Science.gov

Sample records for airborne microwave remote

  1. Remote monitoring of soil moisture using airborne microwave radiometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kroll, C. L.

    1973-01-01

    The current status of microwave radiometry is provided. The fundamentals of the microwave radiometer are reviewed with particular reference to airborne operations, and the interpretative procedures normally used for the modeling of the apparent temperature are presented. Airborne microwave radiometer measurements were made over selected flight lines in Chickasha, Oklahoma and Weslaco, Texas. Extensive ground measurements of soil moisture were made in support of the aircraft mission over the two locations. In addition, laboratory determination of the complex permittivities of soil samples taken from the flight lines were made with varying moisture contents. The data were analyzed to determine the degree of correlation between measured apparent temperatures and soil moisture content.

  2. The NASA Airborne Earth Science Microwave Imaging Radiometer (AESMIR): A New Sensor for Earth Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Edward

    2003-01-01

    The Airborne Earth Science Microwave Imaging Radiometer (AESMIR) is a versatile new airborne imaging radiometer recently developed by NASA. The AESMIR design is unique in that it performs dual-polarized imaging at all standard passive microwave frequency bands (6-89 GHz) using only one sensor headscanner package, providing an efficient solution for Earth remote sensing applications (snow, soil moisture/land parameters, precipitation, ocean winds, sea surface temperature, water vapor, sea ice, etc.). The microwave radiometers themselves will incorporate state-of-the-art receivers, with particular attention given to instrument calibration for the best possible accuracy and sensitivity. The single-package design of AESMIR makes it compatible with high-altitude aircraft platforms such as the NASA ER-2s. The arbitrary 2-axis gimbal can perform conical and cross-track scanning, as well as fixed-beam staring. This compatibility with high-altitude platforms coupled with the flexible scanning configuration, opens up previously unavailable science opportunities for convection/precip/cloud science and co-flying with complementary instruments, as well as providing wider swath coverage for all science applications. By designing AESMIR to be compatible with these high-altitude platforms, we are also compatible with the NASA P-3, the NASA DC-8, C-130s and ground-based deployments. Thus AESMIR can provide low-, mid-, and high- altitude microwave imaging. Parallel filter banks allow AESMIR to simultaneously simulate the exact passbands of multiple satellite radiometers: SSM/I, TMI, AMSR, Windsat, SSMI/S, and the upcoming GPM/GMI and NPOESS/CMIS instruments --a unique capability among aircraft radiometers. An L-band option is also under development, again using the same scanner. With this option, simultaneous imaging from 1.4 to 89 GHz will be feasible. And, all receivers except the sounding channels will be configured for 4-Stokes polarimetric operation using high-speed digital

  3. High altitude airborne remote sensing mission using the advanced microwave precipitation radiometer (AMPR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galliano, J.; Platt, R. H.; Spencer, Roy; Hood, Robbie

    1991-01-01

    The advanced microwave precipitation radiometer (AMPR) is an airborne multichannel imaging radiometer used to better understand how the earth's climate structure works. Airborne data results from the October 1990 Florida thunderstorm mission in Jacksonville, FL, are described. AMPR data on atmospheric precipitation in mesoscale storms were retrieved at 10.7, 19.35, 37.1, and 85.5 GHz onboard the ER-2 aircraft at an altitude of 20 km. AMPR's three higher-frequency data channels were selected to operate at the same frequencies as the spaceborne special sensor microwave/imager (SSM/I) presently in orbit. AMPR uses two antennas to receive the four frequencies: the lowest frequency channel uses a 9.7-in aperture lens antennas, while the three higher-frequency channels share a separate 5.3-in aperture lens antenna. The radiometer's temperature resolution performance is summarized.

  4. Monitoring marine pollution by airborne remote sensing techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Yuanfu, S.; Quanan, Z.

    1982-06-01

    In order to monitor marine pollution by airborne remote sensing techniques, some comprehensive test of airborne remote sensing, involving monitoring marine oil pollution, were performed at several bay areas of China. This paper presents some typical results of monitoring marine oil pollution. The features associated with the EM spectrum (visible, thermal infrared, and microwave) response of marine oil spills is briefly analyzed. It has been verified that the airborne oil surveillance systems manifested their advantages for monitoring the oil pollution of bay environments.

  5. Microwave remote sensing of hydrologic parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulaby, F. T.

    1977-01-01

    A perspective on the implementation of microwave sensors in future airborne and spaceborne observations of hydrologic parameters is presented. The rationale is based on a review of the status and future trends of active (radar) and passive (radiometer) microwave research as applied to the remote sensing of soil moisture content, snowpack water equivalent, freeze/thaw boundaries, lake ice thickness, surface water area, and the specification of watershed runoff coefficients. Analyses and observations based on data acquired from ground based, airborne and spaceborne platforms, and an evaluation of advantages and limitations of microwave sensors are included.

  6. Airborne Microwave Imaging of River Velocities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plant, William J.

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this project was to determine whether airborne microwave remote sensing systems can measure river surface currents with sufficient accuracy to make them prospective instruments with which to monitor river flow from space. The approach was to fly a coherent airborne microwave Doppler radar, developed by APL/UW, on a light airplane along several rivers in western Washington state over an extended period of time. The fundamental quantity obtained by this system to measure river currents is the mean offset of the Doppler spectrum. Since this scatter can be obtained from interferometric synthetic aperture radars (INSARs), which can be flown in space, this project provided a cost effective means for determining the suitability of spaceborne INSAR for measuring river flow.

  7. Microwave remote sensing of soil moisture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiue, J. C.; Wang, J. R.

    1988-01-01

    Knowledge of soil moisture is important to many disciplines, such as agriculture, hydrology, and meteorology. Soil moisture distribution of vast regions can be measured efficiently only with remote sensing techniques from airborne or satellite platforms. At low microwave frequencies, water has a much larger dielectric constant than dry soil. This difference manifests itself in surface emissivity (or reflectivity) change between dry and wet soils, and can be measured by a microwave radiometer or radar. The Microwave Sensors and Data Communications Branch is developing microwave remote sensing techniques using both radar and radiometry, but primarily with microwave radiometry. The efforts in these areas range from developing algorithms for data interpretation to conducting feasibility studies for space systems, with a primary goal of developing a microwave radiometer for soil moisture measurement from satellites, such as EOS or the Space Station. These efforts are listed.

  8. Applications of airborne remote sensing in atmospheric sciences research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Serafin, R. J.; Szejwach, G.; Phillips, B. B.

    1984-01-01

    This paper explores the potential for airborne remote sensing for atmospheric sciences research. Passive and active techniques from the microwave to visible bands are discussed. It is concluded that technology has progressed sufficiently in several areas that the time is right to develop and operate new remote sensing instruments for use by the community of atmospheric scientists as general purpose tools. Promising candidates include Doppler radar and lidar, infrared short range radiometry, and microwave radiometry.

  9. Airborne Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    NASA imaging technology has provided the basis for a commercial agricultural reconnaissance service. AG-RECON furnishes information from airborne sensors, aerial photographs and satellite and ground databases to farmers, foresters, geologists, etc. This service produces color "maps" of Earth conditions, which enable clients to detect crop color changes or temperature changes that may indicate fire damage or pest stress problems.

  10. Airborne Hyperspectral Remote Sensing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-07

    conducted studies of the sediments, seagrass and corals . The objective is to correlate the hyperspectral imagery with the detailed in-situ measurements...seagrass and coral reefs (Mazel, 1998). In addition to the basic science there is a directed effort in remote sensing for seafloor imaging and...area includes different bottom types – coral , sand, seagrass – sometimes within the same local area, at a variety of depths. Most of the region is quite

  11. A model of the 1.6 GHz scatterometer. [performance of airborne scatterometer used as microwave remote sensor of soil moisture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, J. R.

    1977-01-01

    The performance was studied of the 1.6 GHz airborne scatterometer system which is used as one of several Johnson Space Center (JSC) microwave remote sensors to detect moisture content of soil. The system is analyzed with respect to its antenna pattern and coupling, the signal flow in the receiver data channels, and the errors in the signal outputs. The operational principle and the sensitivity of the system, as well as data handling are also described. The finite cross-polarized gains of all four 1.6 GHz scatterometer antennae are found to have profound influence on the cross-polarized backscattered signal returns. If these signals are not analyzed properly, large errors could result in the estimate of the cross-polarized coefficient. It is also found necessary to make corrections to the variations of the aircraft parameters during data reduction in order to minimize the error in the coefficient estimate. Finally, a few recommendations are made to improve the overall performance of the scatterometer system.

  12. Airborne microwave radiometric imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Wei; Li, Futang; Zhang, Zuyin

    1999-09-01

    A dual channel Airborne Microwave Radiometric Imaging system (AMRI) was designed and constructed for regional environment mapping. The system operates at 35GHz, which collects radiation at horizontal and vertical polarized channels. It runs at mechanical conical scanning with 45 degrees incidence angle. Two Cassegrain antennas with 1.5 degrees beamwidth scan the scene alternately and two pseudo- color images of two channels are displayed on the screen of PC in real time. Simultaneously, all parameters of flight and radiometric data are sorted in hard disk for post- processing. The sensitivity of the radiometer (Delta) T equals 0.16K. A new displaying method, unequal size element arc displaying method, is used in image displaying. Several experiments on mobile tower were carried out and the images demonstrate that the AMRI is available to work steadily and accurately.

  13. Airborne microwave radiometric imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Wei; Zhang, Zuyin; Chen, Zhengwen

    1998-08-01

    A dual channel Airborne Microwave Radiometric Imaging system (AMRI) was designed and constructed for regional environment mapping. The system operates at 35GHz, which collects radiation at horizontal and vertical polarized. It runs at mechanical conical scanning with 45 degrees incidence angle. Two Cassegrain antennas with 1.5 degrees 3 dB beamwidth scan the scene alternately and two pseudo-color images of two channels are displayed on the screen of PC in real time. Simultaneously all parameters of flight and radiometric data are stored in hard disk for postprocessing. The sensitivity of the radiometers of flight and radiometric data are stored in hard disk for postprocessing. The sensitivity of the radiometers (Delta) T equals 0.16K. A new display method, unequal size element arc displaying method, is used in image displaying. Several experiments on mobile tower were carried out and the images demonstrate the AMRI is available to work steadily and accurately.

  14. Technology transfer of NASA microwave remote sensing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akey, N. D.

    1981-01-01

    Viable techniques for effecting the transfer from NASA to a user agency of state-of-the-art airborne microwave remote sensing technology for oceanographic applications were studied. A detailed analysis of potential users, their needs and priorities; platform options; airborne microwave instrument candidates; ancillary instrumentation; and other, less obvious factors that must be considered were studied. Conclusions and recommendations for the development of an orderly and effective technology transfer of an airborne microwave system that could meet the specific needs of the selected user agencies are reported.

  15. Using Airborne Microwave Remotely Sensed Root-Zone Soil Moisture and Flux Measurements to Improve Regional Predictions of Carbon Fluxes in a Terrestrial Biosphere Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, K.; Antonarakis, A. S.; Medvigy, D.; Burgin, M. S.; Crow, W. T.; Milak, S.; Jaruwatanadilok, S.; Truong-Loi, M.; Moghaddam, M.; Saatchi, S. S.; Cuenca, R. H.; Moorcroft, P. R.

    2013-12-01

    North American ecosystems are critical components of the global carbon cycle, exchanging large amounts of carbon dioxide and other gases with the atmosphere. Net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of CO2 between atmosphere and ecosystems quantifies these carbon fluxes, but current continental-scale estimates contain high levels of uncertainty. Root-zone soil moisture (RZSM) and its spatial and temporal heterogeneity influences NEE and improved estimates can help reduce uncertainty in NEE estimates. We used the RZSM measurements from the Airborne Microwave Observatory of Subcanopy and Subsurface (AirMOSS) mission, and the carbon, water and energy fluxes observed by the eddy-covariance flux towers to constrain the Ecosystem Demography Model 2.2 (ED2.2) to improve its predictions of carbon fluxes. The parameters of the ED2.2 model were first optimized at seven flux tower sites in North America, which represent six different biomes, by constraining the model against a suite of flux measurements and forest inventory measurements through a Bayesian Markov-Chain Monte Carlo framework. We further applied the AirMOSS RZSM products to constrain the ED2.2 model to achieve better estimates of regional NEE. Evaluation against flux tower measurements and forest dynamics measurements shows that the constrained ED2.2 model produces improved predictions of monthly to annual carbon fluxes. The remote sensing based RZSM can further help improve the spatial patterns and temporal variations of model NEE. The results demonstrate that model-data fusion can substantially improve model performance and highlight the important role of RZSM in regulating the spatial and temporal heterogeneities of carbon fluxes.

  16. Instrument description of the airborne microwave temperature profiler

    SciTech Connect

    Denning, R.F.; Guidero, S.L.; Parks, G.S.; Gary, B.L. )

    1989-11-30

    The microwave temperature profiler (MTP) is a passive microwave radiometer installed in the NASA ER-2 aircraft and used to measure profiles of air temperature versus altitude. It operates at 57.3 and 58.8 GHz, where oxygen molecules emit thermal radiation. Brightness temperature is measured at a selection of viewing elevation angles every 14 s. MTP was the only remote sensing experiment aboard the ER-2 during the Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment. This paper describes hardware, calibration, and performance aspects of the MTP.

  17. Instrument description of the airborne microwave temperature profiler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denning, Richard F.; Guidero, Steven L.; Parks, Gary S.; Gary, Bruce L.

    1989-01-01

    The microwave temperature profiler (MTP) is a passive microwave radiometer installed in the NASA ER-2 aircraft and used to measure profiles of air temperature versus altitude. It operates at 57.3 and 58.8 GHz, where oxygen molecules emit thermal radiation. Brightness temperature is measured at a selection of viewing elevation angles every 14 s. MTP was the only remote sensing experiment aboard the ER-2 during the Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment. This paper describes hardware, calibration, and performance aspects of the MTP.

  18. Airborne thermography or infrared remote sensing.

    PubMed

    Goillot, C C

    1975-01-01

    Airborne thermography is part of the more general remote sensing activity. The instruments suitable for image display are infrared line scanners. A great deal of interest has developed during the past 10 years in airborne thermal remote sensing and many applications are in progress. Infrared scanners on board a satellite are used for observation of cloud cover; airborne infrared scanners are used for forest fire detection, heat budget of soils, detecting insect attack, diseases, air pollution damage, water stress, salinity stress on vegetation, only to cite some main applications relevant to agronomy. Using this system it has become possible to get a 'picture' of our thermal environment.

  19. Airborne microwave radiometric data analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Results from the 1.5 cm, 19.35 GHz electrical scanning microwave radiometer which was once of the instruments used during the 1971 flight over Imperial Valley, California; Phoenix, Arizona; and Weslaco, Texas.

  20. Microwave remote sensing of flood inundation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schumann, Guy J.-P.; Moller, Delwyn K.

    Flooding is one of the most costly natural disasters and thus mapping, modeling and forecasting flood events at various temporal and spatial scales is important for any flood risk mitigation plan, disaster relief services and the global (re-)insurance markets. Both computer models and observations (ground-based, airborne and Earth-orbiting) of flood processes and variables are of great value but the amount and quality of information available varies greatly with location, spatial scales and time. It is very well known that remote sensing of flooding, especially in the microwave region of the electromagnetic spectrum, can complement ground-based observations and be integrated with flood models to augment the amount of information available to end-users, decision-makers and scientists. This paper aims to provide a concise review of both the science and applications of microwave remote sensing of flood inundation, focusing mainly on synthetic aperture radar (SAR), in a variety of natural and man-made environments. Strengths and limitations are discussed and the paper will conclude with a brief account on perspectives and emerging technologies.

  1. AESMIR: A New NASA Airborne Microwave Imager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Edward J.; Hood, Robbie; Hildebrand, Peter H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Airborne Earth Science Microwave Imaging Radiometer (AESMIR) is a versatile new airborne imaging radiometer under development by NASA. The AESMIR design is unique in that it will perform dual-polarized imaging at all AMSR frequency bands (6.9 through 89 GHz) using only one sensor head/scanner package, providing an efficient solution for AMSR-type science applications (snow, soil moisture/land parameters, precip, ocean winds, SST, water vapor, sea ice, etc.). The microwave radiometers themselves will incorporate state-of-the-art receivers, with particular attention given to instrument calibration for the best possible accuracy and sensitivity. The single-package design of AESMIR makes it compatible with high-altitude aircraft platforms such as the NASA ER-2s and the Proteus. The arbitrary 2-axis gimbal can perform conical and cross-track scanning, as well as fixed-beam staring. This compatibility with high-altitude platforms coupled with the flexible scanning configuration, opens up previously unavailable science opportunities for convection/precip/cloud science and co-flying with complementary instruments, as well as providing wider swath coverage for all science applications. By designing AESMIR to be compatible with these high-altitude platforms, we are also compatible with the NASA P-3, the NASA DC-8, and ground-based deployments. Thus AESMIR can provide low-, mid-, and high altitude microwave imaging.

  2. Salinity surveys using an airborne microwave radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paris, J. F.; Droppleman, J. D.; Evans, D. E.

    1972-01-01

    The Barnes PRT-5 infrared radiometer and L-band channel of the multifrequency microwave radiometer are used to survey the distribution of surface water temperature and salinity. These remote sensors were flown repetitively in November 1971 over the outflow of the Mississippi River into the Gulf of Mexico. Data reduction parameters were determined through the use of flight data obtained over a known water area. With these parameters, the measured infrared and microwave radiances were analyzed in terms of the surface temperature and salinity.

  3. Microwave remote sensing of snowpack properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rango, A. (Editor)

    1980-01-01

    Topic concerning remote sensing capabilities for providing reliable snow cover data and measurement of snow water equivalents are discussed. Specific remote sensing technqiues discussed include those in the microwave region of the electromagnetic spectrum.

  4. Aperture synthesis concepts in microwave remote sensing of the earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swift, Calvin T.; Le Vine, David M.; Ruf, Christopher S.

    1991-01-01

    The application of aperture synthesis concepts, used for many years in radio astronomy to achieve high image resolution at a reasonable cost, to remote sensing technology is discussed. The electronically scanned thinned array radiometer (ESTAR) is put forward as a viable alternative to improve spatial resolution by an order of magnitude over what is presently achieved by microwave imaging systems that are collecting data from earth orbit. Future developments in airborne sensor technology and potential spacecraft application are described.

  5. Microwave remote sensing laboratory design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, E.

    1979-01-01

    Application of active and passive microwave remote sensing to the study of ocean pollution is discussed. Previous research efforts, both in the field and in the laboratory were surveyed to derive guidance for the design of a laboratory program of research. The essential issues include: choice of radar or radiometry as the observational technique; choice of laboratory or field as the research site; choice of operating frequency; tank sizes and material; techniques for wave generation and appropriate wavelength spectrum; methods for controlling and disposing of pollutants used in the research; and pollutants other than oil which could or should be studied.

  6. Passive microwave remote sensing of salinity in coastal zones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swift, Calvin T.; Blume, Hans-Juergen C.; Kendall, Bruce M.

    1987-01-01

    The theory of measuring coastal-zone salinity from airborne microwave radiometers is developed. The theory, as presented, shows that precision measurements of salinity favor the lower microwave frequencies. To this end, L- and S-Band systems were built, and the flight results have shown that accuracies of at least one part per thousand were achieved.The aircraft results focus on flights conducted over the Chesapeake Bay and the mouth of the Savanna River off the Georgia Coast. This paper presents no new work, but rather summarizes the capabilities of the remote sensing technique.

  7. NEON Airborne Remote Sensing of Terrestrial Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kampe, T. U.; Leisso, N.; Krause, K.; Karpowicz, B. M.

    2012-12-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is the continental-scale research platform that will collect information on ecosystems across the United States to advance our understanding and ability to forecast environmental change at the continental scale. One of NEON's observing systems, the Airborne Observation Platform (AOP), will fly an instrument suite consisting of a high-fidelity visible-to-shortwave infrared imaging spectrometer, a full waveform small footprint LiDAR, and a high-resolution digital camera on a low-altitude aircraft platform. NEON AOP is focused on acquiring data on several terrestrial Essential Climate Variables including bioclimate, biodiversity, biogeochemistry, and land use products. These variables are collected throughout a network of 60 sites across the Continental United States, Alaska, Hawaii and Puerto Rico via ground-based and airborne measurements. Airborne remote sensing plays a critical role by providing measurements at the scale of individual shrubs and larger plants over hundreds of square kilometers. The NEON AOP plays the role of bridging the spatial scales from that of individual organisms and stands to the scale of satellite-based remote sensing. NEON is building 3 airborne systems to facilitate the routine coverage of NEON sites and provide the capacity to respond to investigator requests for specific projects. The first NEON imaging spectrometer, a next-generation VSWIR instrument, was recently delivered to NEON by JPL. This instrument has been integrated with a small-footprint waveform LiDAR on the first NEON airborne platform (AOP-1). A series of AOP-1 test flights were conducted during the first year of NEON's construction phase. The goal of these flights was to test out instrument functionality and performance, exercise remote sensing collection protocols, and provide provisional data for algorithm and data product validation. These test flights focused the following questions: What is the optimal remote

  8. Retrieval of Atmospheric Temperature from Airborne Microwave Radiometer Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jian; Schreier, Franz; Kenntner, Mareike; Fix, Andreas; Trautmann, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    Atmospheric temperature is a key geophysical parameter associated with fields such as meteorology, climatology, or photochemistry. There exist several techniques to measure temperature profiles. In the case of microwave remote sensing, the vertical temperature profile can be estimated from thermal emission lines of molecular oxygen. The MTP (Microwave Temperature Profiler) instrument is an airborne radiometer developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), United States. The instrument passively measures natural thermal emission from oxygen lines at 3 frequencies and at a selection of 10 viewing angles (from near zenith to near nadir). MTP has participated in hundreds of flights, including on DLR's Falcon and HALO aircrafts. These flights have provided data of the vertical temperature distribution from the troposphere to the lower stratosphere with a good temporal and spatial resolution. In this work, we present temperature retrievals based on the Tikhonov-type regularized nonlinear least squares fitting method. In particular, Jacobians (i.e. temperature derivatives) are evaluated by means of automatic differentiation. The retrieval performance from the MTP measurements is analyzed by using synthetic data. Besides, the vertical sensitivity of the temperature retrieval is studied by weighting functions characterizing the sensitivity of the transmission at different frequencies with respect to changes of altitude levels.

  9. Enhancement of remote sensing through microwave technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cehelsky, M.; Kiebler, J.

    1980-01-01

    This overview begins with a brief look at remote sensing to date, focusing on the state of the art and the benefits that have been derived from it. Current and future microwave sensing developments are discussed pointing out special advantages and capabilities and noting the anticipated benefits. The frequency requirements of microwave sensing are outlined and the particular need to both allocate, and when necessary, protect active and passive operational sensing frequencies is emphasized.

  10. Microwave Remote Sensing of Falling Snow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Min-Jeong; Wang, J. R.; Meneghini, R.; Johnson, B.; Tanelli, S.; Roman-Nieves, J. I.; Sekelsky, S. M.; Skofronick-Jackson, G.

    2005-01-01

    This study analyzes passive and active microwave measurements during the 2003 Wakasa Bay field experiment for understanding of the electromagnetic characteristics of frozen hydrometeors at millimeter-wave frequencies. Based on these understandings, parameterizations of the electromagnetic scattering properties of snow at millimeter-wave frequencies are developed and applied to the hydrometeor profiles obtained by airborne radar measurements. Calculated brightness temperatures and radar reflectivity are compared with the millimeter-wave measurements.

  11. Low cost airborne microwave landing system receiver, task 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hager, J. B.; Vancleave, J. R.

    1979-01-01

    Work performed on the low cost airborne Microwave Landing System (MLS) receiver is summarized. A detailed description of the prototype low cost MLS receiver is presented. This detail includes block diagrams, schematics, board assembly drawings, photographs of subassemblies, mechanical construction, parts lists, and microprocessor software. Test procedures are described and results are presented.

  12. Passive Microwave Remote Sensing of Soil Moisture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Njoku, Eni G.; Entekhabi, Dara

    1996-01-01

    Microwave remote sensing provides a unique capability for direct observation of soil moisture. Remote measurements from space afford the possibility of obtaining frequent, global sampling of soil moisture over a large fraction of the Earth's land surface. Microwave measurements have the benefit of being largely unaffected by cloud cover and variable surface solar illumination, but accurate soil moisture estimates are limited to regions that have either bare soil or low to moderate amounts of vegetation cover. A particular advantage of passive microwave sensors is that in the absence of significant vegetation cover soil moisture is the dominant effect on the received signal. The spatial resolutions of passive Microwave soil moisture sensors currently considered for space operation are in the range 10-20 km. The most useful frequency range for soil moisture sensing is 1-5 GHz. System design considerations include optimum choice of frequencies, polarizations, and scanning configurations, based on trade-offs between requirements for high vegetation penetration capability, freedom from electromagnetic interference, manageable antenna size and complexity, and the requirement that a sufficient number of information channels be available to correct for perturbing geophysical effects. This paper outlines the basic principles of the passive microwave technique for soil moisture sensing, and reviews briefly the status of current retrieval methods. Particularly promising are methods for optimally assimilating passive microwave data into hydrologic models. Further studies are needed to investigate the effects on microwave observations of within-footprint spatial heterogeneity of vegetation cover and subsurface soil characteristics, and to assess the limitations imposed by heterogeneity on the retrievability of large-scale soil moisture information from remote observations.

  13. Microwave remote sensing of soil water content

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cihlar, J.; Ulaby, F. T.

    1975-01-01

    Microwave remote sensing of soils to determine water content was considered. A layered water balance model was developed for determining soil water content in the upper zone (top 30 cm), while soil moisture at greater depths and near the surface during the diurnal cycle was studied using experimental measurements. Soil temperature was investigated by means of a simulation model. Based on both models, moisture and temperature profiles of a hypothetical soil were generated and used to compute microwave soil parameters for a clear summer day. The results suggest that, (1) soil moisture in the upper zone can be predicted on a daily basis for 1 cm depth increments, (2) soil temperature presents no problem if surface temperature can be measured with infrared radiometers, and (3) the microwave response of a bare soil is determined primarily by the moisture at and near the surface. An algorithm is proposed for monitoring large areas which combines the water balance and microwave methods.

  14. Microwave remote sensing of snowpacks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stiles, W. H.; Ulaby, F. T.

    1980-01-01

    The interaction mechanisms responsible for the microwave backscattering and emission behavior of snow were investigated, and models were developed relating the backscattering coefficient (sigma) and apparent temperature (T) to the physical parameters of the snowpack. The microwave responses to snow wetness, snow water equivalent, snow surface roughness, and to diurnal variations were investigated. Snow wetness was shown to have an increasing effect with increasing frequency and angle of incidence for both active and passive cases. Increasing snow wetness was observed to decrease the magnitude sigma and increase T. Snow water equivalent was also observed to exhibit a significant influence sigma and T. Snow surface configuration (roughness) was observed to be significant only for wet snow surface conditions. Diurnal variations were as large as 15 dB for sigma at 35 GHz and 120 K for T at 37 GHz. Simple models for sigma and T of a snowpack scene were developed in terms of the most significant ground-truth parameters. The coefficients for these models were then evaluated; the fits to the sigma and T measurements were generally good. Finally, areas of needed additional observations were outlined and experiments were specified to further the understanding of the microwave-snowpack interaction mechanisms.

  15. Microwave remote sensing of the snow and ice cover: The Russian experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondratyev, K. Ya.; Melentyev, V. V.

    Microwave remote sensing techniques are useful for deriving properties of snow and ice. There has been substantial Russian research in developing such techniques, as well as their scientific application. The main centers of such activities are described, and results of fundamental research are summarized. Results from selected case studies are presented and compared with those from western research. Included are results on retrieving ice concentration, ice type, ice thickness, and ice state during the melt period. These airborne microwave remote sensing investigations provide information on the ice cover in several regions in the eastern Arctic.

  16. Airborne remote sensing of forest biomes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sader, Steven A.

    1987-01-01

    Airborne sensor data of forest biomes obtained using an SAR, a laser profiler, an IR MSS, and a TM simulator are presented and examined. The SAR was utilized to investigate forest canopy structures in Mississippi and Costa Rica; the IR MSS measured forest canopy temperatures in Oregon and Puerto Rico; the TM simulator was employed in a tropical forest in Puerto Rico; and the laser profiler studied forest canopy characteristics in Costa Rica. The advantages and disadvantages of airborne systems are discussed. It is noted that the airborne sensors provide measurements applicable to forest monitoring programs.

  17. Assessment of Superflux relative to remote sensing. [airborne remote sensing of the Chesapeake Bay plume and shelf regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, J. W.

    1981-01-01

    The state-of-the-art advancements in remote sensor technology due to the Superflux program are examined. Three major individual sensor technologies benefitted from the program: laser fluorosensors, optical-range scanners, and passive microwave sensors. Under Superflux, convincing evidence was obtained that the airborne oceanographic lidar fluorosensor can map chlorophyll, i.e., is linear, over a wide range from less than 0.5 to 5.0 mg/cu m. The lidar oceanographic probe dual-excitation concept for addressing phytoplankton color group composition was also demonstrated convincingly. Algorithm development, real time capabilities, and multisensor integration are also addressed.

  18. Airborne Remote Sensing for Earth Science Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aubrey, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Topics covered include: Passive Remote Sensing Methods, Imaging Spectroscopy Approach, Remote Measurement via Spectral Fitting, Imaging Spectroscopy Mapping Wetland Dominants 2010 LA (AVIRIS), Deepwater Horizon Response I, Deepwater Horizon Response II, AVIRIS Ocean Color Studies.

  19. Airborne antenna polarization study for the microwave landing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilreath, M. C.

    1976-01-01

    The feasibility of the microwave landing system (MLS) airborne antenna pattern coverage requirements are investigated for a large commercial aircraft using a single omnidirectional antenna. Omnidirectional antennas having vertical and horizontal polarizations were evaluated at several different station locations on a one-eleventh scale model Boeing 737 aircraft. The results obtained during this experimental program are presented which include principal plane antenna patterns and complete volumetric coverage plots.

  20. Airborne remote sensing for Deepwater Horizon oil spill emergency response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroutil, Robert T.; Shen, Sylvia S.; Lewis, Paul E.; Miller, David P.; Cardarelli, John; Thomas, Mark; Curry, Timothy; Kudaraskus, Paul

    2010-08-01

    On April 28, 2010, the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Airborne Spectral Photometric Environmental Collection Technology (ASPECT) aircraft was deployed to Gulfport, Mississippi to provide airborne remotely sensed air monitoring and situational awareness data and products in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil rig disaster. The ASPECT aircraft was released from service on August 9, 2010 after having flown over 75 missions that included over 250 hours of flight operation. ASPECT's initial mission responsibility was to provide air quality monitoring (i.e., identification of vapor species) during various oil burning operations. The ASPECT airborne wide-area infrared remote sensing spectral data was used to evaluate the hazard potential of vapors being produced from open water oil burns near the Deepwater Horizon rig site. Other significant remote sensing data products and innovations included the development of an advanced capability to correctly identify, locate, characterize, and quantify surface oil that could reach beaches and wetland areas. This advanced identification product provided the Incident Command an improved capability to locate surface oil in order to improve the effectiveness of oil skimmer vessel recovery efforts directed by the US Coast Guard. This paper discusses the application of infrared spectroscopy and multispectral infrared imagery to address significant issues associated with this national crisis. More specifically, this paper addresses the airborne remote sensing capabilities, technology, and data analysis products developed specifically to optimize the resources and capabilities of the Deepwater Horizon Incident Command structure personnel and their remediation efforts.

  1. Microwave Remote Sensing of Soil Moisture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmugge, T. J.

    1985-01-01

    Because of the large contrast between the dielectric constant of liquid water and that of dry soil at microwave wavelength, there is a strong dependence of the thermal emission and radar backscatter from the soil on its moisture content. This dependence provides a means for the remote sensing of the moisture content in a surface layer approximately 5 cm thick. The feasibility of these techniques is demonstrated from field, aircraft and spacecraft platforms. The soil texture, surface roughness, and vegetative cover affect the sensitivity of the microwave response to moisture variations with vegetation being the most important. It serves as an attenuating layer which can totally obscure the surface. Research indicates that it is possible to obtain five or more levels of moisture discrimination and that a mature corn crop is the limiting vegetation situation.

  2. Recent Progresses of Microwave Marine Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jingsong; Ren, Lin; Zheng, Gang; Wang, He; He, Shuangyan; Wang, Juan; Li, Xiaohui

    2016-08-01

    It is presented in this paper the recent progresses of Dragon 3 Program (ID. 10412) in the field of microwave marine remote sensing including (1) ocean surface wind fields from full polarization synthetic aperture radars (SAR), (2) joint retrieval of directional ocean wave spectra from SAR and wave spectrometer, (3) error analysis on ENVISAT ASAR wave mode significant wave height (SWH) retrievals using triple collocation model, (4) typhoon observation from SAR and optical sensors, (5) ocean internal wave observation from SAR and optical sensors, (6) ocean eddy observation from SAR and optical sensors, (7) retrieval models of water vapor and wet tropospheric path delay for the HY-2A calibration microwave radiometer, (8) calibration of SWH from HY-2A satellite altimeter.

  3. Airborne remote sensing combating marine pollution in the United Kingdom

    SciTech Connect

    Goodman, C.; Small, J.; Mason, D.

    1996-10-01

    The Marine Pollution Control Unit (MPCU) is a small command, control and rapid response Organization set up to exercise the responsibility accepted by the United Kingdom Government for counter pollution operations at sea when spilled oil (or other dangerous substances) from ships threatens major pollution of the UK coast. Resources used by WCU to respond to pollution incidents include two surveillance aircraft fitted with side-looking radar (SLAR), and infrared (IR) and ultra-violet (UV) Remote Sensing equipment. The paper will describe the use of Airborne Remote Sensing in an operational role and demonstrate how the United Kingdom Government responds to pollution incidents. The paper will also explain how Airborne Remote Sensing is used to patrol the waters surrounding the United Kingdom. Reference will be made to coordinated flights carried out under the Bonn Agreement, a non-mandatory support Organization involving all states bordering the North Sea, and the EU. 2 refs.

  4. Microwave remote sensing and radar polarization signatures of natural fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mo, Tsan

    1989-01-01

    Theoretical models developed for simulation of microwave remote sensing of the Earth surface from airborne/spaceborne sensors are described. Theoretical model calculations were performed and the results were compared with data of field measurements. Data studied included polarimetric images at the frequencies of P band, L band, and C band, acquired with airborne polarimeters over a agricultural field test site. Radar polarization signatures from bare soil surfaces and from tree covered fields were obtained from the data. The models developed in this report include: (1) Small perturbation model of wave scatterings from randomly rough surfaces, (2) Physical optics model, (3) Geometrical optics model, and (4) Electromagnetic wave scattering from dielectric cylinders of finite lengths, which replace the trees and branches in the modeling of tree covered field. Additionally, a three-layer emissivity model for passive sensing of a vegetation covered soil surface is also developed. The effects of surface roughness, soil moisture contents, and tree parameters on the polarization signatures were investigated.

  5. Clear air turbulence avoidance using an airborne microwave radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gary, B. L.

    1984-01-01

    The avoidance of Clear Air Turbulence (CAT) is theoretically possible by selecting flight levels that are a safe distance from the tropopause and inversion layers. These favored sites for CAT generation can be located by an 'airborne microwave radiometer' (AMR) passive sensor system that measures altitude temperature profiles. A flight evaluation of the AMR sensor shows that most CAT could be avoided by following sensor-based advisories. Some limitations still exist for any hypothetical use of the sensor. The principal need is to augment the sensor's 'where' advisories to include useful 'when' forecasts.

  6. Application of airborne remote sensing to the ancient Pompeii site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitiello, Fausto; Giordano, Antonio; Borfecchia, Flavio; Martini, Sandro; De Cecco, Luigi

    1996-12-01

    The ancient Pompeii site is in the Sarno Valley, an area of about 400 km2 in the South of Italy near Naples, that was utilized by man since old time (thousands of years ago). Actually the valley is under critical environmental conditions because of the relevant industrial development. ENEA is conducting various studies and research in the valley. ENEA is employing historical research, ground campaigns, cartography and up-to-date airborne multispectral remote sensing technologies to make a geographical information system. Airborne remote sensing technologies are very suitable for situations as that of the Sarno Valley. The paper describes the archaeological application of the research in progress as regarding the ancient site of Pompeii and its fluvial port.

  7. Airborne FTIR remote sensing of methane from the FAAM aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Grant; Illingworth, Samuel; Mead, Iq; Harlow, Chawn; Newman, Stuart; Vance, Alan

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents the first campaign results for retrievals of methane (and other gases and thermodynamic parameters) from the Airborne Research Interferometer Evaluation System (ARIES) FTIR instrument on the UK Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurement (FAAM) BAE-146 aircraft. The ARIES is a thermal infrared BOMEM FTS tailored for airborne use and has an unapodised spectral resolution of 1 cm-1. It was developed as an IASI analogue for radiometric calibration of its satellite countepart. We will discuss the technical and theoretical assessment of the ARIES retrieval processor and present retrievals and interpretation of remote sampling over several years of campaign data in the tropics, around the UK, and in the high Arctic, during the Jaivex, GAUGE and MAMM campaigns respectively. Validation studies against airborne in situ data have shown that ARIES can achieve accuracties of ~2% in partial column retrievals of methane, while providing simultaneous information on a wide range of other trace gases typical of FTIR measurement. The ARIES has now beein in operation on the FAAM aircraft for a range of campaigns around the world and represents a useful validation bridge between high precision in situ point measurements (on the ground and by aircraft) and satellite remote sensing.

  8. An airborne remote sensing system for urban air quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, L. J.; Friedman, E. J.; Keitz, E. L.; Ward, E. A.

    1974-01-01

    Several NASA sponsored remote sensors and possible airborne platforms were evaluated. Outputs of dispersion models for SO2 and CO pollution in the Washington, D.C. area were used with ground station data to establish the expected performance and limitations of the remote sensors. Aircraft/sensor support requirements are discussed. A method of optimum flight plan determination was made. Cost trade offs were performed. Conclusions about the implementation of various instrument packages as parts of a comprehensive air quality monitoring system in Washington are presented.

  9. ARE AIRBORNE CONTAMINANTS A RISK FACTOR TO AQUATIC ECOSYSTEMS IN REMOTE WESTERN NATIONAL PARKS (USA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Western Airborne Contaminants Assessment Project (WACAP) was initiated in 2002 by the National Park Service to determine if airborne contaminants were having an impact on remote western ecosystems. Multiple sample media (snow, water, sediment, fish and terrestrial vegetation...

  10. Remote measurement of microwave distribution based on optical detection

    SciTech Connect

    Ji, Zhong; Ding, Wenzheng; Yang, Sihua; Chen, Qun E-mail: xingda@scnu.edu.cn; Xing, Da E-mail: xingda@scnu.edu.cn

    2016-01-04

    In this letter, we present the development of a remote microwave measurement system. This method employs an arc discharge lamp that serves as an energy converter from microwave to visible light, which can propagate without transmission medium. Observed with a charge coupled device, quantitative microwave power distribution can be achieved when the operators and electronic instruments are in a distance from the high power region in order to reduce the potential risk. We perform the experiments using pulsed microwaves, and the results show that the system response is dependent on the microwave intensity over a certain range. Most importantly, the microwave distribution can be monitored in real time by optical observation of the response of a one-dimensional lamp array. The characteristics of low cost, a wide detection bandwidth, remote measurement, and room temperature operation make the system a preferred detector for microwave applications.

  11. Microwave Remote Sensing and the Cold Land Processes Field Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Edward J.; Cline, Don; Davis, Bert; Hildebrand, Peter H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    -oriented understanding, land surface models and microwave remote sensing. The experimental design is a multi-sensor, multi-scale (1-ha to 160,000 km ^ {2}) approach to providing the comprehensive data set necessary to address several experiment objectives. A description focusing on the microwave remote sensing components (ground, airborne, and spaceborne) of the experiment will be presented.

  12. Multispectral microwave imaging radar for remote sensing applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, R. W.; Rawson, R.; Ausherman, D.; Bryan, L.; Porcello, L.

    1974-01-01

    A multispectral airborne microwave radar imaging system, capable of obtaining four images simultaneously is described. The system has been successfully demonstrated in several experiments and one example of results obtained, fresh water ice, is given. Consideration of the digitization of the imagery is given and an image digitizing system described briefly. Preliminary results of digitization experiments are included.

  13. Microwave remote sensing from space for earth resource surveys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The concepts of radar remote sensing and microwave radiometry are discussed and their utility in earth resource sensing is examined. The direct relationship between the character of the remotely sensed data and the level of decision making for which the data are appropriate is considered. Applications of active and a passive microwave sensing covered include hydrology, land use, mapping, vegetation classification, environmental monitoring, coastal features and processes, geology, and ice and snow. Approved and proposed microwave sensors are described and the use of space shuttle as a development platform is evaluated.

  14. Validating surface energy balance fluxes derived from airborne remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavez Eguez, Jose Luis

    Remote sensing-derived energy balance components were compared against measured eddy covariance energy balance terms using heat flux source area models to validate the airborne multispectral remote sensing procedure in the estimation of instantaneous and daily evapotranspiration rates. A procedure was developed to generate raster layers of the footprint weights for weighting/integrating the different components of the energy balance model and obtain meaningful comparisons to similar energy balance terms measured at eddy covariance and/or Bowen ratio stations. Soil heat flux and surface aerodynamic temperature models were studied in an effort to improve the remote sensing estimation of distributed evapotranspiration rates. Aerial and ground data were acquired over a riparian corridor (Salt Cedar, Tamarix grove), soybean and cornfields (rainfed crops) in different ecosystems. The results confirmed that net radiation is well estimated with the remote sensing technique showing an estimation error of only -4.8 +/- 20.7 W m-2, (-0.5 +/- 3.6%). Linear and exponential soil heat flux models were found to correlate strongly to leaf area index and net radiation. The surface aerodynamic temperature term in the sensible heat flux equation was parameterized using surface radiometric temperature, air temperature, wind speed, and leaf area index. It is suggested that the surface aerodynamic temperature model be tested for a wide range of vegetation types, atmospheric stability conditions, surface heterogeneity, and ecosystems to assess the model limitations. The flux source area footprint model "FSAM" integrated heat flux pixels that compared better to measured values and it is recommended as a standard procedure to compare airborne remote sensing-derived heat fluxes against measured fluxes by eddy covariance systems; when compared to the "FASOWG" footprint model and simple arithmetic averages. Finally, the method that uses alfalfa reference daily evapotranspiration in

  15. Remote sensing of snowpack with microwave radiometers for hydrologic applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiue, J. C.; Chang, A. T. C.; Boyne, H.; Ellerbruch, D.

    1978-01-01

    A microwave remote sensing of snowpack experiment is described and some preliminary data presented. A mobile field laboratory consisting of a four-frequency (5, 10.7, 18 and 37 GHz), all with dual linear (vertical and horizontal) polarizations, microwave radiometer system attached to a truck-mounted aerial lift was used to study the microwave emission characteristics of snowpacks in the Colorado Rocky Mountains during the winter of 1977-78. The influence of snowpack physical parameters such as water equivalent, grain size, and melt-freeze cycle on its microwave brightness temperature and its implications to the application of microwave radiometric technique to remote sensing of snowpack for runoff prediction are discussed.

  16. TCR backscattering characterization for microwave remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riccio, Giovanni; Gennarelli, Claudio

    2014-05-01

    A Trihedral Corner Reflector (TCR) is formed by three mutually orthogonal metal plates of various shapes and is a very important scattering structure since it exhibits a high monostatic Radar Cross Section (RCS) over a wide angular range. Moreover it is a handy passive device with low manufacturing costs and robust geometric construction, the maintenance of its efficiency is not difficult and expensive, and it can be used in all weather conditions (i.e., fog, rain, smoke, and dusty environment). These characteristics make it suitable as reference target and radar enhancement device for satellite- and ground-based microwave remote sensing techniques. For instance, TCRs have been recently employed to improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the backscattered signal in the case of urban ground deformation monitoring [1] and dynamic survey of civil infrastructures without natural corners as the Musmeci bridge in Basilicata, Italy [2]. The region of interest for the calculation of TCR's monostatic RCS is here confined to the first quadrant containing the boresight direction. The backscattering term is presented in closed form by evaluating the far-field scattering integral involving the contributions related to the direct illumination and the internal bouncing mechanisms. The Geometrical Optics (GO) laws allow one to determine the field incident on each TCR plate and the patch (integration domain) illuminated by it, thus enabling the use of a Physical Optics (PO) approximation for the corresponding surface current densities to consider for integration on each patch. Accordingly, five contributions are associated to each TCR plate: one contribution is due to the direct illumination of the whole internal surface; two contributions originate by the impinging rays that are simply reflected by the other two internal surfaces; and two contributions are related to the impinging rays that undergo two internal reflections. It is useful to note that the six contributions due to the

  17. Microwave Temperature Profiler Mounted in a Standard Airborne Research Canister

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahoney, Michael J.; Denning, Richard F.; Fox, Jack

    2009-01-01

    Many atmospheric research aircraft use a standard canister design to mount instruments, as this significantly facilitates their electrical and mechanical integration and thereby reduces cost. Based on more than 30 years of airborne science experience with the Microwave Temperature Profiler (MTP), the MTP has been repackaged with state-of-the-art electronics and other design improvements to fly in one of these standard canisters. All of the controlling electronics are integrated on a single 4 5-in. (.10 13- cm) multi-layer PCB (printed circuit board) with surface-mount hardware. Improved circuit design, including a self-calibrating RTD (resistive temperature detector) multiplexer, was implemented in order to reduce the size and mass of the electronics while providing increased capability. A new microcontroller-based temperature controller board was designed, providing better control with fewer components. Five such boards are used to provide local control of the temperature in various areas of the instrument, improving radiometric performance. The new stepper motor has an embedded controller eliminating the need for a separate controller board. The reference target is heated to avoid possible emissivity (and hence calibration) changes due to moisture contamination in humid environments, as well as avoiding issues with ambient targets during ascent and descent. The radiometer is a double-sideband heterodyne receiver tuned sequentially to individual oxygen emission lines near 60 GHz, with the line selection and intermediate frequency bandwidths chosen to accommodate the altitude range of the aircraft and mission.

  18. Airborne remote sensing applications to coastal wave research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Paul A.; Walsh, Edward J.; Krabill, William B.; Swift, Robert N.; Manizade, Serdar S.; Scott, John F.; Earle, Marshall D.

    1998-08-01

    Airborne sensors provide effective coverage of a broad region and are suitable for large-scale experiments. In this paper, two scanning sensors that use the direct ranging technique to measure surface wave displacement are described. On a NASA P-3 aircraft the sensors can complete one run across a 100-km continental shelf in 17 min. A case study is presented using radar-measured, two-dimensional surface topography to derive wave damping due to bottom friction. The results are in good agreement with an analytical model based on a quadratic formulation of bottom shear stress. This study demonstrates that remote sensing measurements can be used for rapid characterization of surface waves on the continental shelf and in coastal regions. Examples illustrated in this paper include the derivation of wavenumber spectra and estimation of the dissipation rate of shoaling ocean swell.

  19. Second International Airborne Remote Sensing Conference and Exhibition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    cloud cover analysis, Quadantid meteor shower studies, extra-solar far infrared ionic structure lines measurement, Cape Kennedy launch support, and studies in air pollution, The Products and Services Exhibit showcased new sensor and image processing technologies, aircraft data collection services, unmanned vehicle technology, platform equipment, turn-key services, software a workstations, GPS services, publications, and processing and integration systems by 58 exhibitors. The participation of aircraft users and crews provided unique dialogue between those who plan data collection a operate the remote sensing technology, and those who supply the data processing and integration equipment. Research results using hyperspectral imagery, radar and optical sensors, lidar, digital aerial photography, a integrated systems were presented. Major research and development programs and campaigns we reviewed, including CNR's LARA Project and European Space Agency's 1991-1995 Airborne Campaign. The pre-conference short courses addressed airborne video, photogrammetry, hyperspectral data analysis, digital orthophotography, imagery and GIS integration, IFSAR, GPS, and spectrometer calibration.

  20. Remote sensing of soil moisture using airborne hyperspectral data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finn, M.; Lewis, M.; Bosch, D.; Giraldo, Mario; Yamamoto, K.; Sullivan, D.; Kincaid, R.; Luna, R.; Allam, G.; Kvien, Craig; Williams, M.

    2011-01-01

    Landscape assessment of soil moisture is critical to understanding the hydrological cycle at the regional scale and in broad-scale studies of biophysical processes affected by global climate changes in temperature and precipitation. Traditional efforts to measure soil moisture have been principally restricted to in situ measurements, so remote sensing techniques are often employed. Hyperspectral sensors with finer spatial resolution and narrow band widths may offer an alternative to traditional multispectral analysis of soil moisture, particularly in landscapes with high spatial heterogeneity. This preliminary research evaluates the ability of remotely sensed hyperspectral data to quantify soil moisture for the Little River Experimental Watershed (LREW), Georgia. An airborne hyperspectral instrument with a short-wavelength infrared (SWIR) sensor was flown in 2005 and 2007 and the results were correlated to in situ soil moisture values. A significant statistical correlation (R2 value above 0.7 for both sampling dates) for the hyperspectral instrument data and the soil moisture probe data at 5.08 cm (2 inches) was determined. While models for the 20.32 cm (8 inches) and 30.48 cm (12 inches) depths were tested, they were not able to estimate soil moisture to the same degree.

  1. Remote sensing of soil moisture using airborne hyperspectral data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finn, Michael P.; Lewis, Mark (David); Bosch, David D.; Giraldo, Mario; Yamamoto, Kristina H.; Sullivan, Dana G.; Kincaid, Russell; Luna, Ronaldo; Allam, Gopala Krishna; Kvien, Craig; Williams, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    Landscape assessment of soil moisture is critical to understanding the hydrological cycle at the regional scale and in broad-scale studies of biophysical processes affected by global climate changes in temperature and precipitation. Traditional efforts to measure soil moisture have been principally restricted to in situ measurements, so remote sensing techniques are often employed. Hyperspectral sensors with finer spatial resolution and narrow band widths may offer an alternative to traditional multispectral analysis of soil moisture, particularly in landscapes with high spatial heterogeneity. This preliminary research evaluates the ability of remotely sensed hyperspectral data to quantify soil moisture for the Little River Experimental Watershed (LREW), Georgia. An airborne hyperspectral instrument with a short-wavelength infrared (SWIR) sensor was flown in 2005 and 2007 and the results were correlated to in situ soil moisture values. A significant statistical correlation (R 2 value above 0.7 for both sampling dates) for the hyperspectral instrument data and the soil moisture probe data at 5.08 cm (2 inches) was determined. While models for the 20.32 cm (8 inches) and 30.48 cm (12 inches) depths were tested, they were not able to estimate soil moisture to the same degree.

  2. Inversion of Airborne Passive Microwave Data for Snow Properties using the Metropolis Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vander Jagt, B.; Durand, M. T.; Margulis, S. A.; Molotch, N. P.; Kim, E. J.

    2012-12-01

    Passive microwave (PM) remote sensing of snow is based on the fact that microwave brightness temperatures contain information about different snow properties, some of which include depth, grain size, and density. These different snow properties are highly spatially heterogeneous, and often prove difficult to invert using traditional algorithms. This is mainly due the dynamic, many-to-one nature of the relationship between the PM signal and the different snow properties, the coarse resolution of the observations as compared to the fine spatial scale at which snow properties vary, and the masking of the PM signal by varying amounts and types of vegetation. While multi-frequency PM observations can help reduce the many-to-one nature associated with the snow states by constraining the amount of potential solutions, the vertical heterogeneity and layering of snow properties often leads to errors in the inversion process when little a priori information exists on the vertical structure of the snowpack. Using a new algorithm, specifically a Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo scheme solved using the Metropolis algorithm, we attempt to invert the airborne passive microwave data collected during the Cold Land Processes Experiment (CLPX) to estimate the spatial snow properties within the different study areas, with virtually no a priori information. We allowed the number of snowpack layers itself to be unknown by generating different chains for each possible number of layers (up to a maximum of four), then selecting the optimal chain using a model selection criterion. We then evaluate our accuracy using real datasets, specifically the measured in-situ snow properties that were collected from snow pits during CLPX, and compare our results across a large range of different snow and climactic environments. Synthetic results show that an accurate solution to number of layers, layer thickness, density, grain size, snow temperature and ground temperature from microwave measurements

  3. Active microwave remote sensing of oceans, chapter 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A rationale is developed for the use of active microwave sensing in future aerospace applications programs for the remote sensing of the world's oceans, lakes, and polar regions. Summaries pertaining to applications, local phenomena, and large-scale phenomena are given along with a discussion of orbital errors.

  4. Passive microwave remote discriminator for the marine applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denisov, Alexander; Liu, Hao; Qiu, Jinghui; Denisova, Kateryna; Soldovieri, Francesco

    2016-10-01

    The specially calculated and prepared antiradar surfaces on special ships is very good for detecting them by the microwave radiometers. It is interesting to evaluate the possibility of using a passive millimeter wave (PMMW) radiometric discriminator for the remote controlling and finding such objects at real distances and also for environmental monitoring.

  5. Passive microwave remote sensing of soil moisture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kondratyev, K. Y.; Melentyev, V. V.; Rabinovich, Y. I.; Shulgina, E. M.

    1977-01-01

    The theory and calculations of microwave emission from the medium with the depth-dependent physical properties are discussed; the possibility of determining the vertical profiles of temperature and humidity is considered. Laboratory and aircraft measurements of the soil moisture are described; the technique for determining the productive-moisture content in soil, and the results of aircraft measurements are given.

  6. Passive Microwave Remote Sensing for Land Applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Land applications, in particular soil moisture retrieval, have been hampered by the lack of low frequency passive microwave observations and the coarse spatial resolution of existing sensors. The next decade could see several improved operational and exploratory missions using new technologies as w...

  7. Development of an airborne remote sensing system for crop pest management: System integration and verification

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Remote sensing along with Global Positioning Systems, Geographic Information Systems, and variable rate technology has been developed, which scientists can implement to help farmers maximize the economic and environmental benefits of crop pest management through precision agriculture. Airborne remo...

  8. Aerosol Remote Sensing Applications for Airborne Multiangle, Multispectral Shortwave Radiometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Bismarck, Jonas; Ruhtz, Thomas; Starace, Marco; Hollstein, André; Preusker, René; Fischer, Jürgen

    2010-05-01

    and ground based operations of the instruments so far, only two exemplary campaigns shall be introduced here. FUBEX in July 2008 was the first airborne campaign with FUBISS-ASA2, FUBISS-ZENITH and AMSSP-EM simultaneously mounted on the Cessna 207T of the Institute for Space Sciences, based in Berlin. Vertical radiation profiles recorded on July 28 in 2008 where used for a first application of the introduced inversion algorithm. In Oktober/November 2009, FUBISS-ASA2 and FUBISS-ZENITH where mounted on the German research icebreaker FS Polarstern, crossing the Atlantic on its cruise from Bremerhaven (Germany) to Punta Arenas (Chile). Measurements where performed throughout the whole cruise on days with a variety of different atmospheric conditions, as a Saharan dust outbreak over Cape Verde, typical marine conditions with salt particles in the marine boundary layer and also pristine conditions in the southern Atlantic. Access to the data of other instruments aboard the ship, as a Raman-Lidar, a cloud camera, weather station, and a microwave radiometer, provided valuable a priori information for processing and calibration of the measurements. The results may be of special interest for the validation of satellite aerosol products.

  9. Investigating Baseline, Alternative and Copula-based Algorithm for combining Airborne Active and Passive Microwave Observations in the SMAP Context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montzka, C.; Lorenz, C.; Jagdhuber, T.; Laux, P.; Hajnsek, I.; Kunstmann, H.; Entekhabi, D.; Vereecken, H.

    2015-12-01

    The objective of the NASA Soil Moisture Active & Passive (SMAP) mission is to provide global measurements of soil moisture and freeze/thaw states. SMAP integrates L-band radar and radiometer instruments as a single observation system combining the respective strengths of active and passive remote sensing for enhanced soil moisture mapping. Airborne instruments will be a key part of the SMAP validation program. Here, we present an airborne campaign in the Rur catchment, Germany, in which the passive L-band system Polarimetric L-band Multi-beam Radiometer (PLMR2) and the active L-band system F-SAR of DLR were flown simultaneously on the same platform on six dates in 2013. The flights covered the full heterogeneity of the area under investigation, i.e. all types of land cover and experimental monitoring sites with in situ sensors. Here, we used the obtained data sets as a test-bed for the analysis of three active-passive fusion techniques: A) The SMAP baseline algorithm: Disaggregation of passive microwave brightness temperature by active microwave backscatter and subsequent inversion to soil moisture, B), the SMAP alternative algorithm: Estimation of soil moisture by passive sensor data and subsequent disaggregation by active sensor backscatter and C) Copula-based combination of active and passive microwave data. For method C empirical Copulas were generated and theoretical Copulas fitted both on the level of the raw products brightness temperature and backscatter as well as two soil moisture products. Results indicate that the regression parameters for method A and B are dependent on the radar vegetation index (RVI). Similarly, for method C the best performance was gained by generating separate Copulas for individual land use classes. For more in-depth analyses longer time series are necessary as can obtained by airborne campaigns, therefore, the methods will be applied to SMAP data.

  10. Using optical and microwave, modeled and airborne data to identify water leaks from rural aqueducts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Frances M.; Malthus, Tim J.; Woodhouse, Iain H.; Hedger, Richard D.

    2003-03-01

    The development of techniques for the detection of water leaks from underground pipelines is seen as a high profile activity by water companies and regulators. This is due to increasing water demands and problems with current leak detection methods. In this paper optical reflectance and microwave backscatter models (SAIL + PROSPECT and RT2) were used to try and identify optimal indices for detecting water leaks amongst a variety of different land cover types at different growth stages. Results suggest that red/near infrared and red/middle infrared ratios show potential for leak detection. Given the sensitivity of L-band radar to moisture, and the ability to separate contributions from canopy and ground surface, it is possible to detect saturated soils through vegetation canopies. The results of both approaches are used to infer limits of detection in terms of season and meteorological conditions for a range of land covers. Preliminary findings suggest that leaks may be optimally detected when canopy height is low, surrounding soil is dry, and the leak has been present for more than 14 days. The modelled data is compared with L - band fully polarimetric E-SAR data, and 200 channel HYMAP hyperspectral airborne data which were acquired over an 8km section of the Vrynwy aqueduct (UK), which included a high concentration of leaks. Data was acquired as part of the British National Space Centre (BNSC) and Natural Environmental Research Council (NERC), SAR and Hyperspectral Airborne Campaign (SHAC) in June 2000. The results from this work suggest that remote sensing is both an effective and feasible tool for leak identification.

  11. Systems and methods for remote long standoff biometric identification using microwave cardiac signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGrath, William R. (Inventor); Talukder, Ashit (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Systems and methods for remote, long standoff biometric identification using microwave cardiac signals are provided. In one embodiment, the invention relates to a method for remote biometric identification using microwave cardiac signals, the method including generating and directing first microwave energy in a direction of a person, receiving microwave energy reflected from the person, the reflected microwave energy indicative of cardiac characteristics of the person, segmenting a signal indicative of the reflected microwave energy into a waveform including a plurality of heart beats, identifying patterns in the microwave heart beats waveform, and identifying the person based on the identified patterns and a stored microwave heart beats waveform.

  12. Airborne infrared remote sensing characterization of submesoscale eddies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Geoffrey; Marmorino, George; Miller, W. David; North, Ryan; Angel-Benavides, Ingrid; Baschek, Burckard

    2016-11-01

    Airborne remote sensing surveys off Santa Catalina Island, CA (33°30' N118°31' W) were conducted as part of a larger study of the occurrence and behavior of submesoscale phenomena. This builds upon previous work by DiGiacomo and Holt, who utilized SAR imagery to characterize the size and distribution of predominately cyclonic 'spiral eddies' in the Southern California Bight. In the present work the thermal surface expression of a single cyclonic eddy captured in February 2013 will be investigated. Advances made in methods to estimate eddy circulation and vorticity directly from the thermal imagery will be discussed and compared with in situ measurements. Inferences about localized mixing and flow instabilities can also be drawn from the imagery, and these too will be discussed in the context of in situ data. A simple model will be offered describing the three dimensional flow in the core of the eddy and how that can be used to explain the surface imagery. Connections between the signatures surrounding the eddy and the core itself will also be discussed in the context of the model.

  13. Microwave remote sensing of natural stratification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imperatore, Pasquale; Iodice, Antonio; Riccio, Daniele

    2011-11-01

    The response of natural stratification to electromagnetic wave has received much attention in last decades, due to its crucial role played in the remote sensing arena. In this context, when the superficial structure of the Earth, whose formation is inherently layered, is concerned, the most general scheme that can be adopted includes the characterization of layered random media. Moreover, a key issue in remote sensing of Earth and other Planets is to reveal the content under the surface illuminated by the sensors. For such a purpose, a quantitative mathematical analysis of wave propagation in three-dimensional layered rough media is fundamental in understanding intriguing scattering phenomena in such structures, especially in the perspective of remote sensing applications. Recently, a systematic formulation has been introduced to deal with the analysis of a layered structure with an arbitrary number of rough interfaces. Specifically, the results of the Boundary Perturbation Theory (BPT) lead to polarimetric, formally symmetric and physical revealing closed form analytical solutions. The comprehensive scattering model based on the BPT methodologically permits to analyze the bi-static scattering patterns of 3D multilayered rough media. The aim of this paper is to systematically show how polarimetric models obtainable in powerful BPT framework can be successfully applied to several situations of interest, emphasizing its wide relevance in the remote sensing applications scenario. In particular, a proper characterization of the relevant interfacial roughness is adopted resorting to the fractal geometry; numerical examples are then presented with reference to representative of several situations of interest.

  14. Past, present, and future of the INTA airborne remote sensing laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz de Aguilar, Javier; Fernandez Renau, Alix; Gomez Sanchez, Jose A.; Gutierrez de la Camara, Oscar

    2003-04-01

    The remote sensing laboratory belongs to the Earth Observation, Remote Sensing and Atmospheric Research division of INTA. INTA is a government research organization of the Spanish Department of Defense. INTA has been performing airborne remote sensing campaigns since 1975. The Remote Sensing Laboratory is devoted to the application and development of both aerial and space remote sensing technqiues. It owns both, personnel and technology suitable to perform flight campaigns in order to acquire remote sensing images and, with the help of precise image processing techniques, extract useful information. Currently has two different airborne platforms, for remote sensing and for atmospheric research, and is in the process of specification of a new platform for generation research. INTA is partner of the Concerted Action 'European Fleet for Airborne Research'. This paper describes the INTA platform, sensors, systems and its integration in the aircraft. The experience in airborne remote sensing campaigns also described. The research campaigns performed show their application in comparison with satellite remote sensing. Some examples of this are, evaluation of future space sensors, calibration and validation of images acquired by operative space platforms, environmental impact of ecological distasters, ocean surfaces characteristics, wetland mapping and fire analysis.

  15. Microwave remote sensing of sea ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comiso, J. C.

    1988-01-01

    The long term objectives are: (1) to understand the physics of the multispectral microwave radiative characteristics of sea ice as it goes through different phases; (2) to improve characterization of sea ice cover using satellite microwave sensors; and (3) to study ice/ocean physical and biological processes associated with polynya formations and variability of the marginal sea ice region. Two field experiments were conducted to pursue these objectives. One involved measurements of radiative and physical characteristics of sea ice from a ship during a 3-month long cruise through the Weddell Sea ice pack during the Austral winter of 1986. The other involved similar measurements from two aircrafts and a submarine over the Central Arctic and Greenland Sea region. Preliminary results have already led to an enhanced understanding of the microwave signatures of pancake ice, nilas, first year ice, multiyear ice and effects of snow cover. Coastal and deep ocean polynyas and their role in bottom water formation and ocean circulation were studied using a time series of ice images from SMMR. An unsupervised cluster analysis of Arctic sea ice using SMMR and THIR emissivity and brightness temperature data was implemented. The analysis indicates the existence of several unique and persistent clusters in the Central Arctic region during winter and that the sum of the area of these clusters excluding those of first year ice is about 20 percent less than minimum ice cover area inferred from a previous summer data. This result is consistent with saline surface for some multiyear ice floes as observed during MIZEZ and suggests that a significant fraction of multiyear ice floes in the Arctic have first year ice signatures.

  16. Applications of Microwaves to Remote Sensing of Terrain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porter, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    A survey and study was conducted to define the role that microwaves may play in the measurement of a variety of terrain-related parameters. The survey consisted of discussions with many users and researchers in the field of remote sensing. In addition, a survey questionnaire was prepared and replies were solicited from these and other users and researchers. The results of the survey, and associated bibliography, were studied and conclusions were drawn as to the usefulness of radiometric systems for remote sensing of terrain.

  17. Remote Strain Sensing of CFRP Using Microwave Frequency Domain Reflectometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, William C.; Moore, Jason P.; Juarez, Peter D.

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Advanced Composites Project is investigating technologies that increase automated remote inspection of aircraft composite structures. Therefore, microwave Frequency Domain Reflectometry (FDR) is being investigated as a method of enabling rapid remote measurement of strain occurring at the first ply of a composite fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) structure using Radio Frequency (RF) Electro-Magnetic (EM) radiation. While microwave reflectometry has been used to detect disbonds in CFRP structures, its use in detecting strain has been limited. This work will present data demonstrating the measurement of the reactance changes due to loading conditions that are indicative of strain in a CFRP structure. In addition, the basic EM signature will be presented along with an analysis of temperature and humidity effects.

  18. Design and performance of a multiwavelength airborne polarimetric lidar for vegetation remote sensing.

    PubMed

    Tan, Songxin; Narayanan, Ram M

    2004-04-10

    The University of Nebraska has developed a multiwavelength airborne polarimetric lidar (MAPL) system to support its Airborne Remote Sensing Program for vegetation remote sensing. The MAPL design and instrumentation are described in detail. Characteristics of the MAPL system include lidar waveform capture and polarimetric measurement capabilities, which provide enhanced opportunities for vegetation remote sensing compared with current sensors. Field tests were conducted to calibrate the range measurement. Polarimetric calibration of the system is also discussed. Backscattered polarimetric returns, as well as the cross-polarization ratios, were obtained from a small forested area to validate the system's ability for vegetation canopy detection. The system has been packaged to fly abroad a Piper Saratoga aircraft for airborne vegetation remote sensing applications.

  19. Analysis of remote sensing data collected for detection and mapping of oil spills: Reduction and analysis of multi-sensor airborne data of the NASA Wallops oil spill exercise of November 1978

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Airborne, remotely sensed data of the NASA Wallops controlled oil spill were corrected, reduced and analysed. Sensor performance comparisons were made by registering data sets from different sensors, which were near-coincident in time and location. Multispectral scanner images were, in turn, overlayed with profiles of correlation between airborne and laboratory-acquired fluorosensor spectra of oil; oil-thickness contours derived (by NASA) from a scanning fluorosensor and also from a two-channel scanning microwave radiometer; and synthetic aperture radar X-HH images. Microwave scatterometer data were correlated with dual-channel (UV and TIR) line scanner images of the oil slick.

  20. Guidelines for spaceborne microwave remote sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litman, V.; Nicholas, J.

    1982-01-01

    A handbook was developed to provide information and support to the spaceborne remote sensing and frequency management communities: to guide sensor developers in the choice of frequencies; to advise regulators on sensor technology needs and sharing potential; to present sharing analysis models and, through example, methods for determining sensor sharing feasibility; to introduce developers to the regulatory process; to create awareness of proper assignment procedures; to present sensor allocations; and to provide guidelines on the use and limitations of allocated bands. Controlling physical factors and user requirements and the regulatory environment are discussed. Sensor frequency allocation achievable performance and usefulness are reviewed. Procedures for national and international registration, the use of non-allocated bands and steps for obtaining new frequency allocations, and procedures for reporting interference are also discussed.

  1. AIRBORNE, OPTICAL REMOTE SENSNG OF METHANE AND ETHANE FOR NATURAL GAS PIPELINE LEAK DETECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Jerry Myers

    2005-04-15

    Ophir Corporation was awarded a contract by the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory under the Project Title ''Airborne, Optical Remote Sensing of Methane and Ethane for Natural Gas Pipeline Leak Detection'' on October 14, 2002. The scope of the work involved designing and developing an airborne, optical remote sensor capable of sensing methane and, if possible, ethane for the detection of natural gas pipeline leaks. Flight testing using a custom dual wavelength, high power fiber amplifier was initiated in February 2005. Ophir successfully demonstrated the airborne system, showing that it was capable of discerning small amounts of methane from a simulated pipeline leak. Leak rates as low as 150 standard cubic feet per hour (scf/h) were detected by the airborne sensor.

  2. Development of a Cost-Effective Airborne Remote Sensing System for Coastal Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Duk-jin; Jung, Jungkyo; Kang, Ki-mook; Kim, Seung Hee; Xu, Zhen; Hensley, Scott; Swan, Aaron; Duersch, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Coastal lands and nearshore marine areas are productive and rapidly changing places. However, these areas face many environmental challenges related to climate change and human-induced impacts. Space-borne remote sensing systems may be restricted in monitoring these areas because of their spatial and temporal resolutions. In situ measurements are also constrained from accessing the area and obtaining wide-coverage data. In these respects, airborne remote sensing sensors could be the most appropriate tools for monitoring these coastal areas. In this study, a cost-effective airborne remote sensing system with synthetic aperture radar and thermal infrared sensors was implemented to survey coastal areas. Calibration techniques and geophysical model algorithms were developed for the airborne system to observe the topography of intertidal flats, coastal sea surface current, sea surface temperature, and submarine groundwater discharge. PMID:26437413

  3. Development of a Cost-Effective Airborne Remote Sensing System for Coastal Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Kim, Duk-jin; Jung, Jungkyo; Kang, Ki-mook; Kim, Seung Hee; Xu, Zhen; Hensley, Scott; Swan, Aaron; Duersch, Michael

    2015-09-30

    Coastal lands and nearshore marine areas are productive and rapidly changing places. However, these areas face many environmental challenges related to climate change and human-induced impacts. Space-borne remote sensing systems may be restricted in monitoring these areas because of their spatial and temporal resolutions. In situ measurements are also constrained from accessing the area and obtaining wide-coverage data. In these respects, airborne remote sensing sensors could be the most appropriate tools for monitoring these coastal areas. In this study, a cost-effective airborne remote sensing system with synthetic aperture radar and thermal infrared sensors was implemented to survey coastal areas. Calibration techniques and geophysical model algorithms were developed for the airborne system to observe the topography of intertidal flats, coastal sea surface current, sea surface temperature, and submarine groundwater discharge.

  4. Remote sensing of soil moisture with microwave radiometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmugge, T.; Wilheit, T.; Webster, W., Jr.; Gloerson, P.

    1976-01-01

    Results are presented that were derived from measurements made by microwave radiometers during the March 1972 and February 1973 flights of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Convair-9900 aircraft over agricultural test sites in the southwestern part of United States. The purpose of the missions was to study the use of microwave radiometers for the remote sensing of soil moisture. The microwave radiometers covered the 0.8- to 21-cm wavelength range. The results show a good linear correlation between the observed microwave brightness temperature and moisture content of the 0- to 1-cm layer of the soil. The results at the largest wavelength (21 cm) show the greatest sensitivity to soil moisture variations and indicate the possibility of sensing these variations through a vegetative canopy. The effect of soil texture on the emission from the soil was also studied and it was found that this effect can be compensated for by expressing soil moisture as a percent of field capacity for the soil. The results were compared with calculations based on a radiative transfer model for layered dielectrics and the agreement is very good at the longer wavelengths. At the shorter wavelengths, surface roughness effects are larger and the agreement becomes poorer.

  5. Microwave remote sensing measurements of oil pollution on the ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Croswell, W. F.; Blume, H.-J. C.; Johnson, J. W.

    1981-01-01

    Microwave and optical remote sensors were flown over fresh and weathered crude oil released from a surface research vessel and also over a slick formed on the sea by frozen oleyl alcohol cubes released from a helicopter. For the crude oil experiments, microwave radiometric measurements at 1.43, 2.65, 22, and 31 GHz are reported, along with the variable incidence angle scattering measurements at 13.9 GHz. For these experiments, unusual depressions in the L-band brightness temperature were observed, possibly related to dispersants applied to the crude oil. Similar depressions, but with much larger values, were observed over the oleyl alcohol monomolecular slicks. Images obtained at 31 and 22 GHz were used to infer oil volume, yielding values which bound the known amounts spilled. Ku band measurements obtained in repeated passes over crude oil slicks are also discussed.

  6. Passive microwave remote sensing for sea ice research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Techniques for gathering data by remote sensors on satellites utilized for sea ice research are summarized. Measurement of brightness temperatures by a passive microwave imager converted to maps of total sea ice concentration and to the areal fractions covered by first year and multiyear ice are described. Several ancillary observations, especially by means of automatic data buoys and submarines equipped with upward looking sonars, are needed to improve the validation and interpretation of satellite data. The design and performance characteristics of the Navy's Special Sensor Microwave Imager, expected to be in orbit in late 1985, are described. It is recommended that data from that instrument be processed to a form suitable for research applications and archived in a readily accessible form. The sea ice data products required for research purposes are described and recommendations for their archival and distribution to the scientific community are presented.

  7. Airborne Microwave Radiometry on a Semi-Arid Area During HAPEX-Sahel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chanzy, A; Schmugge, T. J.; Calvet, J.-C.; Kerr, Y.; vanOevelen, P.; Grosjean, O.; Wang, J. R.

    1997-01-01

    Airborne microwave radiometric measurements in the framework of the HAPEX-Sahel Experiment were performed by the Push Broom Microwave Radiometer (PBMR) and the PORTOS radiometer. The flights of both radiometers produced an original set of data covering the 1.4-90 GHz range of frequency. The East and West Central Super Sites were the areas most intensively observed by the microwave radiometers. Over those sites, several brightness temperature (TB) maps are available at seven dates distributed over a 1 month period in the middle of the rainy season. A comparison of the two radiometers demonstrates their radiometric quality and the precision of the localization of the microwave observations. At 1.4 GHz, the vegetation had very little effect on the soil microwave emission. Maps of soil moisture were developed using a single linear relationship between TB and the surface soil moisture. There is an important spatial heterogeneity in the soil moisture distribution, which is explained by both the soil moisture hydrodynamic properties and the localization of the precipitation fields. At 5.05 GHz, the vegetation must be accounted for to infer soil moisture from the microwave observations. A method based on a simple radiative transfer model and on microwave data has shown encouraging results.

  8. Airborne microwave radiometry on a semi-arid area during HAPEX-Sahel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chanzy, A.; Schmugge, T. J.; Calvet, J.-C.; Kerr, Y.; van Oevelen, P.; Grosjean, O.; Wang, J. R.

    1997-02-01

    Airborne microwave radiometric measurements in the framework of the HAPEX-Sahel Experiment were performed by the Push Broom Microwave Radiometer (PBMR) and the PORTOS radiometer. The flights of both radiometers produced an original set of data covering the 1.4-90 GHz range of frequency. The East and West Central Super Sites were the areas most intensively observed by the microwave radiometers. Over those sites, several brightness temperature ( TB) maps are available at seven dates distributed over a 1 month period in the middle of the rainy season. A comparison of the two radiometers demonstrates their radiometric quality and the precision of the localization of the microwave observations. At 1.4 GHz, the vegetation had very little effect on the soil microwave emission. Maps of soil moisture were developed using a single linear relationship between TB and the surface soil moisture. There is an important spatial heterogeneity in the soil moisture distribution, which is explained by both the soil moisture hydrodynamic properties and the localization of the precipitation fields. At 5.05 GHz, the vegetation must be accounted for to infer soil moisture from the microwave observations. A method based on a simple radiative transfer model and on microwave data has shown encouraging results.

  9. A microwave pressure sounder. [for remote measurement of atmospheric pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peckham, G. E.; Flower, D. A.

    1981-01-01

    A technique for the remote measurement of atmospheric surface pressure will be described. Such measurements could be made from a satellite in polar orbit and would cover many areas for which conventional meteorological data are not available. An active microwave instrument is used to measure the strength of return echoes from the ocean surface at a number of frequencies near the 60 GHz oxygen absorption band. Factors which affect the accuracy with which surface pressure can be deduced from these measurements will be discussed and an instrument designed to test the method by making measurements from an aircraft will be described.

  10. Analysis of interference to remote passive microwave sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyd, Douglas; Tillotson, Tom

    1986-01-01

    The final acts of the 1979 World Administrative Radio Conference (WARC) were analyzed to determine potential interference to remote passive microwave sensors. Using interferer populations determined from the U.S. Government and FCC Master File Lists and assuming uniform geographical distribution of interferers, the level of interference from shared services and active services in adjacent and subharmonic bands was calculated for each of the 22 passive sensing bands. In addition, due to the theoretically large antennas required for passive sensing, an analysis was performed to determine if smaller antennas, i.e., relaxed resolution requirements, would have an effect on interference and to what extent.

  11. Active microwave remote sensing of earth/land, chapter 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Geoscience applications of active microwave remote sensing systems are examined. Major application areas for the system include: (1) exploration of petroleum, mineral, and ground water resources, (2) mapping surface and structural features, (3) terrain analysis, both morphometric and genetic, (4) application in civil works, and (5) application in the areas of earthquake prediction and crustal movements. Although the success of radar surveys has not been widely publicized, they have been used as a prime reconnaissance data base for mineral exploration and land-use evaluation in areas where photography cannot be obtained.

  12. Determination of precipitation profiles from airborne passive microwave radiometric measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kummerow, Christian; Hakkarinen, Ida M.; Pierce, Harold F.; Weinman, James A.

    1991-01-01

    This study presents the first quantitative retrievals of vertical profiles of precipitation derived from multispectral passive microwave radiometry. Measurements of microwave brightness temperature (Tb) obtained by a NASA high-altitude research aircraft are related to profiles of rainfall rate through a multichannel piecewise-linear statistical regression procedure. Statistics for Tb are obtained from a set of cloud radiative models representing a wide variety of convective, stratiform, and anvil structures. The retrieval scheme itself determines which cloud model best fits the observed meteorological conditions. Retrieved rainfall rate profiles are converted to equivalent radar reflectivity for comparison with observed reflectivities from a ground-based research radar. Results for two case studies, a stratiform rain situation and an intense convective thunderstorm, show that the radiometrically derived profiles capture the major features of the observed vertical structure of hydrometer density.

  13. Towards the Temperature Retrieval by Using Airborne Microwave Radiometer Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jian; Schreier, Franz; Kenntner, Mareike; Szajkowski, Michal; Fix, Andreas; Trautmann, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    Atmospheric temperature is a key geophysical parameter when dealing with the atmosphere in areas such as climatology and meteorology. In general, thermal emissions of molecular lines (e.g. oxygen, carbon dioxide) can be used for the determination of the temperature profile. The superheterodyne radiometer MTP (Microwave Temperature Profiler) passively detects thermal emission from oxygen lines at a selection of frequencies between 55-60 GHz by scanning the atmosphere from near zenith to near nadir in the flight direction. The MTP instrument was designed to observe the vertical temperature distribution over the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) with a good temporal and spatial resolution. The instrument was originally developed at NASA's JPL and has been recently flown on DLR's HALO research aircraft.To estimate the temperature profile from microwave measurements (e.g. provided by MTP), the retrieval algorithm TIRAMISU (Temperature Inversion Algorithm for Microwave Sounding) has been developed at DLR and is currently used to conduct the data processing of the MTP measurements. This study performs the retrievals from the MTP data with a focus on the ML-CIRRUS mission. The corresponding retrieval performance is investigated by associated error characterization and external comparisons with other ground-based and satellite observations. These observations are important to resolve a variety of phenomena in the UTLS region and to potentially improve the temperature spaceborne soundings.

  14. Control of airborne and liquid-borne fungal and pet allergens using microwave irradiation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yan; Yao, Maosheng

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the dog, cat allergens (Can f 1 and Fel d 1) and fungal allergens (Alt a 1 and Asp f 1) were aerosolized and exposed to the microwave irradiation (2450 MHz) at different output powers for up to 2 min. The allergen bioaerosols were collected by a BioSampler, and analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Control and microwave-irradiated Asp f 1 allergens were also tested with IgEs in human blood sera samples. For airborne Asp f 1 and Alt a 1 allergens, the allergenicity was shown to decrease about 50% when exposed to microwave irradiation at 385 and 119 W and relatively no change at 700 W. For airborne Can f 1 allergen, the allergenicity was shown to increase about 70% when exposed to the irradiation at 385 W, but remained relatively unchanged at 700 and 119 W. In contrast, airborne Fel d 1 allergen was observed to lose allergenicity completely at 700 W, and retained about 40% and 80% at 385 and 119 W, respectively. Radioallergosorbent (RAST) tests showed that changes detected in IgE levels in human blood sera mixtures were not statistically significant for the control and microwave-irradiated waterborne Asp f 1 allergens. This study implies that although certain allergenicity reductions were observed for some allergens in certain cases, particular care should be taken when the microwave irradiation is used to disinfect food, water, and air because of its complex effects.

  15. Real-time remote detection and measurement for airborne imaging spectroscopy: a case study with methane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, D. R.; Leifer, I.; Bovensmann, H.; Eastwood, M.; Fladeland, M.; Frankenberg, C.; Gerilowski, K.; Green, R. O.; Kratwurst, S.; Krings, T.; Luna, B.; Thorpe, A. K.

    2015-06-01

    Localized anthropogenic sources of atmospheric CH4 are highly uncertain and temporally variable. Airborne remote measurement is an effective method to detect and quantify these emissions. In a campaign context, the science yield can be dramatically increased by real-time retrievals that allow operators to coordinate multiple measurements of the most active areas. This can improve science outcomes for both single- and multiple-platform missions. We describe a case study of the NASA/ESA CO2 and Methane Experiment (COMEX) campaign in California during June and August/September 2014. COMEX was a multi-platform campaign to measure CH4 plumes released from anthropogenic sources including oil and gas infrastructure. We discuss principles for real-time spectral signature detection and measurement, and report performance on the NASA Next Generation Airborne Visible Infrared Spectrometer (AVIRIS-NG). AVIRIS-NG successfully detected CH4 plumes in real-time at Gb s-1 data rates, characterizing fugitive releases in concert with other in situ and remote instruments. The teams used these real-time CH4 detections to coordinate measurements across multiple platforms, including airborne in situ, airborne non-imaging remote sensing, and ground-based in situ instruments. To our knowledge this is the first reported use of real-time trace gas signature detection in an airborne science campaign, and presages many future applications.

  16. Remote sensing of soil moisture using airborne hyperspectral data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Institute for Technology Development (ITD) has developed an airborne hyperspectral sensor system that collects electromagnetic reflectance data of the terrain. The system consists of sensors for three different sections of the electromagnetic spectrum; the Ultra-Violet (UV), Visible/Near Infrare...

  17. Airborne Remote Sensing of River Flow and Morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuckerman, S.; Anderson, S. P.; McLean, J.; Redford, R.

    2014-12-01

    River morphology, surface slope and flow are some of the fundamental measurements required for surface water monitoring and hydrodynamic research. This paper describes a method of combining bathymetric lidar with space-time processing of mid-wave infrared (MWIR) imagery to simultaneously measure bathymetry, currents and surface slope from an airborne platform. In May 2014, Areté installed a Pushbroom Imaging Lidar for Littoral Surveillance (PILLS) and a FLIR SC8000 MWIR imaging system sampling at 2 Hz in a small twin-engine aircraft. Data was collected over the lower Colorado River between Picacho Park and Parker. PILLS is a compact bathymetric lidar based on streak-tube sensor technology. It provides channel and bank topography and water surface elevation at 1 meter horizontal scales and 25 cm vertical accuracy. Surface currents are derived from the MWIR imagery by tracking surface features using a cross correlation algorithm. This approach enables the retrieval of currents along extended reaches at the forward speed of the aircraft with spatial resolutions down to 5 m with accuracy better than 10 cm/s. The fused airborne data captures current and depth variability on scales of meters over 10's of kilometers collected in just a few minutes. The airborne MWIR current retrievals are combined with the bathymetric lidar data to calculate river discharge which is then compared with real-time streamflow stations. The results highlight the potential for improving our understanding of complex river environments with simultaneous collections from multiple airborne sensors.

  18. Airborne Dial Remote Sensing of the Arctic Ozone Layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wirth, Martin; Renger, Wolfgang; Ehret, Gerhard

    1992-01-01

    A combined ozone and aerosol LIDAR was developed at the Institute of Physics of the Atmosphere at the DLR in Oberpfaffenhofen. It is an airborne version, that, based on the DIAL-principle, permits the recording of two-dimensional ozone profiles. This presentation will focus on the ozone-part; the aerosol subsection will be treated later.

  19. Daily evapotranspiration estimates from extrapolating instantaneous airborne remote sensing ET values

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, six extrapolation methods have been compared for their ability to estimate daily crop evapotranspiration (ETd) from instantaneous latent heat flux estimates derived from digital airborne multispectral remote sensing imagery. Data used in this study were collected during an experiment...

  20. Remote sensing for non-renewable resources - Satellite and airborne multiband scanners for mineral exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goetz, Alexander F. H.

    1986-01-01

    The application of remote sensing techniques to mineral exploration involves the use of both spatial (morphological) as well as spectral information. This paper is directed toward a discussion of the uses of spectral image information and emphasizes the newest airborne and spaceborne sensor developments involving imaging spectrometers.

  1. A high-resolution airborne four-camera imaging system for agricultural remote sensing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper describes the design and testing of an airborne multispectral digital imaging system for remote sensing applications. The system consists of four high resolution charge coupled device (CCD) digital cameras and a ruggedized PC equipped with a frame grabber and image acquisition software. T...

  2. An airborne multispectral imaging system based on two consumer-grade cameras for agricultural remote sensing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper describes the design and evaluation of an airborne multispectral imaging system based on two identical consumer-grade cameras for agricultural remote sensing. The cameras are equipped with a full-frame complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) sensor with 5616 × 3744 pixels. One came...

  3. Airborne Remote Sensing of the Plata Plume Using STARRS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    USING STARRSTabare Perez (Compania Industrial de Tabacos), Joel Wesson and Derek Burrage (Naval Research Laboratory) explain how a microwave radiometer... Industrial de Tabacos Monte Paz SA C. Montevideo, Uruguay Joel Wesson Oceanographer and Derek Burrage Oceanographer Ocean Sciences Branch Naval Research...coverage. de Mantenimiento , Servicio de Sen- of Research and De- garsores Remotos y Aeroespaciales and velopment, Compa- oraResults Escuadr6n de

  4. The Australian National Airborne Field Experiment 2005: Soil Moisture Remote Sensing at 60 Meter Resolution and Up

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, E. J.; Walker, J. P.; Panciera, R.; Kalma, J. D.

    2006-01-01

    Spatially-distributed soil moisture observations have applications spanning a wide range of spatial resolutions from the very local needs of individual farmers to the progressively larger areas of interest to weather forecasters, water resource managers, and global climate modelers. To date, the most promising approach for space-based remote sensing of soil moisture makes use of passive microwave emission radiometers at L-band frequencies (1-2 GHz). Several soil moisture-sensing satellites have been proposed in recent years, with the European Space Agency's Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission scheduled to be launched first in a couple years. While such a microwave-based approach has the advantage of essentially allweather operation, satellite size limits spatial resolution to 10's of km. Whether used at this native resolution or in conjunction with some type of downscaling technique to generate soil moisture estimates on a finer-scale grid, the effects of subpixel spatial variability play a critical role. The soil moisture variability is typically affected by factors such as vegetation, topography, surface roughness, and soil texture. Understanding and these factors is the key to achieving accurate soil moisture retrievals at any scale. Indeed, the ability to compensate for these factors ultimately limits the achievable spatial resolution and/or accuracy of the retrieval. Over the last 20 years, a series of airborne campaigns in the USA have supported the development of algorithms for spaceborne soil moisture retrieval. The most important observations involved imagery from passive microwave radiometers. The early campaigns proved that the retrieval worked for larger and larger footprints, up to satellite-scale footprints. These provided the solid basis for proposing the satellite missions. More recent campaigns have explored other aspects such as retrieval performance through greater amounts of vegetation. All of these campaigns featured extensive ground

  5. Soil surface roughness characterization for microwave remote sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzahn, P.; Rieke-Zapp, D.; Ludwig, R.

    2012-04-01

    With this poster we present a simple and efficient method to measure soil surface roughness in an agricultural environment. Micro scale soil surface roughness is a crucial parameter in many environmental applications. In recent studies it is strongly recognized that soil surface roughness significantly influences the backscatter of agricultural surface, especially on bare fields. Indeed, while different roughness indices depend on their measurement length, no satisfying roughness parametrization and measurement technique has been found yet, introducing large uncertainty in the interpretation of the radar backscattering. In this study, we introduce a photogrammetric system which consists of a customized consumer grade Canon EOS 5d camera and a reference frame providing ground control points. With the system one can generate digital surface models (DSM) with a minimum size of 1 x 2.5 m2, extendable to any desired size, with a ground x,y- resolution of 2 mm. Using this approach, we generated a set of DSM with sizes ranging from 2.5 m2 to 22 m2, acquired over different roughness conditions representing ploughed, harrowed as well as crusted fields on different test sites. For roughness characterization we calculated in microwave remote sensing common roughness indices such as the RMS- height s and the autocorrelation length l. In an extensive statistical investigation we show the behavior of the roughness indices for different acquisition sizes of the proposed method. Results indicate, compared to results from profiles generated out of the dataset, that using a three dimensional measuring device, the calculated roughness indices are more robust in their estimation. In addition, a strong directional dependency of the proposed roughness indices was observed which could be related to the orientation of the seedbed rows to the acqusition direction. In a geostatistical analysis, we decomposed the acquired roughness indices into different scales, yielding a roughness quantity

  6. Radiometer system requirements for microwave remote sensing from satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juang, Jeng-Nan

    1990-01-01

    An area of increasing interest is the establishment of a significant research program in microwave remote sensing from satellites, particularly geosynchronous satellites. Due to the relatively small resolution cell sizes, a severe requirement is placed on beam efficiency specifications for the radiometer antenna. Geostationary satellite microwave radiometers could continuously monitor several important geophysical parameters over the world's oceans. These parameters include the columnar content of atmospheric liquid water (both cloud and rain) and water vapor, air temperature profiles, and possibly sea surface temperature. Two principle features of performance are of concern. The first is the ability of the radiometer system to resolve absolute temperatures with a very small absolute error, a capability that depends on radiometer system stability, on frequency bandwidth, and on footprint dwell time. The second is the ability of the radiometer to resolve changes in temperature from one resolution cell to the next when these temperatures are subject to wide variation over the overall field-of-view of the instrument. Both of these features are involved in the use of the radiometer data to construct high-resolution temperature maps with high absolute accuracy.

  7. Laser airborne remote sensing real-time acquisition, processing, and control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Brian T.; Pierson, Robert E.; Dropka, T. J.; Dowling, James A.; Lang, L. M.; Fox, Marsha J.

    1997-10-01

    The US Air Force Phillips Laboratory is evaluating the feasibility of long-standoff-range remote sensing of gaseous species present in trace amounts in the atmosphere. Extensive system integration in the laboratory and an airborne test are leading to remote sensing ground test and airborne missions within the next year. This paper describes the design, external interfaces. and initial performance of the Laser Airborne Remote Sensing acquisition, processing, and control system to be deployed on the Phillips Laboratory NC-135 research aircraft for differential absorption lidar system performance tests. The dual-CPU VME-based real-time computer system synchronizes experiment timing and pulsed CO2 laser operation up to 30 Hz while controlling optical subsystem components such as a laser grating, receiver gain, mirror alignment, and laser shutters. This real-time system acquires high rate detector signals from the outgoing and return laser pulses as well as a low rate health and status signals form the optical bench and the aircraft. Laser pulse and status data are processed and displayed in real time on one of four graphical user interfaces: one devoted to system control, one to remote mirror alignment, and two other interfaces for real-time data analysis and diagnostics. The dual-CPU and multi- layered software decouple time critical and non-critical tasks allowing great flexibility in flight-time display and processing.

  8. Microwave Remote Sensing Modeling of Ocean Surface Salinity and Winds Using an Empirical Sea Surface Spectrum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yueh, Simon H.

    2004-01-01

    Active and passive microwave remote sensing techniques have been investigated for the remote sensing of ocean surface wind and salinity. We revised an ocean surface spectrum using the CMOD-5 geophysical model function (GMF) for the European Remote Sensing (ERS) C-band scatterometer and the Ku-band GMF for the NASA SeaWinds scatterometer. The predictions of microwave brightness temperatures from this model agree well with satellite, aircraft and tower-based microwave radiometer data. This suggests that the impact of surface roughness on microwave brightness temperatures and radar scattering coefficients of sea surfaces can be consistently characterized by a roughness spectrum, providing physical basis for using combined active and passive remote sensing techniques for ocean surface wind and salinity remote sensing.

  9. Airborne remote sensing to detect greenbug stress to wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetation indices calculated from the quantity of reflected electromagnetic radiation have been used to quantify levels of stress to plants. Greenbugs cause stress to wheat plants and therefore multi-spectral remote sensing may be useful for detecting greenbug infested wheat fields. The objective...

  10. Remote Sensing of Soil Moisture Using Airborne Hyperspectral Data

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 14-02-2012 2. REPORT TYPE Journal Article 3. DATES COVERED /From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Remote Sensing of Soil...Murchie, S. L., Oden, S. F, Hayes, J. R., Bell, J. F, Krein, S. J., and A. Mastandrea, 1997, "Near Infrared Spectrometer for the near Earth Asteroid

  11. Passive microwave remote sensing of forests: A model investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrazzoli, P.; Guerriero, L.

    1996-03-01

    In the recent years, several studies have been carried out to investigate the potential of microwave sensors in forest parameter monitoring. A stimulus has been given by the increasing impact of some environmental problems, like desertification, climatic change, and carbon dioxide concentration. These problems have some connections with forests extension and health; on the other hand, optical systems, which proved their effectiveness in sensing leaf parameters, are not able to sense the woody biomass. A model, based on the radiative transfer theory and the matrix doubling algorithm, is described and used to compute the emissivity e of forests. According to model simulations, the L-band emissivity trend versus forest biomass is more gradual than that of the backscatter coefficient. This gradual behavior is observed, in absence of leaves, also at C and X bands, while leaves anticipate saturation and make e higher in coniferous forests and lower in deciduous forests. Model results are successfully validated by some available experimental data. Operational aspects, concerning the potential of airborne and spaceborne radiometers in identifying forest type and estimating biomass, are discussed.

  12. Airborne antenna coverage requirements for the TCV B-737 aircraft. [for operation with microwave landing systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Southall, W. A., Jr.; White, W. F.

    1978-01-01

    The airborne antenna line of sight look angle requirement for operation with a Microwave Landing System (MLS) was studied. The required azimuth and elevation line of sight look angles from an antenna located on an aircraft to three ground based antenna sites at the Wallops Flight Center (FPS-16 radar, MLS aximuth, and MLS elevation) as the aircraft follows specific approach paths selected as representative of MLS operations at the Denver, Colorado, terminal area are presented. These required azimuth and elevation look angles may be interpreted as basic design requirements for antenna of the TCV B-737 airplane for MLS operations along these selected approach paths.

  13. Microwave remote sensing in atmospheric research and meteorology (invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunzi, K.

    Remote sensing techniques to investigate the atmosphere are widely used. Sensors operating in the microwave range (wavelength from 10 to 0.1 cm) of the electromagnetic spectrum were among the first instruments used on the ground and on air- and space borne platforms for this purpose. These instruments measure the thermal emission from molecular resonances or use the absorption and scattering properties of water droplets or particles to obtain information on atmospheric parameters and composition. In the seventies the sensors NEMS and SCAMS on the Nimbus-5 and 6 satellites have demonstrated the big advantage of these instruments to obtain temperature profiles, amounts of water vapor and liquid water nearly unaffected by cloud coverage. The frequency bands and observing geometries selected for these early instruments are still used to day very successfully for the operational sensors on the polar orbiting satellites of the DMSP and NOAA series. In the eighties and nineties the very much improved sensor technology allowed to extend the spectral range to wavelength near 0.01 cm. It is now possible to observe key constituents of importance in atmospheric chemistry, and in particular related to stratospheric ozone. Such sensors have been flown on UARS (MLS), several space shuttle missions (MAS) and on stratospheric balloons using limb sounding geometry, and also on research aircraft (NASA DC-9, the DLR Falcon and others), furthermore microwave radiometers are considered key sensors for the ground based, global Network for the Detection of Stratospheric Change (NDSC). The next generation of sensors on future satellites such as AURA (MLS) and the international space station (SMILES) are making use of higher frequencies and superconducting receiver technology. This will allow to measure more minor constituents with higher accuracy and better temporal resolution. Today the receiver technology is very mature down to wavelength of 0.03 cm. Planned future applications include a

  14. Microwave spectroscopy of chemical warfare agents: prospects for remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samuels, Alan C.; Jensen, James O.; Suenram, Richard D.; Hight Walker, Angela R.; Woolard, Dwight L.

    1999-07-01

    The high level of interest in the sensor development community in millimeter wave technology development demonstrates the potential for several multipurpose applications of millimeter wave sensors. The potential for remote sensing of hazardous chemical materials based on their millimeter wave rotational signatures is yet another possible applications, offering certain distinct advantages over FTIR remote sensing. The high specificity of the rotational spectra to the molecular structures affords the capability of detecting chemical warfare (CW) agents and degradation products in complex mixtures including water vapor and smoke, an important consideration in military applications. Furthermore, the rotational modes are not complicated by electronic or vibrational transitions, reducing the potential for false alarms. We have conducted microwave spectroscopic measurements on two CW nerve agents (sarin and soman) and one blister agent (H-mustard). The assignment of the observed band furnishes us with an extremely accurate tool for predicting the rotational spectrum of these agents at any arbitrary frequency. By factoring in the effects of pressure (Lorentzian broadening and intensity reduction), we present the predicted spectral signatures of the CW agents in the 80 - 300 GHz region. This frequency regime is important for atmospheric monitoring as it exploits the wide bandwidth capability of millimeter wave sensors as well as the atmospheric windows that occur in this region.

  15. Airborne remote sensing for geology and the environment; present and future

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watson, Ken; Knepper, Daniel H.

    1994-01-01

    In 1988, a group of leading experts from government, academia, and industry attended a workshop on airborne remote sensing sponsored by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and hosted by the Branch of Geophysics. The purpose of the workshop was to examine the scientific rationale for airborne remote sensing in support of government earth science in the next decade. This report has arranged the six resulting working-group reports under two main headings: (1) Geologic Remote Sensing, for the reports on geologic mapping, mineral resources, and fossil fuels and geothermal resources; and (2) Environmental Remote Sensing, for the reports on environmental geology, geologic hazards, and water resources. The intent of the workshop was to provide an evaluation of demonstrated capabilities, their direct extensions, and possible future applications, and this was the organizational format used for the geologic remote sensing reports. The working groups in environmental remote sensing chose to present their reports in a somewhat modified version of this format. A final section examines future advances and limitations in the field. There is a large, complex, and often bewildering array of remote sensing data available. Early remote sensing studies were based on data collected from airborne platforms. Much of that technology was later extended to satellites. The original 80-m-resolution Landsat Multispectral Scanner System (MSS) has now been largely superseded by the 30-m-resolution Thematic Mapper (TM) system that has additional spectral channels. The French satellite SPOT provides higher spatial resolution for channels equivalent to MSS. Low-resolution (1 km) data are available from the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration's AVHRR system, which acquires reflectance and day and night thermal data daily. Several experimental satellites have acquired limited data, and there are extensive plans for future satellites including those of Japan (JERS), Europe (ESA), Canada

  16. Airborne Remote Sensing (ARS) for Agricultural Research and Commercialization Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narayanan, Ram; Bowen, Brent D.; Nickerson, Jocelyn S.

    2002-01-01

    Tremendous advances in remote sensing technology and computing power over the last few decades are now providing scientists with the opportunity to investigate, measure, and model environmental patterns and processes with increasing confidence. Such advances are being pursued by the Nebraska Remote Sensing Facility, which consists of approximately 30 faculty members and is very competitive with other institutions in the depth of the work that is accomplished. The development of this facility targeted at applications, commercialization, and education programs in the area of precision agriculture provides a unique opportunity. This critical area is within the scope of NASA goals and objectives of NASA s Applications, Technology Transfer, Commercialization, and Education Division and the Earth Science Enterprise. This innovative integration of Aerospace (Aeronautics) Technology Enterprise applications with other NASA enterprises serves as a model of cross-enterprise transfer of science with specific commercial applications.

  17. Real-time remote detection and measurement for airborne imaging spectroscopy: a case study with methane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, D. R.; Leifer, I.; Bovensmann, H.; Eastwood, M.; Fladeland, M.; Frankenberg, C.; Gerilowski, K.; Green, R. O.; Kratwurst, S.; Krings, T.; Luna, B.; Thorpe, A. K.

    2015-10-01

    Localized anthropogenic sources of atmospheric CH4 are highly uncertain and temporally variable. Airborne remote measurement is an effective method to detect and quantify these emissions. In a campaign context, the science yield can be dramatically increased by real-time retrievals that allow operators to coordinate multiple measurements of the most active areas. This can improve science outcomes for both single- and multiple-platform missions. We describe a case study of the NASA/ESA CO2 and MEthane eXperiment (COMEX) campaign in California during June and August/September 2014. COMEX was a multi-platform campaign to measure CH4 plumes released from anthropogenic sources including oil and gas infrastructure. We discuss principles for real-time spectral signature detection and measurement, and report performance on the NASA Next Generation Airborne Visible Infrared Spectrometer (AVIRIS-NG). AVIRIS-NG successfully detected CH4 plumes in real-time at Gb s-1 data rates, characterizing fugitive releases in concert with other in situ and remote instruments. The teams used these real-time CH4 detections to coordinate measurements across multiple platforms, including airborne in situ, airborne non-imaging remote sensing, and ground-based in situ instruments. To our knowledge this is the first reported use of real-time trace-gas signature detection in an airborne science campaign, and presages many future applications. Post-analysis demonstrates matched filter methods providing noise-equivalent (1σ) detection sensitivity for 1.0 % CH4 column enhancements equal to 141 ppm m.

  18. Changing scale: from site thorough landscape to taskscape within airborne remote sensing perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostyrko, Mikołaj; RÄ czkowski, Włodzimierz; Ruciński, Dominik

    2016-08-01

    In consequence of a long tradition, archaeologists focus on individual sites and features and not landscape itself. We propose to perceive the landscape as a taskscapes, a space where tasks are performed, by that its own identity is created. Airborne remote sensing methods establish a possibility of studies on a larger scale of and to perceive places as context for landscapes and vice versa. On the other hand we would like to draw attention to identification of paleoenvironment features in the context of past landscapes. Although it is not always possible to determine the relationship between these element and traces of past human activities, we must be aware that in the past they had and influence on human behavior. In this paper will address the question: how much do airborne remote sensing data through the ability to change the scale of our perspective upon archaeological sites and their local landscapes alter or enrich interpretation of the context of past human activities.

  19. Flight Tests of the DELICAT Airborne LIDAR System for Remote Clear Air Turbulence Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrancken, Patrick; Wirth, Martin; Ehret, Gerhard; Witschas, Benjamin; Veerman, Henk; Tump, Robert; Barny, Hervé; Rondeau, Philippe; Dolfi-Bouteyre, Agnès; Lombard, Laurent

    2016-06-01

    An important aeronautics application of lidar is the airborne remote detection of Clear Air Turbulence which cannot be performed with onboard radar. We report on a DLR-developed lidar system for the remote detection of such turbulent areas in the flight path of an aircraft. The lidar, consisting of a high-power UV laser transmitter and a direct detection system, was installed on a Dutch research aircraft. Flight tests executed in 2013 demonstrated the performance of the lidar system to detect local subtle variations in the molecular backscatter coefficient indicating the turbulence some 10 to 15 km ahead.

  20. Airborne remote sensors applied to engineering geology and civil works design investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gelnett, R. H.

    1975-01-01

    The usefulness of various airborne remote sensing systems in the detection and identification of regional and specific geologic structural features that may affect the design and location of engineering structures on major civil works projects is evaluated. The Butler Valley Dam and Blue Lake Project in northern California was selected as a demonstration site. Findings derived from the interpretation of various kinds of imagery used are given.

  1. ASPIS, A Flexible Multispectral System for Airborne Remote Sensing Environmental Applications

    PubMed Central

    Papale, Dario; Belli, Claudio; Gioli, Beniamino; Miglietta, Franco; Ronchi, Cesare; Vaccari, Francesco Primo; Valentini, Riccardo

    2008-01-01

    Airborne multispectral and hyperspectral remote sensing is a powerful tool for environmental monitoring applications. In this paper we describe a new system (ASPIS) composed by a 4-CCD spectral sensor, a thermal IR camera and a laser altimeter that is mounted on a flexible Sky-Arrow airplane. A test application of the multispectral sensor to estimate durum wheat quality is also presented. PMID:27879875

  2. Earth Science Microwave Remote Sensing at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Edward; Busalacchi, Antonio J. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) was established as NASA's first space flight center in 1959. Its 12,000 personnel are active in the Earth and space sciences, astronomy, space physics, tracking and communications. GSFC's mission is to expand our knowledge of the Earth and its environment, the solar system, and the universe through observations from space. The main Goddard campus is located in Greenbelt, Maryland, USA, just north of Washington, D.C. The Wallops Flight Facility (operational since 1945), located on the Atlantic coast of Virginia was consolidated with the Goddard Space Flight Center in 1982. Wallops is now NASA's principal facility for management and implementation of suborbital research programs, and supports a wide variety of airborne science missions as well. As the lead Center for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise (ESE)--a long-term, coordinated research effort to study the Earth as a global environmental system--GSFC scientists and engineers are involved in a wide range of Earth Science remote sensing activities. Their activities range from basic geoscience research to the development of instruments and technology for space missions, as well as the associated Calibration/Validation (Cal/Val) work. The shear breadth of work in these areas precludes an exhaustive description here. Rather, this article presents selected brief overviews of microwave-related Earth Science applications and the ground-based, airborne, and space instruments that are in service, under development, or otherwise significantly involving GSFC. Likewise, contributing authors are acknowledged for each section, but the results and projects they describe represent the cumulative efforts of many persons at GSFC as well as at collaborating institutions. For further information, readers are encouraged to consult the listed websites and references.

  3. Design and performance simulations for an airborne DIAL system for long-range remote sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowling, James A.; Kelly, Brian T.; Gonglewski, John D.; Fox, Marsha J.; Shilko, Michael L.; Higdon, Noah S.; Highland, Ronald G.; Senft, Daniel C.; Dean, David R.; Blackburn, John P.; Pierrottet, Diego F.

    1997-01-01

    The U.S. Air Force Phillips Laboratory is evaluating the feasibility of long-standoff-range remote sensing of gaseous species present in trace amounts in the atmosphere. To date, the Phillips Laboratory program has been concerned with the preliminary design and performance analysis of a commercially available CO(subscript 2) laser-based DIAL system operating from mountain-top-observatory and airborne platform and more recently with long-range ground testing using a 21.8 km slant path from 3.05 km ASL to sea level as the initial steps in the design and development of an airborne system capability. Straightforward scaling of the performance of a near-term technology direct-detection LIDAR system with propagation range to a topographic target and with the average atmospheric absorption coefficient along the path has been performed. Results indicate that useful airborne operation of such a system should be possible for slant path ranges between 20 km and 50 km, depending upon atmospheric transmission at the operating wavelengths of the (superscript 13)C(superscript 16)O(subscript 2) source. This paper describes the design of the airborne system which will be deployed on the Phillips Laboratory NC-135 research aircraft for DIAL system performance tests at slant ranges of 20 km to 50 km, scheduled for the near future. Performance simulations for the airborne tests will be presented and related to performance obtained during initial ground-based tests.

  4. AIRBORNE, OPTICAL REMOTE SENSING OF METHANE AND ETHANE FOR NATURAL GAS PIPELINE LEAK DETECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Jerry Myers

    2003-11-12

    Ophir Corporation was awarded a contract by the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory under the Project Title ''Airborne, Optical Remote Sensing of Methane and Ethane for Natural Gas Pipeline Leak Detection'' on October 14, 2002. This second six-month technical report summarizes the progress made towards defining, designing, and developing the hardware and software segments of the airborne, optical remote methane and ethane sensor. The most challenging task to date has been to identify a vendor capable of designing and developing a light source with the appropriate output wavelength and power. This report will document the work that has been done to identify design requirements, and potential vendors for the light source. Significant progress has also been made in characterizing the amount of light return available from a remote target at various distances from the light source. A great deal of time has been spent conducting laboratory and long-optical path target reflectance measurements. This is important since it helps to establish the overall optical output requirements for the sensor. It also reduces the relative uncertainty and risk associated with developing a custom light source. The data gathered from the optical path testing has been translated to the airborne transceiver design in such areas as: fiber coupling, optical detector selection, gas filters, and software analysis. Ophir will next, summarize the design progress of the transceiver hardware and software development. Finally, Ophir will discuss remaining project issues that may impact the success of the project.

  5. Application of airborne hyperspectral remote sensing for the retrieval of forest inventory parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dmitriev, Yegor V.; Kozoderov, Vladimir V.; Sokolov, Anton A.

    2016-04-01

    Collecting and updating forest inventory data play an important part in the forest management. The data can be obtained directly by using exact enough but low efficient ground based methods as well as from the remote sensing measurements. We present applications of airborne hyperspectral remote sensing for the retrieval of such important inventory parameters as the forest species and age composition. The hyperspectral images of the test region were obtained from the airplane equipped by the produced in Russia light-weight airborne video-spectrometer of visible and near infrared spectral range and high resolution photo-camera on the same gyro-stabilized platform. The quality of the thematic processing depends on many factors such as the atmospheric conditions, characteristics of measuring instruments, corrections and preprocessing methods, etc. An important role plays the construction of the classifier together with methods of the reduction of the feature space. The performance of different spectral classification methods is analyzed for the problem of hyperspectral remote sensing of soil and vegetation. For the reduction of the feature space we used the earlier proposed stable feature selection method. The results of the classification of hyperspectral airborne images by using the Multiclass Support Vector Machine method with Gaussian kernel and the parametric Bayesian classifier based on the Gaussian mixture model and their comparative analysis are demonstrated.

  6. Potential Application of Airborne Passive Microwave Observations for Monitoring Inland Flooding Caused by Tropical Cyclones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hood, Robbie E.; Radley, C.D.; LaFontaine, F.J.

    2008-01-01

    Inland flooding from tropical cyclones can be a significant factor in storm-related deaths in the United States and other countries. Information collected during NASA tropical cyclone field studies suggest surface water and flooding induced by tropical cyclone precipitation can be detected and therefore monitored using passive microwave airborne radiometers. In particular, the 10.7 GHz frequency of the NASA Advanced Microwave Precipitation Radiometer (AMPR) flown on the NASA ER-2 has demonstrated high resolution detection of anomalous surface water and flooding in numerous situations. This presentation will highlight the analysis of three cases utilizing primarily satellite and airborne radiometer data. Radiometer data from the 1998 Third Convection and Moisture Experiment (CAMEX-3) are utilized to detect surface water during landfalling Hurricane Georges in both the Dominican Republic and Louisiana. A third case is landfalling Tropical Storm Gert in Eastern Mexico during the Tropical Cloud Systems and Processes (TCSP) experiment in 2005. AMPR data are compared to topographic data and vegetation indices to evaluate the significance of the surface water signature visible in the 10.7 GHz information. The results of this study suggest the benefit of an aircraft 10 GHz radiometer to provide real-time observations of surface water conditions as part of a multi-sensor flood monitoring network.

  7. Analytical and Numerical Studies of Active and Passive Microwave Ocean Remote Sensing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-09-30

    of both analytical and efficient numerical methods for electromagnetics and hydrodynamics. New insights regarding these phenomena can then be applied to improve microwave active and passive remote sensing of the ocean surface.

  8. Active-Passive Microwave Remote Sensing of Martian Permafrost and Subsurface Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raizer, V.; Linkin, V. M.; Ozorovich, Y. R.; Smythe, W. D.; Zoubkov, B.; Babkin, F.

    2000-01-01

    The investigation of permafrost formation global distribution and their appearance in h less than or equal 1 m thick subsurface layer would be investigated successfully by employment of active-passive microwave remote sensing techniques.

  9. Airborne test flight of HY-2A satellite microwave scatterometer and data analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Juhong; Guo, Maohua; Cui, Songxue; Zhou, Wu

    2017-01-01

    This paper introduces the background, aim, experimental design, configuration and data processing for an airborne test flight of the HY-2 Microwave scatterometer (HSCAT). The aim was to evaluate HSCAT performance and a developed data processing algorithm for the HSCAT before launch. There were three test flights of the scatterometer, on January 15, 18 and 22, 2010, over the South China Sea near Lingshui, Hainan. The test flights successfully generated simultaneous airborne scatterometer normalized radar cross section (NRCS), ASCAT wind, and ship-borne-measured wind datasets, which were used to analyze HSCAT performance. Azimuthal dependence of the NRCS relative to the wind direction was nearly cos(2w), with NRCS minima at crosswind directions, and maxima near upwind and downwind. The NRCS also showed a small difference between upwind and downwind directions, with upwind crosssections generally larger than those downwind. The dependence of airborne scatterometer NRCS on wind direction and speed showed favorable consistency with the NASA scatterometer geophysical model function (NSCAT GMF), indicating satisfactory HSCAT performance.

  10. Microwave Remote Sensing of Soil Moisture for Estimation of Soil Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattikalli, Nandish M.; Engman, Edwin T.; Jackson, Thomas J.

    1997-01-01

    Surface soil moisture dynamics was derived using microwave remote sensing, and employed to estimate soil physical and hydraulic properties. The L-band ESTAR radiometer was employed in an airborne campaign over the Little Washita watershed, Oklahoma during June 10-18, 1992. Brightness temperature (TB) data were employed in a soil moisture inversion algorithm which corrected for vegetation and soil effects. Analyses of spatial TB and soil moisture dynamics during the dry-down period revealed a direct relationship between changes in TB, soil moisture and soil texture. Extensive regression analyses were carried out which yielded statistically significant quantitative relationships between ratio of percent sand to percent clay (RSC, a term derived to quantify soil texture) and saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat) in terms of change components of TB and surface soil moisture. Validation of results indicated that both RSC and Ksat can be estimated with reasonable accuracy. These findings have potential applications for deriving spatial distributions of RSC and Ksat over large areas.

  11. Diacetyl emissions and airborne dust from butter flavorings used in microwave popcorn production.

    PubMed

    Boylstein, Randy; Piacitelli, Chris; Grote, Ardith; Kanwal, Richard; Kullman, Greg; Kreiss, Kathleen

    2006-10-01

    In microwave popcorn workers, exposure to butter flavorings has been associated with fixed obstructive lung disease resembling bronchiolitis obliterans. Inhalation toxicology studies have shown severe respiratory effects in rats exposed to vapors from a paste butter flavoring, and to diacetyl, a diketone found in most butter flavorings. To gain a better understanding of worker exposures, we assessed diacetyl emissions and airborne dust levels from butter flavorings used by several microwave popcorn manufacturing companies. We heated bulk samples of 40 different butter flavorings (liquids, pastes, and powders) to approximately 50 degrees C and used gas chromatography, with a mass selective detector, to measure the relative abundance of volatile organic compounds emitted. Air sampling was conducted for diacetyl and for total and respirable dust during the mixing of powder, liquid, or paste flavorings with heated soybean oil at a microwave popcorn plant. To further examine the potential for respiratory exposures to powders, we measured dust generated during different simulated methods of manual handling of several powder butter flavorings. Powder flavorings were found to give off much lower diacetyl emissions than pastes or liquids. The mean diacetyl emissions from liquids and pastes were 64 and 26 times larger, respectively, than the mean of diacetyl emissions from powders. The median diacetyl emissions from liquids and pastes were 364 and 72 times larger, respectively, than the median of diacetyl emissions from powders. Fourteen of 16 powders had diacetyl emissions that were lower than the diacetyl emissions from any liquid flavoring and from most paste flavorings. However, simulated handling of powder flavorings showed that a substantial amount of the airborne dust generated was of respirable size and could thus pose its own respiratory hazard. Companies that use butter flavorings should consider substituting flavorings with lower diacetyl emissions and the use of

  12. A Preview of AMSR: Airborne C-band Microwave Radiometer (ACMR) Observations from SGP99

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Edward; Doiron, Terence; Principe, Caleb; Gong, Lei; Shiue, James

    2000-01-01

    Although L-band is generally considered ideal for passive microwave sensing of soil moisture, near-future satellite observing systems such as Advanced Mechanically Scanned Radiometer (AMSR) will provide C-band data for several years before any L-band data might become available. The Southern Great Plains'99 (SGP99) Experiment was designed to generate C-band observations suitable for testing and refinement of AMSR-era soil moisture retrieval algorithms. C-band data collected using the Airborne C-band Microwave Radiometer (ACMR), a new high-accuracy NASA/GSFC instrument, clearly demonstrated a strong response to a 9-day drydown event as well as to differences between the northern (cooler & wetter) and southern (warmer & dryer) areas covered by the P-3 flights. For example, the H-polarized brightness temperatures observed during the first three days of the drydown increased up to 50 K in the northern areas. These observations represent a preview of what we can expect from AMSR, albeit at 3-km spatial resolution vs. approximately 60 km for AMSR. Initial results of soil-vegetation microwave modeling will also be presented to estimate the relative contributions of soil physical temperature, canopy physical temperature, soil moisture, and canopy moisture. Significant radio-frequency interference (RFI) was evident during the experiment, and amelioration strategies will be discussed. The net effect of RFI (an upward bias in brightnesses) when averaged over an AMSR footprint is expected to be more subtle.

  13. Surface temperature and soil moisture retrieval in the Sahel from airborne multifrequency microwave radiometry

    SciTech Connect

    Calvet, J.C.

    1996-03-01

    Bipolarized microwave brightness temperatures of Sahel semiarid landscapes are analyzed at two frequencies: 5.05 and 36.5 GHz. These measurements were performed in Niger, West Africa, by the radiometer PORTOS in the framework of the Hydrologic Atmospheric Pilot Experiment in the Sahel (HAPEX-Sahel), during the end of the rainy season (August--September 1992). The airborne microwave data were collected simultaneously with radiosoundings of the atmosphere, and ground measurements of surface temperature, soil moisture, and biomass of several vegetation types. After estimating the soil roughness parameters, it is shown that two kinds of vegetation canopies must be considered: sparse canopies and patchy canopies including bare soil strips. The mixed soil vegetation microwave emission is analyzed using a random continuous approach. The sparse canopy emission is efficiently described by considering the vegetation layer as homogeneous. Conversely, a simple soil-vegetation mixing equation must be used for the patchy canopies. The problem with retrieving the canopy temperature and the near-surface soil moisture is addressed. For every canopy, soil moisture retrieval is possible. Soil moisture maps are proposed. The canopy temperature can also be retrieved with good accuracy provided both vertical (v) and horizontal (h) polarizations are available. It is shown that the retrieved variables can be used to separate landscape units through a classification procedure.

  14. Aerosol Optical Retrieval and Surface Reflectance from Airborne Remote Sensing Data over Land

    PubMed Central

    Bassani, Cristiana; Cavalli, Rosa Maria; Pignatti, Stefano

    2010-01-01

    Quantitative analysis of atmospheric optical properties and surface reflectance can be performed by applying radiative transfer theory in the Atmosphere-Earth coupled system, for the atmospheric correction of hyperspectral remote sensing data. This paper describes a new physically-based algorithm to retrieve the aerosol optical thickness at 550nm (τ550) and the surface reflectance (ρ) from airborne acquired data in the atmospheric window of the Visible and Near-Infrared (VNIR) range. The algorithm is realized in two modules. Module A retrieves τ550 with a minimization algorithm, then Module B retrieves the surface reflectance ρ for each pixel of the image. The method was tested on five remote sensing images acquired by an airborne sensor under different geometric conditions to evaluate the reliability of the method. The results, τ550 and ρ, retrieved from each image were validated with field data contemporaneously acquired by a sun-sky radiometer and a spectroradiometer, respectively. Good correlation index, r, and low root mean square deviations, RMSD, were obtained for the τ550 retrieved by Module A (r2 = 0.75, RMSD = 0.08) and the ρ retrieved by Module B (r2 ≤ 0.9, RMSD ≤ 0.003). Overall, the results are encouraging, indicating that the method is reliable for optical atmospheric studies and the atmospheric correction of airborne hyperspectral images. The method does not require additional at-ground measurements about at-ground reflectance of the reference pixel and aerosol optical thickness. PMID:22163558

  15. Aerosol optical retrieval and surface reflectance from airborne remote sensing data over land.

    PubMed

    Bassani, Cristiana; Cavalli, Rosa Maria; Pignatti, Stefano

    2010-01-01

    Quantitative analysis of atmospheric optical properties and surface reflectance can be performed by applying radiative transfer theory in the Atmosphere-Earth coupled system, for the atmospheric correction of hyperspectral remote sensing data. This paper describes a new physically-based algorithm to retrieve the aerosol optical thickness at 550 nm (τ(550)) and the surface reflectance (ρ) from airborne acquired data in the atmospheric window of the Visible and Near-Infrared (VNIR) range. The algorithm is realized in two modules. Module A retrieves τ(550) with a minimization algorithm, then Module B retrieves the surface reflectance ρ for each pixel of the image. The method was tested on five remote sensing images acquired by an airborne sensor under different geometric conditions to evaluate the reliability of the method. The results, τ(550) and ρ, retrieved from each image were validated with field data contemporaneously acquired by a sun-sky radiometer and a spectroradiometer, respectively. Good correlation index, r, and low root mean square deviations, RMSD, were obtained for the τ(550) retrieved by Module A (r(2) = 0.75, RMSD = 0.08) and the ρ retrieved by Module B (r(2) ≤ 0.9, RMSD ≤ 0.003). Overall, the results are encouraging, indicating that the method is reliable for optical atmospheric studies and the atmospheric correction of airborne hyperspectral images. The method does not require additional at-ground measurements about at-ground reflectance of the reference pixel and aerosol optical thickness.

  16. AIRBORNE, OPTICAL REMOTE SENSING OF METHANE AND ETHANE FOR NATURAL GAS PIPLINE LEAK DETECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Jerry Myers

    2004-05-12

    Ophir Corporation was awarded a contract by the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory under the Project Title ''Airborne, Optical Remote Sensing of Methane and Ethane for Natural Gas Pipeline Leak Detection'' on October 14, 2002. The third six-month technical report contains a summary of the progress made towards finalizing the design and assembling the airborne, remote methane and ethane sensor. The vendor has been chosen and is on contract to develop the light source with the appropriate linewidth and spectral shape to best utilize the Ophir gas correlation software. Ophir has expanded upon the target reflectance testing begun in the previous performance period by replacing the experimental receiving optics with the proposed airborne large aperture telescope, which is theoretically capable of capturing many times more signal return. The data gathered from these tests has shown the importance of optimizing the fiber optic receiving fiber to the receiving optic and has helped Ophir to optimize the design of the gas cells and narrowband optical filters. Finally, Ophir will discuss remaining project issues that may impact the success of the project.

  17. Active/Passive Remote Sensing of the Ocean Surface at Microwave Frequencies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-09-30

    This report summarizes research activities and results obtained under grant N000l4-99-1-0627 "Active/Passive Remote Sensing of the Ocean Surface at...Measurements were completed during April 1999 by the Microwave Remote Sensing Laboratory at the University of Massachusetts.

  18. Tunnel-Site Selection by Remote Sensing Techniques

    DTIC Science & Technology

    A study of the role of remote sensing for geologic reconnaissance for tunnel-site selection was commenced. For this study, remote sensing was defined...conventional remote sensing . Future research directions are suggested, and the extension of remote sensing to include airborne passive microwave

  19. Data processing of remotely sensed airborne hyperspectral data using the Airborne Processing Library (APL): Geocorrection algorithm descriptions and spatial accuracy assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, Mark A.; Taylor, Benjamin H.; Grant, Michael G.; Shutler, Jamie D.

    2014-03-01

    Remote sensing airborne hyperspectral data are routinely used for applications including algorithm development for satellite sensors, environmental monitoring and atmospheric studies. Single flight lines of airborne hyperspectral data are often in the region of tens of gigabytes in size. This means that a single aircraft can collect terabytes of remotely sensed hyperspectral data during a single year. Before these data can be used for scientific analyses, they need to be radiometrically calibrated, synchronised with the aircraft's position and attitude and then geocorrected. To enable efficient processing of these large datasets the UK Airborne Research and Survey Facility has recently developed a software suite, the Airborne Processing Library (APL), for processing airborne hyperspectral data acquired from the Specim AISA Eagle and Hawk instruments. The APL toolbox allows users to radiometrically calibrate, geocorrect, reproject and resample airborne data. Each stage of the toolbox outputs data in the common Band Interleaved Lines (BILs) format, which allows its integration with other standard remote sensing software packages. APL was developed to be user-friendly and suitable for use on a workstation PC as well as for the automated processing of the facility; to this end APL can be used under both Windows and Linux environments on a single desktop machine or through a Grid engine. A graphical user interface also exists. In this paper we describe the Airborne Processing Library software, its algorithms and approach. We present example results from using APL with an AISA Eagle sensor and we assess its spatial accuracy using data from multiple flight lines collected during a campaign in 2008 together with in situ surveyed ground control points.

  20. Remote classification from an airborne camera using image super-resolution.

    PubMed

    Woods, Matthew; Katsaggelos, Aggelos

    2017-02-01

    The image processing technique known as super-resolution (SR), which attempts to increase the effective pixel sampling density of a digital imager, has gained rapid popularity over the last decade. The majority of literature focuses on its ability to provide results that are visually pleasing to a human observer. In this paper, we instead examine the ability of SR to improve the resolution-critical capability of an imaging system to perform a classification task from a remote location, specifically from an airborne camera. In order to focus the scope of the study, we address and quantify results for the narrow case of text classification. However, we expect the results generalize to a large set of related, remote classification tasks. We generate theoretical results through simulation, which are corroborated by experiments with a camera mounted on a DJI Phantom 3 quadcopter.

  1. Fourth Airborne Geoscience Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The focus of the workshop was on how the airborne community can assist in achieving the goals of the Global Change Research Program. The many activities that employ airborne platforms and sensors were discussed: platforms and instrument development; airborne oceanography; lidar research; SAR measurements; Doppler radar; laser measurements; cloud physics; airborne experiments; airborne microwave measurements; and airborne data collection.

  2. Experiment of monitoring thermal discharge drained from nuclear plant through airborne infrared remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Difeng; Pan, Delu; Li, Ning

    2009-07-01

    The State Development and Planning Commission has approved nuclear power projects with the total capacity of 23,000 MW. The plants will be built in Zhejiang, Jiangsu, Guangdong, Shandong, Liaoning and Fujian Province before 2020. However, along with the nuclear power policy of accelerated development in our country, the quantity of nuclear plants and machine sets increases quickly. As a result the environment influence of thermal discharge will be a problem that can't be slid over. So evaluation of the environment influence and engineering simulation must be performed before station design and construction. Further more real-time monitoring of water temperature need to be arranged after fulfillment, reflecting variety of water temperature in time and provided to related managing department. Which will help to ensure the operation of nuclear plant would not result in excess environment breakage. At the end of 2007, an airborne thermal discharge monitoring experiment has been carried out by making use of MAMS, a marine multi-spectral scanner equipped on the China Marine Surveillance Force airplane. And experimental subject was sea area near Qin Shan nuclear plant. This paper introduces the related specification and function of MAMS instrument, and decrypts design and process of the airborne remote sensing experiment. Experiment showed that applying MAMS to monitoring thermal discharge is viable. The remote sensing on a base of thermal infrared monitoring technique told us that thermal discharge of Qin Shan nuclear plant was controlled in a small scope, never breaching national water quality standard.

  3. Remote Sensing of Wind Fields and Aerosol Distribution with Airborne Scanning Doppler Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothermel, Jeffry; Cutten, Dean R.; Johnson, Steven C.; Jazembski, Maurice; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The coherent Doppler laser radar (lidar), when operated from an airborne platform, is a unique tool for the study of atmospheric and surface processes and features. This is especially true for scientific objectives requiring measurements in optically-clear air, where other remote sensing technologies such as Doppler radar are typically at a disadvantage. The atmospheric lidar remote sensing groups of several US institutions, led by Marshall Space Flight Center, have developed an airborne coherent Doppler lidar capable of mapping the wind field and aerosol structure in three dimensions. The instrument consists of an eye-safe approx. 1 Joule/pulse lidar transceiver, telescope, scanner, inertial measurement unit, and flight computer system to orchestrate all subsystem functions and tasks. The scanner is capable of directing the expanded lidar beam in a variety of ways, in order to extract vertically-resolved wind fields. Horizontal resolution is approx. 1 km; vertical resolution is even finer. Winds are obtained by measuring backscattered, Doppler-shifted laser radiation from naturally-occurring aerosol particles (of order 1 micron diameter). Measurement coverage depends on aerosol spatial distribution and composition. Velocity accuracy has been verified to be approx. 1 meter per second. A variety of applications have been demonstrated during the three flight campaigns conducted during 1995-1998. Examples will be shown during the presentation. In 1995, boundary layer winds over the ocean were mapped with unprecedented resolution. In 1996, unique measurements were made of. flow over the complex terrain of the Aleutian Islands; interaction of the marine boundary layer jet with the California coastal mountain range; a weak dry line in Texas - New Mexico; the angular dependence of sea surface scattering; and in-flight radiometric calibration using the surface of White Sands National Monument. In 1998, the first measurements of eyewall and boundary layer winds within a

  4. AIRBORNE, OPTICAL REMOTE SENSING OF METHANE AND ETHANE FOR NATURAL GAS PIPELINE LEAK DETECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Jerry Myers

    2003-05-13

    Ophir Corporation was awarded a contract by the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory under the Project Title ''Airborne, Optical Remote Sensing of Methane and Ethane for Natural Gas Pipeline Leak Detection'' on October 14, 2002. This six-month technical report summarizes the progress for each of the proposed tasks, discusses project concerns, and outlines near-term goals. Ophir has completed a data survey of two major natural gas pipeline companies on the design requirements for an airborne, optical remote sensor. The results of this survey are disclosed in this report. A substantial amount of time was spent on modeling the expected optical signal at the receiver at different absorption wavelengths, and determining the impact of noise sources such as solar background, signal shot noise, and electronic noise on methane and ethane gas detection. Based upon the signal to noise modeling and industry input, Ophir finalized the design requirements for the airborne sensor, and released the critical sensor light source design requirements to qualified vendors. Responses from the vendors indicated that the light source was not commercially available, and will require a research and development effort to produce. Three vendors have responded positively with proposed design solutions. Ophir has decided to conduct short path optical laboratory experiments to verify the existence of methane and absorption at the specified wavelength, prior to proceeding with the light source selection. Techniques to eliminate common mode noise were also evaluated during the laboratory tests. Finally, Ophir has included a summary of the potential concerns for project success and has established future goals.

  5. Peformance evaluation of a passive microwave imaging system. [for remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcallum, W. E.

    1973-01-01

    A test program was conducted to evaluate the passive microwave imaging system for possible application in the NASA Earth Resources Program. In addition to test data analysis, the report gives a brief description of the radiometer, its software, and the ground support equipment. The microwave image quality is adequate for remote sensing applications studies. Instrument problems are described, and suggestions are given for possible improvements and potential applications.

  6. Microwave remote sensing of snow experiment description and preliminary results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulaby, F. T. (Principal Investigator); Stiles, W. H.; Hanson, B. C.

    1977-01-01

    The active and passive microwave responses to snow were investigated at a site near Steamboat Springs, Colorado during the February and March winter months. The microwave equipment was mounted atop truck-mounted booms. Data were acquired at numerous frequencies, polarizations, and angles of incidence for a variety of snow conditions. The experiment description, the characteristics of the microwave and ground truth instruments, and the results of a preliminary analysis of a small portion of the total data volume acquired in Colorado are documented.

  7. Synergy between optical and microwave remote sensing to derive soil and vegetation parameters from MAC Europe 1991 Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taconet, O.; Benallegue, M.; Vidal, A.; Vidal-Madjar, D.; Prevot, L.; Normand, M.

    1993-01-01

    The ability of remote sensing for monitoring vegetation density and soil moisture for agricultural applications is extensively studied. In optical bands, vegetation indices (NDVI, WDVI) in visible and near infrared reflectances are related to biophysical quantities as the leaf area index, the biomass. In active microwave bands, the quantitative assessment of crop parameters and soil moisture over agricultural areas by radar multiconfiguration algorithms remains prospective. Furthermore the main results are mostly validated on small test sites, but have still to be demonstrated in an operational way at a regional scale. In this study, a large data set of radar backscattering has been achieved at a regional scale on a French pilot watershed, the Orgeval, along two growing seasons in 1988 and 1989 (mainly wheat and corn). The radar backscattering was provided by the airborne scatterometer ERASME, designed at CRPE, (C and X bands and HH and VV polarizations). Empirical relationships to estimate water crop and soil moisture over wheat in CHH band under actual field conditions and at a watershed scale are investigated. Therefore, the algorithms developed in CHH band are applied for mapping the surface conditions over wheat fields using the AIRSAR and TMS images collected during the MAC EUROPE 1991 experiment. The synergy between optical and microwave bands is analyzed.

  8. Airborne spacecraft - A remotely powered, high-altitude RPV for environmental applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youngblood, J. W.; Darnell, W. L.; Johnson, R. W.; Harriss, R. C.

    1979-01-01

    A high-altitude, unmanned, propeller-driven electric airplane is proposed for remote sensing of environmental phenomena. With motive power from surface-mounted solar arrays or microwave receivers, flight endurance of weeks to months could be anticipated. The proposed system offers unique capability for monitoring oceanic and atmospheric characteristics on local or regional scales. Coastal marine and tropospheric research activities, which require temporal resolutions of 2-72 hours, would be prime application areas. Potential missions might include the monitoring of ocean disposals, episodic marine biological events, and river/ocean interactions. Preliminary sizing and performance calculations are presented along with possible mission scenarios and payload complements.

  9. A survey of natural aggregate properties and characteristics important in remote sensing and airborne geophysics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knepper, D.H.; Langer, W.H.; Miller, S.

    1995-01-01

    Natural aggregate is vital to the construction industry. Although natural aggregate is a high volume/low value commodity that is abundant, new sources are becoming increasingly difficult to find and develop because of rigid industry specifications, political considerations, development and transportation costs, and environmental concerns. There are two primary sources of natural aggregate: (1) exposed or near-surface bedrock that can be crushed, and (2) deposits of sand and gravel. Remote sensing and airborne geophysics detect surface and near-surface phenomena, and may be useful for detecting and mapping potential aggregate sources; however, before a methodology for applying these techniques can be developed, it is necessary to understand the type, distribution, physical properties, and characteristics of natural aggregate deposits. The distribution of potential aggregate sources is closely tied to local geologic history. Conventional exploration for natural aggregate deposits has been largely a ground-based operation, although aerial photographs and topographic maps have been extensively used to target possible deposits. Today, the exploration process also considers factors such as the availability of the land, space and water supply for processing, political and environmental factors, and distance from the market; exploration and planning cannot be separated. There are many physical properties and characteristics by which to judge aggregate material for specific applications; most of these properties and characteristics pertain only to individual aggregate particles. The application of remote sensing and airborne geophysical measurements to detecting and mapping potential aggregate sources, however, is based on intrinsic bulk physical properties and extrinsic characteristics of the deposits that can be directly measured, mathematically derived from measurement, or interpreted with remote sensing and geophysical data. ?? 1995 Oxford UniversityPress.

  10. Airborne Deployment and Calibration of Microwave Atmospheric Sounder on 6U CubeSat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padmanabhan, S.; Brown, S. T.; Lim, B.; Kangaslahti, P.; Russell, D.; Stachnik, R. A.

    2015-12-01

    To accurately predict how the distribution of extreme events may change in the future we need to understand the mechanisms that influence such events in our current climate. Our current observing system is not well-suited for observing extreme events globally due to the sparse sampling and in-homogeneity of ground-based in-situ observations and the infrequent revisit time of satellite observations. Observations of weather extremes, such as extreme precipitation events, temperature extremes, tropical and extra-tropical cyclones among others, with temporal resolution on the order of minutes and spatial resolution on the order of few kms (<10 kms), are required for improved forecasting of extreme weather events. We envision a suite of low-cost passive microwave sounding and imaging sensors on CubeSats that would work in concert with traditional flagship observational systems, such as those manifested on large environmental satellites (i.e. JPSS,WSF,GCOM-W), to monitor weather extremes. A 118/183 GHz sensor would enable observations of temperature and precipitation extremes over land and ocean as well as tropical and extra-tropical cyclones. This proposed project would enable low cost, compact radiometer instrumentation at 118 and 183 GHz that would fit in a 6U Cubesat with the objective of mass-producing this design to enable a suite of small satellites to image the key geophysical parameters needed to improve prediction of extreme weather events. We take advantage of past and current technology developments at JPL viz. HAMSR (High Altitude Microwave Scanning Radiometer), Advanced Component Technology (ACT'08) to enable low-mass, low-power high frequency airborne radiometers. In this paper, we will describe the design and implementation of the 118 GHz temperature sounder and 183 GHz humidity sounder on the 6U CubeSat. In addition, we will discuss the maiden airborne deployment of the instrument during the Plain Elevated Convection at Night (PECAN) experiment. The

  11. Satellite Remote Sensing: Passive-Microwave Measurements of Sea Ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parkinson, Claire L.; Zukor, Dorothy J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Satellite passive-microwave measurements of sea ice have provided global or near-global sea ice data for most of the period since the launch of the Nimbus 5 satellite in December 1972, and have done so with horizontal resolutions on the order of 25-50 km and a frequency of every few days. These data have been used to calculate sea ice concentrations (percent areal coverages), sea ice extents, the length of the sea ice season, sea ice temperatures, and sea ice velocities, and to determine the timing of the seasonal onset of melt as well as aspects of the ice-type composition of the sea ice cover. In each case, the calculations are based on the microwave emission characteristics of sea ice and the important contrasts between the microwave emissions of sea ice and those of the surrounding liquid-water medium.

  12. Estimating vegetation optical depth using L-band passive microwave airborne data in HiWATER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qi; Chai, Linna

    2014-11-01

    In this study, a relationship between polarization differences of soil emissivity at different incidence angles was constructed from a large quantity of simulated soil emissivity based on the Advanced Integrated Emission Model (AIEM) input parameters include: a frequency of 1.4 GHz (L-band), incident angles varying from 1°to 60° at a 1° interval, a wide range of soil moisture content and land surface roughness parameters. Then, we used this relationship and the ω-τ zero-order radiation transfer model to develop an inversion method of low vegetation optical depth at L-band, this work were under the assumption that there was no significant polarization difference between the vegetation signals. Based on this inversion method of low vegetation optical depth, we used the land surface passive microwave brightness temperature of Heihe Watershed obtained by airborne Polarimetric L-band Multibeam Radiometer (PLMR) in 2012 Heihe Watershed Allied Telemetry Experimental Research (HiWATER) to retrieve the corn optical depth in the flight areas, then the results were compared with the measured corn LAI. Results show that the retrieved corn optical depths were consisted with the measured LAI of corn. It proved that the corn optical depth inversion method proposed in this study was feasible. Moreover, the method was promising to apply to the satellite observations.

  13. Linking changes in dynamic cotton canopy to passive microwave remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tien, Kai-Jen Calvin

    Soil moisture is one of the most important variables in land-atmosphere processes. It determines how precipitation partitions into infiltration, surface runoff, and groundwater recharge. Additionally, soil moisture is important in partitioning the available energy into the latent and sensible heat fluxes at the land surface. The control of soil moisture is the key mechanism for the feedback mechanisms between land and atmospheric fluxes. Accurate estimates of these land surface fluxes are essential for understanding and quantifying the global, regional, and local hydrological cycles. Even though the biophysics of moisture and energy transport is captured in most current Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere-Transfer (SVAT) models that provide estimates of soil moisture, the computational errors accumulate over time and the model estimates diverge from reality. One promising way to significantly improve model estimates of soil moisture is by assimilating remotely sensed data that are sensitive to soil moisture, for example, microwave brightness temperatures, and updating the model state variables. The microwave brightness at low frequencies is very sensitive to soil moisture in the top few centimeters in most vegetated surfaces. Most of the passive microwave brightness experiments for soil moisture retrieval conducted in agricultural terrains have been short-term experiments that captured only parts of the growing season. Knowledge for the interactions between microwave brightness signatures and changes in soil moisture and temperatures for a dynamic agricultural canopy, such as cotton, is very important during the whole growing season. Microwave brightness (MB) models simulating the terrain emission provide the opportunity to relate microwave signatures to soil moisture information. An integrated SVAT and MB model provides the opportunity to direct assimilate microwave remote sensing observations. The goal of this dissertation is to develop a MB model that can be used to

  14. Remote, non-contacting personnel bio-identification using microwave radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGrath, William R. (Inventor); Talukder, Ashit (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A system to remotely identify a person by utilizing a microwave cardiogram, where some embodiments segment a signal representing cardiac beats into segments, extract features from the segments, and perform pattern identification of the segments and features with a pre-existing data set. Other embodiments are described and claimed.

  15. [Remote sensing of chlorophyll fluorescence at airborne level based on unmanned airship platform and hyperspectral sensor].

    PubMed

    Yang, Pei-Qi; Liu, Zhi-Gang; Ni, Zhuo-Ya; Wang, Ran; Wang, Qing-Shan

    2013-11-01

    The solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (ChlF) has a close relationship with photosynthetic and is considered as a probe of plant photosynthetic activity. In this study, an airborne fluorescence detecting system was constructed by using a hyperspectral imager on board an unmanned airship. Both Fraunhofer Line Discriminator (FLD) and 3FLD used to extract ChlF require the incident solar irradiance, which is always difficult to receive at airborne level. Alternative FLD (aFLD) can overcome the problem by selecting non-fluorescent emitter in the image. However, aFLD is based on the assumption that reflectance is identical around the Fraunhofer line, which is not realistic. A new method, a3FLD, is proposed, which assumes that reflectance varies linearly with the wavelength around Fraunhofer line. The result of simulated data shows that ChlF retrieval error of a3FLD is significantly lower than that of aFLD when vegetation reflectance varies near the Fraunhofer line. The results of hyperspectral remote sensing data with the airborne fluorescence detecting system show that the relative values of retrieved ChlF of 5 kinds of plants extracted by both aFLD and a3FLD are consistent with vegetation growth stage and the ground-level ChlF. The ChlF values of aFLD are about 15% greater than a3FLD. In addition, using aFLD, some non-fluorescent objects have considerable ChlF value, while a3FLD can effectively overcome the problem.

  16. Studying groundwater and surface water interactions using airborne remote sensing in Heihe River basin, northwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, C.; Liu, J.; Hu, Y.; Zheng, C.

    2015-05-01

    Managing surface water and groundwater as a unified system is important for water resource exploitation and aquatic ecosystem conservation. The unified approach to water management needs accurate characterization of surface water and groundwater interactions. Temperature is a natural tracer for identifying surface water and groundwater interactions, and the use of remote sensing techniques facilitates basin-scale temperature measurement. This study focuses on the Heihe River basin, the second largest inland river basin in the arid and semi-arid northwest of China where surface water and groundwater undergoes dynamic exchanges. The spatially continuous river-surface temperature of the midstream section of the Heihe River was obtained by using an airborne pushbroom hyperspectral thermal sensor system. By using the hot spot analysis toolkit in the ArcGIS software, abnormally cold water zones were identified as indicators of the spatial pattern of groundwater discharge to the river.

  17. Microwave remote sensing of short-term droughts during crop growing seasons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Xing; Ma, Zhuguo; Pan, Ming; Shi, Chunxiang

    2015-06-01

    Severe short-term (monthly to seasonal) droughts frequently occurred over China in recent years, with devastating impacts on crop production. This study assesses the capability of microwave remote sensing in detecting soil moisture (agricultural) droughts over China and in providing early warnings. The 22 year (1992-2013) European Space Agency satellite soil moisture retrievals are compared against the in situ observations at 312 stations in China, the global soil moisture reanalysis, and the observed rainfall deficit. Both the reanalysis and remote sensing products can only detect less than 60% of drought months at in situ station scale, but they capture the interannual variations of short-term drought area at river basin scales quite well. As compared with reanalysis, the passive and merged microwave products have better drought detection over sparsely vegetated regions in northwestern China and the active microwave product with better vegetation penetration works the best in eastern China.

  18. The airborne Laser Absorption Spectrometer - A new instrument of remote measurement of atmospheric trace gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shumate, M. S.; Menzies, R. T.

    1978-01-01

    The Laser Absorption Spectrometer is a portable instrument developed by JPL for remote measurement of trace gases from an aircraft platform. It contains two carbon dioxide lasers, two optical heterodyne receivers, appropriate optics to aim the lasers at the ground and detect the backscattered energy, and signal processing and recording electronics. Operating in the differential-absorption mode, it is possible to monitor one atmospheric gas at a time and record the data in real time. The system can presently measure ozone, ethylene, water vapor, and chlorofluoromethanes with high sensitivity. Airborne measurements were made in early 1977 from the NASA/JPL twin-engine Beechcraft and in May 1977 from the NASA Convair 990 during the ASSESS-II Shuttle Simulation Study. These flights resulted in measurements of ozone concentrations in the lower troposphere which were compared with ground-based values provided by the Air Pollution Control District. This paper describes the details of the instrument and results of the airborne measurements.

  19. Distance measurement to high remote targets based on the airborne chaotic laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kou, Renke; Wang, Haiyan; Wu, Xueming

    2016-10-01

    According to the characteristics of chaotic laser, which has ability of novel anti-jamming, high bandwidth and detecting distance of the movement target to the millimeter precision, a modeling method of using airborne chaotic laser system to detect distance of high remote targets is proposed for the first time. The characteristics of chaotic laser and principle of interferometry distance were analyzed and the model of airborne chaotic laser ranging is established. Meanwhile, the influence of detection accuracy, which inducted by the main peak width of chaotic laser and the jamming signal is analyzed. According to the results of simulation analysis, we can get conclusions that the main factors of affecting the distance measurement are transmitted power, receiving sensitivity, and various losses of transmission medium. Autocorrelation characteristic of chaotic signal can also affect the dynamic range of the whole system. The main peak width of chaotic laser is the main factor of influencing the accuracy of measurement. However, the jamming signal affect distance measuring range and accuracy of measurement little. Finally, the model's effectiveness is proved by comparing the experience data and simulation data.

  20. Proposed Definitions of Some Technical Terms Frequently Used in Microwave Radiometry for Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiue, James C.; Zukor, Dorothy J. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The use of microwave radiometry for remote sensing is a relatively young field. As a result, there are no standard definitions of many frequently used technical terms; a lot of which are conventional usages carried-over from optical remote sensing, and a lot more are shared with electrical or microwave engineering. Sometimes the divergent notions and assumptions originating from a different field may cause ambiguity or confusions. It is proposed that we establish a list of frequently used terms, together with their 'standard' definitions and hope that they will gradually gain general acceptance by the remote sensing community. It would be even more useful if the IEEE community can set up a standard committee of sort to develop and maintain the standards. To minimize the effort, the existing terms should be kept or reinterpreted as much as possible. For example, the term 'Instantaneous Field of View' (IFOV), originally coming from the optical remote sensing field, is now appearing in microwave remote sensing literature frequently. The IFOV refers to the 'beam width' or the 'diameter' of the beam's geometrical projection on earth surface. Since the definition of 'beam width' is different for an optical system versus a microwave antenna, the use of IFOV in microwave radiometry needed to be clarified. Also, the meaning of the IFOV will be different depending upon whether the beam is scanning or not, and how the scanning takes place, e.g. 'continuous scanning' vs 'stare-and-step scan.' From this one term alone, it is clear that more subtle meanings must be spell out in detail and a 'standard' definition would help in understanding and comparing systems and data in the literature. A selected list of terms with their suggested definitions will be discussed in this presentation.

  1. Satellite remote sensing of global rainfall using passive microwave radiometry

    SciTech Connect

    Ferriday, J.G.

    1994-12-31

    Global rainfall over land and ocean is estimated using measurements of upwelling microwaves by a satellite passive microwave radiometer. Radiative transfer calculations through a cloud model are used to parameterize an inversion technique for retrieving rain rates from brightness temperatures measured by the Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I). The rainfall retrieval technique is based on the interaction between multi-spectral microwave radiances and millimeter sized liquid and frozen hydrometeors distributed in the satellite`s field of view. The rain rate algorithm is sensitive to both hydrometeor emission and scattering while being relatively insensitive to extraneous atmospheric and surface effects. Separate formulations are used over ocean and land to account for different background microwave characteristics and the algorithm corrects for inhomogeneous distributions of rain rates within the satellite`s field of view. Estimates of instantaneous and climate scale rainfall are validated through comparisons with modeled clouds, surface radars, rain gauges and alternative satellite estimates. The accuracy of the rainfall estimates is determined from a combination of validation comparisons, theoretical sampling error calculations, and modeled sensitivity to variations in atmospheric and surface radiative properties. An error budget is constructed for both instantaneous rain rates and climate scale global estimates. At a one degree resolution, the root mean square errors in instantaneous rain rate estimates are 13% over ocean and 20% over land. The root mean square errors in global rainfall totals over a four month period are found to be 46% over ocean and 63% over land. Global rainfall totals are computed on a monthly scale for a three year period from 1987 to 1990. The time series is analyzed for climate scale rainfall distribution and variability.

  2. Remote operation of microwave systems for solids content analysis and chemical dissolution in highly radioactive environments

    SciTech Connect

    Sturcken, E.F.; Floyd, T.S.; Manchester, D.P.

    1986-10-01

    Microwave systems provide quick and easy determination of solids content of samples in high-level radioactive cells. In addition, dissolution of samples is much faster when employing microwave techniques. These are great advantages because work in cells,using master-slave manipulators through leaded glass walls, is normally slower by an order of magnitude than direct contact methods. This paper describes the modifiction of a moisture/solids analyzer microwave system and a drying/digestion microwave system for remote operation in radiation environments. The moisture/solids analyzer has operated satisfactorily for over a year in a gamma radiation field of 1000 roentgens per hour and the drying/digestion system is ready for installation in a cell.

  3. Microwave remote sensing: Active and passive. Volume 3 - From theory to applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulaby, F. T.; Moore, R. K.; Fung, A. K.

    1986-01-01

    Aspects of volume scattering and emission theory are discussed, taking into account a weakly scattering medium, the Born approximation, first-order renormalization, the radiative transfer method, and the matrix-doubling method. Other topics explored are related to scatterometers and probing systems, the passive microwave sensing of the atmosphere, the passive microwave sensing of the ocean, the passive microwave sensing of land, the active microwave sensing of land, and radar remote sensing applications. Attention is given to inversion techniques, atmospheric attenuation and emission, a temperature profile retrieval from ground-based observations, mapping rainfall rates, the apparent temperature of the sea, the emission behavior of bare soil surfaces, the emission behavior of vegetation canopies, the emission behavior of snow, wind-vector radar scatterometry, radar measurements of sea ice, and the back-scattering behavior of cultural vegetation canopies.

  4. Data assimilation of an airborne multiple-remote-sensor system and of satellite images for the North Sea and Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trieschmann, Olaf; Hunsaenger, Thomas; Tufte, Lars; Barjenbruch, Ulrich

    2004-02-01

    Marine pollution in the sensible North and Baltic Sea forces an international aerial surveillance. Within this framework the German aerial surveillance operates an advanced instrumentation on board of two 'Dornier 228" aircrafts. The instrumentation consists of a set of state-of-the-art imaging remote sensors, like side looking airborne radar (SLAR), IR/UV line scanner and particularly a microwave radiometer (MWR) and a laser-fluoro-sensor (LFS). The most important aim is to detect oil discharges on the water surface, emitted accidentally or illegally. In case of discharge, the pollution has to be classified and quantified with a high accuracy. Another aim is to monitor biological and hydrological parameters, as there are the concentration of chlorophyll and dissolved organic matter (DOM) or the growth of phytoplancton. This paper describes the set of instruments and their potential to fulfill these demands. The SLAR operates to locate oil discharges and phytoplancton, whereas the IR/UV scanner allows to distinct the detected area. The IR/UV and especially the MWR sensor allow to quantify the thickness of the oil film. Finally, the LFS classifies the oil species as well as organic material. Emphasis is placed on the results of the sensor measurements and their synergy effects. The combination of the sensor data yields value added information for the operational users. An use of satellite data to improve the operational surveillance will be discussed. The potential and limitations of satellite and airborne data for the surveillance tasks will be compared.

  5. Remote Sensing of Snow-covered Sea Ice with Ultra-wideband Airborne Radars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, S.; Gogineni, P. S.; Gomez-Garcia, D.; Leuschen, C.; Hale, R.; Rodriguez-Morales, F.; Paden, J. D.; Li, J.

    2015-12-01

    The extent and thickness of sea ice and snow play a critical role in the Earth's climate system. Both sea ice and snow have high albedo and control the heat exchange between the atmosphere and ocean and atmosphere and land. In terms of hydrology, the presence of sea ice and snow modulates the flow and the salinity of ocean water. This in turn can modify the weather patterns around the globe. Understanding the formation, coverage and the properties of sea ice and snow are important for both short-term and long-term climate modeling. The advancements in high-frequency electronics and digital signal processing enabled the development of ultra-wideband radars by the Center for Remote Sensing of Ice Sheets (CReSIS) for airborne measurements of snow and ice properties over large areas. CReSIS recently developed and deployed two ultra-wideband airborne radars, namely the Multichannel Coherent Radar Depth Sounder/Imager (MCoRDS/I) and the Snow Radar. The MCoRDS/I is designed to operate over the frequency range of 180-450 MHz for sounding land ice and imaging its ice-bed interface. We also took advantage of the deployment to explore the potential of UWB MCoRDS/I in sounding sea ice and collected data on flight lines flown as part of NASA Operation IceBridge mission during Spring 2015. Preliminary results show we sounded sea ice under favorable conditions. We will perform detailed processing and analysis of data over the next few months and we will compare results obtained are compared with existing altimetry-derived data products. The new snow radar, on the other hand, operating from 2 to 18 GHz, was deployed on the NRL Twin Otter aircraft in Barrow, AK. It was shown to have a vertical resolution of down to 1.5 cm which opens up the potential for thin snow measurement on both sea ice and land. Both of these new radars will be further optimized for future airborne missions to demonstrate their capabilities for sea ice and snow measurements. We will also show new technical

  6. An Airborne A-Band Spectrometer for Remote Sensing Of Aerosol and Cloud Optical Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitts, Michael; Hostetler, Chris; Poole, Lamont; Holden, Carl; Rault, Didier

    2000-01-01

    Atmospheric remote sensing with the O2 A-band has a relatively long history, but most of these studies were attempting to estimate surface pressure or cloud-top pressure. Recent conceptual studies have demonstrated the potential of spaceborne high spectral resolution O2 A-band spectrometers for retrieval of aerosol and cloud optical properties. The physical rationale of this new approach is that information on the scattering properties of the atmosphere is embedded in the detailed line structure of the O2 A-band reflected radiance spectrum. The key to extracting this information is to measure the radiance spectrum at very high spectral resolution. Instrument performance requirement studies indicate that, in addition to high spectral resolution, the successful retrieval of aerosol and cloud properties from A-band radiance spectra will also require high radiometric accuracy, instrument stability, and high signal-to-noise measurements. To experimentally assess the capabilities of this promising new remote sensing application, the NASA Langley Research Center is developing an airborne high spectral resolution A-band spectrometer. The spectrometer uses a plane holographic grating with a folded Littrow geometry to achieve high spectral resolution (0.5 cm-1) and low stray light in a compact package. This instrument will be flown in a series of field campaigns beginning in 2001 to evaluate the overall feasibility of this new technique. Results from these campaigns should be particularly valuable for future spaceborne applications of A-band spectrometers for aerosol and cloud retrievals.

  7. Airborne full polarization radiometry using the MSFC Advanced Microwave Precipitation Radiometer (AMPR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gasiewski, Al J.; Kunkee, D. B.

    1993-01-01

    The applications of vertically and horizontally polarized brightness temperatures in both atmospheric and surface remote sensing have been long recognized by many investigators, particularly those studying SMMR and SSM/I data. Here, the large contrast between the first two Stokes' parameters (T(sub V) and T(sub H)) can be used for detection of sea ice, measurement of ocean surface wind speed, and measurement of cloud and water vapor opacity. High-resolution aircraft data from instruments such as the NASA/MSFC AMPR is crucial for verifying radiative transfer models and developing retrieval algorithms. Currently, the AMPR is outfitted with single-polarization channels at 10, 18, 37 and 85 GHz. To increase its utility, it is proposed that additional orthogonal linearly polarized channels be added to the AMPR. Since the AMPR's feedhorns are already configured for dual orthogonal linearly polarized modes, this would require only a duplication of the currently existing receivers. To circumvent the resulting polarization basis skew caused by the cross-track scanning mechanism, the technique of Electronic Polarization Basis Rotation is proposed to be implemented. Implementation of EPBR requires precise measurement of the third Stokes parameter and will eliminate polarization skew by allowing the feedhorn basis skew angle to be corrected in software. In addition to upgrading AMPR to dual polarization capability (without skew), the modifications will provide an opportunity to demonstrate EPBR on an airborne platform. This is a highly desirable intermediate step prior to satellite implementation.

  8. Observations of Atmospheric Temperature Structure from an Airborne Microwave Temperature Profiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haggerty, J. A.; Schick, K. E.; Young, K.; Lim, B.; Ahijevych, D.

    2014-12-01

    A newly-designed Microwave Temperature Profiler (MTP) was developed at JPL for the NSF-NCAR Gulfstream-V aircraft. The MTP is a scanning microwave radiometer that measures thermal emission in the 50-60 GHz oxygen complex. It scans from near-zenith to near-nadir, measuring brightness temperatures forward, above, and below the aircraft at 17 s intervals. A statistical retrieval method derives temperature profiles from the measurements, using proximate radiosonde profiles as a priori information. MTP data examples from recent experiments, comparisons with simultaneous temperature profiles from the Airborne Vertical Atmospheric Profiling System (AVAPS), and a method for blending MTP and AVAPS temperature profiles will be presented. The Mesoscale Predictability Experiment (MPEX; May-June, 2013) investigated the utility of sub-synoptic observations to extend convective-scale predictability and otherwise enhance skill in regional numerical weather prediction over short forecast periods. This project relied on MTP and AVAPS profiles to characterize atmospheric structure on fine spatial scales. Comparison of MTP profiles with AVAPS profiles confirms uncertainty specifications of MTP. A profile blending process takes advantage of the high resolution of AVAPS profiles below the aircraft while utilizing MTP profiles above the aircraft. Ongoing research with these data sets examines double tropopause structure in association with the sub-tropical jet, mountain lee waves, and fluxes at the tropopause. The attached figure shows a mountain lee wave signature in the MTP-derived isentrope field along the flight track during an east-west segment over the Rocky Mountains. A vertically propagating wave with westward tilt is evident on the leeward side of the mountains at around 38 ksec. The Deep Propagating Gravity Wave Experiment over New Zealand (DEEPWAVE; June-July, 2014) investigated the dynamics of gravity waves from the surface to the lower thermosphere. MTP and AVAPS

  9. [The progress in retrieving land surface temperature based on thermal infrared and microwave remote sensing technologies].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jia-Hua; Li, Xin; Yao, Feng-Mei; Li, Xian-Hua

    2009-08-01

    Land surface temperature (LST) is an important parameter in the study on the exchange of substance and energy between land surface and air for the land surface physics process at regional and global scales. Many applications of satellites remotely sensed data must provide exact and quantificational LST, such as drought, high temperature, forest fire, earthquake, hydrology and the vegetation monitor, and the models of global circulation and regional climate also need LST as input parameter. Therefore, the retrieval of LST using remote sensing technology becomes one of the key tasks in quantificational remote sensing study. Normally, in the spectrum bands, the thermal infrared (TIR, 3-15 microm) and microwave bands (1 mm-1 m) are important for retrieval of the LST. In the present paper, firstly, several methods for estimating the LST on the basis of thermal infrared (TIR) remote sensing were synthetically reviewed, i. e., the LST measured with an ground-base infrared thermometer, the LST retrieval from mono-window algorithm (MWA), single-channel algorithm (SCA), split-window techniques (SWT) and multi-channels algorithm(MCA), single-channel & multi-angle algorithm and multi-channels algorithm & multi-angle algorithm, and retrieval method of land surface component temperature using thermal infrared remotely sensed satellite observation. Secondly, the study status of land surface emissivity (epsilon) was presented. Thirdly, in order to retrieve LST for all weather conditions, microwave remotely sensed data, instead of thermal infrared data, have been developed recently, and the LST retrieval method from passive microwave remotely sensed data was also introduced. Finally, the main merits and shortcomings of different kinds of LST retrieval methods were discussed, respectively.

  10. Remote Sensing of Vegetation Species Diversity: The Utility of Integrated Airborne Hyperspectral and Lidar Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, Keith Stuart

    The change, reduction, or extinction of species is a major issue currently facing the Earth. Efforts are underway to measure, monitor, and protect habitats that contain high species diversity. Remote sensing technology shows extreme value for monitoring species diversity by mapping ecosystems and using those land cover maps or other derived data as proxies to species number and distribution. The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) Airborne Observation Platform (AOP) consists of remote sensing instruments such as an imaging spectrometer, a full-waveform lidar, and a high-resolution color camera. AOP collected data over the Ordway-Swisher Biological Station (OSBS) in May 2014. A majority of the OSBS site is covered by the Sandhill ecosystem, which contains a very high diversity of vegetation species and is a native habitat for several threatened fauna species. The research presented here investigates ways to analyze the AOP data to map ecosystems at the OSBS site. The research attempts to leverage the high spatial resolution data and study the variability of the data within a ground plot scale along with integrating data from the different sensors. Mathematical features are derived from the data and brought into a decision tree classification algorithm (rpart), in order to create an ecosystem map for the site. The hyperspectral and lidar features serve as proxies for chemical, functional, and structural differences in the vegetation types for each of the ecosystems. K-folds cross validation shows a training accuracy of 91%, a validation accuracy of 78%, and a 66% accuracy using independent ground validation. The results presented here represent an important contribution to utilizing integrated hyperspectral and lidar remote sensing data for ecosystem mapping, by relating the spatial variability of the data within a ground plot scale to a collection of vegetation types that make up a given ecosystem.

  11. Scanning infrared remote sensing system for identification, visualization, and quantification of airborne pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harig, Roland; Matz, Gerhard; Rusch, Peter

    2002-02-01

    Remote sensing by Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry allows detection, identification, and quantification of airborne pollutants. In the case of leaks in pipelines or leaks in chemical plants, chemical accidents, terrorism, or war, hazardous compounds are often released into the atmosphere. Various Fourier-transform infrared spectrometers have been developed for the remote detection and identification of hazardous clouds. However, for the localization of a leak and a complete assessment of the situation in the case of the release of a hazardous cloud, information about the position and the size of a cloud is essential. Therefore, an imaging passive remote sensing system comprised of an interferometer (Bruker OPAG 22), a data acquisition, processing, and control system with a digital signal processor (FTIR DSP), an azimuth-elevation-scanning mirror, a video system with a DSP, and a personal computer has been developed. The FTIR DSP system controls the scanning mirror, collects the interferograms, and performs the Fourier transformation. The spectra are transferred to a personal computer and analyzed by a real-time identification algorithm that does not require background spectra for the analysis. The results are visualized by a video image, overlaid by false color images. For each target compound of a spectral library, images of the coefficient of correlation, the signal to noise ratio, the brightness temperature of the background, the difference between the temperature of the ambient air and the brightness temperature of the background, and the noise equivalent column density are produced. The column densities of all directions in which a target compound has been identified may be retrieved by a nonlinear least squares fitting algorithm and an additional false color image is displayed. The system has a high selectivity, low noise equivalent spectral radiance, and it allows identification, visualization, and quantification of pollutant clouds.

  12. NEON: the first continental-scale ecological observatory with airborne remote sensing of vegetation canopy biochemistry and structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Brian R.; Kampe, Thomas U.; Kuester, Michele A.; Keller, Michael

    2009-08-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON), being funded by the National Science Foundation, is a continental-scale research platform for discovering, understanding and forecasting the impacts of climate change, land-use change, and invasive species on ecology. Local site-based flux tower and field measurements will be coordinated with high resolution, regional airborne remote sensing observations. The NEON Airborne Observation Platform (AOP) consists of an aircraft platform carrying remote sensing instrumentation designed to achieve sub-meter to meter scale ground resolution to bridge scales from organism and stand scales to the scale of satellite based remote sensing. Data from the AOP will be openly available to the science community and will provide quantitative information on land use change, and changes in ecological structure and chemistry including the presence and effects of invasive species. Remote sensing instrumentation consists of an imaging spectrometer measuring surface reflectance over the continuous wavelength range from 400 to 2500 nm with 10 nm resolution, a scanning, small footprint waveform LiDAR for 3-D canopy structure measurements and a high resolution airborne digital camera. The AOP science objectives, key mission requirements, the conceptual design and development status are presented.

  13. Estimation of Snow Parameters Based on Passive Microwave Remote Sensing and Meteorological Information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsang, Leung; Hwang, Jenq-Neng

    1996-01-01

    A method to incorporate passive microwave remote sensing measurements within a spatially distributed snow hydrology model to provide estimates of the spatial distribution of Snow Water Equivalent (SWE) as a function of time is implemented. The passive microwave remote sensing measurements are at 25 km resolution. However, in mountain regions the spatial variability of SWE over a 25 km footprint is large due to topographic influences. On the other hand, the snow hydrology model has built-in topographic information and the capability to estimate SWE at a 1 km resolution. In our work, the snow hydrology SWE estimates are updated and corrected using SSM/I passive microwave remote sensing measurements. The method is applied to the Upper Rio Grande River Basin in the mountains of Colorado. The change in prediction of SWE from hydrology modeling with and without updating is compared with measurements from two SNOTEL sites in and near the basin. The results indicate that the method incorporating the remote sensing measurements into the hydrology model is able to more closely estimate the temporal evolution of the measured values of SWE as a function of time.

  14. Spectroscopy underlying microwave remote sensing of atmospheric water vapor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tretyakov, M. Yu.

    2016-10-01

    The paper presents a spectroscopist's view on the problem of recovery of the atmosphere humidity profile using modern microwave radiometers. Fundamental equations, including the description of their limitations, related to modeling of atmospheric water vapor absorption are given. A review of all reported to date experimental studies aimed at obtaining corresponding numerical parameters is presented. Best estimates of these parameters related to the Voigt (Lorentz, Gross, Van Vleck - Weisskopf and other equivalent) profile based modeling of the 22- and 183-GHz water vapor diagnostic lines and to non-resonance absorption as well as corresponding uncertainties are made on the basis of their comparative analysis.

  15. Stereological characterization of dry alpine snow for microwave remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Robert E.; Dozier, Jeff

    1989-01-01

    A persistent problem in investigations of electromagnetic properties of snow, from reflectance at visible wavelengths to emission and backscattering in the microwave, has been the proper characterization of the snow's physical properties. It is suggested that the granular and laminar structure of snow can be measured in its aggregated state by stereology performed on sections prepared from snow specimens, and that these kinds of measurements can be incorporated into models of the electromagnetic properties. With careful sampling, anisotropy in the snow microstructure at various scales can be quantified. It is shown how stereological parameters can be averaged over orientation and optical depth for radiative transfer modeling.

  16. Microwave and optical remote sensing of forest vegetation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffer, R. M.; Bauer, M. E.; Biehl, L. L.; Mroczynski, R. P.

    1984-01-01

    The objectives and anticipated results of a study to define the strengths and limitations of microwave (SIR-B) and optical (thematic Mapper) data, singly and in combination, for the purpose of characterizing forest cover types and condition classes are described. Other specific objectives include: (1) the assessment of the effectiveness of a contextual classification algorithm (SECHO); (2) evaluation of the utility of different look angles of SAR data in determining differences in stand density of commercial forests; and (3) the determination of the effectiveness of the L-band HH polarized SIR-B data in differentiating forest-stand densities.

  17. Assessment of soil surface roughness characteristics at field-scale for soil erosion studies using microwave remote sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzahn, Philip; Ludwig, Ralf

    2013-04-01

    Soil surface roughness (SSR) is a crucial parameter in the assessment and modelling of soil erosion in agricultural landscapes. Still, in recent modelling efforts, roughness is usually treated as a static parameter, leading to strong simplification and data uncertainty in the description of these physical processes and the derivation of hydrological quantities. However, this simplification is not only due to the lack of theoretical process knowledge, but rather refers to the lack of appropriate roughness input data, as it is very complex to measure roughness under natural conditions. To overcome the current limitations, the performance of microwave remote sensing acquisitions is investigated to derive SSR dynamics for a whole vegetation period over several agricultural fields. As the backscattered signal of an incident microwave shows an inherent dependency from the geometric properties, e.g. the roughness conditions, of an illuminated scene, microwave remote sensing imagery shows a good potential to derive SSR for soil erosion studies sufficiently. The proposed approach utilizes airborne PolSAR data, acquired at C- and L-Band (e.g. 5.6 GHz and 1.3 GHz) for the derivation of four potential roughness estimators. In addition an extensive ground truth database of photogrammetrically measured roughness samples is used to validate the results. To characterize the in-field measurements the RMS-height s - which is the standard deviation of the heights to a reference height - was chosen. Using the best fit approach, a highly accurate assessment of SSR at field-scale could be achieved by deriving s using a linear model from the real part of the circular coherence (Re[ρRRLL]). In this presentation, we show the database of the proposed approach acquired in the framework of the AgriSAR 2006 campaign funded by the European Space Agency, ESA, as well as methods and results of the proposed approach. In addition we will discuss the results in context of soil erosion research and

  18. Regolith landform mapping based on remote sensing data and airborne geophysics in Western Burkina Faso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metelka, Vaclav; Baratoux, Lenka; Jessell, Mark; Naba, Seta

    2010-05-01

    The Precambrian granite-greenstone belts of West Africa are currently of great interest both to scientific community as well as the exploration industry. Studying and observing the geology of these ancient terrains is not an easy task mainly due to complex, deep weathering, which effectively masks the underlying bedrock. It is the weathered regolith material and its landforms that can be directly accessed by surface mapping. Knowing the distribution of these regolith landform units and understanding the processes which led to their formation is crucial for any kind of successful geological mapping or geochemical exploration project. In our research we have focused on regolith units in the Houndé and Boromo greenstone belts in Western Burkina Faso. We examined three approaches to map regolith material and subsequently regolith landform units: subpixel classification, based on spectral characteristics of indicative materials, a polarimetric segmentation of radar data, and a classification of an integrated dataset of remote sensing data and airborne gamma-ray spectrometry data. In situ spectral measurements were used to calibrate ASTER and LANDSAT scenes and served as endmember identifiers. A spectral library has been created containing over three hundred unique spectral measurements. ASTER and Landsat data were classified using the Mixture tuned matched filtering method. Wishart supervised classifier was used on ALOS PALSAR data. Classifications based on supervised maximum likelihood method and neural networks have been applied to an integrated dataset which included SRTM elevation data and airborne gamma-ray spectrometry. Feruginous duricrusts rich in hematite and goethite, clay rich mottled zones relics and fluvial sediments were mapped successfully in the region. The results were compared with existing regolith landform maps and field observations.

  19. Discrimination of soil hydraulic properties by combined thermal infrared and microwave remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandegriend, A. A.; Oneill, P. E.

    1986-01-01

    Using the De Vries models for thermal conductivity and heat capacity, thermal inertia was determined as a function of soil moisture for 12 classes of soil types ranging from sand to clay. A coupled heat and moisture balance model was used to describe the thermal behavior of the top soil, while microwave remote sensing was used to estimate the soil moisture content of the same top soil. Soil hydraulic parameters are found to be very highly correlated with the combination of soil moisture content and thermal inertia at the same moisture content. Therefore, a remotely sensed estimate of the thermal behavior of the soil from diurnal soil temperature observations and an independent remotely sensed estimate of soil moisture content gives the possibility of estimating soil hydraulic properties by remote sensing.

  20. Advanced Microwave Precipitation Radiometer (AMPR) for remote observation of precipitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galliano, J. A.; Platt, R. H.

    1990-01-01

    The design, development, and tests of the Advanced Microwave Precipitation Radiometer (AMPR) operating in the 10 to 85 GHz range specifically for precipitation retrieval and mesoscale storm system studies from a high altitude aircraft platform (i.e., ER-2) are described. The primary goals of AMPR are the exploitation of the scattering signal of precipitation at frequencies near 10, 19, 37, and 85 GHz together to unambiguously retrieve precipitation and storm structure and intensity information in support of proposed and planned space sensors in geostationary and low earth orbit, as well as storm-related field experiments. The development of AMPR will have an important impact on the interpretation of microwave radiances for rain retrievals over both land and ocean for the following reasons: (1) A scanning instrument, such as AMPR, will allow the unambiguous detection and analysis of features in two dimensional space, allowing an improved interpretation of signals in terms of cloud features, and microphysical and radiative processes; (2) AMPR will offer more accurate comparisons with ground-based radar data by feature matching since the navigation of the ER-2 platform can be expected to drift 3 to 4 km per hour of flight time; and (3) AMPR will allow underflights of the SSM/I satellite instrument with enough spatial coverage at the same frequencies to make meaningful comparisons of the data for precipitation studies.

  1. Microwave remote sensing and its application to soil moisture detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newton, R. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Experimental measurements were utilized to demonstrate a procedure for estimating soil moisture, using a passive microwave sensor. The investigation showed that 1.4 GHz and 10.6 GHz can be used to estimate the average soil moisture within two depths; however, it appeared that a frequency less than 10.6 GHz would be preferable for the surface measurement. Average soil moisture within two depths would provide information on the slope of the soil moisture gradient near the surface. Measurements showed that a uniform surface roughness similar to flat tilled fields reduced the sensitivity of the microwave emission to soil moisture changes. Assuming that the surface roughness was known, the approximate soil moisture estimation accuracy at 1.4 GHz calculated for a 25% average soil moisture and an 80% degree of confidence, was +3% and -6% for a smooth bare surface, +4% and -5% for a medium rough surface, and +5.5% and -6% for a rough surface.

  2. Developing a Scalable Remote Sampling Design for the NEON Airborne Observation Platform (AOP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musinsky, J.; Wasser, L. A.; Kampe, T. U.; Leisso, N.; Krause, K.; Petroy, S. B.; Cawse-Nicholson, K.; van Aardt, J. A.; Serbin, S.

    2013-12-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) airborne observation platform (AOP) will collect co-registered high-resolution hyperspectral imagery, discrete and waveform LiDAR, and high-resolution digital photography for more than 60 terrestrial and 23 aquatic sites spread across the continental United States, Puerto Rico, Alaska and Hawaii on an annual basis over the next 30 years. These data, to be made freely available to the public, will facilitate the scaling of field-based biological, physical and chemical measurements to regional and continental scales, enabling a better understanding of the relationships between climate variability and change, land use change and invasive species, and their ecological consequences in areas not directly sampled by the NEON facilities. However, successful up-scaling of in situ measurements requires a flight sampling design that captures environmental heterogeneity and diversity (i.e., ecological and topographic gradients), is sensitive to temporal system variation (e.g., phenology), and can respond to major disturbance events. Alignment of airborne campaigns - composed of two payloads for nominal science acquisitions and one payload for PI-driven rapid-response campaigns -- with other ground, airborne (e.g., AVIRIS) and satellite (e.g., Landsat, MODIS) collections will further facilitate scaling between sensors and data sources of varying spatial and spectral resolution and extent. This presentation will discuss the approach, challenges and future goals associated with the development of NEON AOP's sampling design, using examples from the 2013 nominal flight campaigns in the Central Plains (NEON Domain 10) and the Pacific Southwest (Domain 17), and the rapid response flight campaign of the High Park Fire site outside of Fort Collins, CO. Determination of the specific flight coverage areas for each campaign involved analysis of the landscape scale ecological, geophysical and bioclimatic attributes and trends most closely

  3. Anisotropy of thermal infrared remote sensing over urban areas : assessment from airborne data and modeling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hénon, A.; Mestayer, P.; Lagouarde, J.-P.; Lee, J. H.

    2009-09-01

    Due to the morphological complexity of the urban canopy and to the variability in thermal properties of the building materials, the heterogeneity of the surface temperatures generates a strong directional anisotropy of thermal infrared remote sensing signal. Thermal infrared (TIR) data obtained with an airborne FLIR camera over Toulouse (France) city centre during the CAPITOUL experiment (feb. 2004 - feb. 2005) show brightness temperature anisotropies ranging from 3 °C by night to more than 10 °C by sunny days. These data have been analyzed in view of developing a simple approach to correct TIR satellite remote sensing from the canopy-generated anisotropy, and to further evaluate the sensible heat fluxes. The methodology is based on the identification of 6 different classes of surfaces: roofs, walls and grounds, sunlit or shaded, respectively. The thermo-radiative model SOLENE is used to simulate, with a 1 m resolution computational grid, the surface temperatures of an 18000 m² urban district, in the same meteorological conditions as during the observation. A pixel-by-pixel comparison with both hand-held temperature measurements and airborne camera images allows to assess the actual values of the radiative and thermal parameters of the scene elements. SOLENE is then used to simulate a generic street-canyon geometry, whose sizes average the morphological parameters of the actual streets in the district, for 18 different geographical orientations. The simulated temperatures are then integrated for different viewing positions, taking into account shadowing and masking, and directional temperatures are determined for the 6 surface classes. The class ratios in each viewing direction are derived from images of the district generated by using the POVRAY software, and used to weigh the temperatures of each class and to compute the resulting directional brightness temperature at the district scale for a given sun direction (time in the day). Simulated and measured

  4. Theoretical models for microwave remote sensing of snow-covered sea ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, F. C.; Kong, J. A.; Shin, R. T.

    1987-01-01

    The volume scattering effects of snow-covered sea ice are studied with a three-layer random medium model for microwave remote sensing. Theoretical results are illustrated by matching experimental data for dry snow-covered thick first-year sea ice at Point Barrow. The radar backscattering cross sections are seen to increase with snow cover for snow-covered sea ice, due to the increased scattering effects in the snow layer. The results derived can also be applied to passive remote sensing.

  5. Modeling the Effect of Vegetation on Passive Microwave Remote Sensing of Soil Moisture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Y. P.; Inguva, R.; Crosson, W. L.; Coleman, T. L.; Laymon, C.; Fahsi, A.

    1998-01-01

    The effect of vegetation on passive microwave remote sensing of soil moisture is studied. The radiative transfer modeling work of Njoku and Kong is applied to a stratified medium of which the upper layer is treated as a layer of vegetation. An effective dielectric constant for this vegetation layer is computed using estimates of the dielectric constant of individual components of the vegetation layer. The horizontally-polarized brightness temperature is then computed as a function of the incidence angle. Model predictions are used to compare with the data obtained in the Huntsville '96, remote sensing of soil moisture experiment, and with predictions obtained using a correction procedure of Jackson and Schmugge.

  6. Active Microwave Remote Sensing Observations of Weddell Sea Ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drinkwater, Mark R.

    1997-01-01

    Since July 1991, the European Space Agency's ERS-1 and ERS-2 satellites have acquired radar data of the Weddell Sea, Antarctica. The Active Microwave Instrument on board ERS has two modes; SAR and Scatterometer. Two receiving stations enable direct downlink and recording of high bit-rate, high resolution SAR image data of this region. When not in an imaging mode, when direct SAR downlink is not possible, or when a receiving station is inoperable, the latter mode allows normalized radar cross-section data to be acquired. These low bit-rate ERS scatterometer data are tape recorded, downlinked and processed off-line. Recent advances in image generation from Scatterometer backscatter measurements enable complementary medium-scale resolution images to be made during periods when SAR images cannot be acquired. Together, these combined C-band microwave image data have for the first time enabled uninterrupted night and day coverage of the Weddell Sea region at both high (25 m) and medium-scale (-20 km) resolutions. C-band ERS-1 radar data are analyzed in conjunction with field data from two simultaneous field experiments in 1992. Satellite radar signature data are compared with shipborne radar data to extract a regional and seasonal signature database for recognition of ice types in the images. Performance of automated sea-ice tracking algorithms is tested on Antarctic data to evaluate their success. Examples demonstrate that both winter and summer ice can be effectively tracked. The kinematics of the main ice zones within the Weddell Sea are illustrated, together with the complementary time-dependencies in their radar signatures. Time-series of satellite images are used to illustrate the development of the Weddell Sea ice cover from its austral summer minimum (February) to its winter maximum (September). The combination of time-dependent microwave signatures and ice dynamics tracking enable various drift regimes to be defined which relate closely to the circulation of the

  7. Earth resources programs at the Langley Research Center. Part 1: Advanced Applications Flight Experiments (AAFE) and microwave remote sensing program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, R. N.

    1972-01-01

    The earth resources activity is comprised of two basic programs as follows: advanced applications flight experiments, and microwave remote sensing. The two programs are in various stages of implementation, extending from experimental investigations within both the AAFE program and the microwave remote sensing program, to multidisciplinary studies and planning. The purpose of this paper is simply to identify the main thrust of the Langley Research Center activity in earth resources.

  8. Supporting relief efforts of the 2010 Haitian earthquake using an airborne multimodal remote sensing platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faulring, Jason W.; McKeown, Donald M.; van Aardt, Jan; Casterline, May V.; Bartlett, Brent D.; Raqueno, Nina

    2011-06-01

    The small island nation of Haiti was devastated in early 2010 following a massive 7.0 earthquake that brought about widespread destruction of infrastructure, many deaths and large-scale displacement of the population in the nation's major cities. The World Bank and ImageCat, Inc tasked the Rochester Institute of Technology's (RIT) Wildfire Airborne Sensor Platform (WASP) to gather a multi-spectral and multi-modal assessment of the disaster over a seven-day period to be used for relief and reconstruction efforts. Traditionally, private sector aerial remote sensing platforms work on processing and product delivery timelines measured in days, a scenario that has the potential to reduce the value of the data in time-sensitive situations such as those found in responding to a disaster. This paper will describe the methodologies and practices used by RIT to deliver an open set of products typically within a twenty-four hour period from when they were initially collected. Response to the Haiti disaster can be broken down into four major sections: 1) data collection and logistics, 2) transmission of raw data from a remote location to a central processing and dissemination location, 3) rapid image processing of a massive amount of raw data, and 4) dissemination of processed data to global organizations utilizing it to provide the maximum benefit. Each section required it's own major effort to ensure the success of the overall mission. A discussion of each section will be provided along with an analysis of methods that could be implemented in future exercises to increase efficiency and effectiveness.

  9. NEON: the first continental-scale ecological observatory with airborne remote sensing of vegetation canopy biochemistry and structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kampe, Thomas U.; Johnson, Brian R.; Kuester, Michele; Keller, Michael

    2010-03-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is an ecological observation platform for discovering, understanding and forecasting the impacts of climate change, land use change, and invasive species on continental-scale ecology. NEON will operate for 30 years and gather long-term data on ecological response changes and on feedbacks with the geosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere. Local ecological measurements at sites distributed within 20 ecoclimatic domains across the contiguous United States, Alaska, Hawaii, and Puerto Rico will be coordinated with high resolution, regional airborne remote sensing observations. The Airborne Observation Platform (AOP) is an aircraft platform carrying remote sensing instrumentation designed to achieve sub-meter to meter scale ground resolution, bridging scales from organisms and individual stands to satellite-based remote sensing. AOP instrumentation consists of a VIS/SWIR imaging spectrometer, a scanning small-footprint waveform LiDAR for 3-D canopy structure measurements and a high resolution airborne digital camera. AOP data will be openly available to scientists and will provide quantitative information on land use change and changes in ecological structure and chemistry including the presence and effects of invasive species. AOP science objectives, key mission requirements, and development status are presented including an overview of near-term risk-reduction and prototyping activities.

  10. A Nadir-adjusted Airborne Multi Spectral Imaging System (NAMSIS) for high-resolution remote sensing of carbon fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Z.; Scott, S.; Rahman, A. F.

    2012-12-01

    Satellite remote sensing is widely used in vegetation monitoring, water stress detection and carbon cycle modeling. However, image pixels from high temporal resolution satellite sensors (such as MODIS) have coarse spatial resolution, much larger than the canopies they are supposed to characterize. An alternative solution for on-demand high spatial resolution remote sensing is sensors onboard low-flying aircrafts. Airborne remote sensing has been traditionally used in crop management studies. In this presentation we demonstrate the application of a relatively low-cost airborne sensor system with customized spectral band combinations for studying forest carbon fluxes. Our team has developed an Inertia Measurement Unit (IMU) controlled automated system to detach aircraft movements (pitch and roll) and engine vibration from the six-band programmable imager, in order to maintain the sensor at nadir view at all times during the flight. Flight lines are configured by a GPS-controleld system to simulate MODIS pixels. A feature-based algorithm is used to automatically generate a mosaic of individual images along the flight lines. This algorithm eliminates the need to mosiac and georeference images manually. An empirical line method is used to calculate reflectance from the raw data. Images from this airborne system produce reflectance values that are comparable with MODIS reflectance product. These high spatial resolution (~0.5 m) images deliver detailed information about tree species and phenological conditions within each MODIS pixel, and thus permit a high resolution spatio-temporal assessment of forest carbon fluxes.

  11. Remote detection of water stress in orchard canopies using MODIS/ASTER airborne simulator (MASTER) data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Tao; Riaño, David; Koltunov, Alexander; Whiting, Michael L.; Ustin, Susan L.

    2011-09-01

    Vegetation canopy water content (CWC) is an important parameter for monitoring natural and agricultural ecosystems. Previous studies focused on the observation of annual or monthly variations in CWC but lacked temporal details to study vegetation physiological activities within a diurnal cycle. This study provides an evaluation of detecting vegetation diurnal water stress using airborne data acquired with the MASTER instrument. Concurrent with the morning and afternoon acquisitions of MASTER data, an extensive field campaign was conducted over almond and pistachio orchards in southern San Joaquin Valley of California to collect CWC measurements. Statistical analysis of the field measurements indicated a significant decrease of CWC from morning to afternoon. Field measured CWC was linearly correlated to the normalized difference infrared index (NDII) calculated with atmospherically corrected MASTER reflectance data using either FLAASH or empirical line (EL). Our regression analysis demonstrated that both atmospheric corrections led to a root mean square error (RMSE) of approximately 0.035 kg/m2 for the estimation of CWC (R2=0.42 for FLAASH images and R2=0.45 for EL images). Remote detection of the subtle decline in CWC awaits an improved prediction of CWC. Diurnal CWC maps revealed the spatial patterns of vegetation water status in response to variations in irrigation treatment.

  12. Assessing stream temperature variations in the Pacific Northwest using airborne thermal infrared remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, J.; Cherkauer, K. A.

    2010-12-01

    Stream temperature is an important indicator of water quality, and a significant concern for endangered cold-water fish species in the Pacific Northwest. Thermal-infrared (TIR) remote sensing allows for the observation of water temperatures in entire river systems in a relatively short space of time, as opposed to more traditional point-based in situ observing methods that can capture only localized water conditions. Point measurements can therefore miss important spatial patterns associated with various factors including exposure to solar radiation, urbanization, changes to riparian zone vegetation, and the presence of groundwater returns and springs. In this paper, we analyze moderate resolution TIR imagery collected from an airborne platform for the Green River in Washington State. Five-meter MODIS/ASTER (MASTER) imagery along the main channel of the Green River was acquired in multiple straight line passes with image overlaps occurring at time intervals of between 3 and 30 minutes on August 25 and 27, 2001. Overlaps of two adjacent images provide a detailed comparison of how stream temperature changes over relatively short time scales, while image captured from different days help identify persistent localized temperature differences. Trees and shrubs in the riparian zone increases shading of the stream and reduces along-stream increases in temperature compared to stream reaches with reduced shading, such as urban areas. Longitudinal profiles of stream temperature from upstream to downstream show that other factors, such as sandbars and cold-water seeps, also contribute to along-stream temperature variations.

  13. Operational considerations for the application of remotely sensed forest data from LANDSAT or other airborne platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, G. R.; Fethe, T. P.

    1975-01-01

    Research in the application of remotely sensed data from LANDSAT or other airborne platforms to the efficient management of a large timber based forest industry was divided into three phases: (1) establishment of a photo/ground sample correlation, (2) investigation of techniques for multi-spectral digital analysis, and (3) development of a semi-automated multi-level sampling system. To properly verify results, three distinct test areas were selected: (1) Jacksonville Mill Region, Lower Coastal Plain, Flatwoods, (2) Pensacola Mill Region, Middle Coastal Plain, and (3) Mississippi Mill Region, Middle Coastal Plain. The following conclusions were reached: (1) the probability of establishing an information base suitable for management requirements through a photo/ground double sampling procedure, alleviating the ground sampling effort, is encouraging, (2) known classification techniques must be investigated to ascertain the level of precision possible in separating the many densities involved, and (3) the multi-level approach must be related to an information system that is executable and feasible.

  14. An airborne C-band scatterometer for remote sensing the air-sea interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclaughlin, D. J.; Pazmany, A. L.; Boltniew, E.; Hevizi, L. G.; Mcintosh, R. E.

    1989-01-01

    An airborne C-band scatterometer system (C-Scat) has been developed for remote sensing of the air-sea interface. The sensor has been designed to fly on a number of research aircraft, beginning with the NASA Ames Research Center's C-130B, on which test flights were conducted in August of 1988. The scatterometer utilizes a 10-W solid-state power amplifier and a frequency-steered microstrip array antenna which is installed beneath the fuselage of the airplane. The antenna is electrically scanned in elevation from 20 to 50 deg off nadir, and it is mechanically rotated 360 deg in azimuth. The system is fully computer controlled and is capable of accurately measuring ocean-surface normalized radar cross section (NRCS) from altitudes as high as 25,000 feet. It has been developed to study the relationship between NRCS and ocean-surface roughness influences such as wind speed and direction, wave height and slope, and air-sea temperature difference.

  15. Remote Measurements of Snowfalls in Wakasa Bay, Japan with Airborne Millimeter- wave Imaging Radiometer and Cloud Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, J. R.; Austin, R.; Liu, G. S.; Racette, P. E.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we explore the application of combined millimeter-wave radar and radiometry to remotely measure snowfall. During January-February of 2003, a field campaign was conducted with the NASA P-3 aircraft in Wakasa Bay, Japan for the validation of the AMSRE microwave radiometer on board the Aqua satellite. Among the suite of instruments-on board the P-3 aircraft were the Millimeter-wave Imaging Radiometer (MIR) from the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and the 94 GHz Airborne Cloud Radar (ACR) which is co-owned and operated by NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory/University of Massachusetts. MIR is a total power, across-track scanning radiometer that measures radiation at the frequencies of 89, 150, 183.3 +/- 1, 183.3 +/- 3, 183.3 +/-7, 220, and 340 GHz. The MIR has flown many successful missions since its completion in May 1992. ACR is a newer instrument and flew only a few times prior to the Wakasa Bay deployment. These two instruments which are particularly well suited for the detection of snowfall functioned normally during flights over snowfall and excellent data sets were acquired. On January 14, 28, and 29 flights were conducted over snowfall events. The MIR and ACR detected strong signals during periods of snowfall over ocean and land. Results from the analysis of these concurrent data sets show that (1) the scattering of millimeter-wave radiation as detected by the MIR is strongly correlated with ACR radar reflectivity profiles, and (2) the scattering is highly frequency-dependent, the higher the frequency the stronger the scattering. Additionally, the more transparent channels of the MIR (e.g., 89, 150, and 220 GHz) are found to display ambiguous signatures of snowfall because of their exposure to surface features. Thus, the snowfall detection and retrievals of snowfall parameters, such as the ice water path (IWP) and median mass diameter (D(me)) are best conducted at the more opaque channels near 183.3 GHz and 340 GHz. Retrievals of IWP and D(me) using

  16. Characterization of vegetation by microwave and optical remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daughtry, C. S. T. (Principal Investigator); Ranson, K. J.; Biehl, L. L.

    1986-01-01

    Two series of carefully controlled experiments were conducted. First, plots of important crops (corn, soybeans, and sorghum), prairie grasses (big bluestem, switchgrass, tal fescue, orchardgrass, bromegrass), and forage legumes (alfalfa, red clover, and crown vetch) were manipulated to produce wide ranges of phytomass, leaf area index, and canopy architecture. Second, coniferous forest canopies were simulated using small balsam fir trees grown in large pots of soil and arranged systematically on a large (5 m) platform. Rotating the platform produced many new canopies for frequency and spatial averaging of the backscatter signal. In both series of experiments, backscatter of 5.0 GHz (C-Band) was measured as a function of view angle and polarization. Biophysical measurements included leaf area index, fresh and dry phytomass, water content of canopy elements, canopy height, and soil roughness and moisture content. For a subset of the above plots, additional measurements were acquired to exercise microwave backscatter models. These measurements included size and shape of leaves, stems, and fruit and the probability density function of leaf and stem angles. The relationships of the backscattering coefficients and the biophysical properties of the canopies were evaluated using statistical correlations, analysis of variance, and regression analysis. Results from the corn density and balsam fir experiments are discussed and analyses of data from the other experiments are summarized.

  17. Remote Respiration Monitoring Using Ultra-wideband Microwave Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higashikatsuragi, Kenji; Nakahata, Youichiro; Matsunami, Isamu; Kajiwara, Akihiro

    Impulse based ultra-wideband radio has lately attracted considerable attention as medical monitoring sensor since it is expected to measure bio-signals of a patient on a bed such as respiration rate and heartbeat with a remote non-contact approach. It is also friendly to the environment including the human body due to the very low electromagnetic energy emission. Using conventional ranging scheme, however, high speed A/D device should be required in order to detect the small respiratory displacement. This paper suggests a respiratory monitoring scheme where the respiration rate is measured by observing the variation of the path strength from the patient. Therefore, it does not require high speed A/D. It also makes possible to design the simultaneous monitoring of multiple patients in hospital beds, for example. In this paper the measurements were conducted for various scenarios and the feasibility is discussed.

  18. A summary of microwave remote sensing investigations planned for BOREAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, Kyle C.

    1993-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem - Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) is a multidisciplinary field and remote sensing study that will be implemented jointly by the United States and Canada. The goal of BOREAS is to obtain an improved understanding of the interactions between the boreal forest biome and the atmosphere in order to clarify their roles in global change. Specific objectives are to improve the understanding of the processes that govern the exchanges of water, energy, heat, carbon, and trace gases between boreal ecosystems and the atmosphere, and to develop and validate remote sensing algorithms for transferring the understanding of these processes from local to regional scales. Two principal field sites, both within Canada, were selected. The northern site is located near Thompson, Manitoba, and the southern site encompasses Prince Albert National Park in Saskatchewan. The growing season in the northern site tends to be limited by growing-degree days while the southern site is limited by soil moisture and fire frequency. Most of the field work will occur at these two sites during 1993 and 1994 as part of six field campaigns. The first of these campaigns is scheduled for August 1993 and will involve instrument installation and an operational shakedown. Three large scale Intensive Field Campaigns (IFC's) are scheduled for 1994, along with two smaller scale Focused Field Campaigns (FFC's). The first 1994 campaign will be an FFC designed to capture the biome under completely frozen conditions during the winter. The second FFC and the first IFC are scheduled to capture the spring thaw period. Another IFC will take place in the summer during a period of maximum water stress. Finally, the third FFC will be scheduled to capture the collapse into senescence during the fall.

  19. Estimation of Soil Moisture Profile using a Simple Hydrology Model and Passive Microwave Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soman, Vishwas V.; Crosson, William L.; Laymon, Charles; Tsegaye, Teferi

    1998-01-01

    Soil moisture is an important component of analysis in many Earth science disciplines. Soil moisture information can be obtained either by using microwave remote sensing or by using a hydrologic model. In this study, we combined these two approaches to increase the accuracy of profile soil moisture estimation. A hydrologic model was used to analyze the errors in the estimation of soil moisture using the data collected during Huntsville '96 microwave remote sensing experiment in Huntsville, Alabama. Root mean square errors (RMSE) in soil moisture estimation increase by 22% with increase in the model input interval from 6 hr to 12 hr for the grass-covered plot. RMSEs were reduced for given model time step by 20-50% when model soil moisture estimates were updated using remotely-sensed data. This methodology has a potential to be employed in soil moisture estimation using rainfall data collected by a space-borne sensor, such as the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite, if remotely-sensed data are available to update the model estimates.

  20. CASI/SASI airborne hyperspectral remote sensing anomaly extraction of metallogenic prediction research in Gansu Beishan South Beach area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Che, Yongfei; Zhao, Yingjun

    2014-11-01

    Hyperspectral remote sensing has one of the technical advantages atlas. The known deposits of Gansu Beishan South Beach deposits as the study area, based on the theory of wall rock alteration, using airborne hyperspectral remote sensing data (CASI/SASI), extracted mineralization alteration information and analysis. Based on airborne hyperspectral remote sensing mineral mapping results in the study area, Combining analysising of possible mineral formation fluid properties, spatial distribution characteristics and time evolution with analysising of mineral formation environment (lithology and tectonic environment), construction of the South Beach gold deposit location model, the deposit location model as a guide, comprehensive analysis of mineralization geological background and surface geochemical data, delineated mineralization favorable areas. The field investigation showed that signs of altered development of strong in the delineation of the mineralization favorable areas and metallogenic potential of better, is worth paying attention to the prospecting target area. Further explanation that the hyperspectral remote sensing can provide accurate and reliable information for the prospecting, and is worthy of further mining the ore prospecting potential.

  1. High Spatial Resolution Airborne Multispectral Thermal Infrared Remote Sensing Data for Analysis of Urban Landscape Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Estes, Maurice G., Jr.; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    We have used airborne multispectral thermal infrared (TIR) remote sensing data collected at a high spatial resolution (i.e., 10m) over several cities in the United States to study thermal energy characteristics of the urban landscape. These TIR data provide a unique opportunity to quantify thermal responses from discrete surfaces typical of the urban landscape and to identify both the spatial arrangement and patterns of thermal processes across the city. The information obtained from these data is critical to understanding how urban surfaces drive or force development of the Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect, which exists as a dome of elevated air temperatures that presides over cities in contrast to surrounding non-urbanized areas. The UHI is most pronounced in the summertime where urban surfaces, such as rooftops and pavement, store solar radiation throughout the day, and release this stored energy slowly after sunset creating air temperatures over the city that are in excess of 2-4'C warmer in contrast with non-urban or rural air temperatures. The UHI can also exist as a daytime phenomenon with surface temperatures in downtown areas of cities exceeding 38'C. The implications of the UHI are significant, particularly as an additive source of thermal energy input that exacerbates the overall production of ground level ozone over cities. We have used the Airborne Thermal and Land Applications Sensor (ATLAS), flown onboard a Lear 23 jet aircraft from the NASA Stennis Space Center, to acquire high spatial resolution multispectral TIR data (i.e., 6 bandwidths between 8.2-12.2 (um) over Huntsville, Alabama, Atlanta, Georgia, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, Salt Lake City, Utah, and Sacramento, California. These TIR data have been used to produce maps and other products, showing the spatial distribution of heating and cooling patterns over these cities to better understand how the morphology of the urban landscape affects development of the UHI. In turn, these data have been used

  2. Microwave interferometric radiometry in remote sensing: An invited historical review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín-Neira, M.; LeVine, D. M.; Kerr, Y.; Skou, N.; Peichl, M.; Camps, A.; Corbella, I.; Hallikainen, M.; Font, J.; Wu, J.; Mecklenburg, S.; Drusch, M.

    2014-06-01

    The launch of the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission on 2 November 2009 marked a milestone in remote sensing for it was the first time a radiometer capable of acquiring wide field of view images at every single snapshot, a unique feature of the synthetic aperture technique, made it to space. The technology behind such an achievement was developed, thanks to the effort of a community of researchers and engineers in different groups around the world. It was only because of their joint work that SMOS finally became a reality. The fact that the European Space Agency, together with CNES (Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales) and CDTI (Centro para el Desarrollo Tecnológico e Industrial), managed to get the project through should be considered a merit and a reward for that entire community. This paper is an invited historical review that, within a very limited number of pages, tries to provide insight into some of the developments which, one way or another, are imprinted in the name of SMOS.

  3. Microwave Interferometric Radiometry in Remote Sensing: an Invited Historical Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin-Neira, M.; LeVine, D. M.; Kerr, Y.; Skou, N.; Peichl, M.; Camps, A.; Corbella, I.; Hallikainen, M.; Font, J.; Wu, J.; Mecklenburg, S.; Drusch, M.

    2014-01-01

    The launch of the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission on 2 November 2009 marked a milestone in remote sensing for it was the first time a radiometer capable of acquiring wide field of view images at every single snapshot, a unique feature of the synthetic aperture technique, made it to space. The technology behind such an achievement was developed, thanks to the effort of a community of researchers and engineers in different groups around the world. It was only because of their joint work that SMOS finally became a reality. The fact that the European Space Agency, together with CNES (Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales) and CDTI (Centro para el Desarrollo Tecnológico e Industrial), managed to get the project through should be considered a merit and a reward for that entire community. This paper is an invited historical review that, within a very limited number of pages, tries to provide insight into some of the developments which, one way or another, are imprinted in the name of SMOS.

  4. Optical and microwave remote sensing of wheat and canola

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hochheim, Klaus

    biomass variation for wheat at the booting and heading stage, and later in the year as the crop senesces. Backscatter is inversely related to biomass (as defined by the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI)) at the booting to heading stage, and positively correlated at the hard dough stage. The NDVI data and ground confirmation data support the premise that many of the parameters determining the optical reflectance are also directly and indirectly related to factors driving microwave backscatter.

  5. Wide-Band Airborne Microwave and Millimeter-Wave Radiometers to Provide High-Resolution Wet-Tropospheric Path Delay Corrections for Coastal and Inland Water Altimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reising, Steven C.; Kangaslahti, Pekka; Brown, Shannon T.; Tanner, Alan B.; Padmanabhan, Sharmila; Parashare, Chaitali; Montes, Oliver; Dawson, Douglas E.; Gaier, Todd C.; Khayatian, Behrouz; Bosch-Lluis, Xavier; Nelson, Scott P.; Johnson, Thaddeus; Hadel, Victoria; Gilliam, Kyle L.; Razavi, Behzad

    2013-04-01

    Current satellite ocean altimeters include nadir-viewing, co-located 18-34 GHz microwave radiometers to measure wet-tropospheric path delay. Due to the area of the surface instantaneous fields of view (IFOV) at these frequencies, the accuracy of wet path retrievals is substantially degraded near coastlines, and retrievals are not provided over land. Retrievals are flagged as not useful about 40 km from the world's coastlines. A viable approach to improve their capability is to add wide-band millimeter-wave window channels at 90 to 170 GHz, yielding finer spatial resolution for a fixed antenna size. In addition, NASA's Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission in formulation (Phase A) is planned for launch in late 2020. The primary objectives of SWOT are to characterize ocean sub-mesoscale processes on 10-km and larger scales in the global oceans, and to measure the global water storage in inland surface water bodies and the flow rate of rivers. Therefore, an important new science objective of SWOT is to transition satellite radar altimetry into the coastal zone. The addition of millimeter-wave channels near 90, 130 and 166 GHz to current Jason-class radiometers is expected to improve retrievals of wet-tropospheric delay in coastal areas and to enhance the potential for over-land retrievals. The Ocean Surface Topography Science Team Meeting recommended in 2012 to add these millimeter-wave channels to the Jason Continuity of Service (CS) mission. To reduce the risks associated with wet-tropospheric path delay correction over coastal areas and fresh water bodies, we are developing an airborne radiometer with 18.7, 23.8 and 34.0 GHz microwave channels, as well as millimeter-wave window channels at 90, 130 and 166 GHz, and temperature sounding above 118 as well as water vapor sounding below 183 GHz for validation of wet-path delay. For nadir-viewing space-borne radiometers with no moving parts, two-point internal calibration sources are necessary, and the

  6. Effects of airborne particulates on remote spectrometry data collected for industrial accident response support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Paul E.

    2003-12-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 7 maintains an operational passive midwave/longwave airborne spectrometer system. This system provides near-real-time information on hazardous chemical releases (e.g., chemical constituents, column density and direction) for emergency personnel responding to industrial accidents. Industrial accidents range from ruptured tank cars caused by train derailments to explosions at industrial facilities. Airborne particles may be present as well, especially in accidents involving explosions and fire. This paper investigates how the presence of airborne particles can affect the identification of airborne chemical species in these situations.

  7. Effects of airborne particulates on remote spectrometry data collected for industrial accident response support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Paul E.

    2004-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 7 maintains an operational passive midwave/longwave airborne spectrometer system. This system provides near-real-time information on hazardous chemical releases (e.g., chemical constituents, column density and direction) for emergency personnel responding to industrial accidents. Industrial accidents range from ruptured tank cars caused by train derailments to explosions at industrial facilities. Airborne particles may be present as well, especially in accidents involving explosions and fire. This paper investigates how the presence of airborne particles can affect the identification of airborne chemical species in these situations.

  8. Airborne mapping of earth-atmosphere exchange processes and remote sensing of surface characteristics over heterogeneous areas

    SciTech Connect

    Schuepp, P.H.; Ogunjemiyo, S.; Mitic, C.M.

    1996-10-01

    Given the spatial heterogeneity of much of the biosphere, and the difficulty in establishing representative observation points at the surface, airborne flux observations coupled with airborne and satellite-based remote sensing plays an increasing role in the description of surface-atmosphere exchange processes. Our paper summarizes flux mapping procedures based on low level airborne sampling by the Canadian Twin Otter research aircraft, over three ecosystems with different degrees of spatial heterogeneity (grassland, mixed agricultural land and boreal forest). Observations show that the degree to which flux maps for heat, moisture and trace gases are correlated, among themselves and with maps of radiometrically observable surface features, cannot be generalized. This means that, wherever possible, algorithms for the prediction of surface-atmosphere exchange processes based on remote sensing observations should be developed for - and tested in - each structurally different ecosystem. The flexibility of deployment of aircraft serves well, both for the gathering of data to develop such algorithms, as well as for their testing at scales that integrate over an adequate sample of the various components that constitute a spatially heterogeneous ecosystem. 23 refs., 4 figs.

  9. Use of airborne remote sensing to detect riverside Brassica rapa to aid in risk assessment of transgenic crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, Luisa M.; Mason, David C.; Allainguillaume, Joel; Wilkinson, Mike J.

    2009-11-01

    High resolution descriptions of plant distribution have utility for many ecological applications but are especially useful for predictive modeling of gene flow from transgenic crops. Difficulty lies in the extrapolation errors that occur when limited ground survey data are scaled up to the landscape or national level. This problem is epitomized by the wide confidence limits generated in a previous attempt to describe the national abundance of riverside Brassica rapa (a wild relative of cultivated rapeseed) across the United Kingdom. Here, we assess the value of airborne remote sensing to locate B. rapa over large areas and so reduce the need for extrapolation. We describe results from flights over the river Nene in England acquired using Airborne Thematic Mapper (ATM) and Compact Airborne Spectrographic Imager (CASI) imagery, together with ground truth data. It proved possible to detect 97% of flowering B. rapa on the basis of spectral profiles. This included all stands of plants that occupied >2m square (>5 plants), which were detected using single-pixel classification. It also included very small populations (<5 flowering plants, 1-2m square) that generated mixed pixels, which were detected using spectral unmixing. The high detection accuracy for flowering B. rapa was coupled with a rather large false positive rate (43%). The latter could be reduced by using the image detections to target fieldwork to confirm species identity, or by acquiring additional remote sensing data such as laser altimetry or multitemporal imagery.

  10. Advances in airborne remote sensing of ecosystem processes and properties: toward high-quality measurement on a global scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kampe, Thomas U.; Asner, Gregory P.; Green, Robert O.; Eastwood, Michael; Johnson, Brian R.; Kuester, Michele

    2010-08-01

    Airborne remote sensing provides the opportunity to quantitatively measure biochemical and biophysical properties of vegetation at regional scales, therefore complementing surface and satellite measurements. Next-generation programs are poised to advance ecological research and monitoring in the United States, the tropical regions of the globe, and to support future satellite missions. The Carnegie Institution will integrate a next generation imaging spectrometer with a waveform LiDAR into the Airborne Taxonomic Mapping System (AToMS) to identify the chemical, structural and taxonomic makeup of tropical forests at an unprecedented scale and detail. The NEON Airborne Observation Platform (AOP) is under development with similar technologies with a goal to provide long-term measurements of ecosystems across North America. The NASA Next Generation Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRISng) is also under development to address the science measurement requirements for both the NASA Earth Science Research and Analysis Program and the spaceborne NASA HyspIRI Mission. Carnegie AToMS, NEON AOP, and AVIRISng are being built by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory as a suite of instruments. We discuss the synergy between these programs and anticipated benefits to ecologists and decision-makers.

  11. Icepod: A modular approach to the development of an airborne remote sensing and data acquisition platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frearson, N.; Bell, R. E.; Tinto, K. J.; Zappa, C. J.

    2013-12-01

    The New York Air National Guard [NYANG] provides regular airborne support to the National Science Foundation [NSF] moving science parties and their equipment onto and around the ice-sheets in both polar regions during the respective summer seasons. Icepod has been developed to utilize this readily available resource, providing the aircraft with a modular external pod attached to the rear-paratrooper door on either side of the NYANG's ski-equipped LC-130s. The pod is divided into five separate bays each approximately a 2ft cube within which can be mounted an array of remote sensors. Power, heating, sensor control and data management services are provided to each bay. An Ethernet network is used to transfer commands and data packets between the individual sensors and data acquisition system located inside the aircraft. Data for each sensor is stored on ruggedized and removable hard-drives that can be taken off the aircraft at the end of a flight for further analysis. In its current configuration the pod is equipped for the remote sensing of ice sheets and their margins and the bay's contain two radar systems, radar antennas, a vibration isolated optics bay including a scanning laser, Infra-red camera and high-definition visible wave camera. Sensor data is geo-referenced using GNSS and orientation sensors located inside the pod. A Pyrometer provides the downward looking IR Camera with the current sky temperature. In January 2013, the Icepod system was flight certified at the Stratton air base in Schenectady, New York. The system deployed to Greenland in April and July 2013 to test the instrumentation suite over ice and its ease of deployment with the NYANG. Icepod can be operated in two modes, a traditional dedicated science flight mode and a piggy-back mode. In piggy-back mode science parties and their cargo are delivered to their destinations with Icepod installed but stowed. Once they have been delivered the Icepod is deployed and measurements can be taken on the

  12. Quantification of methane emission rates from coal mine ventilation shafts using airborne remote sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krings, T.; Gerilowski, K.; Buchwitz, M.; Hartmann, J.; Sachs, T.; Erzinger, J.; Burrows, J. P.; Bovensmann, H.

    2013-01-01

    The quantification of emissions of the greenhouse gas methane is essential for attributing the roles of anthropogenic activity and natural phenomena in global climate change. Our current measurement systems and networks, whilst having improved during the last decades, are deficient in many respects. For example, the emissions from localised and point sources such as landfills or fossil fuel exploration sites are not readily assessed. A tool developed to better understand point sources of the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide and methane is the optical remote sensing instrument MAMAP (Methane airborne MAPper), operated from aircraft. After a recent instrument modification, retrievals of the column-averaged dry air mole fractions for methane XCH4 (or for carbon dioxide XCO2) derived from MAMAP data have a precision of about 0.4% or better and thus can be used to infer emission rate estimates using an optimal estimation inverse Gaussian plume model or a simple integral approach. CH4 emissions from two coal mine ventilation shafts in western Germany surveyed during the AIRMETH 2011 measurement campaign are used as examples to demonstrate and assess the value of MAMAP data for quantifying CH4 from point sources. While the knowledge of the wind is an important input parameter in the retrieval of emissions from point sources and is generally extracted from models, additional information from a turbulence probe operated on-board the same aircraft was utilised to enhance the quality of the emission estimates. Although flight patterns were optimised for remote sensing measurements, data from an in situ analyser for CH4 were found to be in good agreement with retrieved dry columns of CH4 from MAMAP and could be used to investigate and refine underlying assumptions for the inversion procedures. With respect to the total emissions of the mine at the time of the overflight, the inferred emission rate of 50.4 kt CH4 yr-1 has a difference of less than 1% compared to officially

  13. Vineyard zonal management for grape quality assessment by combining airborne remote sensed imagery and soil sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonilla, I.; Martínez De Toda, F.; Martínez-Casasnovas, J. A.

    2014-10-01

    Vineyard variability within the fields is well known by grape growers, producing different plant responses and fruit characteristics. Many technologies have been developed in last recent decades in order to assess this spatial variability, including remote sensing and soil sensors. In this paper we study the possibility of creating a stable classification system that better provides useful information for the grower, especially in terms of grape batch quality sorting. The work was carried out during 4 years in a rain-fed Tempranillo vineyard located in Rioja (Spain). NDVI was extracted from airborne imagery, and soil conductivity (EC) data was acquired by an EM38 sensor. Fifty-four vines were sampled at véraison for vegetative parameters and before harvest for yield and grape analysis. An Isocluster unsupervised classification in two classes was performed in 5 different ways, combining NDVI maps individually, collectively and combined with EC. The target vines were assigned in different zones depending on the clustering combination. Analysis of variance was performed in order to verify the ability of the combinations to provide the most accurate information. All combinations showed a similar behaviour concerning vegetative parameters. Yield parameters classify better by the EC-based clustering, whilst maturity grape parameters seemed to give more accuracy by combining all NDVIs and EC. Quality grape parameters (anthocyanins and phenolics), presented similar results for all combinations except for the NDVI map of the individual year, where the results were poorer. This results reveal that stable parameters (EC or/and NDVI all-together) clustering outcomes in better information for a vineyard zonal management strategy.

  14. Using High-Resolution Airborne Remote Sensing to Study Aerosol Near Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levy, Robert; Munchak, Leigh; Mattoo, Shana; Marshak, Alexander; Wilcox, Eric; Gao, Lan; Yorks, John; Platnick, Steven

    2016-01-01

    The horizontal space in between clear and cloudy air is very complex. This so-called twilight zone includes activated aerosols that are not quite clouds, thin cloud fragments that are not easily observable, and dying clouds that have not quite disappeared. This is a huge challenge for satellite remote sensing, specifically for retrieval of aerosol properties. Identifying what is cloud versus what is not cloud is critically important for attributing radiative effects and forcings to aerosols. At the same time, the radiative interactions between clouds and the surrounding media (molecules, surface and aerosols themselves) will contaminate retrieval of aerosol properties, even in clear skies. Most studies on aerosol cloud interactions are relevant to moderate resolution imagery (e.g. 500 m) from sensors such as MODIS. Since standard aerosol retrieval algorithms tend to keep a distance (e.g. 1 km) from the nearest detected cloud, it is impossible to evaluate what happens closer to the cloud. During Studies of Emissions, Atmospheric Composition, Clouds and Climate Coupling by Regional Surveys (SEAC4RS), the NASA ER-2 flew with the enhanced MODIS Airborne Simulator (eMAS), providing MODIS-like spectral observations at high (50 m) spatial resolution. We have applied MODIS-like aerosol retrieval for the eMAS data, providing new detail to characterization of aerosol near clouds. Interpretation and evaluation of these eMAS aerosol retrievals is aided by independent MODIS-like cloud retrievals, as well as profiles from the co-flying Cloud Physics Lidar (CPL). Understanding aerosolcloud retrieval at high resolution will lead to better characterization and interpretation of long-term, global products from lower resolution (e.g.MODIS) satellite retrievals.

  15. Annual Snow Assessments Using Multi-spectral and Passive Microwave Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daly, S. F.; Vuyovich, C. M.; Deeb, E. J.; Newman, S. D.; Baldwin, T. B.

    2010-12-01

    Since the winter season of 2004-2005, annual snow assessments have been conducted for regions across the Middle East (including Eastern Turkey, Afghanistan, and Pakistan) using multispectral (AVHRR and MODIS) and passive microwave (SSM/I and AMSR-E) remote sensing technologies. Due to limited ground-based observations of precipitation and snow pack conditions, remote sensing provides a unique opportunity to assess these conditions at different scales and offer an appraisal of the current conditions in an historical context. During each winter season, bi-weekly snow products and assessments are produced including: current Snow Covered Area (SCA) at regional and watershed scales; estimation of SCA by elevation band; current snowpack total Snow Water Equivalent (SWE) for each watershed with an historical perspective (1987-present); snow condition outlook by watershed; general summary of snow conditions based on remote sensing products and limited ground-based observations; and if warranted, a snow melt flooding advisory. Most recently, the winter 2009-2010 season provided interesting aspects that are further investigated: comparison of reported drought conditions, SCA extents, and passive microwave SWE estimates in Afghanistan; flooding event in Northeastern Afghanistan perhaps due to late season snow fall and subsequent snow melt; lower SCA in Eastern Turkey throughout winter despite heavy precipitation perhaps explained by warmer regional temperatures.

  16. Airborne Sunphotometer Studies of Aerosol Properties and Effects, Including Closure Among Satellite, Suborbital Remote, and In situ Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russlee, Philip B.; Schmid, B.; Redemann, J.; Livingston, J. M.; Bergstrom, R. W.; Ramirez, S. A.; Hipskind, R. Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Airborne sunphotometry has been used to measure aerosols from North America, Europe, and Africa in coordination with satellite and in situ measurements in TARFOX (1996), ACE-2 (1997), PRIDE (2000), and SAFARI 2000. Similar coordinated measurements of Asian aerosols are being conducted this spring in ACE-Asia and are planned for North American aerosols this summer in CLAMS. This paper summarizes the approaches used, key results, and implications for aerosol properties and effects, such as single scattering albedo and regional radiative forcing. The approaches exploit the three-dimensional mobility of airborne sunphotometry to access satellite scenes over diverse surfaces (including open ocean with and without sunglint) and to match exactly the atmospheric layers sampled by airborne in situ measurements and other radiometers. These measurements permit tests of the consistency, or closure, among such diverse measurements as aerosol size-resolved chemical composition; number or mass concentration; light extinction, absorption, and scattering (total, hemispheric back and 180 deg.); and radiative fluxes. In this way the airborne sunphotometer measurements provide a key link between satellite and in situ measurements that helps to understand any discrepancies that are found. These comparisons have led to several characteristic results. Typically these include: (1) Better agreement among different types of remote measurements than between remote and in situ measurements. (2) More extinction derived from transmission measurements than from in situ measurements. (3) Larger aerosol absorption inferred from flux radiometry than from in situ measurements. Aerosol intensive properties derived from these closure studies have been combined with satellite-retrieved fields of optical depth to produce fields of regional radiative forcing. We show results for the North Atlantic derived from AVHRR optical depths and aerosol intensive properties from TARFOX and ACE-2. Companion papers

  17. Future Challenges for Microwave Remote Sensing in Support of Earth Sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hildebrand, Peter H.; Zukor, Dorothy J. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The presentation will include an overview of leading Earth Science scientific problems that can be addressed using microwave remote sensing, including soil moisture, precipitation, sea salinity, sea surface winds, atmospheric profiling, etc. Using this basis of scientific measurement, the presentation will outline current technological impediments to implementing new measurement system, concentrating on a few example approaches to new technology, such as the conceptual design tradeoffs and capability improvements represented by a fleet of inexpensive nano-satellites, versus geostationary large aperture sensing systems. The outlook for measurement capabilities will be traded against the expected technological hurdles.

  18. Allometric Relationships in Soybean to Estimate the Effect of Vegetation on Microwave Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spencer, A. J.; Hornbuckle, B. K.; Patton, J.

    2011-12-01

    Microwave remote sensing is capable of developing soil moisture maps through satellite data. The resulting maps are useful indicators of hydrologic conditions. Water concentrations are deterministic of flooding events and potential agricultural resources. The emitted microwave radiation of soil is influenced by its moisture content. Models have been developed to incorporate parameters besides soil moisture that affect the emitted microwave radiation. We are interested in one of these parameters known as the optical depth. Optical depth is the effect of the canopy on the observed emission of microwaves. The vegetation directly competes with soil moisture as a contributor to the emitted microwave radiation and the optical depth appears within every term in the present satellite retrieval algorithm. Optical depth has been shown to be directly proportional to the amount of water contained within vegetation tissue. Allometry is a way to effectively and efficiently measure vegetation water content through the way the parts of the organism change in proportion to each other in response to growth. Vegetation water content is difficult to measure without taking destructive measurements, in addition to involving too much time and manual labor. Therefore, another component of vegetation can be measured in relation to vegetation water content which can then be related to optical depth. In our study we worked in soybean, a major crop in many areas of the world. We compared soybean vegetation water content to an estimate of the volume of an individual plant expressed as the product of canopy height and stem diameter squared (Zc*Sd2), both of which can be measured easily and nondestructively. We also wished to determine whether vegetation water content remained constant as a percentage to total biomass over the length of the growing season. Agricultural yield is most likely a function of the total dry mass of vegetation. Establishing the relationship between vegetation water

  19. Remote sensing of land scenarios with an airborne 94-GHz synthetic aperture radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Essen, Helmut; Makaruschka, R.; Baars, E. Peter

    1996-06-01

    The scattering process of electromagnetic waves is dominated by the match between wavelength and the geometric dimensions of surface structures. With respect to the microwave radar bands millimeter-waves are better matched to small surface features of terrain. Therefore this frequency band is able to gain additional information on the terrain of interest. For high resolution imaging SAR is the favorite solution also for millimeter-wave frequencies. Compared to more classical radar bands millimeter-waves offer advantages in the SAR processing, because due to the higher primary resolution at a given antenna aperture sources of image distortions such as range migration or depth of focus can be neglected at these frequencies. Moreover the inherently short aperture time for a given resolution improves the relation to the time constant of flight instabilities and makes motion compensation a simple process. A coherent, polarimetric, high range resolution radar, operating at a nominal frequency of 94 GHz, has been installed onboard an aircraft to allow remote sensing measurements in a side looking synthetic aperture approach. The radar-raw-data were registered together with time code and inertial data of the aircraft and later on evaluated by an off-line SAR-processor. The resulting images then had to undergo an automatic recognition process to extract certain complex targets using a knowledge based production system. The paper describes the measurement system and discusses the evaluation procedures with emphasis on the applied SAR algorithm. Examples of radar images at 94 GHz are shown and samples of pattern recognition derived from the SAR images are shown.

  20. Inversion algorithms for the microwave remote sensing of soil moisture. Experiments with swept frequency microwaves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hancock, G. D.; Waite, W. P.

    1984-01-01

    Two experiments were performed employing swept frequency microwaves for the purpose of investigating the reflectivity from soil volumes containing both discontinuous and continuous changes in subsurface soil moisture content. Discontinuous moisture profiles were artificially created in the laboratory while continuous moisture profiles were induced into the soil of test plots by the environment of an agricultural field. The reflectivity for both the laboratory and field experiments was measured using bi-static reflectometers operated over the frequency ranges of 1.0 to 2.0 GHz and 4.0 to 8.0 GHz. Reflectivity models that considered the discontinuous and continuous moisture profiles within the soil volume were developed and compared with the results of the experiments. This comparison shows good agreement between the smooth surface models and the measurements. In particular the comparison of the smooth surface multi-layer model for continuous moisture profiles and the yield experiment measurements points out the sensitivity of the specular component of the scattered electromagnetic energy to the movement of moisture in the soil.

  1. The science benefits of and the antenna requirements for microwave remote sensing from geostationary orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stutzman, Warren L. (Editor); Brown, Gary S. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    The primary objective of the Large Space Antenna (LSA) Science Panel was to evaluate the science benefits that can be realized with a 25-meter class antenna in a microwave/millimeter wave remote sensing system in geostationary orbit. The panel concluded that a 25-meter or larger antenna in geostationary orbit can serve significant passive remote sensing needs in the 10 to 60 GHz frequency range, including measurements of precipitation, water vapor, atmospheric temperature profile, ocean surface wind speed, oceanic cloud liquid water content, and snow cover. In addition, cloud base height, atmospheric wind profile, and ocean currents can potentially be measured using active sensors with the 25-meter antenna. Other environmental parameters, particularly those that do not require high temporal resolution, are better served by low Earth orbit based sensors.

  2. Procedures for the description of agricultural crops and soils in optical and microwave remote sensing studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cihlar, J.; Dobson, M. C.; Schmugge, T.; Hoogeboom, P.; Janse, A. R. P.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes procedures for characterizing agricultural crops and soils in remote sensing studies. The procedures are based on the accumulated experience of a number of researchers active in this field. Therefore, they represent a compromise between the theoretically desirable and the practically feasible, and should thus be an effective aid in further studies of this type. Although the guidelines were prepared specifically for microwave studies, adjustments were made to render the procedures applicable to optical studies as well. Given the increasing number of research teams involved in remote sensing applied to agriculture, there is an opportunity to acquire a broad data base on soils and crops in various geographic regions. To allow intercomparisons of such data, they must be obtained in a consistent manner. By following the proposed procedures and reporting results using the parameters described here, such intercomparisons should be possible on a continental or a global scale.

  3. Effects of the Ionosphere on Passive Microwave Remote Sensing of Ocean Salinity from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LeVine, D. M.; Abaham, Saji; Hildebrand, Peter H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Among the remote sensing applications currently being considered from space is the measurement of sea surface salinity. The salinity of the open ocean is important for understanding ocean circulation and for modeling energy exchange with the atmosphere. Passive microwave remote sensors operating near 1.4 GHz (L-band) could provide data needed to fill the gap in current coverage and to complement in situ arrays being planned to provide subsurface profiles in the future. However, the dynamic range of the salinity signal in the open ocean is relatively small and propagation effects along the path from surface to sensor must be taken into account. In particular, Faraday rotation and even attenuation/emission in the ionosphere can be important sources of error. The purpose or this work is to estimate the magnitude of these effects in the context of a future remote sensing system in space to measure salinity in L-band. Data will be presented as a function of time location and solar activity using IRI-95 to model the ionosphere. The ionosphere presents two potential sources of error for the measurement of salinity: Rotation of the polarization vector (Faraday rotation) and attenuation/emission. Estimates of the effect of these two phenomena on passive remote sensing over the oceans at L-band (1.4 GHz) are presented.

  4. Estimating Turbulence in Mountainous Regions from Airborne In Situ and Remotely-Sensed Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strauss, Lukas; Serafin, Stefano; Grubišić, Vanda

    2013-04-01

    Turbulence in atmospheric flow over and around orographic obstacles has been at the focus of numerous studies in the past. Reasons for this range from primary interest in the turbulence-generating processes (gravity-wave breaking, downslope windstorms etc.) to, more recently, issues regarding flight safety. Our work focuses on the observational analysis of turbulence during events of boundary-layer separation and rotor formation. The study is based on observations from two recent field campaigns over the Medicine Bow Mountains in SE Wyoming (NASA06) and the Sierra Nevada in Southern California (T-REX). During these campaigns, the University of Wyoming King Air (UWKA) research aircraft flew straight-and-level legs aligned with the mean wind direction to document the variation of flow and turbulence over the mountain ridges. Aircraft in situ data of wind, pressure and temperature were recorded at a frequency of 25 Hz. The Wyoming Cloud Radar (WCR), carried aboard UWKA, measured Doppler vertical wind velocities at multiple levels at a frequency of 30 Hz. The objective of this work is to quantify turbulence intensity during the observed boundary-layer separation and rotor formation events. To this end, estimates of the variance of vertical wind speed and the eddy-dissipation rate are computed from airborne in situ as well as remotely-sensed data. The comparison of two wave events during the NASA06 campaign reveals similar turbulence intensities with maximum eddy-dissipation rates in the range 0.25-0.30 m2 s-3. The dynamic origin of turbulence, however, appears to be different. For 26 January 2006, results are indicative of a breaking gravity wave aloft leading to wave-induced boundary-layer separation and rotor formation, with maximum turbulence levels located in the rotor interior. In contrast, on 5 February 2006, the lee wave pattern aloft remained laminar while the boundary-layer flow was heavily perturbed. The spatial distribution of turbulence in the flow suggests

  5. Airborne Detection of Iodine Oxide and Glyoxal in the Free Troposphere over the Remote Tropical Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dix, B. K.; Volkamer, R.

    2010-12-01

    We present the first spectral proof for the presence of iodine oxide (IO) and glyoxal (CHOCHO) in the free troposphere. Measurements were conducted with the University of Colorado Airborne Multi-AXis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (CU AMAX-DOAS) instrument aboard the NSF/NCAR GV research aircraft (HIAPER) over the remote tropical Pacific Ocean. As part of the HEFT-10 instrument test program a research flight was conducted on 29 January 2010 out of Hawaii to the equatorial Pacific Ocean south of Hawaii. IO and CHOCHO were observed in the marine boundary layer as well as in the free troposphere up to 14km altitude. Satellite data of the same area give inconsistent values and are inconclusive on the vertical distribution. Our measurements for the first time retrieve the vertical distribution of IO and CHOCHO over the remote tropical Pacific Ocean by means of experimentally well constrained inverse radiative transfer modeling.

  6. Research on Estimation Crop Planting Area by Integrating the Optical and Microwave Remote Sensing Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Y.; Yu, F.

    2013-07-01

    Considering the problem in monitoring agricultural condition in the semi-arid areas of Northwest of China, we propose a new method for estimation of crop planting area, using the single phase optical and microwave remote sensing data collaboratively, which have demonstrated their respective advantages in the extraction of surface features. In the model, the ASAR backscatter coefficient is normalized by the incident angle at first, then the classifier based on Bayesian network is developed, and the VV, VH polarization of ASAR and all the 7 TM bands are taken as the input of the classifier to get the class labels of each pixel of the images. Moreover the crop planting areas can be extracted by the classification results. At last, the model is validated for the necessities of normalization by the incident angle and integration of TM and ASAR respectively. It results that the estimation accuracy of crop planting area of corn and other crops garden are 98.47% and 78.25% respectively using the proposed method, with an improvement of estimation accuracy of about 3.28% and 4.18% relative to single TM classification. These illustrate that synthesis of optical and microwave remote sensing data is efficient and potential in estimation crop planting area.

  7. Research on estimation crop planting area by integrating the optical and microwave remote sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jiang; Yu, Fan; Liu, Dandan; Tian, Jing; Zhang, Weicheng; Wang, Qiang; Yang, Jinling; Zhang, Lei

    2015-12-01

    Considering the problem in monitoring agricultural condition in the semi-arid areas of Northwest of China, we propose a new method for estimation of crop planting area, using the single phase optical and microwave remote sensing data collaboratively, which have demonstrated their respective advantages in the extraction of surface features. In the model, the ASAR backscatter coefficient is normalized by the incident angle at first, then the classifier based on Bayesian network is developed, and the VV, VH polarization of ASAR and all the 7 TM bands are taken as the input of the classifier to get the class labels of each pixel of the images. Moreover the crop planting areas can be extracted by the classification results. At last, the model is validated for the necessities of normalization by the incident angle and integration of TM and ASAR respectively. It results that the estimation accuracy of crop planting area of corn and other crops garden are 98.47% and 78.25% respectively using the proposed method, with an improvement of estimation accuracy of about 3.28% and 4.18% relative to single TM classification. These illustrate that synthesis of optical and microwave remote sensing data is efficient and potential in estimation crop planting area.

  8. Microwave remote plasma enhanced-atomic layer deposition system with multicusp confinement chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Dechana, A.; Thamboon, P.; Boonyawan, D.

    2014-10-15

    A microwave remote Plasma Enhanced-Atomic Layer Deposition system with multicusp confinement chamber is established at the Plasma and Beam Physics research facilities, Chiang Mai, Thailand. The system produces highly-reactive plasma species in order to enhance the deposition process of thin films. The addition of the multicusp magnetic fields further improves the plasma density and uniformity in the reaction chamber. Thus, the system is more favorable to temperature-sensitive substrates when heating becomes unwanted. Furthermore, the remote-plasma feature, which is generated via microwave power source, offers tunability of the plasma properties separately from the process. As a result, the system provides high flexibility in choice of materials and design experiments, particularly for low-temperature applications. Performance evaluations of the system were carried on coating experiments of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layers onto a silicon wafer. The plasma characteristics in the chamber will be described. The resulted Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films—analyzed by Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry in channeling mode and by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy techniques—will be discussed.

  9. Microwave remote plasma enhanced-atomic layer deposition system with multicusp confinement chamber.

    PubMed

    Dechana, A; Thamboon, P; Boonyawan, D

    2014-10-01

    A microwave remote Plasma Enhanced-Atomic Layer Deposition system with multicusp confinement chamber is established at the Plasma and Beam Physics research facilities, Chiang Mai, Thailand. The system produces highly-reactive plasma species in order to enhance the deposition process of thin films. The addition of the multicusp magnetic fields further improves the plasma density and uniformity in the reaction chamber. Thus, the system is more favorable to temperature-sensitive substrates when heating becomes unwanted. Furthermore, the remote-plasma feature, which is generated via microwave power source, offers tunability of the plasma properties separately from the process. As a result, the system provides high flexibility in choice of materials and design experiments, particularly for low-temperature applications. Performance evaluations of the system were carried on coating experiments of Al2O3 layers onto a silicon wafer. The plasma characteristics in the chamber will be described. The resulted Al2O3 films-analyzed by Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry in channeling mode and by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy techniques-will be discussed.

  10. Low-cost microwave radiometry for remote sensing of soil moisture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chikando, Eric Ndjoukwe

    2007-12-01

    Remote sensing is now widely regarded as a dominant means of studying the Earth and its surrounding atmosphere. This science is based on blackbody theory, which states that all objects emit broadband electromagnetic radiation proportional to their temperature. This thermal emission is detectable by radiometers---highly sensitive receivers capable of measuring extremely low power radiation across a continuum of frequencies. In the particular case of a soil surface, one important parameter affecting the emitted radiation is the amount of water content or, soil moisture. A high degree of precision is required when estimating soil moisture in order to yield accurate forecasting of precipitations and short-term climate variability such as storms and hurricanes. Rapid progress within the remote sensing community in tackling current limitations necessitates an awareness of the general public towards the benefits of the science. Information about remote sensing instrumentation and techniques remain inaccessible to many higher-education institutions due to the high cost of instrumentation and the current general inaccessibility of the science. In an effort to draw more talent within the field, more affordable and reliable scientific instrumentation are needed. This dissertation introduces the first low-cost handheld microwave instrumentation fully capable of surface soil moisture studies. The framework of this research is two-fold. First, the development of a low-cost handheld microwave radiometer using the well-known Dicke configuration is examined. The instrument features a super-heterodyne architecture and is designed following a microwave integrated circuit (MIC) system approach. Validation of the instrument is performed by applying it to various soil targets and comparing measurement results to gravimetric technique measured data; a proven scientific method for determining volumetric soil moisture content. Second, the development of a fully functional receiver RF front

  11. Annual South American Forest Loss Estimates (1989-2011) Based on Passive Microwave Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Marle, M.; van der Werf, G.; de Jeu, R.; Liu, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Vegetation dynamics, such as forest loss, are an important factor in global climate, but long-term and consistent information on these dynamics on continental scales is lacking. We have quantified large-scale forest loss over the 90s and 00s in the tropical biomes of South America using a passive-microwave satellite-based vegetation product. Our forest loss estimates are based on remotely sensed vegetation optical depth (VOD), which is an indicator of vegetation water content simultaneously retrieved with soil moisture. The advantage of low-frequency microwave remote sensing is that aerosols and clouds do not affect the observations. Furthermore, the longer wavelengths of passive microwaves penetrate deeper into vegetation than other products derived from optical and thermal sensors. This has the consequence that both woody parts of vegetation and leaves can be observed. The merged VOD product of AMSR-E and SSM/I observations, which covers over 23 years of daily observations, is used. We used this data stream and an outlier detection algorithm to quantify spatial and temporal variations in forest loss dynamics. Qualitatively, our results compared favorably to the newly developed Global Forest Change (GFC) maps based on Landsat data (r2=0.96), and this allowed us to convert the VOD outlier count to forest loss. Our results are spatially explicit with a 0.25-degree resolution and annual time step and we will present our estimates on country level. The added benefit of our results compared to GFC is the longer time period. The results indicate a relatively steady increase in forest loss in Brazil from 1989 until 2003, followed by two high forest loss years and a declining trend afterwards. This contrasts with other South American countries such as Bolivia and Peru, where forest losses increased in almost the whole 00s in comparison with the 90s.

  12. Ground registration of data from an airborne Multifrequency Microwave Radiometer (MfMR). [Colby, Kansas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richter, J. C. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    The agricultural soil moisture experiment was conducted near Colby, Kansas, in July and August 1978. A portion of the data collected was taken with a five band microwave radiometer. A method of locating the radiometer footprints with respect to a ground based coordinate system is documented. The procedure requires that the airplane's flight parameters along with aerial photography be acquired simultaneously with the radiometer data. The software which documented reads in data from the precision radiation thermometer (PRT Model 5) and attaches the scene temperature to the corresponding multifrequency microwave radiometer data. Listings of the programs used in the registration process are included.

  13. Evaluation of Soil Moisture Derived from Passive Microwave Remote Sensing Over Agricultural Sites in Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Champagne, C.; McNairn, H.; Berg, A.

    2008-12-01

    Spatial information on soil moisture conditions is a critical agri-environmental variable and can be used alone as a decision support tool for a number of land management decisions, including soil trafficability, seeding options and pesticide applications. Large-area estimations of soil moisture derived from passive microwave sensors are available over Canada from AMSR-E and SSM/I sensors, and in some instances are being used as decision-support tools (AAFC, 2008). These coarse spatial estimates can be used to assess overall conditions on a daily or weekly basis, and potentially be used as a monitoring tool to trigger assessment using higher spatial resolution active microwave sensors. Retrieval algorithms to derive soil moisture from passive microwave brightness temperature produce variable results depending on input frequency and the reliance on ancillary data to estimate vegetation water content and land surface temperature. There is a need to characterize regional errors in these data sets to contextualize their operational use and facilitate integration of these data sets into land surface models. Several soil moisture information products derived from passive microwave remote sensing were evaluated for their potential use in assessing moisture conditions over agricultural regions in Canada. Soil wetness maps derived from SSM/I (Basist et al., 2001), AMSR-E NASA soil moisture products (Njoku, 2008) and two AMSR-E soil moisture products derived using C and X band frequencies using an alternative retrieval algorithm (Owe et al., 2008) were evaluated over agricultural regions in Canada. Evaluations were based on in-situ measurements from sites in Saskatchewan, Manitoba and Ontario for spring and fall periods in 2007 and 2008. Differences in the satellite climatology relative to surface soil moisture observations in Canada will be discussed.

  14. High-Resolution Daily Flood Extent Depiction from Microwave Remote Sensing: Global Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galantowicz, J. F.

    2015-12-01

    The need for frequent, accurate, high-resolution characterization of the temporal and spatial progression of flood hazards is evident, but has been beyond the capabilities of remote sensing methods. The surface is too often obscured by cloud cover for visual and infrared sensors and observations from radar sensors are too infrequent to create consistent historical databases or for monitoring current conditions. Passive microwave sensors, such as SSM/I, AMSR-E, and AMSR-2, acquire useful data during clear and cloudy conditions, have revisit periods of up to twice daily, and provide a continuous record of data from 1987 to the present. In this presentation, we will describe results from a flood mapping system capable of producing high-resolution (100-m) flood extent depictions from lower resolution (10-40-km) microwave data. The system uses the strong sensitivity of microwave data to surface water extent combined with land surface and atmospheric data to derive daily flooded fraction estimates globally on a sensor footprint basis. The system downscales flooded fraction to make a high-resolution Boolean flood extent depiction that is both spatially continuous and consistent with the lower resolution data (see Figure). The downscaling step is based on a relative floodability index derived from higher resolution topographic and hydrological data and processed to represent the minimum total water fraction threshold above which each grid point is expected to be flooded given microwave-derived water fraction inputs. We have completed daily, 100-m resolution flood maps for Africa for the 9.3-year AMSR-E period and will soon complete global flood maps fo the same period. We will present animations of daily flood extents during major events and discuss: validation of the flood maps against imagery derived from MODIS and Landsat data; analyses of minimum detectable flood size; statistical analyses of flooding over time; applications for this novel historical dataset; and

  15. Comparing land surface phenology derived from satellite and GPS network microwave remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Matthew O.; Kimball, John S.; Small, Eric E.; Larson, Kristine M.

    2014-08-01

    The land surface phenology (LSP) start of season (SOS) metric signals the seasonal onset of vegetation activity, including canopy growth and associated increases in land-atmosphere water, energy and carbon (CO2) exchanges influencing weather and climate variability. The vegetation optical depth (VOD) parameter determined from satellite passive microwave remote sensing provides for global LSP monitoring that is sensitive to changes in vegetation canopy water content and biomass, and insensitive to atmosphere and solar illumination constraints. Direct field measures of canopy water content and biomass changes desired for LSP validation are generally lacking due to the prohibitive costs of maintaining regional monitoring networks. Alternatively, a normalized microwave reflectance index (NMRI) derived from GPS base station measurements is sensitive to daily vegetation water content changes and may provide for effective microwave LSP validation. We compared multiyear (2007-2011) NMRI and satellite VOD records at over 300 GPS sites in North America, and their derived SOS metrics for a subset of 24 homogenous land cover sites to investigate VOD and NMRI correspondence, and potential NMRI utility for LSP validation. Significant correlations ( P < 0.05) were found at 276 of 305 sites (90.5 %), with generally favorable correspondence in the resulting SOS metrics ( r 2 = 0.73, P < 0.001, RMSE = 36.8 days). This study is the first attempt to compare satellite microwave LSP metrics to a GPS network derived reflectance index and highlights both the utility and limitations of the NMRI data for LSP validation, including spatial scale discrepancies between local NMRI measurements and relatively coarse satellite VOD retrievals.

  16. Comparing land surface phenology derived from satellite and GPS network microwave remote sensing.

    PubMed

    Jones, Matthew O; Kimball, John S; Small, Eric E; Larson, Kristine M

    2014-08-01

    The land surface phenology (LSP) start of season (SOS) metric signals the seasonal onset of vegetation activity, including canopy growth and associated increases in land-atmosphere water, energy and carbon (CO2) exchanges influencing weather and climate variability. The vegetation optical depth (VOD) parameter determined from satellite passive microwave remote sensing provides for global LSP monitoring that is sensitive to changes in vegetation canopy water content and biomass, and insensitive to atmosphere and solar illumination constraints. Direct field measures of canopy water content and biomass changes desired for LSP validation are generally lacking due to the prohibitive costs of maintaining regional monitoring networks. Alternatively, a normalized microwave reflectance index (NMRI) derived from GPS base station measurements is sensitive to daily vegetation water content changes and may provide for effective microwave LSP validation. We compared multiyear (2007-2011) NMRI and satellite VOD records at over 300 GPS sites in North America, and their derived SOS metrics for a subset of 24 homogenous land cover sites to investigate VOD and NMRI correspondence, and potential NMRI utility for LSP validation. Significant correlations (P<0.05) were found at 276 of 305 sites (90.5 %), with generally favorable correspondence in the resulting SOS metrics (r (2)=0.73, P<0.001, RMSE=36.8 days). This study is the first attempt to compare satellite microwave LSP metrics to a GPS network derived reflectance index and highlights both the utility and limitations of the NMRI data for LSP validation, including spatial scale discrepancies between local NMRI measurements and relatively coarse satellite VOD retrievals.

  17. Wave Correlation Effects in Active Microwave Remote Sensing of the Environment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khadr, Nagi Mahmoud

    This study examines the wave correlation effects that arise in active microwave remote sensing of the environment. These correlation effects, or coherent interference effects, are not accounted for by the regular phenomenological transport and radar equations, in which intensities, as a rule, are added incoherently. In particular, two types of correlation effects are examined: those associated with the medium and those associated with the source. The study method is the analytical wave approach to propagation and scattering from random media. This entails using Maxwell's equations to arrive at expressions for the first and second moments of the field. Unlike previous studies, however, in which plane wave incidence is assumed, here the radar is directly incorporated into the analytical wave formulation, and the antenna fields replaced via their plane wave representations. In this way, analysis of both the medium and source correlation effects on a per plane wave basis becomes a straightforward matter. The medium correlation effects are responsible for backscatter enhancement. Although the enhancement effect has been studied before on numerous occasions, careful characterization of the enhancement for microwave scattering from environmental scenes, such as vegetation canopies, has been lacking. The study at hand therefore fills this void and, in addition, quantifies the influence of this enhancement on phase difference statistics, a new and potentially important environmental remote sensing tool. The source correlation effects arise as a result of both the nature of the source and the geometry of the particular problem. By including these effects, a more general expression than the radar equation is obtained analytically. Quantitative examples show that, under certain circumstances, the results of this general expression deviate substantially from the results provided by the radar equation. This finding verifies the importance of considering source correlation

  18. Ground-based microwave complex for remote sounding of middle atmosphere thermal structure and ozone concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shvetsov, Alexander; Kulikov, Mikhail; Feigin, Alexander; Karashtin, Dmitry; Krasilnikov, Alexander; Mukhin, Dmitry; Bolshakov, Oleg; Fedoseev, Lev; Ryskin, Vitaly; Belikovich, Michael; Kukin, Lev

    2012-07-01

    Existing methods of remote sensing of the thermal structure of the atmosphere and the ozone layer are based on measurements from space. However, having great advantage in global coverage of the Earth they cannot provide high spatial and temporal resolution, required to study rapidly occurring phenomena. This problem can be solving by ground-based system of remote sounding. For this purpose ground-based microwave complex for remote sensing of middle atmosphere thermal structure and ozone concentration have been developed in the Institute of Applied Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The complex consists of the microwave ozonometer and the stratospheric thermometer. Ozonometer is a heterodyne spectroradiometer, operating in the frequency range that include the rotation transition of ozone molecules 6 _{1.5}-6 _{0.6} with resonance frequency 110.836 GHz. Operating frequency range of the stratospheric thermometer is 52.5-54.5 GHz and includes low frequency edge of 5 mm molecular oxygen absorption bands and some relatively weak lines of O _{2} resolved from the ground. Digital fast Fourier transform spectrometer developed by ``Acqiris'' company is employed for signal spectral analysis on intermediate frequency in both spectroradiometers. The spectrometer has frequency range 0.05-1 GHz and realizes the effective resolution about 61~KHz. Retrieval of the atmospheric temperature and ozone profiles is made on the basis of results of the radiation spectrum measurements. The Bayesian approach method is used for combined retrieval of stratosphere temperature and ozone profiles. This method allows statistically correct inclusion of both the measurement noise and the a priori information on the reconstructed profile needed for regularization of the problem. First simultaneous ground-based measurements of self-radiation of atmospheric ozone and oxygen have been made in January, 2012 during the sudden stratospheric warming above Nizhny Novgorod, Russia. Temperature and

  19. Investigation of Arctic mixed-phase clouds during VERDI and RACEPAC: Combining airborne remote sensing and in situ observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrlich, André; Wendisch, Manfred

    2015-04-01

    To improve our understanding of Arctic mixed-phase clouds in sea-ice covered areas the airborne research campaign Vertical distribution of ice in Arctic mixed-phase clouds (VERDI, April/May 2012) and the Radiation-Aerosol-Cloud Experiment in the Arctic Circle (RACEPAC, April/May 2014) were initiated by a collaboration of German and French research institutes. The aircraft operated by the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Germany were based in Inuvik, Canada from where the research flights of in total 149 flight hours (62 h during VERDI, 87 h during RACEPAC) were able to cover a wide area above the Canadian Beaufort. The aim of both campaigns was to combine remote sensing and in-situ cloud, aerosol and trace gas measurements to investigate interactions between radiation, cloud and aerosol particles. Remote sensing instrumentation contained a backscatter lidar and spectral solar radiation measurements including a hyperspectral camera. In-situ sampling was highlighted by a suit of comprehensive cloud particle probes, aerosol particle counters and mass spectroscopy as well as trace gas detectors. While during VERDI remote sensing and in-situ measurements were performed by one aircraft (Polar 5) subsequently, for RACEPAC two identical aircraft (Polar 5 & 6, Basler BT-67) were coordinated at different altitudes to horizontally collocate both remote sensing and in-situ measurements. In this way not only the combined analysis of radiative and microphysical processes in the clouds can by studied more reliably, also remote sensing methods can be validated efficiently. Here we will illustrate the scientific strategy of both projects including instrumentation and flight patterns of the research flights. Beside flight missions dedicated to sample low level clouds by remote sensing and in situ probing, flights were also coordinated with satellite overpasses and ground based stations. Exemplary results will be highlighted.

  20. Remote Sensing of Chlorophyll Fluorescence by the Airborne Plant Fluorescence Sensor (APFS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yee, J. H.; Boldt, J.; Cook, W. B.; Morgan, F., II; Demajistre, R.; Cook, B. D.; Corp, L. A.

    2014-12-01

    Solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (ChlF) by terrestrial vegetation is linked closely to photosynthetic efficiency that can be exploited to monitor the plant health status and to assess the terrestrial carbon budget from space. The weak, broad continuum ChlF signal can be detected from the amount of fill-in of strong O2 absorption lines or Fraunhofer lines in the reflected solar spectral radiation. The Johns Hopkins University, Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) Airborne Plant Fluorescence Sensor (APFS) is designed and constructed specifically for airborne and groundbased ChlF measurements using the line fill-in ChlF measurement technique. In this paper, we will present the design of this triple etalon Fabry-Perot imaging instrument and the results of its vegetation fluorescence measurements obtained from the ground in the laboratory and from a NASA Langley King Air during our 2014 airborne campaign over vegetated targets in North Carolina and Virginia.

  1. Application of hydrothermal alteration mineral mapping using airborne hyperspectral remote sensing: data taken in the Baixianishan region of Gansu Province as an example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Sun; Zhao, Yingjun; Zhang, Donghui; Qin, Kai; Tian, Feng

    2016-10-01

    Hyperspectral remote sensing, featured by integrated images and spectra, is now a frontier of the remote sensing. Using meticulous spectra, hyperspectral remote sensing technology can depict spectral features of objects in detail and are capable of identifying objects rather than simply discriminating them. This study took the Baixianishan region in Gansu Province as an example, and CASI/SASI airborne hyperspectral data were utilized to extract and map alteration minerals by MTMF mapping method. Six hydrothermal alteration minerals were mapped, which contained limonite, sericite and epidote. In addition, we analyzed the types, combinations and distribution of the alteration minerals and divided three stages of hydrothermal activity. It is considered that the favorable ore-forming elements for gold deposits are middle Hercynian porphyraceous granite, fracture and veined distribution of sericite and limonite. The application of CASI/SASI airborne hyperspectral remote sensing data in the Baixianishan area has achieved ideal results, indicative of their wide application potential in the geological research.

  2. Airborne forward-pointing UV Rayleigh lidar for remote clear air turbulence detection: system design and performance.

    PubMed

    Vrancken, Patrick; Wirth, Martin; Ehret, Gerhard; Barny, Hervé; Rondeau, Philippe; Veerman, Henk

    2016-11-10

    A high-performance airborne UV Rayleigh lidar system was developed within the European project DELICAT. With its forward-pointing architecture, it aims at demonstrating a novel detection scheme for clear air turbulence (CAT) for an aeronautics safety application. Due to its occurrence in clear and clean air at high altitudes (aviation cruise flight level), this type of turbulence evades microwave radar techniques and in most cases coherent Doppler lidar techniques. The present lidar detection technique relies on air density fluctuation measurement and is thus independent of backscatter from hydrometeors and aerosol particles. The subtle air density fluctuations caused by the turbulent air flow demand exceptionally high stability of the setup and in particular of the detection system. This paper describes an airborne test system for the purpose of demonstrating this technology and turbulence detection method: a high-power UV Rayleigh lidar system is installed on a research aircraft in a forward-looking configuration for use in cruise flight altitudes. Flight test measurements demonstrate this unique lidar system being able to resolve air density fluctuations occurring in light-to-moderate CAT at 5 km or moderate CAT at 10 km distance. A scaling of the determined stability and noise characteristics shows that such performance is adequate for an application in commercial air transport.

  3. Remote sensing of large scale methane emission sources with the Methane Airborne MAPper (MAMAP) instrument over the Kern River and Kern Front Oil fields and validation through airborne in-situ measurements - Initial results from COMEX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerilowski, K.; Krautwurst, S.; Kolyer, R.; Jonsson, H.; Krings, T.; Horstjann, M.; Leifer, I.; Schuettemeyer, D.; Fladeland, M. M.; Burrows, J. P.; Bovensmann, H.

    2014-12-01

    During three flights performed with the MAMAP (Methane Airborne MAPper) airborne remote sensing instrument in the framework of the CO2 and MEthane Experiment (COMEX) - a NASA and ESA funded campaign in support of HyspIRI and CarbonSat mission definition activities - large scale methane plumes were detected over the Kern River and Kern Front Oil fields in the period between June 3 and 13, 2014. MAMAP was installed for these flights aboard of the Center for Interdisciplinary Remotely-Piloted Aircraft Studies (CIRPAS) Twin Otter aircraft, together with a Picarro fast in-situ greenhouse gas (GHG) analyzer (operate by the Ames Research Center, ARC), a 5 hole turbulence probe as well as a atmospheric measurement package (operated by CIRPAS), measuring aerosols, temperature, dew-point and other atmospheric parameters. Data collected with the in-situ GHG analyzer will be used for validation of MAMAP remotely sensed data by acquiring vertical cross sections of the discovered plumes at a fixed downwind distance. Precise airborne wind information from the turbulence probe together with ground based wind data from the nearby airport will be used to estimate emission rates from the remote sensed and in-situ measured data. Remote sensed and in-situ data as well as initial flux estimates for the three flights will be presented.

  4. Remote sensing and airborne geophysics in the assessment of natural aggregate resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knepper, D.H.; Langer, W.H.; Miller, S.H.

    1994-01-01

    Natural aggregate made from crushed stone and deposits of sand and gravel is a vital element of the construction industry in the United States. Although natural aggregate is a high volume/low value commodity that is relatively abundant, new sources of aggregate are becoming increasingly difficult to find and develop because of rigid industry specifications, political considerations, development and transporation costs, and environmental concerns, especially in urban growth centers where much of the aggregate is used. As the demand for natural aggregate increases in response to urban growth and the repair and expansion of the national infrastructure, new sources of natural aggregate will be required. The USGS has recognized the necessity of developing the capability to assess the potential for natural aggregate sources on Federal lands; at present, no methodology exists for systematically describing and evaluating potential sources of natural aggregate. Because remote sensing and airborne geophysics can detect surface and nearsurface phenomena, these tools may useful for detecting and mapping potential sources of natural aggregate; however, before a methodology for applying these tools can be developed, it is necessary to understand the type, distribution, physical properties, and characteristics of natural aggregate deposits, as well as the problems that will be encountered in assessing their potential value. There are two primary sources of natural aggregate: (1) exposed or near-surface igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary bedrock that can be crushed, and (2) deposits of sand and gravel that may be used directly or crushed and sized to meet specifications. In any particular area, the availability of bedrock suitable for crushing is a function of the geologic history of the area - the processes that formed, deformed, eroded and exposed the bedrock. Deposits of sand and gravel are primarily surficial deposits formed by the erosion, transportation by water and ice

  5. Signatures of Hydrometeor Species from Airborne Passive Microwave Data for Frequencies 10-183 GHz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cecil, Daniel J.; Leppert, Kenneth, II

    2014-01-01

    There are 2 basic precipitation retrieval methods using passive microwave measurements: (1) Emission-based: Based on the tendency of liquid precipitation to cause an increase in brightness temperature (BT) primarily at frequencies below 22 GHz over a radiometrically cold background, often an ocean background (e.g., Spencer et al. 1989; Adler et al. 1991; McGaughey et al. 1996); and (2) Scattering-based: Based on the tendency of precipitation-sized ice to scatter upwelling radiation, thereby reducing the measured BT over a relatively warmer (usually land) background at frequencies generally 37 GHz (e.g., Spencer et al. 1989; Smith et al. 1992; Ferraro and Marks 1995). Passive microwave measurements have also been used to detect intense convection (e.g., Spencer and Santek 1985) and for the detection of hail (e.g., Cecil 2009; Cecil and Blankenship 2012; Ferraro et al. 2014). The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission expands upon the successful Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission program to provide global rainfall and snowfall observations every 3 hours (Hou et al. 2014). One of the instruments on board the GPM Core Observatory is the GPM Microwave Imager (GMI) which is a conically-scanning microwave radiometer with 13 channels ranging from 10-183 GHz. Goal of this study: Determine the signatures of various hydrometeor species in terms of BTs measured at frequencies used by GMI by using data collected on 3 case days (all having intense/severe convection) during the Mid-latitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment conducted over Oklahoma in 2011.

  6. Converting Snow Depth to SWE: The Fusion of Simulated Data with Remote Sensing Retrievals and the Airborne Snow Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bormann, K.; Marks, D. G.; Painter, T. H.; Hedrick, A. R.; Deems, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    Snow cover monitoring has greatly benefited from remote sensing technology but, despite their critical importance, spatially distributed measurements of snow water equivalent (SWE) in mountain terrain remain elusive. Current methods of monitoring SWE rely on point measurements and are insufficient for distributed snow science and effective management of water resources. Many studies have shown that the spatial variability in SWE is largely controlled by the spatial variability in snow depth. JPL's Airborne Snow Observatory mission (ASO) combines LiDAR and spectrometer instruments to retrieve accurate and very high-resolution snow depth measurements at the watershed scale, along with other products such as snow albedo. To make best use of these high-resolution snow depths, spatially distributed snow density data are required to leverage SWE from the measured snow depths. Snow density is a spatially and temporally variable property that cannot yet be reliably extracted from remote sensing techniques, and is difficult to extrapolate to basin scales. However, some physically based snow models have shown skill in simulating bulk snow densities and therefore provide a pathway for snow depth to SWE conversion. Leveraging model ability where remote sensing options are non-existent, ASO employs a physically based snow model (iSnobal) to resolve distributed snow density dynamics across the basin. After an adjustment scheme guided by in-situ data, these density estimates are used to derive the elusive spatial distribution of SWE from the observed snow depth distributions from ASO. In this study, we describe how the process of fusing model data with remote sensing retrievals is undertaken in the context of ASO along with estimates of uncertainty in the final SWE volume products. This work will likely be of interest to those working in snow hydrology, water resource management and the broader remote sensing community.

  7. Remote identification of potential boll weevil host plants: Airborne multispectral detection of regrowth cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Regrowth cotton plants can serve as potential hosts for boll weevils during and beyond the production season. Effective methods for timely areawide detection of these host plants are critically needed to expedite eradication in south Texas. We acquired airborne multispectral images of experimental...

  8. Investigating Land Surface Phenology Derived from Satellite and GPS Network Microwave Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, M. O.; Kimball, J. S.; Small, E. E.; Larson, K. M.

    2013-12-01

    The land surface phenology (LSP) start of season (SOS) metric signals the seasonal onset of vegetation activity, including canopy growth and associated increases in land-atmosphere water, energy and carbon (CO2) exchanges influencing weather and climate variability. The Vegetation Optical Depth (VOD) parameter determined from satellite passive microwave remote sensing provides for global LSP monitoring that is sensitive to changes in vegetation canopy water content and biomass, and insensitive to atmosphere and solar illumination constraints. Direct field measures of canopy water content and biomass changes desired for LSP validation are generally lacking due to prohibitive costs of maintaining regional monitoring networks. Alternatively, a Normalized Microwave Reflectance Index (NMRI) derived from GPS base station measurements is sensitive to daily vegetation water content changes and may provide for effective microwave LSP validation as a relatively high spatial (1000m2) and temporal resolution vegetation phenology measure. We compared NMRI (1.2 and 1.5 GHz) and satellite microwave (AMSR-E sensor) 18.7 GHz frequency VOD records (2007 to 2011) at over 300 GPS sites in North America and their derived SOS metrics for a subset of 24 homogenous land cover sites. Significant correlations were found at 276 of 305 sites, with generally favorable correspondence in the resulting SOS metrics. We also investigated the temporal dynamics of nine NMRI sites within a single 25km resolution VOD pixel and with corresponding 250m MODIS NDVI measures of the three dominant land covers within the pixel to assess the spatial scale discrepancies between these high, moderate, and coarse resolution retrievals. This study is the first attempt to compare satellite microwave LSP metrics to a GPS network derived reflectance index and highlights both the utility and limitations of the NMRI data for LSP validation. Integration of GPS base stations and the NMRI into current phenology observation

  9. Cloud-to-Ground Lightning Estimates Derived from SSMI Microwave Remote Sensing and NLDN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winesett, Thomas; Magi, Brian; Cecil, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Lightning observations are collected using ground-based and satellite-based sensors. The National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN) in the United States uses multiple ground sensors to triangulate the electromagnetic signals created when lightning strikes the Earth's surface. Satellite-based lightning observations have been made from 1998 to present using the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) on the NASA Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite, and from 1995 to 2000 using the Optical Transient Detector (OTD) on the Microlab-1 satellite. Both LIS and OTD are staring imagers that detect lightning as momentary changes in an optical scene. Passive microwave remote sensing (85 and 37 GHz brightness temperatures) from the TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI) has also been used to quantify characteristics of thunderstorms related to lightning. Each lightning detection system has fundamental limitations. TRMM satellite coverage is limited to the tropics and subtropics between 38 deg N and 38 deg S, so lightning at the higher latitudes of the northern and southern hemispheres is not observed. The detection efficiency of NLDN sensors exceeds 95%, but the sensors are only located in the USA. Even if data from other ground-based lightning sensors (World Wide Lightning Location Network, the European Cooperation for Lightning Detection, and Canadian Lightning Detection Network) were combined with TRMM and NLDN, there would be enormous spatial gaps in present-day coverage of lightning. In addition, a globally-complete time history of observed lightning activity is currently not available either, with network coverage and detection efficiencies varying through the years. Previous research using the TRMM LIS and Microwave Imager (TMI) showed that there is a statistically significant correlation between lightning flash rates and passive microwave brightness temperatures. The physical basis for this correlation emerges because lightning in a thunderstorm occurs where ice is first

  10. Airborne Particles: What We Have Learned About Their Role in Climate from Remote Sensing, and Prospects for Future Advances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahn, Ralph A.

    2013-01-01

    Desert dust, wildfire smoke, volcanic ash, biogenic and urban pollution particles, all affect the regional-scale climate of Earth in places and at times; some have global-scale impacts on the column radiation balance, cloud properties, atmospheric stability structure, and circulation patterns. Remote sensing has played a central role in identifying the sources and transports of airborne particles, mapping their three-dimensional distribution and variability, quantifying their amount, and constraining aerosol air mass type. The measurements obtained from remote sensing have strengths and limitations, and their value for characterizing Earths environment is enhanced immensely when they are combined with direct, in situ observations, and used to constrain aerosol transport and climate models. A similar approach has been taken to study the role particles play in determining the climate of Mars, though based on far fewer observations. This presentation will focus what we have learned from remote sensing about the impacts aerosol have on Earths climate; a few points about how aerosols affect the climate of Mars will also be introduced, in the context of how we might assess aerosol-climate impacts more generally on other worlds.

  11. ESA activities in the use of microwaves for the remote sensing of the Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maccoll, D.

    1984-01-01

    The program of activities under way in the European Space Agency (ESA) directed towards Remote Sensing of the oceans and troposphere is discussed. The initial project is the launch of a satellite named ERS-1 with a primary payload of microwave values in theee C- and Ku-bands. This payload is discussed in depth. The secondary payload includes precision location experiments and an instrument to measure sea surface temperature, which are described. The important topic of calibration is extensively discussed, and a review of activities directed towards improvements to the instruments for future satellites is presented. Some discussion of the impact of the instrument payload on the spacecraft design follows and the commitment of ESA to the provision of a service of value to the ultimate user is emphasized.

  12. Sea-surface temperature and salinity mapping from remote microwave radiometric measurements of brightness temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hans-Juergen, C. B.; Kendall, B. M.; Fedors, J. C.

    1977-01-01

    A technique to measure remotely sea surface temperature and salinity was demonstrated with a dual frequency microwave radiometer system. Accuracies in temperature of 1 C and in salinity of part thousand for salinity greater than 5 parts per thousand were attained after correcting for the influence of extraterrestrial background radiation, atmospheric radiation and attenuation, sea-surface roughness, and antenna beamwidth. The radiometers, operating at 1.43 and 2.65 GHz, comprise a third-generation system using null balancing and feedback noise injection. Flight measurements from an aircraft at an altitude of 1.4 km over the lower Chesapeake Bay and coastal areas of the Atlantic Ocean resulted in contour maps of sea-surface temperature and salinity with a spatial resolution of 0.5 km.

  13. Microwave backscattering theory and active remote sensing of the ocean surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, G. S.; Miller, L. S.

    1977-01-01

    The status is reviewed of electromagnetic scattering theory relative to the interpretation of microwave remote sensing data acquired from spaceborne platforms over the ocean surface. Particular emphasis is given to the assumptions which are either implicit or explicit in the theory. The multiple scale scattering theory developed during this investigation is extended to non-Gaussian surface statistics. It is shown that the important statistic for the case is the probability density function of the small scale heights conditioned on the large scale slopes; this dependence may explain the anisotropic scattering measurements recently obtained with the AAFE Radscat. It is noted that present surface measurements are inadequate to verify or reject the existing scattering theories. Surface measurements are recommended for qualifying sensor data from radar altimeters and scatterometers. Additional scattering investigations are suggested for imaging type radars employing synthetically generated apertures.

  14. Spatial and temporal variability of snow depth derived from passive microwave remote sensing data in Kazakhstan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mashtayeva, Shamshagul; Dai, Liyun; Che, Tao; Sagintayev, Zhanay; Sadvakasova, Saltanat; Kussainova, Marzhan; Alimbayeva, Danara; Akynbekkyzy, Meerzhan

    2016-12-01

    Snow cover plays an important role in the hydrological cycle and water management in Kazakhstan. However, traditional observations do not meet current needs. In this study, a snow depth retrieval equation was developed based on passive microwave remote sensing data. The average snow depth in winter (ASDW), snow cover duration (SCD), monthly maximum snow depth (MMSD), and annual average snow depth (AASD) were derived for each year to monitor the spatial and temporal snow distributions. The SCD exhibited significant spatial variations from 30 to 250 days. The longest SCD was found in the mountainous area in eastern Kazakhstan, reaching values between 200 and 250 days in 2005. The AASD increased from the south to the north and maintained latitudinal zonality. The MMSD in most areas ranged from 20 to 30 cm. The ASDW values ranged from 15 to 20 cm in the eastern region and were characterized by spatial regularity of latitudinal zonality. The ASDW in the mountainous area often exceeded 20 cm.

  15. Spatial Modeling and Variability Analysis for Modeling and Prediction of Soil and Crop Canopy Coverage Using Multispectral Imagery from an Airborne Remote Sensing System

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Based on a previous study on an airborne remote sensing system with automatic camera stabilization for crop management, multispectral imagery was acquired using the MS-4100 multispectral camera at different flight altitudes over a 115 ha cotton field. After the acquired images were geo-registered an...

  16. River gauging at global scale using optical and passive microwave remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Dijk, Albert I. J. M.; Brakenridge, G. Robert; Kettner, Albert J.; Beck, Hylke E.; De Groeve, Tom; Schellekens, Jaap

    2016-08-01

    Recent discharge observations are lacking for most rivers globally. Discharge can be estimated from remotely sensed floodplain and channel inundation area, but there is currently no method that can be automatically extended to many rivers. We examined whether automated monitoring is feasible by statistically relating inundation estimates from moderate to coarse (>0.05°) resolution remote sensing to monthly station discharge records. Inundation extents were derived from optical MODIS data and passive microwave sensors, and compared to monthly discharge records from over 8000 gauging stations and satellite altimetry observations for 442 reaches of large rivers. An automated statistical method selected grid cells to construct "satellite gauging reaches" (SGRs). MODIS SGRs were generally more accurate than passive microwave SGRs, but there were complementary strengths. The rivers widely varied in size, regime, and morphology. As expected performance was low (R < 0.7) for many (86%), often small or regulated, rivers, but 1263 successful SGRs remained. High monthly discharge variability enhanced performance: a standard deviation of 100-1000 m3 s-1 yielded ca. 50% chance of R > 0.6. The best results (R > 0.9) were obtained for large unregulated lowland rivers, particularly in tropical and boreal regions. Relatively poor results were obtained in arid regions, where flow pulses are few and recede rapidly, and in temperate regions, where many rivers are modified and contained. Provided discharge variations produce clear changes in inundated area and gauge records are available for part of the satellite record, SGRs can retrieve monthly river discharge values back to around 1998 and up to present.

  17. Evaluating melt onset date in the United States using remotely sensed passive microwave derived brightness temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osborne, Douglas J.

    The timing and magnitude of spring snowmelt events impact riverine flooding and inform reservoir operations. This study evaluates the ability of the Diurnal Amplitude Variation (DAV), Frequency Difference (FD) and Polarization Ratio (PR) melt onset detection algorithms to determine melt onset dates (MOD) in the mid-latitudes of the United States. The methods are evaluated using satellite remotely sensed passive microwave observations from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer - EOS (AMSR-E) sensor and compare against in situ snow measurements from 763 Snow Telemetry (SNOTEL) and Soil Climate Analysis Network (SCAN) stations. The DAV method performs best in Alaska, predicting the MOD with a mean absolute error of 9.4 days, while the Frequency Difference and Polarization Ratio methods produce mean absolute errors of 12.5 and 11.9 days, respectively. The DAV method also clearly produced the best results in Vermont, the FD method worked best in South Dakota and the PR method performed best in Arizona. None of the study's methods are recommended for California, Minnesota, Oregon and Washington. The remaining states did not have an algorithm that worked notably better than the others and it was discovered that the methods do not work for a shallow snowpack. Tree cover was also found to have little effect on the performance of the melt onset detection methods for pixels having less than 50% tree cover.

  18. Airborne multispectral remote sensing data to estimate several oenological parameters in vineyard production. A case study of application of remote sensing data to precision viticulture in central Italy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tramontana, Gianluca; Girard, Filippo; Belli, Claudio; Comandini, Maria Cristina; Pietromarchi, Paolo; Tiberi, Domenico; Papale, Dario

    2010-05-01

    It is widely recognized that environmental differences within the vineyard, with respect to soils, microclimate, and topography, can influence grape characteristics and crop yields. Besides, the central Italy landscape is characterized by a high level of fragmentation and heterogeneity It requires stringent Remote sensing technical features in terms of spectral, geometric and temporal resolution to aimed at supporting applications for precision viticulture. In response to the needs of the Italian grape and wine industry for an evaluation of precision viticulture technologies, the DISAFRI (University of Tuscia) and the Agricultural Research Council - Oenological research unit (ENC-CRA) jointly carried out an experimental study during the year 2008. The study was carried out on 2 areas located in the town of Velletri, near Rome; for each area, two varieties (red and white grape) were studied: Nero d'Avola and Sauvignon blanc in first area , Merlot and Sauvignon blanc in second. Remote sensing data were acquired in different periods using a low cost multisensor Airborne remote sensing platform developed by DISAFRI (ASPIS-2 Advanced Spectroscopic Imager System). ASPIS-2, an evolution of the ASPIS sensor (Papale et al 2008, Sensors), is a multispectral sensor based on 4 CCD and 3 interferential filters per CCD. The filters are user selectable during the flight and in this way Aspis is able to acquire data in 12 bands in the visible and near infrared regions with a bandwidth of 10 or 20 nm. To the purposes of this study 7 spectral band were acquired and 15 vegetation indices calculated. During the ripeness period several vegetative and oenochemical parameters were monitored. Anova test shown that several oenochemical variables, such as sugars, total acidity, polyphenols and anthocyanins differ according to the variety taken into consideration. In order to evaluate the time autocorrelation of several oenological parameters value, a simple linear regression between

  19. Volumetric pattern analysis of fuselage-mounted airborne antennas. Ph.D. Thesis; [prediction analysis techniques for antenna radiation patterns of microwave antennas on commercial aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, C. L.

    1976-01-01

    A volumetric pattern analysis of fuselage-mounted airborne antennas at high frequencies was investigated. The primary goal of the investigation was to develop a numerical solution for predicting radiation patterns of airborne antennas in an accurate and efficient manner. An analytical study of airborne antenna pattern problems is presented in which the antenna is mounted on the fuselage near the top or bottom. Since this is a study of general-type commercial aircraft, the aircraft was modeled in its most basic form. The fuselage was assumed to be an infinitely long perfectly conducting elliptic cylinder in its cross-section and a composite elliptic cylinder in its elevation profile. The wing, cockpit, stabilizers (horizontal and vertical) and landing gear are modeled by "N" sided bent or flat plates which can be arbitrarily attached to the fuselage. The volumetric solution developed utilizes two elliptic cylinders, namely, the roll plane and elevation plane models to approximate the principal surface profile (longitudinal and transverse) at the antenna location. With the belt concept and the aid of appropriate coordinate system transformations the solution can be used to predict the volumetric patterns of airborne antennas in an accurate and efficient manner. Applications of this solution to various airborne antenna problems show good agreement with scale model measurements. Extensive data are presented for a microwave landing antenna system.

  20. Mining in subarctic Canada: airborne PM2.5 metal concentrations in two remote First Nations communities.

    PubMed

    Liberda, Eric N; Tsuji, Leonard J S; Peltier, Richard E

    2015-11-01

    Airborne particulate matter arising from upwind mining activities is a concern for First Nations communities in the western James Bay region of Ontario, Canada. Aerosol chemical components were collected in 2011 from two communities in northern Ontario. The chemical and mass concentration data of particulate matter collected during this study shows a significant difference in PM2.5 in Attawapiskat compared to Fort Albany. Elemental profiles indicate enhanced levels of some tracers thought to arise from mining activities, such as, K, Ni, and crustal materials. Both communities are remote and isolated from urban and industrial pollution sources, however, Attawapiskat First Nation has significantly enhanced levels of particulate matter, and it is likely that some of this arises from upwind mining activities.

  1. Assessment of EOS Aqua AMSR-E Arctic Sea Ice Concentrations using Landsat-7 and Airborne Microwave Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavalieri, Donald J.; Markus, Thorsten; Hall, Dorothy K.; Gasiewski, Albin J.; Klein, Marian; Ivanoff, Alvaro

    2006-01-01

    An assessment of Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) sea ice concentrations under winter conditions using ice concentrations derived from Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) imagery obtained during the March 2003 Arctic sea ice validation field campaign is presented. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Environmental Technology Laboratory's Airborne Polarimetric Scanning Radiometer Measurements, which were made from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration P 3B aircraft during the campaign, were used primarily as a diagnostic tool to understand the comparative results and to suggest improvements to the AMSR-E ice concentration algorithm. Based on the AMSR-E/ETM+ comparisons, a good overall agreement with little bias (approx. 1%) for areas of first year and young sea ice was found. Areas of new ice production result in a negative bias of about 5% in the AMSR-E ice concentration retrievals, with a root mean square error of 8%. Some areas of deep snow also resulted in an underestimate of the ice concentration (approx. 10%). For all ice types combined and for the full range of ice concentrations, the bias ranged from 0% to 3%, and the rms errors ranged from 1% to 7%, depending on the region. The new-ice and deep-snow biases are expected to be reduced through an adjustment of the new-ice and ice-type C algorithm tie points.

  2. Airborne Optical and Thermal Remote Sensing for Wildfire Detection and Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Allison, Robert S.; Johnston, Joshua M.; Craig, Gregory; Jennings, Sion

    2016-01-01

    For decades detection and monitoring of forest and other wildland fires has relied heavily on aircraft (and satellites). Technical advances and improved affordability of both sensors and sensor platforms promise to revolutionize the way aircraft detect, monitor and help suppress wildfires. Sensor systems like hyperspectral cameras, image intensifiers and thermal cameras that have previously been limited in use due to cost or technology considerations are now becoming widely available and affordable. Similarly, new airborne sensor platforms, particularly small, unmanned aircraft or drones, are enabling new applications for airborne fire sensing. In this review we outline the state of the art in direct, semi-automated and automated fire detection from both manned and unmanned aerial platforms. We discuss the operational constraints and opportunities provided by these sensor systems including a discussion of the objective evaluation of these systems in a realistic context. PMID:27548174

  3. Airborne Optical and Thermal Remote Sensing for Wildfire Detection and Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Allison, Robert S; Johnston, Joshua M; Craig, Gregory; Jennings, Sion

    2016-08-18

    For decades detection and monitoring of forest and other wildland fires has relied heavily on aircraft (and satellites). Technical advances and improved affordability of both sensors and sensor platforms promise to revolutionize the way aircraft detect, monitor and help suppress wildfires. Sensor systems like hyperspectral cameras, image intensifiers and thermal cameras that have previously been limited in use due to cost or technology considerations are now becoming widely available and affordable. Similarly, new airborne sensor platforms, particularly small, unmanned aircraft or drones, are enabling new applications for airborne fire sensing. In this review we outline the state of the art in direct, semi-automated and automated fire detection from both manned and unmanned aerial platforms. We discuss the operational constraints and opportunities provided by these sensor systems including a discussion of the objective evaluation of these systems in a realistic context.

  4. Sensitivity of Bistatic Microwave Scattering for Soil Texture at X-Band for Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Dharmendra

    Soil texture is a fundamental soil physical property which is important for agriculture, soil characterization, soil moisture assessment, soil runoff etc. Major research works in field of microwave remote sensing to retrieve soil physical property are reported in backscattering (monostatic system) case. But, still the achieved results are not satisfactory. So, there is a need to concentrate on any other aspect of microwave remote sensing to improve the obtained results. Bistatic systems to check the scattering in specular direction are the need of present scenario. This type of study is also important for future cartwheel satellite system where one transmitter satellite and several other independent receiver satellites will work. In this paper bistatic microwave scattering sensitivity for four type of different soil texture is studied. According to United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) soil texture is a term commonly used to designate the proportionate distribution of the different sizes of mineral particles (based on there diameter in millimeters) in a soil and characterizes it into sand, silt and clay seperats. Experiments were carried out to analyze the coherent and non-coherent scattering behavior of different type of soil texture in specular direction. For experimental purposes an X-band bistatic scatterometer was indigenously developed in the lab. Experiments were carried out at 10 GHz frequency and observation were taken at different incidence angles varying from 25 degree to 70 degree in steps of 5 degree, and both vertical-vertical (VV) polarization and horizontal-horizontal polarization were taken into account. The measurements were taken for smooth surface with kl less than 0.2 (where k is wave number and l is rms surface height) and two rough surfaces with k i is 1.88 and k l is 2.93 for all the four fields that are having different proportion of sand, silt and clay. After calibration scattering coefficient for soil were calculated and then

  5. Development and Evaluation of Global Wetlands Mappings from Coarse-Resolution Satellite Microwave Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroeder, R.; McDonald, K. C.; Podest, E.; Willacy, K.; Jones, L. A.; Kimball, J. S.; Zimmermann, R.

    2010-12-01

    Wetlands exert major impacts on global biogeochemistry, hydrology, and biological diversity. The extent and seasonal, interannual, and decadal variation of inundated wetland area play key roles in ecosystem dynamics. Wetlands contribute approximately one fourth of the total methane annually emitted to the atmosphere and are identified as the primary contributor to interannual variations in the growth rate of atmospheric methane concentrations. Despite the importance of these environments in the global cycling of carbon and water and to current and future climate, the extent and dynamics of global wetlands remain poorly characterized and modeled, primarily because of the scarcity of suitable regional-to-global remote-sensing data for characterizing their distribution and dynamics. We present a satellite-based approach for mapping wetlands globally at coarse-resolution (25km). The approach employs a mixture model applied to ~8 years (2002-2009) of daily 18.7 GHz, V and H polarization brightness temperature (Tb) data from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer on EOS (AMSR-E) and daily Ku-band (13.4 GHz) radar backscatter data from SeaWinds-on-QuikSCAT. The combined passive-active microwave mixture model approach utilizes site-specific MODIS IGBP land cover information to account for the effect of vegetation structure on the microwave remote sensing-based retrieval of surface inundation dynamics. A comparison with coarse-resolution global maps of fractional open water cover (Fw) derived from radiometric inversion of daily AMSR-E 18.7 GHz, V and H polarized Tb observations demonstrates agreement in terms of both spatial distribution and temporal variability of the major global wetland complexes, but differences in the magnitudes of the Fw retrievals. Wetlands products obtained from both satellite-based methods are compared with the high-resolution (250m) land water mask developed from MODIS and SRTM L3 (MOD44W) as well as the global lake and wetland database (GLWD

  6. Comparisons of Arctic In-Situ Snow and Ice Data with Airborne Passive Microwave Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markus, T.; Cavalien, D. J.; Gasiewski, A.; Sturm, M.; Klein, M.; Maslanik, J.; Stroeve, J.; Heinrichs, J.; Holmgren, J.; Irisov, V.

    2004-01-01

    As part of the AMSR-E sea ice validation campaign in March 2003, aircraft flights over the Arctic sea ice were coordinated with ground measurements of snow and sea ice properties. The surface-based measurements were in the vicinity of Barrow, AK, and at a Navy ice camp located in the Beaufort Sea. The NASA P-3 aircraft was equipped with the NOAA ETL PSR microwave radiometer that has the same frequencies as the AMSR-E sensor. The goal was to validate the standard AMSR-E products ice temperature and snow depth on sea ice. Ground measurements are the only way to validate these parameters. The higher spatial resolution of the PSR instrument (between 30 and 500 m, depending on altitude) enables a better comparison between ground measurements and microwave data because of the expected smaller spatial variability. Maps of PSR data can then be used for further down-scaling to AMSR-E pixel areas. Initial results show a good qualitative agreement between the in-situ snow depths and the PSR data. Detailed studies are underway and latest results will be presented.

  7. Airborne multispectral remote sensing with ground truth for areawide pest management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scientists and engineers in areawide pest management programs have been developing, integrating, and evaluating multiple strategies and technologies into a systems approach for management of field crop insect pests. Remote sensing along with global positioning systems, geographic information system...

  8. Airborne multi-spectral remote sensing with ground truth for areawide pest management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scientists and researchers have been developing, integrating, and evaluating multiple strategies and technologies into a systems approach for management of field crop insect pests. Remote sensing along with Global Positioning Systems, Geographic Information Systems, and variable rate technology are...

  9. Remote sensing of phytoplankton density and diversity in Narragansett Bay using an airborne fluorosensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farmer, F. H.; Brown, C. A., Jr.; Jarrett, O., Jr.; Campbell, J. W.; Staton, W. L.

    1979-01-01

    An aircraft-borne remote system is presented that utilizes narrow-band light from multiple dye lasers to excite selected algae photopigments and then measures the resultant flourescence emitted from chlorophyll a at 685 nm. Tests were conducted with both pure and mixed cultures of marine algae from a series of field tests taken from piers and bridges of Narragansett Bay, and a prototype remote fluorosensor was flown over the Bay during the 1978 winter-spring diatom bloom. Remote fluorescence obtained at hover points over sea-truth stations showed correlations with in situ fluorescence, total chlorophyll a, and cell count. It was concluded that the ratio of remote fluorescence to direct chlorophyll a concentration was less variable than expected, and the distribution of total chlorophyll a between two major photoplankton color groups showed three distinct areas, within the Bay, of green and golden-brown species.

  10. Relationships between evaprorative fraction and remotely sensed vegetation index and microwave brightness temperature for semiarid rangelands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kustas, W. P.; Schimugge, T. J.; Humes, K. S.; Jackson, T. J.; Parry, R.; Weltz, M. A.; Moran, M. S.

    1993-01-01

    Measurements of the microwave brightness temperature (TB) with the Pushbroom Microwave Radiometer (PBMR) over the Walnut Gulch Experiment Watershed were made on selected days during the MONSOON 90 field campaign. The PBMR is an L-band instrument (21-cm wavelength) that can provide estimates of near-surface soil moisture over a variety of surfaces. Aircraft observations in the visible and near-infrared wavelengths collected on selected days also were used to compute a vegetation index. Continuous micrometeorological measurements and daily soil moisture samples were obtained at eight locations during experimental period. Two sites were instrumented with time domain reflectometry probes to monitor the soil moisture profile. The fraction of available energy used for evapotranspiration was computed by taking the ratio of latent heat flux (LE) to the sum of net radiation (Rn) and soil heat flux (G). This ratio is commonly called the evaporative fraction (EF) and normally varies between 0 and 1 under daytime convective conditions with minimal advection. A wide range of environmental conditions existed during the field campaign, resulting in average EF values for the study area varying from 0.4 to 0.8 and values of TB ranging from 220 to 280 K. Comparison between measured TB and EF for the eight locations showed an inverse relationship. Other days were included in the analysis by estimating TB with the soil moisture data. Because transpiration from the vegetation is more strongly coupled to root zone soil moisture, significant scatter in this relationship existed at high values of TB or dry near-surface soil moisture conditions. The variation in EF under dry near-surface soil moisture conditions was correlated to the amount of vegetation cover estimated with a remotely sensed vegetation index. These findings indicate that information obtained from optical and microwave data can be used for quantifying the energy balance of semiarid areas. The microwave data can indicate

  11. Relationships between Evaporative Fraction and Remotely Sensed Vegetation Index and Microwave Brightness Temperature for Semiarid Rangelands.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kustas, W. P.; Schmugge, T. J.; Humes, K. S.; Jackson, T. J.; Parry, R.; Weltz, M. A.; Moran, M. S.

    1993-12-01

    Measurements of the microwave brightness temperature (TB) with the Pushbroom Microwave Radiometer (PBMR) over the Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed were made on selected days during the MONSOON 90 field campaign. The PBMR is an L-band instrument (21-cm wavelength) that can provide estimates of near-surface soil moisture over a variety of surfaces. Aircraft observations in the visible and near-infrared wavelengths collected on selected days also were used to compute a vegetation index. Continuous micrometeorological measurements and daily soil moisture samples were obtained at eight locations during the experimental period. Two sites were instrumented with time domain reflectometry probes to monitor the soil moisture profile. The fraction of available energy used for evapotranspiration was computed by taking the ratio of latent heat flux (LE) to the sum of net radiation (Rn) and soil heat flux (G). This ratio is commonly called the evaporative fraction (EF) and normally varies between 0 and 1 under daytime convective conditions with minimal advection. A wide range of environmental conditions existed during the field campaign, resulting in average EF values for the study area varying from 0.4 to 0.8 and values of TB ranging from 220 to 280 K. Comparison between measured TB and EF for the eight locations showed an inverse relationship with a significant correlation (r2 = 0.69). Other days were included in the analysis by estimating TB with the soil moisture data. Because transpiration from the vegetation is more strongly coupled to root zone soil moisture, significant scatter in this relationship existed at high values of TB or dry near-surface soil moisture conditions. It caused a substantial reduction in the correlation with r2 = 0.40 or only 40% of the variation in EF being explained by TB. The variation in EF under dry near-surface soil moisture conditions was correlated to the amount of vegetation cover estimated with a remotely sensed vegetation index. These

  12. The Greenland ice sheet perennial firn aquifer: characteristics, extent and evolution obtained from airborne remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miège, C.; Forster, R. R.; Koenig, L.; Brucker, L.; Box, J. E.; Burgess, E. W.

    2013-12-01

    The presence of a perennial firn aquifer (PFA) was identified April 2011, in the southeast part of the Greenland ice sheet, from firn-core drilling, surface- and airborne-radar. The PFA is a component of the ice sheet hydrology and corresponds to a liquid water saturated firn aquifer, which persists over the winter without freezing. The average depth of the top of the aquifer is ~20 m below the surface, and is guided by surface topography, following surface undulations, similar to an unconfined aquifer observed in other groundwater aquifer systems. We use a combination of 400 MHz ground-based radar and the 600 to 900 MHz Accumulation Radar on board NASA's airborne Operation IceBridge (OIB) to identify and map PFA extent and evolution between 2011 and 2013. Here, we present an ice-sheet wide mapping of the PFA, including the 2013 field campaign with detailed ground-based radar grids near the firn core site drilled in April 2013 (PFA-13, 66.18°N, 39.04°W and 1563 m). At the PFA-13 location, OIB Accumulation Radar and ground-based radar data were acquired along the same track within two weeks in both 2011 and 2013, offering a unique comparison dataset. This dataset is used to analyze the three year (2011-2013) evolution of PFA top depth, i.e. stored meltwater volume, in areas where radar transects are repeated from one year to the next. This evolution suggests possible horizontal flow of this stored meltwater toward the ice-sheet margins but must be confirmed by further field investigations. In addition, we derive surface slope from latest digital elevation model available for Southeast Greenland and use this slope as parameter to interpolate the PFA top in the area between ground radar transects and airborne radar flight lines. This slope interpolation would aim to improve PFA water volume/extent estimations for areas without airborne radar coverage. The fate of this stored meltwater is currently unknown, even if flow is suggested and drainage into nearby crevasses

  13. An airborne study of microwave surface sensing and boundary layer heat and moisture fluxes for FIFE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gogineni, S. P.

    1995-01-01

    The objectives of this work were to perform imaging radar and scatterometer measurements over the Konza Prairie as a part of the First International land surface climatology project Field Experiments (EIFE) and to develop an mm-wave radiometer and the data acquisition system for this radiometer. We collected imaging radar data with the University of Kansas Side-Looking Airborne Radar (SLAR) operating at 9.375 GHz and scatterometer data with a helicopter-mounted scatterometer at 5.3 and 9.6 GHz. We also developed a 35-GHz null-balancing radiometer and data acquisition system. Although radar images showed good delineation of various features of the FIFE site, the data were not useful for quantitative analysis for extracting soil moisture information because of day-to-day changes in the system transfer characteristics. Our scatterometer results show that both C and X bands are sensitive to soil moisture variations over grass-covered soils. Scattering coefficients near vertical are about 4 dB lower for unburned areas because of the presence of a thatch layer, in comparison with those for burned areas. The results of the research have been documented in reports, oral presentations, and published papers.

  14. Classification of Baltic Sea ice types by airborne multifrequency microwave radiometer

    SciTech Connect

    Kurvonen, L.; Hallikainen, M.

    1996-11-01

    An airborne multifrequency radiometer (24, 34, 48, and 94 GHz, vertical polarization) was used to investigate the behavior of the brightness temperature of different sea ice types in the Gulf of Bothnia (Baltic Sea). The measurements and the main results of the analysis are presented. The measurements were made in dry and wet conditions (air temperature above and below 0 C). The angle of incidence was 45{degree} in all measurements. The following topics are evaluated: (a) frequency dependency of the brightness temperature of different ice types, (b) the capability of the multifrequency radiometer to classify ice types for winter navigation purposes, and (c) the optimum measurement frequencies for mapping sea ice. The weather conditions had a significant impact on the radiometric signatures of some ice types (snow-covered compact pack ice and frost-covered new ice); the impact was the highest at 94 GHz. In all cases the overall classification accuracy was around 90% (the kappa coefficient was from 0.86 to 0.96) when the optimum channel combination (24/34 GHz and 94 GHz) was used.

  15. The dynamic monitoring of warm-water discharge based on the airborne high-resolution thermal infrared remote sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Honglan; Xie, Feng; Liu, Chengyu; Liu, Zhihui; Zhang, Changxing; Yang, Gui; Wang, Jianyu

    2016-04-01

    The cooling water discharged from the coastal plants flow into the sea continuously, whose temperature is higher than original sea surface temperature (SST). The fact will have non-negligible influence on the marine environment in and around where the plants site. Hence, it's significant to monitor the temporal and spatial variation of the warm-water discharge for the assessment of the effect of the plant on its surrounding marine environment. The paper describes an approach for the dynamic monitoring of the warm-water discharge of coastal plants based on the airborne high-resolution thermal infrared remote sensing technology. Firstly, the geometric correction was carried out for the thermal infrared remote sensing images acquired on the aircraft. Secondly, the atmospheric correction method was used to retrieve the sea surface temperature of the images. Thirdly, the temperature-rising districts caused by the warm-water discharge were extracted. Lastly, the temporal and spatial variations of the warm-water discharge were analyzed through the geographic information system (GIS) technology. The approach was applied to Qinshan nuclear power plant (NPP), in Zhejiang Province, China. In considering with the tide states, the diffusion, distribution and temperature-rising values of the warm-water discharged from the plant were calculated and analyzed, which are useful to the marine environment assessment.

  16. Using Airborne Remote Sensing to Increase Situational Awareness in Civil Protection and Humanitarian Relief - the Importance of User Involvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Römer, H.; Kiefl, R.; Henkel, F.; Wenxi, C.; Nippold, R.; Kurz, F.; Kippnich, U.

    2016-06-01

    Enhancing situational awareness in real-time (RT) civil protection and emergency response scenarios requires the development of comprehensive monitoring concepts combining classical remote sensing disciplines with geospatial information science. In the VABENE++ project of the German Aerospace Center (DLR) monitoring tools are being developed by which innovative data acquisition approaches are combined with information extraction as well as the generation and dissemination of information products to a specific user. DLR's 3K and 4k camera system which allow for a RT acquisition and pre-processing of high resolution aerial imagery are applied in two application examples conducted with end users: a civil protection exercise with humanitarian relief organisations and a large open-air music festival in cooperation with a festival organising company. This study discusses how airborne remote sensing can significantly contribute to both, situational assessment and awareness, focussing on the downstream processes required for extracting information from imagery and for visualising and disseminating imagery in combination with other geospatial information. Valuable user feedback and impetus for further developments has been obtained from both applications, referring to innovations in thematic image analysis (supporting festival site management) and product dissemination (editable web services). Thus, this study emphasises the important role of user involvement in application-related research, i.e. by aligning it closer to user's requirements.

  17. Airborne methane remote measurements reveal heavy-tail flux distribution in Four Corners region

    PubMed Central

    Thorpe, Andrew K.; Thompson, David R.; Hulley, Glynn; Kort, Eric Adam; Vance, Nick; Borchardt, Jakob; Krings, Thomas; Gerilowski, Konstantin; Sweeney, Colm; Conley, Stephen; Bue, Brian D.; Aubrey, Andrew D.; Hook, Simon; Green, Robert O.

    2016-01-01

    Methane (CH4) impacts climate as the second strongest anthropogenic greenhouse gas and air quality by influencing tropospheric ozone levels. Space-based observations have identified the Four Corners region in the Southwest United States as an area of large CH4 enhancements. We conducted an airborne campaign in Four Corners during April 2015 with the next-generation Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (near-infrared) and Hyperspectral Thermal Emission Spectrometer (thermal infrared) imaging spectrometers to better understand the source of methane by measuring methane plumes at 1- to 3-m spatial resolution. Our analysis detected more than 250 individual methane plumes from fossil fuel harvesting, processing, and distributing infrastructures, spanning an emission range from the detection limit ∼ 2 kg/h to 5 kg/h through ∼ 5,000 kg/h. Observed sources include gas processing facilities, storage tanks, pipeline leaks, and well pads, as well as a coal mine venting shaft. Overall, plume enhancements and inferred fluxes follow a lognormal distribution, with the top 10% emitters contributing 49 to 66% to the inferred total point source flux of 0.23 Tg/y to 0.39 Tg/y. With the observed confirmation of a lognormal emission distribution, this airborne observing strategy and its ability to locate previously unknown point sources in real time provides an efficient and effective method to identify and mitigate major emissions contributors over a wide geographic area. With improved instrumentation, this capability scales to spaceborne applications [Thompson DR, et al. (2016) Geophys Res Lett 43(12):6571–6578]. Further illustration of this potential is demonstrated with two detected, confirmed, and repaired pipeline leaks during the campaign. PMID:27528660

  18. Airborne methane remote measurements reveal heavy-tail flux distribution in Four Corners region.

    PubMed

    Frankenberg, Christian; Thorpe, Andrew K; Thompson, David R; Hulley, Glynn; Kort, Eric Adam; Vance, Nick; Borchardt, Jakob; Krings, Thomas; Gerilowski, Konstantin; Sweeney, Colm; Conley, Stephen; Bue, Brian D; Aubrey, Andrew D; Hook, Simon; Green, Robert O

    2016-08-30

    Methane (CH4) impacts climate as the second strongest anthropogenic greenhouse gas and air quality by influencing tropospheric ozone levels. Space-based observations have identified the Four Corners region in the Southwest United States as an area of large CH4 enhancements. We conducted an airborne campaign in Four Corners during April 2015 with the next-generation Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (near-infrared) and Hyperspectral Thermal Emission Spectrometer (thermal infrared) imaging spectrometers to better understand the source of methane by measuring methane plumes at 1- to 3-m spatial resolution. Our analysis detected more than 250 individual methane plumes from fossil fuel harvesting, processing, and distributing infrastructures, spanning an emission range from the detection limit [Formula: see text] 2 kg/h to 5 kg/h through [Formula: see text] 5,000 kg/h. Observed sources include gas processing facilities, storage tanks, pipeline leaks, and well pads, as well as a coal mine venting shaft. Overall, plume enhancements and inferred fluxes follow a lognormal distribution, with the top 10% emitters contributing 49 to 66% to the inferred total point source flux of 0.23 Tg/y to 0.39 Tg/y. With the observed confirmation of a lognormal emission distribution, this airborne observing strategy and its ability to locate previously unknown point sources in real time provides an efficient and effective method to identify and mitigate major emissions contributors over a wide geographic area. With improved instrumentation, this capability scales to spaceborne applications [Thompson DR, et al. (2016) Geophys Res Lett 43(12):6571-6578]. Further illustration of this potential is demonstrated with two detected, confirmed, and repaired pipeline leaks during the campaign.

  19. An Integrated Data Acquisition / User Request/ Processing / Delivery System for Airborne Remote Sensing Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, B.; Chu, A.; Tung, W.

    2003-12-01

    Airborne science data has historically played an important role in the development of the scientific underpinnings for spaceborne missions. When the science community determines the need for new types of spaceborne measurements, airborne campaigns are often crucial in risk mitigation for these future missions. However, full exploitation of the acquired data may be difficult due to its experimental and transitory nature. Externally to the project, most problematic (in particular, for those not involved in requesting the data acquisitions) may be the difficulty in searching for, requesting, and receiving the data, or even knowing the data exist. This can result in a rather small, insular community of users for these data sets. Internally, the difficulty for the project is in maintaining a robust processing and archival system during periods of changing mission priorities and evolving technologies. The NASA/JPL Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR) has acquired data for a large and varied community of scientists and engineers for 15 years. AIRSAR is presently supporting current NASA Earth Science Enterprise experiments, such as the Soil Moisture EXperiment (SMEX) and the Cold Land Processes experiment (CLPX), as well as experiments conducted as many as 10 years ago. During that time, it's processing, data ordering, and data delivery system has undergone evolutionary change as the cost and capability of resources has improved. AIRSAR now has a fully integrated data acquisition/user request/processing/delivery system through which most components of the data fulfillment process communicate via shared information within a database. The integration of these functions has reduced errors and increased throughput of processed data to customers.

  20. Design of an Airborne Portable Remote Imaging Spectrometer (PRISM) for the Coastal Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mouroulis, P.; vanGorp, B.; Green, R. O.; Cohen, D.; Wilson, D.; Randall, D.; Rodriguez, J.; Polanco, O.; Dierssen, H.; Balasubramanian, K.; Vargas, R.; Hein, R.; Sobel, H.; Eastwood, M.

    2010-01-01

    PRISM is a pushbroom imaging spectrometer currently under development at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, intended to address the needs of airborne coastal ocean science research. We describe here the instrument design and the technologies that enable it to achieve its distinguishing characteristics. PRISM covers the 350-1050 nm range with a 3.1 nm sampling and a 33(deg) field of view. The design provides for high signal to noise ratio, high uniformity of response, and low polarization sensitivity. The complete instrument also incorporates two additional wavelength bands at 1240 and 1610 nm in a spot radiometer configuration to aid with atmospheric correction.

  1. A Global Record of Daily Landscape Freeze-Thaw Status from Satellite Microwave Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimball, J. S.; Kim, Y.; Colliander, A.; McDonald, K. C.

    2011-12-01

    The freeze-thaw (FT) parameter from satellite microwave remote sensing quantifies the predominant landscape frozen or thawed state and is closely linked to surface energy budget and hydrologic activity, seasonal vegetation growth dynamics and terrestrial carbon budgets. A global Earth System Data Record (ESDR) of daily landscape FT status (FT-ESDR) was developed using a temporal change classification of 37 GHz brightness temperature (Tb) series from the Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) and Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I), and encompassing land areas where seasonal frozen temperatures influence ecosystem processes. A consistent, long-term (>30 yr) FT record was created by ensuring cross-sensor consistency through pixel-wise adjustment of the SMMR Tb record based on empirical analyses of overlapping SMMR and SSM/I measurements. The product is designed to determine the FT status of the composite landscape vegetation-snow-soil medium with sufficient accuracy to characterize frozen temperature constraints to surface water mobility, vegetation productivity and land-atmosphere CO2 fluxes. A multi-tier product validation is applied using in situ temperature and tower carbon flux measurements, and other satellite FT retrievals. The FT-ESDR record shows mean annual spatial classification accuracies of 91 (+/-8.6) and 84 (+/-9.3) percent for PM and AM overpass retrievals relative to surface air temperature measurements from global weather stations. Other comparisons against spatially dense temperature observations from an Alaska ecological transect reveal satellite sensor frequency dependence and variable FT sensitivity to surface air, vegetation, soil and snow properties. Other satellite sensor retrievals, including AMSR-E and SMOS show similar FT classification accuracies, but variable sensitivity to different landscape elements. Sensor FT classification differences reflect differences in microwave frequency, footprint resolution and satellite

  2. Data Management Challenges for Airborne NASA Earth Venture Sub-Orbital Investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyer, A.; Lindsley, C.; Wright, D.; Cook, R. B.; Santhana Vannan, S. K.

    2015-12-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) is developing technology infrastructure to archive airborne remote sensing observations from two of NASA's Earth Venture Sub-orbital Missions. The two missions are CARVE (Carbon in Arctic Reservoirs Vulnerability Experiment) and AirMOSS (Airborne Microwave Observatory of Subcanopy and Subsurface). These missions collected over 140 TB of data from extensive ground-based and airborne instruments. The metadata and documentation requirements necessary for proper archive and dissemination of such transect-based, and often 3-dimensional, airborne data are quite different from traditional field campaign data and satellite remote sensing data streams. Staff at the ORNL DAAC have developed a metadata and data infrastructure for airborne data that enables spatial or keyword-based search and discovery, integration of related satellite- or ground-based data sets, and subsetting and visualization tools for both CARVE and AirMOSS. Here we discuss challenges, progress, and lessons learned.

  3. Road Asphalt Pavements Analyzed by Airborne Thermal Remote Sensing: Preliminary Results of the Venice Highway

    PubMed Central

    Pascucci, Simone; Bassani, Cristiana; Palombo, Angelo; Poscolieri, Maurizio; Cavalli, Rosa

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a fast procedure for evaluating asphalt pavement surface defects using airborne emissivity data. To develop this procedure, we used airborne multispectral emissivity data covering an urban test area close to Venice (Italy).For this study, we first identify and select the roads' asphalt pavements on Multispectral Infrared Visible Imaging Spectrometer (MIVIS) imagery using a segmentation procedure. Next, since in asphalt pavements the surface defects are strictly related to the decrease of oily components that cause an increase of the abundance of surfacing limestone, the diagnostic absorption emissivity peak at 11.2μm of the limestone was used for retrieving from MIVIS emissivity data the areas exhibiting defects on asphalt pavements surface.The results showed that MIVIS emissivity allows establishing a threshold that points out those asphalt road sites on which a check for a maintenance intervention is required. Therefore, this technique can supply local government authorities an efficient, rapid and repeatable road mapping procedure providing the location of the asphalt pavements to be checked. PMID:27879765

  4. Evaluation of the airborne imaging spectrometer for remote sensing of forest stand conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, Charles E., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Five pairs of plots were established in forest stands with one of each pair trenched and covered to prevent precipitation from reaching the tree roots. High winds and falling limbs destroyed the covers on three of the plots. The two remaining plots were in a red pine plantation and in a natural stand of sugar maple. Trees in both plots developed levels of moisture stress more than nine bars higher than control trees on the dates of overflights with the Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) and the Collins' Airborne Spectroradiometer (CAS). Hemispherical reflectance from stressed and control trees was measured with a Beckman DK2A spectrophotometer. On the day of the AIS overflight, stressed maple foliage was less reflective than the control from 1000 to 1300 nm, but more reflective at wavelengths longer than 1300 nm. Pine foliage was less reflective than the control from 1000 to 1600 nm, but the difference was small at wavelengths longer than 1350 nm. AIS data collected showed brightness values for both maple and pine to be lower than for the controls from 1000 to 1300 nm. CAS data were used to determine the gain in species identification accuracy obtainable with high spectral resolution data.

  5. Treatment of airborne asbestos and asbestos-like microfiber particles using atmospheric microwave air plasma.

    PubMed

    Averroes, A; Sekiguchi, H; Sakamoto, K

    2011-11-15

    Atmospheric microwave air plasma was used to treat asbestos-like microfiber particles that had two types of ceramic fiber and one type of stainless fiber. The treated particles were characterized via scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The experiment results showed that one type of ceramic fiber (Alumina:Silica=1:1) and the stainless fiber were spheroidized, but the other type of ceramic fiber (Alumina:Silica=7:3) was not. The conversion of the fibers was investigated by calculating the equivalent diameter, the aspect ratio, and the fiber content ratio. The fiber content ratio in various conditions showed values near zero. The relationship between the normalized fiber vanishing rate and the energy needed to melt the particles completely per unit surface area of projected particles, which is defined as η, was examined and seen to indicate that the normalized fiber vanishing rate decreased rapidly with the increase in η. Finally, some preliminary experiments for pure asbestos were conducted, and the analysis via XRD and phase-contrast microscopy (PCM) showed the availability of the plasma treatment.

  6. DETECTION AND IDENTIFICATION OF TOXIC AIR POLLUTANTS USING FIELD PORTABLE AND AIRBORNE REMOTE IMAGING SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Remote sensing technologies are a class of instrument and sensor systems that include laser imageries, imaging spectrometers, and visible to thermal infrared cameras. These systems have been successfully used for gas phase chemical compound identification in a variety of field e...

  7. Multispectral Imaging Systems for Airborne Remote Sensing to Support Agricultural Production Management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Remote sensing has shown promise as a tool for managing agricultural application and production. Earth-observing satellite systems have an advantage for large-scale analysis at regional levels but are limited in spatial resolution. High-resolution satellite systems have been available in recent year...

  8. Characterizing Open Water Bodies and Wetland Ecosystems Using Optical and Microwave Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podest, E.; McDonald, K. C.; Jensen, K.; Schroeder, R.

    2015-12-01

    Inundated vegetation and open water bodies are common features across the landscape and exert major impacts on hydrologic processes and surface-atmosphere carbon exchange. Their carbon emissions can have a large impact on global climate. It is therefore of great importance to assess their spatial extent and temporal variations in order to improve upon carbon balance estimates. Despite their importance in the global cycling of carbon and water and climate forecasting, they remain poorly characterized and modeled, primarily because of the scarcity of suitable regional-to-global remote sensing data for characterizing wetlands distribution and dynamics. Spaceborne microwave sensors are an effective tool for characterizing these ecosystems since they are sensitive to surface water and vegetation structure, and they can monitor large areas on a temporal basis regardless of atmospheric conditions or solar illumination. Optical sensors however provide much higher spatial resolution as well as information on water color. We developed a methodology using data from the Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) Phased Array L-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) to map wetland ecosystems at 100 meter resolution for target regions as well as SMAP radar data at 1 km resolution. We also used optical data from Landsat to map open water bodies and their color properties at 15 meter resolution. Inundation dynamics of these ecosystems was assessed using a coarser resolution, 25 km microwave product on surface water fraction, which was derived using combined active and passive microwave data from QuikSCAT and AMSR-E on a weekly basis. We compare information content and accuracy of the coarse resolution products to the PALSAR, SMAP and Landsat based datasets to ensure information harmonization. The combination of high and low resolution datasets will allow for characterization of wetlands and open water bodies and assessment of their flooding status. This work has been undertaken

  9. Validating a Satellite Microwave Remote Sensing Based Global Record of Daily Landscape Freeze-Thaw Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimball, J. S.; Kim, Y.; McDonald, K. C.

    2012-12-01

    The freeze-thaw (FT) parameter from satellite microwave remote sensing quantifies the predominant landscape frozen or thawed state and is closely linked to surface energy budget and hydrologic activity, vegetation growth, terrestrial carbon budgets and land-atmosphere trace gas exchange. A global Earth System Data Record of daily landscape FT status (FT-ESDR) was developed using a temporal change classification of overlapping 37 GHz brightness temperature (Tb) series from the Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) and Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I), and encompassing land areas where seasonal frozen temperatures influence ecosystem processes. A temporally consistent, long-term (>30 yr) FT record was created by ensuring cross-sensor consistency through pixel-wise adjustment of the SMMR Tb record based on empirical analyses of overlapping SMMR and SSM/I measurements. The FT-ESDR is designed to determine the FT status of the composite landscape vegetation-snow-soil medium with sufficient accuracy to characterize frozen temperature constraints to surface water mobility, vegetation productivity and land-atmosphere CO2 fluxes. A multi-tier validation scheme was applied using in situ temperature measurements, other satellite FT retrievals and synergistic biophysical data. These results are incorporated into the product metadata structure, including mean daily spatial classification accuracies and annual quality assessment (QA) maps accounting for landscape heterogeneity, algorithm limitations and sensor retrieval gaps. The resulting FT-ESDR shows mean annual spatial classification accuracies of 91 (+/-8.6) and 84 (+/-9.3) percent for PM and AM overpass retrievals. Accuracy is reduced during seasonal transition periods when FT heterogeneity is maximized within the relatively coarse (~25-km) satellite footprint. The QA rankings range from low (estimated accuracy <70%) to best (>90%) categories; mean annual QA results for the 1979-2011 period show relative

  10. Annual South American forest loss estimates based on passive microwave remote sensing (1990-2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Marle, M. J. E.; van der Werf, G. R.; de Jeu, R. A. M.; Liu, Y. Y.

    2016-02-01

    Consistent forest loss estimates are important to understand the role of forest loss and deforestation in the global carbon cycle, for biodiversity studies, and to estimate the mitigation potential of reducing deforestation. To date, most studies have relied on optical satellite data and new efforts have greatly improved our quantitative knowledge on forest dynamics. However, most of these studies yield results for only a relatively short time period or are limited to certain countries. We have quantified large-scale forest loss over a 21-year period (1990-2010) in the tropical biomes of South America using remotely sensed vegetation optical depth (VOD). This passive microwave satellite-based indicator of vegetation water content and vegetation density has a much coarser spatial resolution than optical data but its temporal resolution is higher and VOD is not impacted by aerosols and cloud cover. We used the merged VOD product of the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) and Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) observations, and developed a change detection algorithm to quantify spatial and temporal variations in forest loss dynamics. Our results compared reasonably well with the newly developed Landsat-based Global Forest Change (GFC) maps, available for the 2001 onwards period (r2 = 0.90 when comparing annual country-level estimates). This allowed us to convert our identified changes in VOD to forest loss area and compute these from 1990 onwards. We also compared these calibrated results to PRODES (r2 = 0.60 when comparing annual state-level estimates). We found that South American forest exhibited substantial interannual variability without a clear trend during the 1990s, but increased from 2000 until 2004. After 2004, forest loss decreased again, except for two smaller peaks in 2007 and 2010. For a large part, these trends were driven by changes in Brazil, which was responsible for 56 % of the total South American forest loss area over our study

  11. Annual South American forest loss estimates based on passive microwave remote sensing (1990-2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Marle, M. J. E.; van der Werf, G. R.; de Jeu, R. A. M.; Liu, Y. Y.

    2015-07-01

    Consistent forest loss estimates are important to understand the role of forest loss and deforestation in the global carbon cycle, for biodiversity studies, and to estimate the mitigation potential of reducing deforestation. To date, most studies have relied on optical satellite data and new efforts have greatly improved our quantitative knowledge on forest dynamics. However, most of these studies yield results for only a relatively short time period or are limited to certain countries. We have quantified large-scale forest losses over a 21 year period (1990-2010) in the tropical biomes of South America using remotely sensed vegetation optical depth (VOD). This passive microwave satellite-based indicator of vegetation water content and vegetation density has a much coarser spatial resolution than optical but its temporal resolution is higher and VOD is not impacted by aerosols and cloud cover. We used the merged VOD product of the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) and Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) observations, and developed a change detection algorithm to quantify spatial and temporal variations in forest loss dynamics. Our results compared favorably to the newly developed Global Forest Change (GFC) maps based on Landsat data and available for the 2001 onwards period (r2 = 0.90 when comparing annual country-level estimates), which allowed us to convert our results to forest loss area and compute these from 1990 onwards. We found that South American forest exhibited substantial interannual variability without a clear trend during the 1990s, but increased from 2000 until 2004. After 2004, forest loss decreased again, except for two smaller peaks in 2007 and 2010. For a large part, these trends were driven by changes in Brazil, which was responsible for 56 % of the total South American forest loss over our study period according to our results. One of the key findings of our study is that while forest losses decreased in Brazil after 2005

  12. Sensitivity study for a remotely piloted microwave-powered sailplane used as a high-altitude observation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turriziani, R. V.

    1979-01-01

    The sensitivity of several performance characteristics of a proposed design for a microwave-powered, remotely piloted, high-altitude sailplane to changes in independently varied design parameters was investigated. Results were expressed as variations from baseline values of range, final climb altitude and onboard storage of radiated energy. Calculated range decreased with increases in either gross weight or parasite drag coefficient; it also decreased with decreases in lift coefficient, propeller efficiency, or microwave beam density. The sensitivity trends for range and final climb altitude were very similar. The sensitivity trends for stored energy were reversed from those for range, except for decreasing microwave beam density. Some study results for single parameter variations were combined to estimate the effect of the simultaneous variation of several parameters: for two parameters, this appeared to give reasonably accurate results.

  13. Remote monitoring of soil moisture using passive microwave-based technologies – theoretical basic and overview of selected algorithms for AMSR-E

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Satellite-based passive microwave remote sensing has been shown to be a valuable tool in mapping and monitoring global soil moisture. The Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer on the Aqua platform (AMSR-E) has made significant contributions to this application. As the result of agency and individua...

  14. Estimating sediment and caesium-137 fluxes in the Ribble Estuary through time-series airborne remote sensing.

    PubMed

    Wakefield, R; Tyler, A N; McDonald, P; Atkin, P A; Gleizon, P; Gilvear, D

    2011-03-01

    High spatial and temporal resolution airborne imagery were acquired for the Ribble Estuary, North West England in 1997 and 2003, to assess the application of time-series airborne remote sensing to quantify total suspended sediment and radionuclide fluxes during a flood and ebb tide sequence. Concomitant measurements of suspended particulate matter (SPM) and water column turbidity were obtained during the time-series image acquisition for the flood and ebb tide sequence on the 17th July 2003 to verify the assumption of a vertically well mixed estuary and thus justifying the vertical extrapolation of spatially integrated estimate of surface SPM. The ¹³⁷Cs activity concentrations were calculated from a relatively stable relationship between SPM and ¹³⁷Cs for the Ribble Estuary. Total estuary wide budgets of sediment and ¹³⁷Cs were obtained by combining the image-derived estimates of surface SPM and ¹³⁷Cs with estimates of water volume from a two-dimensional hydrodynamic model (VERSE) developed for the Ribble Estuary. These indicate that around 10,000 tons of sediment and 2.72 GBq of ¹³⁷Cs were deposited over the tidal sequence monitored in July 2003. This compared favourably with bed height elevation change estimated from field work. An uncertainty analysis on the total sediment and ¹³⁷Cs flux yielded a total budget of the order of 40% on the final estimate. The results represent a novel approach to providing a spatially integrated estimate of the total net sediment and radionuclide flux in an intertidal environment over a flood and ebb tide sequence.

  15. Passive and Active Microwave Remote Sensing of Precipitation and Latent Heating Distributions in the Tropics from TRMM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, William S.; Kummerow, Christian D.; Yang, Song; Haddad, Ziad S.; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Wang, Yansen; Lang, Stephen E.; Braun, Scott A.; Chiu, Christine; Wang, Jian-Jian

    2002-01-01

    Passive and active microwave remote sensing data are analyzed to identify signatures of precipitation and vertical motion in tropical convection. A database of cloud/radiative model simulations is used to quantify surface rain rates and latent heating profiles that are consistent with these signatures. At satellite footprint-scale (approximately 10 km), rain rate and latent heating estimates are subject to significant random errors, but by averaging the estimates in space and time, random errors are substantially reduced, Bias errors have been minimized by improving the microphysics in the supporting cloud/radiative model simulations, and by imposing a consistent definition of remotely-sensed and model-simulated convective/stratiform rain coverage. Remotely-sensed precipitation and latent heating distributions in the tropics are derived from Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) and Special Sensor Microwave/ Imager (SSM/ I) sensor data. The prototype Version 6 TRMM passive microwave algorithm typically yields average heating profiles with maxima between 6 and 7 km altitude for organized mesoscale convective systems. Retrieved heating profiles for individual convective systems are compared to coincident estimates based upon a combination of dual-Doppler radar and rawinsonde data. Also, large-scale latent heating distributions are compared to estimates derived from a simpler technique that utilizes observations of surface rain rate and stratiform rain proportion to infer vertical heating structure. Results of these tests will be presented at the conference.

  16. Multi-trophic invasion resistance in Hawaii: bioacoustics, field surveys, and airborne remote sensing.

    PubMed

    Boelman, Natalie T; Asner, Gregory P; Hart, Patrick J; Martin, Roberta E

    2007-12-01

    We used airborne imaging spectroscopy and scanning light detection and ranging (LiDAR), along with bioacoustic recordings, to determine how a plant species invasion affects avian abundance and community composition across a range of Hawaiian submontane ecosystems. Total avian abundance and the ratio of native to exotic avifauna were highest in habitats with the highest canopy cover and height. Comparing biophysically equivalent sites, stands dominated by native Metrosideros polymorpha trees hosted larger native avian communities than did mixed stands of Metrosideros and the invasive tree Morella faya. A multi-trophic analysis strongly suggests that native avifauna provide biotic resistance against the invasion of Morella trees and exotic birds, thus slowing invasion "meltdowns" that disrupt the functioning of native Hawaiian ecosystems.

  17. The relationship among sea surface roughness variations, oceanographic analyses, and airborne remote sensing analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oertel, G. F.; Wade, T. L.

    1981-01-01

    The synthetic aperture radar (SAR) was studied to determine whether it could image large scale estuaries and oceanic features such as fronts and to explain the electromagnetic interaction between SAR and the individual surface front features. Fronts were observed to occur at the entrance to the Chesapeake Bay. The airborne measurements consisted of data collection by SAR onboard an F-4 aircraft and real aperture side looking radar (SLAR) in Mohawk aircraft. A total of 89 transects were flown. Surface roughness and color as well as temperature and salinity were evaluated. Cross-frontal surveys were made. Frontal shear and convergence flow were obtained. Surface active organic materials, it was indicated, are present at the air-sea interface. In all, 2000 analyses were conducted to characterize the spatial and temporal variabilities associated with water mass boundaries.

  18. Remote estimation of canopy nitrogen content in winter wheat using airborne hyperspectral reflectance measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xianfeng; Huang, Wenjiang; Kong, Weiping; Ye, Huichun; Luo, Juhua; Chen, Pengfei

    2016-11-01

    Timely and accurate assessment of canopy nitrogen content (CNC) provides valuable insight into rapid and real-time nitrogen status monitoring in crops. A semi-empirical approach based on spectral index was extensively used for nitrogen content estimation. However, in many cases, due to specific vegetation types or local conditions, the applicability and robustness of established spectral indices for nitrogen retrieval were limited. The objective of this study was to investigate the optimal spectral index for winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) CNC estimation using Pushbroom Hyperspectral Imager (PHI) airborne hyperspectral data. Data collected from two different field experiments that were conducted during the major growth stages of winter wheat in 2002 and 2003 were used. Our results showed that a significant linear relationship existed between nitrogen and chlorophyll content at the canopy level, and it was not affected by cultivars, growing conditions and nutritional status of winter wheat. Nevertheless, it varied with growth stages. Periods around heading stage mainly worsened the relationship and CNC estimation, and CNC assessment for growth stages before and after heading could improve CNC retrieval accuracy to some extent. CNC assessment with PHI airborne hyperspectra suggested that spectral indices based on red-edge band including narrowband and broadband CIred-edge, NDVI-like and ND705 showed convincing results in CNC retrieval. NDVI-like and ND705 were sensitive to detect CNC changes less than 5 g/m2, narrowband and broadband CIred-edge were sensitive to a wide range of CNC variations. Further evaluation of CNC retrieval using field measured hyperspectra indicated that NDVI-like was robust and exhibited the highest accuracy in CNC assessment, and spectral indices (CIred-edge and CIgreen) that established on narrow or broad bands showed no obvious difference in CNC assessment. Overall, our study suggested that NDVI-like was the optimal indicator for winter

  19. Measuring and Simulating Passive C-band Microwave Relief Effects over Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, X.; Zhang, L.; Jiang, L.; Zhao, S.

    2010-12-01

    Spaceborne microwave radiometers have established the superiority of global climate change and hydrographic monitoring in global coverage, day and night, all weather, and strong transmission. For passive microwave remote sensing, topography serves as one of perturbing effects in respect that it represents surface roughness larger than microwave wavelength. The lower frequencies used by C band perform more strongly in comparison with both higher microwave frequencies (>10GHz) under adverse weather, and L band (1to2GHz) at an advantage of relatively elaborate spatial resolution. A numerical simulation of satellite microwave radiometric observations of topographic scenes has been developed. Nerveless, the scarcity of field experiments on relief effects constitutes a major impediment to the further progress in the investigation of rough terrain correction at microwave frequencies. In the interest of simulating brightness temperatures exactly in mountainous area well combined with topographic experiments, Tibetan Plateau in China regarded as our study area, the research carried into execution as the following: (1) Analyzing relief effects for passive C band, and extracting topographic features quantificationally in order to satisfy microwave radiative transfer model in mountainous areas; (2) Referring to the configuration in AMSR-E, by the method of spatial convolution statistic analysis, in accordance with the estimation of the sensitivity for topographic features, selecting efficiency relief factors at C-band ; (3)Building various shapes of artifactitious hills to measure relief effects in the ground experiment based on the observation of Truck-mounted Multi-frequency Microwave Radiometer (TMMR); (4) According to the observation of relief effects validated in the field measurement, reworking the microwave radiative transfer model in rough terrain, and then simulating brightness temperatures in the configuration of AMSR-E. From the result of the comparison between our

  20. Airborne Geophysics and Remote Sensing Applied to Study Greenland Ice Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Csatho, Beata M.

    2003-01-01

    Overview of project: we combined and jointly analysed geophysical, remote sensing and glaciological data for investigating the temporal changes in ice flow and the role of geologic control on glacial drainage. The project included two different studies, the investigation of recent changes of the Kangerlussuaq glacier and the study of geologic control of ice flow in NW Greenland, around the Humboldt, Petermann and Ryder glaciers.

  1. Interpretation of air pollution data as measured by an airborne remote sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, G. L.; Young, G. R.; Green, R. N.

    1974-01-01

    The investigation described is a continuation of the work reported by Smith et al. (1974) in which a single source was studied. In the current study, multiple sources of known location are considered. The study is concerned with the strength of each source and the resulting pollution concentration field. The characteristics of the remotely sensed data are discussed along with the parameter estimation procedure, the estimation of pollution parameters, and a numerical example.

  2. The NASA/NSERC Student Airborne Research Program Land Focus Group - a Paid Training Program in Multi-Disciplinary STEM Research for Terrestrial Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kefauver, S. C.; Ustin, S.; Davey, S. W.; Furey, B. J.; Gartner, A.; Kurzweil, D.; Siebach, K. L.; Slawsky, L.; Snyder, E.; Trammell, J.; Young, J.; Schaller, E.; Shetter, R. E.

    2011-12-01

    The Student Airborne Research Program (SARP) of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the National Suborbital Education and Research Center (NSERC) is a unique six week multidisciplinary paid training program which directly integrates students into the forefront of airborne remote sensing science. Students were briefly trained with one week of lectures and laboratory exercises and then immediately incorporated into ongoing research projects which benefit from access to the DC-8 airborne platform and the MODIS-ASTER Airborne Simulator (MASTER) sensor. Students were split into three major topical categories of Land, Ocean, and Air for the data collection and project portions of the program. This poster details the techniques and structure used for the student integration into ongoing research, professional development, hypothesis building and results as developed by the professor and mentor of the Land focus group. Upon assignment to the Land group, students were issued official research field protocols and split into four field specialty groups with additional specialty reading assignments. In the field each group spent more time in their respective specialty, but also participated in all field techniques through pairings with UC Davis research team members using midday rotations. After the field campaign, each specialty group then gave summary presentations on the techniques, preliminary results, and significance to overall group objectives of their specialty. Then students were required to submit project proposals within the bounds of Land airborne remote sensing science and encouraging, but not requiring the use of the field campaign data. These proposals are then reviewed by the professor and mentor and students are met with one by one to discuss the skills of each student and objectives of the proposed research project. The students then work under the supervision of the mentor and benefit again from professor feedback in a formal

  3. Multibeam 1.4-GHz Pushbroom Microwave Radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawrence, Roland W.; Bailey, Marion C.; Harrington, Richard F.; Hearn, Chase P.; Wells, John G., Jr.; Stanley, William L.

    1990-01-01

    Airborne prototype of multiple-beam pushbroom microwave radiometer (PBMR) developed to advance radiometric technology necessary for remote sensing of geophysical parameters. Instrument used in several joint Langley Research Center/United States Department of Agriculture soil-moisture flight experiments in Virginia, Texas, and California. Data from experiments used to modify, develop, and verify algorithms used to predict soil moisture from remote-sensing measurements. Image data useful in study of effects of characters of beams on radiometer imaging data.

  4. Quantifying the regional variation in forest ecosystem light-use efficiency using airborne remote sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serbin, S. P.; Townsend, P. A.

    2011-12-01

    Forests are a globally important resource, playing a critical role in the terrestrial carbon cycle and influencing climate through the exchange of mass and energy with the atmosphere. In order to better understand the continued role of forest ecosystems in the functioning of the terrestrial biosphere detailed assessments of carbon and nutrient cycling are needed along forest successional trajectories, across climatic regions, and in response to ephemeral disturbances. Remote sensing approaches offer great potential to estimate the landscape- to regional-scale productivity in the world's forests, as well as other critical constituents including nitrogen concentration, pigments, water content, morphology, and structure. In this project, we are utilizing imaging spectroscopy data in conjunction with extensive field measurements to derive spatially explicit estimates of light-use efficiency (LUE, ɛ), a key component in remote sensing of productivity, based on forest functional properties (i.e. chemistry and leaf morphology) and canopy architecture. We show a strong ability to map chemistry, morphology and LUE across diverse forest types. These data are being used in a diagnostic modeling framework driven by the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) sensor to quantify regional variability in net primary productivity (NPP) in the Upper Great Lakes region. This research is furthering our understanding of ecosystem responses to global change by testing the links between forest ecosystem processes and mechanisms that can be remotely sensed, thereby advancing large-scale modeling abilities.

  5. A mathematical characterization of vegetation effect on microwave remote sensing from the Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choe, Y.; Tsang, L.

    1983-01-01

    In passive microwave remote sensing of the earth, a theoretical model that utilizes the radiative transfer equations was developed to account for the volume scattering effects of the vegetation canopy. Vegetation canopies such as alfalfa, sorghum, and corn are simulated by a layer of ellipsoidal scatterers and cylindrical structures. The ellipsoidal scatterers represent the leaves of vegetation and are randomly positioned and oriented. The orientation of ellipsoids is characterized by a probability density function of Eulerian angles of rotation. The cylindrical structures represent the stalks of vegetation and their radii are assumed to be much smaller than their lengths. The underlying soil is represented by a half-space medium with a homogeneous permittivity and uniform temperature profile. The radiative transfer quations are solved by a numerical method using a Gaussian quadrature formula to compute both the vertical and horizontal polarized brightness temperature as a function of observation angle. The theory was applied to the interpretation of experimental data obtained from sorghum covered fields near College Station, Texas.

  6. Characterization of Eurasian Wetlands Using Microwave Remote Sensing for Ecosystem Carbon Flux Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podest, E.; McDonald, K. C.; Schroeder, R.; Bohn, T. J.; Azarderakhsh, M.; Chen, X.; Lettenmaier, D. P.

    2013-12-01

    Wetland ecosystems are a dominant landscape feature of the northern high latitudes. Because of their effect on land-atmosphere carbon (CO2 and CH4) exchange, wetlands have a crucial role in the global carbon cycle and in the global climate system. Characterizing wetland biomes in terms of their extent and dynamics is extremely important to understanding the role of these ecosystems in the global climate. Microwave remote sensing is an effective geophysical tool for these purposes because it enables monitoring of large inaccessible areas on a temporally consistent basis regardless of atmospheric conditions or solar illumination. Here we employ multi-temporal high resolution (~100m) synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data from ALOS-PALSAR (L-band) to map wetland type and extent within sub-regions in Eurasia. We combine this information with time series inundated area estimates derived from AMSR-E, SSM/I, QuikScat and ASCAT to assess surface inundation patterns. We present details on the decision tree based classification approach used to generate the high resolution SAR based wetland maps as well as details of cross-product harmonization between fine and coarse resolution wetland/surface inundation products. Finally, we show the applicability of the wetland maps in an ecosystem carbon flux model. Portions of this work were carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  7. Mapping Weathering and Alteration Minerals in the Comstock and Geiger Grade Areas using Visible to Thermal Infrared Airborne Remote Sensing Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughan, Greg R.; Calvin, Wendy M.

    2005-01-01

    To support research into both precious metal exploration and environmental site characterization a combination of high spatial/spectral resolution airborne visible, near infrared, short wave infrared (VNIR/SWIR) and thermal infrared (TIR) image data were acquired to remotely map hydrothermal alteration minerals around the Geiger Grade and Comstock alteration regions, and map the mineral by-products of weathered mine dumps in Virginia City. Remote sensing data from the Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS), SpecTIR Corporation's airborne hyperspectral imager (HyperSpecTIR), the MODIS-ASTER airborne simulator (MASTER), and the Spatially Enhanced Broadband Array Spectrograph System (SEBASS) were acquired and processed into mineral maps based on the unique spectral signatures of image pixels. VNIR/SWIR and TIR field spectrometer data were collected for both calibration and validation of the remote data sets, and field sampling, laboratory spectral analyses and XRD analyses were made to corroborate the surface mineralogy identified by spectroscopy. The resulting mineral maps show the spatial distribution of several important alteration minerals around each study area including alunite, quartz, pyrophyllite, kaolinite, montmorillonite/muscovite, and chlorite. In the Comstock region the mineral maps show acid-sulfate alteration, widespread propylitic alteration and extensive faulting that offsets the acid-sulfate areas, in contrast to the larger, dominantly acid-sulfate alteration exposed along Geiger Grade. Also, different mineral zones within the intense acid-sulfate areas were mapped. In the Virginia City historic mining district the important weathering minerals mapped include hematite, goethite, jarosite and hydrous sulfate minerals (hexahydrite, alunogen and gypsum) located on mine dumps. Sulfate minerals indicate acidic water forming in the mine dump environment. While there is not an immediate threat to the community, there are clearly sources of

  8. Passive remote sensing of large-scale methane emissions from Oil Fields in California's San Joaquin Valley and validation by airborne in-situ measurements - Results from COMEX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerilowski, Konstantin; Krautwurst, Sven; Thompson, David R.; Thorpe, Andrew K.; Kolyer, Richard W.; Jonsson, Haflidi; Krings, Thomas; Frankenberg, Christian; Horstjann, Markus; Leifer, Ira; Eastwood, Michael; Green, Robert O.; Vigil, Sam; Fladeland, Matthew; Schüttemeyer, Dirk; Burrows, John P.; Bovensmann, Heinrich

    2016-04-01

    The CO2 and MEthane EXperiment (COMEX) was a NASA and ESA funded campaign in support of the HyspIRI and CarbonSat mission definition activities. As a part of this effort, seven flights were performed between June 3 and September 4, 2014 with the Methane Airborne MAPper (MAMAP) remote sensing instrument (operated by the University of Bremen in cooperation with the German Research Centre for Geosciences - GFZ) over the Kern River, Kern Front, and Poso Creek Oil Fields located in California's San Joaquin Valley. MAMAP was installed for the flights aboard the Center for Interdisciplinary Remotely-Piloted Aircraft Studies (CIRPAS) Twin Otter aircraft, together with: a Picarro fast in-situ greenhouse gas (GHG) analyzer operated by the NASA Ames Research Center, ARC; a 5-hole turbulence probe; and an atmospheric measurement package operated by CIRPAS measuring aerosols, temperature, dew-point, and other atmospheric parameters. Three of the flights were accompanied by the Next Generation Airborne Visual InfraRed Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS-NG), operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), California Institute of Technology, installed aboard a second Twin Otter aircraft. Large-scale, high-concentration CH4 plumes were detected by the MAMAP instrument over the fields and tracked over several kilometers. The spatial distribution of the MAMAP observed plumes was compared to high spatial resolution CH4 anomaly maps derived by AVIRIS-NG imaging spectroscopy data. Remote sensing data collected by MAMAP was used to infer CH4 emission rates and their distributions over the three fields. Aggregated emission estimates for the three fields were compared to aggregated emissions inferred by subsequent airborne in-situ validation measurements collected by the Picarro instrument. Comparison of remote sensing and in-situ flux estimates will be presented, demonstrating the ability of airborne remote sensing data to provide accurate emission estimates for concentrations above the

  9. Identification and Atmospheric Transport of Microcystin Around Southern California Using Airborne Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conlin, J.; Kudela, R. M.; Broughton, J.

    2014-12-01

    Microcystin, a hepatotoxin produced by the cyanobacteria Microcystis, has been known to contaminate fresh water sources around southern California. Ingesting this toxin can cause death in animals and illnesses in humans, which has promoted the World Health Organization (WHO) and California to establish preliminary guidelines for microcystin concentrations in the water (1 μg/L in drinking water and 0.8 μg/L for recreational exposure respectively). However, very few studies have been done to assess the effects of this toxin when aerosolized, even though Fitzgeorge et al. (1994) describes the toxin as potentially 12x more deadly if inhaled rather than swallowed. This project aimed to identify areas with the potential for high microcystin concentrations using airborne data and then model the potential atmospheric transport of the toxin. After applying the Master Scattering Line Height (MSLH) and Aphanizomenon-Microcystis Index (AMI) algorithms to Airborne Visible/ Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS), multiple water bodies were identified as having the potential for Microcystis, although many of the observed water bodies had AMI values indicating the presence of Aphanizomenon-- a non-toxic cyanobacteria that is usually present before Microcystis. A relationship between toxins and biomass was developed and used to estimate the amount of phycocyanin and dissolved microcystin in the water. Brevetoxin, common in the Florida 'red tides', was used as a proxy to estimate the amount of microcystin that becomes aerosolized given a known water concentration (Kirkpatrick et al, 2010). These amounts were then run and averaged with the HYSPLIT dispersion model for 4 hours, 12 hours, and 24 hours. The final results show that most areas are exposed to less than 0.1 ng/m^3 after 4 hours. As a worst case scenario, one final model was run to show the exposure amount when Pinto Lake was observed to have the maximum amount of microcystin recorded in 2007. The results show that after 4

  10. Airborne multispectral and hyperspectral remote sensing: Examples of applications to the study of environmental and engineering problems

    SciTech Connect

    Bianchi, R.; Marino, C.M.

    1997-10-01

    The availability of a new aerial survey capability carried out by the CNR/LARA (National Research Council - Airborne Laboratory for the Environmental Research) by a new spectroradiometer AA5000 MIVIS (Multispectral Infrared and Visible Imaging Spectrometer) on board a CASA 212/200 aircraft, enable the scientists to obtain innovative data sets, for different approach to the definitions and the understanding of a variety of environmental and engineering problems. The 102 MIVIS channels spectral bandwidths are chosen to meet the needs of scientific research for advanced applications of remote sensing data. In such configuration MIVIS can offer significant contributions to problem solving in wide sectors such as geologic exploration, agricultural crop studies, forestry, land use mapping, idrogeology, oceanography and others. LARA in 1994-96 has been active over different test-sites in joint-venture with JPL, Pasadena, different European Institutions and Italian University and Research Institutes. These aerial surveys allow the national and international scientific community to approach the use of Hyperspectral Remote Sensing in environmental problems of very large interest. The sites surveyed in Italy, France and Germany include a variety of targets such as quarries, landfills, karst cavities areas, landslides, coastlines, geothermal areas, etc. The deployments gathered up to now more than 300 GBytes of MIVIS data in more than 30 hours of VLDS data recording. The purpose of this work is to present and to comment the procedures and the results at research and at operational level of the past campaigns with special reference to the study of environmental and engineering problems.

  11. Analysis of Vegetation Within A Semi-Arid Urban Environment Using High Spatial Resolution Airborne Thermal Infrared Remote Sensing Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Ridd, Merrill K.

    1998-01-01

    High spatial resolution (5 m) remote sensing data obtained using the airborne Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) sensor for daytime and nighttime have been used to measure thermal energy responses for 2 broad classes and 10 subclasses of vegetation typical of the Salt Lake City, Utah urban landscape. Polygons representing discrete areas corresponding to the 10 subclasses of vegetation types have been delineated from the remote sensing data and are used for analysis of upwelling thermal energy for day, night, and the change in response between day and night or flux, as measured by the TIMS. These data have been used to produce three-dimensional graphs of energy responses in W/ sq m for day, night, and flux, for each urban vegetation land cover as measured by each of the six channels of the TIMS sensor. Analysis of these graphs provides a unique perspective for both viewing and understanding thermal responses, as recorded by the TIMS, for selected vegetation types common to Salt Lake City. A descriptive interpretation is given for each of the day, night, and flux graphs along with an analysis of what the patterns mean in reference to the thermal properties of the vegetation types surveyed in this study. From analyses of these graphs, it is apparent that thermal responses for vegetation can be highly varied as a function of the biophysical properties of the vegetation itself, as well as other factors. Moreover, it is also seen where vegetation, particularly trees, has a significant influence on damping or mitigating the amount of thermal radiation upwelling into the atmosphere across the Salt Lake City urban landscape. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.

  12. Airborne in situ vertical profiling of HDO/H216O in the subtropical troposphere during the MUSICA remote sensing validation campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyroff, C.; Sanati, S.; Christner, E.; Zahn, A.; Balzer, M.; Bouquet, H.; McManus, J. B.; González-Ramos, Y.; Schneider, M.

    2015-01-01

    Vertical profiles of water vapor (H2O) and its isotope ratio D / H expressed as δ D(H2O were measured in situ by the ISOWAT II diode-laser spectrometer during the MUlti-platform remote Sensing of Isotopologues for investigating the Cycle of Atmospheric water (MUSICA) airborne campaign. We present recent modifications of the instrument design. The instrument calibration on the ground as well as in flight is described. Based on the calibration measurements, the humidity-dependent uncertainty of our airborne data is determined. For the majority of the airborne data we achieved an accuracy (uncertainty of the mean) of Δ(δ D) ≈ 10‰. Vertical profiles between 150 and ~7000 m were obtained during 7 days in July and August 2013 over the subtropical North Atlantic Ocean near Tenerife. The flights were coordinated with ground-based (Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change, NDACC) and space-based (Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer, IASI) FTIR remote-sensing measurements of δ D(H2O) as a means to validate the remote sensing humidity and δ D(H2O) data products. The results of the validation are presented in detail in a separate paper (Schneider et al., 2014). The profiles were obtained with a high vertical resolution of around 3 m. By analyzing humidity and δ D(H2O) correlations we were able to identify different layers of airmasses with specific isotopic signatures. The results are discussed.

  13. Airborne in situ vertical profiling of HDO / H216O in the subtropical troposphere during the MUSICA remote sensing validation campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyroff, C.; Sanati, S.; Christner, E.; Zahn, A.; Balzer, M.; Bouquet, H.; McManus, J. B.; Gonzalez-Ramos, Y.; Schneider, M.

    2015-05-01

    Vertical profiles of water vapor (H2O) and its isotope ratio D / H expressed as δD(H2O) were measured in situ by the ISOWAT II diode-laser spectrometer during the MUlti-platform remote Sensing of Isotopologues for investigating the Cycle of Atmospheric water (MUSICA) airborne campaign. We present recent modifications of the instrument design. The instrument calibration on the ground as well as in flight is described. Based on the calibration measurements, the humidity-dependent uncertainty of our airborne data is determined. For the majority of the airborne data we achieved an accuracy (uncertainty of the mean) of Δ(δD) ≈10‰. Vertical profiles between 150 and ~7000 m were obtained during 7 days in July and August 2013 over the subtropical North Atlantic Ocean near Tenerife. The flights were coordinated with ground-based (Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change, NDACC) and space-based (Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer, IASI) FTIR remote sensing measurements of δD(H2O) as a means to validate the remote sensing humidity and δD(H2O) data products. The results of the validation are presented in detail in a separate paper (Schneider et al., 2014). The profiles were obtained with a high vertical resolution of around 3 m. By analyzing humidity and δD(H2O) correlations we were able to identify different layers of air masses with specific isotopic signatures. The results are discussed.

  14. A spectroradiometer for airborne remote sensing. [for geological, vegetation and hydrological mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiu, H.-Y.; Collins, W.

    1978-01-01

    A remote sensing system for use in light aircraft is discussed with attention to its applications in measuring geologic zones of alteration, vegetation canopies, and the spectral properties of water bodies. A parallel electro-optical input spectroradiometer configuration with 500 channels operating in the 400-1100 nm region is described. A resolution of 18 meters square from an altitude of 600 m at 200 kmh is obtained with 4-digit spectral radiance data at 2.5 spectra/sec on a 9-track tape in computer compatible format.

  15. Analysis of potential debris flow source areas on Mount Shasta, California, by using airborne and satellite remote sensing data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crowley, J.K.; Hubbard, B.E.; Mars, J.C.

    2003-01-01

    Remote sensing data from NASA's Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) and the first spaceborne imaging spectrometer, Hyperion, show hydrothermally altered rocks mainly composed of natroalunite, kaolinite, cristobalite, and gypsum on both the Mount Shasta and Shastina cones. Field observations indicate that much of the visible altered rock consists of talus material derived from fractured rock zones within and adjacent to dacitic domes and nearby lava flows. Digital elevation data were utilized to distinguish steeply sloping altered bedrock from more gently sloping talus materials. Volume modeling based on the imagery and digital elevation data indicate that Mount Shasta drainage systems contain moderate volumes of altered rock, a result that is consistent with Mount Shasta's Holocene record of mostly small to moderate debris flows. Similar modeling for selected areas at Mount Rainier and Mount Adams, Washington, indicates larger altered rock volumes consistent with the occurrence of much larger Holocene debris flows at those volcanoes. The availability of digital elevation and spectral data from spaceborne sensors, such as Hyperion and the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflectance Radiometer (ASTER), greatly expands opportunities for studying potential debris flow source characteristics at stratovolcanoes around the world. ?? 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Land cover classification based on object-oriented with airborne lidar and high spectral resolution remote sensing image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Fangfang; Liu, Zhengjun; Xu, Qiangqiang; Ren, Haicheng; Zhou, Xingyu; Yuan, Yonghua

    2016-10-01

    In order to improve land cover classification accuracy of the coastal tidal wetland area in Dafeng, this paper take advantage of hyper-spectral remote sensing image with high spatial resolution airborne Lidar data. The introduction of feature extraction, band selection and nDSM models to reduce the dimension of the original image. After segmentation process that combining FNEA segmentation with spectral differences segmentation method, the paper finalize the study area through the establishment of the rule set classification of land cover classification. The results show that the proposed classification for land cover classification accuracy has improved significantly, including housing, shadow, water, vegetation classification of high precision. That is to say that the method can meet the needs of land cover classification of the coastal tidal wetland area in Dafeng. This innovation is the introduction of principal component analysis, and the use of characteristic index, shape and characteristics of various types of data extraction nDSM feature to improve the accuracy and speed of land cover classification.

  17. Remote sensing measurements of the CO2 mixing ratio in the planetary boundary layer using cloud slicing with airborne lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramanathan, Anand K.; Mao, Jianping; Abshire, James B.; Allan, Graham R.

    2015-03-01

    We have measured the CO2 volume mixing ratio (VMR) within the planetary boundary layer (PBL) using cloud slicing with an airborne pulsed integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) lidar from flight altitudes of up to 13 km. During a flight over Iowa in summer 2011, simultaneous measurement of the optical range and CO2 absorption to clouds and the ground were made using time-resolved detection of pulse echoes from each scattering surface. We determined the CO2 absorption in the PBL by differencing the two lidar-measured absorption line shapes, one to a broken shallow cumulus cloud layer located at the top of the PBL and the other to the ground. Solving for the CO2 VMR in the PBL and that of the free troposphere, we measured a ≈15 ppm (4%) drawdown in the PBL. Both CO2 VMRs were within ≈3 ppm of in situ CO2 profile measurements. We have also demonstrated cloud slicing using scatter from thin, diffuse cirrus clouds and cumulus clouds, which allowed solving for the CO2 VMR for three vertical layers. The technique and retrieval algorithm are applicable to a space-based lidar instrument as well as to lidar IPDA measurements of other trace gases. Thus, lidar cloud slicing also offers promise toward space-based remote sensing of vertical trace gas profiles in the atmosphere using a variety of clouds.

  18. Sediment grain size estimation using airborne remote sensing, field sampling, and robust statistic.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Elena; Pereda, Raúl; Luis, Julio Manuel de; Medina, Raúl; Viguri, Javier

    2011-10-01

    Remote sensing has been used since the 1980s to study parameters in relation with coastal zones. It was not until the beginning of the twenty-first century that it started to acquire imagery with good temporal and spectral resolution. This has encouraged the development of reliable imagery acquisition systems that consider remote sensing as a water management tool. Nevertheless, the spatial resolution that it provides is not adapted to carry out coastal studies. This article introduces a new methodology for estimating the most fundamental physical property of intertidal sediment, the grain size, in coastal zones. The study combines hyperspectral information (CASI-2 flight), robust statistic, and simultaneous field work (chemical and radiometric sampling), performed over Santander Bay, Spain. Field data acquisition was used to build a spectral library in order to study different atmospheric correction algorithms for CASI-2 data and to develop algorithms to estimate grain size in an estuary. Two robust estimation techniques (MVE and MCD multivariate M-estimators of location and scale) were applied to CASI-2 imagery, and the results showed that robust adjustments give acceptable and meaningful algorithms. These adjustments have given the following R(2) estimated results: 0.93 in the case of sandy loam contribution, 0.94 for the silty loam, and 0.67 for clay loam. The robust statistic is a powerful tool for large dataset.

  19. Passive Microwave Remote Sensing of Falling Snow and Associated GPM Field Campaigns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skofronick-Jackson, Gail

    2011-01-01

    Retrievals of falling snow from space represent one of the next important challenges for the atmospheric, hydrological, and energy budget scientific communities. Historically, retrievals of falling snow have been difficult due to the relative insensitivity of satellite rain-based channels as used in the past. We emphasize the use of high frequency passive microwave channels (85-200 GHz) since these are more sensitive to the ice in clouds and have been used to estimate falling snow from space. While satellite-based remote sensing provides global coverage of falling snow events and the science is relatively new, retrievals are still undergoing development with challenges remaining. There are several current satellite sensors, though not specifically designed for estimating falling snow, are capable of measuring snow from space. These include NOAA's AMSU-B, the MHS sensors, and CloudSat radar. They use high frequency (greater than 85 GHz) passive and active microwave and millimeter-wave channels that are sensitive to the scattering from ice and snow particles in the atmosphere. Sensors with water vapor channels near 183 GHz center line provide opaqueness to the Earth's surface features that can contaminate the falling snow signatures, especially over snow covered surface. In addition, the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission scheduled for launch in 2013 is specifically designed to measure both liquid rain and frozen snow precipitation. Since falling snow from space is the next precipitation measurement challenge from space, information must be determined in order to guide retrieval algorithm development for these current and future missions. This information includes thresholds of detection for various sensor channel configurations, snow event system characteristics, and surface types. For example, can a lake effect snow system with low cloud tops having an ice water content (IWC) at the surface of 1.0 gram per cubic meter be detected? If this information is

  20. Remote sensing of ocean pollution. (Latest citations from the Aerospace database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of remote sensing for the control and monitoring of ocean pollution. Citations discuss remote sensing techniques and instrumentations, including airborne and satellite-borne photography, microwave radiometry, laser fluorescence, and radar imagery. Topics include oil spills, marine ecosystems, land-based pollutants, ocean dumping, remote sensing capability and reliability, and pollution transport. (Contains a minimum of 109 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  1. New Small Satellite Capabilities for Microwave Atmospheric Remote Sensing: The Earth Observing Nanosatellite-Microwave (EON-MW)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackwell, W. J.

    2015-12-01

    Four nanosatellite advanced technology missions flying microwave radiometers for high-resolution atmospheric sensing are in varying stages of development. Microwave instrumentation is particularly well suited for implementation on a very small satellite, as the sensor requirements for power, pointing, and spatial resolution (aperture size) can be accommodated by a nanosatellite platform. The first mission, the Microsized Microwave Atmospheric Satellite (MicroMAS), was developed to demonstrate temperature sounding in nine channels near 118 GHz on a 3U CubeSat (10x10x34 cm; 4.25 kg). MicroMAS was recently released from the International Space Station (ISS) for a 100-day mission, and while an eventual transmitter failure prevented demonstration of the radiometer payload, all key spacecraft subsystems provided on-orbit data to validate performance. Two 3U CubeSat follow-on missions, MicroMAS-2 (12 channels near 90, 118, 183, and 206 GHz; cross-track scanning) and MiRaTA (12 channels near 60, 183, and 206 GHz; no scanning; GPSRO onboard), will launch in 2016 for further demonstration. Building upon this work, the Earth Observing Nanosatellite-Microwave mission is being formulated by MIT Lincoln Laboratory for the NOAA National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service as part of the Polar Follow-On (PFO) budget request to extend JPSS for two more missions, and provides a means to mitigate the risk of a gap in continuity of weather observations. The PFO request aims to achieve robustness in the polar satellite system to ensure continuity of NOAA's polar weather observations. The baseline EON-MW design accommodates a scanning 22-channel high-resolution microwave spectrometer on a 12U (22x22x34 cm, 20 kg) CubeSat platform to provide data continuity with the existing AMSU and ATMS microwave sounding systems. EON-MW will nominally be launched into a sun-synchronous orbit for a two to three year mitigation mission in 2019 that will also extend technology

  2. Active remote sensing of snow using NMM3D/DMRT and comparison with CLPX II airborne data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Xu, X.; Liang, D.; Tsang, L.; Andreadis, K.M.; Josberger, E.G.; Lettenmaier, D.P.; Cline, D.W.; Yueh, S.H.

    2010-01-01

    We applied the Numerical Maxwell Model of three-dimensional simulations (NMM3D) in the Dense Media Radiative Theory (DMRT) to calculate backscattering coefficients. The particles' positions are computer-generated and the subsequent Foldy-Lax equations solved numerically. The phase matrix in NMM3D has significant cross-polarization, particularly when the particles are densely packed. The NMM3D model is combined with DMRT in calculating the microwave scattering by dry snow. The NMM3D/DMRT equations are solved by an iterative solution up to the second order in the case of small to moderate optical thickness. The numerical results of NMM3D/DMRT are illustrated and compared with QCA/DMRT. The QCA/DMRT and NMM3D/DMRT results are also applied to compare with data from two specific datasets from the second Cold Land Processes Experiment (CLPX II) in Alaska and Colorado. The data are obtained at the Ku-band (13.95 GHz) observations using airborne imaging polarimetric scatterometer (POLSCAT). It is shown that the model predictions agree with the field measurements for both co-polarization and cross-polarization. For the Alaska region, the average snow depth and snow density are used as the inputs for DMRT. The grain size, selected from within the range of the ground measurements, is used as a best-fit parameter within the range. For the Colorado region, we use the Variable Infiltration Capacity Model (VIC) to obtain the input snow profiles for NMM3D/DMRT. ?? 2010 IEEE.

  3. Autonomous and Remote-Controlled Airborne and Ground-Based Robotic Platforms for Adaptive Geophysical Surveying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spritzer, J. M.; Phelps, G. A.

    2011-12-01

    Low-cost autonomous and remote-controlled robotic platforms have opened the door to precision-guided geophysical surveying. Over the past two years, the U.S. Geological Survey, Senseta, NASA Ames Research Center, and Carnegie Mellon University Silicon Valley, have developed and deployed small autonomous and remotely controlled vehicles for geophysical investigations. The purpose of this line of investigation is to 1) increase the analytical capability, resolution, and repeatability, and 2) decrease the time, and potentially the cost and map-power necessary to conduct near-surface geophysical surveys. Current technology has advanced to the point where vehicles can perform geophysical surveys autonomously, freeing the geoscientist to process and analyze the incoming data in near-real time. This has enabled geoscientists to monitor survey parameters; process, analyze and interpret the incoming data; and test geophysical models in the same field session. This new approach, termed adaptive surveying, provides the geoscientist with choices of how the remainder of the survey should be conducted. Autonomous vehicles follow pre-programmed survey paths, which can be utilized to easily repeat surveys on the same path over large areas without the operator fatigue and error that plague man-powered surveys. While initial deployments with autonomous systems required a larger field crew than a man-powered survey, over time operational experience costs and man power requirements will decrease. Using a low-cost, commercially available chassis as the base for autonomous surveying robotic systems promise to provide higher precision and efficiency than human-powered techniques. An experimental survey successfully demonstrated the adaptive techniques described. A magnetic sensor was mounted on a small rover, which autonomously drove a prescribed course designed to provide an overview of the study area. Magnetic data was relayed to the base station periodically, processed and gridded. A

  4. Ground-based microwave remote sensing of temperature inversions in the Bergen valley, Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, Tobias; Esau, Igor; Reuder, Joachim

    2014-05-01

    The temperature profiles in the urbanized Bergen valley, Norway, are characterized by wintertime temperature inversions, which have a strong impact on the surface layer air quality in the city. We present the results from two years of vertical temperature profile measurements obtained with the ground-based microwave temperature profiler MTP-5HE and show the advantages of ground-based remote sensing with this instrument for the monitoring of atmospheric temperature inversions. From a subset of the final, filtered dataset we found that the mean difference between temperatures measured with the MTP-5HE and an automatic meteorological station (AMS) on a nearby mountain was as low as -0.03 ± 0.78 K during inversion free conditions and -0.06 ± 0.71 K during ground-based temperature inversions. The only selection criterion for this subset was a wind speed of more than 5 m/s and to ensure comparability between the location of the AMS and the central valley atmosphere. We found two regimes of ground-based inversions: Non-persistent inversions lasting shorter than 2 hours that are mostly thinner than 100 m and more persistent inversions often reaching 270 m above sea level. The height of the shorter inversions was consistent with the maximum height of inversions found in a previous study based on tethersonde measurements. Ground-based inversions mostly occurred during situations characterized by weak winds in the ERA-Interim reanalysis, to a large degree independent from wind direction. A distinct south-easterly tail in the ERA-Interim wind distribution with wind speeds as high as 16 m/s might have been connected to a wake effect from a nearby mountain. The strong channeling effect within the valley that was also found in previous studies was evident. The ground-based remote sensing was particularly useful for the monitoring of elevated temperature inversions between 170 m and 720 m above sea level. This kind of inversions has not been observed in this valley before. They

  5. Tracking Snowmelt Events in Remote High Asia Using Passive Microwave Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, T.; Bookhagen, B.

    2015-12-01

    While snowfall can comprise a significant percentage of the yearly water budget in High Asia, Snow-Water Equivalent (SWE) is poorly constrained due to lack of in-situ measurements and complex terrain that limits the efficacy of modeling and observations. Over the past few decades, SWE has been estimated with the SSMI/S and AMSR passive microwave (PM) sensors, with low reliability in High Asia. Despite problematic SWE volume estimation, PM data contains information on the buildup and melt of snowpack, which is difficult to measure in-situ, particularly in remote areas. We present a new methodology for tracking the timing, frequency, and relative intensity of melt events across High Asia. To measure SWE, we use raw swath data from the SSMI/S (1987-2015, F08, F11, F13, F17), AMSR (2002-2011), and GPM (2014-2015) satellites. This allows us to improve both spatial and temporal resolution over daily gridded products by leveraging multiple overpasses per day in an imperfectly overlapping grid pattern. We then examine SWE estimates, intra-day PM variance, and the interacting impacts of satellite look angles and topography on measured PM at arbitrary point locations. We develop a more thorough understanding of the uncertainties in our SWE estimates by examining the impacts of aspect, relief, slope, and elevation across the Tibetan Plateau on Tb and SWE estimates. High Asia, with its large topographic gradients and low relief at high elevations provides an excellent context to examine a wide range of topographic settings and terrain complexities to better constrain our analysis of sensor bias. We find that slopes above ~10° have a strong impact on SWE variability. We also find a consistent intra- and inter-day variability within constant-SWE periods, as defined as periods without precipitation and with constant temperatures below 0°C. Using this measure of native sensor variability, we filter our SWE time series to identify events of snowmelt which are outside of the

  6. Satellite Remote Sensing of Global Vegetation Phenology: Comparison of Optical-Infrared and Microwave Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, M. O.; Kimball, J. S.; Jones, L. A.; McDonald, K. C.

    2009-12-01

    Satellite optical-infrared remote sensing has long been used to monitor vegetation phenology at continental to global scales. Models incorporating the optical-infrared vegetation indices (VI), EVI and NDVI, have been applied to measure phenological events including growing season start, peak, end and duration. These indices are sensitive to signal degradation from reduced solar illumination, clouds, smoke and other atmospheric effects reducing temporal fidelity and accuracy of observations. However, satellite microwave remote sensing at lower frequencies (≤ 10 GHz) is largely insensitive to solar illumination and atmospheric effects. The AMSR-E radiometer offers multifrequency microwave observations at moderate (~25-60 km) spatial scales with near-daily global sampling. We recently developed an algorithm for global retrieval of vegetation optical depth (VOD), which is sensitive to phenological changes in canopy biomass and water content. We examined phenology signals using three approaches. First, linear correlations between six years (2003-2008) of MODIS VI, AMSR-E VOD, and a bioclimatic phenology model were derived globally. Second, correlations were summarized by land cover type and spatially contiguous regions to assess regional patterns in the results. Finally, we compared MODIS VI and AMSR-E VOD series with the bioclimatic phenology model and tower eddy covariance CO2 flux measurements across a network of Ameriflux sites representing the major global biomes. Our results show reduced VI-VOD correspondence over cloudy regions, including tropical forests, due to VI related signal degradation. VOD phenology sensitivity coincided with seasonal changes in meteorological conditions, vegetation greenness, ecosystem respiration and net ecosystem CO2 exchange. Correlation means by land cover (pixels≥80% homogeneous) ranged from 0.66 (NDVI; Savannas; 97% of pixels p<0.01) to -0.07 (EVI; Evergreen Broadleaf; 70% of pixels p>0.10). The majority of insignificant

  7. A Decade Remote Sensing River Bathymetry with the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research LiDAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinzel, P. J.; Legleiter, C. J.; Nelson, J. M.; Skinner, K.

    2012-12-01

    Since 2002, the first generation of the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research LiDAR (EAARL-A) sensor has been deployed for mapping rivers and streams. We present and summarize the results of comparisons between ground truth surveys and bathymetry collected by the EAARL-A sensor in a suite of rivers across the United States. These comparisons include reaches on the Platte River (NE), Boise and Deadwood Rivers (ID), Blue and Colorado Rivers (CO), Klamath and Trinity Rivers (CA), and the Shenandoah River (VA). In addition to diverse channel morphologies (braided, single thread, and meandering) these rivers possess a variety of substrates (sand, gravel, and bedrock) and a wide range of optical characteristics which influence the attenuation and scattering of laser energy through the water column. Root mean square errors between ground truth elevations and those measured by the EAARL-A ranged from 0.15-m in rivers with relatively low turbidity and highly reflective sandy bottoms to over 0.5-m in turbid rivers with less reflective substrates. Mapping accuracy with the EAARL-A has proved challenging in pools where bottom returns are either absent in waveforms or are of such low intensity that they are treated as noise by waveform processing algorithms. Resolving bathymetry in shallow depths where near surface and bottom returns are typically convolved also presents difficulties for waveform processing routines. The results of these evaluations provide an empirical framework to discuss the capabilities and limitations of the EAARL-A sensor as well as previous generations of post-processing software for extracting bathymetry from complex waveforms. These experiences and field studies not only provide benchmarks for the evaluation of the next generation of bathymetric LiDARs for use in river mapping, but also highlight the importance of developing and standardizing more rigorous methods to characterize substrate reflectance and in-situ optical properties at study sites

  8. Airborne passive remote sensing of large-scale methane emissions from oil fields in California's San Joaquin Valley and validation by airborne in-situ measurements - Initial results from COMEX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerilowski, Konstantin; Krautwurst, Sven; Kolyer, Richard W.; Thompson, David R.; Jonsson, Haflidi; Krings, Thomas; Horstjann, Markus; Leifer, Ira; Eastwood, Michael; Green, Robert O.; Vigil, Sam; Schüttemeyer, Dirk; Fladeland, Matthew; Burrows, John P.; Bovensmann, Heinrich

    2015-04-01

    On several flights performed over the Kern River, Kern Front, and Poso Creek Oil Fields in California between June 3 and September 4, 2014, in the framework of the CO2 and MEthane Experiment (COMEX) - a NASA and ESA funded campaign in support of the HyspIRI and CarbonSat mission definition activities - the Methane Airborne MAPper (MAMAP) remote sensing instrument (operated by the University of Bremen in cooperation with the German Research Centre for Geosciences - GFZ) detected large-scale, high-concentration, methane plumes. MAMAP was installed for the flights aboard the Center for Interdisciplinary Remotely-Piloted Aircraft Studies (CIRPAS) Twin Otter aircraft, together with a Picarro fast in-situ greenhouse gas (GHG) analyzer (operated by the NASA Ames Research Center, ARC), a 5-hole turbulence probe and an atmospheric measurement package (operated by CIRPAS), measuring aerosols, temperature, dew-point, and other atmospheric parameters. Some of the flights were accompanied by the next generation of the Airborne Visible InfraRed Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS-NG), operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), California Institute of Technology, installed aboard a second Twin Otter aircraft (operated by Twin Otter International). Data collected with the in-situ GHG analyzer were used for validation of the MAMAP and AVIRIS-NG remotely sensed data. The in-situ measurements were acquired in vertical cross sections of the discovered plumes at fixed distances downwind of the sources. Emission rates are estimated from both the remote and in-situ data using wind information from the turbulence probe together with ground-based wind data from the nearby airport. Remote sensing and in-situ data as well as initial flux estimates for selected flights will be presented.

  9. Quantification of methane emission rates from coal mine ventilation shafts using airborne remote sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krings, T.; Gerilowski, K.; Buchwitz, M.; Hartmann, J.; Sachs, T.; Erzinger, J.; Burrows, J. P.; Bovensmann, H.

    2012-10-01

    The quantification of emissions of the greenhouse gas methane is essential for attributing the roles of anthropogenic activity and natural phenomena in global climate change. Our current measurement systems and networks whilst having improved during the last decades, are deficient in many respects. For example, the emissions from localised and point sources such as landfills or fossil fuel exploration sites are not readily assessed. A tool developed to better understand point sources of the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide and methane is the optical remote sensing instrument MAMAP, operated from aircraft. After a recent instrument modification, retrievals of the column averaged dry air mole fractions for methane XCH4 (or for carbon dioxide XCO2) derived from MAMAP data, have a precision of about 0.4% or better and thus can be used to infer emission rate estimates using an optimal estimation inverse Gaussian plume model or a simple integral approach. CH4 emissions from two coal mine ventilation shafts in Western Germany surveyed during the AIRMETH 2011 measurement campaign are used as examples to demonstrate and assess the value of MAMAP data for quantifying CH4 from point sources. While the knowledge of the wind is an important input parameter in the retrieval of emissions from point sources and is generally extracted from models, additional information from a turbulence probe operated on-board the same aircraft was utilised to enhance the quality of the emission estimates. Although flight patterns were optimised for remote sensing measurements, data from an in-situ analyser for CH4 were found to be in good agreement with retrieved dry columns of CH4 from MAMAP and could be used to investigate and refine underlying assumptions for the inversion procedures. With respect to the total emissions of the mine at the time of the overflight, the inferred emission rate of 50.4 kt CH4 yr-1 has a difference of less than 1% compared to officially reported values by the mine

  10. Spaceborne Microwave Instrument for High Resolution Remote Sensing of the Earth's Surface Using a Large-Aperture Mesh Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Njoku, E.; Wilson, W.; Yueh, S.; Freeland, R.; Helms, R.; Edelstein, W.; Sadowy, G.; Farra, D.; West, R.; Oxnevad, K.

    2001-01-01

    This report describes a two-year study of a large-aperture, lightweight, deployable mesh antenna system for radiometer and radar remote sensing of the Earth from space. The study focused specifically on an instrument to measure ocean salinity and Soil moisture. Measurements of ocean salinity and soil moisture are of critical . importance in improving knowledge and prediction of key ocean and land surface processes, but are not currently obtainable from space. A mission using this instrument would be the first demonstration of deployable mesh antenna technology for remote sensing and could lead to potential applications in other remote sensing disciplines that require high spatial resolution measurements. The study concept features a rotating 6-m-diameter deployable mesh antenna, with radiometer and radar sensors, to measure microwave emission and backscatter from the Earth's surface. The sensors operate at L and S bands, with multiple polarizations and a constant look angle, scanning across a wide swath. The study included detailed analyses of science requirements, reflector and feedhorn design and performance, microwave emissivity measurements of mesh samples, design and test of lightweight radar electronic., launch vehicle accommodations, rotational dynamics simulations, and an analysis of attitude control issues associated with the antenna and spacecraft, The goal of the study was to advance the technology readiness of the overall concept to a level appropriate for an Earth science emission.

  11. Foreword to the Special Issue on the 11th Specialist Meeting on Microwave Radiometry and Remote Sensing Applications (MicroRad 2010)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le Vine, David M; Jackson, Thomas J.; Kim, Edward J.; Lang, Roger H.

    2011-01-01

    The Specialist Meeting on Microwave Radiometry and Remote Sensing of the Environment (MicroRad 2010) was held in Washington, DC from March 1 to 4, 2010. The objective of MicroRad 2010 was to provide an open forum to report and discuss recent advances in the field of microwave radiometry, particularly with application to remote sensing of the environment. The meeting was highly successful, with more than 200 registrations representing 48 countries. There were 80 oral presentations and more than 100 posters. MicroRad has become a venue for the microwave radiometry community to present new research results, instrument designs, and applications to an audience that is conversant in these issues. The meeting was divided into 16 sessions (listed in order of presentation): 1) SMOS Mission; 2) Future Passive Microwave Remote Sensing Missions; 3) Theory and Physical Principles of Electromagnetic Models; 4) Field Experiment Results; 5) Soil Moisture and Vegetation; 6) Snow and Cryosphere; 7) Passive/Active Microwave Remote Sensing Synergy; 8) Oceans; 9) Atmospheric Sounding and Assimilation; 10) Clouds and Precipitation; 11) Instruments and Advanced Techniques I; 12) Instruments and Advanced Techniques II; 13) Cross Calibration of Satellite Radiometers; 14) Calibration Theory and Methodology; 15) New Technologies for Microwave Radiometry; 16) Radio Frequency Interference.

  12. Visibility through the gaseous smoke in airborne remote sensing using a DSLR camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chabok, Mirahmad; Millington, Andrew; Hacker, Jorg M.; McGrath, Andrew J.

    2016-08-01

    Visibility and clarity of remotely sensed images acquired by consumer grade DSLR cameras, mounted on an unmanned aerial vehicle or a manned aircraft, are critical factors in obtaining accurate and detailed information from any area of interest. The presence of substantial haze, fog or gaseous smoke particles; caused, for example, by an active bushfire at the time of data capture, will dramatically reduce image visibility and quality. Although most modern hyperspectral imaging sensors are capable of capturing a large number of narrow range bands of the shortwave and thermal infrared spectral range, which have the potential to penetrate smoke and haze, the resulting images do not contain sufficient spatial detail to enable locating important objects or assist search and rescue or similar applications which require high resolution information. We introduce a new method for penetrating gaseous smoke without compromising spatial resolution using a single modified DSLR camera in conjunction with image processing techniques which effectively improves the visibility of objects in the captured images. This is achieved by modifying a DSLR camera and adding a custom optical filter to enable it to capture wavelengths from 480-1200nm (R, G and Near Infrared) instead of the standard RGB bands (400-700nm). With this modified camera mounted on an aircraft, images were acquired over an area polluted by gaseous smoke from an active bushfire. Processed data using our proposed method shows significant visibility improvements compared with other existing solutions.

  13. Husbandry Trace Gas Emissions from a Dairy Complex By Mobile in Situ and Airborne and Spaceborne Remote Sensing: A Comex Campaign Focus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leifer, I.; Tratt, D. M.; Bovensmann, H.; Buckland, K. N.; Burrows, J. P.; Frash, J.; Gerilowski, K.; Iraci, L. T.; Johnson, P. D.; Kolyer, R.; Krautwurst, S.; Krings, T.; Leen, J. B.; Hu, C.; Melton, C.; Vigil, S. A.; Yates, E. L.; Zhang, M.

    2014-12-01

    Recent field study reviews on the greenhouse gas methane (CH4) found significant underestimation from fossil fuel industry and husbandry. The 2014 COMEX campaign seeks to develop methods to derive CH4 and carbon dioxide (CO2) from remote sensing data by combining hyperspectral imaging (HSI) and non-imaging spectroscopy (NIS) with in situ airborne and surface data. COMEX leverages synergies between high spatial resolution HSI column abundance maps and moderate spectral/spatial resolution NIS. Airborne husbandry data were collected for the Chino dairy complex (East Los Angeles Basin) by NIS-MAMAP, HSI-Mako thermal-infrared (TIR); AVIRIS NG shortwave IR (SWIR), with in situ surface mobile-AMOG Surveyor (AutoMObile greenhouse Gas)-and airborne in situ from a Twin Otter and the AlphaJet. AMOG Surveyor uses in situ Integrated Cavity Off Axis Spectroscopy (OA-ICOS) to measure CH4, CO2, H2O, H2S and NH3 at 5-10 Hz, 2D winds, and thermal anomaly in an adapted commuter car. OA-ICOS provides high precision and accuracy with excellent stability. NH3 and CH4 emissions were correlated at dairy size-scales but not sub-dairy scales in surface and Mako data, showing fine-scale structure and large variations between the numerous dairies in the complex (herd ~200,000-250,000) embedded in an urban setting. Emissions hotspots were consistent between surface and airborne surveys. In June, surface and MAMAP data showed a weak overall plume, while surface and Mako data showed a stronger plume in late (hotter) July. Multiple surface plume transects using NH3 fingerprinting showed East and then NE advection out of the LA Basin consistent with airborne data. Long-term trends were investigated in satellite data. This study shows the value of synergistically combined NH3 and CH4 remote sensing data to the task of CH4 source attribution using airborne and space-based remote sensing (IASI for NH3) and top of atmosphere sensitivity calculations for Sentinel V and Carbon Sat (CH4).

  14. Quantifying geomorphic and riparian land cover changes either side of a large flood event using airborne remote sensing: River Tay, Scotland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryant, Robert G.; Gilvear, David J.

    1999-09-01

    The potential of high resolution multi-spectral airborne remote sensing to detect and quantify changes in channel morphology and riparian land cover are illustrated. The River Tay is a partially embanked wandering gravel bed river, and Airborne Thematic Mapper data, which collect reflectance in the visible, near, mid and thermal infrared, were acquired in 1992 and 1994 either side of a 1:65 recurrence-interval flood event. Imagery was radiometrically, atmospherically and geometrically corrected in order to minimise atmospheric and geometric changes between the 1992 and 1994 scenes. A maximum likelihood classifier was then used on each image and change was quantitatively mapped using a classification comparison approach. Bathymetric mapping was undertaken by applying a Lyzenga algorithm to ATM bands 5, 6 and 8 to account for an exponential decrease in electromagnetic radiation penetration through the water column with depth. Despite the magnitude of the flood event, no major changes in channel position or form occurred but the change detection algorithms revealed subtle changes not observed in the field. Bar head accretion, bar tail formation and extension, bar dissection, localised bank erosion and the overriding of low level vegetated islands by gravel lobes were the main forms of change. On the floodplain, flood embankment failures resulted in fans of sands and gravels on agricultural land. More generally, the study reveals the potential for using airborne remote sensing to detect change in fluvial systems and as a mutually complementary tool to field survey.

  15. Multi-resolution processing for fractal analysis of airborne remotely sensed data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaggi, S.; Quattrochi, D.; Lam, N.

    1992-01-01

    Fractal geometry is increasingly becoming a useful tool for modeling natural phenomenon. As an alternative to Euclidean concepts, fractals allow for a more accurate representation of the nature of complexity in natural boundaries and surfaces. Since they are characterized by self-similarity, an ideal fractal surface is scale-independent; i.e. at different scales a fractal surface looks the same. This is not exactly true for natural surfaces. When viewed at different spatial resolutions parts of natural surfaces look alike in a statistical manner and only for a limited range of scales. Images acquired by NASA's Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner are used to compute the fractal dimension as a function of spatial resolution. Three methods are used to determine the fractal dimension - Schelberg's line-divider method, the variogram method, and the triangular prism method. A description of these methods and the results of applying these methods to a remotely-sensed image is also presented. Five flights were flown in succession at altitudes of 2 km (low), 6 km (mid), 12 km (high), and then back again at 6 km and 2 km. The area selected was the Ross Barnett reservoir near Jackson, Mississippi. The mission was flown during the predawn hours of 1 Feb. 1992. Radiosonde data was collected for that duration to profile the characteristics of the atmosphere. This corresponds to 3 different pixel sizes - 5m, 15m, and 30m. After, simulating different spatial sampling intervals within the same image for each of the 3 image sets, the results are cross-correlated to compare the extent of detail and complexity that is obtained when data is taken at lower spatial intervals.

  16. Spatially explicit modelling of forest structure and function using airborne lidar and hyperspectral remote sensing data combined with micrometeorological measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Valerie Anne

    This research models canopy-scale photosynthesis at the Groundhog River Flux Site through the integration of high-resolution airborne remote sensing data and micrometeorological measurements collected from a flux tower. Light detection and ranging (lidar) data are analysed to derive models of tree structure, including: canopy height, basal area, crown closure, and average aboveground biomass. Lidar and hyperspectral remote sensing data are used to model canopy chlorophyll (Chl) and carotenoid concentrations (known to be good indicators of photosynthesis). The integration of lidar and hyperspectral data is applied to derive spatially explicit models of the fraction of photosynthetically active radiation (fPAR) absorbed by the canopy as well as a species classification for the site. These products are integrated with flux tower meteorological measurements (i.e., air temperature and global solar radiation) collected on a continuous basis over 2004 to apply the C-Fix model of carbon exchange to the site. Results demonstrate that high resolution lidar and lidar-hyperspectral integration techniques perform well in the boreal mixedwood environment. Lidar models are well correlated with forest structure, despite the complexities introduced in the mixedwood case (e.g., r2=0.84, 0.89, 0.60, and 0.91, for mean dominant height, basal area, crown closure, and average aboveground biomass). Strong relationships are also shown for canopy scale chlorophyll/carotenoid concentration analysis using integrated lidar-hyperspectral techniques (e.g., r2=0.84, 0.84, and 0.82 for Chl(a), Chl(a+b), and Chl(b)). Examination of the spatially explicit models of fPAR reveal distinct spatial patterns which become increasingly apparent throughout the season due to the variation in species groupings (and canopy chlorophyll concentration) within the 1 km radius surrounding the flux tower. Comparison of results from the modified local-scale version of the C-Fix model to tower gross ecosystem

  17. Identifying trout refuges in the Indian and Hudson Rivers in northern New York through airborne thermal infrared remote sensing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ernst, Anne G.; Baldigo, Barry P.; Calef, Fred J.; Freehafer, Douglas A.; Kremens, Robert L.

    2015-10-09

    The locations and sizes of potential cold-water refuges for trout were examined in 2005 along a 27-kilometer segment of the Indian and Hudson Rivers in northern New York to evaluate the extent of refuges, the effects of routine flow releases from an impoundment, and how these refuges and releases might influence trout survival in reaches that otherwise would be thermally stressed. This river segment supports small populations of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis), brown trout (Salmo trutta), and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and also receives regular releases of reservoir-surface waters to support rafting during the summer, when water temperatures in both the reservoir and the river frequently exceed thermal thresholds for trout survival. Airborne thermal infrared imaging was supplemented with continuous, in-stream temperature loggers to identify potential refuges that may be associated with tributary inflows or groundwater seeps and to define the extent to which the release flows decrease the size of existing refuges. In general, the release flows overwhelmed the refuge areas and greatly decreased the size and number of the areas. Mean water temperatures were unaffected by the releases, but small-scale heterogeneity was diminished. At a larger scale, water temperatures in the upper and lower segments of the reach were consistently warmer than in the middle segment, even during passage of release waters. The inability of remote thermal infrared images to consistently distinguish land from water (in shaded areas) and to detect groundwater seeps (away from the shallow edges of the stream) limited data analysis and the ability to identify potential thermal refuge areas.

  18. Measuring landscape-scale spread and persistence of an invaded submerged plant community from airborne remote sensing.

    PubMed

    Santos, Maria J; Khanna, Shruti; Hestir, Erin L; Greenberg, Jonathan A; Ustin, Susan L

    2016-09-01

    Processes of spread and patterns of persistence of invasive species affect species and communities in the new environment. Predicting future rates of spread is of great interest for timely management decisions, but this depends on models that rely on understanding the processes of invasion and historic observations of spread and persistence. Unfortunately, the rates of spread and patterns of persistence are difficult to model or directly observe, especially when multiple rates of spread and diverse persistence patterns may be co-occurring over the geographic distribution of the invaded ecosystem. Remote sensing systematically acquires data over large areas at fine spatial and spectral resolutions over multiple time periods that can be used to quantify spread processes and persistence patterns. We used airborne imaging spectroscopy data acquired once a year for 5 years from 2004 to 2008 to map an invaded submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) community across 2220 km(2) of waterways in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta, California, USA, and measured its spread rate and its persistence. Submerged aquatic vegetation covered 13-23 km(2) of the waterways (6-11%) every year. Yearly new growth accounted for 40-60% of the SAV area, ~50% of which survived to following year. Spread rates were overall negative and persistence decreased with time. From this dataset, we were able to identify both radial and saltatorial spread of the invaded SAV in the entire extent of the Delta over time. With both decreasing spread rate and persistence, it is possible that over time the invasion of this SAV community could decrease its ecological impact. A landscape-scale approach allows measurements of all invasion fronts and the spatial anisotropies associated with spread processes and persistence patterns, without spatial interpolation, at locations both proximate and distant to the focus of invasion at multiple points in time.

  19. Airborne Remote-Sensing of Atmoshperic CH4 and CO2 Column Mixing Ratio With MAMap - First Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tretner, A.; Gerilowski, K.; Bovensmann, H.; Buchwitz, M.; Erzinger, J.; Burrows, J.

    2007-12-01

    The Methane Airborne Mapper (MAMap) performs quantitative CO2 and CH4 remote sensing measurements of the atmospheric column between an aircraft and the Earth's surface. Its two spectrometers cover wavelenghts of 1.59-1.62μm for CO2, 1.63-1.75μm for CH4 and 760nm for O2. A CH4 detection limit of <35ppbv and a resolution of <5% (at atmospheric background concentration of 1750ppbv) have been ascertained, which makes it possible to detect small changes within the atmospheric CH4 column at a local and regional scale. The atmospheric column mixing ratios of CH4 and CO2 were calculated using the WFM-DOAS algorithm which is known from the retrieval of CH4 and CO2 column concentrations from nadir measurements by SCIAMACHY. MAMap addresses the uncertainties in the current greenhouse gas emission budgets and provides a link between local ground-based small-scale and global satellite-based measurements. The aim of future MAMap research programs is the detection and quantification of CH4 and CO2 emission sources of both natural and anthropogenic origin. MAMap is designed for flexible operations at various planes, e.g. the DLR Dornier 228, the DLR 'Falcon' or the DLR Gulfstream 'HALO' aircraft. The results presented here were performed with a Cessna aircraft T207 at a flight height of 700m and a flight speed of 200km/h. The related ground pixel size covers 18m (across-track) x 10m (along track, albedo 0.18). The preliminary assessment of the sensor sensitivity under field campaign conditions includes measurements over a variety of natural and anthropogenic CH4 and CO2 emission sources, like coal-fired power plants, landfill sites, wetlands, a large number of different land surface types and a simulated CH4 source (CH4 released from a pressured gas bottle). First results will be reported.

  20. Palm Swamp Wetland Ecosystems of the Upper Amazon: Characterizing their Distribution and Inundation State Using Multiple Resolution Microwave Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podest, E.; McDonald, K. C.; Schröder, R.; Pinto, N.; Zimmermann, R.; Horna, V.

    2011-12-01

    Palm swamp wetlands are prevalent in the Amazon basin, including extensive regions in northern Peru. These ecosystems are characterized by constant surface inundation and moderate seasonal water level variation. The combination of constantly saturated soils, giving rise to low oxygen conditions, and warm temperatures year-round can lead to considerable methane release to the atmosphere. Because of the widespread occurrence and expected sensitivity of these ecosystems to climate change, knowledge of their spatial extent and inundation state is crucial for assessing the associated land-atmosphere carbon exchange. Precise spatio-temporal information on palm swamps is difficult to gather because of their remoteness and difficult accessibility. Spaceborne microwave remote sensing is an effective tool for characterizing these ecosystems since it is sensitive to surface water and vegetation structure and allows monitoring large inaccessible areas on a temporal basis regardless of atmospheric conditions or solar illumination. We are developing a remote sensing methodology using multiple resolution microwave remote sensing data to determine palm swamp distribution and inundation state over focus regions in the Amazon basin in northern Peru. For this purpose, two types of multi-temporal microwave data are used: 1) high-resolution (100 m) data from the Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) Phased Array L-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) to derive maps of palm swamp extent and inundation from dual-polarization fine-beam and multi-temporal HH-polarized ScanSAR, and 2) coarse resolution (25 km) combined active and passive microwave data from QuikSCAT and AMSR-E to derive inundated area fraction on a weekly basis. We compare information content and accuracy of the coarse resolution products to the PALSAR-based datasets to ensure information harmonization. The synergistic combination of high and low resolution datasets will allow for characterization of palm swamps and

  1. The microwave opacity of ammonia and water vapor: Application to remote sensing of the atmosphere of Jupiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanley, Thomas Ryan

    2008-06-01

    The object of this research program has been to provide a baseline for microwave remote sensing of ammonia and water vapor in the atmosphere of Jupiter through laboratory measurements of their microwave absorption properties. Jupiter is not only the largest planet in our solar system, but one of the most interesting and complex. Despite a handful of spacecraft missions and many astronomical measurements, much of Jupiter's atmospheric dynamics and composition remain a mystery. Although constraints have been formed on the amount of certain gases present, the global abundances and distributions of water vapor (H 2 O) and ammonia (NH 3 ) are relatively unknown. Measurements of H 2 O and NH 3 in the Jovian atmosphere to hundreds of bars of pressure are best accomplished via passive microwave emission measurements. For these measurements to be accurately interpreted, however, the hydrogen and helium pressure-broadened microwave opacities of H 2 O and NH 3 must be well characterized, a task that is very difficult if based solely on theory and limited laboratory measurements. Therefore, accurate laboratory measurements have been taken under a broad range of conditions that mimic those of the Jovian atmosphere. These measurements, performed using a newly redesigned high- accuracy system, and the corresponding models of microwave opacity that have been developed from them comprise the majority of this work. The models allow more accurate retrievals of H 2 O and NH 3 abundances from previous as well as future missions to Jupiter and the outer planets, such as the NASA New Frontiers class Juno mission scheduled for launch in 2011. This information will enable a greater understanding of the concentration and distribution of H 2 O and NH 3 in the Jovian atmosphere, which will reveal much about how Jupiter and our solar system formed and how similar planets could form in other solar systems, even planets that may be hospitable to life.

  2. Snowpack Microstructure Characterization and Partial Coherent and Fully Coherent Forward Scattering Models in Microwave Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, S.; Tsang, L.; Xu, X.; Ding, K. H.

    2015-12-01

    In this paper we describe partial coherent model and fully coherent snowpack scattering model based on numerical simulation of Maxwell's equation. In medium characterization, we derive the correlation functions from the pair distribution functions of sticky spheres and multiple-size spheres used in QCA. We show that both the Percus-Yevick pair functions and the bicontinuous model have tails in the correlation functions that are distinctly different from the traditional exponential correlation functions. The methodologies of using ground measurements of grain size distributions and correlation functions to obtain model parameters are addressed. The DMRT theory has been extended to model the backscattering enhancement. We developed the methodology of cyclical corrections beyond first order to all orders of multiple scattering. This enables the physical modeling of combined active and passive microwave remote sensing of snow over the same scene. The bicontinuous /DMRT is applied to compare with data acquired in the NoSREx campaign, and the model results are validated against coincidental active and passive measurements using the same set of physical parameters of snow in all frequency and polarization channels. The DMRT is a partially coherent approach that one accounts for the coherent wave interaction only within few wavelengths as represented by phase matrix. However, the phase information of field is lost in propagating the specific intensity via RT and this hinders the use of DMRT in coherent synthetic aperture radar (SAR) analysis, including InSAR, PolInSAR and Tomo-SAR. One can alternatively calculate the scattering matrix of the terrestrial snowpack above ground by solving the volume integral equations directly with half space Green's function. The scattering matrix of the snowpack is computed for each realization giving rise to the speckle statistics. The resulting bistatic scattering automatically includes the backscattering enhancement effects. Tomograms of

  3. An approach to remote monitoring of heart rate variability (HRV) using microwave radar during a calculation task.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Satoshi; Matsui, Takemi; Sugawara, Keitaro; Asao, Takafumi; Kotani, Kentaro

    2011-01-01

    Recently, nonrestrictive and noninvasive sensing techniques to measure vital signs have been actively researched and developed. This study aimed to develop a prototype system to monitor cardiac activity using microwave radar without making contact with the body and without removing clothing--namely, a completely noncontact, remote monitoring system. In addition, heart rate and changes in heart rate variability (HRV) during simple mental arithmetic tasks were observed with the prototype system. The prototype system has a microwave Doppler radar antenna with 24 GHz frequency and approximately 7 mW output power. The experiments were conducted with seven subjects (23.00±0.82 years). We found that the prototype system captured heart rate and HRV precisely. The strong relationship between the heart rates during tasks (r=0.96), LF (cross-correlation=0.76), and LF/HF (cross-correlation=0.73) of HRV calculated from the prototype system and from electrocardiograph (ECG) measurements were confirmed. The proposed completely noncontact, remote method appears promising for future monitoring of cardiac activity as an indicator of changes in mental workload in workplaces.

  4. Active and passvie microwave remote sensing of springtime near-surface soil that at mid-latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, L.; Tsunekawa, A.; Tsubo, M.

    2010-12-01

    Springtime near-surface soil thaw event is important for understanding the near-surface earth system. Previous researches based on both active and passive microwave remote sensing technologies have paid scant attention, especially at mid-latitudes where the near-surface earth system has been changed substantially by climate change and human activities, and are characterized by more complex climate and land surface conditions than the permafrost areas. SSM/I brightness temperature and QuikSCAT Ku-band backscatter were applied in this study at a case study area of northern China and Mongolia in springtime. The soil freeze-thaw algorithm was employed for SSM/I data, and a random sampling technique was applied to determine the brightness temperature threshold for 37 GHz vertically polarized radiation: 258.2 and 260.1 K for the morning and evening satellite passes, respectively. A multi-step method was proposed for QuikSCAT Ku-band backscatter based on both field observed soil thaw events and the typical signature of radar backscatter time series when soil thaw event occurred. The method is mainly focuses on the estimated boundary of thaw events and detection of primary thaw date. Finally, based on those results, a theoretical method by applying both active and passive microwave remote sensing was proposed for understanding different types of frozen grounds and their specific characters (e.g. initial and end date of springtime soil freeze-thaw transition period) in mid-latitudes.

  5. Microwave and X-ray observations of delayed brightenings at sites remote from the primary flare locations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakajima, H.; Dennis, B. R.; Hoyng, P.; Nelson, G.; Kosugi, T.; Kai, K.

    1984-01-01

    Five examples of solar flares observed with the 17-GHz interferometer at Nobeyama in which a secondary microwave burst occurred at a distance of 100,000 km to 1,000,000 km from the primary flare site are presented. The secondary microwave burst in all five cases had a similar time profile to the primary burst with a delay of 2 to 25 s. The velocity of a triggering agent inferred from this delay and spatial separation is 10,000 km to 100,000 km/s. The intensity of the secondary burst was a factor of 3 to 25 smaller than that of the primary burst in all events except for one case in which it was a factor of 2 larger. The polarization degree of the secondary burst at 17 GHz was 35%, significantly higher than the average value for typical impulsive bursts. Two of the events were accompanied by meterwave type III/V bursts located high in the corona between the primary and secondary sites. For two of the other events, X-ray images of he secondary source were obtained with the hard-X-ray imaging spectrometer on the Solar Maximum Mission. These observations strongly suggest that the distant microwave bursts were produced by electrons with energies of 10 keV to 100 keV which were channeled along a huge loop from the main flare site to the remote location.

  6. Microwave and X-ray observations of delayed brightenings at sites remote from the primary flare locations

    SciTech Connect

    Nakajima, H.; Dennis, B.R.; Hoyng, P.; Nelson, G.; Kosugi, T.; Kai, K.

    1984-08-01

    Five examples of solar flares observed with the 17-GHz interferometer at Nobeyama in which a secondary microwave burst occurred at a distance of 100,000 km to 1,000,000 km from the primary flare site are presented. The secondary microwave burst in all five cases had a similar time profile to the primary burst with a delay of 2 to 25 s. The velocity of a triggering agent inferred from this delay and spatial separation is 10,000 km to 100,000 km/s. The intensity of the secondary burst was a factor of 3 to 25 smaller than that of the primary burst in all events except for one case in which it was a factor of 2 larger. The polarization degree of the secondary burst at 17 GHz was 35%, significantly higher than the average value for typical impulsive bursts. Two of the events were accompanied by meterwave type III/V bursts located high in the corona between the primary and secondary sites. For two of the other events, X-ray images of he secondary source were obtained with the hard-X-ray imaging spectrometer on the Solar Maximum Mission. These observations strongly suggest that the distant microwave bursts were produced by electrons with energies of 10 keV to 100 keV which were channeled along a huge loop from the main flare site to the remote location.

  7. Applications of remote sensing for water quality and biological measurements in coastal waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. W.; Harriss, R. C.

    1979-01-01

    Potential applications of remote sensing technology to the study of coastal marine environments are reviewed, emphasizing water quality and biological measurements. Parameters measurable by airborne or spaceborne remote sensors include particulates, measured by visual or multispectral photography, chlorophyll a, measured by the Ocean Color Scanner or Coastal Zone Color Scanner, temperature distributions, by IR or microwave sensors, and salinity, by means of microwave radiometers. Research projects in which wide area synoptic or repetitive remote sensing can make a major contribution include the study of estuarine and continental shelf sediment transport dynamics, marine pollutant transport, marine phytoplankton dynamics and ocean fronts.

  8. Microwave remote sensing of sea ice in the AIDJEX Main Experiment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Campbell, W.J.; Wayenberg, J.; Ramseyer, J.B.; Ramseier, R.O.; Vant, M.R.; Weaver, R.; Redmond, A.; Arsenaul, L.; Gloersen, P.; Zwally, H.J.; Wilheit, T.T.; Chang, T.C.; Hall, D.; Gray, L.; Meeks, D.C.; Bryan, M.L.; Barath, F.T.; Elachi, C.; Leberl, F.; Farr, Tom

    1978-01-01

    During the AIDJEX Main Experiment, April 1975 through May 1976, a comprehensive microwave sensing program was performed on the sea ice of the Beaufort Sea. Surface and aircraft measurements were obtained during all seasons using a wide variety of active and passive microwave sensors. The surface program obtained passive microwave measurements of various ice types using four antennas mounted on a tracked vehicle. In three test regions, each with an area of approximately 1.5 ?? 104 m2, detailed ice crystallographic, dielectric properties, and brightness temperatures of first-year, multiyear, and first-year/multiyear mixtures were measured. A NASA aircraft obtained passive microwave measurements of the entire area of the AIDJEX manned station array (triangle) during each of 18 flights. This verified the earlier reported ability to distinguish first-year and multiyear ice types and concentration and gave new information on ways to observe ice mixtures and thin ice types. The active microwave measurements from aircraft included those from an X- and L-band radar and from a scatterometer. The former is used to study a wide variety of ice features and to estimate deformations, while both are equally usable to observe ice types. With the present data, only the scatterometer can be used to distinguish positively multiyear from first-year and various types of thin ice. This is best done using coupled active and passive microwave sensing. ?? 1978 D. Reidel Publishing Company.

  9. Using airborne HIAPER Pole-to-Pole Observations (HIPPO) to evaluate model and remote sensing estimates of atmospheric carbon dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frankenberg, Christian; Kulawik, Susan S.; Wofsy, Steven C.; Chevallier, Frédéric; Daube, Bruce; Kort, Eric A.; O'Dell, Christopher; Olsen, Edward T.; Osterman, Gregory

    2016-06-01

    In recent years, space-borne observations of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) have been increasingly used in global carbon-cycle studies. In order to obtain added value from space-borne measurements, they have to suffice stringent accuracy and precision requirements, with the latter being less crucial as it can be reduced by just enhanced sample size. Validation of CO2 column-averaged dry air mole fractions (XCO2) heavily relies on measurements of the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON). Owing to the sparseness of the network and the requirements imposed on space-based measurements, independent additional validation is highly valuable. Here, we use observations from the High-Performance Instrumented Airborne Platform for Environmental Research (HIAPER) Pole-to-Pole Observations (HIPPO) flights from 01/2009 through 09/2011 to validate CO2 measurements from satellites (Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite - GOSAT, Thermal Emission Sounder - TES, Atmospheric Infrared Sounder - AIRS) and atmospheric inversion models (CarbonTracker CT2013B, Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate (MACC) v13r1). We find that the atmospheric models capture the XCO2 variability observed in HIPPO flights very well, with correlation coefficients (r2) of 0.93 and 0.95 for CT2013B and MACC, respectively. Some larger discrepancies can be observed in profile comparisons at higher latitudes, in particular at 300 hPa during the peaks of either carbon uptake or release. These deviations can be up to 4 ppm and hint at misrepresentation of vertical transport. Comparisons with the GOSAT satellite are of comparable quality, with an r2 of 0.85, a mean bias μ of -0.06 ppm, and a standard deviation σ of 0.45 ppm. TES exhibits an r2 of 0.75, μ of 0.34 ppm, and σ of 1.13 ppm. For AIRS, we find an r2 of 0.37, μ of 1.11 ppm, and σ of 1.46 ppm, with latitude-dependent biases. For these comparisons at least 6, 20, and 50 atmospheric soundings have been averaged for GOSAT, TES, and AIRS

  10. Simulation of Melting Ice-Phase Precipitation Hydrometeors for Use in Passive and Active Microwave Remote-Sensing Algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, B. T.

    2014-12-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission, with active and passive microwave remote-sensing instruments, was designed to be sensitive to precipitation-sized particles. The shape of these particles naturally influences the distribution of scattered microwaves. Therefore, we seek to simulate ice-phase precipitation using accurate models of the physical properties of individual snowflakes and aggregate ice crystals, similar to those observed in precipitating clouds. A number of researchers have examined the single-scattering properties of individual ice crystals and aggregates, but only a few have started to look at the properties of melting these particles. One of the key difficulties, from a simulation perspective, is characterizing the distribution of melt-water on a melting particle. Previous studies by the author and others have shown that even for spherical particles, the relative distribution of liquid water on an ice-particle can have significant effects on the computed scattering and absorption properties in the microwave regime. This, in turn, strongly influences forward model simulations of passive microwave TBs, radar reflectivities, and path-integrated attenuation. The present study examines the sensitivity of the single scattering properties of melting ice-crystals and aggregates to variations in the volume fraction of melt water, and the distribution of meltwater. We make some simple simulations 1-D vertical profiles having melting layers, and compute the radar reflectivities consistent with the GPM DPR at Ku- and Ka-band. We also compute the top-of-the-atmosphere brightness temperatures at GPM GMI channels for the same vertical profiles, and discuss the sensitivities to variances in the aforementioned physical properties.

  11. Advances in soil mapping: Mapping quartz content of soil surface using airborne hyperspectral remote sensing in the longwave-infrared region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weksler, Shahar; Notesco, Gila; Ben-Dor, Eyal

    2016-04-01

    Hyperspectral remote sensing in the longwave-infrared (LWIR) spectral region has proven to be a new and efficient tool for mineral mapping (Adar et al. 2013). Minerals which are featureless in the visible, near-infrared and shortwave-infrared regions, e.g., quartz, have a unique fingerprint in the LWIR region (8-12 μm). This spectral region adds to the optical region in which several important minerals can be characterized with significant features (e.g., clay). Accordingly, using airborne hyperspectral remote-sensing data in the LWIR region is an important and practical means of classifying and quantifying minerals. Day and night airborne data, acquired by the AisaOWL sensor over Nitzana National Park in Israel, were used to demonstrate how LWIR region data can be used to map quartz content on the soil surface in a pixel-by-pixel process. The LWIR radiance image is composed of the surface emissivity (and hence the surface's chemical and physical properties), the radiant temperature (according to the Plank equation) and the atmospheric attenuation (which is different during the day and at night). In this work, we show that it is possible to separate surface emissivity, temperature and atmospheric attenuation by using the radiance measured from a vicarious calibration site which was found to be distinctive for the atmospheric contribution. Applying the spectrum of this area as a gain factor to each pixel in the image reduced the atmospheric effects while emphasizing the mineralogical features. Based on this finding and using the same vicarious calibration site used by Notesco et al. (2015), we further studied the possibility of mapping quartz in an area outside the vicarious calibration site. The resulting emissivity image of Nitzana soils (100 km away from the vicarious calibration site) enabled quantifying the quartz in each pixel and mapping its abundance. The day and night images showed a similar quartz distribution, thereby validating the methodology and

  12. High fidelity remote sensing of snow properties from MODIS and the Airborne Snow Observatory: Snowflakes to Terabytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Painter, T.; Mattmann, C. A.; Brodzik, M.; Bryant, A. C.; Goodale, C. E.; Hart, A. F.; Ramirez, P.; Rittger, K. E.; Seidel, F. C.; Zimdars, P. A.

    2012-12-01

    The response of the cryosphere to climate forcings largely determines Earth's climate sensitivity. However, our understanding of the strength of the simulated snow albedo feedback varies by a factor of three in the GCMs used in the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, mainly caused by uncertainties in snow extent and the albedo of snow-covered areas from imprecise remote sensing retrievals. Additionally, the Western US and other regions of the globe depend predominantly on snowmelt for their water supply to agriculture, industry and cities, hydroelectric power, and recreation, against rising demand from increasing population. In the mountains of the Upper Colorado River Basin, dust radiative forcing in snow shortens snow cover duration by 3-7 weeks. Extended to the entire upper basin, the 5-fold increase in dust load since the late-1800s results in a 3-week earlier peak runoff and a 5% annual loss of total runoff. The remotely sensed dynamics of snow cover duration and melt however have not been factored into hydrological modeling, operational forecasting, and policymaking. To address these deficiencies in our understanding of snow properties, we have developed and validated a suite of MODIS snow products that provide accurate fractional snow covered area and radiative forcing of dust and carbonaceous aerosols in snow. The MODIS Snow Covered Area and Grain size (MODSCAG) and MODIS Dust Radiative Forcing in Snow (MODDRFS) algorithms, developed and transferred from imaging spectroscopy techniques, leverage the complete MODIS surface reflectance spectrum. The two most critical properties for understanding snowmelt runoff and timing are the spatial and temporal distributions of snow water equivalent (SWE) and snow albedo. We have created the Airborne Snow Observatory (ASO), an imaging spectrometer and scanning LiDAR system, to quantify SWE and snow albedo, generate unprecedented knowledge of snow properties, and provide complete

  13. Extended ocular hazard distances associated with intrabeam aided viewing of the Sandia remote sensing system, airborne aura laser (Big Sky Variant).

    SciTech Connect

    Augustoni, Arnold L.

    2004-08-01

    A laser hazard analysis to determine the Extended Ocular Hazard Distances associated with a possible intrabeam aided viewing of the Sandia Remote Sensing System (SRSS) airborne AURA laser (Big Sky Laser Technology) was performed based on the 2000 version of the American National Standard Institute's (ANSI) Standard Z136.1, for the Safe Use of Lasers and the 2000 version of the ANSI Standard Z136.6, for the Safe Use of Lasers Outdoors. The AURA lidar system is installed in the instrument pod of a Proteus airframe and is used to perform laser interaction experiments and tests at various national test sites. The targets are located at various distances (ranges) from the airborne platform. Nominal Ocular Hazard Distance (NOHD) and maximum ''eye-safe'' dwell times for various operational altitudes associated with unaided intrabeam exposure of ground personnel were determined and presented in a previous SAND report. Although the target areas are controlled and the use of viewing aids are prohibited there is the possibility of the unauthorized use of viewing aids such as binoculars. This aided viewing hazard analysis is supplemental to the previous SAND report for the laser hazard analysis of the airborne AURA.

  14. Observations of cloud liquid water path over oceans: Optical and microwave remote sensing methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Bing; Rossow, William B.

    1994-01-01

    Published estimates of cloud liquid water path (LWP) from satellite-measured microwave radiation show little agreement, even about the relative magnitudes of LWP in the tropics and midlatitudes. To understand these differences and to obtain more reliable estimate, optical and microwave LWP retrieval methods are compared using the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) and special sensor microwave/imager (SSM/I) data. Errors in microwave LWP retrieval associated with uncertainties in surface, atmosphere, and cloud properties are assessed. Sea surface temperature may not produce great LWP errors, if accurate contemporaneous measurements are used in the retrieval. An uncertainty of estimated near-surface wind speed as high as 2 m/s produces uncertainty in LWP of about 5 mg/sq cm. Cloud liquid water temperature has only a small effect on LWP retrievals (rms errors less than 2 mg/sq cm), if errors in the temperature are less than 5 C; however, such errors can produce spurious variations of LWP with latitude and season. Errors in atmospheric column water vapor (CWV) are strongly coupled with errors in LWP (for some retrieval methods) causing errors as large as 30 mg/sq cm. Because microwave radiation is much less sensitive to clouds with small LWP (less than 7 mg/sq cm) than visible wavelength radiation, the microwave results are very sensitive to the process used to separate clear and cloudy conditions. Different cloud detection sensitivities in different microwave retrieval methods bias estimated LWP values. Comparing ISCCP and SSM/I LWPs, we find that the two estimated values are consistent in global, zonal, and regional means for warm, nonprecipitating clouds, which have average LWP values of about 5 mg/sq cm and occur much more frequently than precipitating clouds. Ice water path (IWP) can be roughly estimated from the differences between ISCCP total water path and SSM/I LWP for cold, nonprecipitating clouds. IWP in the winter hemisphere is about

  15. Recent Improvements in Retrieving Near-Surface Air Temperature and Humidity Using Microwave Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, J. Brent

    2010-01-01

    Detailed studies of the energy and water cycles require accurate estimation of the turbulent fluxes of moisture and heat across the atmosphere-ocean interface at regional to basin scale. Providing estimates of these latent and sensible heat fluxes over the global ocean necessitates the use of satellite or reanalysis-based estimates of near surface variables. Recent studies have shown that errors in the surface (10 meter)estimates of humidity and temperature are currently the largest sources of uncertainty in the production of turbulent fluxes from satellite observations. Therefore, emphasis has been placed on reducing the systematic errors in the retrieval of these parameters from microwave radiometers. This study discusses recent improvements in the retrieval of air temperature and humidity through improvements in the choice of algorithms (linear vs. nonlinear) and the choice of microwave sensors. Particular focus is placed on improvements using a neural network approach with a single sensor (Special Sensor Microwave/Imager) and the use of combined sensors from the NASA AQUA satellite platform. The latter algorithm utilizes the unique sampling available on AQUA from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) and the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU-A). Current estimates of uncertainty in the near-surface humidity and temperature from single and multi-sensor approaches are discussed and used to estimate errors in the turbulent fluxes.

  16. Detecting trends in regional ecosystem functioning: the importance of field data for calibrating and validating NEON airborne remote sensing instruments and science data products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCorkel, J.; Kuester, M. A.; Johnson, B. R.; Krause, K.; Kampe, T. U.; Moore, D. J.

    2011-12-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is a research facility under development by the National Science Foundation to improve our understanding of and ability to forecast the impacts of climate change, land-use change, and invasive species on ecology. The infrastructure, designed to operate over 30 years or more, includes site-based flux tower and field measurements, coordinated with airborne remote sensing observations to observe key ecological processes over a broad range of temporal and spatial scales. NEON airborne data on vegetation biochemical, biophysical, and structural properties and on land use and land cover will be captured at 1 to 2 meter resolution by an imaging spectrometer, a small-footprint waveform-LiDAR and a high-resolution digital camera. Annual coverage of the 60 NEON sites and capacity to support directed research flights or respond to unexpected events will require three airborne observation platforms (AOP). The integration of field and airborne data with satellite observations and other national geospatial data for analysis, monitoring and input to ecosystem models will extend NEON observations to regions across the United States not directly sampled by the observatory. The different spatial scales and measurement methods make quantitative comparisons between remote sensing and field data, typically collected over small sample plots (e.g. < 0.2 ha), difficult. New approaches to developing temporal and spatial scaling relationships between these data are necessary to enable validation of airborne and satellite remote sensing data and for incorporation of these data into continental or global scale ecological models. In addition to consideration of the methods used to collect ground-based measurements, careful calibration of the remote sensing instrumentation and an assessment of the accuracy of algorithms used to derive higher-level science data products are needed. Furthermore, long-term consistency of the data collected by all

  17. The information of oil and gas micro-seepage in Dongsheng region of inner Mongolia based on the airborne hyperspectral remote sensing image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Shu-Fang; Chen, Jian-Ping; Zhou, Mi

    2008-11-01

    The technology of hyper-spectral remote sensing which has higher spatial resolution characteristic, and optimizes the qualification of identifying and extracting salt mines, not only enhances the capacity of natural scenes detection and recognition, but also advances the level of quantitative remote sensing. It has important meaning for using the technology of hyper-spectral remote sensing to quantitative extraction. The paper investigate gas micro-seepage based on the Airborne Hyper-spectral Remote Sensing in Dongsheng of Inner Mongolia on the basis of gas micro-seepage theory using EO-1 Hyperion data collected by Satellite-Borne Sensor which has highest spatial resolution presently in the world. On the basis of data pretreated this paper adopts band math extracted the distribution of oil and gas micro-seepage using diagnostic assimilating spectrum of alteration minerals by the numbers. With eigenvector length model evaluates the research area comprehensive index, oil and gas micro-seepage information model of the research area is established and key regions of oil and gas micro-seepage are confirmed, which offers academic gist for oil and gas resource exploitation of Dongsheng.

  18. An intercomparison of available soil moisture estimates from thermal-infrared and passive microwave remote sensing and land-surface modeling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Remotely-sensed soil moisture studies have mainly focused on retrievals using active and passive microwave (MW) sensors whose measurements provided a direct relationship to soil moisture (SM). MW sensors present obvious advantages such as the ability to retrieve through non-precipitating cloud cover...

  19. Microwave backscatter and emission observed from Shuttle Imaging Radar B and an airborne 1.4 GHz radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, J. R.; Schiue, J. C.; Schmugge, T. J.; Engman, E. T.; Mo, T.; Lawrence, R. W.

    1985-01-01

    A soil moisture experiment conducted with the Shuttle Imaging Radar B (SIR-B) is reported. SIR-B operated at 1.28 GHz provided the active microwave measurements, while a 4-beam pushbroom 1.4 GHz radiometer gave the complementary passive microwave measurements. The aircraft measurements were made at an altitude of 330 m, resulting in a ground resolution cell of about 100 m diameter. SIR-B ground resolution from 225 km was about 35 m. More than 150 agricultural fields in the San Joaquin Valley of California were examined in the experiment. The effect of surface roughness height on radar backscatter and radiometric measurements was studied.

  20. The development of a stepped frequency microwave radiometer and its application to remote sensing of the Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrington, R. F.

    1980-01-01

    The design, development, application, and capabilities of a variable frequency microwave radiometer are described. This radiometer demonstrated the versatility, accuracy, and stability required to provide contributions to the geophysical understanding of ocean and ice processes. A closed-loop feedback method was used, whereby noise pulses were added to the received electromagnetic radiation to achieve a null balance in a Dicke switched radiometer. Stability was achieved through the use of a constant temperature enclosure around the low loss microwave front end. The Dicke reference temperature was maintained to an absolute accuracy of 0.1 K using a closed-loop proportional temperature controller. A microprocessor based digital controller operates the radiometer and records the data on computer compatible tapes. This radiometer exhibits an absolute accuracy of better than 0.5 K when the sensitivity is 0.1 K. The sensitivity varies between 0.0125 K and 1.25 K depending upon the bandwidth and integration time selected by the digital controller. Remote sensing experiments were conducted from an aircraft platform and the first radiometeric mapping of an ocean polar front; exploratory experiments to measure the thickness of lake ice; first discrimination between first year and multiyear ice below 10 GHz; and the first known measurements of frequency sensitive characteristics of sea ice.

  1. Remote identification of potential polar bear maternal denning habitat in northern Alaska using airborne LiDAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, B. M.; Durner, G. M.; Stoker, J.; Shideler, R.; Perham, C.; Liston, G. E.

    2013-12-01

    Polar bear (Ursus maritimus) populations throughout the Arctic are being threatened by reductions in critical sea ice habitat. Throughout much of their range, polar bears give birth to their young in winter dens that are excavated in snowdrifts. New-born cubs, which are unable to survive exposure to Arctic winter weather, require 2-3 months of the relatively warm, stable, and undisturbed environment of the den for their growth. In the southern Beaufort Sea (BS), polar bears may den on the Alaskan Arctic Coastal Plain (ACP).The proportion of dens occurring on land has increased because of reductions in stable multi-year ice, increases in unconsolidated ice, and lengthening of the fall open-water period. Large portions of the ACP are currently being used for oil and gas activities and proposed projects will likely expand this footprint in the near future. Since petroleum exploration and development activities increase during winter there is the potential for human activities to disturb polar bears in maternal dens. Thus, maps showing the potential distribution of terrestrial denning habitat can help to mitigate negative interactions. Prior remote sensing efforts have consisted of manual interpretation of vertical aerial photography and automated classification of Interferometric Synthetic Aperture (IfSAR) derived digital terrain models (DTM) (5-m spatial resolution) focused on the identification of snowdrift forming landscape features. In this study, we assess the feasibility of airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data (2-m spatial resolution) for the automated classification of potential polar bear maternal denning habitat in a 1,400 km2 area on the central portion of the ACP. The study region spans the BS coast from the Prudhoe Bay oilfield in the west to near Point Thompson in the east and extends inland from 10 to 30 km. Approximately 800 km2 of the study area contains 19 known den locations, 51 field survey sites with information on bank height and

  2. Microwave Radiometer Technology Acceleration Mission (MiRaTA): Advancing Weather Remote Sensing with Nanosatellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahoy, K.; Blackwell, W. J.; Bishop, R. L.; Erickson, N.; Fish, C. S.; Neilsen, T. L.; Stromberg, E. M.; Bardeen, J.; Dave, P.; Marinan, A.; Marlow, W.; Kingsbury, R.; Kennedy, A.; Byrne, J. M.; Peters, E.; Allen, G.; Burianek, D.; Busse, F.; Elliott, D.; Galbraith, C.; Leslie, V. V.; Osaretin, I.; Shields, M.; Thompson, E.; Toher, D.; DiLiberto, M.

    2014-12-01

    The Microwave Radiometer Technology Acceleration (MiRaTA) is a 3U CubeSat mission sponsored by the NASA Earth Science Technology Office (ESTO). Microwave radiometer measurements and GPS radio occultation (GPSRO) measurements of all-weather temperature and humidity provide key contributions toward improved weather forecasting. The MiRaTA mission will validate new technologies in both passive microwave radiometry and GPS radio occultation: (1) new ultra-compact and low-power technology for multi-channel and multi-band passive microwave radiometers, and (2) new GPS receiver and patch antenna array technology for GPS radio occultation retrieval of both temperature-pressure profiles in the atmosphere and electron density profiles in the ionosphere. In addition, MiRaTA will test (3) a new approach to spaceborne microwave radiometer calibration using adjacent GPSRO measurements. The radiometer measurement quality can be substantially improved relative to present systems through the use of proximal GPSRO measurements as a calibration standard for radiometric observations, reducing and perhaps eliminating the need for costly and complex internal calibration targets. MiRaTA will execute occasional pitch-up maneuvers so that the radiometer and GPSRO observations sound overlapping volumes of atmosphere through the Earth's limb. To validate system performance, observations from both microwave radiometer (MWR) and GPSRO instruments will be compared to radiosondes, global high-resolution analysis fields, other satellite observations, and to each other using radiative transfer models. Both the radiometer and GPSRO payloads, currently at TRL5 but to be advanced to TRL7 at mission conclusion, can be accommodated in a single 3U CubeSat. The current plan is to launch from an International Space Station (ISS) orbit at ~400 km altitude and 52° inclination for low-cost validation over a ~90-day mission to fly in 2016. MiRaTA will demonstrate high fidelity, well-calibrated radiometric

  3. Tundra snow cover properties from in-situ observation and multi-scale passive microwave remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rees, Andrew

    The overall objective of this research is to improve operational capabilities for estimating end of winter, pre-melt tundra SWE in a representative tundra study area using satellite passive microwave data. The study area for the project is located in the Daring-Exeter-Yamba portion of the Upper-Coppermine River Basin in the Northwest Territories. The size, orientation and boundaries of the study area were defined based on the satellite EASE grid (25 x 25 km) centroid located closest to the Tundra Ecosystem Research Station operated by the Government of the Northwest Territories. Data were collected during intensive late winter field campaigns in 2004,2005,2006,2007,2008, and 2009. During each field campaign, snow depth, density and stratigraphy were recorded at sites throughout the study area. During the 2005 and 2008 seasons, multi-scale airborne passive microwave radiometer data were also acquired. During the 2007 season, ground based passive microwave radiometer data were acquired. For each year, temporally coincident AMSR-E satellite Tb were obtained. The spatial distribution of snow depth, density and SWE in the study area is controlled by the interaction of blowing snow with terrain and land cover. Despite the spatial heterogeneity of snow cover, several inter-annual consistencies were identified. Tundra snow density is consistent when considered on a site-by-site basis and among different terrain types. A regional average density of 0.294 g/cm3 was derived from the six years of measurements. When applied to site snow depths, there is little difference in SWE derived from either the site or the regional average density. SWE is more variable from site to site and year to year than density which requires the use of a terrain based classification to better quantify regional SWE. The variability in SWE was least on lakes and flat tundra, while greater on slopes and plateaus. Despite the variability, the inter-annual ratios of SWE among different terrain types

  4. Making Carbon Emissions Remotely Sensible: Flux Observations of Carbon from an Airborne Laboratory (FOCAL), its Near-Surface Survey of Carbon Gases and Isotopologues on Alaska's North Slope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobosy, R.; Dumas, E. J.; Sayres, D. S.; Healy, C. E.; Munster, J. B.; Baker, B.; Anderson, J. G.

    2014-12-01

    Detailed process-oriented study of the mechanisms of conversion in the Arctic of fossil carbon to atmospheric gas is progressing, but necessarily limited to a few point locations and requiring detailed subsurface measurements inaccessible to remote sensing. Airborne measurements of concentration, transport and flux of these carbon gases at sufficiently low altitude to reflect surface variations can tie such local measurements to remotely observable features of the landscape. Carbon dioxide and water vapor have been observable for over 20 years from low-altitude small aircraft in the Arctic and elsewhere. Methane has been more difficult, requiring large powerful aircraft or limited flask samples. Recent developments in spectroscopy, however, have reduced the power and weight required to measure methane at rates suitable for eddy-covariance flux estimates. The Flux Observations of Carbon from an Airborne Laboratory (FOCAL) takes advantage of Integrated Cavity-Output Spectroscopy (ICOS) to measure CH4, CO2, and water vapor in a new airborne system. The system, moreover, measures these gases' stable isotopologues every two seconds or faster helping to separate thermogenic from biogenic emissions. Paired with the Best Airborne Turbulence (BAT) probe developed for small aircraft by NOAA's Air Resources Laboratory and a light twin-engine aircraft adapted by Aurora Flight Sciences Inc., the FOCAL measures at 6 m spacing, covering 100 km in less than 30 minutes. It flies between 10 m and 50 m above ground interspersed with profiles to the top of the boundary layer and beyond. This presentation gives an overview of the magnitude and variation in fluxes and concentrations of CH4, CO2, and H2O with space, time, and time of day in a spatially extensive survey, more than 7500 km total in 15 flights over roughly a 100 km square during the month of August 2013. An extensive data set such as this at low altitude with high-rate sampling addresses features that repeat on 1 km scale

  5. Microwave remote sensing of soil moisture, volume 1. [Guymon, Oklahoma and Dalhart, Texas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcfarland, M. J. (Principal Investigator); Theis, S. W.; Rosenthal, W. D.; Jones, C. L.

    1982-01-01

    Multifrequency sensor data from NASA's C-130 aircraft were used to determine which of the all weather microwave sensors demonstrated the highest correlation to surface soil moisture over optimal bare soil conditions, and to develop and test techniques which use visible/infrared sensors to compensate for the vegetation effect in this sensor's response to soil moisture. The L-band passive microwave radiometer was found to be the most suitable single sensor system to estimate soil moisture over bare fields. The perpendicular vegetation index (PVI) as determined from the visible/infrared sensors was useful as a measure of the vegetation effect on the L-band radiometer response to soil moisture. A linear equation was developed to estimate percent field capacity as a function of L-band emissivity and the vegetation index. The prediction algorithm improves the estimation of moisture significantly over predictions from L-band emissivity alone.

  6. Dielectric properties in microwave remote plasma sustained in argon: Expanding plasma conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Jauberteau, J. L.; Jauberteau, I.

    2012-11-15

    This work is devoted to the study of the relative permittivity in argon expanding plasma produced below a microwave discharge sustained in a quartz tube and working at 2.45 GHz. We discuss results and explain the microwave propagation within the reactor, outside the quartz tube. It is shown that at low pressures (133 Pa) and at powers ranging from 100 W to 400 W, the wave frequency remains lower than the plasma frequency anywhere in the expanding plasma. Under these conditions, the real part of the relative permittivity is negative and the wave is reflected. Surprisingly, in these conditions, the plasma is produced inside and outside the quartz tube, below the wave launcher. This effect can be explained considering a surface wave propagating at the surface of the quartz tube then into the reactor, on the external surface of the expanding plasma below the quartz tube.

  7. On the use of passive microwaves at 37 GHz in remote sensing of vegetation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerr, Y. H.; Njoku, E. G.

    1993-01-01

    Recently, a number of studies have investigated the use of the 37 GHz channels of the Nimbus-7 Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) for vegetation monitoring and for studying synergisms between the SMMR and the NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR). The approaches are promising but raise a number of issues concerning interpretation of the results, specifically on the relative effects of vegetation and other surface and atmospheric characteristics on the observed signal. This article analyzes the 37 GHz Microwave Polarization Difference Temperature (MPDT) in terms of its sensitivity to surface and atmospheric parameters. For this, a radiative transfer model is used which indicates some limitations of the MPDT index and suggests the importance of accounting for atmospheric effects in the data analysis. An alternative approach to the MPDT, including lower SMMR frequencies than 37 GHz, is discussed.

  8. Airborne Passive Remote Sensing of the Troposphere in Nashville/Middle Tennessee Area During the 1995 Southern Oxidants Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rider, D. M.; Worden, H. M.; Beer, R.; Nandi, S.; Sparks, L. C.

    1998-01-01

    In July of 1995 the Airborne Emission Spectrometer was deployed to Nashville, Tennessee to participate in the 1995 Ozone Study Intensive Campaign of the Southern Oxidants Study. AES is a high resolution mid-infrared interferometer that measures the spectrum of upwelling radiation in the 650-4250 cm-1 range.

  9. A study of surface and surface-volume scattering for discrete random medium in microwave remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syahali, Syabeela Bt

    In the study of microwave remote sensing and wave propagation in a medium, it is interesting and important to model and calculate the interaction of the electromagnetic wave with the medium, as the backscattering returns from the medium will be recorded and processed to produce satellite radar images and the wave attenuation while propagating in the medium will affect the microwave and mobile communications. Traditionally, theoretical modelling of this problem assumes that the scatterers are interacting with the wave independently. However, in real nature, the coherence effect of these interactions due to the close-spacing of the scatterers cannot be ignored, especially in the case of an electrically dense medium. Traditional theoretical modelling also assumes that wave-interface effects are only due to single scattering on the surface. This is also less accurate since multiple scattering can also contribute to the effect, especially for rough surfaces. It is also assumed that the surface-volume interaction is only due to first order surface-volume scattering. However, second order surface-volume scattering is also important and should not be ignored. Therefore, a good and reliable theoretical model for wave scattering in the natural earth terrain should be developed for the use in microwave remote sensing, communications and satellite-based natural resource monitoring. In this research, the backscattering model for an electrically dense medium is developed. This model incorporates the coherent effects due to the close-spacing of the scatterers. Improvement is done by considering the multiple surface scattering effect, together with the single surface scattering effect on the surface scattering formulation based on the existing integral equation model (IEM) for both the top and the bottom surfaces of the layer of the model. The backscattering model is also improved by considering up to second order surface-volume scattering. Its effect on surface, surface

  10. Galactic Noise and Passive Microwave Remote Sensing from Space At L-Band

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LeVine, David M.; Abraham, Saji; Hildebrand Peter H. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The spectral window at L-band (1.4 GHz) is important for passive remote sensing of soil moisture and ocean salinity from space, parameters that are needed to understand the hydrologic cycle and ocean circulation. At this frequency, radiation from extraterrestrial (mostly galactic) sources is strong and, unlike the constant cosmic background, this radiation is spatially variable. This paper presents a modern radiometric map of the celestial sky at L-band and a solution for the problem of determining what portion of the sky is seen by a radiometer in orbit. The data for the radiometric map is derived from recent radio astronomy surveys and is presented as equivalent brightness temperature suitable for remote sensing applications. Examples using orbits and antennas representative of those contemplated for remote sensing of soil moisture and sea surface salinity from space are presented to illustrate the signal levels to be expected. Near the galactic plane, the contribution can exceed several Kelvin.

  11. Remote distinction of a noxious weed (musk thistle: Carduus nutans) using airborne hyperspectral imagery and the support vector machine classifier

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Remote detection of invasive plant species using geospatial imagery may significantly improve monitoring, planning, and management practices by eliminating shortfalls such as observer bias and accessibility involved in ground-based surveys. The use of remote sensing for accurate mapping invasion ex...

  12. Evaluation of an airborne remote sensing platform consisting of two consumer-grade cameras for crop identification

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Remote sensing systems based on consumer-grade cameras have been increasingly used in scientific research and remote sensing applications because of their low cost and ease of use. However, the performance of consumer-grade cameras for practical applications have not been well documented in related ...

  13. Use of land surface remotely sensed satellite and airborne data for environmental exposure assessment in cancer research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maxwell, S.K.; Meliker, J.R.; Goovaerts, P.

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, geographic information systems (GIS) have increasingly been used for reconstructing individual-level exposures to environmental contaminants in epidemiological research. Remotely sensed data can be useful in creating space-time models of environmental measures. The primary advantage of using remotely sensed data is that it allows for study at the local scale (e.g., residential level) without requiring expensive, time-consuming monitoring campaigns. The purpose of our study was to identify how land surface remotely sensed data are currently being used to study the relationship between cancer and environmental contaminants, focusing primarily on agricultural chemical exposure assessment applications. We present the results of a comprehensive literature review of epidemiological research where remotely sensed imagery or land cover maps derived from remotely sensed imagery were applied. We also discuss the strengths and limitations of the most commonly used imagery data (aerial photographs and Landsat satellite imagery) and land cover maps.

  14. Use of land surface remotely sensed satellite and airborne data for environmental exposure assessment in cancer research

    PubMed Central

    MAXWELL, SUSAN K.; MELIKER, JAYMIE R.; GOOVAERTS, PIERRE

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, geographic information systems (GIS) have increasingly been used for reconstructing individual-level exposures to environmental contaminants in epidemiological research. Remotely sensed data can be useful in creating space-time models of environmental measures. The primary advantage of using remotely sensed data is that it allows for study at the local scale (e.g., residential level) without requiring expensive, time-consuming monitoring campaigns. The purpose of our study was to identify how land surface remotely sensed data are currently being used to study the relationship between cancer and environmental contaminants, focusing primarily on agricultural chemical exposure assessment applications. We present the results of a comprehensive literature review of epidemiological research where remotely sensed imagery or land cover maps derived from remotely sensed imagery were applied. We also discuss the strengths and limitations of the most commonly used imagery data (aerial photographs and Landsat satellite imagery) and land cover maps. PMID:19240763

  15. Airborne Passive Microwave Measurements from the AMISA 2008 Science Campaign for Modeling of Arctic Sea Ice Heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zucker, M. L.; Gasiewski, A. J.; CenterEnvironmental Technology

    2011-12-01

    While climate changes in the Arctic are occurring more rapidly than anywhere else on Earth model-based predictions of sea ice extent are at once both more optimistic than the data suggest and exhibit a high degree of variability. It is believed that this high level of uncertainty is the result of an inadequate quantitative understanding of surface heating mechanisms, which in large part is due to a lack of high spatial resolution data on boundary layer and surface energy processes during melt and freezeup. In August 2008 the NASA Arctic Mechanisms of Interactions between the Surface and Atmosphere (AMISA) campaign, in conjunction with the Swedish-led Arctic Summer Cloud-Ocean Study (ASCOS) conducted coordinated high spatial resolution measurements of geophysical parameters in the Arctic relevant to atmospheric-sea ice interaction. The IPY-approved AMISA campaign used airborne radiometers, including the Polarimetric Scanning Radiometer (PSR) system, a suite of L-band to V-band fixed-beam radiometers for cloud liquid and water vapor measurement, short and longwave radiation sensors, meteorological parameters from cloud size distribution probes, GPS dropsondes, and aerosol sensors. Calibration of the PSR is achieved through periodic observations of stable references such as thermal blackbody targets and noise diodes. A combination of methods using both infrequent external thermal blackbody views and brief frequent internal noise sources has proven practical for airborne systems such as the PSR and is proposed for spaceborne systems such as GeoMAS. Once radiometric data is calibrated it is then rasterized into brightness temperature images which are then geo-located and imported into Google EarthTM. An example brightness temperature map from the AMISA 2008 campaign is included in this abstract. The analysis of this data provides a basis for the development of a heat flux model needed to decrease the uncertainly in weather and climate predictions within the Arctic. In

  16. Snow water equivalent determination by microwave radiometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, A. T. C.; Foster, J. L.; Hall, D. K.; Rango, A.; Hartline, B. K.

    1981-01-01

    One of the most important parameters for accurate snowmelt runoff prediction is snow water equivalent (SWE) which is contentionally monitored using observations made at widely scattered points in or around specific watersheds. Remote sensors which provide data with better spatial and temporal coverage can be used to improve the SWE estimates. Microwave radiation, which can penetrate through a snowpack, may be used to infer the SWE. Calculations made from a microscopic scattering model were used to simulate the effect of varying SWE on the microwave brightness temperature. Data obtained from truck mounted, airborne and spaceborne systems from various test sites were studied. The simulated SWE compares favorable with the measured SWE. In addition, whether the underlying soil is frozen or thawed can be discriminated successfully on the basis of the polarization of the microwave radiation.

  17. Remote sensing of precipitable water over the oceans from Nimbus-7 microwave measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prabhakara, C.; Change, H. D.; Chang, A. T. C.

    1981-01-01

    Global maps of precipitable water over derived from scanning multichannel microwave radiometer (SMMR) data reveal salient features associated with ocean currents and the large scale general circulation in the atmosphere. Nimbus-7 SMMR brightness temperature measurements in the 21 and 18 GHz channels are used to sense the precipitable water in the atmospheric over oceans. The difference in the brightness temperature (T sub 21 -T sub 18), both in the horizontal and vertical polarization, is found to be essentially a function of the precipitable water in the atmosphere. An equation, based on the physical consideration of the radiative transfer in the microwave region, is developed to relate the precipitable water to (T sub 21 - T sub 18). It shows that the signal (T sub 21- T sub 18) does not suffer severely from the noise introduced by variations in the sea surface temperature, surface winds, and liquid water content in non rain clouds. The rms deviation between the estimated precipitable water from SMMR data and that given by the closely coincident ship radiosondes is about 0.25 g/ sq cm

  18. Effects of Faraday Rotation on Microwave Remote Sensing From Space at L-Band

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LeVine, D. M.; Kao, M.

    1997-01-01

    The effect of Faraday rotation on the remote sensing of soil moisture from space is investigated using the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) to obtain electron density profiles and the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) to model the magnetic field. With a judicious choice of satellite orbit (6 am, sunsynchronous) the errors caused by ignoring Faraday rotation are less than 1 K at incidence angles less than 40 degrees.

  19. Monitoring boreal ecosystem phenology with integrated active/passive microwave remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDonald, K. C.; Njoku, E.; Kimball, J.; Running, S.; Thompson, C.; Lee, J. K.

    2002-01-01

    The important role of the high latitudes in the functioning of global processes is becoming well established. The size and remoteness of arctic and boreal ecosystems, however, pose a challenge to quantification of both terrestrial ecosystem processes and their feedbacks to regional and global climate conditions. Boreal and arctic regions form a complex land cover mosaic where vegetation structure, condition and distribution are strongly regulated by environmental factors such as moisture availability, permafrost, growing season length, disturbance and soil nutrients.

  20. Satellite and airborne oil spill remote sensing: State of the art and application to the BP DeepWater Horizon oil spill

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leifer, I.; Clark, R.; Jones, C.; Holt, B.; Svejkovsky, J.; Swayze, G.

    2011-01-01

    The vast, persistent, and unconstrained oil release from the DeepWater Horizon (DWH) challenged the spill response, which required accurate quantitative oil assessment at synoptic and operational scales. Experienced observers are the mainstay of oil spill response. Key limitations are weather, scene illumination geometry, and few trained observers, leading to potential observer bias. Aiding the response was extensive passive and active satellite and airborne remote sensing, including intelligent system augmentation, reviewed herein. Oil slick appearance strongly depends on many factors like emulsion composition and scene geometry, yielding false positives and great thickness uncertainty. Oil thicknesses and the oil to water ratios for thick slicks were derived quantitatively with a new spectral library approach based on the shape and depth of spectral features related to C-H vibration bands. The approach used near infrared, imaging spectroscopy data from the AVIRIS (Airborne Visual/InfraRed Imaging Spectrometer) instrument on the NASA ER-2 stratospheric airplane. Extrapolation to the total slick used MODIS satellite visual-spectrum broadband data, which observes sunglint reflection from surface slicks; i.e., indicates the presence of oil and/or surfactant slicks. Oil slick emissivity is less than seawater's allowing MODIS thermal infrared (TIR) nighttime identification; however, water temperature variations can cause false positives. Some strong emissivity features near 6.7 and 9.7 ??m could be analyzed as for the AVIRIS short wave infrared features, but require high spectral resolution data. TIR spectral trends can allow fresh/weathered oil discrimination. Satellite Synthetic Aperture Radar (SSAR) provided synoptic data under all-sky conditions by observing oil dampening of capillary waves; however, SSAR typically cannot discriminate thick from thin oil slicks. Airborne UAVSAR's significantly greater signal-to-noise ratio and fine spatial resolution allowed

  1. The research of remote sensing in karst collapse remote sense based on airborne LiDAR system: taking Meitanba mining area in Hunan Province as an example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Zhihong; Wang, Hao; Wu, Fang; Guo, Zhaocheng

    2014-11-01

    Taking Meitanba mining area in Hunan Province as an example, by using the achieved high accuracy and high resolution point-cloud data and digital image data by airborne LiDAR system, this research built the 3D landform of the vegetation-covered areas, got the features of micro landform in the areas, and offered quantity factors for research of geo phenomenon which related to regional landforms and geoscience process. Based on the high accuracy data from airborne LiDAR system and combined with the basic data of geology,the forming mechanism of the karst collapse of Meitanba mining area in Hunan Province and the relationship of surface collapse and mining activities are analyzed. The research mentioned that the reason of the karst collapse in Meitanba mining area is with the basic conditions of forming karst landform and plus the increasing water flow and exchange rate of the underground water, and then the water level decrease, finally different degrees of the regional karst collapse have happened.

  2. The Passive Microwave Remote Sensing of Soil Moisture: the Effect of Tilled Row Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, J. R.; Newton, R. W.; Rouse, J. W.

    1979-01-01

    The tilled rowstructure is known to be one of the important factors affecting the observations of the microwave emission from a natural surface. Measurements of this effect were carried out with both I and X band radiometers mounted on a mobile truck on a bare 40 m x 45 m row tilled field. The soil moisture content during the measurements ranged from approximately 10 percent to approximately 30 percent by dry weight. The results of these measurements showed that the variations of the antenna temperatures with incident angle theta changed with the azimuthal angle a measured from the row direction. A numerical calculation based on a composite surface roughness was made and found to predict the observed features within the model's limit of accuracy. It was concluded that the difference between the horizontally and vertically polarized temperatures was due to the change in the local angle of field emission within the antenna field of view caused by the large scale row structure.

  3. Passive microwave remote sensing of soil moisture - The effect of tilled row structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, J. R.; Newton, R. W.; Rouse, J. W., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The tilled row structure in agricultural fields is one of the important factors affecting observations of microwave emission from such fields. Measurements of this effect were performed with L-band and X-band radiometers mounted on a mobile truck on a bare 40 m x 45 m row tilled field; the soil moisture content during measurements ranged from 10 to 30% by dry weight. Results showed that the variations of the antenna temperatures with incident angle changed with the azimuth angle measured from the row direction. It is found that the observed difference between horizontally and vertically polarized antenna temperatures is due to the change in the local angle of field emission within the antenna field of view caused by the large-scale row structure.

  4. Relationships between evaprorative fraction and remotely sensed vegetation index and microwave brightness temperature for semiarid rangelands

    SciTech Connect

    Kustas, W.P.; Schimugge, T.J.; Humes, K.S.; Jackson, T.J.; Parry, R.; Weltz, M.A.; Moran, M.S. ||

    1993-12-01

    Measurements of the microwave brightness temperature (TB) with the Pushbroom Microwave Radiometer (PBMR) over the Walnut Gulch Experiment Watershed were made on selected days during the MONSOON 90 field campaign. The PBMR is an L-band instrument (21-cm wavelength) that can provide estimates of near-surface soil moisture over a variety of surfaces. Aircraft observations in the visible and near-infrared wavelengths collected on selected days also were used to compute a vegetation index. Continuous micrometeorological measurements and daily soil moisture samples were obtained at eight locations during experimental period. Two sites were instrumented with time domain reflectometry probes to monitor the soil moisture profile. The fraction of available energy used for evapotranspiration was computed by taking the ratio of latent heat flux (LE) to the sum of net radiation (Rn) and soil heat flux (G). This ratio is commonly called the evaporative fraction (EF) and normally varies between 0 and 1 under daytime convective conditions with minimal advection. A wide range of environmental conditions existed during the field campaign, resulting in average EF values for the study area varying from 0.4 to 0.8 and values of TB ranging from 220 to 280 K. Comparison between measured TB and EF for the eight locations showed an inverse relationship. Other days were included in the analysis by estimating TB with the soil moisture data. Because transpiration from the vegetation is more strongly coupled to root zone soil moisture, significant scatter in this relationship existed at high values of TB or dry near-surface soil moisture conditions.

  5. Modeling multi-layer effects in passive microwave remote sensing of dry snow using Dense Media Radiative Transfer Theory (DMRT) based on quasicrystalline approximation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liang, D.; Xu, X.; Tsang, L.; Andreadis, K.M.; Josberger, E.G.

    2008-01-01

    The Dense Media Radiative Transfer theory (DMRT) of Quasicrystalline Approximation of Mie scattering by sticky particles is used to study the multiple scattering effects in layered snow in microwave remote sensing. Results are illustrated for various snow profile characteristics. Polarization differences and frequency dependences of multilayer snow model are significantly different from that of the single-layer snow model. Comparisons are also made with CLPX data using snow parameters as given by the VIC model. ?? 2007 IEEE.

  6. Microwave system for secret remote inspection of person (MS-SRIP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, Andrey; Averianov, Valery; Gorshkov, Igor; Evsenin, Alexey

    2006-05-01

    Laboratory prototype of the device for secret remote detection of objects on human body has been created. The device is intended for detection of non-metallic and metallic objects hidden under clothes: weapons, explosives etc. The work of the device is based on active probing of the examined area with continuous electromagnetic radiation with stepped frequency change in the range up to ~30 GHz, with subsequent detection and analysis of the scattered electromagnetic waves. Such analysis allows one to obtain three-dimensional image of the body and of the objects hidden under clothes, and to categorize them by the degree of danger based on the dielectric constant of the hidden objects.

  7. SLAPex Freeze/Thaw 2015: The First Dedicated Soil Freeze/Thaw Airborne Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Edward; Wu, Albert; DeMarco, Eugenia; Powers, Jarrett; Berg, Aaron; Rowlandson, Tracy; Freeman, Jacqueline; Gottfried, Kurt; Toose, Peter; Roy, Alexandre; Derksen, Chris; Royer, Alain; Belair, Stephane; Houser, Paul; McDonald, Kyle; Entin, Jared; Lewis, Kristen

    2016-01-01

    Soil freezing and thawing is an important process in the terrestrial water, energy, and carbon cycles, marking the change between two very different hydraulic, thermal, and biological regimes. NASA's Soil Moisture Active/Passive (SMAP) mission includes a binary freeze/thaw data product. While there have been ground-based remote sensing field measurements observing soil freeze/thaw at the point scale, and airborne campaigns that observed some frozen soil areas (e.g., BOREAS), the recently-completed SLAPex Freeze/Thaw (F/T) campaign is the first airborne campaign dedicated solely to observing frozen/thawed soil with both passive and active microwave sensors and dedicated ground truth, in order to enable detailed process-level exploration of the remote sensing signatures and in situ soil conditions. SLAPex F/T utilized the Scanning L-band Active/Passive (SLAP) instrument, an airborne simulator of SMAP developed at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, and was conducted near Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, in October/November, 2015. Future soil moisture missions are also expected to include soil freeze/thaw products, and the loss of the radar on SMAP means that airborne radar-radiometer observations like those that SLAP provides are unique assets for freeze/thaw algorithm development. This paper will present an overview of SLAPex F/T, including descriptions of the site, airborne and ground-based remote sensing, ground truth, as well as preliminary results.

  8. Norwegian remote sensing experiment in a marginal ice zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farrelly, B.; Johannessen, J.A.; Svendsen, E.; Kloster, K.; Horjen, I.; Matzler, C.; Crawford, J.; Harrington, R.; Jones, L.; Swift, C.; Delnore, V.E.; Cavalieri, D.; Gloersen, P.; Hsiao, S.V.; Shemdin, O.H.; Thompson, T.W.; Ramseier, R.O.; Johannessen, O.M.; Campbell, W.J.

    1983-01-01

    The Norwegian Remote Sensing Experiment in the marginal ice zone north of Svalbard took place in fall 1979. Coordinated passive and active microwave measurements were obtained from shipborne, airborne, and satellite instruments together with in situ observations. The obtained spectra of emissivity (frequency range, 5 to 100 gigahertz) should improve identification of ice types and estimates of ice concentration. Mesoscale features along the ice edge were revealed by a 1.215-gigahertz synthetic aperture radar. Ice edge location by the Nimbus 7 scanning multichannel microwave radiometer was shown to be accurate to within 10 kilometers.

  9. Integration of TerraSAR-X, RapidEye and airborne lidar for remote sensing of intertidal bedforms on the upper flats of Norderney (German Wadden Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adolph, Winny; Jung, Richard; Schmidt, Alena; Ehlers, Manfred; Heipke, Christian; Bartholomä, Alexander; Farke, Hubert

    2016-11-01

    The Wadden Sea is a large coastal transition area adjoining the southern North Sea uniting ecological key functions with an important role in coastal protection. The region is strictly protected by EU directives and national law and is a UNESCO World Heritage Site, requiring frequent quality assessments and regular monitoring. In 2014 an intertidal bedform area characterised by alternating crests and water-covered troughs on the tidal flats of the island of Norderney (German Wadden Sea sector) was chosen to test different remote sensing methods for habitat mapping: airborne lidar, satellite-based radar (TerraSAR-X) and electro-optical sensors (RapidEye). The results revealed that, although sensitive to different surface qualities, all sensors were able to image the bedforms. A digital terrain model generated from the lidar data shows crests and slopes of the bedforms with high geometric accuracy in the centimetre range, but high costs limit the operation area. TerraSAR-X data enabled identifying the positions of the bedforms reflecting the residual water in the troughs also with a high resolution of up to 1.1 m, but with larger footprints and much higher temporal availability. RapidEye data are sensitive to differences in sediment moisture employed to identify crest areas, slopes and troughs, with high spatial coverage but the lowest resolution (6.5 m). Monitoring concepts may differ in their remote sensing requirements regarding areal coverage, spatial and temporal resolution, sensitivity and geometric accuracy. Also financial budgets limit the selection of sensors. Thus, combining differing assets into an integrated concept of remote sensing contributes to solving these issues.

  10. Integration of TerraSAR-X, RapidEye and airborne lidar for remote sensing of intertidal bedforms on the upper flats of Norderney (German Wadden Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adolph, Winny; Jung, Richard; Schmidt, Alena; Ehlers, Manfred; Heipke, Christian; Bartholomä, Alexander; Farke, Hubert

    2017-04-01

    The Wadden Sea is a large coastal transition area adjoining the southern North Sea uniting ecological key functions with an important role in coastal protection. The region is strictly protected by EU directives and national law and is a UNESCO World Heritage Site, requiring frequent quality assessments and regular monitoring. In 2014 an intertidal bedform area characterised by alternating crests and water-covered troughs on the tidal flats of the island of Norderney (German Wadden Sea sector) was chosen to test different remote sensing methods for habitat mapping: airborne lidar, satellite-based radar (TerraSAR-X) and electro-optical sensors (RapidEye). The results revealed that, although sensitive to different surface qualities, all sensors were able to image the bedforms. A digital terrain model generated from the lidar data shows crests and slopes of the bedforms with high geometric accuracy in the centimetre range, but high costs limit the operation area. TerraSAR-X data enabled identifying the positions of the bedforms reflecting the residual water in the troughs also with a high resolution of up to 1.1 m, but with larger footprints and much higher temporal availability. RapidEye data are sensitive to differences in sediment moisture employed to identify crest areas, slopes and troughs, with high spatial coverage but the lowest resolution (6.5 m). Monitoring concepts may differ in their remote sensing requirements regarding areal coverage, spatial and temporal resolution, sensitivity and geometric accuracy. Also financial budgets limit the selection of sensors. Thus, combining differing assets into an integrated concept of remote sensing contributes to solving these issues.

  11. Fast Numerical Algorithms for 3-D Scattering from PEC and Dielectric Random Rough Surfaces in Microwave Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lisha

    We present fast and robust numerical algorithms for 3-D scattering from perfectly electrical conducting (PEC) and dielectric random rough surfaces in microwave remote sensing. The Coifman wavelets or Coiflets are employed to implement Galerkin's procedure in the method of moments (MoM). Due to the high-precision one-point quadrature, the Coiflets yield fast evaluations of the most off-diagonal entries, reducing the matrix fill effort from O(N2) to O( N). The orthogonality and Riesz basis of the Coiflets generate well conditioned impedance matrix, with rapid convergence for the conjugate gradient solver. The resulting impedance matrix is further sparsified by the matrix-formed standard fast wavelet transform (SFWT). By properly selecting multiresolution levels of the total transformation matrix, the solution precision can be enhanced while matrix sparsity and memory consumption have not been noticeably sacrificed. The unified fast scattering algorithm for dielectric random rough surfaces can asymptotically reduce to the PEC case when the loss tangent grows extremely large. Numerical results demonstrate that the reduced PEC model does not suffer from ill-posed problems. Compared with previous publications and laboratory measurements, good agreement is observed.

  12. Tropospheric Passive Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keafer, L. S., Jr. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    The long term role of airborne/spaceborne passive remote sensing systems for tropospheric air quality research and the identification of technology advances required to improve the performance of passive remote sensing systems were discussed.

  13. Assessment of Superflux relative to fisheries research and monitoring. [airborne remote sensing of the Chesapeake bay plume and shelf regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, J. P.

    1981-01-01

    Some of the findings of the Superflux program relative to fishery research and monitoring are reviewed. The actual and potential influences of the plume on the shelf ecosystem contiguous to the mouth of Chesapeake Bay are described and insights derived from the combined use of in situ and remotely sensed data are presented.

  14. Soil Moisture Retrieval Through Changing Corn Using Active/Passive Microwave Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    ONeill, P. E.; Joseph, A.; DeLannoy, G.; Lang, R.; Utku, C.; Kim, E.; Houser, P.; Gish, T.

    2003-01-01

    An extensive field experiment was conducted from May-early October, 2002 at the heavily instrumented USDA-ARS (U.S. Dept. of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service) OPE3 (Optimizing Production Inputs for Economic and Environmental Enhancement) test site in Beltsville, MD to acquire data needed to address active/passive microwave algorithm, modeling, and ground validation issues for accurate soil moisture retrieval. During the experiment, a tower-mounted 1.4 GHz radiometer (Lrad) and a truck-mounted dual-frequency (1.6 and 4.75 GHz) radar system were deployed on the northern edge of the site. The soil in this portion of the field is a sandy loam (silt 23.5%, sand 60.3%, clay 16.1%) with a measured bulk density of 1.253 g/cu cm. Vegetation cover in the experiment consisted of a corn crop which was measured from just after planting on April 17, 2002 through senescence and harvesting on October 2. Although drought conditions prevailed during the summer, the corn yield was near average, with peak biomass reached in late July.

  15. Ambient vibration monitoring of slender structures by microwave interferometer remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gikas, Vassilis

    2012-11-01

    This paper examines the potential of microwave radar interferometry for monitoring the dynamic behaviour of large civil engineering works. It provides an overview of the method, its principles of operation with particular emphasis given on the IBIS-S system. Two areas of application are considered and the results of the analyses are presented and discussed. The first experimental study involves the monitoring of the dynamic response of a tall power plant chimney due to wind load. The second example examines the dynamic behaviour of a long cable-stayed bridge. In this case, the focus is placed on the effects that individual traffic events impose on the vibration response of the main span of the bridge deck and the bridge pylons. Analysis of the results provides detailed displacement time-histories and the dominant frequencies observed at the top of the chimney and along the bridge deck and the top of the towers. Also, cross-comparisons and discussions with the results obtained at the same structures using different sensor configurations are provided.

  16. Model-estimated microwave emissions from rain systems for remote sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, Mikhail T.; Meischner, Peter F.

    1996-12-01

    A simple model for estimating the upward and downward microwave emission from rain layer types above ground is presented. The emission properties of the rain layers are estimated from physical quantities such as the optical depth, the single-scattering albedo, the physical temperature, and a given drop size distribution for Mie scattering calculations. The underlying surface is characterized by the emissivity and the physical temperature. The transparency coefficient q and the reflection coefficient r of the rain layer are expressed by these physical quantities. The brightness temperature then is given by the physical temperature T, q, and r. The radiation transfer is estimated by the method of layer addition, described by Sobolev [1956], which avoids the necessity of solving the equation of radiation transfer. The accuracy of this simple model was estimated by comparisons with three-dimensional Monte Carlo calculations. The error is estimated to be less than 3 K for common situations and less than 8 K for unrealistic high optical depths. It is shown that any one of the quantities rain rate, rain layer depth, and physical temperature can be estimated with sufficient accuracy if the others are known. The basic model has been extended for application to inhomogeneous cloud layers and to include differences in brightness temperatures for horizontal and vertical polarizations for oblate raindrops. The main intended application of this model is rain rate estimation from space with low data processing efforts, especially for the Priroda mission. The model was tested for the downwelling emission during the field experiment CLEOPATRA by measurements with a polarimetric weather radar and rain gauges. The results verify the principles, and promising agreement was found at least for stratiform rain. The polarimetric extension of the model too showed promising results under quite different measurement conditions in Russia and southern Germany.

  17. Passive microwave remote sensing of rainfall with SSM/I: Algorithm development and implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferriday, James G.; Avery, Susan K.

    1994-01-01

    A physically based algorithm sensitive to emission and scattering is used to estimate rainfall using the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I). The algorithm is derived from radiative transfer calculations through an atmospheric cloud model specifying vertical distributions of ice and liquid hydrometeors as a function of rain rate. The algorithm is structured in two parts: SSM/I brightness temperatures are screened to detect rainfall and are then used in rain-rate calculation. The screening process distinguishes between nonraining background conditions and emission and scattering associated with hydrometeors. Thermometric temperature and polarization thresholds determined from the radiative transfer calculations are used to detect rain, whereas the rain-rate calculation is based on a linear function fit to a linear combination of channels. Separate calculations for ocean and land account for different background conditions. The rain-rate calculation is constructed to respond to both emission and scattering, reduce extraneous atmospheric and surface effects, and to correct for beam filling. The resulting SSM/I rain-rate estimates are compared to three precipitation radars as well as to a dynamically simulated rainfall event. Global estimates from the SSM/I algorithm are also compared to continental and shipboard measurements over a 4-month period. The algorithm is found to accurately describe both localized instantaneous rainfall events and global monthly patterns over both land and ovean. Over land the 4-month mean difference between SSM/I and the Global Precipitation Climatology Center continental rain gauge database is less than 10%. Over the ocean, the mean difference between SSM/I and the Legates and Willmott global shipboard rain gauge climatology is less than 20%.

  18. State of the Art Satellite and Airborne Marine Oil Spill Remote Sensing: Application to the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    biofilm (Cunliffe & Murrell, 2009). To aid in standardizing reporting, the visual appearance of con- firmed oil slicks with respect to slick...International Journal of Remote Sensing, 11, 1741–1753. Boström, C. -E., Gerde, P., Hanberg, A., et al. (2002). Cancer risk assessment, indicators, and...microlayer is a gelatinous biofilm . International Society for Microbiology Ecology Journal, 3, 1001–1003. Dennison, P. E., & Matheson, D. S. (2011

  19. Assessment of Superflux relative to marine science and oceanography. [airborne remote sensing of the Chesapeake Bay plume and shelf regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esaias, W. E.

    1981-01-01

    A general assessment of the Superflux project is made in relation to marine science and oceanography. It is commented that the program clearly demonstrated the effectiveness of state-of-the-art technology required to study highly dynamic estuarine plumes, and the necessity of a broadly interdisciplinary, interactive remote sensing and shipboard program required to significantly advance the understanding of transport processes and impacts of estuarine outflows.

  20. Interferometric synthetic aperture microwave radiometry for the remote sensing of the earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruf, Christopher S.; Swift, Calvin T.; Tanner, Alan B.; Le Vine, David M.

    1988-01-01

    Interferometric aperture synthesis is presented as an alternative to real aperture measurements of the earth's brightness temperature from low earth orbit. The signal-to-noise performance of a single interferometric measurement is considered, and the noise characteristics of the brightness temperature image produced from the interferometer measurements are discussed. The sampling requirements of the measurements and the resulting effects of the noise in the measurements on the image are described. The specific case of the electronically steered thinned array radiometer (ESTAR) currently under construction is examined. The ESTAR prototype is described in detail sufficient to permit a performance evaluation of its spatial and temperature resolution. Critical aspects of an extension of the ESTAR sensor to a larger spaceborne system are considered. Of particular importance are the number and placement of antenna elements in the imaging array. A comparison of the implementation methodologies of radio astronomy and earth remote sensing is presented along with the effects of the source brightness distribution, the antenna array configuration and the method used for array scanning.

  1. Investigation of Arctic mixed-phase clouds by combining airborne remote sensing and in situ observations during VERDI, RACEPAC and ACLOUD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrlich, André; Bierwirth, Eike; Borrmann, Stephan; Crewell, Susanne; Herber, Andreas; Hoor, Peter; Jourdan, Olivier; Krämer, Martina; Lüpkes, Christof; Mertes, Stephan; Neuber, Roland; Petzold, Andreas; Schnaiter, Martin; Schneider, Johannes; Weigel, Ralf; Weinzierl, Bernadett; Wendisch, Manfred

    2016-04-01

    To improve our understanding of Arctic mixed-phase clouds a series of airborne research campaigns has been initiated by a collaboration of German research institutes. Clouds in areas dominated by a close sea-ice cover were observed during the research campaign Vertical distribution of ice in Arctic mixed-phase clouds (VERDI, April/May 2012) and the Radiation-Aerosol-Cloud Experiment in the Arctic Circle (RACEPAC, April/May 2014) which both were based in Inuvik, Canada. The aircraft (Polar 5 & 6, Basler BT-67) operated by the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Germany did cover a wide area above the Canadian Beaufort with in total 149 flight hours (62h during VERDI, 87h during RACEPAC). For May/June 2017 a third campaign ACLOUD (Arctic Clouds - Characterization of Ice, aerosol Particles and Energy fluxes) with base in Svalbard is planned within the Transregional Collaborative Research Centre TR 172 ArctiC Amplification: Climate Relevant Atmospheric and SurfaCe Processes, and Feedback Mechanisms (AC)3 to investigate Arctic clouds in the transition zone between open ocean and sea ice. The aim of all campaigns is to combine remote sensing and in-situ cloud, aerosol and trace gas measurements to investigate interactions between radiation, cloud and aerosol particles. While during VERDI remote sensing and in-situ measurements were performed by one aircraft subsequently, for RACEPAC and ACLOUD two identical aircraft are coordinated at different altitudes to horizontally collocate both remote sensing and in-situ measurements. The campaign showed that in this way radiative and microphysical processes in the clouds can by studied more reliably and remote sensing methods can be validated efficiently. Here we will illustrate the scientific strategy of the projects including the progress in instrumentation. Differences in the general synoptic and sea ice situation and related changes in cloud properties at the different locations and seasons will be

  2. The Relationship Between Fossil and Dairy Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Complex Urban Land-Use Patterns by In Situ and Remote Sensing Data from Surface Mobile, Airborne, and Satellite Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leifer, I.; Melton, C.; Tratt, D. M.; Kuze, A.; Buckland, K. N.; Butz, A.; Deguchi, A.; Eastwood, M. L.; Fischer, M. L.; Frash, J.; Fladeland, M. M.; Gore, W.; Iraci, L. T.; Johnson, P. D.; Kataoka, F.; Kolyer, R.; Leen, J. B.; Quattrochi, D. A.; Shiomi, K.; Suto, H.; Tanaka, T.; Thompson, D. R.; Yates, E. L.; Van Damme, M.; Yokota, T.

    2015-12-01

    The GOSAT-COMEX-IASI Experiment (Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite-CO2and Methane EXperiment) demonstrated a novel approach to airborne-surface mobile in situ data fusion for interpretation and validation of satellite and airborne remote sensing data of greenhouse gases and direct calculation of flux. Key data were collected for the Chino Dairy in the Los Angeles Basin, California and for the Kern River Oil Fields adjacent to Bakersfield, California. In situ surface and remote sensing greenhouse gas and ammonia observations were compared with IASI and GOSAT retreivals, while hyperspectral imaging data from the AVIRIS, AVIRIS NG, and Mako airborne sensors were analyzed to relate emissions and land use. Figure - platforms participating in the experiment. TANSO-FTS aboard the Ibuki satellite (GOSAT) provided targeted pixels to measure column greenhouse gases. AMOG is the AutoMObile Gas Surveyor which supports a suite of meteorology and in situ trace gas sensors for mobile high speed measurement. AVIRIS, the Airborne Visual InfraRed Imaging Spectrometer aboard the NASA ER-2 airplane collected hyperspectral imaging data at 20 m resolution from 60,000 ft. Mako is a thermal infrared imaging spectrometer that was flown on the Twin Otter International. AJAX is a fighter jet outfitted for science sporting meteorology and greenhouse gas sensors. RAMVan is an upward looking FTIR for measuring column methane and ammonia and other trace gases.

  3. Evaluation of Surface Energy Balance models for mapping evapotranspiration using very high resolution airborne remote sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, George

    Agriculture is the largest (90%) consumer of all fresh water in the world. The consumptive use of water by vegetation represented by the process evapotranspiration (ET) has a vital role in the dynamics of water, carbon and energy fluxes of the biosphere. Consequently, mapping ET is essential for making water a sustainable resource and also for monitoring ecosystem response to water stress and changing climate. Over the past three decades, numerous thermal remote sensing based ET mapping algorithms were developed and these have brought a significant theoretical and technical advancement in the spatial modeling of ET. Though these algorithms provided a robust, economical, and efficient tool for ET estimations at field and regional scales, yet the uncertainties in flux estimations were large, making evaluation a difficult task. The main objective of this study was to evaluate and improve the performance of widely used remote sensing based energy balance models, namely: the Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land (SEBAL), Mapping Evapotranspiration at high Resolution and with Internalized Calibration (METRIC), and Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS). Data used in this study was collected as part of a multi-disciplinary and multi-institutional field campaign BEAREX (Bushland Evapotranspiration and Agricultural Remote Sensing Experiment) that was conducted during 2007 and 2008 summer cropping seasons at the USDA-ARS Conservation and Production Research Laboratory (CPRL) in Bushland, Texas. Seventeen high resolution remote sensing images taken from multispectral sensors onboard aircraft and field measurements of the agro-meteorological variables from the campaign were used for model evaluation and improvement. Overall relative error measured in terms of mean absolute percent difference (MAPD) for instantaneous ET (mm h -1) were 22.7%, 23.2%, and 12.6% for SEBAL, METRIC, and SEBS, respectively. SEBAL and METRIC performances for irrigated fields representing higher ET

  4. Cross-Product Comparison of Multiple Resolution Microwave Remote Sensing Data Sets Supporting Global Mapping of Inundated Wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podest, E.; Schroeder, R.; McDonald, K. C.; Pinto, N.; Willacy, K.; Whitcomb, J.; Moghaddam, M.; Hess, L. L.; Zimmermann, R.

    2010-12-01

    Inundated vegetation and open water bodies are common features across the landscape and exert major impacts on hydrologic processes and surface-atmosphere carbon exchange. Their carbon dioxide and methane emissions can have a large impact on global climate. It is therefore of great importance to assess their spatial extent and temporal variations in order to improve upon carbon balance estimates. Despite their importance in the global cycling of carbon and water and climate forecasting, they remain poorly characterized and modeled, primarily because of the scarcity of suitable regional-to-global remote sensing data for characterizing wetlands distribution and dynamics. Spaceborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) offers an effective tool for characterizing these ecosystems since it is particularly sensitive to surface water and to vegetation structure, and it allows monitoring large inaccessible areas on a temporal basis regardless of atmospheric conditions or solar illumination. We are assembling a multi-year Earth System Data Record (ESDR) of global inundated wetlands to facilitate investigations on their role in climate, biogeochemistry, hydrology, and biodiversity. The ESDR is comprised of (1) fine-resolution (100m) maps of wetland extent, vegetation type, and seasonal inundation extent, derived from L-band SAR data from the Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) Phased Array L-Band SAR (PALSAR) and the Japanese Earth Resources Satellite (JERS) SAR, for continental-scale areas covering crucial wetland regions, and (2) global multi-temporal mappings of inundation extent at 25 km resolution derived from data sets from combined passive and active microwave remote sensing instruments (AMSR-E, QuikSCAT). We present a comparative analysis of the high-resolution SAR-based data sets and the coarse resolution inundation data sets for wetland ecosystems in the Amazonian tropics and the northern high latitudes of Alaska, Canada, and Eurasia. We compare information content

  5. Single-scattering properties of ice particles in the microwave regime: Temperature effect on the ice refractive index with implications in remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Jiachen; Bi, Lei; Yang, Ping; Kattawar, George W.; Weng, Fuzhong; Liu, Quanhua; Greenwald, Thomas

    2017-03-01

    An ice crystal single-scattering property database is developed in the microwave spectral region (1 to 874 GHz) to provide the scattering, absorption, and polarization properties of 12 ice crystal habits (10-plate aggregate, 5-plate aggregate, 8-column aggregate, solid hexagonal column, hollow hexagonal column, hexagonal plate, solid bullet rosette, hollow bullet rosette, droxtal, oblate spheroid, prolate spheroid, and sphere) with particle maximum dimensions from 2 μm to 10 mm. For each habit, four temperatures (160, 200, 230, and 270 K) are selected to account for temperature dependence of the ice refractive index. The microphysical and scattering properties include projected area, volume, extinction efficiency, single-scattering albedo, asymmetry factor, and six independent nonzero phase matrix elements (i.e. P11, P12, P22, P33, P43 and P44). The scattering properties are computed by the Invariant Imbedding T-Matrix (II-TM) method and the Improved Geometric Optics Method (IGOM). The computation results show that the temperature dependence of the ice single-scattering properties in the microwave region is significant, particularly at high frequencies. Potential active and passive remote sensing applications of the database are illustrated through radar reflectivity and radiative transfer calculations. For cloud radar applications, ignoring temperature dependence has little effect on ice water content measurements. For passive microwave remote sensing, ignoring temperature dependence may lead to brightness temperature biases up to 5 K in the case of a large ice water path.

  6. An intercomparison of available soil moisture estimates from thermal infrared and passive microwave remote sensing and land surface modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hain, Christopher R.; Crow, Wade T.; Mecikalski, John R.; Anderson, Martha C.; Holmes, Thomas

    2011-08-01

    Remotely sensed soil moisture studies have mainly focused on retrievals using active and passive microwave (MW) sensors, which provide measurements that are directly related to soil moisture (SM). MW sensors have obvious advantages such as the ability to retrieve through nonprecipitating cloud cover which provides shorter repeat cycles. However, MW sensors offer coarse spatial resolution and suffer from reduced retrieval skill over moderate to dense vegetation. A unique avenue for filling these information gaps is to exploit the retrieval of SM from thermal infrared (TIR) observations, which can provide SM information under vegetation cover and at significantly higher resolutions than MW. Previously, an intercomparison of TIR-based and MW-based SM has not been investigated in the literature. Here a series of analyses are proposed to study relationships between SM products during a multiyear period (2003-2008) from a passive MW retrieval (AMSR-E), a TIR based model (ALEXI), and a land surface model (Noah) over the continental United States. The three analyses used in this study include (1) a spatial anomaly correlation analysis, (2) a temporal correlation analysis, and (3) a triple collocation error estimation technique. In general, the intercomparison shows that the TIR and MW methods provide complementary information about the current SM state. TIR can provide SM information over moderate to dense vegetation, a large information gap in current MW methods, while serving as an additional independent source of SM information over low to moderate vegetation. The complementary nature of SM information from MW and TIR sensors implies a potential for integration within an advanced SM data assimilation system.

  7. Remote Sensing of Multi-Level Wind Fields with High-Energy Airborne Scanning Coherent Doppler Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothermel, Jeffry; Olivier, Lisa D.; Banta, Robert M.; Hardesty, R. Michael; Howell, James N.; Cutten, Dean R.; Johnson, Steven C.; Menzies, Robert T.; Tratt, David M.

    1997-01-01

    The atmospheric lidar remote sensing groups of NOAA Environmental Technology Laboratory, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, and Jet Propulsion Laboratory have developed and flown a scanning, 1 Joule per pulse, CO2 coherent Doppler lidar capable of mapping a three-dimensional volume of atmospheric winds and aerosol backscatter in the troposphere and lower stratosphere. Applications include the study of severe and non-severe atmospheric flows, intercomparisons with other sensors, and the simulation of prospective satellite Doppler lidar wind profilers. Examples of wind measurements are given for the marine boundary layer and near the coastline of the western United States.

  8. Remote sensing of multi-level wind fields with high-energy airborne scanning coherent Doppler lidar.

    PubMed

    Rothermel, J; Olivier, L; Banta, R; Hardesty, R M; Howell, J; Cutten, D; Johnson, S; Menzies, R; Tratt, D M

    1998-01-19

    The atmospheric lidar remote sensing groups of NOAA Environmental Technology Laboratory, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, and Jet Propulsion Laboratory have developed and flown a scanning, 1 Joule per pulse, CO2 coherent Doppler lidar capable of mapping a three-dimensional volume of atmospheric winds and aerosol backscatter in the planetary boundary layer, free troposphere, and lower stratosphere. Applications include the study of severe and non-severe atmospheric flows, intercomparisons with other sensors, and the simulation of prospective satellite Doppler lidar wind profilers. Examples of wind measurements are given for the marine boundary layer and near the coastline of the western United States.

  9. Neural networks in data analysis and modeling for detecting littoral oil-spills by airborne laser fluorosensor remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Bin; An, Jubai; Brown, Carl E.; Chen, Weiwei

    2003-05-01

    In this paper an artificial neural network (ANN) approach, which is based on flexible nonlinear models for a very broad class of transfer functions, is applied for multi-spectral data analysis and modeling of airborne laser fluorosensor in order to differentiate between classes of oil on water surface. We use three types of algorithm: Perceptron Network, Back-Propagation (B-P) Network and Self-Organizing feature Maps (SOM) Network. Using the data in form of 64-channel spectra as inputs, the ANN presents the analysis and estimation results of the oil type on the basis of the type of background materials as outputs. The ANN is trained and tested using sample data set to the network. The results of the above 3 types of network are compared in this paper. It is proved that the training has developed a network that not only fits the training data, but also fits real-world data that the network will process operationally. The ANN model would play a significant role in the ocean oil-spill identification in the future.

  10. Modeling of mean radiant temperature based on comparison of airborne remote sensing data with surface measured data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yu-Cheng; Chen, Chih-Yu; Matzarakis, Andreas; Liu, Jin-King; Lin, Tzu-Ping

    2016-06-01

    Assessment of outdoor thermal comfort is becoming increasingly important due to the urban heat island effect, which strongly affects the urban thermal environment. The mean radiant temperature (Tmrt) quantifies the effect of the radiation environment on humans, but it can only be estimated based on influencing parameters and factors. Knowledge of Tmrt is important for quantifying the heat load on human beings, especially during heat waves. This study estimates Tmrt using several methods, which are based on climatic data from a traditional weather station, microscale ground surface measurements, land surface temperature (LST) and light detection and ranging (LIDAR) data measured using airborne devices. Analytical results reveal that the best means of estimating Tmrt combines information about LST and surface elevation information with meteorological data from the closest weather station. The application in this method can eliminate the inconvenience of executing a wide range ground surface measurement, the insufficient resolution of satellite data and the incomplete data of current urban built environments. This method can be used to map a whole city to identify hot spots, and can be contributed to understanding human biometeorological conditions quickly and accurately.

  11. Extending airborne electromagnetic surveys for regional active layer and permafrost mapping with remote sensing and ancillary data, Yukon Flats ecoregion, central Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pastick, Neal J.; Jorgenson, M. Torre; Wylie, Bruce K.; Minsley, Burke J.; Ji, Lei; Walvoord, Michelle A.; Smith, Bruce D.; Abraham, Jared D.; Rose, Joshua R.

    2013-01-01

    Machine-learning regression tree models were used to extrapolate airborne electromagnetic resistivity data collected along flight lines in the Yukon Flats Ecoregion, central Alaska, for regional mapping of permafrost. This method of extrapolation (r = 0.86) used subsurface resistivity, Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) at-sensor reflectance, thermal, TM-derived spectral indices, digital elevation models and other relevant spatial data to estimate near-surface (0–2.6-m depth) resistivity at 30-m resolution. A piecewise regression model (r = 0.82) and a presence/absence decision tree classification (accuracy of 87%) were used to estimate active-layer thickness (ALT) (< 101 cm) and the probability of near-surface (up to 123-cm depth) permafrost occurrence from field data, modelled near-surface (0–2.6 m) resistivity, and other relevant remote sensing and map data. At site scale, the predicted ALTs were similar to those previously observed for different vegetation types. At the landscape scale, the predicted ALTs tended to be thinner on higher-elevation loess deposits than on low-lying alluvial and sand sheet deposits of the Yukon Flats. The ALT and permafrost maps provide a baseline for future permafrost monitoring, serve as inputs for modelling hydrological and carbon cycles at local to regional scales, and offer insight into the ALT response to fire and thaw processes.

  12. Analysis of airborne particulate matter (PM2.5) over Hong Kong using remote sensing and GIS.

    PubMed

    Shi, Wenzhong; Wong, Man Sing; Wang, Jingzhi; Zhao, Yuanling

    2012-01-01

    Airborne fine particulates (PM(2.5); particulate matter with diameter less than 2.5 μm) are receiving increasing attention for their potential toxicities and roles in visibility and health. In this study, we interpreted the behavior of PM(2.5) and its correlation with meteorological parameters in Hong Kong, during 2007-2008. Significant diurnal variations of PM(2.5) concentrations were observed and showed a distinctive bimodal pattern with two marked peaks during the morning and evening rush hour times, due to dense traffic. The study observed higher PM(2.5) concentrations in winter when the northerly and northeasterly winds bring pollutants from the Chinese mainland, whereas southerly monsoon winds from the sea bring fresh air to the city in summer. In addition, higher concentrations of PM(2.5) were observed in rush hours on weekdays compared to weekends, suggesting the influence of anthropogenic activities on fine particulate levels, e.g., traffic-related local PM(2.5) emissions. To understand the spatial pattern of PM(2.5) concentrations in the context of the built-up environment of Hong Kong, we utilized MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT) 500 m data and visibility data to derive aerosol extinction profile, then converted to aerosol and PM(2.5) vertical profiles. A Geographic Information Systems (GIS) prototype was developed to integrate atmospheric PM(2.5) vertical profiles with 3D GIS data. An example of the query function in GIS prototype is given. The resulting 3D database of PM(2.5) concentrations provides crucial information to air quality regulators and decision makers to comply with air quality standards and in devising control strategies.

  13. Data Management Challenges for Airborne NASA Earth Venture Sub-Orbital (EVS-1) Investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyer, A.; Cook, R. B.; Santhana Vannan, S. K.

    2014-12-01

    The ORNL DAAC is developing a technology infrastructure to archive airborne remote sensing observations from two Earth System Science Pathfinder Missions. The two missions are CARVE: Carbon in Arctic Reservoirs Vulnerability Experiment and AirMOSS: Airborne Microwave Observatory of Subcanopy and Subsurface. The two missions are collecting over 140 TB of data from extensive ground-based and airborne instruments. The metadata and documentation requirements necessary for proper archive and dissemination of such transect-based, and often 3-dimensional, airborne data are quite different from the traditional field campaign and satellite remote sensing data streams. Staff at the ORNL DAAC are currently working with the CARVE and AirMOSS teams as well as investigating cyberinfrastructures from other DAACs to develop a metadata and data infrastructure for airborne data that will enable spatial, flight-line, or keyword-based search and discovery, integration as needed of related satellite- and ground-based data sets, and subsetting and visualization tools for both CARVE and AirMOSS. We discuss challenges, progress, and lessons learned.

  14. High resolution mapping of the tropospheric NO2 distribution in three Belgian cities based on airborne APEX remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tack, Frederik; Merlaud, Alexis; Fayt, Caroline; Danckaert, Thomas; Iordache, Daniel; Meuleman, Koen; Deutsch, Felix; Adriaenssens, Sandy; Fierens, Frans; Van Roozendael, Michel

    2015-04-01

    An approach is presented to retrieve tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) vertical column densities (VCDs) and to map the NO2 two dimensional distribution at high resolution, based on Airborne Prism EXperiment (APEX) observations. APEX, developed by a Swiss-Belgian consortium on behalf of ESA (European Space Agency), is a pushbroom hyperspectral imager with a high spatial (approximately 3 m at 5000 m ASL), spectral (413 to 2421 nm in 533 narrow, contiguous spectral bands) and radiometric (14-bit) resolution. VCDs are derived, following a similar approach as described in the pioneering work of Popp et al. (2012), based on (1) spectral calibration and spatial binning of the observed radiance spectra in order to improve the spectral resolution and signal-to-noise ratio, (2) Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) analysis of the pre-processed spectra in the visible wavelength region, with a reference spectrum containing low NO2 absorption, in order to quantify the abundance of NO2 along the light path, based on its molecular absorption structures and (3) radiative transfer modeling for air mass factor calculation in order to convert slant to vertical columns. This study will be done in the framework of the BUMBA (Belgian Urban NO2 Monitoring Based on APEX hyperspectral data) project. Dedicated flights with APEX mounted in a Dornier DO-228 airplane, operated by Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR), are planned to be performed in Spring 2015 above the three largest and most heavily polluted Belgian cities, i.e. Brussels, Antwerp and Liège. The retrieved VCDs will be validated by comparison with correlative ground-based and car-based DOAS observations. Main objectives are (1) to assess the operational capabilities of APEX to map the NO2 field over an urban area at high spatial and spectral resolution in a relatively short time and cost-effective way, and to characterise all aspects of the retrieval approach; (2) to use the APEX NO2 measurements

  15. Vertical mass impact and features of Saharan dust intrusions derived from ground-based remote sensing in synergy with airborne in-situ measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Córdoba-Jabonero, Carmen; Andrey-Andrés, Javier; Gómez, Laura; Adame, José Antonio; Sorribas, Mar; Navarro-Comas, Mónica; Puentedura, Olga; Cuevas, Emilio; Gil-Ojeda, Manuel

    2016-10-01

    A study of the vertical mass impact of Saharan dust intrusions is presented in this work. Simultaneous ground-based remote-sensing and airborne in-situ measurements performed during the AMISOC-TNF campaign over the Tenerife area (Canary Islands) in summertime from 01 July to 11 August 2013 were used for that purpose. A particular dusty (DD) case, associated to a progressively arriving dust intrusion lasting for two days on 31 July (weak incidence) and 01 August (strong incidence), is especially investigated. AERONET AOD and AEx values were ranging, respectively, from 0.2 to 1.4 and 0.35 to 0.05 along these two days. Vertical particle size distributions within fine and coarse modes (0.16-2.8 μm range) were obtained from aircraft aerosol spectrometer measurements. Extinction profiles and Lidar Ratio (LR) values were derived from MPLNET/Micro Pulse Lidar observations. MAXDOAS measurements were also used to retrieve the height-resolved aerosol extinction for evaluation purposes in comparison to Lidar-derived profiles. The synergy between Lidar observations and airborne measurements is established in terms of the Mass Extinction Efficiency (MEE) to calculate the vertical mass concentration of Saharan dust particles. Both the optical and microphysical profilings show dust particles mostly confined in a layer of 4.3 km thickness from 1.7 to 6 km height. LR ranged between 50 and 55 sr, typical values for Saharan dust particles. In addition, this 2-day dust event mostly affected the Free Troposphere (FT), being less intense in the Boundary Layer (BL). In particular, rather high Total Mass Concentrations (TMC) were found on the stronger DD day (01 August 2013): 124, 70 and 21 μg m-3 were estimated, respectively, at FT and BL altitudes and on the near-surface level. This dust impact was enhanced due to the increase of large particles affecting the FT, but also the BL, likely due to their gravitational settling. However, the use of an assumed averaged MEE value can be

  16. Airborne multispectral and thermal remote sensing for detecting the onset of crop stress caused by multiple factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yanbo; Thomson, Steven J.

    2010-10-01

    Remote sensing technology has been developed and applied to provide spatiotemporal information on crop stress for precision management. A series of multispectral images over a field planted cotton, corn and soybean were obtained by a Geospatial Systems MS4100 camera mounted on an Air Tractor 402B airplane equipped with Camera Link in a Magma converter box triggered by Terraverde Dragonfly® flight navigation and imaging control software. The field crops were intentionally stressed by applying glyphosate herbicide via aircraft and allowing it to drift near-field. Aerial multispectral images in the visible and near-infrared bands were manipulated to produce vegetation indices, which were used to quantify the onset of herbicide induced crop stress. The vegetation indices normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and soil adjusted vegetation index (SAVI) showed the ability to monitor crop response to herbicide-induced injury by revealing stress at different phenological stages. Two other fields were managed with irrigated versus nonirrigated treatments, and those fields were imaged with both the multispectral system and an Electrophysics PV-320T thermal imaging camera on board an Air Tractor 402B aircraft. Thermal imagery indicated water stress due to deficits in soil moisture, and a proposed method of determining crop cover percentage using thermal imagery was compared with a multispectral imaging method. Development of an image fusion scheme may be necessary to provide synergy and improve overall water stress detection ability.

  17. Is the Wilkins Ice Shelf a Firn Aquifer? Spaceborne Observation of Subsurface Winter Season Liquid Meltwater Storage on the Antarctic Peninsula using Multi-Frequency Active and Passive Microwave Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, J.; Scambos, T.; Forster, R. R.; Long, D. G.; Ligtenberg, S.; van den Broeke, M.; Vaughan, D. G.

    2015-12-01

    Near-surface liquid meltwater on ice shelves has been inferred to influence ice shelf stability if it induces hydrofracture and is linked to disintegration events on the Larsen B and the Wilkins ice shelves on the Antarctic Peninsula during the summer months. While the initial Wilkins disintegration event occurred in March of 2009, two smaller disintegration events followed in May and in July of that year. It has long been assumed meltwater refreezes soon after surface melt processes cease. Given this assumption, an earlier hypothesis for the two winter season disintegration events was hydrofracture via a brine infiltration layer. Two lines of evidence supported this hypothesis 1) early airborne radar surveys did not record a reflection from the bottom of the ice shelf, and 2) a shallow core drilled in 1972 on the Wilkins encountered liquid water at a depth of ~7 m. The salinity of the water and the temperature at the base of the core, however, were not described. The recent discovery of winter season liquid meltwater storage on the Greenland ice sheet has changed perceptions on meltwater longevity at depth in firn. Evidence of Greenland's firn aquifer includes liquid meltwater encountered in shallow firn cores at 5 m depth and a lack of reflections from the base of the ice sheet in airborne surveys. Thus, previous lines of evidence suggesting brine infiltration may alternatively suggest the presence of a perennial firn aquifer. We recently demonstrated the capability for observation of Greenland's firn aquifer from space using multi-frequency active and passive microwave remote sensing. This research exploits the retrieval technique developed for Greenland to provide the first spaceborne mappings of winter season liquid meltwater storage on the Wilkins. We combine L-band brightness temperature and backscatter data from the MIRAS instrument (1.4 GHz) aboard ESA's Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity mission and the radar (1.3 GHZ) and radiometer(1.4 GHz) aboard NASA

  18. A stratospheric intrusion at the subtropical jet over the Mediterranean Sea: air-borne remote sensing observations and model results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weigel, K.; Hoffmann, L.; Günther, G.; Khosrawi, F.; Olschewski, F.; Preusse, P.; Spang, R.; Stroh, F.; Riese, M.

    2012-03-01

    Remote sensing measurements from the Cryogenic Infrared Spectrometers and Telescope for the Atmosphere - New Frontiers (CRISTA-NF) during a flight on 29 July 2006 are presented. This flight is part of the AMMA-SCOUT-O3 measurement campaign, where CRISTA-NF was deployed on the high-flying research aircraft M55-Geophysica. The flight path was located over Italy and the Mediterranean Sea and crossed over the subtropical jet twice. Measurements of temperature, and the volume mixing ratios of water vapor (H2O), ozone (O3), nitric acid (HNO3) and peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) are available with a vertical resolution of up to 500 m between about 6 to 21 km altitude. CRISTA-NF observes these trace gases simultaneously and provides a quasi-2D view of the transition region between the troposphere and the stratosphere. The observation of these different trace gases allows to determine the origin of air masses in the stratosphere or troposphere. As expected, higher abundances are found where the main source of the trace gases is located: in the stratosphere for O3 and in the troposphere for H2O and PAN. Tracer-tracer correlations between O3 and PAN are used to identify mixed tropospheric and lowermost stratospheric air at the subtropical jet and around the thermal tropopause north of the jet. An intrusion of stratospheric air into the troposphere associated with the subtropical jet is found in the CRISTA-NF observations. The observations indicate that the intrusion is connected to a tropopause fold which is not resolved in the ECMWF analysis data. The intrusion was reproduced in a simulation with the Chemical Lagrangian Model of the Stratosphere (CLaMS). This work discusses the nature of the observed processes at the subtropical jet based on the CRISTA-NF observations and the CLaMS simulation.

  19. A13K-0336: Airborne Multi-Wavelength High Spectral Resolution Lidar for Process Studies and Assessment of Future Satellite Remote Sensing Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hostetler, Chris A.; Ferrare, Rich A.; Hair, Johnathan W.; Cook, Anthony L.; Harper, David B.; Mack, Terry L.; Hare, Richard J.; Cleckner, Craig S.; Rogers, Raymond R.; Muller, Detlef; Chemyakin, Eduard; Burton, Sharon P.; Obland, Michael D.; Scarino, Amy J.; Cairns, Brian; Russell, Phil; Redermann, Jens; Shinozuka, Y.; Schmid, Beat; Fast, Jerome; Berg, Larry; Flynn, Connor; Wagener, Rick; Gregory, Laurie

    2012-01-01

    NASA Langley recently developed the world's first airborne multi-wavelength high spectral resolution lidar (HSRL). This lidar employs the HSRL technique at 355 and 532 nm to make independent, unambiguous retrievals of aerosol extinction and backscatter. It also employs the standard backscatter technique at 1064 nm and is polarization-sensitive at all three wavelengths. This instrument, dubbed HSRL-2 (the secondgeneration HSRL developed by NASA Langley), is a prototype for the lidar on NASA's planned Aerosols- Clouds-Ecosystems (ACE) mission. HSRL-2 completed its first science mission in July 2012, the Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) conducted by the Department of Energy (DOE) in Hyannis, MA. TCAP presents an excellent opportunity to assess some of the remote sensing concepts planned for ACE: HSRL-2 was deployed on the Langley King Air aircraft with another ACE-relevant instrument, the NASA GISS Research Scanning Polarimeter (RSP), and flights were closely coordinated with the DOE's Gulfstream-1 aircraft, which deployed a variety of in situ aerosol and trace gas instruments and the new Spectrometer for Sky-Scanning, Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research (4STAR). The DOE also deployed their Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Mobile Facility and their Mobile Aerosol Observing System at a ground site located on the northeastern coast of Cape Cod for this mission. In this presentation we focus on the capabilities, data products, and applications of the new HSRL-2 instrument. Data products include aerosol extinction, backscatter, depolarization, and optical depth; aerosol type identification; mixed layer depth; and rangeresolved aerosol microphysical parameters (e.g., effective radius, index of refraction, single scatter albedo, and concentration). Applications include radiative closure studies, studies of aerosol direct and indirect effects, investigations of aerosol-cloud interactions, assessment of chemical transport models, air quality studies, present (e.g., CALIPSO

  20. Environmental hazards and distribution of radioactive black sand along the Rosetta coastal zone in Egypt using airborne spectrometric and remote sensing data.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, M F; Aziz, A M; Ghieth, B M

    2014-11-01

    High-resolution airborne gamma ray spectrometry, conducted in 2003, was used to estimate radioactive elements spatial abundance along the Rosetta coastal zone area. It was noticed that both Uranium and Thorium are concentrated in the black sand deposits along the beach. In contrary, Potassium was observed in high level abundance at the cultivated Nile Delta lands due to the accumulated usage of fertilizers. Exposure Rate (ER), Absorbed Dose Rate (ADR) and Annual Effective Dose Rate (AEDR) were calculated to evaluate the radiation background influence in human. Results indicated that the human body in the study sites is subjected to radiation hazards exceeds the accepted limit for long duration exposure. In addition, the areas covered by the highest concentration of Uranium and Thorium show the highest level of radiogenic heat production. Detection the environmental hazards of the radioactive black sands in the study site encouraged this research to monitor the spatial and temporal distribution of these sediments. The Landsat Thematic Mapper images acquired in 1990, 2003 and 2013 were analyzed using remote sensing image processing techniques. Image enhancements, classification and changes detection indicated a positive significant relationship between the patterns of coastline changes and distribution of the radioactive black sand in the study sites. The radioactive black sands are usually concentrated in the eroded areas. Therefore, in 1990 high concentration of the radioactive black sands were observed along the eastern and western flanks of the Rosetta promontory. Distribution of these sediments decreased due to the construction of the protective sea walls. Most of the radioactive black sands are transported toward the east in Abu Khashaba bay under the effect of the longshore currents and toward the west in Alexandria and Abu Quir bay under the action of the seasonal reverse currents.

  1. Comparison of Airborne Sunphotometer and Near-Coincident In Situ and Remotely Sensed Water Vapor Measurements during INTEX-ITCT 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livingston, J. M.; Schmid, B.; Redemann, J.; Russell, P.; Ramirez, S.; Eilers, J.; Gore, W.; Howard, S.; Pommier, J.; Bates, T.; Quinn, P.; Chu, D. A.; Gao, B.; Fetzer, E.; McMillan, W.; Seemann, S. W.; Borbas, E.

    2005-12-01

    The NASA Ames 14-channel Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS-14) took measurements from aboard a Jetstream 31 (J31) twin turboprop aircraft during 19 science flights (~53 flight hours) over the Gulf of Maine during the period 12 July to 8 August 2004. The flights were conducted in support of the INTEX-NA (INtercontinental chemical Transport EXperiment-North America) and ITCT (Intercontinental Transport and Chemical Transformation of anthropogenic pollution) field studies. AATS-14 measures the solar direct-beam transmission at 14 discrete wavelengths between 354 and 2138 nm, and provides instantaneous measurements of aerosol optical depth (AOD) at 13 wavelengths and water vapor column content, which is derived from measurements at 940 nm and surrounding wavelengths. AATS-14 measurements obtained during aircraft ascents and descents are differentiated to yield vertical profiles of aerosol extinction and water vapor density. Specific J31 flight patterns were designed to address a variety of science goals and, therefore, included a mixture of vertical profiles (spiral and ramped ascents and descents) and constant altitude horizontal transects at a variety of altitudes. In general, flights were designed to include a near sea surface horizontal transect in a region of minimal cloud cover during or near the time of an Aqua and/or Terra satellite overpass, in addition to a low altitude flyby and vertical profile above the NOAA ship Ronald H. Brown. In this paper, we will compare AATS-14 water vapor profiles with simultaneous measurements obtained with a Vaisala humidity sensor on board the J-31 and with spatially and temporally near-coincident data from radiosondes launched from the Ron Brown. AATS-14 data will also be compared with water vapor retrievals from measurements acquired by remote sensors on Aqua and Terra during near-coincident satellite overflights.

  2. A stratospheric intrusion at the subtropical jet over the Mediterranean Sea: air-borne remote sensing observations and model results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weigel, K.; Hoffmann, L.; Günther, G.; Khosrawi, F.; Olschewski, F.; Preusse, P.; Spang, R.; Stroh, F.; Riese, M.

    2012-09-01

    Remote sensing measurements from the Cryogenic Infrared Spectrometers and Telescope for the Atmosphere - New Frontiers (CRISTA-NF) during a flight on 29 July 2006 are presented. This flight is part of the AMMA-SCOUT-O3 measurement campaign, where CRISTA-NF was deployed on the high-flying research aircraft M55-Geophysica. The flight path was located over Italy and the Mediterranean Sea and crossed over the subtropical jet twice. Measurements of temperature, and the volume mixing ratios of water vapor (H2O), ozone (O3), nitric acid (HNO3) and peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) are available with a vertical resolution of up to 500 m between about 6 to 21 km altitude. CRISTA-NF observes these trace gases simultaneously and provides a quasi-2-D view of the transition region between the troposphere and the stratosphere. The observation of these different trace gases allows to determine tropospheric and stratospheric air masses. As expected, higher abundances are found where the main source of the trace gases is located: in the stratosphere for O3 and in the troposphere for H2O and PAN. Tracer-tracer correlations between O3 and PAN are used to identify the mixed tropospheric and lowermost stratospheric air at the subtropical jet and around the thermal tropopause north of the jet. An intrusion of stratospheric air into the troposphere associated with the subtropical jet is found in the CRISTA-NF observations. The observations indicate that the intrusion is connected to a tropopause fold which is not resolved in the ECMWF analysis data. The intrusion was reproduced in a simulation with the Chemical Lagrangian Model of the Stratosphere (CLaMS). The CLaMS simulation shows, that the lowermost stratospheric air masses in the intrusion where transported along the the subtropical jet. The tropospheric air masses around the intrusion originate from the vicinity of the Asian monsoon anticyclone. This work discusses the nature of the observed processes at the subtropical jet based on the

  3. Quantifying Uncertainty in Estimation of Potential Recharge in Tropical and Temperate Catchments using a Crop Model and Microwave Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnan Kutty, S.; Sekhar, M.; Ruiz, L.; Tomer, S. K.; Bandyopadhyay, S.; Buis, S.; Guerif, M.; Gascuel-odoux, C.

    2012-12-01

    Groundwater recharge in a semi-arid region is generally low, but could exhibit high spatial variability depending on the soil type and plant cover. The potential recharge (the drainage flux just beneath the root zone) is found to be sensitive to water holding capacity and rooting depth (Rushton, 2003). Simple water balance approaches for recharge estimation often fail to consider the effect of plant cover, growth phases and rooting depth. Hence a crop model based approach might be better suited to assess sensitivity of recharge for various crop-soil combinations in agricultural catchments. Martinez et al. (2009) using a root zone modelling approach to estimate groundwater recharge stressed that future studies should focus on quantifying the uncertainty in recharge estimates due to uncertainty in soil water parameters such as soil layers, field capacity, rooting depth etc. Uncertainty in the parameters may arise due to the uncertainties in retrieved variables (surface soil moisture and leaf area index) from satellite. Hence a good estimate of parameters as well as their uncertainty is essential for a reliable estimate of the potential recharge. In this study we focus on assessing the sensitivity of crop and soil types on the potential recharge by using a generic crop model STICS. The effect of uncertainty in the soil parameters on the estimates of recharge and its uncertainty is investigated. The multi-layer soil water parameters and their uncertainty is estimated by inversion of STICS model using the GLUE approach. Surface soil moisture and LAI either retrieved from microwave remote sensing data or measured in field plots (Sreelash et al., 2012) were found to provide good estimates of the soil water properties and therefore both these data sets were used in this study to estimate the parameters and the potential recharge for a combination of soil-crop systems. These investigations were made in two field experimental catchments. The first one is in the tropical semi

  4. Satellite passive microwave remote sensing for estimating diurnal variation of leaf water content, as a proxy of evapotranspiration, in the Dry Chaco Forest, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barraza Bernadas, V.; Grings, F.; Ferrazzoli, P.; Carbajo, A.; Fernandez, R.; Karszenbaum, H.

    2012-12-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) is a key component of water cycle, which is strongly linked with environmental condition and vegetation functioning. Since it is very difficult to robustly estimate it from remote sensing data at regional scale it is usually inferred from other proxies using water balance. This work describes a procedure to estimate ET in a dry forest by monitoring diurnal variation of leaf water content (LWC), using multitemporal passive microwave remote sensing observations. Hourly observations provide the opportunity to monitor repetitive diurnal variations of passive microwave observations, which can only be accounted by changes in LWC (which is itself related to water vapor that enters to the atmosphere from land surface). To this end, we calculated the vegetation frequency index (FI) as FI= 2*(TBKa-TBX)/ ((TBKa +TBX)), where TBKa and TBX indicate brightness temperatures at 37 and 10.6 GHz respectively. There is both theoretical and experimental evidence that link this index to microwave to LWC. The index was computed for vertical polarization, because it presents higher correlation with vegetation state. At diurnal temporal scale, changes in LWC are commonly very small. Nevertheless, it was previously shown that passive remote sensing data (FI computed using Ku and Ka bands) acquired at different hours can be used to estimate the seasonal changes in ET. In this work, we present a procedure based on the hourly changes of FI, which are interpreted as changes in LWC. In order to present a quantitative estimation, the discrete forest model described in (Ferrazzoli and Guerriero, 1996) has been used to simulate the variations of FI with LWC. To illustrate the procedure, AMSR-E and WINDSAT data from 2007-2009 at X and Ka bands were used, and up to four observations per day at four different local times (2.30 am, 7.00 am, 2.30 pm and 7.00 pm) were analyzed. The region addressed is the area of the Dry Chaco forest located in Bermejo River Basin in Argentina

  5. Geologic mapping in Death Valley, California/Nevada using NASA/JPL airborne systems (AVIRIS, TIMS, and AIRSAR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kruse, Fred A.; Dietz, John B.; Kiereinyoung, Kathryn S.

    1991-01-01

    A multi-sensor aircraft campaign called the Geologic Remote Sensing Field Experiment (GRSFE) conducted during 1989 resulted in acquisition of high quality multispectral images in the visible, near infrared, shortwave infrared, thermal infrared, and microwave regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. The airborne data sets include the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS), the Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS), and the Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR). Ancillary data include Landsat Thematic Mapper, laboratory and field spectral measurements, and traditional geologic mapping. The GRSFE data for a site in the northern Death Valley, (California and Nevada) region were calibrated to physical units and geometrically registered to a map base. Various aspects of this experiment are briefly discussed.

  6. Active and passive microwave measurements in Hurricane Allen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delnore, V. E.; Bahn, G. S.; Grantham, W. L.; Harrington, R. F.; Jones, W. L.

    1985-01-01

    The NASA Langley Research Center analysis of the airborne microwave remote sensing measurements of Hurricane Allen obtained on August 5 and 8, 1980 is summarized. The instruments were the C-band stepped frequency microwave radiometer and the Ku-band airborne microwave scatterometer. They were carried aboard a NOAA aircraft making storm penetrations at an altitude of 3000 m and are sensitive to rain rate, surface wind speed, and surface wind vector. The wind speed is calculated from the increase in antenna brightness temperature above the estimated calm sea value. The rain rate is obtained from the difference between antenna temperature increases measured at two frequencies, and wind vector is determined from the sea surface normalized radar cross section measured at several azimuths. Comparison wind data were provided from the inertial navigation systems aboard both the C-130 aircraft at 3000 m and a second NOAA aircraft (a P-3) operating between 500 and 1500 m. Comparison rain rate data were obtained with a rain radar aboard the P-3. Evaluation of the surface winds obtained with the two microwave instruments was limited to comparisons with each other and with the flight level winds. Two important conclusions are drawn from these comparisons: (1) the radiometer is accurate when predicting flight level wind speeds and rain; and (2) the scatterometer produces well behaved and consistent wind vectors for the rain free periods.

  7. Remote Sensing Observatory Validation of Surface Soil Moisture Using Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer E, Common Land Model, and Ground Based Data: Case Study in SMEX03 Little River Region, Georgia, U.S.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Optimal soil moisture estimation may be characterized by inter-comparisons among remotely sensed measurements, ground-based measurements, and land surface models. In this study, we compared soil moisture from Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer E (AMSR-E), ground-based measurements, and Soil-Vege...

  8. Airborne gamma radiation measurements of soil moisture during FIFE: Activities and results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peck, Eugene L.

    1992-01-01

    Soil moisture measurements were obtained during the summer of 1987 and 1989 near Manhattan, Kansas, using the National Weather Service (NWS) airborne gamma radiation system. A network of 24 flight lines were established over the research area. Airborne surveys were flown daily during two intensive field campaigns. The data collected was sufficient to modify the NWS standard operational method for estimating soil moisture for the Field Experiment (FIFE) flight lines. The average root mean square error of the soil moisture estimates for shorter FIFE flight lines was found to be 2.5 percent, compared with a reported value of 3.9 percent for NWS flight lines. Techniques were developed to compute soil moisture estimates for portions of the flight lines. Results of comparisons of the airborne gamma radiation soil moisture estimates with those obtained using the NASA Pushbroom Microwave Radiation (PBMR) system and hydrological model are presented. The airborne soil moisture measurements, and real averages computed using all remotely sensed and ground data, have been in support of the research of the many FIFE investigators whose overall goal was the upscale integration of models and the application of satellite remote sensing.

  9. An Airborne Conical Scanning Millimeter-Wave Imaging Radiometer (CoSMIR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piepmeier, J.; Racette, P.; Wang, J.; Crites, A.; Doiron, T.; Engler, C.; Lecha, J.; Powers, M.; Simon, E.; Triesky, M.; Krebs, Carolyn A. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    An airborne Conical Scanning Millimeter-wave Imaging Radiometer (CoSMIR) for high-altitude observations from the NASA Research Aircraft (ER-2) is discussed. The primary application of the CoSMIR is water vapor profile remote sensing. Four radiometers operating at 50 (three channels), 92, 150, and 183 (three channels) GHz provide spectral coverage identical to nine of the Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder (SSMIS) high-frequency channels. Constant polarization-basis conical and cross-track scanning capabilities are achieved using an elevation-under-azimuth two-axis gimbals.

  10. Application of NASA's modern era retrospective-analysis in Global Wetlands Mappings Derived from Coarse-Resolution Satellite Microwave Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröder, R.; McDonald, K. C.; Podest, E.; Jones, L. A.; Kimball, J. S.; Pinto, N.; Zimmermann, R.; Küppers, M.

    2011-12-01

    The sensitivity of Earth's wetlands to observed shifts in global precipitation and temperature patterns and their ability to produce large quantities of methane gas are key global change questions. Global methane emissions are typically estimated via process-based models calibrated to individual wetland sites. Regardless of the complexity of these process-based models, accurate geographical distribution and seasonality of recent global wetland extent are typically not accounted for in such an approach, which may explain the large variations in estimated global methane emissions as well as the significant interannual variations in the observed atmospheric growth rate of methane. Spatially comprehensive ground observation networks of large-scale inundation patterns are very sparse because they require large fiscal, technological and human resources. Satellite remote sensing of global inundation dynamics thus can support the ability for a complete synoptic view of past and current inundation dynamics over large areas that otherwise could not be assessed. Coarse-resolution (~25km) satellite data from passive and active microwave instruments are well suited for the global observation of large-scale inundation patterns because they are primarily sensitive to the associated dielectric properties of the landscape and cover large areas within a relatively short amount of time (up to daily repeat in high latitudes). This study summarizes a new remote sensing technique for quantifying global daily surface water fractions based on combined passive-active microwave remote sensing data sets from the AMSR-E and QuikSCAT instruments over a 7 year period (July 2002 - July 2009). We apply these data with ancillary land cover maps from MODIS to: 1) define the potential global domain of surface water impacted land; 2) establish land cover driven predictive equations for implementing a dynamic mixture model adjusted to total column water vapor obtained from NASA's modern era

  11. Active microwaves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, D.; Vidal-Madjar, D.

    1994-01-01

    Research on the use of active microwaves in remote sensing, presented during plenary and poster sessions, is summarized. The main highlights are: calibration techniques are well understood; innovative modeling approaches have been developed which increase active microwave applications (segmentation prior to model inversion, use of ERS-1 scatterometer, simulations); polarization angle and frequency diversity improves characterization of ice sheets, vegetation, and determination of soil moisture (X band sensor study); SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) interferometry potential is emerging; use of multiple sensors/extended spectral signatures is important (increase emphasis).

  12. Microwave remote sensing of rain-on-snow events in the subarctic with AMSR2 and GPM observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brucker, L.; Munchak, S. J.

    2014-12-01

    Climate change in high northern latitudes is predicted to be greater in winter than in summer, and to have increasing, widespread impacts in northern ecosystems. Some of the resulting unknowns are the effects of an increasing frequency of sudden, short-lasting winter warming events, which can lead to rain on snow (ROS). Very little is known about ROS in northern regions, and even less about its cumulative impact on surface energy balance, permafrost, snow melt, and hydrological processes. Since, wintertime warming events have become more frequent in sub-Arctic regions, ROS event characteristics (frequency, extent, and duration) may represent new and relevant climate indicators. However, ROS event detection is challenging.In this presentation, we propose new approaches to monitor the occurrence of ROS events using satellite passive and active microwave sensors. Specifically, we utilize observations from Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 (AMSR2), Global Precipitation Measurements (GPM) Microwave Imager (GMI), and GPM Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR). GPM was launched in February, 2014. It operates multiple radiometers (in the frequency range 10 - 183 GHz), and two radars (Ku and Ka bands). GPM observations are used to quantify rainfall or snowfall rates and are thus appropriate to monitor ROS events up to 66° North.Our satellite monitoring of the ROS event is based on both temporal and spectral variations in the satellite observations. We discuss the observed ROS radiometric signatures using a Multi-Layer microwave emission model based on the Dense Media Radiative Transfer theory (DMRT-ML). In addition, our monitoring is evaluated against atmospheric reanalysis from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) ERA-Interim, and NASA Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA). This initial evaluation in winter months shows that the proposed ROS detection using microwave sensors occur in areas that are shown

  13. International Symposium on Remote Sensing of Environment, 12th, Manila, Philippines, April 20-26, 1978, Proceedings. Volumes 1, 2 & 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The papers outline the remote sensing activities being carried out in a number of countries throughout the world, and present details on a variety of individual projects. Topics studied include a worldwide approach to remote sensing and mineral exploration, a land use information system based on statistical inference, acoustic radar and remote sensing in the boundary layer, procedure for land-use analysis in developing countries, an airborne geochemical system, remote sensing of snowpack with microwave radiometers for hydrologic applications, wheat production forecasts based on Landsat data, airborne lidar aerosol measurements over the U.S. and Europe, Landsat inventory of agricultural and forest resources in Bangladesh, application of satellite imagery to flood plain mapping in Thailand, and vegetation mapping of Nigeria from radar.

  14. Spaceborne Microwave Remote Sensing of Seasonal Freeze-Thaw Processes in the Terrestrial High Latitudes: Relationships with Land-Atmosphere CO2 exchange

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDonald, Kyle C.; Kimball, John S.; Zhao, Maosheng; Njoku, Eni; Zimmermann, Reiner; Running, Steven W.

    2004-01-01

    Landscape transitions between seasonally frozen and thawed conditions occur each year over roughly 50 million square kilometers of Earth's Northern Hemisphere. These relatively abrupt transitions represent the closest analog to a biospheric and hydrologic on/off switch existing in nature, affecting surface meteorological conditions, ecological trace gas dynamics, energy exchange and hydrologic activity profoundly. We utilize time series satellite-borne microwave remote sensing measurements from the Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) to examine spatial and temporal variability in seasonal freeze/thaw cycles for the pan-Arctic basin and Alaska. Regional measurements of spring thaw timing are derived using daily brightness temperature measurements from the 19 GHz, horizontally polarized channel, separately for overpasses with 6 AM and 6 PM equatorial crossing times. Spatial and temporal patterns in regional freeze/thaw dynamics show distinct differences between North America and Eurasia, and boreal forest and Arctic tundra biomes. Annual anomalies in the timing of thawing in spring also correspond closely to seasonal atmospheric CO2 concentration anomalies derived from NOAA CMDL arctic and subarctic monitoring stations. Classification differences between AM and PM overpass data average approximately 5 days for the region, though both appear to be effective surrogates for monitoring annual growing seasons at high latitudes.

  15. Spaceborne microwave remote sensing of seasonal freeze-thaw processes in theterrestrial high l atitudes : relationships with land-atmosphere CO2 exchange

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDonald, Kyle C.; Kimball, John S.; Zhao, Maosheng; Njoku, Eni; Zimmermann, Reiner; Running, Steven W.

    2004-01-01

    Landscape transitions between seasonally frozen and thawed conditions occur each year over roughly 50 million square kilometers of Earth's Northern Hemisphere. These relatively abrupt transitions represent the closest analog to a biospheric and hydrologic on/off switch existing in nature, affecting surface meteorological conditions, ecological trace gas dynamics, energy exchange and hydrologic activity profoundly. We utilize time series satellite-borne microwave remote sensing measurements from the Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) to examine spatial and temporal variability in seasonal freeze/thaw cycles for the pan-Arctic basin and Alaska. Regional measurements of spring thaw timing are derived using daily brightness temperature measurements from the 19 GHz, horizontally polarized channel, separately for overpasses with 6 AM and 6 PM equatorial crossing times. Spatial and temporal patterns in regional freeze/thaw dynamics show distinct differences between North America and Eurasia, and boreal forest and Arctic tundra biomes. Annual anomalies in the timing of thawing in spring also correspond closely to seasonal atmospheric CO2 concentration anomalies derived from NOAA CMDL arctic and subarctic monitoring stations. Classification differences between AM and PM overpass data average approximately 5 days for the region, though both appear to be effective surrogates for monitoring annual growing seasons at high latitudes.

  16. Microwave emissions from snow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, A. T. C.

    1984-01-01

    The radiation emitted from dry and wet snowpack in the microwave region (1 to 100 GHz) is discussed and related to ground observations. Results from theoretical model calculations match the brightness temperatures obtained by truck mounted, airborne and spaceborne microwave sensor systems. Snow wetness and internal layer structure complicate the snow parameter retrieval algorithm. Further understanding of electromagnetic interaction with snowpack may eventually provide a technique to probe the internal snow properties

  17. Airborne Observation of Ocean Surface Roughness Variations Using a Combination of Microwave Radiometer and Reflectometer Systems: The Second Virginia Offshore (Virgo II) Experiment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-06

    katzberg (Snasa.gov Abstract—Airborne and satellite retrieval of Sea Surface Salinity ( SSS ) using L-band micronave radiometers requires accurate...combined an L-band micronave radiometer for retrieving SSS , with L- and S-band reflectometer systems for retrieving SSR descriptors including Mean Square...from the reflectometers to correct the brightness temperatures observed by the L-band radiometer, and produce more accurate SSS retrievals. Here we

  18. Ocean experiments and remotely sensed images of chemically dispersed oil spills

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Croswell, W. F.; Fedors, J. C.; Hoge, F. E.; Swift, R. N.; Johnson, J. C.

    1983-01-01

    A series of experiments was performed at sea where the effectiveness of dispersants applied from a helicopter was tested on fresh and weathered crude oils released from a surface research vessel. In conjunction with these experiments, remote sensing measurements using an array of airborne optical and microwave sensors were performed in order to aid in the interpretation of the dispersant effectiveness and to obtain quantitative images of oil on the sea under controlled conditions. Surface oil thickness and volume are inferred from airborne measurements using a dual-channel microwave imaging radiometer, aerial color photography, and an airborne oceanographic lidar. The remotely sensed measurements are compared with point sampled data obtained using a research vessel. The mass balance computations of surface versus subsurface oil volume using remotely sensed and point sampled data are consistent with each other and with the volumes of oil released. Data collected by the several techniques concur in indicating that, for the oils used and under the sea conditions encountered, the dispersant and application method are primarily useful when applied to fresh oil.

  19. Diurnal variations of stratospheric ozone measured by ground-based microwave remote sensing at the Mauna Loa NDACC site: measurement validation and GEOSCCM model comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parrish, A.; Boyd, I. S.; Nedoluha, G. E.; Bhartia, P. K.; Frith, S. M.; Kramarova, N. A.; Connor, B. J.; Bodeker, G. E.; Froidevaux, L.; Shiotani, M.; Sakazaki, T.

    2014-07-01

    There is presently renewed interest in diurnal variations of stratospheric and mesospheric ozone for the purpose of supporting homogenization of records of various ozone measurements that are limited by the technique employed to being made at certain times of day. We have made such measurements for 19 years using a passive microwave remote sensing technique at the Mauna Loa Observatory (MLO) in Hawaii, which is a primary station in the Network for Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC). We have recently reprocessed these data with hourly time resolution to study diurnal variations. We inspected differences between pairs of the ozone spectra (e.g., day and night) from which the ozone profiles are derived to determine the extent to which they may be contaminated by diurnally varying systematic instrumental or measurement effects. These are small, and we have reduced them further by selecting data that meet certain criteria that we established. We have calculated differences between profiles measured at different times: morning-night, afternoon-night, and morning-afternoon and have intercompared these with like profiles derived from the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (Aura-MLS), the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite Microwave Limb Sounder (UARS-MLS), the Superconducting Submillimeter-Wave Limb-Emission Sounder (SMILES), and Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet version 2 (SBUV/2) measurements. Differences between averages of coincident profiles are typically < 1.5% of typical nighttime values over most of the covered altitude range with some exceptions. We calculated averages of ozone values for each hour from the Mauna Loa microwave data, and normalized these to the average for the first hour after midnight for comparison with corresponding values calculated with the Goddard Earth Observing System Chemistry Climate Model (GEOSCCM). We found that the measurements and model output mostly agree to better than 1.5% of the midnight value, with one noteworthy exception

  20. Ground-Based Passive Microwave Remote Sensing Observations of Soil Moisture at S and L Band with Insight into Measurement Accuracy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laymon, Charles A.; Crosson, William L.; Jackson, Thomas J.; Manu, Andrew; Tsegaye, Teferi D.; Soman, V.; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Accurate estimates of spatially heterogeneous algorithm variables and parameters are required in determining the spatial distribution of soil moisture using radiometer data from aircraft and satellites. A ground-based experiment in passive microwave remote sensing of soil moisture was conducted in Huntsville, Alabama from July 1-14, 1996 to study retrieval algorithms and their sensitivity to variable and parameter specification. With high temporal frequency observations at S and L band, we were able to observe large scale moisture changes following irrigation and rainfall events, as well as diurnal behavior of surface moisture among three plots, one bare, one covered with short grass and another covered with alfalfa. The L band emitting depth was determined to be on the order of 0-3 or 0-5 cm below 0.30 cubic centimeter/cubic centimeter with an indication of a shallower emitting depth at higher moisture values. Surface moisture behavior was less apparent on the vegetated plots than it was on the bare plot because there was less moisture gradient and because of difficulty in determining vegetation water content and estimating the vegetation b parameter. Discrepancies between remotely sensed and gravimetric, soil moisture estimates on the vegetated plots point to an incomplete understanding of the requirements needed to correct for the effects of vegetation attenuation. Quantifying the uncertainty in moisture estimates is vital if applications are to utilize remotely-sensed soil moisture data. Computations based only on the real part of the complex dielectric constant and/or an alternative dielectric mixing model contribute a relatively insignificant amount of uncertainty to estimates of soil moisture. Rather, the retrieval algorithm is much more sensitive to soil properties, surface roughness and biomass.

  1. Investigation of temporal-spatial parameters of an urban heat island on the basis of passive microwave remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaikine, M. N.; Kuznetsova, I. N.; Kadygrov, E. N.; Miller, E. A.

    2006-02-01

    Quantitative measurements of the impact of an urban environment on the thermal state of the atmospheric boundary layer are presented. Temperature profiles up to the height of 600 m were obtained in a continuous series of measurements by three microwave profilers MTP-5 located in different areas of Moscow. The influence of this large city on urban heat island (UHI) parameters was estimated on occasions with stationary atmospheric processes and during cases with frontal passage. Two types of UHI were identified: one with a dome of urban warmth at all levels, and another with a low warm dome in combination with a lens of cold air above.

  2. Analytical study of the cruise performance of a class of remotely piloted, microwave-powered, high-altitude airplane platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, C. E. K., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Each cycle of the flight profile consists of climb while the vehicle is tracked and powered by a microwave beam, followed by gliding flight back to a minimum altitude. Parameter variations were used to define the effects of changes in the characteristics of the airplane aerodynamics, the power transmission systems, the propulsion system, and winds. Results show that wind effects limit the reduction of wing loading and increase the lift coefficient, two effective ways to obtain longer range and endurance for each flight cycle. Calculated climb performance showed strong sensitivity to some power and propulsion parameters. A simplified method of computing gliding endurance was developed.

  3. Characterization of Inundated Wetlands with Microwave Remote Sensing: Cross-Product Comparison for Uncertainty Assessment in Tropical Wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, K. C.; Jensen, K.; Alvarez, J.; Azarderakhsh, M.; Schroeder, R.; Podest, E.; Chapman, B. D.; Zimmermann, R.

    2015-12-01

    We have been assembling a global-scale Earth System Data Record (ESDR) of natural Inundated Wetlands to facilitate investigations on their role in climate, biogeochemistry, hydrology, and biodiversity. The ESDR comprises (1) Fine-resolution (100 meter) maps, delineating wetland extent, vegetation type, and seasonal inundation dynamics for regional to continental-scale areas, and (2) global coarse-resolution (~25 km), multi-temporal mappings of inundated area fraction (Fw) across multiple years. During March 2013, the NASA/JPL L-band polarimetric airborne imaging radar, UAVSAR, conducted airborne studies over regions of South America including portions of the western Amazon basin. We collected UAVSAR datasets over regions of the Amazon basin during that time to support systematic analyses of error sources related to the Inundated Wetlands ESDR. UAVSAR datasets were collected over Pacaya Samiria, Peru, Madre de Dios, Peru, and the Napo River in Ecuador. We derive landcover classifications from the UAVSAR datasets emphasizing wetlands regions, identifying regions of open water and inundated vegetation. We compare the UAVSAR-based datasets with those comprising the ESDR to assess uncertainty associated with the high resolution and the coarse resolution ESDR components. Our goal is to create an enhanced ESDR of inundated wetlands with statistically robust uncertainty estimates. The ESDR documentation will include a detailed breakdown of error sources and associated uncertainties within the data record. This work was carried out in part within the framework of the ALOS Kyoto & Carbon Initiative. PALSAR data were provided by JAXA/EORC and the Alaska Satellite Facility. Portions of this work were conducted at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under contract to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  4. Using high-resolution soil moisture modelling to assess the uncertainty of microwave remotely sensed soil moisture products at the correct spatial and temporal support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wanders, N.; Karssenberg, D.; Bierkens, M. F. P.; Van Dam, J. C.; De Jong, S. M.

    2012-04-01

    Soil moisture is a key variable in the hydrological cycle and important in hydrological modelling. When assimilating soil moisture into flood forecasting models, the improvement of forecasting skills depends on the ability to accurately estimate the spatial and temporal patterns of soil moisture content throughout the river basin. Space-borne remote sensing may provide this information with a high temporal and spatial resolution and with a global coverage. Currently three microwave soil moisture products are available: AMSR-E, ASCAT and SMOS. The quality of these satellite-based products is often assessed by comparing them with in-situ observations of soil moisture. This comparison is however hampered by the difference in spatial and temporal support (i.e., resolution, scale), because the spatial resolution of microwave satellites is rather low compared to in-situ field measurements. Thus, the aim of this study is to derive a method to assess the uncertainty of microwave satellite soil moisture products at the correct spatial support. To overcome the difference in support size between in-situ soil moisture observations and remote sensed soil moisture, we used a stochastic, distributed unsaturated zone model (SWAP, van Dam (2000)) that is upscaled to the support of different satellite products. A detailed assessment of the SWAP model uncertainty is included to ensure that the uncertainty in satellite soil moisture is not overestimated due to an underestimation of the model uncertainty. We simulated unsaturated water flow up to a depth of 1.5m with a vertical resolution of 1 to 10 cm and on a horizontal grid of 1 km2 for the period Jan 2010 - Jun 2011. The SWAP model was first calibrated and validated on in-situ data of the REMEDHUS soil moisture network (Spain). Next, to evaluate the satellite products, the model was run for areas in the proximity of 79 meteorological stations in Spain, where model results were aggregated to the correct support of the satellite

  5. MAPIR: An Airborne Polarmetric Imaging Radiometer in Support of Hydrologic Satellite Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laymon, C.; Al-Hamdan, M.; Crosson, W.; Limaye, A.; McCracken, J.; Meyer, P.; Richeson, J.; Sims, W.; Srinivasan, K.; Varnevas, K.

    2010-01-01

    In this age of dwindling water resources and increasing demands, accurate estimation of water balance components at every scale is more critical to end users than ever before. Several near-term Earth science satellite missions are aimed at global hydrologic observations. The Marshall Airborne Polarimetric Imaging Radiometer (MAPIR) is a dual beam, dual angle polarimetric, scanning L band passive microwave radiometer system developed by the Observing Microwave Emissions for Geophysical Applications (OMEGA) team at MSFC to support algorithm development and validation efforts in support of these missions. MAPIR observes naturally-emitted radiation from the ground primarily for remote sensing of land surface brightness temperature from which we can retrieve soil moisture and possibly surface or water temperature and ocean salinity. MAPIR has achieved Technical Readiness Level 6 with flight heritage on two very different aircraft, the NASA P-3B, and a Piper Navajo.

  6. Investigation of atmospheric boundary layer temperature, turbulence, and wind parameters on the basis of passive microwave remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadygrov, Evgeny N.; Shur, Genrih N.; Viazankin, Anton S.

    2003-06-01

    The MTP-5, a microwave temperature profiler, has been widely used since 1991 for investigation of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). The MTP-5 is an angular scanning single-channel instrument with a central frequency of about 60 GHz, designed to provide continuous, unattended observations. It can measure the thermal emission of the atmosphere with high sensitivity (0.03 K at 1 s integration time) from different zenith angles. On the basis of this measurement, it is possible to retrieve temperature profiles at the altitude range up to 600 m, to calculate wind speed and wind direction at the lowest 250 m, and to get information about some parameters of atmospheric turbulence. This report presents some applications of the MTP-5 instrument data collected in 1998-2001 within a number of international field projects: the dynamics of ABL temperature inversion in a mountain valley (Mesoscale Alpine Program (MAP)), as well as along an island coast (north part of Sakhalin Island, Russia-Japan Project); continuous measurements of the ABL temperature profile provided from a special scientific train that crossed the territory of Russia (the Transcontinental Observations of the Chemistry of the Atmosphere Project (TROICA)); and simultaneous measurements of the ABL temperature profile provided over the central and northern part of Moscow in a continuous mode (the Global Urban Research Meteorology and Environment Project (GURME)). In 1999, two MTP-5 instruments were installed on a platform that was rotating in the azimuth direction at the 310 m Obninsk Meteorological Research Tower (Meteo Tower) to validate the method and microwave equipment for measurement of wind speed and wind direction and investigation of atmospheric turbulence. Spectral analyses of the integrated signal provided an opportunity to estimate the inertial subrange low-frequency limit and its height dependence for thermal turbulence at the lowest 200 m layer. Wavelet analysis of the signal made it possible to

  7. A Melting Layer Model for Passive/Active Microwave Remote Sensing Applications. Part 1; Model Formulation and Comparison with Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, William S.; Bauer, Peter; Viltard, Nicolas F.; Johnson, Daniel E.; Tao, Wei-Kuo

    2000-01-01

    In this study, a 1-D steady-state microphysical model which describes the vertical distribution of melting precipitation particles is developed. The model is driven by the ice-phase precipitation distributions just above the freezing level at applicable gridpoints of "parent" 3-D cloud-resolving model (CRM) simulations. It extends these simulations by providing the number density and meltwater fraction of each particle in finely separated size categories through the melting layer. The depth of the modeled melting layer is primarily determined by the initial material density of the ice-phase precipitation. The radiative properties of melting precipitation at microwave frequencies are calculated based upon different methods for describing the dielectric properties of mixed phase particles. Particle absorption and scattering efficiencies at the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Microwave Imager frequencies (10.65 to 85.5 GHz) are enhanced greatly for relatively small (approx. 0.1) meltwater fractions. The relatively large number of partially-melted particles just below the freezing level in stratiform regions leads to significant microwave absorption, well-exceeding the absorption by rain at the base of the melting layer. Calculated precipitation backscatter efficiencies at the Precipitation Radar frequency (13.8 GHz) increase in proportion to the particle meltwater fraction, leading to a "bright-band" of enhanced radar reflectivities in agreement with previous studies. The radiative properties of the melting layer are determined by the choice of dielectric models and the initial water contents and material densities of the "seeding" ice-phase precipitation particles. Simulated melting layer profiles based upon snow described by the Fabry-Szyrmer core-shell dielectric model and graupel described by the Maxwell-Garnett water matrix dielectric model lead to reasonable agreement with radar-derived melting layer optical depth distributions. Moreover, control profiles

  8. The Western Airborne Contaminant Assessment Project (WACAP): An interdisciplinary evaluation of the impacts of airborne contaminants in Western U.S. National Parks

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Western Airborne Contaminants Assessment Project (WACAP) was initiated in 2002 by the National Park Service to determine if airborne contaminants were having an impact on remote western ecosystems. Multiple sample media (snow, water, sediment, fish and terrestrial vegetation...

  9. Land cover/use classification of Cairns, Queensland, Australia: A remote sensing study involving the conjunctive use of the airborne imaging spectrometer, the large format camera and the thematic mapper simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heric, Matthew; Cox, William; Gordon, Daniel K.

    1987-01-01

    In an attempt to improve the land cover/use classification accuracy obtainable from remotely sensed multispectral imagery, Airborne Imaging Spectrometer-1 (AIS-1) images were analyzed in conjunction with Thematic Mapper Simulator (NS001) Large Format Camera color infrared photography and black and white aerial photography. Specific portions of the combined data set were registered and used for classification. Following this procedure, the resulting derived data was tested using an overall accuracy assessment method. Precise photogrammetric 2D-3D-2D geometric modeling techniques is not the basis for this study. Instead, the discussion exposes resultant spectral findings from the image-to-image registrations. Problems associated with the AIS-1 TMS integration are considered, and useful applications of the imagery combination are presented. More advanced methodologies for imagery integration are needed if multisystem data sets are to be utilized fully. Nevertheless, research, described herein, provides a formulation for future Earth Observation Station related multisensor studies.

  10. Spatiotemporal analysis of soil moisture in using active and passive remotely sensed data and ground observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, H.; Fang, B.; Lakshmi, V.

    2015-12-01

    Abstract: Soil moisture plays a vital role in ecosystem, biological processes, climate, weather and agriculture. The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) improves data by combining the advantages and avoiding the limitation of passive microwave remote sensing (low resolution), and active microwave (challenge of soil moisture retrieval). This study will advance the knowledge of the application of soil moisture by using the Soil Moisture Active Passive Validation Experiment 2012 (SMAPVEX12) data as well as data collected at Walnut Gulch Arizona in August 2015 during SMAPVEX15. Specifically, we will analyze the 5m radar data from Unmanned Airborne Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR) to study spatial variability within the PALS radiometer pixel. SMAPVEX12/15 and SMAP data will also be analyzed to evaluate disaggregation algorithms. The analytical findings will provide valuable information for policy-makers to initiate and adjust protocols and regulations for protecting land resources and improving environmental conditions. Keywords: soil moisture, Remote Sensing (RS), spatial statistic

  11. Multi-residue analysis of 30 currently used pesticides in fine airborne particulate matter (PM 2.5) by microwave-assisted extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Coscollà, Clara; Yusà, Vicent; Beser, Ma Isabel; Pastor, Agustin

    2009-12-18

    A confirmatory and rapid procedure has been developed for the determination of 30 currently used pesticides (CUP) in fine airborne particulate matter (PM 2.5) at trace level. The proposed method includes extraction of PM 2.5-bound pesticides by microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) followed by a direct injection into LC-MS/MS. The main parameters affecting the MAE extraction (time, temperature and volume of solvent) were optimised using statistical design of experiments (DoE). The matrix effect was also evaluated. Recoveries ranged from 72 to 109% and the limit of quantification (LoQ) was 32.5 pg m(-3) for chlorpyrifos, 13.5 pg m(-3) for fenhexamid, imazalil and prochloraz, and 6.5 pg m(-3) for the rest of pesticides, when air volumes of 760 m(3) were collected. The method was applied to 54 samples collected from three stations of the atmospheric monitoring network of the Regional Valencia Government (Spain) during April-July 2009. Nineteen out of 30 pesticides investigated were found in at least one sample: omethoate, carbendazim, acetamiprid, thiabendazole, malathion, flusilazole, metalaxyl, azoxystrobin, iprovalicarb, myclobutanil, tebuconazole, triflumizole, cyprodinil, tebufenpyrad, buprofezin, pyriproxyfen, hexythiazox, flufenoxuron and fenazaquin. The measured concentrations ranged from 6.5 to 1208 pg m(-3). To our knowledge, 11 of the pesticides detected have been reported for the first time in ambient air.

  12. Environmental Public Health Survelliance for Exposure to Respiratory Health Hazards: A Joint NASA/CDC Project to Use Remote Sensing Data for Estimating Airborne Particulate Matter Over the Atlanta, Georgia Metropolitan Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Rickman, Douglas; Mohammad, Al-Hamdan; Crosson, William; Estes, Maurice, Jr.; Limaye, Ashutosh; Qualters, Judith

    2008-01-01

    Describes the public health surveillance efforts of NASA, in a joint effort with the Center for Disease Control (CDC). NASA/MSFC and the CDC are partners in linking nvironmental and health data to enhance public health surveillance. The use of NASA technology creates value - added geospatial products from existing environmental data sources to facilitate public health linkages. The venture sought to provide remote sensing data for the 5-country Metro-Atlanta area and to integrate this environmental data with public health data into a local network, in an effort to prevent and control environmentally related health effects. Remote sensing data used environmental data (Environmental Protection Agency [EPA] Air Quality System [AQS] ground measurements and MODIS Aerosol Optical Depth [AOD]) to estimate airborne particulate matter over Atlanta, and linked this data with health data related to asthma. The study proved the feasibility of linking environmental data (MODIS particular matter estimates and AQS) with health data (asthma). Algorithms were developed for QC, bias removal, merging MODIS and AQS particulate matter data, as well as for other applications. Additionally, a Business Associate Agreement was negotiated for a health care provider to enable sharing of Protected Health Information.

  13. Case Studies for UV, O2-A Band and Polarimetric Airborne Remote Sensing Observations of Coastal Waters: Implications for Atmospheric Correction.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhary, J.; van Diedenhoven, B.; Knobelspiesse, K. D.; Cairns, B.; Wasilewski, A. P.; Mccubbin, I. B.

    2014-12-01

    A major challenge for spaceborne observations of ocean color is to correct for atmospheric scattering, which typically contributes ≥85% to the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiance and varies substantially with aerosols. Ocean color missions traditionally analyze TOA radiance in the near-infrared (NIR), where the ocean is black, to constrain the TOA atmospheric scattering in the visible (VIS). However, this procedure is limited by insufficient sensitivity of NIR radiance to absorption and vertical distribution of aerosols, and by uncertainties in the extrapolation of aerosol properties from the NIR to the VIS. To improve atmospheric correction for ocean color observations, one needs to change the traditional procedure for this correction and/or increase the aerosol information. The instruments proposed for the Pre-Aerosol, Clouds, and ocean Ecosystem (PACE) mission include ultraviolet and Oxygen A-band observations, as well as multispectral and multiangle polarimetry, to increase the aerosol information content. However no studies have been performed on whether such observations contain sufficient aerosol information, and on how to use this information, to substantially improve atmospheric correction. To study the atmospheric correction capabilities of PACE-like instruments, we are conducting field experiments off the Coast of California to obtain high-altitude airborne and in-situ observations of water-leaving radiance. The airborne data sets consist of hyperspectral radiance between 380-2500 nm by the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer, and narrow-band multiangle polarimetric data between 410-2250 nm by the Research Scanning Polarimeter. We discuss the quality of and comparisons between these data sets, and their differential sensitivities to variations in aerosol properties and ocean color.

  14. Remote Sensing of Aerosol Backscatter and Earth Surface Targets By Use of An Airborne Focused Continuous Wave CO2 Doppler Lidar Over Western North America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jarzembski, Maurice A.; Srivastava, Vandana; Goodman, H. Michael (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Airborne lidar systems are used to determine wind velocity and to measure aerosol or cloud backscatter variability. Atmospheric aerosols, being affected by local and regional sources, show tremendous variability. Continuous wave (cw) lidar can obtain detailed aerosol loading with unprecedented high resolution (3 sec) and sensitivity (1 mg/cubic meter) as was done during the 1995 NASA Multi-center Airborne Coherent Atmospheric Wind Sensor (MACAWS) mission over western North America and the Pacific Ocean. Backscatter variability was measured at a 9.1 micron wavelength cw focused CO2 Doppler lidar for approximately 52 flight hours, covering an equivalent horizontal distance of approximately 30,000 km in the troposphere. Some quasi-vertical backscatter profiles were also obtained during various ascents and descents at altitudes that ranged from approximately 0.1 to 12 km. Similarities and differences for aerosol loading over land and ocean were observed. Mid-tropospheric aerosol backscatter background mode was approximately 6 x 10(exp -11)/ms/r, consistent with previous lidar datasets. While these atmospheric measurements were made, the lidar also retrieved a distinct backscatter signal from the Earth's surface from the unfocused part of the focused cw lidar beam during aircraft rolls. Atmospheric backscatter can be highly variable both spatially and temporally, whereas, Earth-surface backscatter is relatively much less variant and can be quite predictable. Therefore, routine atmospheric backscatter measurements by an airborne lidar also give Earth surface backscatter which can allow for investigating the Earth terrain. In the case where the Earth's surface backscatter is coming from a well-known and fairly uniform region, then it can potentially offer lidar calibration opportunities during flight. These Earth surface measurements over varying Californian terrain during the mission were compared with laboratory backscatter measurements using the same lidar of various

  15. AIRBORNE CONTAMINANTS IN WESTERN NORTH AMERICAN NATIONAL PARKS--WHAT WE KNOW AND WANT TO LEARN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Park Service initiated the Western Airborne Contaminants Assessment Project (WACAP) in 2002 to determine if airborne contaminants from regional or distant sources have an impact on remote (typically high elevation) western ecosystems, including Alaska. Eight Nationa...

  16. WHICH AIRBORNE CONTAMINANTS POSE THE GREATEST RISK TO WESTERN NATIONAL PARKS (USA)?

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Western Airborne Contaminants Assessment Project (WACAP) was initiated in 2002 by the National Park Service to determine if airborne contaminants where having an impact on remote western ecosystems. Multiple sample media (snow, water, sediment, fish and terrestrial vegetatio...

  17. Estimating the spatial distribution of evapotranspiration using the water balance model WAVE and fine spatial resolution airborne remote sensing images from the DAIS-sensor: Experimental set-up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verstraeten, W. W.; Veroustraete, F.; Feyen, J.

    2003-04-01

    Actual evapotranspiration (ET) of agricultural land and forestland surfaces play an important role in the redistribution of water on the Earth's surface. Any change in evapotranspiration, either through change in vegetation or climate change, directly effects the available water resources. For quantifying these effects physical models need to be constructed. Most hydrological models have to deal with a lack of good spatial resolution, despite their good temporal information. Remote sensing techniques on the contrary determine the spatial pattern of landscape features and hence are very useful on large scales. The main objective of this research is the combination of the spatial pattern of remote sensing (using visible and thermal infrared spectrum) with the temporal pattern of the water balance model WAVE (Vanclooster et al., 1994 and 1996). To realise this, the following objectives are formulated: (i) relate soil and vegetation surface temperatures to actual evapotranspiration of forest and crops simulated with the water balance model WAVE using remote sensing derived parameters. Three methods will be used and mutually compared. Both airborne and satellite imagery will be implemented; (1) compare the spatial pattern of evapotranspiration, as a result of the three methods, with the energy balance model SEBAL (Bastiaanssen et al., 1998) and finally; (2) subject the up-scaled WAVE and SEBAL models to an uncertainty analysis using the GLUE-approach (Generalised Likelihood Uncertainty Estimate) (Beven en Binley, 1992). To study the behaviour of the model beyond the field-scale (micro-scale), a meso-scale study was conducted at the test-site of DURAS (50°50'38"N, 5°08'50"W, Sint-Truiden). Airborne imagery from the DAIS/ROSIS sensor are available. For the determination of the spatial pattern of actual evapotranspiration the next two methods are considered: (1) relations between surface temperature, surface albedo and vegetation indices are linked with field

  18. A Melting Layer Model for Passive/Active Microwave Remote Sensing Applications. Part 2; Simulation of TRMM Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, William S.; Bauer, Peter; Kummerow, Christian D.; Tao, Wei-Kuo

    2000-01-01

    The one-dimensional, steady-state melting layer model developed in Part I of this study is used to calculate both the microphysical and radiative properties of melting precipitation, based upon the computed concentrations of snow and graupel just above the freezing level at applicable horizontal gridpoints of 3-dimensional cloud resolving model simulations. The modified 3-dimensional distributions of precipitation properties serve as input to radiative transfer calculations of upwelling radiances and radar extinction/reflectivities at the TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI) and Precipitation Radar (PR) frequencies, respectively. At the resolution of the cloud resolving model grids (approx. 1 km), upwelling radiances generally increase if mixed-phase precipitation is included in the model atmosphere. The magnitude of the increase depends upon the optical thickness of the cloud and precipitation, as well as the scattering characteristics of ice-phase precipitation aloft. Over the set of cloud resolving model simulations utilized in this study, maximum radiance increases of 43, 28, 18, and 10 K are simulated at 10.65, 19.35 GHz, 37.0, and 85.5 GHz, respectively. The impact of melting on TMI-measured radiances is determined not only by the physics of the melting particles but also by the horizontal extent of the melting precipitation, since the lower-frequency channels have footprints that extend over 10''s of kilometers. At TMI resolution, the maximum radiance increases are 16, 15, 12, and 9 K at the same frequencies. Simulated PR extinction and reflectivities in the melting layer can increase dramatically if mixed-phase precipitation is included, a result consistent with previous studies. Maximum increases of 0.46 (-2 dB) in extinction optical depth and 5 dBZ in reflectivity are simulated based upon the set of cloud resolving model simulations.

  19. RF/microwave system high-fidelity modeling and simulation: application to airborne multi-channel receiver system for angle of arrival estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chen; Rajan, Sreeraman; Young, Anne; O'Regan, Christina

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, a high-fidelity RF modeling and simulation framework is demonstrated to model an airborne multi-channel receiver system that is used to estimate the angle of arrival (AoA) of received signals from a stationary emitter. The framework is based on System Tool Kit (STK®), Matlab and SystemVue®. The SystemVue-based multi-channel receiver estimates the AoA of incoming signals using adjacent channel amplitude and phase comparisons, and it estimates the Doppler frequency shift of the aircraft by processing the transmitted and received signals. The estimated AoA and Doppler frequency are compared with the ground-truth data provided by STK to validate the efficacy of the modeling process. Unlike other current RF electronic warfare simulation frameworks, the received signal described herein is formed using the received power, the propagation delay and the transmitted waveform, and does not require information such as Doppler frequency shift or radial velocity of the moving platform from the scenario; hence, the simulation is more computationally efficient. In addition, to further reduce the overall modeling and simulation time, since the high-fidelity model computation is costly, the high-fidelity electronic system model is evoked only when the received power is higher than a predetermined threshold.

  20. Passive microwave soil moisture research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmugge, T. J.; Oneill, P. E.; Wang, J. R.

    1985-01-01

    The AgRISTARS Soil Moisture Project has made significant progress in the quantification of microwave sensor capabilities for soil moisture remote sensing. The 21-cm wavelength has been verified to be the best single channel for radiometric observations of soil moisture. It has also been found that other remote sensing approaches used in conjunction with L-band passive data are more successful than multiple wavelength microwave radiometry in this application. AgRISTARS studies have also improved current understanding of noise factors affecting the interpretability of microwave emission data. The absorption of soil emission by vegetation has been quantified, although this effect is less important than absorption effects for microwave radiometry.

  1. Remote sensing at Savannah River

    SciTech Connect

    Corey, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    The paper discusses remote sensing systems used at the Savannah River Plant. They include three ground-based systems: ground penetrating radar, sniffers, and lasers; and four airborne systems: multispectral photography, lasers, thermal imaging, and radar systems. (ACR)

  2. Separability of agricultural crops with airborne scatterometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, N. C.

    1983-01-01

    Backscattering measurements were acquired with airborne scatterometers over a site in Cass County, North Dakota on four days in the 1981 crop growing season. Data were acquired at three frequencies (L-, C- and Ku-bands), two polarizations (like and cross) and ten incidence angles (5 degrees to 50 degrees in 5 degree steps). Crop separability is studied in an hierarchical fashion. A two-class separability measure is defined, which compares within-class to between-class variability, to determine crop separability. The scatterometer channels with the best potential for crop separability are determined, based on this separability measure. Higher frequencies are more useful for discriminating small grains, while lower frequencies tend to separate non-small grains better. Some crops are more separable when row direction is taken into account. The effect of pixel purity is to increase the separability between all crops while not changing the order of useful scatterometer channels. Crude estimates of separability errors are calculated based on these analyses. These results are useful in selecting the parameters of active microwave systems in agricultural remote sensing.

  3. Remote Sensing of the Arctic Seas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weeks, W. F.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Examines remote sensing of the arctic seas by discussing: (1) passive microwave sensors; (2) active microwave sensors; (3) other types of sensors; (4) the future deployment of sensors; (5) data buoys; and (6) future endeavors. (JN)

  4. Airborne lidar experiments at the Savannah River Plant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krabill, William B.; Swift, Robert N.

    1985-01-01

    The results of remote sensing experiments at the Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Nuclear Facility utilizing the NASA Airborne Oceanographic Lidar (AOL) are presented. The flights were conducted in support of the numerous environmental monitoring requirements associated with the operation of the facility and for the purpose of furthering research and development of airborne lidar technology. Areas of application include airborne laser topographic mapping, hydrologic studies using fluorescent tracer dye, timber volume estimation, baseline characterization of wetlands, and aquatic chlorophyll and photopigment measurements. Conclusions relative to the usability of airborne lidar technology for the DOE for each of these remote sensing applications are discussed.

  5. A comparison of sea ice parameters computed from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer and Landsat satellite imagery and from airborne passive microwave radiometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emery, W. J.; Radebaugh, M.; Fowler, C. W.; Cavalieri, D.; Steffen, K.

    1991-01-01

    AVHRR-derived sea ice parameters from the Bering Sea are compared with those computed from nearly coincident (within 6 hr) Landsat MSS imagery and from the Aircraft Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (AMMR) flown on the NASA DC-8 in order to evaluate the accuracy and reliability of AVHRR-mapped sea-ice concentration and ice edge. Mean ice-concentration differences between AVHRR near-infrared (channel 2) and Landsat MSS data ranged from -0.8 to 1.8 percent with a mean value of 0.5 percent; rms differences ranged from 6.8 to 17.7 percent. Mean differences were larger for AVHRR thermal infrared (channel 4) ice concentrations ranging from -2.2 to 8.4 percent with rms differences from 8.6 to 26.8 percent. Mean differences between AVHRR channel 2 concentrations and the AMMR data ranged from -19.7 to 18.9 percent, while rms values went from 17.0 to 44.8 percent.

  6. Airborne Demonstration of Microwave and Wide-Band Millimeter-Wave Radiometers to Provide High-Resolution Wet-Tropospheric Path Delay Corrections for Coastal and Inland Water Altimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reising, Steven; Kangaslahti, Pekka; Tanner, Alan; Padmanabhan, Sharmila; Montes, Oliver; Parashare, Chaitali; Bosch-Lluis, Xavier; Hadel, Victoria; Johnson, Thaddeus; Brown, Shannon; Khayatian, Behrouz; Dawson, Douglas; Gaier, Todd; Razavi, Behzad

    2014-05-01

    Current satellite ocean altimeters include nadir-viewing, co-located 18-34 GHz microwave radiometers to measure wet-tropospheric path delay. Due to the size of the surface instantaneous fields of view (IFOV) at these frequencies, the accuracy of wet path retrievals is substantially degraded near coastlines, and retrievals are not provided over land. Retrievals are flagged as not useful within approximately 40 km of the world's coastlines. A viable approach to improve their capability is to add wide-band high-frequency millimeter-wave window channels in the 90-180 GHz band, thereby achieving finer spatial resolution for a limited antenna size. In this context, the upcoming NASA/CNES/CSA Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission is in formulation and planned for launch in late 2020. The primary objectives of SWOT are to characterize ocean mesoscale and sub-mesoscale processes on 10-km and larger scales in the global oceans and provide measurements of the global water storage in inland surface water bodies and the flow rate of rivers. Therefore, an important new science objective of SWOT is to transition satellite altimetry from the open ocean into the coastal zone and over inland water. The addition of 90-180 GHz millimeter-wave window-channel radiometers to current Jason-class 18-34 GHz radiometers is expected to improve retrievals of wet-tropospheric delay in coastal areas and to enhance the potential for over-land retrievals. In 2012 the Ocean Surface Topography Science Team Meeting recommended to add high-frequency millimeter-wave radiometers to the Jason Continuity of Service (CS) mission. To reduce the risks of wet-tropospheric path delay measurement over coastal areas and inland water bodies, we have designed, developed and fabricated a new airborne radiometer, combining three high-frequency millimeter-wave window channels at 90, 130 and 168 GHz, along with Jason-series microwave channels at 18.7, 23.8 and 34.0 GHz, and validation channels sounding

  7. Comparison of column water vapor measurements using downward-looking near-infrared and infrared imaging systems and upward-looking microwave radiometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gao, Bo-Cai; Westwater, Ed R.; Stankov, B. B.; Birkenheuer, D.; Goetz, Alexander F. H.

    1992-01-01

    Remote soundings of precipitable water vapor from three systems are compared with each other and with ground truth from radiosondes. Ancillary data from a mesoscale network of surface observing stations and from wind-profiling radars are also used in the analysis. The three remote-sounding techniques are: (a) a reflectance technique using spectral data collected by the Airborne Visible-Infrared Imaging Spectrometer; (b) an emission technique using Visible-Infrared Spin Scan Radiometer Atmospheric Sounder (VAS) data acquired from the NOAA's GOES; and (c) a microwave technique using data from a limited network of three ground-based dual-channel microwave radiometers. The data were taken over the Front Range of eastern Colorado on 22-23 March 1990. The generally small differences between the three types of remote-sounding measurements are consistent with the horizontal and temporal resolutions of the instruments. The microwave and optical reflectance measurements agreed to within 0.1 cm; comparisons of the microwave data with radiosondes were also either as good or explainable. The largest differences between the VAS and the microwave radiometer at Elbert were between 0.4 and 0.5 cm and appear to be due to variable terrain within the satellite footprint.

  8. Airborne Particles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ojala, Carl F.; Ojala, Eric J.

    1987-01-01

    Describes an activity in which students collect airborne particles using a common vacuum cleaner. Suggests ways for the students to convert their data into information related to air pollution and human health. Urges consideration of weather patterns when analyzing the results of the investigation. (TW)

  9. Airborne Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    ATM (Airborne Thematic Mapper) was developed for NSTL (National Space Technology Companies) by Daedalus Company. It offers expanded capabilities for timely, accurate and cost effective identification of areas with prospecting potential. A related system is TIMS, Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner. Originating from Landsat 4, it is also used for agricultural studies, etc.

  10. REMOTE SENSING IN OCEANOGRAPHY.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    remote sensing from satellites. Sensing of oceanographic variables from aircraft began with the photographing of waves and ice. Since then remote measurement of sea surface temperatures and wave heights have become routine. Sensors tested for oceanographic applications include multi-band color cameras, radar scatterometers, infrared spectrometers and scanners, passive microwave radiometers, and radar imagers. Remote sensing has found its greatest application in providing rapid coverage of large oceanographic areas for synoptic and analysis and

  11. Remote sensing and image interpretation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lillesand, T. M.; Kiefer, R. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1979-01-01

    A textbook prepared primarily for use in introductory courses in remote sensing is presented. Topics covered include concepts and foundations of remote sensing; elements of photographic systems; introduction to airphoto interpretation; airphoto interpretation for terrain evaluation; photogrammetry; radiometric characteristics of aerial photographs; aerial thermography; multispectral scanning and spectral pattern recognition; microwave sensing; and remote sensing from space.

  12. Microwave hydrology: A trilogy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stacey, J. M.; Johnston, E. J.; Girard, M. A.; Regusters, H. A.

    1985-01-01

    Microwave hydrology, as the term in construed in this trilogy, deals with the investigation of important hydrological features on the Earth's surface as they are remotely, and passively, sensed by orbiting microwave receivers. Microwave wavelengths penetrate clouds, foliage, ground cover, and soil, in varying degrees, and reveal the occurrence of standing liquid water on and beneath the surface. The manifestation of liquid water appearing on or near the surface is reported by a microwave receiver as a signal with a low flux level, or, equivalently, a cold temperature. Actually, the surface of the liquid water reflects the low flux level from the cosmic background into the input terminals of the receiver. This trilogy describes and shows by microwave flux images: the hydrological features that sustain Lake Baykal as an extraordinary freshwater resource; manifestations of subsurface water in Iran; and the major water features of the Congo Basin, a rain forest.

  13. Geophex Airborne Unmanned Survey System

    SciTech Connect

    Won, I.J.; Keiswetter, D.

    1995-10-01

    The purpose of this effort is to design, construct, and evaluate a portable, remotely-piloted, airborne, geophysical survey system. This non-intrusive system will provide {open_quotes}stand-off{close_quotes} capability to conduct surveys and detect buried objects, structures, and conditions of interest at hazardous locations. This system permits rapid geophysical characterization of hazardous environmental sites. During a survey, the operators remain remote from, but within visual distance of, the site. The sensor system never contacts the Earth, but can be positioned near the ground so that weak geophysical anomalies can be detected.

  14. Geophex airborne unmanned survey system

    SciTech Connect

    Won, I.J.; Taylor, D.W.A.

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of this effort is to design, construct, and evaluate a portable, remotely-piloted, airborne, geophysical survey system. This nonintrusive system will provide {open_quotes}stand-off{close_quotes} capability to conduct surveys and detect buried objects, structures, and conditions of interest at hazardous locations. This system permits two operators to rapidly conduct geophysical characterization of hazardous environmental sites. During a survey, the operators remain remote from, but within visual distance, of, the site. The sensor system never contacts the Earth, but can be positioned near the ground so that weak anomalies can be detected.

  15. Fluid Lensing, Applications to High-Resolution 3D Subaqueous Imaging & Automated Remote Biosphere Assessment from Airborne and Space-borne Platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chirayath, V.

    2014-12-01

    Fluid Lensing is a theoretical model and algorithm I present for fluid-optical interactions in turbulent flows as well as two-fluid surface boundaries that, when coupled with an unique computer vision and image-processing pipeline, may be used to significantly enhance the angular resolution of a remote sensing optical system with applicability to high-resolution 3D imaging of subaqueous regions and through turbulent fluid flows. This novel remote sensing technology has recently been implemented on a quadcopter-based UAS for imaging shallow benthic systems to create the first dataset of a biosphere with unprecedented sub-cm-level imagery in 3D over areas as large as 15 square kilometers. Perturbed two-fluid boundaries with different refractive indices, such as the surface between the ocean and air, may be exploited for use as lensing elements for imaging targets on either side of the interface with enhanced angular resolution. I present theoretical developments behind Fluid Lensing and experimental results from its recent implementation for the Reactive Reefs project to image shallow reef ecosystems at cm scales. Preliminary results from petabyte-scale aerial survey efforts using Fluid Lensing to image at-risk coral reefs in American Samoa (August, 2013) show broad applicability to large-scale automated species identification, morphology studies and reef ecosystem characterization for shallow marine environments and terrestrial biospheres, of crucial importance to understanding climate change's impact on coastal zones, global oxygen production and carbon sequestration.

  16. Remote sensing of the earth's surface; Proceedings of the Symposium 2, Topical Meeting, and Workshop I of the 27th COSPAR Plenary Meeting, Espoo, Finland, July 18-29, 1988

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salomonson, V. V. (Editor); Walter, L. S. (Editor); Maetzler, C. (Editor); Rott, H. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    The present conference discusses topics in the spaceborne study of the earth's surface, crust, and lithosphere, recent results from SPOT and Landsat TM investigations, and microwave observations of snowpack and soil properties. Attention is given to airborne and satellite-borne gravimetry, stereoviewing from space, TM studies of volcanism and tectonism in central Mexico, remote sensing of volcanoes, the uses of SPOT in forest management, the tectonics of the central Andes, and the application of VLBI to crustal movement studies. Also discussed are Landsat TM band ratios for soil investigations, snow dielectric measurements, the microwave radiometry of snow, microwave signatures of bare soil, the estimation of Alpine snow properties from Landsat TM data, and an experimental study of vegetable canopy microwave emissions.

  17. Retrieval of spinach crop parameters by microwave remote sensing with back propagation artificial neural networks: A comparison of different transfer functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, Rajendra; Pandey, A.; Singh, K. P.; Singh, V. P.; Mishra, R. K.; Singh, D.

    2012-08-01

    Back propagation artificial natural network (BPANN) is a well known and widely used machine learning methodology in the field of remote sensing. In this paper an attempt is made to retrieve the spinach crop parameters like biomass, leaf area index, average plant height and soil moisture content by using the X-band scattering coefficients with BPANN at different growth stages of this crop. The maturity age of this crop was found to be 45 days from the date of sowing. After 45 days from the date of sowing, this crop was cut at a certain height for production. Then, it is a point of interest to investigate the microwave response of variation in production. Significant variations in all the crop parameters were observed after cutting the crop and consequently made the problem more critical. Our work confirms the utility of BPANN in handling such a non-linear data set. The BPANN is essentially a network of simple processing nodes arranged into different layers as input, hidden and the output. The input layer propagates components of a particular input vector after weighting these with synaptic weights to each node in the hidden layer. At each node, these weighted input vector components are added. Each hidden layer computes output corresponding to these weighted sum through a non-linear/linear function (e.g. LOGSIG, TANSIG and PURLIN). These functions are known as transfer functions. Thus, each of the hidden layer nodes compute output values, which become inputs to the nodes of the output layer. At nodes of output layer also a weighted sum of outputs of previous layer (hidden layer) are obtained and processed through a transfer function. Thus, the output layer nodes compute the network output for the particular input vector. In this paper, output nodes use linear transfer function. Different transfer functions e.g. TANSIG, LOGSIG and PURELIN were used and the performance of the ANN was optimized by changing the number of neurons in the hidden layers. The present

  18. Remote Sensing of Liquid Water and Ice Cloud Optical Thickness and Effective Radius in the Arctic: Application of Airborne Multispectral MAS Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.; Platnick, Steven; Yang, Ping; Arnold, G. Thomas; Gray, Mark A.; Riedi, Jerome C.; Ackerman, Steven A.; Liou, Kuo-Nan

    2003-01-01

    A multispectral scanning spectrometer was used to obtain measurements of the reflection function and brightness temperature of clouds, sea ice, snow, and tundra surfaces at 50 discrete wavelengths between 0.47 and 14.0 microns. These observations were obtained from the NASA ER-2 aircraft as part of the FIRE Arctic Clouds Experiment, conducted over a 1600 x 500 km region of the north slope of Alaska and surrounding Beaufort and Chukchi Seas between 18 May and 6 June 1998. Multispectral images of the reflection function and brightness temperature in 11 distinct bands of the MODIS Airborne Simulator (MAS) were used to derive a confidence in clear sky (or alternatively the probability of cloud), shadow, and heavy aerosol over five different ecosystems. Based on the results of individual tests run as part of the cloud mask, an algorithm was developed to estimate the phase of the clouds (water, ice, or undetermined phase). Finally, the cloud optical thickness and effective radius were derived for both water and ice clouds that were detected during one flight line on 4 June. This analysis shows that the cloud mask developed for operational use on MODIS, and tested using MAS data in Alaska, is quite capable of distinguishing clouds from bright sea ice surfaces during daytime conditions in the high Arctic. Results of individual tests, however, make it difficult to distinguish ice clouds over snow and sea ice surfaces, so additional tests were added to enhance the confidence in the thermodynamic phase of clouds over the Beaufort Sea. The cloud optical thickness and effective radius retrievals used 3 distinct bands of the MAS, with the newly developed 1.62 and 2.13 micron bands being used quite successfully over snow and sea ice surfaces. These results are contrasted with a MODIS-based algorithm that relies on spectral reflectance at 0.87 and 2.13 micron.

  19. Progress Towards the Remote Sensing of Aircraft Icing Hazards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reehorst, Andrew; Brinker, David; Politovich, Marcia; Serke, David; Ryerson, Charles; Pazmany, Andrew; Solheim, Fredrick

    2009-01-01

    NASA has teamed with the FAA, DoD, industry, and academia for research into the remote detection and measurement of atmospheric conditions leading to aircraft icing hazards. The ultimate goal of this effort is to provide pilots, controllers, and dispatchers sufficient information to allow aircraft to avoid or minimize their exposure to the hazards of in-flight icing. Since the hazard of in-flight icing is the outcome of aircraft flight through clouds containing supercooled liquid water and strongly influenced by the aircraft s speed and configuration and by the length of exposure, the hazard cannot be directly detected, but must be inferred based upon the measurement of conducive atmospheric conditions. Therefore, icing hazard detection is accomplished through the detection and measurement of liquid water in regions of measured sub-freezing air temperatures. The icing environment is currently remotely measured from the ground with a system fusing radar, lidar, and multifrequency microwave radiometer sensors. Based upon expected ice accretion severity for the measured environment, a resultant aircraft hazard is then calculated. Because of the power, size, weight, and view angle constraints of airborne platforms, the current ground-based solution is not applicable for flight. Two current airborne concepts are based upon the use of either multifrequency radiometers or multifrequency radar. Both ground-based and airborne solutions are required for the future since groundbased systems can provide hazard detection for all aircraft in airport terminal regions while airborne systems will be needed to provide equipped aircraft with flight path coverage between terminal regions.

  20. Connecting forest ecosystem and microwave backscatter models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kasischke, Eric S.; Christensen, Norman L., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    A procedure is outlined to connect data obtained from active microwave remote sensing systems with forest ecosystem models. The hierarchy of forest ecosystem models is discussed, and the levels at which microwave remote sensing data can be used as inputs are identified. In addition, techniques to utilize forest ecosystem models to assist in the validation of theoretical microwave backscatter models are identified. Several examples to illustrate these connecting processes are presented.

  1. Characterization of shallow marine convection in subtropical regions by airborne and spaceborne lidar measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, Silke; Gutleben, Manuel; Schäfler, Andreas; Kiemle, Christoph; Wirth, Martin; Hirsch, Lutz; Ament, Felix

    2016-04-01

    One of the biggest challenges in present day climate research is still the quantification of cloud feedbacks in climate models. Especially the feedback from marine cumulus clouds in the boundary layer with maximum cloud top heights of 4 km introduces large uncertainties in climate sensitivity. Therefore a better understanding of these