characteristics of the a-priori databases are inherited from the individual cloud microphysics schemes. There are several distinct differences in the databases. Particularly, excessive graupel and snow exist with the LIN and THOM schemes, while more rainwater is incorporated into the a-priori information with WDM6 than with any of the other schemes. Major results show that convective rainfall regions are not well captured by the LIN and THOM schemes-based retrievals with correlations of 0.56 and 0.73. Rainfall distributions and their quantities retrieved from the WSM6 and WDM6 schemes-based estimations, however, show relatively better agreement with the PR observations with correlations of 0.79 and 0.81, respectively. Based on the comparisons of the various microphysics schemes in the retrievals, it appears that differences in the a-priori databases considerably affect the properties of rainfall estimations. This study also includes the discrepancy of estimated rain rate from passive radiometer and active radar for two rainfall systems of different cloud microphysics near the Yellow Sea. The first case have high cloud top (HCT) with large ice

  11. AIRBORNE CONTAMINANTS IN WESTERN NORTH AMERICAN NATIONAL PARKS--WHAT WE KNOW AND WANT TO LEARN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Park Service initiated the Western Airborne Contaminants Assessment Project (WACAP) in 2002 to determine if airborne contaminants from regional or distant sources have an impact on remote (typically high elevation) western ecosystems, including Alaska. Eight Nationa...

  12. Airborne Demonstration of Microwave and Wide-Band Millimeter-Wave Radiometers to Provide High-Resolution Wet-Tropospheric Path Delay Corrections for Coastal and Inland Water Altimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reising, Steven; Kangaslahti, Pekka; Tanner, Alan; Padmanabhan, Sharmila; Montes, Oliver; Parashare, Chaitali; Bosch-Lluis, Xavier; Hadel, Victoria; Johnson, Thaddeus; Brown, Shannon; Khayatian, Behrouz; Dawson, Douglas; Gaier, Todd; Razavi, Behzad

    2014-05-01

    Current satellite ocean altimeters include nadir-viewing, co-located 18-34 GHz microwave radiometers to measure wet-tropospheric path delay. Due to the size of the surface instantaneous fields of view (IFOV) at these frequencies, the accuracy of wet path retrievals is substantially degraded near coastlines, and retrievals are not provided over land. Retrievals are flagged as not useful within approximately 40 km of the world's coastlines. A viable approach to improve their capability is to add wide-band high-frequency millimeter-wave window channels in the 90-180 GHz band, thereby achieving finer spatial resolution for a limited antenna size. In this context, the upcoming NASA/CNES/CSA Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission is in formulation and planned for launch in late 2020. The primary objectives of SWOT are to characterize ocean mesoscale and sub-mesoscale processes on 10-km and larger scales in the global oceans and provide measurements of the global water storage in inland surface water bodies and the flow rate of rivers. Therefore, an important new science objective of SWOT is to transition satellite altimetry from the open ocean into the coastal zone and over inland water. The addition of 90-180 GHz millimeter-wave window-channel radiometers to current Jason-class 18-34 GHz radiometers is expected to improve retrievals of wet-tropospheric delay in coastal areas and to enhance the potential for over-land retrievals. In 2012 the Ocean Surface Topography Science Team Meeting recommended to add high-frequency millimeter-wave radiometers to the Jason Continuity of Service (CS) mission. To reduce the risks of wet-tropospheric path delay measurement over coastal areas and inland water bodies, we have designed, developed and fabricated a new airborne radiometer, combining three high-frequency millimeter-wave window channels at 90, 130 and 168 GHz, along with Jason-series microwave channels at 18.7, 23.8 and 34.0 GHz, and validation channels sounding

  13. Airborne laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamberson, Steven E.

    2002-06-01

    The US Air Force Airborne Laser (ABL) is an airborne, megawatt-class laser system with a state-of-the-art atmospheric compensation system to destroy enemy ballistic missiles at long ranges. This system will provide both deterrence and defense against the use of such weapons during conflicts. This paper provides an overview of the ABL weapon system including: the notional operational concept, the development approach and schedule, the overall aircraft configuration, the technologies being incorporated in the ABL, and the risk reduction approach being utilized to ensure program success.

  14. Snow depth retrieval algorithm of saline-alkali land in the western Jilin Province of China using passive microwave remote sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Mingbo; Gu, Lingjia; Ren, Ruizhi; Fu, Haoyang

    2015-09-01

    The western region of Jilin Province is an important part of fragile ecological environment in Northeast China where the soil salinization problem is particularly obvious. Meanwhile, it belongs to a typical snow-covered area and has a northerly continental monsoon climate, with long, cold winters and short, warm summers. It has one single large snowfall period of six month. Therefore, in this paper, the western Jilin Province was selected as the study area and divided into five land surface types including water bodies, grassland, farmland, slight saline-alkali land, moderate and severe saline-alkali land. Furthermore, the two snow depth retrieval algorithms of Chang algorithm and FY3B operational retrieval algorithm were validated and analyzed by using FY-3B/MWRI passive microwave remote sensing data. The main research focused on the analysis of the snow depth covered on the other four different land surface types except water bodies. Based on the five years' observation data from 2011 to 2015, the changes of snow depth on the four land surface types were analyzed and compared with that of MODIS 09A1 snow cover data. The analysis results demonstrated that the snow depth in farmland type is greater than that in grassland type. In addition, the snow depth in slight saline-alkali land type is greater than that in the moderate and severe saline-alkali land type. The study results also showed that the snow depth of Chang's algorithm is more accurate than that of FY3B operational retrieval algorithm in the study area. This research provided important information to the research of snow depth in saline-alkali land area.

  15. Separability of agricultural crops with airborne scatterometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, N. C.

    1983-01-01

    Backscattering measurements were acquired with airborne scatterometers over a site in Cass County, North Dakota on four days in the 1981 crop growing season. Data were acquired at three frequencies (L-, C- and Ku-bands), two polarizations (like and cross) and ten incidence angles (5 degrees to 50 degrees in 5 degree steps). Crop separability is studied in an hierarchical fashion. A two-class separability measure is defined, which compares within-class to between-class variability, to determine crop separability. The scatterometer channels with the best potential for crop separability are determined, based on this separability measure. Higher frequencies are more useful for discriminating small grains, while lower frequencies tend to separate non-small grains better. Some crops are more separable when row direction is taken into account. The effect of pixel purity is to increase the separability between all crops while not changing the order of useful scatterometer channels. Crude estimates of separability errors are calculated based on these analyses. These results are useful in selecting the parameters of active microwave systems in agricultural remote sensing.

  16. Thermal remote sensing from Airborne Hyperspectral Scanner data in the framework of the SPARC and SEN2FLEX projects: an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobrino, J. A.; Jiménez-Muñoz, J. C.; Zarco-Tejada, P. J.; Sepulcre-Cantó, G.; de Miguel, E.; Sòria, G.; Romaguera, M.; Julien, Y.; Cuenca, J.; Hidalgo, V.; Franch, B.; Mattar, C.; Morales, L.; Gillespie, A.; Sabol, D.; Balick, L.; Su, Z.; Jia, L.; Gieske, A.; Timmermans, W.; Olioso, A.; Nerry, F.; Guanter, L.; Moreno, J.; Shen, Q.

    2009-06-01

    The AHS (Airborne Hyperspectral Scanner) instrument has 80 spectral bands covering the visible and near infrared (VNIR), short wave infrared (SWIR), mid infrared (MIR) and thermal infrared (TIR) spectral range. The instrument is operated by Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aerospacial (INTA), and it has been involved in several field campaigns since 2004. This paper presents an overview of the work performed with the AHS thermal imagery provided in the framework of the SPARC and SEN2FLEX campaigns, carried out respectively in 2004 and 2005 over an agricultural area in Spain. The data collected in both campaigns allowed for the first time the development and testing of algorithms for land surface temperature and emissivity retrieval as well as the estimation of evapotranspiration from AHS data. Errors were found to be around 1.5 K for land surface temperature and 1 mm/day for evapotranspiration.

  17. Thermal remote sensing from Airborne Hyperspectral Scanner data in the framework of the SPARC and SEN2FLEX projects: an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobrino, J. A.; Jiménez-Muñoz, J. C.; Zarco-Tejada, P. J.; Sepulcre-Cantó, G.; de Miguel, E.; Sòria, G.; Romaguera, M.; Julien, Y.; Cuenca, J.; Hidalgo, V.; Franch, B.; Mattar, C.; Morales, L.; Gillespie, A.; Sabol, D.; Balick, L.; Su, Z.; Jia, L.; Gieske, A.; Timmermans, W.; Olioso, A.; Nerry, F.; Guanter, L.; Moreno, J.; Shen, Q.

    2009-11-01

    The AHS (Airborne Hyperspectral Scanner) instrument has 80 spectral bands covering the visible and near infrared (VNIR), short wave infrared (SWIR), mid infrared (MIR) and thermal infrared (TIR) spectral range. The instrument is operated by Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aerospacial (INTA), and