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Sample records for airborne multispectral digital

  1. Employing airborne multispectral digital imagery to map Brazilian pepper infestation in south Texas.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted in south Texas to determine the feasibility of using airborne multispectral digital imagery for differentiating the invasive plant Brazilian pepper (Schinus terebinthifolius) from other cover types. Imagery obtained in the visible, near infrared, and mid infrared regions of th...

  2. Evaluating airborne multispectral digital video to differentiate giant Salvinia from other features in northeast Texas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Giant salvinia is one of the world’s most noxious aquatic weeds. Researchers employed airborne digital video imagery and an unsupervised computer analysis to derive a map showing giant salvinia and other aquatic and terrestrial features within a study site located in northeast Texas. The map had a...

  3. Airborne system for testing multispectral reconnaissance technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, Dirk-Roger; Doergeloh, Heinrich; Keil, Heiko; Wetjen, Wilfried

    1999-07-01

    There is an increasing demand for future airborne reconnaissance systems to obtain aerial images for tactical or peacekeeping operations. Especially Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) equipped with multispectral sensor system and with real time jam resistant data transmission capabilities are of high interest. An airborne experimental platform has been developed as testbed to investigate different concepts of reconnaissance systems before their application in UAVs. It is based on a Dornier DO 228 aircraft, which is used as flying platform. Great care has been taken to achieve the possibility to test different kinds of multispectral sensors. Hence basically it is capable to be equipped with an IR sensor head, high resolution aerial cameras of the whole optical spectrum and radar systems. The onboard equipment further includes system for digital image processing, compression, coding, and storage. The data are RF transmitted to the ground station using technologies with high jam resistance. The images, after merging with enhanced vision components, are delivered to the observer who has an uplink data channel available to control flight and imaging parameters.

  4. Multispectral Airborne Laser Scanning for Automated Map Updating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matikainen, Leena; Hyyppä, Juha; Litkey, Paula

    2016-06-01

    During the last 20 years, airborne laser scanning (ALS), often combined with multispectral information from aerial images, has shown its high feasibility for automated mapping processes. Recently, the first multispectral airborne laser scanners have been launched, and multispectral information is for the first time directly available for 3D ALS point clouds. This article discusses the potential of this new single-sensor technology in map updating, especially in automated object detection and change detection. For our study, Optech Titan multispectral ALS data over a suburban area in Finland were acquired. Results from a random forests analysis suggest that the multispectral intensity information is useful for land cover classification, also when considering ground surface objects and classes, such as roads. An out-of-bag estimate for classification error was about 3% for separating classes asphalt, gravel, rocky areas and low vegetation from each other. For buildings and trees, it was under 1%. According to feature importance analyses, multispectral features based on several channels were more useful that those based on one channel. Automatic change detection utilizing the new multispectral ALS data, an old digital surface model (DSM) and old building vectors was also demonstrated. Overall, our first analyses suggest that the new data are very promising for further increasing the automation level in mapping. The multispectral ALS technology is independent of external illumination conditions, and intensity images produced from the data do not include shadows. These are significant advantages when the development of automated classification and change detection procedures is considered.

  5. Airborne multispectral detection of regrowth cotton fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westbrook, John K.; Suh, Charles P.-C.; Yang, Chenghai; Lan, Yubin; Eyster, Ritchie S.

    2015-01-01

    Effective methods are needed for timely areawide detection of regrowth cotton plants because boll weevils (a quarantine pest) can feed and reproduce on these plants beyond the cotton production season. Airborne multispectral images of regrowth cotton plots were acquired on several dates after three shredding (i.e., stalk destruction) dates. Linear spectral unmixing (LSU) classification was applied to high-resolution airborne multispectral images of regrowth cotton plots to estimate the minimum detectable size and subsequent growth of plants. We found that regrowth cotton fields can be identified when the mean plant width is ˜0.2 m for an image resolution of 0.1 m. LSU estimates of canopy cover of regrowth cotton plots correlated well (r2=0.81) with the ratio of mean plant width to row spacing, a surrogate measure of plant canopy cover. The height and width of regrowth plants were both well correlated (r2=0.94) with accumulated degree-days after shredding. The results will help boll weevil eradication program managers use airborne multispectral images to detect and monitor the regrowth of cotton plants after stalk destruction, and identify fields that may require further inspection and mitigation of boll weevil infestations.

  6. Highly Protable Airborne Multispectral Imaging System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lehnemann, Robert; Mcnamee, Todd

    2001-01-01

    A portable instrumentation system is described that includes and airborne and a ground-based subsytem. It can acquire multispectral image data over swaths of terrain ranging in width from about 1.5 to 1 km. The system was developed especially for use in coastal environments and is well suited for performing remote sensing and general environmental monitoring. It includes a small,munpilotaed, remotely controlled airplance that carries a forward-looking camera for navigation, three downward-looking monochrome video cameras for imaging terrain in three spectral bands, a video transmitter, and a Global Positioning System (GPS) reciever.

  7. Michigan experimental multispectral mapping system: A description of the M7 airborne sensor and its performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasell, P. G., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    The development and characteristics of a multispectral band scanner for an airborne mapping system are discussed. The sensor operates in the ultraviolet, visual, and infrared frequencies. Any twelve of the bands may be selected for simultaneous, optically registered recording on a 14-track analog tape recorder. Multispectral imagery recorded on magnetic tape in the aircraft can be laboratory reproduced on film strips for visual analysis or optionally machine processed in analog and/or digital computers before display. The airborne system performance is analyzed.

  8. Study on airborne multispectral imaging fusion detection technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Na; Gao, Jiaobo; Wang, Jun; Cheng, Juan; Gao, Meng; Gao, Fei; Fan, Zhe; Sun, Kefeng; Wu, Jun; Li, Junna; Gao, Zedong; Cheng, Gang

    2014-11-01

    The airborne multispectral imaging fusion detection technology is proposed in this paper. In this design scheme, the airborne multispectral imaging system consists of the multispectral camera, the image processing unit, and the stabilized platform. The multispectral camera can operate in the spectral region from visible to near infrared waveband (0.4-1.0um), it has four same and independent imaging channels, and sixteen different typical wavelengths to be selected based on the different typical targets and background. The related experiments were tested by the airborne multispectral imaging system. In particularly, the camouflage targets were fused and detected in the different complex environment, such as the land vegetation background, the desert hot background and underwater. In the spectral region from 0.4 um to 1.0um, the three different characteristic wave from sixteen typical spectral are selected and combined according to different backgrounds and targets. The spectral image corresponding to the three characteristic wavelengths is resisted and fused by the image processing technology in real time, and the fusion video with typical target property is outputted. In these fusion images, the contrast of target and background is greatly increased. Experimental results confirm that the airborne multispectral imaging fusion detection technology can acquire multispectral fusion image with high contrast in real time, and has the ability of detecting and identification camouflage objects from complex background to targets underwater.

  9. Airborne system for multispectral, multiangle polarimetric imaging.

    PubMed

    Bowles, Jeffrey H; Korwan, Daniel R; Montes, Marcos J; Gray, Deric J; Gillis, David B; Lamela, Gia M; Miller, W David

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we describe the design, fabrication, calibration, and deployment of an airborne multispectral polarimetric imager. The motivation for the development of this instrument was to explore its ability to provide information about water constituents, such as particle size and type. The instrument is based on four 16 MP cameras and uses wire grid polarizers (aligned at 0°, 45°, 90°, and 135°) to provide the separation of the polarization states. A five-position filter wheel provides for four narrow-band spectral filters (435, 550, 625, and 750 nm) and one blocked position for dark-level measurements. When flown, the instrument is mounted on a programmable stage that provides control of the view angles. View angles that range to ±65° from the nadir have been used. Data processing provides a measure of the polarimetric signature as a function of both the view zenith and view azimuth angles. As a validation of our initial results, we compare our measurements, over water, with the output of a Monte Carlo code, both of which show neutral points off the principle plane. The locations of the calculated and measured neutral points are compared. The random error level in the measured degree of linear polarization (8% at 435) is shown to be better than 0.25%. PMID:26560615

  10. Citrus greening detection using airborne hyperspectral and multispectral imaging techniques

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hyperspectral imaging can provide unique spectral signatures for diseased vegetation. Airborne multispectral and hyperspectral imaging can be used to detect potentially infected trees over a large area for rapid detection of infected zones. This paper proposes a method to detect the citrus greening...

  11. Airborne multispectral detecting system for marine mammals survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podobna, Yuliya; Sofianos, James; Schoonmaker, Jon; Medeiros, Dustin; Boucher, Cynthia; Oakley, Daniel; Saggese, Steve

    2010-04-01

    This work presents an electro-optical multispectral capability that detects and monitors marine mammals. It is a continuance of Whale Search Radar SBIR program funded by PMA-264 through NAVAIR. A lightweight, multispectral, turreted imaging system is designed for airborne and ship based platforms to detect and monitor marine mammals. The system tests were conducted over the Humpback whale breeding and calving area in Maui, Hawaii. The results of the tests and the system description are presented. The development of an automatic whale detection algorithm is discussed as well as methodology used to turn raw survey data into quantifiable data products.

  12. Sandia Multispectral Airborne Lidar for UAV Deployment

    SciTech Connect

    Daniels, J.W.; Hargis,Jr. P.J.; Henson, T.D.; Jordan, J.D.; Lang, A.R.; Schmitt, R.L.

    1998-10-23

    Sandia National Laboratories has initiated the development of an airborne system for W laser remote sensing measurements. System applications include the detection of effluents associated with the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and the detection of biological weapon aerosols. This paper discusses the status of the conceptual design development and plans for both the airborne payload (pointing and tracking, laser transmitter, and telescope receiver) and the Altus unmanned aerospace vehicle platform. Hardware design constraints necessary to maintain system weight, power, and volume limitations of the flight platform are identified.

  13. Deepwater Horizon oil spill monitoring using airborne multispectral infrared imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Sylvia S.; Lewis, Paul E.

    2011-06-01

    On April 28, 2010, the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Airborne Spectral Photometric Environmental Collection Technology (ASPECT) aircraft was deployed to Gulfport, Mississippi to provide airborne remotely sensed air monitoring and situational awareness data and products in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill disaster. The ASPECT aircraft was released from service on August 9, 2010 after having flown over 85 missions that included over 325 hours of flight operation. This paper describes several advanced analysis capabilities specifically developed for the Deepwater Horizon mission to correctly locate, identify, characterize, and quantify surface oil using ASPECT's multispectral infrared data. The data products produced using these advanced analysis capabilities provided the Deepwater Horizon Incident Command with a capability that significantly increased the effectiveness of skimmer vessel oil recovery efforts directed by the U.S. Coast Guard, and were considered by the Incident Command as key situational awareness information.

  14. Testing of Land Cover Classification from Multispectral Airborne Laser Scanning Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakuła, K.; Kupidura, P.; Jełowicki, Ł.

    2016-06-01

    Multispectral Airborne Laser Scanning provides a new opportunity for airborne data collection. It provides high-density topographic surveying and is also a useful tool for land cover mapping. Use of a minimum of three intensity images from a multiwavelength laser scanner and 3D information included in the digital surface model has the potential for land cover/use classification and a discussion about the application of this type of data in land cover/use mapping has recently begun. In the test study, three laser reflectance intensity images (orthogonalized point cloud) acquired in green, near-infrared and short-wave infrared bands, together with a digital surface model, were used in land cover/use classification where six classes were distinguished: water, sand and gravel, concrete and asphalt, low vegetation, trees and buildings. In the tested methods, different approaches for classification were applied: spectral (based only on laser reflectance intensity images), spectral with elevation data as additional input data, and spectro-textural, using morphological granulometry as a method of texture analysis of both types of data: spectral images and the digital surface model. The method of generating the intensity raster was also tested in the experiment. Reference data were created based on visual interpretation of ALS data and traditional optical aerial and satellite images. The results have shown that multispectral ALS data are unlike typical multispectral optical images, and they have a major potential for land cover/use classification. An overall accuracy of classification over 90% was achieved. The fusion of multi-wavelength laser intensity images and elevation data, with the additional use of textural information derived from granulometric analysis of images, helped to improve the accuracy of classification significantly. The method of interpolation for the intensity raster was not very helpful, and using intensity rasters with both first and last return

  15. Multispectral airborne laser scanning - a new trend in the development of LiDAR technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakuła, K.

    2015-12-01

    Airborne laser scanning (ALS) is the one of the most accurate remote sensing techniques for data acquisition where the terrain and its coverage is concerned. Modern scanners have been able to scan in two or more channels (frequencies of the laser) recently. This gives the rise to the possibility of obtaining diverse information about an area with the different spectral properties of objects. The paper presents an example of a multispectral ALS system - Titan by Optech - with the possibility of data including the analysis of digital elevation models accuracy and data density. As a result of the study, the high relative accuracy of LiDAR acquisition in three spectral bands was proven. The mean differences between digital terrain models (DTMs) were less than 0.03 m. The data density analysis showed the influence of the laser wavelength. The points clouds that were tested had average densities of 25, 23 and 20 points per square metre respectively for green (G), near-infrared (NIR) and shortwave-infrared (SWIR) lasers. In this paper, the possibility of the generation of colour composites using orthoimages of laser intensity reflectance and its classification capabilities using data from airborne multispectral laser scanning for land cover mapping are also discussed and compared with conventional photogrammetric techniques.

  16. Classroom multispectral imaging using inexpensive digital cameras.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortes, A. D.

    2007-12-01

    The proliferation of increasingly cheap digital cameras in recent years means that it has become easier to exploit the broad wavelength sensitivity of their CCDs (360 - 1100 nm) for classroom-based teaching. With the right tools, it is possible to open children's eyes to the invisible world of UVA and near-IR radiation either side of our narrow visual band. The camera-filter combinations I describe can be used to explore the world of animal vision, looking for invisible markings on flowers, or in bird plumage, for example. In combination with a basic spectroscope (such as the Project-STAR handheld plastic spectrometer, 25), it is possible to investigate the range of human vision and camera sensitivity, and to explore the atomic and molecular absorption lines from the solar and terrestrial atmospheres. My principal use of the cameras has been to teach multispectral imaging of the kind used to determine remotely the composition of planetary surfaces. A range of camera options, from 50 circuit-board mounted CCDs up to $900 semi-pro infrared camera kits (including mobile phones along the way), and various UV-vis-IR filter options will be presented. Examples of multispectral images taken with these systems are used to illustrate the range of classroom topics that can be covered. Particular attention is given to learning about spectral reflectance curves and comparing images from Earth and Mars taken using the same filter combination that it used on the Mars Rovers.

  17. Digital computer processing of peach orchard multispectral aerial photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkinson, R. J.

    1976-01-01

    Several methods of analysis using digital computers applicable to digitized multispectral aerial photography, are described, with particular application to peach orchard test sites. This effort was stimulated by the recent premature death of peach trees in the Southeastern United States. The techniques discussed are: (1) correction of intensity variations by digital filtering, (2) automatic detection and enumeration of trees in five size categories, (3) determination of unhealthy foliage by infrared reflectances, and (4) four band multispectral classification into healthy and declining categories.

  18. Application of combined Landsat thematic mapper and airborne thermal infrared multispectral scanner data to lithologic mapping in Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Podwysocki, M.H.; Ehmann, W.J.; Brickey, D.W.

    1987-01-01

    Future Landsat satellites are to include the Thematic Mapper (TM) and also may incorporate additional multispectral scanners. One such scanner being considered for geologic and other applications is a four-channel thermal-infrared multispectral scanner having 60-m spatial resolution. This paper discusses the results of studies using combined Landsat TM and airborne Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) digital data for lithologic discrimination, identification, and geologic mapping in two areas within the Basin and Range province of Nevada. Field and laboratory reflectance spectra in the visible and reflective-infrared and laboratory spectra in the thermal-infrared parts of the spectrum were used to verify distinctions made between rock types in the image data sets.

  19. ASPIS, A Flexible Multispectral System for Airborne Remote Sensing Environmental Applications

    PubMed Central

    Papale, Dario; Belli, Claudio; Gioli, Beniamino; Miglietta, Franco; Ronchi, Cesare; Vaccari, Francesco Primo; Valentini, Riccardo

    2008-01-01

    Airborne multispectral and hyperspectral remote sensing is a powerful tool for environmental monitoring applications. In this paper we describe a new system (ASPIS) composed by a 4-CCD spectral sensor, a thermal IR camera and a laser altimeter that is mounted on a flexible Sky-Arrow airplane. A test application of the multispectral sensor to estimate durum wheat quality is also presented.

  20. Spectra-view: A high performance, low-cost multispectral airborne imaging system

    SciTech Connect

    Helder, D.

    1996-11-01

    Although a variety of airborne platforms are available for collecting remote sensing data, a niche exists for a low cost, compact systemd capable of collecting accurate visible and infrared multispectral data in a digital format. To fill this void, an instrument known as Spectra-View was developed by Airborne Data Systems. Multispectral data is collected in the visible and near-infrared using an array of CCD cameras with appropriate spectral filtering. Infrared imaging is accomplished using commercially available cameras. Although the current system images in five spectral bands, a modular design approach allows various configurations for imaging in the visible and infrared regions with up to 10 or more channels. It was built entirely through integration of readily available commercial components, is compact enough to fly in an aircraft as small as a Cessna 172, and can record imagery at airspeeds in excess of 150 knots. A GPS-based navigation system provides a course deviation indicator for the pilot to follow and allows for georeferencing of the data. To maintain precise pointing knowledge, and at the same time keep system cost low, attitude sensors are mounted directly with the cameras rather than using a stabilized mounting system. Information is collect during camera firing of aircraft/camera attitude along the yaw, pitch, and roll axes. All data is collected in a digital format on a hard disk that is removable during flight so that virtually unlimited amounts of data may be recorded. Following collection, imagery is readily available for viewing and incorporation into computer-based systems for analysis and reduction. Ground processing software has been developed to perform radiometric calibration and georeference the imagery. Since June, 1995, the system has been collecting high-quality data in a variety of applications for numerous customers including applications in agriculture, forestry, and global change research. Several examples will be presented.

  1. High Resolution Airborne Digital Imagery for Precision Agriculture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herwitz, Stanley R.

    1998-01-01

    The Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) program is a NASA initiative that seeks to demonstrate the application of cost-effective aircraft and sensor technology to private commercial ventures. In 1997-98, a series of flight-demonstrations and image acquisition efforts were conducted over the Hawaiian Islands using a remotely-piloted solar- powered platform (Pathfinder) and a fixed-wing piloted aircraft (Navajo) equipped with a Kodak DCS450 CIR (color infrared) digital camera. As an ERAST Science Team Member, I defined a set of flight lines over the largest coffee plantation in Hawaii: the Kauai Coffee Company's 4,000 acre Koloa Estate. Past studies have demonstrated the applications of airborne digital imaging to agricultural management. Few studies have examined the usefulness of high resolution airborne multispectral imagery with 10 cm pixel sizes. The Kodak digital camera integrated with ERAST's Airborne Real Time Imaging System (ARTIS) which generated multiband CCD images consisting of 6 x 106 pixel elements. At the designated flight altitude of 1,000 feet over the coffee plantation, pixel size was 10 cm. The study involved the analysis of imagery acquired on 5 March 1998 for the detection of anomalous reflectance values and for the definition of spectral signatures as indicators of tree vigor and treatment effectiveness (e.g., drip irrigation; fertilizer application).

  2. A comparison of digital multi-spectral imagery versus conventional photography for mapping seagrass in Indian River Lagoon, Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Virnstein, R.; Tepera, M.; Beazley, L.

    1997-06-01

    A pilot study is very briefly summarized in the article. The study tested the potential of multi-spectral digital imagery for discrimination of seagrass densities and species, algae, and bottom types. Imagery was obtained with the Compact Airborne Spectral Imager (casi) and two flight lines flown with hyper-spectral mode. The photogrammetric method used allowed interpretation of the highest quality product, eliminating limitations caused by outdated or poor quality base maps and the errors associated with transfer of polygons. Initial image analysis indicates that the multi-spectral imagery has several advantages, including sophisticated spectral signature recognition and classification, ease of geo-referencing, and rapid mosaicking.

  3. Comparison of different detection methods for citrus greening disease based on airborne multispectral and hyperspectral imagery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus greening or Huanglongbing (HLB) is a devastating disease spread in many citrus groves since first found in 2005 in Florida. Multispectral (MS) and hyperspectral (HS) airborne images of citrus groves in Florida were taken to detect citrus greening infected trees in 2007 and 2010. Ground truthi...

  4. An airborne multispectral imaging system based on two consumer-grade cameras for agricultural remote sensing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper describes the design and evaluation of an airborne multispectral imaging system based on two identical consumer-grade cameras for agricultural remote sensing. The cameras are equipped with a full-frame complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) sensor with 5616 × 3744 pixels. One came...

  5. Remote identification of potential boll weevil host plants: Airborne multispectral detection of regrowth cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Regrowth cotton plants can serve as potential hosts for boll weevils during and beyond the production season. Effective methods for timely areawide detection of these host plants are critically needed to expedite eradication in south Texas. We acquired airborne multispectral images of experimental...

  6. Using airborne multispectral imagery to monitor cotton root rot expansion within a growing season

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton root rot is a serious and destructive disease that affects cotton production in the southwestern United States. Accurate delineation of cotton root rot infestations is important for cost-effective management of the disease. The objective of this study was to use airborne multispectral imagery...

  7. Multispectral imaging for digital painting analysis: a Gauguin case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornelis, Bruno; Dooms, Ann; Leen, Frederik; Munteanu, Adrian; Schelkens, Peter

    2010-08-01

    This paper is an introduction into the analysis of multispectral recordings of paintings. First, we will give an overview of the advantages of multispectral image analysis over more traditional techniques: first of all, the bands residing in the visible domain provide an accurate measurement of the color information which can be used for analysis but also for conservational and archival purposes (i.e. preserving the art patrimonial by making a digital library). Secondly, inspection of the multispectral imagery by art experts and art conservators has shown that combining the information present in the spectral bands residing in- and outside the visible domain can lead to a richer analysis of paintings. In the remainder of the paper, practical applications of multispectral analysis are demonstrated, where we consider the acquisition of thirteen different, high resolution spectral bands. Nine of these reside in the visible domain, one in the near ultraviolet and three in the infrared. The paper will illustrate the promising future of multispectral analysis as a non-invasive tool for acquiring data which cannot be acquired by visual inspection alone and which is highly relevant to art preservation, authentication and restoration. The demonstrated applications include detection of restored areas and detection of aging cracks.

  8. Comparison of Airborne Multispectral and Hyperspectral Imagery for Yield Estimation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Multispectral and hyperspectral imagery is being used to monitor crop conditions and map yield variability. However, limited research has been conducted to compare the differences between these two types of imagery for assessing crop growth and yield. The objective of this study was to compare airbo...

  9. A new method of building footprints detection using airborne laser scanning data and multispectral image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Yiping; Jiang, Ting; Gao, Shengli; Wang, Xin

    2010-10-01

    It presents a new approach for detecting building footprints in a combination of registered aerial image with multispectral bands and airborne laser scanning data synchronously obtained by Leica-Geosystems ALS40 and Applanix DACS-301 on the same platform. A two-step method for building detection was presented consisting of selecting 'building' candidate points and then classifying candidate points. A digital surface model(DSM) derived from last pulse laser scanning data was first filtered and the laser points were classified into classes 'ground' and 'building or tree' based on mathematic morphological filter. Then, 'ground' points were resample into digital elevation model(DEM), and a Normalized DSM(nDSM) was generated from DEM and DSM. The candidate points were selected from 'building or tree' points by height value and area threshold in nDSM. The candidate points were further classified into building points and tree points by using the support vector machines(SVM) classification method. Two classification tests were carried out using features only from laser scanning data and associated features from two input data sources. The features included height, height finite difference, RGB bands value, and so on. The RGB value of points was acquired by matching laser scanning data and image using collinear equation. The features of training points were presented as input data for SVM classification method, and cross validation was used to select best classification parameters. The determinant function could be constructed by the classification parameters and the class of candidate points was determined by determinant function. The result showed that associated features from two input data sources were superior to features only from laser scanning data. The accuracy of more than 90% was achieved for buildings in first kind of features.

  10. Citrus greening disease detection using airborne multispectral and hyperspectral imaging

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hyperspectral imaging can provide unique spectral signatures for diseased vegetation. Airborne hyperspectral imaging can be used to detect potentially infected trees over a large area for rapid detection of infected zones. Ground inspection and management can be focused on these infected zones rath...

  11. Calibrated and geocoded clutter from an airborne multispectral scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heuer, Markus; Bruehlmann, Ralph; John, Marc-Andre; Schmid, Konrad J.; Hueppi, Rudolph; Koenig, Reto

    1999-07-01

    Robustness of automatic target recognition (ATR) to varying observation conditions and countermeasures is substantially increased by use of multispectral sensors. Assessment of such ATR systems is performed by captive flight tests and simulations (HWIL or complete modeling). Although the clutter components of a scene can be generated with specified statistics, clutter maps directly obtained from measurement are required for validation of a simulation. In addition, urban scenes have non-stationary characteristics and are difficult to simulate. The present paper describes a scanner, data acquisition and processing system used for the generation of realistic clutter maps incorporating infrared, passive and active millimeter wave channels. The sensors are mounted on a helicopter with coincident line-of-sight, enabling us to measure consistent clutter signatures under varying observation conditions. Position and attitude data from GPS and an inertial measurement unit, respectively, are used to geometrically correct the raw scanner data. After sensor calibration the original voltage signals are converted to physical units, i.e. temperatures and reflectivities, describing the clutter independently of the scanning sensor, thus allowing us the use of the clutter maps in tests of a priori unknown multispectral sensors. The data correction procedures are described and results are presented.

  12. Geometric analysis and restitution of digital multispectral scanner data arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, J. R.; Mikhail, E. M.

    1975-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to define causes of geometric defects within digital multispectral scanner (MSS) data arrays, to analyze the resulting geometric errors, and to investigate restitution methods to correct or reduce these errors. Geometric transformation relationships for scanned data, from which collinearity equations may be derived, served as the basis of parametric methods of analysis and restitution of MSS digital data arrays. The linearization of these collinearity equations is presented. Algorithms considered for use in analysis and restitution included the MSS collinearity equations, piecewise polynomials based on linearized collinearity equations, and nonparametric algorithms. A proposed system for geometric analysis and restitution of MSS digital data arrays was used to evaluate these algorithms, utilizing actual MSS data arrays. It was shown that collinearity equations and nonparametric algorithms both yield acceptable results, but nonparametric algorithms possess definite advantages in computational efficiency. Piecewise polynomials were found to yield inferior results.

  13. Determining density of maize canopy. 2: Airborne multispectral scanner data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoner, E. R.; Baumgardner, M. F.; Cipra, J. E.

    1971-01-01

    Multispectral scanner data were collected in two flights over a light colored soil background cover plot at an altitude of 305 m. Energy in eleven reflective wavelength band from 0.45 to 2.6 microns was recorded. Four growth stages of maize (Zea mays L.) gave a wide range of canopy densities for each flight date. Leaf area index measurements were taken from the twelve subplots and were used as a measure of canopy density. Ratio techniques were used to relate uncalibrated scanner response to leaf area index. The ratios of scanner data values for the 0.72 to 0.92 micron wavelength band over the 0.61 to 0.70 micron wavelength band were calculated for each plot. The ratios related very well to leaf area index for a given flight date. The results indicated that spectral data from maize canopies could be of value in determining canopy density.

  14. Evaluation of eelgrass beds mapping using a high-resolution airborne multispectral scanner

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Su, H.; Karna, D.; Fraim, E.; Fitzgerald, M.; Dominguez, R.; Myers, J.S.; Coffland, B.; Handley, L.R.; Mace, T.

    2006-01-01

    Eelgrass (Zostera marina) can provide vital ecological functions in stabilizing sediments, influencing current dynamics, and contributing significant amounts of biomass to numerous food webs in coastal ecosystems. Mapping eelgrass beds is important for coastal water and nearshore estuarine monitoring, management, and planning. This study demonstrated the possible use of high spatial (approximately 5 m) and temporal (maximum low tide) resolution airborne multispectral scanner on mapping eelgrass beds in Northern Puget Sound, Washington. A combination of supervised and unsupervised classification approaches were performed on the multispectral scanner imagery. A normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) derived from the red and near-infrared bands and ancillary spatial information, were used to extract and mask eelgrass beds and other submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) in the study area. We evaluated the resulting thematic map (geocoded, classified image) against a conventional aerial photograph interpretation using 260 point locations randomly stratified over five defined classes from the thematic map. We achieved an overall accuracy of 92 percent with 0.92 Kappa Coefficient in the study area. This study demonstrates that the airborne multispectral scanner can be useful for mapping eelgrass beds in a local or regional scale, especially in regions for which optical remote sensing from space is constrained by climatic and tidal conditions. ?? 2006 American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing.

  15. Towards Automatic Single-Sensor Mapping by Multispectral Airborne Laser Scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahokas, E.; Hyyppä, J.; Yu, X.; Liang, X.; Matikainen, L.; Karila, K.; Litkey, P.; Kukko, A.; Jaakkola, A.; Kaartinen, H.; Holopainen, M.; Vastaranta, M.

    2016-06-01

    This paper describes the possibilities of the Optech Titan multispectral airborne laser scanner in the fields of mapping and forestry. Investigation was targeted to six land cover classes. Multispectral laser scanner data can be used to distinguish land cover classes of the ground surface, including the roads and separate road surface classes. For forest inventory using point cloud metrics and intensity features combined, total accuracy of 93.5% was achieved for classification of three main boreal tree species (pine, spruce and birch).When using intensity features - without point height metrics - a classification accuracy of 91% was achieved for these three tree species. It was also shown that deciduous trees can be further classified into more species. We propose that intensity-related features and waveform-type features are combined with point height metrics for forest attribute derivation in area-based prediction, which is an operatively applied forest inventory process in Scandinavia. It is expected that multispectral airborne laser scanning can provide highly valuable data for city and forest mapping and is a highly relevant data asset for national and local mapping agencies in the near future.

  16. Multispectral light scattering imaging and multivariate analysis of airborne particulates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holler, Stephen; Skelsey, Charles R.; Fuerstenau, Stephen D.

    2005-05-01

    Light scattering patterns from non-spherical particles and aggregates exhibit complex structure that is only revealed when observing in two angular dimensions. However, due to the varied shape and packing of such aerosols, the rich structure in the two-dimensional angular optical scattering (TAOS) pattern varies from particle to particle. We examine two-dimensional light scattering patterns obtained at multiple wavelengths using a single CCD camera with minimal cross talk between channels. The integration of the approach with a single CCD camera assures that data is acquired within the same solid angle and orientation. Since the optical size of the scattering particle is inversely proportional to the illuminating wavelength, the spectrally resolved scattering information provides characteristic information about the airborne particles simultaneously in two different scaling regimes. The simultaneous acquisition of data from airborne particulate matter at two different wavelengths allows for additional degrees of freedom in the analysis and characterization of the aerosols. Whereas our previous multivariate analyses of aerosol particles has relied solely on spatial frequency components, our present approach attempts to incorporate the relative symmetry of the particledetector system while extracting information content from both spectral channels. In addition to single channel data, this current approach also examines relative metrics. Consequently, we have begun to employ multivariate techniques based on novel morphological descriptors in order to classify "unknown" particles within a database of TAOS patterns from known aerosols utilizing both spectral and spatial information acquired. A comparison is made among several different classification metrics, all of which show improved classification capabilities relative to our previous approaches.

  17. Urban land use monitoring from computer-implemented processing of airborne multispectral data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todd, W. J.; Mausel, P. W.; Baumgardner, M. F.

    1976-01-01

    Machine processing techniques were applied to multispectral data obtained from airborne scanners at an elevation of 600 meters over central Indianapolis in August, 1972. Computer analysis of these spectral data indicate that roads (two types), roof tops (three types), dense grass (two types), sparse grass (two types), trees, bare soil, and water (two types) can be accurately identified. Using computers, it is possible to determine land uses from analysis of type, size, shape, and spatial associations of earth surface images identified from multispectral data. Land use data developed through machine processing techniques can be programmed to monitor land use changes, simulate land use conditions, and provide impact statistics that are required to analyze stresses placed on spatial systems.

  18. An interactive lake survey program. [airborne multispectral sensor image processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, A. Y.

    1977-01-01

    Consideration is given to the development and operation of the interactive lake survey program developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and the Environmental Protection Agency. The program makes it possible to locate, isolate, and store any number of water bodies on the basis of a given digital image. The stored information may be used to generate statistical analyses of each body of water including the lake surface area and the shoreline perimeter. The hardware includes a 360/65 host computer, a Ramtek G100B display controller, and a trackball cursor. The system is illustrated by the LAKELOC operation as it would be applied to a Landsat scene, noting the FARINA and STATUS programs. The water detection algorithm, which increases the accuracy with which water and land data may be separated, is discussed.

  19. The design and the development of a hyperspectral and multispectral airborne mapping system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorsevski, Pece V.; Gessler, Paul E.

    Flexible and cost-effective tools for rapid image acquisition and natural resource mapping are needed by land managers. This paper describes the hardware and software architecture of a low-cost system that can be deployed on a light aircraft for rapid data acquisition. The Hyperspectral and Multispectral Cameras for Airborne Mapping (HAMCAM) was designed and developed in the Geospatial Laboratory for Environmental Dynamics at the University of Idaho as a student-learning tool, and to enhance the existing curriculum currently offered. The system integrates a hyperspectral sensor with four multispectral cameras, an Inertial Navigation System (INS), a Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS)-capable Global Positioning System (GPS), a data acquisition computer, and custom software for running the sensors in a variety of different modes. The outputs include very high resolution imagery obtained in four adjustable visible and near-infrared bands from the multispectral imager. The hyperspectral sensor acquires 240 spectral bands along 2.7 nm intervals within the 445-900 nm range. The INS provides aircraft pitch, roll and yaw information for rapid geo-registration of the imagery. This paper will discuss the challenges associated with the development of the system and the integration of components and software for implementation of this system for natural resource management applications. In addition, sample imagery acquired by the sensor will be presented.

  20. Application of multimode airborne digital camera system in Wenchuan earthquake disaster monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xue; Li, Qingting; Fang, Junyong; Tong, Qingxi; Zheng, Lanfen

    2009-06-01

    Remote sensing, especially airborne remote sensing, can be an invaluable technique for quick response to natural disasters. Timely acquired images by airborne remote sensing can provide very important information for the headquarters and decision makers to be aware of the disaster situation, and make effective relief arrangements. The image acquisition and processing of Multi-mode Airborne Digital Camera System (MADC) and its application in Wenchuan earthquake disaster monitoring are presented in this paper. MADC system is a novel airborne digital camera developed by Institute of Remote Sensing Applications, Chinese Academy of Sciences. This camera system can acquire high quality images in three modes, namely wide field, multi-spectral (hyper-spectral) and stereo conformation. The basic components and technical parameters of MADC are also presented in this paper. MADC system played a very important role in the disaster monitoring of Wenchuan earthquake. In particular, the map of dammed lakes in Jianjiang river area was produced and provided to the front line headquarters. Analytical methods and information extraction techniques of MADC are introduced. Some typical analytical and imaging results are given too. Suggestions for the design and configuration of the airborne sensors are discussed at the end of this paper.

  1. Estimation of absolute water surface temperature based on atmospherically corrected thermal infrared multispectral scanner digital data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, James E.

    1986-01-01

    Airborne remote sensing systems, as well as those on board Earth orbiting satellites, sample electromagnetic energy in discrete wavelength regions and convert the total energy sampled into data suitable for processing by digital computers. In general, however, the total amount of energy reaching a sensor system located at some distance from the target is composed not only of target related energy, but, in addition, contains a contribution originating from the atmosphere itself. Thus, some method must be devised for removing or at least minimizing the effects of the atmosphere. The LOWTRAN-6 Program was designed to estimate atmospheric transmittance and radiance for a given atmospheric path at moderate spectral resolution over an operational wavelength region from 0.25 to 28.5 microns. In order to compute the Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) digital values which were recorded in the absence of the atmosphere, the parameters derived from LOWTRAN-6 are used in a correction equation. The TIMS data were collected at 1:00 a.m. local time on November 21, 1983, over a recirculating cooling pond for a power plant in southeastern Mississippi. The TIMS data were analyzed before and after atmospheric corrections were applied using a band ratioing model to compute the absolute surface temperature of various points on the power plant cooling pond. The summarized results clearly demonstrate the desirability of applying atmospheric corrections.

  2. A Multispectral Image Creating Method for a New Airborne Four-Camera System with Different Bandpass Filters

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hanlun; Zhang, Aiwu; Hu, Shaoxing

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes an airborne high resolution four-camera multispectral system which mainly consists of four identical monochrome cameras equipped with four interchangeable bandpass filters. For this multispectral system, an automatic multispectral data composing method was proposed. The homography registration model was chosen, and the scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT) and random sample consensus (RANSAC) were used to generate matching points. For the difficult registration problem between visible band images and near-infrared band images in cases lacking manmade objects, we presented an effective method based on the structural characteristics of the system. Experiments show that our method can acquire high quality multispectral images and the band-to-band alignment error of the composed multiple spectral images is less than 2.5 pixels. PMID:26205264

  3. Multispectral digital holographic microscopy with applications in water quality assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazemzadeh, Farnoud; Jin, Chao; Yu, Mei; Amelard, Robert; Haider, Shahid; Saini, Simarjeet; Emelko, Monica; Clausi, David A.; Wong, Alexander

    2015-09-01

    Safe drinking water is essential for human health, yet over a billion people worldwide do not have access to safe drinking water. Due to the presence and accumulation of biological contaminants in natural waters (e.g., pathogens and neuro-, hepato-, and cytotoxins associated with algal blooms) remain a critical challenge in the provision of safe drinking water globally. It is not financially feasible and practical to monitor and quantify water quality frequently enough to identify the potential health risk due to contamination, especially in developing countries. We propose a low-cost, small-profile multispectral (MS) system based on Digital Holographic Microscopy (DHM) and investigate methods for rapidly capturing holographic data of natural water samples. We have developed a test-bed for an MSDHM instrument to produce and capture holographic data of the sample at different wavelengths in the visible and the near Infra-red spectral region, allowing for resolution improvement in the reconstructed images. Additionally, we have developed high-speed statistical signal processing and analysis techniques to facilitate rapid reconstruction and assessment of the MS holographic data being captured by the MSDHM instrument. The proposed system is used to examine cyanobacteria as well as Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts which remain important and difficult to treat microbiological contaminants that must be addressed for the provision of safe drinking water globally.

  4. Multispectral Digital Image Analysis of Varved Sediments in Thin Sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jäger, K.; Rein, B.; Dietrich, S.

    2006-12-01

    An update of the recently developed method COMPONENTS (Rein, 2003, Rein & Jäger, subm.) for the discrimination of sediment components in thin sections is presented here. COMPONENTS uses a 6-band (multispectral) image analysis. To derive six-band spectral information of the sediments, thin sections are scanned with a digital camera mounted on a polarizing microscope. The thin sections are scanned twice, under polarized and under unpolarized plain light. During each run RGB images are acquired which are subsequently stacked to a six-band file. The first three bands (Blue=1, Green=2, Red=3) result from the spectral behaviour in the blue, green and red band with unpolarized light conditions, and the bands 4 to 6 (Blue=4, Green=5, Red=6) from the polarized light run. The next step is the discrimination of the sediment components by their transmission behaviour. Automatic classification algorithms broadly used in remote sensing applications cannot be used due to unavoidable variations of sediment particle or thin section thicknesses that change absolute grey values of the sediment components. Thus, we use an approach based on band ratios, also known as indices. By using band ratios, the grey values measured in different bands are normalized against each other and illumination variations (e.g. thickness variations) are eliminated. By combining specific ratios we are able to detect all seven major components in the investigated sediments (carbonates, diatoms, fine clastic material, plant rests, pyrite, quartz and resin). Then, the classification results (compositional maps) are validated. Although the automatic classification and the analogous classification show high concordances, some systematic errors could be identified. For example, the transition zone between the sediment and resin filled cracks is classified as fine clastic material and very coarse carbonates are partly classified as quartz because coarse carbonates can be very bright and spectra are partly

  5. An Assessment Of Meso-Scale Hydraulic And Vegetation Characteristics Of The Middle Rio Grande River Using High Resolution Multispectral Airborne Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akasheh, O. Z.; Neale, C. M.

    2004-12-01

    Middle Rio Grande River (MRGR) is the main source of fresh water for the population of New Mexico as well as for irrigated agriculture. Extensive water diversion over the last few decades has affected the composition of the native Riparian vegetation such as Cottonwood population and enhanced the spread of introduced species harmful to the river system like Tamarisk and Russian Olives. High resolution airborne remote sensing is a powerful technique for riparian vegetation mapping and monitoring. Airborne multispectral digital images were acquired over the riparian corridor of the MRGR, New Mexico in June 1999 and July 2001, using the Utah State University (USU) airborne digital imaging system. The imagery were corrected for vignetting effects, geometric lens distortions, rectified to a map base, mosaicked, verified in the field, classified and checked for accuracy. Areas of the vegetation classes and in-stream features were extracted and presented per reach of the river. In this paper a relationship was developed between the total surface water area mapped and both the river water flow rate and water table readings. The consequence of this relationship on riparian vegetation distribution along the river was studied and graphically demonstrated. Strong relationship was found between the total surface water area and water flow rate. In addition the reduction in surface water area resulted in reduction of native trees downstream.

  6. Land surface temperature retrieved from airborne multispectral scanner mid-infrared and thermal-infrared data.

    PubMed

    Qian, Yong-Gang; Wang, Ning; Ma, Ling-Ling; Liu, Yao-Kai; Wu, Hua; Tang, Bo-Hui; Tang, Ling-Li; Li, Chuan-Rong

    2016-01-25

    Land surface temperature (LST) is one of the key parameters in the physics of land surface processes at local/global scales. In this paper, a LST retrieval method was proposed from airborne multispectral scanner data comparing one mid-infrared (MIR) channel and one thermal infrared (TIR) channel with the land surface emissivity given as a priori knowledge. To remove the influence of the direct solar radiance efficiently, a relationship between the direct solar radiance and water vapor content and the view zenith angle and solar zenith angle was established. Then, LST could be retrieved with a split-window algorithm from MIR/TIR data. Finally, the proposed algorithm was applied to the actual airborne flight data and validated with in situ measurements of land surface types in the Baotou site in China on 17 October 2014. The results demonstrate that the difference between the retrieved and in situ LST was less than 1.5 K. The bais, RMSE, and standard deviation of the retrieved LST were 0.156 K, 0.883 K, and 0.869 K, respectively, for samples. PMID:26832579

  7. Use of digital multispectral videography to assess seagrass distribution in San Quintin Bay, Baja California, Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ward, D.H.; Tibbitts, T.L.; Morton, Alexandra; Carrera-Gonzalez, Eduardo; Kempka, R.

    2004-01-01

    Apparent threats to the spatial distribution of seagrass in San Quinti??n Bay prompted us to make a detailed assessment of habitats in the bay. Six coastal habitats and three seagrass subclasses were delineated using airborne digital multispectral videography (DMSV), Eelgrass, Zostera marina, was the predominant seagrass and covered 40% (1949 ha) of the areal extent of the bay in 1999. Eelgrass grew over a wide range of tidal depths from about -3.0 in mean lower low water (MLLW) to about 1.0 m MLLW, but greatest spatial extent occurred in intertidal areas -0.6 m to 1.0 m MLLW. Exposed-continuous (i.e., high density) eelgrass was the most abundant habitat in the bay. Widgeongrass, Ruppia maritima, was the only other seagrass present and covered 3% (136 ha) of the areal extent of the entire bay. Widgeongrass grew in single species stands in the upper intertidal (??? 0.4 MLLW) and intermixed with eelgrass at lower tidal depths. Overall accuracy of the six habitat classes and three subclasses in the DMSV map was relatively high at 84%. Our detailed map of San Quintin Bay can be used in future change detection analyses to monitor the health of seagrasses in the bay.

  8. Multispectral thermal airborne TASI-600 data to study the Pompeii (IT) archaeological area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palombo, Angelo; Pascucci, Simone; Pergola, Nicola; Pignatti, Stefano; Santini, Federico; Soldovieri, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    The management of archaeological areas refers to the conservation of the ruins/buildings and the eventual prospection of new areas having an archaeological potential. In this framework, airborne remote sensing is a well-developed geophysical tool for supporting the archaeological surveys of wide areas. The spectral regions applied in archaeological remote sensing spans from the VNIR to the TIR. In particular, the archaeological thermal imaging considers that materials absorb, emit, transmit, and reflect the thermal infrared radiation at different rate according to their composition, density and moisture content. Despite its potential, thermal imaging in archaeological applications are scarce. Among them, noteworthy are the ones related to the use of Landsat and ASTER [1] and airborne remote sensing [2, 3, 4 and 5]. In view of these potential in Cultural Heritage applications, the present study aims at analysing the usefulness of the high spatial resolution thermal imaging on the Pompeii archaeological park. To this purpose TASI-600 [6] airborne multispectral thermal imagery (32 channels from 8 to 11.5 nm with a spectral resolution of 100nm and a spatial resolution of 1m/pixel) was acquired on December the 7th, 2015. Airborne survey has been acquired to get useful information on the building materials (both ancient and of consolidation) characteristics and, whenever possible, to retrieve quick indicators on their conservation status. Thermal images will be, moreover, processed to have an insight of the critical environmental issues impacting the structures (e.g. moisture). The proposed study shows the preliminary results of the airborne deployments, the pre-processing of the multispectral thermal imagery and the retrieving of accurate land surface temperatures (LST). LST map will be analysed to describe the thermal pattern of the city of Pompeii and detect any thermal anomalies. As far as the ongoing TASI-600 sensors pre-processing, it will include: (a) radiometric

  9. Spatial Modeling and Variability Analysis for Modeling and Prediction of Soil and Crop Canopy Coverage Using Multispectral Imagery from an Airborne Remote Sensing System

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Based on a previous study on an airborne remote sensing system with automatic camera stabilization for crop management, multispectral imagery was acquired using the MS-4100 multispectral camera at different flight altitudes over a 115 ha cotton field. After the acquired images were geo-registered an...

  10. Mapping crop ground cover using airborne multispectral digital imagery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Empirical relationships between remotely sensed vegetation indices and density information, such as leaf area index or ground cover (GC), are commonly used to derive spatial information in many precision farming operations. In this study, we modified an existing methodology that does not depend on e...

  11. MAPPING GRAIN SORGHUM YEILD VARIABILITY USING AIRBORNE DIGITAL VIDEOGRAPHY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mapping crop yield variability is one important aspect of precision agriculture. This study was designed to assess airborne digital videography as a tool for mapping grain sorghum yields for precision farming. Color-infrared (CIR) imagery was acquired with a three- camera digital video imaging sys...

  12. On-Orbit Calibration of a Multi-Spectral Satellite Satellite Sensor Using a High Altitude Airborne Imaging Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, R. O.; Shimada, M.

    1996-01-01

    Earth-looking satellites must be calibrated in order to quantitatively measure and monitor components of land, water and atmosphere of the Earth system. The inevitable change in performance due to the stress of satellite launch requires that the calibration of a satellite sensor be established and validated on-orbit. A new approach to on-orbit satellite sensor calibration has been developed using the flight of a high altitude calibrated airborne imaging spectrometer below a multi-spectral satellite sensor.

  13. Forest Stand Segmentation Using Airborne LIDAR Data and Very High Resolution Multispectral Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dechesne, Clément; Mallet, Clément; Le Bris, Arnaud; Gouet, Valérie; Hervieu, Alexandre

    2016-06-01

    Forest stands are the basic units for forest inventory and mapping. Stands are large forested areas (e.g., ≥ 2 ha) of homogeneous tree species composition. The accurate delineation of forest stands is usually performed by visual analysis of human operators on very high resolution (VHR) optical images. This work is highly time consuming and should be automated for scalability purposes. In this paper, a method based on the fusion of airborne laser scanning data (or lidar) and very high resolution multispectral imagery for automatic forest stand delineation and forest land-cover database update is proposed. The multispectral images give access to the tree species whereas 3D lidar point clouds provide geometric information on the trees. Therefore, multi-modal features are computed, both at pixel and object levels. The objects are individual trees extracted from lidar data. A supervised classification is performed at the object level on the computed features in order to coarsely discriminate the existing tree species in the area of interest. The analysis at tree level is particularly relevant since it significantly improves the tree species classification. A probability map is generated through the tree species classification and inserted with the pixel-based features map in an energetical framework. The proposed energy is then minimized using a standard graph-cut method (namely QPBO with α-expansion) in order to produce a segmentation map with a controlled level of details. Comparison with an existing forest land cover database shows that our method provides satisfactory results both in terms of stand labelling and delineation (matching ranges between 94% and 99%).

  14. Mapping of hydrothermally altered rocks using airborne multispectral scanner data, Marysvale, Utah, mining district

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Podwysocki, M.H.; Segal, D.B.; Jones, O.D.

    1983-01-01

    Multispectral data covering an area near Marysvale, Utah, collected with the airborne National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) 24-channel Bendix multispectral scanner, were analyzed to detect areas of hydrothermally altered, potentially mineralized rocks. Spectral bands were selected for analysis that approximate those of the Landsat 4 Thematic Mapper and which are diagnostic of the presence of hydrothermally derived products. Hydrothermally altered rocks, particularly volcanic rocks affected by solutions rich in sulfuric acid, are commonly characterized by concentrations of argillic minerals such as alunite and kaolinite. These minerals are important for identifying hydrothermally altered rocks in multispectral images because they have intense absorption bands centered near a wavelength of 2.2 ??m. Unaltered volcanic rocks commonly do not contain these minerals and hence do not have the absorption bands. A color-composite image was constructed using the following spectral band ratios: 1.6??m/2.2??m, 1.6??m/0.48??m, and 0.67??m/1.0??m. The particular bands were chosen to emphasize the spectral contrasts that exist for argillic versus non-argillic rocks, limonitic versus nonlimonitic rocks, and rocks versus vegetation, respectively. The color-ratio composite successfully distinguished most types of altered rocks from unaltered rocks. Some previously unrecognized areas of hydrothermal alteration were mapped. The altered rocks included those having high alunite and/or kaolinite content, siliceous rocks containing some kaolinite, and ash-fall tuffs containing zeolitic minerals. The color-ratio-composite image allowed further division of these rocks into limonitic and nonlimonitic phases. The image did not allow separation of highly siliceous or hematitically altered rocks containing no clays or alunite from unaltered rocks. A color-coded density slice image of the 1.6??m/2.2??m band ratio allowed further discrimination among the altered units. Areas

  15. High Spatial Resolution Airborne Multispectral Thermal Infrared Remote Sensing Data for Analysis of Urban Landscape Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Estes, Maurice G., Jr.; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    We have used airborne multispectral thermal infrared (TIR) remote sensing data collected at a high spatial resolution (i.e., 10m) over several cities in the United States to study thermal energy characteristics of the urban landscape. These TIR data provide a unique opportunity to quantify thermal responses from discrete surfaces typical of the urban landscape and to identify both the spatial arrangement and patterns of thermal processes across the city. The information obtained from these data is critical to understanding how urban surfaces drive or force development of the Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect, which exists as a dome of elevated air temperatures that presides over cities in contrast to surrounding non-urbanized areas. The UHI is most pronounced in the summertime where urban surfaces, such as rooftops and pavement, store solar radiation throughout the day, and release this stored energy slowly after sunset creating air temperatures over the city that are in excess of 2-4'C warmer in contrast with non-urban or rural air temperatures. The UHI can also exist as a daytime phenomenon with surface temperatures in downtown areas of cities exceeding 38'C. The implications of the UHI are significant, particularly as an additive source of thermal energy input that exacerbates the overall production of ground level ozone over cities. We have used the Airborne Thermal and Land Applications Sensor (ATLAS), flown onboard a Lear 23 jet aircraft from the NASA Stennis Space Center, to acquire high spatial resolution multispectral TIR data (i.e., 6 bandwidths between 8.2-12.2 (um) over Huntsville, Alabama, Atlanta, Georgia, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, Salt Lake City, Utah, and Sacramento, California. These TIR data have been used to produce maps and other products, showing the spatial distribution of heating and cooling patterns over these cities to better understand how the morphology of the urban landscape affects development of the UHI. In turn, these data have been used

  16. Russian multispectral-hyperspectral airborne scanner for geological and environmental investigations - {open_quotes}Vesuvius-EC{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Yassinsky, G.I.; Shilin, B.V.

    1996-07-01

    Small variations of spectral characteristics in 0,3-14 microns band are of great significance in geological and environmental investigations. Multipurpose multispectral digital scanner with narrow field of view, high spectral resolution and radiometric calibration designed in Russia. Changeable modules permit to obtain parameters of the device for practical using.

  17. Airborne Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) images over disseminated gold deposits, Osgood Mountains, Humboldt County, Nevada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krohn, M. Dennis

    1986-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) acquired airborne Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) images over several disseminated gold deposits in northern Nevada in 1983. The aerial surveys were flown to determine whether TIMS data could depict jasperoids (siliceous replacement bodies) associated with the gold deposits. The TIMS data were collected over the Pinson and Getchell Mines in the Osgood Mountains, the Carlin, Maggie Creek, Bootstrap, and other mines in the Tuscarora Mountains, and the Jerritt Canyon Mine in the Independence Mountains. The TIMS data seem to be a useful supplement to conventional geochemical exploration for disseminated gold deposits in the western United States. Siliceous outcrops are readily separable in the TIMS image from other types of host rocks. Different forms of silicification are not readily separable, yet, due to limitations of spatial resolution and spectral dynamic range. Features associated with the disseminated gold deposits, such as the large intrusive bodies and fault structures, are also resolvable on TIMS data. Inclusion of high-resolution thermal inertia data would be a useful supplement to the TIMS data.

  18. Multispectral thermal airborne TASI-600 data to study the Pompeii (IT) archaeological area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palombo, Angelo; Pascucci, Simone; Pergola, Nicola; Pignatti, Stefano; Santini, Federico; Soldovieri, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    The management of archaeological areas refers to the conservation of the ruins/buildings and the eventual prospection of new areas having an archaeological potential. In this framework, airborne remote sensing is a well-developed geophysical tool for supporting the archaeological surveys of wide areas. The spectral regions applied in archaeological remote sensing spans from the VNIR to the TIR. In particular, the archaeological thermal imaging considers that materials absorb, emit, transmit, and reflect the thermal infrared radiation at different rate according to their composition, density and moisture content. Despite its potential, thermal imaging in archaeological applications are scarce. Among them, noteworthy are the ones related to the use of Landsat and ASTER [1] and airborne remote sensing [2, 3, 4 and 5]. In view of these potential in Cultural Heritage applications, the present study aims at analysing the usefulness of the high spatial resolution thermal imaging on the Pompeii archaeological park. To this purpose TASI-600 [6] airborne multispectral thermal imagery (32 channels from 8 to 11.5 nm with a spectral resolution of 100nm and a spatial resolution of 1m/pixel) was acquired on December the 7th, 2015. Airborne survey has been acquired to get useful information on the building materials (both ancient and of consolidation) characteristics and, whenever possible, to retrieve quick indicators on their conservation status. Thermal images will be, moreover, processed to have an insight of the critical environmental issues impacting the structures (e.g. moisture). The proposed study shows the preliminary results of the airborne deployments, the pre-processing of the multispectral thermal imagery and the retrieving of accurate land surface temperatures (LST). LST map will be analysed to describe the thermal pattern of the city of Pompeii and detect any thermal anomalies. As far as the ongoing TASI-600 sensors pre-processing, it will include: (a) radiometric

  19. Temporal registration of multispectral digital satellite images using their edge images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nack, M. L.

    1975-01-01

    An algorithm is described which will form an edge image by detecting the edges of features in a particular spectral band of a digital satellite image. It is capable also of forming composite multispectral edge images. In addition, an edge image correlation algorithm is presented which performs rapid automatic registration of the edge images and, consequently, the grey level images.

  20. Multispectral microwave imaging radar for remote sensing applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, R. W.; Rawson, R.; Ausherman, D.; Bryan, L.; Porcello, L.

    1974-01-01

    A multispectral airborne microwave radar imaging system, capable of obtaining four images simultaneously is described. The system has been successfully demonstrated in several experiments and one example of results obtained, fresh water ice, is given. Consideration of the digitization of the imagery is given and an image digitizing system described briefly. Preliminary results of digitization experiments are included.

  1. Biooptical variability in the Greenland Sea observed with the Multispectral Airborne Radiometer System (MARS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, James L.; Trees, Charles C.

    1989-01-01

    A site-specific ocean color remote sensing algorithm was developed and used to convert Multispectral Airborne Radiometer System (MARS) spectral radiance measurements to chlorophyll-a concentration profiles along aircraft tracklines in the Greenland Sea. The analysis is described and the results given in graphical or tabular form. Section 2 describes the salient characteristics and history of development of the MARS instrument. Section 3 describes the analyses of MARS flight segments over consolidated sea ice, resulting in a set of altitude dependent ratios used (over water) to estimate radiance reflected by the surface and atmosphere from total radiance measured. Section 4 presents optically weighted pigment concentrations calculated from profile data, and spectral reflectances measured in situ from the top meter of the water column; this data was analyzed to develop an algorithm relating chlorophyll-a concentrations to the ratio of radiance reflectances at 441 and 550 nm (with a selection of coefficients dependent upon whether significant gelvin presence is implied by a low ratio of reflectances at 410 and 550 nm). Section 5 describes the scaling adjustments which were derived to reconcile the MARS upwelled radiance ratios at 410:550 nm and 441:550 nm to in situ reflectance ratios measured simultaneously on the surface. Section 6 graphically presents the locations of MARS data tracklines and positions of the surface monitoring R/V. Section 7 presents stick-plots of MARS tracklines selected to illustrate two-dimensional spatial variability within the box covered by each day's flight. Section 8 presents curves of chlorophyll-a concentration profiles derived from MARS data along survey tracklines. Significant results are summarized in Section 1.

  2. Monitoring Ephemeral Streams Using Airborne Very High Resolution Multispectral Remote Sensing in Arid Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamada, Y.; O'Connor, B. L.

    2012-12-01

    Development in arid environments often results in the loss and degradation of the ephemeral streams that provide habitat and critical ecosystem functions such as water delivery, sediment transport, and groundwater recharge. Quantification of these ecosystem functions is challenging because of the episodic nature of runoff events in desert landscapes and the large spatial scale of watersheds that potentially can be impacted by large-scale development. Low-impact development guidelines and regulatory protection of ephemeral streams are often lacking due to the difficulty of accurately mapping and quantifying the critical functions of ephemeral streams at scales larger than individual reaches. Renewable energy development in arid regions has the potential to disturb ephemeral streams at the watershed scale, and it is necessary to develop environmental monitoring applications for ephemeral streams to help inform land management and regulatory actions aimed at protecting and mitigating for impacts related to large-scale land disturbances. This study focuses on developing remote sensing methodologies to identify and monitor impacts on ephemeral streams resulting from the land disturbance associated with utility-scale solar energy development in the desert southwest of the United States. Airborne very high resolution (VHR) multispectral imagery is used to produce stereoscopic, three-dimensional landscape models that can be used to (1) identify and map ephemeral stream channel networks, and (2) support analyses and models of hydrologic and sediment transport processes that pertain to the critical functionality of ephemeral streams. Spectral and statistical analyses are being developed to extract information about ephemeral channel location and extent, micro-topography, riparian vegetation, and soil moisture characteristics. This presentation will demonstrate initial results and provide a framework for future work associated with this project, for developing the necessary

  3. Digital simulation of staining in histopathology multispectral images: enhancement and linear transformation of spectral transmittance.

    PubMed

    Bautista, Pinky A; Yagi, Yukako

    2012-05-01

    Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stain is currently the most popular for routine histopathology staining. Special and/or immuno-histochemical (IHC) staining is often requested to further corroborate the initial diagnosis on H&E stained tissue sections. Digital simulation of staining (or digital staining) can be a very valuable tool to produce the desired stained images from the H&E stained tissue sections instantaneously. We present an approach to digital staining of histopathology multispectral images by combining the effects of spectral enhancement and spectral transformation. Spectral enhancement is accomplished by shifting the N-band original spectrum of the multispectral pixel with the weighted difference between the pixel's original and estimated spectrum; the spectrum is estimated using M < N principal component (PC) vectors. The pixel's enhanced spectrum is transformed to the spectral configuration associated to its reaction to a specific stain by utilizing an N × N transformation matrix, which is derived through application of least mean squares method to the enhanced and target spectral transmittance samples of the different tissue components found in the image. Results of our experiments on the digital conversion of an H&E stained multispectral image to its Masson's trichrome stained equivalent show the viability of the method. PMID:22612136

  4. Digital enhancement of multispectral MSS data for maximum image visibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Algazi, V. R.

    1973-01-01

    A systematic approach to the enhancement of images has been developed. This approach exploits two principal features involved in the observation of images: the properties of human vision and the statistics of the images being observed. The rationale of the enhancement procedure is as follows: in the observation of some features of interest in an image, the range of objective luminance-chrominance values being displayed is generally limited and does not use the whole perceptual range of vision of the observer. The purpose of the enhancement technique is to expand and distort in a systematic way the grey scale values of each of the multispectral bands making up a color composite, to enhance the average visibility of the features being observed.

  5. Multispectral data restoration study. [digital correction of LANDSAT geographic data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shah, N. J.; Wilson, C. L.

    1977-01-01

    A digital resampling technique for LANDSAT data is reported that incorporates a deconvolution concept to minimize spatial and radiometric degradation of data during resampling for geometric correction. A quantitative comparison of cubic convolution and digital restoration methods establishes the latter as the superior technique.

  6. Effectiveness of airborne multispectral thermal data for karst groundwater resources recognition in coastal areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pignatti, Stefano; Fusilli, Lorenzo; Palombo, Angelo; Santini, Federico; Pascucci, Simone

    2013-04-01

    Currently the detection, use and management of groundwater in karst regions can be considered one of the most significant procedures for solving water scarcity problems during periods of low rainfall this because groundwater resources from karst aquifers play a key role in the water supply in karst areas worldwide [1]. In many countries of the Mediterranean area, where karst is widespread, groundwater resources are still underexploited, while surface waters are generally preferred [2]. Furthermore, carbonate aquifers constitute a crucial thermal water resource outside of volcanic areas, even if there is no detailed and reliable global assessment of thermal water resources. The composite hydrogeological characteristics of karst, particularly directions and zones of groundwater distribution, are not up till now adequately explained [3]. In view of the abovementioned reasons the present study aims at analyzing the detection capability of high spatial resolution thermal remote sensing of karst water resources in coastal areas in order to get useful information on the karst springs flow and on different characteristics of these environments. To this purpose MIVIS [4, 5] and TASI-600 [6] airborne multispectral thermal imagery (see sensors' characteristics in Table 1) acquired on two coastal areas of the Mediterranean area interested by karst activity, one located in Montenegro and one in Italy, were used. One study area is located in the Kotor Bay, a winding bay on the Adriatic Sea surrounded by high mountains in south-western Montenegro and characterized by many subaerial and submarine coastal springs related to deep karstic channels. The other study area is located in Santa Cesarea (Italy), encompassing coastal cold springs, the main local source of high quality water, and also a noticeable thermal groundwater outflow. The proposed study shows the preliminary results of the two airborne deployments on these areas. The preprocessing of the multispectral thermal imagery

  7. Effectiveness of airborne multispectral thermal data for karst groundwater resources recognition in coastal areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pignatti, Stefano; Fusilli, Lorenzo; Palombo, Angelo; Santini, Federico; Pascucci, Simone

    2013-04-01

    Currently the detection, use and management of groundwater in karst regions can be considered one of the most significant procedures for solving water scarcity problems during periods of low rainfall this because groundwater resources from karst aquifers play a key role in the water supply in karst areas worldwide [1]. In many countries of the Mediterranean area, where karst is widespread, groundwater resources are still underexploited, while surface waters are generally preferred [2]. Furthermore, carbonate aquifers constitute a crucial thermal water resource outside of volcanic areas, even if there is no detailed and reliable global assessment of thermal water resources. The composite hydrogeological characteristics of karst, particularly directions and zones of groundwater distribution, are not up till now adequately explained [3]. In view of the abovementioned reasons the present study aims at analyzing the detection capability of high spatial resolution thermal remote sensing of karst water resources in coastal areas in order to get useful information on the karst springs flow and on different characteristics of these environments. To this purpose MIVIS [4, 5] and TASI-600 [6] airborne multispectral thermal imagery (see sensors' characteristics in Table 1) acquired on two coastal areas of the Mediterranean area interested by karst activity, one located in Montenegro and one in Italy, were used. One study area is located in the Kotor Bay, a winding bay on the Adriatic Sea surrounded by high mountains in south-western Montenegro and characterized by many subaerial and submarine coastal springs related to deep karstic channels. The other study area is located in Santa Cesarea (Italy), encompassing coastal cold springs, the main local source of high quality water, and also a noticeable thermal groundwater outflow. The proposed study shows the preliminary results of the two airborne deployments on these areas. The preprocessing of the multispectral thermal imagery

  8. Airborne Multispectral LIDAR Data for Land-Cover Classification and Land/water Mapping Using Different Spectral Indexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morsy, S.; Shaker, A.; El-Rabbany, A.; LaRocque, P. E.

    2016-06-01

    Airborne Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) data is widely used in remote sensing applications, such as topographic and landwater mapping. Recently, airborne multispectral LiDAR sensors, which acquire data at different wavelengths, are available, thus allows recording a diversity of intensity values from different land features. In this study, three normalized difference feature indexes (NDFI), for vegetation, water, and built-up area mapping, were evaluated. The NDFIs namely, NDFIG-NIR, NDFIG-MIR, and NDFINIR-MIR were calculated using data collected at three wavelengths; green: 532 nm, near-infrared (NIR): 1064 nm, and mid-infrared (MIR): 1550 nm by the world's first airborne multispectral LiDAR sensor "Optech Titan". The Jenks natural breaks optimization method was used to determine the threshold values for each NDFI, in order to cluster the 3D point data into two classes (water and land or vegetation and built-up area). Two sites at Scarborough, Ontario, Canada were tested to evaluate the performance of the NDFIs for land-water, vegetation, and built-up area mapping. The use of the three NDFIs succeeded to discriminate vegetation from built-up areas with an overall accuracy of 92.51%. Based on the classification results, it is suggested to use NDFIG-MIR and NDFINIR-MIR for vegetation and built-up areas extraction, respectively. The clustering results show that the direct use of NDFIs for land-water mapping has low performance. Therefore, the clustered classes, based on the NDFIs, are constrained by the recorded number of returns from different wavelengths, thus the overall accuracy is improved to 96.98%.

  9. Second-harmonic illumination to enhance multispectral digital lensless holographic microscopy.

    PubMed

    Mendoza-Yero, Omel; Carbonell-Leal, Miguel; Lancis, Jesús; Garcia-Sucerquia, Jorge

    2016-03-01

    Multispectral digital lensless holographic microscopy (MDLHM) operating with second-harmonic illumination is shown. Added to the improvement of the spatial resolution of the previously reported MDLHM operating with near-infrared illumination, this second-harmonic MDLHM shows promise as a tool to study the behavior of biological samples under a broad spectral illumination. This illumination is generated by focusing a highly spatially coherent ultrashort pulsed radiation into an uncoated Type 1 β-BaB2O4 (BBO) nonlinear crystal. The second-harmonic MDLHM allows achieving multispectral images of biological samples with enhanced micrometer spatial resolution. The illumination wavelength of the second-harmonic MDLHM can be tuned by displacing a focusing optics with respect to a pinhole; spatially resolved information at different wavelengths of the sample can then be retrieved. PMID:26974116

  10. GIS Meets Airborne MSS: Geospatial Applications of High-Resolution Multispectral Data

    SciTech Connect

    Albert Guber

    1999-07-27

    Bechtel Nevada operates and flies Daedalus multispectral scanners for funded project tasks at the Department of Energy's Remote Sensing Laboratory. Historically, processing and analysis of multispectral data has afforded scientists the opportunity to see natural phenomena not visible to the naked eye. However, only recently has a system, more specifically a Geometric Correction System, existed to automatically geo-reference these data directly into a Geographic Information (GIS) database. Now, analyses, performed previously in a nongeospatial environment, are integrated directly into an Arc/Info GIS. This technology is of direct benefit to environmental and emergency response applications.

  11. Comparison of airborne multispectral and hyperspectral imagery for estimating grain sorghum yield

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Both multispectral and hyperspectral images are being used to monitor crop conditions and map yield variability, but limited research has been conducted to compare the differences between these two types of imagery for assessing crop growth and yields. The objective of this study was to compare airb...

  12. An algorithm for the estimation of water temperatures from thermal multispectral airborne remotely sensed data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaggi, S.; Quattrochi, D.; Baskin, R.

    1992-01-01

    A method for water temperature estimation on the basis of thermal data is presented and tested against NASA's Thermal IR Multispectral Scanner. Using realistic bounds on emissivities, temperature bounds are calculated and refined to estimate a tighter bound on the emissivity of the source. The method is useful only when a realistic set of bounds can be obtained for the emissivities of the data.

  13. The MIDAS processor. [Multivariate Interactive Digital Analysis System for multispectral scanner data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kriegler, F. J.; Gordon, M. F.; Mclaughlin, R. H.; Marshall, R. E.

    1975-01-01

    The MIDAS (Multivariate Interactive Digital Analysis System) processor is a high-speed processor designed to process multispectral scanner data (from Landsat, EOS, aircraft, etc.) quickly and cost-effectively to meet the requirements of users of remote sensor data, especially from very large areas. MIDAS consists of a fast multipipeline preprocessor and classifier, an interactive color display and color printer, and a medium scale computer system for analysis and control. The system is designed to process data having as many as 16 spectral bands per picture element at rates of 200,000 picture elements per second into as many as 17 classes using a maximum likelihood decision rule.

  14. Pollution detection by digital correlation of multispectral, stero-image pairs.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krause, F. R.; Betz, H. T.; Lysobey, D. H.

    1971-01-01

    Remote detection of air pollution circulation patterns is proposed to eventually predict the accumulation of hazardous surface concentrations in time for preventive emission control operations. Earth observations from space platforms will contain information on the height, mean velocity and lateral mixing scales of inversion layers and pollution plumes. Although this information is often not visible on photographs, it could conceivably be retrieved through a digital cross-correlation of multispectral stereo image pairs. Laboratory and field test results are used to illustrate the detection of non-visual inversion layers, the reduction of dominant signal interference, and the spectroscopic identification of combustion products.

  15. Formal methods and digital systems validation for airborne systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rushby, John

    1993-01-01

    This report has been prepared to supplement a forthcoming chapter on formal methods in the FAA Digital Systems Validation Handbook. Its purpose is as follows: to outline the technical basis for formal methods in computer science; to explain the use of formal methods in the specification and verification of software and hardware requirements, designs, and implementations; to identify the benefits, weaknesses, and difficulties in applying these methods to digital systems used on board aircraft; and to suggest factors for consideration when formal methods are offered in support of certification. These latter factors assume the context for software development and assurance described in RTCA document DO-178B, 'Software Considerations in Airborne Systems and Equipment Certification,' Dec. 1992.

  16. A comparison between satellite and airborne multispectral data for the assessment of Mangrove areas in the eastern Caribbean

    SciTech Connect

    Green, E.P.; Edwards, A.J.; Mumby, P.J.

    1997-06-01

    Satellite (SPOT XS and Landsat TM) and airborne multispectral (CASI) imagery was acquired from the Turks and Caicos Islands, British West Indies. The descriptive resolution and accuracy of each image type is compared for two applications: mangrove habitat mapping and the measurement of mangrove canopy characteristics (leaf area index and canopy closure). Mangroves could be separated from non-mangrove vegetation to an accuracy of only 57% with SPOT XS data but better discrimination could be achieved with either Landsat TM or CASI (in both cases accuracy was >90%). CASI data permitted a more accurate classification of different mangrove habitats than was possible using Landsat TM. Nine mangrove habitats could be mapped to an accuracy of 85% with the high-resolution airborne data compared to 31% obtained with TM. A maximum of three mangrove habitats were separable with Landsat TM: the accuracy of this classification was 83%. Measurement of mangrove canopy characteristics is achieved more accurately with CASI than with either satellite sensor, but high costs probably make it a less cost-effective option. The cost-effectiveness of each sensor is discussed for each application.

  17. Combining multi-spectral proximal sensors and digital cameras for monitoring grazed tropical pastures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handcock, R. N.; Gobbett, D. L.; González, L. A.; Bishop-Hurley, G. J.; McGavin, S. L.

    2015-11-01

    Timely and accurate monitoring of pasture biomass and ground-cover is necessary in livestock production systems to ensure productive and sustainable management of forage for livestock. Interest in the use of proximal sensors for monitoring pasture status in grazing systems has increased, since such sensors can return data in near real-time, and have the potential to be deployed on large properties where remote sensing may not be suitable due to issues such as spatial scale or cloud cover. However, there are unresolved challenges in developing calibrations to convert raw sensor data to quantitative biophysical values, such as pasture biomass or vegetation ground-cover, to allow meaningful interpretation of sensor data by livestock producers. We assessed the use of multiple proximal sensors for monitoring tropical pastures with a pilot deployment of sensors at two sites on Lansdown Research Station near Townsville, Australia. Each site was monitored by a Skye SKR-four-band multi-spectral sensor (every 1 min), a digital camera (every 30 min), and a soil moisture sensor (every 1 min), each operated over 18 months. Raw data from each sensor were processed to calculate a number of multispectral vegetation indices. Visual observations of pasture characteristics, including above-ground standing biomass and ground cover, were made every 2 weeks. A methodology was developed to manage the sensor deployment and the quality control of the data collected. The data capture from the digital cameras was more reliable than the multi-spectral sensors, which had up to 63 % of data discarded after data cleaning and quality control. We found a strong relationship between sensor and pasture measurements during the wet season period of maximum pasture growth (January to April), especially when data from the multi-spectral sensors were combined with weather data. RatioNS34 (a simple band ratio between the near infrared (NIR) and lower shortwave infrared (SWIR) bands) and rainfall since 1

  18. Research on enhancing the utilization of digital multispectral data and geographic information systems in global habitability studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinko, Edward A.; Merchant, James W.

    1988-01-01

    During 1986 to 1987, the Kansas Applied Remote Sensing (KARS) Program continued to build upon long-term research efforts oriented towards enhancement and development of technologies for using remote sensing in the inventory and evaluation of land use and renewable resources (both natural and agricultural). These research efforts directly addressed needs and objectives of NASA's Land-Related Global Habitability Program as well as needs of and interests of public agencies and private firms. The KARS Program placed particular emphasis on two major areas: development of intelligent algorithms to improve automated classification of digital multispectral data; and integrating and merging digital multispectral data with ancillary data in spatial modes.

  19. Data fusion techniques for object space classification using airborne laser data and airborne digital photographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Joong Yong

    The objective of this research is to investigate possible strategies for the fusion of airborne laser data with passive optical data for object space classification. A significant contribution of our work is the development and implementation of a data-level fusion technique, direct digital image georeferencing (DDIG). In DDIG, we use navigation data from an integrated system (composed of global positioning system (GPS) and inertial measurement unit (IMU)) to project three-dimensional data points measured with the University of Florida's airborne laser swath mapping (ALSM) system onto digital aerial photographs. As an underlying math model, we use the familiar collinearity condition equations. After matching the ALSM object space points to their corresponding image space pixels, we resample the digital photographs using cubic convolution techniques. We call the resulting images pseudo-ortho-rectified images (PORI) because they are orthographic at the ground surface but still exhibit some relief displacement for elevated objects; and because they have been resampled using a interpolation technique. Our accuracy tests on these PORI images show that they are planimetrically correct to about 0.4 meters. This accuracy is sufficient to remove most of the effects of the central perspective projection and enable a meaningful fusion of the RGB data with the height and intensity data produced by the laser. PORI images may also be sufficiently accurate for many other mapping applications, and may in some applications be an attractive alternative to traditional photogrammetric techniques. A second contribution of our research is the development of several strategies for the fusion of data from airborne laser and camera systems. We have conducted our work within the sensor fusion paradigm formalized in the optical engineering community. Our work explores the fusion of these two types of data for precision mapping applications. Specifically, we combine three different types of

  20. Multispectral digital lensless holographic microscopy: from femtosecond laser to white light LED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Sucerquia, J.

    2015-04-01

    The use of femtosecond laser radiation and super bright white LED in digital lensless holographic microscopy is presented. For the ultrafast laser radiation two different configurations of operation of the microscope are presented and the dissimilar performance of each one analyzed. The microscope operating with a super bright white light LED in combination with optical filters shows very competitive performance as it is compared with more expensive optical sources. The broadband emission of both radiation sources allows the multispectral imaging of biological samples to obtain spectral responses and/or full color images of the microscopic specimens; sections of the head of a Drosophila melanogaster fly are imaged in this contribution. The simple, solid, compact, lightweight, and reliable architecture of digital lensless holographic microscopy operating with broadband light sources to image biological specimens exhibiting micrometer-sized details is evaluated in the present contribution.

  1. The Impact of Multispectral Digital Skin Lesion Analysis on German Dermatologist Decisions to Biopsy Atypical Pigmented Lesions with Clinical Characteristics of Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Winkelmann, Richard R.; Hauschild, Axel; Tucker, Natalie; White, Richard; Rigel, Darrell S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the impact of multispectral digital skin lesion analysis on German dermatologist biopsy decisions of atypical pigmented skin lesions. Design: Participants were shown high-resolution clinical images of 12 atypical pigmented skin lesions previously analyzed by multispectral digital skin lesion analysis. Participants were asked if they would biopsy the lesion based on clinical images and high-resolution dermoscopy images and again when subsequently shown multispectral digital skin lesion analysis probability information. Setting/participants: Forty-one dermatologists at a skin cancer conference in Germany in September 2014. Measurements: Sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic accuracy, percent biopsying all melanomas, and overall biopsy rates. Results: Sensitivity for the detection of melanoma following clinical evaluation was 64 percent. After receipt of multispectral digital skin lesion analysis probability information, sensitivity decreased nonsignificantly to 62 percent. Specificity with clinical evaluation was 57 percent and increased to 73 percent using multispectral digital skin lesion analysis. Overall biopsy accuracy increased from 60 percent with clinical evaluation to 68 percent with multispectral digital skin lesion analysis. The percentage of low-grade dysplastic nevi chosen for biopsy decreased from 43 percent after clinical evaluation to 27 percent with multispectral digital skin lesion analysis. Finally, the overall percentage of lesions biopsied decreased from 52 percent with clinical evaluation to 42 percent after multispectral digital skin lesion analysis. Conclusion: Multispectral digital skin lesion analysis can be used reliably to detect melanoma as well as clinical evaluation. Dermatologists can confidently use multispectral digital skin lesion analysis to significantly improve specificity and reduce their overall number of biopsies while increasing overall diagnostic accuracy. PMID:26557216

  2. Recent advances in airborne terrestrial remote sensing with the NASA airborne visible/infrared imaging spectrometer (AVIRIS), airborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR), and thermal infrared multispectral scanner (TIMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vane, Gregg; Evans, Diane L.; Kahle, Anne B.

    1989-01-01

    Significant progress in terrestrial remote sensing from the air has been made with three NASA-developed sensors that collectively cover the solar-reflected, thermal infrared, and microwave regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. These sensors are the airborne visible/infrared imaging spectrometer (AVIRIS), the thermal infrared mapping spectrometer (TIMS) and the airborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR), respectively. AVIRIS and SAR underwent extensive in-flight engineering testing in 1987 and 1988 and are scheduled to become operational in 1989. TIMS has been in operation for several years. These sensors are described.

  3. Active/passive scanning. [airborne multispectral laser scanners for agricultural and water resources applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodfill, J. R.; Thomson, F. J.

    1979-01-01

    The paper deals with the design, construction, and applications of an active/passive multispectral scanner combining lasers with conventional passive remote sensors. An application investigation was first undertaken to identify remote sensing applications where active/passive scanners (APS) would provide improvement over current means. Calibration techniques and instrument sensitivity are evaluated to provide predictions of the APS's capability to meet user needs. A preliminary instrument design was developed from the initial conceptual scheme. A design review settled the issues of worthwhile applications, calibration approach, hardware design, and laser complement. Next, a detailed mechanical design was drafted and construction of the APS commenced. The completed APS was tested and calibrated in the laboratory, then installed in a C-47 aircraft and ground tested. Several flight tests completed the test program.

  4. New, Flexible Applications with the Multi-Spectral Titan Airborne Lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swirski, A.; LaRocque, D. P.; Shaker, A.; Smith, B.

    2015-12-01

    Traditional lidar designs have been restricted to using a single laser channel operating at one particular wavelength. Single-channel systems excel at collecting high-precision spatial (XYZ) data, with accuracies down to a few centimeters. However, target classification is difficult with spatial data alone, and single-wavelength systems are limited to the strengths and weaknesses of the wavelength they use. To resolve these limitations in lidar design, Teledyne Optech developed the Titan, the world's first multispectral lidar system, which uses three independent laser channels operating at 532, 1064, and 1550 nm. Since Titan collects 12 bit intensity returns for each wavelength separately, users can compare how strongly targets in the survey area reflect each wavelength. Materials such as soil, rock and foliage all reflect the wavelengths differently, enabling post-processing algorithms to identify the material of targets easily and automatically. Based on field tests in Canada, automated classification algorithms have combined this with elevation data to classify targets into six basic types with 78% accuracy. Even greater accuracy is possible with further algorithm enhancement and the use of an in-sensor passive imager such as a thermal, multispectral, CIR or RGB camera. Titan therefore presents an important new tool for applications such as land-cover classification and environmental modeling while maintaining lidar's traditional strengths: high 3D accuracy and day/night operation. Multispectral channels also enable a single lidar to handle both topographic and bathymetric surveying efficiently, which previously required separate specialized lidar systems operating at different wavelengths. On land, Titan can survey efficiently from 2000 m AGL with a 900 kHz PRF (300 kHz per channel), or up to 2500 m if only the infrared 1064 and 1550 nm channels are used. Over water, the 532 nm green channel penetrates water to collect seafloor returns while the infrared

  5. Assessing the application of an airborne intensified multispectral video camera to measure chlorophyll a in three Florida estuaries

    SciTech Connect

    Dierberg, F.E.; Zaitzeff, J.

    1997-08-01

    After absolute and spectral calibration, an airborne intensified, multispectral video camera was field tested for water quality assessments over three Florida estuaries (Tampa Bay, Indian River Lagoon, and the St. Lucie River Estuary). Univariate regression analysis of upwelling spectral energy vs. ground-truthed uncorrected chlorophyll a (Chl a) for each estuary yielded lower coefficients of determination (R{sup 2}) with increasing concentrations of Gelbstoff within an estuary. More predictive relationships were established by adding true color as a second independent variable in a bivariate linear regression model. These regressions successfully explained most of the variation in upwelling light energy (R{sup 2}=0.94, 0.82 and 0.74 for the Tampa Bay, Indian River Lagoon, and St. Lucie estuaries, respectively). Ratioed wavelength bands within the 625-710 nm range produced the highest correlations with ground-truthed uncorrected Chl a, and were similar to those reported as being the most predictive for Chl a in Tennessee reservoirs. However, the ratioed wavebands producing the best predictive algorithms for Chl a differed among the three estuaries due to the effects of varying concentrations of Gelbstoff on upwelling spectral signatures, which precluded combining the data into a common data set for analysis.

  6. Capturing the Green River -- Multispectral airborne videography to evaluate the environmental impacts of hydropower operations

    SciTech Connect

    Snider, M.A.; Hayse, J.W.; Hlohowskyj, I.; LaGory, K.E.

    1996-02-01

    The 500-mile long Green River is the largest tributary of the Colorado River. From its origin in the Wind River Range mountains of western Wyoming to its confluence with the Colorado River in southeastern Utah, the Green River is vital to the arid region through which it flows. Large portions of the area remain near-wilderness with the river providing a source of recreation in the form of fishing and rafting, irrigation for farming and ranching, and hydroelectric power. In the late 1950`s and early 1960`s hydroelectric facilities were built on the river. One of these, Flaming Gorge Dam, is located just south of the Utah-Wyoming border near the town of Dutch John, Utah. Hydropower operations result in hourly and daily fluctuations in the releases of water from the dam that alter the natural stream flow below the dam and affect natural resources in and along the river corridor. In the present study, the authors were interested in evaluating the potential impacts of hydropower operations at Flaming Gorge Dam on the downstream natural resources. Considering the size of the area affected by the daily pattern of water release at the dam as well as the difficult terrain and limited accessibility of many reaches of the river, evaluating these impacts using standard field study methods was virtually impossible. Instead an approach was developed that used multispectral aerial videography to determine changes in the affected parameters at different flows, hydrologic modeling to predict flow conditions for various hydropower operating scenarios, and ecological information on the biological resources of concern to assign impacts.

  7. An airborne four-camera imaging system for agricultural applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper describes the design and testing of an airborne multispectral digital imaging system for remote sensing applications. The system consists of four high resolution charge coupled device (CCD) digital cameras and a ruggedized PC equipped with a frame grabber and image acquisition software. T...

  8. Airborne multispectral and hyperspectral remote sensing: Examples of applications to the study of environmental and engineering problems

    SciTech Connect

    Bianchi, R.; Marino, C.M.

    1997-10-01

    The availability of a new aerial survey capability carried out by the CNR/LARA (National Research Council - Airborne Laboratory for the Environmental Research) by a new spectroradiometer AA5000 MIVIS (Multispectral Infrared and Visible Imaging Spectrometer) on board a CASA 212/200 aircraft, enable the scientists to obtain innovative data sets, for different approach to the definitions and the understanding of a variety of environmental and engineering problems. The 102 MIVIS channels spectral bandwidths are chosen to meet the needs of scientific research for advanced applications of remote sensing data. In such configuration MIVIS can offer significant contributions to problem solving in wide sectors such as geologic exploration, agricultural crop studies, forestry, land use mapping, idrogeology, oceanography and others. LARA in 1994-96 has been active over different test-sites in joint-venture with JPL, Pasadena, different European Institutions and Italian University and Research Institutes. These aerial surveys allow the national and international scientific community to approach the use of Hyperspectral Remote Sensing in environmental problems of very large interest. The sites surveyed in Italy, France and Germany include a variety of targets such as quarries, landfills, karst cavities areas, landslides, coastlines, geothermal areas, etc. The deployments gathered up to now more than 300 GBytes of MIVIS data in more than 30 hours of VLDS data recording. The purpose of this work is to present and to comment the procedures and the results at research and at operational level of the past campaigns with special reference to the study of environmental and engineering problems.

  9. Hydrological characterization of a riparian vegetation zone using high resolution multi-spectral airborne imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akasheh, Osama Z.

    The Middle Rio Grande River (MRGR) is the main source of fresh water for the state of New Mexico. Located in an arid area with scarce local water resources, this has led to extensive diversions of river water to supply the high demand from municipalities and irrigated agricultural activities. The extensive water diversions over the last few decades have affected the composition of the native riparian vegetation by decreasing the area of cottonwood and coyote willow and increasing the spread of invasive species such as Tamarisk and Russian Olives, harmful to the river system, due to their high transpiration rates, which affect the river aquatic system. The need to study the river hydrological processes and their relation with its health is important to preserve the river ecosystem. To be able to do that a detailed vegetation map was produced using a Utah State University airborne remote sensing system for 286 km of river reach. Also a groundwater model was built in ArcGIS environment which has the ability to estimate soil water potential in the root zone and above the modeled water table. The Modified Penman-Monteith empirical equation was used in the ArcGIS environment to estimate riparian vegetation ET, taking advantage of the detailed vegetation map and spatial soil water potential layers. Vegetation water use per linear river reach was estimated to help decision makers to better manage and release the amount of water that keeps a sound river ecosystem and to support agricultural activities.

  10. Multispectral Terrain Background Simulation Techniques For Use In Airborne Sensor Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinberg, Michael; Wohlers, Ronald; Conant, John; Powers, Edward

    1988-08-01

    A background simulation code developed at Aerodyne Research, Inc., called AERIE is designed to reflect the major sources of clutter that are of concern to staring and scanning sensors of the type being considered for various airborne threat warning (both aircraft and missiles) sensors. The code is a first principles model that could be used to produce a consistent image of the terrain for various spectral bands, i.e., provide the proper scene correlation both spectrally and spatially. The code utilizes both topographic and cultural features to model terrain, typically from DMA data, with a statistical overlay of the critical underlying surface properties (reflectance, emittance, and thermal factors) to simulate the resulting texture in the scene. Strong solar scattering from water surfaces is included with allowance for wind driven surface roughness. Clouds can be superimposed on the scene using physical cloud models and an analytical representation of the reflectivity obtained from scattering off spherical particles. The scene generator is augmented by collateral codes that allow for the generation of images at finer resolution. These codes provide interpolation of the basic DMA databases using fractal procedures that preserve the high frequency power spectral density behavior of the original scene. Scenes are presented illustrating variations in altitude, radiance, resolution, material, thermal factors, and emissivities. The basic models utilized for simulation of the various scene components and various "engineering level" approximations are incorporated to reduce the computational complexity of the simulation.

  11. Correlation and registration of ERTS multispectral imagery. [by a digital processing technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonrud, L. O.; Henrikson, P. J.

    1974-01-01

    Examples of automatic digital processing demonstrate the feasibility of registering one ERTS multispectral scanner (MSS) image with another obtained on a subsequent orbit, and automatic matching, correlation, and registration of MSS imagery with aerial photography (multisensor correlation) is demonstrated. Excellent correlation was obtained with patch sizes exceeding 16 pixels square. Qualities which lead to effective control point selection are distinctive features, good contrast, and constant feature characteristics. Results of the study indicate that more than 300 degrees of freedom are required to register two standard ERTS-1 MSS frames covering 100 by 100 nautical miles to an accuracy of 0.6 pixel mean radial displacement error. An automatic strip processing technique demonstrates 600 to 1200 degrees of freedom over a quater frame of ERTS imagery. Registration accuracies in the range of 0.3 pixel to 0.5 pixel mean radial error were confirmed by independent error analysis. Accuracies in the range of 0.5 pixel to 1.4 pixel mean radial error were demonstrated by semi-automatic registration over small geographic areas.

  12. Ground-based multispectral measurements for airborne data verification in non-operating open pit mine "Kremikovtsi"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisova, Denitsa; Nikolov, Hristo; Petkov, Doyno

    2013-10-01

    The impact of mining industry and metal production on the environment is presented all over the world. In our research we set focus on the impact of already non-operating ferrous "Kremikovtsi"open pit mine and related waste dumps and tailings which we consider to be the major factor responsible for pollution of one densely populated region in Bulgaria. The approach adopted is based on correct estimation of the distribution of the iron oxides inside open pit mines and the neighboring regions those considered in this case to be the key issue for the ecological state assessment of soils, vegetation and water. For this study the foremost source of data are those of airborne origin and those combined with ground-based in-situ and laboratory acquired data were used for verification of the environmental variables and thus in process of assessment of the present environmental status influenced by previous mining activities. The percentage of iron content was selected as main indicator for presence of metal pollution since it could be reliably identified by multispectral data used in this study and also because the iron compounds are widely spread in the most of the minerals, rocks and soils. In our research the number of samples from every source (air, field, lab) was taken in the way to be statistically sound and confident. In order to establish relationship between the degree of pollution of the soil and mulspectral data 40 soil samples were collected during a field campaign in the study area together with GPS measurements for two types of laboratory measurements: the first one, chemical and mineralogical analysis and the second one, non-destructive spectroscopy. In this work for environmental variables verification over large areas mulspectral satellite data from Landsat instruments TM/ETM+ and from ALI/OLI (Operational Land Imager) were used. Ground-based (laboratory and in-situ) spectrometric measurements were performed using the designed and constructed in Remote

  13. Multispectral airborne imagery in the field reveals genetic determinisms of morphological and transpiration traits of an apple tree hybrid population in response to water deficit.

    PubMed

    Virlet, Nicolas; Costes, Evelyne; Martinez, Sébastien; Kelner, Jean-Jacques; Regnard, Jean-Luc

    2015-09-01

    Genetic studies of response to water deficit in adult trees are limited by low throughput of the usual phenotyping methods in the field. Here, we aimed at overcoming this bottleneck, applying a new methodology using airborne multispectral imagery and in planta measurements to compare a high number of individuals.An apple tree population, grafted on the same rootstock, was submitted to contrasting summer water regimes over two years. Aerial images acquired in visible, near- and thermal-infrared at three dates each year allowed calculation of vegetation and water stress indices. Tree vigour and fruit production were also assessed. Linear mixed models were built accounting for date and year effects on several variables and including the differential response of genotypes between control and drought conditions.Broad-sense heritability of most variables was high and 18 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) independent of the dates were detected on nine linkage groups of the consensus apple genetic map. For vegetation and stress indices, QTLs were related to the means, the intra-crown heterogeneity, and differences induced by water regimes. Most QTLs explained 15-20% of variance.Airborne multispectral imaging proved relevant to acquire simultaneous information on a whole tree population and to decipher genetic determinisms involved in response to water deficit. PMID:26208644

  14. Multispectral airborne imagery in the field reveals genetic determinisms of morphological and transpiration traits of an apple tree hybrid population in response to water deficit

    PubMed Central

    Virlet, Nicolas; Costes, Evelyne; Martinez, Sébastien; Kelner, Jean-Jacques; Regnard, Jean-Luc

    2015-01-01

    Genetic studies of response to water deficit in adult trees are limited by low throughput of the usual phenotyping methods in the field. Here, we aimed at overcoming this bottleneck, applying a new methodology using airborne multispectral imagery and in planta measurements to compare a high number of individuals. An apple tree population, grafted on the same rootstock, was submitted to contrasting summer water regimes over two years. Aerial images acquired in visible, near- and thermal-infrared at three dates each year allowed calculation of vegetation and water stress indices. Tree vigour and fruit production were also assessed. Linear mixed models were built accounting for date and year effects on several variables and including the differential response of genotypes between control and drought conditions. Broad-sense heritability of most variables was high and 18 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) independent of the dates were detected on nine linkage groups of the consensus apple genetic map. For vegetation and stress indices, QTLs were related to the means, the intra-crown heterogeneity, and differences induced by water regimes. Most QTLs explained 15−20% of variance. Airborne multispectral imaging proved relevant to acquire simultaneous information on a whole tree population and to decipher genetic determinisms involved in response to water deficit. PMID:26208644

  15. A simple method for vignette correction of airborne digital camera data

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, A.T.; Stow, D.A.; Hope, A.S.

    1996-11-01

    Airborne digital camera systems have gained popularity in recent years due to their flexibility, high geometric fidelity and spatial resolution, and fast data turn-around time. However, a common problem that plagues these types of framing systems is vignetting which causes falloff in image brightness away from principle nadir point. This paper presents a simple method for vignetting correction by utilizing laboratory images of a uniform illumination source. Multiple lab images are averaged and inverted to create digital correction templates which then are applied to actual airborne data. The vignette correction was effective in removing the systematic falloff in spectral values. We have shown that the vignette correction is a necessary part of the preprocessing of raw digital airborne remote sensing data. The consequences of not correcting for these effects are demonstrated in the context of monitoring of salt marsh habitat. 4 refs.

  16. Commercial Applications Multispectral Sensor System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birk, Ronald J.; Spiering, Bruce

    1993-01-01

    NASA's Office of Commercial Programs is funding a multispectral sensor system to be used in the development of remote sensing applications. The Airborne Terrestrial Applications Sensor (ATLAS) is designed to provide versatility in acquiring spectral and spatial information. The ATLAS system will be a test bed for the development of specifications for airborne and spaceborne remote sensing instrumentation for dedicated applications. This objective requires spectral coverage from the visible through thermal infrared wavelengths, variable spatial resolution from 2-25 meters; high geometric and geo-location accuracy; on-board radiometric calibration; digital recording; and optimized performance for minimized cost, size, and weight. ATLAS is scheduled to be available in 3rd quarter 1992 for acquisition of data for applications such as environmental monitoring, facilities management, geographic information systems data base development, and mineral exploration.

  17. A high-resolution airborne four-camera imaging system for agricultural remote sensing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper describes the design and testing of an airborne multispectral digital imaging system for remote sensing applications. The system consists of four high resolution charge coupled device (CCD) digital cameras and a ruggedized PC equipped with a frame grabber and image acquisition software. T...

  18. Airborne Multispectral and Thermal Remote Sensing for Detecting the Onset of Crop Stress Caused by Multiple Factors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Remote sensing technology has been developed and applied to provide spatiotemporal information on crop stress for precision management. A series of multispectral images over a field planted cotton, corn and soybean were obtained by a Geospatial Systems MS4100 camera mounted on an Air Tractor 402B ai...

  19. Airborne multispectral and thermal remote sensing for detecting the onset of crop stress caused by multiple factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yanbo; Thomson, Steven J.

    2010-10-01

    Remote sensing technology has been developed and applied to provide spatiotemporal information on crop stress for precision management. A series of multispectral images over a field planted cotton, corn and soybean were obtained by a Geospatial Systems MS4100 camera mounted on an Air Tractor 402B airplane equipped with Camera Link in a Magma converter box triggered by Terraverde Dragonfly® flight navigation and imaging control software. The field crops were intentionally stressed by applying glyphosate herbicide via aircraft and allowing it to drift near-field. Aerial multispectral images in the visible and near-infrared bands were manipulated to produce vegetation indices, which were used to quantify the onset of herbicide induced crop stress. The vegetation indices normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and soil adjusted vegetation index (SAVI) showed the ability to monitor crop response to herbicide-induced injury by revealing stress at different phenological stages. Two other fields were managed with irrigated versus nonirrigated treatments, and those fields were imaged with both the multispectral system and an Electrophysics PV-320T thermal imaging camera on board an Air Tractor 402B aircraft. Thermal imagery indicated water stress due to deficits in soil moisture, and a proposed method of determining crop cover percentage using thermal imagery was compared with a multispectral imaging method. Development of an image fusion scheme may be necessary to provide synergy and improve overall water stress detection ability.

  20. Digital data from the Great Sand Dunes airborne gravity gradient survey, south-central Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drenth, B.J.; Abraham, J.D.; Grauch, V.J.S.; Labson, V.F.; Hodges, G.

    2013-01-01

    This report contains digital data and supporting explanatory files describing data types, data formats, and survey procedures for a high-resolution airborne gravity gradient (AGG) survey at Great Sand Dunes National Park, Alamosa and Saguache Counties, south-central Colorado. In the San Luis Valley, the Great Sand Dunes survey covers a large part of Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve. The data described were collected from a high-resolution AGG survey flown in February 2012, by Fugro Airborne Surveys Corp., on contract to the U.S. Geological Survey. Scientific objectives of the AGG survey are to investigate the subsurface structural framework that may influence groundwater hydrology and seismic hazards, and to investigate AGG methods and resolution using different flight specifications. Funding was provided by an airborne geophysics training program of the U.S. Department of Defense's Task Force for Business & Stability Operations.

  1. Image quality degradation and retrieval errors introduced by registration and interpolation of multispectral digital images

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, B.G.; Borel, C.C.; Theiler, J.P.; Smith, B.W.

    1996-04-01

    Full utilization of multispectral data acquired by whiskbroom and pushbroom imagers requires that the individual channels be registered accurately. Poor registration introduces errors which can be significant, especially in high contrast areas such as boundaries between regions. We simulate the acquisition of multispectral imagery in order to estimate the errors that are introduced by co-registration of different channels and interpolation within the images. We compute the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) and image quality degradation brought about by fractional pixel shifting and calculate errors in retrieved quantities (surface temperature and water vapor) that occur as a result of interpolation. We also present a method which might be used to estimate sensor platform motion for accurate registration of images acquired by a pushbroom scanner.

  2. Remote Sensing of Liquid Water and Ice Cloud Optical Thickness and Effective Radius in the Arctic: Application of Airborne Multispectral MAS Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.; Platnick, Steven; Yang, Ping; Arnold, G. Thomas; Gray, Mark A.; Riedi, Jerome C.; Ackerman, Steven A.; Liou, Kuo-Nan

    2003-01-01

    A multispectral scanning spectrometer was used to obtain measurements of the reflection function and brightness temperature of clouds, sea ice, snow, and tundra surfaces at 50 discrete wavelengths between 0.47 and 14.0 microns. These observations were obtained from the NASA ER-2 aircraft as part of the FIRE Arctic Clouds Experiment, conducted over a 1600 x 500 km region of the north slope of Alaska and surrounding Beaufort and Chukchi Seas between 18 May and 6 June 1998. Multispectral images of the reflection function and brightness temperature in 11 distinct bands of the MODIS Airborne Simulator (MAS) were used to derive a confidence in clear sky (or alternatively the probability of cloud), shadow, and heavy aerosol over five different ecosystems. Based on the results of individual tests run as part of the cloud mask, an algorithm was developed to estimate the phase of the clouds (water, ice, or undetermined phase). Finally, the cloud optical thickness and effective radius were derived for both water and ice clouds that were detected during one flight line on 4 June. This analysis shows that the cloud mask developed for operational use on MODIS, and tested using MAS data in Alaska, is quite capable of distinguishing clouds from bright sea ice surfaces during daytime conditions in the high Arctic. Results of individual tests, however, make it difficult to distinguish ice clouds over snow and sea ice surfaces, so additional tests were added to enhance the confidence in the thermodynamic phase of clouds over the Beaufort Sea. The cloud optical thickness and effective radius retrievals used 3 distinct bands of the MAS, with the newly developed 1.62 and 2.13 micron bands being used quite successfully over snow and sea ice surfaces. These results are contrasted with a MODIS-based algorithm that relies on spectral reflectance at 0.87 and 2.13 micron.

  3. Estimating the chlorophyll content in the waters of Guanabara Bay from the LANDSAT multispectral scanning digital data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Bentancurt, J. J. V.; Herz, B. R.; Molion, L. B.

    1980-01-01

    Detection of water quality in Guanabara Bay using multispectral scanning digital data taken from LANDSAT satellites was examined. To test these processes, an empirical (statistical) approach was choosen to observe the degree of relationship between LANDSAT data and the in situ data taken simultaneously. The linear and nonlinear regression analyses were taken from among those developed by INPE in 1978. Results indicate that the major regression was in the number six MSS band, atmospheric effects, which indicated a correction coefficient of 0.99 and an average error of 6.59 micrograms liter. This error was similar to that obtained in the laboratory. The chlorophyll content was between 0 and 100 micrograms/liter, as taken from the MSS of LANDSAT.

  4. Development and Utilization of High Precision Digital Elevation Data taken by Airborne Laser Scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akutsu, Osamu; Ohta, Masataka; Isobe, Tamio; Ando, Hisamitsu, Noguchi, Takahiro; Shimizu, Masayuki

    2005-03-01

    Disasters caused by heavy rain in urban areas bring a damage such as chaos in the road and railway transport systems, power failure, breakdown of the telephone system and submersion of built up areas, subways and underground shopping arcades, etc. It is important to obtain high precision elevation data which shows the detailed landform because a slight height difference affects damages by flood very considerably. Therefore, The Geographical Survey Institute (GSI) is preparing 5m grid digital terrain model (DTM) based on precise ground elevation data taken by using airborne laser scanner. This paper describes the process and an example of the use of a 5m grid digital data set.

  5. A fully-automated approach to land cover mapping with airborne LiDAR and high resolution multispectral imagery in a forested suburban landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parent, Jason R.; Volin, John C.; Civco, Daniel L.

    2015-06-01

    Information on land cover is essential for guiding land management decisions and supporting landscape-level ecological research. In recent years, airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR) and high resolution aerial imagery have become more readily available in many areas. These data have great potential to enable the generation of land cover at a fine scale and across large areas by leveraging 3-dimensional structure and multispectral information. LiDAR and other high resolution datasets must be processed in relatively small subsets due to their large volumes; however, conventional classification techniques cannot be fully automated and thus are unlikely to be feasible options when processing large high-resolution datasets. In this paper, we propose a fully automated rule-based algorithm to develop a 1 m resolution land cover classification from LiDAR data and multispectral imagery. The algorithm we propose uses a series of pixel- and object-based rules to identify eight vegetated and non-vegetated land cover features (deciduous and coniferous tall vegetation, medium vegetation, low vegetation, water, riparian wetlands, buildings, low impervious cover). The rules leverage both structural and spectral properties including height, LiDAR return characteristics, brightness in visible and near-infrared wavelengths, and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). Pixel-based properties were used initially to classify each land cover class while minimizing omission error; a series of object-based tests were then used to remove errors of commission. These tests used conservative thresholds, based on diverse test areas, to help avoid over-fitting the algorithm to the test areas. The accuracy assessment of the classification results included a stratified random sample of 3198 validation points distributed across 30 1 × 1 km tiles in eastern Connecticut, USA. The sample tiles were selected in a stratified random manner from locations representing the full range of

  6. Use of reflectance spectra of native plant species for interpreting airborne multispectral scanner data in the East Tintic Mountains, Utah.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milton, N.M.

    1983-01-01

    Analysis of in situ reflectance spectra of native vegetation was used to interpret airborne MSS data. Representative spectra from three plant species in the E Tintic Mountains, Utah, were used to interpret the color components on a color ratio composite image made from MSS data in the visible and near-infrared regions. A map of plant communities was made from the color ratio composite image and field checked. -from Author

  7. Use of a new high-speed digital data acquisition system in airborne ice-sounding

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wright, David L.; Bradley, Jerry A.; Hodge, Steven M.

    1989-01-01

    A high-speed digital data acquisition and signal averaging system for borehole, surface, and airborne radio-frequency geophysical measurements was designed and built by the US Geological Survey. The system permits signal averaging at rates high enough to achieve significant signal-to-noise enhancement in profiling, even in airborne applications. The first field use of the system took place in Greenland in 1987 for recording data on a 150 by 150-km grid centered on the summit of the Greenland ice sheet. About 6000-line km were flown and recorded using the new system. The data can be used to aid in siting a proposed scientific corehole through the ice sheet.

  8. Analysis of testbed airborne multispectral scanner data from Superflux II. [Chesapeake Bay plume and James Shelf data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowker, D. E.; Hardesty, C. A.; Jobson, D. J.; Bahn, G. S.

    1981-01-01

    A test bed aircraft multispectral scanner (TBAMS) was flown during the James Shelf, Plume Scan, and Chesapeake Bay missions as part of the Superflux 2 experiment. Excellent correlations were obtained between water sample measurements of chlorophyll and sediment and TBAMS radiance data. The three-band algorithms used were insensitive to aircraft altitude and varying atmospheric conditions. This was particularly fortunate due to the hazy conditions during most of the experiments. A contour map of sediment, and also chlorophyll, was derived for the Chesapeake Bay plume along the southern Virginia-Carolina coastline. A sediment maximum occurs about 5 nautical miles off the Virginia Beach coast with a chlorophyll maximum slightly shoreward of this. During the James Shelf mission, a thermal anomaly (or front) was encountered about 50 miles from the coast. There was a minor variation in chlorophyll and sediment across the boundary. During the Chesapeake Bay mission, the Sun elevation increased from 50 degrees to over 70 degrees, interfering with the generation of data products.

  9. Comparsion of Multispectral Reflectance with Digital Color Image in Assessing the Winter Wheat Nitrogen Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Liangliang; Chen, Xinping; Li, Minzan; Cui, Zhenling; Zhang, Fusuo

    Previous researches have shown that the digital image color intensity could reflect the crops N status, but there is little information about the comparision of spectrum reflectance in the visible bands with the digital imagery color intensities. A field experiment was conducted to compare the wheat canopy reflectance at visible bands (400-700 nm) at shooting stage with near ground digital image to detect N deficiencies. Single color bands of R, G, B and ratio indices of G/R, G/B, R/B, R/(R+G+B), G/(R+G+B) and B/(R+G+B), which derived from digital image and spectral measurments, were regressed with wheat N status. The R, G, G/B, R/B, R/(R+G+B) and G/(R+G+B) all had negative correlations, while the G/R and B/(R+G+B) indices had positive correlations, with plant N status. For the B band, the digital image analysis data got positive correlations while the spectral measurements got negative correlations. With higher correlation coefficient than other indices, the R/(R+G+B) was the best index in this research. Considering the easiness of getting digital images and the accurate prediction of crops N status, the digital image analysis method seems to be a better way for in field plant N status evaluation.

  10. Daily evapotranspiration estimates from extrapolating instantaneous airborne remote sensing ET values

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, six extrapolation methods have been compared for their ability to estimate daily crop evapotranspiration (ETd) from instantaneous latent heat flux estimates derived from digital airborne multispectral remote sensing imagery. Data used in this study were collected during an experiment...

  11. FireMapper 2.0: a multispectral uncooled infrared imaging system for airborne wildfire mapping and remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, James W.; Riggan, Philip J.; Griffin, Stephanie A.; Grush, Ronald C.; Grush, William H.; Pena, James

    2003-11-01

    FireMapper®2.0 is a second-generation airborne system developed specifically for wildfire mapping and remote sensing. Its design is based on lessons learned from two years of flight-testing of a research FireMapper® system by the Pacific uthwest Research Station of the USDA Forest Service. The new, operational design features greater coverage and improved performance with a rugged sensor that is less than one third the size and weight of the original research sensor. The sensor obtains thermal infrared images in two narrow spectral bands and one wide spectral band with the use of a single uncooled microbolometer detector array. The dynamic range of the sensor is designed to accurately measure scene temperatures from normal backgrounds, for remote sensing and disaster management applications, up to flaming fronts without saturating. All three channels are extremely linear and are calibrated in-flight with a highly accurate absolute calibration system. Airborne testing of the research system has led to improved displays and simplified operator interfaces. These features facilitate the operational use of the FireMapper®2.0 system on both fixed wing aircraft and helicopters with minimal operator inputs. The operating system features custom software to display and zoom in on the images in realtime as they are obtained. Selected images can also be saved and recalled for detailed study. All images are tagged with GPS date, time, latitude, longitude, altitude, and heading and can be recorded on a portable USB hard drive upon operator command. The operating system can also be used to replay previously recorded image sequences. The FireMapper® 2.0 was designed and fabricated by Space Instruments, Inc. as part of a Research Joint Venture with the USDA Forest Service.

  12. Georeferencing airborne images from a multiple digital camera system by GPS/INS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mostafa, Mohamed Mohamed Rashad

    2000-10-01

    In this thesis, the development and testing of an airborne fully digital multi-sensor system for kinematic mapping is presented. The system acquires two streams of data, namely navigation data and imaging data. The navigation data are obtained by integrating an accurate strapdown Inertial Navigation System with two GPS receivers. The imaging data are acquired by two digital cameras, configured in such a way so as to reduce their geometric limitations. The two digital cameras capture strips of overlapping nadir and oblique images. The INS/GPS-derived trajectory contains the full translational and rotational motion of the carrier aircraft. Thus, image exterior orientation information is extracted from the trajectory, during postprocessing. This approach eliminates the need for ground control when computing 3D positions of objects that appear in the field of view of the system imaging component. Test flights were conducted over the campus of The University of Calgary. Two approaches for calibrating the system are presented, namely pre-mission calibration and in-flight calibration. Testing the system in flight showed that best ground point positioning accuracy at 1:12000 average image scale is 0.2 m (RMS) in easting and northing and 0.3 m (RMS) in height. Preliminary results indicate that major applications of such a system in the future are in the field of digital mapping, at scales of 1:10000 and smaller, and the generation of digital elevation models for engineering applications.

  13. Multispectral lensless digital holographic microscope: imaging MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cancer cell cultures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryle, James P.; Molony, Karen M.; McDonnell, Susan; Naughton, Thomas J.; Sheridan, John T.

    2009-08-01

    Digital holography is the process where an object's phase and amplitude information is retrieved from intensity images obtained using a digital camera (e.g. CCD or CMOS sensor). In-line digital holographic techniques offer full use of the recording device's sampling bandwidth, unlike off-axis holography where object information is not modulated onto carrier fringes. Reconstructed images are obscured by the linear superposition of the unwanted, out of focus, twin images. In addition to this, speckle noise degrades overall quality of the reconstructed images. The speckle effect is a phenomenon of laser sources used in digital holographic systems. Minimizing the effects due to speckle noise, removal of the twin image and using the full sampling bandwidth of the capture device aids overall reconstructed image quality. Such improvements applied to digital holography can benefit applications such as holographic microscopy where the reconstructed images are obscured with twin image information. Overcoming such problems allows greater flexibility in current image processing techniques, which can be applied to segmenting biological cells (e.g. MCF-7 and MDA-MB- 231) to determine their overall cell density and viability. This could potentially be used to distinguish between apoptotic and necrotic cells in large scale mammalian cell processes, currently the system of choice, within the biopharmaceutical industry.

  14. Airborne multispectral remote sensing data to estimate several oenological parameters in vineyard production. A case study of application of remote sensing data to precision viticulture in central Italy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tramontana, Gianluca; Girard, Filippo; Belli, Claudio; Comandini, Maria Cristina; Pietromarchi, Paolo; Tiberi, Domenico; Papale, Dario

    2010-05-01

    It is widely recognized that environmental differences within the vineyard, with respect to soils, microclimate, and topography, can influence grape characteristics and crop yields. Besides, the central Italy landscape is characterized by a high level of fragmentation and heterogeneity It requires stringent Remote sensing technical features in terms of spectral, geometric and temporal resolution to aimed at supporting applications for precision viticulture. In response to the needs of the Italian grape and wine industry for an evaluation of precision viticulture technologies, the DISAFRI (University of Tuscia) and the Agricultural Research Council - Oenological research unit (ENC-CRA) jointly carried out an experimental study during the year 2008. The study was carried out on 2 areas located in the town of Velletri, near Rome; for each area, two varieties (red and white grape) were studied: Nero d'Avola and Sauvignon blanc in first area , Merlot and Sauvignon blanc in second. Remote sensing data were acquired in different periods using a low cost multisensor Airborne remote sensing platform developed by DISAFRI (ASPIS-2 Advanced Spectroscopic Imager System). ASPIS-2, an evolution of the ASPIS sensor (Papale et al 2008, Sensors), is a multispectral sensor based on 4 CCD and 3 interferential filters per CCD. The filters are user selectable during the flight and in this way Aspis is able to acquire data in 12 bands in the visible and near infrared regions with a bandwidth of 10 or 20 nm. To the purposes of this study 7 spectral band were acquired and 15 vegetation indices calculated. During the ripeness period several vegetative and oenochemical parameters were monitored. Anova test shown that several oenochemical variables, such as sugars, total acidity, polyphenols and anthocyanins differ according to the variety taken into consideration. In order to evaluate the time autocorrelation of several oenological parameters value, a simple linear regression between

  15. An algorithm for the estimation of bounds on the emissivity and temperatures from thermal multispectral airborne remotely sensed data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaggi, S.; Quattrochi, D.; Baskin, R.

    1992-01-01

    The effective flux incident upon the detectors of a thermal sensor, after it has been corrected for atmospheric effects, is a function of a non-linear combination of the emissivity of the target for that channel and the temperature of the target. The sensor system cannot separate the contribution from the emissivity and the temperature that constitute the flux value. A method that estimates the bounds on these temperatures and emissivities from thermal data is described. This method is then tested with remotely sensed data obtained from NASA's Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) - a 6 channel thermal sensor. Since this is an under-determined set of equations i.e. there are 7 unknowns (6 emissivities and 1 temperature) and 6 equations (corresponding to the 6 channel fluxes), there exist theoretically an infinite combination of values of emissivities and temperature that can satisfy these equations. Using some realistic bounds on the emissivities, bounds on the temperature are calculated. These bounds on the temperature are refined to estimate a tighter bound on the emissivity of the source. An error analysis is also carried out to quantitatively determine the extent of uncertainty introduced in the estimate of these parameters. This method is useful only when a realistic set of bounds can be obtained for the emissivities of the data. In the case of water the lower and upper bounds were set at 0.97 and 1.00 respectively. Five flights were flown in succession at altitudes of 2 km (low), 6 km (mid), 12 km (high), and then back again at 6 km and 2 km. The area selected with the Ross Barnett reservoir near Jackson, Mississippi. The mission was flown during the predawn hours of 1 Feb. 1992. Radiosonde data was collected for that duration to profile the characteristics of the atmosphere. Ground truth temperatures using thermometers and radiometers were also obtained over an area of the reservoir. The results of two independent runs of the radiometer data averaged

  16. Airborne Digital Sensor System and GPS-aided inertial technology for direct geopositioning in rough terrain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sanchez, Richard D.

    2004-01-01

    High-resolution airborne digital cameras with onboard data collection based on the Global Positioning System (GPS) and inertial navigation systems (INS) technology may offer a real-time means to gather accurate topographic map information by reducing ground control and eliminating aerial triangulation. Past evaluations of this integrated system over relatively flat terrain have proven successful. The author uses Emerge Digital Sensor System (DSS) combined with Applanix Corporation?s Position and Orientation Solutions for Direct Georeferencing to examine the positional mapping accuracy in rough terrain. The positional accuracy documented in this study did not meet large-scale mapping requirements owing to an apparent system mechanical failure. Nonetheless, the findings yield important information on a new approach for mapping in Antarctica and other remote or inaccessible areas of the world.

  17. A selected bibliography: Application of Landsat digital multispectral scanner data to agriculture, forestry, and range management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rohde, Wayne G.

    1977-01-01

    This bibliography contains citations of selected publications and technical reports dealing with the application of Landsat digital data analysis techniques to agriculture, forestry, and range management problems. All of the citations were published between 1973 and 1977. The citations reference publications and reports which discuss specific analysis techniques and specific resource applications.

  18. Can Commercial Digital Cameras Be Used as Multispectral Sensors? A Crop Monitoring Test

    PubMed Central

    Lebourgeois, Valentine; Bégué, Agnès; Labbé, Sylvain; Mallavan, Benjamin; Prévot, Laurent; Roux, Bruno

    2008-01-01

    The use of consumer digital cameras or webcams to characterize and monitor different features has become prevalent in various domains, especially in environmental applications. Despite some promising results, such digital camera systems generally suffer from signal aberrations due to the on-board image processing systems and thus offer limited quantitative data acquisition capability. The objective of this study was to test a series of radiometric corrections having the potential to reduce radiometric distortions linked to camera optics and environmental conditions, and to quantify the effects of these corrections on our ability to monitor crop variables. In 2007, we conducted a five-month experiment on sugarcane trial plots using original RGB and modified RGB (Red-Edge and NIR) cameras fitted onto a light aircraft. The camera settings were kept unchanged throughout the acquisition period and the images were recorded in JPEG and RAW formats. These images were corrected to eliminate the vignetting effect, and normalized between acquisition dates. Our results suggest that 1) the use of unprocessed image data did not improve the results of image analyses; 2) vignetting had a significant effect, especially for the modified camera, and 3) normalized vegetation indices calculated with vignetting-corrected images were sufficient to correct for scene illumination conditions. These results are discussed in the light of the experimental protocol and recommendations are made for the use of these versatile systems for quantitative remote sensing of terrestrial surfaces.

  19. Geometric aspects in digital analysis of Multi-Spectral Scanner (MSS) data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikhail, E. M.; Baker, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    Present automated systems of interpretation which apply pattern recognition techniques on MSS data do not fully consider the geometry of the acquisition system. In an effort to improve the usefulness of the MSS data when digitally treated, geometric aspects are analyzed and discussed. Attempts to correct for scanner instabilities in position and orientation by affine and polynomial transformations, as well as by modified collinearity equations are described. Methods of accounting for panoramic and relief effects are also discussed. It is anticipated that reliable area as well as position determinations can be accomplished during the process of automatic interpretation. A concept for a unified approach to the treatment of remote sensing data, both metric and nonmetric is presented.

  20. First Results from an Airborne Ka-band SAR Using SweepSAR and Digital Beamforming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadowy, Gregory; Ghaemi, Hirad; Hensley, Scott

    2012-01-01

    NASA/JPL has developed SweepSAR technique that breaks typical Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) trade space using time-dependent multi-beam DBF on receive. Developing SweepSAR implementation using array-fed reflector for proposed DESDynI Earth Radar Mission concept. Performed first-of-a-kind airborne demonstration of the SweepSAR concept at Ka-band (35.6 GHz). Validated calibration and antenna pattern data sufficient for beam forming in elevation. (1) Provides validation evidence that the proposed Deformation Ecosystem Structure Dynamics of Ice (DESDynI) SAR architecture is sound. (2) Functions well even with large variations in receiver gain / phase. Future plans include using prototype DESDynI SAR digital flight hardware to do the beam forming in real-time onboard the aircraft.

  1. A digital elevation model of the Greenland ice sheet and validation with airborne laser altimeter data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bamber, Jonathan L.; Ekholm, Simon; Krabill, William B.

    1997-01-01

    A 2.5 km resolution digital elevation model (DEM) of the Greenland ice sheet was produced from the 336 days of the geodetic phase of ERS-1. During this period the altimeter was operating in ice-mode over land surfaces providing improved tracking around the margins of the ice sheet. Combined with the high density of tracks during the geodetic phase, a unique data set was available for deriving a DEM of the whole ice sheet. The errors present in the altimeter data were investigated via a comparison with airborne laser altimeter data obtained for the southern half of Greenland. Comparison with coincident satellite data showed a correlation with surface slope. An explanation for the behavior of the bias as a function of surface slope is given in terms of the pattern of surface roughness on the ice sheet.

  2. Ground truth management system to support multispectral scanner /MSS/ digital analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coiner, J. C.; Ungar, S. G.

    1977-01-01

    A computerized geographic information system for management of ground truth has been designed and implemented to relate MSS classification results to in situ observations. The ground truth system transforms, generalizes and rectifies ground observations to conform to the pixel size and shape of high resolution MSS aircraft data. These observations can then be aggregated for comparison to lower resolution sensor data. Construction of a digital ground truth array allows direct pixel by pixel comparison between classification results of MSS data and ground truth. By making comparisons, analysts can identify spatial distribution of error within the MSS data as well as usual figures of merit for the classifications. Use of the ground truth system permits investigators to compare a variety of environmental or anthropogenic data, such as soil color or tillage patterns, with classification results and allows direct inclusion of such data into classification operations. To illustrate the system, examples from classification of simulated Thematic Mapper data for agricultural test sites in North Dakota and Kansas are provided.

  3. Michigan experimental multispectral scanner system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasell, P. G., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    A functional description of a multispectral airborne scanner system that provides spectral bands along a single optical line of sight is reported. The airborne scanner consists of an optical telescope for scanning plane perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the aircraft and radiation detectors for converting radiation to electrical signals. The system makes a linear transformation of input radiation to voltage recorded on analog magnetic tape.

  4. Analysis of airborne LiDAR as a basis for digital soil mapping in Alpine areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kringer, K.; Tusch, M.; Geitner, C.; Meißl, G.; Rutzinger, M.

    2009-04-01

    Especially in mountainous regions like the Alps the formation of soil is highly influenced by relief characteristics. Among all factors included in Jenny's (1941) model for soil development, relief is the one most commonly used in approaches to create digital soil maps and to derive soil properties from secondary data sources (McBratney et al. 2003). Elevation data, first order (slope, aspect) and second order derivates (plan, profile and cross-sectional curvature) as well as complex morphometric parameters (various landform classifications, e.g., Wood 1996) and compound indices (e.g., topographic wetness indices, vertical distance to drainage network, insolation) can be calculated from digital elevation models (DEM). However, while being an important source of information for digital soil mapping on small map scales, "conventional" DEMs are of limited use for the design of large scale conceptual soil maps for small areas due to rather coarse raster resolutions with cell sizes ranging from 20 to 100 meters. Slight variations in elevation and small landform features might not be discernible even though they might have a significant effect to soil formation, e.g., regarding the influence of groundwater in alluvial soils or the extent of alluvial fans. Nowadays, Airborne LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) provides highly accurate data for the elaboration of high-resolution digital terrain models (DTM) even in forested areas. In the project LASBO (Laserscanning in der Bodenkartierung) the applicability of digital terrain models derived from LiDAR for the identification of soil-relevant geomorphometric parameter is investigated. Various algorithms which were initially designed for coarser raster data are applied on high-resolution DTMs. Test areas for LASBO are located in the region of Bruneck (Italy) and near the municipality of Kramsach in the Inn Valley (Austria). The freely available DTM for Bruneck has a raster resolution of 2.5 meters while in Kramsach a DTM with

  5. Characterizing arid region alluvial fan surface roughness with airborne laser swath mapping digital topographic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frankel, Kurt L.; Dolan, James F.

    2007-06-01

    Range-front alluvial fan deposition in arid environments is episodic and results in multiple fan surfaces and ages. These distinct landforms are often defined by descriptions of their surface morphology, desert varnish accumulation, clast rubification, desert pavement formation, soil development, and stratigraphy. Although quantifying surface roughness differences between alluvial fan units has proven to be difficult in the past, high-resolution airborne laser swath mapping (ALSM) digital topographic data are now providing researchers with an opportunity to study topography in unprecedented detail. Here we use ALSM data to calculate surface roughness on two alluvial fans in northern Death Valley, California. We define surface roughness as the standard deviation of slope in a 5-m by 5-m moving window. Comparison of surface roughness values between mapped fan surfaces shows that each unit is statistically unique at the 99% confidence level. Furthermore, there is an obvious smoothing trend from the presently active channel to a deposit with cosmogenic 10Be and 36Cl surface exposure ages of ˜70 ka. Beyond 70 ka, alluvial landforms become progressively rougher with age. These data suggest that alluvial fans in arid regions smooth out with time until a threshold is crossed where roughness increases at greater wavelength with age as a result of surface runoff and headward tributary incision into the oldest surfaces.

  6. Reflectance Data Processing of High Resolution Multispectral Data Acquired with an Autonomous Unmanned Aerial Vehicle AggieairTM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaman, B.; Jensen, A.; McKee, M.

    2012-12-01

    In this study, the performance and accuracy of a method for converting airborne multispectral data to reflectance data are characterized. Spectral reflectance is the ratio of reflected to incident radiant flux and it may have values only in the interval 0-1, inclusive. Reflectance is a key physical property of a surface and is empirically derived from on-ground observations. The paper presents a method for processing multispectral data acquired by an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) platform, called AggieAirTM, and a process for converting raw digital numbers to calibrated reflectance values. Imagery is acquired by two identical sets of cameras. One set is aboard the UAV and the other is over a barium sulfate reference panel. The cameras have identical settings. The major steps for producing the reflectance data involve the calibration of the reference panel, calibration of the multispectral UAV cameras, zenith angle calculations and image processing. The method converts airborne multispectral data by calculating the ratio of linearly-interpolated reference values from the pre- and post-flight reference panel readings. The flight interval is typically approximately 30 minutes and the imagery is acquired around local solar noon. The UAV is typically flown at low altitudes to reduce atmospheric effects to a negligible level. Data acquired over wetlands near Great Salt Lake, Utah is used to illustrate ground data and processed imagery. The spectral resolution of the multispectral data is 25 cms. The paper discusses the accuracy issues and errors associated with the proposed method.

  7. Multispectral scanner (MSS), ERTS-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arlauskas, J.

    1973-01-01

    The multispectral scanner onboard ERTS-A spacecraft provides simultaneous images in three visible bands and one near infrared band. The instrument employs fiber optics to transfer optical images to the detectors and photomultiplier tubes. Detector outputs are digitized and multiplexed for transmission from the spacecraft by analog to digital processor.

  8. In vivo multispectral imaging of the absorption and scattering properties of exposed brain using a digital red-green-blue camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Keiichiro; Ishizuka, Tomohiro; Mizushima, Chiharu; Nishidate, Izumi; Kawauchi, Satoko; Sato, Shunichi; Sato, Manabu

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate multi-spectral images of the absorption and scattering properties in the cerebral cortex of rat brain, we investigated spectral reflectance images estimated by the Wiener estimation method using a digital red-green-blue camera. A Monte Carlo simulation-based multiple regression analysis for the corresponding spectral absorbance images at nine wavelengths (500, 520, 540, 560, 570, 580, 600, 730, and 760 nm) was then used to specify the absorption and scattering parameters. The spectral images of absorption and reduced scattering coefficients were reconstructed from the absorption and scattering parameters. We performed in vivo experiments on exposed rat brain to confirm the feasibility of this method. The estimated images of the absorption coefficients were dominated by hemoglobin spectra. The estimated images of the reduced scattering coefficients had a broad scattering spectrum, exhibiting a larger magnitude at shorter wavelengths, corresponding to the typical spectrum of brain tissue published in the literature.

  9. Geologic analyses of LANDSAT-1 multispectral imagery of a possible power plant site employing digital and analog image processing. [in Pennsylvania

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lovegreen, J. R.; Prosser, W. J.; Millet, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    A site in the Great Valley subsection of the Valley and Ridge physiographic province in eastern Pennsylvania was studied to evaluate the use of digital and analog image processing for geologic investigations. Ground truth at the site was obtained by a field mapping program, a subsurface exploration investigation and a review of available published and unpublished literature. Remote sensing data were analyzed using standard manual techniques. LANDSAT-1 imagery was analyzed using digital image processing employing the multispectral Image 100 system and using analog color processing employing the VP-8 image analyzer. This study deals primarily with linears identified employing image processing and correlation of these linears with known structural features and with linears identified manual interpretation; and the identification of rock outcrops in areas of extensive vegetative cover employing image processing. The results of this study indicate that image processing can be a cost-effective tool for evaluating geologic and linear features for regional studies encompassing large areas such as for power plant siting. Digital image processing can be an effective tool for identifying rock outcrops in areas of heavy vegetative cover.

  10. MIDAS prototype Multispectral Interactive Digital Analysis System for large area earth resources surveys. Volume 2: Charge coupled device investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kriegler, F.; Marshall, R.; Sternberg, S.

    1976-01-01

    MIDAS is a third-generation, fast, low cost, multispectral recognition system able to keep pace with the large quantity and high rates of data acquisition from large regions with present and projected sensors. MIDAS, for example, can process a complete ERTS frame in forty seconds and provide a color map of sixteen constituent categories in a few minutes. A principal objective of the MIDAS Program is to provide a system well interfaced with the human operator and thus to obtain large overall reductions in turn-around time and significant gains in throughput. The need for advanced onboard spacecraft processing of remotely sensed data is stated and approaches to this problem are described which are feasible through the use of charge coupled devices. Tentative mechanizations for the required processing operations are given in large block form. These initial designs can serve as a guide to circuit/system designers.

  11. Accuracy assessment of airborne photogrammetrically derived high-resolution digital elevation models in a high mountain environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Johann; Gärtner-Roer, Isabelle; Thee, Patrick; Ginzler, Christian

    2014-12-01

    High-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) generated by airborne remote sensing are frequently used to analyze landform structures (monotemporal) and geomorphological processes (multitemporal) in remote areas or areas of extreme terrain. In order to assess and quantify such structures and processes it is necessary to know the absolute accuracy of the available DEMs. This study assesses the absolute vertical accuracy of DEMs generated by the High Resolution Stereo Camera-Airborne (HRSC-A), the Leica Airborne Digital Sensors 40/80 (ADS40 and ADS80) and the analogue camera system RC30. The study area is located in the Turtmann valley, Valais, Switzerland, a glacially and periglacially formed hanging valley stretching from 2400 m to 3300 m a.s.l. The photogrammetrically derived DEMs are evaluated against geodetic field measurements and an airborne laser scan (ALS). Traditional and robust global and local accuracy measurements are used to describe the vertical quality of the DEMs, which show a non Gaussian distribution of errors. The results show that all four sensor systems produce DEMs with similar accuracy despite their different setups and generations. The ADS40 and ADS80 (both with a ground sampling distance of 0.50 m) generate the most accurate DEMs in complex high mountain areas with a RMSE of 0.8 m and NMAD of 0.6 m They also show the highest accuracy relating to flying height (0.14‰). The pushbroom scanning system HRSC-A produces a RMSE of 1.03 m and a NMAD of 0.83 m (0.21‰ accuracy of the flying height and 10 times the ground sampling distance). The analogue camera system RC30 produces DEMs with a vertical accuracy of 1.30 m RMSE and 0.83 m NMAD (0.17‰ accuracy of the flying height and two times the ground sampling distance). It is also shown that the performance of the DEMs strongly depends on the inclination of the terrain. The RMSE of areas up to an inclination <40° is better than 1 m. In more inclined areas the error and outlier occurrence

  12. Co-Registration Airborne LIDAR Point Cloud Data and Synchronous Digital Image Registration Based on Combined Adjustment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Z. H.; Zhang, Y. S.; Zheng, T.; Lai, W. B.; Zou, Z. R.; Zou, B.

    2016-06-01

    Aim at the problem of co-registration airborne laser point cloud data with the synchronous digital image, this paper proposed a registration method based on combined adjustment. By integrating tie point, point cloud data with elevation constraint pseudo observations, using the principle of least-squares adjustment to solve the corrections of exterior orientation elements of each image, high-precision registration results can be obtained. In order to ensure the reliability of the tie point, and the effectiveness of pseudo observations, this paper proposed a point cloud data constrain SIFT matching and optimizing method, can ensure that the tie points are located on flat terrain area. Experiments with the airborne laser point cloud data and its synchronous digital image, there are about 43 pixels error in image space using the original POS data. If only considering the bore-sight of POS system, there are still 1.3 pixels error in image space. The proposed method regards the corrections of the exterior orientation elements of each image as unknowns and the errors are reduced to 0.15 pixels.

  13. First Results from an Airborne Ka-Band SAR Using SweepSAR and Digital Beamforming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadowy, Gregory A.; Ghaemi, Hirad; Hensley, Scott C.

    2012-01-01

    SweepSAR is a wide-swath synthetic aperture radar technique that is being studied for application on the future Earth science radar missions. This paper describes the design of an airborne radar demonstration that simulates an 11-m L-band (1.2-1.3 GHz) reflector geometry at Ka-band (35.6 GHz) using a 40-cm reflector. The Ka-band SweepSAR Demonstration system was flown on the NASA DC-8 airborne laboratory and used to study engineering performance trades and array calibration for SweepSAR configurations. We present an instrument and experiment overview, instrument calibration and first results.

  14. Remote sensing for precision agriculture: Within-field spatial variability analysis and mapping with aerial digital multispectral images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopalapillai, Sreekala

    2000-10-01

    Advances in remote sensing technology and biological sensors provided the motivation for this study on the applications of aerial multispectral remote sensing in precision agriculture. The feasibility of using high-resolution multispectral remote sensing for precision farming applications such as soil type delineation, identification of crop nitrogen levels, and modeling and mapping of weed density distribution and yield potential within a crop field was explored in this study. Some of the issues such as image calibration for variable lighting conditions and soil background influence were also addressed. Intensity normalization and band ratio methods were found to be adequate image calibration methods to compensate for variable illumination and soil background influence. Several within-field variability factors such as growth stage, field conditions, nutrient availability, crop cultivar, and plant population were found to be dominant in different periods. Unsupervised clustering of color infrared (CIR) image of a field soil was able to identify soil mapping units with an average accuracy of 76%. Spectral reflectance from a crop field was highly correlated to the chlorophyll reading. A regression model developed to predict nitrogen stress in corn identified nitrogen-stressed areas from nitrogen-sufficient areas with a high accuracy (R2 = 0.93). Weed density was highly correlated to the spectral reflectance from a field. One month after planting was found to be a good time to map spatial weed density. The optimum range of resolution for weed mapping was 4 m to 4.5 m for the remote sensing system and the experimental field used in this study. Analysis of spatial yield with respect to spectral reflectance showed that the visible and NIR reflectance were negatively correlated to yield and crop population in heavily weed-infested areas. The yield potential was highly correlated to image indices, especially to normalized brightness. The ANN model developed for one of the

  15. Research on enhancing the utilization of digital multispectral data and geographic information systems in global habitability studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinko, E. A.; Merchant, J. W.

    1986-01-01

    The University of Kansas Applied Remote Sensing (KARS) program is engaged in a continuing long term research and development effort designed to reveal and facilitate new applications of remote sensing technology for decision makers in governmental agencies and private firms. Some objectives of the program follows. The development of new modes of analyzing multispectral scanner, aerial camera, thermal scanner, and radar data, singly or in concert in order to more effectively use these systems. Merge data derived from remote sensing with data derived from conventional sources in geographic information systems to facilitate better environmental planning. Stimulation of the application of the products of remote sensing systems to problems of resource management and environmental quality now being addressed in NASA's Global Habitability directive. The application of remote sensing techniques and analysis and geographic information systems technology to the solution of significant concerns of state and local officials and private industry. The guidance, assistance and stimulation of faculty, staff and students in the utilization of information from the Earth Resources Satellite (LANDSAT) and Aircraft Programs of NASA in research, education, and public service activities carried at the University of Kansas.

  16. Multispectral Landsat images of Antartica

    SciTech Connect

    Lucchitta, B.K.; Bowell, J.A.; Edwards, K.L.; Eliason, E.M.; Fergurson, H.M.

    1988-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has a program to map Antarctica by using colored, digitally enhanced Landsat multispectral scanner images to increase existing map coverage and to improve upon previously published Landsat maps. This report is a compilation of images and image mosaic that covers four complete and two partial 1:250,000-scale quadrangles of the McMurdo Sound region.

  17. Quantification of gully volume using very high resolution DSM generated through 3D reconstruction from airborne and field digital imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castillo, Carlos; Zarco-Tejada, Pablo; Laredo, Mario; Gómez, Jose Alfonso

    2013-04-01

    Major advances have been made recently in automatic 3D photo-reconstruction techniques using uncalibrated and non-metric cameras (James and Robson, 2012). However, its application on soil conservation studies and landscape feature identification is currently at the outset. The aim of this work is to compare the performance of a remote sensing technique using a digital camera mounted on an airborne platform, with 3D photo-reconstruction, a method already validated for gully erosion assessment purposes (Castillo et al., 2012). A field survey was conducted in November 2012 in a 250 m-long gully located in field crops on a Vertisol in Cordoba (Spain). The airborne campaign was conducted with a 4000x3000 digital camera installed onboard an aircraft flying at 300 m above ground level to acquire 6 cm resolution imagery. A total of 990 images were acquired over the area ensuring a large overlap in the across- and along-track direction of the aircraft. An ortho-mosaic and the digital surface model (DSM) were obtained through automatic aerial triangulation and camera calibration methods. For the field-level photo-reconstruction technique, the gully was divided in several reaches to allow appropriate reconstruction (about 150 pictures taken per reach) and, finally, the resulting point clouds were merged into a unique mesh. A centimetric-accuracy GPS provided a benchmark dataset for gully perimeter and distinguishable reference points in order to allow the assessment of measurement errors of the airborne technique and the georeferenciation of the photo-reconstruction 3D model. The uncertainty on the gully limits definition was explicitly addressed by comparison of several criteria obtained by 3D models (slope and second derivative) with the outer perimeter obtained by the GPS operator identifying visually the change in slope at the top of the gully walls. In this study we discussed the magnitude of planimetric and altimetric errors and the differences observed between the

  18. Multispectral Photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Model II Multispectral Camera is an advanced aerial camera that provides optimum enhancement of a scene by recording spectral signatures of ground objects only in narrow, preselected bands of the electromagnetic spectrum. Its photos have applications in such areas as agriculture, forestry, water pollution investigations, soil analysis, geologic exploration, water depth studies and camouflage detection. The target scene is simultaneously photographed in four separate spectral bands. Using a multispectral viewer, such as their Model 75 Spectral Data creates a color image from the black and white positives taken by the camera. With this optical image analysis unit, all four bands are superimposed in accurate registration and illuminated with combinations of blue green, red, and white light. Best color combination for displaying the target object is selected and printed. Spectral Data Corporation produces several types of remote sensing equipment and also provides aerial survey, image processing and analysis and number of other remote sensing services.

  19. Joint spatio-spectral based edge detection for multispectral infrared imagery.

    SciTech Connect

    Krishna, Sanjay; Hayat, Majeed M.; Bender, Steven C.; Sharma, Yagya D.; Jang, Woo-Yong; Paskalva, Biliana S.

    2010-06-01

    Image segmentation is one of the most important and difficult tasks in digital image processing. It represents a key stage of automated image analysis and interpretation. Segmentation algorithms for gray-scale images utilize basic properties of intensity values such as discontinuity and similarity. However, it is possible to enhance edge-detection capability by means of using spectral information provided by multispectral (MS) or hyperspectral (HS) imagery. In this paper we consider image segmentation algorithms for multispectral images with particular emphasis on detection of multi-color or multispectral edges. More specifically, we report on an algorithm for joint spatio-spectral (JSS) edge detection. By joint we mean simultaneous utilization of spatial and spectral characteristics of a given MS or HS image. The JSS-based edge-detection approach, termed Spectral Ratio Contrast (SRC) edge-detection algorithm, utilizes the novel concept of matching edge signatures. The edge signature represents a combination of spectral ratios calculated using bands that enhance the spectral contrast between the two materials. In conjunction with a spatial mask, the edge signature give rise to a multispectral operator that can be viewed as a three-dimensional extension of the mask. In the extended mask, the third (spectral) dimension of each hyper-pixel can be chosen independently. The SRC is verified using MS and HS imagery from a quantum-dot in a well infrared (IR) focal plane array, and the Airborne Hyperspectral Imager.

  20. A multispectral scanner survey of the United States Department of Energy's Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-06-01

    Airborne multispectral scanner data of the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) and surrounding area were acquired during late spring 1990. This survey was conducted by the Remote Sensing Laboratory (RSL) which is operated by EG G Energy Measurements (EG G/EM) for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Nevada Operations Office. It was requested by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Audit Team which was reviewing environmental conditions at the facility. The objectives of this survey were to: (1) Acquire 12-channel, multispectral scanner data of the PGDP from an altitude of 3000 feet above ground level (AGL); (2) Acquire predawn, digital thermal infrared (TIR) data of the site from the same altitude; (3) Collect color and color-infrared (CIR) aerial photographs over the facilities; and (4) Illustrate how the analyses of these data could benefit environmental monitoring at the PGDP. This report summarizes the two multispectral scanner and aerial photographic missions at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant. Selected examples of the multispectral data are presented to illustrate its potential for aiding environmental management at the site. 4 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  1. Levee crest elevation profiles derived from airborne lidar-based high resolution digital elevation models in south Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Palaseanu-Lovejoy, Monica; Thatcher, Cindy A.; Barras, John A.

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the feasibility of using airborne lidar surveys to derive high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) and develop an automated procedure to extract levee longitudinal elevation profiles for both federal levees in Atchafalaya Basin and local levees in Lafourche Parish. Generally, the use of traditional manual surveying methods to map levees is a costly and time consuming process that typically produces cross-levee profiles every few hundred meters, at best. The purpose of our paper is to describe and test methods for extracting levee crest elevations in an efficient, comprehensive manner using high resolution lidar generated DEMs. In addition, the vertical uncertainty in the elevation data and its effect on the resultant estimate of levee crest heights is addressed in an assessment of whether the federal levees in our study meet the USACE minimum height design criteria.

  2. Multispectral determination of vegetative cover in corn crop canopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoner, E. R.; Baumgardner, M. F.

    1972-01-01

    The relationship between different amounts of vegetative ground cover and the energy reflected by corn canopies was investigated. Low altitude photography and an airborne multispectral scanner were used to measure this reflected energy. Field plots were laid out, representing four growth stages of corn. Two plot locations were chosen-on a very dark and a very light surface soil. Color and color infrared photographs were taken from a vertical distance of 10 m. Estimates of ground cover were made from these photographs and were related to field measurements of leaf area index. Ground cover could be predicted from leaf area index measurements by a second order equation. Microdensitometry and digitzation of the three separated dye layers of color infrared film showed that the near infrared dye layer is most valuable in ground cover determinations. Computer analysis of the digitized photography provided an accurate method of determining precent ground cover.

  3. Applying emerging digital video interface standards to airborne avionics sensor and digital map integrations: benefits outweigh the initial costs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuehl, C. Stephen

    1996-06-01

    Video signal system performance can be compromised in a military aircraft cockpit management system (CMS) with the tailoring of vintage Electronics Industries Association (EIA) RS170 and RS343A video interface standards. Video analog interfaces degrade when induced system noise is present. Further signal degradation has been traditionally associated with signal data conversions between avionics sensor outputs and the cockpit display system. If the CMS engineering process is not carefully applied during the avionics video and computing architecture development, extensive and costly redesign will occur when visual sensor technology upgrades are incorporated. Close monitoring and technical involvement in video standards groups provides the knowledge-base necessary for avionic systems engineering organizations to architect adaptable and extendible cockpit management systems. With the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) in the process of adopting the Digital HDTV Grand Alliance System standard proposed by the Advanced Television Systems Committee (ATSC), the entertainment and telecommunications industries are adopting and supporting the emergence of new serial/parallel digital video interfaces and data compression standards that will drastically alter present NTSC-M video processing architectures. The re-engineering of the U.S. Broadcasting system must initially preserve the electronic equipment wiring networks within broadcast facilities to make the transition to HDTV affordable. International committee activities in technical forums like ITU-R (former CCIR), ANSI/SMPTE, IEEE, and ISO/IEC are establishing global consensus on video signal parameterizations that support a smooth transition from existing analog based broadcasting facilities to fully digital computerized systems. An opportunity exists for implementing these new video interface standards over existing video coax/triax cabling in military aircraft cockpit management systems. Reductions in signal

  4. Multispectral imaging of absorption and scattering properties of in vivo exposed rat brain using a digital red-green-blue camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Keiichiro; Nishidate, Izumi; Ishizuka, Tomohiro; Kawauchi, Satoko; Sato, Shunichi; Sato, Manabu

    2015-05-01

    In order to estimate multispectral images of the absorption and scattering properties in the cerebral cortex of in vivo rat brain, we investigated spectral reflectance images estimated by the Wiener estimation method using a digital RGB camera. A Monte Carlo simulation-based multiple regression analysis for the corresponding spectral absorbance images at nine wavelengths (500, 520, 540, 560, 570, 580, 600, 730, and 760 nm) was then used to specify the absorption and scattering parameters of brain tissue. In this analysis, the concentrations of oxygenated hemoglobin and that of deoxygenated hemoglobin were estimated as the absorption parameters, whereas the coefficient a and the exponent b of the reduced scattering coefficient spectrum approximated by a power law function were estimated as the scattering parameters. The spectra of absorption and reduced scattering coefficients were reconstructed from the absorption and scattering parameters, and the spectral images of absorption and reduced scattering coefficients were then estimated. In order to confirm the feasibility of this method, we performed in vivo experiments on exposed rat brain. The estimated images of the absorption coefficients were dominated by the spectral characteristics of hemoglobin. The estimated spectral images of the reduced scattering coefficients had a broad scattering spectrum, exhibiting a larger magnitude at shorter wavelengths, corresponding to the typical spectrum of brain tissue published in the literature. The changes in the estimated absorption and scattering parameters during normoxia, hyperoxia, and anoxia indicate the potential applicability of the method by which to evaluate the pathophysiological conditions of in vivo brain due to the loss of tissue viability.

  5. Definition and trade-off study of reconfigurable airborne digital computer system organizations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conn, R. B.

    1974-01-01

    A highly-reliable, fault-tolerant reconfigurable computer system for aircraft applications was developed. The development and application reliability and fault-tolerance assessment techniques are described. Particular emphasis is placed on the needs of an all-digital, fly-by-wire control system appropriate for a passenger-carrying airplane.

  6. Formal methods and their role in digital systems validation for airborne systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rushby, John

    1995-01-01

    This report is based on one prepared as a chapter for the FAA Digital Systems Validation Handbook (a guide to assist FAA certification specialists with advanced technology issues). Its purpose is to explain the use of formal methods in the specification and verification of software and hardware requirements, designs, and implementations; to identify the benefits, weaknesses, and difficulties in applying these methods to digital systems used in critical applications; and to suggest factors for consideration when formal methods are offered in support of certification. The presentation concentrates on the rationale for formal methods and on their contribution to assurance for critical applications within a context such as that provided by DO-178B (the guidelines for software used on board civil aircraft); it is intended as an introduction for those to whom these topics are new.

  7. Digital Intermediate Frequency Receiver Module For Use In Airborne Sar Applications

    DOEpatents

    Tise, Bertice L.; Dubbert, Dale F.

    2005-03-08

    A digital IF receiver (DRX) module directly compatible with advanced radar systems such as synthetic aperture radar (SAR) systems. The DRX can combine a 1 G-Sample/sec 8-bit ADC with high-speed digital signal processor, such as high gate-count FPGA technology or ASICs to realize a wideband IF receiver. DSP operations implemented in the DRX can include quadrature demodulation and multi-rate, variable-bandwidth IF filtering. Pulse-to-pulse (Doppler domain) filtering can also be implemented in the form of a presummer (accumulator) and an azimuth prefilter. An out of band noise source can be employed to provide a dither signal to the ADC, and later be removed by digital signal processing. Both the range and Doppler domain filtering operations can be implemented using a unique pane architecture which allows on-the-fly selection of the filter decimation factor, and hence, the filter bandwidth. The DRX module can include a standard VME-64 interface for control, status, and programming. An interface can provide phase history data to the real-time image formation processors. A third front-panel data port (FPDP) interface can send wide bandwidth, raw phase histories to a real-time phase history recorder for ground processing.

  8. Design of a fault tolerant airborne digital computer. Volume 1: Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wensley, J. H.; Levitt, K. N.; Green, M. W.; Goldberg, J.; Neumann, P. G.

    1973-01-01

    This volume is concerned with the architecture of a fault tolerant digital computer for an advanced commercial aircraft. All of the computations of the aircraft, including those presently carried out by analogue techniques, are to be carried out in this digital computer. Among the important qualities of the computer are the following: (1) The capacity is to be matched to the aircraft environment. (2) The reliability is to be selectively matched to the criticality and deadline requirements of each of the computations. (3) The system is to be readily expandable. contractible, and (4) The design is to appropriate to post 1975 technology. Three candidate architectures are discussed and assessed in terms of the above qualities. Of the three candidates, a newly conceived architecture, Software Implemented Fault Tolerance (SIFT), provides the best match to the above qualities. In addition SIFT is particularly simple and believable. The other candidates, Bus Checker System (BUCS), also newly conceived in this project, and the Hopkins multiprocessor are potentially more efficient than SIFT in the use of redundancy, but otherwise are not as attractive.

  9. Processing Of Multispectral Data For Identification Of Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Diane L.

    1990-01-01

    Linear discriminant analysis and supervised classification evaluated. Report discusses processing of multispectral remote-sensing imagery to identify kinds of sedimentary rocks by spectral signatures in geological and geographical contexts. Raw image data are spectra of picture elements in images of seven sedimentary rock units exposed on margin of Wind River Basin in Wyoming. Data acquired by Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM), Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS), and NASA/JPL airborne synthetic-aperture radar (SAR).

  10. Design of a fault tolerant airborne digital computer. Volume 2: Computational requirements and technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratner, R. S.; Shapiro, E. B.; Zeidler, H. M.; Wahlstrom, S. E.; Clark, C. B.; Goldberg, J.

    1973-01-01

    This final report summarizes the work on the design of a fault tolerant digital computer for aircraft. Volume 2 is composed of two parts. Part 1 is concerned with the computational requirements associated with an advanced commercial aircraft. Part 2 reviews the technology that will be available for the implementation of the computer in the 1975-1985 period. With regard to the computation task 26 computations have been categorized according to computational load, memory requirements, criticality, permitted down-time, and the need to save data in order to effect a roll-back. The technology part stresses the impact of large scale integration (LSI) on the realization of logic and memory. Also considered was module interconnection possibilities so as to minimize fault propagation.

  11. Multispectral data compression through transform coding and block quantization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ready, P. J.; Wintz, P. A.

    1972-01-01

    Transform coding and block quantization techniques are applied to multispectral aircraft scanner data, and digitized satellite imagery. The multispectral source is defined and an appropriate mathematical model proposed. The Karhunen-Loeve, Fourier, and Hadamard encoders are considered and are compared to the rate distortion function for the equivalent Gaussian source and to the performance of the single sample PCM encoder.

  12. Extraction of topographic and spectral albedo information from multispectral images.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eliason, P.T.; Soderblom, L.A.; Chavez, P.A., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    A technique has been developed to separate and extract spectral-reflectivity variations and topographic informaiton from multispectral images. The process is a completely closed system employing only the image data and can be applied to any digital multispectral data set. -from Authors

  13. Analysis of vegetation indices derived from aerial multispectral and ground hyperspectral data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aerial multispectral images are a good source of crop, soil, and ground coverage information. Spectral reflectance indices provide a useful tool for monitoring crop growing status. A series of aerial images were acquired by an airborne MS4100 multispectral imaging system on the cotton and soybean f...

  14. Stochastic modeling and triangulation for an airborne digital three line scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Won Jo

    The 3-OC is one of the newest digital three line scanners on the market. Unlike other three line scanners using a single optical system, the 3-OC uses three different optical systems moving together. Therefore, this thesis aimed to develop a photogrammetric model for the 3-OC. To precisely relate ground space and the corresponding image space, all the exterior orientation (E.O.) parameters of image lines need to be estimated using a bundle block adjustment. The biggest hurdle in this problem is the large number of exterior orientation parameters because one image strip of the 3-OC usually contains tens of thousands of lines. To reduce the number of unknown E.O. parameters, the E.O. parameters of all the three cameras at an instant imaging time were represented by transformed parameters with respect to the gimbal rotation center. As a result, the unknown E.O. parameters were reduced to one third of original number of parameters. However, the number of E.O. parameters is still too big and estimating these E.O. parameters requires enough observations which are practically very difficult to obtain. To resolve this problem, there have been two kinds of approaches. One is reducing the number of unknown parameters and the other is providing fictitious observations using a stochastic model. As the title of this thesis implies, a stochastic trajectory model was implemented in this thesis. The stochastic relationships between two adjacent lines, as described in previous work, were expanded to the stochastic relationships between two adjacent image observations, so that the E.O. parameters of the lines between two adjacent observations can be recovered by interpolation. By providing enough pass points, it was possible to recover all the E.O. parameters accurately. In addition, the number of unknown E.O. parameters was drastically reduced as well. In this thesis, aerial triangulations of the suggested photogrammetric model were performed with self-calibrating some of the

  15. D Land Cover Classification Based on Multispectral LIDAR Point Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Xiaoliang; Zhao, Guihua; Li, Jonathan; Yang, Yuanxi; Fang, Yong

    2016-06-01

    Multispectral Lidar System can emit simultaneous laser pulses at the different wavelengths. The reflected multispectral energy is captured through a receiver of the sensor, and the return signal together with the position and orientation information of sensor is recorded. These recorded data are solved with GNSS/IMU data for further post-processing, forming high density multispectral 3D point clouds. As the first commercial multispectral airborne Lidar sensor, Optech Titan system is capable of collecting point clouds data from all three channels at 532nm visible (Green), at 1064 nm near infrared (NIR) and at 1550nm intermediate infrared (IR). It has become a new source of data for 3D land cover classification. The paper presents an Object Based Image Analysis (OBIA) approach to only use multispectral Lidar point clouds datasets for 3D land cover classification. The approach consists of three steps. Firstly, multispectral intensity images are segmented into image objects on the basis of multi-resolution segmentation integrating different scale parameters. Secondly, intensity objects are classified into nine categories by using the customized features of classification indexes and a combination the multispectral reflectance with the vertical distribution of object features. Finally, accuracy assessment is conducted via comparing random reference samples points from google imagery tiles with the classification results. The classification results show higher overall accuracy for most of the land cover types. Over 90% of overall accuracy is achieved via using multispectral Lidar point clouds for 3D land cover classification.

  16. Processor architecture for airborne SAR systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glass, C. M.

    1983-01-01

    Digital processors for spaceborne imaging radars and application of the technology developed for airborne SAR systems are considered. Transferring algorithms and implementation techniques from airborne to spaceborne SAR processors offers obvious advantages. The following topics are discussed: (1) a quantification of the differences in processing algorithms for airborne and spaceborne SARs; and (2) an overview of three processors for airborne SAR systems.

  17. Multispectral observations of marine mammals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoonmaker, Jon; Dirbas, Joseph; Podobna, Yuliya; Wells, Tami; Boucher, Cynthia; Oakley, Daniel

    2008-10-01

    Multispectral visible and infrared observations of various species of whales were made in the St. Lawrence Seaway near Quebec, Canada and Papawai Point in Maui, Hawaii. The Multi-mission Adaptable Narrowband Imaging System (MANTIS) was deployed in two configurations: airborne looking down, and bluff mounted looking at low-grazing angles. An Infrared (IR) sensor was also deployed in the bluff mounted configuration. Detections of marine mammals were made with these systems of submerged mammals and surface mammals at ranges up to 8 miles. Automatic detection algorithms are being explored to detect, track and monitor the behavior of individuals and pods of whales. This effort is part of a United States Navy effort to insure that marine mammals are not injured during the testing of the US Navy's acoustic Anti-submarine Warfare (ASW) systems.

  18. Leica ADS40 Sensor for Coastal Multispectral Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craig, John C.

    2007-01-01

    The Leica ADS40 Sensor as it is used for coastal multispectral imaging is presented. The contents include: 1) Project Area Overview; 2) Leica ADS40 Sensor; 3) Focal Plate Arrangements; 4) Trichroid Filter; 5) Gradient Correction; 6) Image Acquisition; 7) Remote Sensing and ADS40; 8) Band comparisons of Satellite and Airborne Sensors; 9) Impervious Surface Extraction; and 10) Impervious Surface Details.

  19. Estimating the proportions of objects within a single resolution element of a multispectral scanner.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horwitz, H. M.; Nalepka, R. F.; Hyde, P. D.; Morgenstern, J. P.

    1971-01-01

    Description of a procedu*e designed to estimate the proportions of objects and materials contained in the instantaneous field of view (IFOV) of an airborne multispectral device. A mathematical model is derived to relate the signature of a combination of materials in a resolution cell to the signatures of the individual materials considered. Estimation algorithms are generated and digital computer programs are prepared to apply the algorithms in the description of the effects which are observed when several objects are viewed simultaneously. The maximum likelihood estimate of the proportions of various individual materials in an IFOV is discussed. A simulation program is proposed for such estimates. A procedure for analyzing the geometric relations of signatures which affect the accuracy of estimates is set forth.

  20. Multispectral imaging using a single bucket detector

    PubMed Central

    Bian, Liheng; Suo, Jinli; Situ, Guohai; Li, Ziwei; Fan, Jingtao; Chen, Feng; Dai, Qionghai

    2016-01-01

    Existing multispectral imagers mostly use available array sensors to separately measure 2D data slices in a 3D spatial-spectral data cube. Thus they suffer from low photon efficiency, limited spectrum range and high cost. To address these issues, we propose to conduct multispectral imaging using a single bucket detector, to take full advantage of its high sensitivity, wide spectrum range, low cost, small size and light weight. Technically, utilizing the detector’s fast response, a scene’s 3D spatial-spectral information is multiplexed into a dense 1D measurement sequence and then demultiplexed computationally under the single pixel imaging scheme. A proof-of-concept setup is built to capture multispectral data of 64 pixels × 64 pixels × 10 wavelength bands ranging from 450 nm to 650 nm, with the acquisition time being 1 minute. The imaging scheme holds great potentials for various low light and airborne applications, and can be easily manufactured as production-volume portable multispectral imagers. PMID:27103168

  1. Multispectral imaging using a single bucket detector.

    PubMed

    Bian, Liheng; Suo, Jinli; Situ, Guohai; Li, Ziwei; Fan, Jingtao; Chen, Feng; Dai, Qionghai

    2016-01-01

    Existing multispectral imagers mostly use available array sensors to separately measure 2D data slices in a 3D spatial-spectral data cube. Thus they suffer from low photon efficiency, limited spectrum range and high cost. To address these issues, we propose to conduct multispectral imaging using a single bucket detector, to take full advantage of its high sensitivity, wide spectrum range, low cost, small size and light weight. Technically, utilizing the detector's fast response, a scene's 3D spatial-spectral information is multiplexed into a dense 1D measurement sequence and then demultiplexed computationally under the single pixel imaging scheme. A proof-of-concept setup is built to capture multispectral data of 64 pixels × 64 pixels × 10 wavelength bands ranging from 450 nm to 650 nm, with the acquisition time being 1 minute. The imaging scheme holds great potentials for various low light and airborne applications, and can be easily manufactured as production-volume portable multispectral imagers. PMID:27103168

  2. Unsupervised classification of remote multispectral sensing data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, M. Y.

    1972-01-01

    The new unsupervised classification technique for classifying multispectral remote sensing data which can be either from the multispectral scanner or digitized color-separation aerial photographs consists of two parts: (a) a sequential statistical clustering which is a one-pass sequential variance analysis and (b) a generalized K-means clustering. In this composite clustering technique, the output of (a) is a set of initial clusters which are input to (b) for further improvement by an iterative scheme. Applications of the technique using an IBM-7094 computer on multispectral data sets over Purdue's Flight Line C-1 and the Yellowstone National Park test site have been accomplished. Comparisons between the classification maps by the unsupervised technique and the supervised maximum liklihood technique indicate that the classification accuracies are in agreement.

  3. The Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor (LVIS): A Medium-Altitude, Digitization-Only, Airborne Laser Altimeter for Mapping Vegetation and Topography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blair, J. Bryan; Rabine, David L.; Hofton, Michelle A.

    1999-01-01

    The Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor (LVIS) is an airborne, scanning laser altimeter designed and developed at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. LVIS operates at altitudes up to 10 km above ground, and is capable of producing a data swath up to 1000 m wide nominally with 25 m wide footprints. The entire time history of the outgoing and return pulses is digitized, allowing unambiguous determination of range and return pulse structure. Combined with aircraft position and attitude knowledge, this instrument produces topographic maps with decimeter accuracy and vertical height and structure measurements of vegetation. The laser transmitter is a diode-pumped Nd:YAG oscillator producing 1064 nm, 10 nsec, 5 mJ pulses at repetition rates up to 500 Hz. LVIS has recently demonstrated its ability to determine topography (including sub-canopy) and vegetation height and structure on flight missions to various forested regions in the U.S. and Central America. The LVIS system is the airborne simulator for the Vegetation Canopy Lidar (VCL) mission (a NASA Earth remote sensing satellite due for launch in 2000), providing simulated data sets and a platform for instrument proof-of-concept studies. The topography maps and return waveforms produced by LVIS provide Earth scientists with a unique data set allowing studies of topography, hydrology, and vegetation with unmatched accuracy and coverage.

  4. Column-integrated aerosol optical properties from ground-based spectroradiometer measurements at Barrax (Spain) during the Digital Airborne Imaging Spectrometer Experiment (DAISEX) campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedrós, Roberto; Martinez-Lozano, Jose A.; Utrillas, Maria P.; Gómez-Amo, José L.; Tena, Fernando

    2003-09-01

    The Digital Airborne Imaging Spectrometer Experiment (DAISEX) was carried out for the European Space Agency (ESA) in order to develop the potential of spaceborne imaging spectroscopy for a range of different scientific applications. DAISEX involved simultaneous data acquisitions using different airborne imaging spectrometers over test sites in southeast Spain (Barrax) and the Upper Rhine valley (Colmar, France, and Hartheim, Germany). This paper presents the results corresponding to the column-integrated aerosol optical properties from ground-based spectroradiometer measurements over the Barrax area during the DAISEX campaign days in the years 1998, 1999, and 2000. The instruments used for spectral irradiance measurements were two Licor 1800 and one Optronic OL-754 spectroradiometers. The analysis of the spectral aerosol optical depth in the visible range shows in all cases the predominance of the coarse-particle mode over the fine-particle mode. The analysis of the back trajectories of the air masses indicates a predominance of marine-type aerosols in the lower atmospheric layers in all cases. Overall, the results obtained show that during the DAISEX there was a combination of maritime aerosols with smaller continental aerosols.

  5. Remote Multispectral Imaging of Wildland Fires (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vodacek, A.; Kremens, R.

    2010-12-01

    Wildland fires produce a variety of signal phenomenology that are remotely observable. These signals span a large portion of the electromagnetic spectrum and can be related to a variety of properties of wildland fires as they propagate. The deployment of multispectral sensors from aircraft provides a unique perspective on the fire and its interactions in the environment by repeated imaging over time. We describe a set of airborne imaging experiments, image processing methodologies and a workflow system for near real-time extraction of information on the fire and the immediate environment.

  6. Integration of airborne Thematic Mapper Simulator (TMS) data and digitized aerial photography via an ISH transformation. [Intensity Saturation Hue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ambrosia, Vincent G.; Myers, Jeffrey S.; Ekstrand, Robert E.; Fitzgerald, Michael T.

    1991-01-01

    A simple method for enhancing the spatial and spectral resolution of disparate data sets is presented. Two data sets, digitized aerial photography at a nominal spatial resolution 3,7 meters and TMS digital data at 24.6 meters, were coregistered through a bilinear interpolation to solve the problem of blocky pixel groups resulting from rectification expansion. The two data sets were then subjected to intensity-saturation-hue (ISH) transformations in order to 'blend' the high-spatial-resolution (3.7 m) digitized RC-10 photography with the high spectral (12-bands) and lower spatial (24.6 m) resolution TMS digital data. The resultant merged products make it possible to perform large-scale mapping, ease photointerpretation, and can be derived for any of the 12 available TMS spectral bands.

  7. Active and passive multispectral scanner for earth resources applications: An advanced applications flight experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasell, P. G., Jr.; Peterson, L. M.; Thomson, F. J.; Work, E. A.; Kriegler, F. J.

    1977-01-01

    The development of an experimental airborne multispectral scanner to provide both active (laser illuminated) and passive (solar illuminated) data from a commonly registered surface scene is discussed. The system was constructed according to specifications derived in an initial programs design study. The system was installed in an aircraft and test flown to produce illustrative active and passive multi-spectral imagery. However, data was not collected nor analyzed for any specific application.

  8. Optimal attributes for the object based detection of giant reed in riparian habitats: A comparative study between Airborne High Spatial Resolution and WorldView-2 imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, Maria Rosário; Aguiar, Francisca C.; Silva, João M. N.; Ferreira, Maria Teresa; Pereira, José M. C.

    2014-10-01

    Giant reed is an aggressive invasive plant of riparian ecosystems in many sub-tropical and warm-temperate regions, including Mediterranean Europe. In this study we tested a set of geometric, spectral and textural attributes in an object based image analysis (OBIA) approach to map giant reed invasions in riparian habitats. Bagging Classification and Regression Tree were used to select the optimal attributes and to build the classification rules sets. Mapping accuracy was performed using landscape metrics and the Kappa coefficient to compare the topographical and geometric similarity between the giant reed patches obtained with the OBIA map and with a validation map derived from on-screen digitizing. The methodology was applied in two high spatial resolution images: an airborne multispectral imagery and the newly WorldView-2 imagery. A temporal coverage of the airborne multispectral images was radiometrically calibrated with the IR-Mad transformation and used to assess the influence of the phenological variability of the invader. We found that optimal attributes for giant reed OBIA detection are a combination of spectral, geometric and textural information, with different scoring selection depending on the spectral and spatial characteristics of the imagery. WorldView-2 showed higher mapping accuracy (Kappa coefficient of 77%) and spectral attributes, including the newly yellow band, were preferentially selected, although a tendency to overestimate the total invaded area, due to the low spatial resolution (2 m of pixel size vs. 50 cm) was observed. When airborne images were used, geometric attributes were primarily selected and a higher spatial detail of the invasive patches was obtained, due to the higher spatial resolution. However, in highly heterogeneous landscapes, the low spectral resolution of the airborne images (4 bands instead of the 8 of WorldView-2) reduces the capability to detect giant reed patches. Giant reed displays peculiar spectral and geometric

  9. An Approach to Application Validation of Multispectral Sensors Using AVIRIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warner, Amanda; Blonski, Slawomir; Gasser, Gerald; Ryan, Robert; Zanoni, Vicki

    2001-01-01

    High-resolution multispectral data are becoming widely available for commercial and scientific use. For specific applications, such as agriculture studies, there is a need to quantify the performance of such systems. In many cases, parameters such as GSD and SNR can be optimized. Data sets with varying GSD's for the Landsat ETM+ bands were produced to evaluate the effects of GSD on various algorithms and transformations, such as NDVI, principal component analysis, unsupervised classification, and mixture analysis. By showing that AVIRIS data can be used to simulate spaceborne and airborne multispectral platforms over a wide range of GSD, this research can be used to assist in band selection and spatial resolution specifications for new sensors and in optimization of acquisition strategies for existing multispectral systems.

  10. Implementation and evaluation of ILLIAC 4 algorithms for multispectral image processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swain, P. H.

    1974-01-01

    Data concerning a multidisciplinary and multi-organizational effort to implement multispectral data analysis algorithms on a revolutionary computer, the Illiac 4, are reported. The effectiveness and efficiency of implementing the digital multispectral data analysis techniques for producing useful land use classifications from satellite collected data were demonstrated.

  11. Land use classification utilizing remote multispectral scanner data and computer analysis techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leblanc, P. N.; Johannsen, C. J.; Yanner, J. E.

    1973-01-01

    An airborne multispectral scanner was used to collect the visible and reflective infrared data. A small subdivision near Lafayette, Indiana was selected as the test site for the urban land use study. Multispectral scanner data were collected over the subdivision on May 1, 1970 from an altitude of 915 meters. The data were collected in twelve wavelength bands from 0.40 to 1.00 micrometers by the scanner. The results indicated that computer analysis of multispectral data can be very accurate in classifying and estimating the natural and man-made materials that characterize land uses in an urban scene.

  12. Multispectral photography for earth resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wenderoth, S.; Yost, E.; Kalia, R.; Anderson, R.

    1972-01-01

    A guide for producing accurate multispectral results for earth resource applications is presented along with theoretical and analytical concepts of color and multispectral photography. Topics discussed include: capabilities and limitations of color and color infrared films; image color measurements; methods of relating ground phenomena to film density and color measurement; sensitometry; considerations in the selection of multispectral cameras and components; and mission planning.

  13. Multispectral imaging probe

    SciTech Connect

    Sandison, David R.; Platzbecker, Mark R.; Descour, Michael R.; Armour, David L.; Craig, Marcus J.; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

    1999-01-01

    A multispectral imaging probe delivers a range of wavelengths of excitation light to a target and collects a range of expressed light wavelengths. The multispectral imaging probe is adapted for mobile use and use in confined spaces, and is sealed against the effects of hostile environments. The multispectral imaging probe comprises a housing that defines a sealed volume that is substantially sealed from the surrounding environment. A beam splitting device mounts within the sealed volume. Excitation light is directed to the beam splitting device, which directs the excitation light to a target. Expressed light from the target reaches the beam splitting device along a path coaxial with the path traveled by the excitation light from the beam splitting device to the target. The beam splitting device directs expressed light to a collection subsystem for delivery to a detector.

  14. Multispectral imaging probe

    DOEpatents

    Sandison, D.R.; Platzbecker, M.R.; Descour, M.R.; Armour, D.L.; Craig, M.J.; Richards-Kortum, R.

    1999-07-27

    A multispectral imaging probe delivers a range of wavelengths of excitation light to a target and collects a range of expressed light wavelengths. The multispectral imaging probe is adapted for mobile use and use in confined spaces, and is sealed against the effects of hostile environments. The multispectral imaging probe comprises a housing that defines a sealed volume that is substantially sealed from the surrounding environment. A beam splitting device mounts within the sealed volume. Excitation light is directed to the beam splitting device, which directs the excitation light to a target. Expressed light from the target reaches the beam splitting device along a path coaxial with the path traveled by the excitation light from the beam splitting device to the target. The beam splitting device directs expressed light to a collection subsystem for delivery to a detector. 8 figs.

  15. Fast numerical autofocus of multispectral complex fields in digital holographic microscopy with a criterion based on the phase in the Fourier domain.

    PubMed

    Dohet-Eraly, Jérôme; Yourassowsky, Catherine; Dubois, Frank

    2016-09-01

    The knowledge of the complex amplitude of optical fields, that is, both quantitative phase and intensity, enables numeric reconstruction along the optical axis. Nonetheless, a criterion is required for autofocusing. This Letter presents a robust and rapid refocusing criterion suitable for color interferometric digital holographic microscopy, and, more generally, for applications where complex amplitude is known for at least two different wavelengths. This criterion uses the phase in the Fourier domain, which is compared among wavelengths. It is applicable whatever the nature of the observed object: opaque, refractive, or both mixed. The method is validated with simulated and experimental holograms. PMID:27607975

  16. Fusion of remotely sensed data from airborne and ground-based sensors for cotton regrowth study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The study investigated the use of aerial multispectral imagery and ground-based hyperspectral data for the discrimination of different crop types and timely detection of cotton plants over large areas. Airborne multispectral imagery and ground-based spectral reflectance data were acquired at the sa...

  17. Design of a modular digital computer system DRL 4 and 5. [design of airborne/spaceborne computer system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Design and development efforts for a spaceborne modular computer system are reported. An initial baseline description is followed by an interface design that includes definition of the overall system response to all classes of failure. Final versions for the register level designs for all module types were completed. Packaging, support and control executive software, including memory utilization estimates and design verification plan, were formalized to insure a soundly integrated design of the digital computer system.

  18. Comparing soil boundaries delineated by digital analysis of multispectral scanner data from high and low spatial resolution systems. [Tippencanoe County, Indiana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kristof, S. J. (Principal Investigator); Baumgardner, M. F.; Zachary, A. L.; Stoner, E. R.

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Computer-aided analysis techniques used with aircraft MSS data showed that the spatial resolution was sufficient to recognize each soil mapping unit of the test site. Some difficulties occurred where different soil series were intricately mixed, and this mixture showed as a separate spectral mapping unit, or where the difference between two soils depended on the depth of silty surface material. Analysis of LANDSAT data with computer-aided techniques showed that it was not possible to find spectrally homogeneous soil features of the seven soil series on the 40 ha test site on the digital display or on a picture print map. Cluster techniques could be used on an extended test area to group spectrally similar data points into cluster classes.

  19. Development and Application of a new DACOM Airborne Trace Gas Instrument based on Room-Temperature Laser and Detector Technology and all-Digital Control and Data Processin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diskin, G. S.; Sachse, G. W.; DiGangi, J. P.; Pusede, S. E.; Slate, T. A.; Rana, M.

    2014-12-01

    The DACOM (Differential Absorption Carbon monOxide Measurements) instrument has been used for airborne measurements of carbon monoxide, methane, and nitrous oxide for nearly four decades. Over the years, the instrument has undergone a nearly continuous series of modifications, taking advantage of improvements in available technology and the benefits of experience, but always utilizing cryogenically cooled lasers and detectors. More recently, though, the availability of room-temperature, higher-power single-mode lasers at the mid-infrared wavelengths used by DACOM has made it possible to replace both the cryogenic lasers and detectors with thermoelectrically cooled versions. And the relative stability of these lasers has allowed us to incorporate an all-digital wavelength stabilization technique developed previously for the Diode Laser Hygrometer (DLH) instrument. The new DACOM flew first in the summer 2013 SEAC4RS campaign, measuring CO from the DC-8 aircraft, and more recently measuring all three gases from the NASA P-3B aircraft in support of the summer 2014 DISCOVER-AQ campaign. We will present relevant aspects of the new instrument design and operation as well as selected data from recent campaigns illustrating instrument performance and some preliminary science.

  20. Validating NASA's Airborne Multikilohertz Microlaser Altimeter (Microaltimeter) by Direct Comparison of Data Taken Over Ocean City, Maryland Against an Existing Digital Elevation Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abel, Peter

    2003-01-01

    NASA's Airborne Multikilohertz Microlaser Altimeter (Microaltimeter) is a scanning, photon-counting laser altimeter, which uses a low energy (less than 10 microJuoles), high repetition rate (approximately 10 kHz) laser, transmitting at 532 nm. A 14 cm diameter telescope images the ground return onto a segmented anode photomultiplier, which provides up to 16 range returns for each fire. Multiple engineering flights were made during 2001 and 2002 over the Maryland and Virginia coastal area, all during daylight hours. Post-processing of the data to geolocate the laser footprint and determine the terrain height requires post- detection Poisson filtering techniques to extract the actual ground returns from the noise. Validation of the instrument's ability to produce accurate terrain heights will be accomplished by direct comparison of data taken over Ocean City, Maryland with a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) of the region produced at Ohio State University (OSU) from other laser altimeter and photographic sources. The techniques employed to produce terrain heights from the Microaltimeter ranges will be shown, along with some preliminary comparisons with the OSU DEM.

  1. High-resolution digital elevation model of lower Cowlitz and Toutle Rivers, adjacent to Mount St. Helens, Washington, based on an airborne lidar survey of October 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mosbrucker, Adam

    2015-01-01

    The lateral blast, debris avalanche, and lahars of the May 18th, 1980, eruption of Mount St. Helens, Washington, dramatically altered the surrounding landscape. Lava domes were extruded during the subsequent eruptive periods of 1980–1986 and 2004–2008. More than three decades after the emplacement of the 1980 debris avalanche, high sediment production persists in the Toutle River basin, which drains the northern and western flanks of the volcano. Because this sediment increases the risk of flooding to downstream communities on the Toutle and lower Cowlitz Rivers, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), under the direction of Congress to maintain an authorized level of flood protection, continues to monitor and mitigate excess sediment in North and South Fork Toutle River basins to help reduce this risk and to prevent sediment from clogging the shipping channel of the Columbia River. From October 22–27, 2007, Watershed Sciences, Inc., under contract to USACE, collected high-precision airborne lidar (light detection and ranging) data that cover 273 square kilometers (105 square miles) of lower Cowlitz and Toutle River tributaries from the Columbia River at Kelso, Washington, to upper North Fork Toutle River (below the volcano's edifice), including lower South Fork Toutle River. These data provide a digital dataset of the ground surface, including beneath forest cover. Such remotely sensed data can be used to develop sediment budgets and models of sediment erosion, transport, and deposition. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) used these lidar data to develop digital elevation models (DEMs) of the study area. DEMs are fundamental to monitoring natural hazards and studying volcanic landforms, fluvial and glacial geomorphology, and surface geology. Watershed Sciences, Inc., provided files in the LASer (LAS) format containing laser returns that had been filtered, classified, and georeferenced. The USGS produced a hydro-flattened DEM from ground-classified points at

  2. High-resolution digital elevation model of Mount St. Helens crater and upper North Fork Toutle River basin, Washington, based on an airborne lidar survey of September 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mosbrucker, Adam

    2014-01-01

    The lateral blast, debris avalanche, and lahars of the May 18th, 1980, eruption of Mount St. Helens, Washington, dramatically altered the surrounding landscape. Lava domes were extruded during the subsequent eruptive periods of 1980–1986 and 2004–2008. More than three decades after the emplacement of the 1980 debris avalanche, high sediment production persists in the North Fork Toutle River basin, which drains the northern flank of the volcano. Because this sediment increases the risk of flooding to downstream communities on the Toutle and Cowlitz Rivers, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), under the direction of Congress to maintain an authorized level of flood protection, built a sediment retention structure on the North Fork Toutle River in 1989 to help reduce this risk and to prevent sediment from clogging the shipping channel of the Columbia River. From September 16–20, 2009, Watershed Sciences, Inc., under contract to USACE, collected high-precision airborne lidar (light detection and ranging) data that cover 214 square kilometers (83 square miles) of Mount St. Helens and the upper North Fork Toutle River basin from the sediment retention structure to the volcano's crater. These data provide a digital dataset of the ground surface, including beneath forest cover. Such remotely sensed data can be used to develop sediment budgets and models of sediment erosion, transport, and deposition. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) used these lidar data to develop digital elevation models (DEMs) of the study area. DEMs are fundamental to monitoring natural hazards and studying volcanic landforms, fluvial and glacial geomorphology, and surface geology. Watershed Sciences, Inc., provided files in the LASer (LAS) format containing laser returns that had been filtered, classified, and georeferenced. The USGS produced a hydro-flattened DEM from ground-classified points at Castle, Coldwater, and Spirit Lakes. Final results averaged about five laser last

  3. Study of a hybrid multispectral processor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, R. E.; Kriegler, F. J.

    1973-01-01

    A hybrid processor is described offering enough handling capacity and speed to process efficiently the large quantities of multispectral data that can be gathered by scanner systems such as MSDS, SKYLAB, ERTS, and ERIM M-7. Combinations of general-purpose and special-purpose hybrid computers were examined to include both analog and digital types as well as all-digital configurations. The current trend toward lower costs for medium-scale digital circuitry suggests that the all-digital approach may offer the better solution within the time frame of the next few years. The study recommends and defines such a hybrid digital computing system in which both special-purpose and general-purpose digital computers would be employed. The tasks of recognizing surface objects would be performed in a parallel, pipeline digital system while the tasks of control and monitoring would be handled by a medium-scale minicomputer system. A program to design and construct a small, prototype, all-digital system has been started.

  4. A Low Noise, Microprocessor-Controlled, Internally Digitizing Rotating-Vane Electric Field Mill for Airborne Platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bateman, M. G.; Stewart, M. F.; Blakeslee, R. J.; Podgorny, s. J.; Christian, H. J.; Mach, D. M.; Bailey, J. C.; Daskar, D.

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports on a new generation of aircraft-based rotating-vane style electric field mills designed and built at NASA's Marshall Spaceflight Center. The mills have individual microprocessors that digitize the electric field signal at the mill and respond to commands from the data system computer. The mills are very sensitive (1 V/m per bit), have a wide dynamic range (115 dB), and are very low noise (+/-1 LSB). Mounted on an aircraft, these mills can measure fields from +/-1 V/m to +/-500 kV/m. Once-per-second commanding from the data collection computer to each mill allows for precise timing and synchronization. The mills can also be commanded to execute a self-calibration in flight, which is done periodically to monitor the status and health of each mill.

  5. The trophic classification of lakes using ERTS multispectral scanner data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackwell, R. J.; Boland, D. H.

    1975-01-01

    Lake classification methods based on the use of ERTS data are described. Preliminary classification results obtained by multispectral and digital image processing techniques indicate satisfactory correlation between ERTS data and EPA-supplied water analysis. Techniques for determining lake trophic levels using ERTS data are examined, and data obtained for 20 lakes are discussed.

  6. Spectral analysis and filtering techniques in digital spatial data processing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pan, Jeng-Jong

    1989-01-01

    A filter toolbox has been developed at the EROS Data Center, US Geological Survey, for retrieving or removing specified frequency information from two-dimensional digital spatial data. This filter toolbox provides capabilities to compute the power spectrum of a given data and to design various filters in the frequency domain. Three types of filters are available in the toolbox: point filter, line filter, and area filter. Both the point and line filters employ Gaussian-type notch filters, and the area filter includes the capabilities to perform high-pass, band-pass, low-pass, and wedge filtering techniques. These filters are applied for analyzing satellite multispectral scanner data, airborne visible and infrared imaging spectrometer (AVIRIS) data, gravity data, and the digital elevation models (DEM) data. -from Author

  7. Using Google Earth for Rapid Dissemination of Airborne Remote Sensing Lidar and Photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, C. W.; Nayegandhi, A.; Brock, J. C.

    2006-12-01

    In order to visualize and disseminate vast amounts of lidar and digital photography data, we present a unique method that make these data layers available via the Google Earth interface. The NASA Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL) provides unprecedented capabilities to survey coral reefs, nearshore benthic habitats, coastal vegetation, and sandy beaches. The EAARL sensor suite includes a water-penetrating lidar that provides high-resolution topographic information, a down-looking color digital camera, a down-looking high-resolution color-infrared (CIR) digital camera, and precision kinematic GPS receivers which provide for sub-meter geo-referencing of each laser and multispectral sample. Google Earth "kml" files are created for each EAARL multispectral and processed lidar image. A hierarchical structure of network links allows the user to download high-resolution images within the region of interest. The first network link (kmz file) downloaded by the user contains a color coded flight path and "minute marker" icons along the flight path. Each "minute" icon provides access to the image overlays, and additional network links for each second along the flight path as well as flight navigation information. Layers of false-color-coded lidar Digital Elevation Model (DEM) data are made available in 2 km by 2km tiles. These layers include canopy-top, bare-Earth, submerged topography, and links to any other lidar products. The user has the option to download the x,y,z ascii point data or a DEM in the Geotif file format for each tile. The NASA EAARL project captured roughly 250,000 digital photographs in five flights conducted a few days after Hurricane Katrina made landfall along the Gulf Coast in 2005. All of the photos and DEM layers are georeferenced and viewable online using Google Earth.

  8. Multispectral metamaterial absorber.

    PubMed

    Grant, J; McCrindle, I J H; Li, C; Cumming, D R S

    2014-03-01

    We present the simulation, implementation, and measurement of a multispectral metamaterial absorber (MSMMA) and show that we can realize a simple absorber structure that operates in the mid-IR and terahertz (THz) bands. By embedding an IR metamaterial absorber layer into a standard THz metamaterial absorber stack, a narrowband resonance is induced at a wavelength of 4.3 μm. This resonance is in addition to the THz metamaterial absorption resonance at 109 μm (2.75 THz). We demonstrate the inherent scalability and versatility of our MSMMA by describing a second device whereby the MM-induced IR absorption peak frequency is tuned by varying the IR absorber geometry. Such a MSMMA could be coupled with a suitable sensor and formed into a focal plane array, enabling multispectral imaging. PMID:24690713

  9. Multispectral Image Feature Points

    PubMed Central

    Aguilera, Cristhian; Barrera, Fernando; Lumbreras, Felipe; Sappa, Angel D.; Toledo, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a novel feature point descriptor for the multispectral image case Far-Infrared and Visible Spectrum images. It allows matching interest points on images of the same scene but acquired in different spectral bands. Initially, points of interest are detected on both images through a SIFT-like based scale space representation. Then, these points are characterized using an Edge Oriented Histogram (EOH) descriptor. Finally, points of interest from multispectral images are matched by finding nearest couples using the information from the descriptor. The provided experimental results and comparisons with similar methods show both the validity of the proposed approach as well as the improvements it offers with respect to the current state-of-the-art.

  10. Development of a multispectral camera system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiura, Hiroaki; Kuno, Tetsuya; Watanabe, Norihiro; Matoba, Narihiro; Hayashi, Junichiro; Miyake, Yoichi

    2000-05-01

    A highly accurate multispectral camera and the application software have been developed as a practical system to capture digital images of the artworks stored in galleries and museums. Instead of recording color data in the conventional three RGB primary colors, the newly developed camera and the software carry out a pixel-wise estimation of spectral reflectance, the color data specific to the object, to enable the practical multispectral imaging. In order to realize the accurate multispectral imaging, the dynamic range of the camera is set to 14 bits or over and the output bits to 14 bits so as to allow capturing even when the difference in light quantity between the each channel is large. Further, a small-size rotary color filter was simultaneously developed to keep the camera to a practical size. We have developed software capable of selecting the optimum combination of color filters available in the market. Using this software, n types of color filter can be selected from m types of color filter giving a minimum Euclidean distance or minimum color difference in CIELAB color space between actual and estimated spectral reflectance as to 147 types of oil paint samples.

  11. Multispectral imaging system for contaminant detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poole, Gavin H. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    An automated inspection system for detecting digestive contaminants on food items as they are being processed for consumption includes a conveyor for transporting the food items, a light sealed enclosure which surrounds a portion of the conveyor, with a light source and a multispectral or hyperspectral digital imaging camera disposed within the enclosure. Operation of the conveyor, light source and camera are controlled by a central computer unit. Light reflected by the food items within the enclosure is detected in predetermined wavelength bands, and detected intensity values are analyzed to detect the presence of digestive contamination.

  12. Polarimetric Multispectral Imaging Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, L.-J.; Chao, T.-H.; Dowdy, M.; Mahoney, C.; Reyes, G.

    1993-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory is developing a remote sensing technology on which a new generation of compact, lightweight, high-resolution, low-power, reliable, versatile, programmable scientific polarimetric multispectral imaging instruments can be built to meet the challenge of future planetary exploration missions. The instrument is based on the fast programmable acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) of tellurium dioxide (TeO2) that operates in the wavelength range of 0.4-5 microns. Basically, the AOTF multispectral imaging instrument measures incoming light intensity as a function of spatial coordinates, wavelength, and polarization. Its operation can be in either sequential, random access, or multiwavelength mode as required. This provides observation flexibility, allowing real-time alternation among desired observations, collecting needed data only, minimizing data transmission, and permitting implementation of new experiments. These will result in optimization of the mission performance with minimal resources. Recently we completed a polarimetric multispectral imaging prototype instrument and performed outdoor field experiments for evaluating application potentials of the technology. We also investigated potential improvements on AOTF performance to strengthen technology readiness for applications. This paper will give a status report on the technology and a prospect toward future planetary exploration.

  13. Wetlands mapping with spot multispectral scanner data

    SciTech Connect

    Mackey, H.E. Jr. ); Jensen, J.R. . Dept. of Geography)

    1989-01-01

    Government facilities such as the US Department of Energy's Savannah River Plant (SRP) near Aiken, South Carolina, often use remote sensing data to assist in environmental management. Airborne multispectral scanner (MSS) data have been acquired at SRP since 1981. Various types of remote sensing data have been used to map and characterize wetlands. Regional Landsat MSS and TM satellite data have been used for wetlands mapping by various government agencies and private organizations. Furthermore, SPOT MSS data are becoming available and provide opportunities for increased spacial resolution and temporal coverage for wetlands mapping. This paper summarizes the initial results from using five dates of SPOT MSS data from April through October, 1987, as a means to monitor seasonal wetland changes in freshwater wetlands of the SRP. 11 refs., 4 figs.

  14. Assessing modern ground survey methods and airborne laser scanning for digital terrain modelling: A case study from the Lake District, England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallay, Michal; Lloyd, Christopher D.; McKinley, Jennifer; Barry, Lorraine

    2013-02-01

    This paper compares the applicability of three ground survey methods for modelling terrain: one man electronic tachymetry (TPS), real time kinematic GPS (GPS), and terrestrial laser scanning (TLS). Vertical accuracy of digital terrain models (DTMs) derived from GPS, TLS and airborne laser scanning (ALS) data is assessed. Point elevations acquired by the four methods represent two sections of a mountainous area in Cumbria, England. They were chosen so that the presence of non-terrain features is constrained to the smallest amount. The vertical accuracy of the DTMs was addressed by subtracting each DTM from TPS point elevations. The error was assessed using exploratory measures including statistics, histograms, and normal probability plots. The results showed that the internal measurement accuracy of TPS, GPS, and TLS was below a centimetre. TPS and GPS can be considered equally applicable alternatives for sampling the terrain in areas accessible on foot. The highest DTM vertical accuracy was achieved with GPS data, both on sloped terrain (RMSE 0.16 m) and flat terrain (RMSE 0.02 m). TLS surveying was the most efficient overall but veracity of terrain representation was subject to dense vegetation cover. Therefore, the DTM accuracy was the lowest for the sloped area with dense bracken (RMSE 0.52 m) although it was the second highest on the flat unobscured terrain (RMSE 0.07 m). ALS data represented the sloped terrain more realistically (RMSE 0.23 m) than the TLS. However, due to a systematic bias identified on the flat terrain the DTM accuracy was the lowest (RMSE 0.29 m) which was above the level stated by the data provider. Error distribution models were more closely approximated by normal distribution defined using median and normalized median absolute deviation which supports the use of the robust measures in DEM error modelling and its propagation.

  15. A preliminary report of multispectral scanner data from the Cleveland harbor study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shook, D.; Raquet, C.; Svehla, R.; Wachter, D.; Salzman, J.; Coney, T.; Gedney, D.

    1975-01-01

    Imagery obtained from an airborne multispectral scanner is presented. A synoptic view of the entire study area is shown for a number of time periods and for a number of spectral bands. Using several bands, sediment distributions, thermal plumes, and Rhodamine B dye distributions are shown.

  16. Aerial multispectral imaging for cotton yield estimation under different irrigation and nitrogen treatments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton yield varied spatially within a field. The variability can be caused by various production inputs such as soil property, water management, and fertilizer application. Airborne multispectral imaging is capable of providing data and information to study effects of the inputs on the yield qualit...

  17. Estimation of cotton yield with varied irrigation and nitrogen treatments using aerial multispectral imagery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton yield varies spatially within a field. The variability can be caused by various production inputs such as soil properties, water management, and fertilizer application. Airborne multispectral imaging is capable of providing data and information to study effects of the inputs on yield qualitat...

  18. Use of multispectral scanner images for assessment of hydrothermal alteration in the Marysvale, Utah, mining area.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Podwysocki, M.H.; Segal, D.B.; Abrams, M.J.

    1983-01-01

    Airborne multispectral scanner. A color composite image was constructed using the following spectral band ratios: 1.6/2.2 mu m, 1.6/0.48 mu m, and 0.67/1.0 mu m. The color ratio composite successfully distinguished most types of altered rocks from unaltered rocks; further division of altered rocks into ferric oxide-rich and -poor types.

  19. TACMSI: a novel multi-look multispectral imager for maritime mine detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonard, Carrie L.; Chan, Chong Wai; Cottis, Tamara; DeWeert, Michael; Dichner, Michael; Farm, Brian; Kokubun, Dan; Louchard, Eric; Noguchi, Reid; Topping, Miles; Wong, Timothy; Yoon, Dugan

    2008-04-01

    Airborne EO imagery, including wideband, hyperspectral, and multispectral modalities, has greatly enhanced the ability of the ISR community to detect and classify various targets of interest from long standoff distances and with large area coverage rates. The surf zone is a dynamic environment that presents physical and operational challenges to effective remote sensing with optical systems. In response to these challenges, BAE Systems has developed the Tactical Multi-spectral (TACMSI) system. The system includes a VNIR six-band multispectral sensor and all other hardware that is used to acquire, store and process imagery, navigation, and supporting metadata on the airborne platform. In conjunction with the hardware, BAE Systems has innovative data processing methods that exploit the inherent capabilities of multi-look framing imagery to essentially remove the overlying clutter or obscuration to enable EO visualization of the objects of interest.

  20. Multispectral observations of the surf zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoonmaker, Jon S.; Dirbas, Joseph; Gilbert, Gary

    2003-09-01

    Airborne multispectral imagery was collected over various targets on the beach and in the water in an attempt to characterize the surf zone environment with respect to electro-optical system capabilities and to assess the utility of very low cost, small multispectral systems in mine counter measures (MCM) and intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance applications. The data was collected by PAR Government Systems Corporation (PGSC) at the Army Corps of Engineers Field Research Facility at Duck North Carolina and on the beaches of Camp Pendleton Marine Corps Base in Southern California. PGSC flew the first two of its MANTIS (Mission Adaptable Narrowband Tunable Imaging Sensor) systems. Both MANTIS systems were flown in an IR - red - green - blue (700, 600, 550, 480 nm) configuration from altitudes ranging from 200 to 700 meters. Data collected has been lightly analyzed and a surf zone index (SZI) defined and calculated. This index allows mine hunting system performance measurements in the surf zone to be normalized by environmental conditions. The SZI takes into account water clarity, wave energy, and foam persistence.

  1. Multispectral imaging with type II superlattice detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ariyawansa, Gamini; Duran, Joshua M.; Grupen, Matt; Scheihing, John E.; Nelson, Thomas R.; Eismann, Michael T.

    2012-06-01

    Infrared (IR) focal plane arrays (FPAs) with multispectral detector elements promise significant advantages for airborne threat warning, surveillance, and targeting applications. At present, the use of type II superlattice (T2SL) structures based on the 6.1Å-family materials (InAs, GaSb, and AlSb) has become an area of interest for developing IR detectors and their FPAs. The ability to vary the bandgap in the IR range, suppression of Auger processes, prospective reduction of Shockley-Read-Hall centers by improved material growth capabilities, and the material stability are a few reasons for the predicted dominance of the T2SL technology over presently leading HgCdTe and quantum well technologies. The focus of the work reported here is on the development of T2SL based dual-band IR detectors and their applicability for multispectral imaging. A new NpBPN detector designed for the detection of IR in the 3-5 and 8-12 μm atmospheric windows is presented; comparing its advantages over other T2SL based approaches. One of the key challenges of the T2SL dual-band detectors is the spectral crosstalk associated with the LWIR band. The properties of the state-of-the-art T2SLs (i.e., absorption coefficient, minority carrier lifetime and mobility, etc.) and the present growth limitations that impact spectral crosstalk are discussed.

  2. Automated oil spill detection with multispectral imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradford, Brian N.; Sanchez-Reyes, Pedro J.

    2011-06-01

    In this publication we present an automated detection method for ocean surface oil, like that which existed in the Gulf of Mexico as a result of the April 20, 2010 Deepwater Horizon drilling rig explosion. Regions of surface oil in airborne imagery are isolated using red, green, and blue bands from multispectral data sets. The oil shape isolation procedure involves a series of image processing functions to draw out the visual phenomenological features of the surface oil. These functions include selective color band combinations, contrast enhancement and histogram warping. An image segmentation process then separates out contiguous regions of oil to provide a raster mask to an analyst. We automate the detection algorithm to allow large volumes of data to be processed in a short time period, which can provide timely oil coverage statistics to response crews. Geo-referenced and mosaicked data sets enable the largest identified oil regions to be mapped to exact geographic coordinates. In our simulation, multispectral imagery came from multiple sources including first-hand data collected from the Gulf. Results of the simulation show the oil spill coverage area as a raster mask, along with histogram statistics of the oil pixels. A rough square footage estimate of the coverage is reported if the image ground sample distance is available.

  3. Multispectral Video-Microscope Modified for Skin Diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubins, U.; Zaharans, J.; Ļihačova, I.; Spigulis, J.

    2014-12-01

    Commercial DinoLite AD413 digital microscope was modified for skin diagnostics purposes. The original LED ring (4 white and 4 ultraviolet light emitters) of microscope was replaced by a custom-designed 16-LED ring module consisting of four LED groups (450, 545, 660 and 940 nm), and an onboard LED controller with USB hub was added. The video acquisition and LED switching are performed using custom-designed Matlab software which provides real-time spectral analysis of multi-spectral images and calculation of skin chromophore optical density. The developed multispectral video-microscope is mainly meant for diagnostics of skin malformations, e.g. skin cancerous lesions.

  4. Fusion of remotely sensed data from airborne and ground-based sensors to enhance detection of cotton plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The study investigated the use of aerial multispectral imagery and ground-based hyperspectral data for the discrimination of different crop types and timely detection of cotton plants over large areas. Airborne multispectral imagery and ground-based spectral reflectance data were acquired at the sa...

  5. Pedestrian detection by multispectral fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yunqian; Wang, Zheng; Bazakos, Mike

    2006-04-01

    Security systems increasingly rely on the use of Automated Video Surveillance (AVS) technology. In particular the use of digital video renders itself to internet and local communications, remote monitoring, and to computer processing. AVS systems can perform many tedious and repetitive tasks currently performed by trained security personnel. AVS technology has already made some significant steps towards automating some basic security functions such as: motion detection, object tracking and event-based video recording. However, there are still many problems associated with just these automated functions, which need to be addressed further. Some examples of these problems are: the high "false alarm rate" and the "loss of track" under total or partial occlusion, when used under a wide range of operational parameters (day, night, sunshine, cloudy, foggy, range, viewing angle, clutter, etc.). Current surveillance systems work well only under a narrow range of operational parameters. Therefore, they need be hardened against a wide range of operational conditions. In this paper, we present a Multi-spectral fusion approach to perform accurate pedestrian segmentation under varying operational parameters. Our fusion method combines the "best" detection results from the visible images and the "best" from the thermal images. Commonly, the motion detection results in the visible images are easily affected by noise and shadows. The objects in the thermal image are relatively stable, but they may be missing some parts of the objects, because they thermally blend with the background. Our method makes use of the "best" object components and de-emphasize the "not best".

  6. Lens assemblies for multispectral camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lepretre, Francois

    1994-09-01

    In the framework of a contract with the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO), MATRA DEFENSE - DOD/UAO have developed, produced and tested 36 types LISS 1 - LISS 2 lenses and 12 LISS 3 lenses equipped with their interferential filters. These lenses are intended to form the optical systems of multispectral imaging sensors aboard Indian earth observation satellites IRS 1A, 1B, 1C, and 1D. It should be noted that the multispectrum cameras of the IRS 1A - 1B satellite have been in operation for two years and have given very satisfactory results according to ISRO. Each of these multispectrum LISS 3 cameras consists of lenses, each working in a different spectral bandwidth (B2: 520 - 590 nm; B3: 620 - 680 nm; B4: 770 - 860 nm; B5: 1550 - 1700 nm). In order to superimpose the images of each spectral band without digital processing, the image formats (60 mm) of the lenses are registered better that 2 micrometers and remain as such throughout all the environmental tests. Similarly, due to the absence of precise thermal control aboard the satellite, the lenses are as athermal as possible.

  7. MULTISPECTRAL THERMAL IMAGER - OVERVIEW

    SciTech Connect

    P. WEBER

    2001-03-01

    The Multispectral Thermal Imager satellite fills a new and important role in advancing the state of the art in remote sensing sciences. Initial results with the full calibration system operating indicate that the system was already close to achieving the very ambitious goals which we laid out in 1993, and we are confident of reaching all of these goals as we continue our research and improve our analyses. In addition to the DOE interests, the satellite is tasked about one-third of the time with requests from other users supporting research ranging from volcanology to atmospheric sciences.

  8. Multispectral thermal imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, P.G.; Bender, S.C.; Borel, C.C.; Clodius, W.B.; Smith, B.W.; Garrett, A.; Pendergast, M.M.; Kay, R.R.

    1998-12-01

    Many remote sensing applications rely on imaging spectrometry. Here the authors use imaging spectrometry for thermal and multispectral signatures measured from a satellite platform enhanced with a combination of accurate calibrations and on-board data for correcting atmospheric distortions. The approach is supported by physics-based end-to-end modeling and analysis, which permits a cost-effective balance between various hardware and software aspects. The goal is to develop and demonstrate advanced technologies and analysis tools toward meeting the needs of the customer; at the same time, the attributes of this system can address other applications in such areas as environmental change, agriculture, and volcanology.

  9. Development of an airborne remote sensing system for aerial applicators

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An airborne remote sensing system was developed and tested for recording aerial images of field crops, which were analyzed for variations of crop health or pest infestation. The multicomponent system consists of a multi-spectral camera system, a camera control system, and a radiometer for normalizi...

  10. [In-flight absolute radiometric calibration of UAV multispectral sensor].

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Yan, Lei; Gou, Zhi-Yang; Zhao, Hong-Ying; Liu, Da-Ping; Duan, Yi-Ni

    2012-12-01

    Based on the data of the scientific experiment in Urad Front Banner for UAV Remote Sensing Load Calibration Field project, with the help of 6 hyperspectral radiometric targets with good Lambertian property, the wide-view multispectral camera in UAV was calibrated adopting reflectance-based method. The result reveals that for green, red and infrared channel, whose images were successfully captured, the linear correlation coefficients between the DN and radiance are all larger than 99%. In final analysis, the comprehensive error is no more than 6%. The calibration results demonstrate that the hyperspectral targets equipped by the calibration field are well suitable for air-borne multispectral load in-flight calibration. The calibration result is reliable and could be used in the retrieval of geophysical parameters. PMID:23427528

  11. Remote sensing of shorelines using data fusion of hyperspectral and multispectral imagery acquired from mobile and fixed platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bostater, Charles R.; Frystacky, Heather

    2012-06-01

    An optimized data fusion methodology is presented and makes use of airborne and vessel mounted hyperspectral and multispectral imagery acquired at littoral zones in Florida and the northern Gulf of Mexico. The results demonstrate the use of hyperspectral-multispectral data fusion anomaly detection along shorelines and in surface and subsurface waters. Hyperspectral imagery utilized in the data fusion analysis was collected using a 64-1024 channel, 1376 pixel swath width; temperature stabilized sensing system; an integrated inertial motion unit; and differential GPS. The imaging system is calibrated using dual 18 inch calibration spheres, spectral line sources, and custom line targets. Simultaneously collected multispectral three band imagery used in the data fusion analysis was derived either a 12 inch focal length large format camera using 9 inch high speed AGFA color negative film, a 12.3 megapixel digital camera or dual high speed full definition video cameras. Pushbroom sensor imagery is corrected using Kalman filtering and smoothing in order to correct images for airborne platform motions or motions of a small vessel. Custom software developed for the hyperspectral system and the optimized data fusion process allows for post processing using atmospherically corrected and georeferenced reflectance imagery. The optimized data fusion approach allows for detecting spectral anomalies in the resolution enhanced data cubes. Spectral-spatial anomaly detection is demonstrated using simulated embedded targets in actual imagery. The approach allows one to utilize spectral signature anomalies to identify features and targets that would otherwise not be possible. The optimized data fusion techniques and software has been developed in order to perform sensitivity analysis of the synthetic images in order to optimize the singular value decomposition model building process and the 2-D Butterworth cutoff frequency selection process, using the concept of user defined "feature

  12. Multispectral imaging and image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Julie

    2014-02-01

    The color accuracy of conventional RGB cameras is not sufficient for many color-critical applications. One of these applications, namely the measurement of color defects in yarns, is why Prof. Til Aach and the Institute of Image Processing and Computer Vision (RWTH Aachen University, Germany) started off with multispectral imaging. The first acquisition device was a camera using a monochrome sensor and seven bandpass color filters positioned sequentially in front of it. The camera allowed sampling the visible wavelength range more accurately and reconstructing the spectra for each acquired image position. An overview will be given over several optical and imaging aspects of the multispectral camera that have been investigated. For instance, optical aberrations caused by filters and camera lens deteriorate the quality of captured multispectral images. The different aberrations were analyzed thoroughly and compensated based on models for the optical elements and the imaging chain by utilizing image processing. With this compensation, geometrical distortions disappear and sharpness is enhanced, without reducing the color accuracy of multispectral images. Strong foundations in multispectral imaging were laid and a fruitful cooperation was initiated with Prof. Bernhard Hill. Current research topics like stereo multispectral imaging and goniometric multispectral measure- ments that are further explored with his expertise will also be presented in this work.

  13. Coastal and estuarine habitat mapping, using LIDAR height and intensity and multi-spectral imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chust, Guillem; Galparsoro, Ibon; Borja, Ángel; Franco, Javier; Uriarte, Adolfo

    2008-07-01

    The airborne laser scanning LIDAR (LIght Detection And Ranging) provides high-resolution Digital Terrain Models (DTM) that have been applied recently to the characterization, quantification and monitoring of coastal environments. This study assesses the contribution of LIDAR altimetry and intensity data, topographically-derived features (slope and aspect), and multi-spectral imagery (three visible and a near-infrared band), to map coastal habitats in the Bidasoa estuary and its adjacent coastal area (Basque Country, northern Spain). The performance of high-resolution data sources was individually and jointly tested, with the maximum likelihood algorithm classifier in a rocky shore and a wetland zone; thus, including some of the most extended Cantabrian Sea littoral habitats, within the Bay of Biscay. The results show that reliability of coastal habitat classification was more enhanced with LIDAR-based DTM, compared with the other data sources: slope, aspect, intensity or near-infrared band. The addition of the DTM, to the three visible bands, produced gains of between 10% and 27% in the agreement measures, between the mapped and validation data (i.e. mean producer's and user's accuracy) for the two test sites. Raw LIDAR intensity images are only of limited value here, since they appeared heterogeneous and speckled. However, the enhanced Lee smoothing filter, applied to the LIDAR intensity, improved the overall accuracy measurements of the habitat classification, especially in the wetland zone; here, there were gains up to 7.9% in mean producer's and 11.6% in mean user's accuracy. This suggests that LIDAR can be useful for habitat mapping, when few data sources are available. The synergy between the LIDAR data, with multi-spectral bands, produced high accurate classifications (mean producer's accuracy: 92% for the 16 rocky habitats and 88% for the 11 wetland habitats). Fusion of the data enabled discrimination of intertidal communities, such as Corallina elongata

  14. Multispectral remote sensing as stratigraphic and structural tool, Wind River Basin and Big Horn Basin areas, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Lang, H.R.; Adams, S.L.; Conel, J.E.; Mcguffie, B.A.; Paylor, E.D.; Walker, R.E.

    1987-04-01

    The use of Landsat TM, Airborne Imaging Spectrometer, and airborne Thermal IR Multispectral Scanner data in the geological evaluation of two sites in central Wyoming is described and illustrated with diagrams, maps, photographs, sample images, and tables of numerical data. The value of the remotely sensed information on the areal variation of attitude, sequence, thickness, and lithology of exposed strata is demonstrated; details of the data analysis are given; and the specialized software packages employed are briefly characterized. 46 references.

  15. Multispectral Resource Sampler Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The utility of the multispectral resource sampler (MRS) was examined by users in the following disciplines: agriculture, atmospheric studies, engineering, forestry, geology, hydrology/oceanography, land use, and rangelands/soils. Modifications to the sensor design were recommended and the desired types of products and number of scenes required per month were indicated. The history, design, capabilities, and limitations of the MRS are discussed as well as the multilinear spectral array technology which it uses. Designed for small area inventory, the MRS can provide increased temporal, spectral, and spatial resolution, facilitate polarization measurement and atmospheric correction, and test onboard data compression techniques. The advantages of using it along with the thematic mapper are considered.

  16. Multispectral imaging axicons.

    PubMed

    Bialic, Emilie; de la Tocnaye, Jean-Louis de Bougrenet

    2011-07-10

    Large-aperture linear diffractive axicons are optical devices providing achromatic nondiffracting beams with an extended depth of focus when illuminated by white light sources. Annular apertures introduce chromatic foci separation, making chromatic imaging possible despite important radiometric losses. Recently, a new type of diffractive axicon has been introduced, by multiplexing concentric annular axicons with appropriate sizes and periods, called a multiple annular linear diffractive axicon (MALDA). This new family of conical optics combines multiple annular axicons in different ways to optimize color foci recombination, separation, or interleaving. We present different types of MALDA, give an experimental illustration of the use of these devices, and describe the manufacturing issues related to their fabrication to provide color imaging systems with long focal depths and good diffraction efficiency. Application to multispectral image analysis is discussed. PMID:21743576

  17. Multispectral scanner optical system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stokes, R. C.; Koch, N. G. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    An optical system for use in a multispectral scanner of the type used in video imaging devices is disclosed. Electromagnetic radiation reflected by a rotating scan mirror is focused by a concave primary telescope mirror and collimated by a second concave mirror. The collimated beam is split by a dichroic filter which transmits radiant energy in the infrared spectrum and reflects visible and near infrared energy. The long wavelength beam is filtered and focused on an infrared detector positioned in a cryogenic environment. The short wavelength beam is dispersed by a pair of prisms, then projected on an array of detectors also mounted in a cryogenic environment and oriented at an angle relative to the optical path of the dispersed short wavelength beam.

  18. Airborne Imagery Collections Barrow 2013

    DOE Data Explorer

    Cherry, Jessica; Crowder, Kerri

    2015-07-20

    The data here are orthomosaics, digital surface models (DSMs), and individual frames captured during low altitude airborne flights in 2013 at the Barrow Environmental Observatory. The orthomosaics, thermal IR mosaics, and DSMs were generated from the individual frames using Structure from Motion techniques.

  19. Multispectral Microimager for Astrobiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sellar, R. Glenn; Farmer, Jack D.; Kieta, Andrew; Huang, Julie

    2006-01-01

    A primary goal of the astrobiology program is the search for fossil records. The astrobiology exploration strategy calls for the location and return of samples indicative of environments conducive to life, and that best capture and preserve biomarkers. Successfully returning samples from environments conducive to life requires two primary capabilities: (1) in situ mapping of the mineralogy in order to determine whether the desired minerals are present; and (2) nondestructive screening of samples for additional in-situ testing and/or selection for return to laboratories for more in-depth examination. Two of the most powerful identification techniques are micro-imaging and visible/infrared spectroscopy. The design and test results are presented from a compact rugged instrument that combines micro-imaging and spectroscopic capability to provide in-situ analysis, mapping, and sample screening capabilities. Accurate reflectance spectra should be a measure of reflectance as a function of wavelength only. Other compact multispectral microimagers use separate LEDs (light-emitting diodes) for each wavelength and therefore vary the angles of illumination when changing wavelengths. When observing a specularly-reflecting sample, this produces grossly inaccurate spectra due to the variation in the angle of illumination. An advanced design and test results are presented for a multispectral microimager which demonstrates two key advances relative to previous LED-based microimagers: (i) acquisition of actual reflectance spectra in which the flux is a function of wavelength only, rather than a function of both wavelength and illumination geometry; and (ii) increase in the number of spectral bands to eight bands covering a spectral range of 468 to 975 nm.

  20. MSS D Multispectral Scanner System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauletta, A. M.; Johnson, R. L.; Brinkman, K. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    The development and acceptance testing of the 4-band Multispectral Scanners to be flown on LANDSAT D and LANDSAT D Earth resources satellites are summarized. Emphasis is placed on the acceptance test phase of the program. Test history and acceptance test algorithms are discussed. Trend data of all the key performance parameters are included and discussed separately for each of the two multispectral scanner instruments. Anomalies encountered and their resolutions are included.

  1. LANDSAT-4 multispectral scanner (MSS) subsystem radiometric characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alford, W. (Editor); Barker, J. (Editor); Clark, B. P.; Dasgupta, R.

    1983-01-01

    The multispectral band scanner (mass) and its spectral characteristics are described and methods are given for relating video digital levels on computer compatible tapes to radiance into the sensor. Topics covered include prelaunch calibration procedures and postlaunch radiometric processng. Examples of current data resident on the MSS image processing system are included. The MSS on LANDSAT 4 is compared with the scanners on earlier LANDSAT satellites.

  2. Fourth Airborne Geoscience Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The focus of the workshop was on how the airborne community can assist in achieving the goals of the Global Change Research Program. The many activities that employ airborne platforms and sensors were discussed: platforms and instrument development; airborne oceanography; lidar research; SAR measurements; Doppler radar; laser measurements; cloud physics; airborne experiments; airborne microwave measurements; and airborne data collection.

  3. Airborne laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamberson, Steven E.

    2002-06-01

    The US Air Force Airborne Laser (ABL) is an airborne, megawatt-class laser system with a state-of-the-art atmospheric compensation system to destroy enemy ballistic missiles at long ranges. This system will provide both deterrence and defense against the use of such weapons during conflicts. This paper provides an overview of the ABL weapon system including: the notional operational concept, the development approach and schedule, the overall aircraft configuration, the technologies being incorporated in the ABL, and the risk reduction approach being utilized to ensure program success.

  4. EVALUATION OF COTTON DEFOLIATION STRATEGIES USING AIRBORNE MULTISPECTRAL IMAGERY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Visual observations and ground measurements are commonly used to evaluate cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) harvest aids for defoliation, boll opening, and re-growth control. This paper presents a remote sensing-based method for evaluating the effectiveness of different defoliation treatments. Field ...

  5. Multispectral Thermal Infrared Mapping of Sulfur Dioxide Plumes: A Case Study from the East Rift Zone of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Realmuto, V. J.; Sutton, A. J.; Elias, T.

    1996-01-01

    The synoptic perspective and rapid mode of data acquisition provided by remote sensing are well-suited for the study of volcanic SO2 plumes. In this paper we describe a plume-mapping procedure that is based on image data acquired with NASA's airborne Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS).

  6. Multispectral Mapping of the Moon by Clementine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eliason, Eric M.; McEwen, Alfred S.; Robinson, M.; Lucey, Paul G.; Duxbury, T.; Malaret, E.; Pieters, Carle; Becker, T.; Isbell, C.; Lee, E.

    1998-01-01

    One of the chief scientific objectives of the Clementine mission at the Moon was to acquire global multispectral mapping. A global digital map of the Moon in 11 spectral bandpasses and at a scale of 100 m/pixel is being produced at the U.S. Geological Survey in Flagstaff Arizona Near-global coverage was acquired with the UVVIS camera (central wavelengths of 415, 750, 900, 950, and 1000 nm) and the NIR camera (1102, 1248, 1499, 1996, 2620, and 2792 nary). We expect to complete processing of the UVVIS mosaics before the fall of 1998, and to complete the NIR mosaics a year later. The purpose of this poster is to provide an update on the processing and to show examples of the products or perhaps even a wall-sized display of color products from the UVVIS mosaics.

  7. Summaries of the Seventh JPL Airborne Earth Science Workshop January 12-16, 1998. Volume 1; AVIRIS Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Robert O. (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    This publication contains the summaries for the Seventh JPL Airborne Earth Science Workshop, held in Pasadena, California, on January 12-16, 1998. The main workshop is divided into three smaller workshops, and each workshop has a volume as follows: (1) Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) Workshop; (2) Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR) Workshop; and (3) Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) Workshop. This Volume 1 publication contains 58 papers taken from the AVIRIS workshop.

  8. Generic MSFA mosaicking and demosaicking for multispectral cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Lidan; Qi, Hairong; Ramanath, Rajeev

    2006-02-01

    In this paper, we investigate the potential application of the multispectral filter array (MSFA) techniques in multispectral imaging for reasons like low cost, exact registration, and strong robustness. In both human and many animal visual systems, different types of photoreceptors are organized into mosaic patterns. This behavior has been emulated in the industry to develop the so-called color filter array (CFA) in the manufacture of digital color cameras. In this way, only one color component is measured at each pixel, and the sensed image is a mosaic of different color bands. We extend this idea to multispectral imaging by developing generic mosaicking and demosaicking algorithms. The binary tree-driven MSFA design process guarantees that the pixel distributions of different spectral bands are uniform and highly correlated. These spatial features facilitate the design of the generic demosaicking algorithm based on the same binary tree, which considers three interrelated issues: band selection, pixel selection and interpolation. We evaluate the reconstructed images from two aspects: better reconstruction and better target classification. The experimental results demonstrate that the mosaicking and demosaicking process preserves the image quality effectively, which further supports that the MSFA technique is a feasible solution for multispectral cameras.

  9. A multispectral scanner survey of the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site and surrounding area, Golden, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Brewster, S.B. Jr.; Brickey, D.W.; Ross, S.L.; Shines, J.E.

    1997-04-01

    Aerial multispectral scanner imagery was collected of the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site in Golden, Colorado, on June 3, 5, 6, and 7, 1994, using a Daedalus AADS1268 multispectral scanner and coincident aerial color and color infrared photography. Flight altitudes were 4,500 feet (1372 meters) above ground level to match prior 1989 survey data; 2,000 feet (609 meters) above ground level for sitewide vegetation mapping; and 1,000 feet (304 meters) above ground level for selected areas of special interest. A multispectral survey was initiated to improve the existing vegetation classification map, to identify seeps and springs, and to generate ARC/INFO Geographic Information System compatible coverages of the vegetation and wetlands for the entire site including the buffer zone. The multispectral scanner imagery and coincident aerial photography were analyzed for the detection, identification, and mapping of vegetation and wetlands. The multispectral scanner data were processed digitally while the color and color infrared photography were manually photo-interpreted to define vegetation and wetlands. Several standard image enhancement techniques were applied to the multispectral scanner data to assist image interpretation. A seep enhancement was applied and a color composite consisting of multispectral scanner channels 11, 7, and 5 (thermal infrared, mid-infrared, and red bands, respectively) proved most useful for detecting seeps, seep zones, and springs. The predawn thermal infrared data were also useful in identifying and locating seeps. The remote sensing data, mapped wetlands, and ancillary Geographic Information System compatible data sets were spatially analyzed for seeps.

  10. UAV-based multi-spectral environmental monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, Thomas; De Biasio, Martin; Fritz, Andreas; Frank, Albert; Leitner, Raimund

    2012-06-01

    This paper describes an airborne multi-spectral imaging system which is able to simultaneously capture three visible (400-670nm at 50% FWHM) and three near infrared channels (670-1000nm at 50% FWHM). The rst prototype was integrated in a Schiebel CAMCOPTER®S-100 VTOL (Vertical Take-O and Landing) UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) for initial test ights in spring 2010. The UAV was own over land containing various types of vegetation. A miniaturized version of the initial multi-spectral imaging system was developed in 2011 to t into a more compact UAV. The imaging system captured six bands with a minimal spatial resolution of approx. 10cm x 10cm (depending on altitude). Results show that the system is able to resist the high vibration level during ight and that the actively stabilized camera gimbal compensates for rapid roll/tilt movements of the UAV. After image registration the acquired images are stitched together for land cover mapping and ight path validation. Moreover the system is able to distinguish between dierent types of vegetation and soil. Future work will include the use of spectral imaging techniques to identify spectral features that are related to water stress, nutrient deciency and pest infestation. Once these bands have been identied, narrowband lters will be incorporated into the airborne system.

  11. Interpretation of multispectral and infrared thermal surveys of the Suez Canal Zone, Egypt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elshazly, E. M.; Hady, M. A. A. H.; Hafez, M. A. A.; Salman, A. B.; Morsy, M. A.; Elrakaiby, M. M.; Alaassy, I. E. E.; Kamel, A. F.

    1977-01-01

    Remote sensing airborne surveys were conducted, as part of the plan of rehabilitation, of the Suez Canal Zone using I2S multispectral camera and Bendix LN-3 infrared passive scanner. The multispectral camera gives four separate photographs for the same scene in the blue, green, red, and near infrared bands. The scanner was operated in the microwave bands of 8 to 14 microns and the thermal surveying was carried out both at night and in the day time. The surveys, coupled with intensive ground investigations, were utilized in the construction of new geological, structural lineation and drainage maps for the Suez Canal Zone on a scale of approximately 1:20,000, which are superior to the maps made by normal aerial photography. A considerable number of anomalies belonging to various types were revealed through the interpretation of the executed multispectral and infrared thermal surveys.

  12. Improved Airborne System for Sensing Wildfires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKeown, Donald; Richardson, Michael

    2008-01-01

    The Wildfire Airborne Sensing Program (WASP) is engaged in a continuing effort to develop an improved airborne instrumentation system for sensing wildfires. The system could also be used for other aerial-imaging applications, including mapping and military surveillance. Unlike prior airborne fire-detection instrumentation systems, the WASP system would not be based on custom-made multispectral line scanners and associated custom- made complex optomechanical servomechanisms, sensors, readout circuitry, and packaging. Instead, the WASP system would be based on commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) equipment that would include (1) three or four electronic cameras (one for each of three or four wavelength bands) instead of a multispectral line scanner; (2) all associated drive and readout electronics; (3) a camera-pointing gimbal; (4) an inertial measurement unit (IMU) and a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver for measuring the position, velocity, and orientation of the aircraft; and (5) a data-acquisition subsystem. It would be necessary to custom-develop an integrated sensor optical-bench assembly, a sensor-management subsystem, and software. The use of mostly COTS equipment is intended to reduce development time and cost, relative to those of prior systems.

  13. Trophic classification of Colorado lakes utilizing contact data, Landsat and aircraft-acquired multispectral scanner data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boland, D. H. P.; Blackwell, R. J.

    1978-01-01

    Multispectral scanner data, acquired over several Colorado lakes using Landsat-1 and aircraft, were used in conjunction with National Eutrophication Survey contact-sensed data to determine the feasibility of assessing lacustrine trophic levels. A trophic state index was developed using contact-sensed data for several trophic indicators (chlorophyll a, inverse of Secchi disk transparency, conductivity, total phosphorous, total organic nitrogen, algal assay yield). Relationships between the digitally processed multispectral scanner data, several trophic indicators, and the trophic index were examined using a supervised multispectral classification technique and regression techniques. Statistically significant correlations exist between spectral bands, several of the trophic indicators (chlorophyll a, Secchi disk transparency, total organic nitrogen), and the trophic state index. Color-coded photomaps were generated which depict the spectral aspects of trophic state. Multispectral scanner data acquired from satellite and aircraft platforms can be used to advantage in lake monitoring and survey programs.

  14. Synthesis of Multispectral Bands from Hyperspectral Data: Validation Based on Images Acquired by AVIRIS, Hyperion, ALI, and ETM+

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blonksi, Slawomir; Gasser, Gerald; Russell, Jeffrey; Ryan, Robert; Terrie, Greg; Zanoni, Vicki

    2001-01-01

    Multispectral data requirements for Earth science applications are not always studied rigorously studied before a new remote sensing system is designed. A study of the spatial resolution, spectral bandpasses, and radiometric sensitivity requirements of real-world applications would focus the design onto providing maximum benefits to the end-user community. To support systematic studies of multispectral data requirements, the Applications Research Toolbox (ART) has been developed at NASA's Stennis Space Center. The ART software allows users to create and assess simulated datasets while varying a wide range of system parameters. The simulations are based on data acquired by existing multispectral and hyperspectral instruments. The produced datasets can be further evaluated for specific end-user applications. Spectral synthesis of multispectral images from hyperspectral data is a key part of the ART software. In this process, hyperspectral image cubes are transformed into multispectral imagery without changes in spatial sampling and resolution. The transformation algorithm takes into account spectral responses of both the synthesized, broad, multispectral bands and the utilized, narrow, hyperspectral bands. To validate the spectral synthesis algorithm, simulated multispectral images are compared with images collected near-coincidentally by the Landsat 7 ETM+ and the EO-1 ALI instruments. Hyperspectral images acquired with the airborne AVIRIS instrument and with the Hyperion instrument onboard the EO-1 satellite were used as input data to the presented simulations.

  15. Airborne digital-image data for monitoring the Colorado River corridor below Glen Canyon Dam, Arizona, 2009 - Image-mosaic production and comparison with 2002 and 2005 image mosaics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.

    2012-01-01

    Airborne digital-image data were collected for the Arizona part of the Colorado River ecosystem below Glen Canyon Dam in 2009. These four-band image data are similar in wavelength band (blue, green, red, and near infrared) and spatial resolution (20 centimeters) to image collections of the river corridor in 2002 and 2005. These periodic image collections are used by the Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center (GCMRC) of the U.S. Geological Survey to monitor the effects of Glen Canyon Dam operations on the downstream ecosystem. The 2009 collection used the latest model of the Leica ADS40 airborne digital sensor (the SH52), which uses a single optic for all four bands and collects and stores band radiance in 12-bits, unlike the image sensors that GCMRC used in 2002 and 2005. This study examined the performance of the SH52 sensor, on the basis of the collected image data, and determined that the SH52 sensor provided superior data relative to the previously employed sensors (that is, an early ADS40 model and Zeiss Imaging's Digital Mapping Camera) in terms of band-image registration, dynamic range, saturation, linearity to ground reflectance, and noise level. The 2009 image data were provided as orthorectified segments of each flightline to constrain the size of the image files; each river segment was covered by 5 to 6 overlapping, linear flightlines. Most flightline images for each river segment had some surface-smear defects and some river segments had cloud shadows, but these two conditions did not generally coincide in the majority of the overlapping flightlines for a particular river segment. Therefore, the final image mosaic for the 450-kilometer (km)-long river corridor required careful selection and editing of numerous flightline segments (a total of 513 segments, each 3.2 km long) to minimize surface defects and cloud shadows. The final image mosaic has a total of only 3 km of surface defects. The final image mosaic for the western end of the corridor has

  16. CCD image acquisition for multispectral teledetection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peralta-Fabi, R.; Peralta, A.; Prado, Jorge M.; Vicente, Esau; Navarette, M.

    1992-08-01

    A low cost high-reliability multispectral video system has been developed for airborne remote sensing. Three low weight CCD cameras are mounted together with a photographic camera in a keviar composite self-contained structure. The CCD cameras are remotely controlled have spectral filters (80 nm at 50 T) placed in front of their optical system and all cameras are aligned to capture the same image field. Filters may be changed so as to adjust spectral bands according to the object s reflectance properties but a set of bands common to most remote sensing aircraft and satellites are usually placed covering visible and near JR. This paper presents results obtained with this system and some comparisons as to the cost resolution and atmospheric correction advantages with respect to other more costly devices. Also a brief description of the Remotely Piloted Vehicle (RPV) project where the camera system will be mounted is given. The images so obtained replace the costlier ones obtained by satellites in severai specific applications. Other applications under development include fire monitoring identification of vegetation in the field and in the laboratory discrimination of objects by color for industrial applications and for geological and engineering surveys. 1.

  17. Multispectral imaging method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Sandison, D.R.; Platzbecker, M.R.; Vargo, T.D.; Lockhart, R.R.; Descour, M.R.; Richards-Kortum, R.

    1999-07-06

    A multispectral imaging method and apparatus are described which are adapted for use in determining material properties, especially properties characteristic of abnormal non-dermal cells. A target is illuminated with a narrow band light beam. The target expresses light in response to the excitation. The expressed light is collected and the target's response at specific response wavelengths to specific excitation wavelengths is measured. From the measured multispectral response the target's properties can be determined. A sealed, remote probe and robust components can be used for cervical imaging. 5 figs.

  18. Multispectral imaging method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Sandison, David R.; Platzbecker, Mark R.; Vargo, Timothy D.; Lockhart, Randal R.; Descour, Michael R.; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

    1999-01-01

    A multispectral imaging method and apparatus adapted for use in determining material properties, especially properties characteristic of abnormal non-dermal cells. A target is illuminated with a narrow band light beam. The target expresses light in response to the excitation. The expressed light is collected and the target's response at specific response wavelengths to specific excitation wavelengths is measured. From the measured multispectral response the target's properties can be determined. A sealed, remote probe and robust components can be used for cervical imaging

  19. Airborne imaging sensors for environmental monitoring & surveillance in support of oil spills & recovery efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bostater, Charles R.; Jones, James; Frystacky, Heather; Coppin, Gaelle; Leavaux, Florian; Neyt, Xavier

    2011-11-01

    Collection of pushbroom sensor imagery from a mobile platform requires corrections using inertial measurement units (IMU's) and DGPS in order to create useable imagery for environmental monitoring and surveillance of shorelines in freshwater systems, coastal littoral zones and harbor areas. This paper describes a suite of imaging systems used during collection of hyperspectral imagery in northern Florida panhandle and Gulf of Mexico airborne missions to detect weathered oil in coastal littoral zones. Underlying concepts of pushbroom imagery, the needed corrections for directional changes using DGPS and corrections for platform yaw, pitch, and roll using IMU data is described as well as the development and application of optimal band and spectral regions associated with weathered oil. Pushbroom sensor and frame camera data collected in response to the recent Gulf of Mexico oil spill disaster is presented as the scenario documenting environmental monitoring and surveillance techniques using mobile sensing platforms. Data was acquired during the months of February, March, April and May of 2011. The low altitude airborne systems include a temperature stabilized hyperspectral imaging system capable of up to 1024 spectral channels and 1376 spatial across track pixels flown from 3,000 to 4,500 feet altitudes. The hyperspectral imaging system is collocated with a full resolution high definition video recorder for simultaneous HD video imagery, a 12.3 megapixel digital, a mapping camera using 9 inch film types that yields scanned aerial imagery with approximately 22,200 by 22,200 pixel multispectral imagery (~255 megapixel RGB multispectral images in order to conduct for spectral-spatial sharpening of fused multispectral, hyperspectral imagery. Two high spectral (252 channels) and radiometric sensitivity solid state spectrographs are used for collecting upwelling radiance (sub-meter pixels) with downwelling irradiance fiber optic attachment. These sensors are utilized for

  20. Advanced Multispectral Scanner (AMS) study. [aircraft remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The status of aircraft multispectral scanner technology was accessed in order to develop preliminary design specifications for an advanced instrument to be used for remote sensing data collection by aircraft in the 1980 time frame. The system designed provides a no-moving parts multispectral scanning capability through the exploitation of linear array charge coupled device technology and advanced electronic signal processing techniques. Major advantages include: 10:1 V/H rate capability; 120 deg FOV at V/H = 0.25 rad/sec; 1 to 2 rad resolution; high sensitivity; large dynamic range capability; geometric fidelity; roll compensation; modularity; long life; and 24 channel data acquisition capability. The field flattening techniques of the optical design allow wide field view to be achieved at fast f/nos for both the long and short wavelength regions. The digital signal averaging technique permits maximization of signal to noise performance over the entire V/H rate range.

  1. An augmentative gaze directing framework for multi-spectral imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsiao, Libby

    Modern digital imaging techniques have made the task of imaging more prolic than ever and the volume of images and data available through multi-spectral imaging methods for exploitation is exceeding that which can be solely processed by human beings. The researchers proposed and developed a novel eye movement contingent framework and display system through adaption of the demonstrated technique of subtle gaze direction by presenting modulations within the displayed image. The system sought to augment visual search task performance of aerial imagery by incorporating multi-spectral image processing algorithms to determine potential regions of interest within an image. The exploratory work conducted was to study the feasibility of visual gaze direction with the specic intent of extending this application to geospatial image analysis without need for overt cueing to areas of potential interest and thereby maintaining the benefits of an undirected and unbiased search by an observer.

  2. Mapping surface alteration effects associated with hydrocarbon reservoirs at Gypsum Plain, Texas, and Cement, Oklahoma, using multispectral information

    SciTech Connect

    Carrerre, V.; Lang, H.R. ); Crawford, M.F. )

    1991-08-01

    Two test sites, Gypsum Plain, Texas, and Cement, Oklahoma, were selected to evaluate combined use of airborne visible/infrared imaging spectrometer (AVIRIS) and thermal infrared multispectral scanner (TIMS) for detection of alteration effects associated with hydrocarbon microseepage. Bleaching of redbuds, variations in carbonate cement, replacement of gypsum, exidation of iron, and changes in clay mineralogy may correlate spatially with oil and gas production and subsurface structures. Spectral features due to iron oxides, calcite, gypsum, smectite, and kaolinite can be mapped using AVIRIS image data, using various techniques such as ratios, scene-dependent log residuals, and scene-independent radioactive transfer approach using LOWTRAN7, and with TIMSA data using DSTRETCH. Poor signal-to-noise in the 2.0-2.4 {mu}m region limited the ability to map clay, gypsum, and carbonates both at Cement and Gypsum Plain, carbonate and quartz-rich sediments at Gypsum Plain, and differentiated soils developed on the Rush Spring Sandstone from soil derived from the Cloud Chief Formation at Cement. Combined spectral and photogeologic interpretation of coregistered AVIRIS, TIMS, and Landsat TM, and digital elevation data demonstrate the practical approaches for surface oil and gas exploration using presently operational commercial aircraft and future satellite systems.

  3. Characterizing thermal features from multi-spectral remote sensing data using dynamic calibration procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardy, Colin C.

    A thermal infrared remote sensing project was implemented to develop methods for identifying, classifying, and mapping thermal features. This study is directed at geothermal features, with the expectation that new protocols developed here will apply to the wildland fire thermal environment. Airborne multi-spectral digital imagery was acquired over the geothermally active Norris Basin region of Yellowstone National Park, USA. Two image acquisitions were flown, with one near solar noon and the other at night. The five-band image data included thermal infrared (TIR), near-infrared (NIR), and three visible bandpasses. While focused on TIR, the study relied on the multi-spectral visible and NIR data as well as on an ancillary hyperspectral data set. The raw, five-band data were uncalibrated, requiring implementation of two calibration protocols. First, a vicarious calibration procedure was developed to compute reflectance for the visible and NIR bands using an independently calibrated hyperspectral dataset. Second, a dynamic, in-scene calibration procedure was developed for the thermal sensor that exploited natural, pseudo-invariant thermal reference targets instrumented with kinetic temperature recorders. A suite of thermal attributes was derived, including daytime and nighttime radiant temperatures, a temperature difference (DeltaT), albedo, one minus albedo, and apparent thermal inertia (ATI). The albedo terms were computed using a published weighed-average albedo algorithm based on ratios of the narrowband red and NIR reflectances to total solar irradiance for the respective red and NIR bandpasses. In the absence of verifiable "truth," a step-wise chain of unsupervised classification and multivariate analysis exercises was performed, drawing heavily on "fuzzy truth." A final classification synthesizes a "thermal phenomenology" comprised of four components: spectral, statistical, geographical/contextual, and feature space. In situ measurements paired with image data

  4. The Continuous wavelet in airborne gravimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, X.; Liu, L.

    2013-12-01

    Airborne gravimetry is an efficient method to recover medium and high frequency band of earth gravity over any region, especially inaccessible areas, which can measure gravity data with high accuracy,high resolution and broad range in a rapidly and economical way, and It will play an important role for geoid and geophysical exploration. Filtering methods for reducing high-frequency errors is critical to the success of airborne gravimetry due to Aircraft acceleration determination based on GPS.Tradiontal filters used in airborne gravimetry are FIR,IIR filer and so on. This study recommends an improved continuous wavelet to process airborne gravity data. Here we focus on how to construct the continuous wavelet filters and show their working principle. Particularly the technical parameters (window width parameter and scale parameter) of the filters are tested. Then the raw airborne gravity data from the first Chinese airborne gravimetry campaign are filtered using FIR-low pass filter and continuous wavelet filters to remove the noise. The comparison to reference data is performed to determinate external accuracy, which shows that continuous wavelet filters applied to airborne gravity in this thesis have good performances. The advantages of the continuous wavelet filters over digital filters are also introduced. The effectiveness of the continuous wavelet filters for airborne gravimetry is demonstrated through real data computation.

  5. Multispectral, hyperspectral, and LiDAR remote sensing and geographic information fusion for improved earthquake response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruse, F. A.; Kim, A. M.; Runyon, S. C.; Carlisle, Sarah C.; Clasen, C. C.; Esterline, C. H.; Jalobeanu, A.; Metcalf, J. P.; Basgall, P. L.; Trask, D. M.; Olsen, R. C.

    2014-06-01

    The Naval Postgraduate School (NPS) Remote Sensing Center (RSC) and research partners have completed a remote sensing pilot project in support of California post-earthquake-event emergency response. The project goals were to dovetail emergency management requirements with remote sensing capabilities to develop prototype map products for improved earthquake response. NPS coordinated with emergency management services and first responders to compile information about essential elements of information (EEI) requirements. A wide variety of remote sensing datasets including multispectral imagery (MSI), hyperspectral imagery (HSI), and LiDAR were assembled by NPS for the purpose of building imagery baseline data; and to demonstrate the use of remote sensing to derive ground surface information for use in planning, conducting, and monitoring post-earthquake emergency response. Worldview-2 data were converted to reflectance, orthorectified, and mosaicked for most of Monterey County; CA. Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data acquired at two spatial resolutions were atmospherically corrected and analyzed in conjunction with the MSI data. LiDAR data at point densities from 1.4 pts/m2 to over 40 points/ m2 were analyzed to determine digital surface models. The multimodal data were then used to develop change detection approaches and products and other supporting information. Analysis results from these data along with other geographic information were used to identify and generate multi-tiered products tied to the level of post-event communications infrastructure (internet access + cell, cell only, no internet/cell). Technology transfer of these capabilities to local and state emergency response organizations gives emergency responders new tools in support of post-disaster operational scenarios.

  6. Spectral difference analysis and airborne imaging classification for citrus greening infected trees

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus greening, also called Huanglongbing (HLB), became a devastating disease spread through citrus groves in Florida, since it was first found in 2005. Multispectral (MS) and hyperspectral (HS) airborne images of citrus groves in Florida were acquired to detect citrus greening infected trees in 20...

  7. Mapping giant reed along the Rio Grande using airborne and satellite imagery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Giant reed (Arundo donax L.) is a perennial invasive weed that presents a severe threat to agroecosystems and riparian areas in the Texas and Mexican portions of the Rio Grande Basin. The objective of this presentation is to give an overview on the use of aerial photography, airborne multispectral a...

  8. High resolution multispectral photogrammetric imagery: enhancement, interpretation and evaluations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Arthur; Haefele, Martin; Bostater, Charles; Becker, Thomas

    2007-10-01

    A variety of aerial mapping cameras were adapted and developed into simulated multiband digital photogrammetric mapping systems. Direct digital multispectral, two multiband cameras (IIS 4 band and Itek 9 band) and paired mapping and reconnaissance cameras were evaluated for digital spectral performance and photogrammetric mapping accuracy in an aquatic environment. Aerial films (24cm X 24cm format) tested were: Agfa color negative and extended red (visible and near infrared) panchromatic, and; Kodak color infrared and B&W (visible and near infrared) infrared. All films were negative processed to published standards and digitally converted at either 16 (color) or 10 (B&W) microns. Excellent precision in the digital conversions was obtained with scanning errors of less than one micron. Radiometric data conversion was undertaken using linear density conversion and centered 8 bit histogram exposure. This resulted in multiple 8 bit spectral image bands that were unaltered (not radiometrically enhanced) "optical count" conversions of film density. This provided the best film density conversion to a digital product while retaining the original film density characteristics. Data covering water depth, water quality, surface roughness, and bottom substrate were acquired using different measurement techniques as well as different techniques to locate sampling points on the imagery. Despite extensive efforts to obtain accurate ground truth data location errors, measurement errors, and variations in the correlation between water depth and remotely sensed signal persisted. These errors must be considered endemic and may not be removed through even the most elaborate sampling set up. Results indicate that multispectral photogrammetric systems offer improved feature mapping capability.

  9. Multispectral Analysis of Indigenous Rock Art Using Terrestrial Laser Scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skoog, B.; Helmholz, P.; Belton, D.

    2016-06-01

    Multispectral analysis is a widely used technique in the photogrammetric and remote sensing industry. The use of Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) in combination with imagery is becoming increasingly common, with its applications spreading to a wider range of fields. Both systems benefit from being a non-contact technique that can be used to accurately capture data regarding the target surface. Although multispectral analysis is actively performed within the spatial sciences field, its extent of application within an archaeological context has been limited. This study effectively aims to apply the multispectral techniques commonly used, to a remote Indigenous site that contains an extensive gallery of aging rock art. The ultimate goal for this research is the development of a systematic procedure that could be applied to numerous similar sites for the purpose of heritage preservation and research. The study consisted of extensive data capture of the rock art gallery using two different TLS systems and a digital SLR camera. The data was combined into a common 2D reference frame that allowed for standard image processing to be applied. An unsupervised k-means classifier was applied to the multiband images to detect the different types of rock art present. The result was unsatisfactory as the subsequent classification accuracy was relatively low. The procedure and technique does however show potential and further testing with different classification algorithms could possibly improve the result significantly.

  10. Multispectral Analysis of NMR Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butterfield, R. L.; Vannier, M. W. And Associates; Jordan, D.

    1985-01-01

    Conference paper discusses initial efforts to adapt multispectral satellite-image analysis to nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) scans of human body. Flexibility of these techniques makes it possible to present NMR data in variety of formats, including pseudocolor composite images of pathological internal features. Techniques do not have to be greatly modified from form in which used to produce satellite maps of such Earth features as water, rock, or foliage.

  11. The Land Analysis System (LAS) for multispectral image processing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wharton, S. W.; Lu, Y. C.; Quirk, Bruce K.; Oleson, Lyndon R.; Newcomer, J. A.; Irani, Frederick M.

    1988-01-01

    The Land Analysis System (LAS) is an interactive software system available in the public domain for the analysis, display, and management of multispectral and other digital image data. LAS provides over 240 applications functions and utilities, a flexible user interface, complete online and hard-copy documentation, extensive image-data file management, reformatting, conversion utilities, and high-level device independent access to image display hardware. The authors summarize the capabilities of the current release of LAS (version 4.0) and discuss plans for future development. Particular emphasis is given to the issue of system portability and the importance of removing and/or isolating hardware and software dependencies.

  12. Remote sensing technology - The 24-channel multispectral scanner.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayre, H. S.; Richard, R. R.

    1973-01-01

    The multispectral scanner system installed in the NASA C-130 aircraft for use in the Earth Observations Aircraft Program constitutes a 24-channel imaging spectrometer that senses electromagnetic energy in the spectral interval from .34 to 13 microns. Energy reflected or emitted from the terrain and system calibration sources is collected by a scan mirror, reflected into collecting optics, and brought to a focus in a plane containing a 0.09 inch square aperture. A dichroic optical element splits the energy which passes through the aperture into two wavelength bands (wavelengths above and below 2 microns). These wavelength bands are then dispersed spectrally into 24 distinct spectral bands by two grating spectrometers. The spectral intervals are transformed into electrical signals by separate detector-preamplifier combinations, and the signals are used as inputs to a video processor in an airborne electronics console. System operation and performance are described.

  13. Improved capabilities of the Multispectral Atmospheric Mapping Sensor (MAMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jedlovec, Gary J.; Batson, K. Bryan; Atkinson, Robert J.; Moeller, Chris C.; Menzel, W. Paul; James, Mark W.

    1989-01-01

    The Multispectral Atmospheric Mapping Sensor (MAMS) is an airborne instrument being investigated as part of NASA's high altitude research program. Findings from work on this and other instruments have been important as the scientific justification of new instrumentation for the Earth Observing System (EOS). This report discusses changes to the instrument which have led to new capabilities, improved data quality, and more accurate calibration methods. In order to provide a summary of the data collected with MAMS, a complete list of flight dates and locations is provided. For many applications, registration of MAMS imagery with landmarks is required. The navigation of this data on the Man-computer Interactive Data Access System (McIDAS) is discussed. Finally, research applications of the data are discussed and specific examples are presented to show the applicability of these measurements to NASA's Earth System Science (ESS) objectives.

  14. Gimbaled multispectral imaging system and method

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Kevin H.; Crollett, Seferino; Henson, Tammy D.; Napier, Matthew; Stromberg, Peter G.

    2016-01-26

    A gimbaled multispectral imaging system and method is described herein. In an general embodiment, the gimbaled multispectral imaging system has a cross support that defines a first gimbal axis and a second gimbal axis, wherein the cross support is rotatable about the first gimbal axis. The gimbaled multispectral imaging system comprises a telescope that fixed to an upper end of the cross support, such that rotation of the cross support about the first gimbal axis causes the tilt of the telescope to alter. The gimbaled multispectral imaging system includes optics that facilitate on-gimbal detection of visible light and off-gimbal detection of infrared light.

  15. Potential of Airborne LiDAR in Geomorphology - A Technological Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höfle, B.; Mandlburger, G.; Pfeifer, N.; Rutzinger, M.; Bell, R.

    2009-04-01

    Airborne LiDAR, also referred to as Airborne Laser Scanning, is widely used for high-resolution topographic data acquisition, offering a planimetric (<50cm) and vertical accuracy (<20cm) suited for many applications (e.g. in natural hazard management, forestry). Due to the direct determination of elevation and the penetration capabilities of the laser beam through gaps in vegetation, the LiDAR technology exceeds other methods such as stereo-photogrammetry or interferometric SAR particularly in vegetated areas. This contribution gives a review of recent developments of LiDAR systems but also advances in data processing, resulting in a higher data density and quality for geomorphological applications. Besides the elevation information most systems additionally record the strength of the received backscatter or even the full temporal distribution of the received energy (i.e. full-waveform). This radiometric information is a valuable parameter for further classification of the scanned areas, in particular for objects being not distinguishable by their geometry. In geomorphology airborne LiDAR data can either be used directly in the form of digital elevation data (e.g. digital terrain and surface model, original point cloud) and therein detected surface discontinuities (e.g. breaklines, lineaments) and forms (e.g. fans, rock glaciers), or indirectly by classification of surface features (e.g. vegetation and water) relevant for geomorphological processes. Furthermore, these datasets can be used for visual interpretation and mapping by experts or for automatic derivation of land-surface parameters by means of geomorphometry. With the availability of multitemporal datasets the investigation and quantification of dynamic processes becomes possible. Recent studies show the advantages by using full-waveform LiDAR system, which enable an improved echo detection and radiometric calibration of the received backscatter. The availability of additional echo attributes (e

  16. Retinal oxygen saturation evaluation by multi-spectral fundus imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoobehi, Bahram; Ning, Jinfeng; Puissegur, Elise; Bordeaux, Kimberly; Balasubramanian, Madhusudhanan; Beach, James

    2007-03-01

    Purpose: To develop a multi-spectral method to measure oxygen saturation of the retina in the human eye. Methods: Five Cynomolgus monkeys with normal eyes were anesthetized with intramuscular ketamine/xylazine and intravenous pentobarbital. Multi-spectral fundus imaging was performed in five monkeys with a commercial fundus camera equipped with a liquid crystal tuned filter in the illumination light path and a 16-bit digital camera. Recording parameters were controlled with software written specifically for the application. Seven images at successively longer oxygen-sensing wavelengths were recorded within 4 seconds. Individual images for each wavelength were captured in less than 100 msec of flash illumination. Slightly misaligned images of separate wavelengths due to slight eye motion were registered and corrected by translational and rotational image registration prior to analysis. Numerical values of relative oxygen saturation of retinal arteries and veins and the underlying tissue in between the artery/vein pairs were evaluated by an algorithm previously described, but which is now corrected for blood volume from averaged pixels (n > 1000). Color saturation maps were constructed by applying the algorithm at each image pixel using a Matlab script. Results: Both the numerical values of relative oxygen saturation and the saturation maps correspond to the physiological condition, that is, in a normal retina, the artery is more saturated than the tissue and the tissue is more saturated than the vein. With the multi-spectral fundus camera and proper registration of the multi-wavelength images, we were able to determine oxygen saturation in the primate retinal structures on a tolerable time scale which is applicable to human subjects. Conclusions: Seven wavelength multi-spectral imagery can be used to measure oxygen saturation in retinal artery, vein, and tissue (microcirculation). This technique is safe and can be used to monitor oxygen uptake in humans. This work

  17. Summaries of the Fifth Annual JPL Airborne Earth Science Workshop. Volume 1: AVIRIS Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Robert O. (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    This publication is the first of three containing summaries for the Fifth Annual JPL Airborne Earth Science Workshop, held in Pasadena, California, on January 23-26, 1995. The main workshop is divided into three smaller workshops as follows: (1) The Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) workshop, on January 23-24. The summaries for this workshop appear in this volume; (2) The Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR) workshop, on January 25-26. The summaries for this workshop appear in Volume 3; and (3) The Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) workshop, on January 26. The summaries for this workshop appear in Volume 2.

  18. Summaries of the Third Annual JPL Airborne Geoscience Workshop. Volume 1: AVIRIS Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Robert O. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    This publication contains the preliminary agenda and summaries for the Third Annual JPL Airborne Geoscience Workshop, held at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, on 1-5 June 1992. This main workshop is divided into three smaller workshops as follows: (1) the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) workshop, on June 1 and 2; (2) the Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) workshop, on June 3; and (3) the Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR) workshop, on June 4 and 5. The summaries are contained in Volumes 1, 2, and 3, respectively.

  19. Summaries of the Fifth Annual JPL Airborne Earth Science Workshop. Volume 2: TIMS Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Realmuto, Vincent J. (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    This publication is the second volume of the summaries for the Fifth Annual JPL Airborne Earth Science Workshop, held in Pasadena, California, on January 23-26, 1995. The main workshop is divided into three smaller workshops as follows: (1) The Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) workshop on January 23-24. The summaries for this workshop appear in Volume 1; (2) The Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR) workshop on January 25-26. The summaries for this workshop appear in volume 3; and (3) The Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) workshop on January 26. The summaries for this workshop appear in this volume.

  20. Summaries of the Third Annual JPL Airborne Geoscience Workshop. Volume 2: TIMS Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Realmuto, Vincent J. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    This publication contains the preliminary agenda and summaries for the Third Annual JPL Airborne Geoscience Workshop, held at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, on 1-5 June 1992. This main workshop is divided into three smaller workshops as follows: (1) the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) workshop, on June 1 and 2; the summaries for this workshop appear in Volume 1; (2) the Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) workshop, on June 3; the summaries for this workshop appear in Volume 2; and (3) the Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR) workshop, on June 4 and 5; the summaries for this workshop appear in Volume 3.

  1. Summaries of the Fifth Annual JPL Airborne Earth Science Workshop. Volume 3: AIRSAR Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanzyl, Jakob (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    This publication is the third containing summaries for the Fifth Annual JPL Airborne Earth Science Workshop, held in Pasadena, California, on January 23-26, 1995. The main workshop is divided into three smaller workshops as follows: (1) The Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) workshop, on January 23-24. The summaries for this workshop appear in Volume 1; (2) The Airborne synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR) workshop, on January 25-26. The summaries for this workshop appear in this volume; and (3) The Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) workshop, on January 26. The summaries for this workshop appear in Volume 2.

  2. Summaries of the 4th Annual JPL Airborne Geoscience Workshop. Volume 3: AIRSAR Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanzyl, Jakob (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    This publication contains the summaries for the Fourth Annual JPL Airborne Geoscience Workshop, held in Washington, D.C. on October 25-29, 1993. The main workshop is divided into three smaller workshops as follows: The Airborne Visible/Infrared Spectrometer (AVIRIS) workshop, on October 25-26, whose summaries appear in Volume 1; The Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) workshop, on October 27, whose summaries appear in Volume 2; and The Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR) workshop, on October 28-29, whose summaries appear in this volume, Volume 3.

  3. Summaries of the Third Annual JPL Airborne Geoscience Workshop. Volume 3: AIRSAR Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanzyl, Jakob (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    This publication contains the preliminary agenda and summaries for the Third Annual JPL Airborne Geoscience Workshop, held at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, on 1-5 June 1992. This main workshop is divided into three smaller workshops as follows: (1) the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) workshop, on June 1 and 2; the summaries for this workshop appear in Volume 1; (2) the Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) workshop, on June 3; the summaries for this workshop appear in Volume 2; and (3) the Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR) workshop, on June 4 and 5; the summaries for this workshop appear in Volume 3.

  4. Summaries of the 4th Annual JPL Airborne Geoscience Workshop. Volume 2: TIMS Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Realmuto, Vincent J. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    This is volume 2 of a three volume set of publications that contain the summaries for the Fourth Annual JPL Airborne Geoscience Workshop, held in Washington, D.C. on October 25-29, 1993. The main workshop is divided into three smaller workshops as follows: The Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) workshop, on October 25-26. The summaries for this workshop appear in Volume 1. The Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) workshop, on October 27. The summaries for this workshop appear in Volume 2. The Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR) workshop, on October 28-29. The summaries for this workshop appear in Volume 3.

  5. Summaries of the 4th Annual JPL Airborne Geoscience Workshop. Volume 1: AVIRIS Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Robert O. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    This publication contains the summaries for the Fourth Annual JPL Airborne Geoscience Workshop, held in Washington, D. C. October 25-29, 1993 The main workshop is divided into three smaller workshops as follows: The Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) workshop, October 25-26 (the summaries for this workshop appear in this volume, Volume 1); The Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TMIS) workshop, on October 27 (the summaries for this workshop appear in Volume 2); and The Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR) workshop, October 28-29 (the summaries for this workshop appear in Volume 3).

  6. Airborne Hyperspectral Imagery for the Detection of Agricultural Crop Stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cassady, Philip E.; Perry, Eileen M.; Gardner, Margaret E.; Roberts, Dar A.

    2001-01-01

    Multispectral digital imagery from aircraft or satellite is presently being used to derive basic assessments of crop health for growers and others involved in the agricultural industry. Research indicates that narrow band stress indices derived from hyperspectral imagery should have improved sensitivity to provide more specific information on the type and cause of crop stress, Under funding from the NASA Earth Observation Commercial Applications Program (EOCAP) we are identifying and evaluating scientific and commercial applications of hyperspectral imagery for the remote characterization of agricultural crop stress. During the summer of 1999 a field experiment was conducted with varying nitrogen treatments on a production corn-field in eastern Nebraska. The AVIRIS (Airborne Visible-Infrared Imaging Spectrometer) hyperspectral imager was flown at two critical dates during crop development, at two different altitudes, providing images with approximately 18m pixels and 3m pixels. Simultaneous supporting soil and crop characterization included spectral reflectance measurements above the canopy, biomass characterization, soil sampling, and aerial photography. In this paper we describe the experiment and results, and examine the following three issues relative to the utility of hyperspectral imagery for scientific study and commercial crop stress products: (1) Accuracy of reflectance derived stress indices relative to conventional measures of stress. We compare reflectance-derived indices (both field radiometer and AVIRIS) with applied nitrogen and with leaf level measurement of nitrogen availability and chlorophyll concentrations over the experimental plots (4 replications of 5 different nitrogen levels); (2) Ability of the hyperspectral sensors to detect sub-pixel areas under crop stress. We applied the stress indices to both the 3m and 18m AVIRIS imagery for the entire production corn field using several sub-pixel areas within the field to compare the relative

  7. A multispectral scanner survey of the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada. Date of survey: August 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Brewster, S.B. Jr.; Howard, M.E.; Shines, J.E.

    1994-08-01

    The Multispectral Remote Sensing Department of the Remote Sensing Laboratory conducted an airborne multispectral scanner survey of a portion of the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada. The survey was conducted on August 21 and 22, 1993, using a Daedalus AADS1268 scanner and coincident aerial color photography. Flight altitudes were 5,000 feet (1,524 meters) above ground level for systematic coverage and 1,000 feet (304 meters) for selected areas of special interest. The multispectral scanner survey was initiated as part of an interim and limited investigation conducted to gather preliminary information regarding historical hazardous material release sites which could have environmental impacts. The overall investigation also includes an inventory of environmental restoration sites, a ground-based geophysical survey, and an aerial radiological survey. The multispectral scanner imagery and coincident aerial photography were analyzed for the detection, identification, and mapping of man-made soil disturbances. Several standard image enhancement techniques were applied to the data to assist image interpretation. A geologic ratio enhancement and a color composite consisting of AADS1268 channels 10, 7, and 9 (mid-infrared, red, and near-infrared spectral bands) proved most useful for detecting soil disturbances. A total of 358 disturbance sites were identified on the imagery and mapped using a geographic information system. Of these sites, 326 were located within the Tonopah Test Range while the remaining sites were present on the imagery but outside the site boundary. The mapped site locations are being used to support ongoing field investigations.

  8. Spectral stratigraphy: multispectral remote sensing as a stratigraphic tool, Wind River/Big Horn basin, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Lang, H.R.; Paylor, E.D.

    1987-05-01

    Stratigraphic and structural analyses of the Wind River and Big Horn basins areas of central Wyoming are in progress. One result has been the development of a new approach to stratigraphic and structural analysis that uses photogeologic and spectral interpretation of multispectral image data to remotely characterize the attitude, thickness, and lithology of strata. New multispectral systems that have only been available since 1982 are used with topographic data to map upper paleozoic and Mesozoic strata exposed on the southern margin of the Bighorn Mountains. Thematic Mapper (TM) satellite data together with topographic data are used to map lithologic contacts, measure dip and strike, and develop a stratigraphic column that is correlated with conventional surface and subsurface sections. Aircraft-acquired Airborne Imaging Spectrometer and Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner data add mineralogical information to the TM column, including the stratigraphic distribution of quartz, calcite, dolomite, montmorillonite, and gypsum. Results illustrate an approach that has general applicability in other geologic investigations that could benefit from remotely acquired information about areal variations in attitude, sequence, thickness, and lithology of strata exposed at the Earth's surface. Application of their methods elsewhere is limited primarily by availability of multispectral and topographic data and quality of bedrock exposures.

  9. Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL) Data Processing Manual

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bonisteel, Jamie M.; Nayegandhi, Amar; Wright, C. Wayne; Brock, John C.; Nagle, David

    2009-01-01

    The Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL) is an example of a Light Detection and Ranging (Lidar) system that utilizes a blue-green wavelength (532 nanometers) to determine the distance to an object. The distance is determined by recording the travel time of a transmitted pulse at the speed of light (fig. 1). This system uses raster laser scanning with full-waveform (multi-peak) resolving capabilities to measure submerged topography and adjacent coastal land elevations simultaneously (Nayegandhi and others, 2009). This document reviews procedures for the post-processing of EAARL data using the custom-built Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS). ALPS software was developed in an open-source programming environment operated on a Linux platform. It has the ability to combine the laser return backscatter digitized at 1-nanosecond intervals with aircraft positioning information. This solution enables the exploration and processing of the EAARL data in an interactive or batch mode. ALPS also includes modules for the creation of bare earth, canopy-top, and submerged topography Digital Elevation Models (DEMs). The EAARL system uses an Earth-centered coordinate and reference system that removes the necessity to reference submerged topography data relative to water level or tide gages (Nayegandhi and others, 2006). The EAARL system can be mounted in an array of small twin-engine aircraft that operate at 300 meters above ground level (AGL) at a speed of 60 meters per second (117 knots). While other systems strive to maximize operational depth limits, EAARL has a narrow transmit beam and receiver field of view (1.5 to 2 milliradians), which improves the depth-measurement accuracy in shallow, clear water but limits the maximum depth to about 1.5 Secchi disk depth (~20 meters) in clear water. The laser transmitter [Continuum EPO-5000 yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG)] produces up to 5,000 short-duration (1.2 nanosecond), low-power (70 microjoules) pulses each second

  10. PORTABLE MULTISPECTRAL IMAGING INSTRUMENT FOR FOOD INDUSTRY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this paper is to design and fabricate a hand-held multispectral instrument for real-time contaminant detection. Specifically, the protocol to develop a portable multispectral instrument including optical sensor design, fabrication, calibration, data collection, analysis and algorith...

  11. A multispectral sorting device for wheat kernels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A low-cost multispectral sorting device was constructed using three visible and three near-infrared light-emitting diodes (LED) with peak emission wavelengths of 470 nm (blue), 527 nm (green), 624 nm (red), 850 nm, 940 nm, and 1070 nm. The multispectral data were collected by rapidly (~12 kHz) blin...

  12. Multispectral Image Processing for Plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miles, Gaines E.

    1991-01-01

    The development of a machine vision system to monitor plant growth and health is one of three essential steps towards establishing an intelligent system capable of accurately assessing the state of a controlled ecological life support system for long-term space travel. Besides a network of sensors, simulators are needed to predict plant features, and artificial intelligence algorithms are needed to determine the state of a plant based life support system. Multispectral machine vision and image processing can be used to sense plant features, including health and nutritional status.

  13. LANDSAT 4 investigations of thematic mapper and multispectral scanner applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauer, D. T. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    Initial data screening, data handling and program testing were completed on the four-band Detroit scene and the seven-band northeast Arkansas scene. Data were received in early December for one primary eastern test site (Washington, D.C.) and one secondary eastern test site (Allegheny National Forest). A comprehensive digital data base was built for a portion of the Black Hills test site and is composed of historic LANDSAT MSS data; elevation, slope, and aspect data; land cover data; geologic data; thematic mapper simulator data; and digitized high altitude aircraft data. The thematic mapper and multispectral scanner data of the Washington area were resampled at 25 and 50 meters respectively, with map projection to UTM grid.

  14. A Comparative Study of Land Cover Classification by Using Multispectral and Texture Data.

    PubMed

    Qadri, Salman; Khan, Dost Muhammad; Ahmad, Farooq; Qadri, Syed Furqan; Babar, Masroor Ellahi; Shahid, Muhammad; Ul-Rehman, Muzammil; Razzaq, Abdul; Shah Muhammad, Syed; Fahad, Muhammad; Ahmad, Sarfraz; Pervez, Muhammad Tariq; Naveed, Nasir; Aslam, Naeem; Jamil, Mutiullah; Rehmani, Ejaz Ahmad; Ahmad, Nazir; Akhtar Khan, Naeem

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to find out the importance of machine vision approach for the classification of five types of land cover data such as bare land, desert rangeland, green pasture, fertile cultivated land, and Sutlej river land. A novel spectra-statistical framework is designed to classify the subjective land cover data types accurately. Multispectral data of these land covers were acquired by using a handheld device named multispectral radiometer in the form of five spectral bands (blue, green, red, near infrared, and shortwave infrared) while texture data were acquired with a digital camera by the transformation of acquired images into 229 texture features for each image. The most discriminant 30 features of each image were obtained by integrating the three statistical features selection techniques such as Fisher, Probability of Error plus Average Correlation, and Mutual Information (F + PA + MI). Selected texture data clustering was verified by nonlinear discriminant analysis while linear discriminant analysis approach was applied for multispectral data. For classification, the texture and multispectral data were deployed to artificial neural network (ANN: n-class). By implementing a cross validation method (80-20), we received an accuracy of 91.332% for texture data and 96.40% for multispectral data, respectively. PMID:27376088

  15. A Comparative Study of Land Cover Classification by Using Multispectral and Texture Data

    PubMed Central

    Qadri, Salman; Khan, Dost Muhammad; Ahmad, Farooq; Qadri, Syed Furqan; Babar, Masroor Ellahi; Shahid, Muhammad; Ul-Rehman, Muzammil; Razzaq, Abdul; Shah Muhammad, Syed; Fahad, Muhammad; Ahmad, Sarfraz; Pervez, Muhammad Tariq; Naveed, Nasir; Aslam, Naeem; Jamil, Mutiullah; Rehmani, Ejaz Ahmad; Ahmad, Nazir; Akhtar Khan, Naeem

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to find out the importance of machine vision approach for the classification of five types of land cover data such as bare land, desert rangeland, green pasture, fertile cultivated land, and Sutlej river land. A novel spectra-statistical framework is designed to classify the subjective land cover data types accurately. Multispectral data of these land covers were acquired by using a handheld device named multispectral radiometer in the form of five spectral bands (blue, green, red, near infrared, and shortwave infrared) while texture data were acquired with a digital camera by the transformation of acquired images into 229 texture features for each image. The most discriminant 30 features of each image were obtained by integrating the three statistical features selection techniques such as Fisher, Probability of Error plus Average Correlation, and Mutual Information (F + PA + MI). Selected texture data clustering was verified by nonlinear discriminant analysis while linear discriminant analysis approach was applied for multispectral data. For classification, the texture and multispectral data were deployed to artificial neural network (ANN: n-class). By implementing a cross validation method (80-20), we received an accuracy of 91.332% for texture data and 96.40% for multispectral data, respectively. PMID:27376088

  16. A practical one-shot multispectral imaging system using a single image sensor.

    PubMed

    Monno, Yusuke; Kikuchi, Sunao; Tanaka, Masayuki; Okutomi, Masatoshi

    2015-10-01

    Single-sensor imaging using the Bayer color filter array (CFA) and demosaicking is well established for current compact and low-cost color digital cameras. An extension from the CFA to a multispectral filter array (MSFA) enables us to acquire a multispectral image in one shot without increased size or cost. However, multispectral demosaicking for the MSFA has been a challenging problem because of very sparse sampling of each spectral band in the MSFA. In this paper, we propose a high-performance multispectral demosaicking algorithm, and at the same time, a novel MSFA pattern that is suitable for our proposed algorithm. Our key idea is the use of the guided filter to interpolate each spectral band. To generate an effective guide image, in our proposed MSFA pattern, we maintain the sampling density of the G -band as high as the Bayer CFA, and we array each spectral band so that an adaptive kernel can be estimated directly from raw MSFA data. Given these two advantages, we effectively generate the guide image from the most densely sampled G -band using the adaptive kernel. In the experiments, we demonstrate that our proposed algorithm with our proposed MSFA pattern outperforms existing algorithms and provides better color fidelity compared with a conventional color imaging system with the Bayer CFA. We also show some real applications using a multispectral camera prototype we built. PMID:26011882

  17. Landsat 8 Multispectral and Pansharpened Imagery Processing on the Study of Civil Engineering Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazaridou, M. A.; Karagianni, A. Ch.

    2016-06-01

    Scientific and professional interests of civil engineering mainly include structures, hydraulics, geotechnical engineering, environment, and transportation issues. Topics included in the context of the above may concern urban environment issues, urban planning, hydrological modelling, study of hazards and road construction. Land cover information contributes significantly on the study of the above subjects. Land cover information can be acquired effectively by visual image interpretation of satellite imagery or after applying enhancement routines and also by imagery classification. The Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM - Landsat 8) is the latest satellite in Landsat series, launched in February 2013. Landsat 8 medium spatial resolution multispectral imagery presents particular interest in extracting land cover, because of the fine spectral resolution, the radiometric quantization of 12bits, the capability of merging the high resolution panchromatic band of 15 meters with multispectral imagery of 30 meters as well as the policy of free data. In this paper, Landsat 8 multispectral and panchromatic imageries are being used, concerning surroundings of a lake in north-western Greece. Land cover information is extracted, using suitable digital image processing software. The rich spectral context of the multispectral image is combined with the high spatial resolution of the panchromatic image, applying image fusion - pansharpening, facilitating in this way visual image interpretation to delineate land cover. Further processing concerns supervised image classification. The classification of pansharpened image preceded multispectral image classification. Corresponding comparative considerations are also presented.

  18. Estimation of thermal flux and emissivity of the land surface from multispectral aircraft data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jedlovec, Gary J.

    1989-01-01

    In order to evaluate the importance of surface thermal flux and emissivity variations on surface and boundary layer processes, a technique that uses thermal data from an airborne multispectral scanner to determine the surface skin temperature and thermal emissivity over a regional area has been developed. These values are used to estimate the total flux density emanating from the surface and at the top of the atmosphere. Data from the multispectral atmospheric mapping sensor (MAMS) collected during the First ISLSCP Field Experiment (FIFE) are used to develop the technique, and to show the time and space variability of the flux values. The ground truth data available during FIFE provide a unique resource to evaluate this technique.

  19. Multispectral thermal infrared mapping of the 1 October 1988 Kupaianaha flow field, Kilauea volcano, Hawaii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Realmuto, Vincent J.; Hon, Ken; Kahle, Anne B.; Abbott, Elsa A.; Pieri, David C.

    1992-01-01

    Multispectral thermal infrared radiance measurements of the Kupaianaha flow field were acquired with the NASA airborne Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) on the morning of 1 October 1988. The TIMS data were used to map both the temperature and emissivity of the surface of the flow field. The temperature map depicted the underground storage and transport of lava. The presence of molten lava in a tube or tumulus resulted in surface temperatures that were at least 10 C above ambient. The temperature map also clearly defined the boundaries of hydrothermal plumes which resulted from the entry of lava into the ocean. The emissivity map revealed the boundaries between individual flow units within the Kupaianaha field. Distinct spectral anomalies, indicative of silica-rich surface materials, were mapped near fumaroles and ocean entry sites. This apparent enrichment in silica may have resulted from an acid-induced leaching of cations from the surfaces of glassy flows.

  20. Comparative performance between compressed and uncompressed airborne imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phan, Chung; Rupp, Ronald; Agarwal, Sanjeev; Trang, Anh; Nair, Sumesh

    2008-04-01

    The US Army's RDECOM CERDEC Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate (NVESD), Countermine Division is evaluating the compressibility of airborne multi-spectral imagery for mine and minefield detection application. Of particular interest is to assess the highest image data compression rate that can be afforded without the loss of image quality for war fighters in the loop and performance of near real time mine detection algorithm. The JPEG-2000 compression standard is used to perform data compression. Both lossless and lossy compressions are considered. A multi-spectral anomaly detector such as RX (Reed & Xiaoli), which is widely used as a core algorithm baseline in airborne mine and minefield detection on different mine types, minefields, and terrains to identify potential individual targets, is used to compare the mine detection performance. This paper presents the compression scheme and compares detection performance results between compressed and uncompressed imagery for various level of compressions. The compression efficiency is evaluated and its dependence upon different backgrounds and other factors are documented and presented using multi-spectral data.

  1. Operational considerations for the application of remotely sensed forest data from LANDSAT or other airborne platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, G. R.; Fethe, T. P.

    1975-01-01

    Research in the application of remotely sensed data from LANDSAT or other airborne platforms to the efficient management of a large timber based forest industry was divided into three phases: (1) establishment of a photo/ground sample correlation, (2) investigation of techniques for multi-spectral digital analysis, and (3) development of a semi-automated multi-level sampling system. To properly verify results, three distinct test areas were selected: (1) Jacksonville Mill Region, Lower Coastal Plain, Flatwoods, (2) Pensacola Mill Region, Middle Coastal Plain, and (3) Mississippi Mill Region, Middle Coastal Plain. The following conclusions were reached: (1) the probability of establishing an information base suitable for management requirements through a photo/ground double sampling procedure, alleviating the ground sampling effort, is encouraging, (2) known classification techniques must be investigated to ascertain the level of precision possible in separating the many densities involved, and (3) the multi-level approach must be related to an information system that is executable and feasible.

  2. Cucumber disease diagnosis using multispectral images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Jie; Li, Hongning; Shi, Junsheng; Yang, Weiping; Liao, Ningfang

    2009-07-01

    In this paper, multispectral imaging technique for plant diseases diagnosis is presented. Firstly, multispectral imaging system is designed. This system utilizes 15 narrow-band filters, a panchromatic band, a monochrome CCD camera, and standard illumination observing environment. The spectral reflectance and color of 8 Macbeth color patches are reproduced between 400nm and 700nm in the process. In addition, spectral reflectance angle and color difference is obtained through measurements and analysis of color patches using spectrometer and multispectral imaging system. The result shows that 16 narrow-bands multispectral imaging system realizes good accuracy in spectral reflectance and color reproduction. Secondly, a horticultural plant, cucumber' familiar disease are the researching objects. 210 multispectral samples are obtained by multispectral and are classified by BP artificial neural network. The classification accuracies of Sphaerotheca fuliginea, Corynespora cassiicola, Pseudoperonospora cubensis are 100%. Trichothecium roseum and Cladosporium cucumerinum are 96.67% and 90.00%. It is confirmed that the multispectral imaging system realizes good accuracy in the cucumber diseases diagnosis.

  3. Detecting new Buffel grass infestations in Australian arid lands: evaluation of methods using high-resolution multispectral imagery and aerial photography.

    PubMed

    Marshall, V M; Lewis, M M; Ostendorf, B

    2014-03-01

    We assess the feasibility of using airborne imagery for Buffel grass detection in Australian arid lands and evaluate four commonly used image classification techniques (visual estimate, manual digitisation, unsupervised classification and normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI) thresholding) for their suitability to this purpose. Colour digital aerial photography captured at approximately 5 cm of ground sample distance (GSD) and four-band (visible–near-infrared) multispectral imagery (25 cm GSD) were acquired (14 February 2012) across overlapping subsets of our study site. In the field, Buffel grass projected cover estimates were collected for quadrates (10 m diameter), which were subsequently used to evaluate the four image classification techniques. Buffel grass was found to be widespread throughout our study site; it was particularly prevalent in riparian land systems and alluvial plains. On hill slopes, Buffel grass was often present in depressions, valleys and crevices of rock outcrops, but the spread appeared to be dependent on soil type and vegetation communities. Visual cover estimates performed best (r 2 0.39), and pixel-based classifiers (unsupervised classification and NDVI thresholding) performed worst (r 2 0.21). Manual digitising consistently underrepresented Buffel grass cover compared with field- and image-based visual cover estimates; we did not find the labours of digitising rewarding. Our recommendation for regional documentation of new infestation of Buffel grass is to acquire ultra-high-resolution aerial photography and have a trained observer score cover against visual standards and use the scored sites to interpolate density across the region. PMID:24234223

  4. On-board multispectral classification study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ewalt, D.

    1979-01-01

    The factors relating to onboard multispectral classification were investigated. The functions implemented in ground-based processing systems for current Earth observation sensors were reviewed. The Multispectral Scanner, Thematic Mapper, Return Beam Vidicon, and Heat Capacity Mapper were studied. The concept of classification was reviewed and extended from the ground-based image processing functions to an onboard system capable of multispectral classification. Eight different onboard configurations, each with varying amounts of ground-spacecraft interaction, were evaluated. Each configuration was evaluated in terms of turnaround time, onboard processing and storage requirements, geometric and classification accuracy, onboard complexity, and ancillary data required from the ground.

  5. An operational multispectral scanner for bathymetric surveys - The ABS NORDA scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haimbach, Stephen P.; Joy, Richard T.; Hickman, G. Daniel

    1987-01-01

    The Naval Ocean Research and Development Activity (NORDA) is developing the Airborne Bathymetric Survey (ABS) system, which will take shallow water depth soundings from a Navy P-3 aircraft. The system combines active and passive sensors to obtain optical measurements of water depth. The ABS NORDA Scanner is the systems passive multispectral scanner whose design goal is to provide 100 percent coverage of the seafloor, to depths of 20 m in average coastal waters. The ABS NORDA Scanner hardware and operational environment is discussed in detail. The optical model providing the basis for depth extraction is reviewed and the proposed data processing routine discussed.

  6. Assessment of Pen Branch delta and corridor vegetation changes using multispectral scanner data 1992--1994

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    Airborne multispectral scanner data were used to monitor natural succession of wetland vegetation species over a three-year period from 1992 through 1994 for Pen Branch on the Savannah River Site in South Carolina. Image processing techniques were used to identify and measure wetland vegetation communities in the lower portion of the Pen Branch corridor and delta. The study provided a reliable means for monitoring medium- and large-scale changes in a diverse environment. Findings from the study will be used to support decisions regarding remediation efforts following the cessation of cooling water discharge from K reactor at the Department of Energy`s Savannah River Site in South Carolina.

  7. Remote sensing techniques applied to multispectral recognition of the Aranjuez pilot zone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemos, G. L.; Salinas, J.; Rebollo, M.

    1977-01-01

    A rectangular (7 x 14 km) area 40 km S of Madrid was remote-sensed with a three-stage recognition process. Ground truth was established in the first phase, airborne sensing with a multispectral scanner and photographic cameras were used in the second phase, and Landsat satellite data were obtained in the third phase. Agronomic and hydrological photointerpretation problems are discussed. Color, black/white, and labeled areas are displayed for crop recognition in the land-use survey; turbidity, concentrations of pollutants and natural chemicals, and densitometry of the water are considered in the evaluation of water resources.

  8. Multispectral Scanner for Monitoring Plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gat, Nahum

    2004-01-01

    A multispectral scanner has been adapted to capture spectral images of living plants under various types of illumination for purposes of monitoring the health of, or monitoring the transfer of genes into, the plants. In a health-monitoring application, the plants are illuminated with full-spectrum visible and near infrared light and the scanner is used to acquire a reflected-light spectral signature known to be indicative of the health of the plants. In a gene-transfer- monitoring application, the plants are illuminated with blue or ultraviolet light and the scanner is used to capture fluorescence images from a green fluorescent protein (GFP) that is expressed as result of the gene transfer. The choice of wavelength of the illumination and the wavelength of the fluorescence to be monitored depends on the specific GFP.

  9. Multispectral sensing of moisture stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, C. E., Jr.

    1970-01-01

    Laboratory reflectance data, and field tests with multispectral remote sensors provide support for this hypotheses that differences in moisture content and water deficits are closely related to foliar reflectance from woody plants. When these relationships are taken into account, automatic recognition techniques become more powerful than when they are ignored. Evidence is increasing that moisture relationships inside plant foliage are much more closely related to foliar reflectance characteristics than are external variables such as soil moisture, wind, and air temperature. Short term changes in water deficits seem to have little influence on foliar reflectance, however. This is in distinct contrast to significant short-term changes in foliar emittance from the same plants with changing wind, air temperature, incident radiation, or water deficit conditions.

  10. Galileo multispectral imaging of Earth.

    PubMed

    Geissler, P; Thompson, W R; Greenberg, R; Moersch, J; McEwen, A; Sagan, C

    1995-08-25

    Nearly 6000 multispectral images of Earth were acquired by the Galileo spacecraft during its two flybys. The Galileo images offer a unique perspective on our home planet through the spectral capability made possible by four narrowband near-infrared filters, intended for observations of methane in Jupiter's atmosphere, which are not incorporated in any of the currently operating Earth orbital remote sensing systems. Spectral variations due to mineralogy, vegetative cover, and condensed water are effectively mapped by the visible and near-infrared multispectral imagery, showing a wide variety of biological, meteorological, and geological phenomena. Global tectonic and volcanic processes are clearly illustrated by these images, providing a useful basis for comparative planetary geology. Differences between plant species are detected through the narrowband IR filters on Galileo, allowing regional measurements of variation in the "red edge" of chlorophyll and the depth of the 1-micrometer water band, which is diagnostic of leaf moisture content. Although evidence of life is widespread in the Galileo data set, only a single image (at approximately 2 km/pixel) shows geometrization plausibly attributable to our technical civilization. Water vapor can be uniquely imaged in the Galileo 0.73-micrometer band, permitting spectral discrimination of moist and dry clouds with otherwise similar albedo. Surface snow and ice can be readily distinguished from cloud cover by narrowband imaging within the sensitivity range of Galileo's silicon CCD camera. Ice grain size variations can be mapped using the weak H2O absorption at 1 micrometer, a technique which may find important applications in the exploration of the moons of Jupiter. The Galileo images have the potential to make unique contributions to Earth science in the areas of geological, meteorological and biological remote sensing, due to the inclusion of previously untried narrowband IR filters. The vast scale and near global

  11. TROPHIC CLASSIFICATION OF SELECTED ILLINOIS WATER BODIES: LAKE CLASSIFICATION THROUGH AMALGAMATION OF LANDSAT MULTISPECTRAL SCANNER AND CONTACT-SENSED DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    A project was initiated to determine the feasibility of assessing and classifying a group of Illinois lakes through the utilization of a combination of contact- and satellite-acquired data. LANDSAT multispectral scanner (MSS) digital multidate data for 145 Illinois lakes were ext...

  12. Registration of 3D and multispectral data for the study of cultural heritage surfaces.

    PubMed

    Chane, Camille Simon; Schütze, Rainer; Boochs, Frank; Marzani, Franck S

    2013-01-01

    We present a technique for the multi-sensor registration of featureless datasets based on the photogrammetric tracking of the acquisition systems in use. This method is developed for the in situ study of cultural heritage objects and is tested by digitizing a small canvas successively with a 3D digitization system and a multispectral camera while simultaneously tracking the acquisition systems with four cameras and using a cubic target frame with a side length of 500 mm. The achieved tracking accuracy is better than 0.03 mm spatially and 0.150 mrad angularly. This allows us to seamlessly register the 3D acquisitions and to project the multispectral acquisitions on the 3D model. PMID:23322103

  13. Single sensor that outputs narrowband multispectral images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Linghua; Yi, Dingrong; Sprigle, Stephen; Wang, Fengtao; Wang, Chao; Liu, Fuhan; Adibi, Ali; Tummala, Rao

    2010-01-01

    We report the work of developing a hand-held (or miniaturized), low-cost, stand-alone, real-time-operation, narrow bandwidth multispectral imaging device for the detection of early stage pressure ulcers.

  14. Multispectral imaging with vertical silicon nanowires

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyunsung; Crozier, Kenneth B.

    2013-01-01

    Multispectral imaging is a powerful tool that extends the capabilities of the human eye. However, multispectral imaging systems generally are expensive and bulky, and multiple exposures are needed. Here, we report the demonstration of a compact multispectral imaging system that uses vertical silicon nanowires to realize a filter array. Multiple filter functions covering visible to near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths are simultaneously defined in a single lithography step using a single material (silicon). Nanowires are then etched and embedded into polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), thereby realizing a device with eight filter functions. By attaching it to a monochrome silicon image sensor, we successfully realize an all-silicon multispectral imaging system. We demonstrate visible and NIR imaging. We show that the latter is highly sensitive to vegetation and furthermore enables imaging through objects opaque to the eye. PMID:23955156

  15. Study on multispectral imaging detection and recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jun, Wang; Na, Ding; Gao, Jiaobo; Yu, Hu; Jun, Wu; Li, Junna; Zheng, Yawei; Fei, Gao; Sun, Kefeng

    2009-07-01

    Multispectral imaging detecting technology use target radiation character in spectral spatial distribution and relation between spectral and image to detect target and remote sensing measure. Its speciality is multi channel, narrow bandwidth, large amount of information, high accuracy. The ability of detecting target in environment of clutter, camouflage, concealment and beguilement is improved. At present, spectral imaging technology in the range of multispectral and hyperspectral develop greatly. The multispectral imaging equipment of unmanned aerial vehicle can be used in mine detection, information, surveillance and reconnaissance. Spectral imaging spectrometer operating in MWIR and LWIR has already been applied in the field of remote sensing and military in the advanced country. The paper presents the technology of multispectral imaging. It can enhance the reflectance, scatter and radiation character of the artificial targets among nature background. The targets among complex background and camouflage/stealth targets can be effectively identified. The experiment results and the data of spectral imaging is obtained.

  16. Simultaneous denoising and compression of multispectral images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagag, Ahmed; Amin, Mohamed; Abd El-Samie, Fathi E.

    2013-01-01

    A new technique for denoising and compression of multispectral satellite images to remove the effect of noise on the compression process is presented. One type of multispectral images has been considered: Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus. The discrete wavelet transform (DWT), the dual-tree DWT, and a simple Huffman coder are used in the compression process. Simulation results show that the proposed technique is more effective than other traditional compression-only techniques.

  17. Classification of multispectral image data by extraction and classification of homogeneous objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kettig, R. L.; Landgrebe, D. A.

    1975-01-01

    A method of classification of digitized multispectral image data is described. It is designed to exploit a particular type of dependence between adjacent states of nature that is characteristic of the data. The advantages of this, as opposed to the conventional per point approach, are greater accuracy and efficiency, and the results are in a more desirable form for most purposes. Experimental results from both aircraft and satellite data are included.

  18. The application of smart sensor techniques to a solid-state array multispectral sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcfadin, L. W.

    1978-01-01

    The solid-state array spectroradiometer (SAS) developed at JSC for remote sensing applications is a multispectral sensor which has no moving parts, is virtually maintenance-free, and has the ability to provide data which requires a minimum of processing. The instrument is based on the 42 x 342 element charge injection device (CID) detector. This system allows the combination of spectral scanning and across-track spatial scanning along with its associated digitization electronics into a single detector.

  19. Multispectral Palmprint Recognition Using a Quaternion Matrix

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xingpeng; Guo, Zhenhua; Song, Changjiang; Li, Yafeng

    2012-01-01

    Palmprints have been widely studied for biometric recognition for many years. Traditionally, a white light source is used for illumination. Recently, multispectral imaging has drawn attention because of its high recognition accuracy. Multispectral palmprint systems can provide more discriminant information under different illuminations in a short time, thus they can achieve better recognition accuracy. Previously, multispectral palmprint images were taken as a kind of multi-modal biometrics, and the fusion scheme on the image level or matching score level was used. However, some spectral information will be lost during image level or matching score level fusion. In this study, we propose a new method for multispectral images based on a quaternion model which could fully utilize the multispectral information. Firstly, multispectral palmprint images captured under red, green, blue and near-infrared (NIR) illuminations were represented by a quaternion matrix, then principal component analysis (PCA) and discrete wavelet transform (DWT) were applied respectively on the matrix to extract palmprint features. After that, Euclidean distance was used to measure the dissimilarity between different features. Finally, the sum of two distances and the nearest neighborhood classifier were employed for recognition decision. Experimental results showed that using the quaternion matrix can achieve a higher recognition rate. Given 3000 test samples from 500 palms, the recognition rate can be as high as 98.83%. PMID:22666049

  20. Estimating atmospheric parameters and reducing noise for multispectral imaging

    DOEpatents

    Conger, James Lynn

    2014-02-25

    A method and system for estimating atmospheric radiance and transmittance. An atmospheric estimation system is divided into a first phase and a second phase. The first phase inputs an observed multispectral image and an initial estimate of the atmospheric radiance and transmittance for each spectral band and calculates the atmospheric radiance and transmittance for each spectral band, which can be used to generate a "corrected" multispectral image that is an estimate of the surface multispectral image. The second phase inputs the observed multispectral image and the surface multispectral image that was generated by the first phase and removes noise from the surface multispectral image by smoothing out change in average deviations of temperatures.

  1. Modeling space-based multispectral imaging systems with DIRSIG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Scott D.; Sanders, Niek J.; Goodenough, Adam A.; Gartley, Michael

    2011-06-01

    The Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) focuses on a next generation global coverage, imaging system to replace the aging Landsat 5 and Landsat 7 systems. The major difference in the new system is the migration from the multi-spectral whiskbroom design employed by the previous generation of sensors to modular focal plane, multi-spectral pushbroom architecture. Further complicating the design shift is that the reflective and thermal acquisition capability is split across two instruments spatially separated on the satellite bus. One of the focuses of the science and engineering teams prior to launch is the ability to provide seamless data continuity with the historic Landsat data archive. Specifically, the challenges of registering and calibrating data from the new system so that long-term science studies are minimally impacted by the change in the system design. In order to provide the science and engineering teams with simulated pre-launch data, an effort was undertaken to create a robust end-to-end model of the LDCM system. The modeling environment is intended to be flexible and incorporate measured data from the actual system components as they were completed and integrated. The output of the modeling environment needs to include not only radiometrically robust imagery, but also the meta-data necessary to exercise the processing pipeline. This paper describes how the Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Image Generation (DIRSIG) model has been utilized to model space-based, multi-spectral imaging (MSI) systems in support of systems engineering trade studies. A mechanism to incorporate measured focal plane projections through the forward optics is described. A hierarchal description of the satellite system is presented including the details of how a multiple instrument platform is described and modeled, including the hierarchical management of temporally correlated jitter that allows engineers to explore impacts of different jitter sources on instrument

  2. Airborne oceanographic lidar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bressel, C.; Itzkan, I.; Nunes, J. E.; Hoge, F.

    1977-01-01

    The characteristics of an Airborne Oceanographic Lidar (AOL) are given. The AOL system is described and its potential for various measurement applications including bathymetry and fluorosensing is discussed.

  3. Compression of multispectral fluorescence microscopic images based on a modified set partitioning in hierarchal trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansoor, Awais; Robinson, J. Paul; Rajwa, Bartek

    2009-02-01

    Modern automated microscopic imaging techniques such as high-content screening (HCS), high-throughput screening, 4D imaging, and multispectral imaging are capable of producing hundreds to thousands of images per experiment. For quick retrieval, fast transmission, and storage economy, these images should be saved in a compressed format. A considerable number of techniques based on interband and intraband redundancies of multispectral images have been proposed in the literature for the compression of multispectral and 3D temporal data. However, these works have been carried out mostly in the elds of remote sensing and video processing. Compression for multispectral optical microscopy imaging, with its own set of specialized requirements, has remained under-investigated. Digital photography{oriented 2D compression techniques like JPEG (ISO/IEC IS 10918-1) and JPEG2000 (ISO/IEC 15444-1) are generally adopted for multispectral images which optimize visual quality but do not necessarily preserve the integrity of scientic data, not to mention the suboptimal performance of 2D compression techniques in compressing 3D images. Herein we report our work on a new low bit-rate wavelet-based compression scheme for multispectral fluorescence biological imaging. The sparsity of signicant coefficients in high-frequency subbands of multispectral microscopic images is found to be much greater than in natural images; therefore a quad-tree concept such as Said et al.'s SPIHT1 along with correlation of insignicant wavelet coefficients has been proposed to further exploit redundancy at high-frequency subbands. Our work propose a 3D extension to SPIHT, incorporating a new hierarchal inter- and intra-spectral relationship amongst the coefficients of 3D wavelet-decomposed image. The new relationship, apart from adopting the parent-child relationship of classical SPIHT, also brought forth the conditional "sibling" relationship by relating only the insignicant wavelet coefficients of subbands

  4. A study of techniques for processing multispectral scanner data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crane, R. B.; Richardson, W.; Hieber, R. H.; Malila, W. A.

    1973-01-01

    A linear decision rule to reduce the time required for processing multispectral scanner data is developed. Test results are presented which justify the use of the new rule for digital processing whenever both accuracy and processing time are important. A method of evaluating the performance of the rule is also developed and applied to the problem of choosing a subset of channels. A technique used to find linear combinations of channels is described. The ability to extend signatures throughout a small area of approximately fifty square miles is tested. After preprocessing, signatures derived from the first of seven overlapping data sets are applied to all data sets. The test results show that the average probability of misclassification tends to increase with an increase in the number of data sets over which the signatures are extended.

  5. Modeling misregistration and related effects on multispectral classification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billingsley, F. C.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of misregistration on the multispectral classification accuracy when the scene registration accuracy is relaxed from 0.3 to 0.5 pixel are investigated. Noise, class separability, spatial transient response, and field size are considered simultaneously with misregistration in their effects on accuracy. Any noise due to the scene, sensor, or to the analog/digital conversion, causes a finite fraction of the measurements to fall outside of the classification limits, even within nominally uniform fields. Misregistration causes field borders in a given band or set of bands to be closer than expected to a given pixel, causing additional pixels to be misclassified due to the mixture of materials in the pixel. Simplified first order models of the various effects are presented, and are used to estimate the performance to be expected.

  6. Modeling misregistration and related effects on multispectral classification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billingsley, F. C.

    1982-01-01

    Any noise in measurements (due to the scene, sensor, or the analog to digital process) causes a finite fraction of measurements to fall outside of the classification limits. For field boundaries, where the misregistration effects are felt, the misregistration causes the border in a given (set of) band(s) to be closer than expected to a given pixel, so that the mixed materials in the pixels cause additional pixels to fall outside of the class limits. Considerations of the transient distance involved in the difference in brightness between adjacent fields, when scaled to "per pixel", allow the estimation of the width of the border zones. The entire problem is then scaled to field sizes to allow estimation of the global effects. This approach allows the estimation of the accuracy of multispectral classification which might be expected for field interiors, the useful number of quantization bits, and one set of criteria for an unbiased classifier.

  7. Multispectral Imaging from Mars PATHFINDER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrand, William H.; Bell, James F., III; Johnson, Jeffrey R.; Bishop, Janice L.; Morris, Richard V.

    2007-01-01

    The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was a mast-mounted instrument on the Mars Pathfinder lander which landed on Mars Ares Vallis floodplain on July 4, 1997. During the 83 sols of Mars Pathfinders landed operations, the IMP collected over 16,600 images. Multispectral images were collected using twelve narrowband filters at wavelengths between 400 and 1000 nm in the visible and near infrared (VNIR) range. The IMP provided VNIR spectra of the materials surrounding the lander including rocks, bright soils, dark soils, and atmospheric observations. During the primary mission, only a single primary rock spectral class, Gray Rock, was recognized; since then, Black Rock, has been identified. The Black Rock spectra have a stronger absorption at longer wavelengths than do Gray Rock spectra. A number of coated rocks have also been described, the Red and Maroon Rock classes, and perhaps indurated soils in the form of the Pink Rock class. A number of different soil types were also recognized with the primary ones being Bright Red Drift, Dark Soil, Brown Soil, and Disturbed Soil. Examination of spectral parameter plots indicated two trends which were interpreted as representing alteration products formed in at least two different environmental epochs of the Ares Vallis area. Subsequent analysis of the data and comparison with terrestrial analogs have supported the interpretation that the rock coatings provide evidence of earlier martian environments. However, the presence of relatively uncoated examples of the Gray and Black rock classes indicate that relatively unweathered materials can persist on the martian surface.

  8. Combining transverse field detectors and color filter arrays to improve multispectral imaging systems.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Miguel A; Valero, Eva M; Hernández-Andrés, Javier; Romero, Javier; Langfelder, Giacomo

    2014-05-01

    This work focuses on the improvement of a multispectral imaging sensor based on transverse field detectors (TFDs). We aimed to achieve a higher color and spectral accuracy in the estimation of spectral reflectances from sensor responses. Such an improvement was done by combining these recently developed silicon-based sensors with color filter arrays (CFAs). Consequently, we sacrificed the filter-less full spatial resolution property of TFDs to narrow down the spectrally broad sensitivities of these sensors. We designed and performed several experiments to test the influence of different design features on the estimation quality (type of sensor, tunability, interleaved polarization, use of CFAs, type of CFAs, number of shots), some of which are exclusive to TFDs. We compared systems that use a TFD with systems that use normal monochrome sensors, both combined with multispectral CFAs as well as common RGB filters present in commercial digital color cameras. Results showed that a system that combines TFDs and CFAs performs better than systems with the same type of multispectral CFA and other sensors, or even the same TFDs combined with different kinds of filters used in common imaging systems. We propose CFA+TFD-based systems with one or two shots, depending on the possibility of using longer capturing times or not. Improved TFD systems thus emerge as an interesting possibility for multispectral acquisition, which overcomes the limited accuracy found in previous studies. PMID:24921886

  9. Using multi-spectral imagery to detect and map stress induced by Russian wheat aphid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Backoulou, Georges Ferdinand

    Scope and Method of Study. The rationale of this study was to assess the stress in wheat field induced by the Russian wheat aphid using multispectral imagery. The study was conducted to (a) determine the relationship between RWA and edaphic and topographic factors; (b) identify and quantify the spatial pattern of RWA infestation within wheat fields; (c) differentiate the stress induced by RWA from other stress causing factors. Data used for the analysis included RWA population density from the wheat field in, Texas, Colorado, Wyoming, and Nebraska, Digital Elevation Model from the Unites States Geological Survey (USGS), soil data from the Soil Survey Geographic database (SSURGO), and multispectral imagery acquired in the panhandle of Oklahoma. Findings and Conclusions. The study revealed that the population density of the Russian wheat aphid was related to topographic and edaphic factors. Slope and sand were predictor variables that were positively related to the density of RWA at the field level. The study has also demonstrated that stress induced by the RWA has a specific spatial pattern that can be distinguished from other stress causing factors using a combination of landscape metrics and topographic and edaphic characteristics of wheat fields. Further field-based studies using multispectral imagery and spatial pattern analysis are suggested. The suggestions require acquiring biweekly multispectral imagery and collecting RWA, topographic and edaphic data at the sampling points during the phonological growth development of wheat plants. This is an approach that may pretend to have great potential for site specific technique for the integrated pest management.

  10. Uav Multispectral Survey to Map Soil and Crop for Precision Farming Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonaa, Giovanna; Passoni, Daniele; Pinto, Livio; Pagliari, Diana; Masseroni, Daniele; Ortuani, Bianca; Facchi, Arianna

    2016-06-01

    New sensors mounted on UAV and optimal procedures for survey, data acquisition and analysis are continuously developed and tested for applications in precision farming. Procedures to integrate multispectral aerial data about soil and crop and ground-based proximal geophysical data are a recent research topic aimed to delineate homogeneous zones for the management of agricultural inputs (i.e., water, nutrients). Multispectral and multitemporal orthomosaics were produced over a test field (a 100 m x 200 m plot within a maize field), to map vegetation and soil indices, as well as crop heights, with suitable ground resolution. UAV flights were performed in two moments during the crop season, before sowing on bare soil, and just before flowering when maize was nearly at the maximum height. Two cameras, for color (RGB) and false color (NIR-RG) images, were used. The images were processed in Agisoft Photoscan to produce Digital Surface Model (DSM) of bare soil and crop, and multispectral orthophotos. To overcome some difficulties in the automatic searching of matching points for the block adjustment of the crop image, also the scientific software developed by Politecnico of Milan was used to enhance images orientation. Surveys and image processing are described, as well as results about classification of multispectral-multitemporal orthophotos and soil indices.

  11. High speed lookup table approach to radiometric calibration of multispectral image data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, W. L., IV; Meredith, B. D.; Howle, W. M.

    1980-01-01

    A concept for performing radiometric correction of multispectral image data onboard a spacecraft at very high data rates is presented and demonstrated. This concept utilized a lookup table approach, implemented in hardware, to convert the raw sensor data into the desired corrected output data. The digital lookup table memory was interfaced to a microprocessor to allow the data correction function to be completely programmable. Sensor data was processed with this approach at rates equal to the access time of the lookup table memory. This concept offers flexible high speed data processing for a wide range of applications and will benefit from the continuing improvements in performance of digital memories.

  12. Airborne sensor systems under development at the NASA/NSTL/Earth Resources Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, James E.; Meeks, Gerald R.

    1988-01-01

    The operational characteristics of the Airborne Bathymetric System (ABS) MSS and the Airborne Multispectral Pushbroom Scanner (AMPS), which are currently being developed at NASA's Earth Resources Laboratory (ERL), are described. The ABS MSS system scans through a swath width of + or - 40 deg from nadir and the sensor incorporates onboard calibration references for the visible and short-wavelength IR channels. The AMPS uses five separate f/1.8 refractive telecentric lens systems, each incorporating nine optical elements, and a replaceable fixed bandwidth filter.

  13. The Waypoint Planning Tool: Real Time Flight Planning for Airborne Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    He, Yubin; Blakeslee, Richard; Goodman, Michael; Hall, John

    2010-01-01

    NASA Earth science research utilizes both spaceborne and airborne real time observations in the planning and operations of its field campaigns. The coordination of air and space components is critical to achieve the goals and objectives and ensure the success of an experiment. Spaceborne imagery provides regular and continual coverage of the Earth and it is a significant component in all NASA field experiments. Real time visible and infrared geostationary images from GOES satellites and multi-spectral data from the many elements of the NASA suite of instruments aboard the TRMM, Terra, Aqua, Aura, and other NASA satellites have become norm. Similarly, the NASA Airborne Science Program draws upon a rich pool of instrumented aircraft. The NASA McDonnell Douglas DC-8, Lockheed P3 Orion, DeHavilland Twin Otter, King Air B200, Gulfstream-III are all staples of a NASA's well-stocked, versatile hangar. A key component in many field campaigns is coordinating the aircraft with satellite overpasses, other airplanes and the constantly evolving, dynamic weather conditions. Given the variables involved, developing a good flight plan that meets the objectives of the field experiment can be a challenging and time consuming task. Planning a research aircraft mission within the context of meeting the science objectives is complex task because it is much more than flying from point A to B. Flight plans typically consist of flying a series of transects or involve dynamic path changes when "chasing" a hurricane or forest fire. These aircraft flight plans are typically designed by the mission scientists then verified and implemented by the navigator or pilot. Flight planning can be an arduous task requiring frequent sanity checks by the flight crew. This requires real time situational awareness of the weather conditions that affect the aircraft track. Scientists at the University of Alabama-Huntsville and the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center developed the Waypoint Planning Tool, an

  14. Investigation of radiometric properties of the LANDSAT-4 multispectral scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malila, W. A. (Principal Investigator); Rice, D. P.

    1983-01-01

    The radiometric data quality of the LANDSAT 4 multispectral scanner (MSS) was examined using several LANDSAT 4 frames. It was found that LANDSAT 4 MSS produces high-quality data of the caliber experienced with previous LANDSATS. For example, the detector equalization procedure worked well, leaving a residual banding effect of about 0.3 digital counts RMS, close to the theoretical minimum value of quantization error. Nevertheless, artifacts of the data were found, two of which were not experienced in previous MSS data. A low-level coherent noise effect was observed in all bands, with a magnitude of about 0.5 digital counts and a frequency of approximately 28 KHz (representing a wavelength of about 3.6 pixels); a substantial increase in processing complexity would be required to reduce this artifact in the data. Also, a substantial scan-length variation (of up to six pixels) was noted in MSS data when the TM sensor was operating; the LANDSAT 4 correction algorithms being applied routinely by the EROS Data Center to produce a p-type data should remove most of this variation. Between-satellite calibrations were examined in paired LANDSAT 3 and LANDSAT 4 MSS data sets, which were closely matched in acquisition time and place. Radiometric comparisons showed that all bands were highly linear in digital counts, and a well-determined linear transformation between the MSS's was established.

  15. Applying Neural Networks to Hyperspectral and Multispectral Field Data for Discrimination of Cruciferous Weeds in Winter Crops

    PubMed Central

    de Castro, Ana-Isabel; Jurado-Expósito, Montserrat; Gómez-Casero, María-Teresa; López-Granados, Francisca

    2012-01-01

    In the context of detection of weeds in crops for site-specific weed control, on-ground spectral reflectance measurements are the first step to determine the potential of remote spectral data to classify weeds and crops. Field studies were conducted for four years at different locations in Spain. We aimed to distinguish cruciferous weeds in wheat and broad bean crops, using hyperspectral and multispectral readings in the visible and near-infrared spectrum. To identify differences in reflectance between cruciferous weeds, we applied three classification methods: stepwise discriminant (STEPDISC) analysis and two neural networks, specifically, multilayer perceptron (MLP) and radial basis function (RBF). Hyperspectral and multispectral signatures of cruciferous weeds, and wheat and broad bean crops can be classified using STEPDISC analysis, and MLP and RBF neural networks with different success, being the MLP model the most accurate with 100%, or higher than 98.1%, of classification performance for all the years. Classification accuracy from hyperspectral signatures was similar to that from multispectral and spectral indices, suggesting that little advantage would be obtained by using more expensive airborne hyperspectral imagery. Therefore, for next investigations, we recommend using multispectral remote imagery to explore whether they can potentially discriminate these weeds and crops. PMID:22629171

  16. A new lossless compression algorithm for satellite earth science multi-spectral imagers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladkova, Irina; Gottipati, Srikanth; Grossberg, Michael

    2007-09-01

    Multispectral imaging is becoming an increasingly important tool for monitoring the earth and its environment from space borne and airborne platforms. Multispectral imaging data consists of visible and IR measurements from a scene across space and spectrum. Growing data rates resulting from faster scanning and finer spatial and spectral resolution makes compression an increasingly critical tool to reduce data volume for transmission and archiving. Examples of multispectral sensors we consider include the NASA 36 band MODIS imager, Meteosat 2nd generation 12 band SEVIRI imager, GOES R series 16 band ABI imager, current generation GOES 5 band imager, and Japan's 5 band MTSAT imager. Conventional lossless compression algorithms are not able to reach satisfactory compression ratios nor are they near the upper limits for lossless compression on imager data as estimated from the Shannon entropy. We introduce a new lossless compression algorithm developed for the NOAA-NESDIS satellite based Earth science multispectral imagers. The algorithm is based on capturing spectral correlations using spectral prediction, and spatial correlations with a linear transform encoder. Our results are evaluated by comparison with current sattelite compression algorithms such the new CCSDS standard compression algorithm, and JPEG2000. The algorithm as presented has been designed to work with NOAA's scientific data and so is purely lossless but lossy modes can be supported. The compression algorithm also structures the data in a way that makes it easy to incorporate robust error correction using FEC coding methods as TPC and LDPC for satellite use. This research was funded by NOAA-NESDIS for its Earth observing satellite program and NOAA goals.

  17. Multispectral satellite observations for arid land studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choudhury, Bhaskar J.

    1992-01-01

    Multispectral satellite data when properly calibrated and standardized can be used synergistically for a quantitative analysis of processes and surface characteristics, and for quantifying land surface change. Relationships among multispectral satellite data (visible reflectance, surface temperature and polarization difference of microwave emission at 37 GHz frequency) have been used to develop hypotheses concerning the relative sensitivity of these data to varied land surface characteristics, which needs to be verified by field observations. Radiative transfer models have also been developed to understand these multispectral data. Interannual variations of visible reflectance and polarization difference for the period 1982-1986 over the Sahel and the Sudan zones of Africa show a lagged response with respect to the rainfall deficit during recovery from drought, which needs to be understood in terms of biophysical parameters.

  18. [Cucumber diseases diagnosis using multispectral imaging technique].

    PubMed

    Feng, Jie; Liao, Ning-Fang; Zhao, Bo; Luo, Yong-Dao; Li, Bao-Ju

    2009-02-01

    For a reliable diagnosis of plant diseases and insect pests, spectroscopy analysis technique and mutispectral imaging technique are proposed to diagnose five cucumber diseases, namely Trichothecium roseum, Sphaerotheca fuliginea, Cladosporium cucumerinum, Corynespora cassiicola and Pseudoperonospora cubensis. In the experiment, the cucumbers' multispectral images of 14 visible lights channels, near infrared channel and panchromatic channel were captured using narrow-band multispectral imaging system under standard observation environment. And the 5 cucumber diseases, healthy leaves and reference white were classified using their multispectral information, the distance, angle and relativity. The discrimination of Trichothecium roseum, Sphaerotheca fuliginea, Cladosporium cucumerinum, and reference white was 100%, and that of Pseudoperonospora cubensis and healthy leaves was 80% and 93.33% respectively. The mean correct discrimination of diseases was 81.90% when the distance and relativity were used together. The result shows that the method realized good accuracy in the cucumber diseases diagnosis. PMID:19445229

  19. Radiometric Characterization of Hyperspectral Imagers using Multispectral Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCorkel, Joel; Kurt, Thome; Leisso, Nathan; Anderson, Nikolaus; Czapla-Myers, Jeff

    2009-01-01

    The Remote Sensing Group (RSG) at the University of Arizona has a long history of using ground-based test sites for the calibration of airborne and satellite based sensors. Often, ground-truth measurements at these test sites are not always successful due to weather and funding availability. Therefore, RSG has also automated ground instrument approaches and cross-calibration methods to verify the radiometric calibration of a sensor. The goal in the cross-calibration method is to transfer the calibration of a well-known sensor to that of a different sensor, This work studies the feasibility of determining the radiometric calibration of a hyperspectral imager using multispectral a imagery. The work relies on the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (M0DIS) as a reference for the hyperspectral sensor Hyperion. Test sites used for comparisons are Railroad Valley in Nevada and a portion of the Libyan Desert in North Africa. Hyperion bands are compared to MODIS by band averaging Hyperion's high spectral resolution data with the relative spectral response of M0DlS. The results compare cross-calibration scenarios that differ in image acquisition coincidence, test site used for the calibration, and reference sensor. Cross-calibration results are presented that show agreement between the use of coincident and non-coincident image pairs within 2% in most brands as well as similar agreement between results that employ the different MODIS sensors as a reference.

  20. Radiometric characterization of hyperspectral imagers using multispectral sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCorkel, Joel; Thome, Kurt; Leisso, Nathan; Anderson, Nikolaus; Czapla-Myers, Jeff

    2009-08-01

    The Remote Sensing Group (RSG) at the University of Arizona has a long history of using ground-based test sites for the calibration of airborne and satellite based sensors. Often, ground-truth measurements at these tests sites are not always successful due to weather and funding availability. Therefore, RSG has also employed automated ground instrument approaches and cross-calibration methods to verify the radiometric calibration of a sensor. The goal in the cross-calibration method is to transfer the calibration of a well-known sensor to that of a different sensor. This work studies the feasibility of determining the radiometric calibration of a hyperspectral imager using multispectral imagery. The work relies on the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) as a reference for the hyperspectral sensor Hyperion. Test sites used for comparisons are Railroad Valley in Nevada and a portion of the Libyan Desert in North Africa. Hyperion bands are compared to MODIS by band averaging Hyperion's high spectral resolution data with the relative spectral response of MODIS. The results compare cross-calibration scenarios that differ in image acquisition coincidence, test site used for the calibration, and reference sensor. Cross-calibration results are presented that show agreement between the use of coincident and non-coincident image pairs within 2% in most bands as well as similar agreement between results that employ the different MODIS sensors as a reference.

  1. Geometric correction and digital elevation extraction using multiple MTI datasets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mercier, Jeffrey A.; Schowengerdt, Robert A.; Storey, James C.; Smith, Jody L.

    2007-01-01

    Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) are traditionally acquired from a stereo pair of aerial photographs sequentially captured by an airborne metric camera. Standard DEM extraction techniques can be naturally extended to satellite imagery, but the particular characteristics of satellite imaging can cause difficulties. The spacecraft ephemeris with respect to the ground site during image collects is the most important factor in the elevation extraction process. When the angle of separation between the stereo images is small, the extraction process typically produces measurements with low accuracy, while a large angle of separation can cause an excessive number of erroneous points in the DEM from occlusion of ground areas. The use of three or more images registered to the same ground area can potentially reduce these problems and improve the accuracy of the extracted DEM. The pointing capability of some sensors, such as the Multispectral Thermal Imager (MTI), allows for multiple collects of the same area from different perspectives. This functionality of MTI makes it a good candidate for the implementation of a DEM extraction algorithm using multiple images for improved accuracy. Evaluation of this capability and development of algorithms to geometrically model the MTI sensor and extract DEMs from multi-look MTI imagery are described in this paper. An RMS elevation error of 6.3-meters is achieved using 11 ground test points, while the MTI band has a 5-meter ground sample distance.

  2. Digital elevation extraction from multiple MTI data sets.

    SciTech Connect

    Mercier, Jeffrey Alan; Schowengerdt, Robert A.; Smith, Jody Lynn; Storey, James C.

    2003-06-01

    The Digital Elevation Model (DEM) extraction process traditionally uses a stereo pair of aerial photographs that are sequentially captured using an airborne metric camera. Standard DEM extraction techniques have been naturally extended to utilize satellite imagery. However, the particular characteristics of satellite imaging can cause difficulties in the DEM extraction process. The ephemeris of the spacecraft during the collects, with respect to the ground test site, is the most important factor in the elevation extraction process. When the angle of separation between the stereo images is small, the extraction process typically produces measurements with low accuracy. A large angle of separation can cause an excessive number of erroneous points in the output DEM. There is also a possibility of having occluded areas in the images when drastic topographic variation is present, making it impossible to calculate elevation in the blind spots. The use of three or more images registered to the same ground area can potentially reduce these problems and improve the accuracy of the extracted DEM. The pointing capability of the Multispectral Thermal Imager (MTI) allows for multiple collects of the same area to be taken from different perspectives. This functionality of MTI makes it a good candidate for the implementation of DEM extraction using multiple images for improved accuracy. This paper describes a project to evaluate this capability and the algorithms used to extract DEMs from multi-look MTI imagery.

  3. Geometric correction and digital elevation extraction using multiple MTI datasets.

    SciTech Connect

    Mercier, Jeffrey Alan; Schowengerdt, Robert A.; Smith, Jody Lynn; Storey, James C.

    2004-08-01

    Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) are traditionally acquired from a stereo pair of aerial photographs sequentially captured by an airborne metric camera. Standard DEM extraction techniques can be naturally extended to satellite imagery, but the particular characteristics of satellite imaging can cause difficulties. The spacecraft ephemeris with respect to the ground site during image collects is the most important factor in the elevation extraction process. When the angle of separation between the stereo images is small, the extraction process typically produces measurements with low accuracy, while a large angle of separation can cause an excessive number of erroneous points in the DEM from occlusion of ground areas. The use of three or more images registered to the same ground area can potentially reduce these problems and improve the accuracy of the extracted DEM. The pointing capability of some sensors, such as the Multispectral Thermal Imager (MTI), allows for multiple collects of the same area from different perspectives. This functionality of MTI makes it a good candidate for the implementation of a DEM extraction algorithm using multiple images for improved accuracy. Evaluation of this capability and development of algorithms to geometrically model the MTI sensor and extract DEMs from multi-look MTI imagery are described in this paper. An RMS elevation error of 6.3-meters is achieved using 11 ground test points, while the MTI band has a 5-meter ground sample distance.

  4. High-speed multispectral confocal biomedical imaging

    PubMed Central

    Carver, Gary E.; Locknar, Sarah A.; Morrison, William A.; Krishnan Ramanujan, V.; Farkas, Daniel L.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. A new approach for generating high-speed multispectral confocal images has been developed. The central concept is that spectra can be acquired for each pixel in a confocal spatial scan by using a fast spectrometer based on optical fiber delay lines. This approach merges fast spectroscopy with standard spatial scanning to create datacubes in real time. The spectrometer is based on a serial array of reflecting spectral elements, delay lines between these elements, and a single element detector. The spatial, spectral, and temporal resolution of the instrument is described and illustrated by multispectral images of laser-induced autofluorescence in biological tissues. PMID:24658777

  5. Narrowband multispectral liquid crystal tunable filter.

    PubMed

    Abuleil, Marwan; Abdulhalim, Ibrahim

    2016-05-01

    Multispectral tunable filters with high performance are desirable components in various biomedical and industrial applications. In this Letter, we present a new narrowband multispectral tunable filter with high throughput over a wide dynamic range. It is composed from a wideband large dynamic range liquid crystal tunable filter combined with a multiple narrowbands spectral filter made of two stacks of photonic crystals and cavity layer in between. The filter tunes between nine spectral bands covering the range 450-1000 nm with bandwidth <10  nm and throughput >80%. PMID:27128048

  6. Coastal and estuarine applications of multispectral photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, E.; Wenderoth, S.

    1972-01-01

    An evaluation of multispectral photographic techniques for optical penetration of water in the northeastern United States and the Gulf of Mexico coastal waters is presented. The spectral band (493 to 543 nanom), when exposed to place the water mass at about unit density on the photographic emulsion, was found to provide the best water penetration, independent of altitude or time of day, as long as solar glitter from the surface of the water is avoided. An isoluminous color technique was perfected, which eliminates the dimension of brightness from a multispectral color presentation.

  7. Digital image correlation techniques applied to LANDSAT multispectral imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonrud, L. O. (Principal Investigator); Miller, W. J.

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Automatic image registration and resampling techniques applied to LANDSAT data achieved accuracies, resulting in mean radial displacement errors of less than 0.2 pixel. The process method utilized recursive computational techniques and line-by-line updating on the basis of feedback error signals. Goodness of local feature matching was evaluated through the implementation of a correlation algorithm. An automatic restart allowed the system to derive control point coordinates over a portion of the image and to restart the process, utilizing this new control point information as initial estimates.

  8. Performance analysis of a multispectral framing camera for detecting mines in the littoral zone and beach zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louchard, Eric; Farm, Brian; Acker, Andrew

    2008-04-01

    BAE Systems Sensor Systems Identification & Surveillance (IS) has developed, under contract with the Office of Naval Research, a multispectral airborne sensor system and processing algorithms capable of detecting mine-like objects in the surf zone and land mines in the beach zone. BAE Systems has used this system in a blind test at a test range established by the Naval Surface Warfare Center - Panama City Division (NSWC-PCD) at Eglin Air Force Base. The airborne and ground subsystems used in this test are described, with graphical illustrations of the detection algorithms. We report on the performance of the system configured to operate with a human operator analyzing data on a ground station. A subsurface (underwater bottom proud mine in the surf zone and moored mine in shallow water) mine detection capability is demonstrated in the surf zone. Surface float detection and proud land mine detection capability is also demonstrated. Our analysis shows that this BAE Systems-developed multispectral airborne sensor provides a robust technical foundation for a viable system for mine counter-measures, and would be a valuable asset for use prior to an amphibious assault.

  9. Multi-spectral imaging with infrared sensitive organic light emitting diode.

    PubMed

    Kim, Do Young; Lai, Tzung-Han; Lee, Jae Woong; Manders, Jesse R; So, Franky

    2014-01-01

    Commercially available near-infrared (IR) imagers are fabricated by integrating expensive epitaxial grown III-V compound semiconductor sensors with Si-based readout integrated circuits (ROIC) by indium bump bonding which significantly increases the fabrication costs of these image sensors. Furthermore, these typical III-V compound semiconductors are not sensitive to the visible region and thus cannot be used for multi-spectral (visible to near-IR) sensing. Here, a low cost infrared (IR) imaging camera is demonstrated with a commercially available digital single-lens reflex (DSLR) camera and an IR sensitive organic light emitting diode (IR-OLED). With an IR-OLED, IR images at a wavelength of 1.2 µm are directly converted to visible images which are then recorded in a Si-CMOS DSLR camera. This multi-spectral imaging system is capable of capturing images at wavelengths in the near-infrared as well as visible regions. PMID:25091589

  10. Multi-spectral imaging with infrared sensitive organic light emitting diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Do Young; Lai, Tzung-Han; Lee, Jae Woong; Manders, Jesse R.; So, Franky

    2014-08-01

    Commercially available near-infrared (IR) imagers are fabricated by integrating expensive epitaxial grown III-V compound semiconductor sensors with Si-based readout integrated circuits (ROIC) by indium bump bonding which significantly increases the fabrication costs of these image sensors. Furthermore, these typical III-V compound semiconductors are not sensitive to the visible region and thus cannot be used for multi-spectral (visible to near-IR) sensing. Here, a low cost infrared (IR) imaging camera is demonstrated with a commercially available digital single-lens reflex (DSLR) camera and an IR sensitive organic light emitting diode (IR-OLED). With an IR-OLED, IR images at a wavelength of 1.2 µm are directly converted to visible images which are then recorded in a Si-CMOS DSLR camera. This multi-spectral imaging system is capable of capturing images at wavelengths in the near-infrared as well as visible regions.

  11. Multi-spectral tactical integrated scene generation capability using satellite imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coker, Charles; Willis, Carla; Van, Tan; Smith, Brian; Destin, Phillip

    2010-04-01

    A multi-spectral tactical integrated scene generation capability using satellite terrain imagery is currently available using a synthetic predictive simulation code developed by the Munitions Directorate of the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL/RWGGS). This capability produces multi-spectral integrated scene imagery from the perspective of a sensor/seeker for an air-to-ground scenario using geo-referenced U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Digital Terrain Elevation Data (DTED) and satellite terrain imagery. The produced imagery is spatially, spectrally, and temporally accurate. Using surveillance flight path and viewing angle, this capability has been interfaced with Microsoft Virtual Earth to extract terrain data of interest at the needed background resolution.

  12. Airborne gravity is here

    SciTech Connect

    Hammer, S.

    1982-01-11

    After 20 years of development efforts, the airborne gravity survey has finally become a practical exploration method. Besides gravity data, the airborne survey can also collect simultaneous, continuous records of high-precision magneticfield data as well as terrain clearance; these provide a topographic contour map useful in calculating terrain conditions and in subsequent planning and engineering. Compared with a seismic survey, the airborne gravity method can cover the same area much more quickly and cheaply; a seismograph could then detail the interesting spots.

  13. Multispectral Dual-Aperture Schmidt Objective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minott, P. O.

    1983-01-01

    Off-axis focal planes make room for beam splitters. System includes two off-axis primary spherical reflectors, each concentric with refractive corrector at aperature. Off-axis design assures large aperture required for adequate spatial resolution. Separate images have precise registration, used for multispectral resource mapping or remote sensing.

  14. Multispectral Photography: the obscure becomes the obvious

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polgrean, John

    1974-01-01

    Commonly used in map making, real estate zoning, and highway route location, aerial photography planes equipped with multispectral cameras may, among many environmental applications, now be used to locate mineral deposits, define marshland boundaries, study water pollution, and detect diseases in crops and forests. (KM)

  15. Estimating noise and information for multispectral imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aiazzi, Bruno; Alparone, Luciano; Barducci, Alessandro; Baronti, Stefano; Pippi, Ivan

    2002-03-01

    We focus on reliably estimating the information conveyed to a user by multispectral image data. The goal is establishing the extent to which an increase in spectral resolution can increase the amount of usable information. As a matter of fact, a trade- off exists between spatial and spectral resolution, due to physical constraints of sensors imaging with a prefixed SNR. After describing some methods developed for automatically estimating the variance of the noise introduced by multispectral imagers, lossless data compression is exploited to measure the useful information content of the multispectral data. In fact, the bit rate achieved by the reversible compression process takes into account both the contribution of the 'observation' noise, i.e., information regarded as statistical uncertainty, whose relevance is null to a user, and the intrinsic information of hypothetically noise free multispectral data. An entropic model of the image source is defined and, once the standard deviation of the noise, assumed to be white and Gaussian, has been preliminarily estimated, such a model is inverted to yield an estimate of the information content of the noise-free source from the code rate. Results of both noise and information assessment are reported and discussed on synthetic noisy images and on Landsat thematic mapper (TM) data.

  16. Multispectral laser imaging for advanced food analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senni, L.; Burrascano, P.; Ricci, M.

    2016-07-01

    A hardware-software apparatus for food inspection capable of realizing multispectral NIR laser imaging at four different wavelengths is herein discussed. The system was designed to operate in a through-transmission configuration to detect the presence of unwanted foreign bodies inside samples, whether packed or unpacked. A modified Lock-In technique was employed to counterbalance the significant signal intensity attenuation due to transmission across the sample and to extract the multispectral information more efficiently. The NIR laser wavelengths used to acquire the multispectral images can be varied to deal with different materials and to focus on specific aspects. In the present work the wavelengths were selected after a preliminary analysis to enhance the image contrast between foreign bodies and food in the sample, thus identifying the location and nature of the defects. Experimental results obtained from several specimens, with and without packaging, are presented and the multispectral image processing as well as the achievable spatial resolution of the system are discussed.

  17. Airborne Laser Polar Nephelometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grams, Gerald W.

    1973-01-01

    A polar nephelometer has been developed at NCAR to measure the angular variation of the intensity of light scattered by air molecules and particles. The system has been designed for airborne measurements using outside air ducted through a 5-cm diameter airflow tube; the sample volume is that which is common to the intersection of a collimated source beam and the detector field of view within the airflow tube. The source is a linearly polarized helium-neon laser beam. The optical system defines a collimated field-of-view (0.5deg half-angle) through a series of diaphragms located behind a I72-mm focal length objective lens. A photomultiplier tube is located immediately behind an aperture in the focal plane of the objective lens. The laser beam is mechanically chopped (on-off) at a rate of 5 Hz; a two-channel pulse counter, synchronized to the laser output, measures the photomultiplier pulse rate with the light beam both on and off. The difference in these measured pulse rates is directly proportional to the intensity of the scattered light from the volume common to the intersection of the laser beam and the detector field-of-view. Measurements can be made at scattering angles from 15deg to 165deg with reference to the direction of propagation of the light beam. Intermediate angles are obtained by selecting the angular increments desired between these extreme angles (any multiple of 0.1deg can be selected for the angular increment; 5deg is used in normal operation). Pulses provided by digital circuits control a stepping motor which sequentially rotates the detector by pre-selected angular increments. The synchronous photon-counting system automatically begins measurement of the scattered-light intensity immediately after the rotation to a new angle has been completed. The instrument has been flown on the NASA Convair 990 airborne laboratory to obtain data on the complex index of refraction of atmospheric aerosols. A particle impaction device is operated simultaneously

  18. Toolsets for Airborne Data

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2015-04-02

    article title:  Toolsets for Airborne Data     View larger image The ... limit of detection values. Prior to accessing the TAD Web Application ( https://tad.larc.nasa.gov ) for the first time, users must ...

  19. Using Airborne and Satellite Imagery to Distinguish and Map Black Mangrove

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper reports the results of studies evaluating color-infrared (CIR) aerial photography, CIR aerial true digital imagery, and high resolution QuickBird multispectral satellite imagery for distinguishing and mapping black mangrove [Avicennia germinans (L.) L.] populations along the lower Texas g...

  20. The airborne laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamberson, Steven; Schall, Harold; Shattuck, Paul

    2007-05-01

    The Airborne Laser (ABL) is an airborne, megawatt-class laser system with a state-of-the-art atmospheric compensation system to destroy enemy ballistic missiles at long ranges. This system will provide both deterrence and defense against the use of such weapons during conflicts. This paper provides an overview of the ABL weapon system including: the notional operational concept, the development approach and schedule, the overall aircraft configuration, the technologies being incorporated in the ABL, and the current program status.

  1. Target detection algorithm for airborne thermal hyperspectral data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marwaha, R.; Kumar, A.; Raju, P. L. N.; Krishna Murthy, Y. V. N.

    2014-11-01

    Airborne hyperspectral imaging is constantly being used for classification purpose. But airborne thermal hyperspectral image usually is a challenge for conventional classification approaches. The Telops Hyper-Cam sensor is an interferometer-based imaging system that helps in the spatial and spectral analysis of targets utilizing a single sensor. It is based on the technology of Fourier-transform which yields high spectral resolution and enables high accuracy radiometric calibration. The Hypercam instrument has 84 spectral bands in the 868 cm-1 to 1280 cm-1 region (7.8 μm to 11.5 μm), at a spectral resolution of 6 cm-1 (full-width-half-maximum) for LWIR (long wave infrared) range. Due to the Hughes effect, only a few classifiers are able to handle high dimensional classification task. MNF (Minimum Noise Fraction) rotation is a data dimensionality reducing approach to segregate noise in the data. In this, the component selection of minimum noise fraction (MNF) rotation transformation was analyzed in terms of classification accuracy using constrained energy minimization (CEM) algorithm as a classifier for Airborne thermal hyperspectral image and for the combination of airborne LWIR hyperspectral image and color digital photograph. On comparing the accuracy of all the classified images for airborne LWIR hyperspectral image and combination of Airborne LWIR hyperspectral image with colored digital photograph, it was found that accuracy was highest for MNF component equal to twenty. The accuracy increased by using the combination of airborne LWIR hyperspectral image with colored digital photograph instead of using LWIR data alone.

  2. Determination of the spatial structure of vegetation on the repository of the mine "Fryderyk" in Tarnowskie Góry, based on airborne laser scanning from the ISOK project and digital orthophotomaps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szostak, Marta; Wężyk, Piotr; Pająk, Marek; Haryło, Paweł; Lisańczuk, Marek

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the spatial structure of vegetation on the repository of the mine "Fryderyk" in Tarnowskie Góry. Tested area was located in the Upper Silesian Industrial Region (a large industrial region in Poland). It was a unique refuge habitat - Natura2000; PLH240008. The main aspect of this elaboration was to investigate the possible use of geotechniques and generally available geodata for mapping LULC changes and determining the spatial structure of vegetation. The presented study focuses on the analysis of a spatial structure of vegetation in the research area. This exploration was based on aerial images and orthophotomaps from 1947, 1998, 2003, 2009, 2011 and airborne laser scanning data (2011, ISOK project). Forest succession changes which occurred between 1947 and 2011 were analysed. The selected features of vegetation overgrowing spoil heap "Fryderyk" was determined. The results demonstrated a gradual succession of greenery on soil heap. In 1947, 84% of this area was covered by low vegetation. Tree expansion was proceeding in the westerly and northwest direction. In 2011 this canopy layer covered almost 50% of the research area. Parameters such as height of vegetation, crowns length and cover density were calculated by an airborne laser scanning data. These analyses indicated significant diversity in vertical and horizontal structures of vegetation. The study presents some capacities to use airborne laser scanning for an impartial evaluation of the structure of vegetation.

  3. Sun and aureole spectrometer for airborne measurements to derive aerosol optical properties.

    PubMed

    Asseng, Hagen; Ruhtz, Thomas; Fischer, Jürgen

    2004-04-01

    We have designed an airborne spectrometer system for the simultaneous measurement of the direct Sun irradiance and aureole radiance. The instrument is based on diffraction grating spectrometers with linear image sensors. It is robust, lightweight, compact, and reliable, characteristics that are important for airborne applications. The multispectral radiation measurements are used to derive optical properties of tropospheric aerosols. We extract the altitude dependence of the aerosol volume scattering function and of the aerosol optical depth by using flight patterns with descents and ascents ranging from the surface level to the top of the boundary layer. The extinction coefficient and the product of single scattering albedo and phase function of separate layers can be derived from the airborne measurements. PMID:15074425

  4. A comparison of real and simulated airborne multisensor imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloechl, Kevin; De Angelis, Chris; Gartley, Michael; Kerekes, John; Nance, C. Eric

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents a methodology and results for the comparison of simulated imagery to real imagery acquired with multiple sensors hosted on an airborne platform. The dataset includes aerial multi- and hyperspectral imagery with spatial resolutions of one meter or less. The multispectral imagery includes data from an airborne sensor with three-band visible color and calibrated radiance imagery in the long-, mid-, and short-wave infrared. The airborne hyperspectral imagery includes 360 bands of calibrated radiance and reflectance data spanning 400 to 2450 nm in wavelength. Collected in September 2012, the imagery is of a park in Avon, NY, and includes a dirt track and areas of grass, gravel, forest, and agricultural fields. A number of artificial targets were deployed in the scene prior to collection for purposes of target detection, subpixel detection, spectral unmixing, and 3D object recognition. A synthetic reconstruction of the collection site was created in DIRSIG, an image generation and modeling tool developed by the Rochester Institute of Technology, based on ground-measured reflectance data, ground photography, and previous airborne imagery. Simulated airborne images were generated using the scene model, time of observation, estimates of the atmospheric conditions, and approximations of the sensor characteristics. The paper provides a comparison between the empirical and simulated images, including a comparison of achieved performance for classification, detection and unmixing applications. It was found that several differences exist due to the way the image is generated, including finite sampling and incomplete knowledge of the scene, atmospheric conditions and sensor characteristics. The lessons learned from this effort can be used in constructing future simulated scenes and further comparisons between real and simulated imagery.

  5. Atmospheric effects in multispectral remote sensor data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, R. E.

    1975-01-01

    The problem of radiometric variations in multispectral remote sensing data which occur as a result of a change in geometric and environmental factors is studied. The case of spatially varying atmospheres is considered and the effect of atmospheric scattering is analyzed for realistic conditions. Emphasis is placed upon a simulation of LANDSAT spectral data for agricultural investigations over the United States. The effect of the target-background interaction is thoroughly analyzed in terms of various atmospheric states, geometric parameters, and target-background materials. Results clearly demonstrate that variable atmospheres can alter the classification accuracy and that the presence of various backgrounds can change the effective target radiance by a significant amount. A failure to include these effects in multispectral data analysis will result in a decrease in the classification accuracy.

  6. Information extraction techniques for multispectral scanner data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malila, W. A.; Crane, R. B.; Turner, R. E.

    1972-01-01

    The applicability of recognition-processing procedures for multispectral scanner data from areas and conditions used for programming the recognition computers to other data from different areas viewed under different measurement conditions was studied. The reflective spectral region approximately 0.3 to 3.0 micrometers is considered. A potential application of such techniques is in conducting area surveys. Work in three general areas is reported: (1) Nature of sources of systematic variation in multispectral scanner radiation signals, (2) An investigation of various techniques for overcoming systematic variations in scanner data; (3) The use of decision rules based upon empirical distributions of scanner signals rather than upon the usually assumed multivariate normal (Gaussian) signal distributions.

  7. Multispectral device for help in diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delporte, Céline; Ben Chouikha, Mohamed; Sautrot, Sylvie; Viénot, Françoise; Alquié, Georges

    2012-03-01

    In order to build biological tissues spectral characteristics database to be used in a multispectral imaging system a tissues optical characterization bench is developed and validated. Several biological tissue types have been characterized in vitro and ex vivo with our device such as beef, turkey and pork muscle and beef liver. Multispectral images obtained have been analyzed in order to study the dispersion of biological tissues spectral luminance factor. Tissue internal structure inhomogeneity was identified as a phenomenon contributing to the dispersion of spectral luminance factor. This dispersion of spectral luminance factor could be a characteristic of the tissue. A method based on envelope technique has been developed to identify and differentiate biological tissues in the same scene. This method applied to pork tissues containing muscle and fat gives detection rates of 59% for pork muscle and 14% for pork fat.

  8. Investigation related to multispectral imaging systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nalepka, R. F.; Erickson, J. D.

    1974-01-01

    A summary of technical progress made during a five year research program directed toward the development of operational information systems based on multispectral sensing and the use of these systems in earth-resource survey applications is presented. Efforts were undertaken during this program to: (1) improve the basic understanding of the many facets of multispectral remote sensing, (2) develop methods for improving the accuracy of information generated by remote sensing systems, (3) improve the efficiency of data processing and information extraction techniques to enhance the cost-effectiveness of remote sensing systems, (4) investigate additional problems having potential remote sensing solutions, and (5) apply the existing and developing technology for specific users and document and transfer that technology to the remote sensing community.

  9. JORNEX: An airborne campaign to quantify rangeland vegetation change and plant community-atmospheric interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Ritchie, J.C.; Rango, A.; Kustas, W.P.

    1996-11-01

    The Jornada Experimental Range in New Mexico provides a unique opportunity to integrate hydrologic-atmospheric fluxes and surface states, vegetation types, cover, and distribution, and vegetation response to changes in hydrologic states and atmospheric driving forces. The Jornada Range is the site of a long-term ecological research program to investigate the processes leading to desertification. In concert with ongoing ground measurements, remotely sensed data are being collected from ground, airborne, and satellite platforms during JORNEX (the JORNada Experiment) to provide spatial and temporal distribution of vegetation state using laser altimeter and multispectral aircraft and satellite data and surface energy balance estimates from a combination of parameters and state variables derived from remotely sensed data. These measurements will be used as inputs to models to quantify the hydrologic budget and the plant response to changes in components in the water and energy balance. Intensive three day study periods for ground and airborne campaigns have been made in May 1995 (dry season) and September 1995 (wet season), February 1996 (Winter) and are planned for wet and dry seasons of 1996. An airborne platform is being used to collect thermal, multispectral, 3-band video, and laser altimetry profile data. Bowen ratio-energy balance stations were established in shrub and grass communities in May 1995 and are collecting data continuously. Additional energy flux measurements were made using eddy correlation techniques during the September 1995 campaign. Ground-based measurements during the intensive campaigns include thermal and multispectral measurements made using yoke-based platforms and hand-held instruments, LAI, and other vegetation data. Ground and aircraft measurements are acquired during Landsat overpasses so the effect of scale on measurements can be studied. This paper discusses preliminary results from the 1995 airborne campaign. 24 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Estimating supraglacial lake depth in West Greenland using Landsat 8 and comparison with other multispectral methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pope, A.; Scambos, T. A.; Moussavi, M.; Tedesco, M.; Willis, M.; Shean, D.; Grigsby, S.

    2016-01-01

    Liquid water stored on the surface of ice sheets and glaciers impacts surface mass balance, ice dynamics, and heat transport. Multispectral remote sensing can be used to detect supraglacial lakes and estimate their depth and area. In this study, we use in situ spectral and bathymetric data to assess lake depth retrieval using the recently launched Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI). We also extend our analysis to other multispectral sensors to evaluate their performance with similar methods. Digital elevation models derived from WorldView stereo imagery (pre-lake filling and post-drainage) are used to validate spectrally derived depths, combined with a lake edge determination from imagery. The optimal supraglacial lake depth retrieval is a physically based single-band model applied to two OLI bands independently (red and panchromatic) that are then averaged together. When OLI- and WorldView-derived depths are differenced, they yield a mean and standard deviation of 0.0 ± 1.6 m. This method is then applied to OLI data for the Sermeq Kujalleq (Jakobshavn Isbræ) region of Greenland to study the spatial and intra-seasonal variability of supraglacial lakes during summer 2014. We also give coefficients for estimating supraglacial lake depth using a similar method with other multispectral sensors.

  11. Investigations in adaptive processing of multispectral data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kriegler, F. J.; Horwitz, H. M.

    1973-01-01

    Adaptive data processing procedures are applied to the problem of classifying objects in a scene scanned by multispectral sensor. These procedures show a performance improvement over standard nonadaptive techniques. Some sources of error in classification are identified and those correctable by adaptive processing are discussed. Experiments in adaptation of signature means by decision-directed methods are described. Some of these methods assume correlation between the trajectories of different signature means; for others this assumption is not made.

  12. Prediction of apple fruit firmness and soluble solids content using characteristics of multispectral scattering images

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Multispectral scattering is a promising technique for nondestructive sensing of multiple quality attributes of apple fruit. This research developed new, improved methods for processing and analyzing multispectral scattering profiles in order to design and build a better multispectral imaging system ...

  13. Land use/cover classification of small areas by conventional digital camcorder imagery: A comparative performance of traditional and advanced methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sim, C. K.; Lim, H. S.; Mat Jafri, M. Z.; Abdullah, K.

    2013-05-01

    This study aims to investigate the performance of digital camcorder datasets for land cover classification. The chosen study area was the Universiti Sains Malaysia campus in Penang, Peninsular Malaysia. We encountered difficulties in obtaining cloud-free scenes because Malaysia is an equatorial region. This problem can be overcome by using airborne images. Digital images were taken from a low-altitude light aircraft (Cessna 172Q) at an average altitude of 2.44 km above sea level. The color image was separated into three bands (i.e., red, green, and blue) for multispectral analysis. We compared the performance of traditional methods (i.e., minimum distance and maximum likelihood) and advanced methods (i.e., frequency-based contextual and neural network (NN) techniques). The classified land cover map was geometrically corrected to provide a geocode map. This study presents preliminary findings vis-à-vis the potential application of an ordinary digital camcorder in local urban studies. The NN classifier produced the best result among the tested methods. A high degree of accuracy was achieved by the NN technique.

  14. A multispectral imaging approach for diagnostics of skin pathologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lihacova, Ilze; Derjabo, Aleksandrs; Spigulis, Janis

    2013-06-01

    Noninvasive multispectral imaging method was applied for different skin pathology such as nevus, basal cell carcinoma, and melanoma diagnostics. Developed melanoma diagnostic parameter, using three spectral bands (540 nm, 650 nm and 950 nm), was calculated for nevus, melanoma and basal cell carcinoma. Simple multispectral diagnostic device was established and applied for skin assessment. Development and application of multispectral diagnostics method described further in this article.

  15. A design approach to real-time formatting of high speed multispectral image data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meredith, B. D.; Kelly, W. L., IV

    1981-01-01

    A design approach to formatting multispectral image data in real time at very high data rates is presented for future onboard processing applications. The approach employs a microprocessor-based alternating buffer memory configuration whose formatting function is completely programmable. Data are read from an output buffer in the desired format by applying the proper sequence of addresses to the buffer via a lookup table memory. Sensor data can be processed using this approach at rates limited by the buffer memory access time and the buffer switching process delay time. This design offers flexible high speed data processing and benefits from continuing increases in the performance of digital memories.

  16. Implementation of ILLIAC 4 algorithms for multispectral image interpretation. [earth resources data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, R. M.; Thomas, J. D.; Donovan, W. E.; Swain, P. H.

    1974-01-01

    Research has focused on the design and partial implementation of a comprehensive ILLIAC software system for computer-assisted interpretation of multispectral earth resources data such as that now collected by the Earth Resources Technology Satellite. Research suggests generally that the ILLIAC 4 should be as much as two orders of magnitude more cost effective than serial processing computers for digital interpretation of ERTS imagery via multivariate statistical classification techniques. The potential of the ARPA Network as a mechanism for interfacing geographically-dispersed users to an ILLIAC 4 image processing facility is discussed.

  17. Image processing of underwater multispectral imagery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zawada, D.G.

    2003-01-01

    Capturing in situ fluorescence images of marine organisms presents many technical challenges. The effects of the medium, as well as the particles and organisms within it, are intermixed with the desired signal. Methods for extracting and preparing the imagery for analysis are discussed in reference to a novel underwater imaging system called the low-light-level underwater multispectral imaging system (LUMIS). The instrument supports both uni- and multispectral collections, each of which is discussed in the context of an experimental application. In unispectral mode, LUMIS was used to investigate the spatial distribution of phytoplankton. A thin sheet of laser light (532 nm) induced chlorophyll fluorescence in the phytoplankton, which was recorded by LUMIS. Inhomogeneities in the light sheet led to the development of a beam-pattern-correction algorithm. Separating individual phytoplankton cells from a weak background fluorescence field required a two-step procedure consisting of edge detection followed by a series of binary morphological operations. In multispectral mode, LUMIS was used to investigate the bio-assay potential of fluorescent pigments in corals. Problems with the commercial optical-splitting device produced nonlinear distortions in the imagery. A tessellation algorithm, including an automated tie-point-selection procedure, was developed to correct the distortions. Only pixels corresponding to coral polyps were of interest for further analysis. Extraction of these pixels was performed by a dynamic global-thresholding algorithm.

  18. Hyperspectral and multispectral sensors for remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, James; Kullar, Sukhbir; Cochrane, David; O, Nixon; Lomako, Andrey; Draijer, Cees

    2010-11-01

    Remote Hyperspectral and Multispectral sensors have been developed using modern CCD and CMOS fabrication techniques combined with advanced dichroic filters. The resulting sensors are more cost effective while maintaining the high performance needed in remote sensing applications. A single device can contain multiple imaging areas tailored to different multispectral bandwidths in a highly cost effective and reliable package. This paper discusses a five band visible to near IR scanning sensor. By bonding advanced dichroic filters onto the cover glass and directly in the imaging path a highly efficient multispectral sensor is achieved. Up to 12,000 linear pixel arrays are possible1 with this advanced filter technology approach. Individual imaging areas on the device are designed to have unique pixel sizes and clocking to enable tailored imaging performance for the individual spectral bands. Individual elements are also based on high resolution Time Delay and Integration technology2,3 (TDI) to maximize sensitivity and throughput. Additionally for hyperspectral imagers, a split frame CCD design is discussed using high sensitivity back side illuminated (BSI) processes that can achieve high quantum efficiency. As these sensors are used in remote sensing applications, device robustness and radiation tolerance was required.

  19. Comparison of multispectral remote-sensing techniques for monitoring subsurface drain conditions. [Imperial Valley, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goettelman, R. C.; Grass, L. B.; Millard, J. P.; Nixon, P. R.

    1983-01-01

    The following multispectral remote-sensing techniques were compared to determine the most suitable method for routinely monitoring agricultural subsurface drain conditions: airborne scanning, covering the visible through thermal-infrared (IR) portions of the spectrum; color-IR photography; and natural-color photography. Color-IR photography was determined to be the best approach, from the standpoint of both cost and information content. Aerial monitoring of drain conditions for early warning of tile malfunction appears practical. With careful selection of season and rain-induced soil-moisture conditions, extensive regional surveys are possible. Certain locations, such as the Imperial Valley, Calif., are precluded from regional monitoring because of year-round crop rotations and soil stratification conditions. Here, farms with similar crops could time local coverage for bare-field and saturated-soil conditions.

  20. Comparison of Hyperspectral and Multispectral Satellites for Discriminating Land Cover in Northern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, M. L.; Kilham, N. E.

    2015-12-01

    Land-cover maps are important science products needed for natural resource and ecosystem service management, biodiversity conservation planning, and assessing human-induced and natural drivers of land change. Most land-cover maps at regional to global scales are produced with remote sensing techniques applied to multispectral satellite imagery with 30-500 m pixel sizes (e.g., Landsat, MODIS). Hyperspectral, or imaging spectrometer, imagery measuring the visible to shortwave infrared regions (VSWIR) of the spectrum have shown impressive capacity to map plant species and coarser land-cover associations, yet techniques have not been widely tested at regional and greater spatial scales. The Hyperspectral Infrared Imager (HyspIRI) mission is a VSWIR hyperspectral and thermal satellite being considered for development by NASA. The goal of this study was to assess multi-temporal, HyspIRI-like satellite imagery for improved land cover mapping relative to multispectral satellites. We mapped FAO Land Cover Classification System (LCCS) classes over 22,500 km2 in the San Francisco Bay Area, California using 30-m HyspIRI, Landsat 8 and Sentinel-2 imagery simulated from data acquired by NASA's AVIRIS airborne sensor. Random Forests (RF) and Multiple-Endmember Spectral Mixture Analysis (MESMA) classifiers were applied to the simulated images and accuracies were compared to those from real Landsat 8 images. The RF classifier was superior to MESMA, and multi-temporal data yielded higher accuracy than summer-only data. With RF, hyperspectral data had overall accuracy of 72.2% and 85.1% with full 20-class and reduced 12-class schemes, respectively. Multispectral imagery had lower accuracy. For example, simulated and real Landsat data had 7.5% and 4.6% lower accuracy than HyspIRI data with 12 classes, respectively. In summary, our results indicate increased mapping accuracy using HyspIRI multi-temporal imagery, particularly in discriminating different natural vegetation types, such as

  1. The Multispectral Imaging Science Working Group. Volume 3: Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, S. C. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    The status and technology requirements for using multispectral sensor imagery in geographic, hydrologic, and geologic applications are examined. Critical issues in image and information science are identified.

  2. The Airborne Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamberson, Steven E.

    2002-09-01

    The US Air Force Airborne Laser (ABL) is an airborne, megawatt-class laser system with a state-of-the-art atmospheric compensation system to destroy enemy ballistic missiles at long ranges. This system will provide both deterrence and defense against the use of such weapons during conflicts. This paper provides an overview of the ABL weapon system including: the notional operational concept, the development approach and schedule, the overall aircraft configuration, the technologies being incorporated in the ABL, and the risk reduction approach being utilized to ensure program success.

  3. Airborne oceanographic lidar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Specifications and preliminary design of an Airborne Oceanographic Lidar (AOL) system, which is to be constructed for installation and used on a NASA Wallops Flight Center (WFC) C-54 research aircraft, are reported. The AOL system is to provide an airborne facility for use by various government agencies to demonstrate the utility and practicality of hardware of this type in the wide area collection of oceanographic data on an operational basis. System measurement and performance requirements are presented, followed by a description of the conceptual system approach and the considerations attendant to its development. System performance calculations are addressed, and the system specifications and preliminary design are presented and discussed.

  4. CNR LARA project, Italy: Airborne laboratory for environmental research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bianchi, R.; Cavalli, R. M.; Fiumi, L.; Marino, C. M.; Pignatti, S.

    1995-01-01

    The increasing interest for the environmental problems and the study of the impact on the environment due to antropic activity produced an enhancement of remote sensing applications. The Italian National Research Council (CNR) established a new laboratory for airborne hyperspectral imaging, the LARA Project (Laboratorio Aero per Ricerche Ambientali - Airborne Laboratory for Environmental Research), equipping its airborne laboratory, a CASA-212, mainly with the Daedalus AA5000 MIVIS (Multispectral Infrared and Visible Imaging Spectrometer) instrument. MIVIS's channels, spectral bandwidths, and locations are chosen to meet the needs of scientific research for advanced applications of remote sensing data. MIVIS can make significant contributions to solving problems in many diverse areas such as geologic exploration, land use studies, mineralogy, agricultural crop studies, energy loss analysis, pollution assessment, volcanology, forest fire management and others. The broad spectral range and the many discrete narrow channels of MIVIS provide a fine quantization of spectral information that permits accurate definition of absorption features from a variety of materials, allowing the extraction of chemical and physical information of our environment. The availability of such a hyperspectral imager, that will operate mainly in the Mediterranean area, at the present represents a unique opportunity for those who are involved in environmental studies and land-management to collect systematically large-scale and high spectral-spatial resolution data of this part of the world. Nevertheless, MIVIS deployments will touch other parts of the world, where a major interest from the international scientific community is present.

  5. Multispectral thermal infrared mapping of the 1 October 1988 Kupaianaha flow field, Kilauea volcano, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Realmuto, V.J.; Hon, K.; Kahle, A.B.; Abbott, E.A.; Pieri, D.C.

    1992-01-01

    Multispectral thermal infrared radiance measurements of the Kupaianaha flow field were acquired with the NASA airborne Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) on the morning of 1 October 1988. The TIMS data were used to map both the temperature and emissivity of the surface of the flow field. The temperature map depicted the underground storage and transport of lava. The presence of molten lava in a tube or tumulus resulted in surface temperatures that were at least 10?? C above ambient. The temperature map also clearly defined the boundaries of hydrothermal plumes which resulted from the entry of lava into the ocean. The emissivity map revealed the boundaries between individual flow units within the Kupaianaha field. In general, the emissivity of the flows varied systematically with age but the relationship between age and emissivity was not unique. Distinct spectral anomalies, indicative of silica-rich surface materials, were mapped near fumaroles and ocean entry sites. This apparent enrichment in silica may have resulted from an acid-induced leaching of cations from the surfaces of glassy flows. Such incipient alteration may have been the cause for virtually all of the emissivity variations observed on the flow field, the spectral anomalies representing areas where the acid attack was most intense. ?? 1992 Springer-Verlag.

  6. A multispectral automatic target recognition application for maritime surveillance, search, and rescue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoonmaker, Jon; Reed, Scott; Podobna, Yuliya; Vazquez, Jose; Boucher, Cynthia

    2010-04-01

    Due to increased security concerns, the commitment to monitor and maintain security in the maritime environment is increasingly a priority. A country's coast is the most vulnerable area for the incursion of illegal immigrants, terrorists and contraband. This work illustrates the ability of a low-cost, light-weight, multi-spectral, multi-channel imaging system to handle the environment and see under difficult marine conditions. The system and its implemented detecting and tracking technologies should be organic to the maritime homeland security community for search and rescue, fisheries, defense, and law enforcement. It is tailored for airborne and ship based platforms to detect, track and monitor suspected objects (such as semi-submerged targets like marine mammals, vessels in distress, and drug smugglers). In this system, automated detection and tracking technology is used to detect, classify and localize potential threats or objects of interest within the imagery provided by the multi-spectral system. These algorithms process the sensor data in real time, thereby providing immediate feedback when features of interest have been detected. A supervised detection system based on Haar features and Cascade Classifiers is presented and results are provided on real data. The system is shown to be extendable and reusable for a variety of different applications.

  7. Monitoring Geothermal Features in Yellowstone National Park with ATLAS Multispectral Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spruce, Joseph; Berglund, Judith

    2000-01-01

    The National Park Service (NPS) must produce an Environmental Impact Statement for each proposed development in the vicinity of known geothermal resource areas (KGRAs) in Yellowstone National Park. In addition, the NPS monitors indicator KGRAs for environmental quality and is still in the process of mapping many geothermal areas. The NPS currently maps geothermal features with field survey techniques. High resolution aerial multispectral remote sensing in the visible, NIR, SWIR, and thermal spectral regions could enable YNP geothermal features to be mapped more quickly and in greater detail In response, Yellowstone Ecosystems Studies, in partnership with NASA's Commercial Remote Sensing Program, is conducting a study on the use of Airborne Terrestrial Applications Sensor (ATLAS) multispectral data for monitoring geothermal features in the Upper Geyser Basin. ATLAS data were acquired at 2.5 meter resolution on August 17, 2000. These data were processed into land cover classifications and relative temperature maps. For sufficiently large features, the ATLAS data can map geothermal areas in terms of geyser pools and hot springs, plus multiple categories of geothermal runoff that are apparently indicative of temperature gradients and microbial matting communities. In addition, the ATLAS maps clearly identify geyserite areas. The thermal bands contributed to classification success and to the computation of relative temperature. With masking techniques, one can assess the influence of geothermal features on the Firehole River. Preliminary results appear to confirm ATLAS data utility for mapping and monitoring geothermal features. Future work will include classification refinement and additional validation.

  8. Combination of multispectral remote sensing, variable rate technology and environmental modeling for citrus pest management.

    PubMed

    Du, Qian; Chang, Ni-Bin; Yang, Chenghai; Srilakshmi, Kanth R

    2008-01-01

    The Lower Rio Grande Valley (LRGV) of south Texas is an agriculturally rich area supporting intensive production of vegetables, fruits, grain sorghum, and cotton. Modern agricultural practices involve the combined use of irrigation with the application of large amounts of agrochemicals to maximize crop yields. Intensive agricultural activities in past decades might have caused potential contamination of soil, surface water, and groundwater due to leaching of pesticides in the vadose zone. In an effort to promote precision farming in citrus production, this paper aims at developing an airborne multispectral technique for identifying tree health problems in a citrus grove that can be combined with variable rate technology (VRT) for required pesticide application and environmental modeling for assessment of pollution prevention. An unsupervised linear unmixing method was applied to classify the image for the grove and quantify the symptom severity for appropriate infection control. The PRZM-3 model was used to estimate environmental impacts that contribute to nonpoint source pollution with and without the use of multispectral remote sensing and VRT. Research findings using site-specific environmental assessment clearly indicate that combination of remote sensing and VRT may result in benefit to the environment by reducing the nonpoint source pollution by 92.15%. Overall, this study demonstrates the potential of precision farming for citrus production in the nexus of industrial ecology and agricultural sustainability. PMID:17222960

  9. Genetic refinement of cloud-masking algorithms for the multi-spectral thermal imager (MTI)

    SciTech Connect

    Hirsch, K. L.; Davis, A. B.; Harvey, N. R.; Rohde, C. A.; Brumby, Steven P.

    2001-01-01

    The Multi-spectral Thermal Imager (MTI) is a high-performance remote-sensing satellite designed, owned and operated by the U.S. Department of Energy, with a dual mission in environmental studies and in nonproliferation. It has enhanced spatial and radiometric resolutions and state-of-the-art calibration capabilities. This instrumental development puts a new burden on retrieval algorithm developers to pass this accuracy on to the inferred geophysical parameters. In particular, the atmospheric correction scheme assumes the intervening atmosphere will be modeled as a plane-parallel horizontally-homogeneous medium. A single dense-enough cloud in view of the ground target can easily offset reality from the calculations, hence the need for a reliable cloud-masking algorithm. Pixel-scale cloud detection relies on the simple facts that clouds are generally whiter, brighter, and colder than the ground below; spatially, dense clouds are generally large on some scale. This is a good basis for searching multispectral datacubes for cloud signatures. However, the resulting cloud mask can be very sensitive to the choice of thresholds in whiteness, brightness, temperature, and connectivity. We have used a genetic algorithm trained on (MODIS Airborne Simulator-based) simulated MTI data to design a cloud-mask. Its performance is compared quantitatively to hand-drawn training data and to the EOS/Terra MODIS cloud mask.

  10. Analysis of multispectral signatures and investigation of multi-aspect remote sensing techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malila, W. A.; Hieber, R. H.; Sarno, J. E.

    1974-01-01

    Two major aspects of remote sensing with multispectral scanners (MSS) are investigated. The first, multispectral signature analysis, includes the effects on classification performance of systematic variations found in the average signals received from various ground covers as well as the prediction of these variations with theoretical models of physical processes. The foremost effects studied are those associated with the time of day airborne MSS data are collected. Six data collection runs made over the same flight line in a period of five hours are analyzed, it is found that the time span significantly affects classification performance. Variations associated with scan angle also are studied. The second major topic of discussion is multi-aspect remote sensing, a new concept in remote sensing with scanners. Here, data are collected on multiple passes by a scanner that can be tilted to scan forward of the aircraft at different angles on different passes. The use of such spatially registered data to achieve improved classification of agricultural scenes is investigated and found promising. Also considered are the possibilities of extracting from multi-aspect data, information on the condition of corn canopies and the stand characteristics of forests.

  11. NASA Airborne Lidar July 1991

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-05-26

    NASA Airborne Lidar July 1991 Data from the 1991 NASA Langley Airborne Lidar flights following the eruption of Pinatubo in July ... and Osborn [1992a, 1992b]. Project Title:  NASA Airborne Lidar Discipline:  Field Campaigns ...

  12. NASA Airborne Lidar May 1992

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-05-26

    NASA Airborne Lidar May 1992 An airborne Nd:YAG (532 nm) lidar was operated by the NASA Langley Research Center about a year following the June 1991 eruption of ... Osborn [1992a, 1992b].  Project Title:  NASA Airborne Lidar Discipline:  Field Campaigns ...

  13. An investigative study of multispectral data compression for remotely-sensed images using vector quantization and difference-mapped shift-coding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaggi, S.

    1993-01-01

    A study is conducted to investigate the effects and advantages of data compression techniques on multispectral imagery data acquired by NASA's airborne scanners at the Stennis Space Center. The first technique used was vector quantization. The vector is defined in the multispectral imagery context as an array of pixels from the same location from each channel. The error obtained in substituting the reconstructed images for the original set is compared for different compression ratios. Also, the eigenvalues of the covariance matrix obtained from the reconstructed data set are compared with the eigenvalues of the original set. The effects of varying the size of the vector codebook on the quality of the compression and on subsequent classification are also presented. The output data from the Vector Quantization algorithm was further compressed by a lossless technique called Difference-mapped Shift-extended Huffman coding. The overall compression for 7 channels of data acquired by the Calibrated Airborne Multispectral Scanner (CAMS), with an RMS error of 15.8 pixels was 195:1 (0.41 bpp) and with an RMS error of 3.6 pixels was 18:1 (.447 bpp). The algorithms were implemented in software and interfaced with the help of dedicated image processing boards to an 80386 PC compatible computer. Modules were developed for the task of image compression and image analysis. Also, supporting software to perform image processing for visual display and interpretation of the compressed/classified images was developed.

  14. Airborne antenna pattern calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knerr, T. J.; Schaffner, P. R.; Mielke, R. R.; Gilreath, M. C.

    1980-01-01

    A procedure for numerically calculating radiation patterns of fuselage-mounted airborne antennas using the Volumetric Pattern Analysis Program is presented. Special attention is given to aircraft modeling. An actual case study involving a large commercial aircraft is included to illustrate the analysis procedure.

  15. Recognizing Airborne Hazards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Christian M.

    1990-01-01

    The heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems in older buildings often do not adequately handle air-borne contaminants. Outlines a three-stage Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) assessment and describes a case in point at a Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, school. (MLF)

  16. Airborne Fraunhofer Line Discriminator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gabriel, F. C.; Markle, D. A.

    1969-01-01

    Airborne Fraunhofer Line Discriminator enables prospecting for fluorescent materials, hydrography with fluorescent dyes, and plant studies based on fluorescence of chlorophyll. Optical unit design is the coincidence of Fraunhofer lines in the solar spectrum occurring at the characteristic wavelengths of some fluorescent materials.

  17. Airborne Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    NASA imaging technology has provided the basis for a commercial agricultural reconnaissance service. AG-RECON furnishes information from airborne sensors, aerial photographs and satellite and ground databases to farmers, foresters, geologists, etc. This service produces color "maps" of Earth conditions, which enable clients to detect crop color changes or temperature changes that may indicate fire damage or pest stress problems.

  18. International Symposium on Airborne Geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mogi, Toru; Ito, Hisatoshi; Kaieda, Hideshi; Kusunoki, Kenichiro; Saltus, Richard W.; Fitterman, David V.; Okuma, Shigeo; Nakatsuka, Tadashi

    2006-05-01

    Airborne geophysics can be defined as the measurement of Earth properties from sensors in the sky. The airborne measurement platform is usually a traditional fixed-wing airplane or helicopter, but could also include lighter-than-air craft, unmanned drones, or other specialty craft. The earliest history of airborne geophysics includes kite and hot-air balloon experiments. However, modern airborne geophysics dates from the mid-1940s when military submarine-hunting magnetometers were first used to map variations in the Earth's magnetic field. The current gamut of airborne geophysical techniques spans a broad range, including potential fields (both gravity and magnetics), electromagnetics (EM), radiometrics, spectral imaging, and thermal imaging.

  19. Application of automated multispectral analysis to Delaware's coastal vegetation mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klemas, V. (Principal Investigator); Daiber, D.; Bartlett, D. S.; Crichton, O. W.; Fornes, A. O.

    1973-01-01

    There are no author-identified significant results in this report. Overlay maps of Delaware's wetlands have been prepared, showing the dominant species or group of species of vegetation present. Five such categories of vegetation were used indicating marshes dominated by: (1) salt marsh cord grass; (2) salt marsh hay and spike grass; (3) reed grass; (4) high tide bush and sea myrtle; and (5) a group of fresh water species found in impounded areas built to attract water fowl. Fifteen such maps cover Delaware's wetlands from the Pennsylvania to the Maryland borders. The mapping technique employed utilizes the General Electric multispectral data processing system. This system is a hybrid analog-digital system designed as an analysis tool to be used by an operator whose own judgment and knowledge of ground truth can be incorporated at any time into the analyzing process. The result is a high speed, cost effective method for producing enhanced photomaps showing a number of spectral classes, each enhanced spectral class being representative of a vegetative species or group of species.

  20. Classification of emerald based on multispectral image and PCA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Weiping; Zhao, Dazun; Huang, Qingmei; Ren, Pengyuan; Feng, Jie; Zhang, Xiaoyan

    2005-02-01

    Traditionally, the grade discrimination and classifying of bowlders (emeralds) are implemented by using methods based on people's experiences. In our previous works, a method based on NCS(Natural Color System) color system and sRGB color space conversion is employed for a coarse grade classification of emeralds. However, it is well known that the color match of two colors is not a true "match" unless their spectra are the same. Because metameric colors can not be differentiated by a three channel(RGB) camera, a multispectral camera(MSC) is used as image capturing device in this paper. It consists of a trichromatic digital camera and a set of wide-band filters. The spectra are obtained by measuring a series of natural bowlders(emeralds) samples. Principal component analysis(PCA) method is employed to get some spectral eigenvectors. During the fine classification, the color difference and RMS of spectrum difference between estimated and original spectra are used as criterion. It has been shown that 6 eigenvectors are enough to reconstruct reflection spectra of the testing samples.

  1. Multispectral fundus imaging for early detection of diabetic retinopathy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beach, James M.; Tiedeman, James S.; Hopkins, Mark F.; Sabharwal, Yashvinder S.

    1999-04-01

    Functional imaging of the retina and associated structures may provide information for early assessment of risks of developing retinopathy in diabetic patients. Here we show results of retinal oximetry performed using multi-spectral reflectance imaging techniques to assess hemoglobin (Hb) oxygen saturation (OS) in blood vessels of the inner retina and oxygen utilization at the optic nerve in diabetic patients without retinopathy and early disease during experimental hyperglycemia. Retinal images were obtained through a fundus camera and simultaneously recorded at up to four wavelengths using image-splitting modules coupled to a digital camera. Changes in OS in large retinal vessels, in average OS in disk tissue, and in the reduced state of cytochrome oxidase (CO) at the disk were determined from changes in reflectance associated with the oxidation/reduction states of Hb and CO. Step to high sugar lowered venous oxygen saturation to a degree dependent on disease duration. Moderate increase in sugar produced higher levels of reduced CO in both the disk and surrounding tissue without a detectable change in average tissue OS. Results suggest that regulation of retinal blood supply and oxygen consumption are altered by hyperglycemia and that such functional changes are present before clinical signs of retinopathy.

  2. Reproducible high-resolution multispectral image acquisition in dermatology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duliu, Alexandru; Gardiazabal, José; Lasser, Tobias; Navab, Nassir

    2015-07-01

    Multispectral image acquisitions are increasingly popular in dermatology, due to their improved spectral resolution which enables better tissue discrimination. Most applications however focus on restricted regions of interest, imaging only small lesions. In this work we present and discuss an imaging framework for high-resolution multispectral imaging on large regions of interest.

  3. A multispectral method of determining sea surface temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shenk, W. E.

    1972-01-01

    A multispectral method for determining sea surface temperatures is discussed. The specifications of the equipment and the atmospheric conditions required for successful multispectral data acquisition are described. Examples of data obtained in the North Atlantic Ocean are presented. The differences between the actual sea surface temperatures and the equivalent blackbody temperatures as determined by a radiometer are plotted.

  4. Two mirror objective design for multispectral remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, P. P.

    1982-01-01

    A two mirror flat field anastigmatic telescope was designed for multispectral sensing. The design was adapted to prism-type beamsplitting arrangements without loss of multispectral image quality by the addition of one refractive element. In addition to being relatively simple and mechanically insensitive, the design is immune to focus shift caused by index of refraction variation with temperature.

  5. Astronaut Jack Lousma works at Multispectral camera experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Astronaut Jack R. Lousma, Skylab 3 pilot, works at the S190A multispectral camera experiment in the Multiple Docking Adapter (MDA), seen from a color television transmission made by a TV camera aboard the Skylab space station cluster in Earth orbit. Lousma later used a small brush to clean the six lenses of the multispectral camera.

  6. Multispectral rock-type separation and classification.

    SciTech Connect

    Moya, Mary M.; Fogler, Robert Joseph; Paskaleva, Biliana; Hayat, Majeed M.

    2004-06-01

    This paper explores the possibility of separating and classifying remotely-sensed multispectral data from rocks and minerals onto seven geological rock-type groups. These groups are extracted from the general categories of metamorphic, igneous and sedimentary rocks. The study is performed under ideal conditions for which the data is generated according to laboratory hyperspectral data for the members, which are, in turn, passed through the Multi-spectral Thermal Imager (MTI) filters yielding 15 bands. The main challenge in separability is the small size of the training data sets, which initially did not permit direct application of Bayesian decision theory. To enable Bayseian classification, the original training data is linearly perturbed with the addition minerals, vegetation, soil, water and other valid impurities. As a result, the size of the training data is significantly increased and accurate estimates of the covariance matrices are achieved. In addition, a set of reduced (five) linearly-extracted canonical features that are optimal in providing the most important information about the data is determined. An alternative nonlinear feature-selection method is also employed based on spectral indices comprising a small subset of all possible ratios between bands. By applying three optimization strategies, combinations of two and three ratios are found that provide reliable separability and classification between all seven groups according to the Bhattacharyya distance. To set a benchmark to which the MTI capability in rock classification can be compared, an optimization strategy is performed for the selection of optimal multispectral filters, other than the MTI filters, and an improvement in classification is predicted.

  7. Multispectral fingerprint imaging for spoof detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nixon, Kristin A.; Rowe, Robert K.

    2005-03-01

    Fingerprint systems are the most widespread form of biometric authentication. Used in locations such as airports and in PDA's and laptops, fingerprint readers are becoming more common in everyday use. As they become more familiar, the security weaknesses of fingerprint sensors are becoming better known. Numerous websites now exist describing in detail how to create a fake fingerprint usable for spoofing a biometric system from both a cooperative user and from latent prints. While many commercial fingerprint readers claim to have some degree of spoof detection incorporated, they are still generally susceptible to spoof attempts using various artificial fingerprint samples made from gelatin or silicone or other materials and methods commonly available on the web. This paper describes a multispectral sensor that has been developed to collect data for spoof detection. The sensor has been designed to work in conjunction with a conventional optical fingerprint reader such that all images are collected during a single placement of the finger on the sensor. The multispectral imaging device captures sub-surface information about the finger that makes it very difficult to spoof. Four attributes of the finger that are collected with the multispectral imager will be described and demonstrated in this paper: spectral qualities of live skin, chromatic texture of skin, sub-surface image of live skin, and blanching on contact. Each of these attributes is well suited to discriminating against particular kinds of spoofing samples. A series of experiments was conducted to demonstrate the capabilities of the individual attributes as well as the collective spoof detection performance.

  8. A Field Evaluation of Airborne Techniques for Detection of Unexploded Ordnance

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, D.; Doll, W.E.; Hamlett, P.; Holladay, J.S.; Nyquist, J.E.; Smyre, J.; Gamey, T.J.

    1999-03-14

    US Defense Department estimates indicate that as many as 11 million acres of government land in the U. S. may contain unexploded ordnance (UXO), with the cost of identifying and disposing of this material estimated at nearly $500 billion. The size and character of the ordnance, types of interference, vegetation, geology, and topography vary from site to site. Because of size or composition, some ordnance is difficult to detect with any geophysical method, even under favorable soil and cultural interference conditions. For some sites, airborne methods may provide the most time and cost effective means for detection of UXO. Airborne methods offer lower risk to field crews from proximity to unstable ordnance, and less disturbance of sites that maybe environmentally sensitive. Data were acquired over a test site at Edwards AFB, CA using airborne magnetic, electromagnetic, multispectral and thermal sensors. Survey areas included sites where trenches might occur, and a test site in which we placed deactivated ordnance, ranging in size from small ''bomblets'' to large bombs. Magnetic data were then acquired with the Aerodat HM-3 system, which consists of three cesium magnetometers within booms extending to the front and sides of the helicopter, and mounted such that the helicopter can be flown within 3m of the surface. Electromagnetic data were acquired with an Aerodat 5 frequency coplanar induction system deployed as a sling load from a helicopter, with a sensor altitude of 15m. Surface data, acquired at selected sites, provide a comparison with airborne data. Multispectral and thermal data were acquired with a Daedelus AADS 1268 system. Preliminary analysis of the test data demonstrate the value of airborne systems for UXO detection and provide insight into improvements that might make the systems even more effective.

  9. Multispectral analysis of ocean dumped materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. W.

    1977-01-01

    Remotely sensed data were collected in conjunction with sea-truth measurements in three experiments in the New York Bight. Pollution features of primary interest were ocean dumped materials, such as sewage sludge and acid waste. Sewage-sludge and acid-waste plumes, including plumes from sewage sludge dumped by the 'line-dump' and 'spot-dump' methods, were located, identified, and mapped. Previously developed quantitative analysis techniques for determining quantitative distributions of materials in sewage sludge dumps were evaluated, along with multispectral analysis techniques developed to identify ocean dumped materials. Results of these experiments and the associated data analysis investigations are presented and discussed.

  10. Multispectral analysis of ocean dumped materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. W.

    1977-01-01

    Experiments conducted in the Atlantic coastal zone indicated that plumes resulting from ocean dumping of acid wastes and sewage sludge have unique spectral characteristics. Remotely sensed wide area synoptic coverage provided information on these pollution features that was not readily available from other sources. Aircraft remotely sensed photographic and multispectral scanner data were interpreted by two methods. First, qualitative analyses in which pollution features were located, mapped, and identified without concurrent sea truth and, second, quantitative analyses in which concurrently collected sea truth was used to calibrate the remotely sensed data and to determine quantitative distributions of one or more parameters in a plume.

  11. Simultaneous multispectral imaging using lenslet arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinnrichs, Michele; Jensen, James

    2013-03-01

    There is a need for small compact multispectral and hyperspectral imaging systems that simultaneously images in many spectral bands across the infrared spectral region from short to long-wave infrared. This is a challenge for conventional optics and usually requires large, costly and complex optical systems. However, with the advances in materials and photolithographic technology, Micro-Optical-Electrical-Machine-Systems (MOEMS) can meet these goals. In this paper Pacific Advanced Technology and ECBC will present the work that we are doing under a SBIR contract to the US Army using a MOEMS based diffractive optical lenslet array to perform simultaneous multispectral and hyperspectral imaging with relatively high spatial resolution. Under this program we will develop a proof of concept system that demonstrates how a diffractive optical (DO) lenslet array can image 1024 x 1024 pixels in 16 colors every frame of the camera. Each color image has a spatial resolution of 256 x 256 pixels with an IFOV of 1.7 mrads and FOV of 25 degrees. The purpose of this work is to simultaneously image multiple colors each frame and reduce the temporal changes between colors that are apparent in sequential multispectral imaging. Translating the lenslet array will collect hyperspectral image data cubes as will be explained later in this paper. Because the optics is integrated with the detector the entire multispectral/hyperspectral system can be contained in a miniature package. The spectral images are collected simultaneously allowing high resolution spectral-spatial-temporal information each frame of the camera. Thus enabling the implementation of spectral-temporal-spatial algorithms in real-time with high sensitivity for the detection of weak signals in a high background clutter environment with low sensitivity to camera motion. Using MOEMS actuation the DO lenslet array is translated along the optical axis to complete the full hyperspectral data cube in just a few frames of the

  12. Vector anisotropic filter for multispectral image denoising

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Said, Ahmed; Foufou, Sebti; Hadjidj, Rachid

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, we propose an approach to extend the application of anisotropic Gaussian filtering for multi- spectral image denoising. We study the case of images corrupted with additive Gaussian noise and use sparse matrix transform for noise covariance matrix estimation. Specifically we show that if an image has a low local variability, we can make the assumption that in the noisy image, the local variability originates from the noise variance only. We apply the proposed approach for the denoising of multispectral images corrupted by noise and compare the proposed method with some existing methods. Results demonstrate an improvement in the denoising performance.

  13. Multispectral scanner imagery for plant community classification.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Driscoll, R. S.; Spencer, M. M.

    1973-01-01

    Optimum channel selection among 12 channels of multispectral scanner imagery identified six as providing the best information for computerized classification of 11 plant communities and two nonvegetation classes. Intensive preprocessing of the spectral data was required to eliminate bidirectional reflectance effects of the spectral imagery caused by scanner view angle and varying geometry of the plant canopy. Generalized plant community types - forest, grassland, and hydrophytic systems - were acceptably classified based on ecological analysis. Serious, but soluble, errors occurred with attempts to classify specific community types within the grassland system. However, special clustering analyses provided for improved classification of specific grassland communities.

  14. SWNT Imaging Using Multispectral Image Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blades, Michael; Pirbhai, Massooma; Rotkin, Slava V.

    2012-02-01

    A flexible optical system was developed to image carbon single-wall nanotube (SWNT) photoluminescence using the multispectral capabilities of a typical CCD camcorder. The built in Bayer filter of the CCD camera was utilized, using OpenCV C++ libraries for image processing, to decompose the image generated in a high magnification epifluorescence microscope setup into three pseudo-color channels. By carefully calibrating the filter beforehand, it was possible to extract spectral data from these channels, and effectively isolate the SWNT signals from the background.

  15. Multi-Spectral Solar Telescope Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, Arthur B. C., Jr.; Lindblom, Joakim F.; O'Neal, Ray H.; Allen, Maxwell J.; Barbee, Troy W., Jr.; Hoover, Richard B.

    1990-01-01

    This paper descibes the design and the characteristics of the Multispectral Solar Telescope Array (MSSTA), a new rocket spectroheliograph to be launched in August 1990. The MSSTA includes five multilayer Ritchey-Chretien telescopes covering the spectral range 150-300 A and eight multilayer Herschelian telescopes covering the spectral range 40-1550 A, making it possible to obtain spectrohelipgrams over the soft X-ray/extreme UV/FUV spectral range. The MSSTA is expected to obtain information regarding the structure and dynamics of the solar atmosphere in the temperature range 10 to the 4th-10 to the 7th K.

  16. Multispectral-image fusion using neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kagel, Joseph H.; Platt, C. A.; Donaven, T. W.; Samstad, Eric A.

    1990-08-01

    A prototype system is being developed to demonstrate the use of neural network hardware to fuse multispectral imagery. This system consists of a neural network IC on a motherboard a circuit card assembly and a set of software routines hosted by a PC-class computer. Research in support of this consists of neural network simulations fusing 4 to 7 bands of Landsat imagery and fusing (separately) multiple bands of synthetic imagery. The simulations results and a description of the prototype system are presented. 1.

  17. Multispectral image fusion using neural networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kagel, J. H.; Platt, C. A.; Donaven, T. W.; Samstad, E. A.

    1990-01-01

    A prototype system is being developed to demonstrate the use of neural network hardware to fuse multispectral imagery. This system consists of a neural network IC on a motherboard, a circuit card assembly, and a set of software routines hosted by a PC-class computer. Research in support of this consists of neural network simulations fusing 4 to 7 bands of Landsat imagery and fusing (separately) multiple bands of synthetic imagery. The simulations, results, and a description of the prototype system are presented.

  18. Fusion of multisensor, multispectral, and defocused images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahida, Mohd.; Guptab, Sumana

    2005-10-01

    Fusion is basically extraction of best of inputs and conveying it to the output. In this paper, we present an image fusion technique using the concept of perceptual information across the bands. This algorithm is relevant to visual sensitivity and tested by merging multisensor, multispectral and Defoucused images. Fusion is achieved through the formation of one fused pyramid using the DWT coefficients from the decomposed pyramids of the source images. The fused image is obtained through conventional discrete wavelet transform (DWT) reconstruction process. Results obtained using the proposed method show a significant reduction of distortion artifacts and a large preservation of spectral information.

  19. A multisensor system for airborne surveillance of oil pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edgerton, A. T.; Ketchal, R.; Catoe, C.

    1973-01-01

    The U.S. Coast Guard is developing a prototype airborne oil surveillance system for use in its Marine Environmental Protection Program. The prototype system utilizes an X-band side-looking radar, a 37-GHz imaging microwave radiometer, a multichannel line scanner, and a multispectral low light level system. The system is geared to detecting and mapping oil spills and potential pollution violators anywhere within a 25 nmi range of the aircraft flight track under all but extreme weather conditions. The system provides for false target discrimination and maximum identification of spilled materials. The system also provides an automated detection alarm, as well as a color display to achieve maximum coupling between the sensor data and the equipment operator.

  20. High spectral resolution airborne short wave infrared hyperspectral imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Liqing; Yuan, Liyin; Wang, Yueming; Zhuang, Xiaoqiong

    2016-05-01

    Short Wave InfraRed(SWIR) spectral imager is good at detecting difference between materials and penetrating fog and mist. High spectral resolution SWIR hyperspectral imager plays a key role in developing earth observing technology. Hyperspectral data cube can help band selections that is very important for multispectral imager design. Up to now, the spectral resolution of many SWIR hyperspectral imagers is about 10nm. A high sensitivity airborne SWIR hyperspectral imager with narrower spectral band will be presented. The system consists of TMA telescope, slit, spectrometer with planar blazed grating and high sensitivity MCT FPA. The spectral sampling interval is about 3nm. The IFOV is 0.5mrad. To eliminate the influence of the thermal background, a cold shield is designed in the dewar. The pixel number of spatial dimension is 640. Performance measurement in laboratory and image analysis for flight test will also be presented.

  1. Multiresolution processing for fractal analysis of airborne remotely sensed data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaggi, S.; Quattrochi, D.; Lam, N.

    1992-01-01

    Images acquired by NASA's Calibrated Airborne Multispectral Scanner are used to compute the fractal dimension as a function of spatial resolution. Three methods are used to determine the fractal dimension: Shelberg's (1982, 1983) line-divider method, the variogram method, and the triangular prism method. A description of these methods and the result of applying these methods to a remotely-sensed image is also presented. The scanner data was acquired over western Puerto Rico in January, 1990 over land and water. The aim is to study impacts of man-induced changes on land that affect sedimentation into the near-shore environment. The data were obtained over the same area at three different pixel sizes: 10 m, 20 m, and 30 m.

  2. Modeling of estuarne chlorophyll a from an airborne scanner

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Khorram, Siamak; Catts, Glenn P.; Cloern, James E.; Knight, Allen W.

    1987-01-01

    Near simultaneous collection of 34 surface water samples and airborne multispectral scanner data provided input for regression models developed to predict surface concentrations of estuarine chlorophyll a. Two wavelength ratios were employed in model development. The ratios werechosen to capitalize on the spectral characteristics of chlorophyll a, while minimizing atmospheric influences. Models were then applied to data previously acquired over the study area thre years earlier. Results are in the form of color-coded displays of predicted chlorophyll a concentrations and comparisons of the agreement among measured surface samples and predictions basedon coincident remotely sensed data. The influence of large variations in fresh-water inflow to the estuary are clearly apparent in the results. The synoptic view provided by remote sensing is another method of examining important estuarine dynamics difficult to observe from in situ sampling alone.

  3. Multispectral imaging approach for simplified non-invasive in-vivo evaluation of gingival erythema

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckhard, Timo; Valero, Eva M.; Nieves, Juan L.; Gallegos-Rueda, José M.; Mesa, Francisco

    2012-03-01

    Erythema is a common visual sign of gingivitis. In this work, a new and simple low-cost image capture and analysis method for erythema assessment is proposed. The method is based on digital still images of gingivae and applied on a pixel-by-pixel basis. Multispectral images are acquired with a conventional digital camera and multiplexed LED illumination panels at 460nm and 630nm peak wavelength. An automatic work-flow segments teeth from gingiva regions in the images and creates a map of local blood oxygenation levels, which relates to the presence of erythema. The map is computed from the ratio of the two spectral images. An advantage of the proposed approach is that the whole process is easy to manage by dental health care professionals in clinical environment.

  4. Computer-aided analysis of Skylab multispectral scanner data in mountainous terrain for land use, forestry, water resource, and geologic applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffer, R. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. One of the most significant results of this Skylab research involved the geometric correction and overlay of the Skylab multispectral scanner data with the LANDSAT multispectral scanner data, and also with a set of topographic data, including elevation, slope, and aspect. The Skylab S192 multispectral scanner data had distinct differences in noise level of the data in the various wavelength bands. Results of the temporal evaluation of the SL-2 and SL-3 photography were found to be particularly important for proper interpretation of the computer-aided analysis of the SL-2 and SL-3 multispectral scanner data. There was a quality problem involving the ringing effect introduced by digital filtering. The modified clustering technique was found valuable when working with multispectral scanner data involving many wavelength bands and covering large geographic areas. Analysis of the SL-2 scanner data involved classification of major cover types and also forest cover types. Comparison of the results obtained wth Skylab MSS data and LANDSAT MSS data indicated that the improved spectral resolution of the Skylab scanner system enabled a higher classification accuracy to be obtained for forest cover types, although the classification performance for major cover types was not significantly different.

  5. Spatially continuous mapping of snow depth in high alpine catchments using digital photogrammetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bühler, Y.; Marty, M.; Egli, L.; Veitinger, J.; Jonas, T.; Thee, P.; Ginzler, C.

    2014-06-01

    Information on snow depth and its spatial distribution is crucial for many applications in snow and avalanche research as well as in hydrology and ecology. Today snow depth distributions are usually estimated using point measurements performed by automated weather stations and observers in the field combined with interpolation algorithms. However, these methodologies are not able to capture the high spatial variability of the snow depth distribution present in alpine terrain. Continuous and accurate snow depth mapping has been done using laser scanning but this method can only cover limited areas and is expensive. We use the airborne ADS80 opto-electronic scanner with 0.25 m spatial resolution to derive digital surface models (DSMs) of winter and summer terrains in the neighborhood of Davos, Switzerland. The DSMs are generated using photogrammetric image correlation techniques based on the multispectral nadir and backward looking sensor data. We compare these products with the following independent datasets acquired simultaneously: (a) manually measured snow depth plots (b) differential Global Navigation Satellite System (dGNSS) points (c) Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) and (d) Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) datasets, to assess the accuracy of the photogrammetric products. The results of this investigation demonstrate the potential of optical scanners for wide-area, continuous and high spatial resolution snow-depth mapping over alpine catchments above tree line.

  6. [Air-borne disease].

    PubMed

    Lameiro Vilariño, Carmen; del Campo Pérez, Victor M; Alonso Bürger, Susana; Felpeto Nodar, Irene; Guimarey Pérez, Rosa; Pérez Alvarellos, Alberto

    2003-11-01

    Respiratory protection is a factor which worries nursing professionals who take care of patients susceptible of transmitting microorganisms through the air more as every day passes. This type of protection covers the use of surgical or hygienic masks against the transmission of infection by airborne drops to the use of highly effective masks or respirators against the transmission of airborne diseases such as tuberculosis or SARS, a recently discovered disease. The adequate choice of this protective device and its correct use are fundamental in order to have an effective protection for exposed personnel. The authors summarize the main protective respiratory devices used by health workers, their characteristics and degree of effectiveness, as well as the circumstances under which each device is indicated for use. PMID:14705591

  7. Airborne forest fire research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattingly, G. S.

    1974-01-01

    The research relating to airborne fire fighting systems is reviewed to provide NASA/Langley Research Center with current information on the use of aircraft in forest fire operations, and to identify research requirements for future operations. A literature survey, interview of forest fire service personnel, analysis and synthesis of data from research reports and independent conclusions, and recommendations for future NASA-LRC programs are included.

  8. MLS airborne antenna research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, C. L.; Burnside, W. D.

    1975-01-01

    The geometrical theory of diffraction was used to analyze the elevation plane pattern of on-aircraft antennas. The radiation patterns for basic elements (infinitesimal dipole, circumferential and axial slot) mounted on fuselage of various aircrafts with or without radome included were calculated and compared well with experimental results. Error phase plots were also presented. The effects of radiation patterns and error phase plots on the polarization selection for the MLS airborne antenna are discussed.

  9. Airborne laser scanning for high-resolution mapping of Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Csatho, Bea; Schenk, Toni; Krabill, William; Wilson, Terry; Lyons, William; McKenzie, Garry; Hallam, Cheryl; Manizade, Serdar; Paulsen, Timothy

    In order to evaluate the potential of airborne laser scanning for topographic mapping in Antarctica and to establish calibration/validation sites for NASA's Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) altimeter mission, NASA, the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF), and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) joined forces to collect high-resolution airborne laser scanning data.In a two-week campaign during the 2001-2002 austral summer, NASA's Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM) system was used to collect data over several sites in the McMurdo Sound area of Antarctica (Figure 1a). From the recorded signals, NASA computed laser points and The Ohio State University (OSU) completed the elaborate computation/verification of high-resolution Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) in 2003. This article reports about the DEM generation and some exemplary results from scientists using the geomorphologic information from the DEMs during the 2003-2004 field season.

  10. An airborne thematic thermal infrared and electro-optical imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiuhong; Shu, Peter

    2011-08-01

    This paper describes an advanced Airborne Thematic Thermal InfraRed and Electro-Optical Imaging System (ATTIREOIS) and its potential applications. ATTIREOIS sensor payload consists of two sets of advanced Focal Plane Arrays (FPAs) - a broadband Thermal InfraRed Sensor (TIRS) and a four (4) band Multispectral Electro-Optical Sensor (MEOS) to approximate Landsat ETM+ bands 1,2,3,4, and 6, and LDCM bands 2,3,4,5, and 10+11. The airborne TIRS is 3-axis stabilized payload capable of providing 3D photogrammetric images with a 1,850 pixel swathwidth via pushbroom operation. MEOS has a total of 116 million simultaneous sensor counts capable of providing 3 cm spatial resolution multispectral orthophotos for continuous airborne mapping. ATTIREOIS is a complete standalone and easy-to-use portable imaging instrument for light aerial vehicle deployment. Its miniaturized backend data system operates all ATTIREOIS imaging sensor components, an INS/GPS, and an e-Gimbal™ Control Electronic Unit (ECU) with a data throughput of 300 Megabytes/sec. The backend provides advanced onboard processing, performing autonomous raw sensor imagery development, TIRS image track-recovery reconstruction, LWIR/VNIR multi-band co-registration, and photogrammetric image processing. With geometric optics and boresight calibrations, the ATTIREOIS data products are directly georeferenced with an accuracy of approximately one meter. A prototype ATTIREOIS has been configured. Its sample LWIR/EO image data will be presented. Potential applications of ATTIREOIS include: 1) Providing timely and cost-effective, precisely and directly georeferenced surface emissive and solar reflective LWIR/VNIR multispectral images via a private Google Earth Globe to enhance NASA's Earth science research capabilities; and 2) Underflight satellites to support satellite measurement calibration and validation observations.

  11. Airborne field strength monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bredemeyer, J.; Kleine-Ostmann, T.; Schrader, T.; Münter, K.; Ritter, J.

    2007-06-01

    In civil and military aviation, ground based navigation aids (NAVAIDS) are still crucial for flight guidance even though the acceptance of satellite based systems (GNSS) increases. Part of the calibration process for NAVAIDS (ILS, DME, VOR) is to perform a flight inspection according to specified methods as stated in a document (DOC8071, 2000) by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). One major task is to determine the coverage, or, in other words, the true signal-in-space field strength of a ground transmitter. This has always been a challenge to flight inspection up to now, since, especially in the L-band (DME, 1GHz), the antenna installed performance was known with an uncertainty of 10 dB or even more. In order to meet ICAO's required accuracy of ±3 dB it is necessary to have a precise 3-D antenna factor of the receiving antenna operating on the airborne platform including all losses and impedance mismatching. Introducing precise, effective antenna factors to flight inspection to achieve the required accuracy is new and not published in relevant papers yet. The authors try to establish a new balanced procedure between simulation and validation by airborne and ground measurements. This involves the interpretation of measured scattering parameters gained both on the ground and airborne in comparison with numerical results obtained by the multilevel fast multipole algorithm (MLFMA) accelerated method of moments (MoM) using a complex geometric model of the aircraft. First results will be presented in this paper.

  12. Mutagenicity of airborne particles.

    PubMed

    Chrisp, C E; Fisher, G L

    1980-09-01

    The physical and chemical properties of airborne particles are important for the interpretation of their potential biologic significance as genotoxic hazards. For polydisperse particle size distributions, the smallest, most respirable particles are generally the most mutagenic. Particulate collection for testing purposes should be designed to reduce artifact formation and allow condensation of mutagenic compounds. Other critical factors such as UV irradiation, wind direction, chemical reactivity, humidity, sample storage, and temperature of combustion are important. Application of chemical extraction methods and subsequent class fractionation techniques influence the observed mutagenic activity. Particles from urban air, coal fly ash, automobile and diesel exhaust, agricultural burning and welding fumes contain primarily direct-acting mutagens. Cigarette smoke condensate, smoke from charred meat and protein pyrolysates, kerosene soot and cigarette smoke condensates contain primarily mutagens which require metabolic activation. Fractionation coupled with mutagenicity testing indicates that the most potent mutagens are found in the acidic fractions of urban air, coal fly ash, and automobile diesel exhaust, whereas mutagens in rice straw smoke and cigarette smoke condensate are found primarily in the basic fractions. The interaction of the many chemical compounds in complex mixtures from airborne particles is likely to be important in determining mutagenic or comutagenic potentials. Because the mode of exposure is generally frequent and prolonged, the presence of tumor-promoting agents in complex mixtures may be a major factor in evaluation of the carcinogenic potential of airborne particles. PMID:7005667

  13. Airborne wireless communication systems, airborne communication methods, and communication methods

    DOEpatents

    Deaton, Juan D.; Schmitt, Michael J.; Jones, Warren F.

    2011-12-13

    An airborne wireless communication system includes circuitry configured to access information describing a configuration of a terrestrial wireless communication base station that has become disabled. The terrestrial base station is configured to implement wireless communication between wireless devices located within a geographical area and a network when the terrestrial base station is not disabled. The circuitry is further configured, based on the information, to configure the airborne station to have the configuration of the terrestrial base station. An airborne communication method includes answering a 911 call from a terrestrial cellular wireless phone using an airborne wireless communication system.

  14. Multispectral multisensor image fusion using wavelet transforms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lemeshewsky, George P.

    1999-01-01

    Fusion techniques can be applied to multispectral and higher spatial resolution panchromatic images to create a composite image that is easier to interpret than the individual images. Wavelet transform-based multisensor, multiresolution fusion (a type of band sharpening) was applied to Landsat thematic mapper (TM) multispectral and coregistered higher resolution SPOT panchromatic images. The objective was to obtain increased spatial resolution, false color composite products to support the interpretation of land cover types wherein the spectral characteristics of the imagery are preserved to provide the spectral clues needed for interpretation. Since the fusion process should not introduce artifacts, a shift invariant implementation of the discrete wavelet transform (SIDWT) was used. These results were compared with those using the shift variant, discrete wavelet transform (DWT). Overall, the process includes a hue, saturation, and value color space transform to minimize color changes, and a reported point-wise maximum selection rule to combine transform coefficients. The performance of fusion based on the SIDWT and DWT was evaluated with a simulated TM 30-m spatial resolution test image and a higher resolution reference. Simulated imagery was made by blurring higher resolution color-infrared photography with the TM sensors' point spread function. The SIDWT based technique produced imagery with fewer artifacts and lower error between fused images and the full resolution reference. Image examples with TM and SPOT 10-m panchromatic illustrate the reduction in artifacts due to the SIDWT based fusion.

  15. Multi-spectral imaging of oxygen saturation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savelieva, Tatiana A.; Stratonnikov, Aleksander A.; Loschenov, Victor B.

    2008-06-01

    The system of multi-spectral imaging of oxygen saturation is an instrument that can record both spectral and spatial information about a sample. In this project, the spectral imaging technique is used for monitoring of oxygen saturation of hemoglobin in human tissues. This system can be used for monitoring spatial distribution of oxygen saturation in photodynamic therapy, surgery or sports medicine. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy in the visible range is an effective and extensively used technique for the non-invasive study and characterization of various biological tissues. In this article, a short review of modeling techniques being currently in use for diffuse reflection from semi-infinite turbid media is presented. A simple and practical model for use with a real-time imaging system is proposed. This model is based on linear approximation of the dependence of the diffuse reflectance coefficient on relation between absorbance and reduced scattering coefficient. This dependence was obtained with the Monte Carlo simulation of photon propagation in turbid media. Spectra of the oxygenated and deoxygenated forms of hemoglobin differ mostly in the red area (520 - 600 nm) and have several characteristic points there. Thus four band-pass filters were used for multi-spectral imaging. After having measured the reflectance, the data obtained are used for fitting the concentration of oxygenated and free hemoglobin, and hemoglobin oxygen saturation.

  16. Radiometric Characterization of IKONOS Multispectral Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pagnutti, Mary; Ryan, Robert E.; Kelly, Michelle; Holekamp, Kara; Zanoni, Vicki; Thome, Kurtis; Schiller, Stephen

    2002-01-01

    A radiometric characterization of Space Imaging's IKONOS 4-m multispectral imagery has been performed by a NASA funded team from the John C. Stennis Space Center (SSC), the University of Arizona Remote Sensing Group (UARSG), and South Dakota State University (SDSU). Both intrinsic radiometry and the effects of Space Imaging processing on radiometry were investigated. Relative radiometry was examined with uniform Antarctic and Saharan sites. Absolute radiometric calibration was performed using reflectance-based vicarious calibration methods on several uniform sites imaged by IKONOS, coincident with ground-based surface and atmospheric measurements. Ground-based data and the IKONOS spectral response function served as input to radiative transfer codes to generate a Top-of-Atmosphere radiance estimate. Calibration coefficients derived from each vicarious calibration were combined to generate an IKONOS radiometric gain coefficient for each multispectral band assuming a linear response over the full dynamic range of the instrument. These calibration coefficients were made available to Space Imaging, which subsequently adopted them by updating its initial set of calibration coefficients. IKONOS imagery procured through the NASA Scientific Data Purchase program is processed with or without a Modulation Transfer Function Compensation kernel. The radiometric effects of this kernel on various scene types was also investigated. All imagery characterized was procured through the NASA Scientific Data Purchase program.

  17. Multispectral fluorescence imaging device for malignancy detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bocher, Thomas; Luhmann, Till; Baier, S.; Dierolf, Marc; Naumann, M.; Beuthan, Juergen; Berlien, Hans-Peter; Mueller, Gerhard J.

    1997-12-01

    In medical diagnosis of superficial lesions at inner or outer surfaces of the human body fluorescence imaging techniques are able to deliver additional information on the metabolic and structural state of the observed tissue. To subtract background fluorescence and to achieve a differential diagnosis a multispectral analysis in several wavelength windows is needed. Additionally, special image algorithms have to be applied which depend on the examined malignancy. For this purpose a multispectral fluorescence imaging device was developed. It can be used both endoscopically and in combination with a standard operational microscope from Carl Zeiss, Germany. In this paper, the device and first clinical results are presented. The device was built to detect superficial lesions like tumors, inflammations, etc. Target chromophores are NADH, Protoporphyrin IX, collagen and other. The measured optical bands are (405 plus or minus 5) nm, (442 plus or minus 5) nm, (458 plus or minus 5) nm, (550 plus or minus 5) nm, (630 plus or minus 5) nm and (690 plus or minus 5) nm. A special UV-source with a liquid light guide is used as the illumination source in two excitation bands of (365 plus or minus 10) nm and (420 plus or minus 20) nm. First clinical investigations of superficial malignancies like squamous cell carcinoma and basalioma are presented.

  18. Interferometry based multispectral photon-limited 2D and 3D integral image encryption employing the Hartley transform.

    PubMed

    Muniraj, Inbarasan; Guo, Changliang; Lee, Byung-Geun; Sheridan, John T

    2015-06-15

    We present a method of securing multispectral 3D photon-counted integral imaging (PCII) using classical Hartley Transform (HT) based encryption by employing optical interferometry. This method has the simultaneous advantages of minimizing complexity by eliminating the need for holography recording and addresses the phase sensitivity problem encountered when using digital cameras. These together with single-channel multispectral 3D data compactness, the inherent properties of the classical photon counting detection model, i.e. sparse sensing and the capability for nonlinear transformation, permits better authentication of the retrieved 3D scene at various depth cues. Furthermore, the proposed technique works for both spatially and temporally incoherent illumination. To validate the proposed technique simulations were carried out for both the 2D and 3D cases. Experimental data is processed and the results support the feasibility of the encryption method. PMID:26193568

  19. Experiences with digital processing of images at INPE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mascarenhas, N. D. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1984-01-01

    Four different research experiments with digital image processing at INPE will be described: (1) edge detection by hypothesis testing; (2) image interpolation by finite impulse response filters; (3) spatial feature extraction methods in multispectral classification; and (4) translational image registration by sequential tests of hypotheses.

  20. Airborne Submillimeter Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zmuidzinas, J.

    1998-01-01

    This is the final technical report for NASA-Ames grant NAG2-1068 to Caltech, entitled "Airborne Submillimeter Spectroscopy", which extended over the period May 1, 1996 through January 31, 1998. The grant was funded by the NASA airborne astronomy program, during a period of time after the Kuiper Airborne Observatory was no longer operational. Instead. this funding program was intended to help develop instrument concepts and technology for the upcoming SOFIA (Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy) project. SOFIA, which is funded by NASA and is now being carried out by a consortium lead by USRA (Universities Space Research Association), will be a 747 aircraft carrying a 2.5 meter diameter telescope. The purpose of our grant was to fund the ongoing development of sensitive heterodyne receivers for the submillimeter band (500-1200 GHz), using sensitive superconducting (SIS) detectors. In 1997 July we submitted a proposal to USRA to construct a heterodyne instrument for SOFIA. Our proposal was successful [1], and we are now continuing our airborne astronomy effort with funding from USRA. A secondary purpose of the NAG2-1068 grant was to continue the anaIN'sis of astronomical data collected with an earlier instrument which was flown on the NASA Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO). The KAO instrument and the astronomical studies which were carried out with it were supported primarily under another grant, NAG2-744, which extended over October 1, 1991 through Januarv 31, 1997. For a complete description of the astronomical data and its anailysis, we refer the reader to the final technical report for NAG2-744, which was submitted to NASA on December 1. 1997. Here we report on the SIS detector development effort for SOFIA carried out under NAG2-1068. The main result of this effort has been the demonstration of SIS mixers using a new superconducting material niobium titanium nitride (NbTiN), which promises to deliver dramatic improvements in sensitivity in the 700

  1. Mapping cotton root rot infestations over a 10-year interval with airborne multispectral imagery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton root rot, caused by the pathogen Phymatotrichopsis omnivora, is a very serious and destructive disease of cotton grown in the southwestern and south central U.S. Accurate information regarding temporal changes of cotton root rot infestations within fields is important for the management and c...

  2. A near infrared vegetation index formed with airborne multispectral scanner data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elvidge, Christopher D.; Rock, Barrett N.

    1987-01-01

    A near infrared vegetation index (NIVI) has been formed with the 1.24 and 1.65 micron bands on the NS001 Thematic Mapper Simulator. The NIVI was compared to the more traditional Perpendicular Vegetation Index (PVI) formed with the 0.66 and 0.83 micron bands. The PVI was found to be less susceptible to problems with rock and soil spectral variations than the VIVI.

  3. Multispectral Imaging Systems for Airborne Remote Sensing to Support Site-Specific Agricultural Management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Remote sensing has shown promise as a tool for site-specific management in agricultural application and production. Earth-observing satellite systems have an advantage for large-scale analysis at regional levels but are limited in spatial resolution. High-resolution satellite systems have been avail...

  4. Radiometric calibration of an airborne multispectral scanner. [of Thematic Mapper Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markham, Brian L.; Ahmad, Suraiya P.; Jackson, Ray D.; Moran, M. S.; Biggar, Stuart F.; Gellman, David I.; Slater, Philip N.

    1991-01-01

    The absolute radiometric calibration of the NS001 Thematic Mapper Simulator reflective channels was examined based on laboratory tests and in-flight comparisons to ground measurements. The NS001 data are calibrated in-flight by reference to the NS001 internal integrating sphere source. This source's power supply or monitoring circuitry exhibited greater instability in-flight during 1988-1989 than in the laboratory. Extrapolating laboratory behavior to in-flight data resulted in 7-20 percent radiance errors relative to ground measurements and atmospheric modeling. Assuming constancy in the source's output between laboraotry and in-flight resulted in generally smaller errors. Upgrades to the source's power supply and monitoring circuitry in 1990 improved its in-flight stability, though in-flight ground reflectance based calibration tests have not yet been performed.

  5. Estimating hourly crop ET using a two-source energy balance model and multispectral airborne imagery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Efficient water use through improved irrigation scheduling is expected to moderate fast declining groundwater levels and improve sustainability of the Ogallala Aquifer. Thus, an accurate estimation of spatial actual evapotranspiration (ET) is needed for this purpose. Therefore, during 2007, the Bush...

  6. Mapping forest stand complexity for woodland caribou habitat assessment using multispectral airborne imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, W.; Hu, B.; Woods, M.

    2014-11-01

    The decline of the woodland caribou population is a result of their habitat loss. To conserve the habitat of the woodland caribou and protect it from extinction, it is critical to accurately characterize and monitor its habitat. Conventionally, products derived from low to medium spatial resolution remote sensing data, such as land cover classification and vegetation indices are used for wildlife habitat assessment. These products fail to provide information on the structure complexities of forest canopies which reflect important characteristics of caribou's habitats. Recent studies have employed the LiDAR system (Light Detection And Ranging) to directly retrieve the three dimensional forest attributes. Although promising results have been achieved, the acquisition cost of LiDAR data is very high. In this study, utilizing the very high spatial resolution imagery in characterizing the structural development the of forest canopies was exploited. A stand based image texture analysis was performed to predict forest succession stages. The results were demonstrated to be consistent with those derived from LiDAR data.

  7. Comparison of airborne multispectral and hyperspectral imagery for mapping cotton root rot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton root rot, caused by the soilborne fungus, Phymatotrichum omnivorum, is a major cotton disease affecting cotton production in the southwestern and south central U.S. Accurate delineation of root rot infestations is necessary for cost-effective management of the disease. The objective of this s...

  8. Change detection of cotton root rot infection over a 10-year interval using airborne multispectral imagery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton root rot is a very serious and destructive disease of cotton grown in the southwestern and south central United States. Accurate information regarding the spatial and temporal infections of the disease within fields is important for effective management and control of the disease. The objecti...

  9. Mapping ET at high resolution in an advective semi-arid environment with airborne multispectral imagery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Periodic and accurate estimates of spatially distributed evapotranspiration (ET) are essential for managing water in irrigated regions and in hydrologic modeling. In this study, METRIC (Mapping ET at high Resolution with Internalized Calibration), an energy balance algorithm originally developed for...

  10. Evaluating spectral measures derived from airborne multispectral imagery for detecting cotton root rot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton root rot, caused by the soilborne fungus Phymatotrichopsis omnivore, is one of the most destructive plant diseases occurring throughout the southwestern United States. This disease has plagued the cotton industry for more than 100 years, but effective practices for its control are still lacki...

  11. ET mapping with METRIC algorithm using airborne high resolution multispectral remote sensing imagery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Routine and accurate estimates of spatially distributed evapotranspiration (ET) are essential for managing water resources particularly in irrigated regions such as the U.S. Southern High Plains. For instance, ET maps would assist in the improvement of the Ogallala Aquifer ground water management. M...

  12. Multispectral Imaging Systems for Airborne Remote Sensing to Support Agricultural Production Management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Remote sensing has shown promise as a tool for managing agricultural application and production. Earth-observing satellite systems have an advantage for large-scale analysis at regional levels but are limited in spatial resolution. High-resolution satellite systems have been available in recent year...

  13. Monitoring cotton root rot progression within a growing season using airborne multispectral imagery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton root rot, caused by the fungus Phymatotrichopsis omnivora, is a serious and destructive disease affecting cotton production in the southwestern United States. Accurate delineation of cotton root rot infections is important for cost-effective management of the disease. The objective of this st...

  14. Comparison of airborne multispectral and hyperspectral imagery for mapping cotton root rot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton root rot caused by the soilborne fungus, Phymatotrichum omnivorum, is a major cotton disease affecting cotton production in the southwestern and south central U.S. Accurate delineation of root rot infestations is necessary for cost-effective management of the disease. The objective of this st...

  15. Assessment of soybean injury from glyphosate using airborne multispectral remote sensing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND: Glyphosate drift onto off-target sensitive crops can reduce growth and yield, and is of great concern to growers and pesticide applicators. Detection of herbicide injury using biological responses is tedious, so more convenient and rapid detection methods are needed. The objective of thi...

  16. Airborne multi-spectral remote sensing with ground truth for areawide pest management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scientists and researchers have been developing, integrating, and evaluating multiple strategies and technologies into a systems approach for management of field crop insect pests. Remote sensing along with Global Positioning Systems, Geographic Information Systems, and variable rate technology are...

  17. Airborne multispectral remote sensing with ground truth for areawide pest management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scientists and engineers in areawide pest management programs have been developing, integrating, and evaluating multiple strategies and technologies into a systems approach for management of field crop insect pests. Remote sensing along with global positioning systems, geographic information system...

  18. Use of Airborne Multi-Spectral Imagery in Pest Management Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scientists and researchers have been developing, integrating, and evaluating multiple strategies and technologies into a systems approach for management of field crop insect pests. Remote sensing along with Global Positioning Systems, Geographic Information Systems, and variable rate technology are...

  19. Retrieval of aerosol optical thickness over land from airborne polarized measurements in Tianjin and Tangshan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Han; Sun, Xiaobing; Hou, Weizhen; Chen, Cheng; Hong, Jin

    2015-03-01

    New developed sensor was called Atmosphere Multi-angle Polarization Radiometer (AMPR). It provides airborne multi-spectral, multi-angular and polarized measurements. Based on the measurements, a method to retrieve aerosol optical thickness (AOT) was developed. To reduce the ambiguity in retrieval algorithm, the key characteristics of aerosol model over East Asia are constrained. Initial surface reflectance was estimated from measurements at 1640 nm. With iteration the surface polarized reflectance tends to the real value together with AOT. Retrieved cases were selected from measurements in Tianjin. Validation between AOTs from AMPR and CE318 is encouraging. The AOTs along the track shows reasonable temporal and spatial variation.

  20. Alternative analysis of airborne laser data collected within conventional multi-parameter airborne geophysical surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahl, Andreas; Supper, R.; Motschka, K.; Schattauer, I.

    2010-05-01

    For the interpretation of airborne gamma-ray spectrometry as well as airborne electromagnetics it is of great importance to determine the distance between the geophysical sensor and the ground surface. Since radar altimeters do not penetrate vegetation, laser altimeters became popular in airborne geophysics over the past years. Currently the airborne geophysical platform of the Geological Survey of Austria (GBA) is equipped with a Riegl LD90-3800VHS-FLP high resolution laser altimeter, measuring the distances according to the first and the last reflected pulse. The goal of the presented study was to explore the possibilities of deriving additional information about the survey area from the laser data and to determine the accuracy of such results. On one hand the difference between the arrival time of the first and the last reflected pulse can be used to determine the height of the vegetation. This parameter is for example important for the correction of damping effects on airborne gamma-ray measurements caused by vegetation. Moreover especially for groundwater studies at catchment scale, this parameter can also be applied to support the spatial assessment of evapotranspiration. In combination with the altitude above geoid, determined by a GPS receiver, a rough digital elevation model of the survey area can be derived from the laser altimetry. Based on a data set from a survey area in the northern part of Austria, close to the border with the Czech Republic, the reliability of such a digital elevation model and the calculated vegetation height was tested. In this study a mean deviation of -1.4m, with a standard deviation of ±3.4m, between the digital elevation model from Upper Austria (25m spatial resolution) and the determined elevation model was determined. We also found an obvious correlation between the calculated vegetation heights greater 15m and the mapped forest published by the ‘Department of Forest Inventory' of the ‘Federal Forest Office' of Austria

  1. Airborne reconnaissance XV; Proceedings of the Meeting, San Diego, CA, July 23, 24, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Augustyn, T.W.; Henkel, P.A.

    1991-01-01

    Recent advances in airborne reconnaissance are reported focusing on reconnaissance requiremnts; image processing and exploitation, image acquisition and recording; and advanced development. Particular attention is given to low-intensity conflict aircraft systems; low-cost, low-risk approach to tactical reconnaissance; mission verification systems for FMS applications; tactical reconnaissance mission survivability requirements; high-bandwidth recording in a hostile environment; direct-drive film magazines; a CCD performance model for airborne reconnaissance, and an Ericsson digital recce management system.

  2. Digital image processing of earth observation sensor data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernstein, R.

    1976-01-01

    This paper describes digital image processing techniques that were developed to precisely correct Landsat multispectral earth observation data and gives illustrations of the results achieved, e.g., geometric corrections with an error of less than one picture element, a relative error of one-fourth picture element, and no radiometric error effect. Techniques for enhancing the sensor data, digitally mosaicking multiple scenes, and extracting information are also illustrated.

  3. Agricultural inventory capabilities of machine processed LANDSAT digital data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietrick, D. L.; Fries, R. E.; Egbert, D. D.

    1975-01-01

    Agricultural crop identification and acreage determination analysis of LANDSAT digital data was performed for two study areas. A multispectral image processing and analysis system was utilized to perform the manmachine interactive analysis. The developed techniques yielded crop acreage estimate results with accuracy greater than 90% and as high as 99%. These results are encouraging evidence of agricultural inventory capabilities of machine processed LANDSAT digital data.

  4. Lattice algebra approach to multispectral analysis of ancient documents.

    PubMed

    Valdiviezo-N, Juan C; Urcid, Gonzalo

    2013-02-01

    This paper introduces a lattice algebra procedure that can be used for the multispectral analysis of historical documents and artworks. Assuming the presence of linearly mixed spectral pixels captured in a multispectral scene, the proposed method computes the scaled min- and max-lattice associative memories to determine the purest pixels that best represent the spectra of single pigments. The estimation of fractional proportions of pure spectra at each image pixel is used to build pigment abundance maps that can be used for subsequent restoration of damaged parts. Application examples include multispectral images acquired from the Archimedes Palimpsest and a Mexican pre-Hispanic codex. PMID:23385905

  5. Multispectral Filter Arrays: Recent Advances and Practical Implementation

    PubMed Central

    Lapray, Pierre-Jean; Wang, Xingbo; Thomas, Jean-Baptiste; Gouton, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Thanks to some technical progress in interferencefilter design based on different technologies, we can finally successfully implement the concept of multispectral filter array-based sensors. This article provides the relevant state-of-the-art for multispectral imaging systems and presents the characteristics of the elements of our multispectral sensor as a case study. The spectral characteristics are based on two different spatial arrangements that distribute eight different bandpass filters in the visible and near-infrared area of the spectrum. We demonstrate that the system is viable and evaluate its performance through sensor spectral simulation. PMID:25407904

  6. Eliminate background interference from latent fingerprints using ultraviolet multispectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wei; Xu, Xiaojing; Wang, Guiqiang

    2014-02-01

    Fingerprints are the most important evidence in crime scene. The technology of developing latent fingerprints is one of the hottest research areas in forensic science. Recently, multispectral imaging which has shown great capability in fingerprints development, questioned document detection and trace evidence examination is used in detecting material evidence. This paper studied how to eliminate background interference from non-porous and porous surface latent fingerprints by rotating filter wheel ultraviolet multispectral imaging. The results approved that background interference could be removed clearly from latent fingerprints by using multispectral imaging in ultraviolet bandwidth.

  7. Evaluation of 0.46- to 2.36-micrometre multispectral scanner images of the East Tintic mining district, Utah, for mapping hydrothermally altered rocks.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rowan, L.C.; Kahle, A.B.

    1982-01-01

    Airborne multispectral scanner images recorded in the 0.46 to 2.36 micrometre region for the E Tintic mining district, Utah, were evaluated to determine their usefulness for distinguishing six types of hydrothermally altered rocks from a wide range of sedimentary and igneous rock types. The laboratory and field evaluation of a color ratio composite image, supported by in situ spectral reflectance measurements and an alteration map compiled from a published map, shows that silicified, argillized, and pyritized rocks can be mapped in detail utilizing an intense OH absorption band centered near 2.2 micrometre. This absorption band is absent or weak in most of the unaltered rocks. -from Authors

  8. PHARUS airborne SAR concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snoeij, Paul; Pouwels, Henk; Koomen, Peter J.; Hoogeboom, Peter

    1995-11-01

    PHARUS (phased array universal SAR) is an airborne SAR concept which is being developed in the Netherlands. The PHARUS system differs from other airborne SARs by the use of a phased array antenna, which provides both for the flexibility in the design as well as for a compact, light-weight instrument that can be carried on small aircraft. The concept allows for the construction of airborne SAR systems on a common generic basis but tailored to specific user needs and can be seen as a preparation for future spaceborne SAR systems using solid state transmitters with electronically steerable phased array antenna. The whole approach is aimed at providing an economic and yet technically sophisticated solution to remote sensing or surveying needs of a specific user. The solid state phased array antenna consists of a collection of radiating patches; the design flexibility for a large part resides in the freedom to choose the number of patches, and thereby the essential radar performance parameters such as resolution and swath width. Another consequence of the use of the phased array antenna is the system's compactness and the possibility to rigidly mount it on a small aircraft. The use of small aircraft of course considerably improves the cost/benefit ratio of the use of airborne SAR. Flight altitude of the system is flexible between about 7,000 and 40,000 feet, giving much operational freedom within the meteo and airspace control limits. In the PHARUS concept the airborne segment is complemented by a ground segment, which consists of a SAR processor, possibly extended by a matching image processing package. (A quick look image is available in real-time on board the aircraft.) The SAR processor is UNIX based and runs on easily available hardware (SUN station). Although the additional image processing software is available, the SAR processing software is nevertheless designed to be able to interface with commercially available image processing software, as well as being able

  9. Airborne radioactive contamination monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Whitley, C.R.; Adams, J.R.; Bounds, J.A.; MacArthur, D.W.

    1996-03-01

    Current technologies for the detection of airborne radioactive contamination do not provide real-time capability. Most of these techniques are based on the capture of particulate matter in air onto filters which are then processed in the laboratory; thus, the turnaround time for detection of contamination can be many days. To address this shortcoming, an effort is underway to adapt LRAD (Long-Range-Alpha-Detection) technology for real-time monitoring of airborne releases of alpa-emitting radionuclides. Alpha decays in air create ionization that can be subsequently collected on electrodes, producing a current that is proportional to the amount of radioactive material present. Using external fans on a pipe containing LRAD detectors, controlled samples of ambient air can be continuously tested for the presence of radioactive contamination. Current prototypes include a two-chamber model. Sampled air is drawn through a particulate filter and then through the first chamber, which uses an electrostatic filter at its entrance to remove ambient ionization. At its exit, ionization that occurred due to the presence of radon is collected and recorded. The air then passes through a length of pipe to allow some decay of short-lived radon species. A second chamber identical to the first monitors the remaining activity. Further development is necessary on air samples without the use of particulate filtering, both to distinguish ionization that can pass through the initial electrostatic filter on otherwise inert particulate matter from that produced through the decay of radioactive material and to separate both of these from the radon contribution. The end product could provide a sensitive, cost-effective, real-time method of determining the presence of airborne radioactive contamination.

  10. The International SubMillimetre Airborne Radiometer (ISMAR) - First results from the STICCS and COSMIC campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendrok, Jana; Eriksson, Patrick; Fox, Stuart; Brath, Manfred; Buehler, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    Multispectral millimeter- and submillimeter-wave observations bear the potential to measure properties of non-thin ice clouds like mass content and mean particle size. The next generation of European meteorological satellites, the MetOp-SG series, will carry the first satellite-borne submillimeter sounder, the Ice Cloud Imager (ICI). An airborne demonstrator, the International SubMillimetre Airborne Radiometer (ISMAR), is operated together with other remote sensing instruments and in-situ probes on the FAAM aircraft. Scientific measurements from two campaings in the North Atlantic region, STICCS and COSMIC, are available so far. Here we will introduce the ISMAR instrument, present the acquired measurements from the STICCS and COSMIC campaigns and show some first results. This will include estimation of instrument performance, first analysis of clear-sky and cloudy cases and discussion of selected features observed in the measurements (e.g. polarisation signatures).

  11. Application of the NASA airborne oceanographic lidar to the mapping of chlorophyll and other organic pigments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoge, F. E.; Swift, R. N.

    1981-01-01

    Laser fluorosensing techniques used for the airborne measurement of chlorophyll a and other naturally occurring waterborne pigments are reviewed. Previous experiments demonstrating the utility of the airborne oceanographic lidar (AOL) for assessment of various marine parameters are briefly discussed. The configuration of the AOL during the NOAA/NASA Superflux experiments is described. The participation of the AOL in these experiments is presented and the preliminary results are discussed. The importance of multispectral receiving capability in a laser fluorosensing system for providing reproducible measurements over wide areas having spatial variations in water column transmittance properties is addressed. This capability minimizes the number of truthing points required and is usable even in shallow estuarine areas where resuspension of bottom sediment is common. Finally, problems encountered on the Superflux missions and the resulting limitations on the AOL data sets are addressed and feasible solutions to these problems are provided.

  12. Airborne Raman lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heaps, Wm. S.; Burris, J.

    1996-12-01

    We designed and tested an airborne lidar system using Raman scattering to make simultaneous measurements of methane, water vapor, and temperature in a series of flights on a NASA-operated C-130 aircraft. We present the results for methane detection, which show that the instrument has the requisite sensitivity to atmospheric trace gases. Ultimately these measurements can be used to examine the transport of chemically processed air from within the polar vortex to mid-latitudinal regions and the exchange of stratospheric air between tropical and mid-latitudinal regions.

  13. Airborne Oceanographic Lidar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bressel, C.; Itzkan, I.; Nunes, J. E.; Hoge, F.

    1977-01-01

    The Airborne Oceanographic Lidar (AOL), a spatially scanning range-gated device installed on board a NASA C-54 aircraft, is described. The AOL system is capable of measuring topographical relief or water depth (bathymetry) with a range resolution of plus or minus 0.3 m in the vertical dimension. The system may also be used to measure fluorescent spectral signatures from 3500 to 8000 A with a resolution of 100 A. Potential applications of the AOL, including sea state measurements, water transparency assessments, oil spill identification, effluent identification and crop cover assessment are also mentioned.

  14. Spatial frequency analysis of multispectral data.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramapriyan, H. K.

    1972-01-01

    This paper presents the definitions of texture dependent features which can be obtained in terms of the spatial frequencies of small sections of remotely sensed multispectral data. The features are made independent of the direction of view by defining them as symmetric functions of the spatial frequencies sensed with various viewing directions. Several textural features are defined and experimental results indicating existence of signatures in these features are presented. Preliminary experiments have been performed on the classification of 60 samples, 10 from each of the following 6 categories - grass, trees, water, staked tomatoes, treated ground tomatoes, and untreated ground tomatoes. Classifications of the training samples using only one feature at a time indicate that several of the features yield classification efficiencies higher than 65%. The efficiency increases considerably when combinations of these features are used.

  15. Multispectral tissue characterization for intestinal anastomosis optimization.

    PubMed

    Cha, Jaepyeong; Shademan, Azad; Le, Hanh N D; Decker, Ryan; Kim, Peter C W; Kang, Jin U; Krieger, Axel

    2015-10-01

    Intestinal anastomosis is a surgical procedure that restores bowel continuity after surgical resection to treat intestinal malignancy, inflammation, or obstruction. Despite the routine nature of intestinal anastomosis procedures, the rate of complications is high. Standard visual inspection cannot distinguish the tissue subsurface and small changes in spectral characteristics of the tissue, so existing tissue anastomosis techniques that rely on human vision to guide suturing could lead to problems such as bleeding and leakage from suturing sites. We present a proof-of-concept study using a portable multispectral imaging (MSI) platform for tissue characterization and preoperative surgical planning in intestinal anastomosis. The platform is composed of a fiber ring light-guided MSI system coupled with polarizers and image analysis software. The system is tested on ex vivo porcine intestine tissue, and we demonstrate the feasibility of identifying optimal regions for suture placement. PMID:26440616

  16. Temporal analysis of multispectral scanner data.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, A. J.; Wiegand, C. L.; Torline, R. J.

    1973-01-01

    Multispectral scanner reflectance data were sampled for bare soil, cotton, sorghum, corn, and citrus at four dates during a growing season (April, May, June, and July 1969) to develop a time-dependent signature for crop and soil discrimination. Discrimination tests were conducted for single-date and multidate formats using training and test data sets. For classifications containing several crops, the multidate or temporal approach improved discrimination compared with the single-date approach. The multidate approach also preserved recognition accuracy better in going from training fields to test fields than the single-date analysis. The spectral distinctiveness of bare soil versus vegetation resulted in essentially equal discrimination using single-date versus multidate data for those two categories.

  17. Multispectral image analysis for algal biomass quantification.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Thomas E; Macon, Keith; Berberoglu, Halil

    2013-01-01

    This article reports a novel multispectral image processing technique for rapid, noninvasive quantification of biomass concentration in attached and suspended algae cultures. Monitoring the biomass concentration is critical for efficient production of biofuel feedstocks, food supplements, and bioactive chemicals. Particularly, noninvasive and rapid detection techniques can significantly aid in providing delay-free process control feedback in large-scale cultivation platforms. In this technique, three-band spectral images of Anabaena variabilis cultures were acquired and separated into their red, green, and blue components. A correlation between the magnitude of the green component and the areal biomass concentration was generated. The correlation predicted the biomass concentrations of independently prepared attached and suspended cultures with errors of 7 and 15%, respectively, and the effect of varying lighting conditions and background color were investigated. This method can provide necessary feedback for dilution and harvesting strategies to maximize photosynthetic conversion efficiency in large-scale operation. PMID:23554374

  18. Multispectral tissue characterization for intestinal anastomosis optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cha, Jaepyeong; Shademan, Azad; Le, Hanh N. D.; Decker, Ryan; Kim, Peter C. W.; Kang, Jin U.; Krieger, Axel

    2015-10-01

    Intestinal anastomosis is a surgical procedure that restores bowel continuity after surgical resection to treat intestinal malignancy, inflammation, or obstruction. Despite the routine nature of intestinal anastomosis procedures, the rate of complications is high. Standard visual inspection cannot distinguish the tissue subsurface and small changes in spectral characteristics of the tissue, so existing tissue anastomosis techniques that rely on human vision to guide suturing could lead to problems such as bleeding and leakage from suturing sites. We present a proof-of-concept study using a portable multispectral imaging (MSI) platform for tissue characterization and preoperative surgical planning in intestinal anastomosis. The platform is composed of a fiber ring light-guided MSI system coupled with polarizers and image analysis software. The system is tested on ex vivo porcine intestine tissue, and we demonstrate the feasibility of identifying optimal regions for suture placement.

  19. Remote online processing of multispectral image data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groh, Christine; Rothe, Hendrik

    2005-10-01

    Within the scope of this paper a both compact and economical data acquisition system for multispecral images is described. It consists of a CCD camera, a liquid crystal tunable filter in combination with an associated concept for data processing. Despite of their limited functionality (e.g.regarding calibration) in comparison with commercial systems such as AVIRIS the use of these upcoming compact multispectral camera systems can be advantageous in many applications. Additional benefit can be derived adding online data processing. In order to maintain the systems low weight and price this work proposes to separate data acquisition and processing modules, and transmit pre-processed camera data online to a stationary high performance computer for further processing. The inevitable data transmission has to be optimised because of bandwidth limitations. All mentioned considerations hold especially for applications involving mini-unmanned-aerial-vehicles (mini-UAVs). Due to their limited internal payload the use of a lightweight, compact camera system is of particular importance. This work emphasises on the optimal software interface in between pre-processed data (from the camera system), transmitted data (regarding small bandwidth) and post-processed data (based on high performance computer). Discussed parameters are pre-processing algorithms, channel bandwidth, and resulting accuracy in the classification of multispectral image data. The benchmarked pre-processing algorithms include diagnostic statistics, test of internal determination coefficients as well as loss-free and lossy data compression methods. The resulting classification precision is computed in comparison to a classification performed with the original image dataset.

  20. JACIE Radiometric Assessment of QuickBird Multispectral Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pagnutti, Mary; Carver, David; Holekamp, Kara; Knowlton, Kelly; Ryan, Robert; Zanoni, Vicki; Thome, Kurtis; Aaron, David

    2004-01-01

    Radiometric calibration of commercial imaging satellite products is required to ensure that science and application communities can place confidence in the imagery they use and can fully understand its properties. Inaccurate radiometric calibrations can lead to erroneous decisions and invalid conclusions and can limit intercomparisons with other systems. To address this calibration need, the NASA Stennis Space Center (SSC) Earth Science Applications (ESA) directorate,through the Joint Agency for Commercial Imagery Evaluation (JACIE) framework, established a commercial imaging satellite radiometric calibration team consisting of two groups: 1) NASA SSC ESA, supported by South Dakota State University, and 2) the University of Arizona Remote Sensing Group. The two groups determined the absolute radiometric calibration coefficients of the Digital Globe 4-band, 2.4-m QuickBird multispectral product covering the visible through near-infrared spectral region. For a 2-year period beginning in 2002, both groups employed some variant of a reflectance-based vicarious calibration approach, which required ground-based measurements coincident with QuickBird image acquisitions and radiative transfer calculations. The groups chose several study sites throughout the United States that covered nearly the entire dynamic range of the QuickBird sensor. QuickBird at-sensor radiance values were compared with those estimated by the two independent groups to determine the QuickBird sensor's radiometric accuracy. Approximately 20 at-sensor radiance estimates were vicariously determined each year. The estimates were combined to provide a high-precision radiometric gain calibration coefficient. The results of this evaluation provide the user community with an independent assessment of the QuickBird sensor's absolute calibration and stability over the 2-year period. While the techniques and method described reflect those developed at the NASA SSC, the results of both JACIE team groups are

  1. Lithologic mapping with multispectral ASTER TIR and SWIR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ninomiya, Yoshiki

    2004-02-01

    ASTER, launched in December, 1999, composed of three subsystems, each of which multispectrally observes the reflected or emitted radiation from the surface of the earth to space in VNIR (visible and near infrared), SWIR (shortwave infrared) and TIR (thermal infrared) wavelength regions, respectively. ASTER-VNIR has three spectral bands with a spatial resolution of 15m, and the one of which in near infrared has an along track stereo observation capability to produce high quality Digital Elevation Model (DEM). ASTER-SWIR has six spectral bands with a spatial resolution of 30m, which are mainly designed for discriminating altered minerals bearing hydroxyl group. ASTER-TIR has five spectral bands with a spatial resolution of 90m, which presents us a powerful tool for identifying quartz and carbonate minerals as well as discriminating types of silicate rocks. The author have successfully developed a robust method for detecting quartzite and carbonate rocks as well as classifying type of igneous rocks with ASTER TIR data without atmospheric corrections (Level-1B data). Here in this paper, reflectance spectra of minerals in SWIR region measured in the laboratory are analyzed to define calcite index, OH-bearing silicate index, kaolinite index and alunite index for discriminating each mineral by ASTER-SWIR. The defined indices are applied to SWIR data of ASTER Level-1B radiance at the sensor data observing Cuprite area in Nevada, USA, and the discussions are made on the results by comparing the well-known geology of the area. Also, the result of calcite index is compared with the result of applying well-characterized carbonate index defined for ASTER-TIR to clarify the strong point of each index.

  2. Airborne concentrations of peanut protein.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Rodney M; Barnes, Charles S

    2013-01-01

    Food allergy to peanut is a significant health problem, and there are reported allergic reactions to peanuts despite not eating or having physical contact with peanuts. It is presumed that an allergic reaction may have occurred from inhalation of airborne peanut allergens. The purpose of this study was to detect the possible concentrations of airborne peanut proteins for various preparations and during specific activities. Separate Ara h 1 and Ara h 2 monoclonal enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and a polyclonal sandwich enzyme immunoassay for peanuts were used to detect the amount of airborne peanut protein collected using a Spincon Omni 3000 air collector (Sceptor Industries, Inc., Kansas City, MO) under different peanut preparation methods and situations. Air samples were measured for multiple peanut preparations and scenarios. Detectable amounts of airborne peanut protein were measured using a whole peanut immunoassay when removing the shells of roasted peanut. No airborne peanut allergen (Ara h 1 or Ara h 2) or whole peanut protein above the LLD was measured in any of the other peanut preparation collections. Ara h 1, Ara h 2, and polyclonal peanut proteins were detected from water used to boil peanuts. Small amounts of airborne peanut protein were detected in the scenario of removing shells from roasted peanuts; however, Ara h 1 and Ara h 2 proteins were unable to be consistently detected. Although airborne peanut proteins were detected, the concentration of airborne peanut protein that is necessary to elicit a clinical allergic reaction is unknown. PMID:23406937

  3. Airborne ballistic camera tracking systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redish, W. L.

    1976-01-01

    An operational airborne ballistic camera tracking system was tested for operational and data reduction feasibility. The acquisition and data processing requirements of the system are discussed. Suggestions for future improvements are also noted. A description of the data reduction mathematics is outlined. Results from a successful reentry test mission are tabulated. The test mission indicated that airborne ballistic camera tracking systems are feasible.

  4. Design and evaluation of a device for fast multispectral time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy and imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Yankelevich, Diego R.; Ma, Dinglong; Liu, Jing; Sun, Yang; Sun, Yinghua; Bec, Julien; Marcu, Laura; Elson, Daniel S.

    2014-03-15

    The application of time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy (TRFS) to in vivo tissue diagnosis requires a method for fast acquisition of fluorescence decay profiles in multiple spectral bands. This study focusses on development of a clinically compatible fiber-optic based multispectral TRFS (ms-TRFS) system together with validation of its accuracy and precision for fluorescence lifetime measurements. It also presents the expansion of this technique into an imaging spectroscopy method. A tandem array of dichroic beamsplitters and filters was used to record TRFS decay profiles at four distinct spectral bands where biological tissue typically presents fluorescence emission maxima, namely, 390, 452, 542, and 629 nm. Each emission channel was temporally separated by using transmission delays through 200 μm diameter multimode optical fibers of 1, 10, 19, and 28 m lengths. A Laguerre-expansion deconvolution algorithm was used to compensate for modal dispersion inherent to large diameter optical fibers and the finite bandwidth of detectors and digitizers. The system was found to be highly efficient and fast requiring a few nano-Joule of laser pulse energy and <1 ms per point measurement, respectively, for the detection of tissue autofluorescent components. Organic and biological chromophores with lifetimes that spanned a 0.8–7 ns range were used for system validation, and the measured lifetimes from the organic fluorophores deviated by less than 10% from values reported in the literature. Multi-spectral lifetime images of organic dye solutions contained in glass capillary tubes were recorded by raster scanning the single fiber probe in a 2D plane to validate the system as an imaging tool. The lifetime measurement variability was measured indicating that the system provides reproducible results with a standard deviation smaller than 50 ps. The ms-TRFS is a compact apparatus that makes possible the fast, accurate, and precise multispectral time-resolved fluorescence

  5. Application of multispectral LiDAR to automated virtual outcrop geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartzell, Preston; Glennie, Craig; Biber, Kivanc; Khan, Shuhab

    2014-02-01

    Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) is a valuable tool for creating virtual 3D models of geological outcrops to enable enhanced modeling and analysis of geologic strata. Application of TLS data is typically limited to the geometric point cloud that is used to create the 3D structure of the outcrop model. Digital photography can then be draped onto the 3D model, allowing visual identification and manual spatial delineation of different rock layers. Automation of the rock type identification and delineation is desirable, and recent work has investigated the use of terrestrial hyperspectral photography for this purpose. However, passive photography, whether visible or hyperspectral, presents several complexities, including accurate spatial registration with the TLS point cloud data, reliance on sunlight for illumination, and radiometric calibration to properly extract spectral signatures of the different rock types. As an active remote sensing method, a radiometrically calibrated TLS system offers the potential to directly provide spectral information for each recorded 3D point, independent of solar illumination. Therefore, the practical application of three radiometrically calibrated TLS systems with differing laser wavelengths, thereby achieving a multispectral dataset in conjunction with 3D point cloud data, is investigated using commercially available hardware and software. The radiometric calibration of the TLS intensity values is investigated and the classification performance of the multispectral TLS intensity and calibrated reflectance datasets evaluated and compared to classification performed with passive visible wavelength imagery. Results indicate that rock types can be successfully identified with radiometrically calibrated multispectral TLS data, with enhanced classification performance when fused with passive visible imagery.

  6. A novel multispectral glacier mapping method and its performance in Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Citterio, M.; Fausto, R. S.; Ahlstrom, A. P.; Andersen, S. B.

    2014-12-01

    Multispectral land surface classification methods are widely used for mapping glacier outlines. Significant post-classification manual editing is typically required, and mapping glacier outlines over larger regions remains a rather labour intensive task. In this contribution we introduce a novel method for mapping glacier outlines from multispectral satellite imagery, requiring only minor manual editing.Over the last decade GLIMS (Global Land Ice Measurements from Space) improved the availability of glacier outlines, and in 2012 the Randolph Glacier Inventory (RGI) attained global coverage by compiling existing and new data sources in the wake of the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC AR5). With the launch of Landsat 8 in 2013 and the upcoming ESA (European Space Agency) Sentinel 2 missions, the availability of multispectral imagery may grow faster than our ability to process it into timely and reliable glacier outline products. Improved automatic classification methods would enable a full exploitation of these new data sources.We outline the theoretical basis of the proposed classification algorithm, provide a step by step walk-through from raw imagery to finished ice cover grids and vector glacier outlines, and evaluate the performance of the new method in mapping the outlines of glaciers, ice caps and the Greenland Ice Sheet from Landsat 8 OLI imagery. The classification output is compared against manually digitized ice margin positions, the RGI vectors, and the PROMICE (Programme for Monitoring of the Greenland Ice Sheet) aerophotogrammetric map of Greenland ice masses over a sector of the Disko Island surge cluster in West Greenland, the Qassimiut ice sheet lobe in South Greenland, and the A.P. Olsen ice cap in NE Greenland.

  7. Multispectral Photoacoustic Imaging of Prostate Cancer: Preliminary Ex-vivo Results

    PubMed Central

    Dogra, Vikram S.; Chinni, Bhargava K.; Valluru, Keerthi S.; Joseph, Jean V.; Ghazi, Ahmed; Yao, Jorge L.; Evans, Katie; Messing, Edward M.; Rao, Navalgund A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study is to validate if ex-vivo multispectral photoacoustic (PA) imaging can differentiate between malignant prostate tissue, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), and normal human prostate tissue. Materials and Methods: Institutional Review Board's approval was obtained for this study. A total of 30 patients undergoing prostatectomy for biopsy-confirmed prostate cancer were included in this study with informed consent. Multispectral PA imaging was performed on surgically excised prostate tissue and chromophore images that represent optical absorption of deoxyhemoglobin (dHb), oxyhemoglobin (HbO2), lipid, and water were reconstructed. After the imaging procedure is completed, malignant prostate, BPH and normal prostate regions were marked by the genitourinary pathologist on histopathology slides and digital images of marked histopathology slides were obtained. The histopathology images were co-registered with chromophore images. Region of interest (ROI) corresponding to malignant prostate, BPH and normal prostate were defined on the chromophore images. Pixel values within each ROI were then averaged to determine mean intensities of dHb, HbO2, lipid, and water. Results: Our preliminary results show that there is statistically significant difference in mean intensity of dHb (P < 0.0001) and lipid (P = 0.0251) between malignant prostate and normal prostate tissue. There was difference in mean intensity of dHb (P < 0.0001) between malignant prostate and BPH. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of our imaging system were found to be 81.3%, 96.2%, 92.9% and 89.3% respectively. Conclusion: Our preliminary results of ex-vivo human prostate study suggest that multispectral PA imaging can differentiate between malignant prostate, BPH and normal prostate tissue. PMID:24228210

  8. An improved dark-object subtraction technique for atmospheric scattering correction of multispectral data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chavez, P.S., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Digital analysis of remotely sensed data has become an important component of many earth-science studies. These data are often processed through a set of preprocessing or "clean-up" routines that includes a correction for atmospheric scattering, often called haze. Various methods to correct or remove the additive haze component have been developed, including the widely used dark-object subtraction technique. A problem with most of these methods is that the haze values for each spectral band are selected independently. This can create problems because atmospheric scattering is highly wavelength-dependent in the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum and the scattering values are correlated with each other. Therefore, multispectral data such as from the Landsat Thematic Mapper and Multispectral Scanner must be corrected with haze values that are spectral band dependent. An improved dark-object subtraction technique is demonstrated that allows the user to select a relative atmospheric scattering model to predict the haze values for all the spectral bands from a selected starting band haze value. The improved method normalizes the predicted haze values for the different gain and offset parameters used by the imaging system. Examples of haze value differences between the old and improved methods for Thematic Mapper Bands 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 7 are 40.0, 13.0, 12.0, 8.0, 5.0, and 2.0 vs. 40.0, 13.2, 8.9, 4.9, 16.7, and 3.3, respectively, using a relative scattering model of a clear atmosphere. In one Landsat multispectral scanner image the haze value differences for Bands 4, 5, 6, and 7 were 30.0, 50.0, 50.0, and 40.0 for the old method vs. 30.0, 34.4, 43.6, and 6.4 for the new method using a relative scattering model of a hazy atmosphere. ?? 1988.

  9. Use of multispectral data in design of forest sample surveys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Titus, S. J.; Wensel, L. C.

    1977-01-01

    The use of multispectral data in design of forest sample surveys using a computer software package is described. The system allows evaluation of a number of alternative sampling systems and, with appropriate cost data, estimates the implementation cost for each.

  10. Multispectral Imaging for Determination of Astaxanthin Concentration in Salmonids

    PubMed Central

    Dissing, Bjørn S.; Nielsen, Michael E.; Ersbøll, Bjarne K.; Frosch, Stina

    2011-01-01

    Multispectral imaging has been evaluated for characterization of the concentration of a specific cartenoid pigment; astaxanthin. 59 fillets of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, were filleted and imaged using a rapid multispectral imaging device for quantitative analysis. The multispectral imaging device captures reflection properties in 19 distinct wavelength bands, prior to determination of the true concentration of astaxanthin. The samples ranged from 0.20 to 4.34 g per g fish. A PLSR model was calibrated to predict astaxanthin concentration from novel images, and showed good results with a RMSEP of 0.27. For comparison a similar model were built for normal color images, which yielded a RMSEP of 0.45. The acquisition speed of the multispectral imaging system and the accuracy of the PLSR model obtained suggest this method as a promising technique for rapid in-line estimation of astaxanthin concentration in rainbow trout fillets. PMID:21573000

  11. MULTISPECTRAL IDENTIFICATION OF CHLORINE DIOXIDE BYPRODUCTS IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper discusses the identification of organic disinfectant byproducts (DNPS) at a pilot plant in Evansville, IN, that uses chlorine dioxide as a primary disinfectant. nconventional multispectral identification techniques (gas chromatography combined with high- and low-resolu...

  12. Hyperspectral and multispectral imaging for evaluating food safety and quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spectral imaging technologies have been developed rapidly during the past decade. This paper presents hyperspectral and multispectral imaging technologies in the area of food safety and quality evaluation, with an introduction, demonstration, and summarization of the spectral imaging techniques avai...

  13. Pre-Processor for Compression of Multispectral Image Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klimesh, Matthew; Kiely, Aaron

    2006-01-01

    A computer program that preprocesses multispectral image data has been developed to provide the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) mission with a means of exploiting the additional correlation present in such data without appreciably increasing the complexity of compressing the data.

  14. MULTISPECTRAL IDENTIFICATION OF CHLORINE DIOXIDE DISINFECTION BYPRODUCTS IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper discusses the identification of organic disinfection byproducts (DBPs) at a pilot plant in Evansville, IN, which uses chlorine dioxide as a primary disinfectant. Unconventional multispectral identification techniques (gas chromatography combined with high- and low reso...

  15. Airborne transmission of lyssaviruses.

    PubMed

    Johnson, N; Phillpotts, R; Fooks, A R

    2006-06-01

    In 2002, a Scottish bat conservationist developed a rabies-like disease and subsequently died. This was caused by infection with European bat lyssavirus 2 (EBLV-2), a virus closely related to Rabies virus (RABV). The source of this infection and the means of transmission have not yet been confirmed. In this study, the hypothesis that lyssaviruses, particularly RABV and the bat variant EBLV-2, might be transmitted via the airborne route was tested. Mice were challenged via direct introduction of lyssavirus into the nasal passages. Two hours after intranasal challenge with a mouse-adapted strain of RABV (Challenge Virus Standard), viral RNA was detectable in the tongue, lungs and stomach. All of the mice challenged by direct intranasal inoculation developed disease signs by 7 days post-infection. Two out of five mice challenged by direct intranasal inoculation of EBLV-2 developed disease between 16 and 19 days post-infection. In addition, a simple apparatus was evaluated in which mice could be exposed experimentally to infectious doses of lyssavirus from an aerosol. Using this approach, mice challenged with RABV, but not those challenged with EBLV-2, were highly susceptible to infection by inhalation. These data support the hypothesis that lyssaviruses, and RABV in particular, can be spread by airborne transmission in a dose-dependent manner. This could present a particular hazard to personnel exposed to aerosols of infectious RABV following accidental release in a laboratory environment. PMID:16687600

  16. The Need for High Spatial Resolution Multispectral Thermal Remote Sensing Data In Urban Heat Island Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Luvall, Jeffrey C.

    2006-01-01

    Although the study of the Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect dates back to the early 1800's when Luke Howard discovered London s heat island, it has only been with the advent of thermal remote sensing systems that the extent, characteristics, and impacts of the UHI have become to be understood. Analysis of the UHI effect is important because above all, this phenomenon can directly influence the health and welfare of urban residents. For example, in 1995, over 700 people died in Chicago due to heat-related causes. UHI s are characterized by increased temperature in comparison to rural areas and mortality rates during a heat wave increase exponentially with the maximum temperature, an effect that is exacerbated by the UHI. Aside from the direct impacts of the UHI on temperature, UHI s can produce secondary effects on local meteorology, including altering local wind patterns, increased development of clouds and fog, and increasing rates of precipitation either over, or downwind, of cities. Because of the extreme heterogeneity of the urban surface, in combination with the sprawl associated with urban growth, thermal infrared (TIR) remote sensing data have become of significant importance in understanding how land cover and land use characteristics affect the development and intensification of the UHI. TIR satellite data have been used extensively to analyze the surface temperature regimes of cities to help observe and measure the impacts of surface temperatures across the urban landscape. However, the spatial scales at which satellite TIR data are collected are for the most part, coarse, with the finest readily available TIR data collected by the Landsat ETM+ sensor at 60m spatial resolution. For many years, we have collected high spatial resolution (10m) data using an airborne multispectral TIR sensor over a number of cities across the United States. These high resolution data have been used to develop an understanding of how discrete surfaces across the urban environment

  17. The Need for High Spatial Resolution Multispectral Thermal Remote Sensing Data In Urban Heat Island Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quattrochi, D. A.; Luvall, J. C.

    2006-12-01

    Although the study of the Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect dates back to the early 1800's when Luke Howard discovered London's heat island, it has only been with the advent of thermal remote sensing systems that the extent, characteristics, and impacts of the UHI have become to be understood. Analysis of the UHI effect is important because above all, this phenomenon can directly influence the health and welfare of urban residents. For example, in 1995, over 700 people died in Chicago due to heat-related causes. UHI's are characterized by increased temperature in comparison to rural areas and mortality rates during a heat wave increase exponentially with the maximum temperature, an effect that is exacerbated by the UHI. Aside from the direct impacts of the UHI on temperature, UHI's can produce secondary effects on local meteorology, including altering local wind patterns, increased development of clouds and fog, and increasing rates of precipitation either over, or downwind, of cities. Because of the extreme heterogeneity of the urban surface, in combination with the sprawl associated with urban growth, thermal infrared (TIR) remote sensing data have become of significant importance in understanding how land cover and land use characteristics affect the development and intensification of the UHI. TIR satellite data have been used extensively to analyze the surface temperature regimes of cities to help observe and measure the impacts of surface temperatures across the urban landscape. However, the spatial scales at which satellite TIR data are collected are for the most part, coarse, with the finest readily available TIR data collected by the Landsat ETM+ sensor at 60m spatial resolution. For many years, we have collected high spatial resolution (10m) data using an airborne multispectral TIR sensor over a number of cities across the United States. These high resolution data have been used to develop an understanding of how discrete surfaces across the urban environment

  18. Fast Lossless Compression of Multispectral-Image Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klimesh, Matthew

    2006-01-01

    An algorithm that effects fast lossless compression of multispectral-image data is based on low-complexity, proven adaptive-filtering algorithms. This algorithm is intended for use in compressing multispectral-image data aboard spacecraft for transmission to Earth stations. Variants of this algorithm could be useful for lossless compression of three-dimensional medical imagery and, perhaps, for compressing image data in general.

  19. Application of multispectral systems for the diagnosis of plant diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Jie; Liao, Ningfang; Wang, Guolong; Luo, Yongdao; Liang, Minyong

    2008-03-01

    Multispectral imaging technique combines space imaging and spectral detecting. It can obtain the spectral information and image information of object at the same time. Base on this concept, A new method proposed multispectral camera system to demonstrated plant diseases. In this paper, multispectral camera was used as image capturing device. It consists of a monochrome CCD camera and 16 narrow-band filters. The multispectral images of Macbeth 24 color patches are captured under the illumination of incandescent lamp in this experiment The 64 spectral reflectances of each color patches are calculated using Spline interpolation from 400 to 700nm in the process. And the color of the object is reproduced from the estimated spectral reflectance. The result for reproduction is contrast with the color signal using X-rite PULSE spectrophotometer. The average and maximum ΔΕ * ab are 9.23 and 12.81. It is confirmed that the multispectral system realizes the color reproduction of plant diseases from narrow-band multispectral image.

  20. Novel instrumentation of multispectral imaging technology for detecting tissue abnormity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Dingrong; Kong, Linghua

    2012-10-01

    Multispectral imaging is becoming a powerful tool in a wide range of biological and clinical studies by adding spectral, spatial and temporal dimensions to visualize tissue abnormity and the underlying biological processes. A conventional spectral imaging system includes two physically separated major components: a band-passing selection device (such as liquid crystal tunable filter and diffraction grating) and a scientific-grade monochromatic camera, and is expensive and bulky. Recently micro-arrayed narrow-band optical mosaic filter was invented and successfully fabricated to reduce the size and cost of multispectral imaging devices in order to meet the clinical requirement for medical diagnostic imaging applications. However the challenging issue of how to integrate and place the micro filter mosaic chip to the targeting focal plane, i.e., the imaging sensor, of an off-shelf CMOS/CCD camera is not reported anywhere. This paper presents the methods and results of integrating such a miniaturized filter with off-shelf CMOS imaging sensors to produce handheld real-time multispectral imaging devices for the application of early stage pressure ulcer (ESPU) detection. Unlike conventional multispectral imaging devices which are bulky and expensive, the resulting handheld real-time multispectral ESPU detector can produce multiple images at different center wavelengths with a single shot, therefore eliminates the image registration procedure required by traditional multispectral imaging technologies.

  1. [Horticultural plant diseases multispectral classification using combined classified methods].

    PubMed

    Feng, Jie; Li, Hong-Ning; Yang, Wei-Ping; Hou, De-Dong; Liao, Ning-Fang

    2010-02-01

    The research on multispectral data disposal is getting more and more attention with the development of multispectral technique, capturing data ability and application of multispectral technique in agriculture practice. In the present paper, a cultivated plant cucumber' familiar disease (Trichothecium roseum, Sphaerotheca fuliginea, Cladosporium cucumerinum, Corynespora cassiicola, Pseudoperonospora cubensis) is the research objects. The cucumber leaves multispectral images of 14 visible light channels, near infrared channel and panchromatic channel were captured using narrow-band multispectral imaging system under standard observation and illumination environment, and 210 multispectral data samples which are the 16 bands spectral reflectance of different cucumber disease were obtained. The 210 samples were classified by distance, relativity and BP neural network to discuss effective combination of classified methods for making a diagnosis. The result shows that the classified effective combination of distance and BP neural network classified methods has superior performance than each method, and the advantage of each method is fully used. And the flow of recognizing horticultural plant diseases using combined classified methods is presented. PMID:20384138

  2. Improving multispectral mapping by spectral modeling with hyperspectral signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruse, Fred A.; Perry, Sandra L.

    2009-01-01

    Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) data in the 0.4 - 2.5 micrometer spectral range allow direct identification of materials using their spectral signatures, however, spatial coverage is limited. Multispectral Imaging (MSI) data are spectrally undersampled and may not allow unique identification, but they do provide synoptic spatial coverage. We have developed an approach that uses coincident HSI/MSI data to extend mineral mapping to larger areas. Hyperspectral data are used to model and extend signatures to multispectral Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emmission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data. Analysis consists of 1. Atmospheric correction of both the hyperspectral and multispectral data, 2. Analysis of the hyperspectral data to determine spectral endmembers and their spatial distributions, 3. Spectral modeling to convert the hyperspectral signatures to the multispectral response, and 4. Analysis of the MSI data to extend mapping to the larger spatial coverage of the multispectral data. Comparing overlapping area with extensive field verification shows that ASTER mineral mapping using these methods approaches 70% accuracy compared to HSI for selected minerals. Spot checking of extended ASTER mapping results also shows good correspondence. While examples shown are specific to ASTER Short Wave Infrared (SWIR) data, the approach could also be used for other multispectral sensors and spectral ranges.

  3. Deriving Radiative Effects of Aerosol-Immersed Broken Cloud Fields from Multi-spectral Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Sebastian

    2016-04-01

    Recently, significant progress has been made in the understanding of cloud inhomogeneity effects in shortwave passive remote sensing. Yet it has proven difficult to correct such effects on the pixel level using multi-spectral imagery alone, mainly because three-dimensional (3D) radiative transfer in cloud fields is a non-local phenomenon. As a result, estimates of irradiance - the fundamental climate variable - from space-or air-borne imagery continue to pose problems for complex cloud fields. The presence of aerosols in the vicinity of clouds exacerbates the prob- lem. I will show evidence from field experiments and 3D radiative transfer calculations that biases may exceed 40% at the pixel level at the MODIS spatial resolution, and that some of these effects "survive" spatial averaging. A new way to cope with this problem is the discovery that 3D effects manifest themselves as spectral perturba- tion in reflected radiances and in the associated irradiance fields throughout an inhomogeneous cloud domain. In parameterized form, these correlations between spatial cloud distribution and spectral signature can be used to de- rive first-order inhomogeneity corrections for irradiance fields - not on a pixel basis, but for populations of pixels within a cloud domain represented by probability density functions. I will present the first practical approach for using these new findings in a future proxy-3D algorithm for deriving irradiances below and above cloud-aerosol fields from multi-spectral imagers, and discuss the accuracy that can be expected from this simplified method to account for 3D effects in mixed aerosol-cloud scenes.

  4. Mapping playa evaporite minerals and associated sediments in Death Valley, California, with multispectral thermal infrared images

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crowley, J.K.; Hook, S.J.

    1996-01-01

    Efflorescent salt crusts and associated sediments in Death Valley, California, were studied with remote-sensing data acquired by the NASA thermal infrared multispectral scanner (TIMS). Nine spectral classes that represent a variety of surface materials were distinguished, including several classes that reflect important aspects of the playa groundwater chemistry and hydrology. Evaporite crusts containing abundant thenardite (sodium sulfate) were mapped along the northern and eastern margins of the Cottonball Basin, areas where the inflow waters are rich in sodium. Gypsum (calcium sulfate) crusts were more common in the Badwater Basin, particularly near springs associated with calcic groundwaters along the western basin margin. Evaporite-rich crusts generally marked areas where groundwater is periodically near the surface and thus able to replenish the crusts though capillary evaporation. Detrital silicate minerals were prevalent in other parts of the salt pan where shallow groundwater does not affect the surface composition. The surface features in Death Valley change in response to climatic variations on several different timescales. For example, salt crusts on low-lying mudflats form and redissolve during seasonal-to-interannual cycles of wetting and desiccation. In contrast, recent flooding and erosion of rough-salt surfaces in Death Valley probably reflect increased regional precipitation spanning several decades. Remote-sensing observations of playas can provide a means for monitoring changes in evaporite facies and for better understanding the associated climatic processes. At present, such studies are limited by the availability of suitable airborne scanner data. However, with the launch of the Earth Observing System (EOS) AM-1 Platform in 1998, multispectral visible/near-infrared and thermal infrared remote-sensing data will become globally available. Copyright 1996 by the American Geophysical Union.

  5. Analysis of multispectral and hyperspectral longwave infrared (LWIR) data for geologic mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruse, Fred A.; McDowell, Meryl

    2015-05-01

    Multispectral MODIS/ASTER Airborne Simulator (MASTER) data and Hyperspectral Thermal Emission Spectrometer (HyTES) data covering the 8 - 12 μm spectral range (longwave infrared or LWIR) were analyzed for an area near Mountain Pass, California. Decorrelation stretched images were initially used to highlight spectral differences between geologic materials. Both datasets were atmospherically corrected using the ISAC method, and the Normalized Emissivity approach was used to separate temperature and emissivity. The MASTER data had 10 LWIR spectral bands and approximately 35-meter spatial resolution and covered a larger area than the HyTES data, which were collected with 256 narrow (approximately 17nm-wide) spectral bands at approximately 2.3-meter spatial resolution. Spectra for key spatially-coherent, spectrally-determined geologic units for overlap areas were overlain and visually compared to determine similarities and differences. Endmember spectra were extracted from both datasets using n-dimensional scatterplotting and compared to emissivity spectral libraries for identification. Endmember distributions and abundances were then mapped using Mixture-Tuned Matched Filtering (MTMF), a partial unmixing approach. Multispectral results demonstrate separation of silica-rich vs non-silicate materials, with distinct mapping of carbonate areas and general correspondence to the regional geology. Hyperspectral results illustrate refined mapping of silicates with distinction between similar units based on the position, character, and shape of high resolution emission minima near 9 μm. Calcite and dolomite were separated, identified, and mapped using HyTES based on a shift of the main carbonate emissivity minimum from approximately 11.3 to 11.2 μm respectively. Both datasets demonstrate the utility of LWIR spectral remote sensing for geologic mapping.

  6. Differentiating aquatic plant communities in a eutrophic river using hyperspectral and multispectral remote sensing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tian, Y.Q.; Yu, Q.; Zimmerman, M.J.; Flint, S.; Waldron, M.C.

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluates the efficacy of remote sensing technology to monitor species composition, areal extent and density of aquatic plants (macrophytes and filamentous algae) in impoundments where their presence may violate water-quality standards. Multispectral satellite (IKONOS) images and more than 500 in situ hyperspectral samples were acquired to map aquatic plant distributions. By analyzing field measurements, we created a library of hyperspectral signatures for a variety of aquatic plant species, associations and densities. We also used three vegetation indices. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), near-infrared (NIR)-Green Angle Index (NGAI) and normalized water absorption depth (DH), at wavelengths 554, 680, 820 and 977 nm to differentiate among aquatic plant species composition, areal density and thickness in cases where hyperspectral analysis yielded potentially ambiguous interpretations. We compared the NDVI derived from IKONOS imagery with the in situ, hyperspectral-derived NDVI. The IKONOS-based images were also compared to data obtained through routine visual observations. Our results confirmed that aquatic species composition alters spectral signatures and affects the accuracy of remote sensing of aquatic plant density. The results also demonstrated that the NGAI has apparent advantages in estimating density over the NDVI and the DH. In the feature space of the three indices, 3D scatter plot analysis revealed that hyperspectral data can differentiate several aquatic plant associations. High-resolution multispectral imagery provided useful information to distinguish among biophysical aquatic plant characteristics. Classification analysis indicated that using satellite imagery to assess Lemna coverage yielded an overall agreement of 79% with visual observations and >90% agreement for the densest aquatic plant coverages. Interpretation of biophysical parameters derived from high-resolution satellite or airborne imagery should prove to be a

  7. Status of the Landsat thematic mapper and multispectral scanner archive conversion system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Werner, Darla J.

    1993-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's EROS Data Center (EDC) manages the National Satellite Land Remote Sensing Data Archive. This archive includes Landsat thematic mapper (TM) multispectral scanner (MSS) data acquired since 1972. The Landsat archive is an important resource to global change research. To ensure long-term availability of Landsat data from the archive, the EDC specified requirements for a Thematic Mapper and Multispectral Scanner Archive Conversion System (TMACS) that would preserve the data by transcribing it to a more durable medium. In addition to media conversion, hardware and software was installed at EDC in July 1992. In December 1992, the EDC began converting Landsat MSS data from high-density, open reel instrumentation tapes to digital cassette tapes. Almost 320,000 MSS images acquired since 1979 and more than 200,000 TM images acquired since 1982 will be converted to the new medium during the next 3 years. During the media conversion process, several high-density tapes have exhibited severe binder degradation. Even though these tapes have been stored in environmentally controlled conditions, hydrolysis has occurred, resulting in "sticky oxide shed". Using a thermostatically controlled oven built at EDC, tape "baking" has been 100 percent successful and actually improves the quality of some images.

  8. [Identification and classification of rice leaf blast based on multi-spectral imaging sensor].

    PubMed

    Feng, Lei; Chai, Rong-Yao; Sun, Guang-Ming; Wu, Di; Lou, Bing-Gan; He, Yong

    2009-10-01

    Site-specific variable pesticide application is one of the major precision crop production management operations. Rice blast is a severe threat for rice production. Traditional chemistry methods can do the accurate crop disease identification, however they are time-consuming, require being executed by professionals and are of high cost. Crop disease identification and classification by human sight need special crop protection knowledge, and is low efficient. To obtain fast, reliable, accurate rice blast disease information is essential for achieving effective site-specific pesticide applications and crop management. The present paper describes a multi-spectral leaf blast identification and classification image sensor, which uses three channels of crop leaf and canopy images. The objective of this work was to develop and evaluate an algorithm under simplified lighting conditions for identifying damaged rice plants by the leaf blast using digital color images. Based on the results obtained from this study, the seed blast identification accuracy can be achieved at 95%, and the leaf blast identification accuracy can be achieved at 90% during the rice growing season. Thus it can be concluded that multi-spectral camera can provide sufficient information to perform reasonable rice leaf blast estimation. PMID:20038048

  9. Multispectral image restoration of historical documents based on LAAMs and mathematical morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lechuga-S., Edwin; Valdiviezo-N., Juan C.; Urcid, Gonzalo

    2014-09-01

    This research introduces an automatic technique designed for the digital restoration of the damaged parts in historical documents. For this purpose an imaging spectrometer is used to acquire a set of images in the wavelength interval from 400 to 1000 nm. Assuming the presence of linearly mixed spectral pixels registered from the multispectral image, our technique uses two lattice autoassociative memories to extract the set of pure pigments conforming a given document. Through an spectral unmixing analysis, our method produces fractional abundance maps indicating the distributions of each pigment in the scene. These maps are then used to locate cracks and holes in the document under study. The restoration process is performed by the application of a region filling algorithm, based on morphological dilation, followed by a color interpolation to restore the original appearance of the filled areas. This procedure has been successfully applied to the analysis and restoration of three multispectral data sets: two corresponding to artificially superimposed scripts and a real data acquired from a Mexican pre-Hispanic codex, whose restoration results are presented.

  10. Advanced Airborne CO2 LAS System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobler, J. T.; Braun, M. G.; McGregor, D. P.; Erxleben, W. H.; Browell, E. V.; Harrison, F. W.

    2009-12-01

    A unique airborne Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (LAS) system has been developed by ITT Space Systems, LLC to address the needs of the National Research Council Decadal Survey Tier 2 mission for Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days and Seasons (ASCENDS). This instrument has undergone multiple airborne field tests in cooperation with our partners at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC). The instrument was built largely with off-the-shelf components and uses high reliability telecom components, including lasers, modulators and fiber amplifiers as the transmitter. Multiple wavelengths are transmitted simultaneously from a single collimator and the return signal is collected by a simple 8” telescope that is fiber coupled to a HgCdTe APD. The analog signal is sampled with a high resolution scope card housed in a National Instruments PXI chassis and the digitized signal is then passed through our custom-built software-based lock-in processing system which allows separation of the signals from the individual wavelengths. The separated signals are then used in the standard Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) relations to determine the integrated column differential optical depth. This presentation will give a detailed overview of this multi-frequency, single-beam, synchronous lock-in LAS instrument including the basic methodology of the measurement. Recent improvements in the lock-in methodology designed to eliminate the effects of multi- path fading and frequency dependence of the electronic components will also be discussed.

  11. Auxiliary DCP data acquisition system. [airborne system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, R. V.

    1975-01-01

    An airborne DCP Data Aquisition System has been designed to augment the ERTS satellite data recovery system. The DCP's are data collection platforms located at pertinent sites. With the appropriate sensors they are able to collect, digitally encode and transmit environmental parameters to the ERTS satellite. The satellite in turn relays these transmissions to a ground station for processing. The satellite is available for such relay duty a minimum of two times in a 24-hour period. The equipment is to obtain continuous DCP data during periods of unusual environmental activity--storms, floods, etc. Two circumstances contributed to the decision to design such a system; (1) Wallops Station utilizes surveillance aircraft in support of rocket launches and also in support of earth resources activities; (2) the area in which Wallops is located, the Delaware and Chesapeake Bay areas, are fertile areas for DCP usage. Therefore, by developing an airborne DCP receiving station and installing it on aircraft more continuous DCP data can be provided from sites in the surrounding areas at relatively low cost.

  12. Integrating optical satellite data and airborne laser scanning in habitat classification for wildlife management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nijland, W.; Coops, N. C.; Nielsen, S. E.; Stenhouse, G.

    2015-06-01

    Wildlife habitat selection is determined by a wide range of factors including food availability, shelter, security and landscape heterogeneity all of which are closely related to the more readily mapped landcover types and disturbance regimes. Regional wildlife habitat studies often used moderate resolution multispectral satellite imagery for wall to wall mapping, because it offers a favourable mix of availability, cost and resolution. However, certain habitat characteristics such as canopy structure and topographic factors are not well discriminated with these passive, optical datasets. Airborne laser scanning (ALS) provides highly accurate three dimensional data on canopy structure and the underlying terrain, thereby offers significant enhancements to wildlife habitat mapping. In this paper, we introduce an approach to integrate ALS data and multispectral images to develop a new heuristic wildlife habitat classifier for western Alberta. Our method combines ALS direct measures of canopy height, and cover with optical estimates of species (conifer vs. deciduous) composition into a decision tree classifier for habitat - or landcover types. We believe this new approach is highly versatile and transferable, because class rules can be easily adapted for other species or functional groups. We discuss the implications of increased ALS availability for habitat mapping and wildlife management and provide recommendations for integrating multispectral and ALS data into wildlife management.

  13. Novel Methods for Separation of Gangue from Limestone and Coal using Multispectral and Joint Color-Texture Features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathy, Debi Prasad; Guru Raghavendra Reddy, K.

    2016-02-01

    Ore sorting is a useful tool to remove gangue material from the ore and increase the quality of the ore. The vast developments in the area of artificial intelligence allow fast processing of full-color digital images for the preferred investigations. The associated gangue minerals from limestone and coal mines were identified using three different approaches. All the methods were based on extensions of the co-occurrence matrix method. In the first method, the color features were extracted from RGB color planes and texture features were extracted using a multispectral extension, in which co-occurrence matrices were computed both between and within the color bands. The second method used joint color-texture features where color features were added to gray scale texture features. The last method used gray scale texture features computed on a quantized color image. Results showed that the accuracy for separation of gangue from limestone, a joint color-texture method was 98 % and for separation of gangue from coal, multispectral method with correlation and joint color-texture method were 100 % respectively. Combined multispectral and joint color-texture methods gave good accuracy with 64 gray levels quantization for separation of gangue from limestone and coal.

  14. Evaluation of meteorological airborne Doppler radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hildebrand, P. H.; Mueller, C. K.

    1984-01-01

    This paper will discuss the capabilities of airborne Doppler radar for atmospheric sciences research. The evaluation is based on airborne and ground based Doppler radar observations of convective storms. The capability of airborne Doppler radar to measure horizontal and vertical air motions is evaluated. Airborne Doppler radar is shown to be a viable tool for atmospheric sciences research.

  15. Interactive digital image manipulation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henze, J.; Dezur, R.

    1975-01-01

    The system is designed for manipulation, analysis, interpretation, and processing of a wide variety of image data. LANDSAT (ERTS) and other data in digital form can be input directly into the system. Photographic prints and transparencies are first converted to digital form with an on-line high-resolution microdensitometer. The system is implemented on a Hewlett-Packard 3000 computer with 128 K bytes of core memory and a 47.5 megabyte disk. It includes a true color display monitor, with processing memories, graphics overlays, and a movable cursor. Image data formats are flexible so that there is no restriction to a given set of remote sensors. Conversion between data types is available to provide a basis for comparison of the various data. Multispectral data is fully supported, and there is no restriction on the number of dimensions. In this way multispectral data collected at more than one point in time may simply be treated as a data collected with twice (three times, etc.) the number of sensors. There are various libraries of functions available to the user: processing functions, display functions, system functions, and earth resources applications functions.

  16. The correlation and quantification of airborne spectroradiometer data to turbidity measurements at Lake Powell, Utah

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merry, C. J.

    1979-01-01

    A water sampling program was accomplished at Lake Powell, Utah, during June 1975 for correlation to multispectral data obtained with a 500-channel airborne spectroradiometer. Field measurements were taken of percentage of light transmittance, surface temperature, pH and Secchi disk depth. Percentage of light transmittance was also measured in the laboratory for the water samples. Analyses of electron micrographs and suspended sediment concentration data for four water samples located at Hite Bridge, Mile 168, Mile 150 and Bullfrog Bay indicated differences in the composition and concentration of the particulate matter. Airborne spectroradiometer multispectral data were analyzed for the four sampling locations. The results showed that: (1) as the percentage of light transmittance of the water samples decreased, the reflected radiance increased; and (2) as the suspended sediment concentration (mg/l) increased, the reflected radiance increased in the 1-80 mg/l range. In conclusion, valuable qualitative information was obtained on surface turbidity for the Lake Powell water spectra. Also, the reflected radiance measured at a wavelength of 0.58 micron was directly correlated to the suspended sediment concentration.

  17. Road Asphalt Pavements Analyzed by Airborne Thermal Remote Sensing: Preliminary Results of the Venice Highway

    PubMed Central

    Pascucci, Simone; Bassani, Cristiana; Palombo, Angelo; Poscolieri, Maurizio; Cavalli, Rosa

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a fast procedure for evaluating asphalt pavement surface defects using airborne emissivity data. To develop this procedure, we used airborne multispectral emissivity data covering an urban test area close to Venice (Italy).For this study, we first identify and select the roads' asphalt pavements on Multispectral Infrared Visible Imaging Spectrometer (MIVIS) imagery using a segmentation procedure. Next, since in asphalt pavements the surface defects are strictly related to the decrease of oily components that cause an increase of the abundance of surfacing limestone, the diagnostic absorption emissivity peak at 11.2μm of the limestone was used for retrieving from MIVIS emissivity data the areas exhibiting defects on asphalt pavements surface.The results showed that MIVIS emissivity allows establishing a threshold that points out those asphalt road sites on which a check for a maintenance intervention is required. Therefore, this technique can supply local government authorities an efficient, rapid and repeatable road mapping procedure providing the location of the asphalt pavements to be checked.

  18. Airborne agent concentration analysis

    DOEpatents

    Gelbard, Fred

    2004-02-03

    A method and system for inferring airborne contaminant concentrations in rooms without contaminant sensors, based on data collected by contaminant sensors in other rooms of a building, using known airflow interconnectivity data. The method solves a least squares problem that minimizes the difference between measured and predicted contaminant sensor concentrations with respect to an unknown contaminant release time. Solutions are constrained to providing non-negative initial contaminant concentrations in all rooms. The method can be used to identify a near-optimal distribution of sensors within the building, when then number of available sensors is less than the total number of rooms. This is achieved by having a system-sensor matrix that is non-singular, and by selecting that distribution which yields the lowest condition number of all the distributions considered. The method can predict one or more contaminant initial release points from the collected data.

  19. Airborne Wind Turbine

    SciTech Connect

    2010-09-01

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: Makani Power is developing an Airborne Wind Turbine (AWT) that eliminates 90% of the mass of a conventional wind turbine and accesses a stronger, more consistent wind at altitudes of near 1,000 feet. At these altitudes, 85% of the country can offer viable wind resources compared to only 15% accessible with current technology. Additionally, the Makani Power wing can be economically deployed in deep offshore waters, opening up a resource which is 4 times greater than the entire U.S. electrical generation capacity. Makani Power has demonstrated the core technology, including autonomous launch, land, and power generation with an 8 meter wingspan, 20 kW prototype. At commercial scale, Makani Power aims to develop a 600 kW, 28 meter wingspan product capable of delivering energy at an unsubsidized cost competitive with coal, the current benchmark for low-cost power.

  20. Airborne Cloud Computing Environment (ACCE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardman, Sean; Freeborn, Dana; Crichton, Dan; Law, Emily; Kay-Im, Liz

    2011-01-01

    Airborne Cloud Computing Environment (ACCE) is JPL's internal investment to improve the return on airborne missions. Improve development performance of the data system. Improve return on the captured science data. The investment is to develop a common science data system capability for airborne instruments that encompasses the end-to-end lifecycle covering planning, provisioning of data system capabilities, and support for scientific analysis in order to improve the quality, cost effectiveness, and capabilities to enable new scientific discovery and research in earth observation.