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Sample records for airborne particle number

  1. Particle number size distribution in the eastern Mediterranean: Formation and growth rates of ultrafine airborne atmospheric particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopanakis, I.; Chatoutsidou, S. E.; Torseth, K.; Glytsos, T.; Lazaridis, M.

    2013-10-01

    Particle number concentration was measured between June 2009 and June 2010 at Akrotiri research station in a rural/suburban region of western Crete (Greece). Overall, the available data covered 157 days during the aforementioned period of measurements. The objectives were to study the number size distribution characteristics of ambient aerosols and furthermore to identify new particle formation events and to evaluate particle formation rates and growth rates of the newborn particles. Aerosol particles with mobility diameters between 10 and 1100 nm were measured using a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) system. Measurements were performed at ambient relative humidities. The median total particle number concentration was 525 #/cm3 whereas the number concentration ranged between 130 #/cm3 and 9597 #/cm3. The average percentage of particles with diameters between 10 nm and 100 nm (N10-100) to total particles was 53% during summer and spring, but reached 80% during winter. Maximum average contribution of nano-particles (10 nm < Dp < 50 nm) to total particles was recorded also in winter and was attributed partly to the effect of local heating. Furthermore, back trajectories (HYSPLIT model) showed that different air mass origins are linked to different levels of particle number concentrations, with higher values associated with air masses passing from polluted areas before reaching the Akrotiri station. Modal analysis of the measured size distribution data revealed a strong nucleation mode during winter (15-25 nm), which can be correlated with emissions from local sources (domestic heating). The nucleation mode was observed also during the spring campaigns and was partly linked to new particle formation events. On the contrary, an accumulation mode (80-120 nm) prevailed in the measurements during summer campaigns, when the station area was influenced by polluted air masses arriving mainly from Eastern Europe. In total, 13 new particle formation events were recorded

  2. Mutagenicity of airborne particles.

    PubMed

    Chrisp, C E; Fisher, G L

    1980-09-01

    The physical and chemical properties of airborne particles are important for the interpretation of their potential biologic significance as genotoxic hazards. For polydisperse particle size distributions, the smallest, most respirable particles are generally the most mutagenic. Particulate collection for testing purposes should be designed to reduce artifact formation and allow condensation of mutagenic compounds. Other critical factors such as UV irradiation, wind direction, chemical reactivity, humidity, sample storage, and temperature of combustion are important. Application of chemical extraction methods and subsequent class fractionation techniques influence the observed mutagenic activity. Particles from urban air, coal fly ash, automobile and diesel exhaust, agricultural burning and welding fumes contain primarily direct-acting mutagens. Cigarette smoke condensate, smoke from charred meat and protein pyrolysates, kerosene soot and cigarette smoke condensates contain primarily mutagens which require metabolic activation. Fractionation coupled with mutagenicity testing indicates that the most potent mutagens are found in the acidic fractions of urban air, coal fly ash, and automobile diesel exhaust, whereas mutagens in rice straw smoke and cigarette smoke condensate are found primarily in the basic fractions. The interaction of the many chemical compounds in complex mixtures from airborne particles is likely to be important in determining mutagenic or comutagenic potentials. Because the mode of exposure is generally frequent and prolonged, the presence of tumor-promoting agents in complex mixtures may be a major factor in evaluation of the carcinogenic potential of airborne particles. PMID:7005667

  3. Airborne soil organic particles generated by precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bingbing; Harder, Tristan H.; Kelly, Stephen T.; Piens, Dominique S.; China, Swarup; Kovarik, Libor; Keiluweit, Marco; Arey, Bruce W.; Gilles, Mary K.; Laskin, Alexander

    2016-06-01

    Airborne organic particles play a critical role in Earth's climate, public health, air quality, and hydrological and carbon cycles. However, sources and formation mechanisms for semi-solid and solid organic particles are poorly understood and typically neglected in atmospheric models. Laboratory evidence suggests that fine particles can be formed from impaction of mineral surfaces by droplets. Here, we use chemical imaging of particles collected following rain events in the Southern Great Plains, Oklahoma, USA and after experimental irrigation to show that raindrop impaction of soils generates solid organic particles. We find that after rain events, sub-micrometre solid particles, with a chemical composition consistent with soil organic matter, contributed up to 60% of atmospheric particles. Our irrigation experiments indicate that intensive water impaction is sufficient to cause ejection of airborne soil organic particles from the soil surface. Chemical imaging and micro-spectroscopy analysis of particle physico-chemical properties suggest that these particles may have important impacts on cloud formation and efficiently absorb solar radiation. We suggest that raindrop-induced formation of solid organic particles from soils may be a widespread phenomenon in ecosystems such as agricultural systems and grasslands where soils are exposed to strong, episodic precipitation events.

  4. The impact of fireworks on airborne particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vecchi, Roberta; Bernardoni, Vera; Cricchio, Diana; D'Alessandro, Alessandra; Fermo, Paola; Lucarelli, Franco; Nava, Silvia; Piazzalunga, Andrea; Valli, Gianluigi

    Fireworks are one of the most unusual sources of pollution in atmosphere; although transient, these pollution episodes are responsible for high concentrations of particles (especially metals and organic compounds) and gases. In this paper, results of a study on chemical-physical properties of airborne particles (elements, ions, organic and elemental carbon and particles size distributions) collected during a fireworks episode in Milan (Italy) are reported. Elements typically emitted during pyrotechnic displays increased in 1 h as follows: Sr (120 times), Mg (22 times), Ba (12 times), K (11 times), and Cu (6 times). In our case study, Sr was recognised as the best fireworks tracer because its concentration was very high during the event and lower than, or comparable with, minimum detection limits during other time intervals, suggesting that it was mainly due to pyrotechnic displays. In addition, particles number concentrations increased significantly during the episode (up to 6.7 times in 1 h for the 0.5< d<1 μm size bin). Contributions (e.g. Cu, elemental carbon and nitrogen oxides) to air pollution due to the large traffic volume registered during the same night were also singled out. The original application of Positive Matrix Factorisation and Multiple Linear Regression allowed, as far as we know, here for the first time, the quantification of the fireworks contribution to atmospheric particulate matter (PM) and the resolution of their chemical profile. The contribution of fireworks to the local environment in terms of PM 10 mass, elements and chemical components was assessed with 4-h time resolution. PM 10 mass apportioned by fireworks was up to 33.6 μg m -3 (about 50% of the total PM 10 mass). Major contributors were elemental and organic carbon (2.8 and 8.1 μg m -3, respectively) as well as metals like Mg, K, Sr, Ba, and Cu (0.4, 0.7, 0.07, 0.1, and 0.1 μg m -3, respectively).

  5. New Methods for Personal Exposure Monitoring for Airborne Particles.

    PubMed

    Koehler, Kirsten A; Peters, Thomas M

    2015-12-01

    Airborne particles have been associated with a range of adverse cardiopulmonary outcomes, which has driven its monitoring at stationary central sites throughout the world. Individual exposures, however, can differ substantially from concentrations measured at central sites due to spatial variability across a region and sources unique to the individual, such as cooking or cleaning in homes, traffic emissions during commutes, and widely varying sources encountered at work. Personal monitoring with small, battery-powered instruments enables the measurement of an individual's exposure as they go about their daily activities. Personal monitoring can substantially reduce exposure misclassification and improve the power to detect relationships between particulate pollution and adverse health outcomes. By partitioning exposures to known locations and sources, it may be possible to account for variable toxicity of different sources. This review outlines recent advances in the field of personal exposure assessment for particulate pollution. Advances in battery technology have improved the feasibility of 24-h monitoring, providing the ability to more completely attribute exposures to microenvironment (e.g., work, home, commute). New metrics to evaluate the relationship between particulate matter and health are also being considered, including particle number concentration, particle composition measures, and particle oxidative load. Such metrics provide opportunities to develop more precise associations between airborne particles and health and may provide opportunities for more effective regulations. PMID:26385477

  6. New Methods for Personal Exposure Monitoring for Airborne Particles

    PubMed Central

    Koehler, Kirsten A.; Peters, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Airborne particles have been associated with a range of adverse cardiopulmonary outcomes, which has driven its monitoring at stationary, central sites throughout the world. Individual exposures, however, can differ substantially from concentrations measured at central sites due to spatial variability across a region and sources unique to the individual, such as cooking or cleaning in homes, traffic emissions during commutes, and widely varying sources encountered at work. Personal monitoring with small, battery-powered instruments enables the measurement of an individual’s exposure as they go about their daily activities. Personal monitoring can substantially reduce exposure misclassification and improve the power to detect relationships between particulate pollution and adverse health outcomes. By partitioning exposures to known locations and sources, it may be possible to account for variable toxicity of different sources. This review outlines recent advances in the field of personal exposure assessment for particulate pollution. Advances in battery technology have improved the feasibility of 24-hour monitoring, providing the ability to more completely attribute exposures to microenvironment (e.g., work, home, commute). New metrics to evaluate the relationship between particulate matter and health are also being considered, including particle number concentration, particle composition measures, and particle oxidative load. Such metrics provide opportunities to develop more precise associations between airborne particles and health and may provide opportunities for more effective regulations. PMID:26385477

  7. Evaluation of Airborne Particle Emissions from Commercial Products Containing Carbon Nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Guannan; Park, Jae Hong; Cena, Lorenzo G.; Shelton, Betsy L.; Peters, Thomas M.

    2012-01-01

    The emission of the airborne particles from epoxy resin test sticks with different CNT loadings and two commercial products were characterized while sanding with three grit sizes and three disc sander speeds. The total number concentrations, respirable mass concentrations, and particle size number/mass distributions of the emitted particles were measured using a condensation particle counter, an optical particle counter, and a scanning mobility particle sizer. The emitted particles were sampled on a polycarbonate filter and analyzed using electron microscopy. The highest number concentrations (arithmetic mean = 4670 particles/cm3) were produced with coarse sandpaper, 2% (by weight) CNT test sticks and medium disc sander speed, whereas the lowest number concentrations (arithmetic mean = 92 particles/cm3) were produced with medium sandpaper, 2% CNT test sticks and slow disc sander speed. Respirable mass concentrations were highest (arithmetic mean = 1.01 mg/m3) for fine sandpaper, 2% CNT test sticks and medium disc sander speed and lowest (arithmetic mean = 0.20 mg/m3) for medium sandpaper, 0% CNT test sticks and medium disc sander speed. For CNT-epoxy samples, airborne particles were primarily micrometer-sized epoxy cores with CNT protrusions. No free CNTs were observed in airborne samples, except for tests conducted with 4% CNT epoxy. The number concentration, mass concentration, and size distribution of airborne particles generated when products containing CNTs are sanded depends on the conditions of sanding and the characteristics of the material being sanded. PMID:23204914

  8. A new method for determining the sources of airborne particles.

    PubMed

    Oteros, J; García-Mozo, H; Alcázar, P; Belmonte, J; Bermejo, D; Boi, M; Cariñanos, P; Díaz de la Guardia, C; Fernández-González, D; González-Minero, F; Gutiérrez-Bustillo, A M; Moreno-Grau, S; Pérez-Badía, R; Rodríguez-Rajo, F J; Ruíz-Valenzuela, L; Suárez-Pérez, J; Trigo, M M; Domínguez-Vilches, E; Galán, C

    2015-05-15

    Air quality is a major issue for humans owing to the fact that the content of particles in the atmosphere has multiple implications for life quality, ecosystem dynamics and environment. Scientists are therefore particularly interested in discovering the origin of airborne particles. A new method has been developed to model the relationship between the emission surface and the total amount of airborne particles at a given distance, employing olive pollen and olive groves as examples. A third-degree polynomial relationship between the air particles at a particular point and the distance from the source was observed, signifying that the nearest area to a point is not that which is most correlated with its air features. This work allows the origin of airborne particles to be discovered and could be implemented in different disciplines related to atmospheric aerosol, thus providing a new approach with which to discover the dynamics of airborne particles. PMID:25837296

  9. Enumerating Spore-Forming Bacteria Airborne with Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Ying; Barengoltz, Jack

    2006-01-01

    A laboratory method has been conceived to enable the enumeration of (1) Cultivable bacteria and bacterial spores that are, variously, airborne by themselves or carried by, parts of, or otherwise associated with, other airborne particles; and (2) Spore-forming bacteria among all of the aforementioned cultivable microbes.

  10. Dry deposition of large, airborne particles onto a surrogate surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Eugene; Kalman, David; Larson, Timothy

    Simultaneous measurements of particle dry deposition flux and airborne number concentration in the open atmosphere were made using three different types of artificially generated particles in the size range 10-100 μm - perlite, diatomaceous earth and glass beads. A combination of gravimetric analysis, automated microscopy and sonic anemometry provided size-resolved estimates of both the inertial and gravitational components of the quasi-laminar layer particle deposition velocity, ( Vd) b, as a function of size. Eddy inertial deposition efficiency ( ηdI) was determined as a function of dimensionless eddy Stokes number (Stk e). In the range 3particles and gases to environmental surfaces. DOE Report PNL-SA-6721, Pacific Northwest Laboratories, Richland, WA), used in several regulatory models, significantly under-predicted (up to seven times) ( Vd) b for large particles ( da>10 μm).

  11. Size distribution of airborne particles controls outcome of epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Roy M; Giorio, Chiara; Beddows, David C S; Dall'Osto, Manuel

    2010-12-15

    Epidemiological studies typically using wide size range mass metrics (e.g. PM(10)) have demonstrated associations between airborne particulate matter and several adverse health outcomes. This approach ignores the fact that mass concentration may not correlate with regional lung dose, unlike the case of trace gases. When using measured particle size distributions as the basis for calculating regional lung dose, PM(10) mass concentration is found to be a good predictor of the mass dose in all regions of the lung, but is far less predictive of the surface area and particle number dose. On the other hand, measurements of particle number do not well predict mass dose, indicating that the chosen particle metric is likely to determine the health outcomes detectable by an epidemiological study. Consequently, epidemiological studies using mass metrics (PM(2.5) and PM(10)) may fail to recognise important health consequences of particulate matter exposure, leading to an underestimate of the public health consequences of particle exposure. PMID:21109288

  12. Airborne particle concentrations at schools measured at different spatial scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buonanno, G.; Fuoco, F. C.; Morawska, L.; Stabile, L.

    2013-03-01

    Potential adverse effects on children health may result from school exposure to airborne particles. To address this issue, measurements in terms of particle number concentration, particle size distribution and black carbon (BC) concentrations were performed in three school buildings in Cassino (Italy) and its suburbs, outside and inside of the classrooms during normal occupancy and use. Additional time resolved information was gathered on ventilation condition, classroom activity, and traffic count data around the schools were obtained using a video camera. Across the three investigated school buildings, the outdoor and indoor particle number concentration monitored down to 4 nm and up to 3 μm ranged from 2.8 × 104 part cm-3 to 4.7 × 104 part cm-3 and from 2.0 × 104 part cm-3 to 3.5 × 104 part cm-3, respectively. The total particle concentrations were usually higher outdoors than indoors, because no indoor sources were detected. I/O measured was less than 1 (varying in a relatively narrow range from 0.63 to 0.74), however one school exhibited indoor concentrations higher than outdoor during the morning rush hours. Particle size distribution at the outdoor site showed high particle concentrations in different size ranges, varying during the day; in relation to the starting and finishing of school time two modes were found. BC concentrations were 5 times higher at the urban school compared with the suburban and suburban-to-urban differences were larger than the relative differences of ultrafine particle concentrations.

  13. HUMAN INTERINDIVIDUAL VARIABILITY IN SUSCEPTIBILITY TO AIRBORNE PARTICLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Part of the explanation for the persistent epidemiological findings of associations between mortality and morbidity with relatively modest ambient exposures to airborne particles may be that some people are much more susceptible to particle-induced responses than others. This stu...

  14. Transport of airborne particles within a room.

    PubMed

    Richmond-Bryant, J; Eisner, A D; Brixey, L A; Wiener, R W

    2006-02-01

    The objective of this study is to test a technique used to analyze contaminant transport in the wake of a bluff body under controlled experimental conditions for application to aerosol transport in a complex furnished room. Specifically, the hypothesis tested by our work is that the dispersion of contaminants in a room is related to the turbulence kinetic energy and length scale. This turbulence is, in turn, determined by the size and shape of furnishings within the room and by the ventilation characteristics. This approach was tested for indoor dispersion through computational fluid dynamics simulations and laboratory experiments. In each, 3 mum aerosols were released in a furnished room with varied contaminant release locations (at the inlet vent or under a desk). The realizable k approximately epsilon model was employed in the simulations, followed by a Lagrangian particle trajectory simulation used as input for an in-house FORTRAN code to compute aerosol concentration. For the experiments, concentrations were measured simultaneously at seven locations by laser photometry, and air velocity was measured using laser Doppler velocimetry. The results suggest that turbulent diffusion is a significant factor in contaminant residence time in a furnished room. This procedure was then expanded to develop a simplified correlation between contaminant residence time and the number of enclosing surfaces around a point containing the contaminant. Practical Implications The work presented here provides a methodology for relating local aerosol residence time to properties of room ventilation and furniture arrangement. This technique may be used to assess probable locations of high concentration by knowing only the particle release location, furniture configuration, inlet and outlet locations, and air speeds, which are all observable features. Applications of this method include development of 'rules of thumb' for first responders entering a room where an agent has been released

  15. Transport of airborne particles in straight and curved microchannels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaap, Allison; Chu, Winnie C.; Stoeber, Boris

    2012-08-01

    The measurement of airborne particles is important for environmental and exposure monitoring. Microfluidic technologies present potential advantages for aerosol monitoring but have been applied very little to the handling of airborne particles. In this paper, we examine the flow focusing and cross-streamline diffusion of aerosols in straight microchannels, and the size-based lateral displacement of aerosols caused by centrifugal forces in a curved channel. We present calculations, simulations, and experimental results verifying the models: measurements of the focusing and diffusion of 0.2 μm and 0.75 μm particles in straight channels and of the size-dependent lateral displacement of particles between 0.2 μm and 2 μm in curved channels are demonstrated and shown to match well with the simulations. We observe lateral dispersion of the particles: particles closer to the top and bottom wall of the channel experience less lateral displacement than particles near the center due to the flow velocity distribution across the channel cross section. These results confirm that the microchannel techniques presented are a viable method for the size-based manipulation of airborne particles.

  16. Airborne soil organic particles generated by precipitation

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wang, Bingbing; Harder, Tristan H.; Kelly, Stephen T.; Piens, Dominique S.; China, Swarup; Kovarik, Libor; Keiluweit, Marco; Arey, Bruce W.; Gilles, Mary K.; Laskin, Alexander

    2016-05-02

    Airborne organic particles play a critical role in Earth’s climate1, public health2, air quality3, and hydrological and carbon cycles4. However, sources and formation mechanisms for semi-solid and solid organic particles5 are poorly understood and typically neglected in atmospheric models6. Laboratory evidence suggests that fine particles can be formed from impaction of mineral surfaces by droplets7. Here, we use chemical imaging of particles collected following rain events in the Southern Great Plains, Oklahoma, USA and after experimental irrigation to show that raindrop impaction of soils generates solid organic particles. We find that after rain events, sub-micrometre solid particles, with a chemicalmore » composition consistent with soil organic matter, contributed up to 60% of atmospheric particles. Our irrigation experiments indicate that intensive water impaction is sufficient to cause ejection of airborne soil organic particles from the soil surface. Chemical imaging and micro-spectroscopy analysis of particle physico-chemical properties suggest that these particles may have important impacts on cloud formation and efficiently absorb solar radiation. Lastly, we suggest that raindrop-induced formation of solid organic particles from soils may be a widespread phenomenon in ecosystems such as agricultural systems and grasslands where soils are exposed to strong, episodic precipitation events8.« less

  17. Airborne particle exposure and extrinsic skin aging.

    PubMed

    Vierkötter, Andrea; Schikowski, Tamara; Ranft, Ulrich; Sugiri, Dorothea; Matsui, Mary; Krämer, Ursula; Krutmann, Jean

    2010-12-01

    For decades, extrinsic skin aging has been known to result from chronic exposure to solar radiation and, more recently, to tobacco smoke. In this study, we have assessed the influence of air pollution on skin aging in 400 Caucasian women aged 70-80 years. Skin aging was clinically assessed by means of SCINEXA (score of intrinsic and extrinsic skin aging), a validated skin aging score. Traffic-related exposure at the place of residence was determined by traffic particle emissions and by estimation of soot in fine dust. Exposure to background particle concentration was determined by measurements of ambient particles at fixed monitoring sites. The impact of air pollution on skin aging was analyzed by linear and logistic regression and adjusted for potential confounding variables. Air pollution exposure was significantly correlated to extrinsic skin aging signs, in particular to pigment spots and less pronounced to wrinkles. An increase in soot (per 0.5 × 10(-5) per m) and particles from traffic (per 475  kg per year and square km) was associated with 20% more pigment spots on forehead and cheeks. Background particle pollution, which was measured in low residential areas of the cities without busy traffic and therefore is not directly attributable to traffic but rather to other sources of particles, was also positively correlated to pigment spots on face. These results indicate that particle pollution might influence skin aging as well. PMID:20664556

  18. Acoustic Resonator Optimisation for Airborne Particle Manipulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devendran, Citsabehsan; Billson, Duncan R.; Hutchins, David A.; Alan, Tuncay; Neild, Adrian

    Advances in micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) technology and biomedical research necessitate micro-machined manipulators to capture, handle and position delicate micron-sized particles. To this end, a parallel plate acoustic resonator system has been investigated for the purposes of manipulation and entrapment of micron sized particles in air. Numerical and finite element modelling was performed to optimise the design of the layered acoustic resonator. To obtain an optimised resonator design, careful considerations of the effect of thickness and material properties are required. Furthermore, the effect of acoustic attenuation which is dependent on frequency is also considered within this study, leading to an optimum operational frequency range. Finally, experimental results demonstrated good particle levitation and capture of various particle properties and sizes ranging to as small as 14.8 μm.

  19. A Micro Aerosol Sensor for the Measurement of Airborne Ultrafine Particles

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chao; Zhu, Rong; Yang, Wenming

    2016-01-01

    Particle number concentration and particle size are the two key parameters used to characterize exposure to airborne nanoparticles or ultrafine particles that have attracted the most attention. This paper proposes a simple micro aerosol sensor for detecting the number concentration and particle size of ultrafine particles with diameters from 50 to 253 nm based on electrical diffusion charging. The sensor is composed of a micro channel and a couple of planar electrodes printed on two circuit boards assembled in parallel, which thus integrate charging, precipitating and measurement elements into one chip, the overall size of which is 98 × 38 × 25 mm3. The experiment results demonstrate that the sensor is useful for measuring monodisperse aerosol particles with number concentrations from 300 to 2.5 × 104 /cm3 and particle sizes from 50 to 253 nm. The aerosol sensor has a simple structure and small size, which is favorable for use in handheld devices. PMID:26999156

  20. A Micro Aerosol Sensor for the Measurement of Airborne Ultrafine Particles.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chao; Zhu, Rong; Yang, Wenming

    2016-01-01

    Particle number concentration and particle size are the two key parameters used to characterize exposure to airborne nanoparticles or ultrafine particles that have attracted the most attention. This paper proposes a simple micro aerosol sensor for detecting the number concentration and particle size of ultrafine particles with diameters from 50 to 253 nm based on electrical diffusion charging. The sensor is composed of a micro channel and a couple of planar electrodes printed on two circuit boards assembled in parallel, which thus integrate charging, precipitating and measurement elements into one chip, the overall size of which is 98 × 38 × 25 mm³. The experiment results demonstrate that the sensor is useful for measuring monodisperse aerosol particles with number concentrations from 300 to 2.5 × 10⁴ /cm³ and particle sizes from 50 to 253 nm. The aerosol sensor has a simple structure and small size, which is favorable for use in handheld devices. PMID:26999156

  1. Real-time airborne particle analyzer

    DOEpatents

    Reilly, Peter T.A.

    2012-10-16

    An aerosol particle analyzer includes a laser ablation chamber, a gas-filled conduit, and a mass spectrometer. The laser ablation chamber can be operated at a low pressure, which can be from 0.1 mTorr to 30 mTorr. The ablated ions are transferred into a gas-filled conduit. The gas-filled conduit reduces the electrical charge and the speed of ablated ions as they collide and mix with buffer gases in the gas-filled conduit. Preferably, the gas filled-conduit includes an electromagnetic multipole structure that collimates the nascent ions into a beam, which is guided into the mass spectrometer. Because the gas-filled conduit allows storage of vast quantities of the ions from the ablated particles, the ions from a single ablated particle can be analyzed multiple times and by a variety of techniques to supply statistically meaningful analysis of composition and isotope ratios.

  2. Photophoretic trapping of airborne particles using ultraviolet illumination.

    PubMed

    Redding, Brandon; Hill, Steven C; Alexson, Dimitri; Wang, Chuji; Pan, Yong-Le

    2015-02-01

    We demonstrate photophoretic trapping of micron-sized absorbing particles in air using pulsed and continuous-wave (CW) ultraviolet laser illumination at wavelengths of 351 nm and 244 nm. We compared the particle trapping dynamics in two trapping geometries consisting of a hollow optical cone formed by light propagating either with or against gravity. This comparison allowed us to isolate the influence of the photophoretic force from the radiative pressure and the convective forces. We found that the absorbing spherical particles tested experienced a positive photophoretic force, whereas the spatially irregular, non-spherical particles tested experienced a negative photophoretic force. By using two trapping geometries, both spherical and non-spherical absorbing particles could be trapped and held securely in place. The position of the trapped particles exhibited a standard deviation of less than 1 µm over 20 seconds. Moreover, by operating in the UV and deep-UV where the majority of airborne materials are absorptive, the system was able to trap a wide range of particle types. Such a general purpose optical trap could enable on-line characterization of airborne particles when coupled with interrogation techniques such as Raman spectroscopy. PMID:25836215

  3. [Investigation of Carbonaceous Airborne Particles by Scanning Proton Microprobe].

    PubMed

    Bao, Liang-man; Liu, Jiang-feng; Lei, Qian-tao; Li, Xiao-lin; Zhang, Gui-lin; Li, Yan

    2016-01-15

    Carbonaceous particles are an important component of the atmospheric aerosol particles and important for global climate change, air quality and human health. The PM₁₀ single particles from two environmental monitor locations and seven pollution emission sources were analyzed using scanning proton microprobe (SPM) techniques. The concentration of carbon in individual particles was quantitatively determined by proton non-Rutherford elastic backscattering spectrometry (EBS). The results of this investigation showed that carbonaceous particles were dominant in the pollution sources of coal and oil combustions, diesel busexhaust and automobile exhaust, while inorganic particles were dominant in the sources of steel industry, cement dust and soil dust. Carbonaceous matter was enriched in particles from the city center, while mineral matter was the main component of airborne particles in the industrial area. Elemental mapping of single aerosol particles yielded important information on the chemical reactions of aerosol particles. The micro-PIXE (particle induced X-ray emission) maps of S, Ca and Fe of individual carbonaceous particles showed that sulfuration reaction occurred between SO₂and mineral particles, which increased the sulfur content of particles. PMID:27078933

  4. Effect of airborne particle on SO 2-calcite reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böke, Hasan; Göktürk, E. Hale; Caner-Saltık, Emine N.; Demirci, Şahinde

    1999-02-01

    In modern urban atmosphere, sulphur dioxide (SO 2) attacks calcite (CaCO 3) in calcareous stone-producing gypsum (CaSO 4·2H 2O) which forms crust at rain sheltered surfaces and accelerates erosion at areas exposed to rain. The airborne particles collected on stone surfaces have always been considered to enhance the gypsum crust formation and thus it is believed that they should be removed from the surface to decrease the effects of SO 2. In this study, our aim was to investigate this event by carrying out a series of experiments in laboratory using pure calcium carbonate powder to represent calcareous stone. Sodium montmorillonite, activated carbon, ferric oxide, vanadium pentoxide and cupric chloride were mixed in the pure calcium carbonate powder as substitutes of the airborne particles in the polluted atmosphere. The samples have been exposed at nearly 10 ppmv SO 2 concentrations at 90% relative humidity conditions in a reaction chamber for several days. The mineralogical composition of the exposed samples were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and infrared spectrometer (IR). Sulphation reaction products, calcium sulphite hemihydrate, gypsum and unreacted calcite, were determined quantitatively using IR. Exposed samples have also been investigated morphologically using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Experimental results reveal that calcium sulphite hemihydrate is the main reaction product of the SO 2-calcite reaction. It turns out that airborne particles play an important catalytic role in the oxidation of calcium sulphite hemihydrate into gypsum, although their presence does not very significantly affect the extent of sulphation reaction. This behaviour of airborne particles is explained by the presence of liquid film on the calcium carbonate surface where a series of reactions in the gas-liquid-solid interfaces takes place.

  5. Discrimination of airborne material particles from light scattering (TAOS) patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crosta, Giovanni F.; Pan, Yong-Le; Videen, Gorden; Aptowicz, Kevin B.; Chang, Richard K.

    2013-05-01

    Two-dimensional angle-resolved optical scattering (TAOS) is an experimental method which collects the intensity pattern of monochromatic light scattered by a single, micron-sized airborne particle. In general, the interpretation of these patterns and the retrieval of the particle refractive index, shape or size alone, are difficult problems. The solution proposed herewith relies on a learning machine (LM): rather than identifying airborne particles from their scattering patterns, TAOS patterns themselves are classified. The LM consists of two interacting modules: a feature extraction module and a linear classifier. Feature extraction relies on spectrum enhancement, which includes the discrete cosine Fourier transform and non-linear operations. Linear classification relies on multivariate statistical analysis. Interaction enables supervised training of the LM. The application described in this article aims at discriminating the TAOS patterns of single bacterial spores (Bacillus subtilis) from patterns of atmospheric aerosol and diesel soot particles. The latter are known to interfere with the detection of bacterial spores. Classification has been applied to a data set with more than 3000 TAOS patterns from various materials. Some classification experiments are described, where the size of training sets has been varied as well as many other parameters which control the classifier. By assuming all training and recognition patterns to come from the respective reference materials only, the most satisfactory classification result corresponds to ≍ 20% false negatives from Bacillus subtilis particles and <= 11% false positives from environmental and diesel particles.

  6. Current concepts on airborne particles and health

    SciTech Connect

    Mauderly, J.L.

    1994-11-01

    Epidemiological evidence of associations between environmental particulate concentrations and both acute and chronic health effects has grown with numerous recent studies conducted in the US and other countries. An association between short-term changes in particulate levels and acute mortality now seems certain. The association is consistent among studies and coherent among indicators of mortality and morbidity. Effects observed at surprisingly low pollution levels have raised concern for current exposures even in modestly polluted cities. Toxicology did not predict the acute mortality effect, and causal mechanisms are difficult to rationalize. Present data suggest that the fine fraction of particulate pollution is more toxic than larger particles, but the contribution of specific particulate species is poorly understood.

  7. Inversely tracking indoor airborne particles to locate their release sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tengfei (Tim); Li, Hongzhu; Wang, Shugang

    2012-08-01

    Airborne particles can have numerous adverse effects on human health. Knowing the release locations of airborne particulate sources is helpful in minimizing pollutant exposure. This paper describes a proposal to locate indoor particulate sources by two inverse models: the quasi-reversibility (QR) model and the zone prescription of contaminant sources with the Lagrangian-reversibility (LR) model. The QR model reverses the time marching direction of the Eulerian governing equation and replaces the second-order diffusion term with a fourth-order stabilization term. The zone prescription LR model traces individual particulate motion in a Lagrangian reference frame after reversing the flow field. The particle trajectories are solved backward to the initial release once the conservative forces acting on particles are reversed. The tracked particles are proposed to be placed at the zone boundary of the largest concentration contour within the domain at a given time, which is provided as the initially known information. By connecting all particles at t = 0, a zone is formed that can prescribe the actual contaminant source. This study finds that both models can accurately locate particulate sources released instantaneously at a spot. The QR model performs slightly better than the LR model but is much more computationally demanding.

  8. Temporal variations of airborne particles concentration in the Brussels environment.

    PubMed

    Vanderstraeten, P; Lénelle, Y; Meurrens, A; Carati, D; Brenig, L; Offer, Z Y

    2007-09-01

    We report and analyze data on the PM10 fraction of airborne particles measured at five recording stations in the Brussels region from October 2002 till September 2003. These stations are representative of the various activity sectors of the Brussels urban area. The objective was the determination of the origin of the PM10 particles (particles up to 10 mum) that are recorded in that region in order to follow the EU directives concerning tolerance level of airborne particles concentration. In order to evaluate the impacts of local and external factors that inject solid particles in the atmosphere of Brussels we compared concentration data from working and not working (holidays) periods. Moreover, we also compared concentrations from periods of agricultural activity and rest in the Brabant provinces surrounding the Brussels region for various crop types. The results lead to the conclusion that the impact or urban traffic is rather limited while that of the agricultural activities is important. Moreover, there appears a clear-cut distinction between different types of crops. PMID:17180416

  9. Flow analysis of airborne particles in a hospital operating room

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faeghi, Shiva; Lennerts, Kunibert

    2016-06-01

    Preventing airborne infections during a surgery has been always an important issue to deliver effective and high quality medical care to the patient. One of the important sources of infection is particles that are distributed through airborne routes. Factors influencing infection rates caused by airborne particles, among others, are efficient ventilation and the arrangement of surgical facilities inside the operating room. The paper studies the ventilation airflow pattern in an operating room in a hospital located in Tehran, Iran, and seeks to find the efficient configurations with respect to the ventilation system and layout of facilities. This study uses computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and investigates the effects of different inflow velocities for inlets, two pressurization scenarios (equal and excess pressure) and two arrangements of surgical facilities in room while the door is completely open. The results show that system does not perform adequately when the door is open in the operating room under the current conditions, and excess pressure adjustments should be employed to achieve efficient results. The findings of this research can be discussed in the context of design and controlling of the ventilation facilities of operating rooms.

  10. Airborne endotoxin associated with particles of different sizes and affected by water content in handled straw.

    PubMed

    Madsen, A M; Nielsen, S H

    2010-07-01

    High exposures to endotoxin are observed in environments where organic materials are handled and lower exposures are found in e.g. indoor air. Inhaled endotoxin contributes significantly to the induction of airway inflammation and dysfunction. The size of an inhaled particle influences the deposition in the airways and the following health symptoms. The objective is to characterise the distribution of endotoxin on airborne particles of different sizes in straw storage halls with high exposure and in other environments with lower exposure levels to endotoxin. Furthermore we have studied the influence of water content of handled straw on the size distribution of endotoxin containing particles. Total, inhalable, thoracic and respirable endotoxin and particles have each been quantified in aerosols from boiler rooms and straw storage halls at 24 power plants, including 21 biofuel plants. Inhalable, thoracic and respirable endotoxin have been quantified in aerosols from offices and outdoor air. The endotoxin concentration was higher in airborne thoracic dust than in airborne 'total dust'. The median respirable fraction in the straw storage halls, boiler rooms at biofuel plants, boiler rooms at conventional plants, offices and outdoors was respectively 42%, 9%, 19%, 24% and 34%. Thoracic endotoxin per number of thoracic particles was higher than respirable endotoxin per number of respirable particles at the biofuel plants. In straw storage halls the fraction of endotoxin of respirable size was highest on the days with lowest water content in the received straw. Furthermore the exposures to all endotoxin fractions were highest on days with the lowest water content in the received straw. In conclusion the highest exposures and concentrations of endotoxin occur or tend to occur from thoracic dust. A high variation in endotoxin concentrations and in fractions of respirable or thoracic size is found in the different working areas. This is important in the risk assessment and

  11. Anthropogenic Osmium in Airborne Particles from Woods Hole, Massachusetts, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peucker-Ehrenbrink, B.; Sen, I. S.; Geboy, N.

    2012-12-01

    The global geochemical cycle of osmium has been significantly disturbed by the introduction of automobile exhaust catalysts to convert noxious gas emissions into more benign forms. Anthropogenic osmium has been reported in rainwater, snow, and in the urban airborne particles from around the world to reveal global-scale osmium pollution [1, 2]. In this study, we report on the platinum group element (PGE) concentrations and osmium isotope ratios of airborne particles (PM10) collected in Woods Hole, a small coastal town in Massachusetts to better understand inputs of anthropogenic osmium to rural environments. We further investigate the use of osmium isotopes to track sources of airborne particles and support source apportionment studies on a continental scale. The samples used in this study were collected at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution over one year (2008-2009). From this collection twelve samples for which the backward air mass trajectories have been determined were selected for osmium isotope analyses. Our results show that the osmium and platinum concentrations are an order of magnitude lower when compared to downtown Boston [2]. The average Os, Pt and Ir concentrations are 0.006±0.012, 0.019±0.023, and 0.685±0.634 pg m-3, respectively. The 187Os/188Os of the aerosols range from 0.275 to 0.788. As continental crust is radiogenic (187Os/188Os >1) and PGE ore bodies generally have unradiogenic 187Os/188Os (~0.2), the unradiogenic 187Os/188Os signature of the aerosols indicates anthropogenic contributions. With 95% of the total osmium mobilization on land being attributed to human activities [3], it is clear that human imprint on airborne particles is not restricted to urban centers with high traffic flows, but also affects rural environments. Aerosol particles that have backward air mass trajectories from the Southwest, the densely populated and industrialized Eastern seaboard, are characterized by unradiogenic osmium, while air masses from the North

  12. Effects of particle size and velocity on burial depth of airborne particles in glass fiber filters

    SciTech Connect

    Higby, D.P.

    1984-11-01

    Air sampling for particulate radioactive material involves collecting airborne particles on a filter and then determining the amount of radioactivity collected per unit volume of air drawn through the filter. The amount of radioactivity collected is frequently determined by directly measuring the radiation emitted from the particles collected on the filter. Counting losses caused by the particle becoming buried in the filter matrix may cause concentrations of airborne particulate radioactive materials to be underestimated by as much as 50%. Furthermore, the dose calculation for inhaled radionuclides will also be affected. The present study was designed to evaluate the extent to which particle size and sampling velocity influence burial depth in glass-fiber filters. Aerosols of high-fired /sup 239/PuO/sub 2/ were collected at various sampling velocities on glass-fiber filters. The fraction of alpha counts lost due to burial was determined as the ratio of activity detected by direct alpha count to the quantity determined by photon spectrometry. The results show that burial of airborne particles collected on glass-fiber filters appears to be a weak function of sampling velocity and particle size. Counting losses ranged from 0 to 25%. A correction that assumes losses of 10 to 15% would ensure that the concentration of airborne alpha-emitting radionuclides would not be underestimated when glass-fiber filters are used. 32 references, 21 figures, 11 tables.

  13. Airborne monitoring to distinguish engineered nanomaterials from incidental particles for environmental health and safety.

    PubMed

    Peters, Thomas M; Elzey, Sherrie; Johnson, Ronald; Park, Heaweon; Grassian, Vicki H; Maher, Tabitha; O'Shaughnessy, Patrick

    2009-02-01

    Two methods were used to distinguish airborne engineered nanomaterials from other airborne particles in a facility that produces nano-structured lithium titanate metal oxide powder. The first method involved off-line analysis of filter samples collected with conventional respirable samplers at each of seven locations (six near production processes and one outdoors). Throughout most of the facility and outdoors, respirable mass concentrations were low (<0.050 mg/m(3)) and were attributed to particles other than the nanomaterial (<10% by mass titanium determined with inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry). In contrast, in a single area with extensive material handling, mass concentrations were greatest (0.118 mg m(-3)) and contained up to 39% +/- 11% lithium titanium, indicating the presence of airborne nanomaterial. Analysis of the filter samples collected in this area by transmission electron microscope and scanning electron microscope revealed that the airborne nanomaterial was associated only with spherical aggregates (clusters of fused 10-80 nm nanoparticles) that were larger than 200 nm. This analysis also showed that nanoparticles in this area were the smallest particles of a larger distribution of submicrometer chain agglomerates likely from welding in an adjacent area of the facility. The second method used two, hand-held, direct-reading, battery-operated instruments to obtain a time series of very fine particle number (<300 nm), respirable mass, and total mass concentration, which were then related to activities within the area of extensive material handling. This activity-based monitoring showed that very fine particle number concentrations (<300 nm) had no apparent correlation to worker activities, but that sharp peaks in the respirable and total mass concentration coincided with loading a hopper and replacing nanomaterial collection bags. These findings were consistent with those from the filter-based method in that they demonstrate

  14. Airborne monitoring to distinguish engineered nanomaterials from incidental particles for environmental health and safety

    PubMed Central

    Peters, TM; Elzey, S; Johnson, R; Park, H; Grassian, VH; Maher, T; O'Shaughnessy, P

    2016-01-01

    Two methods were used to distinguish airborne engineered nanomaterials from other airborne particles in a facility that produces nano-structured lithium titanate metal oxide powder. The first method involved off-line analysis of filter samples collected with conventional respirable samplers at each of seven locations (six near production processes and one outdoors). Throughout most of the facility and outdoors, respirable mass concentrations were low (<0.050 mg m−3) and were attributed to particles other than the nanomaterial (<10% by mass titanium determined with inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry). In contrast, in a single area with extensive material handling, mass concentrations were greatest (0.118 mg m−3) and contained up to 39% +/− 11% lithium titanium, indicating the presence of airborne nanomaterial. Analysis of the filter samples collected in this area by transmission electron microscope and scanning electron microscope revealed that the airborne nanomaterial was associated only with spherical aggregates (clusters of fused 10–80 nm nanoparticles) that were larger than 200 nm. This analysis also showed that nanoparticles in this area were the smallest particles of a larger distribution of submicrometer chain agglomerates likely from welding in an adjacent area of the facility. The second method used two, hand-held, direct-reading, battery-operated instruments to obtain a time series of very fine particle number (<300 nm), respirable mass, and total mass concentration, which were then related to activities within the area of extensive material handling. This activity-based monitoring showed that very fine particle number concentrations (<300 nm) had no apparent correlation to worker activities, but that sharp peaks in the respirable and total mass concentration coincided with loading a hopper and replacing nanomaterial collection bags. These findings were consistent with those from the filter-based method in that they

  15. Particle size of airborne mouse crude and defined allergens.

    PubMed

    Sakaguchi, M; Inouye, S; Miyazawa, H; Kamimura, H; Kimura, M; Yamazaki, S

    1989-05-01

    Laboratory animal allergy is a serious occupational diseases of many workers and scientists engaged in animal experimentation. Control measures depend upon characterization of allergens including airborne particles. This study measured the particle size of crude mouse urine and pelt aeroallergens generated in mouse housing rooms and compared them with mouse serum albumin, a defined major allergen. Allergens were detected by specific immunological methods. Most crude and defined allergens (74.5-86.4%) concentrated on a filter with a retention size greater than 7 microns. In distrubed air, allergen concentration increased 1.4 (albumin) to 5 (crude) fold and the proportion of small particles increased from 1.4% in calm air to 4.5% in distrubed air. This information on the generation and size distribution of aeroallergens will be important in the development of effective counter measures. PMID:2724924

  16. Airborne Particle Size Distribution Measurements at USDOE Fernald

    SciTech Connect

    Harley, N.H.; Chittaporn, P.; Heikkinen, M.; Medora, R.; Merrill, R.

    2003-03-27

    There are no long term measurements of the particle size distribution and concentration of airborne radionuclides at any USDOE facility except Fernald. Yet the determinant of lung dose is the particle size, determining the airway and lower lung deposition. Beginning in 2000, continuous (6 to 8 weeks) measurements of the aerosol particle size distribution have been made with a miniature sampler developed under EMSP. Radon gas decays to a chain of four short lived solid radionuclides that attach immediately to the resident atmospheric aerosol. These in turn decay to long lived polonium 210. Alpha emitting polonium is a tracer for any atmospheric aerosol. Six samplers at Fernald and four at QC sites in New Jersey show a difference in both polonium concentration and size distribution with the winter measurements being higher/larger than summer by almost a factor of two at all locations. EMSP USDOE Contract DE FG07 97ER62522.

  17. Particle-number-projected thermal pairing

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen Dinh Dang

    2007-12-15

    Particle-number projection is applied to the modified BCS (MBCS) theory. The resulting particle-number-projected MBCS theory, taking into account the effects due to fluctuations of particle and quasiparticle numbers at finite temperature, is tested within the exactly solvable multilevel model for pairing as well as the realistic {sup 120}Sn nucleus. The signature of the pseudogap in the crossover region above the critical temperature of superfluid-normal phase transition is discussed in terms of the pairing spectral function.

  18. Continental anthropogenic primary particle number emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paasonen, Pauli; Kupiainen, Kaarle; Klimont, Zbigniew; Visschedijk, Antoon; Denier van der Gon, Hugo A. C.; Amann, Markus

    2016-06-01

    Atmospheric aerosol particle number concentrations impact our climate and health in ways different from those of aerosol mass concentrations. However, the global, current and future anthropogenic particle number emissions and their size distributions are so far poorly known. In this article, we present the implementation of particle number emission factors and the related size distributions in the GAINS (Greenhouse Gas-Air Pollution Interactions and Synergies) model. This implementation allows for global estimates of particle number emissions under different future scenarios, consistent with emissions of other pollutants and greenhouse gases. In addition to determining the general particulate number emissions, we also describe a method to estimate the number size distributions of the emitted black carbon particles. The first results show that the sources dominating the particle number emissions are different to those dominating the mass emissions. The major global number source is road traffic, followed by residential combustion of biofuels and coal (especially in China, India and Africa), coke production (Russia and China), and industrial combustion and processes. The size distributions of emitted particles differ across the world, depending on the main sources: in regions dominated by traffic and industry, the number size distribution of emissions peaks in diameters range from 20 to 50 nm, whereas in regions with intensive biofuel combustion and/or agricultural waste burning, the emissions of particles with diameters around 100 nm are dominant. In the baseline (current legislation) scenario, the particle number emissions in Europe, Northern and Southern Americas, Australia, and China decrease until 2030, whereas especially for India, a strong increase is estimated. The results of this study provide input for modelling of the future changes in aerosol-cloud interactions as well as particle number related adverse health effects, e.g. in response to tightening

  19. Measurement of airborne particle concentrations near the Sunset Crater volcano, Arizona.

    PubMed

    Benke, Roland R; Hooper, Donald M; Durham, James S; Bannon, Donald R; Compton, Keith L; Necsoiu, Marius; McGinnis, Ronald N

    2009-02-01

    Direct measurements of airborne particle mass concentrations or mass loads are often used to estimate health effects from the inhalation of resuspended contaminated soil. Airborne particle mass concentrations were measured using a personal sampler under a variety of surface-disturbing activities within different depositional environments at both volcanic and nonvolcanic sites near the Sunset Crater volcano in northern Arizona. Focused field investigations were performed at this analog site to improve the understanding of natural and human-induced processes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The level of surface-disturbing activity was found to be the most influential factor affecting the measured airborne particle concentrations, which increased over three orders of magnitude relative to ambient conditions. As the surface-disturbing activity level increased, the particle size distribution and the majority of airborne particle mass shifted from particles with aerodynamic diameters less than 10 mum (0.00039 in) to particles with aerodynamic diameters greater than 10 mum (0.00039 in). Under ambient conditions, above average wind speeds tended to increase airborne particle concentrations. In contrast, stronger winds tended to decrease airborne particle concentrations in the breathing zone during light and heavy surface-disturbing conditions. A slight increase in the average airborne particle concentration during ambient conditions was found above older nonvolcanic deposits, which tended to be finer grained than the Sunset Crater tephra deposits. An increased airborne particle concentration was realized when walking on an extremely fine-grained deposit, but the sensitivity of airborne particle concentrations to the resuspendible fraction of near-surface grain mass was not conclusive in the field setting when human activities disturbed the bulk of near-surface material. Although the limited sample size precluded detailed statistical analysis, the differences in airborne particle

  20. Characterisation of airborne particles collected within and proximal to an opencast coalmine: South Wales, U.K.

    PubMed

    Jones, Tim; Blackmore, Pete; Leach, Matt; Bérubé, Kelly; Sexton, Keith; Richards, Roy

    2002-05-01

    Airborne particulate matter has been collected from within, and proximal to, an opencast coal mine in south Wales. This work forms the first part of a three year project to collect and characterise, then determine the possible toxicology of airborne particles in the south Wales region. High-resolution Field Emission SEM has shown that the coal mine dusts consist largely of an assemblage of mineral grains and vehicle exhaust particles. SEM-EDX has shown that the mineralogical make-up of the PM10 is complex, heterogeneous, and constantly changing. These findings are supported by analytical TEM-EPXMA. However, patterns can be determined relating the mineralogical composition of the airborne particles to collection locations and mining activities within the opencast. At our study opencast, Park Slip West, quartz, which has known health effects, never exceeded 30% of the total collection mass, and average levels were much less. Vehicle exhaust emissions was the largest source in terms of particle numbers. The mass of airborne particulate matter within the pit averaged approximately twice that of outside the pit: importantly however, this higher mass was due to relatively large, and non-respirable, mineral grains. This study demonstrates that the physicochemical and mineralogical characterisation of airborne particles from mining and quarrying is essential to quantify the respirable fraction, and to identify potentially hazardous components within the PM10. PMID:12004982

  1. Characterisation of nano- and micron-sized airborne and collected subway particles, a multi-analytical approach.

    PubMed

    Midander, Klara; Elihn, Karine; Wallén, Anna; Belova, Lyuba; Karlsson, Anna-Karin Borg; Wallinder, Inger Odnevall

    2012-06-15

    Continuous daily measurements of airborne particles were conducted during specific periods at an underground platform within the subway system of the city center of Stockholm, Sweden. Main emphasis was placed on number concentration, particle size distribution, soot content (analyzed as elemental and black carbon) and surface area concentration. Conventional measurements of mass concentrations were conducted in parallel as well as analysis of particle morphology, bulk- and surface composition. In addition, the presence of volatile and semi volatile organic compounds within freshly collected particle fractions of PM(10) and PM(2.5) were investigated and grouped according to functional groups. Similar periodic measurements were conducted at street level for comparison. The investigation clearly demonstrates a large dominance in number concentration of airborne nano-sized particles compared to coarse particles in the subway. Out of a mean particle number concentration of 12000 particles/cm(3) (7500 to 20000 particles/cm(3)), only 190 particles/cm(3) were larger than 250 nm. Soot particles from diesel exhaust, and metal-containing particles, primarily iron, were observed in the subway aerosol. Unique measurements on freshly collected subway particle size fractions of PM(10) and PM(2.5) identified several volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds, the presence of carcinogenic aromatic compounds and traces of flame retardants. This interdisciplinary and multi-analytical investigation aims to provide an improved understanding of reported adverse health effects induced by subway aerosols. PMID:22551935

  2. CHARACTERIZING THE SOURCES OF HUMAN EXPOSURE TO MUTAGENIC AND CARCINOGENIC CHEMICALS IN AIRBORNE FINE PARTICLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Personal and ambient exposures to airborne fine particles, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and genotoxic activity has been studied in populations in the US, Japan, China, and the Czech Republic. Personal exposure monitors used to collect fine particles were extracted f...

  3. Airborne particles in Swansea, UK: their collection and characterization.

    PubMed

    Price, Heather; Arthur, Robert; Sexton, Keith; Gregory, Clive; Hoogendoorn, Bastiaan; Matthews, Ian; Jones, Tim; BéruBé, Kelly

    2010-01-01

    Urban air particulate matter (PM) has previously been associated with a variety of adverse health effects. It is now believed that the smallest particles, ultrafine or nanoparticles, are linked to the greatest health effects. The physicochemistry of these particles is likely to provide information regarding their toxicity. Therefore, the aim of this study was to further the understanding of the heterogeneous and changing particle concentrations in urban air, in conjunction with gaining an understanding of the physicochemistry of the particles. A Dekati electrical low-pressure impactor was used to collect the particles and real-time data in a busy traffic corridor in Swansea, Wales, over a period of 10 nonconsecutive weeks. Particle concentrations in the street canyon were analyzed and particle physicochemistries investigated using a variety of techniques. Particle number concentrations were found to vary both diurnally and from day to day in the traffic corridor. Of all particles, the nano to fine size fraction was consistently identified in the highest concentrations (maximum: 140,000 particles cm(-3)). Particle physicochemistry was found to vary as a function of size, with larger particles exhibiting a greater variety of morphologies (and consequently particle types) and associated metals. PMID:20155578

  4. A Novel Size-Selective Airborne Particle Sampling Instrument (Wras) for Health Risk Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gnewuch, H.; Muir, R.; Gorbunov, B.; Priest, N. D.; Jackson, P. R.

    Health risks associated with inhalation of airborne particles are known to be influenced by particle sizes. A reliable, size resolving sampler, classifying particles in size ranges from 2 nm—30 μm and suitable for use in the field would be beneficial in investigating health risks associated with inhalation of airborne particles. A review of current aerosol samplers highlighted a number of limitations. These could be overcome by combining an inertial deposition impactor with a diffusion collector in a single device. The instrument was designed for analysing mass size distributions. Calibration was carried out using a number of recognised techniques. The instrument was tested in the field by collecting size resolved samples of lead containing aerosols present at workplaces in factories producing crystal glass. The mass deposited on each substrate proved sufficient to be detected and measured using atomic absorption spectroscopy. Mass size distributions of lead were produced and the proportion of lead present in the aerosol nanofraction calculated and varied from 10% to 70% by weight.

  5. Iridium enrichment in airborne particles from kilauea volcano: january 1983.

    PubMed

    Zoller, W H; Parrington, J R; Kotra, J M

    1983-12-01

    Airborne particulate matter from the January 1983 eruption of Kilauea volcano was inadvertently collected on air filters at Mauna Loa Observatory at a sampling station used to observe particles in global circulation. Analyses of affected samples revealed unusually large concentrations of selenium, arsenic, indium, gold, and sulfur, as expected for volcanic emissions. Strikingly large concentrations of iridium were also observed, the ratio of iridium to aluminum being 17,000 times its value in Hawaiian basalt. Since iridium enrichments have not previously been observed in volcanic emissions, the results for Kilauea suggest that it is part of an unusual volcanic system which may be fed by magma from the mantle. The iridium enrichment appears to be linked with the high fluorine content of the volcanic gases, which suggests that the iridium is released as a volatile IrF(6). PMID:17747384

  6. Laboratory testing of airborne brake wear particle emissions using a dynamometer system under urban city driving cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagino, Hiroyuki; Oyama, Motoaki; Sasaki, Sousuke

    2016-04-01

    To measure driving-distance-based mass emission factors for airborne brake wear particulate matter (PM; i.e., brake wear particles) related to the non-asbestos organic friction of brake assembly materials (pads and lining), and to characterize the components of brake wear particles, a brake wear dynamometer with a constant-volume sampling system was developed. Only a limited number of studies have investigated brake emissions under urban city driving cycles that correspond to the tailpipe emission test (i.e., JC08 or JE05 mode of Japanese tailpipe emission test cycles). The tests were performed using two passenger cars and one middle-class truck. The observed airborne brake wear particle emissions ranged from 0.04 to 1.4 mg/km/vehicle for PM10 (particles up to 10 μm (in size), and from 0.04 to 1.2 mg/km/vehicle for PM2.5. The proportion of brake wear debris emitted as airborne brake wear particles was 2-21% of the mass of wear. Oxygenated carbonaceous components were included in the airborne PM but not in the original friction material, which indicates that changes in carbon composition occurred during the abrasion process. Furthermore, this study identified the key tracers of brake wear particles (e.g., Fe, Cu, Ba, and Sb) at emission levels comparable to traffic-related atmospheric environments.

  7. Ground state number fluctuations of trapped particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Muoi N.

    This thesis encompasses a number of problems related to the number fluctuations from the ground state of ideal particles in different statistical ensembles. In the microcanonical ensemble most of these problems may be solved using number theory. Given an energy E, the well-known problem of finding the number of ways of distributing N bosons over the excited levels of a one-dimensional harmonic spectrum, for instance, is equivalent to the number of restricted partitions of E. As a result, the number fluctuation from the ground state in the microcanonical ensemble for this system may be found analytically. When the particles are fermions instead of bosons, however, it is difficult to calculate the exact ground state number fluctuation because the fermionic ground state consists of many levels. By breaking up the energy spectrum into particle and hole sectors, and mapping the problem onto the classic number partitioning theory, we formulate a method of calculating the particle number fluctuation from the ground state in the microcanonical ensemble for fermions. The same quantity is calculated for particles interacting via an inverse-square pairwise interaction in one dimension. In the canonical ensemble, an analytical formula for the ground state number fluctuation is obtained by using the mapping of this system onto a system of noninteracting particles obeying the Haldane-Wu exclusion statistics. In the microcanonical ensemble, however, the result can be obtained only for a limited set of values of the interacting strength parameter. Usually, for a discrete set of a mean-field single-particle quantum spectrum and in the microcanonical ensemble, there are many combinations of exciting particles from the ground state. The spectrum given by the logarithms of the prime number sequence, however, is a counterexample to this rule. Here, as a consequence of the fundamental theorem of arithmetic, there is a one-to-one correspondence between the microstate and the macrostate

  8. Measurement of nonvolatile particle number size distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gkatzelis, G. I.; Papanastasiou, D. K.; Florou, K.; Kaltsonoudis, C.; Louvaris, E.; Pandis, S. N.

    2016-01-01

    An experimental methodology was developed to measure the nonvolatile particle number concentration using a thermodenuder (TD). The TD was coupled with a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer, measuring the chemical composition and mass size distribution of the submicrometer aerosol and a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) that provided the number size distribution of the aerosol in the range from 10 to 500 nm. The method was evaluated with a set of smog chamber experiments and achieved almost complete evaporation (> 98 %) of secondary organic as well as freshly nucleated particles, using a TD temperature of 400 °C and a centerline residence time of 15 s. This experimental approach was applied in a winter field campaign in Athens and provided a direct measurement of number concentration and size distribution for particles emitted from major pollution sources. During periods in which the contribution of biomass burning sources was dominant, more than 80 % of particle number concentration remained after passing through the thermodenuder, suggesting that nearly all biomass burning particles had a nonvolatile core. These remaining particles consisted mostly of black carbon (60 % mass contribution) and organic aerosol (OA; 40 %). Organics that had not evaporated through the TD were mostly biomass burning OA (BBOA) and oxygenated OA (OOA) as determined from AMS source apportionment analysis. For periods during which traffic contribution was dominant 50-60 % of the particles had a nonvolatile core while the rest evaporated at 400 °C. The remaining particle mass consisted mostly of black carbon with an 80 % contribution, while OA was responsible for another 15-20 %. Organics were mostly hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA) and OOA. These results suggest that even at 400 °C some fraction of the OA does not evaporate from particles emitted from common combustion processes, such as biomass burning and car engines, indicating that a fraction of this type of OA

  9. Characterization and Control of Airborne Particles Emitted During Production of Epoxy / Carbon Nanotube Nanocomposites

    PubMed Central

    Cena, Lorenzo G.; Peters, Thomas M.

    2016-01-01

    This work characterized airborne particles that were generated from the weighing of bulk, multi-wall carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and the manual sanding of epoxy test samples reinforced with CNTs. It also evaluated the effectiveness of three local exhaust ventilation (LEV) conditions (no LEV, custom fume hood, and biosafety cabinet) for control of particles generated during sanding of CNT-epoxy nanocomposites. Particle number and respirable mass concentrations were measured using an optical particle counter (OPC) and a condensation particle counter (CPC), and particle morphology was assessed by transmission electron microscopy. The ratios of the geometric mean (GM) concentrations measured during the process to that measured in the background (P/B ratios) were used as indices of the impact of the process and the LEVs on observed concentrations. Processing CNT-epoxy nanocomposites materials released respirable size airborne particles (P/B ratio: weighing = 1.79; sanding = 5.90) but generally no nanoparticles (P/B ratiô1). The particles generated during sanding were predominately micron-sized with protruding CNTs and very different from bulk CNTs that tended to remain in large (>1 μm) tangled clusters. Respirable mass concentrations in the operator’s breathing zone were lower when sanding was performed in the biological safety cabinet (GM = 0.20 μg/m3) compared to those with no LEV (GM = 2.68 μg/m3) or those when sanding was performed inside the fume hood (GM = 21.4 μg/m3; p-value < 0.0001). The poor performance of the custom fume hood used in this study may have been exacerbated by its lack of a front sash and rear baffles and its low face velocity (0.39 m/sec). PMID:21253981

  10. Characterization and control of airborne particles emitted during production of epoxy/carbon nanotube nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Cena, Lorenzo G; Peters, Thomas M

    2011-02-01

    This work characterized airborne particles generated from the weighing of bulk, multiwall carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and the manual sanding of epoxy test samples reinforced with CNTs. It also evaluated the effectiveness of three local exhaust ventilation (LEV) conditions (no LEV, custom fume hood, and biosafety cabinet) for control of particles generated during sanding of CNT-epoxy nanocomposites. Particle number and respirable mass concentrations were measured using an optical particle counter (OPC) and a condensation particle counter (CPC), and particle morphology was assessed by transmission electron microscopy. The ratios of the geometric mean (GM) concentrations measured during the process to that measured in the background (P/B ratios) were used as indices of the impact of the process and the LEVs on observed concentrations. Processing CNT-epoxy nanocomposites materials released respirable size airborne particles (P/B ratio: weighing = 1.79; sanding = 5.90) but generally no nanoparticles (P/B ratio ∼1). The particles generated during sanding were predominantly micron sized with protruding CNTs and very different from bulk CNTs that tended to remain in large (>1 μm) tangled clusters. Respirable mass concentrations in the operator's breathing zone were lower when sanding was performed in the biological safety cabinet (GM = 0.20 μg/m(3) compared with those with no LEV (GM = 2.68 μg/m(3) or those when sanding was performed inside the fume hood (GM = 21.4 μg/m(3); p-value < 0.0001). The poor performance of the custom fume hood used in this study may have been exacerbated by its lack of a front sash and rear baffles and its low face velocity (0.39 m/sec). PMID:21253981

  11. Airborne particle concentration and meteorologic conditions associated with pneumonia incidence in feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    MacVean, D W; Franzen, D K; Keefe, T J; Bennett, B W

    1986-12-01

    To elucidate the role of air quality on the occurrence of pneumonia in feedlot cattle, the following environmental values were measured at a feedlot: suspended particulates in 5 particle-size fractions, relative humidity, air temperature, and barometric pressure. Pneumonia incidence data were classified by the number of days the cattle had been at the feedlot (days on feed). The concentration of airborne particles, range of temperature, days on feed, and season of the year were associated with incidence of pneumonia in cattle. Pneumonia incidence rates were greatest both within 15 days of arrival at the feedlot and during the fall sampling periods. The incidence of pneumonia in the 16 to 30 days-on-feed group was closely associated with the concentration of particles 2.0 to 3.3 microns in diameter and the range of daily temperature when exposure occurred 15 days before the onset of disease in the fall and 10 days before in the spring. PMID:3800131

  12. Airborne particle concentration and meteorologic conditions associated with pneumonia incidence in feedlot cattle

    SciTech Connect

    MacVean, D.W.; Franzen, D.K.; Keefe, T.J.; Bennett, B.W.

    1986-12-01

    To elucidate the role of air quality on the occurrence of pneumonia in feedlot cattle, the following environmental values were measured at a feedlot: suspended particulates in 5 particle-size fractions, relative humidity, air temperature, and barometric pressure. Pneumonia incidence data were classified by the number of days the cattle had been at the feedlot (days on feed). The concentration of airborne particles, range of temperature, days on feed, and season of the year were associated with incidence of pneumonia in cattle. Pneumonia incidence rates were greatest both within 15 days of arrival at the feedlot and during the fall sampling periods. The incidence of pneumonia in the 16 to 30 days-on-feed group was closely associated with the concentration of particles 2.0 to 3.3 microns in diameter and the range of daily temperature when exposure occurred 15 days before the onset of disease in the fall and 10 days before in the spring.

  13. Characterization of airborne particles generated from metal active gas welding process.

    PubMed

    Guerreiro, C; Gomes, J F; Carvalho, P; Santos, T J G; Miranda, R M; Albuquerque, P

    2014-05-01

    This study is focused on the characterization of particles emitted in the metal active gas welding of carbon steel using mixture of Ar + CO2, and intends to analyze which are the main process parameters that influence the emission itself. It was found that the amount of emitted particles (measured by particle number and alveolar deposited surface area) are clearly dependent on the distance to the welding front and also on the main welding parameters, namely the current intensity and heat input in the welding process. The emission of airborne fine particles seems to increase with the current intensity as fume-formation rate does. When comparing the tested gas mixtures, higher emissions are observed for more oxidant mixtures, that is, mixtures with higher CO2 content, which result in higher arc stability. These mixtures originate higher concentrations of fine particles (as measured by number of particles by cm(3) of air) and higher values of alveolar deposited surface area of particles, thus resulting in a more severe worker's exposure. PMID:24730680

  14. Characterization of exposures to airborne nanoscale particles during friction stir welding of aluminum.

    PubMed

    Pfefferkorn, Frank E; Bello, Dhimiter; Haddad, Gilbert; Park, Ji-Young; Powell, Maria; McCarthy, Jon; Bunker, Kristin Lee; Fehrenbacher, Axel; Jeon, Yongho; Virji, M Abbas; Gruetzmacher, George; Hoover, Mark D

    2010-07-01

    Friction stir welding (FSW) is considered one of the most significant developments in joining technology over the last half century. Its industrial applications are growing steadily and so are the number of workers using this technology. To date, there are no reports on airborne exposures during FSW. The objective of this study was to investigate possible emissions of nanoscale (<100 nm) and fine (<1 microm) aerosols during FSW of two aluminum alloys in a laboratory setting and characterize their physicochemical composition. Several instruments measured size distributions (5 nm to 20 microm) with 1-s resolution, lung deposited surface areas, and PM(2.5) concentrations at the source and at the breathing zone (BZ). A wide range aerosol sampling system positioned at the BZ collected integrated samples in 12 stages (2 nm to 20 microm) that were analyzed for several metals using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Airborne aerosol was directly collected onto several transmission electron microscope grids and the morphology and chemical composition of collected particles were characterized extensively. FSW generates high concentrations of ultrafine and submicrometer particles. The size distribution was bimodal, with maxima at approximately 30 and approximately 550 nm. The mean total particle number concentration at the 30 nm peak was relatively stable at approximately 4.0 x 10(5) particles cm(-3), whereas the arithmetic mean counts at the 550 nm peak varied between 1500 and 7200 particles cm(-3), depending on the test conditions. The BZ concentrations were lower than the source concentrations by 10-100 times at their respective peak maxima and showed higher variability. The daylong average metal-specific concentrations were 2.0 (Zn), 1.4 (Al), and 0.24 (Fe) microg m(-3); the estimated average peak concentrations were an order of magnitude higher. Potential for significant exposures to fine and ultrafine aerosols, particularly of Al, Fe, and Zn, during FSW may

  15. Characterization of Exposures to Airborne Nanoscale Particles During Friction Stir Welding of Aluminum

    PubMed Central

    Pfefferkorn, Frank E.; Bello, Dhimiter; Haddad, Gilbert; Park, Ji-Young; Powell, Maria; Mccarthy, Jon; Bunker, Kristin Lee; Fehrenbacher, Axel; Jeon, Yongho; Virji, M. Abbas; Gruetzmacher, George; Hoover, Mark D.

    2010-01-01

    Friction stir welding (FSW) is considered one of the most significant developments in joining technology over the last half century. Its industrial applications are growing steadily and so are the number of workers using this technology. To date, there are no reports on airborne exposures during FSW. The objective of this study was to investigate possible emissions of nanoscale (<100 nm) and fine (<1 μm) aerosols during FSW of two aluminum alloys in a laboratory setting and characterize their physicochemical composition. Several instruments measured size distributions (5 nm to 20 μm) with 1-s resolution, lung deposited surface areas, and PM2.5 concentrations at the source and at the breathing zone (BZ). A wide range aerosol sampling system positioned at the BZ collected integrated samples in 12 stages (2 nm to 20 μm) that were analyzed for several metals using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Airborne aerosol was directly collected onto several transmission electron microscope grids and the morphology and chemical composition of collected particles were characterized extensively. FSW generates high concentrations of ultrafine and submicrometer particles. The size distribution was bimodal, with maxima at ∼30 and ∼550 nm. The mean total particle number concentration at the 30 nm peak was relatively stable at ∼4.0 × 105 particles cm−3, whereas the arithmetic mean counts at the 550 nm peak varied between 1500 and 7200 particles cm−3, depending on the test conditions. The BZ concentrations were lower than the source concentrations by 10–100 times at their respective peak maxima and showed higher variability. The daylong average metal-specific concentrations were 2.0 (Zn), 1.4 (Al), and 0.24 (Fe) μg m−3; the estimated average peak concentrations were an order of magnitude higher. Potential for significant exposures to fine and ultrafine aerosols, particularly of Al, Fe, and Zn, during FSW may exist, especially in larger scale industrial

  16. Occupational exposure to airborne particles and other pollutants in an aviation base.

    PubMed

    Buonanno, Giorgio; Bernabei, Manuele; Avino, Pasquale; Stabile, Luca

    2012-11-01

    The occupational exposure to airborne particles and other pollutants in a high performance jet engine airport was investigated. Three spatial scales were considered: i) a downwind receptor site, ii) close to the airstrip, iii) personal monitoring. Particle number, surface area, mass concentrations and distributions were measured as well as inorganic and organic fractions, ionic fractions and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons. Particle number distribution measured at a receptor site presents a mode of 80 nm and an average total concentration of 6.5 × 10(3) part. cm(-3); the chemical analysis shows that all the elements may be attributed to long-range transport from the sea. Particle number concentrations in the proximity of the airstrip show short term peaks during the working day mainly related to takeoff, landing and pre-flight operations of jet engines. Personal exposure of workers highlights a median number concentration of 2.5 × 10(4) part. cm(-3) and 1.7 × 10(4) part. cm(-3) for crew chief and hangar operator. PMID:22771354

  17. Latex allergens in tire dust and airborne particles.

    PubMed Central

    Miguel, A G; Cass, G R; Weiss, J; Glovsky, M M

    1996-01-01

    The prevalence and severity of latex allergy has increased dramatically in the last 15 years due to exposure to natural rubber products. Although historically this health risk has been elevated in hospital personnel and patients, a recent survey has indicated a significant potential risk for the general population. To obtain a wide-spread source for latex exposure, we have considered tire debris. We have searched for the presence of latex allergens in passenger car and truck tire tread, in debris deposited from the atmosphere near a freeway, and in airborne particulate matter samples representative of the entire year 1993 at two sites in the Los Angeles basin (California). After extraction of the samples with phosphate buffered saline, a modified-ELISA inhibition assay was used to measure relative allergen potency and Western blot analyses were used to identify latex allergens. The inhibition studies with the human IgE latex assay revealed inhibition by the tire tread source samples and ambient freeway dust, as well as by control latex sap and latex glove extracts. Levels of extractable latex allergen per unit of protein extracted were about two orders of magnitude lower for tire tread as compared to latex gloves. Western blot analyses using binding of human IgE from latex-sensitive patients showed a band at 34-36 kDa in all tire and ambient samples. Long Beach and Los Angeles, California, air samples showed four additional bands between 50 and 135 kDa. Alternative Western blot analyses using rabbit IgG raised against latex proteins showed a broad band at 30-50 kDa in all samples, with additional bands in the urban air samples similar to the IgE results. A latex cross-reactive material was identified in mountain cedar. In conclusion, the latex allergens or latex cross-reactive material present in sedimented and airborne particulate material, derived from tire debris, and generated by heavy urban vehicle traffic could be important factors in producing latex allergy

  18. Relating urban airborne particle concentrations to shipping using carbon based elemental emission ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Graham R.; Juwono, Alamsyah M.; Friend, Adrian J.; Cheung, Hing-Cho; Stelcer, Eduard; Cohen, David; Ayoko, Godwin A.; Morawska, Lidia

    2014-10-01

    This study demonstrates a novel method for testing the hypothesis that variations in primary and secondary particle number concentration (PNC) in urban air are related to residual fuel oil combustion at a coastal port lying 30 km upwind, by examining the correlation between PNC and airborne particle composition signatures chosen for their sensitivity to the elemental contaminants present in residual fuel oil. Residual fuel oil combustion indicators were chosen by comparing the sensitivity of a range of concentration ratios to airborne emissions originating from the port. The most responsive were combinations of vanadium and sulphur concentration ([S], [V]) expressed as ratios with respect to black carbon concentration ([BC]). These correlated significantly with ship activity at the port and with the fraction of time during which the wind blew from the port. The average [V] when the wind was predominantly from the port was 0.52 ng m-3 (87%) higher than the average for all wind directions and 0.83 ng m-3 (280%) higher than that for the lowest vanadium yielding wind direction considered to approximate the natural background. Shipping was found to be the main source of V impacting urban air quality in Brisbane. However, contrary to the stated hypothesis, increases in PNC related measures did not correlate with ship emission indicators or ship traffic. Hence at this site ship emissions were not found to be a major contributor to PNC compared to other fossil fuel combustion sources such as road traffic, airport and refinery emissions.

  19. Machine vision based particle size and size distribution determination of airborne dust particles of wood and bark pellets

    SciTech Connect

    Igathinathane, C; Pordesimo, L.O.

    2009-08-01

    Dust management strategies in industrial environment, especially of airborne dust, require quantification and measurement of size and size distribution of the particles. Advanced specialized instruments that measure airborne particle size and size distribution apply indirect methods that involve light scattering, acoustic spectroscopy, and laser diffraction. In this research, we propose a simple and direct method of airborne dust particle dimensional measurement and size distribution analysis using machine vision. The method involves development of a user-coded ImageJ plugin that measures particle length and width and analyzes size distribution of particles based on particle length from high-resolution scan images. Test materials were airborne dust from soft pine wood sawdust pellets and ground pine tree bark pellets. Subsamples prepared by dividing the actual dust using 230 mesh (63 m) sieve were analyzed as well. A flatbed document scanner acquired the digital images of the dust particles. Proper sampling, layout of dust particles in singulated arrangement, good contrast smooth background, high resolution images, and accurate algorithm are essential for reliable analysis. A halo effect around grey-scale images ensured correct threshold limits. The measurement algorithm used Feret s diameter for particle length and pixel-march technique for particle width. Particle size distribution was analyzed in a sieveless manner after grouping particles according to their distinct lengths, and several significant dimensions and parameters of particle size distribution were evaluated. Results of the measurement and analysis were presented in textual and graphical formats. The developed plugin was evaluated to have a dimension measurement accuracy in excess of 98.9% and a computer speed of analysis of <8 s/image. Arithmetic mean length of actual wood and bark pellets airborne dust particles were 0.1138 0.0123 and 0.1181 0.0149 mm, respectively. The airborne dust particles of

  20. Self-refreshing characteristics of an airborne particle sensor using a bridged paddle oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Eunsuk; Lee, Seung-Beck; Park, Bonghyun; Sul, Onejae

    2016-05-01

    We report on the self-refreshing characteristics of a micromachined airborne particle sensor. The sensor consists of a bridge-type beam having an oscillating paddle-type particle collector at its center. When a positive potential is applied to the paddle, the sensor is able to attract and collect negatively charged airborne particles while oscillating close to its resonant frequency and thereby measure their density from the change in the oscillating phase at ˜10 pg resolution. When the applied potential is removed, the collected particles are detached from the sensor due to momentum transfer from the oscillating paddle, thus demonstrating a self-refreshing capability.

  1. Measurement of Raman spectra of single airborne absorbing particles trapped by a single laser beam.

    PubMed

    Ling, Lin; Li, Yong-qing

    2013-02-15

    We demonstrate a method for optical trapping and Raman spectroscopy of micron-sized, airborne absorbing particles using a single focused laser beam. A single Gaussian beam at 532 nm is used to trap and precisely manipulate absorbing airborne particles. The fluctuation of the position of the trapped particles is substantially reduced by controlling the power of the laser beam with a position-sensitive detector and a locking circuit. Raman spectra of the position-stabilized particles or clusters are then measured with an objective and CCD spectrograph. PMID:23455087

  2. Magnetic Particle Recovery of Serial Numbers

    SciTech Connect

    D. Utrata; M.J. Johnson

    2003-10-01

    One method used by crime labs to recover obliterated serial numbers in steel firearms (ferrous samples) is the magnetic particle technique. The use of this method is predicated on the detection of metal deformation present under stamped serial numbers after the visible stamp has been removed. Equipment specialized for this detection is not used in these attempts; a portable magnetic yoke used typically for flaw detection on large weldments or structures, along with dry visible magnetic powders, have been the tools of criminologists working in this area. Crime labs have reported low success rates using these tools [1, 2]. This is not surprising when one considers that little formal development has apparently evolved for use in such investigations since the publication of seminal work in this area some time ago [3]. The aim of this project is to investigate specific aspects of magnetic particle inspection for serial number recovery. This includes attempts to understand the magnetic characteristics of different steels that affect their performance in the test, such as varying results for carbon steels and alloy steels after different thermal and forming treatments. Also investigated are the effects of the nature of the sample magnetization (AC, rectified DC, and true DC) and the use of various detection media, such as visible powders and fluorescent sprays, on test outcome. Additionally, some aspects of surface preparation of firearm samples prior to number recovery were included in this work. The scope of this report includes a brief overview of the magnetic particle inspection method in general and its applications to forensic serial number recovery. This is followed by a description of how such investigations were simulated on lab samples, including a look at how the microstructure of a given steel will affect its performance in the test. Investigations into the serial number recovery in a series of ferromagnetic firearms (both steel and certain stainless steels

  3. Evidence for more than one division of bacteria within airborne particles.

    PubMed Central

    Dimmick, R L; Wolochow, H; Chatigny, M A

    1979-01-01

    When the protocol that we had used to demonstrate a single division of bacterial cells in airborne particles was changed to one that increased the glycerol content of the atomizer fluid from 1 to 5% (vol/vol), thus producing larger particles, more than two (and nearly three) divisions of bacteria occurred within 6 h of aerosol time. PMID:395898

  4. Immunological Assays as an Opportunity of Assessment of Health Risks of Airborne Particle Mixture Including Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brzicová, Táňa; Lochman, Ivo; Danihelka, Pavel; Lochmanová, Alexandra; Lach, Karel; Mička, Vladimír

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate perspectives of the assessment of nonspecific biological effects of airborne particulate matter including nanoparticles using appropriate immunological assays. We have selected various in vitro immunological assays to establish an array allowing us to monitor activation of the cell-mediated and humoral response of both the innate and adaptive immunity. To assess comprehensive interactions and effects, the assays were performed in whole blood cultures from healthy volunteers and we used an original airborne particle mixture from high pollution period in Ostrava region representing areas with one of the most polluted air in Europe. Even if certain effects were observed, the results of the immunological assays did not prove significant effects of airborne particles on immune cells' functions of healthy persons. However, obtained data do not exclude health risks of long-term exposure to airborne particles, especially in case of individuals with genetic predisposition to certain diseases or already existing disease. This study emphasizes the in vitro assessment of complex effects of airborne particles in conditions similar to actual ones in an organism exposed to particle mixture present in the polluted air.

  5. Laboratory Study of Airborne Fallout Particles and Their Time Distribution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, H. A., Jr.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Samples of filtered airborne particulate, collected daily for the first month after the September 18, 1977 Chinese nuclear detonation, showed fourteen fission products. Fluctuations in the daily fallout activity levels suggested a global fallout orbit time of approximately twenty days. (Author/BB)

  6. Airborne measurements of cloud forming nuclei and aerosol particles at Kennedy Space Center, Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radke, L. F.; Langer, G.; Hindman, E. E., II

    1978-01-01

    Results of airborne measurements of the sizes and concentrations of aerosol particles, ice nuclei, and cloud condensation nuclei that were taken at Kennedy Space Center, Florida, are presented along with a detailed description of the instrumentation and measuring capabilities of the University of Washington airborne measuring facility (Douglas B-23). Airborne measurements made at Ft. Collins, Colorado, and Little Rock, Arkansas, during the ferry of the B-23 are presented. The particle concentrations differed significantly between the clean air over Ft. Collins and the hazy air over Little Rock and Kennedy Space Center. The concentrations of cloud condensation nuclei over Kennedy Space Center were typical of polluted eastern seaboard air. Three different instruments were used to measure ice nuclei: one used filters to collect the particles, and the others used optical and acoustical methods to detect ice crystals grown in portable cloud chambers. A comparison of the ice nucleus counts, which are in good agreement, is presented.

  7. Factorization of Number into Prime Numbers Viewed as Decay of Particle into Elementary Particles Conserving Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugamoto, A.

    2009-02-01

    Number theory is considered, by proposing quantum mechanical models and string-like models at zero and finite temperatures, where the factorization of number into prime numbers is viewed as the decay of particle into elementary particles conserving energy. In these models, energy of a particle labeled by an integer n is assumed or derived to being proportional to ln n. The one-loop vacuum amplitudes, the free energies and the partition functions at finite temperature of the string-like models are estimated and compared with the zeta functions. The SL(2, Z) modular symmetry, being manifest in the free energies is broken down to the additive symmetry of integers, {Z}_{+}, after interactions are turned on. In the dynamical model existing behind the zeta function, prepared are the fields labeled by prime numbers. On the other hand the fields in our models are labeled, not by prime numbers but by integers. Nevertheless, we can understa nd whether a number is prime or not prime by the decay rate, namely by the corresponding particle can decay or cannot decay through interactions conserving energy. Among the models proposed, the supersymmetric string-like model has the merit of that the zero point energies are cancelled and the energy levels may be stable against radiative corrections.

  8. Plasmonic spectra of individual subwavelength particles under the infrared microscope: cells and airborne dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coe, James V.; Lioi, David B.; Shaffer, Lindsey; Malone, Marvin A.; Luthra, Antriksh; Ravi, Aruna

    2014-03-01

    A plasmonic metal film with a subwavelength hole array (a mesh) is used to capture an individual subwavelength particle, like a single yeast cell or airborne dust particle, and an imaging infrared (IR) microscope, records a scatterfree, IR absorption spectrum of the particle. Individual spectra of wavelength scale particles usually suffer from large scattering effects. This paper starts by demonstrating the plasmonic nature of the mesh in the infrared, proceeds to how this special form of light (surface plasmon polariton mediated transmission resonance) leads to scatter-free IR absorption spectra of individual, subwavelength particles, and ends with work on yeast cells and dust particles from our laboratory air and a household filter.

  9. Airborne particle monitoring with urban closed-circuit television camera networks and a chromatic technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolupula, Y. R.; Aceves-Fernandez, M. A.; Jones, G. R.; Deakin, A. G.; Spencer, J. W.

    2010-11-01

    An economic approach for the preliminary assessment of 2-10 µm sized (PM10) airborne particle levels in urban areas is described. It uses existing urban closed-circuit television (CCTV) surveillance camera networks in combination with particle accumulating units and chromatic quantification of polychromatic light scattered by the captured particles. Methods for accommodating extraneous light effects are discussed and test results obtained from real urban sites are presented to illustrate the potential of the approach.

  10. Airborne particle generation for optical tweezers by thermo-mechanical membrane actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polster, T.; Leopold, S.; Hoffmann, M.

    2011-06-01

    This article presents a new approach for airborne particle generation for optical tweezers. The used element is a 500 nm thin aluminum nitride membrane with an integrated heating element. Thus the membrane works as thermo-mechanical actor. The membrane device is characterized concerning their mechanical and thermal behavior. Successful airborne particle generation is demonstrated with 10 μm silicon dioxide spheres. They are lifted up some 10th of μm from the membrane surface. The development and test of this device serves as starting point for experiments with optical tweezers in air.

  11. On the interaction between glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and airborne particles: Evidence for electrophilic species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinyashiki, Masaru; Rodriguez, Chester E.; Di Stefano, Emma W.; Sioutas, Constantinos; Delfino, Ralph J.; Kumagai, Yoshito; Froines, John R.; Cho, Arthur K.

    Many of the adverse health effects of airborne particulate matter (PM) have been attributed to the chemical properties of some of the large number of chemical species present in PM. Some PM component chemicals are capable of generating reactive oxygen species and eliciting a state of oxidative stress. In addition, however, PM can contain chemical species that elicit their effects through covalent bond formation with nucleophilic functions in the cell. In this manuscript, we report the presence of constituents with electrophilic properties in ambient and diesel exhaust particles, demonstrated by their ability to inhibit the thiol enzyme, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). GAPDH is irreversibly inactivated by electrophiles under anaerobic conditions by covalent bond formation. This inactivation can be blocked by the prior addition of a high concentration of dithiothreitol (DTT) as an alternate nucleophile. Addition of DTT after the reaction between the electrophile and GAPDH, however, does not reverse the inactivation. This property has been utilized to develop a procedure that provides a quantitative measure of electrophiles present in samples of ambient particles collected in the Los Angeles Basin and in diesel exhaust particles. The toxicity of electrophiles is the result of irreversible changes in biological molecules; recovery is dependent on resynthesis. If the resynthesis is slow, the irreversible effects can be cumulative and manifest themselves after chronic exposure to low levels of electrophiles.

  12. Characterisation of airborne particles and associated organic components produced from incense burning.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Hsiao-Chi; Jones, Tim; Chen, Yang; Bell, Jennifer; Wenger, John; BéruBé, Kelly

    2011-12-01

    Airborne particles generated from the burning of incense have been characterized in order to gain an insight into the possible implications for human respiratory health. Physical characterization performed using field-emission scanning electron microscopy showed incense particulate smoke mainly consisted of soot particles with fine and ultrafine fractions in various aggregated forms. A range of organic compounds present in incense smoke have been identified using derivatisation reactions coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. A total of 19 polar organic compounds were positively identified in the samples, including the biomass burning markers levoglucosan, mannosan and galactosan, as well as a number of aromatic acids and phenols. Formaldehyde was among 12 carbonyl compounds detected and predominantly associated with the gas phase, whereas six different quinones were also identified in the incense particulate smoke. The nano-structured incense soot particles intermixed with organics (e.g. formaldehyde and quinones) could increase the oxidative capacity. When considering the worldwide prevalence of incense burning and resulting high respiratory exposures, the oxygenated organics identified in this study have significant human health implications, especially for susceptible populations. PMID:21769554

  13. Alternate particle removal technologies for the Airborne Activity Confinement System at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Brockmann, J.E.; Adkins, C.L.J.; Gelbard, F. )

    1991-09-01

    This report presents a review of the filtration technologies available for the removal of particulate material from a gas stream. It was undertaken to identify alternate filtration technologies that may be employed in the Airborne Activity Confinement System (AACS) at the Savannah River Plant. This report is organized into six sections: (1) a discussion of the aerosol source term and its definition, (2) a short discussion of particle and gaseous contaminant removal mechanisms, (3) a brief overview of particle removal technologies, (4) a discussion of the existing AACS and its potential shortcomings, (5) an enumeration of issues to be addressed in upgrading the AACS, and, (6) a detailed discussion of the identified technologies. The purpose of this report is to identity available options to the existing particle removal system. This system is in continuous operation during routine operation of the reactor. As will be seen, there are a number of options and the selection of any technology or combination of technologies will depend on the design aerosol source term (yet to be appropriately defined) as well as the flow requirements and configuration. This report does not select a specific technology. It focuses on particulate removal and qualitatively on the removal of radio-iodine and mist elimination. Candidate technologies have been selected from industrial and nuclear gas cleaning applications.

  14. Airborne observations of new particle formation events in the boundary layer using a Zeppelin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lampilahti, Janne; Manninen, Hanna E.; Nieminen, Tuomo; Mirme, Sander; Pullinen, Iida; Yli-Juuti, Taina; Schobesberger, Siegfried; Kangasluoma, Juha; Kontkanen, Jenni; Lehtipalo, Katrianne; Ehn, Mikael; Mentel, Thomas F.; Petäjä, Tuukka; Kulmala, Markku

    2014-05-01

    Atmospheric new particle formation (NPF) is a frequent and ubiquitous process in the atmosphere and a major source of newly formed aerosol particles [1]. However, it is still unclear how the aerosol particle distribution evolves in space and time during an NPF. We investigated where in the planetary boundary layer does NPF begin and how does the aerosol number size distribution develop in space and time during it. We measured in Hyytiälä, southern Finland using ground based and airborne measurements. The measurements were part of the PEGASOS project. NPF was studied on six scientific flights during spring 2013 using a Zeppelin NT class airship. Ground based measurements were simultaneously conducted at SMEAR II station located in Hyytiälä. The flight profiles over Hyytiälä were flown between sunrise and noon during the growth of the boundary layer. The profiles over Hyytiälä covered vertically a distance of 100-1000 meters reaching the mixed layer, stable (nocturnal) boundary layer and the residual layer. Horizontally the profiles covered approximately a circular area of four kilometers in diameter. The measurements include particle number size distribution by Neutral cluster and Air Ion Spectrometer (NAIS), Differential Mobility Particle Sizer (DMPS) and Particle Size Magnifier (PSM) [2], meteorological parameters and position (latitude, longitude and altitude) of the Zeppelin. Beginning of NPF was determined from an increase in 1.7-3 nm ion concentration. Height of the mixed layer was estimated from relative humidity measured on-board the Zeppelin. Particle growth rate during NPF was calculated. Spatial inhomogeneities in particle number size distribution during NPF were located and the birthplace of the particles was estimated using the growth rate and trajectories. We observed a regional NPF event that began simultaneously and evolved uniformly inside the mixed layer. In the horizontal direction we observed a long and narrow high concentration plume of

  15. Bats Increase the Number of Cultivable Airborne Fungi in the "Nietoperek" Bat Reserve in Western Poland.

    PubMed

    Kokurewicz, Tomasz; Ogórek, Rafał; Pusz, Wojciech; Matkowski, Krzysztof

    2016-07-01

    The "Nietoperek" bat reserve located in Western Poland is one of the largest bat hibernation sites in the European Union with nearly 38,000 bats from 12 species. Nietoperek is part of a built underground fortification system from WWII. The aims of the study were (1) to determine the fungal species composition and changes during hibernation season in relation to bat number and microclimatic conditions and (2) evaluate the potential threat of fungi for bat assemblages and humans visiting the complex. Airborne fungi were collected in the beginning, middle and end of hibernation period (9 November 2013 and 17 January and 15 March 2014) in 12 study sites, one outside and 11 inside the complex. Ambient temperature (T a) and relative humidity (RH) were measured by the use of data loggers, and species composition of bats was recorded from the study sites. The collision method (Air Ideal 3P) sampler was used to detect 34 species of airborne fungi including Pseudogymnoascus destructans (Pd). The density of airborne fungi isolated from the outdoor air samples varied from 102 to 242 CFU/1 m(3) of air and from 12 to 1198 CFU in the underground air samples. There was a positive relationship between number of bats and the concentration of fungi. The concentration of airborne fungi increased with the increase of bats number. Analysis of other possible ways of spore transport to the underground indicated that the number of bats was the primary factor determining the number of fungal spores in that hibernation site. Microclimatic conditions where Pd was found (median 8.7 °C, min-max 6.1-9.9 °C and 100 %, min-max 77.5-100.0 %) were preferred by hibernating Myotis myotis and Myotis daubentonii; therefore, these species are most probably especially prone to infection by this fungi species. The spores of fungi found in the underground can be pathogenic for humans and animals, especially for immunocompromised persons, even though their concentrations did not exceed limits and

  16. Assessment of Airborne Particles. Fundamentals, Applications, and Implications to Inhalation Toxicity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercer, Thomas T., Ed.; And Others

    Concern over chemical and radioactive particulate matter in industry and over rapidly increasing air pollution has stimulated research both on the properties of airborne particles and methods for assessing them and on their biological effects following inhalation. The Third Rochester International Conference on Environmental Toxicity was,…

  17. Vertical distribution of aerosol number concentration in the troposphere over Siberia derived from airborne in-situ measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arshinov, Mikhail Yu.; Belan, Boris D.; Paris, Jean-Daniel; Machida, Toshinobu; Kozlov, Alexandr; Malyskin, Sergei; Simonenkov, Denis; Davydov, Denis; Fofonov, Alexandr

    2016-04-01

    Knowledge of the vertical distribution of aerosols particles is very important when estimating aerosol radiative effects. To date there are a lot of research programs aimed to study aerosol vertical distribution, but only a few ones exist in such insufficiently explored region as Siberia. Monthly research flights and several extensive airborne campaigns carried out in recent years in Siberian troposphere allowed the vertical distribution of aerosol number concentration to be summarized. In-situ aerosol measurements were performed in a wide range of particle sizes by means of improved version of the Novosibirsk-type diffusional particle sizer and GRIMM aerosol spectrometer Model 1.109. The data on aerosol vertical distribution enabled input parameters for the empirical equation of Jaenicke (1993) to be derived for Siberian troposphere up to 7 km. Vertical distributions of aerosol number concentration in different size ranges averaged for the main seasons of the year will be presented. This work was supported by Interdisciplinary integration projects of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science No. 35, No. 70 and No. 131; the Branch of Geology, Geophysics and Mining Sciences of RAS (Program No. 5); and Russian Foundation for Basic Research (grant No. 14-05-00526). Jaenicke R. Tropospheric aerosols, in Aerosol-Cloud-Climate Interactions, edited by P.V. Hobs. -Academic Press, San Diego, CA, 1993.- P. 1-31.

  18. Airborne particles of the california central valley alter the lungs of healthy adult rats.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Kevin R; Kim, Seongheon; Recendez, Julian J; Teague, Stephen V; Ménache, Margaret G; Grubbs, David E; Sioutas, Constantinos; Pinkerton, Kent E

    2003-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies have shown that airborne particulate matter (PM) with a mass median aerodynamic diameter < 10 microm (PM10) is associated with an increase in respiratory-related disease. However, there is a growing consensus that particles < 2.5 microm (PM2.5), including many in the ultrafine (< 0.1 microm) size range, may elicit greater adverse effects. PM is a complex mixture of organic and inorganic compounds; however, those components or properties responsible for biologic effects on the respiratory system have yet to be determined. During the fall and winter of 2000-2001, healthy adult Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed in six separate experiments to filtered air or combined fine (PM2.5) and ultrafine portions of ambient PM in Fresno, California, enhanced approximately 20-fold above outdoor levels. The intent of these studies was to determine if concentrated fine/ultrafine fractions of PM are cytotoxic and/or proinflammatory in the lungs of healthy adult rats. Exposures were for 4 hr/day for 3 consecutive days. The mean mass concentration of particles ranged from 190 to 847 microg/m3. PM was enriched primarily with ammonium nitrate, organic and elemental carbon, and metals. Viability of cells recovered by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) from rats exposed to concentrated PM was significantly decreased during 4 of 6 weeks, compared with rats exposed to filtered air (p< 0.05). Total numbers of BAL cells were increased during 1 week, and neutrophil numbers were increased during 2 weeks. These observations strongly suggest exposure to enhanced concentrations of ambient fine/ultrafine particles in Fresno is associated with mild, but significant, cellular effects in the lungs of healthy adult rats. PMID:12782490

  19. Review: Particle number size distributions from seven major sources and implications for source apportionment studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vu, Tuan V.; Delgado-Saborit, Juana Maria; Harrison, Roy M.

    2015-12-01

    The particle number size distribution (PNSD) of airborne particles not only provides us with information about sources and atmospheric processing of particles, but also plays an important role in determining regional lung dose. As a result, urban particles and their size distributions have received much attention with a rapid increase of publications in recent years. The object of this review is to synthesise and analyse existing knowledge on particles in urban environments with a focus on their number concentration and size distribution. This study briefly reviews the characterization of PNSD from seven major sources of urban particles including traffic emissions, industrial emissions, biomass burning, cooking, transported aerosol, marine aerosol and nucleation. It then discusses atmospheric physical processes such as coagulation or condensation which have a strong influence on PNSD. Finally, the implications of PNSD datasets for source modelling are briefly discussed. Based on this review, it is concluded that the concentrations, modal structures and temporal patterns of urban particles are strongly influenced by traffic emissions, which are identified as the main source of particle number in urban environments. Information derived from particle number size distributions is beginning to play an important role in source apportionment studies.

  20. Identifying airborne metal particles sources near an optoelectronic and semiconductor industrial park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ho-Wen; Chen, Wei-Yea; Chang, Cheng-Nan; Chuang, Yen-Hsun; Lin, Yu-Hao

    2016-06-01

    The recently developed Central Taiwan Science Park (CTSP) in central Taiwan is home to an optoelectronic and semiconductor industrial cluster. Therefore, exploring the elemental compositions and size distributions of airborne particles emitted from the CTSP would help to prevent pollution. This study analyzed size-fractionated metal-rich particle samples collected in upwind and downwind areas of CTSP during Jan. and Oct. 2013 by using micro-orifice uniform deposited impactor (MOUDI). Correlation analysis, hierarchical cluster analysis and particle mass-size distribution analysis are performed to identify the source of metal-rich particle near the CTSP. Analyses of elemental compositions and particle size distributions emitted from the CTSP revealed that the CTSP emits some metals (V, As, In Ga, Cd and Cu) in the ultrafine particles (< 1 μm). The statistical analysis combines with the particle mass-size distribution analysis could provide useful source identification information. In airborne particles with the size of 0.32 μm, Ga could be a useful pollution index for optoelectronic and semiconductor emission in the CTSP. Meanwhile, the ratios of As/Ga concentration at the particle size of 0.32 μm demonstrates that humans near the CTSP would be potentially exposed to GaAs ultrafine particles. That is, metals such as Ga and As and other metals that are not regulated in Taiwan are potentially harmful to human health.

  1. Contribution of particle counting in assessment of exposure to airborne microorganisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parat, Sylvie; Perdrix, Alain; Mann, Sylvie; Baconnier, Pierre

    The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between airborne bacterial concentrations and particle counts measured simultaneously at different sites. Andersen single stage viable particle samplers were used for microbial measurements while a Laser particle counter gave the cumulated counts of particles larger than 0.5 μm diameter. The first phase of the study was performed in two experimental rooms where the basic level of microbial contamination was low. Peaks of concentrations were generated by human activity and both bacterial and particle counts were monitored over 1 h. In the second phase, measurements were run for several days in three different buildings normally occupied. Natural variations of bacterial and particle counts were monitored: microbial measurements were performed each hour while particle counts were started with a 10 min frequency. Statistics revealed strong positive correlations between bacterial and particle counts in four sites out of five. Analyses of covariance used to compare the regression lines obtained in each area showed that except for two natural sites, the regression lines were significantly different, indicating that no absolute relationship can be established between the two parameters. Therefore, particle counting should, of course, not take the place of microorganism measurements, but combining particle counting with bioaerosols measurements may allow detection of rapid variations instantaneously and indicate further microbial measurements. This strategy should improve the assessment of people"s real exposure to airborne microorganisms.

  2. An analytical electron microscope study of airborne industrial particles in Sosnowiec, Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rietmeijer, Frans J. M.; Janeczek, Janusz

    The types and the relative amounts of airborne particles in the city of Sosnowiec (Poland) during 21-22 June, 1994 were identified by analytical electron microscope analyses. They are mostly aspherical angular Al-bearing silica particles (0.1-5.15 μm) and clusters thereof. Carbonaceous particles form sheets of soluble volatile-rich materials (0.3-33.9 μm) and rare soot. Numerous nanometer-sized Al-bearing silica grains and salt minerals are associated with the larger particles. They resulted from inefficient combustion of low-grade coals by the local industries whereby the silica particles are coal impurities that survived combustion. The total particle emission was constant during a 24 h period but silica shards dominated the nighttime emission while carbonaceous particles abounded during the daytime. This study showed that tropospheric particles in regions dominated by inefficient coal combustion are fundamentally different from typical coal fly ash spheres.

  3. Source apportionment of airborne particles in commercial aircraft cabin environment: Contributions from outside and inside of cabin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zheng; Guan, Jun; Yang, Xudong; Lin, Chao-Hsin

    2014-06-01

    Airborne particles are an important type of air pollutants in aircraft cabin. Finding sources of particles is conducive to taking appropriate measures to remove them. In this study, measurements of concentration and size distribution of particles larger than 0.3 μm (PM>0.3) were made on nine short haul flights from September 2012 to March 2013. Particle counts in supply air and breathing zone air were both obtained. Results indicate that the number concentrations of particles ranged from 3.6 × 102 counts L-1 to 1.2 × 105 counts L-1 in supply air and breathing zone air, and they first decreased and then increased in general during the flight duration. Peaks of particle concentration were found at climbing, descending, and cruising phases in several flights. Percentages of particle concentration in breathing zone contributed by the bleed air (originated from outside) and cabin interior sources were calculated. The bleed air ratios, outside airflow rates and total airflow rates were calculated by using carbon dioxide as a ventilation tracer in five of the nine flights. The calculated results indicate that PM>0.3 in breathing zone mainly came from unfiltered bleed air, especially for particle sizes from 0.3 to 2.0 μm. And for particles larger than 2.0 μm, contributions from the bleed air and cabin interior were both important. The results would be useful for developing better cabin air quality control strategies.

  4. Aerosol-fluorescence spectrum analyzer: real-time measurement of emission spectra of airborne biological particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Steven C.; Pinnick, Ronald G.; Nachman, Paul; Chen, Gang; Chang, Richard K.; Mayo, Michael W.; Fernandez, Gilbert L.

    1995-10-01

    We have assembled an aerosol-fluorescence spectrum analyzer (AFS), which can measure the fluorescence spectra and elastic scattering of airborne particles as they flow through a laser beam. The aerosols traverse a scattering cell where they are illuminated with intense (50 kW/cm 2) light inside the cavity of an argon-ion laser operating at 488 nm. This AFS can obtain fluorescence spectra of individual dye-doped polystyrene microspheres as small as 0.5 mu m in diameter. The spectra obtained from microspheres doped with pink and green-yellow dyes are clearly different. We have also detected the fluorescence spectra of airborne particles (although not single particles) made from various

  5. Direct Characterization of Airborne Particles Associated with Arsenic-rich Mine Tailings: Particle Size Mineralogy and Texture

    SciTech Connect

    M Corriveau; H Jamieson; M Parsons; J Campbell; A Lanzirotti

    2011-12-31

    Windblown and vehicle-raised dust from unvegetated mine tailings can be a human health risk. Airborne particles from As-rich abandoned Au mine tailings from Nova Scotia, Canada have been characterized in terms of particle size, As concentration, As oxidation state, mineral species and texture. Samples were collected in seven aerodynamically fractionated size ranges (0.5-16 {micro}m) using a cascade impactor deployed at three tailings fields. All three sites are used for recreational activities and off-road vehicles were racing on the tailings at two mines during sample collection. Total concentrations of As in the <8 {micro}m fraction varied from 65 to 1040 ng/m{sup 3} of air as measured by proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis. The same samples were analysed by synchrotron-based microfocused X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy ({micro}XANES) and X-ray diffraction ({micro}XRD) and found to contain multiple As-bearing mineral species, including Fe-As weathering products. The As species present in the dust were similar to those observed in the near-surface tailings. The action of vehicles on the tailings surface may disaggregate material cemented with Fe arsenate and contribute additional fine-grained As-rich particles to airborne dust. Results from this study can be used to help assess the potential human health risks associated with exposure to airborne particles from mine tailings.

  6. Receptor modeling of globally circulating airborne particles collected at Mauna Loa Observatory, Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    Hermann, D.M.

    1988-01-01

    Weekly airborne particle samples were collected at Mauna Loa Observatory (MLO), Hawaii from February 1979 through May 1985. Receptor models were used to identify sources of airborne particles at MLO, determine compositions of particles from these sources, and assess the relative impacts of them. Major sources of ambient particles at MLO include Asian continental material, oceanic biological production of Se and SO{sub 4} species, marine particles, Asian anthropogenic material, local volcanic emissions, and basalt. Source composition profiles were developed for each component. The Asian continental component represents particles transported from Eastern Asia to the North Pacific, and the component consists of crustal material contaminated by anthropogenic emissions. To account for variations in the relative strengths of anthropogenic and crustal sources, a separate Asian anthropogenic component was also developed. During the dust season, Asian continental material accounts for 80% of total suspended particulate material (TSP) at MLO, oceanic productions of Se and SO{sub 4} 11%, marine particles 2.8%, basalt 1.9%, volcanic emissions 1.7%, and Asian anthropogenic material in excess of Asian continental material 3.2%. During the clean season, the oceanic biological production of Se and SO{sub 4} contributes 62% of TSP at MLO. Continental material contributes 22%, marine particles 6.4%, basalt 2.7%, volcanic emissions 2.4%, and anthropogenic materials in excess of continental material 4.3%.

  7. THEORETICAL MODEL OF SOILING OF SURFACES BY AIRBORNE PARTICLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A model is developed which can be used to predict the change in reflectance from a surface as a function of time. Reflectance change is a measure of soiling caused by the deposition of particles on a surface. The major inputs to the model are the parameters to a bimodal distribut...

  8. AIRBORNE PARTICLE SIZES AND SOURCES FOUND IN INDOOR AIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper summarizes results of a literature search into the sources, sizes, and concentrations of particles in indoor air, including the various types: plant, animal, mineral, combustion, home/personal care, and radioactive aerosols. This information, presented in a summary figu...

  9. Genotoxicity of organic extracts of airborne particles in somatic cells of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Delgado-Rodríguez, A; Ortíz-Marttelo, R; Villalobos-Pietrini, R; Gómez-Arroyo, S; Graf, U

    1999-07-01

    Complex mixtures extracted from air filters exposed for 24 h in two sessions (27 July and 02 August 1991) and at two locations (Merced, downtown, and Pedregal de San Angel, south-west) in Mexico City were analysed. The organic extracts were from airborne particles equal or smaller than 10 microns (PM10), and from total suspended particles (TSP). These organic extracts were assayed in the somatic mutation and recombination test (SMART) in wings of Drosophila melanogaster using two different crosses as well as in the Salmonella/microsome assay using strain TA98 with and without S9 fraction. The presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in the extracts was determined by gas chromatography. The genotoxic activities observed in the two test systems were comparable with the indirect mutagens producing greater response than the direct mutagens. The quantities of particulate matter as well as the genotoxic activities were higher on 02 August than on 27 July 1991 for both locations. The amounts of airborne particles and the resulting genotoxic activities were higher at Merced than at Pedregal. In both biological systems, PM10 were more genotoxic than TSP. These results demonstrate the sensitivity of the Drosophila wing SMART-which is an in vivo eukaryotic genotoxicity assay-as a biological monitor of environmental pollution related to airborne particles. PMID:10377966

  10. Evaluation of cell sorting aerosols and containment by an optical airborne particle counter.

    PubMed

    Xie, Mike; Waring, Michael T

    2015-08-01

    Understanding aerosols produced by cell sorting is critical to biosafety risk assessment and validation of containment efficiency. In this study an Optical Airborne Particle Counter was used to analyze aerosols produced by the BD FACSAria and to assess the effectiveness of its aerosol containment. The suitability of using this device to validate containment was directly compared to the Glo-Germ method put forth by the International Society for Advancement of Cytometry (ISAC) as a standard for testing. It was found that high concentrations of aerosols ranging from 0.3 µm to 10 µm can be detected in failure mode, with most less than 5 µm. In most cases, while numerous aerosols smaller than 5 µm were detected by the Optical Airborne Particle Counter, no Glo-Germ particles were detected, indicating that small aerosols are under-evaluated by the Glo-Germ method. The results demonstrate that the Optical Airborne Particle Counter offers a rapid, economic, and quantitative analysis of cell sorter aerosols and represents an improved method over Glo-Germ for the task of routine validation and monitoring of aerosol containment for cell sorting. PMID:26012776

  11. Characterization of Hairdresser Exposure to Airborne Particles during Hair Bleaching.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Patrik T; Marini, Sara; Wierzbicka, Aneta; Kåredal, Monica; Blomgren, Eva; Nielsen, Jörn; Buonanno, Giorgio; Gudmundsson, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Respiratory symptoms among hairdressers are often ascribed to the use of bleaching powders that contain persulfate salts. Such salts can act as allergens and airway irritants but the mechanisms behind the negative health effects are not fully known. In order to understand why some hairdressers experience respiratory symptoms during, and after, sessions of hair bleaching, it is of importance to characterize how exposure occurs. In this work we used time and particle size resolved instrumentation with the aim to measure the concentration of particles that hairdressers are exposed to during sessions of hair bleaching. We also used filter samples to collect particles for quantitative determination of persulfate (S2O8(2-)) content and for analysis by light microscopy. Two different types of bleaching powders were used, one marked as dust-free and one without this marking (denoted regular). The time resolved instrumentation revealed that particles <10 µm were emitted, specifically when the regular powder was prepared and mixed with hydrogen peroxide. In contrast to other research our work also revealed that supercoarse particles (>10 µm) were emitted during application of the bleaching, when both the regular and the dust-free powders were used. The measured level of persulfate, sampled in the breathing zone of the hairdressers, was on average 26 µg m(-3) when the regular powder was used and 11 µg m(-3) when the dust-free powder was used. This indicates that use of dust-free powder does not eliminate exposure to persulfates, it only lowers the concentration. We show that the site of sampling, or position of the hairdresser with regards to the hair being bleached, is of high importance in the determination of persulfate levels and exposure. This work focuses on the physical and chemical characterization of the particles released to the air and the results are important for accurate exposure assessments. Accurate assessments may in turn lead to a better understanding of

  12. Simultaneous light scattering and intrinsic fluorescence measurement for the classification of airborne particles.

    PubMed

    Kaye, P H; Barton, J E; Hirst, E; Clark, J M

    2000-07-20

    We describe a prototype laboratory light-scattering instrument that integrates two approaches to airborne particle characterization: spatial light-scattering analysis and intrinsic fluorescence measurement, with the aim of providing an effective means of classifying biological particles within an ambient aerosol. The system uses a single continuous-wave 266-nm ultraviolet laser to generate both the spatial elastic scatter data (from which an assessment of particle size and shape is made) and the particle intrinsic fluorescence data from particles in the approximate size range of 1-10-mum diameter carried in a sample airflow through the laser beam. Preliminary results suggest that this multiparameter measurement approach can provide an effective means of classifying different particle types and can reduce occurrences of false-positive detection of biological aerosols. PMID:18349949

  13. Identification and characterization of individual airborne volcanic ash particles by Raman microspectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Ivleva, Natalia P; Huckele, Susanne; Weinzierl, Bernadett; Niessner, Reinhard; Haisch, Christoph; Baumann, Thomas

    2013-11-01

    We present for the first time the Raman microspectroscopic identification and characterization of individual airborne volcanic ash (VA) particles. The particles were collected in April/May 2010 during research aircraft flights, which were performed by Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt in the airspace near the Eyjafjallajökull volcano eruption and over Europe (between Iceland and Southern Germany). In addition, aerosol particles were sampled by an Electrical Low Pressure Impactor in Munich, Germany. As references for the Raman analysis, we used the spectra of VA collected at the ground near the place of eruption, of mineral basaltic rock, and of different minerals from a database. We found significant differences in the spectra of VA and other aerosol particles (e.g., soot, nitrates, sulfates, and clay minerals), which allowed us to identify VA among other atmospheric particulate matter. Furthermore, while the airborne VA shows a characteristic Raman pattern (with broad band from ca. 200 to ca. 700 cm(-1) typical for SiO₂ glasses and additional bands of ferric minerals), the differences between the spectra of aged and fresh particles were observed, suggesting differences in their chemical composition and/or structure. We also analyzed similarities between Eyjafjallajökull VA particles collected at different sampling sites and compared the particles with a large variety of glassy and crystalline minerals. This was done by applying cluster analysis, in order to get information on the composition and structure of volcanic ash. PMID:24121468

  14. Concentrations and Sources of Airborne Particles in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit.

    PubMed

    Licina, Dusan; Bhangar, Seema; Brooks, Brandon; Baker, Robyn; Firek, Brian; Tang, Xiaochen; Morowitz, Michael J; Banfield, Jillian F; Nazaroff, William W

    2016-01-01

    Premature infants in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) have underdeveloped immune systems, making them susceptible to adverse health consequences from air pollutant exposure. Little is known about the sources of indoor airborne particles that contribute to the exposure of premature infants in the NICU environment. In this study, we monitored the spatial and temporal variations of airborne particulate matter concentrations along with other indoor environmental parameters and human occupancy. The experiments were conducted over one year in a private-style NICU. The NICU was served by a central heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) system equipped with an economizer and a high-efficiency particle filtration system. The following parameters were measured continuously during weekdays with 1-min resolution: particles larger than 0.3 μm resolved into 6 size groups, CO2 level, dry-bulb temperature and relative humidity, and presence or absence of occupants. Altogether, over sixteen periods of a few weeks each, measurements were conducted in rooms occupied with premature infants. In parallel, a second monitoring station was operated in a nearby hallway or at the local nurses' station. The monitoring data suggest a strong link between indoor particle concentrations and human occupancy. Detected particle peaks from occupancy were clearly discernible among larger particles and imperceptible for submicron (0.3-1 μm) particles. The mean indoor particle mass concentrations averaged across the size range 0.3-10 μm during occupied periods was 1.9 μg/m3, approximately 2.5 times the concentration during unoccupied periods (0.8 μg/m3). Contributions of within-room emissions to total PM10 mass in the baby rooms averaged 37-81%. Near-room indoor emissions and outdoor sources contributed 18-59% and 1-5%, respectively. Airborne particle levels in the size range 1-10 μm showed strong dependence on human activities, indicating the importance of indoor

  15. Concentrations and Sources of Airborne Particles in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit

    PubMed Central

    Licina, Dusan; Bhangar, Seema; Brooks, Brandon; Baker, Robyn; Firek, Brian; Tang, Xiaochen; Morowitz, Michael J.; Banfield, Jillian F.; Nazaroff, William W.

    2016-01-01

    Premature infants in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) have underdeveloped immune systems, making them susceptible to adverse health consequences from air pollutant exposure. Little is known about the sources of indoor airborne particles that contribute to the exposure of premature infants in the NICU environment. In this study, we monitored the spatial and temporal variations of airborne particulate matter concentrations along with other indoor environmental parameters and human occupancy. The experiments were conducted over one year in a private-style NICU. The NICU was served by a central heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) system equipped with an economizer and a high-efficiency particle filtration system. The following parameters were measured continuously during weekdays with 1-min resolution: particles larger than 0.3 μm resolved into 6 size groups, CO2 level, dry-bulb temperature and relative humidity, and presence or absence of occupants. Altogether, over sixteen periods of a few weeks each, measurements were conducted in rooms occupied with premature infants. In parallel, a second monitoring station was operated in a nearby hallway or at the local nurses’ station. The monitoring data suggest a strong link between indoor particle concentrations and human occupancy. Detected particle peaks from occupancy were clearly discernible among larger particles and imperceptible for submicron (0.3–1 μm) particles. The mean indoor particle mass concentrations averaged across the size range 0.3–10 μm during occupied periods was 1.9 μg/m3, approximately 2.5 times the concentration during unoccupied periods (0.8 μg/m3). Contributions of within-room emissions to total PM10 mass in the baby rooms averaged 37–81%. Near-room indoor emissions and outdoor sources contributed 18–59% and 1–5%, respectively. Airborne particle levels in the size range 1–10 μm showed strong dependence on human activities, indicating the importance of indoor

  16. PHIPS-HALO: the airborne Particle Habit Imaging and Polar Scattering probe - Part 1: Design and operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelmonem, Ahmed; Järvinen, Emma; Duft, Denis; Hirst, Edwin; Vogt, Steffen; Leisner, Thomas; Schnaiter, Martin

    2016-07-01

    The number and shape of ice crystals present in mixed-phase and ice clouds influence the radiation properties, precipitation occurrence and lifetime of these clouds. Since clouds play a major role in the climate system, influencing the energy budget by scattering sunlight and absorbing heat radiation from the earth, it is necessary to investigate the optical and microphysical properties of cloud particles particularly in situ. The relationship between the microphysics and the single scattering properties of cloud particles is usually obtained by modelling the optical scattering properties from in situ measurements of ice crystal size distributions. The measured size distribution and the assumed particle shape might be erroneous in case of non-spherical ice particles. There is a demand to obtain both information correspondently and simultaneously for individual cloud particles in their natural environment. For evaluating the average scattering phase function as a function of ice particle habit and crystal complexity, in situ measurements are required. To this end we have developed a novel airborne optical sensor (PHIPS-HALO) to measure the optical properties and the corresponding microphysical parameters of individual cloud particles simultaneously. PHIPS-HALO has been tested in the AIDA cloud simulation chamber and deployed in mountain stations as well as research aircraft (HALO and Polar 6). It is a successive version of the laboratory prototype instrument PHIPS-AIDA. In this paper we present the detailed design of PHIPS-HALO, including the detection mechanism, optical design, mechanical construction and aerodynamic characterization.

  17. Contribution of airborne dust particles to HONO sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saliba, N. A.; Moussa, S. G.; El Tayyar, G.

    2014-02-01

    HONO is a major precursor for OH radicals in early mornings. Its formation has been mainly attributed to the heterogeneous hydrolysis of NO2 on surfaces such as soot, glass, mineral oxides and aerosol surfaces. In particular, dust events which are loaded with mineral oxide aerosols have been associated with higher HONO concentrations in the gas phase. In order to understand the mechanism of reactions related to this process, samples during dusty and non-dusty days were collected between October 2009 and April 2011. Based on HYSPLIT backward trajectories, data were divided between wind trajectories originating from Arabian or African deserts. In this study an increase of HONO levels was observed during dusty days. The increase in the acidic gas concentrations was accompanied by an increase in the PM nitrate and sulfate ion concentrations. During high relative humidity (African dusty days), it is proposed that the mechanism of NO2 hydrolysis predominates whereas during Arabian dusty days, where the air is relatively dry, a synergistic mechanism of adsorption and reaction between NO2 and SO2 on dust particles to produce HONO and sulfate in the particle phase is suggested. This study implies that the NOx reactivity on mineral oxide surfaces leads to a higher mixing level of OH. An increase in the sulfate forming capacity could account for the underestimation of sulfates in aerosols when the reactive uptake of SO2 alone is considered.

  18. Predicting emissions of SVOCs from polymeric materials and their interaction with airborne particles.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ying; Little, John C

    2006-01-15

    A model that predicts the emission rate of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from building materials is extended and used to predict the emission rate of semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) from polymeric materials. Reasonable agreement between model predictions and gas-phase di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) concentrations is achieved using data collected in a previous experimental study that measured emissions of DEHP from vinyl flooring in two very different chambers. While emissions of highly volatile VOCs are subject to "internal" control (the material-phase diffusion coefficient), emissions of the very low volatility SVOCs are subject to "external" control (partitioning into the gas phase, the convective mass-transfer coefficient, and adsorption onto interior surfaces). The effect of SVOCs partitioning onto airborne particles is also examined. The DEHP emission rate is increased when the gas-phase concentration is high, and especially when partitioning to the airborne particles is strong. Airborne particles may play an important role in inhalation exposure as well as in transporting SVOCs well beyond the source. Although more rigorous validation is needed, the model should help elucidate the mechanisms governing emissions of phthalate plasticizers, brominated flame retardants, biocides, and other SVOCs from a wide range of building materials and consumer products. PMID:16468389

  19. Physical and chemical characterization of airborne particles from welding operations in automotive plants.

    PubMed

    Dasch, Jean; D'Arcy, James

    2008-07-01

    Airborne particles were characterized from six welding operations in three automotive plants, including resistance spot welding, metal inert gas (MIG) welding and tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding of aluminum and resistance spot welding, MIG welding and weld-through sealer of galvanized steel. Particle levels were measured throughout the process area to select a sampling location, followed by intensive particle sampling over one working shift. Temporal trends were measured, and particles were collected on filters to characterize their size and chemistry. In all cases, the particles fell into a bimodal size distribution with very large particles >20 mum in diameter, possibly emitted as spatter or metal expulsions, and very small particles about 1 mum in diameter, possibly formed from condensation of vaporized metal. The mass median aerodynamic diameter was about 1 mum, with only about 7% of the particle mass present as ultrafine particles <100 nm. About half the mass of aluminum welding particles could be accounted for by chemical analysis, with the remainder possibly present as oxygen. Predominant species were organic carbon, elemental carbon, iron, and aluminum. More than 80% of the particle mass could be accounted for from steel welding, primarily present as iron, organic carbon, zinc, and copper. Particle concentrations and elemental concentrations were compared with allowable concentrations as recommended by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration and the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. In all cases, workplace levels were at least 11 times lower than recommended levels. PMID:18464098

  20. Particle Test Fluence: What's the Right Number?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaBel, Kenneth A.

    2016-01-01

    While we have been utilizing standard fluence levels such as those listed in the JESD57 document, we have begun revisiting what an appropriate test fluence is when it comes to qualifying a device for single events. Instead of a fixed fluence level or until a specific number of events occurs, a different thought process is required.

  1. Finite-particle-number approach to physics

    SciTech Connect

    Noyes, H.P.

    1982-10-01

    Starting from a discrete, self-generating and self-organizing, recursive model and self-consistent interpretive rules we construct: the scale constants of physics (3,10,137,1.7x10/sup 38/); 3+1 Minkowski space with a discrete metric and the algebraic bound ..delta.. is an element of ..delta.. tau is greater than or equal to 1; the Einstein-deBroglie relation; algebraic double slit interference; a single-time momentum-space scattering theory connected to laboratory experience; an approximation to wave functions; local phase severance and hence both distant correlations and separability; baryon number, lepton number, charge and helicity; m/sub p//m/sub e/; a cosmology not in disagreement with current observations.

  2. Total airborne mold particle sampling: evaluation of sample collection, preparation and counting procedures, and collection devices.

    PubMed

    Godish, Diana; Godish, Thad

    2008-02-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate (i) procedures used to collect, prepare, and count total airborne mold spore/particle concentrations, and (ii) the relative field performance of three commercially available total airborne mold spore/particle sampling devices. Differences between factory and laboratory airflow calibration values of axial fan-driven sampling instruments (used in the study) indicated a need for laboratory calibration using a mass flow meter to ensure that sample results were accurately calculated. An aniline blue-amended Calberla's solution adjusted to a pH of 4.2-4.4 provided good sample mounting/counting results using Dow Corning high vacuum grease, Dow Corning 280A adhesive, and Dow Corning 316 silicone release spray for samples collected using mini-Burkard and Allergenco samplers. Count variability among analysts was most pronounced in 5% counts of relatively low mold particle deposition density samples and trended downward with increased count percentage and particle deposition density. No significant differences were observed among means of 5, 10, and 20% counts and among analysts; a significant interaction effect was observed between analysts' counts and particle deposition densities. Significantly higher mini-Burkard and Air-O-Cell total mold spore/particle counts for 600x vs. 400x (1.9 and 2.3 x higher, respectively), 1000x vs. 600x (1.9 and 2.2 x higher, respectively) and 1000x vs. 400x (3.6 and 4.6 x higher, respectively) comparisons indicated that 1000x magnification counts best quantified total airborne mold spore/particles using light microscopy, and that lower magnification counts may result in unacceptable underreporting of airborne mold spore/particle concentrations. Modest but significantly higher (1.2x) total mold spore concentrations were observed with Allergenco vs. mini-Burkard samples collected in co-located, concurrently operated sampler studies; moderate but significantly higher mini-Burkard count values (1.4x) were

  3. Comparison of Three Real-Time Measurement Methods for Airborne Ultrafine Particles in the Silicon Alloy Industry.

    PubMed

    Kero, Ida Teresia; Jørgensen, Rikke Bramming

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the applicability and the correlation between three commercially available instruments capable of detection, quantification, and characterization of ultrafine airborne particulate matter in the industrial setting of a tapping area in a silicon alloy production plant. The number concentration of ultrafine particles was evaluated using an Electric Low Pressure Impactor (ELPI(TM)), a Fast Mobility Particle Sizer (FMPS(TM)), and a Condensation Particle Counter (CPC). The results are discussed in terms of particle size distribution and temporal variations linked to process operations. The instruments show excellent temporal covariation and the correlation between the FMPS and ELPI is good. The advantage of the FMPS is the excellent time- and size resolution of the results. The main advantage of the ELPI is the possibility to collect size-fractionated samples of the dust for subsequent analysis by, for example, electron microscopy. The CPC does not provide information about the particle size distribution and its correlation to the other two instruments is somewhat poor. Nonetheless, the CPC gives basic, real-time information about the ultrafine particle concentration and can therefore be used for source identification. PMID:27598180

  4. Inkjet aerosol generator as monodisperse particle number standard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iida, Kenjiro; Sakurai, Hiromu; Ehara, Kensei

    2013-05-01

    Inkjet technology can be applied to generate highly monodisperse aerosol particles in micrometer range at a precisely controlled rate. AIST has been developing an inkjet aerosol generator (AIST-IAG), and the device will soon become the secondary measurement standard for aerosol particle number concentration in 0.35 μm to 10 μm range. The AIST-IAG can generate both solid and liquid particles consisting of water-soluble ionic compounds. We first report the characteristics of the particle sizes of the generated particles. The full width half maximum of the particle size distribution is about 2 percent, and the particle diameter of the IAG particles was calibrated as a function of the particle mass within 0.6-10 μm range using polystyrene latex sphere as reference material. Then we report the capability of the AIST-IAG as the particle number standard. The particle generation efficiency ηIAG was defined as the number of aerosol particles exiting from the AIST-IAG divided by the rate of the droplet generation, and the values of ηIAG within 0.35-10 μm is essentially 100%, and the 95% confidence interval of the values is less than 1%. The result strongly supports that the AISTIAG can be used to calibrate the counting efficiency of the optical particle counters in submicrometer to micrometer range.

  5. Size distribution and number concentration of particles at the stack of a municipal waste incinerator.

    PubMed

    Buonanno, G; Ficco, G; Stabile, L

    2009-02-01

    A large number of particles and gaseous products are generated by waste combustion processes. Of particular importance are the ultrafine particles (less than 0.1 microm in aerodynamic diameter) that are emitted in large quantities from all the combustion sources. Recent findings of toxicological and epidemiological studies indicate that fine and ultrafine particles could represent health and environmental risks. Quantifying particulate emissions from combustion sources is important: (i) to examine the source status in compliance with regulations; (ii) to create inventories of such emissions at local, regional and national levels, for developing appropriate management and control strategies in relation to air quality; (iii) to predict ambient air quality in the areas involved at the source and (iv) to perform source apportionment and exposure assessment for the human populations and/or ecological systems involved. In order to control and mitigate the particles in the view of health and environmental risk reduction, a good understanding of the relative and absolute contribution from the emission sources to the airborne concentrations is necessary. For these purposes, the concentration and size distribution of particles in terms of mass and number in a waste gas of a municipal waste incineration plant were measured in the stack gas. The mass concentrations obtained are well below the imposed daily threshold value for both incineration lines and the mass size distribution is on average very stable. The total number concentrations are between 1 x 10(5) and 2 x 10(5)particles/cm(3) and are on average relatively stable from one test to another. The measured values and the comparison with other point sources show a very low total number concentration of particles at the stack gas, revealing the importance of the flue gas treatment also for ultrafine particles. Also in respect to linear sources (high and light duty vehicles), the comparison shows a negligible emission in

  6. Concentration and characterization of airborne particles in Tehran's subway system.

    PubMed

    Kamani, Hosein; Hoseini, Mohammad; Seyedsalehi, Mahdi; Mahdavi, Yousef; Jaafari, Jalil; Safari, Gholam Hosein

    2014-06-01

    Particulate matter is an important air pollutant, especially in closed environments like underground subway stations. In this study, a total of 13 elements were determined from PM10 and PM2.5 samples collected at two subway stations (Imam Khomeini and Sadeghiye) in Tehran's subway system. Sampling was conducted in April to August 2011 to measure PM concentrations in platform and adjacent outdoor air of the stations. In the Imam Khomeini station, the average concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 were 94.4 ± 26.3 and 52.3 ± 16.5 μg m(-3) in the platform and 81.8 ± 22.2 and 35 ± 17.6 μg m(-3) in the outdoor air, respectively. In the Sadeghiye station, mean concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 were 87.6 ± 23 and 41.3 ± 20.4 μg m(-3) in the platform and 73.9 ± 17.3 and 30 ± 15 μg m(-3), in the outdoor air, respectively. The relative contribution of elemental components in each particle fraction were accounted for 43% (PM10) and 47.7% (PM2.5) in platform of Imam Khomeini station and 15.9% (PM10) and 18.5% (PM2.5) in the outdoor air of this station. Also, at the Sadeghiye station, each fraction accounted for 31.6% (PM10) and 39.8% (PM2.5) in platform and was 11.7% (PM10) and 14.3% (PM2.5) in the outdoor. At the Imam Khomeini station, Fe was the predominant element to represent 32.4 and 36 % of the total mass of PM10 and PM2.5 in the platform and 11.5 and 13.3% in the outdoor, respectively. At the Sadeghiye station, this element represented 22.7 and 29.8% of total mass of PM10 and PM2.5 in the platform and 8.7 and 10.5% in the outdoor air, respectively. Other major crustal elements were 5.8% (PM10) and 5.3% (PM2.5) in the Imam Khomeini station platform and 2.3 and 2.4% in the outdoor air, respectively. The proportion of other minor elements was significantly lower, actually less than 7% in total samples, and V was the minor concentration in total mass of PM10 and PM2.5 in both platform stations. PMID:24573466

  7. Comparison of deposited surface area of airborne ultrafine particles generated from two welding processes.

    PubMed

    Gomes, J F; Albuquerque, P C; Miranda, Rosa M; Santos, Telmo G; Vieira, M T

    2012-09-01

    This article describes work performed on the assessment of the levels of airborne ultrafine particles emitted in two welding processes metal-active gas (MAG) of carbon steel and friction-stir welding (FSW) of aluminium in terms of deposited area in alveolar tract of the lung using a nanoparticle surface area monitor analyser. The obtained results showed the dependence from process parameters on emitted ultrafine particles and clearly demonstrated the presence of ultrafine particles, when compared with background levels. The obtained results showed that the process that results on the lower levels of alveolar-deposited surface area is FSW, unlike MAG. Nevertheless, all the tested processes resulted in important doses of ultrafine particles that are to be deposited in the human lung of exposed workers. PMID:22954401

  8. Theoretical analysis of particle number density in steady aeolian saltation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Liqiang; Zou, Xueyong

    2014-01-01

    Particle number density or particle concentration in aeolian saltation is one important input parameter to calculate the sand flux, kinetic energy and mid-air collision probability in the aeolian saltation and particle concentration is also related to the wind erosion capacity, hence, in the present paper, the vertical distribution of particle number density in steady aeolian saltation is analyzed based on two different types of probability density functions of vertical lift-off velocity of saltating particles: one is the PDF (probability density function) of vertical velocity of lift-off particles in the three-dimensional space defined as a type-A PDF which considers the number of particles in various velocity bins per unit volume; and the other is the PDF of vertical velocity of lift-off particles ejected from the sand bed surface in a period of time as a type-B PDF which considers the number flux of particles in various velocity bins per unit surface area. These two types of PDFs are from two different perspectives (i.e., volume- and surface-based perspectives, respectively), and can be deduced from each other. The half-normal and exponential distributions are recommended for the type-A PDF, and the corresponding type-B PDF is expressed by Rayleigh and Gamma(2) distributions. The PDF distribution pattern of vertical velocity of lift-off particles has an important influence on the vertical profile of particle number density. If the type-A PDF of vertical velocity of ejected particles is a half-normal distribution, the particle number density decays exponentially with height. If the type-A PDF is an exponential distribution, the particle number density also decreases with height. If the type-A PDF is Gamma(3) and Rayleigh distributions, the particle number density first increases, then decreases with height. The type-A and type-B height parameters, which are calculated according to the mean vertical lift-off velocity from the type-A and type-B PDFs, respectively

  9. Characterization of airborne individual particles collected in an urban area, a satellite city and a clean air area in Beijing, 2001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Zongbo; Shao, Longyi; Jones, T. P.; Whittaker, A. G.; Lu, Senlin; Bérubé, K. A.; He, Taoe; Richards, R. J.

    Collection campaigns for PM 10 and PM 2.5 have been conducted in a northwestern Beijing urban area in monthly periods over 2001, with 7 days collection per month. The samples were also collected simultaneously in a satellite city, Nankou, and a clean air area near the Ming Tombs Reservoir (MTR) over the domestic heating (March) and non-heating (July/August) periods in 2001 (both for one week). To assist the analysis, three types of 'source' particulate matter (PM) samples were taken. These consisted of coal combustion ash collected on top of a coke oven; dust storm particles collected during dust storm periods; and roadside PM 10 collected on a major road in Beijing. Monitoring results reveal that, in the urban area, particle mass levels were higher in winter than in other seasons. The 1-week/month average PM 10 mass levels were over 250 μg m -3 in winter. The particle mass levels in the satellite city were slightly lower than those at the urban site, and the lowest mass levels occurred at the MTR site. The morphology and chemical composition of individual airborne particles were determined by scanning electron microscopy, and image analysis was employed to study the number-size distributions. The number-size distributions of mineral particles showed that those in the Asia-Dust storm (ADS) collections are mostly coarser than 1 μm, while mineral particles of the non-ADS collections are predominately finer than 1 μm. The particles in the respirable (<2.5 μm) fraction accounted for 99% of the total particles in airborne PM samples. Soot aggregates were generally the most abundant components in airborne PM samples at all three sites. The fly ash (spherical) particles at the MTR site were significantly enriched over the heating period, indicating a domestic coal-burning source.

  10. A Lagrangian particle model to predict the airborne spread of foot-and-mouth disease virus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, D.; Reiczigel, J.; Rubel, F.

    Airborne spread of bioaerosols in the boundary layer over a complex terrain is simulated using a Lagrangian particle model, and applied to modelling the airborne spread of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus. Two case studies are made with study domains located in a hilly region in the northwest of the Styrian capital Graz, the second largest town in Austria. Mountainous terrain as well as inhomogeneous and time varying meteorological conditions prevent from application of so far used Gaussian dispersion models, while the proposed model can handle these realistically. In the model, trajectories of several thousands of particles are computed and the distribution of virus concentration near the ground is calculated. This allows to assess risk of infection areas with respect to animal species of interest, such as cattle, swine or sheep. Meteorological input data like wind field and other variables necessary to compute turbulence were taken from the new pre-operational version of the non-hydrostatic numerical weather prediction model LMK ( Lokal-Modell-Kürzestfrist) running at the German weather service DWD ( Deutscher Wetterdienst). The LMK model provides meteorological parameters with a spatial resolution of about 2.8 km. To account for the spatial resolution of 400 m used by the Lagrangian particle model, the initial wind field is interpolated upon the finer grid by a mass consistent interpolation method. Case studies depict a significant influence of local wind systems on the spread of virus. Higher virus concentrations at the upwind side of the hills and marginal concentrations in the lee are well observable, as well as canalization effects by valleys. The study demonstrates that the Lagrangian particle model is an appropriate tool for risk assessment of airborne spread of virus by taking into account the realistic orographic and meteorological conditions.

  11. Concentration, Size Distribution, and Infectivity of Airborne Particles Carrying Swine Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Alonso, Carmen; Raynor, Peter C.; Davies, Peter R.; Torremorell, Montserrat

    2015-01-01

    When pathogens become airborne, they travel associated with particles of different size and composition. Particle size determines the distance across which pathogens can be transported, as well as the site of deposition and the survivability of the pathogen. Despite the importance of this information, the size distribution of particles bearing viruses emitted by infectious animals remains unknown. In this study we characterized the concentration and size distribution of inhalable particles that transport influenza A virus (IAV), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), and porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) generated by acutely infected pigs and assessed virus viability for each particle size range. Aerosols from experimentally infected pigs were sampled for 24 days using an Andersen cascade impactor able to separate particles by size (ranging from 0.4 to 10 micrometer (μm) in diameter). Air samples collected for the first 9, 20 and the last 3 days of the study were analyzed for IAV, PRRSV and PEDV, respectively, using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and quantified as geometric mean copies/m3 within each size range. IAV was detected in all particle size ranges in quantities ranging from 5.5x102 (in particles ranging from 1.1 to 2.1μm) to 4.3x105 RNA copies/m3 in the largest particles (9.0–10.0μm). PRRSV was detected in all size ranges except particles between 0.7 and 2.1μm in quantities ranging from 6x102 (0.4–0.7μm) to 5.1x104 RNA copies/m3 (9.0–10.0μm). PEDV, an enteric virus, was detected in all particle sizes and in higher quantities than IAV and PRRSV (p < 0.0001) ranging from 1.3x106 (0.4–0.7μm) to 3.5x108 RNA copies/m3 (9.0–10.0μm). Infectious status was demonstrated for the 3 viruses, and in the case of IAV and PRRSV, viruses were isolated from particles larger than 2.1μm. In summary, our results indicated that airborne PEDV, IAV and PRRSV can be found in a wide range of

  12. Analysing the health effects of simultaneous exposure to physical and chemical properties of airborne particles

    PubMed Central

    Pirani, Monica; Best, Nicky; Blangiardo, Marta; Liverani, Silvia; Atkinson, Richard W.; Fuller, Gary W.

    2015-01-01

    Background Airborne particles are a complex mix of organic and inorganic compounds, with a range of physical and chemical properties. Estimation of how simultaneous exposure to air particles affects the risk of adverse health response represents a challenge for scientific research and air quality management. In this paper, we present a Bayesian approach that can tackle this problem within the framework of time series analysis. Methods We used Dirichlet process mixture models to cluster time points with similar multipollutant and response profiles, while adjusting for seasonal cycles, trends and temporal components. Inference was carried out via Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods. We illustrated our approach using daily data of a range of particle metrics and respiratory mortality for London (UK) 2002–2005. To better quantify the average health impact of these particles, we measured the same set of metrics in 2012, and we computed and compared the posterior predictive distributions of mortality under the exposure scenario in 2012 vs 2005. Results The model resulted in a partition of the days into three clusters. We found a relative risk of 1.02 (95% credible intervals (CI): 1.00, 1.04) for respiratory mortality associated with days characterised by high posterior estimates of non-primary particles, especially nitrate and sulphate. We found a consistent reduction in the airborne particles in 2012 vs 2005 and the analysis of the posterior predictive distributions of respiratory mortality suggested an average annual decrease of − 3.5% (95% CI: − 0.12%, − 5.74%). Conclusions We proposed an effective approach that enabled the better understanding of hidden structures in multipollutant health effects within time series analysis. It allowed the identification of exposure metrics associated with respiratory mortality and provided a tool to assess the changes in health effects from various policies to control the ambient particle matter mixtures. PMID:25795926

  13. COLLECTION OF AIRBORNE PARTICLES BY A HIGH-GRADIENT PERMANENT MAGNETIC METHOD

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Mengdawn; Allman, Steve L; Ludtka, Gerard Michael; Avens, Larry R

    2014-01-01

    We report on the use of magnetic force in collection of airborne particles by a high- gradient permanent magnetic separation (HGPMS) device. Three aerosol particles of different magnetic susceptibility (NaCl, CuO, and Fe2O3) were generated in the electrical mobility size range of 10 to 200 nm and were used to study HGPMS collection. One HGPMS matrix element, made of stainless steel wool, was used in the device configuration. Three flow rates were selected to simulate the environmental wind speeds of interest to the study. Magnetic force was found to exhibit an insignificant effect on the separation of NaCl particles, even in the HGPMS configuration. Diffusion was a major mechanism in the removal of the diamagnetic particles; however, diffusion is insignificant under the influence of a high-gradient magnetic field for paramagnetic or ferromagnetic particles. The HGPMS showed high-performance collection (> 99%) of paramagnetic CuO and ferromagnetic Fe2O3 particles for particle sizes greater than or equal to 60 nm. As the wind speed increases, the influence of the magnetic force weakens, and the capability to remove particles from the gas stream diminishes. The results suggest that the HGPMS principle could be explored for development of an advanced miniaturized passive aerosol collector.

  14. A microfluidics-based on-chip impinger for airborne particle collection.

    PubMed

    Mirzaee, I; Song, M; Charmchi, M; Sun, H

    2016-06-21

    Capturing airborne particles from air into a liquid is a critical process for the development of many sensors and analytical systems. A miniaturized airborne particle sampling device (microimpinger) has been developed in this research. The microimpinger relies on a controlled bubble generation process produced by driving air through microchannel arrays. The particles confined in the microscale bubbles are captured in the sampling liquid while the bubbles form, are released and travel in a millimetre-scale sealed liquid reservoir. The microchannel arrays in the impinger are fabricated using a soft-lithography method with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) as the structural material. To prevent air leakage at the connections, a PDMS-only sealing technique is successfully developed. The hydrophobicity of the microchannel surface is found to be critical for generating continuous and stable bubbles in the bubbling process. A Teflon layer is coated on the walls of a microchannel array by vapor deposition which effectively increases the hydrophobicity of the PDMS. The collection efficiency of the microimpinger is measured by counting different sizes of fluorescent polystyrene latex particles on polycarbonate membrane filters. Collection efficiencies above 90% are achieved. Furthermore, the particle capturing mechanisms during the injection, formation and rise of a single microbubble are investigated by a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model. The Navier-Stokes equations are solved along with the use of the volume-of-fluid (VOF) method to capture the bubble deformations and the particles are tracked using a Lagrangian equation of motion. The model is also employed to study the effect of bubble size on the collection efficiency of the microimpinger. PMID:27185303

  15. Number concentrations of fine and ultrafine particles containing metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolocka, Michael P.; Lake, Derek A.; Johnston, Murray V.; Wexler, Anthony S.

    Typical classification schemes for large data sets of single-particle mass spectra involve statistical or neural network analysis. In this work, a new approach is evaluated in which particle spectra are pre-selected on the basis of an above threshold signal intensity at a specified m/ z (mass to charge ratio). This provides a simple way to identify candidate particles that may contain the specific chemical component associated with that m/ z. Once selected, the candidate particle spectra are then classified by the fast adaptive resonance algorithm, ART 2-a, to confirm the presence of the targeted component in the particle and to study the intra-particle associations with other chemical components. This approach is used to characterize metals in a 75,000 particle data set obtained in Baltimore, Maryland. Particles containing a specific metal are identified and then used to determine the size distribution, number concentration, time/wind dependencies and intra-particle correlations with other metals. Four representative elements are considered in this study: vanadium, iron, arsenic and lead. Number concentrations of ambient particles containing these elements can exceed 10,000 particles cm -3 at the measurement site. Vanadium, a primary marker for fuel oil combustion, is observed from all wind directions during this time period. Iron and lead are observed from the east-northeast. Most particles from this direction that contain iron also contain lead and most particles that contain lead also contain iron, suggesting a common emission source for the two. Arsenic and lead are observed from the south-southeast. Particles from this direction contain either arsenic or lead but rarely both, suggesting different sources for each element.

  16. Uranium oxide and other airborne particles deposited on cypress leaves close to a nuclear facility.

    PubMed

    Gieré, Reto; Kaltenmeier, Ramona; Pourcelot, Laurent

    2012-04-01

    Enhanced activity of actinides and some decay products has been reported for the leaves of cypress trees (Chamaecyparis nootkatensis) at the edge of the Malvési uranium-processing facility, southwestern France. The enhanced activity is due to the release of actinides via the smokestacks and from artificial ponds inside the facility. This study was conducted to characterize airborne particulate matter deposited on the leaf surfaces and to investigate whether or not radioactive particles may be identified. Air-dried leaf samples were examined by scanning electron microscopy, in combination with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry. The samples were scanned systematically in both secondary and backscattered electron modes. Particles ranging in size from <200 nm to ~40 μm were found on most portions of the adaxial leaf surface, but they are especially abundant at the boundary between facial and lateral leaves. The majority of the analyzed particles could be attributed to five principal classes: carbonates, silicates, sulfates, oxides/hydroxides, and halides. In addition, other types of particles were found, including Fe alloys; scheelite-group phases; phosphates; sulfides; and fly ash spheres. Similar particles were also observed on the surface of a wheat sample used for comparison. Of special interest are U-rich particles, which were observed on the cypress leaves only and which were identified as U oxides, except for one particle, which was a U-oxide-fluoride. These U-rich particles were released into the atmosphere by the nuclear facility prior to their deposition on the leaf surfaces. As most of the U-rich particles are <2.5 μm across, they are respirable. Once inhaled, particles containing alpha-emitting isotopes represent a potentially long-term source of ionizing radiation inside the lungs and thus, pose a threat to the health of people living nearby. PMID:22422019

  17. HDL particle number and size as predictors of cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Kontush, Anatol

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies indicate that reduced concentrations of circulating high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles can be superior to HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels as a predictor of cardiovascular disease. Measurements of HDL particle numbers, therefore, bear a potential for the improved assessment of cardiovascular risk. Furthermore, such measurement can be relevant for the evaluation of novel therapeutic approaches targeting HDL. Modern in-depth analyses of HDL particle profile may further improve evaluation of cardiovascular risk. Although clinical relevance of circulating concentrations of HDL subpopulations to cardiovascular disease remains controversial, the negative relationship between the number of large HDL particles and cardiovascular disease suggests that assessment of HDL particle profile can be clinically useful. Reduced mean HDL size is equally associated with cardiovascular disease in large-scale clinical studies. Since HDL-C is primarily carried in the circulation by large, lipid-rich HDL particles, the inverse relationship between HDL size and cardiovascular risk can be secondary to those established for plasma levels of HDL particles, HDL-C, and large HDL. The epidemiological data thereby suggest that HDL particle number may represent a more relevant therapeutic target as compared to HDL-C. PMID:26500551

  18. Global Civil Aviation Black Carbon Particle Mass and Number Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stettler, M. E. J.

    2015-12-01

    Black carbon (BC) is a product of incomplete combustion emitted by aircraft engines. In the atmosphere, BC particles strongly absorb incoming solar radiation and influence cloud formation processes leading to highly uncertain, but likely net positive warming of the earth's atmosphere. At cruise altitude, BC particle number emissions can influence the concentration of ice nuclei that can lead to contrail formation, with significant and highly uncertainty climate impacts. BC particles emitted by aircraft engines also degrade air quality in the vicinity of airports and globally. A significant contribution to the uncertainty in environmental impacts of aviation BC emissions is the uncertainty in emissions inventories. Previous work has shown that global aviation BC mass emissions are likely to have been underestimated by a factor of three. In this study, we present an updated global BC particle number inventory and evaluate parameters that contribute to uncertainty using global sensitivity analysis techniques. The method of calculating particle number from mass utilises a description of the mobility of fractal aggregates and uses the geometric mean diameter, geometric standard deviation, mass-mobility exponent, primary particle diameter and material density to relate the particle number concentration to the total mass concentration. Model results show good agreement with existing measurements of aircraft BC emissions at ground level and at cruise altitude. It is hoped that the results of this study can be applied to estimate direct and indirect climate impacts of aviation BC emissions in future studies.

  19. Relationship between airborne detection of influenza A virus and the number of infected pigs

    PubMed Central

    Corzo, Cesar A.; Romagosa, Anna; Dee, Scott; Gramer, Marie; Morrison, Robert B; Torremorell, Montserrat

    2012-01-01

    Influenza A virus infects a wide range of species including both birds and mammals (including humans). One of the key routes by which the virus can infect populations of animals is by aerosol transmission. This study explored the relationship between number of infected pigs and the probability of detecting influenza virus RNA in bioaerosols through the course of an acute infection. Bioaerosols were collected using a cyclonic collector in two groups of 7 week-old pigs that were experimentally infected by exposure with a contact infected pig (seeder pig). After contact exposure, individual pig nasal swab samples were collected daily and air samples were collected three times per day for 8 days. All samples were tested for influenza by real-time reverse transcriptase (RRT)-PCR targeting the influenza virus matrix gene. All pigs' nasal swabs became influenza virus RRT-PCR positive upon exposure to the infected seeder pig. Airborne influenza was detected in 28/43 (65%) air samples. The temporal dynamics of influenza virus detection in air samples was in close agreement with the nasal shedding pattern in the infected pigs. First detection of positive bioaerosols happened at 1 day post contact (DPC). Positive bioaerosols were consistently detected between 3 and 6 DPC, a time when most pigs were also shedding virus in nasal secretions. Overall, the odds of detecting a positive air sample increased 2.2 times for every additional nasal swab positive pig in the group. In summary, there was a strong relationship between the number of pigs shedding influenza virus in nasal secretions and the generation of bioaerosols during the course of an acute infection. PMID:23164957

  20. Discriminating bacterial spores from inert airborne particles by classification of optical scattering patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crosta, Giovanni F.; Pan, Yongle; Videen, Gorden

    2014-05-01

    Scattering patterns are made available by the TAOS (Two-dimensional Angle-resolved Optical Scattering) method, which consists of detecting micrometer-sized single airborne aerosol particles and collecting the intensity of the light they scatter from a pulsed, monochromatic laser beam. TAOS patterns have been classified by a learning machine, the training stage of which depends on many control parameters. Patterns due to single bacterial spores (Bq class) have to be discriminated from those produced by outdoor aerosol particles (Kq set) and diesel soot aggregates (sq set), where both Kq and sq are assumed not to contain patterns of bacterial origin. This work describes two directions along which classification continues to develop: the enlargement of the control parameter set and the simultaneous processing of two areas (sectors) selected from the TAOS pattern. The latter algorithm is meant to make the classifier sensitive to simmetry exhibited by some patterns. The available classification scheme is summarized, as well as the rule by which discrimination is rated off-line. Discrimination based on one pattern sector alone scores fewer than 15% false negatives (misclassified Bq patterns) and false positives from Kq and sq. Discrimination based on the symmetry of two pattern sectors fails to recognize 30% of the Bq (bacterial) patterns, whereas < 5% Kq (environmental) patterns are assigned to the Bq class; false positives from sq (diesel) patterns drop to zero. The issue of false positives is briefly discussed in relation to the fraction of airborne bacteria found in aerosols.

  1. A comparison study on airborne particles during haze days and non-haze days in Beijing.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhenquan; Mu, Yujing; Liu, Yanju; Shao, Longyi

    2013-07-01

    Airborne particles in Beijing during haze days and non-haze days were collected by an eleven-stage cascade impactor (MOUDI 110, MSP, USA), and the mass concentrations and water soluble inorganic ions of the size segregated airborne particles were quantitatively analyzed. PM10 concentrations during haze days ranged from 250.5 to 519.4 μgm(-3) which were about 3-8 times greater than those (ranged from 67.6 to 94.0 μgm(-3)) during non-haze days, and PM1.8 concentrations during haze periods were in the range of 117.6-378.6 μgm(-3) which were 3-14 times higher than those (27.0 to 36.8 μgm(-3)) during non-haze days. In comparison with non-haze days, all water soluble inorganic ions investigated in the airborne particles greatly enhanced during haze days. NH₄(+), NO₃(-) and SO₄(2-) were found to be the dominant water soluble inorganic ions, accounting for 91-95% of the total inorganic ions in PM1.8 during haze days, and 73-81% during non-haze days. The size distributions of SO₄(2-), NO₃(-), Cl(-), K(+) and Na(+) exhibited bimodal types, while single mode was found for NH₄(+), Ca(2+) and Mg(2+). Only with exception of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+), all ions were concentrated in fine particles around 0.56-1.0 μm of "droplet mode" during haze days, while 0.32-0.56 μm of "condensation mode" during non-haze days. The extremely high mole ratio (>2) of [NH4(+)]/[SO₄(2-)] during haze days implied that the main form of ammonium in PM1.8 might be (NH4)₂SO₄ and NH₄NO₃. The mass ratio of NO₃(-)/SO₄(2-) was >1 in PM1.8 during haze days and ~1 during non-haze days, indicating that NOx from the vehicle exhaust in Beijing is playing more and more important role on fine particle formation. PMID:23583755

  2. Temperature-dependent particle-number projected moment of inertia

    SciTech Connect

    Allal, N. H.; Fellah, M.; Benhamouda, N.; Oudih, M. R.

    2008-05-15

    Expressions of the parallel and perpendicular temperature-dependent particle-number projected nuclear moment of inertia have been established by means of a discrete projection method. They generalize that of the FTBCS method and are well adapted to numerical computation. The effects of particle-number fluctuations have been numerically studied for some even-even actinide nuclei by using the single-particle energies and eigenstates of a deformed Woods-Saxon mean field. It has been shown that the parallel moment of inertia is practically not modified by the use of the projection method. In contrast, the discrepancy between the projected and FTBCS perpendicular moment of inertia values may reach 5%. Moreover, the particle-number fluctuation effects vary not only as a function of the temperature but also as a function of the deformation for a given temperature. This is not the case for the system energy.

  3. Measurement of non-volatile particle number size distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gkatzelis, G. I.; Papanastasiou, D. K.; Florou, K.; Kaltsonoudis, C.; Louvaris, E.; Pandis, S. N.

    2015-06-01

    An experimental methodology was developed to measure the non-volatile particle number concentration using a thermodenuder (TD). The TD was coupled with a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer, measuring the chemical composition and mass size distribution of the submicrometer aerosol and a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) that provided the number size distribution of the aerosol in the range from 10 to 500 nm. The method was evaluated with a set of smog chamber experiments and achieved almost complete evaporation (> 98 %) of secondary organic as well as freshly nucleated particles, using a TD temperature of 400 °C and a centerline residence time of 15 s. This experimental approach was applied in a winter field campaign in Athens and provided a direct measurement of number concentration and size distribution for particles emitted from major pollution sources. During periods in which the contribution of biomass burning sources was dominant, more than 80 % of particle number concentration remained after passing through the thermodenuder, suggesting that nearly all biomass burning particles had a non-volatile core. These remaining particles consisted mostly of black carbon (60 % mass contribution) and organic aerosol, OA (40 %). Organics that had not evaporated through the TD were mostly biomass burning OA (BBOA) and oxygenated OA (OOA) as determined from AMS source apportionment analysis. For periods during which traffic contribution was dominant 50-60 % of the particles had a non-volatile core while the rest evaporated at 400 °C. The remaining particle mass consisted mostly of black carbon (BC) with an 80 % contribution, while OA was responsible for another 15-20 %. Organics were mostly hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA) and OOA. These results suggest that even at 400 °C some fraction of the OA does not evaporate from particles emitted from common combustion processes, such as biomass burning and car engines, indicating that a fraction of this type

  4. Quantification of particle number emission factors for motor vehicles from on-road measurements.

    PubMed

    Morawska, Lidia; Jamriska, Milan; Thomas, Stephen; Ferreira, Luis; Mengersen, Kerrie; Wraith, Darren; McGregor, Fraser

    2005-12-01

    The database on particle number emission factors has been very limited to date despite the increasing interest in the effects of human exposure to particles in the submicrometer range. There are also major questions on the comparability of emission factors derived through dynamometer versus on-road studies. Thus, the aims of this study were (1) to quantify vehicle number emission factors in the submicrometer (and also supermicrometer) range for stop-start and free-flowing traffic at about 100 km h(-1) driving conditions through extensive road measurements and (2) to compare the emission factors from the road measurements with those obtained previously from dynamometer studies conducted in Brisbane. For submicrometer particles the average emission factors for Tora Street were estimated at (1.89 +/- 3.40) x 10(13) particles km(-1) (mean +/- standard error; n = 386) for petrol and (7.17 +/- 2.80) x 10(14) particles km(-1) (diesel; n = 196) and for supermicrometer particles at 2.59 x 10(9) particles km(-1) and 1.53 x 10(12) particles km(-1), respectively. The average number emission factors for submicrometer particles estimated for Ipswich Road (stop-start traffic mode) were (2.18 +/- 0.57) x 10(13) particles km(-1) (petrol) and (2.04 +/- 0.24) x 10(14) particles km(-1) (diesel). One implication of the conclusion that emission factors of heavy duty diesel vehicles are over 1 order of magnitude higher than emission factors of petrol-fueled passenger cars is that future control and management strategies should in particular target heavy duty vehicles, as even a moderate decrease in emissions of these vehicles would have a significant impact on lowering atmospheric concentrations of particles. The finding that particle number emissions per vehicle-km are significantly larger for higher speed vehicle operation has an important implication on urban traffic planning and optimization of vehicle speed to lower their impact on airborne pollution. Additionally, statistical

  5. In situ real-time measurement of physical characteristics of airborne bacterial particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Jae Hee; Lee, Jung Eun

    2013-12-01

    Bioaerosols, including aerosolized bacteria, viruses, and fungi, are associated with public health and environmental problems. One promising control method to reduce the harmful effects of bioaerosols is thermal inactivation via a continuous-flow high-temperature short-time (HTST) system. However, variations in bioaerosol physical characteristics - for example, the particle size and shape - during the continuous-flow inactivation process can change the transport properties in the air, which can affect particle deposition in the human respiratory system or the filtration efficiency of ventilation systems. Real-time particle monitoring techniques are a desirable alternative to the time-consuming process of microscopic analysis that is conventionally used in sampling and particle characterization. Here, we report in situ real-time optical scattering measurements of the physical characteristics of airborne bacteria particles following an HTST process in a continuous-flow system. Our results demonstrate that the aerodynamic diameter of bacterial aerosols decreases when exposed to a high-temperature environment, and that the shape of the bacterial cells is significantly altered. These variations in physical characteristics using optical scattering measurements were found to be in agreement with the results of scanning electron microscopy analysis.

  6. Size and composition of airborne particles from pavement wear, tires, and traction sanding.

    PubMed

    Kupiainen, Kaarle J; Tervahattu, Heikki; Räisänen, Mika; Mäkelä, Timo; Aurela, Minna; Hillamo, Risto

    2005-02-01

    Mineral matter is an important component of airborne particles in urban areas. In northern cities of the world, mineral matter dominates PM10 during spring because of enhanced road abrasion caused by the use of antiskid methods, including studded tires and traction sanding. In this study, factors that affect formation of abrasion components of springtime road dust were assessed. Effects of traction sanding and tires on concentrations, mass size distribution, and composition of the particles were studied in a test facility. Lowest particle concentrations were observed in tests without traction sanding. The concentrations increased when traction sand was introduced and continued to increase as a function of the amount of aggregate dispersed. Emissions were additionally affected by type of tire, properties of traction sand aggregate, and driving speed. Aggregates with high fragmentation resistance and coarse grain size distribution had the lowest emissions. Over 90% of PM10 was mineral particles. Mineralogy of the dust and source apportionment showed that they originated from both traction sand and pavement aggregates. The remaining portion was mostly carbonaceous and originated from tires and road bitumen. Mass size distributions were dominated by coarse particles. Contribution of fine and submicron size ranges were approximately 15 and 10% in PM10, respectively. PMID:15757329

  7. The control by ventilation of airborne bacterial transfer between hospital patients, and its assessment by means of a particle tracer

    PubMed Central

    Foord, N.; Lidwell, O. M.

    1972-01-01

    A simple and convenient particle tracer for studies of the effectiveness of isolation units and other places in limiting the airborne transfer of bacteria is described. Particles of potassium iodide 7-8 μm. diameter are generated by spraying from solution and collected on membrane filters. The particles can be identified by development with 0·1% acid palladium chloride solution, when dark brown spots approximately 100 μm. in diameter are produced. ImagesPlate 1 PMID:4503869

  8. Quantifying Particle Numbers and Mass Flux in Drifting Snow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crivelli, Philip; Paterna, Enrico; Horender, Stefan; Lehning, Michael

    2016-06-01

    We compare two of the most common methods of quantifying mass flux, particle numbers and particle-size distribution for drifting snow events, the snow-particle counter (SPC), a laser-diode-based particle detector, and particle tracking velocimetry based on digital shadowgraphic imaging. The two methods were correlated for mass flux and particle number flux. For the SPC measurements, the device was calibrated by the manufacturer beforehand. The shadowgrapic imaging method measures particle size and velocity directly from consecutive images, and before each new test the image pixel length is newly calibrated. A calibration study with artificially scattered sand particles and glass beads provides suitable settings for the shadowgraphical imaging as well as obtaining a first correlation of the two methods in a controlled environment. In addition, using snow collected in trays during snowfall, several experiments were performed to observe drifting snow events in a cold wind tunnel. The results demonstrate a high correlation between the mass flux obtained for the calibration studies (r ≥slant 0.93 ) and good correlation for the drifting snow experiments (r ≥slant 0.81 ). The impact of measurement settings is discussed in order to reliably quantify particle numbers and mass flux in drifting snow. The study was designed and performed to optimize the settings of the digital shadowgraphic imaging system for both the acquisition and the processing of particles in a drifting snow event. Our results suggest that these optimal settings can be transferred to different imaging set-ups to investigate sediment transport processes.

  9. Lipkin method of particle-number restoration to higher orders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X. B.; Dobaczewski, J.; Kortelainen, M.; Yu, L. F.; Stoitsov, M. V.

    2014-07-01

    Background: On the mean-field level, pairing correlations are incorporated through the Bogoliubov-Valatin transformation, whereby the particle degrees of freedom are replaced by quasiparticles. This approach leads to a spontaneous breaking of the particle-number symmetry and mixing of states with different particle numbers. In order to restore the particle number, various methods have been employed, which are based on projection approaches before or after variation. Approximate variation-after-projection (VAP) schemes, utilizing the Lipkin method, have mostly been used within the Lipkin-Nogami prescription. Purpose: Without employing the Lipkin-Nogami prescription, and using, instead, states rotated in the gauge space, we derive the Lipkin method of particle-number restoration up to sixth order and we test the convergence and accuracy of the obtained expansion. Methods: We perform self-consistent calculations using the higher-order Lipkin method to restore the particle-number symmetry in the framework of superfluid nuclear energy-density functional theory. We also apply the Lipkin method to a schematic exactly solvable two-level pairing model. Results: Calculations performed in open-shell tin and lead isotopes show that the Lipkin method converges at fourth order and satisfactorily reproduces the VAP ground-state energies and energy kernels. Near closed shells, the higher-order Lipkin method cannot be applied because of a nonanalytic kink in the ground-state energies as a function of the particle number. Conclusions: In open-shell nuclei, the higher-order Lipkin method provides a good approximation to the exact VAP energies. The method is computationally inexpensive, making it particularly suitable, for example, for future optimizations of the nuclear energy density functionals and simultaneous restoration of different symmetries.

  10. Effects of unequal particle number densities on Alfven waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cairns, I. H.

    1989-01-01

    Analytic plasma theory and numerical solutions of the dispersion equation are used to show that the assumption that the linear properties of the waves are determined by a charge-neutral plasma in the absence of the nonthermal particles, while the nonthermal particles cause growth or additional damping superposed onto the background, is seriously flawed even for stable plasmas. Even when the nonthermal particles do not contribute significantly to the dispersion equation, unequal thermal electron and ion number densities (due to the presence of the nonthermal particles) may cause fundamental low wave number modifications to the Alfven modes, including the creation of a new resonance and severely modified dispersion. These results are found for both cold and warm plasmas. Previous work on Alfven waves should be reevaluated in view of these results.

  11. Aggregate Morphology Evolution by Sintering: Number & Diameter of Primary Particles

    PubMed Central

    Eggersdorfer, Max L.; Kadau, Dirk; Herrmann, Hans J.; Pratsinis, Sotiris E.

    2013-01-01

    The structure of fractal-like agglomerates (physically-bonded) and aggregates (chemically- or sinter-bonded) is important in aerosol synthesis of nanoparticles, and in monitoring combustion emissions and atmospheric particles. It influences also particle mobility, scattering, and eventually performance of nanocomposites, suspensions and devices made with such particles. Here, aggregate sintering by viscous flow of amorphous materials (silica, polymers) and grain boundary diffusion of crystalline ceramics (titania, alumina) or metals (Ni, Fe, Ag etc.) is investigated. A scaling law is found between average aggregate projected area and equivalent number of constituent primary particles during sintering: from fractal-like agglomerates to aggregates and eventually compact particles (e.g. spheres). This is essentially a relation independent of time, material properties and sintering mechanisms. It is used to estimate the equivalent primary particle diameter and number in aggregates. The evolution of aggregate morphology or structure is quantified by the effective fractal dimension (Df) and mass-mobility exponent (Dfm) and the corresponding prefactors. The Dfm increases monotonically during sintering converging to 3 for a compact particle. Therefore Dfm and its prefactor could be used to gauge the degree or extent of sintering of agglomerates made by a known collision mechanism. This analysis is exemplified by comparison to experiments of silver nanoparticle aggregates sintered at different temperatures in an electric tube furnace. PMID:23658467

  12. Chemical and isotopic properties and origin of coarse airborne particles collected by passive samplers in industrial, urban, and rural environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guéguen, Florence; Stille, Peter; Dietze, Volke; Gieré, Reto

    2012-12-01

    Passive air samplers have been installed in industrial, urban, rural and remote forested environments in order to collect coarse airborne particles for subsequent chemical characterization. To identify principal polluting sources, isotopic tracers, such as Sr, Nd and Pb isotopic ratios, have been used. The mass deposition rates (MDRs) of trace metals, determined for each of the studied environments, clearly indicate that industrial and traffic sites are especially affected by air pollution. Elements such as V, Pb, Fe, Cr, Co, Mo, Cd, Ni, As, Sb and Zn are notably enriched in samples from industrial zones, whereas V, Mn, Ba, Sr, Al, U, Th, rare earth elements (REE), Zr, Y, Cs, Rb, Sb, Sn and Cu are principal components of the airborne particles collected close to areas influenced by heavy traffic. The chemical/isotopic baseline composition derived from the airborne particles is the result of mixing of particles from different industrial sources, traffic and fertilizers. The monthly analysis of trace-metal MDRs of the collected airborne particle samples from different stations around the industrial zone allows for the detection of distinct atmospheric dust-deposition events during the year, characterized by high MDRs. "Natural" dusts from regional soil re-suspension, including from more distant regions like the Sahara desert, might overprint the regional atmospheric baseline composition, as suggested by trace metal trajectories in ternary diagrams and by Sr, Nd and Pb isotope data.

  13. A new look at inhalable metalliferous airborne particles on rail subway platforms.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Teresa; Martins, Vânia; Querol, Xavier; Jones, Tim; BéruBé, Kelly; Minguillón, Maria Cruz; Amato, Fulvio; Capdevila, Marta; de Miguel, Eladio; Centelles, Sonia; Gibbons, Wes

    2015-02-01

    Most particles breathed on rail subway platforms are highly ferruginous (FePM) and extremely small (nanometric to a few microns in size). High magnification observations of particle texture and chemistry on airborne PM₁₀ samples collected from the Barcelona Metro, combined with published experimental work on particle generation by frictional sliding, allow us to propose a general model to explain the origin of most subway FePM. Particle generation occurs by mechanical wear at the brake-wheel and wheel-rail interfaces, where magnetic metallic flakes and splinters are released and undergo progressive atmospheric oxidation from metallic iron to magnetite and maghemite. Flakes of magnetite typically comprise mottled mosaics of octahedral nanocrystals (10-20 nm) that become pseudomorphed by maghemite. Continued oxidation results in extensive alteration of the magnetic nanostructure to more rounded aggregates of non-magnetic hematite nanocrystals, with magnetic precursors (including iron metal) still preserved in some particle cores. Particles derived from steel wheel and rails contain a characteristic trace element chemistry, typically with Mn/Fe=0.01. Flakes released from brakes are chemically very distinctive, depending on the pad composition, being always carbonaceous, commonly barium-rich, and texturally inhomogeneous, with trace elements present in nanominerals incorporated within the crystalline structure. In the studied subway lines of Barcelona at least there appears to be only a minimal aerosol contribution from high temperature processes such as sparking. To date there is no strong evidence that these chemically and texturally complex inhalable metallic materials are any more or less toxic than street-level urban particles, and as with outdoor air, the priority in subway air quality should be to reduce high mass concentrations of aerosol present in some stations. PMID:25461038

  14. Atmospheric Solids Analysis Probe Mass Spectrometry: A New Approach for Airborne Particle Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Bruns, Emily A.; Perraud, Veronique M.; Greaves, John; Finlayson-Pitts, Barbara J.

    2010-07-15

    Secondary organic aerosols (SOA) formed in the atmosphere from the condensation of semivolatile oxidation products are a significant component of airborne particles which have deleterious effects on health, visibility, and climate. In this study, atmospheric solids analysis probe mass spectrometry (ASAP-MS) is applied for the first time to the identification of organics in particles from laboratory systems as well as from ambient air. SOA were generated in the laboratory from the ozonolysis of r-pinene and isoprene, as well as from NO3 oxidation of r-pinene, and ambient air was sampled at forested and suburban sites. Particles were collected by impaction on ZnSe disks, analyzed by Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and then transferred to an ASAP-MS probe for further analysis. ASAP-MS data for the laboratory-generated samples show peaks from wellknown products of these reactions, and higher molecular weight oligomers are present in both laboratory and ambient samples. Oligomeric products are shown to be present in the NO3 reaction products for the first time. A major advantage of this technique is that minimal sample preparation is required, and complementary information from nondestructive techniques such as FT-IR can be obtained on the same samples. In addition, a dedicated instrument is not required for particle analysis. This work establishes that ASAP-MS will be useful for identification of organic components of SOA in a variety of field and laboratory studies.

  15. Atmospheric solids analysis probe mass spectrometry: a new approach for airborne particle analysis.

    PubMed

    Bruns, Emily A; Perraud, Véronique; Greaves, John; Finlayson-Pitts, Barbara J

    2010-07-15

    Secondary organic aerosols (SOA) formed in the atmosphere from the condensation of semivolatile oxidation products are a significant component of airborne particles which have deleterious effects on health, visibility, and climate. In this study, atmospheric solids analysis probe mass spectrometry (ASAP-MS) is applied for the first time to the identification of organics in particles from laboratory systems as well as from ambient air. SOA were generated in the laboratory from the ozonolysis of alpha-pinene and isoprene, as well as from NO(3) oxidation of alpha-pinene, and ambient air was sampled at forested and suburban sites. Particles were collected by impaction on ZnSe disks, analyzed by Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and then transferred to an ASAP-MS probe for further analysis. ASAP-MS data for the laboratory-generated samples show peaks from well-known products of these reactions, and higher molecular weight oligomers are present in both laboratory and ambient samples. Oligomeric products are shown to be present in the NO(3) reaction products for the first time. A major advantage of this technique is that minimal sample preparation is required, and complementary information from nondestructive techniques such as FT-IR can be obtained on the same samples. In addition, a dedicated instrument is not required for particle analysis. This work establishes that ASAP-MS will be useful for identification of organic components of SOA in a variety of field and laboratory studies. PMID:20568716

  16. Induction of sister chromatid exchanges and bacterial revertants by organic extracts of airborne particles. [Humans

    SciTech Connect

    Lockard, J.M.; Viau, C.J.; Lee-Stephens, C.; Caldwell, J.C.; Wojciechowski, J.P.; Enoch, H.G.; Sabharwal, P.S.

    1981-01-01

    The genotoxicities of organic extracts of airborne particles have been studied extensively in the Salmonella/mammalian microsome (Ames) test, but in few other bioassays. In these studies, we tested benzene-acetone extracts of particulate pollutants collected in Lexington, Kentucky, for capacity to induce increases in sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) in human lumphocytes and V79 cells, as well as in the Ames assay. Extracts induced linear dose-related increases in SCE in human lumphocytes and in bacterial revertants.However, variable responses were observed in SCE assays in V79 cells with and without activation by rat liver S9 or feeder layers of irradiated Syrian hamster fetal cells. We conclude that the SCE assay in human lumphocytes may be a useful indicator of the potential risks to humans of airborne particulate pollutants, as it utilizes human cells recently taken from the host, is rapid and economical, and requires small quantities of test materials. However, thorough studies of the quantitative relationships between SCE induction and mutagenicity in human cells are needed.

  17. Performance of N95 respirators: filtration efficiency for airborne microbial and inert particles.

    PubMed

    Qian, Y; Willeke, K; Grinshpun, S A; Donnelly, J; Coffey, C C

    1998-02-01

    In 1995 the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health issued new regulations for nonpowered particulate respirators (42 CFR Part 84). A new filter certification system also was created. Among the new particulate respirators that have entered the market, the N95 respirator is the most commonly used in industrial and health care environments. The filtration efficiencies of unloaded N95 particulate respirators have been compared with those of dust/mist (DM) and dust/fume/mist (DFM) respirators certified under the former regulations (30 CFR Part 11). Through laboratory tests with NaCl certification aerosols and measurements with particle-size spectrometers, N95 respirators were found to have higher filtration efficiencies than DM and DFM respirators and noncertified surgical masks. N95 respirators made by different companies were found to have different filtration efficiencies for the most penetrating particle size (0.1 to 0.3 micron), but all were at least 95% efficient at that size for NaCl particles. Above the most penetrating particle size the filtration efficiency increases with size; it reaches approximately 99.5% or higher at about 0.75 micron. Tests with bacteria of size and shape similar to Mycobacterium tuberculosis also showed filtration efficiencies of 99.5% or higher. Experimental data were used to calculate the aerosol mass concentrations inside the respirator when worn in representative work environments. The penetrated mass fractions, in the absence of face leakage, ranged from 0.02% for large particle distributions to 1.8% for submicrometer-size welding fumes. Thus, N95 respirators provide excellent protection against airborne particles when there is a good face seal. PMID:9487666

  18. Fluctuations in particle number for a photon gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leff, Harvey S.

    2015-04-01

    The fluctuation-compressibility theorem of statistical mechanics states that fluctuations in particle number are proportional to the isothermal compressibility. Given that the compressibility of a photon gas does not exist, this seems to suggest that fluctuations in photon number similarly do not exist. However, it is shown here that the fluctuation-compressibility theorem does not hold for photons and, in fact, that fluctuations do exist.

  19. Increasing the Effective Number of Neutrinos with Decaying Particles

    SciTech Connect

    Ichikawa, Kazuhide; Kawasaki, Masahiro; Nakayama, Kazunori; Senami, Masato; Takahashi, Fuminobu

    2007-11-20

    We present a model of decaying particles to increase the effective number of neutrinos N{sub {nu}} after big bang nucleosynthesis but before the structure formation begins. We point out that our scenario solves the discrepancy between the constraints on N{sub {nu}} from these two epochs, As an example, we consider saxion decay into two axions.

  20. Increasing the Effective Number of Neutrinos with Decaying Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichikawa, Kazuhide; Kawasaki, Masahiro; Nakayama, Kazunori; Senami, Masato; Takahashi, Fuminobu

    2007-11-01

    We present a model of decaying particles to increase the effective number of neutrinos Nν after big bang nucleosynthesis but before the structure formation begins. We point out that our scenario solves the discrepancy between the constraints on Nν from these two epochs, As an example, we consider saxion decay into two axions.

  1. Assessment of oxidative DNA damage formation by organic complex mixtures from airborne particles PM(10).

    PubMed

    Gábelová, Alena; Valovicová, Zuzana; Lábaj, Juraj; Bacová, Gabriela; Binková, Blanka; Farmer, Peter B

    2007-07-01

    The free radical generating activity of airborne particulate matter (PM(10)) has been proposed as a primary mechanism in biological activity of ambient air pollution. In an effort to determine the impact of the complex mixtures of extractable organic matter (EOM) from airborne particles on oxidative damage to DNA, the level of 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG), the most prevalent and stable oxidative lesion, was measured in the human metabolically competent cell line Hep G2. Cultured cells were exposed to equivalent EOM concentrations (5-150microg/ml) and oxidative DNA damage was analyzed using a modified single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE), which involves the incubation of whole cell DNA with repair specific DNA endonuclease, which cleaves oxidized DNA at the sites of 8-oxodG. EOMs were extracted from PM(10) collected daily (24h intervals) in three European cities: Prague (Czech Republic, two monitoring sites, Libus and Smíchov), Kosice (Slovak Republic) and Sofia (Bulgaria) during 3-month sampling periods in the winter and summer seasons. No substantial time- and dose-dependent increase of oxidative DNA lesions was detected in EOM-treated cells with the exception of the EOM collected at the monitoring site Kosice, summer sampling. In this case, 2h cell exposure to EOM resulted in a slight but significant increase of oxidative DNA damage at three from total of six concentrations. The mean 8-oxodG values at these concentrations ranged from 15.3 to 26.1 per 10(6) nucleotides with a value 3.5 per 10(6) nucleotides in untreated cells. B[a]P, the positive control, induced a variable but insignificant increase of oxidative DNA damage in Hep G2 cell (approximately 1.6-fold increase over control value). Based on these data we believe that EOM samples extracted from airborne particle PM(10) play probably only a marginal role in oxidative stress generation and oxidative lesion formation to DNA. However, adsorbed organic compounds can undergo various interactions

  2. Wind barriers suppress fugitive dust and soil-derived airborne particles in arid regions

    SciTech Connect

    Grantz, D.A.; Vaughn, D.L.; Farber, R.J.; Kim, B.; Ashbaugh, L.; Van Curen, T.; Campbell, R.

    1998-07-01

    Areas of abandoned agricultural land in the Antelope Valley, western Mojave (high) desert of California have proven in the previous studies to be recalcitrant to conventional tillage and revegetation strategies designed to suppress wind erosion of soil and transport of sediment and fugitive dust. These areas represented a continuing source of drifting sand and of coarse and respirable suspended particulate matter. The traditional techniques failed because furrows collapsed and the water holding capacity of the overburden was too low to support seed germination and transplant survival. In this study a variety of wind barriers were evaluated for suppression of sediment transport. Airborne particles were measured with an array of coarse particle samplers at heights of 0.2, 1.0, and 2.0 m above the soil surface. Discrete artificial wind barriers, consisting of widely spaced roughness elements were effective in suppressing fugitive emissions. Wind fences established along the leeward edge of an area of blowing sand, perpendicular to the prevailing wind, significantly decreased fugitive emissions. Control was greatest and precision of the measurements was highest under high wind conditions. These techniques provide rapid and effective suppression of fugitive emissions of soil-derived particles under conditions that resist conventional tillage and revegetation techniques. A simple, indirect procedure for determining local wind velocity erosion thresholds requiring only sampling of wind run and suspended particulate mass compared favorably with direct measurement of saltation as a function of wind velocity.

  3. [Ultrafine particle number concentration and size distribution of vehicle exhaust ultrafine particles].

    PubMed

    Lu, Ye-qiang; Chen, Qiu-fang; Sun, Zai; Cai, Zhi-liang; Yang, Wen-jun

    2014-09-01

    Ultrafine particle (UFP) number concentrations obtained from three different vehicles were measured using fast mobility particle sizer (FMPS) and automobile exhaust gas analyzer. UFP number concentration and size distribution were studied at different idle driving speeds. The results showed that at a low idle speed of 800 rmin-1 , the emission particle number concentration was the lowest and showed a increasing trend with the increase of idle speed. The majority of exhaust particles were in Nuclear mode and Aitken mode. The peak sizes were dominated by 10 nm and 50 nm. Particle number concentration showed a significantly sharp increase during the vehicle acceleration process, and was then kept stable when the speed was stable. In the range of 0. 4 m axial distance from the end of the exhaust pipe, the particle number concentration decayed rapidly after dilution, but it was not obvious in the range of 0. 4-1 m. The number concentration was larger than the background concentration. Concentration of exhaust emissions such as CO, HC and NO showed a reducing trend with the increase of idle speed,which was in contrast to the emission trend of particle number concentration. PMID:25518646

  4. Composition and Morphology of Major Particle Types from Airborne Measurements during ICE-T and PRADACS Field Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venero, I. M.; Mayol-Bracero, O. L.; Anderson, J. R.

    2012-12-01

    As part of the Puerto Rican African Dust and Cloud Study (PRADACS) and the Ice in Clouds Experiment - Tropical (ICE-T), we sampled giant airborne particles to study their elemental composition, morphology, and size distributions. Samples were collected in July 2011 during field measurements performed by NCAR's C-130 aircraft based on St Croix, U.S Virgin Island. The results presented here correspond to the measurements done during research flight #8 (RF8). Aerosol particles with Dp > 1 um were sampled with the Giant Nuclei Impactor and particles with Dp < 1 um were collected with the Wyoming Inlet. Collected particles were later analyzed using an automated scanning electron microscope (SEM) and manual observation by field emission SEM. We identified the chemical composition and morphology of major particle types in filter samples collected at different altitudes (e.g., 300 ft, 1000 ft, and 4500ft). Results from the flight upwind of Puerto Rico show that particles in the giant nuclei size range are dominated by sea salt. Samples collected at altitudes 300 ft and 1000 ft showed the highest number of sea salt particles and the samples collected at higher altitudes (> 4000 ft) showed the highest concentrations of clay material. HYSPLIT back trajectories for all samples showed that the low altitude samples initiated in the free troposphere in the Atlantic Ocean, which may account for the high sea salt content and that the source of the high altitude samples was closer to the Saharan - Sahel desert region and, therefore, these samples possibly had the influence of African dust. Size distribution results for quartz and unreacted sea-salt aerosols collected on the Giant Nuclei Impactor showed that sample RF08 - 12:05 UTM (300 ft) had the largest size value (mean = 2.936 μm) than all the other samples. Additional information was also obtained from the Wyoming Inlet present at the C - 130 aircraft which showed that size distribution results for all particles were smaller in

  5. Determination of chemical composition of individual airborne particles by SEM/EDX and micro-Raman spectrometry: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefaniak, E. A.; Buczynska, A.; Novakovic, V.; Kuduk, R.; Van Grieken, R.

    2009-04-01

    The strategies for sampling and analysis by SEM/EDX and micro-Raman spectrometry for individual airborne particles analysis as applied at the University of Antwerp (Belgium) by the MITAC group have been reviewed. Microbeam techniques provide detailed information concerning the origin, formation, transport, reactivity, transformation reactions and environmental impact of particulate matter. Moreover, some particles of certain chemical properties have been recognized as a threat for human health and cultural heritage objects. However, the small sizes of particles result in specific problems with respect to single particle analysis. Development of equipment and software for improvement of analysis and quantification are reported.

  6. A benchmark for numerical scheme validation of airborne particle exposure in street canyons.

    PubMed

    Marini, S; Buonanno, G; Stabile, L; Avino, P

    2015-02-01

    Measurements of particle concentrations and distributions in terms of number, surface area, and mass were performed simultaneously at eight sampling points within a symmetric street canyon of an Italian city. The aim was to obtain a useful benchmark for validation of wind tunnel experiments and numerical schemes: to this purpose, the influence of wind directions and speeds was considered. Particle number concentrations (PNCs) were higher on the leeward side than the windward side of the street canyon due to the wind vortex effect. Different vertical PNC profiles were observed between the two canyon sides depending on the wind direction and speed at roof level. A decrease in particle concentrations was observed with increasing rooftop wind speed, except for the coarse fraction indicating a possible particle resuspension due to the traffic and wind motion. This study confirms that particle concentration fields in urban street canyons are strongly influenced by traffic emissions and meteorological parameters, especially wind direction and speed. PMID:25167823

  7. Validation of a Fast-Fluid-Dynamics Model for Predicting Distribution of Particles with Low Stokes Number

    SciTech Connect

    Zuo, Wangda; Chen, Qingyan

    2011-06-01

    To design a healthy indoor environment, it is important to study airborne particle distribution indoors. As an intermediate model between multizone models and computational fluid dynamics (CFD), a fast fluid dynamics (FFD) model can be used to provide temporal and spatial information of particle dispersion in real time. This study evaluated the accuracy of the FFD for predicting transportation of particles with low Stokes number in a duct and in a room with mixed convection. The evaluation was to compare the numerical results calculated by the FFD with the corresponding experimental data and the results obtained by the CFD. The comparison showed that the FFD could capture major pattern of particle dispersion, which is missed in models with well-mixed assumptions. Although the FFD was less accurate than the CFD partially due to its simplification in numeric schemes, it was 53 times faster than the CFD.

  8. Variability of aerosol particle number concentrations observed over the western Pacific in the spring of 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takegawa, N.; Moteki, N.; Oshima, N.; Koike, M.; Kita, K.; Shimizu, A.; Sugimoto, N.; Kondo, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Airborne measurements of aerosols were conducted over the western Pacific in the spring of 2009 during the Aerosol Radiative Forcing in East Asia (A-FORCE) aircraft campaign. The A-FORCE flights intensively covered an important vertical-latitudinal range in the outflow region of East Asia (0-9 km altitude; 27°N-38°N). This paper presents the variability of aerosol particle number concentrations obtained by condensation particle counters and a Single-Particle Soot Photometer (SP2), with the focus on those in the free troposphere. The number concentration data include total condensation nuclei with particle diameters (dp) larger than 10 nm (total CN10), PM0.17-CN10 (dp ~10-130 nm), and SP2 black carbon (NBC; dp ~75-850 nm). Large increases in total CN10 that were not associated with NBC were observed in the free troposphere, suggesting influences from new particle formation (NPF). Statistical characteristics of total CN10, PM0.17-CN10, and NBC in the lower troposphere (LT; 0-3 km), middle troposphere (MT; 3-6 km), and upper troposphere (UT; 6-9 km) are investigated. The correlation between total CN10 and NBC, along with the ratio of PM0.17 to total CN10 and carbon monoxide mixing ratio (CO), is used to interpret the observed variability. The median concentrations of total CN10 and PM0.17-CN10 in the UT were higher than those in the MT by a factor of ~1.4 and ~1.6, respectively. We attribute the enhancements of CN10 in the UT to NPF. Possible mechanisms affecting NPF in the free troposphere are discussed.

  9. Comparison of Size and Geography of Airborne Tungsten Particles in Fallon, Nevada, and Sweet Home, Oregon, with Implications for Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Sheppard, Paul R.; Bierman, Brian J.; Rhodes, Kent; Ridenour, Gary; Witten, Mark L.

    2012-01-01

    To improve understanding of possible connections between airborne tungsten and public health, size and geography of airborne tungsten particles collected in Fallon, Nevada, and Sweet Home, Oregon, were compared. Both towns have industrial tungsten facilities, but only Fallon has experienced a cluster of childhood leukemia. Fallon and Sweet Home are similar to one another by their particles of airborne tungsten being generally small in size. Meteorologically, much, if not most, of residential Fallon is downwind of its hard metal facility for at least some fraction of time at the annual scale, whereas little of residential Sweet Home is downwind of its tungsten facility. Geographically, most Fallon residents potentially spend time daily within an environment containing elevated levels of airborne tungsten. In contrast, few Sweet Home residents potentially spend time daily within an airborne environment with elevated levels of airborne tungsten. Although it cannot be concluded from environmental data alone that elevated airborne tungsten causes childhood leukemia, the lack of excessive cancer in Sweet Home cannot logically be used to dismiss the possibility of airborne tungsten as a factor in the cluster of childhood leukemia in Fallon. Detailed modeling of all variables affecting airborne loadings of heavy metals would be needed to legitimately compare human exposures to airborne tungsten in Fallon and Sweet Home. PMID:22523506

  10. Modelling the dispersion of particle numbers in five European cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukkonen, J.; Karl, M.; Keuken, M. P.; Denier van der Gon, H. A. C.; Denby, B. R.; Singh, V.; Douros, J.; Manders, A.; Samaras, Z.; Moussiopoulos, N.; Jonkers, S.; Aarnio, M.; Karppinen, A.; Kangas, L.; Lützenkirchen, S.; Petäjä, T.; Vouitsis, I.; Sokhi, R. S.

    2016-02-01

    We present an overview of the modelling of particle number concentrations (PNCs) in five major European cities, namely Helsinki, Oslo, London, Rotterdam, and Athens, in 2008. Novel emission inventories of particle numbers have been compiled both on urban and European scales. We used atmospheric dispersion modelling for PNCs in the five target cities and on a European scale, and evaluated the predicted results against available measured concentrations. In all the target cities, the concentrations of particle numbers (PNs) were mostly influenced by the emissions originating from local vehicular traffic. The influence of shipping and harbours was also significant for Helsinki, Oslo, Rotterdam, and Athens, but not for London. The influence of the aviation emissions in Athens was also notable. The regional background concentrations were clearly lower than the contributions originating from urban sources in Helsinki, Oslo, and Athens. The regional background was also lower than urban contributions in traffic environments in London, but higher or approximately equal to urban contributions in Rotterdam. It was numerically evaluated that the influence of coagulation and dry deposition on the predicted PNCs was substantial for the urban background in Oslo. The predicted and measured annual average PNCs in four cities agreed within approximately ≤ 26 % (measured as fractional biases), except for one traffic station in London. This study indicates that it is feasible to model PNCs in major cities within a reasonable accuracy, although major challenges remain in the evaluation of both the emissions and atmospheric transformation of PNCs.

  11. MEMS-based silicon cantilevers with integrated electrothermal heaters for airborne ultrafine particle sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasisto, Hutomo Suryo; Merzsch, Stephan; Waag, Andreas; Peiner, Erwin

    2013-05-01

    The development of low-cost and low-power MEMS-based cantilever sensors for possible application in hand-held airborne ultrafine particle monitors is described in this work. The proposed resonant sensors are realized by silicon bulk micromachining technology with electrothermal excitation, piezoresistive frequency readout, and electrostatic particle collection elements integrated and constructed in the same sensor fabrication process step of boron diffusion. Built-in heating resistor and full Wheatstone bridge are set close to the cantilever clamp end for effective excitation and sensing, respectively, of beam deflection. Meanwhile, the particle collection electrode is located at the cantilever free end. A 300 μm-thick, phosphorus-doped silicon bulk wafer is used instead of silicon-on-insulator (SOI) as the starting material for the sensors to reduce the fabrication costs. To etch and release the cantilevers from the substrate, inductively coupled plasma (ICP) cryogenic dry etching is utilized. By controlling the etching parameters (e.g., temperature, oxygen content, and duration), cantilever structures with thicknesses down to 10 - 20 μm are yielded. In the sensor characterization, the heating resistor is heated and generating thermal waves which induce thermal expansion and further cause mechanical bending strain in the out-of-plane direction. A resonant frequency of 114.08 +/- 0.04 kHz and a quality factor of 1302 +/- 267 are measured in air for a fabricated rectangular cantilever (500x100x13.5 μm3). Owing to its low power consumption of a few milliwatts, this electrothermal cantilever is suitable for replacing the current external piezoelectric stack actuator in the next generation of the miniaturized cantilever-based nanoparticle detector (CANTOR).

  12. What We are Learning about Airborne Particles from MISR Multi-angle Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahn, Ralph

    The NASA Earth Observing System’s Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument has been collecting global observations in 36 angular-spectral channels about once per week for over 14 years. Regarding airborne particles, MISR is contributing in three broad areas: (1) aerosol optical depth (AOD), especially over land surface, including bright desert, (2) wildfire smoke, desert dust, and volcanic ash injection and near-source plume height, and (3) aerosol type, the aggregate of qualitative constraints on particle size, shape, and single-scattering albedo (SSA). Early advances in the retrieval of these quantities focused on AOD, for which surface-based sun photometers provided a global network of ground truth, and plume height, for which ground-based and airborne lidar offered near-coincident validation data. MSIR monthly, global AOD products contributed directly to the advances in modeling aerosol impacts on climate made between the Inter-governmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) third and fourth assessment reports. MISR stereo-derived plume heights are now being used to constrain source inventories for the AeroCom aerosol-climate modeling effort. The remaining challenge for the MISR aerosol effort is to refine and validate our global aerosol type product. Unlike AOD and plume height, aerosol type as retrieved by MISR is a qualitative classification derived from multi-dimensional constraints, so evaluation must be done on a categorical basis. Coincident aerosol type validation data are far less common than for AOD, and, except for rare Golden Days during aircraft field campaigns, amount to remote sensing retrievals from suborbital instruments having uncertainties comparable to those from the MISR product itself. And satellite remote sensing retrievals of aerosol type are much more sensitive to scene conditions such as surface variability and AOD than either AOD or plume height. MISR aerosol type retrieval capability and information content have been

  13. The use of an experimental room for monitoring of airborne concentrations of microorganisms, glass fibers, and total particles

    SciTech Connect

    Buttner, M.P.; Stetzenbach, L.D.

    1996-12-31

    An experimental room was used as a microcosm for studies of airborne particles and microorganisms in indoor environments. The interior of the room measures 4 by 4 by 2.2 m high and has a hardwood floor and the walls and ceiling are sheetrocked and coated with interior latex paint. Exterior walls are 11.4-cm thick plywood panels consisting of two outer sections of plywood insulated with fiber glass batts. The ceiling is of similar construction with 17.1-cm thick panels. Attached to the room entrance is an anteroom equipped with a HEPA-filtered air shower to reduce mixing of air resulting from entering and exiting during experiments. The room is equipped with a computer-controlled heating, ventilation, and cooling system. Temperature, relative humidity, air flow, and room pressure can be continuously monitored by probes located in the room and air handling system components. Several research projects have been conducted using this room including monitoring the potential for airborne glass fibers released from rigid fibrous ductboard, comparisons of commercially available samplers for monitoring of airborne fungal spores, and a study on the efficacy of vacuum bags to minimize dispersal of particles, including fungal spores from fungal-contaminated carpet. During studies designed to monitor airborne fiberglass, air samples were taken in the room serviced by new rigid fibrous glass ductwork, and the results were compared to those obtained in the room with bare metal ductwork installed. Monitoring of airborne fungal spores using the Andersen six-stage sampler, the high flow Spiral Biotech sampler, the Biotest RCS Plus sampler, and the Burkard spore trap sampler was performed following the release of Penicillium spores into the room through the supply register. Dispersal of carpet-associated particles and fungal spores was measured after vacuuming using conventional cellulose vacuum bags in comparison to recently developed bags.

  14. Spatial-temporal variations of particle number concentrations between a busy street and the urban background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dos Santos-Juusela, Vanessa; Petäjä, Tuukka; Kousa, Anu; Hämeri, Kaarle

    2013-11-01

    To estimate spatial-temporal variations of ultrafine particles (UFP) in Helsinki, we measured particle total number concentrations (PNC) continuously in a busy street and an urban background site for six months, using condensation particle counters (CPC). We also evaluated the effects of temperature, wind speed and wind direction on PNC, as well as the correlation between PNC and PM2.5, PM10 and black carbon (BC) at the street. We found that on weekdays, hourly median PNC were highly correlated with BC (r = 0.88), moderately correlated with PM2.5 (r = 0.59) and weakly correlated with PM10 (r = 0.22). Number concentrations at the street were inversely proportional to temperature and wind speed, and highly dependent on wind direction. The highest PNC occurred during northeastern winds while the lowest occurred during southwestern winds. As these wind directions are nearly perpendicular to the street axis, the formation of wind vortices may have influenced the dispersion of UFP in the site. Although the temporal correlation for PNC was moderately high between the sites (r = 0.71), the median concentration at the street was 3 times higher than the urban background levels. The results indicate that people living or passing by the busy street are exposed to UFP concentrations well above the urban background levels. Thus, the study suggests that urban microenvironments should be considered in epidemiological studies. In addition the results emphasize that regulations based solely on PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations may be insufficient for preventing the adverse health effects of airborne particles.

  15. Efficient Schmidt number scaling in dissipative particle dynamics.

    PubMed

    Krafnick, Ryan C; García, Angel E

    2015-12-28

    Dissipative particle dynamics is a widely used mesoscale technique for the simulation of hydrodynamics (as well as immersed particles) utilizing coarse-grained molecular dynamics. While the method is capable of describing any fluid, the typical choice of the friction coefficient γ and dissipative force cutoff rc yields an unacceptably low Schmidt number Sc for the simulation of liquid water at standard temperature and pressure. There are a variety of ways to raise Sc, such as increasing γ and rc, but the relative cost of modifying each parameter (and the concomitant impact on numerical accuracy) has heretofore remained undetermined. We perform a detailed search over the parameter space, identifying the optimal strategy for the efficient and accuracy-preserving scaling of Sc, using both numerical simulations and theoretical predictions. The composite results recommend a parameter choice that leads to a speed improvement of a factor of three versus previously utilized strategies. PMID:26723591

  16. Efficient Schmidt number scaling in dissipative particle dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krafnick, Ryan C.; García, Angel E.

    2015-12-01

    Dissipative particle dynamics is a widely used mesoscale technique for the simulation of hydrodynamics (as well as immersed particles) utilizing coarse-grained molecular dynamics. While the method is capable of describing any fluid, the typical choice of the friction coefficient γ and dissipative force cutoff rc yields an unacceptably low Schmidt number Sc for the simulation of liquid water at standard temperature and pressure. There are a variety of ways to raise Sc, such as increasing γ and rc, but the relative cost of modifying each parameter (and the concomitant impact on numerical accuracy) has heretofore remained undetermined. We perform a detailed search over the parameter space, identifying the optimal strategy for the efficient and accuracy-preserving scaling of Sc, using both numerical simulations and theoretical predictions. The composite results recommend a parameter choice that leads to a speed improvement of a factor of three versus previously utilized strategies.

  17. Beryllium solubility in occupational airborne particles: Sequential extraction procedure and workplace application.

    PubMed

    Rousset, Davy; Durand, Thibaut

    2016-01-01

    Modification of an existing sequential extraction procedure for inorganic beryllium species in the particulate matter of emissions and in working areas is described. The speciation protocol was adapted to carry out beryllium extraction in closed-face cassette sampler to take wall deposits into account. This four-step sequential extraction procedure aims to separate beryllium salts, metal, and oxides from airborne particles for individual quantification. Characterization of the beryllium species according to their solubility in air samples may provide information relative to toxicity, which is potentially related to the different beryllium chemical forms. Beryllium salts (BeF(2), BeSO(4)), metallic beryllium (Bemet), and beryllium oxide (BeO) were first individually tested, and then tested in mixtures. Cassettes were spiked with these species and recovery rates were calculated. Quantitative analyses with matched matrix were performed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Method Detection Limits (MDLs) were calculated for the four matrices used in the different extraction steps. In all cases, the MDL was below 4.2 ng/sample. This method is appropriate for assessing occupational exposure to beryllium as the lowest recommended threshold limit values are 0.01 µg.m(-3) in France([) (1) (]) and 0.05 µg.m(-3) in the USA.([ 2 ]) The protocol was then tested on samples from French factories where occupational beryllium exposure was suspected. Beryllium solubility was variable between factories and among the same workplace between different tasks. PMID:26327570

  18. Airborne measurements of NOx, tracer species, and small particles during the European Lightning Nitrogen Oxides Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huntrieser, H.; Feigl, C.; Schlager, H.; Schröder, F.; Gerbig, C.; van Velthoven, P.; Flatøy, F.; Théry, C.; Petzold, A.; Höller, H.; Schumann, U.

    2002-06-01

    Airborne in situ measurements of NO, NO2, NOy, CO, CO2, O3, J(NO2), and CN were performed in European thunderstorms during the field experiment EULINOX in July 1998. The measurements in the upper troposphere show enhanced NOx (= NO + NO2) concentrations within thunderstorms and their outflow at horizontal scales from 300 m to several 100 km. The maximum NO mixing ratio measured inside a thundercloud close to lightning (the aircraft was also hit by a small lightning strike) was 25 ppbv. A regional NOx enhancement of 0.5 ppbv over central Europe could be traced back to a thunderstorm event starting ~24 hours earlier over Spain. The fractions of NOx in thunderclouds which are produced by lightning and convectively transported from the polluted boundary layer are determined by using CO2 and CO as tracers for boundary layer air. The analyses show that on average about 70% of the NOx increase measured in the anvil region was found to result from production by lightning and about 30% from NOx in the boundary layer. Thunderstorms are also strong sources of small particles. The peak CN concentrations measured within thunderstorm outflows (>30,000 particles STP cm-3) were distinctly higher than in the polluted boundary layer. The amount of NOx produced per thunderstorm and NO produced per lightning flash was estimated. The results imply that the annual mean NOx budget in the upper troposphere over Europe is dominated by aircraft emissions (0.1 TgN yr-1) in comparison to lightning production (~0.03 TgN yr-1). On the global scale, NOx produced by lightning (mean 3 TgN yr-1) prevails over aircraft-produced NOx (0.6 TgN yr-1).

  19. Characterizing the impact of urban emissions on regional aerosol particles: airborne measurements during the MEGAPOLI experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freney, E. J.; Sellegri, K.; Canonaco, F.; Colomb, A.; Borbon, A.; Michoud, V.; Doussin, J.-F.; Crumeyrolle, S.; Amarouche, N.; Pichon, J.-M.; Bourianne, T.; Gomes, L.; Prevot, A. S. H.; Beekmann, M.; Schwarzenböeck, A.

    2014-02-01

    The MEGAPOLI (Megacities: Emissions, urban, regional and Global Atmospheric POLlution and climate effects, and Integrated tools for assessment and mitigation) experiment took place in July 2009. The aim of this campaign was to study the aging and reactions of aerosol and gas-phase emissions in the city of Paris. Three ground-based measurement sites and several mobile platforms including instrument equipped vehicles and the ATR-42 aircraft were involved. We present here the variations in particle- and gas-phase species over the city of Paris, using a combination of high-time resolution measurements aboard the ATR-42 aircraft. Particle chemical composition was measured using a compact time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (C-ToF-AMS), giving detailed information on the non-refractory submicron aerosol species. The mass concentration of black carbon (BC), measured by a particle absorption soot photometer (PSAP), was used as a marker to identify the urban pollution plume boundaries. Aerosol mass concentrations and composition were affected by air-mass history, with air masses that spent longest time over land having highest fractions of organic aerosol and higher total mass concentrations. The Paris plume is mainly composed of organic aerosol (OA), BC, and nitrate aerosol, as well as high concentrations of anthropogenic gas-phase species such as toluene, benzene, and NOx. Using BC and CO as tracers for air-mass dilution, we observe the ratio of ΔOA / ΔBC and ΔOA / ΔCO increase with increasing photochemical age (-log(NOx / NOy)). Plotting the equivalent ratios of different organic aerosol species (LV-OOA, SV-OOA, and HOA) illustrate that the increase in OA is a result of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. Within Paris the changes in the ΔOA / ΔCO are similar to those observed during other studies in London, Mexico City, and in New England, USA. Using the measured SOA volatile organic compounds (VOCs) species together with organic aerosol formation

  20. Characterizing the impact of urban emissions on regional aerosol particles; airborne measurements during the MEGAPOLI experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freney, E. J.; Sellegri, K.; Canonaco, F.; Colomb, A.; Borbon, A.; Michoud, V.; Doussin, J.-F.; Crumeyrolle, S.; Amarouch, N.; Pichon, J.-M.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Beekmann, M.; Schwarzenböeck, A.

    2013-09-01

    The MEGAPOLI experiment took place in July 2009. The aim of this campaign was to study the aging and reactions of aerosol and gas-phase emissions in the city of Paris. Three ground-based measurement sites and several mobile platforms including instrument equipped vehicles and the ATR-42 aircraft were involved. We present here the variations in particle- and gas-phase species over the city of Paris using a combination of high-time resolution measurements aboard the ATR-42 aircraft. Particle chemical composition was measured using a compact time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (C-ToF-AMS) giving detailed information of the non-refractory submicron aerosol species. The mass concentration of BC, measured by a particle absorption soot photometer (PSAP), was used as a marker to identify the urban pollution plume boundaries. Aerosol mass concentrations and composition were affected by air-mass history, with air masses that spent longest time over land having highest fractions of organic aerosol and higher total mass concentrations. The Paris plume is mainly composed of organic aerosol (OA), black carbon and nitrate aerosol, as well as high concentrations of anthropogenic gas-phase species such as toluene, benzene, and NOx. Using BC and CO as tracers for air-mass dilution, we observe the ratio of ΔOA / ΔBC and ΔOA / ΔCO increase with increasing photochemical age (-log(NOx / NOy). Plotting the equivalent ratios for the Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) resolved species (LV-OOA, SV-OOA, and HOA) illustrate that the increase in OA is a result of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). Within Paris the changes in the ΔOA / ΔCO are similar to those observed during other studies in Mexico city, Mexico and in New England, USA. Using the measured VOCs species together with recent organic aerosol formation yields we predicted ~ 50% of the measured organics. These airborne measurements during the MEGAPOLI experiment show that urban emissions contribute to the formation of OA

  1. Particle-in-cell simulations of particle energization from low Mach number fast mode shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jaehong; Workman, Jared; Blackman, Eric; Ren, Chuang; Siller, Robert

    2012-10-01

    Low Mach number, high plasma beta, fast mode shocks likely occur in the outflows from reconnection sites associated with solar flares. These shocks are sites of particle energization with observable consequences, but there has been much less work on understanding the underlying physics compared to that of Mach number shocks. To make progress, we have simulated a low Mach number/high beta shock using 2D particle-in-cell simulations with a ``moving wall'' method and studied the shock structure and particle acceleration processes therein [Park et. al (2012), Phys. Plasmas, 19, 062904]. The moving wall method can control the shock speed in the simulation frame to allow smaller simulation boxes and longer simulation times. We found that the modified two-stream instability in the shock transition region is responsible for shock sustenance via turbulent dissipation and entropy creation throughout the downstream region long after the initial shock formation. Particle tracking and the particle energy distributions show that both electrons and ions participate in shock-drift-acceleration (SDA). The simulation combined with a theoretical analysis reveals a two-temperature Maxwellian distribution for the electron energy distribution via SDA.

  2. Characterization of ultrafine particle number concentration and new particle formation in urban environment of Taipei, Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, H. C.; Chou, C. C.-K.; Huang, W.-R.; Tsai, C.-Y.

    2013-04-01

    An intensive aerosol characterization experiment was performed at the Taipei Aerosol and Radiation Observatory (TARO, 25.02° N, 121.53° E) in the urban area of Taipei, Taiwan during July 2012. Number concentration and size distribution of aerosol particles were measured continuously, which were accompanied by concurrent measurements of mass concentration of submicron particles, PM (d ≤ 1 μm), and photolysis rate of ozone, J(O1D). The averaged number concentrations of total (Ntotal), accumulation mode (Nacu), Aitken mode (Ntotal), and nucleation mode (Nnuc) particles were 7.6 × 103 cm-3, 1.2 × 103 cm-3, 4.4 × 103 cm-3, and 1.9 × 103 cm-3, respectively. Accordingly, the ultrafine particles (UFPs, d ≤ 100 nm) accounted for 83% of the total number concentration of particles measured in this study (10 ≤ d ≤ 429 nm), indicating the importance of UFPs to the air quality and radiation budget in Taipei and its surrounding areas. An averaged Nnuc/NOx ratio of ~60 cm-3 ppbv-1 was derived from nighttime measurements, which was suggested to be the characteristic of vehicle emissions that contributed to the "urban background" of nucleation mode particles throughout a day. On the contrary, it was found that the number concentration of nucleation mode particles was independent of NOx and could be elevated up to 10 times the "urban background" levels during daytime, suggesting a substantial amount of nucleation mode particles produced from photochemical processes. Consistency in the time series of the nucleation mode particle concentration and the proxy of H2SO4 production, UVB·SO2, for new particle formation (NPF) events showed that photo-oxidation of SO2 was responsible for the formation of new particles in our study area. Moreover, analysis upon the diameter growth rate, GR, and formation rate of nucleation mode particles, J10-25, found that the values of GR (8.5 ± 6.8 nm h-1) in Taipei were comparable to other urban areas, whereas the values of J10-25 (2.2 ± 1

  3. Particle number emission factors for an urban highway tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perkins, Jessica L.; Padró-Martínez, Luz T.; Durant, John L.

    2013-08-01

    Exposure to traffic-related air pollution has been linked to increased risks of cardiopulmonary disease, asthma, and reduced lung function. Ultrafine particles (UFP; aerodynamic diameter < 100 nm), one component of traffic exhaust, may contribute to these risks. This paper describes the development of UFP emission factors, an important input parameter for dispersion models used for exposure assessment. Measurements of particle number concentration (PNC), a proxy for UFP, were performed in the Central Artery Tunnel on Interstate-93 in Boston (MA, USA). The tunnel system consists of two, unidirectional bores, which each carry ˜9 × 104 vehicles per day (diesel vehicles comprise 2-5% of the fleet in the southbound tunnel and 1-3% in the northbound tunnel). A tunnel was chosen for study because it provided an enclosed environment where the effects of lateral and vertical dispersion by ambient air and photochemical reactions would be minimized. Data were collected using a mobile platform equipped with rapid-response instruments for measuring PNC (4-3000 nm) as well as NOx. Because Boston is located in a temperate region (latitude 42° N), we were interested in studying seasonal and diurnal differences in emission factors. To characterize seasonal differences, mobile monitoring was performed on 36 days spaced at 7-14 day intervals over one year (Sept. 2010-Sept. 2011); to characterize diurnal differences intensive mobile monitoring (n = 90 total trips through the tunnels) was performed over the course of two consecutive days in January 2012. All data collected during congested traffic conditions (˜7% of total data set) were removed from the analysis. The median PNC inside the two tunnels for all trips during the 12-month campaign was 3-4-fold higher than on I-93 immediately outside the tunnel and 7-10-fold higher than on I-93 4 km from the tunnel. The median particle number emission factors (EFPN) (±median absolute deviation) for the southbound and northbound tunnels

  4. Comparative study of airborne viable particles assessment methods in microbiological environmental monitoring.

    PubMed

    Temprano, G; Garrido, D; Daquino, M

    2004-01-01

    A comparative study was done among available assessment methods to measure airborne viable particles in controlled rooms. Active methods were compared (sieve/nozzle impactor, slit-to-agar, centrifugal, filtration, and impinger). The comparative study was carried out by means of a two-way (factors: day and method) analysis of variance, after to logarithmical transformation of experimental results in order to fulfill the normality test of the variables. Statistically significant differences were found among the results of the five methods (P < 0.0001). In a post hoc study, by means of Tukey's test, no differences were found among centrifugal, filtration, and impinger methods. Differences were found among all the other methods (P < 0.05). It is concluded that centrifugal, filtration, and impinger methods (in which numerical results were higher than in the others) may be the most suitable methods for microbiological monitoring of a clean room. The mean results among the three selected active methods were compared with results on the settle plate (SP) (the passive method). A relationship was established between results of the passive method (CFU/h/plate 90 mmø) and the results of active methods (CFU/m3 air). By means of a lineal regression study, it was obtained a relation factor of 22.7; (95% CI: 19.7, 25.7). This factor is only valid for values between 3 and 16 in CFU/h/plate 90 mmø, and it is put on record that the experimental study took place in a room that fulfills Class D clean room specifications (WHO standards) in microbiological terms. PMID:15368991

  5. Estimating the contribution of photochemical particle formation to ultrafine particle number averages in an urban atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Ma, N; Birmili, W

    2015-04-15

    Ultrafine particles (UFPs, diameter<100 nm) have gained major attention in the environmental health discussion due to a number of suspected health effects. Observations of UFPs in urban air reveal the presence of several, time-dependent particle sources. In order to attribute measured UFP number concentrations to different source type contributions, we analyzed observations collected at a triplet of observation sites (roadside, urban background, rural) in the city of Leipzig, Germany. Photochemical new particle formation (NPF) events can be the overwhelming source of UFP particles on particular days, and were identified on the basis of characteristic patterns in the particle number size distribution data. A subsequent segmentation of the diurnal cycles of UFP concentration yielded a quantitative contribution of NPF events to daily, monthly, and annual mean values. At roadside, we obtained source contributions to the annual mean UFP number concentration (diameter range 5-100 nm) for photochemical NPF events (7%), local traffic (52%), diffuse urban sources (20%), and regional background (21%). The relative contribution of NPF events rises when moving away from roadside to the urban background and rural sites (14 and 30%, respectively). Their contribution also increases when considering only fresh UFPs (5-20 nm) (21% at the urban background site), and conversely decreases when considering UFPs at bigger sizes (20-100 nm) (8%). A seasonal analysis showed that NPF events have their greatest importance on UFP number concentration in the months May-August, accounting for roughly half of the fresh UFPs (5-20 nm) at the urban background location. The simplistic source apportionment presented here might serve to better characterize exposure to ambient UFPs in future epidemiological studies. PMID:25617781

  6. Projection techniques as methods of particle-number symmetry restoration

    SciTech Connect

    Oudih, M. R.; Fellah, M.; Allal, N. H.; Benhamouda, N.

    2007-10-15

    The accuracy of the variation before (VBP) and after (VAP) particle-number projection methods, the Lipkin-Nogami (LN) prescription, and the projected Lipkin-Nogami (PLN) method have been studied using two exactly solvable models. It is shown that the VBP and the LN methods are rather dubious not only in a weak pairing regime, but also in strong pairing for the evaluation of quantities other than the ground state energy. The PLN method provides good results for the ground and the excited state energies, but it must be used with caution for the occupation probabilities and the observables that strongly depend on it. It seems that the VAP is the only suitable method for a global description of the nuclear properties.

  7. Rapid identification of airborne biological particles by flow cytometry, gas chromatography, and genetic probes. Final report, January 1995-January 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Wick, C.H.; Carlon, H.R.; Edmonds, R.L.; Robert, L.; Blew, J.

    1997-09-01

    Detection of airborne biological particulates is a primary mission of the U.S. Army Edgewood Research, Development and Engineering Center biological defense program. If biological particles could be characterized according to their unique physical and biochemical profiles, detection and perhaps even identification of the particles might be possible. This study focused upon microbial particles, more specifically upon fungal spores, yeast cells, and bacterial cells. Physical characteristics of the particles, it was proposed, could be detected by flow cytometry, while their biochemical profiles could be determined by gas chromatography, and their genetic identity could be obtained by either a suitable genetic probe or by matching its genetic fingerprint. Genetic techniques were not attempted in the work reported here, but the approach was investigated further. Trial results were encouraging.

  8. The white-light humidified optical particle spectrometer (WHOPS) - a novel airborne system to characterize aerosol hygroscopicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosati, B.; Wehrle, G.; Gysel, M.; Zieger, P.; Baltensperger, U.; Weingartner, E.

    2015-02-01

    Aerosol particles experience hygroscopic growth at enhanced relative humidity (RH), which leads to changes in their optical properties. We developed the white-light humidified optical particle spectrometer (WHOPS), a new instrument to investigate the particles' hygroscopic growth. Here we present a detailed technical description and characterization of the WHOPS in laboratory and field experiments. The WHOPS consists of a differential mobility analyzer, a humidifier/bypass and a white-light aerosol spectrometer (WELAS) connected in series to provide fast measurements of particle hygroscopicity at subsaturated RH and optical properties on airborne platforms. The WELAS employs a white-light source to minimize ambiguities in the optical particle sizing. In contrast to other hygroscopicity instruments, the WHOPS retrieves information of relatively large particles (i.e., diameter D > 280 nm), therefore investigating the more optically relevant size ranges. The effective index of refraction of the dry particles is retrieved from the optical diameter measured for size-selected aerosol samples with a well-defined dry mobility diameter. The data analysis approach for the optical sizing and retrieval of the index of refraction was extensively tested in laboratory experiments with polystyrene latex size standards and ammonium sulfate particles of different diameters. The hygroscopic growth factor (GF) distribution and aerosol mixing state is inferred from the optical size distribution measured for the size-selected and humidified aerosol sample. Laboratory experiments with pure ammonium sulfate particles revealed good agreement with Köhler theory (mean bias of ~3% and maximal deviation of 8% for GFs at RH = 95%). During first airborne measurements in the Netherlands, GFs (mean value of the GF distribution) at RH = 95% between 1.79 and 2.43 with a median of 2.02 were observed for particles with a dry diameter of 500 nm. This corresponds to hygroscopicity parameters (κ

  9. Experimental study of the response functions of direct-reading instruments measuring surface-area concentration of airborne nanostructured particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bau, Sébastien; Witschger, Olivier; Gensdarmes, François; Thomas, Dominique

    2009-05-01

    An increasing number of experimental and theoretical studies focus on airborne nanoparticles (NP) in relation with many aspects of risk assessment to move forward our understanding of the hazards, the actual exposures in the workplace, and the limits of engineering controls and personal protective equipment with regard to NP. As a consequence, generating airborne NP with controlled properties constitutes an important challenge. In parallel, toxicological studies have been carried out, and most of them support the concept that surface-area could be a relevant metric for characterizing exposure to airborne NP [1]. To provide NP surface-area concentration measurements, some direct-reading instruments have been designed, based on attachment rate of unipolar ions to NP by diffusion. However, very few information is available concerning the performances of these instruments and the parameters that could affect their responses. In this context, our work aims at characterizing the actual available instruments providing airborne NP surface-area concentration. The instruments (a- LQ1-DC, Matter Engineering; b-AeroTrak™ 9000, TSI; c- NSAM, TSI model 3550;) are thought to be relevant for further workplace exposure characterization and monitoring. To achieve our work, an experimental facility (named CAIMAN) was specially designed, built and characterized.

  10. Nanoscale characterization of PM2.5 airborne pollutants reveals high adhesiveness and aggregation capability of soot particles

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yuanyuan; Ji, Yanfeng; Sun, Hui; Hui, Fei; Hu, Jianchen; Wu, Yaxi; Fang, Jianlong; Lin, Hao; Wang, Jianxiang; Duan, Huiling; Lanza, Mario

    2015-01-01

    In 2012 air pollutants were responsible of seven million human death worldwide, and among them particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 micrometers or less (PM2.5) are the most hazardous because they are small enough to invade even the smallest airways and penetrate to the lungs. During the last decade the size, shape, composition, sources and effect of these particles on human health have been studied. However, the noxiousness of these particles not only relies on their chemical toxicity, but particle morphology and mechanical properties affect their thermodynamic behavior, which has notable impact on their biological activity. Therefore, correlating the physical, mechanical and chemical properties of PM2.5 airborne pollutants should be the first step to characterize their interaction with other bodies but, unfortunately, such analysis has never been reported before. In this work, we present the first nanomechanical characterization of the most abundant and universal groups of PM2.5 airborne pollutants and, by means of atomic force microscope (AFM) combined with other characterization tools, we observe that fluffy soot aggregates are the most sticky and unstable. Our experiments demonstrate that such particles show strong adhesiveness and aggregation, leading to a more diverse composition and compiling all possible toxic chemicals. PMID:26177695

  11. Nanoscale characterization of PM2.5 airborne pollutants reveals high adhesiveness and aggregation capability of soot particles.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yuanyuan; Ji, Yanfeng; Sun, Hui; Hui, Fei; Hu, Jianchen; Wu, Yaxi; Fang, Jianlong; Lin, Hao; Wang, Jianxiang; Duan, Huiling; Lanza, Mario

    2015-01-01

    In 2012 air pollutants were responsible of seven million human death worldwide, and among them particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 micrometers or less (PM2.5) are the most hazardous because they are small enough to invade even the smallest airways and penetrate to the lungs. During the last decade the size, shape, composition, sources and effect of these particles on human health have been studied. However, the noxiousness of these particles not only relies on their chemical toxicity, but particle morphology and mechanical properties affect their thermodynamic behavior, which has notable impact on their biological activity. Therefore, correlating the physical, mechanical and chemical properties of PM2.5 airborne pollutants should be the first step to characterize their interaction with other bodies but, unfortunately, such analysis has never been reported before. In this work, we present the first nanomechanical characterization of the most abundant and universal groups of PM2.5 airborne pollutants and, by means of atomic force microscope (AFM) combined with other characterization tools, we observe that fluffy soot aggregates are the most sticky and unstable. Our experiments demonstrate that such particles show strong adhesiveness and aggregation, leading to a more diverse composition and compiling all possible toxic chemicals. PMID:26177695

  12. Nanoscale characterization of PM2.5 airborne pollutants reveals high adhesiveness and aggregation capability of soot particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yuanyuan; Ji, Yanfeng; Sun, Hui; Hui, Fei; Hu, Jianchen; Wu, Yaxi; Fang, Jianlong; Lin, Hao; Wang, Jianxiang; Duan, Huiling; Lanza, Mario

    2015-07-01

    In 2012 air pollutants were responsible of seven million human death worldwide, and among them particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 micrometers or less (PM2.5) are the most hazardous because they are small enough to invade even the smallest airways and penetrate to the lungs. During the last decade the size, shape, composition, sources and effect of these particles on human health have been studied. However, the noxiousness of these particles not only relies on their chemical toxicity, but particle morphology and mechanical properties affect their thermodynamic behavior, which has notable impact on their biological activity. Therefore, correlating the physical, mechanical and chemical properties of PM2.5 airborne pollutants should be the first step to characterize their interaction with other bodies but, unfortunately, such analysis has never been reported before. In this work, we present the first nanomechanical characterization of the most abundant and universal groups of PM2.5 airborne pollutants and, by means of atomic force microscope (AFM) combined with other characterization tools, we observe that fluffy soot aggregates are the most sticky and unstable. Our experiments demonstrate that such particles show strong adhesiveness and aggregation, leading to a more diverse composition and compiling all possible toxic chemicals.

  13. Chemical speciation of size-segregated floor dusts and airborne magnetic particles collected at underground subway stations in Seoul, Korea.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hae-Jin; Kim, BoWha; Malek, Md Abdul; Koo, Yong Sung; Jung, Jong Hoon; Son, Youn-Suk; Kim, Jo-Chun; Kim, HyeKyoung; Ro, Chul-Un

    2012-04-30

    Previous studies have reported the major chemical species of underground subway particles to be Fe-containing species that are generated from wear and friction processes at rail-wheel-brake and catenaries-pantographs interfaces. To examine chemical composition of Fe-containing particles in more details, floor dusts were collected at five sampling locations of an underground subway station. Size-segregated floor dusts were separated into magnetic and non-magnetic fractions using a permanent magnet. Using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM/EDX), iron metal, which is relatively harmless, was found to be the dominating chemical species in the floor dusts of the <25 μm size fractions with minor fractions of Mg, Al, Si, Ca, S, and C. From SEM analysis, the floor dusts of the <25 μm size fractions collected on railroad ties appeared to be smaller than 10 μm, indicating that their characteristics should somewhat reflect the characteristics of airborne particles in the tunnel and the platform. As most floor dusts are magnetic, PM levels at underground subway stations can be controlled by removing magnetic indoor particles using magnets. In addition, airborne subway particles, most of which were smaller than 10 μm, were collected using permanent magnets at two underground subway stations, namely Jegi and Yangjae stations, in Seoul, Korea. XRD and SEM/EDX analyses showed that most of the magnetic aerosol particles collected at Jegi station was iron metal, whereas those at Yangjae station contained a small amount of Fe mixed with Na, Mg, Al, Si, S, Ca, and C. The difference in composition of the Fe-containing particles between the two subway stations was attributed to the different ballast tracks used. PMID:22381374

  14. Personal exposure to airborne ultrafine particles in the urban area of Milan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cattaneo, A.; Garramone, G.; Taronna, M.; Peruzzo, C.; Cavallo, D. M.

    2009-02-01

    The relevance of health effects related to ultrafine particles (UFPs; aerodynamic diameter < 100 nm) can be better evaluated using high-resolution strategies for measuring particle number concentrations. In this study, two different portable Condensation Particle Counters (CPCs) were used to measure personal exposure to UFPs in the central area of Milan for one week period during spring, with three sampling sessions per day. Experimental data were continuously collected along an established urban pathway, moving afoot or by different private and public means of transport. Correlation analysis between data measured by two CPCs was performed and general results showed a good agreement, especially at concentrations lower than 2×105 particles /cm3. UFPs measures were divided on the basis of crossed environments or micro-environments, days of the week and day time (hours). The highest measured mean concentrations and data variability were observed during walking time and moving on motorized vehicles (bus and car), indicating that the highest exposure to UFPs can be reached near motorized traffic. The lowest exposures were observed in green areas and in office microenvironments. An appreciable difference between working and non-working days was observed. Concentration patterns and variation by days of the week and time periods appears related to time trends in traffic intensity.

  15. Automated classification of single airborne particles from two-dimension, angle-resolved optical scattering (TAOS) patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crosta, Giovanni F.; Pan, Yong-Le; Chang, Richard K.

    2011-06-01

    Two-dimension, angle-resolved optical scattering (TAOS) is an experimental technique by which patterns of LASER light intensity scattered by single (micrometer or sub-micrometer sized) airborne particles are collected. In the past 10 years TAOS instrumentation has evolved from laboratory prototypes to field-deployable equipment; patterns are collected by the thousands during indoor or outdoor sampling in short times. Although comparison between experimental and computed scattering patterns has been carried out extensively, there is no satisfactory way to relate a given pattern to the particle it comes from. This paper reports about the ongoing development and implementation of a method which is aimed at classifying patterns, rather than identifying original particles. A machine learning algorithm includes the extraction of morphological features and their multivariate statistical analysis. A classifier is trained and validated in a supervised mode, by relying on patterns from known materials. Then the tuned classifier is applied to the recognition of patterns of unknown origin.

  16. LOREP 1993 summary report: Airborne measurements of meteorological variables, atmospheric particles and sulfur hexafluoride. Technical memo

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkison, S.W.; Wellman, D.L.

    1996-03-01

    Meteorological variables and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) were measured using the NOAA King Air research aircraft during February and March, 1993, over the Sierra Nevada Range of northern California as part of the Lake Oroville Runoff Enhancement Prototype Program (LOREP 1993). Race track pattern flights were made from approximately Sierraville, CA, to Gasner, CA. Airborne sampling was used to locate a plume containing sulfur hexafluoride as a tracer and propane as a seeding agent. The aircraft also carried an optical imaging probe. This report introduces the program in general, discusses the objectives of LOREP 1993, the instrumentation used and the data obtained by the NOAA airborne operation.

  17. Colloids exposed to random potential energy landscapes: From particle number density to particle-potential and particle-particle interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bewerunge, Jörg; Sengupta, Ankush; Capellmann, Ronja F.; Platten, Florian; Sengupta, Surajit; Egelhaaf, Stefan U.

    2016-07-01

    Colloidal particles were exposed to a random potential energy landscape that has been created optically via a speckle pattern. The mean particle density as well as the potential roughness, i.e., the disorder strength, were varied. The local probability density of the particles as well as its main characteristics were determined. For the first time, the disorder-averaged pair density correlation function g(1)(r) and an analogue of the Edwards-Anderson order parameter g(2)(r), which quantifies the correlation of the mean local density among disorder realisations, were measured experimentally and shown to be consistent with replica liquid state theory results.

  18. Colloids exposed to random potential energy landscapes: From particle number density to particle-potential and particle-particle interactions.

    PubMed

    Bewerunge, Jörg; Sengupta, Ankush; Capellmann, Ronja F; Platten, Florian; Sengupta, Surajit; Egelhaaf, Stefan U

    2016-07-28

    Colloidal particles were exposed to a random potential energy landscape that has been created optically via a speckle pattern. The mean particle density as well as the potential roughness, i.e., the disorder strength, were varied. The local probability density of the particles as well as its main characteristics were determined. For the first time, the disorder-averaged pair density correlation function g((1))(r) and an analogue of the Edwards-Anderson order parameter g((2))(r), which quantifies the correlation of the mean local density among disorder realisations, were measured experimentally and shown to be consistent with replica liquid state theory results. PMID:27475395

  19. Investigation of fluorine content in PM2.5 airborne particles of Istanbul, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Ozbek, Nil; Baltaci, Hakki; Baysal, Asli

    2016-07-01

    Fluorine determination in airborne samples is important due to its spread into the air from both natural and artificial sources. It can travel by wind over large distances before depositing on the Earth's surface. Its concentration in various matrices are limited and controlled by the regulations for causing health risks associated with environmental exposures. In this work, fluorine was determined in PM2.5 airborne samples by high-resolution continuum source electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. For these purpose, the PM2.5 airborne particulates were collected on quartz filters using high-volume samplers (500 L/min) in Istanbul (Turkey) for 96 h during January to June in 2 years. Then, instrumental and experimental parameters were optimized for the analyte in airborne samples. The validity of the method for the analyte was tested using standard reference material, and certified values were found in the limits of 95 % confidence level. The fluorine concentrations and meteorological conditions were compared statistically. PMID:27023803

  20. Vertical wind retrieved by airborne lidar and analysis of island induced gravity waves in combination with numerical models and in situ particle measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chouza, Fernando; Reitebuch, Oliver; Jähn, Michael; Rahm, Stephan; Weinzierl, Bernadett

    2016-04-01

    This study presents the analysis of island induced gravity waves observed by an airborne Doppler wind lidar (DWL) during SALTRACE. First, the instrumental corrections required for the retrieval of high spatial resolution vertical wind measurements from an airborne DWL are presented and the measurement accuracy estimated by means of two different methods. The estimated systematic error is below -0.05 m s-1 for the selected case of study, while the random error lies between 0.1 and 0.16 m s-1 depending on the estimation method. Then, the presented method is applied to two measurement flights during which the presence of island induced gravity waves was detected. The first case corresponds to a research flight conducted on 17 June 2013 in the Cabo Verde islands region, while the second case corresponds to a measurement flight on 26 June 2013 in the Barbados region. The presence of trapped lee waves predicted by the calculated Scorer parameter profiles was confirmed by the lidar and in situ observations. The DWL measurements are used in combination with in situ wind and particle number density measurements, large-eddy simulations (LES), and wavelet analysis to determine the main characteristics of the observed island induced trapped waves.

  1. Airborne measurements of cloud-forming nuclei and aerosol particles in stabilized ground clouds produced by solid rocket booster firings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hindman, E. E., II; Ala, G. G.; Parungo, F. P.; Willis, P. T.; Bendura, R. J.; Woods, D.

    1978-01-01

    Airborne measurements of cloud volumes, ice nuclei and cloud condensation nuclei, liquid particles, and aerosol particles were obtained from stabilized ground clouds (SGCs) produced by Titan 3 launches at Kennedy Space Center, 20 August and 5 September 1977. The SGCs were bright, white, cumulus clouds early in their life and contained up to 3.5 g/m3 of liquid in micron to millimeter size droplets. The measured cloud volumes were 40 to 60 cu km five hours after launch. The SGCs contained high concentrations of cloud condensation nuclei active at 0.2%, 0.5%, and 1.0% supersaturation for periods of three to five hours. The SGCs also contained high concentrations of submicron particles. Three modes existed in the particle population: a 0.05 to 0.1 micron mode composed of aluminum-containing particles, a 0.2 to 0.8 micron mode, and a 2.0 to 10 micron mode composed of particles that contained primarily aluminum.

  2. Application of traditional cyclone with spray scrubber to remove airborne silica particles emitted from stone-crushing factories.

    PubMed

    Bahrami, Abdulrahman; Ghorbani, Farshid; Mahjub, Hossien; Golbabei, Farideh; Aliabadi, Mohsan

    2009-08-01

    The traditional cyclone with spray scrubber was developed for the removal of airborne silica particles from local exhaust ventilation (LEV). The objective of this research is to evaluate the efficiency of this process for removing silica particles in LEV. After designing and installing a traditional cyclone and spray scrubber, air samples were obtained at the inlet and outlet of the apparatus. The mass of each collected sample was determined gravimetrically using EPA method. The efficiency of the cyclone with spray scrubber for the removal of dust particles from the LEV system was determined to be in the range of 92-99%. There was a high correlation between the inlet concentration of dust particles and the efficiency of the apparatus. The total pressure across the system was 772.17-1120.90 Pa. It was concluded that a traditional cyclone with a spray scrubber can effectively remove a very high percentage of the incoming silica particles from an LEV. The total pressure drop across the current process is less than the pressure drop across other treatment equipment, which means that our process can effectively remove silica particles while using less electricity than other processes. PMID:19672019

  3. Measurements of condensation nuclei in the Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition: Observations of particle production in the polar vortex

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, J.C.; Stolzenburg, M.R. ); Clark, W.E. ); Loewenstein, M.; Ferry, G.V.; Chan, K.R. )

    1990-03-01

    The ER-2 Condensation Nucleus Counter (ER-2 CNC) was operated in the Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition (AASE) in January and February 1989. The ER-2 CNC measures the mixing ratio of particles, CN, with diameters from approximately 0.02 {mu}m to approximately 1 {mu}m. The spatial distribution of CN in the Arctic polar vortex was found to resemble that measured in the Antarctic in the Spring of 1987. The vertical profile of CN in the vortex was lowered by subsidence. At altitudes above the minimum in the CN mixing ratio profile, CN mixing ratios correlated negatively with that of N{sub 2}O, demonstrating new particle production. CN serve as nuclei in the formation of Polar Stratospheric Clouds (PSC's) and the concentration of CN can affect PSC properties.

  4. Measurements of condensation nuclei in the Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition - Observations of particle production in the polar vortex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. C.; Stolzenburg, M. R.; Clark, W. E.; Loewenstein, M.; Ferry, G. V.; Chan, K. R.

    1990-01-01

    The ER-2 Condensation Nucleus Counter (ER-2 CNC) was operated in the Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition (AASE) in January and February 1989. The ER-2 CNC measures the mixing ratio of particles, CN, with diameters from approximately 0.02 to approximately 1 micron. The spatial distribution of CN in the Arctic polar vortex was found to resemble that measured in the Antarctic in the Spring of 1987. The vertical profile of CN in the vortex was lowered by subsidence. At altitudes above the minimum in the CN mixing ratio profile, CN mixing ratios correlated negatively with that of N2O, demonstrating new particle production. CN serve as nuclei in the formation of Polar Stratospheric Clouds (PSCs) and the concentration of CN can affect PSC properties.

  5. Intercomparison of 15 aerodynamic particle size spectrometers (APS 3321): uncertainties in particle sizing and number size distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfeifer, Sascha; Müller, Thomas; Weinhold, Kay; Zikova, Nadezda; Martins dos Santos, Sebastiao; Marinoni, Angela; Bischof, Oliver F.; Kykal, Carsten; Ries, Ludwig; Meinhardt, Frank; Aalto, Pasi; Mihalopoulos, Nikolaos; Wiedensohler, Alfred

    2016-04-01

    Aerodynamic particle size spectrometers are a well-established method to measure number size distributions of coarse mode particles in the atmosphere. Quality assurance is essential for atmospheric observational aerosol networks to obtain comparable results with known uncertainties. In a laboratory study within the framework of ACTRIS (Aerosols, Clouds, and Trace gases Research Infrastructure Network), 15 aerodynamic particle size spectrometers (APS model 3321, TSI Inc., St. Paul, MN, USA) were compared with a focus on flow rates, particle sizing, and the unit-to-unit variability of the particle number size distribution. Flow rate deviations were relatively small (within a few percent), while the sizing accuracy was found to be within 10 % compared to polystyrene latex (PSL) reference particles. The unit-to-unit variability in terms of the particle number size distribution during this study was within 10 % to 20 % for particles in the range of 0.9 up to 3 µm, which is acceptable for atmospheric measurements. For particles smaller than that, the variability increased up to 60 %, probably caused by differences in the counting efficiencies of individual units. Number size distribution data for particles smaller than 0.9 µm in aerodynamic diameter should only be used with caution. For particles larger than 3 µm, the unit-to-unit variability increased as well. A possible reason is an insufficient sizing accuracy in combination with a steeply sloping particle number size distribution and the increasing uncertainty due to decreasing counting. Particularly this uncertainty of the particle number size distribution must be considered if higher moments of the size distribution such as the particle volume or mass are calculated, which require the conversion of the aerodynamic diameter measured to a volume equivalent diameter. In order to perform a quantitative quality assurance, a traceable reference method for the particle number concentration in the size range 0.5-3 µm

  6. Commuting-Adjusted Short-Term Health Impact Assessment of Airborne Fine Particles with Uncertainty Quantification via Monte Carlo Simulation

    PubMed Central

    Grisotto, Laura; Catelan, Dolores; Consonni, Dario; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto; Biggeri, Annibale

    2014-01-01

    Background: Exposure to air pollution is associated with a short-term increase in mortality, and this field has begun to focus on health impact assessment. Objectives: Our aim was to estimate the impact of PM10 on mortality within 2 days from the exposure in the Italian region of Lombardy for the year 2007, at the municipality level, examining exposure entailed by daily intermunicipality commuting and accounting for uncertainty propagation. Methods: We combined data from different sources to derive probabilistic distributions for all input quantities used to calculate attributable deaths (mortality rates, PM10 concentrations, estimated PM10 effects, and commuting flows) and applied a Monte Carlo procedure to propagate uncertainty and sample the distribution of attributable deaths for each municipality. Results: We estimated that annual average PM10 concentrations above the World Health Organization-recommended threshold of 20 μg/m3 were responsible for 865 short-term deaths (80% credibility interval: 475, 1,401), 26% of which were attributable to PM10 above the European Union limit of 40 μg/m3. Reducing annual average PM10 concentrations > 20 μg/m3 by 20% would have reduced the number of attributable deaths by 36%. The largest estimated impacts were along the basin of the Po River and in the largest cities. Commuting contributed to the spatial distribution of the estimated impact. Conclusions: Our estimates, which incorporated uncertainty quantification, indicate that the short-term impact of PM10 on mortality in Lombardy in 2007 was notable, and that reduction in air pollution would have had a substantial beneficial effect on population health. Using commuting data helped to identify critical areas for prioritizing intervention. Citation: Baccini M, Grisotto L, Catelan D, Consonni D, Bertazzi PA, Biggeri A. 2015. Commuting-adjusted short-term health impact assessment of airborne fine particles with uncertainty quantification via Monte Carlo simulation. Environ

  7. Factors influencing the airborne capture of respirable charged particles by surfactants in water sprays.

    PubMed

    Tessum, Mei W; Raynor, Peter C; Keating-Klika, Lorraine

    2014-01-01

    This research measured the effects of particle diameter, surfactant-containing spray solution, and particle charge on the capture of respirable particles by surfactant-containing water spray droplets. Polystyrene latex particles with diameters of 0.6, 1.0, or 2.1 μm were generated in a wind tunnel. Particles were given either a neutralized, unneutralized, net positive, or net negative charge, and then were captured as they passed through sprays containing anionic, cationic, or nonionic surfactant. The remaining particles were sampled, charge-separated, and counted with the sprays on and off at varying voltage levels to assess collection efficiency. Overall efficiencies were measured for particles with all charge levels, as well as efficiencies for particles with specific charge levels. The overall collection efficiency significantly increased with increasing particle diameter. Collection efficiencies of 21.5% ± 9.0%, 58.8% ± 12.5%, and 86.6% ± 43.5% (Mean ± SD) were observed for particles 0.6, 1.0, and 2.1 μm in diameter, respectively. The combination of surfactant classification and concentration also significantly affected both overall spray collection efficiency and collection efficiency for particles with specific charge levels. Ionic surfactant-containing sprays had the best performance for charged particles with the opposite sign of charge but the worst performance for charged particles with the same sign of charge, while nonionic surfactant-containing spray efficiently removed particles carrying relatively few charges. Particle charge level impacted the spray collection efficiency. Highly charged particles were removed more efficiently than weakly charged particles. PMID:24479508

  8. MicroMED: a dust particle counter for the characterization of airborne dust close to the surface of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cozzolino, Fabio; Esposito, Francesca; Molfese, Cesare; Cortecchia, Fausto; Saggin, Bortolino; D'amato, Francesco

    2015-04-01

    Monitoring of airborne dust is very important in planetary climatology. Indeed, dust absorbs and scatter solar and thermal radiation, severely affecting atmospheric thermal structure, balance and dynamics (in terms of circulations). Wind-driven blowing of sand and dust is also responsible for shaping planetary surfaces through the formation of sand dunes and ripples, the erosion of rocks, and the creation and transport of soil particles. Dust is permanently present in the atmosphere of Mars and its amount varies with seasons. During regional or global dust storms, more than 80% of the incoming sunlight is absorbed by dust causing an intense atmospheric heating. Airborne dust is therefore a crucial climate component on Mars which impacts atmospheric circulations at all scales. Main dust parameters influencing the atmosphere heating are size distribution, abundance, albedo, single scattering phase function, imaginary part of the index of refraction. Moreover, major improvements of Mars climate models require, in addition to the standard meteorological parameters, quantitative information about dust lifting, transport and removal mechanisms. In this context, two major quantities need to be measured for the dust source to be understood: surface flux and granulometry. While many observations have constrained the size distribution of the dust haze seen from the orbit, it is still not known what the primary airborne dust (e.g. the recently lifted dust) is made of, size-wise. MicroMED has been designed to fill this gap. It will measure the abundance and size distribution of dust, not in the atmospheric column, but close to the surface, where dust is lifted, so to be able to monitor dust injection into the atmosphere. This has never been performed in Mars and other planets exploration. MicroMED is an Optical Particle Counter, analyzing light scattered from single dust particles to measure their size and abundance. A proper fluid-dynamic system, including a pump and a

  9. Possible evidence of new particle formation and its impact on cloud microphysics from airborne measurements over Bay of Bengal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deshpande, C. G.; Bhalwankar, Rohini; Padmakumari, B.; Maheskumar, R. S.; Axisa, Duncan; Kulkarni, J. R.

    2014-04-01

    Airborne measurements conducted under a special mission over Bay of Bengal (BoB) during the CAIPEEX (Cloud Aerosol Interaction and Precipitation Enhancement EXperiment) in 2011 were analyzed in the present study. Research flights were carried out on 19 and 20 October, 2011 (referred as RF1 and RF2), in the region over BoB, which was influenced by a depression to evaluate the aerosol-cloud interactions over marine environment. The increased concentration of aitken/accumulation mode particles was observed at 500 m above sea surface level over the ocean after the passage of the depression. The source of these particles and their subsequent growth during RF1 at about 200 km from coastline has been attributed to (i) increased production of aerosols due to oxidation of dimethyl sulfide (DMS) because of upwelling of the deep ocean water during the depression and (ii) anthropogenic aerosols transported from inland. Moreover, measurements of accumulation and coarse mode particles with diameter ranging from 0.1 to 3 μm and cloud droplets in the range 3 to 47 μm show systematic growth associated with cloud microphysical/rain formation process. On the other hand, no such evidence of increasing particle concentration and growth has been observed at about 60 km from coastline towards southeast during RF2. Evidently, the rain event observed during the night hours of 19 October caused the washout and scavenging of aerosols which contributed towards the decreased aerosol concentration observed near the coast.

  10. Mutagenicity and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons associated with extractable organic matter from airborne particles ⩽10 μm in southwest Mexico City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villalobos-Pietrini, Rafael; Amador-Muñoz, Omar; Waliszewski, Stefan; Hernández-Mena, Leonel; Munive-Colín, Zenaida; Gómez-Arroyo, Sandra; Bravo-Cabrera, José Luis; Frías-Villegas, Alejandro

    A year-long sampling and analysis of 24 h airborne particles equal to or less than 10 μm (PM 10) was conducted in Southwest (SW) Mexico City in 1998. The amount of airborne PM 10 and its extractable organic matter (EOM) were highly correlated. The year 1998 was particularly dry with many fires, and higher values of PM 10 and EOM were obtained in the fire period (February-May) compared to the without fire period (January, June-December). The indirect-acting mutagenicity ( Salmonella typhimurium strain TA98 with mammalian metabolic activation, S9) did not correlate with the monthly concentrations of PM 10 and EOM, while the direct-acting mutagenicity (strains TA98 and YG1021, without mammalian metabolic activation) did correlate. The highest monthly mutagenic potency of TA98+S9 and of TA98-S9 were registered in May which correspond to the fire period, while for YG1021 the highest was in December, a without fire month. The highest TA98+S9/TA98-S9 ratios appeared from April to September (with the exception of June), indicating that emission of the direct mutagens occurred in the rest of the year (the coldest months), and December showed the highest mutagenicity of YG1021. The correlation of this mutagenicity with the number of ground-based inversions indicated a greater emissions of nitroarenes in the coldest months emitted mainly by vehicular traffic as shown by the correlation between YG1021 with CO and with NO 2. We did not find a correlation in the EOM of the complex mixtures between TA98+S9 and the total concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) nor between TA98+S9 and specific PAH. The analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry indicated the presence of retene, a PAH found in the fire period and considered a softwood burning marker. The concentrations of fluoranthene and benz[ a]anthracene correlated with that of retene and with the burned area; they were the only PAH that presented significant differences between the periods with fire and

  11. Adaptation of an Ambient Ion Monitor for Detection of Amines in Airborne Particles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural facilities are the source of particles and gases that can exhibit an influence on air quality. Particle mass concentration influences from agricultural sources can include both primary emissions and secondary particle formation through emission of gaseous precursors. An ambient ion moni...

  12. Statistical error in particle simulations of low mach number flows

    SciTech Connect

    Hadjiconstantinou, N G; Garcia, A L

    2000-11-13

    We present predictions for the statistical error due to finite sampling in the presence of thermal fluctuations in molecular simulation algorithms. The expressions are derived using equilibrium statistical mechanics. The results show that the number of samples needed to adequately resolve the flowfield scales as the inverse square of the Mach number. Agreement of the theory with direct Monte Carlo simulations shows that the use of equilibrium theory is justified.

  13. Pb, Sr and Nd isotopic composition and trace element characteristics of coarse airborne particles collected with passive samplers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoàng-Hòa, Thi Bich; Stille, Peter; Dietze, Volker; Guéguen, Florence; Perrone, Thierry; Gieré, Reto

    2015-09-01

    Passive samplers for collection of coarse airborne particulate matter have been installed in and around the coal-mining town of Cam Pha, Quang Ninh Province (Vietnam). Analysis of Pb, Sr, and Nd isotope ratios and of major and trace element distribution patterns in atmospheric particulates collected at three stations allowed for the identification of four important dust components: (1) coal dust from an open-pit mine and fly ash particles from a coal-fired power station, (2) diesel soot, (3) traffic dust from metal, tire and pavement abrasion, and (4) limestone-derived dust. Outside of the coal-mining area, traffic-derived dust defines the atmospheric baseline composition of the studied environment.

  14. Effect of indoor-generated airborne particles on radon progeny dynamics.

    PubMed

    Trassierra, C Vargas; Stabile, L; Cardellini, F; Morawska, L; Buonanno, G

    2016-08-15

    In order to investigate the interaction between radon progeny and particles, an experimental campaign was carried out in a radon chamber at the Italian National Institute of Ionizing Radiation Metrology, quantifying the amount of attached and unattached radon daughters present in air, as well as the equilibrium factor in the presence of particles generated through indoor sources. A fixed radon concentration was maintained, while particles were generated using incense sticks, mosquito coils and gas combustion. Aerosols were characterized in terms of particle concentrations and size distributions. Simultaneously, radon concentration and attached/unattached potential alpha energy concentration in the air were continuously monitored by two different devices, based on alpha spectroscopy techniques. The presence of particles was found to affect the attached fraction of radon decay products, in such a way that the particles acted as a sink for radionuclides. In terms of sources which emit large particles (e.g. incense, mosquito coils), which greatly increase particle surface area concentrations, the Equilibrium Factor was found to double with respect to the background level before particle generation sessions. On the contrary, the radon decay product dynamics were not influenced by gas combustion processes, mainly due to the small surface area of the particles emitted. PMID:27131455

  15. Four-way coupled simulations of small particles in turbulent channel flow: The effects of particle shape and Stokes number

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, F.; Wachem, B. G. M. van; George, W. K.

    2015-08-15

    This paper investigates the effects of particle shape and Stokes number on the behaviour of non-spherical particles in turbulent channel flow. Although there are a number of studies concerning spherical particles in turbulent flows, most important applications occurring in process, energy, and pharmaceutical industries deal with non-spherical particles. The computation employs a unique and novel four-way coupling with the Lagrangian point-particle approach. The fluid phase at low Reynolds number (Re{sub τ} = 150) is modelled by direct numerical simulation, while particles are tracked individually. Inter-particle and particle-wall collisions are also taken into account. To explore the effects of particles on the flow turbulence, the statistics of the fluid flow such as the fluid velocity, the terms in the turbulence kinetic energy equation, the slip velocity between the two phases and velocity correlations are analysed considering ellipsoidal particles with different inertia and aspect ratio. The results of the simulations show that the turbulence is considerably attenuated, even in the very dilute regime. The reduction of the turbulence intensity is predominant near the turbulence kinetic energy peak in the near wall region, where particles preferentially accumulate. Moreover, the elongated shape of ellipsoids strengthens the turbulence attenuation. In simulations with ellipsoidal particles, the fluid-particle interactions strongly depend on the orientation of the ellipsoids. In the near wall region, ellipsoids tend to align predominantly within the streamwise (x) and wall-normal (y) planes and perpendicular to the span-wise direction, whereas no preferential orientation in the central region of the channel is observed. Important conclusions from this work include the effective viscosity of the flow is not affected, the direct dissipation by the particles is negligible, and the primary mechanism by which the particles affect the flow is by altering the turbulence

  16. Four-way coupled simulations of small particles in turbulent channel flow: The effects of particle shape and Stokes number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, F.; George, W. K.; van Wachem, B. G. M.

    2015-08-01

    This paper investigates the effects of particle shape and Stokes number on the behaviour of non-spherical particles in turbulent channel flow. Although there are a number of studies concerning spherical particles in turbulent flows, most important applications occurring in process, energy, and pharmaceutical industries deal with non-spherical particles. The computation employs a unique and novel four-way coupling with the Lagrangian point-particle approach. The fluid phase at low Reynolds number (Reτ = 150) is modelled by direct numerical simulation, while particles are tracked individually. Inter-particle and particle-wall collisions are also taken into account. To explore the effects of particles on the flow turbulence, the statistics of the fluid flow such as the fluid velocity, the terms in the turbulence kinetic energy equation, the slip velocity between the two phases and velocity correlations are analysed considering ellipsoidal particles with different inertia and aspect ratio. The results of the simulations show that the turbulence is considerably attenuated, even in the very dilute regime. The reduction of the turbulence intensity is predominant near the turbulence kinetic energy peak in the near wall region, where particles preferentially accumulate. Moreover, the elongated shape of ellipsoids strengthens the turbulence attenuation. In simulations with ellipsoidal particles, the fluid-particle interactions strongly depend on the orientation of the ellipsoids. In the near wall region, ellipsoids tend to align predominantly within the streamwise (x) and wall-normal (y) planes and perpendicular to the span-wise direction, whereas no preferential orientation in the central region of the channel is observed. Important conclusions from this work include the effective viscosity of the flow is not affected, the direct dissipation by the particles is negligible, and the primary mechanism by which the particles affect the flow is by altering the turbulence

  17. Airborne Particles: What We Have Learned About Their Role in Climate from Remote Sensing, and Prospects for Future Advances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahn, Ralph A.

    2013-01-01

    Desert dust, wildfire smoke, volcanic ash, biogenic and urban pollution particles, all affect the regional-scale climate of Earth in places and at times; some have global-scale impacts on the column radiation balance, cloud properties, atmospheric stability structure, and circulation patterns. Remote sensing has played a central role in identifying the sources and transports of airborne particles, mapping their three-dimensional distribution and variability, quantifying their amount, and constraining aerosol air mass type. The measurements obtained from remote sensing have strengths and limitations, and their value for characterizing Earths environment is enhanced immensely when they are combined with direct, in situ observations, and used to constrain aerosol transport and climate models. A similar approach has been taken to study the role particles play in determining the climate of Mars, though based on far fewer observations. This presentation will focus what we have learned from remote sensing about the impacts aerosol have on Earths climate; a few points about how aerosols affect the climate of Mars will also be introduced, in the context of how we might assess aerosol-climate impacts more generally on other worlds.

  18. Design and Laboratory Evaluation of a Sequential Spot Sampler for Time-Resolved Measurement of Airborne Particle Composition

    PubMed Central

    Eiguren Fernandez, Arantzazu; Lewis, Gregory S.; Hering, Susanne V.

    2014-01-01

    A new sampling approach has been developed to enable affordable, time-resolved monitoring of particulate chemical compositions, and more generally to provide concentrated samples of airborne particles. Using a newly developed, moderated water-based condensational growth technology, individual particle samples are deposited in a 1-mm diameter dry “spot”. The moderated condensation technology enables this collection with minimal temperature rise, providing robust collection for volatile constituents. Measured collection efficiencies are above 95% for particles in the size range from 0.010 μm to 2.5 μm. A set of 20 or more time-resolved samples, plus blanks, may be collected onto a multiwell collection plate. For chemical analysis the plate is returned to the laboratory, and placed directly into a modified autosampler, without extraction or preparation. The autosampler handles the addition of eluent, extraction, and sample injection without user manipulation. This paper presents the design and laboratory evaluation of a 1.5 L/min sampling rate version of this system. PMID:25045199

  19. Optical trapping and rotation of airborne absorbing particles with a single focused laser beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jinda; Li, Yong-qing

    2014-03-01

    We measure the periodic circular motion of single absorbing aerosol particles that are optically trapped with a single focused Gaussian beam and rotate around the laser propagation direction. The scattered light from the trapped particle is observed to be directional and change periodically at 0.4-20 kHz. The instantaneous positions of the moving particle within a rotation period are measured by a high-speed imaging technique using a charge coupled device camera and a repetitively pulsed light-emitting diode illumination. The centripetal acceleration of the trapped particle as high as ˜20 times the gravitational acceleration is observed and is attributed to the photophoretic forces.

  20. Optical trapping and rotation of airborne absorbing particles with a single focused laser beam

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Jinda; Li, Yong-qing

    2014-03-10

    We measure the periodic circular motion of single absorbing aerosol particles that are optically trapped with a single focused Gaussian beam and rotate around the laser propagation direction. The scattered light from the trapped particle is observed to be directional and change periodically at 0.4–20 kHz. The instantaneous positions of the moving particle within a rotation period are measured by a high-speed imaging technique using a charge coupled device camera and a repetitively pulsed light-emitting diode illumination. The centripetal acceleration of the trapped particle as high as ∼20 times the gravitational acceleration is observed and is attributed to the photophoretic forces.

  1. Proton Particle Test Fluence: What's the Right Number?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaBel, Kenneth A.; Ladbury, Raymond

    2015-01-01

    While we have been utilizing standard fluence levels such as those listed in the JESD57 document, we have begun revisiting what an appropriate test fluence is when it comes to qualifying a device for single events. Instead of a fixed fluence level or until a specific number of events occurs, a different thought process is required.

  2. Inertial focusing of spherical particles in rectangular microchannels over a wide range of Reynolds numbers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chao; Hu, Guoqing; Jiang, Xingyu; Sun, Jiashu

    2015-02-21

    Inertial microfluidics has emerged as an important tool for manipulating particles and cells. For a better design of inertial microfluidic devices, we conduct 3D direct numerical simulations (DNS) and experiments to determine the complicated dependence of focusing behaviour on the particle size, channel aspect ratio, and channel Reynolds number. We find that the well-known focusing of the particles at the two centers of the long channel walls occurs at a relatively low Reynolds number, whereas additional stable equilibrium positions emerge close to the short walls with increasing Reynolds number. Based on the numerically calculated trajectories of particles, we propose a two-stage particle migration which is consistent with experimental observations. We further present a general criterion to secure good focusing of particles for high flow rates. This work thus provides physical insight into the multiplex focusing of particles in rectangular microchannels with different geometries and Reynolds numbers, and paves the way for efficiently designing inertial microfluidic devices. PMID:25563524

  3. Chemical characterisation of single airborne particles in Athens (Greece) by ATOFMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dall'Osto, Manuel; Harrison, Roy M.

    A TSI Model 3800 aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ATOFMS) was deployed for single-particle analysis to Athens (Greece) during August 2003. It has revealed particle types not previously reported in urban air, as well as adding appreciably to the knowledge of aerosol in the Athens atmosphere. Sampling was carried out on a minor road in the city centre and the mass spectra of 166,603 particles were recorded, with 128,290 presenting both positive and negative spectra. The ART-2a neural network algorithm was applied and five main classes of particle were characterised: sea salt, dust, carbon, inorganic and K-rich, with sub-classes within each. Dust (with five sub-classes) was the main class, accounting for up to 49.5% of the particles characterised. Oxygenated organic particles feature heavily in the dataset and some are internally mixed with nitrate and sulphate. Most of the carbon-containing particles appeared to be a secondary product of atmospheric chemistry and one specific class (C-SEC_2) peaked every night at 22:00, when temperature and RH values favoured condensation. The secondary particles showed clear internal mixing of organic and inorganic constituents in contrast to their common theoretical treatment as external mixtures. The apparent semi-volatility of one class was striking. Compared with measurements in northern Europe, the abundance of relatively coarse dust particles and of secondary organic particles is notable. The particle classes derived from analysis of the ATOFMS data were compared with published data on the composition of aerosol in Athens. The latter is largely restricted to major water-soluble ions, and the two measurement techniques proved to be highly complementary.

  4. Inertial migration of spherical particles in circular Poiseuille flow at moderately high Reynolds numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Xueming; Yu, Zhaosheng; Sun, Bo

    2008-10-01

    The inertial migration of spherical particles in a circular Poiseuille flow is numerically investigated for the tube Reynolds number up to 2200. The periodic boundary condition is imposed in the streamwise direction. The equilibrium positions, the migration velocity, and the angular velocity of a single particle in a tube cell are examined at different Reynolds numbers, particle-tube size ratios, and tube lengths. Inner equilibrium positions are observed as the Reynolds number exceeds a critical value, in qualitatively agreement with the previous experimental observations [J.-P. Matas, J. F. Morris, and E. Guazzelli, J. Fluid Mech. 515, 171 (2004)]. Our results indicate that the hydrodynamic interactions between the particles in different periodic cells have significant effects on the migration of the particles at the tube length being even as large as 6.7 particle diameters and they tend to stabilize the particles at the outer Segré-Silberberg equilibrium positions and to suppress the emergence of the inner equilibrium positions. A mirror-symmetric traveling-wave-like structure is observed when the particle Reynolds number is large enough. A pair of counter-rotating streamwise vortices exists at both upstream and downstream of the particle but with different rotating directions. The fluids in the half of the pipe without the particle flow more slowly and most fluids in the other half with the particle move faster with respect to the parabolic profile. The intensity of the structure is influenced by the local particle Reynolds number, the particle motion, and the tube length. In addition, the migration of multiple particles in a periodic tube cell is examined. We attribute the disparity in the critical particle Reynolds number for the occurrence of the inner particle annulus for the experiments and our simulations to the effect of the tube length or the periodic boundary condition in our numerical model.

  5. Characterisation of indoor airborne particles by using real-time aerosol mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Dall'Osto, Manuel; Harrison, Roy M; Charpantidou, E; Loupa, G; Rapsomanikis, S

    2007-10-01

    An Aerosol Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (ATOFMS; TSI 3800) was deployed to Athens (Greece) during August 2003. The instrument provides information on a polydisperse aerosol, acquiring precise aerodynamic diameter (+/-1%) within the range 0.3 to 3 mum and individual particle positive and negative mass spectral data in real time. Sampling was carried out indoors and outdoors at an office in a building on a minor road in the city centre and various outdoor and indoor sources were identified. Specific outdoor particles such as dust and carbon particles were detected in indoor air. The generation of particles from indoor sources was studied and several different types of particle were found to be present in environmental tobacco smoke (ETS): three were potassium-rich (with differing proportions of carbon) emitted directly in the exhaled mainstream smoke. Two other types arose mainly when the cigarette was left smouldering on an ash-tray. Another particle type exhibited a strong signal at m/z 84, most likely due to a nicotine fragment. The temporal trend of this specific particle type showed likely condensation of semi-volatile constituents on existing potassium-rich particles. A release of insect repellent in the room was also successfully monitored. PMID:17628640

  6. LOAC (Light Optical Particle Counter): a new small aerosol counter with particle characterization capabilities for surface and airborne measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renard, Jean-Baptiste; Berthet, Gwenael; Jégou, Fabrice; Jeannot, Matthieu; Jourdain, Line; Dulac, François; Mallet, Marc; Dupont, Jean-Charles; Thaury, Claire; Tonnelier, Thierry; Verdier, Nicolas; Charpentier, Patrick

    2013-04-01

    The determination of the size distribution of tropospheric and stratospheric aerosols with conventional optical counters is difficult when different natures of particles are present (droplets, soot, mineral dust, secondary organic or mineral particles...). Also, a light and cheap aerosol counter that can be used at ground, onboard drones or launched under all kinds of atmospheric balloons can be very useful during specific events as volcanic plumes, desert dust transport or local pollution episodes. These goals can be achieved thanks to a new generation of aerosol counter, called LOAC (Light Optical Aerosol Counter). The instrument was developed in the frame of a cooperation between French scientific laboratories (CNRS), the Environnement-SA and MeteoModem companies and the French Space Agency (CNES). LOAC is a small optical particle counter/sizer of ~250 grams, having a low electrical power consumption. The measurements are conducted at two scattering angles. The first one, at 12°, is used to determine the aerosol particle concentrations in 19 size classes within a diameter range of 0.3-100 micrometerers. At such an angle close to forward scattering, the signal is much more intense and the measurements are the least sensitive to the particle nature. The second angle is at 60°, where the scattered light is strongly dependent on the particle refractive index and thus on the nature of the aerosols. The ratio of the measurements at the two angles is used to discriminate between the different types of particles dominating the nature of the aerosol particles in the different size classes. The sensor particularly discriminates wet or liquid particles, soil dust and soot. Since 2011, we have operated LOAC in various environments (Arctic, Mediterranean, urban and peri-urban…) under different kinds of balloons including zero pressure stratospheric, tethered, drifting tropospheric, and meteorological sounding balloons. For the last case, the total weight of the gondola

  7. The future of airborne sulfur-containing particles in the absence of fossil fuel sulfur dioxide emissions

    PubMed Central

    Perraud, Véronique; Horne, Jeremy R.; Martinez, Andrew S.; Kalinowski, Jaroslaw; Meinardi, Simone; Dawson, Matthew L.; Wingen, Lisa M.; Dabdub, Donald; Blake, Donald R.; Gerber, R. Benny; Finlayson-Pitts, Barbara J.

    2015-01-01

    Sulfuric acid (H2SO4), formed from oxidation of sulfur dioxide (SO2) emitted during fossil fuel combustion, is a major precursor of new airborne particles, which have well-documented detrimental effects on health, air quality, and climate. Another precursor is methanesulfonic acid (MSA), produced simultaneously with SO2 during the atmospheric oxidation of organosulfur compounds (OSCs), such as dimethyl sulfide. In the present work, a multidisciplinary approach is used to examine how contributions of H2SO4 and MSA to particle formation will change in a large coastal urban area as anthropogenic fossil fuel emissions of SO2 decline. The 3-dimensional University of California Irvine–California Institute of Technology airshed model is used to compare atmospheric concentrations of gas phase MSA, H2SO4, and SO2 under current emissions of fossil fuel-associated SO2 and a best-case futuristic scenario with zero fossil fuel sulfur emissions. Model additions include results from (i) quantum chemical calculations that clarify the previously uncertain gas phase mechanism of formation of MSA and (ii) a combination of published and experimental estimates of OSC emissions, such as those from marine, agricultural, and urban processes, which include pet waste and human breath. Results show that in the zero anthropogenic SO2 emissions case, particle formation potential from H2SO4 will drop by about two orders of magnitude compared with the current situation. However, particles will continue to be generated from the oxidation of natural and anthropogenic sources of OSCs, with contributions from MSA and H2SO4 of a similar order of magnitude. This could be particularly important in agricultural areas where there are significant sources of OSCs. PMID:26483454

  8. The future of airborne sulfur-containing particles in the absence of fossil fuel sulfur dioxide emissions.

    PubMed

    Perraud, Véronique; Horne, Jeremy R; Martinez, Andrew S; Kalinowski, Jaroslaw; Meinardi, Simone; Dawson, Matthew L; Wingen, Lisa M; Dabdub, Donald; Blake, Donald R; Gerber, R Benny; Finlayson-Pitts, Barbara J

    2015-11-01

    Sulfuric acid (H2SO4), formed from oxidation of sulfur dioxide (SO2) emitted during fossil fuel combustion, is a major precursor of new airborne particles, which have well-documented detrimental effects on health, air quality, and climate. Another precursor is methanesulfonic acid (MSA), produced simultaneously with SO2 during the atmospheric oxidation of organosulfur compounds (OSCs), such as dimethyl sulfide. In the present work, a multidisciplinary approach is used to examine how contributions of H2SO4 and MSA to particle formation will change in a large coastal urban area as anthropogenic fossil fuel emissions of SO2 decline. The 3-dimensional University of California Irvine-California Institute of Technology airshed model is used to compare atmospheric concentrations of gas phase MSA, H2SO4, and SO2 under current emissions of fossil fuel-associated SO2 and a best-case futuristic scenario with zero fossil fuel sulfur emissions. Model additions include results from (i) quantum chemical calculations that clarify the previously uncertain gas phase mechanism of formation of MSA and (ii) a combination of published and experimental estimates of OSC emissions, such as those from marine, agricultural, and urban processes, which include pet waste and human breath. Results show that in the zero anthropogenic SO2 emissions case, particle formation potential from H2SO4 will drop by about two orders of magnitude compared with the current situation. However, particles will continue to be generated from the oxidation of natural and anthropogenic sources of OSCs, with contributions from MSA and H2SO4 of a similar order of magnitude. This could be particularly important in agricultural areas where there are significant sources of OSCs. PMID:26483454

  9. Indoor-outdoor relationships of airborne particles and nitrogen dioxide inside Parisian buses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molle, Romain; Mazoué, Sophie; Géhin, Évelyne; Ionescu, Anda

    2013-04-01

    This study evaluated passengers' exposure to traffic air pollution inside the articulated buses of the line 91 in Paris during 10 working days in May, 2010. Twenty articulated buses were studied on 32 routes in order to determine the influence of the sampling position on the pollutant concentrations. This parameter is still poorly known for the rigid buses and is even less known for the articulated ones. However this parameter must be studied for articulated buses because the greater length may cause a pollutant concentration gradient in the cabin. Portable devices were used to measure pollutants in the presence of passengers from 8 a.m. to 9 a.m. and from 4 p.m. to 5 p.m., time periods corresponding to the peak traffic and travellers. PM2.5 mass concentration, particle number concentration between 0.3 and 20 μm and nitrogen dioxide concentration were simultaneously measured on three positions inside the buses (front, middle and rear) in order to study the spatial distribution of these compounds. These measurements inside the buses were compared to the outdoor concentrations at the same moment of the day provided by the Parisian air quality monitoring network; they were also compared to the results of a previous monitoring campaign performed in 2008. The results obtained during the 2010 campaign revealed that in-cabin NO2 mean concentrations were 1.5-3.5 times higher than the outside concentration levels; a maximum concentration of 234 ± 40 μg m-3 was found in the rear position (location of the engine and exhaust gas). Mean in-cabin PM2.5 mass concentrations varied from one week to another one, but they were globally the same at the three positions inside the instrumented buses. In order to determine the impact of outdoor levels, correlations have been calculated between the results measured inside the buses and those measured by the outdoor air monitoring stations. The highest Pearson correlation coefficient was 0.29 for NO2 data whereas the highest Pearson

  10. Measurements of Br/Pb Ratios in Airborne Particles from Car Exhaust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Öblad, M.; Selin, E.

    1985-10-01

    Concentrations of particulate bromine and lead have been measured during one summer and one winter period. The measurements were made simultaneously in five sites in a city on the Swedish west coast. A rural site about 60 km from the city was used to measure the background aerosol. Aerosol sampling was made with six dichotomous virtual impactors, which fractionate the aerosol into two modes, one fine particle mode (aerodynamic diameter, a.d. < 3.5 μm) and one coarse particle mode (3.5 μm < a.d. < 18 μm). The aerosol was collected onto thin teflon filters. Element concentrations were obtained by Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis. The element concentrations were related to air mass trajectories. The Br/Pb ratio proved to be the same on a given date for the city sites and the background site. A dependence on the air mass history was found, suggesting that it is the quality of the air basin in the region that influences the Br/Pb ratio even for fresh car exhaust. The Br/Pb ratio was the same for fine and coarse particles, indicating that the ratio is determined before coagulation with larger particles occur. The ratios between coarse and fine particles containing lead and bromine respectively were also studied. The results suggest that lead and bromine are actually attached to the same particles.

  11. Vehicle and driving characteristics that influence in-cabin particle number concentrations.

    PubMed

    Hudda, Neelakshi; Kostenidou, Evangelia; Sioutas, Constantinos; Delfino, Ralph J; Fruin, Scott A

    2011-10-15

    In-transit microenvironments experience elevated levels of vehicle-related pollutants such as ultrafine particles. However, in-vehicle particle number concentrations are frequently lower than on-road concentrations due to particle losses inside vehicles. Particle concentration reduction occurs due to a complicated interplay between a vehicle's air-exchange rate (AER), which determines particle influx rate, and particle losses due to surfaces and the in-cabin air filter. Accurate determination of inside-to-outside particle concentration ratios is best made under realistic aerodynamic and AER conditions because these ratios and AER are determined by vehicle speed and ventilation preference, in addition to vehicle characteristics such as age. In this study, 6 vehicles were tested at 76 combinations of driving speeds, ventilation conditions (i.e., outside air or recirculation), and fan settings. Under recirculation conditions, particle number attenuation (number reduction for 10-1000 nm particles) averaged 0.83 ± 0.13 and was strongly negatively correlated with increasing AER, which in turn depended on speed and the age of the vehicle. Under outside air conditions, attenuation averaged 0.33 ± 0.10 and primarily decreased at higher fan settings that increased AER. In general, in-cabin particle number reductions did not vary strongly with particle size, and cabin filters exhibited low removal efficiencies. PMID:21928803

  12. Conditional-sampling spectrograph detection system for fluorescence measurements of individual airborne biological particles.

    PubMed

    Nachman, P; Chen, G; Pinnick, R G; Hill, S C; Chang, R K; Mayo, M W; Fernandez, G L

    1996-03-01

    We report the design and operation of a prototype conditional-sampling spectrograph detection system that can record the fluorescence spectra of individual, micrometer-sized aerosols as they traverse an intense 488-nm intracavity laser beam. The instrument's image-intensified CCD detector is gated by elastic scattering or by undispersed fluorescence from particles that enter the spectrograph's field of view. It records spectra only from particles with preselected scattering-fluorescence levels (a fiber-optic-photomultiplier subsystem provides the gating signal). This conditional-sampling procedure reduces data-handling rates and increases the signal-to-noise ratio by restricting the system's exposures to brief periods when aerosols traverse the beam. We demonstrate these advantages by reliably capturing spectra from individual fluorescent microspheres dispersed in an airstream. The conditional-sampling procedure also permits some discrimination among different types of particles, so that spectra may be recorded from the few interesting particles present in a cloud of background aerosol. We demonstrate such discrimination by measuring spectra from selected fluorescent microspheres in a mixture of two types of microspheres, and from bacterial spores in a mixture of spores and nonfluorescent kaolin particles. PMID:21085216

  13. Variation of particle number concentration and size distributions at the urban environment in Vilnius (Lithuania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulevicius, Vidmantas; Byčenkienë, Steigvilë; Plauškaitë, Kristina; Dudoitis, Vadimas

    2013-05-01

    This study presents results of research on urban aerosol particles with a focus on the particle size distribution and the aerosol particle number concentration (PNC). The real time measurements of the aerosol PNC in the size range of 9-840 nm were performed at the urban background site using a Condensed Particle Counter and Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS). Strong diurnal patterns in aerosol PNC were evident as a direct effect of three sources of the aerosol particles (nucleation, traffic, and residential heating appliances). The traffic exhaust emissions were a major contributor of the pollution observed at the roadside site that was dominated by the nucleation mode particles, while particles formed due to the residential heating appliances and secondary formation processes contributed to the accumulation mode particles and could impact the variation of PNC and its size distribution during the same day.

  14. Relationships among particle number, surface area, and respirable mass concentrations in automotive engine manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Heitbrink, William A; Evans, Douglas E; Ku, Bon Ki; Maynard, Andrew D; Slavin, Thomas J; Peters, Thomas M

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships between particle number, surface area, and respirable mass concentration measured simultaneously in a foundry and an automotive engine machining and assembly center. Aerosol concentrations were measured throughout each plant with a condensation particle counter for number concentration, a diffusion charger for active surface area concentration, and an optical particle counter for respirable mass concentration. At selected locations, particle size distributions were characterized with the optical particle counter and an electrical low pressure impactor. Statistical analyses showed that active surface area concentration was correlated with ultrafine particle number concentration and weakly correlated with respirable mass concentration. Correlation between number and active surface area concentration was stronger during winter (R2 = 0.6 for both plants) than in the summer (R2 = 0.38 and 0.36 for the foundry and engine plant respectively). The stronger correlation in winter was attributed to use of direct-fire gas fired heaters that produced substantial numbers of ultrafine particles with a modal diameter between 0.007 and 0.023 mu m. These correlations support findings obtained through theoretical analysis. Such analysis predicts that active surface area increasingly underestimates geometric surface area with increasing particle size, particularly for particles larger than 100 nm. Thus, a stronger correlation between particle number concentration and active surface area concentration is expected in the presence of high concentrations of ultrafine particles. In general, active surface area concentration may be a concentration metric that is distinct from particle number concentration and respirable mass concentration. For future health effects or toxicological studies involving nano-materials or ultrafine aerosols, this finding needs to be considered, as exposure metrics may influence data interpretation. PMID:18982535

  15. Particle size distribution of airborne Aspergillus fumigatus spores emitted from compost using membrane filtration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deacon, L. J.; Pankhurst, L. J.; Drew, G. H.; Hayes, E. T.; Jackson, S.; Longhurst, P. J.; Longhurst, J. W. S.; Liu, J.; Pollard, S. J. T.; Tyrrel, S. F.

    Information on the particle size distribution of bioaerosols emitted from open air composting operations is valuable in evaluating potential health impacts and is a requirement for improved dispersion simulation modelling. The membrane filter method was used to study the particle size distribution of Aspergillus fumigatus spores in air 50 m downwind of a green waste compost screening operation at a commercial facility. The highest concentrations (approximately 8 × 10 4 CFU m -3) of culturable spores were found on filters with pore diameters in the range 1-2 μm which suggests that the majority of spores are emitted as single cells. The findings were compared to published data collected using an Andersen sampler. Results were significantly correlated ( p < 0.01) indicating that the two methods are directly comparable across all particles sizes for Aspergillus spores.

  16. Automated classification of single airborne particles from two-dimensional angle-resolved optical scattering (TAOS) patterns by non-linear filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crosta, Giovanni Franco; Pan, Yong-Le; Aptowicz, Kevin B.; Casati, Caterina; Pinnick, Ronald G.; Chang, Richard K.; Videen, Gorden W.

    2013-12-01

    Measurement of two-dimensional angle-resolved optical scattering (TAOS) patterns is an attractive technique for detecting and characterizing micron-sized airborne particles. In general, the interpretation of these patterns and the retrieval of the particle refractive index, shape or size alone, are difficult problems. By reformulating the problem in statistical learning terms, a solution is proposed herewith: rather than identifying airborne particles from their scattering patterns, TAOS patterns themselves are classified through a learning machine, where feature extraction interacts with multivariate statistical analysis. Feature extraction relies on spectrum enhancement, which includes the discrete cosine FOURIER transform and non-linear operations. Multivariate statistical analysis includes computation of the principal components and supervised training, based on the maximization of a suitable figure of merit. All algorithms have been combined together to analyze TAOS patterns, organize feature vectors, design classification experiments, carry out supervised training, assign unknown patterns to classes, and fuse information from different training and recognition experiments. The algorithms have been tested on a data set with more than 3000 TAOS patterns. The parameters that control the algorithms at different stages have been allowed to vary within suitable bounds and are optimized to some extent. Classification has been targeted at discriminating aerosolized Bacillus subtilis particles, a simulant of anthrax, from atmospheric aerosol particles and interfering particles, like diesel soot. By assuming that all training and recognition patterns come from the respective reference materials only, the most satisfactory classification result corresponds to 20% false negatives from B. subtilis particles and <11% false positives from all other aerosol particles. The most effective operations have consisted of thresholding TAOS patterns in order to reject defective ones

  17. [Variation of atmospheric particle number concentrations in Qingdao and its impact on visibility].

    PubMed

    Ke, Xin-Shu; Sheng, Li-Fang; Kong, Jun; Hao, Ze-Tong; Qu, Wen-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Atmospheric particle number concentrations were measured from September 2010 to August 2011 with potable light house laser particle counter to study the variation of atmospheric particle concentrations and its impact on visibility in Qingdao. Backward trajectory was calculated by Hysplit model. Statistical analysis was done to discuss the influence of meteorological factors on the atmospheric particle number concentrations and visibility. It was shown that the atmospheric particle number concentrations were the highest in winter and spring, followed by autumn, and the lowest in summer. Air mass from Xinjiang and Gansu regions resulted in higher particle concentrations, while the atmospheric particles from the northeast and the ocean had lower concentrations. The variation of atmospheric particle number concentrations presented a good negative correlation with the variation of wind speed, relative humidity and mixed-layer height. When the air mass came from west or northwest, the surface wind direction was south or southeast and the mixed-layer height was low, the number concentration of fine particles was likely to be higher, which tended to cause low visibility phenomenon. PMID:24720179

  18. Effect of atmospheric electricity on dry deposition of airborne particles from atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tammet, H.; Kimmel, V.; Israelsson, S.

    The electric mechanism of dry deposition is well known in the case of unattached radon daughter clusters that are unipolar charged and of high mobility. The problematic role of the electric forces in deposition of aerosol particles is theoretically examined by comparing the fluxes of particles carried by different deposition mechanisms in a model situation. The electric mechanism of deposition appears essential for particles of diameter 10-200 nm in conditions of low wind speed. The electric flux of fine particles can be dominant on the tips of leaves and needles even in a moderate atmospheric electric field of a few hundred V m -1 measured over the plane ground surface. The electric deposition is enhanced under thunderclouds and high voltage power lines. Strong wind suppresses the relative role of the electric deposition when compared with aerodynamic deposition. When compared with diffusion deposition the electric deposition appears less uniform: the precipitation particulate matter on the tips of leaves and especially on needles of top branches of conifer trees is much more intensive than on the ground surface and electrically shielded surfaces of plants. The knowledge of deposition geometry could improve our understanding of air pollution damage to plants.

  19. Performance of a scanning mobility particle sizer in measuring diverse types of airborne nanoparticles: Multi-walled carbon nanotubes, welding fumes, and titanium dioxide spray.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bean T; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; Cumpston, Amy; Cumpston, Jared; Friend, Sherri; Stone, Samuel; Keane, Michael

    2016-07-01

    Direct-reading instruments have been widely used for characterizing airborne nanoparticles in inhalation toxicology and industrial hygiene studies for exposure/risk assessments. Instruments using electrical mobility sizing followed by optical counting, e.g., scanning or sequential mobility particle spectrometers (SMPS), have been considered as the "gold standard" for characterizing nanoparticles. An SMPS has the advantage of rapid response and has been widely used, but there is little information on its performance in assessing the full spectrum of nanoparticles encountered in the workplace. In this study, an SMPS was evaluated for its effectiveness in producing "monodisperse" aerosol and its adequacy in characterizing overall particle size distribution using three test aerosols, each mimicking a unique class of real-life nanoparticles: singlets of nearly spherical titanium dioxide (TiO2), agglomerates of fiber-like multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT), and aggregates that constitutes welding fume (WF). These aerosols were analyzed by SMPS, cascade impactor, and by counting and sizing of discrete particles by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The effectiveness of the SMPS to produce classified particles (fixed voltage mode) was assessed by examination of the resulting geometric standard deviation (GSD) from the impactor measurement. Results indicated that SMPS performed reasonably well for TiO2 (GSD = 1.3), but not for MWCNT and WF as evidenced by the large GSD values of 1.8 and 1.5, respectively. For overall characterization, results from SMPS (scanning voltage mode) exhibited particle-dependent discrepancies in the size distribution and total number concentration compared to those from microscopic analysis. Further investigation showed that use of a single-stage impactor at the SMPS inlet could distort the size distribution and underestimate the concentration as shown by the SMPS, whereas the presence of vapor molecules or atom clusters in some test

  20. Performance of a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer in Measuring Diverse Types of Airborne Nanoparticles: Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes, Welding Fumes, and Titanium Dioxide Spray

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bean T.; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; Cumpston, Amy; Cumpston, Jared; Friend, Sherri; Stone, Samuel; Keane, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Direct-reading instruments have been widely used for characterizing airborne nanoparticles in inhalation toxicology and industrial hygiene studies for exposure/risk assessments. Instruments using electrical mobility sizing followed by optical counting, e.g., scanning or sequential mobility particle spectrometers (SMPS), have been considered as the “gold standard” for characterizing nanoparticles. An SMPS has the advantage of rapid response and has been widely used, but there is little information on its performance in assessing the full spectrum of nanoparticles encountered in the workplace. In this study, an SMPS was evaluated for its effectiveness in producing “monodisperse” aerosol and its adequacy in characterizing overall particle size distribution using three test aerosols, each mimicking a unique class of real-life nanoparticles: singlets of nearly spherical titanium dioxide (TiO2), agglomerates of fiber-like multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT), and aggregates that constitutes welding fume (WF). These aerosols were analyzed by SMPS, cascade impactor, and by counting and sizing of discrete particles by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The effectiveness of the SMPS to produce classified particles (fixed voltage mode) was assessed by examination of the resulting geometric standard deviation (GSD) from the impactor measurement. Results indicated that SMPS performed reasonably well for TiO2 (GSD = 1.3), but not for MWCNT and WF as evidenced by the large GSD values of 1.8 and 1.5, respectively. For overall characterization, results from SMPS (scanning voltage mode) exhibited particle-dependent discrepancies in the size distribution and total number concentration compared to those from microscopic analysis. Further investigation showed that use of a single-stage impactor at the SMPS inlet could distort the size distribution and underestimate the concentration as shown by the SMPS, whereas the presence of vapor molecules or atom clusters in

  1. Airborne minerals and related aerosol particles: Effects on climate and the environment

    PubMed Central

    Buseck, Peter R.; Pósfai, Mihály

    1999-01-01

    Aerosol particles are ubiquitous in the troposphere and exert an important influence on global climate and the environment. They affect climate through scattering, transmission, and absorption of radiation as well as by acting as nuclei for cloud formation. A significant fraction of the aerosol particle burden consists of minerals, and most of the remainder— whether natural or anthropogenic—consists of materials that can be studied by the same methods as are used for fine-grained minerals. Our emphasis is on the study and character of the individual particles. Sulfate particles are the main cooling agents among aerosols; we found that in the remote oceanic atmosphere a significant fraction is aggregated with soot, a material that can diminish the cooling effect of sulfate. Our results suggest oxidization of SO2 may have occurred on soot surfaces, implying that even in the remote marine troposphere soot provided nuclei for heterogeneous sulfate formation. Sea salt is the dominant aerosol species (by mass) above the oceans. In addition to being important light scatterers and contributors to cloud condensation nuclei, sea-salt particles also provide large surface areas for heterogeneous atmospheric reactions. Minerals comprise the dominant mass fraction of the atmospheric aerosol burden. As all geologists know, they are a highly heterogeneous mixture. However, among atmospheric scientists they are commonly treated as a fairly uniform group, and one whose interaction with radiation is widely assumed to be unpredictable. Given their abundances, large total surface areas, and reactivities, their role in influencing climate will require increased attention as climate models are refined. PMID:10097046

  2. Heterogeneous reaction of N2O5 with airborne TiO2 particles and the implication for stratospheric particle injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Mingjin; Abraham, Luke; Braesicke, Peter; Cox, Tony; McGregor, James; Pope, Francis; Pyle, John; Rkiouak, Laylla; Telford, Paul; Watson, Matt; Kalberer, Markus

    2014-05-01

    Injection of aerosol particles (or their precursors) into the stratosphere to scatter solar radiation back into space, has been suggested as a solar-radiation management (SRM) scheme for the mitigation for global warming. TiO2 has recently been highlighted as a possible candidate aerosol because of its high light scattering ability with a refractive index of 2.5 (Pope et al. 2012). The impact of particles injection on stratospheric ozone requires systematical assessment via laboratory and modelling studies. In this work, the heterogeneous reaction of airborne sub-micrometre TiO2 particles with N2O5 has been investigated at room temperature and different relative humidities (RH), using an atmospheric pressure aerosol flow tube. The uptake coefficient of N2O5 onto TiO2, γ(N2O5), was determined to be ~1.0×10-3 at low RH, and increase to ~3×10-3 at 60% RH. The dependence of γ(N2O5) on RH can be explained by the water adsorption isotherm of TiO2 particles. In addition, the uptake of N2O5 onto TiO2 aerosol particles has been included in the UKCA chemistry-climate model to assess the effect of N2O5 uptake onto TiO2 particles on the stratospheric composition. We construct a case study based on the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo, comparing the effects of TiO2 to those from the volcanic sulfate and to the situation with only background amount of aerosol. The changes in reactive nitrogen species and ozone due to the heterogeneous reaction of TiO2 with N2O5 are assessed relative to sulfate aerosol impacts. Pope, F. D., Braesicke, P., Grainger, R. G., Kalberer, M., Watson, I. M., Davidson, P. J., and Cox, R. A.: Stratospheric aerosol particles and solar-radiation management, Nature Clim. Change, 2, 713-719, 2012

  3. Measurement of Soluble and Total Hexavalent Chromium in the Ambient Airborne Particles in New Jersey

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Lihui; Yu, Chang Ho; Hopke, Philip K.; Lioy, Paul J.; Buckley, Brian T.; Shin, Jin Young; Fan, Zhihua (Tina)

    2015-01-01

    Hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) in ambient airborne particulate matter (PM) is a known pulmonary carcinogen and may have both soluble and insoluble forms. The sum of the two forms is defined as total Cr(VI). Currently, there were no methods suitable for large-scale monitoring of total Cr(VI) in ambient PM. This study developed a method to measure total Cr(VI) in ambient PM. This method includes PM collection using a Teflon filter, microwave extraction with 3% Na2CO3-2% NaOH at 95°C for 60 minutes, and Cr(VI) analysis by 1,5-diphenylcarbazide colorimetry at 540 nm. The recoveries of total Cr(VI) were 119.5 ± 10.4% and 106.3 ± 16.7% for the Cr(VI)-certified reference materials, SQC 012 and SRM 2700, respectively. Total Cr(VI) in the reference urban PM (NIST 1648a) was 26.0 ± 3.1 mg/kg (%CV = 11.9%) determined by this method. The method detection limit was 0.33 ng/m3. This method and the one previously developed to measure ambient Cr(VI), which is soluble in pH ~9.0 aqueous solution, were applied to measure Cr(VI) in ambient PM10 collected from three urban areas and one suburban area in New Jersey. The total Cr(VI) concentrations were 1.05–1.41 ng/m3 in the winter and 0.99–1.56 ng/m3 in the summer. The soluble Cr(VI) concentrations were 0.03–0.19 ng/m3 in the winter and 0.12–0.37 ng/m3 in the summer. The summer mean ratios of soluble to total Cr(VI) were 14.3–43.7%, significantly higher than 4.2–14.4% in the winter. The winter concentrations of soluble and total Cr(VI) in the suburban area were significantly lower than in the three urban areas. The results suggested that formation of Cr(VI) via atmospheric chemistry may contribute to the higher soluble Cr(VI) concentrations in the summer. PMID:26120324

  4. TOF-SIMS measurements for toxic air pollutants adsorbed on the surface of airborne particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomiyasu, Bunbunoshin; Hoshi, Takahiro; Owari, Masanori; Nihei, Yoshimasa

    2003-01-01

    Three kinds of particulate matter were collected: diesel and gasoline exhaust particles emitted directly from exhaust nozzle, and suspended particulate matter (SPM) near the traffic route. Soxhlet extraction was performed on each sample. By gas-chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) analysis of these extracts, di-ethyl phthalate and di- n-butyl phthalate were detected from the extract of SPM and diesel exhaust particles (DEPs). Because these phthalates were sometimes suspected as contamination, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) measurements were also performed on the samples collected at the same environment. By comparing obtained spectra, it is clear that these environmental endocrine disrupters (EEDs) were adsorbed on DEP surface. Thus, we concluded that the combination of conventional method and TOF-SIMS measurement is one of the most powerful techniques for analyzing the toxic air pollutants adsorbed on SPM surface.

  5. Characterization of ultrafine particle number concentration and new particle formation in an urban environment of Taipei, Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, H. C.; Chou, C. C.-K.; Huang, W.-R.; Tsai, C.-Y.

    2013-09-01

    An intensive aerosol characterization experiment was performed at the Taipei Aerosol and Radiation Observatory (TARO, 25.02° N, 121.53° E) in the urban area of Taipei, Taiwan, during July 2012. Number concentration and size distribution of aerosol particles were measured continuously, which were accompanied by concurrent measurements of mass concentration of submicron particles, PM1 (d ≤ 1 μm), and photolysis rate of ozone, J(O1D). The averaged number concentrations of total (Ntotal), accumulation mode (Nacu), Aitken mode (NAitken), and nucleation mode (Nnuc) particles were 13.9 × 103 cm-3, 1.2 × 103 cm-3, 6.1 × 103 cm-3, and 6.6 × 103 cm-3, respectively. Accordingly, the ultrafine particles (UFPs, d ≤ 100 nm) accounted for 91% of the total number concentration of particles measured in this study (10 ≤ d ≤ 429 nm), indicating the importance of UFPs to the air quality and radiation budget in Taipei and its surrounding areas. An averaged Nnuc / NOx ratio of 192.4 cm-3 ppbv-1 was derived from nighttime measurements, which was suggested to be the characteristic of vehicle emissions that contributed to the "urban background" of nucleation mode particles throughout a day. On the contrary, it was found that the number concentration of nucleation mode particles was independent of NOx and could be elevated up to 10 times of the "urban background" levels during daytime, suggesting a substantial amount of nucleation mode particles produced from photochemical processes. Averages (± 1σ) of the diameter growth rate (GR) and formation rate of nucleation mode particles, J10, were 11.9 ± 10.6 nm h-1 and 6.9 ± 3.0 cm-3 s-1, respectively. Consistency in the time series of the nucleation mode particle concentration and the proxy of H2SO4 production, UVB · SO2/CS, for new particle formation (NPF) events suggested that photooxidation of SO2 was likely one of the major mechanisms for the formation of new particles in our study area. Moreover, it was revealed that the

  6. Mutagenicity of fine airborne particles: diurnal variation in community air determined by a Salmonella micro preincubation (microsuspension) procedure

    SciTech Connect

    Kado, N.Y.; Guirguis, G.N.; Flessel, C.P.; Chan, R.C.; Chang, K.I.; Wesolowski, J.J.

    1986-01-01

    A simple modification of the Salmonella liquid incubation assay previously developed for detecting mutagens in urine was used to determine mutagenic activity of airborne particulate matter. The modification consists of adding ten times more bacteria and five to ten times less metabolic enzymes compared to the plate incorporation method. The mixture volume is approximately 0.2 ml, and the mixture is incubated for 90 min before pouring it according to the standard protocol. The modified procedure was approximately ten times more sensitive than the standard plate incorporation test for detecting mutagens in air particulate extracts and approximately ten to 31 times more sensitive for the chemical mutagens 2-nitrofluorene, 4-nitroquinoline-N-oxide, 2-aminofluorene, and benzo(a)pyrene in bacterial strain TA98. Mutagenic activity was associated exclusively with fine particles (aerodynamic diameters of less than 2.5 ..mu..m). Diurnal patterns of mutagenic activity were investigated by measuring filter extracts from 2-hr samples collected in three San Francisco Bay Area cities during the summer or fall of 1982. Four criteria pollutants - lead, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, and sulfur dioxide - were simultaneously sampled at one location.

  7. Particle ID numbers, decay tables, and other possible contributions of the Particle Data Group to Monte Carlo standards

    SciTech Connect

    Trippe, T.G.; Lynch, G.R.

    1987-11-01

    The Berkeley Particle Data Group is considering providing a single standard numbering scheme for use in programs for high energy physics Monte Carlo event generation, detector simulation, and analysis. The purpose is to facilitate standardizing the interfaces between these programs, to reduce the possibility for errors, and to simplify code maintenance. Several schemes have been studied and a tentative proposal is given. The possibility of the Particle Data Group providing decay tables and material properties tables is discussed.

  8. [Particle Size and Number Density Online Analysis for Particle Suspension with Polarization-Differentiation Elastic Light Scattering Spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-kang; Fang, Hui

    2016-03-01

    The basic principle of polarization-differentiation elastic light scattering spectroscopy based techniques is that under the linear polarized light incidence, the singlely scattered light from the superficial biological tissue and diffusively scattered light from the deep tissue can be separated according to the difference of polarization characteristics. The novel point of the paper is to apply this method to the detection of particle suspension and, to realize the simultaneous measurement of its particle size and number density in its natural status. We design and build a coaxial cage optical system, and measure the backscatter signal at a specified angle from a polystyrene microsphere suspension. By controlling the polarization direction of incident light with a linear polarizer and adjusting the polarization direction of collected light with another linear polarizer, we obtain the parallel polarized elastic light scattering spectrum and cross polarized elastic light scattering spectrum. The difference between the two is the differential polarized elastic light scattering spectrum which include only the single scattering information of the particles. We thus compare this spectrum to the Mie scattering calculation and extract the particle size. We then also analyze the cross polarized elastic light scattering spectrum by applying the particle size already extracted. The analysis is based on the approximate expressions taking account of light diffusing, from which we are able to obtain the number density of the particle suspension. We compare our experimental outcomes with the manufacturer-provided values and further analyze the influence of the particle diameter standard deviation on the number density extraction, by which we finally verify the experimental method. The potential applications of the method include the on-line particle quality monitoring for particle manufacture as well as the fat and protein density detection of milk products. PMID:27400522

  9. Use of micro-XANES to speciate chromium in airborne fine particles in the Sacramento Valley

    SciTech Connect

    Michelle L. Werner; Peter S. Nico; Matthew A. Marcus; Cort Anastasio

    2007-07-15

    While particulate matter (PM) in the atmosphere can lead to a wide array of negative health effects, the cause of toxicity is largely unknown. One aspect of PM that likely affects health is the chemical composition, in particular the transition metals within the particles. Chromium is one transition metal of interest due to its two major oxidation states, with Cr(III) being much less toxic compared to Cr(VI). Using microfocused X-ray absorption near edge structure (micro-XANES), we analyzed the Cr speciation in fine particles (diameters {le} 2.5 {mu}m) collected at three sites in the Sacramento Valley of northern California: Sacramento, a large urban area, Davis, a small city, and Placerville, a rural area. These are several major stationary sources of Cr within 24 km of the site including chrome-plating plants, power plants and incinerators. The microfocused X-ray beam enables us to look at very small areas on the filter with a resolution of typically 5-7 micrometers. With XANES we are able to not only distinguish between Cr(VI) and Cr(III), but also to identify different types of Cr(III) and more reduced Cr species. At all of our sampling sites the main Cr species were Cr(III), with Cr(OH){sub 3} or a Cr-Fe, chromite-like, phase being the dominant species. Cr(VI)-containing particles were found only in the most urban site. All three sites contained some reduced Cr species, either Cr(0) or Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2}, although these were minor components. This work demonstrates that micro-XANES can be used as a minimally invasive analytical tool to investigate the composition of ambient PM. 32 refs., 6 figs.

  10. Summertime ozone and airborne particle concentrations measured on the Juneau Icefield (58°N)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fry, J.; Katz, J. D.; Redell, K.; Dittrich, T.

    2010-12-01

    The Juneau Icefield Research Program has facilitated long-term research on the remote subarctic and mountain environment since 1946. In summer 2010, a pilot air quality study was conducted at Camp 18 on the Juneau Icefield (58°36'N 134°30'W). Ozone mixing ratio and aerosol particle size distribution were measured on a remote glacier plateau, with coincident monitoring of wind speed and direction from August 4-11, 2010. Correlations between these air pollution indicators and airmass source direction are explored to address the broader question of long-range transport of pollution.

  11. 290 and 340 nm UV LED arrays for fluorescence detection from single airborne particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davitt, Kristina; Song, Yoon-Kyu; Patterson, William R., III; Nurmikko, Arto V.; Gherasimova, Maria; Han, Jung; Pan, Yong-Le; Chang, Richard K.

    2005-11-01

    We demonstrate a compact system, incorporating a 32-element linear array of ultraviolet (290 nm and 340 nm) light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and a multi-anode photomultiplier tube, to the in-flight fluorescence detection of aerosolized particles, here containing the biological molecules tryptophan and NADH. This system illustrates substantial advances in the growth and fabrication of new semiconductor UV light emitting devices and an evolution in packaging details for LEDs tailored to the bio-aerosol warning problem. Optical engineering strategies are employed which take advantage of the size and versatility of light-emitting diodes to develop a truly compact fluorescence detector.

  12. 290 and 340 nm UV LED arrays for fluorescence detection from single airborne particles.

    PubMed

    Davitt, Kristina; Song, Yoon-Kyu; Patterson Iii, William; Nurmikko, Arto; Gherasimova, Maria; Han, Jung; Pan, Yong-Le; Chang, Richard

    2005-11-14

    We demonstrate a compact system, incorporating a 32-element linear array of ultraviolet (290 nm and 340 nm) light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and a multi-anode photomultiplier tube, to the in-flight fluorescence detection of aerosolized particles, here containing the biological molecules tryptophan and NADH. This system illustrates substantial advances in the growth and fabrication of new semiconductor UV light emitting devices and an evolution in packaging details for LEDs tailored to the bio-aerosol warning problem. Optical engineering strategies are employed which take advantage of the size and versatility of light-emitting diodes to develop a truly compact fluorescence detector. PMID:19503158

  13. Internal one-particle density matrix for Bose-Einstein condensates with finite number of particles in a harmonic potential

    SciTech Connect

    Yamada, Taiichi; Funaki, Yasuro; Horiuchi, Hisashi; Roepke, Gerd; Schuck, Peter; Tohsaki, Akihiro

    2009-05-15

    Investigations on the internal one-particle density matrix in the case of Bose-Einstein condensates with a finite number (N) of particles in a harmonic potential are performed. We solve the eigenvalue problem of the Pethick-Pitaevskii-type internal density matrix and find a fragmented condensate. On the contrary the condensate Jacobi-type internal density matrix gives complete condensation into a single state. The internal one-particle density matrix is, therefore, shown to be different in general for different choices of the internal coordinate system. We propose two physically motivated criteria for the choice of the adequate coordinate systems that give us a unique answer for the internal one-particle density matrix. One criterion is that in the infinite particle number limit (N={infinity}) the internal one-particle density matrix should have the same eigenvalues and eigenfunctions as those of the corresponding ideal Bose-Einstein condensate in the laboratory frame. The other criterion is that the coordinate of the internal one-particle density matrix should be orthogonal to the remaining (N-2) internal coordinates, though the (N-2) coordinates, in general, do not need to be mutually orthogonal. This second criterion is shown to imply the first criterion. It is shown that the internal Jacobi coordinate system satisfies these two criteria while the internal coordinate system adopted by Pethick and Pitaevskii for the construction of the internal one-particle density matrix does not. It is demonstrated that these two criteria uniquely determine the internal one-particle density matrix that is identical to that calculated with the Jacobi coordinates. The relevance of this work concerning {alpha}-particle condensates in nuclei, as well as bosonic atoms in traps, is pointed out.

  14. Construction of Non-Perturbative, Unitary Particle-Antiparticle Amplitudes for Finite Particle Number Scattering Formalisms

    SciTech Connect

    Lindesay, James V

    2002-03-12

    Starting from a unitary, Lorentz invariant two-particle scattering amplitude, we show how to use an identification and replacement process to construct a unique, unitary particle-antiparticle amplitude. This process differs from conventional on-shell Mandelstam s,t,u crossing in that the input and constructed amplitudes can be off-diagonal and off-energy shell. Further, amplitudes are constructed using the invariant parameters which are appropriate to use as driving terms in the multi-particle, multichannel nonperturbative, cluster decomposable, relativistic scattering equations of the Faddeev-type integral equations recently presented by Alfred, Kwizera, Lindesay and Noyes. It is therefore anticipated that when so employed, the resulting multi-channel solutions will also be unitary. The process preserves the usual particle-antiparticle symmetries. To illustrate this process, we construct a J=0 scattering length model chosen for simplicity. We also exhibit a class of physical models which contain a finite quantum mass parameter and are Lorentz invariant. These are constructed to reduce in the appropriate limits, and with the proper choice of value and sign of the interaction parameter, to the asymptotic solution of the nonrelativistic Coulomb problem, including the forward scattering singularity , the essential singularity in the phase, and the Bohr bound-state spectrum.

  15. Concentration and particle size of airborne toxic algae (brevetoxin) derived from ocean red tide events.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yung Sung; McDonald, Jacob D; Kracko, Dean; Irvin, C Mitch; Zhou, Yue; Pierce, Richard H; Henry, Michael S; Bourdelaisa, Andrea; Naar, Jerome; Baden, Daniel G

    2005-05-15

    Red tides in the Gulf of Mexico are formed by blooms of the dinoflagellate Karenia brevis, which produces brevetoxins (PbTx). Brevetoxins can be transferred from water to air in the wind-powered whitecapped waves during red tide episodes. Inhalation exposure to marine aerosol containing PbTx causes respiratory problems. A liquid chromatograph/ tandem mass spectrometric method was developed for the detection and quantitation of several PbTxs in ambient samples collected during red tide events. This method was complemented by a previously developed antibody assay that analyzes the entire class of PbTx compounds. The method showed good linearity, accuracy, and reproducibility, allowing quantitation of PbTx compounds in the 10 pg/m3 range. Air concentrations of PbTxs and brevenal for individual samples ranged from 0.01 to 80 ng/m3. The particle size showed a single mode with a mass median diameter between 6 and 10 microm, which was consistent for all of the PbTx species that were measured. Our results imply that individual PbTxs were from the same marine aerosol or from marine aerosol that was produced from the same process. The particle size indicated the likelihood of high deposition efficiency in the respiratory tract with the majority of aerosol deposited in the upper airways and small but not insignificant deposition in the lower airways. PMID:15954221

  16. Number size distributions and seasonality of submicron particles in Europe 2008-2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asmi, A.; Wiedensohler, A.; Laj, P.; Fjaeraa, A.-M.; Sellegri, K.; Birmili, W.; Weingartner, E.; Baltensperger, U.; Zdimal, V.; Zikova, N.; Putaud, J.-P.; Marinoni, A.; Tunved, P.; Hansson, H.-C.; Fiebig, M.; Kivekäs, N.; Lihavainen, H.; Asmi, E.; Ulevicius, V.; Aalto, P. P.; Swietlicki, E.; Kristensson, A.; Mihalopoulos, N.; Kalivitis, N.; Kalapov, I.; Kiss, G.; de Leeuw, G.; Henzing, B.; Harrison, R. M.; Beddows, D.; O'Dowd, C.; Jennings, S. G.; Flentje, H.; Weinhold, K.; Meinhardt, F.; Ries, L.; Kulmala, M.

    2011-03-01

    Two years of harmonized aerosol number size distribution data from 24 European field monitoring sites have been analysed. The results give a comprehensive overview of the European near surface aerosol particle number concentrations and number size distributions between 30 and 500 nm of dry particle diameter. Spatial and temporal distribution of aerosols in the particle sizes most important for climate applications are presented. We also analyse the annual, weekly and diurnal cycles of the aerosol number concentrations, provide log-normal fitting parameters for median number size distributions, and give guidance notes for data users. Emphasis is placed on the usability of results within the aerosol modelling community. We also show that the aerosol number concentrations of Aitken and accumulation mode particles (with 100 nm dry diameter as a cut-off between modes) are related, although there is significant variation in the ratios of the modal number concentrations. Different aerosol and station types are distinguished from this data and this methodology has potential for further categorization of stations aerosol number size distribution types. The European submicron aerosol was divided into characteristic types: Central European aerosol, characterized by single mode median size distributions, unimodal number concentration histograms and low variability in CCN-sized aerosol number concentrations; Nordic aerosol with low number concentrations, although showing pronounced seasonal variation of especially Aitken mode particles; Mountain sites (altitude over 1000 m a.s.l.) with a strong seasonal cycle in aerosol number concentrations, high variability, and very low median number concentrations. Southern and Western European regions had fewer stations, which decreases the regional representativeness of these results. Aerosol number concentrations over the Britain and Ireland had very high variance and there are indications of mixed air masses from several source regions

  17. Number size distributions and seasonality of submicron particles in Europe 2008-2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asmi, A.; Wiedensohler, A.; Laj, P.; Fjaeraa, A.-M.; Sellegri, K.; Birmili, W.; Weingartner, E.; Baltensperger, U.; Zdimal, V.; Zikova, N.; Putaud, J.-P.; Marinoni, A.; Tunved, P.; Hansson, H.-C.; Fiebig, M.; Kivekäs, N.; Lihavainen, H.; Asmi, E.; Ulevicius, V.; Aalto, P. P.; Swietlicki, E.; Kristensson, A.; Mihalopoulos, N.; Kalivitis, N.; Kalapov, I.; Kiss, G.; de Leeuw, G.; Henzing, B.; Harrison, R. M.; Beddows, D.; O'Dowd, C.; Jennings, S. G.; Flentje, H.; Weinhold, K.; Meinhardt, F.; Ries, L.; Kulmala, M.

    2011-06-01

    Two years of harmonized aerosol number size distribution data from 24 European field monitoring sites have been analysed. The results give a comprehensive overview of the European near surface aerosol particle number concentrations and number size distributions between 30 and 500 nm of dry particle diameter. Spatial and temporal distribution of aerosols in the particle sizes most important for climate applications are presented. We also analyse the annual, weekly and diurnal cycles of the aerosol number concentrations, provide log-normal fitting parameters for median number size distributions, and give guidance notes for data users. Emphasis is placed on the usability of results within the aerosol modelling community. We also show that the aerosol number concentrations of Aitken and accumulation mode particles (with 100 nm dry diameter as a cut-off between modes) are related, although there is significant variation in the ratios of the modal number concentrations. Different aerosol and station types are distinguished from this data and this methodology has potential for further categorization of stations aerosol number size distribution types. The European submicron aerosol was divided into characteristic types: Central European aerosol, characterized by single mode median size distributions, unimodal number concentration histograms and low variability in CCN-sized aerosol number concentrations; Nordic aerosol with low number concentrations, although showing pronounced seasonal variation of especially Aitken mode particles; Mountain sites (altitude over 1000 m a.s.l.) with a strong seasonal cycle in aerosol number concentrations, high variability, and very low median number concentrations. Southern and Western European regions had fewer stations, which decreases the regional coverage of these results. Aerosol number concentrations over the Britain and Ireland had very high variance and there are indications of mixed air masses from several source regions; the

  18. Particle number concentration, size distribution and chemical composition during haze and photochemical smog episodes in Shanghai.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuemei; Chen, Jianmin; Cheng, Tiantao; Zhang, Renyi; Wang, Xinming

    2014-09-01

    The aerosol number concentration and size distribution as well as size-resolved particle chemical composition were measured during haze and photochemical smog episodes in Shanghai in 2009. The number of haze days accounted for 43%, of which 30% was severe (visibility<2km) and moderate (2km≤visibility<3km) haze, mainly distributed in winter and spring. The mean particle number concentration was about 17,000/cm(3) in haze, more than 2 times that in clean days. The greatest increase of particle number concentration was in 0.5-1μm and 1-10μm size fractions during haze events, about 17.78 times and 8.78 times those of clean days. The largest increase of particle number concentration was within 50-100nm and 100-200nm fractions during photochemical smog episodes, about 5.89 times and 4.29 times those of clean days. The particle volume concentration and surface concentration in haze, photochemical smog and clean days were 102, 49, 15μm(3)/cm(3) and 949, 649, 206μm(2)/cm(3), respectively. As haze events got more severe, the number concentration of particles smaller than 50nm decreased, but the particles of 50-200nm and 0.5-1μm increased. The diurnal variation of particle number concentration showed a bimodal pattern in haze days. All soluble ions were increased during haze events, of which NH4(+), SO4(2-) and NO3(-) increased greatly, followed by Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+) and Cl(-). These ions were very different in size-resolved particles during haze and photochemical smog episodes. PMID:25193840

  19. Velocity fluctuations and population distribution in clusters of settling particles at low Reynolds number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boschan, A.; Ocampo, B. L.; Annichini, M.; Gauthier, G.

    2016-06-01

    A study on the spatial organization and velocity fluctuations of non-Brownian spherical particles settling at low Reynolds number in a vertical Hele-Shaw cell is reported. The particle volume fraction ranged from 0.005 to 0.05, while the distance between cell plates ranged from 5 to 15 times the particle radius. Particle tracking revealed that particles were not uniformly distributed in space but assembled in transient settling clusters. The population distribution of these clusters followed an exponential law. The measured velocity fluctuations are in agreement with that predicted theoretically for spherical clusters, from the balance between the apparent weight and the drag force. This result suggests that particle clustering, more than a spatial distribution of particles derived from random and independent events, is at the origin of the velocity fluctuations.

  20. Inertial Particle Relative Velocity in a High-Reynolds-Number Homogeneous and Isotropic Turbulence Chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dou, Zhongwang; Pecenak, Zachary; Liang, Zach; Cao, Lujie; Ireland, Peter; Collins, Lance; Meng, Hui

    2015-11-01

    Particle-pair radial relative velocity (RV) in turbulence plays a critical role in droplet collision and cloud formation. Both simulations and experiments are performed to better understand RV of inertial particles in homogeneous and isotropic turbulence (HIT). However, past experimental measurement of particle RV statistics exhibited large deviations from DNS results (de Jong et al., 2010). In the current study, we identified intrinsic limitations in our previous study and devised a 4-frame particle tracking velocimetry technique to measure particle RV. In a second-generation, enclosed, fan-driven HIT chamber, both tracer and inertial particles were studied at R_ λ of 366. The experimentally measured RV statistics were compared with DNS with excellent agreement. Additionally, for both kinds of particles, the mean inward RV vs. particle separation distance r also matched very well with DNS, but at near-zero r, experimental values were slightly higher. To investigate the cause of this discrepancy, we compared DNS of both mono- and tri-dispersed particles. We found that the tri-dispersed particles exhibited higher mean inward RV at small r than any mono-dispersed particles. This suggests that the increase of mean inward RV in the experiment could be due to the Stokes number (St) distribution present in the particles, while DNS employed single St values. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation through a Collaborative Research Grant CBET-0967407.

  1. Airborne particulate matter and human health: toxicological assessment and importance of size and composition of particles for oxidative damage and carcinogenic mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Valavanidis, Athanasios; Fiotakis, Konstantinos; Vlachogianni, Thomais

    2008-01-01

    Air pollution has been considered a hazard to human health. In the past decades, many studies highlighted the role of ambient airborne particulate matter (PM) as an important environmental pollutant for many different cardiopulmonary diseases and lung cancer. Numerous epidemiological studies in the past 30 years found a strong exposure-response relationship between PM for short-term effects (premature mortality, hospital admissions) and long-term or cumulative health effects (morbidity, lung cancer, cardiovascular and cardiopulmonary diseases, etc). Current research on airborne particle-induced health effects investigates the critical characteristics of particulate matter that determine their biological effects. Several independent groups of investigators have shown that the size of the airborne particles and their surface area determine the potential to elicit inflammatory injury, oxidative damage, and other biological effects. These effects are stronger for fine and ultrafine particles because they can penetrate deeper into the airways of the respiratory tract and can reach the alveoli in which 50% are retained in the lung parenchyma. Composition of the PM varies greatly and depends on many factors. The major components of PM are transition metals, ions (sulfate, nitrate), organic compound, quinoid stable radicals of carbonaceous material, minerals, reactive gases, and materials of biologic origin. Results from toxicological research have shown that PM have several mechanisms of adverse cellular effects, such as cytotoxicity through oxidative stress mechanisms, oxygen-free radical-generating activity, DNA oxidative damage, mutagenicity, and stimulation of proinflammatory factors. In this review, the results of the most recent epidemiological and toxicological studies are summarized. In general, the evaluation of most of these studies shows that the smaller the size of PM the higher the toxicity through mechanisms of oxidative stress and inflammation. Some studies

  2. Number-of-particle fluctuations and stability of Bose-Einstein-condensed systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, C.-H.

    2006-02-01

    In this paper we show that a normal total number-of-particle fluctuation can be obtained consistently from the static thermodynamic relation and dynamic compressibility sum rule. In models using the broken U(1) gauge symmetry, in order to keep the consistency between statics and dynamics, it is important to identify the equilibrium state of the system with which the density response function is calculated, so that the condensate particle number N0 , the number of thermal depletion particles Ñ , and the number of noncondensate particles NNC can be unambiguously defined. We also show that the chemical potential determined from the Hugenholtz-Pines theorem should be consistent with that determined from the equilibrium equation of state. The N4/3 anomalous fluctuation of the number of noncondensate particles is an intrinsic feature of the broken U(1) gauge symmetry. However, this anomalous fluctuation does not imply the instability of the system. Using the random phase approximation, which preserves the U(1) gauge symmetry, such an anomalous fluctuation of the number of noncondensate particles is completely absent.

  3. Lattice Boltzmann method simulations of Stokes number effects on particle motion in a channel flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lenan; Jebakumar, Anand Samuel; Abraham, John

    2016-06-01

    In a recent experimental study by Lau and Nathan ["Influence of Stokes number on the velocity and concentration distributions in particle-laden jets," J. Fluid Mech. 757, 432 (2014)], it was found that particles in a turbulent pipe flow tend to migrate preferentially toward the wall or the axis depending on their Stokes number (St). Particles with a higher St (>10) are concentrated near the axis while those with lower St (<1) move toward the walls. Jebakumar et al. ["Lattice Boltzmann method simulations of Stokes number effects on particle trajectories in a wall-bounded flow," Comput. Fluids 124, 208 (2016)] have carried out simulations of a particle in a laminar channel flow to investigate this behavior. In their work, they report a similar behavior where particles with low St migrate toward the wall and oscillate about a mean position near the wall while those with high St oscillate about the channel center plane. They have explained this behavior in terms of the Saffman lift, Magnus lift, and wall repulsion forces acting on the particle. The present work extends the previous work done by Jebakumar et al. and aims to study the behavior of particles at intermediate St ranging from 10 to 20. It is in this range where the equilibrium position of the particle changes from near the wall to the axis and the particle starts oscillating about the axis. The Lattice Boltzmann method is employed to carry out this study. It is shown that the change in mean equilibrium position is related to increasing oscillations of the particle with mean position near the wall which results in the particle moving past the center plane to the opposite side. The responsible mechanisms are explained in detail.

  4. Notably improved inversion of Differential Mobility Particle Sizer data obtained under conditions of fluctuating particle number concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mølgaard, B.; Vanhatalo, J.; Aalto, P. P.; Prisle, N. L.; Hämeri, K.

    2015-10-01

    The Differential Mobility Particle Sizer (DMPS) is designed for measurements of particle number size distributions. It performs a number of measurements while scanning over different particle sizes. A standard assumption in the data processing (inversion) algorithm is that the size distribution remains the same throughout each scan. For a DMPS deployed in an urban area this assumption is likely to be violated most of the time, and the resulting size distribution data are unreliable. To improve the reliability, we developed a new algorithm using a statistical model in which the problematic assumption was replaced with more realistic smoothness assumptions, which were expressed through Gaussian Process prior probabilities. We tested the model with data from a twin-DMPS located in Helsinki and found that it provides size distribution data which are much more realistic. Furthermore, particle number concentrations extracted from the DMPS data were compared with data from a condensation particle counter at 30 s resolution, and the overall agreement was good. Thus, the quality of the inverted data was clearly improved.

  5. Notably improved inversion of differential mobility particle sizer data obtained under conditions of fluctuating particle number concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mølgaard, Bjarke; Vanhatalo, Jarno; Aalto, Pasi P.; Prisle, Nønne L.; Hämeri, Kaarle

    2016-02-01

    The differential mobility particle sizer (DMPS) is designed for measurements of particle number size distributions. It performs a number of measurements while scanning over different particle sizes. A standard assumption in the data-processing (inversion) algorithm is that the size distribution remains the same throughout each scan. For a DMPS deployed in an urban area this assumption is likely to be violated most of the time, and the resulting size distribution data are unreliable. To improve the reliability, we developed a new algorithm using a statistical model in which the problematic assumption was replaced with more realistic smoothness assumptions, which were expressed through Gaussian process prior probabilities. We tested the model with data from a twin DMPS located at an urban background site in Helsinki and found that it provides size distribution data which are much more realistic. Furthermore, particle number concentrations extracted from the DMPS data were compared with data from a condensation particle counter. At 10 min resolution, the correlation for a period of 10 days was 0.984 with the new algorithm and 0.967 with the old one. Moreover, the time resolution was improved, and at 30 s resolution we obtained positive correlations for 89 % of the scans. Thus, the quality of the inverted data was clearly improved.

  6. Quantification of particle number and mass emission factors from combustion of Queensland trees.

    PubMed

    Wardoyo, Arinto Y P; Morawska, Lidia; Ristovski, Zoran D; Marsh, Jack

    2006-09-15

    The quantification of particle emission factors under controlled laboratory conditions for burning of the following five common tree species found in South East Queensland forests has been studied: Spotted Gum (Corymbia citriodora), Blue Gum (Eucalyptus tereticornis), Bloodwood (Eucalyptus intermedia), Iron Bark (Eucalyptus crebra), and Stringybark (Eucalyptus umbra). The results of the study show that the particle number emission factors and PM2.5 mass emission factors depend on the type of tree and the burning rate. For fast burning conditions, the average particle number emission factors are in the range of 3.3-5.7 x 10(15) particles/kg for woods and 0.5-6.9 x 10(15) particles/kg for leaves and branches, and the PM2.5 emission factors are in the range of 140-210 mg/kg for woods and 450-4700 mg/kg for leaves and branches. For slow burning conditions, the average particle number emission factors are in the range of 2.8-44.8 x 10(13) particles/kg for woods and 0.5-9.3 x 10(13) particles/kg for leaves and branches, and the PM2.5 emissions factors are in the range of 120-480 mg/kg for woods and 3300-4900 mg/kg for leaves and branches. PMID:17007128

  7. Contribution from indoor sources to particle number and mass concentrations in residential houses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Congrong; Morawska, Lidia; Hitchins, Jane; Gilbert, Dale

    As part of a large study investigating indoor air in residential houses in Brisbane, Australia, the purpose of this work was to quantify emission characteristics of indoor particle sources in 15 houses. Submicrometer particle number and approximation of PM 2.5 concentrations were measured simultaneously for more than 48 h in the kitchen of all the houses by using a condensation particle counter (CPC) and a photometer (DustTrak), respectively. In addition, characterizations of particles resulting from cooking conducted in an identical way in all the houses were measured by using a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS), an aerodynamic particle sizer (APS) and a DustTrak. All the events of elevated particle concentrations were linked to indoor activities using house occupants diary entries, and catalogued into 21 different types of indoor activities. This enabled quantification of the effect of indoor sources on indoor particle concentrations as well as quantification of emission rates from the sources. For example, the study found that frying, grilling, stove use, toasting, cooking pizza, cooking, candle vaporizing eucalyptus oil and fan heater use, could elevate the indoor submicrometer particle number concentration levels by more than five times, while PM 2.5 concentrations could be up to 3, 30 and 90 times higher than the background levels during smoking, frying and grilling, respectively.

  8. A particle number conserving Lagrangian method for mixing-driven reactive transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolster, Diogo; Paster, Amir; Benson, David A.

    2016-02-01

    The purely Lagrangian algorithm for chemical reactions introduced by Benson and Meerschaert (2008) suffers from a low-concentration resolution problem. We alleviate the problem by redefining the probabilistic collision/reaction (birth/death) stochastic process as a mass-reduction operation. Theoretically, this corresponds to replacing an on/off particle with a large number of "subparticles" and tracking the number fraction. The new particle reaction process maintains the original particle numbers but adjusts each particle's mass upon reaction. Several simulations show the veracity as well as the gains in low-concentration resolution offered by the algorithm. We also compare the results to those obtained by a traditional finite difference model with suitably defined initial condition, demonstrating that the Lagrangian models match these.

  9. Acute health impacts of airborne particles estimated from satellite remote sensing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhaoxi; Liu, Yang; Hu, Mu; Pan, Xiaochuan; Shi, Jing; Chen, Feng; He, Kebin; Koutrakis, Petros; Christiani, David C

    2013-01-01

    Satellite-based remote sensing provides a unique opportunity to monitor air quality from space at global, continental, national and regional scales. Most current research focused on developing empirical models using ground measurements of the ambient particulate. However, the application of satellite-based exposure assessment in environmental health is still limited, especially for acute effects, because the development of satellite PM(2.5) model depends on the availability of ground measurements. We tested the hypothesis that MODIS AOD (aerosol optical depth) exposure estimates, obtained from NASA satellites, are directly associated with daily health outcomes. Three independent healthcare databases were used: unscheduled outpatient visits, hospital admissions, and mortality collected in Beijing metropolitan area, China during 2006. We use generalized linear models to compare the short-term effects of air pollution assessed by ground monitoring (PM(10)) with adjustment of absolute humidity (AH) and AH-calibrated AOD. Across all databases we found that both AH-calibrated AOD and PM(10) (adjusted by AH) were consistently associated with elevated daily events on the current day and/or lag days for cardiovascular diseases, ischemic heart diseases, and COPD. The relative risks estimated by AH-calibrated AOD and PM(10) (adjusted by AH) were similar. Additionally, compared to ground PM(10), we found that AH-calibrated AOD had narrower confidence intervals for all models and was more robust in estimating the current day and lag day effects. Our preliminary findings suggested that, with proper adjustment of meteorological factors, satellite AOD can be used directly to estimate the acute health impacts of ambient particles without prior calibrating to the sparse ground monitoring networks. PMID:23220016

  10. Acute health impacts of airborne particles estimated from satellite remote sensing✩

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhaoxi; Liu, Yang; Hu, Mu; Pan, Xiaochuan; Shi, Jing; Chen, Feng; He, Kebin; Koutrakis, Petros; Christiani, David C.

    2013-01-01

    Satellite-based remote sensing provides a unique opportunity to monitor air quality from space at global, continental, national and regional scales. Most current research focused on developing empirical models using ground measurements of the ambient particulate. However, the application of satellite-based exposure assessment in environmental health is still limited, especially for acute effects, because the development of satellite PM2.5 model depends on the availability of ground measurements. We tested the hypothesis that MODIS AOD (aerosol optical depth) exposure estimates, obtained from NASA satellites, are directly associated with daily health outcomes. Three independent healthcare databases were used: unscheduled outpatient visits, hospital admissions, and mortality collected in Beijing metropolitan area, China during 2006. We use generalized linear models to compare the short-term effects of air pollution assessed by ground monitoring (PM10) with adjustment of absolute humidity (AH) and AH-calibrated AOD. Across all databases we found that both AH-calibrated AOD and PM10 (adjusted by AH) were consistently associated with elevated daily events on the current day and/or lag days for cardiovascular diseases, ischemic heart diseases, and COPD. The relative risks estimated by AH-calibrated AOD and PM10 (adjusted by AH) were similar. Additionally, compared to ground PM10, we found that AH-calibrated AOD had narrower confidence intervals for all models and was more robust in estimating the current day and lag day effects. Our preliminary findings suggested that, with proper adjustment of meteorological factors, satellite AOD can be used directly to estimate the acute health impacts of ambient particles without prior calibrating to the sparse ground monitoring networks. PMID:23220016

  11. The number statistics and optimal history of non-equilibrium steady states of mortal diffusing particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meerson, Baruch

    2015-05-01

    Suppose that a point-like steady source at x = 0 injects particles into a half-infinite line. The particles diffuse and die. At long times a non-equilibrium steady state sets in, and we assume that it involves many particles. If the particles are non-interacting, their total number N in the steady state is Poisson-distributed with mean \\bar{N} predicted from a deterministic reaction-diffusion equation. Here we determine the most likely density history of this driven system conditional on observing a given N. We also consider two prototypical examples of interacting diffusing particles: (i) a family of mortal diffusive lattice gases with constant diffusivity (as illustrated by the simple symmetric exclusion process with mortal particles), and (ii) random walkers that can annihilate in pairs. In both examples we calculate the variances of the (non-Poissonian) stationary distributions of N.

  12. Measurement of particle number and related pollutant concentrations in an urban area in South Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agudelo-Castañeda, D. M.; Teixeira, E. C.; Rolim, S. B. A.; Pereira, F. N.; Wiegand, F.

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of the present study was to analyze atmospheric particle number concentration at Sapucaia do Sul, in the Metropolitan Area of Porto Alegre, and associate it with the pollutants NO, NO2, and O3. Measurements were performed in two periods: August to October, in 2010 and 2011. We used the following equipment: the continuous particulate monitor (CPM), the chemiluminescent nitrogen oxide analyzer (AC32M), and the UV photometric ozone analyzer (O342M). Daily and hourly particle number concentrations in fractions PR1.0 (0.3-1.0 μm), PR2.5 (1.0-2.5 μm), and PR10 (2.5-10 μm), and concentrations of pollutants NO, NO2, NOx, and O3 were measured. These data were correlated with meteorological parameters such as wind speed, temperature, relative humidity, and solar radiation. The daily variation of OX (NO2 + O3) and its relation with NO2 were also established. The results obtained for daily particle number concentration (particles L-1) showed that the area of study had higher particle number of PR2.5 and PR1.0 size ranges, with values of 19.5 and 28.51 particles L-1, respectively. Differences in particle number concentrations in PR1 and PR2.5 size ranges were found between weekdays and weekends. The daily variation per hour of concentrations of particle number, NO, and NOx showed peaks during increased traffic flow in the morning and in the evening. NO2 showed peaks at different times, with the first peak (morning) 2 h after the peak of NO, and a second peak in the evening (19:00). This is due to the oxidation of NO and to the photolysis of NO3 formed overnight. Correlation analysis suggests that there may be a relationship between the fine and ultrafine particles and NO, probably indicating that they have similar sources, such as vehicular emissions. In addition, a possible relationship of solar radiation with fine particle number concentrations, as well as with O3 was also observed. The results, too, show an inverse relationship between particle number

  13. Measurements of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in airborne particles from the metropolitan area of São Paulo City, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasconcellos, Pérola C.; Zacarias, Davi; Pires, Maria A. F.; Pool, Cristina S.; Carvalho, Lilian R. F.

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from phenanthrene to benzo[g,h,i]perylene in airborne particles were measured in the winter of 2000 at three different sites within the metropolitan area of São Paulo City (MASP), Brazil. It is one of the largest metropolitan areas in the world and has an unconventional mixture of vehicle types, in which a variety of gasoline blends, including oxygenated ones, are used. In this study, occurrence of PAH, meteorological conditions and inter and intrasite comparisons are presented. Overall, the results revealed low PAH levels due to rainfall episodes during the sampling period. Samples collected in the urban site presented the highest PAH concentrations (av. 3.10 ng m -3) when compared to those collected in the urban site with dense vegetation (av. 2.73 ng m -3) and in the forest area (av. 1.92 ng m -3). PAH measurements in tunnels with different types of vehicles were performed in order to suggest possible tracers of the vehicular emissions in São Paulo. Pyrene followed by chrysene and fluoranthene were emitted mainly from gasohol vehicular motor exhausts, whereas chrysene, pyrene and benzo[a]anthracene were emitted mainly from gasohol and diesel vehicular motor exhausts. Some characteristic ratios from the tunnel measurements were used to identify vehicular sources in the atmosphere of the MASP. Although it is known that losses can occur both by evaporation and sublimation during sampling, measurements of higher molecular weight PAH compounds were taken into consideration due to their high recovery efficiency.

  14. Resolving Organized Aerosol Structures (Rolls and Layers) with Airborne Fast Mobility Particle Sizer (FMPS) During MILAGRO/INTEX Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapustin, V.; Clarke, A.; Zhou, J.; Howell, S.; Shinozuka, Y.; Brekhovskikh, V.; McNaughton, C.

    2007-12-01

    The Hawaii Group for Environmental Aerosol Research [http://www.soest.hawaii.edu/HIGEAR] deployed a wide range of aerosol instrumentation aboard the C-130 and the NASA DC-8 as part of MILAGRO/INTEX. These were designed to provide rapid information on aerosol composition, state of mixing (internal or external), spectral optical properties (scattering and absorption), the humidity dependence of light scattering-f(RH), and the role of condensed species in changing the absorption properties of black carbon (BC) and inferred properties of organic carbon (OC). These measurements included size distributions from about 7 nm up to about 10,000 nm and their volatility at 150, 300 and 400 C; size selected response to heating (volatility) to resolve the state of mixing of the aerosol; continuous measurements of the light scattering and absorption at 3 wavelengths; measurements of the f(RH). We also flew the first airborne deployment of the new Fast Mobility Particle Sizer (FMPS, TSI Inc.) that provided information on rapid (1Hz) size variations in the Aitken mode. This revealed small scale structure of the aerosol and allowed us to examine size distributions varying over space and time associated with mixing processes previously unresolved etc. Rapid measurements during profiles also revealed variations in size over shallow layers. Other dynamic processes included rapid size distribution measurements within orographically induced aerosol layers and size distribution evolution of the nanoparticles formed by nucleation (C-130 flights 5, 6 and 9). Evidence for fluctuations induced by underlying changes in topography was also detected. These measurements also frequently revealed the aerosol variability in the presence of boundary layer rolls aligned along the wind in the Marine Boundary Layer (Gulf region) both with and without visible cloud streets (DC-8 flight 4 and C-130 flight 7). This organized convection over 1-2 km scales influences the mixing processes (entrainment, RH

  15. In situ formation and spatial variability of particle number concentration in a European megacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pikridas, M.; Sciare, J.; Freutel, F.; Crumeyrolle, S.; von der Weiden-Reinmüller, S.-L.; Borbon, A.; Schwarzenboeck, A.; Merkel, M.; Crippa, M.; Kostenidou, E.; Psichoudaki, M.; Hildebrandt, L.; Engelhart, G. J.; Petäjä, T.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Drewnick, F.; Baltensperger, U.; Wiedensohler, A.; Kulmala, M.; Beekmann, M.; Pandis, S. N.

    2015-09-01

    Ambient particle number size distributions were measured in Paris, France, during summer (1-31 July 2009) and winter (15 January to 15 February 2010) at three fixed ground sites and using two mobile laboratories and one airplane. The campaigns were part of the Megacities: Emissions, urban, regional and Global Atmospheric POLlution and climate effects, and Integrated tools for assessment and mitigation (MEGAPOLI) project. New particle formation (NPF) was observed only during summer on approximately 50 % of the campaign days, assisted by the low condensation sink (about 10.7 ± 5.9 × 10-3 s-1). NPF events inside the Paris plume were also observed at 600 m altitude onboard an aircraft simultaneously with regional events identified on the ground. Increased particle number concentrations were measured aloft also outside of the Paris plume at the same altitude, and were attributed to NPF. The Paris plume was identified, based on increased particle number and black carbon concentration, up to 200 km away from the Paris center during summer. The number concentration of particles with diameters exceeding 2.5 nm measured on the surface at the Paris center was on average 6.9 ± 8.7 × 104 and 12.1 ± 8.6 × 104 cm-3 during summer and winter, respectively, and was found to decrease exponentially with distance from Paris. However, further than 30 km from the city center, the particle number concentration at the surface was similar during both campaigns. During summer, one suburban site in the NE was not significantly affected by Paris emissions due to higher background number concentrations, while the particle number concentration at the second suburban site in the SW increased by a factor of 3 when it was downwind of Paris.

  16. Spatio-temporal covariation of urban particle number concentration and ambient noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Stephan

    Mobile measurements of ambient noise and particle number concentrations were carried out within an urban residential area in Essen, Germany, during summer 2008. A busy major road with a traffic intensity of about 44,000 vehicles per day was situated within the study area. The spatio-temporal distribution of noise and particles was closely coupled to road traffic on the major road. Total particle number concentrations in proximity to the main road were on average between 25,000 cm -3 and 35,000 cm -3 while sound levels reached 70-78 dB(A). These estimates were more than double-fold (factor 2.4) in comparison to the urban residential background. At a 50 m distance off the road particle number concentrations were decaying to about 50% of the initial value. The measurements were characterised by close spatial correlation between total particle number concentration and ambient noise with correlation coefficients of up to r = 0.74. However, during one measurement day coupling between both quantities was weak due to higher turbulent mixing within the canopy layer and a change in ambient wind directions. Enhanced dilution of particle emission from road traffic by turbulent mixing and 'decoupling' from the influence of road traffic are believed to be responsible.

  17. Measurements of ultrafine particles carrying different number of charges in on- and near-freeway environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Eon S.; Xu, Bin; Zhu, Yifang

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents measurements of electrical charges on ultrafine particles (UFPs) of different electrical mobility diameters (30, 50, 80, and 100 nm) in on- and near-freeway environments. Using a tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer (DMA) system, we first examined the fraction of UFPs carrying different number of charges on two distinctive freeways: a gasoline-vehicle dominated freeway (I-405) and a heavy-duty diesel truck dominated freeway (I-710). The fractions of UFPs of a given size carrying one or more charges were significantly higher on the freeways than in the background. The background UFPs only carried up to two charges but freeway UFPs could have up to three charges. The total fraction of charged particles was higher on the I-710 than I-405 across the studied electrical mobility diameters. Near the I-405 freeway, we observed a strong decay of charged particles on the downwind side of the freeway. We also found fractional decay of the charged particles was faster than total particle number concentrations, but slower than total ion concentrations downwind from the freeway I-405. Among charged particles, the highest decay rate was observed for particles carrying three charges. Near the I-710 freeway, we found strong net positive charges on nucleation mode particles, suggesting that UFPs were not at steady-state charge equilibrium near freeways.

  18. Linking particle number concentration (PNC), meteorology and traffic variables in a UK street canyon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Heather D.; Arthur, Robert; BéruBé, Kelly A.; Jones, Tim P.

    2014-10-01

    Ambient particle number concentration (PNC) has been linked with adverse health outcomes such as asthma, reduced lung function and cardiovascular disease. To investigate the relationship between PNC, meteorology and traffic we measured size segregated respirable particles in a busy commuter street in Swansea, UK for ten months using a Dekati Electrical Low Pressure Impactor (ELPI). The ELPI segregates particles into 12 size fractions between 7 nm and 10 μm. The median PNC for the sampling period was 31,545 cm- 3. For the ultrafine particles (7-93 nm), the highest PNC was found in winter (46,615 cm- 3; 15 minute average) and the lowest for that size fraction in summer (29,696 cm- 3). For the particles below 93 nm there was a trimodal distribution to weekdays (particularly Monday to Wednesday), with PNC peaks at 09:00, 16:00 and 23:00. Wind direction had a significant influence on PNC and differed between particles in the fine range (below 2.5 μm) and more coarse particles (up to 10 μm). For fine particles, winds parallel to the canyon were associated with higher PNCs which were attributed to the replenishment of traffic particles. For coarse particles, PNCs were higher from winds perpendicular to the canyon and this was linked to source distribution around the sampling site and the recirculation of pollutants within the canyon. During times when vehicle volumes were high and vehicles were exhibiting stop-start behaviour, if this was combined with low wind speeds, ultrafine PNC was highest. This effect was generally observed during the morning rush hour. Current mass-based legislation does not take into account exposure to the number of particles or the change in population exposure diurnally.

  19. Aerosol number size distributions over a coastal semi urban location: Seasonal changes and ultrafine particle bursts.

    PubMed

    Babu, S Suresh; Kompalli, Sobhan Kumar; Moorthy, K Krishna

    2016-09-01

    Number-size distribution is one of the important microphysical properties of atmospheric aerosols that influence aerosol life cycle, aerosol-radiation interaction as well as aerosol-cloud interactions. Making use of one-yearlong measurements of aerosol particle number-size distributions (PNSD) over a broad size spectrum (~15-15,000nm) from a tropical coastal semi-urban location-Trivandrum (Thiruvananthapuram), the size characteristics, their seasonality and response to mesoscale and synoptic scale meteorology are examined. While the accumulation mode contributed mostly to the annual mean concentration, ultrafine particles (having diameter <100nm) contributed as much as 45% to the total concentration, and thus constitute a strong reservoir, that would add to the larger particles through size transformation. The size distributions were, in general, bimodal with well-defined modes in the accumulation and coarse regimes, with mode diameters lying in the range 141 to 167nm and 1150 to 1760nm respectively, in different seasons. Despite the contribution of the coarse sized particles to the total number concentration being meager, they contributed significantly to the surface area and volume, especially during transport of marine air mass highlighting the role of synoptic air mass changes. Significant diurnal variation occurred in the number concentrations, geometric mean diameters, which is mostly attributed to the dynamics of the local coastal atmospheric boundary layer and the effect of mesoscale land/sea breeze circulation. Bursts of ultrafine particles (UFP) occurred quite frequently, apparently during periods of land-sea breeze transitions, caused by the strong mixing of precursor-rich urban air mass with the cleaner marine air mass; the resulting turbulence along with boundary layer dynamics aiding the nucleation. These ex-situ particles were observed at the surface due to the transport associated with boundary layer dynamics. The particle growth rates from

  20. Modeling particle number concentrations along Interstate 10 in El Paso, Texas

    PubMed Central

    Olvera, Hector A.; Jimenez, Omar; Provencio-Vasquez, Elias

    2014-01-01

    Annual average daily particle number concentrations around a highway were estimated with an atmospheric dispersion model and a land use regression model. The dispersion model was used to estimate particle concentrations along Interstate 10 at 98 locations within El Paso, Texas. This model employed annual averaged wind speed and annual average daily traffic counts as inputs. A land use regression model with vehicle kilometers traveled as the predictor variable was used to estimate local background concentrations away from the highway to adjust the near-highway concentration estimates. Estimated particle number concentrations ranged between 9.8 × 103 particles/cc and 1.3 × 105 particles/cc, and averaged 2.5 × 104 particles/cc (SE 421.0). Estimates were compared against values measured at seven sites located along I10 throughout the region. The average fractional error was 6% and ranged between -1% and -13% across sites. The largest bias of -13% was observed at a semi-rural site where traffic was lowest. The average bias amongst urban sites was 5%. The accuracy of the estimates depended primarily on the emission factor and the adjustment to local background conditions. An emission factor of 1.63 × 1014 particles/veh-km was based on a value proposed in the literature and adjusted with local measurements. The integration of the two modeling techniques ensured that the particle number concentrations estimates captured the impact of traffic along both the highway and arterial roadways. The performance and economical aspects of the two modeling techniques used in this study shows that producing particle concentration surfaces along major roadways would be feasible in urban regions where traffic and meteorological data are readily available. PMID:25313294

  1. Modeling particle number concentrations along Interstate 10 in El Paso, Texas.

    PubMed

    Olvera, Hector A; Jimenez, Omar; Provencio-Vasquez, Elias

    2014-12-01

    Annual average daily particle number concentrations around a highway were estimated with an atmospheric dispersion model and a land use regression model. The dispersion model was used to estimate particle concentrations along Interstate 10 at 98 locations within El Paso, Texas. This model employed annual averaged wind speed and annual average daily traffic counts as inputs. A land use regression model with vehicle kilometers traveled as the predictor variable was used to estimate local background concentrations away from the highway to adjust the near-highway concentration estimates. Estimated particle number concentrations ranged between 9.8 × 10(3) particles/cc and 1.3 × 10(5) particles/cc, and averaged 2.5 × 10(4) particles/cc (SE 421.0). Estimates were compared against values measured at seven sites located along I10 throughout the region. The average fractional error was 6% and ranged between -1% and -13% across sites. The largest bias of -13% was observed at a semi-rural site where traffic was lowest. The average bias amongst urban sites was 5%. The accuracy of the estimates depended primarily on the emission factor and the adjustment to local background conditions. An emission factor of 1.63 × 10(14) particles/veh-km was based on a value proposed in the literature and adjusted with local measurements. The integration of the two modeling techniques ensured that the particle number concentrations estimates captured the impact of traffic along both the highway and arterial roadways. The performance and economical aspects of the two modeling techniques used in this study shows that producing particle concentration surfaces along major roadways would be feasible in urban regions where traffic and meteorological data are readily available. PMID:25313294

  2. Modeling particle number concentrations along Interstate 10 in El Paso, Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olvera, Hector A.; Jimenez, Omar; Provencio-Vasquez, Elias

    2014-12-01

    Annual average daily particle number concentrations around a highway were estimated with an atmospheric dispersion model and a land use regression model. The dispersion model was used to estimate particle concentrations along Interstate 10 at 98 locations within El Paso, Texas. This model employed annual averaged wind speed and annual average daily traffic counts as inputs. A land use regression model with vehicle kilometers traveled as the predictor variable was used to estimate local background concentrations away from the highway to adjust the near-highway concentration estimates. Estimated particle number concentrations ranged between 9.8 × 103 particles/cc and 1.3 × 105 particles/cc, and averaged 2.5 × 104 particles/cc (SE 421.0). Estimates were compared against values measured at seven sites located along I10 throughout the region. The average fractional error was 6% and ranged between -1% and -13% across sites. The largest bias of -13% was observed at a semi-rural site where traffic was lowest. The average bias amongst urban sites was 5%. The accuracy of the estimates depended primarily on the emission factor and the adjustment to local background conditions. An emission factor of 1.63 × 1014 particles/veh-km was based on a value proposed in the literature and adjusted with local measurements. The integration of the two modeling techniques ensured that the particle number concentrations estimates captured the impact of traffic along both the highway and arterial roadways. The performance and economical aspects of the two modeling techniques used in this study shows that producing particle concentration surfaces along major roadways would be feasible in urban regions where traffic and meteorological data are readily available.

  3. Bell inequality for pairs of particle-number-superselection-rule restricted states

    SciTech Connect

    Heaney, Libby; Jaksch, Dieter; Lee, Seung-Woo

    2010-10-15

    Proposals for Bell-inequality tests on systems restricted by the particle-number-superselection rule often require operations that are difficult to implement in practice. In this article, we derive a Bell inequality, where measurements on pairs of states are used as a method to bypass this superselection rule. In particular, we focus on mode entanglement of an arbitrary number of massive particles and show that our Bell inequality detects the entanglement in an identical pair of states when other inequalities fail. However, as the number of particles in the system increases, the violation of our Bell inequality decreases due to the restriction in the measurement space caused by the superselection rule. This Bell test can be implemented using techniques that are routinely used in current experiments.

  4. Black Carbon Particle Number Distribution Measurements during the ATHENS-2013 Winter Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gkatzelis, Georgios; Papanastasiou, Dimitris; Florou, Kalliopi; Kaltsonoudis, Christos; Louvaris, Eyaggelos; Bezentakos, Spiridon; Biskos, Georgios; Pandis, Spuros

    2014-05-01

    Black Carbon (BC) particles emitted by anthropogenic sources play an important role both in climate change and in air quality degradation. Open burning in forests and savannas, combustion of diesel and solid fuels for cooking and heating in homes represent the majority of BC emissions. Earlier work has focused on the BC atmospheric direct radiative forcing that is mostly related to its mass concentration and optical properties of the corresponding particles. A variety of measurement techniques are used to measure the mass concentration of BC by taking advantage of its optical or physical properties. Moreover, the carbonaceous particles containing BC are also important for the indirect forcing of climate. This effect is mostly related to the number concentration of BC particles. The number distribution of BC particles especially below 100 nm is quite uncertain due to limitations of the existing measurement techniques. In this work we employed a thermodenuder-based method as an approach for the measurement of the BC number distribution. More specifically, we combined a thermodenuder (TD) operating at temperatures up to 300 ° C, with a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) and a High Resolution Time of Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF AMS). Aerosol size and composition measurements were carried out both at ambient and at elevated TD temperatures in Athens field campaign during January and February of 2013. In parallel, a Multi-Angle Absorption Photometer (MAAP) provided information about the BC mass concentration while a Hygroscopic Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer (HTDMA) measured the mixing state and the hygroscopicity of the particles as a function of their size. These measurements were then combined to estimate the number concentration of BC particles. Our analysis focused on different periods during the study. During some of them one source dominated the carbonaceous aerosol concentration. Such periods included rush hour traffic, nighttime wood

  5. Exposure to particle number, surface area and PM concentrations in pizzerias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buonanno, G.; Morawska, L.; Stabile, L.; Viola, A.

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this work was to quantify exposure to particles emitted by wood-fired ovens in pizzerias. Overall, 15 microenvironments were chosen and analyzed in a 14-month experimental campaign. Particle number concentration and distribution were measured simultaneously using a Condensation Particle Counter (CPC), a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS), an Aerodynamic Particle Sizer (APS). The surface area and mass distributions and concentrations, as well as the estimation of lung deposition surface area and PM 1 were evaluated using the SMPS-APS system with dosimetric models, by taking into account the presence of aggregates on the basis of the Idealized Aggregate (IA) theory. The fraction of inhaled particles deposited in the respiratory system and different fractions of particulate matter were also measured by means of a Nanoparticle Surface Area Monitor (NSAM) and a photometer (DustTrak DRX), respectively. In this way, supplementary data were obtained during the monitoring of trends inside the pizzerias. We found that surface area and PM 1 particle concentrations in pizzerias can be very high, especially when compared to other critical microenvironments, such as the transport hubs. During pizza cooking under normal ventilation conditions, concentrations were found up to 74, 70 and 23 times higher than background levels for number, surface area and PM 1, respectively. A key parameter is the oven shape factor, defined as the ratio between the size of the face opening in respect to the diameter of the semicircular oven door, and particular attention must also be paid to hood efficiency.

  6. Total and size-resolved particle number and black carbon concentrations near an industrial area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keuken, M. P.; Moerman, M.; Zandveld, P.; Henzing, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    Total and size-resolved particle number and black carbon concentrations were investigated in urban areas of the city of Rotterdam (the Netherlands) situated near an industrial area. Several monitoring campaigns were conducted in the period 2011-2014 at three local locations and at a regional background site. Black carbon levels showed minor elevation due to industrial emissions. In contrast, particle number concentrations (PNC) increased during periods with wind directions from the industrial area, by 1000 to 23,000 particles per cm3 depending on the distance to the area from 1 to 40 km. The size distribution of elevated PNC was characterized by two modes: 10-20 nm (nucleation particles) and 20-100 nm (Aitken particles). Five dominant industrial sources were identified and used as input for dispersion modelling of PN in 2012. The results showed that in Rotterdam about 70,000 addresses were exposed to an additional annual PNC of 5000-10,000 particles per cm3 and about 55,000 addresses to additional PNC of 10,000-20,000 particles per cm3 for 39% of the time. More measurements of PNC up- and downwind of the industrial area are recommended to identify more accurately the PN emission sources and to validate the dispersion modelling.

  7. Organic aerosol processing in tropical deep convective clouds: Development of a new model (CRM-ORG) and implications for sources of particle number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, B. N.; Julin, J.; Riipinen, I.; Ekman, A. M. L.

    2015-10-01

    The difficulty in assessing interactions between atmospheric particles and clouds is due in part to the chemical complexity of the particles and to the wide range of length and timescales of processes occurring simultaneously during a cloud event. The new Cloud-Resolving Model with Organics (CRM-ORG) addresses these interactions by explicitly predicting the formation, transport, uptake, and re-release of surrogate organic compounds consistent with the volatility basis set framework within a nonhydrostatic, three-dimensional cloud-resolving model. CRM-ORG incorporates photochemical production, explicit condensation/evaporation of organic and inorganic vapors, and a comprehensive set of four different mechanisms describing particle formation from organic vapors and sulfuric acid. We simulate two deep convective cloud events over the Amazon rain forest in March 1998 and compare modeled particle size distributions with airborne observations made during the time period. The model predictions agree well with the observations for Aitken mode particles in the convective outflow (10-14 km) but underpredict nucleation mode particles by a factor of 20. A strong in-cloud particle formation process from organic vapors alone is necessary to reproduce even relatively low ultrafine particle number concentrations (~1500 cm-3). Sensitivity tests with variable initial aerosol loading and initial vertical aerosol profile demonstrate the complexity of particle redistribution and net gain or loss in the cloud. In-cloud particle number concentrations could be enhanced by as much as a factor of 3 over the base case simulation in the cloud outflow but were never reduced by more than a factor of 2 lower than the base. Additional sensitivity cases emphasize the need for constrained estimates of surface tension and affinity of organic vapors to ice surfaces. When temperature-dependent organic surface tension is introduced to the new particle formation mechanisms, the number concentration of

  8. Exposure to Airborne Particles and Volatile Organic Compounds from Polyurethane Molding, Spray Painting, Lacquering, and Gluing in a Workshop

    PubMed Central

    Mølgaard, Bjarke; Viitanen, Anna-Kaisa; Kangas, Anneli; Huhtiniemi, Marika; Larsen, Søren Thor; Vanhala, Esa; Hussein, Tareq; Boor, Brandon E.; Hämeri, Kaarle; Koivisto, Antti Joonas

    2015-01-01

    Due to the health risk related to occupational air pollution exposure, we assessed concentrations and identified sources of particles and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in a handcraft workshop producing fishing lures. The work processes in the site included polyurethane molding, spray painting, lacquering, and gluing. We measured total VOC (TVOC) concentrations and particle size distributions at three locations representing the various phases of the manufacturing and assembly process. The mean working-hour TVOC concentrations in three locations studied were 41, 37, and 24 ppm according to photo-ionization detector measurements. The mean working-hour particle number concentration varied between locations from 3000 to 36,000 cm−3. Analysis of temporal and spatial variations of TVOC concentrations revealed that there were at least four substantial VOC sources: spray gluing, mold-release agent spraying, continuous evaporation from various lacquer and paint containers, and either spray painting or lacquering (probably both). The mold-release agent spray was indirectly also a major source of ultrafine particles. The workers’ exposure can be reduced by improving the local exhaust ventilation at the known sources and by increasing the ventilation rate in the area with the continuous source. PMID:25849539

  9. Measurement of airborne gunshot particles in a ballistics laboratory by sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Ernesto; Sarkis, Jorge E Souza; Viebig, Sônia; Saldiva, Paulo

    2012-01-10

    The present study aimed determines lead (Pb), antimony (Sb) and barium (Ba) as the major elements present in GSR in the environmental air of the Ballistics Laboratory of the São Paulo Criminalistics Institute (I.C.-S.P.), São Paulo, SP, Brazil. Micro environmental monitors (mini samplers) were located at selected places. The PM(2.5) fraction of this airborne was collected in, previously weighted filters, and analyzed by sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (SF-HR-ICP-MS). The higher values of the airborne lead, antimony and barium, were found at the firing range (lead (Pb): 58.9 μg/m(3); barium (Ba): 6.9 μg/m(3); antimony (Sb): 7.3 μg/m(3)). The mean value of the airborne in this room during 6 monitored days was Pb: 23.1 μg/m(3); Ba: 2.2 μg/m(3); Sb: 1.5 μg/m(3). In the water tank room, the air did not show levels above the limits of concern. In general the airborne lead changed from day to day, but the barium and antimony remained constant. Despite of that, the obtained values suggest that the workers may be exposed to airborne lead concentration that can result in an unhealthy environment and could increase the risk of chronic intoxication. PMID:21831549

  10. On the measurement of particle number and mobility in nonideal solutions by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Abney, J R; Scalettar, B A; Hackenbrock, C R

    1990-01-01

    Interparticle interactions are incorporated into the theoretical description of the initial amplitude, G(0), of the normalized fluorescence correlation spectroscopy autocorrelation function. Measurements of particle number, aggregate size, and interaction-dependent diffusion are then analyzed in the context of this generalized theory. It is shown that the neglect of interactions can introduce order-of-magnitude errors into estimates of particle number and aggregate size. It is also shown that measurement of G(0) provides an essentially unique method for testing the validity of theories of interaction-dependent membrane protein diffusion. PMID:2383634

  11. Particle number emissions of motor traffic derived from street canyon measurements in a Central European city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klose, S.; Birmili, W.; Voigtländer, J.; Tuch, T.; Wehner, B.; Wiedensohler, A.; Ketzel, M.

    2009-02-01

    A biennial dataset of ambient particle number size distributions (diameter range 4-800 nm) collected in urban air in Leipzig, Germany, was analysed with respect to the influence of traffic emissions. Size distributions were sampled continuously in 2005 and 2006 inside a street canyon trafficked by ca. 10 000 motor vehicles per day, and at a background reference site distant at 1.5 km. Auto-correlation analysis showed that the impact of fresh traffic emissions could be seen most intensely below particle sizes of 60 nm. The traffic-induced concentration increment at roadside was estimated by subtracting the urban background values from the street canyon measurement. To describe the variable dispersion conditions inside the street canyon, micro-meteorological dilution factors were calculated using the Operational Street Pollution Model (OSPM), driven by above-roof wind speed and wind direction observations. The roadside increment concentrations, dilution factor, and real-time traffic counts were used to calculate vehicle emission factors (aerosol source rates) that are representative of the prevailing driving conditions, i.e. stop-and-go traffic including episodes of fluent traffic flow at speeds up to 40 km h-1. The size spectrum of traffic-derived particles was essentially bimodal - with mode diameters around 12 and 100 nm, while statistical analysis suggested that the emitted number concentration varied with time of day, wind direction, particle size and fleet properties. Significantly, the particle number emissions depended on ambient temperature, ranging between 4.8 (±1.8) and 7.8 (±2.9).1014 p. veh-1 km-1 in summer and winter, respectively. A separation of vehicle types according to vehicle length suggested that lorry-like vehicles emit about 80 times more particle number than passenger car-like vehicles. Using nitrogen oxide (NOx) measurements, specific total particle number emissions of 338 p. (pg NOx)-1 were inferred. The calculated traffic emission factors

  12. Urban background levels of particle number concentration and sources in Vilnius, Lithuania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byčenkienė, Steigvilė; Plauškaitė, Kristina; Dudoitis, Vadimas; Ulevicius, Vidmantas

    2014-06-01

    This study presents results of research on urban aerosol particles with a focus on the aerosol particle number concentration (PNC) and the particle size distribution. The real time measurements of aerosol PNC (> 4.5 nm) and number size distributions (9-840 nm) were performed. The seasonal variations essentially comprised the minimum monthly mean in October 2010 (3400 ± 3000 cm- 3) and the maximum in April 2011 (19,000 ± 15,000 cm- 3). The mean annual PNC was 10,000 ± 8000 cm- 3 with an average mode size of 30-50 nm. The presence of strong diurnal patterns in aerosol PNC was evident as a direct effect of three sources of aerosol particles (nucleation, traffic, and residential heating). Hybrid receptor modeling potential source contribution function (PSCF) and concentration weighted trajectory (CWT) were used by incorporating 72-h backward trajectories and measurements of PNC in Vilnius. The results of trajectory clustering and the PSCF method demonstrated that possible additional source areas contributing to the elevated particle number concentration in Vilnius could be industrial areas in central Europe. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed highest loadings for PNC, PM10, NOx, NO, NO2 and SO2 concentrations, indicating combustion processes occurring in vehicle engines and use of sulfur-containing fossil fuels for residential heating.

  13. On-bicycle exposure to particulate air pollution: Particle number, black carbon, PM2.5, and particle size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hankey, Steve; Marshall, Julian D.

    2015-12-01

    Inhalation of air pollution during transport is an important exposure pathway, especially for certain modes of travel and types of particles. We measured concentrations of particulate air pollution (particle number [PN], black carbon [BC], fine particles [PM2.5], particle size) using a mobile, bicycle-based monitoring platform during morning and afternoon rush-hour to explore patterns of exposure while cycling (34 days between August 14 and October 16, 2012 in Minneapolis, MN). Measurements were geo-located at 1 ​s intervals along 3 prescribed monitoring routes totaling 85 h (1426 km) of monitoring. Mean morning [afternoon] on-road concentrations were 32,500 [16,600] pt cm-3, 2.5 [0.7] μg m-3 BC, 8.7 [8.3] μg m-3 PM2.5, and 42 [39] nm particle diameter. Concentrations were correlated with street functional class and declined within small distances from a major road (e.g., for PN and BC, mean concentration decreased ∼20% by moving 1 block away from major roads to adjacent local roads). We estimate the share of on-bicycle exposure attributable to near-traffic emissions (vs. regional pollution) is ∼50% for PN and BC; ∼25% for PM2.5. Regression models of instantaneous traffic volumes, derived from on-bicycle video recordings of nearby traffic, quantify the increase in particle-concentrations associated with each passing vehicle; for example, trucks were associated with acute, high concentration exposure events (average concentration-increase per truck: 31,000 pt cm-3, 1.0 μg m-3 PM2.5, 1.6 μg m-3 BC). Our findings could be used to inform design of low-exposure bicycle networks in urban areas.

  14. Eulerian models for particle trajectory crossing in turbulent flows over a large range of Stokes numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, Rodney O.; Vie, Aymeric; Laurent, Frederique; Chalons, Christophe; Massot, Marc

    2012-11-01

    Numerous applications involve a disperse phase carried by a gaseous flow. To simulate such flows, one can resort to a number density function (NDF) governed a kinetic equation. Traditionally, Lagrangian Monte-Carlo methods are used to solve for the NDF, but are expensive as the number of numerical particles needed must be large to control statistical errors. Moreover, such methods are not well adapted to high-performance computing because of the intrinsic inhomogeneity of the NDF. To overcome these issues, Eulerian methods can be used to solve for the moments of the NDF resulting in an unclosed Eulerian system of hyperbolic conservation laws. To obtain closure, in this work a multivariate bi-Gaussian quadrature is used, which can account for particle trajectory crossing (PTC) over a large range of Stokes numbers. This closure uses up to four quadrature points in 2-D velocity phase space to capture large-scale PTC, and an anisotropic Gaussian distribution around each quadrature point to model small-scale PTC. Simulations of 2-D particle-laden isotropic turbulence at different Stokes numbers are employed to validate the Eulerian models against results from the Lagrangian approach. Good agreement is found for the number density fields over the entire range of Stokes numbers tested. Research carried out at the Center for Turbulence Research 2012 Summer Program.

  15. A method for measuring particle number emissions from vehicles driving on the road.

    PubMed

    Shi, J P; Harrison, R M; Evans, D E; Alam, A; Barnes, C; Carter, G

    2002-01-01

    Earlier research has demonstrated that the conditions of dilution of engine exhaust gases profoundly influence the size distribution and total number of particles emitted. Since real world dilution conditions are variable and therefore difficult to simulate, this research has sought to develop and validate a method for measuring particle number emissions from vehicles driving past on a road. This has been achieved successfully using carbon dioxide as a tracer of exhaust gas dilution. By subsequent adjustment of data to a constant dilution factor, it is possible to compare emissions from different vehicles using different technologies and fuels based upon real world emission data. Whilst further optimisation of the technique, especially in terms of matching the instrument response times is desirable, the measurements offer useful insights into emissions from gasoline and diesel vehicles, and the substantial proportion of particles emitted in the 3-7 nanometre size range. PMID:11918399

  16. Finite numbers of sources, particle correlations and the Color Glass Condensate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLerran, Larry; Skokov, Vladimir V.

    2016-03-01

    We show that for a finite number of emitting sources, the Color Glass Condensate produces substantial elliptic azimuthal anisotropy, characterized by v2, for two and four particle correlations for momentum greater than or of the order of the saturation momentum. The flow produced has the correct semi-quantitative features to describe flow seen in the LHC experiments with p-Pb and pp collisions. This flow is induced by quantum mechanical interference between the waves of produced particles, and the flow itself is coupled to fluctuations in the positions of emitting sources. We shortly discuss generalizing these results to odd vn, to correlations involving larger number of particles, and to transverse momentum scales ΛQCD ≪pT ≪Qsat.

  17. [Comparing Cell Toxicity of Schizosaccharomyces pombe Exposure to Airborne PM2.5 from Beijing and Inert Particle SiO2].

    PubMed

    Liu, Meng-jiao; Huang, Yi; Wen, Hang; Qiu, Guo-yu

    2015-11-01

    To figure out the main factor of PM2.5 toxicity to cell, this study compared the cell toxicity of Schizosaccharomyces pombe (S. pombe), a model organism, exposed to inert ultrafine SiO2 particles, a model particle, and airborne PM2.5 collected from campus of Peking University Beijing China. Using ultraviolet spectrophotometry to measure cell proliferation ratio, and environmental scanning microscope to observe the particle adhesion on the cell surface, and detecting cellular ROS generation with DHE fluorescent dye chromogenic method, and using single cell gel electrophoresis to test cell DNA damage, the experiment results indicated that the ultrafine SiO2 particles (< 60 nm) could inhibit the cell proliferation of S. pombe, mainly through adsorbing onto the cell surface to change the permeability of the cell wall; but it could not induce cells to generate ROS to cause the oxidative damage. PM2.5, the average particle size of which was larger than that of SiO2 particles, could cause oxidative damages to cells mainly by inducing cells to generate ROS, and damage DNA simultaneously. It might illustrate that there was no direct relationship between the toxicity of PM2.5 and its physical properties such as the particle size. PMID:26910977

  18. The Effects of Vegetation Barriers on Near-road Ultrafine Particle Number and Carbon Monoxide Concentrations

    EPA Science Inventory

    Numerous studies have shown that people living in near-roadway communities (within 100 m of the road) are exposed to high ultrafine particle (UFP) number concentrations, which may be associated with adverse health effects. Vegetation barriers have been shown to affect pollutant t...

  19. Particle concentrations and number size distributions in the planetary boundary layer derived from airship based measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tillmann, Ralf; Zhao, Defeng; Ehn, Mikael; Hofzumahaus, Andreas; Holland, Frank; Rohrer, Franz; Kiendler-Scharr, Astrid; Wahner, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    Atmospheric particles play a key role for regional and global climate due to their direct and indirect radiative forcing effects. The concentration and size of the particles are important variables to these effects. Within the continental planetary boundary layer (PBL) the particle number size distribution is influenced by meteorological parameters, local sinks and sources resulting in variable spatial distributions. However, measurements of particle number size distributions over a broad vertical range of the PBL are rare. The airship ZEPPELIN NT is an ideal platform to measure atmospheric aerosols on a regional scale within an altitude range up to 1000 m. For campaigns in the Netherlands, Northern Italy and South Finland in 2012 and 2013 the airship was deployed with a wide range of instruments, including measurements of different trace gases, short lived radicals, solar radiation, aerosols and meteorological parameters. Flights were carried out at different times of the day to investigate the influence of the diurnal evolution of the PBL on atmospheric trace gases and aerosols. During night and early morning hours the concentration and size distribution of atmospheric particles were found to be strongly influenced by the layered structure of the PBL, i.e. the nocturnal boundary layer and the residual layer. Within the residual layer particle concentrations stay relatively constant as this layer is decoupled from ground sources. The particles persist in the accumulation mode as expected for an aged aerosol. In the nocturnal boundary layer particle concentrations and size are more dynamic with higher concentrations than in the residual layer. A few hours after sunrise, the layered structure of the PBL intermixes. During daytime the PBL is well mixed and a negative concentration gradient with increasing height is observed. Several height profiles at different times of the day and at different locations in Europe were measured. The aerosol measurements will be

  20. Investigation of Aerosol Surface Area Estimation from Number and Mass Concentration Measurements: Particle Density Effect

    PubMed Central

    Ku, Bon Ki; Evans, Douglas E.

    2015-01-01

    For nanoparticles with nonspherical morphologies, e.g., open agglomerates or fibrous particles, it is expected that the actual density of agglomerates may be significantly different from the bulk material density. It is further expected that using the material density may upset the relationship between surface area and mass when a method for estimating aerosol surface area from number and mass concentrations (referred to as “Maynard’s estimation method”) is used. Therefore, it is necessary to quantitatively investigate how much the Maynard’s estimation method depends on particle morphology and density. In this study, aerosol surface area estimated from number and mass concentration measurements was evaluated and compared with values from two reference methods: a method proposed by Lall and Friedlander for agglomerates and a mobility based method for compact nonspherical particles using well-defined polydisperse aerosols with known particle densities. Polydisperse silver aerosol particles were generated by an aerosol generation facility. Generated aerosols had a range of morphologies, count median diameters (CMD) between 25 and 50 nm, and geometric standard deviations (GSD) between 1.5 and 1.8. The surface area estimates from number and mass concentration measurements correlated well with the two reference values when gravimetric mass was used. The aerosol surface area estimates from the Maynard’s estimation method were comparable to the reference method for all particle morphologies within the surface area ratios of 3.31 and 0.19 for assumed GSDs 1.5 and 1.8, respectively, when the bulk material density of silver was used. The difference between the Maynard’s estimation method and surface area measured by the reference method for fractal-like agglomerates decreased from 79% to 23% when the measured effective particle density was used, while the difference for nearly spherical particles decreased from 30% to 24%. The results indicate that the use of

  1. How comparable are size-resolved particle number concentrations from different instruments?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hornsby, K. E.; Pryor, S. C.

    2012-12-01

    The need for comparability of particle size resolved measurements originates from multiple drivers including: (i) Recent suggestions that air quality standards for particulate matter should migrate from being mass-based to incorporating number concentrations. This move would necessarily be predicated on measurement comparability which is absolutely critical to compliance determination. (ii) The need to quantify and diagnose causes of variability in nucleation and growth rates in nano-particle experiments conducted in different locations. (iii) Epidemiological research designed to identify key parameters in human health responses to fine particle exposure. Here we present results from a detailed controlled laboratory instrument inter-comparison experiment designed to investigate data comparability in the size range of 2.01-523.3 nm across a range of particle composition, modal diameter and absolute concentration. Particle size distributions were generated using a TSI model 3940 Aerosol Generation System (AGS) diluted using zero air, and sampled using four TSI Scanning Mobility Particle Spectrometer (SMPS) configurations and a TSI model 3091 Fast Mobility Particle Sizer (FMPS). The SMPS configurations used two Electrostatic Classifiers (EC) (model 3080) attached to either a Long DMA (LDMA) (model 3081) or a Nano DMA (NDMA) (model 3085) plumbed to either a TSI model 3025A Butanol Condensed Particle Counting (CPC) or a TSI model 3788 Water CPC. All four systems were run using both high and low flow conditions, and were operated with both the internal diffusion loss and multiple charge corrections turned on. The particle compositions tested were sodium chloride, ammonium nitrate and olive oil diluted in ethanol. Particles of all three were generated at three peak concentration levels (spanning the range observed at our experimental site), and three modal particle diameters. Experimental conditions were maintained for a period of 20 minutes to ensure experimental

  2. Simulation study on number of secondary particles in extensive air showers using CORSIKA code

    SciTech Connect

    Halataei, S. M. H.; Bahmanabadi, M.; Samimi, J.; Ghomi, M. Khakian

    2008-04-15

    We have simulated more than 10{sup 5} extensive air showers (EAS) by CORSIKA code, with a proton as the primary particle. The range of energy for primary particles was selected from 50 TeV to 5 PeV, with differential flux given by dN/dE{proportional_to}E{sup -2.7}. Using the secondary charged particles produced of these EASs, we obtained the function dN{sub sp}({theta},X)/d{theta}, where N{sub sp}({theta},X) is the number of secondary charged particles in EASs as a function of atmosphere depth, X, and zenith angle, {theta}. A sin{theta}cos{sup n(X)}{theta} distribution was obtained for zenith angle distribution of the number of secondary charged particles, where power index, n(X), is a function of atmosphere depth, X. We obtained n(X)=3.02+0.003XlnX-8.28x10{sup -9}X{sup 3}-1.35lnX. We have compared our results with the experimental data of various observatories.

  3. Constraints on the dark matter particle mass from the number of Milky Way satellites

    SciTech Connect

    Polisensky, Emil; Ricotti, Massimo

    2011-02-15

    We have conducted N-body simulations of the growth of Milky Way-sized halos in cold and warm dark matter cosmologies. The number of dark matter satellites in our simulated Milky Ways decreases with decreasing mass of the dark matter particle. Assuming that the number of dark matter satellites exceeds or equals the number of observed satellites of the Milky Way, we derive lower limits on the dark matter particle mass. We find with 95% confidence m{sub s}>13.3 keV for a sterile neutrino produced by the Dodelson and Widrow mechanism, m{sub s}>8.9 keV for the Shi and Fuller mechanism, m{sub s}>3.0 keV for the Higgs decay mechanism, and m{sub WDM}>2.3 keV for a thermal dark matter particle. The recent discovery of many new dark matter dominated satellites of the Milky Way in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey allows us to set lower limits comparable to constraints from the complementary methods of Lyman-{alpha} forest modeling and x-ray observations of the unresolved cosmic x-ray background and of dark matter halos from dwarf galaxy to cluster scales. Future surveys like LSST, DES, PanSTARRS, and SkyMapper have the potential to discover many more satellites and further improve constraints on the dark matter particle mass.

  4. Particle number scaling for diffusion-induced dissipation in graphene and carbon nanotube nanomechanical resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhén, Christin; Isacsson, Andreas

    2016-03-01

    When a contaminant diffuses on the surface of a nanomechanical resonator, the motions of the two become correlated. Despite being a high-order effect in the resonator-particle coupling, such correlations affect the system dynamics by inducing dissipation of the resonator energy. Here, we consider this diffusion-induced dissipation in the cases of multiple particles adsorbed on carbon nanotube and graphene resonators. By solving the stochastic equations of motion, we simulate the ringdown of the resonator, in order to determine the resonator energy decay rate. We find two different scalings with the number of adsorbed particles K and particle mass m . In the regime where the adsorbates are inertially trapped at an antinode of vibration, the dissipation rate Γ scales with the total adsorbed mass Γ ∝K m . In contrast, in the regime where particles diffuse freely over the resonator, the dissipation rate scales as the product of the total adsorbed mass and the individual particle mass: Γ ∝K m2 .

  5. Organic compounds present in airborne particles stimulate superoxide production and DNA fragmentation: role of NOX and xanthine oxidase in animal tissues.

    PubMed

    Busso, Iván Tavera; Silva, Guillermo Benjamín; Carreras, Hebe Alejandra

    2016-08-01

    Suspended particulate matter trigger the production of reactive oxygen species. However, most of the studies dealing with oxidative damage of airborne particles focus on the effects of individual compounds and not real mixtures. In order to study the enzymatic superoxide production resulting from the exposition to a complex mixture, we derived organic extracts from airborne particles collected daily in an urban area and exposed kidney, liver, and heart mammal tissues. After that, we measured DNA damage employing the comet assay. We observed that in every tissue, NADPH oxidase and xanthine oxidase were involved in O2 (-) production when they were exposed to the organic extracts, as the lucigenin's chemiluminescence decays when enzymes were inhibited. The same trend was observed with the percentage of cells with comets, since DNA damage was higher when they were exposed to same experimental conditions. Our data allow us to hypothesize that these enzymes play an important role in the oxidative stress produced by PAHs and that there is a mechanism involving them in the O2 (-)generation. PMID:27180836

  6. Influence of Reynolds number on coalescence of droplets with particle in flow through a tube at low Reynolds number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muraoka, Masahiro; Yatagawa, Yuta; Kumagai, Yuki

    2016-07-01

    The coalescence of droplets in flow through a tube at low Reynolds number is potentially useful for different purposes including the handling of fluids, control of chemical reaction, and in drug delivery systems. The phenomenon is also the basis for analyzing the flow of multiphase fluids through porous media such as in enhanced oil recovery and the breaking of emulsions in porous coalescers. With regard to examples of studies on the creeping motion of droplets in a flow through a tube, Hetsroni G. et al.[1] theoretically examined the motion of a spherical droplet or bubble with small d/D, where d is the undeformed diameter of the droplet or bubble, and D is the tube diameter. Higdon J.J.L. and Muldowney G.P. [2] numerically obtained the resistance functions for a spherical particle, droplet, and bubble. Olbricht, W.L. and Kung D.M.[3] and Aul R.W. and Olbricht, W.L.[4] mainly investigated the coalescence time of droplets. Aul R.W. and Olbricht W.L. proposed a semi-theoretical formula of the coalescence time. Based on the formula by them, Muraoka, M. et al.[5] proposed other semi-theoretical formulas of the coalescence time in terms of the resistance experienced by the liquid droplet in creeping flow through a tube. The latter formulas take the eccentricity of the following droplets into consideration. In the present study, a glass tube of inner diameter 2.0mm, outer diameter 7.0mm, and length 1500 mm was used as the test tube. Silicon oil with a kinematic viscosity of 3000cSt was employed as the test fluid of the droplet. A mixture of glycerol and pure water was used as the surrounding fluid of the creeping flow through a tube. A large volumetric syringe pump was used to maintain steady flow through the tube at a designated average velocity. The test tube was immersed in temperature-controlled water contained in a tank to maintain constant temperature of the system. The droplets were injected into the test tube. The behaviors of the droplets were monitored by a

  7. Dissipative particle dynamics of diffusion-NMR requires high Schmidt-numbers.

    PubMed

    Azhar, Mueed; Greiner, Andreas; Korvink, Jan G; Kauzlarić, David

    2016-06-28

    We present an efficient mesoscale model to simulate the diffusion measurement with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). On the level of mesoscopic thermal motion of fluid particles, we couple the Bloch equations with dissipative particle dynamics (DPD). Thereby we establish a physically consistent scaling relation between the diffusion constant measured for DPD-particles and the diffusion constant of a real fluid. The latter is based on a splitting into a centre-of-mass contribution represented by DPD, and an internal contribution which is not resolved in the DPD-level of description. As a consequence, simulating the centre-of-mass contribution with DPD requires high Schmidt numbers. After a verification for fundamental pulse sequences, we apply the NMR-DPD method to NMR diffusion measurements of anisotropic fluids, and of fluids restricted by walls of microfluidic channels. For the latter, the free diffusion and the localisation regime are considered. PMID:27369491

  8. Dissipative particle dynamics of diffusion-NMR requires high Schmidt-numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azhar, Mueed; Greiner, Andreas; Korvink, Jan G.; Kauzlarić, David

    2016-06-01

    We present an efficient mesoscale model to simulate the diffusion measurement with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). On the level of mesoscopic thermal motion of fluid particles, we couple the Bloch equations with dissipative particle dynamics (DPD). Thereby we establish a physically consistent scaling relation between the diffusion constant measured for DPD-particles and the diffusion constant of a real fluid. The latter is based on a splitting into a centre-of-mass contribution represented by DPD, and an internal contribution which is not resolved in the DPD-level of description. As a consequence, simulating the centre-of-mass contribution with DPD requires high Schmidt numbers. After a verification for fundamental pulse sequences, we apply the NMR-DPD method to NMR diffusion measurements of anisotropic fluids, and of fluids restricted by walls of microfluidic channels. For the latter, the free diffusion and the localisation regime are considered.

  9. Mutagenic effects of a single and an exact number of alpha particles in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Hei, T K; Wu, L J; Liu, S X; Vannais, D; Waldren, C A; Randers-Pehrson, G

    1997-04-15

    One of the main uncertainties in risk estimation for environmental radon exposure using lung cancer data from underground miners is the extrapolation from high- to low-dose exposure where multiple traversal is extremely rare. The biological effects of a single alpha particle are currently unknown. Using the recently available microbeam source at the Radiological Research Accelerator Facility at Columbia University, we examined the frequencies and molecular spectrum of S1- mutants induced in human-hamster hybrid (A(L)) cells by either a single or an exact number of alpha particles. Exponentially growing cells were stained briefly with a nontoxic concentration of Hoechst dye for image analysis, and the location of individual cells was computer-monitored. The nucleus of each cell was irradiated with either 1,2,4, or 8 alpha particles at a linear energy transfer of 90 keV/microm consistent with the energy spectrum of domestic radon exposure. Although single-particle traversal was only slightly cytotoxic to A(L) cells (survival fraction approximately 0.82), it was highly mutagenic, and the induced mutant fraction averaged 110 mutants per 10(5) survivors. In addition, both toxicity and mutant induction were dose-dependent. Multiplex PCR analysis of mutant DNA showed that the proportion of mutants with multilocus deletions increased with the number of particle traversals. These data provide direct evidence that a single a particle traversing a nucleus will have a high probability of resulting in a mutation and highlight the need for radiation protection at low doses. PMID:9108052

  10. Mutagenic effects of a single and an exact number of alpha particles in mammalian cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hei, T. K.; Wu, L. J.; Liu, S. X.; Vannais, D.; Waldren, C. A.; Randers-Pehrson, G.

    1997-01-01

    One of the main uncertainties in risk estimation for environmental radon exposure using lung cancer data from underground miners is the extrapolation from high- to low-dose exposure where multiple traversal is extremely rare. The biological effects of a single alpha particle are currently unknown. Using the recently available microbeam source at the Radiological Research Accelerator Facility at Columbia University, we examined the frequencies and molecular spectrum of S1- mutants induced in human-hamster hybrid (A(L)) cells by either a single or an exact number of alpha particles. Exponentially growing cells were stained briefly with a nontoxic concentration of Hoechst dye for image analysis, and the location of individual cells was computer-monitored. The nucleus of each cell was irradiated with either 1,2,4, or 8 alpha particles at a linear energy transfer of 90 keV/microm consistent with the energy spectrum of domestic radon exposure. Although single-particle traversal was only slightly cytotoxic to A(L) cells (survival fraction approximately 0.82), it was highly mutagenic, and the induced mutant fraction averaged 110 mutants per 10(5) survivors. In addition, both toxicity and mutant induction were dose-dependent. Multiplex PCR analysis of mutant DNA showed that the proportion of mutants with multilocus deletions increased with the number of particle traversals. These data provide direct evidence that a single a particle traversing a nucleus will have a high probability of resulting in a mutation and highlight the need for radiation protection at low doses.

  11. Study on size distributions of airborne particles by aircraft observation in spring over eastern coastal areas of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei; Liu, Hongjie; Yue, Xin; Li, Hong; Chen, Jianhua; Tang, Dagang

    2005-06-01

    The authors studied the size distributions of particles at an altitude of 2000 m by aircraft observation over eastern costal areas of China from Zhuhai, Guangdong to Dalian, Liaoning (0.47 30 μm, 57 channels, including number concentration distribution, surface area concentration distribution and mass concentration distribution). In these cities, the average daily concentrations of PM10 are very high. They are among the most heavily polluted cities in China. The main pollution sources are anthropogenic activities such as wood, coal and oil burning. The observed size distributions show a broad spectrum and unique multi-peak characteristics, indicating no significant impacts of individual sources from urban areas. These results are far different from the distribution type at ground level. It may reflect the comprehensive effect of the regional pollution characteristics. Monitoring results over big cities could to some extent reflect their pollution characteristics.

  12. Automated 3D trajectory measuring of large numbers of moving particles.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hai Shan; Zhao, Qi; Zou, Danping; Chen, Yan Qiu

    2011-04-11

    Complex dynamics of natural particle systems, such as insect swarms, bird flocks, fish schools, has attracted great attention of scientists for years. Measuring 3D trajectory of each individual in a group is vital for quantitative study of their dynamic properties, yet such empirical data is rare mainly due to the challenges of maintaining the identities of large numbers of individuals with similar visual features and frequent occlusions. We here present an automatic and efficient algorithm to track 3D motion trajectories of large numbers of moving particles using two video cameras. Our method solves this problem by formulating it as three linear assignment problems (LAP). For each video sequence, the first LAP obtains 2D tracks of moving targets and is able to maintain target identities in the presence of occlusions; the second one matches the visually similar targets across two views via a novel technique named maximum epipolar co-motion length (MECL), which is not only able to effectively reduce matching ambiguity but also further diminish the influence of frequent occlusions; the last one links 3D track segments into complete trajectories via computing a globally optimal assignment based on temporal and kinematic cues. Experiment results on simulated particle swarms with various particle densities validated the accuracy and robustness of the proposed method. As real-world case, our method successfully acquired 3D flight paths of fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) group comprising hundreds of freely flying individuals. PMID:21503074

  13. Braiding Majorana fermions in p+ip superfluids with particle number conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yiruo; Leggett, Anthony

    We discuss braiding statistics of Majorana zero modes localized in vortices in 2D spinless p+ip superfluids with conserved total particle number. In the standard particle non-conserved context, it has been argued that braiding these zero Majorana fermions yields non-abelian statistics. With particle number conservation, We show that in certain geometry, the Berry phase of interchanging two Majorana zero modes is proportional to angular momentum of the system with the presence of two vortices, which can then be calculated in the thermodynamic limit. The braiding statistics turns out to be consistent with the standard result. We then discuss the possible complication due to finite size effect. We'll argue that in a finite size system, the abelian phase of interchanging two vortices is non-topological. We'll finish the discussion by sketching out ongoing work in which we investigate the possible modification of BdG quasi-particle wave functions beyond the BdG mean-field approximation, which can have dramatic effect on topological properties of Majorana zero modes and their braiding statistics.

  14. First passage times in homogeneous nucleation: Dependence on the total number of particles.

    PubMed

    Yvinec, Romain; Bernard, Samuel; Hingant, Erwan; Pujo-Menjouet, Laurent

    2016-01-21

    Motivated by nucleation and molecular aggregation in physical, chemical, and biological settings, we present an extension to a thorough analysis of the stochastic self-assembly of a fixed number of identical particles in a finite volume. We study the statistics of times required for maximal clusters to be completed, starting from a pure-monomeric particle configuration. For finite volumes, we extend previous analytical approaches to the case of arbitrary size-dependent aggregation and fragmentation kinetic rates. For larger volumes, we develop a scaling framework to study the first assembly time behavior as a function of the total quantity of particles. We find that the mean time to first completion of a maximum-sized cluster may have a surprisingly weak dependence on the total number of particles. We highlight how higher statistics (variance, distribution) of the first passage time may nevertheless help to infer key parameters, such as the size of the maximum cluster. Finally, we present a framework to quantify formation of macroscopic sized clusters, which are (asymptotically) very unlikely and occur as a large deviation phenomenon from the mean-field limit. We argue that this framework is suitable to describe phase transition phenomena, as inherent infrequent stochastic processes, in contrast to classical nucleation theory. PMID:26801019

  15. Finite-size and particle-number effects in an ultracold Fermi gas at unitarity

    SciTech Connect

    Braun, Jens; Diehl, Sebastian; Scherer, Michael M.

    2011-12-15

    We investigate an ultracold Fermi gas at unitarity confined in a periodic box V=L{sup 3} using renormalization group techniques. Within this approach we can quantitatively assess the long-range bosonic order parameter fluctuations, which dominate finite-size effects. We determine the finite-size and particle-number dependence of universal quantities, such as the Bertsch parameter and the fermion gap. Moreover, we analyze how these universal observables respond to the variation of an external pairing source. Our results indicate that the Bertsch parameter saturates rather quickly to its value in the thermodynamic limit as a function of increasing box size. On the other hand, we observe that the fermion gap shows a significantly stronger dependence on the box size, in particular for small values of the pairing source. Our results may contribute to a better understanding of finite-size and particle-number effects present in Monte Carlo simulations of ultracold Fermi gases.

  16. [Study on number concentration distribution of atmospheric ultrafine particles in Hangzhou].

    PubMed

    Xie, Xiao-Fang; Sun, Zai; Fu, Zhi-Min; Yang, Wen-Jun; Lin, Jian-Zhong

    2013-02-01

    Atmospheric ultrafine particles (UFPs) were measured with fast mobility particle sizer(FMPS) in Hangzhou, during March 2011 to February 2012. The number concentration and size distribution of UFPs associated with meteorology were studied. The results showed that the number concentration of UFPs was logarithmic bi-modal distribution, and the seasonal levels presented winter > summer > spring> autumn. The highest monthly average concentration was 3.56 x 10(4) cm-3 in December and the lowest was 2.51 x 10(4) cm-3 in October. The seasonal values of count medium diameter(CMD) were spring > winter > autumn > summer. The highest monthly average CMD was 53. 51 nm in April and the lowest was 16.68 nm in June. Meteorological factors had effects on concentration of UFPs. PMID:23668106

  17. Thermodynamical properties of small superconductors with a fixed number of particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gambacurta, Danilo; Lacroix, Denis

    2012-04-01

    The variation after projection approach is applied for the first time to the Richardson pairing Hamiltonian to describe the thermodynamics of small superconductors with a fixed number of particles. The minimization of the free energy is made by a direct diagonalization of the entropy. The variation after projection applied at finite temperature provides a perfect reproduction of the exact canonical properties of odd or even systems from very low to high temperatures.

  18. Hydrodynamic interactions between a sphere and a number of small particles.

    PubMed

    Ekiel-Jeżewska, Maria L; Felderhof, B U

    2015-01-01

    Exact expressions are derived for the pair and three-body hydrodynamic interactions between a sphere and a number of small particles immersed in a viscous incompressible fluid. The analysis is based on the Stokes equations of low Reynolds number hydrodynamics. The results follow by a combination of the solutions for flow about a sphere with no-slip boundary condition derived by Stokes and Kirchhoff and the result derived by Oseen for the Green tensor of Stokes equations in the presence of a fixed sphere. PMID:25573580

  19. Atmospheric fate of nuclei-mode particles estimated from the number concentrations and chemical composition of particles measured at roadside and background sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fushimi, Akihiro; Hasegawa, Shuichi; Takahashi, Katsuyuki; Fujitani, Yuji; Tanabe, Kiyoshi; Kobayashi, Shinji

    Number concentrations and size-resolved chemical compositions of atmospheric particles at a roadside site in Kawasaki City, Japan, and a background site 200 m away were measured in winter to estimate the atmospheric fate of nuclei-mode particles emitted from vehicles. Measurements with a scanning mobility particle sizer showed a sharp peak in nuclei-mode particles with a modal diameter of around 0.020 μm at the roadside site; in contrast, no peak for nuclei-mode particles was observed at the background site. For chemical analysis, size-resolved particles were sampled by low-pressure impactors. Carbon analysis suggested that diesel exhaust particles contributed to both the roadside and background Stage 1 (S1; 0.030-0.060 μm) particles. The ratios of organic carbon (OC) to total carbon (TC) increased for smaller particles, and were 28% and 51% for the roadside and the background S1 particles, respectively. It is likely that the OC/TC ratio for nuclei-mode particles was larger than for the S1 particles, and that OC was one of the major constituents of the nuclei-mode particles at the roadside site. From this result and the greater Kelvin effect for smaller particles, it is likely that nuclei-mode particles in the roadside atmosphere are more volatile than the S1 particles. Organic analysis of the size-resolved particles suggested that lubricating oil from vehicles affected the organic composition of both the roadside and background S1 particles, and that C 33n-alkane and more volatile organic compounds in the S1 particles partially evaporated in the atmosphere following the emission of the particles from diesel vehicles. It is likely that evaporation of the constituents (or possibly coagulation with pre-existing particles after shrinking by partial evaporation) of the nuclei-mode particles in the atmosphere was responsible for the absence of nuclei-mode particles in the background atmosphere.

  20. The effects of vegetation barriers on near-road ultrafine particle number and carbon monoxide concentrations.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ming-Yeng; Hagler, Gayle; Baldauf, Richard; Isakov, Vlad; Lin, Hong-Yiou; Khlystov, Andrey

    2016-05-15

    Numerous studies have shown that people living in near-roadway communities (within 100 m of the road) are exposed to high ultrafine particle (UFP) number concentrations, which may be associated with adverse health effects. Vegetation barriers have been shown to affect pollutant transport via particle deposition to leaves and altering the dispersion of emission plumes, which in turn would modify the exposure of near-roadway communities to traffic-related UFPs. In this study, both stationary (equipped with a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer, SMPS) and mobile (equipped with Fast Mobility Particle Sizer, FMPS) measurements were conducted to investigate the effects of vegetation barriers on downwind UFP (particle diameters ranging from 14 to 102 nm) concentrations at two sites in North Carolina, USA. One site had mainly deciduous vegetation while the other was primarily coniferous; both sites have a nearby open field without the vegetation barriers along the same stretch of limited access road, which served as a reference. During downwind conditions (traffic emissions transported towards the vegetation barrier) and when the wind speed was above or equal to 0.5m/s, field measurements indicated that vegetation barriers with full foliage reduced UFP and CO concentrations by 37.7-63.6% and 23.6-56.1%, respectively. When the test was repeated at the same sites during winter periods when deciduous foliage was reduced, the deciduous barrier during winter showed no significant change in UFP concentration before and after the barrier. Results from the stationary (using SMPS) and mobile (using FMPS) measurements for UFP total number concentrations generally agreed to within 20%. PMID:26930311

  1. Airborne Coarse Mode Aerosol Measurements with the CAS-DPOL Instrument: Effects of Particle Shape and Refractive Index and Implications for Radiative Transfer Estimate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauer, D. N.; Weinzierl, B.; Gasteiger, J.; Spanu, A.; Freudenthaler, V.; Gross, S.

    2015-12-01

    Each year huge amounts of mineral dust are mobilized in deserts and arid regions of the world and transported over large distances forming thick elevated aerosol layers with a substantial fraction of coarse mode particles. Optical properties of mineral dust, including the absorptive refractive index of some components, cause a significant effect on the atmospheric radiative energy balance from optical to infrared wavelengths. The aerosol characteristics, in particular its coarse mode size distribution, are modified during long-range transport by aging and deposition processes. This also affects the aerosol optical properties and therefore the effect on the atmospheric radiative energy budget. In-situ measurements of aerosol microphysical properties are essential to characterize those effects in order to be implemented in global climate models in parametrized form. However, in-situ measurements of airborne coarse mode aerosols such as mineral dust and volcanic ash are challenging and the measurements are usually affected by substantial uncertainties. In this work we use airborne measurements of mineral dust from our optical light-scattering spectrometer CAS-DPOL during SALTRACE 2013 to discuss the analysis of such data. We cover the effects of varying refractive index and particle shapes and develop recommendations for the configuration of the CAS-DPOL for aerosol studies. We also present an inversion method to derive coarse mode size distributions from light-scattering probes for mixtures of non-spherical, absorbing aerosols. The size distributions retrieved from the in-situ measurements are then validated using an independent analysis with a combination of sun-photometer and lidar data. We apply these methods to investigate the Saharan mineral dust particle size distributions measured on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean and discuss the influence of aerosol aging on the atmospheric radiative energy budget. With this example we also assess how the uncertainties

  2. Airborne exposures to PAH and PM2.5 particles for road paving workers applying conventional asphalt and crumb rubber modified asphalt.

    PubMed

    Watts, R R; Wallingford, K M; Williams, R W; House, D E; Lewtas, J

    1998-01-01

    Personal exposure monitoring was conducted for road paving workers in three states. A research objective was to characterize and compare occupational exposures to fine respirable particles (< 2.5 microns) and particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) for road paving workers applying conventional (petroleum derived) asphalt and asphalt containing crumb rubber from shredded tires. Workers not exposed to asphalt fume were also included for comparison (to support the biomarker component of this study). The rubber content of the crumb rubber modified (CRM) asphalt at the three study sites was 12, 15, and 20%. A comparison of some specific job categories from two sites indicates greater potential carcinogenic PAH exposures during CRM asphalt work, however, the site with the greatest overall exposures did not indicate any differences for specific jobs. A statistical analysis of means for fine particle, pyrene and total carcinogenic PAH personal exposure shows, with two exceptions, there were no differences in exposures for these three measurement variables. One site shows significantly elevated pyrene exposure for CRM asphalt workers and another site similarly shows greater carcinogenic PAH exposure for CRM asphalt workers. Conventional and CRM asphalt worker airborne exposures to the PAH carcinogen marker, BaP, were very low with concentrations comparable to ambient air in many cities. However, this study demonstrates that asphalt road paving workers are exposed to elevated airborne concentrations of a group of unknown compounds that likely consist of the carcinogenic PAHs benz(a)anthracene, chrysene and methylated derivatives of both. The research described in this article has been reviewed in accordance with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency policy and approved for publication. Mention of trade names or commercial products does not constitute endorsement or recommendation for use. PMID:9577752

  3. Measurement of airborne concentrations of tire and road wear particles in urban and rural areas of France, Japan, and the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panko, Julie M.; Chu, Jennifer; Kreider, Marisa L.; Unice, Ken M.

    2013-06-01

    In addition to industrial facilities, fuel combustion, forest fires and dust erosion, exhaust and non-exhaust vehicle emissions are an important source of ambient air respirable particulate matter (PM10). Non-exhaust vehicle emissions are formed from wear particles of vehicle components such as brakes, clutches, chassis and tires. Although the non-exhaust particles are relatively minor contributors to the overall ambient air particulate load, reliable exposure estimates are few. In this study, a global sampling program was conducted to quantify tire and road wear particles (TRWP) in the ambient air in order to understand potential human exposures and the overall contribution of these particles to the PM10. The sampling was conducted in Europe, the United States and Japan and the sampling locations were selected to represent a variety of settings including both rural and urban core; and within each residential, commercial and recreational receptors. The air samples were analyzed using validated chemical markers for rubber polymer based on a pyrolysis technique. Results indicated that TRWP concentrations in the PM10 fraction were low with averages ranging from 0.05 to 0.70 μg m-3, representing an average PM10 contribution of 0.84%. The TRWP concentration in air was associated with traffic load and population density, but the trend was not statistically significant. Further, significant differences across days were not observed. This study provides a robust dataset to understand potential human exposures to airborne TRWP.

  4. Time evolution of atmospheric particle number concentration during high-intensity pyrotechnic events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crespo, Javier; Yubero, Eduardo; Nicolás, Jose F.; Caballero, Sandra; Galindo, Nuria

    2014-10-01

    The Mascletàs are high-intensity pyrotechnic events, typical of eastern Spanish festivals, in which thousands of firecrackers are burnt at ground level in an intense, short-time (<8 min) deafening spectacle that generates short-lived, thick aerosol clouds. In this study, the impact of such events on air quality has been evaluated by means of particle number concentration measurements performed close to the venue during the June festival in Alicante (southeastern Spain). Peak concentrations and dilution times observed throughout the Mascletàs have been compared to those measured when conventional aerial fireworks were launched 2 km away from the monitoring site. The impact of the Mascletàs on the total number concentration of particles larger than 0.3 μm was higher (maximum ˜2·104 cm-3) than that of fireworks (maximum ˜2·103 cm-3). The effect of fireworks depended on whether the dominant meteorological conditions favoured the transport of the plume to the measurement location. However, the time required for particle concentrations to return to background levels is longer and more variable for firework displays (minutes to hours) than for the Mascletàs (<25 min).

  5. Origin of high particle number concentrations reaching the St. Louis, Midwest Supersite.

    PubMed

    de Foy, Benjamin; Schauer, James J

    2015-08-01

    Ultrafine particles are associated with adverse health effects. Total Particle Number Concentration (TNC) of fine particles were measured during 2002 at the St. Louis - Midwest supersite. The time series showed overall low level with frequent large peaks. The time series was analyzed alongside criteria pollutant measurements and meteorological observations. Multiple regression analysis was used to identify further contributing factors and to determine the association of different pollutants with TNC levels. This showed the strong contribution of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) to high TNC levels. The analysis also suggested that increased dispersion resulting from faster winds and higher mixing heights led to higher TNC levels. Overall, the results show that there were intense particle nucleation events in a SO2 rich plume reaching the site which contributed around 29% of TNC. A further 40% was associated with primary emissions from mobile sources. By separating the remaining TNC by time of day and clear sky conditions, we suggest that most likely 8% of TNC are due to regional nucleation events and 23% are associated with the general urban background. PMID:26257365

  6. Fluctuations in the number of particles adsorbed under the influence of diffusion and flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamczyk, Zbigniew; Siwek, Barbara; Szyk, Lilianna; Zembala, Maria

    1996-10-01

    Fluctuations in the number of colloid particles adsorbed irreversibly under diffusion and flow were determined. The experimental measurements were carried out in the impinging-jet cells using as model colloids the monodisperse polystyrene latex particles of micrometer size range adsorbing at mica sheets. The surface concentration of adsorbed particles was determined quantitatively using the direct microscope observation method coupled with an image analyzing system. Two series of experiments were performed (i) for diffusion controlled adsorption when the random sequential adsorption (RSA) mechanism was valid and (ii) for flow controlled adsorption. It was found that in the case of RSA the reduced variance of the distributions decreased markedly for increasing surface concentration θ in accordance with theoretical predictions based on the mean-field approximation. The experimental results were in a good agreement with the numerical simulations performed according to the RSA algorithm. It was also determined that the magnitude of fluctuations in our irreversible system was very similar to reversible systems described by the scaled-particle theory. A significantly different behavior was observed for flow affected adsorption when the reduced variance (at the same surface concentration) was much smaller than for the RSA model, therefore deviating considerably from an equilibrium system. The decrease in the variance indicated that the surface exclusion effects (described by the available surface function) were more important under flow due to the hydrodynamic scattering effect.

  7. Airborne and groundbased measurements of ash particles on Iceland and over Germany during the Grímsvötn eruption May 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, A.; Weber, K.; Eliasson, J.; Palsson, A.; Moser, H. M.; Palsson, T.; von Löwis, S.; Fischer, C.

    2012-04-01

    The eruption of the Grimsvötn volcano in May 2010 posed with its ash plume a thread to the aviation in northern Europe. Because of ash plume forecasts of the VAAC London the airport of Keflavik in Iceland as well as airports in England, Scotland and Scandinavia were closed for some time, which caused the cancellation or change of about 500 flights in Europe. Even in Germany the airports of Bremen, Hamburg and Berlin were closed for several hours on 25 May 2011. During this eruption period in May 2011, a team of the Duesseldorf University of Applied Sciences, the University of Iceland, the University of Reykjavik and the IMO has performed airborne in-situ measurements over Iceland and Germany as well as ground based measurements in the south of Iceland. The ground based measurements were performed continuously during the whole eruption period at two significant positions (Skogar and Hvollsvöllur) with optical particle counters (OPCs). The measurement method was based on measuring the airborne concentrations of the classic aerosol components (PM10, PM2.5 and PM1) and TSP (total suspended particles) every 6 seconds. Additional measurement flights on Iceland were started already one day after the beginning of the eruption (twelve in-situ measurement flights) and marked the spatial and temporal spread of volcanic ash in the atmosphere. For the flights light slow flying piston engine powered airplanes where used. The flights over Iceland focused on the western part of Iceland in the region of Reykjavik and Keflavik and over the international airport in Keflavik and were mostly coordinated by ISAVIA. The measurement flights helped to keep Keflavik International Airport open for many additional hours despite of adverse predictions by the London VAAC model, because it was possible to observe the particle concentration on-line during the flights. In Germany a measurement flight was performed on 25 May 2012 over the northern part of Germany where the volcanic ash cloud was

  8. Characterization of Fine Airborne Particulate Collected in Tokyo and Major Atmospheric Emission Sources by Using Single Particle Measurement of SEM-EDX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, K.; Iijima, A.; Furuta, N.

    2008-12-01

    In our long-term monitoring of size-classified Airborne Particulate Matter (APM) in Tokyo since 1995, it had been demonstrated that toxic elements such as As, Se, Cd, Sb and Pb were extremely enriched in fine APM (PM2.5). However, in that study, total sampled APM on a filter was digested with acids, and thus only averaged elemental composition in fine APM could be obtained. One of the effective methods to determine the origin of APM is single particle measurement by using SEM-EDX. By using characteristic shapes observed by SEM and marker elements contained in APM measured by EDX, detailed information for source identification can be obtained. In this study, fine APM (PM2.5) was collected at various locations such as roadside, diesel vehicle exhaust, a heavy oil combustion plant and a waste incineration plant as well as ambient atmosphere in Tokyo, and characteristics of fine particles that will be utilized for identification of emission sources are elucidated. Fine particles can be classified into 3 main characteristic shape groups; edge-shaped, cotton-like and spherical. Shape of particles collected in a heavy oil combustion plant and a waste incineration plant was mostly spherical, and these particles may be associated with thermal process. Diesel exhaust particles were predominantly cotton-like which may consist of coagulated nano-sized particles. Most of brake abrasion dusts were edge-shaped, which may be associated with mechanical abrasion of brake pads. In the elemental analysis of fine particles, high concentrations of Sb, Cu, Ti and Ba were detected in brake abrasion dusts. Since these elements are major constituents of brake pads, these can be used for marker elements of brake abrasion dusts. High concentration of C was detected in diesel exhaust particles and oil combustion particles, and thus C can be used for marker elements of their origin. Furthermore, high concentrations of C, Ca and K were detected in fly ash from a waste incineration plant, which

  9. Critical analysis of high particle number emissions from accelerating compressed natural gas buses.

    PubMed

    Jayaratne, E R; Meyer, N K; Ristovski, Z D; Morawska, L; Miljevic, B

    2010-05-15

    Compressed natural gas (CNG) engines are thought to be less harmful to the environment than conventional diesel engines, especially in terms of particle emissions. Although, this is true with respect to particulate matter (PM) emissions, results of particle number (PN) emission comparisons have been inconclusive. In this study, results of on-road and dynamometer studies of buses were used to derive several important conclusions. We show that, although PN emissions from CNG buses are significantly lower than from diesel buses at low engine power, they become comparable at high power. For diesel buses, PN emissions are not significantly different between acceleration and operation at steady maximum power. However, the corresponding PN emissions from CNG buses when accelerating are an order of magnitude greater than when operating at steady maximum power. During acceleration under heavy load, PN emissions from CNG buses are an order of magnitude higher than from diesel buses. The particles emitted from CNG buses are too small to contribute to PM(10) emissions or contribute to a reduction of visibility and may consist of semivolatile nanoparticles. PMID:20384333

  10. Modelling particle number concentrations in a typical street canyon in Germany and analysis of future trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toenges-Schuller, N.; Schneider, Chr.; Niederau, A.; Vogt, R.; Birmili, W.

    2015-06-01

    An aerosol box model and a gas-phase chemistry box model were coupled to simulate particle number (PN) concentrations, both solid and volatile, in a typical street canyon with a high traffic volume in Germany. The simulation accounts for emission, nucleation and aerosol aging processes while dilution is parameterised by a simple two-stage process. Calculations were performed for the years 2010, 2015, 2020 and 2025, and for a vehicle fleet consisting of electric vehicles only ("electric mobility"). Projections including a high fraction of Euro-6 vehicles in the fleet suggest that PN emissions will reduce by 90% in 2025 compared to 2010. Ambient PN concentrations are, however, expected to reduce by merely 29% over the same period. Apart from contributions of urban background air, reductions in primary particles are partially offset by secondary particle formation by nucleating exhaust gases. In the "electric mobility" scenario omitting tailpipe emissions, PN concentrations are expected to reduce by 60% from 2010 to 2025. For an aerosol assumed to be mixed externally only, PN of elemental carbon (EC) was calculated to reduce by 76% from 2010 to 2025, in the "electric mobility" scenario by 87%. Overall, the contribution of solid PN emissions from gasoline vehicles to PN concentration in the street canyon is expected to be approximately 4% in 2025.

  11. Emissions of NOx, particle mass and particle numbers from aircraft main engines, APU's and handling equipment at Copenhagen Airport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winther, Morten; Kousgaard, Uffe; Ellermann, Thomas; Massling, Andreas; Nøjgaard, Jacob Klenø; Ketzel, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed emission inventory for NOx, particle mass (PM) and particle numbers (PN) for aircraft main engines, APU's and handling equipment at Copenhagen Airport (CPH) based on time specific activity data and representative emission factors for the airport. The inventory has a high spatial resolution of 5 m × 5 m in order to be suited for further air quality dispersion calculations. Results are shown for the entire airport and for a section of the airport apron area ("inner apron") in focus. The methodology presented in this paper can be used to quantify the emissions from aircraft main engines, APU and handling equipment in other airports. For the entire airport, aircraft main engines is the largest source of fuel consumption (93%), NOx, (87%), PM (61%) and PN (95%). The calculated fuel consumption [NOx, PM, PN] shares for APU's and handling equipment are 5% [4%, 8%, 5%] and 2% [9%, 31%, 0%], respectively. At the inner apron area for handling equipment the share of fuel consumption [NOx, PM, PN] are 24% [63%, 75%, 2%], whereas APU and main engines shares are 43% [25%, 19%, 54%], and 33% [11%, 6%, 43%], respectively. The inner apron NOx and PM emission levels are high for handling equipment due to high emission factors for the diesel fuelled handling equipment and small for aircraft main engines due to small idle-power emission factors. Handling equipment is however a small PN source due to the low number based emission factors. Jet fuel sulphur-PM sensitivity calculations made in this study with the ICAO FOA3.0 method suggest that more than half of the PM emissions from aircraft main engines at CPH originate from the sulphur content of the fuel used at the airport. Aircraft main engine PN emissions are very sensitive to the underlying assumptions. Replacing this study's literature based average emission factors with "high" and "low" emission factors from the literature, the aircraft main engine PN emissions were estimated to change with a

  12. Vertical profiles of black carbon concentration and particle number size distribution in the North China Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ran, L.; Deng, Z.

    2013-12-01

    The vertical distribution of aerosols is of great importance to our understanding in the impacts of aerosols on radiation balance and climate, as well as air quality and public health. To better understand and estimate the effects of atmospheric components including trace gases and aerosols on atmospheric environment and climate, an intensive field campaign, Vertical Observations of trace Gases and Aerosols in the North China Plain (VOGA-NCP), was carried out from late July to early August 2013 over a rural site in the polluted NCP. During the campaign, vertical profiles of black carbon (BC) concentration and particle number size distribution were measured respectively by a micro-Aethalometer and an optical particle counter attached to a tethered balloon within 1000 m height. Meteorological parameters, including temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and wind direction, were measured simultaneously by a radiosonde also attached to the tethered balloon. Preliminary results showed distinct diurnal variations of the vertical distribution of aerosol total number concentration and BC concentration, following the development of the mixing layer. Generally, there was a well mixing of aerosols within the mixing layer and a sharp decrease above the mixing layer. Particularly, a small peak of BC concentrations was observed around 400-500 m height for several profiles. Further analysis would be needed to explain such phenomenon. It was also found that measured vertical profiles of BC using the filter-based method might be affected by the vertical distribution of relative humidity.

  13. A Stochastic Model for the Relative Motion of High Stokes Number Particles in Isotropic Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhariwal, Rohit; Rani, Sarma; Koch, Donald

    2014-11-01

    In the current study, a novel analytical closure for the diffusion current in the PDF equation is presented that is applicable to high-inertia particle pairs with Stokes numbers Str >> 1 . Here Str is a Stokes number based on the time-scale τr of eddies whose size scales with pair separation r. Using this closure, Langevin equations were solved to evolve particle-pair relative velocities and separations in stationary isotropic turbulence. The Langevin equation approach enables the simulation of the full PDF of pair relative motion, instead of only the first few moments of the PDF as is the case in a moments-based approach. Accordingly, PDFs Ω (U | r) and Ω (Ur | r) are computed for various separations r, where the former is the PDF of relative velocity U and the latter is the PDF of the radial component of relative velocity Ur, both conditioned upon the separation r. Consistent with the DNS study of Sundaram & Collins, the Langevin simulations capture the transition of Ω (U | r) from being Gaussian at integral-scale separations to an exponential PDF at Kolmogorov-scale separations. The radial distribution functions (RDFs) computed from these simulations also show reasonable quantitative agreement with those from the DNS of Fevrier et al.

  14. Association of urban particle numbers and sources with lung function among children with asthma or allergies.

    PubMed

    Li, Ya-Ru; Feng, Li-Ting; Chen, Bing-Yu; Kim, Ho; Yi, Seung-Muk; Guo, Yue Leon; Wu, Chang-Fu

    2016-01-15

    Previous studies have reported sources of particle number pollution in urban air, but have not evaluated relationships between respiratory health and these sources. We compared, among children with asthma or allergies, the associations of spirometric lung functions with increased exposure to source-specific versus size-segregated particle number concentrations (PNC). Hourly measurements of PNC were acquired from the aerosol Supersite in New Taipei, Taiwan. Spirometry (FVC, FEV1, and FEF) was recorded monthly for 59 children with asthma or allergies at five schools during 2007-2008. After co-pollutant adjustment for ozone, we found a 0.21 and 0.17 L decrease in FVC [95% confidence interval (CI): -0.35, -0.06 L] and FEV1 (95% CI: -0.32, -0.03 L), respectively, with an interquartile range increase (1879.7#/cm(3)) in secondary aerosol contribution observed on the previous day. In addition, we found no significant associations of FVC with accumulation mode (0.1 μm

  15. Spatial and temporal variation of particle number concentration in Augsburg, Germany

    PubMed Central

    Cyrys, Josef; Pitz, Mike; Heinrich, Joachim; Wichmann, H.-Erich; Peters, Annette

    2008-01-01

    Epidemiological studies on health effects of outdoor air pollution are largely based on single monitoring site for estimating the exposure of people living in urban areas. For such an approach two aspects are important: the temporal correlation and the spatial variation of the absolute levels of concentrations measured at different sites in an urban area. Whereas many studies have shown small spatial variability of fine particles in urban areas, little is known on how well a single monitoring station could represent the temporal and spatial variation of ultrafine particles across urban areas. In our study we investigated the temporal and spatial variation of particle number concentration (PNC) at four background sites in Augsburg, Germany. Two of them were influenced by traffic, one was placed in the outskirts of the city. The average PNC levels at two urban background sites with traffic impact were 16,943 cm−3 and 20,702 cm−3, respectively, compared to 11,656 cm−3 at the urban background site without traffic impact (ratio 1.2 to 1.8). The Spearman correlation coefficients between the monitoring sites were high (r>0.80). The pronounced differences in absolute PNC levels suggest that the use of a single monitoring station in long-term epidemiological studies must be insufficient to attribute accurate exposure levels of PNC to all study subjects. On the other hand, the high temporal correlations of PNC across the city area of Augsburg implicate that in epidemiological time-series studies the use of one single ambient monitoring site is an adequate approach for characterizing exposure to ultrafine particles. PMID:18511107

  16. Comparison of physicochemical properties between fine (PM2.5) and coarse airborne particles at cold season in Korea.

    PubMed

    Choung, Sungwook; Oh, Jungsun; Han, Weon Shik; Chon, Chul-Min; Kwon, Youngsang; Kim, Do Yeon; Shin, Woosik

    2016-01-15

    Although it has been well-known that atmospheric aerosols affect negatively the local air quality, human health, and climate changes, the chemical and physical properties of atmospheric aerosols are not fully understood yet. This study experimentally measured the physiochemical characteristics of fine and coarse aerosol particles at the suburban area to evaluate relative contribution to environmental pollution in consecutive seasons of autumn and winter, 2014-2015, using XRD, SEM-EDX, XNI, ICP-MS, and TOF-SIMS. For these experimental works, the fine and coarse aerosols were collected by the high volume air sampler for 7 days each season. The fine particles contain approximately 10 μg m(-3) of carbonaceous aerosols consisting of 90% organic and 10% elemental carbon. The spherical-shape carbonaceous particles were observed for the coarse samples as well. Interestingly, the coarse particles in winter showed the increased frequency of carbon-rich particles with high contents of heavy metals. These results suggest that, for the cold season, the coarse particles could contribute relatively more to the conveyance of toxic contaminants compared to the fine particles in the study area. However, the fine particles showed acidic properties so that their deposition to surface may cause facilitate the increase of mobility for toxic heavy metals in soil and groundwater environments. The fine and coarse particulate matters, therefore, should be monitored separately with temporal variation to evaluate the impact of atmospheric aerosols to environmental pollution and human health. PMID:26476059

  17. Physico-chemical characteristics of visibility impairment by airborne pollen in an urban area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyung W.

    The number of airborne pollen produced from plants is visible as a haze mixed with urban air pollution in an urban area when atmospheric conditions are proper for pollination of pollen from April to May in Korea. The big loading of airborne pollen can cause further visibility degradation in an urban area. In order to investigate physico-chemical characteristics of visibility impairment by airborne pollen, chemical aerosol measurements, optical aerosol monitoring, and scenic monitoring were performed during the intensive monitoring period from April 19 to May 2, 2005 in the urban area of Seoul, Korea. The particles collected on filters were examined with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) interfaced with an energy dispersive X-ray analysis to characterize size, elemental composition, and count of airborne pollen. During the airborne pollen period, the daily averaged number concentrations of airborne pollen; P and P were calculated to be 8.4±6.9 and 113.7±91.1 m -3, respectively. The daily averaged light extinction coefficient ( bext), light scattering coefficient for open path ( bscat), light scattering coefficient for dry particle in the fine regime ( bscat,fine), and light absorption coefficient in the fine regime ( babs,fine) were measured to be 459±267, 357±214, 263±165, and 44±30 Mm -1, respectively. And mass concentration of PM 2.5 and PM 10 were measured to be 46.5±29.1 and 97.0±41.7 μg m -3. The average light absorption coefficient by airborne pollen was estimated to be about 30 M m -1 and the average light scattering coefficient by airborne pollen was estimated to be 67±57 Mm -1. During the airborne pollen period the average contribution of airborne pollen to visibility impairment was roughly estimated to be 19-25%.

  18. Source apportionment of ambient particle number concentrations in central Los Angeles using positive matrix factorization (PMF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sowlat, Mohammad Hossein; Hasheminassab, Sina; Sioutas, Constantinos

    2016-04-01

    In this study, the positive matrix factorization (PMF) receptor model (version 5.0) was used to identify and quantify major sources contributing to particulate matter (PM) number concentrations, using PM number size distributions in the range of 13 nm to 10 µm combined with several auxiliary variables, including black carbon (BC), elemental and organic carbon (EC/OC), PM mass concentrations, gaseous pollutants, meteorological, and traffic counts data, collected for about 9 months between August 2014 and 2015 in central Los Angeles, CA. Several parameters, including particle number and volume size distribution profiles, profiles of auxiliary variables, contributions of different factors in different seasons to the total number concentrations, diurnal variations of each of the resolved factors in the cold and warm phases, weekday/weekend analysis for each of the resolved factors, and correlation between auxiliary variables and the relative contribution of each of the resolved factors, were used to identify PM sources. A six-factor solution was identified as the optimum for the aforementioned input data. The resolved factors comprised nucleation, traffic 1, traffic 2 (with a larger mode diameter than traffic 1 factor), urban background aerosol, secondary aerosol, and soil/road dust. Traffic sources (1 and 2) were the major contributor to PM number concentrations, collectively making up to above 60 % (60.8-68.4 %) of the total number concentrations during the study period. Their contribution was also significantly higher in the cold phase compared to the warm phase. Nucleation was another major factor significantly contributing to the total number concentrations (an overall contribution of 17 %, ranging from 11.7 to 24 %), with a larger contribution during the warm phase than in the cold phase. The other identified factors were urban background aerosol, secondary aerosol, and soil/road dust, with relative contributions of approximately 12 % (7.4-17.1), 2.1 % (1

  19. Hepatitis C virus G1b infection decreases the number of small low-density lipoprotein particles

    PubMed Central

    Kinoshita, Chika; Nagano, Tomohisa; Seki, Nobuyoshi; Tomita, Yoichi; Sugita, Tomonori; Aida, Yuta; Itagaki, Munenori; Satoh, Kenichi; Sutoh, Satoshi; Abe, Hiroshi; Tsubota, Akihito; Aizawa, Yoshio

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate how hepatitis C virus (HCV) G1b infection influences the particle number of lipoproteins. METHODS: The numbers of lipoprotein particles in fasting sera from 173 Japanese subjects, 82 with active HCV G1b infection (active HCV group) and 91 with cleared HCV infection (SVR group), were examined. Serum lipoprotein was fractionated by high-performance liquid chromatography into twenty fractions. The cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations in each fraction were measured using LipoSEARCH. The number of lipoprotein particles in each fraction was calculated using a newly developed algorithm, and the relationship between chronic HCV G1b infection and the lipoprotein particle number was determined by multiple linear regression analysis. RESULTS: The median number of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles was significantly lower in the active HCV group [1182 nmol/L, interquartile range (IQR): 444 nmol/L] than in the SVR group (1363 nmol/L, IQR: 472 nmol/L, P < 0.001), as was that of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles (14168 nmol/L vs 15054 nmol/L, IQR: 4114 nmol/L vs 3385 nmol/L, P = 0.042). The number of very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) particles was similar between the two groups. Among the four LDL sub-fractions, the number of large LDL particles was similar between the two groups. However, the numbers of medium (median: 533.0 nmol/L, IQR: 214.7 nmol/L vs median: 633.5 nmol/L, IQR: 229.6 nmol/L, P < 0.001), small (median: 190.9 nmol/L, IQR: 152.4 nmol/L vs median: 263.2 nmol/L, IQR: 159.9 nmol/L; P < 0.001), and very small LDL particles (median: 103.5 nmol/L, IQR: 66.8 nmol/L vs median: 139.3 nmol/L, IQR: 67.3 nmol/L, P < 0.001) were significantly lower in the active HCV group than in the SVR group, respectively. Multiple linear regression analysis indicated an association between HCV G1b infection and the decreased numbers of medium, small, and very small LDL particles. However, active HCV infection did not affect the number of large LDL

  20. Optical pulling of airborne absorbing particles and smut spores over a meter-scale distance with negative photophoretic force

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Jinda; Hart, Adam G.; Li, Yong-qing

    2015-04-27

    We demonstrate optical pulling of single light-absorbing particles and smut spores in air over a meter-scale distance using a single collimated laser beam based on negative photophoretic force. The micron-sized particles are pulled towards the light source at a constant speed of 1–10 cm/s in the optical pulling pipeline while undergoing transverse rotation at 0.2–10 kHz. The pulled particles can be manipulated and precisely positioned on the entrance window with an accuracy of ∼20 μm, and their chemical compositions can be characterized with micro-Raman spectroscopy.

  1. Integrated micro-optofluidic platform for real-time detection of airborne microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jeongan; Kang, Miran; Jung, Jae Hee

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate an integrated micro-optofluidic platform for real-time, continuous detection and quantification of airborne microorganisms. Measurements of the fluorescence and light scattering from single particles in a microfluidic channel are used to determine the total particle number concentration and the microorganism number concentration in real-time. The system performance is examined by evaluating standard particle measurements with various sample flow rates and the ratios of fluorescent to non-fluorescent particles. To apply this method to real-time detection of airborne microorganisms, airborne Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, and Staphylococcus epidermidis cells were introduced into the micro-optofluidic platform via bioaerosol generation, and a liquid-type particle collection setup was used. We demonstrate successful discrimination of SYTO82-dyed fluorescent bacterial cells from other residue particles in a continuous and real-time manner. In comparison with traditional microscopy cell counting and colony culture methods, this micro-optofluidic platform is not only more accurate in terms of the detection efficiency for airborne microorganisms but it also provides additional information on the total particle number concentration. PMID:26522006

  2. Integrated micro-optofluidic platform for real-time detection of airborne microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jeongan; Kang, Miran; Jung, Jae Hee

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate an integrated micro-optofluidic platform for real-time, continuous detection and quantification of airborne microorganisms. Measurements of the fluorescence and light scattering from single particles in a microfluidic channel are used to determine the total particle number concentration and the microorganism number concentration in real-time. The system performance is examined by evaluating standard particle measurements with various sample flow rates and the ratios of fluorescent to non-fluorescent particles. To apply this method to real-time detection of airborne microorganisms, airborne Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, and Staphylococcus epidermidis cells were introduced into the micro-optofluidic platform via bioaerosol generation, and a liquid-type particle collection setup was used. We demonstrate successful discrimination of SYTO82-dyed fluorescent bacterial cells from other residue particles in a continuous and real-time manner. In comparison with traditional microscopy cell counting and colony culture methods, this micro-optofluidic platform is not only more accurate in terms of the detection efficiency for airborne microorganisms but it also provides additional information on the total particle number concentration. PMID:26522006

  3. Integrated micro-optofluidic platform for real-time detection of airborne microorganisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jeongan; Kang, Miran; Jung, Jae Hee

    2015-11-01

    We demonstrate an integrated micro-optofluidic platform for real-time, continuous detection and quantification of airborne microorganisms. Measurements of the fluorescence and light scattering from single particles in a microfluidic channel are used to determine the total particle number concentration and the microorganism number concentration in real-time. The system performance is examined by evaluating standard particle measurements with various sample flow rates and the ratios of fluorescent to non-fluorescent particles. To apply this method to real-time detection of airborne microorganisms, airborne Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, and Staphylococcus epidermidis cells were introduced into the micro-optofluidic platform via bioaerosol generation, and a liquid-type particle collection setup was used. We demonstrate successful discrimination of SYTO82-dyed fluorescent bacterial cells from other residue particles in a continuous and real-time manner. In comparison with traditional microscopy cell counting and colony culture methods, this micro-optofluidic platform is not only more accurate in terms of the detection efficiency for airborne microorganisms but it also provides additional information on the total particle number concentration.

  4. Characterization and source apportionment of particle number concentration at a semi-urban tropical environment.

    PubMed

    Khan, Md Firoz; Latif, Mohd Talib; Amil, Norhaniza; Juneng, Liew; Mohamad, Noorlin; Nadzir, Mohd Shahrul Mohd; Hoque, Hossain Mohammed Syedul

    2015-09-01

    Principal component analysis (PCA) and correlation have been used to study the variability of particle mass and particle number concentrations (PNC) in a tropical semi-urban environment. PNC and mass concentration (diameter in the range of 0.25->32.0 μm) have been measured from 1 February to 26 February 2013 using an in situ Grimm aerosol sampler. We found that the 24-h average total suspended particulates (TSP), particulate matter ≤10 μm (PM10), particulate matter ≤2.5 μm (PM2.5) and particulate matter ≤1 μm (PM1) were 14.37 ± 4.43, 14.11 ± 4.39, 12.53 ± 4.13 and 10.53 ± 3.98 μg m(-3), respectively. PNC in the accumulation mode (<500 nm) was the most abundant (at about 99 %). Five principal components (PCs) resulted from the PCA analysis where PC1 (43.8 % variance) predominates with PNC in the fine and sub-microme tre range. PC2, PC3, PC4 and PC5 explain 16.5, 12.4, 6.0 and 5.6 % of the variance to address the coarse, coarser, accumulation and giant fraction of PNC, respectively. Our particle distribution results show good agreement with the moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) distribution. PMID:25925145

  5. Emissions from an International Airport Increase Particle Number Concentrations 4-fold at 10 km Downwind

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    We measured the spatial pattern of particle number (PN) concentrations downwind from the Los Angeles International Airport (LAX) with an instrumented vehicle that enabled us to cover larger areas than allowed by traditional stationary measurements. LAX emissions adversely impacted air quality much farther than reported in previous airport studies. We measured at least a 2-fold increase in PN concentrations over unimpacted baseline PN concentrations during most hours of the day in an area of about 60 km2 that extended to 16 km (10 miles) downwind and a 4- to 5-fold increase to 8–10 km (5–6 miles) downwind. Locations of maximum PN concentrations were aligned to eastern, downwind jet trajectories during prevailing westerly winds and to 8 km downwind concentrations exceeded 75 000 particles/cm3, more than the average freeway PN concentration in Los Angeles. During infrequent northerly winds, the impact area remained large but shifted to south of the airport. The freeway length that would cause an impact equivalent to that measured in this study (i.e., PN concentration increases weighted by the area impacted) was estimated to be 280–790 km. The total freeway length in Los Angeles is 1500 km. These results suggest that airport emissions are a major source of PN in Los Angeles that are of the same general magnitude as the entire urban freeway network. They also indicate that the air quality impact areas of major airports may have been seriously underestimated. PMID:24871496

  6. Emissions from an international airport increase particle number concentrations 4-fold at 10 km downwind.

    PubMed

    Hudda, Neelakshi; Gould, Tim; Hartin, Kris; Larson, Timothy V; Fruin, Scott A

    2014-06-17

    We measured the spatial pattern of particle number (PN) concentrations downwind from the Los Angeles International Airport (LAX) with an instrumented vehicle that enabled us to cover larger areas than allowed by traditional stationary measurements. LAX emissions adversely impacted air quality much farther than reported in previous airport studies. We measured at least a 2-fold increase in PN concentrations over unimpacted baseline PN concentrations during most hours of the day in an area of about 60 km(2) that extended to 16 km (10 miles) downwind and a 4- to 5-fold increase to 8-10 km (5-6 miles) downwind. Locations of maximum PN concentrations were aligned to eastern, downwind jet trajectories during prevailing westerly winds and to 8 km downwind concentrations exceeded 75 000 particles/cm(3), more than the average freeway PN concentration in Los Angeles. During infrequent northerly winds, the impact area remained large but shifted to south of the airport. The freeway length that would cause an impact equivalent to that measured in this study (i.e., PN concentration increases weighted by the area impacted) was estimated to be 280-790 km. The total freeway length in Los Angeles is 1500 km. These results suggest that airport emissions are a major source of PN in Los Angeles that are of the same general magnitude as the entire urban freeway network. They also indicate that the air quality impact areas of major airports may have been seriously underestimated. PMID:24871496

  7. Comparison of particle number size distributions and new particle formation between the urban and rural sites in the PRD region, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, D. L.; Hu, M.; Wang, Z. B.; Wen, M. T.; Guo, S.; Zhong, L. J.; Wiedensohler, A.; Zhang, Y. H.

    2013-09-01

    Particle number size distributions were simultaneously measured at the Guangzhou (GZ) urban site (23.13°N, 113.26°E) and the Back-garden (BG) rural site (23.5°N, 113.03°E) in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region in July, 2006. It provided new findings into the evolution of particle number size distribution and new particle formation (NPF) in two different environments. Number concentration of particles (20 nm-10 μm diameter) at GZ was about 70% higher than at BG and significantly affected by traffic emission. However, number concentrations of the regional aerosols (100-660 nm) were (6 ± 3) × 103 cm-3 at both sites. At BG, the diurnal variation of particle number size distributions showed an obvious particle growth process beginning at about 9:00 (LT), probably caused by NPF. In contrast, particle number concentrations in the size rages of 20-45 nm, 45-100 nm, and 100-660 nm showed similar trends with two main peaks at about 12:00 (LT) and 19:00 (LT) at GZ. NPF events were observed at both sites, but the occurrence frequency at GZ was about 50% lower than at BG. Regional NPF events at both sites probably in the same air mass were simultaneously observed with similar growth rates, concentrations and production rates of the condensable vapors, and condensational sinks on July 6. On the whole, deceasing traffic emission will improve air quality efficiently in the aspect of particle number concentration and fine particulate pollution in the summer of PRD should be controlled in a regional scale, especially with stagnant air mass from South China Sea.

  8. On indeterminism, chaos, and small number particle systems in the brain.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Edwin R; MacGregor, Ronald J

    2006-06-01

    This paper presents rational, theoretical, and empirical grounds for doubting the principle of determinism in nature and in the brain, and discusses implications of this for free will and the chaos model of the brain. Small number particle systems are practically indeterministic and may be intrinsically indeterministic. Determinism in nature has often been taken to preclude free will. Strict determinism is a concept frequently applied to systems theory, establishing, e.g., the uniqueness of state-space trajectories. In order to consider determinism as a law of nature, however, one must be able to subject it to empirical tests. Presently, one is not able to and whether this can be shown to enable free will or not is not clear. It does remove, at least for the present, determinism itself as a rationale for precluding free will. The work partially supports the chaos model, but weakens the computational computer metaphor of brain function. PMID:16783870

  9. Particle-number conserving analysis of the high-spin structure of 159Ho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhen-Hua

    2016-05-01

    The high-spin rotational bands in odd-Z nuclei 159Ho (Z = 67) are investigated using the cranked shell model with the pairing correlations treated by a particle-number conserving method, in which the blocking effects are taken into account exactly. The experimental moments of inertia and alignments and their variations with the rotational frequency ħω are reproduced very well by the calculations. The splitting between the signature partners of the yrast band 7 /2- [ 523 ] is discussed and the splitting of the excited band 7 /2+ [ 404 ] above ħω ∼ 0.30 MeV is predicted due to the level crossing with 1 /2+ [ 411 ]. The calculated B (E 2) transition probabilities are also suggested for future experiments.

  10. Self-localization of a small number of Bose particles in a superfluid Fermi system

    SciTech Connect

    Targonska, Katarzyna; Sacha, Krzysztof

    2010-09-15

    We consider self-localization of a small number of Bose particles immersed in a large homogeneous superfluid mixture of fermions in three- and one-dimensional space. Bosons distort the density of surrounding fermions and create a potential well where they can form a bound state analogous to a small polaron state. In the three-dimensional volume, we observe the self-localization for repulsive interactions between bosons and fermions. In the one-dimensional case, bosons self-localize as well for attractive interactions, thereby forming, together with a pair of fermions at the bottom of the Fermi sea, a vector soliton. We analyze also thermal effects and show that small nonzero temperature affects the pairing function of the Fermi subsystem and has little influence on the self-localization phenomena.

  11. Airborne measurements of new particle formation in the free troposphere above the Mediterranean Sea during the HYMEX campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, C.; Sellegri, K.; Freney, E.; Dupuy, R.; Colomb, A.; Pichon, J.-M.; Ribeiro, M.; Bourianne, T.; Burnet, F.; Schwarzenboeck, A.

    2015-09-01

    While atmospheric new particle formation (NPF) has been observed in various environments and was found to contribute significantly to the total aerosol particle concentration, the production of new particles over open seas is poorly documented in the literature. Nucleation events were detected and analysed over the Mediterranean Sea using two condensation particle counters and a scanning mobility particle sizer on board the ATR-42 research aircraft during flights conducted between 11 September and 4 November 2012 in the framework of the HYMEX (HYdrological cycle in Mediterranean EXperiment) project. The main purpose of the present work was to characterize the spatial extent of the NPF process, both horizontally and vertically. Our findings show that nucleation is occurring over large areas above the Mediterranean Sea in all air mass types. Maximum concentrations of particles in the size range 5-10 nm (N5-10) do not systematically coincide with lower fetches (time spent by the air mass over the sea before sampling), and significant N5-10 values are found for fetches between 0 and 60 h depending on the air mass type. These observations suggest that nucleation events could be more influenced by local precursors originating from emission processes occurring above the sea, rather than linked to synoptic history. Vertical soundings were performed, giving the opportunity to examine profiles of the N5-10 concentration and to analyse the vertical extent of NPF. Our observations demonstrate that the process could be favoured above 1000 m, i.e. frequently in the free troposphere, and more especially between 2000 and 3000 m, where the NPF frequency is close to 50 %. This vertical distribution of NPF might be favoured by the gradients of several atmospheric parameters, together with the mixing of two air parcels, which could also explain the occurrence of the process at preferential altitudes. In addition, increased condensation sinks collocated with high concentrations of

  12. Understanding Ice Supersaturation, Particle Growth, and Number Concentration in Cirrus Clouds

    SciTech Connect

    Comstock, Jennifer M.; Lin, Ruei-Fong; Starr, David O.; Yang, P.

    2008-12-10

    Many factors control the ice supersaturation and microphysical properties in cirrus clouds. We explore the effects of dynamic forcing, ice nucleation mechanisms, and ice crystal growth rate on the evolution and distribution of water vapor and cloud properties in cirrus clouds using a detailed microphysical model and remote sensing measurements obtained at the Department of Energy’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility located near Lamont, OK. To help understand dynamic scales important in cirrus formation, we force the model using both large-scale forcing derived using ARM variational analysis, and mean mesoscale velocity derived from radar Doppler velocity measurements. Both heterogeneous and homogeneous nucleation processes are explored, where we have implemented a rigorous classical theory heterogeneous nucleation scheme to compare with empirical representations. We evaluate model simulations by examining both bulk cloud properties and distributions of measured radar reflectivity, lidar extinction, and water vapor profiles, as well as retrieved cloud microphysical properties. This approach allows for independent verification of both the large and small particle modes of the particle size distribution. Our results suggest that mesoscale variability is the primary mechanism needed to reproduce observed quantities, while nucleation mechanism is secondary. Slow ice crystal growth tends to overestimate the number of small ice crystals, but does not seem to influence bulk properties such as ice water path and cloud thickness. The most realistic simulations as compared with observations are forced using mesoscale waves, include fast ice crystal growth, and initiate ice by either homogeneous or heterogeneous nucleation. Ice crystal number concentrations on the order of 10-100 L-1 produce results consistent with both lidar and radar observations during a cirrus event observed on 7 December 1999, which has an optical depth range typical of

  13. Sub-micron particle number size distributions characteristics at an urban location, Kanpur, in the Indo-Gangetic Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanawade, V. P.; Tripathi, S. N.; Bhattu, Deepika; Shamjad, P. M.

    2014-10-01

    We present long-term measurements of sub-micron particle number size distributions (PNSDs) conducted at an urban location, Kanpur, in India, from September 2007 to July 2011. The mean Aitken mode (NAIT), accumulation mode (NACCU), the total particle (NTOT), and black carbon (BC) mass concentrations were 12.4 × 103 cm- 3, 18.9 × 103 cm- 3, 31.9 × 103 cm- 3, and 7.96 μg m- 3, respectively, within the observed range at other urban locations worldwide, but much higher than those reported at urban sites in the developed nations. The total particle volume concentration appears to be dominated mainly by the accumulation mode particles, except during the monsoon months, perhaps due to efficient wet deposition of accumulation mode particles by precipitation. At Kanpur, the diurnal variation of particle number concentrations was very distinct, with highest during morning and late evening hours, and lowest during the afternoon hours. This behavior could be attributed to the large primary emissions of aerosol particles and temporal evolution of the planetary boundary layer. A distinct seasonal variation in the total particle number and BC mass concentrations was observed, with the maximum in winter and minimum during the rainy season, however, the Aitken mode particles did not show a clear seasonal fluctuation. The ratio of Aitken to accumulation mode particles, NAIT/NACCU, was varied from 0.1 to 14.2, with maximum during April to September months, probably suggesting the importance of new particle formation processes and subsequent particle growth. This finding suggests that dedicated long-term measurements of PNSDs (from a few nanometer to one micron) are required to systematically characterize new particle formation over the Indian subcontinent that has been largely unstudied so far. Contrarily, the low NAIT/NACCU during post-monsoon and winter indicated the dominance of biomass/biofuel burning aerosol emissions at this site.

  14. Effects of small particle numbers on long-term behaviour in discrete biochemical systems

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Bashar; Dittrich, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Motivation: The functioning of many biological processes depends on the appearance of only a small number of a single molecular species. Additionally, the observation of molecular crowding leads to the insight that even a high number of copies of species do not guarantee their interaction. How single particles contribute to stabilizing biological systems is not well understood yet. Hence, we aim at determining the influence of single molecules on the long-term behaviour of biological systems, i.e. whether they can reach a steady state. Results: We provide theoretical considerations and a tool to analyse Systems Biology Markup Language models for the possibility to stabilize because of the described effects. The theory is an extension of chemical organization theory, which we called discrete chemical organization theory. Furthermore we scanned the BioModels Database for the occurrence of discrete chemical organizations. To exemplify our method, we describe an application to the Template model of the mitotic spindle assembly checkpoint mechanism. Availability and implementation: http://www.biosys.uni-jena.de/Services.html. Contact: bashar.ibrahim@uni-jena.de or dittrich@minet.uni-jena.de Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:25161236

  15. Airborne and ground-based measurements of the trace gases and particles emitted from prescribed fires in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Burling, Ian; Yokelson, Robert J.; Akagi, Sheryl; Urbanski, Shawn; Wold, Cyle E.; Griffith, David WT; Johnson, Timothy J.; Reardon, James; Weise, David

    2011-12-07

    We measured the emission factors for 19 trace gas species and particulate matter (PM2.5) from 14 prescribed fires in chaparral and oak savanna in the southwestern US, as well as pine forest understory in the southeastern US and Sierra Nevada mountains of California. These are likely the most extensive emission factor field measurements for temperate biomass burning to date and the only published emission factors for temperate oak savanna fuels. This study helps close the gap in emissions data available for temperate zone fires relative to tropical biomass burning. We present the first field measurements of the biomass burning emissions of glycolaldehyde, a possible precursor for aqueous phase secondary organic aerosol formation. We also measured the emissions of phenol, another aqueous phase secondary organic aerosol precursor. Our data confirm previous suggestions that urban deposition can impact the NOx emission factors and thus subsequent plume chemistry. For two fires, we measured the emissions in the convective smoke plume from our airborne platform at the same time the unlofted residual smoldering combustion emissions were measured with our ground-based platform after the flame front passed through. The smoke from residual smoldering combustion was characterized by emission factors for hydrocarbon and oxygenated organic species that were up to ten times higher than in the lofted plume, including significant 1,3-butadiene and isoprene concentrations which were not observed in the lofted plume. This should be considered in modeling the air quality impacts of smoke that disperses at ground level, and we show that the normally-ignored unlofted emissions can also significantly impact estimates of total emissions. Preliminary evidence of large emissions of monoterpenes was seen in the residual smoldering spectra, but we have not yet quantified these emissions. These data should lead to an improved capacity to model the impacts of biomass burning in similar

  16. Thymus-directed immunotoxicity of airborne dust particles from Upper Silesia (Poland) under acute extrapulmonary studies in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Kozlowska, E.; Krzystniak, K.; Drela, N.

    1996-12-27

    Industrial air pollutants from Upper Silesia, Poland, contain over 250 polycyclic and heterocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heavy metals, including mutagenic and carcinogenic chemicals that have been shown to from DNA adducts. Over 4 million habitants of Silesia are permanently exposed to the industrial pollution by pulmonary and dermal routes and by contaminated food and water. These chemicals, when examined separately in animals models, were proven immunotoxic. We studied the extrapulmonary immunotoxic potential of a typical mixture of Silesian filter-suspended matter from a selected area, over a specific season and time period. Early changes in the immune system were analyzed in BALB/c mice exposed ip to acute doses of 20-330 mg dust mixture/kg body weight (0.06-1.0 LD50). No major changes were noted for weight and the cellularity of spleen, liver and kidneys. However, dramatic decrease in thymus weight index and thymocyte cell count were noted as early as 24-72 h postexposure, which correlated with almost complete depletion of immature, double-positive CD4{sup +}CD8{sup +} thymocytes. Changes in spleen were less profound; however, increased depletion of B cells over T cells was noted at high doses of the suspended matter. Exposure to the airborne dust also decreased cytokine production by spleen cells, such as interferon-{gamma} (IFN-{gamma}) and tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}). Overall, a single exposure to Silesian dust, even at the relatively low 0.06 LD50 dose, affected lymphokine production, suppressed B-cell proliferative response, and depleted thymuses of immature, double-positive CD4{sup +}CD8{sup +} cells. A chemical synergism is suspected. To our knowledge, none of the known components of Silesian suspended matter, when examined as a single chemical, was shown to exert such a profound biological effect. 32 refs., 5 figs.

  17. Health effects of airborne particulate matter: do we know enough to consider regulating specific particle types or sources?

    PubMed

    Grahame, Thomas J; Schlesinger, Richard B

    2007-05-01

    Researchers and regulators have often considered preferentially regulating the types of ambient airborne particulate matter (PM) most relevant to human health effects. While few would argue the inherent merits of such a policy, many believe there may not yet be enough information to differentially regulate PM species. New evidence, using increasingly sophisticated methodologies, has become available in the last several years, allowing more accurate assessment of exposure and resultant associations with specific types of PM, or PM derived from different sources. Such new studies may also allow differentiation of effects from different chemical components in the same study against the same health endpoints. This article considers whether this new evidence might be adequate to allow us to "speciate" PM types or sources by severity of health effects. We address this issue with respect to two widespread sources of PM, emissions from motor vehicles and coal-fired power plants. Emissions from less widespread sources, residual oil and steel/coking facilities, are also discussed in order to illustrate how health effects associated with such emissions might instead be associated with more widespread sources when accurate exposure information is unavailable. Based upon evaluation of studies and methodologies which appear to contain the most accurate information on exposure and response to important emissions, including variable local emissions, it is concluded that public health will likely be better protected by reduction of various vehicular emissions than by continued regulation of the total mass of fine PM (PM <2.5 microm, or PM2.5) as if all PM in this mode is equitoxic. However, the knowledge base is incomplete. Important remaining research questions are identified. PMID:17497526

  18. Multi-criteria ranking and receptor modelling of airborne fine particles at three sites in the Pearl River Delta region of China.

    PubMed

    Friend, Adrian J; Ayoko, Godwin A; Guo, Hai

    2011-01-15

    The multi-criteria decision making methods, Preference Ranking Organization METHods for Enrichment Evaluation (PROMETHEE) and Graphical Analysis for Interactive Assistance (GAIA), and the two-way Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) receptor model were applied to airborne fine particle compositional data collected at three sites in Hong Kong during two monitoring campaigns held from November 2000 to October 2001 and November 2004 to October 2005. PROMETHEE/GAIA indicated that the three sites were worse during the later monitoring campaign, and that the order of the air quality at the sites during each campaign was: rural site>urban site>roadside site. The PMF analysis on the other hand, identified 6 common sources at all of the sites (diesel vehicle, fresh sea salt, secondary sulphate, soil, aged sea salt and oil combustion) which accounted for approximately 68.8±8.7% of the fine particle mass at the sites. In addition, road dust, gasoline vehicle, biomass burning, secondary nitrate, and metal processing were identified at some of the sites. Secondary sulphate was found to be the highest contributor to the fine particle mass at the rural and urban sites with vehicle emission as a high contributor to the roadside site. The PMF results are broadly similar to those obtained in a previous analysis by PCA/APCS. However, the PMF analysis resolved more factors at each site than the PCA/APCS. In addition, the study demonstrated that combined results from multi-criteria decision making analysis and receptor modelling can provide more detailed information that can be used to formulate the scientific basis for mitigating air pollution in the region. PMID:21146196

  19. Mobility particle size spectrometers: harmonization of technical standards and data structure to facilitate high quality long-term observations of atmospheric particle number size distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiedensohler, A.; Birmili, W.; Nowak, A.; Sonntag, A.; Weinhold, K.; Merkel, M.; Wehner, B.; Tuch, T.; Pfeifer, S.; Fiebig, M.; Fjäraa, A. M.; Asmi, E.; Sellegri, K.; Depuy, R.; Venzac, H.; Villani, P.; Laj, P.; Aalto, P.; Ogren, J. A.; Swietlicki, E.; Williams, P.; Roldin, P.; Quincey, P.; Hüglin, C.; Fierz-Schmidhauser, R.; Gysel, M.; Weingartner, E.; Riccobono, F.; Santos, S.; Grüning, C.; Faloon, K.; Beddows, D.; Harrison, R.; Monahan, C.; Jennings, S. G.; O'Dowd, C. D.; Marinoni, A.; Horn, H.-G.; Keck, L.; Jiang, J.; Scheckman, J.; McMurry, P. H.; Deng, Z.; Zhao, C. S.; Moerman, M.; Henzing, B.; de Leeuw, G.; Löschau, G.; Bastian, S.

    2012-03-01

    Mobility particle size spectrometers often referred to as DMPS (Differential Mobility Particle Sizers) or SMPS (Scanning Mobility Particle Sizers) have found a wide range of applications in atmospheric aerosol research. However, comparability of measurements conducted world-wide is hampered by lack of generally accepted technical standards and guidelines with respect to the instrumental set-up, measurement mode, data evaluation as well as quality control. Technical standards were developed for a minimum requirement of mobility size spectrometry to perform long-term atmospheric aerosol measurements. Technical recommendations include continuous monitoring of flow rates, temperature, pressure, and relative humidity for the sheath and sample air in the differential mobility analyzer. We compared commercial and custom-made inversion routines to calculate the particle number size distributions from the measured electrical mobility distribution. All inversion routines are comparable within few per cent uncertainty for a given set of raw data. Furthermore, this work summarizes the results from several instrument intercomparison workshops conducted within the European infrastructure project EUSAAR (European Supersites for Atmospheric Aerosol Research) and ACTRIS (Aerosols, Clouds, and Trace gases Research InfraStructure Network) to determine present uncertainties especially of custom-built mobility particle size spectrometers. Under controlled laboratory conditions, the particle number size distributions from 20 to 200 nm determined by mobility particle size spectrometers of different design are within an uncertainty range of around ±10% after correcting internal particle losses, while below and above this size range the discrepancies increased. For particles larger than 200 nm, the uncertainty range increased to 30%, which could not be explained. The network reference mobility spectrometers with identical design agreed within ±4% in the peak particle number concentration

  20. TRENDS OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON LEVELS AND MUTAGENICITY IN SANTIAGO'S INHALABLE AIRBORNE PARTICLES IN THE PERIOD 1992-1996.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    Trends of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) for 1992-1996 (cold season) and their mutagenic activity were investigated in organic extracts from the Santiago. Chile. inhalable particles (PM10). The highest PAH concentrations were observed in 1992 and decline...

  1. Quantum particle-number fluctuations in a two-component Bose gas in a double-well potential

    SciTech Connect

    Zin, Pawel; Oles, Bartlomiej; Sacha, Krzysztof

    2011-09-15

    A two-component Bose gas in a double-well potential with repulsive interactions may undergo a phase separation transition if the interspecies interactions outweigh the intraspecies ones. We analyze the transition in the strong interaction limit within the two-mode approximation. Numbers of particles in each potential well are equal and constant. However, at the transition point, the ground state of the system reveals huge fluctuations of numbers of particles belonging to the different gas components; that is, the probability for observation of any mixture of particles in each potential well becomes uniform.

  2. Coalescence phenomena of droplets with suspended particles in a tube flow at low Reynolds number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muraoka, Masahiro; Ueno, Ichiro; Mizoguchi, Hiroshi; Kamiyama, Toshihiko; Wada, Takuma

    Coalescence phenomena of droplets in a tube flow at low Reynolds number are expected to be useful for fluid handling technique, controlling chemical reaction and so on. In the case of motion of droplets with suspended particles, Drug delivery system can be cited as one of applications. The coalescence phenomena are also underlying basis on analyzing the flow of multiphase fluids through porous media. Such phenomena can be seen, for instance, in enhanced oil recovery, breaking of emulsions in porous coalescers and so on. In this experiment, a glass tube of 2.0 mm in inner diameter, 7.0 mm in outer diameter, and 1500 mm in length is used as a test tube. Silicones oil is employed as the test fluid for the droplet. Mixture fluid of glycerol and pure water is used for a surrounding fluid in the tube flow. The density of the droplets is matched to that of the surrounding fluid by adding carbon tetrachloride. An over flow tank is used to keep the flow in the tube steady at a designated averaged velocity. The test tube is surrounded by a tank filled with a temperature-controlled water to keep the temperature of the system constant. Droplets are injected into the test tube using micro-syringes in front of inlet of the test tube. Behaviors of droplets and suspended particles are monitored by a digital video camera and high speed cameras placed on a sliding stage. The motion of the stage is electrically controlled to follow the travelling droplets in the test tube. Coalescence time of two droplets is measured. The coalescence time indicates a period between the instant when relative velocity of two droplets becomes zero after their apparent contact and the instant when the coalescence takes place. The coalescence time is compared with semi-theoretical formulas obtained using resistance exerted on liquid droplet in a tube creeping flow. When relative velocity of two droplets becomes zero after their apparent contact, clearance diameter of clearance area between droplets is

  3. Source appointment of fine particle number and volume concentration during severe haze pollution in Beijing in January 2013.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zirui; Wang, Yuesi; Hu, Bo; Ji, Dongsheng; Zhang, Junke; Wu, Fangkun; Wan, Xin; Wang, Yonghong

    2016-04-01

    Extreme haze episodes repeatedly shrouded Beijing during the winter of 2012-2013, causing major environmental and health problems. To better understand these extreme events, particle number size distribution (PNSD) and particle chemical composition (PCC) data collected in an intensive winter campaign in an urban site of Beijing were used to investigate the sources of ambient fine particles. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis resolved a total of eight factors: two traffic factors, combustion factors, secondary aerosol, two accumulation mode aerosol factors, road dust, and long-range transported (LRT) dust. Traffic emissions (54 %) and combustion aerosol (27 %) were found to be the most important sources for particle number concentration, whereas combustion aerosol (33 %) and accumulation mode aerosol (37 %) dominated particle volume concentrations. Chemical compositions and sources of fine particles changed dynamically in the haze episodes. An enhanced role of secondary inorganic species was observed in the formation of haze pollution. Regional transport played an important role for high particles, contribution of which was on average up to 24-49 % during the haze episodes. Secondary aerosols from urban background presented the largest contributions (45 %) for the rapid increase of fine particles in the severest haze episode. In addition, the invasion of LRT dust aerosols further elevated the fine particles during the extreme haze episode. Our results showed a clear impact of regional transport on the local air pollution, suggesting the importance of regional-scale emission control measures in the local air quality management of Beijing. PMID:26667647

  4. Dragon kings of the deep sea: marine particles deviate markedly from the common number-size spectrum.

    PubMed

    Bochdansky, Alexander B; Clouse, Melissa A; Herndl, Gerhard J

    2016-01-01

    Particles are the major vector for the transfer of carbon from the upper ocean to the deep sea. However, little is known about their abundance, composition and role at depths greater than 2000 m. We present the first number-size spectrum of bathy- and abyssopelagic particles to a depth of 5500 m based on surveys performed with a custom-made holographic microscope. The particle spectrum was unusual in that particles of several millimetres in length were almost 100 times more abundant than expected from the number spectrum of smaller particles, thereby meeting the definition of "dragon kings." Marine snow particles overwhelmingly contributed to the total particle volume (95-98%). Approximately 1/3 of the particles in the dragon-king size domain contained large amounts of transparent exopolymers with little ballast, which likely either make them neutrally buoyant or cause them to sink slowly. Dragon-king particles thus provide large volumes of unique microenvironments that may help to explain discrepancies in deep-sea biogeochemical budgets. PMID:26940454

  5. Dragon kings of the deep sea: marine particles deviate markedly from the common number-size spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bochdansky, Alexander B.; Clouse, Melissa A.; Herndl, Gerhard J.

    2016-03-01

    Particles are the major vector for the transfer of carbon from the upper ocean to the deep sea. However, little is known about their abundance, composition and role at depths greater than 2000 m. We present the first number-size spectrum of bathy- and abyssopelagic particles to a depth of 5500 m based on surveys performed with a custom-made holographic microscope. The particle spectrum was unusual in that particles of several millimetres in length were almost 100 times more abundant than expected from the number spectrum of smaller particles, thereby meeting the definition of “dragon kings.” Marine snow particles overwhelmingly contributed to the total particle volume (95–98%). Approximately 1/3 of the particles in the dragon-king size domain contained large amounts of transparent exopolymers with little ballast, which likely either make them neutrally buoyant or cause them to sink slowly. Dragon-king particles thus provide large volumes of unique microenvironments that may help to explain discrepancies in deep-sea biogeochemical budgets.

  6. Dragon kings of the deep sea: marine particles deviate markedly from the common number-size spectrum

    PubMed Central

    Bochdansky, Alexander B.; Clouse, Melissa A.; Herndl, Gerhard J.

    2016-01-01

    Particles are the major vector for the transfer of carbon from the upper ocean to the deep sea. However, little is known about their abundance, composition and role at depths greater than 2000 m. We present the first number-size spectrum of bathy- and abyssopelagic particles to a depth of 5500 m based on surveys performed with a custom-made holographic microscope. The particle spectrum was unusual in that particles of several millimetres in length were almost 100 times more abundant than expected from the number spectrum of smaller particles, thereby meeting the definition of “dragon kings.” Marine snow particles overwhelmingly contributed to the total particle volume (95–98%). Approximately 1/3 of the particles in the dragon-king size domain contained large amounts of transparent exopolymers with little ballast, which likely either make them neutrally buoyant or cause them to sink slowly. Dragon-king particles thus provide large volumes of unique microenvironments that may help to explain discrepancies in deep-sea biogeochemical budgets. PMID:26940454

  7. Characterization of Size-Fractionated Airborne Particles Inside an Electronic Waste Recycling Facility and Acute Toxicity Testing in Mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong Ho; Wyrzykowska-Ceradini, Barbara; Touati, Abderrahmane; Krantz, Q Todd; Dye, Janice A; Linak, William P; Gullett, Brian; Gilmour, M Ian

    2015-10-01

    Disposal of electronic waste (e-waste) in landfills, incinerators, or at rudimentary recycling sites can lead to the release of toxic chemicals into the environment and increased health risks. Developing e-waste recycling technologies at commercial facilities can reduce the release of toxic chemicals and efficiently recover valuable materials. While these e-waste operations represent a vast improvement over previous approaches, little is known about environmental releases, workplace exposures, and potential health impacts. In this study, airborne particulate matter (PM) was measured at various locations within a modern U.S.-based e-waste recycling facility that utilized mechanical processing. In addition, composite size fractionated PM (coarse, fine and ultrafine) samples were collected, extracted, chemically analyzed, and given by oropharyngeal aspiration to mice or cultured with lung slices for lung toxicity tests. Indoor total PM concentrations measured during the study ranged from 220 to 1200 μg/m(3). In general, the coarse PM (2.5-10 μm) was 3-4 times more abundant than fine/ultrafine PM (<2.5 μm). The coarse PM contained higher levels of Ni, Pb, and Zn (up to 6.8 times) compared to the fine (0.1-2.5 μm) and ultrafine (<0.1 μm) PM. Compared to coarse PM measurements from a regional near-roadway study, Pb and Ni were enriched 170 and 20 times, respectively, in the indoor PM, with other significant enrichments (>10 times) observed for Zn and Sb, modest enrichments (>5 times) for Cu and Sr, and minor enrichments (>2 times) for Cr, Cd, Mn, Ca, Fe, and Ba. Negligible enrichment (<2 times) or depletion (<1 time) were observed for Al, Mg, Ti, Si, and V. The coarse PM fraction elicited significant pro-inflammatory responses in the mouse lung at 24 h postexposure compared to the fine and ultrafine PM, and similar toxicity outcomes were observed in the lung slice model. We conclude that exposure to coarse PM from the facility caused substantial inflammation in the

  8. In situ measurements of particulate number density and size distribution from an aircraft. [using light scattering particle counter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briehl, D.

    1974-01-01

    Two different commercial particulate measuring instruments were flown aboard the NASA Convair 990. A condensation nuclei monitor was utilized to measure particles larger than approximately 0.003 micron in diameter. A specially designed pressurization system was used with this monitor at cabin altitude pressure. A near-forward light scattering counter was used to measure the number and size distribution particles in the size range from 0.5 to 5 microns and greater in diameter. Considerable variation in number density was encountered for both classes of particles at the test altitudes ranging from 5 to 12 km. Presence of clouds could be detected by the light scattering instrument because large numbers of particles would then be registered by the instrument, especially in the size range above 5.0 microns in diameter.

  9. Study of chemical composition and morphology of airborne particles in Chandigarh, India using EDXRF and SEM techniques.

    PubMed

    Sharma, S G; Srinivas, M S N

    2009-03-01

    The elemental composition and morphology of aerosols, collected from March 95 to February 96 and March 96 to August 96 respectively in the city of Chandigarh, India is determined using Energy Dispersive X-ray fluorescence and scanning electron microscopic techniques. The elemental concentration levels are found to be higher by a factor of 2-7 in the spring season as compared to the rainy season. The concentration of spherical and non-spherical (i.e. elongated) aerosols is more in the spring season and is reduced drastically in the rainy season due to the prominent wash out effect of rains. More accurate particle classification and source identification is obtained when based on combination of chemical composition and particle morphology. Possible sources identified from this analysis are soil dust, Industrial activity, Agricultural and Garbage burning, Maritime aerosols and Automobile exhaust. PMID:18418721

  10. Real-time detection and characterization of individual flowing airborne biological particles: fluorescence spectra and elastic scattering measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Yongle; Holler, Stephen; Chang, Richard K.; Hill, Steven C.; Pinnick, Ronald G.; Niles, Stanley; Bottiger, Jerold R.; Bronk, Burt V.

    1999-11-01

    Real-time methods which is reagentless and could detect and partially characterize bioaerosols are of current interest. We present a technique for real-time measurement of UV-excited fluorescence spectra and two-dimensional angular optical scattering (TAOS) from individual flowing biological aerosol particles. The fluorescence spectra have been observed from more than 20 samples including Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Erwinia herbicola, allergens, dust, and smoke. The S/N and resolution of the spectra are sufficient for observing small lineshape differences among the same type of bioaerosol prepared under different conditions. The additional information from TAOS regarding particle size, shape, and granularity has the potential of aiding in distinguishing bacterial aerosols from other aerosols, such as diesel and cigarette smoke.

  11. Number concentration and size of particles in urban air: effects on spirometric lung function in adult asthmatic subjects.

    PubMed Central

    Penttinen, P; Timonen, K L; Tiittanen, P; Mirme, A; Ruuskanen, J; Pekkanen, J

    2001-01-01

    Daily variations in ambient particulate air pollution are associated with variations in respiratory lung function. It has been suggested that the effects of particulate matter may be due to particles in the ultrafine (0.01-0.1 microm) size range. Because previous studies on ultrafine particles only used self-monitored peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR), we assessed the associations between particle mass and number concentrations in several size ranges measured at a central site and measured (biweekly) spirometric lung function among a group of 54 adult asthmatics (n = 495 measurements). We also compared results to daily morning, afternoon, and evening PEFR measurements done at home (n = 7,672-8,110 measurements). The median (maximum) 24 hr number concentrations were 14,500/cm(3) (46,500/cm(3)) ultrafine particles and 800/cm(3) (2,800/cm(3)) accumulation mode (0.1-1 microm) particles. The median (maximum) mass concentration of PM(2.5) (particulate matter < 2.5 microm) and PM(10) (particulate matter < 10 microm in aerodynamic diameter) were 8.4 microg/m(3) (38.3 microg/m(3)) and 13.5 microg/m(3) (73.7 microg/m(3)), respectively. The number of accumulation mode particles was consistently inversely associated with PEFR in spirometry. Inverse, but nonsignificant, associations were observed with ultrafine particles, and no associations were observed with large particles (PM(10)). Compared to the effect estimates for self-monitored PEFR, the effect estimates for spirometric PEFR tended to be larger. The standard errors were also larger, probably due to the lower number of spirometric measurements. The present results support the need to monitor the particle number and size distributions in urban air in addition to mass. PMID:11335178

  12. The effect of Reynolds number on inertial particle dynamics in isotropic turbulence. Part 1. Simulations without gravitational effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ireland, Peter J.; Bragg, Andrew D.; Collins, Lance R.

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we analyze the statistics of both individual inertial particles and inertial particle pairs in direct numerical simulations of homogeneous isotropic turbulence in the absence of gravity. The effect of the Taylor microscale Reynolds number $R_\\lambda$ on the particle statistics is examined over the largest range to date (from $R_\\lambda = 88-597$). We first explore the effect of preferential sampling on the single-particle statistics, and use our understanding of preferential sampling to provide a physical explanation for many of the trends in the particle velocity gradients, kinetic energies, and accelerations at low $St$. As $St$ increases, inertial filtering effects become more important, causing the particle kinetic energies and accelerations to decrease. We then consider particle-pair statistics, and focus our attention on the relative velocities and radial distribution functions (RDFs) of the particles. The relative velocity statistics indicate that preferential-sampling effects are important for $St \\lesssim 0.1$ and that path-history/non-local effects become increasingly important for $St \\gtrsim 0.2$. The lower-order relative velocity statistics are only weakly sensitive to changes in Reynolds number at low $St$. We find that the RDFs peak near $St$ of order unity, that they exhibit power-law scaling for low and intermediate $St$, and that they are largely independent of Reynolds number for low and intermediate $St$. We also observe that at large $St$, changes in the RDF are related to changes the scaling exponents of the relative velocity variances. The particle collision kernel is found to be largely insensitive to the flow Reynolds number, suggesting that relatively low-Reynolds-number simulations may be able to capture much of the relevant physics of droplet collisions and growth in the adiabatic cores of atmospheric clouds.

  13. Number size distribution of fine and ultrafine fume particles from various welding processes.

    PubMed

    Brand, Peter; Lenz, Klaus; Reisgen, Uwe; Kraus, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    Studies in the field of environmental epidemiology indicate that for the adverse effect of inhaled particles not only particle mass is crucial but also particle size is. Ultrafine particles with diameters below 100 nm are of special interest since these particles have high surface area to mass ratio and have properties which differ from those of larger particles. In this paper, particle size distributions of various welding and joining techniques were measured close to the welding process using a fast mobility particle sizer (FMPS). It turned out that welding processes with high mass emission rates (manual metal arc welding, metal active gas welding, metal inert gas welding, metal inert gas soldering, and laser welding) show mainly agglomerated particles with diameters above 100 nm and only few particles in the size range below 50 nm (10 to 15%). Welding processes with low mass emission rates (tungsten inert gas welding and resistance spot welding) emit predominantly ultrafine particles with diameters well below 100 nm. This finding can be explained by considerably faster agglomeration processes in welding processes with high mass emission rates. Although mass emission is low for tungsten inert gas welding and resistance spot welding, due to the low particle size of the fume, these processes cannot be labeled as toxicologically irrelevant and should be further investigated. PMID:23028013

  14. The effect of Reynolds number on inertial particle dynamics in isotropic turbulence. Part 2. Simulations with gravitational effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ireland, Peter J.; Bragg, Andrew D.; Collins, Lance R.

    2016-06-01

    In Part I of this study, we analyzed the motion of inertial particles in isotropic turbulence in the absence of gravity using direct numerical simulation (DNS). Here, in Part II, we introduce gravity and study its effect over a wide range of flow Reynolds numbers, Froude numbers, and particle Stokes numbers. We see that gravity causes particles to sample the flow more uniformly and reduces the time particles can spend interacting with the underlying turbulence. We also find that gravity tends to increase inertial particle accelerations, and we introduce a model to explain that effect. We then analyze the particle relative velocities and radial distribution functions (RDFs), which are generally seen to be independent of Reynolds number for low and moderate Kolmogorov-scale Stokes numbers $St$. We see that gravity causes particle relative velocities to decrease, and that the relative velocities have higher scaling exponents with gravity. We observe that gravity has a non-trivial effect on clustering, acting to decrease clustering at low $St$ and to increase clustering at high $St$. By considering the effect of gravity on the clustering mechanisms described in the theory of Zaichik & Alipchenkov (New J. Phys., 11:103018, 2009), we provide an explanation for this non-trivial effect of gravity. We also show that when the effects of gravity are accounted for in the theory of Zaichik & Alipchenkov, the results compare favorably with DNS. The relative velocities and RDFs exhibit considerable anisotropy at small separations, and this anisotropy is quantified using spherical harmonic functions. We use the relative velocities and the RDFs to compute the particle collision kernels, and find that the collision kernel remains as it was for the case without gravity, namely nearly independent of Reynolds number for low and moderate $St$.

  15. Bose-Einstein condensation with a finite number of particles in a power-law trap

    SciTech Connect

    Jaouadi, A.; Telmini, M.; Charron, E.

    2011-02-15

    Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) of an ideal gas is investigated, beyond the thermodynamic limit, for a finite number N of particles trapped in a generic three-dimensional power-law potential. We derive an analytical expression for the condensation temperature T{sub c} in terms of a power series in x{sub 0}={epsilon}{sub 0}/k{sub B}T{sub c}, where {epsilon}{sub 0} denotes the zero-point energy of the trapping potential. This expression, which applies in Cartesian, cylindrical, and spherical power-law traps, is given analytically at infinite order. It is also given numerically for specific potential shapes as an expansion in powers of x{sub 0} up to the second order. We show that, for a harmonic trap, the well-known first-order shift of the critical temperature {Delta}T{sub c}/T{sub c{proportional_to}}N{sup -1/3} is inaccurate when N{<=}10{sup 5}, the next order (proportional to N{sup -1/2}) being significant. We also show that finite-size effects on the condensation temperature cancel out in a cubic trapping potential, e.g., V(r){proportional_to}r{sup 3}. Finally, we show that in a generic power-law potential of higher order, e.g., V(r){proportional_to}r{sup {alpha}} with {alpha}>3, the shift of the critical temperature becomes positive. This effect provides a large increase of T{sub c} for relatively small atom numbers. For instance, an increase of about +40% is expected with 10{sup 4} atoms in a V(r){proportional_to}r{sup 12} trapping potential.

  16. Size fractionation in mercury-bearing airborne particles (HgPM 10) at Almadén, Spain: Implications for inhalation hazards around old mines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, Teresa; Higueras, Pablo; Jones, Tim; McDonald, Iain; Gibbons, Wes

    Almadén has a >2000y mining history and an unprecedented legacy of mercury contamination. Resuspended airborne particles were extracted from mine waste (Las Cuevas), retort site soil (Almadenejos), and urban car park dust (Almadén), separated into fine (PM 10) and coarse (PM >10 μm ) fractions, analysed for mercury using ICP-MS, and individual HgPM characterised using SEM. Cold extractable mercury concentrations in PM 10 range from 100 to 150 μg g -1 (car parks), to nearly 6000 μg g -1 (mine waste), reaching a world record of 95,000 μg g -1 above the abandoned retort at Almadenejos where ultrafine HgPM have pervaded the brickwork and soil and entered the food chain: edible wild asparagus stem material from here contains 35-65 μg g -1 Hg, and pig hair from animals living, inhaling and ingesting HgPM 10 at the site yielded 8-10 μg g -1. The PM 10 fraction (dusts easily wind transported and deeply inhaled) contains much more mercury than the coarser fraction. The contribution of HgPM 10 to ecosystem contamination and potential human health effects around old mercury mines has been underestimated.

  17. On-road particle number measurements using a portable emission measurement system (PEMS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallus, Jens; Kirchner, Ulf; Vogt, Rainer; Börensen, Christoph; Benter, Thorsten

    2016-01-01

    In this study the on-road particle number (PN) performance of a Euro-5 direct-injection (DI) gasoline passenger car was investigated. PN emissions were measured using the prototype of a portable emission measurement system (PEMS). PN PEMS correlations with chassis dynamometer tests show a good agreement with a chassis dynamometer set-up down to emissions in the range of 1·1010 #/km. Parallel on-line soot measurements by a photo acoustic soot sensor (PASS) were applied as independent measurement technique and indicate a good on-road performance for the PN-PEMS. PN-to-soot ratios were 1.3·1012 #/mg, which was comparable for both test cell and on-road measurements. During on-road trips different driving styles as well as different road types were investigated. Comparisons to the world harmonized light-duty test cycle (WLTC) 5.3 and to European field operational test (euroFOT) data indicate the PEMS trips to be representative for normal driving. Driving situations in varying traffic seem to be a major contributor to a high test-to-test variability of PN emissions. However, there is a trend to increasing PN emissions with more severe driving styles. A cold start effect is clearly visible for PN, especially at low ambient temperatures down to 8 °C.

  18. On the Effect of Dust Particles on Global Cloud Condensation Nuclei and Cloud Droplet Number

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karydis, V. A.; Kumar, P.; Barahona, D.; Sokolik, I. N.; Nenes, A.

    2011-01-01

    Aerosol-cloud interaction studies to date consider aerosol with a substantial fraction of soluble material as the sole source of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). Emerging evidence suggests that mineral dust can act as good CCN through water adsorption onto the surface of particles. This study provides a first assessment of the contribution of insoluble dust to global CCN and cloud droplet number concentration (CDNC). Simulations are carried out with the NASA Global Modeling Initiative chemical transport model with an online aerosol simulation, considering emissions from fossil fuel, biomass burning, marine, and dust sources. CDNC is calculated online and explicitly considers the competition of soluble and insoluble CCN for water vapor. The predicted annual average contribution of insoluble mineral dust to CCN and CDNC in cloud-forming areas is up to 40 and 23.8%, respectively. Sensitivity tests suggest that uncertainties in dust size distribution and water adsorption parameters modulate the contribution of mineral dust to CDNC by 23 and 56%, respectively. Coating of dust by hygroscopic salts during the atmospheric aging causes a twofold enhancement of the dust contribution to CCN; the aged dust, however, can substantially deplete in-cloud supersaturation during the initial stages of cloud formation and can eventually reduce CDNC. Considering the hydrophilicity from adsorption and hygroscopicity from solute is required to comprehensively capture the dust-warm cloud interactions. The framework presented here addresses this need and can be easily integrated in atmospheric models.

  19. Backward two-particle dispersion in turbulence: asymptotic behaviors at high Reynolds number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeung, Pui-Kuen; Buaria, D.; Sawford, B. L.

    2015-11-01

    Backward relative dispersion of fluid elements and diffusing substances or property markers is central to a Lagrangian view of turbulent mixing, but data are not readily available. Recently we have devised a numerical approach based on massively parallel processing of the trajectories of many billions of particle pairs, and have used it to obtain results in simulations of stationary isotropic turbulence up to 4096 in size and Taylor-scale Reynolds number up to 1000, with a wide range of initial separations. Backward dispersion is faster than forward, especially at intermediate times after the ballistic range and before long-time diffusive behavior is reached. Richardson scaling is demonstrated for the mean-squared separation, with forward and backward Richardson constants estimated to be 0.55 and 1.5 respectively, which are close to or comparable to other estimates. However, because of persistent dissipation sub-range effects no corresponding scaling was observed for higher order moments. An effort is made to analyze theoretically several key characteristics such as asymmetry in time and exponential growth of third and fourth moments at early times. Related results for marked entities that diffuse relative to the fluid will also be briefly addressed. Supported by NSF Grant CBET-1039037 (Fluid Dynamics Program).

  20. On the effect of dust particles on global cloud condensation nuclei and cloud droplet number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karydis, V. A.; Kumar, P.; Barahona, D.; Sokolik, I. N.; Nenes, A.

    2011-12-01

    Aerosol-cloud interaction studies to date consider aerosol with a substantial fraction of soluble material as the sole source of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). Emerging evidence suggests that mineral dust can act as good CCN through water adsorption onto the surface of particles. This study provides a first assessment of the contribution of insoluble dust to global CCN and cloud droplet number concentration (CDNC). Simulations are carried out with the NASA Global Modeling Initiative chemical transport model with an online aerosol simulation, considering emissions from fossil fuel, biomass burning, marine, and dust sources. CDNC is calculated online and explicitly considers the competition of soluble and insoluble CCN for water vapor. The predicted annual average contribution of insoluble mineral dust to CCN and CDNC in cloud-forming areas is up to 40 and 23.8%, respectively. Sensitivity tests suggest that uncertainties in dust size distribution and water adsorption parameters modulate the contribution of mineral dust to CDNC by 23 and 56%, respectively. Coating of dust by hygroscopic salts during the atmospheric aging causes a twofold enhancement of the dust contribution to CCN; the aged dust, however, can substantially deplete in-cloud supersaturation during the initial stages of cloud formation and can eventually reduce CDNC. Considering the hydrophilicity from adsorption and hygroscopicity from solute is required to comprehensively capture the dust-warm cloud interactions. The framework presented here addresses this need and can be easily integrated in atmospheric models.

  1. Understanding Ice Supersaturation, Particle Growth, and Number Concentration in Cirrus Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comstock, Jennifer M.; Lin, Ruei-Fong; Starr, David O'C.; Yang, Ping

    2008-01-01

    Many factors control the ice supersaturation and microphysical properties in cirrus clouds. We explore the effects of dynamic forcing, ice nucleation mechanisms, and ice crystal growth rate on the evolution and distribution of water vapor and cloud properties in nighttime cirrus clouds using a one-dimensional cloud model with bin microphysics and remote sensing measurements obtained at the Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility located near Lamont, OK. We forced the model using both large-scale vertical ascent and, for the first time, mean mesoscale velocity derived from radar Doppler velocity measurements. Both heterogeneous and homogeneous nucleation processes are explored, where a classical theory heterogeneous scheme is compared with empirical representations. We evaluated model simulations by examining both bulk cloud properties and distributions of measured radar reflectivity, lidar extinction, and water vapor profiles, as well as retrieved cloud microphysical properties. Our results suggest that mesoscale variability is the primary mechanism needed to reproduce observed quantities. Model sensitivity to the ice growth rate is also investigated. The most realistic simulations as compared with observations are forced using mesoscale waves, include fast ice crystal growth, and initiate ice by either homogeneous or heterogeneous nucleation. Simulated ice crystal number concentrations (tens to hundreds particles per liter) are typically two orders of magnitude smaller than previously published results based on aircraft measurements in cirrus clouds, although higher concentrations are possible in isolated pockets within the nucleation zone.

  2. Particle-number-conserving Bogoliubov approximation for Bose-Einstein condensates using extended catalytic states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhang; Caves, Carlton M.

    2016-03-01

    We encode the many-body wave function of a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) in the N -particle sector of an extended catalytic state. This catalytic state is a coherent state for the condensate mode and an arbitrary state for the modes orthogonal to the condensate mode. Going to a time-dependent interaction picture where the state of the condensate mode is displaced to the vacuum, we can organize the effective Hamiltonian by powers of N-1 /2. Requiring the terms of order N1 /2 to vanish gives the Gross-Pitaevskii equation. Going to the next order, N0, we derive equations for the number-conserving Bogoliubov approximation, first given by Castin and Dum [Phys. Rev. A 57, 3008 (1998), 10.1103/PhysRevA.57.3008]. In contrast to other approaches, ours is well suited to calculating the state evolution in the Schrödinger picture; moreover, it is straightforward to generalize our method to multicomponent BECs and to higher-order corrections.

  3. Size-Resolved Particle Number and Volume Emission Factors for On-Road Gasoline and Diesel Motor Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Ban-Weiss, George A.; Lunden, Melissa M.; Kirchstetter, Thomas W.; Harley, Robert A.

    2009-04-10

    Average particle number concentrations and size distributions from {approx}61,000 light-duty (LD) vehicles and {approx}2500 medium-duty (MD) and heavy-duty (HD) trucks were measured during the summer of 2006 in a San Francisco Bay area traffic tunnel. One of the traffic bores contained only LD vehicles, and the other contained mixed traffic, allowing pollutants to be apportioned between LD vehicles and diesel trucks. Particle number emission factors (particle diameter D{sub p} > 3 nm) were found to be (3.9 {+-} 1.4) x 10{sup 14} and (3.3 {+-} 1.3) x 10{sup 15} kg{sup -1} fuel burned for LD vehicles and diesel trucks, respectively. Size distribution measurements showed that diesel trucks emitted at least an order of magnitude more particles for all measured sizes (10 < D{sub p} < 290 nm) per unit mass of fuel burned. The relative importance of LD vehicles as a source of particles increased as D{sub p} decreased. Comparing the results from this study to previous measurements at the same site showed that particle number emission factors have decreased for both LD vehicles and diesel trucks since 1997. Integrating size distributions with a volume weighting showed that diesel trucks emitted 28 {+-} 11 times more particles by volume than LD vehicles, consistent with the diesel/gasoline emission factor ratio for PM{sub 2.5} mass measured using gravimetric analysis of Teflon filters, reported in a companion paper.

  4. Fourth Airborne Geoscience Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The focus of the workshop was on how the airborne community can assist in achieving the goals of the Global Change Research Program. The many activities that employ airborne platforms and sensors were discussed: platforms and instrument development; airborne oceanography; lidar research; SAR measurements; Doppler radar; laser measurements; cloud physics; airborne experiments; airborne microwave measurements; and airborne data collection.

  5. Airborne particulate matter in spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Acceptability limits and sampling and monitoring strategies for airborne particles in spacecraft were considered. Based on instances of eye and respiratory tract irritation reported by Shuttle flight crews, the following acceptability limits for airborne particles were recommended: for flights of 1 week or less duration (1 mg/cu m for particles less than 10 microns in aerodynamic diameter (AD) plus 1 mg/cu m for particles 10 to 100 microns in AD); and for flights greater than 1 week and up to 6 months in duration (0.2 mg/cu m for particles less than 10 microns in AD plus 0.2 mg/cu m for particles 10 to 100 microns in AD. These numerical limits were recommended to aid in spacecraft atmosphere design which should aim at particulate levels that are a low as reasonably achievable. Sampling of spacecraft atmospheres for particles should include size-fractionated samples of 0 to 10, 10 to 100, and greater than 100 micron particles for mass concentration measurement and elementary chemical analysis by nondestructive analysis techniques. Morphological and chemical analyses of single particles should also be made to aid in identifying airborne particulate sources. Air cleaning systems based on inertial collection principles and fine particle collection devices based on electrostatic precipitation and filtration should be considered for incorporation into spacecraft air circulation systems. It was also recommended that research be carried out in space in the areas of health effects and particle characterization.

  6. Critical Stokes number for the capture of inertial particles by recirculation cells in two-dimensional quasisteady flows.

    PubMed

    Verjus, Romuald; Angilella, Jean-Régis

    2016-05-01

    Inertial particles are often observed to be trapped, temporarily or permanently, by recirculation cells which are ubiquitous in natural or industrial flows. In the limit of small particle inertia, determining the conditions of trapping is a challenging task, as it requires a large number of numerical simulations or experiments to test various particle sizes or densities. Here, we investigate this phenomenon analytically and numerically in the case of heavy particles (e.g., aerosols) at low Reynolds number, to derive a trapping criterion that can be used both in analytical and numerical velocity fields. The resulting criterion allows one to predict the characteristics of trapped particles as soon as single-phase simulations of the flow are performed. Our analysis is valid for two-dimensional particle-laden flows in the vertical plane, in the limit where the particle inertia, the free-fall terminal velocity, and the flow unsteadiness can be treated as perturbations. The weak unsteadiness of the flow generally induces a chaotic tangle near heteroclinic or homoclinic cycles if any, leading to the apparent diffusion of fluid elements through the boundary of the cell. The critical particle Stokes number St_{c} below which aerosols also enter and exit the cell in a complex manner has been derived analytically, in terms of the flow characteristics. It involves the nondimensional curvature-weighted integral of the squared velocity of the steady fluid flow along the dividing streamline of the recirculation cell. When the flow is unsteady and St>St_{c}, a regular motion takes place due to gravity and centrifugal effects, like in the steady case. Particles driven towards the interior of the cell are trapped permanently. In contrast, when the flow is unsteady and Stparticles wander in a chaotic manner in the vicinity of the border of the cell, and can escape the cell. PMID:27300987

  7. Critical Stokes number for the capture of inertial particles by recirculation cells in two-dimensional quasisteady flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verjus, Romuald; Angilella, Jean-Régis

    2016-05-01

    Inertial particles are often observed to be trapped, temporarily or permanently, by recirculation cells which are ubiquitous in natural or industrial flows. In the limit of small particle inertia, determining the conditions of trapping is a challenging task, as it requires a large number of numerical simulations or experiments to test various particle sizes or densities. Here, we investigate this phenomenon analytically and numerically in the case of heavy particles (e.g., aerosols) at low Reynolds number, to derive a trapping criterion that can be used both in analytical and numerical velocity fields. The resulting criterion allows one to predict the characteristics of trapped particles as soon as single-phase simulations of the flow are performed. Our analysis is valid for two-dimensional particle-laden flows in the vertical plane, in the limit where the particle inertia, the free-fall terminal velocity, and the flow unsteadiness can be treated as perturbations. The weak unsteadiness of the flow generally induces a chaotic tangle near heteroclinic or homoclinic cycles if any, leading to the apparent diffusion of fluid elements through the boundary of the cell. The critical particle Stokes number Stc below which aerosols also enter and exit the cell in a complex manner has been derived analytically, in terms of the flow characteristics. It involves the nondimensional curvature-weighted integral of the squared velocity of the steady fluid flow along the dividing streamline of the recirculation cell. When the flow is unsteady and St>Stc , a regular motion takes place due to gravity and centrifugal effects, like in the steady case. Particles driven towards the interior of the cell are trapped permanently. In contrast, when the flow is unsteady and Stparticles wander in a chaotic manner in the vicinity of the border of the cell, and can escape the cell.

  8. Influence of mileage accumulation on the particle mass and number emissions of two gasoline direct injection vehicles.

    PubMed

    Maricq, M Matti; Szente, Joseph J; Adams, Jack; Tennison, Paul; Rumpsa, Todd

    2013-10-15

    Gasoline direct injection (GDI) is a new engine technology intended to improve fuel economy and greenhouse gas emissions as required by recently enacted legislative and environmental regulations. The development of this technology must also ensure that these vehicles meet new LEV III and Tier 3 emissions standards as they phase in between 2017 and 2021. The aim of the present paper is to examine, at least for a small set, how the PM emissions from GDI vehicles change over their lifetime. The paper reports particle mass and number emissions of two GDI vehicles as a function of mileage up to 150K miles. These vehicles exhibit PM emissions that are near or below the upcoming 3 mg/mi FTP and 10 mg/mi US06 mass standards with little, if any, deterioration over 150K miles. Particle number emissions roughly follow the previously observed 2 × 10(12) particles/mg correlation between solid particle number and PM mass. They remained between the interim and final EU stage 6 solid particle count standard for gasoline vehicles throughout the mileage accumulation study. These examples demonstrate feasibility to meet near-term 3 mg/mi and interim EU solid particle number standards, but continued development is needed to ensure that this continues as further fuel economy improvements are made. PMID:24040936

  9. Aerosol and NOx emission factors and submicron particle number size distributions in two road tunnels with different traffic regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imhof, D.; Weingartner, E.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Ordóñez, C.; Kurtenbach, R.; Wiesen, P.; Rodler, J.; Sturm, P.; McCrae, I.; Ekström, M.; Baltensperger, U.

    2006-06-01

    Measurements of aerosol particle number size distributions (18-700 nm), mass concentrations (PM2.5 and PM10) and NOx were performed in the Plabutsch tunnel, Austria, and in the Kingsway tunnel, United Kingdom. These two tunnels show different characteristics regarding the roadway gradient, the composition of the vehicle fleet and the traffic frequency. The submicron particle size distributions contained a soot mode in the diameter range D=80-100 nm and a nucleation mode in the range of D=20-40 nm. In the Kingsway tunnel with a significantly lower particle number and volume concentration level than in the Plabutsch tunnel, a clear diurnal variation of nucleation and soot mode particles correlated to the traffic density was observed. In the Plabutsch tunnel, soot mode particles also revealed a diurnal variation, whereas no substantial variation was found for the nucleation mode particles. During the night a higher number concentration of nucleation mode particles were measured than soot mode particles and vice versa during the day. In this tunnel with very high soot emissions during daytime due to the heavy-duty vehicle (HDV) share of 18% and another 40% of diesel driven light-duty vehicles (LDV) semivolatile species condense on the pre-existing soot surface area rather than forming new particles by homogeneous nucleation. With the low concentration of soot mode particles in the Kingsway tunnel, also the nucleation mode particles exhibit a diurnal variation. From the measured parameters real-world traffic emission factors were estimated for the whole vehicle fleet as well as differentiated into the two categories LDV and HDV. In the particle size range D=18-700 nm, each vehicle of the mixed fleet emits (1.50±0.08)×1014 particles km-1 (Plabutsch) and (1.26±0.10)×1014 particles km-1 (Kingsway), while particle volume emission factors of 0.209±0.008 cm3 km-1 and 0.036±0.004 cm3 km-1, respectively, were obtained. PM1 emission factors of 104±4 mg km-1 (Plabutsch

  10. Aerosol and NOx emission factors and submicron particle number size distributions in two road tunnels with different traffic regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imhof, D.; Weingartner, E.; Prévát, A. S. H.; Ordóñez, C.; Kurtenbach, R.; Wiesen, P.; Rodler, J.; Sturm, P.; McCrae, I.; Sjödin, Å.; Baltensperger, U.

    2005-07-01

    Measurements of aerosol particle number size distributions (18-700 nm), mass concentrations (PM2.5 and PM10) and NOx were performed in the Plabutsch tunnel, Austria, and in the Kingsway tunnel, United Kingdom. These two tunnels show different characteristics regarding the roadway gradient, the composition of the vehicle fleet and the traffic frequency. The submicron particle size distributions contained a soot mode in the diameter range D=80-100 nm and a nucleation mode in the range of D=20-40 nm. In the Kingsway tunnel with a significantly lower particle number and volume concentration level than in the Plabutsch tunnel, a clear diurnal variation of nucleation and soot mode particles correlated to the traffic density was observed. In the Plabutsch tunnel, soot mode particles also revealed a diurnal variation, whereas no substantial variation was found for the nucleation mode particles. During the night a higher number concentration of nucleation mode particles were measured than soot mode particles and vice versa during the day. In this tunnel with very high soot emissions during daytime due to the heavy-duty vehicle (HDV) share of 18% and another 40% of diesel driven light-duty vehicles (LDV) semivolatile species condense on the pre-existing soot surface area rather than forming new particles by homogeneous nucleation. With the low concentration of soot mode particles in the Kingsway tunnel, also the nucleation mode particles exhibit a diurnal variation. From the measured parameters real-world traffic emission factors were estimated for the whole vehicle fleet as well as differentiated into the two categories LDV and HDV. In the particle size range D=18-700 nm, each vehicle of the mixed fleet emits (1.50±0.08)·1014 particles km-1 (Plabutsch) and (1.26±0.10)·1014 particles km-1 (Kingsway), while particle volume emission factors of 0.209±0.008 cm3 km-1 and 0.036±0.004 cm3 km-1, respectively, were obtained. PM1 emission factors of 104±4 mg km-1 (Plabutsch

  11. Immunodetection and quantification of airborne (1–3)-β-D-glucan-carrying particles with the halogen immunoassay

    PubMed Central

    Rivera-Mariani, Félix E.; Mihalic, Jana N.; Rule, Ana M.; Breysse, Patrick N.

    2013-01-01

    Fungal cell wall components, such as (1–3)-β-D-glucan, are known to be capable of activating the innate immune system and pose a respiratory health risk in different environments. Mass-based non-viable techniques commonly used for assessment of fungal exposures could be β-D-glucan-specific, but are limited to analysis of liquid extracts. The variable solubility of different β-D-glucans may underestimate β-D-glucan exposure and long sampling times required for mass-based methods make assessing short-term exposures difficult. In this study, we evaluated the utility of the halogen immunoassay (HIA), an immunoblotting technique previously used for allergens, to immunodetect and quantify β-D-glucan-carrying particles (BGCPs). The HIA was able to detect BGCPs without background staining when β-D-glucan standards and air samples collected at a poultry house during short sampling periods were evaluated. The image analysis protocol previously developed by our group for mouse allergen allowed simultaneous immunodetection and quantification of β-D-glucan-containing particles. Our results suggest that the HIA holds promise for quantifying β-D-glucan exposures. To our knowledge, this is the first time in which the HIA was used for non-allergenic compounds of microbial or fungal origins. PMID:23201385

  12. Airborne laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamberson, Steven E.

    2002-06-01

    The US Air Force Airborne Laser (ABL) is an airborne, megawatt-class laser system with a state-of-the-art atmospheric compensation system to destroy enemy ballistic missiles at long ranges. This system will provide both deterrence and defense against the use of such weapons during conflicts. This paper provides an overview of the ABL weapon system including: the notional operational concept, the development approach and schedule, the overall aircraft configuration, the technologies being incorporated in the ABL, and the risk reduction approach being utilized to ensure program success.

  13. Low Reynolds Number Interactions between Colloidal Particles near the Entrance to a Cylindrical Pore.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran; Venkatesan; Tryggvason; Scott Fogler H

    2000-09-15

    The interaction between stable colloidal particles arriving at a pore entrance was studied using a numerical method for the case where the particle size is smaller than but of the same order as the pore size. The numerical method was adapted from a front-tracking technique developed for studying incompressible, multifluid flow by S. O. Unverdi and G. Tryggvason (J. Comp. Phys. 100, 25, 1992). The method is based on the finite difference solution of Navier-Stokes equation on a stationary, structured, Cartesian grid and the explicit representation of the particle-liquid interface using an unstructured grid that moves through the stationary grid. The simulations are in two dimensions, considering both deformable and nondeformable particles, and include interparticle colloidal interactions. The interparticle and particle-pore hydrodynamic interactions, which are very difficult to determine using existing analytical and semi-numerical, semi-analytical techniques in microhydrodynamics, are naturally accounted for in our numerical method and need not be explicity determined. Two- and three-particle motion toward a pore has been considered in our simulations. The simulations demonstrate how the competition between hydrodynamic forces and colloidal forces acting on particles dictate their flow behavior near the pore entrance. The predicted dependence of the particle flow behavior on the flow velocity and the ratio of pore size to particle size are qualitatively consistent with the experimental observations of V. Ramachandran and H. S. Fogler (J. Fluid Mech. 385, 129, 1999). Copyright 2000 Academic Press. PMID:10985810

  14. Characterization of Airborne Nanoparticle Loss in Sampling Tubing.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Candace Su-Jung

    2015-01-01

    Airborne nanoparticle release has been studied extensively lately using a variety of instruments and nanoparticle loss data for the instrument sampling tubes were required. This study used real-time measurements to characterize particle losses. Particle concentrations were measured by Fast Mobility Particle Sizer (FMPS). Electrically conductive and Tygon sampling tubes 7.7 mm I.D. and 2.0, 4.9, 7.0, and 8.4 m long, were used to analyze particle losses. Two different sources of nearly steady-state particles-atmospheric nanoparticles (maximum concentration of 4,000-6,000 particle/cm(3)) and nebulizer-generated salt aerosols (maximum concentration of 14,000-16,000 particle/cm(3))-were utilized. For all test conditions, a reduction in particle number concentration was observed and found to be proportional to tube length for particle diameter (dp) less than 40 nm. A maximum loss up to 30% was found for the longest tube length (8.4 m) at particle size of approximately 8 nm. For particles from 40 to 400 nm, the losses were less than 3%. Measured particle losses were greater than predicted by theory for the smallest particles. The two types of tubing showed similar particle losses for both test aerosols. Particle losses were low for dp greater than 40 nm, and for all particle sizes when the tube length was less than 2 m. PMID:25746064

  15. Zone of influence for particle number concentrations at signalised traffic intersections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goel, Anju; Kumar, Prashant

    2015-12-01

    Estimation of zone of influences (ZoI) at signalised traffic intersections (TI) is important to accurately model particle number concentrations (PNCs) and their exposure to public at emission hotspot locations. However, estimates of ZoI for PNCs at different types of TIs are barely known. We carried out mobile measurements inside the car cabin with windows fully open for size-resolved PNCs in the 5-560 nm range on a 6 km long busy round route that had 10 TIs. These included four-way TIs without built-up area (TI4w-nb), four-way TIs with built-up area (TI4w-wb), three-way TIs without built-up area (TI3w-nb) and three-way TIs with built-up area (TI3w-wb). Mobile measurements were made with a fast response differential mobility spectrometer (DMS50). Driving speed and position of the car were recorded every second using a global positioning system (GPS). Positive matrix factorisation (PMF) modelling was applied on the data to quantify the contribution of PNCs released during deceleration, creep-idling, acceleration and cruising to total PNCs at the TIs. The objectives were to address the following questions: (i) how does ZoI vary at different types of TIs in stop- and go-driving conditions?, (ii) what is the effect of different driving conditions on ZoI of a TI?, (iii) how realistically can the PNC profiles be generalised within a ZoI of a TI?, and (iv) what is the share of emissions during different driving conditions towards the total PNCs at a TI? Average length of ZoI in longitudinal direction and along the road was found to be the highest (148 m; 89 to -59 m from the centre of a TI) at a TI3w-wb, followed by TI4w-nb (129 m; 79 to -42 m), TI3w-nb (86 m; 71 to -15 m) and TI4w-wb (79 m; 46 to -33 m) in stop- and go-driving conditions. During multiple stopping driving conditions when a vehicle stops at a TI more than once in a signal cycle due to oversaturation of vehicles, average length of ZoI increased by 55, 22 and 21% at TI4w-nb, TI3w-nb and TI3w-wb, respectively

  16. Effects of rigid or adaptive confinement on colloidal self-assembly. Fixed vs. fluctuating number of confined particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    PÈ©kalski, J.; Almarza, N. G.; Ciach, A.

    2015-05-01

    The effects of confinement on colloidal self-assembly in the case of fixed number of confined particles are studied in the one dimensional lattice model solved exactly in the grand canonical ensemble (GCE) in Pȩkalski et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 142, 014903 (2015)]. The model considers a pair interaction defined by a short-range attraction plus a longer-range repulsion. We consider thermodynamic states corresponding to self-assembly into clusters. Both fixed and adaptive boundaries are studied. For fixed boundaries, there are particular states in which, for equal average densities, the number of clusters in the GCE is larger than in the canonical ensemble. The dependence of pressure on density has a different form when the system size changes with fixed number of particles and when the number of particles changes with fixed size of the system. In the former case, the pressure has a nonmonotonic dependence on the system size. The anomalous increase of pressure for expanding system is accompanied by formation of a larger number of smaller clusters. In the case of elastic confining surfaces, we observe a bistability, i.e., two significantly different system sizes occur with almost the same probability. The mechanism of the bistability in the closed system is different to that of the case of permeable walls, where the two equilibrium system sizes correspond to a different number of particles.

  17. Effects of rigid or adaptive confinement on colloidal self-assembly. Fixed vs. fluctuating number of confined particles

    SciTech Connect

    Pȩkalski, J.; Ciach, A.; Almarza, N. G.

    2015-05-28

    The effects of confinement on colloidal self-assembly in the case of fixed number of confined particles are studied in the one dimensional lattice model solved exactly in the grand canonical ensemble (GCE) in Pȩkalski et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 142, 014903 (2015)]. The model considers a pair interaction defined by a short-range attraction plus a longer-range repulsion. We consider thermodynamic states corresponding to self-assembly into clusters. Both fixed and adaptive boundaries are studied. For fixed boundaries, there are particular states in which, for equal average densities, the number of clusters in the GCE is larger than in the canonical ensemble. The dependence of pressure on density has a different form when the system size changes with fixed number of particles and when the number of particles changes with fixed size of the system. In the former case, the pressure has a nonmonotonic dependence on the system size. The anomalous increase of pressure for expanding system is accompanied by formation of a larger number of smaller clusters. In the case of elastic confining surfaces, we observe a bistability, i.e., two significantly different system sizes occur with almost the same probability. The mechanism of the bistability in the closed system is different to that of the case of permeable walls, where the two equilibrium system sizes correspond to a different number of particles.

  18. Effects of Gasoline Direct Injection Engine Operating Parameters on Particle Number Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    He, X.; Ratcliff, M. A.; Zigler, B. T.

    2012-04-19

    A single-cylinder, wall-guided, spark ignition direct injection engine was used to study the impact of engine operating parameters on engine-out particle number (PN) emissions. Experiments were conducted with certification gasoline and a splash blend of 20% fuel grade ethanol in gasoline (E20), at four steady-state engine operating conditions. Independent engine control parameter sweeps were conducted including start of injection, injection pressure, spark timing, exhaust cam phasing, intake cam phasing, and air-fuel ratio. The results show that fuel injection timing is the dominant factor impacting PN emissions from this wall-guided gasoline direct injection engine. The major factor causing high PN emissions is fuel liquid impingement on the piston bowl. By avoiding fuel impingement, more than an order of magnitude reduction in PN emission was observed. Increasing fuel injection pressure reduces PN emissions because of smaller fuel droplet size and faster fuel-air mixing. PN emissions are insensitive to cam phasing and spark timing, especially at high engine load. Cold engine conditions produce higher PN emissions than hot engine conditions due to slower fuel vaporization and thus less fuel-air homogeneity during the combustion process. E20 produces lower PN emissions at low and medium loads if fuel liquid impingement on piston bowl is avoided. At high load or if there is fuel liquid impingement on piston bowl and/or cylinder wall, E20 tends to produce higher PN emissions. This is probably a function of the higher heat of vaporization of ethanol, which slows the vaporization of other fuel components from surfaces and may create local fuel-rich combustion or even pool-fires.

  19. Measurement of Black Carbon and Particle Number Emission Factors from Individual Heavy-Duty Trucks

    SciTech Connect

    Ban-Weiss, George A.; Lunden, Melissa M.; Kirchstetter, Thomas W.; Harley, Robert A.

    2009-02-02

    Emission factors for black carbon (BC) and particle number (PN) were measured from 226 individual heavy-duty (HD) diesel-fueled trucks driving through a 1 km-long California highway tunnel in August 2006. Emission factors were based on concurrent increases in BC, PN, and CO{sub 2}B concentrations (measured at 1 Hz) that corresponded to the passage of individual HD trucks. The distributions of BC and PN emission factors from individual HD trucks are skewed, meaning that a large fraction of pollution comes from a small fraction of the in-use vehicle fleet. The highest-emitting 10% of trucks were responsible for {approx} 40% of total BC and PN emissions from all HD trucks. BC emissions were log-normally distributed with a mean emission factor of 1.7 g kg {sup -1} and maximum values of {approx} 10 g kg{sup -1}. Corresponding values for PN emission factors were 4.7 x 10{sup 15} and 4 x 10{sup 16} kg{sup -1}. There was minimal overlap among high-emitters of these two pollutants: only 1 of the 226 HD trucks measured was found to be among the highest 10% for both BC and PN. Monte Carlo resampling of the distribution of BC emission factors observed in this study revealed that uncertainties (1{sigma}) in extrapolating from a random sample of n HD trucks to a population mean emission factor ranged from {+-} 43% for n = 10 to {+-} 8% for n = 300, illustrating the importance of sufficiently large vehicle sample sizes in emissions studies. Studies with low sample sizes are also more easily biased due to misrepresentation of high-emitters. As vehicles become cleaner on average in future years, skewness of the emissions distributions will increase, and thus sample sizes needed to extrapolate reliably from a subset of vehicles to the entire in-use vehicle fleet are expected to become more of a challenge.

  20. Airborne Particulate Threat Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Patrick Treado; Oksana Klueva; Jeffrey Beckstead

    2008-12-31

    Aerosol threat detection requires the ability to discern between threat agents and ambient background particulate matter (PM) encountered in the environment. To date, Raman imaging technology has been demonstrated as an effective strategy for the assessment of threat agents in the presence of specific, complex backgrounds. Expanding our understanding of the composition of ambient particulate matter background will improve the overall performance of Raman Chemical Imaging (RCI) detection strategies for the autonomous detection of airborne chemical and biological hazards. Improving RCI detection performance is strategic due to its potential to become a widely exploited detection approach by several U.S. government agencies. To improve the understanding of the ambient PM background with subsequent improvement in Raman threat detection capability, ChemImage undertook the Airborne Particulate Threat Assessment (APTA) Project in 2005-2008 through a collaborative effort with the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), under cooperative agreement number DE-FC26-05NT42594. During Phase 1 of the program, a novel PM classification based on molecular composition was developed based on a comprehensive review of the scientific literature. In addition, testing protocols were developed for ambient PM characterization. A signature database was developed based on a variety of microanalytical techniques, including scanning electron microscopy, FT-IR microspectroscopy, optical microscopy, fluorescence and Raman chemical imaging techniques. An automated particle integrated collector and detector (APICD) prototype was developed for automated collection, deposition and detection of biothreat agents in background PM. During Phase 2 of the program, ChemImage continued to refine the understanding of ambient background composition. Additionally, ChemImage enhanced the APICD to provide improved autonomy, sensitivity and specificity. Deliverables included a Final Report detailing our

  1. The effects of delta rays on the number of particle-track traversals per cell in laboratory and space exposures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, F. A.; Nikjoo, H.; Goodhead, D. T.; Wilson, J. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    It is a common practice to estimate the number of particle-track traversals per cell or cell nucleus as the product of the ion's linear energy transfer (LET) and cell area. This practice ignores the effects of track width due to the lateral extension of delta rays. We make estimates of the number of particle-track traversals per cell, which includes the effects of delta rays using radial cutoffs in the ionization density about an ion's track of 1 mGy and 1 cGy. Calculations for laboratory and space radiation exposures are discussed, and show that the LET approximation provides a large underestimate of the actual number of particle-track traversals per cell from high-charge and energy (HZE) ions. In light of the current interest in the mechanisms of radiation action, including signal transduction and cytoplasmic damage, these results should be of interest for radiobiology studies with HZE ions.

  2. Migration of finite sized particles in a laminar square channel flow from low to high Reynolds numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbas, M.; Magaud, P.; Gao, Y.; Geoffroy, S.

    2014-12-01

    The migration of neutrally buoyant finite sized particles in a Newtonian square channel flow is investigated in the limit of very low solid volumetric concentration, within a wide range of channel Reynolds numbers Re = [0.07-120]. In situ microscope measurements of particle distributions, taken far from the channel inlet (at a distance several thousand times the channel height), revealed that particles are preferentially located near the channel walls at Re > 10 and near the channel center at Re < 1. Whereas the cross-streamline particle motion is governed by inertia-induced lift forces at high inertia, it seems to be controlled by shear-induced particle interactions at low (but finite) Reynolds numbers, despite the low solid volume fraction (<1%). The transition between both regimes is observed in the range Re = [1-10]. In order to exclude the effect of multi-body interactions, the trajectories of single freely moving particles are calculated thanks to numerical simulations based on the force coupling method. With the deployed numerical tool, the complete particle trajectories are accessible within a reasonable computational time only in the inertial regime (Re > 10). In this regime, we show that (i) the particle undergoes cross-streamline migration followed by a cross-lateral migration (parallel to the wall) in agreement with previous observations, and (ii) the stable equilibrium positions are located at the midline of the channel faces while the diagonal equilibrium positions are unstable. At low flow inertia, the first instants of the numerical simulations (carried at Re = O(1)) reveal that the cross-streamline migration of a single particle is oriented towards the channel wall, suggesting that the particle preferential positions around the channel center, observed in the experiments, are rather due to multi-body interactions.

  3. Migration of finite sized particles in a laminar square channel flow from low to high Reynolds numbers

    SciTech Connect

    Abbas, M.; Magaud, P.; Gao, Y.; Geoffroy, S.

    2014-12-15

    The migration of neutrally buoyant finite sized particles in a Newtonian square channel flow is investigated in the limit of very low solid volumetric concentration, within a wide range of channel Reynolds numbers Re = [0.07-120]. In situ microscope measurements of particle distributions, taken far from the channel inlet (at a distance several thousand times the channel height), revealed that particles are preferentially located near the channel walls at Re > 10 and near the channel center at Re < 1. Whereas the cross-streamline particle motion is governed by inertia-induced lift forces at high inertia, it seems to be controlled by shear-induced particle interactions at low (but finite) Reynolds numbers, despite the low solid volume fraction (<1%). The transition between both regimes is observed in the range Re = [1-10]. In order to exclude the effect of multi-body interactions, the trajectories of single freely moving particles are calculated thanks to numerical simulations based on the force coupling method. With the deployed numerical tool, the complete particle trajectories are accessible within a reasonable computational time only in the inertial regime (Re > 10). In this regime, we show that (i) the particle undergoes cross-streamline migration followed by a cross-lateral migration (parallel to the wall) in agreement with previous observations, and (ii) the stable equilibrium positions are located at the midline of the channel faces while the diagonal equilibrium positions are unstable. At low flow inertia, the first instants of the numerical simulations (carried at Re = O(1)) reveal that the cross-streamline migration of a single particle is oriented towards the channel wall, suggesting that the particle preferential positions around the channel center, observed in the experiments, are rather due to multi-body interactions.

  4. Airborne single particle mass spectrometers (SPLAT II & miniSPLAT) and new software for data visualization and analysis in a geo-spatial context.

    PubMed

    Zelenyuk, Alla; Imre, Dan; Wilson, Jacqueline; Zhang, Zhiyuan; Wang, Jun; Mueller, Klaus

    2015-02-01

    Understanding the effect of aerosols on climate requires knowledge of the size and chemical composition of individual aerosol particles-two fundamental properties that determine an aerosol's optical properties and ability to serve as cloud condensation or ice nuclei. Here we present our aircraft-compatible single particle mass spectrometers, SPLAT II and its new, miniaturized version, miniSPLAT that measure in-situ and in real-time the size and chemical composition of individual aerosol particles with extremely high sensitivity, temporal resolution, and sizing precision on the order of a monolayer. Although miniSPLAT's size, weight, and power consumption are significantly smaller, its performance is on par with SPLAT II. Both instruments operate in dual data acquisition mode to measure, in addition to single particle size and composition, particle number concentrations, size distributions, density, and asphericity with high temporal resolution. We also present ND-Scope, our newly developed interactive visual analytics software package. ND-Scope is designed to explore and visualize the vast amount of complex, multidimensional data acquired by our single particle mass spectrometers, along with other aerosol and cloud characterization instruments on-board aircraft. We demonstrate that ND-Scope makes it possible to visualize the relationships between different observables and to view the data in a geo-spatial context, using the interactive and fully coupled Google Earth and Parallel Coordinates displays. Here we illustrate the utility of ND-Scope to visualize the spatial distribution of atmospheric particles of different compositions, and explore the relationship between individual particle compositions and their activity as cloud condensation nuclei. PMID:25563475

  5. Airborne Single Particle Mass Spectrometers (SPLAT II & miniSPLAT) and New Software for Data Visualization and Analysis in a Geo-Spatial Context

    SciTech Connect

    Zelenyuk, Alla; Imre, D.; Wilson, Jacqueline M.; Zhang, Zhiyuan; Wang, Jun; Mueller, Klaus

    2015-02-01

    Understanding the effect of aerosols on climate requires knowledge of the size and chemical composition of individual aerosol particles - two fundamental properties that determine an aerosol’s optical properties and ability to serve as cloud condensation or ice nuclei. Here we present miniSPLAT, our new aircraft compatible single particle mass spectrometer, that measures in-situ and in real-time size and chemical composition of individual aerosol particles with extremely high sensitivity, temporal resolution, and sizing precision on the order of a monolayer. miniSPLAT operates in dual data acquisition mode to measure, in addition to single particle size and composition, particle number concentrations, size distributions, density, and asphericity with high temporal resolution. When compared to our previous instrument, SPLAT II, miniSPLAT has been significantly reduced in size, weight, and power consumption without loss in performance. We also present ND-Scope, our newly developed interactive visual analytics software package. ND-Scope is designed to explore and visualize the vast amount of complex, multidimensional data acquired by our single particle mass spectrometers, along with other aerosol and cloud characterization instruments on-board aircraft. We demonstrate that ND-Scope makes it possible to visualize the relationships between different observables and to view the data in a geo-spatial context, using the interactive and fully coupled Google Earth and Parallel Coordinates displays. Here we illustrate the utility of ND-Scope to visualize the spatial distribution of atmospheric particles of different compositions, and explore the relationship between individual particle composition and their activity as cloud condensation nuclei.

  6. Characterization of Airborne Bacteria at an Underground Subway Station

    PubMed Central

    Dybwad, Marius; Granum, Per Einar; Bruheim, Per

    2012-01-01

    The reliable detection of airborne biological threat agents depends on several factors, including the performance criteria of the detector and its operational environment. One step in improving the detector's performance is to increase our knowledge of the biological aerosol background in potential operational environments. Subway stations are enclosed public environments, which may be regarded as potential targets for incidents involving biological threat agents. In this study, the airborne bacterial community at a subway station in Norway was characterized (concentration level, diversity, and virulence- and survival-associated properties). In addition, a SASS 3100 high-volume air sampler and a matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry-based isolate screening procedure was used for these studies. The daytime level of airborne bacteria at the station was higher than the nighttime and outdoor levels, and the relative bacterial spore number was higher in outdoor air than at the station. The bacterial content, particle concentration, and size distribution were stable within each environment throughout the study (May to September 2010). The majority of the airborne bacteria belonged to the genera Bacillus, Micrococcus, and Staphylococcus, but a total of 37 different genera were identified in the air. These results suggest that anthropogenic sources are major contributors to airborne bacteria at subway stations and that such airborne communities could harbor virulence- and survival-associated properties of potential relevance for biological detection and surveillance, as well as for public health. Our findings also contribute to the development of realistic testing and evaluation schemes for biological detection/surveillance systems by providing information that can be used to mimic real-life operational airborne environments in controlled aerosol test chambers. PMID:22247150

  7. Characterization of airborne bacteria at an underground subway station.

    PubMed

    Dybwad, Marius; Granum, Per Einar; Bruheim, Per; Blatny, Janet Martha

    2012-03-01

    The reliable detection of airborne biological threat agents depends on several factors, including the performance criteria of the detector and its operational environment. One step in improving the detector's performance is to increase our knowledge of the biological aerosol background in potential operational environments. Subway stations are enclosed public environments, which may be regarded as potential targets for incidents involving biological threat agents. In this study, the airborne bacterial community at a subway station in Norway was characterized (concentration level, diversity, and virulence- and survival-associated properties). In addition, a SASS 3100 high-volume air sampler and a matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry-based isolate screening procedure was used for these studies. The daytime level of airborne bacteria at the station was higher than the nighttime and outdoor levels, and the relative bacterial spore number was higher in outdoor air than at the station. The bacterial content, particle concentration, and size distribution were stable within each environment throughout the study (May to September 2010). The majority of the airborne bacteria belonged to the genera Bacillus, Micrococcus, and Staphylococcus, but a total of 37 different genera were identified in the air. These results suggest that anthropogenic sources are major contributors to airborne bacteria at subway stations and that such airborne communities could harbor virulence- and survival-associated properties of potential relevance for biological detection and surveillance, as well as for public health. Our findings also contribute to the development of realistic testing and evaluation schemes for biological detection/surveillance systems by providing information that can be used to mimic real-life operational airborne environments in controlled aerosol test chambers. PMID:22247150

  8. Prediction of Particle Number Density and Particle Properties in the Flow Field Observed by the Nephelometer Experiment on the Galileo Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naughton, Jonathan W.

    1998-01-01

    This report summarizes the work performed to assist in the analysis of data returned from the Galileo Probe's Nephelometer instrument. A computation of the flow field around the Galileo Probe during its descent through the Jovian atmosphere was simulated. The behavior of cloud particles that passed around the Galileo probe was then computed and the number density in the vicinity of the Nephelometer instrument was predicted. The results of our analysis support the finding that the number density of cloud particles was not the same in each of the four sampling volumes of the Nephelometer instrument. The number densities calculated in this study are currently being used to assist in the reanalysis of the data returned from the Galileo Probe.

  9. Airborne concentrations of PM(2.5) and diesel exhaust particles on Harlem sidewalks: a community-based pilot study.

    PubMed Central

    Kinney, P L; Aggarwal, M; Northridge, M E; Janssen, N A; Shepard, P

    2000-01-01

    Residents of the dense urban core neighborhoods of New York City (NYC) have expressed increasing concern about the potential human health impacts of diesel vehicle emissions. We measured concentrations of particulate matter [less than/equal to] 2.5 micro in aerodynamic diameter (PM(2.5)) and diesel exhaust particles (DEP) on sidewalks in Harlem, NYC, and tested whether spatial variations in concentrations were related to local diesel traffic density. Eight-hour (1000-1800 hr) air samples for PM(2.5 )and elemental carbon (EC) were collected for 5 days in July 1996 on sidewalks adjacent to four geographically distinct Harlem intersections. Samples were taken using portable monitors worn by study staff. Simultaneous traffic counts for diesel trucks, buses, cars, and pedestrians were carried out at each intersection on [Greater/equal to] 2 of the 5 sampling days. Eight-hour diesel vehicle counts ranged from 61 to 2,467 across the four sites. Mean concentrations of PM(2.5) exhibited only modest site-to-site variation (37-47 microg/m(3)), reflecting the importance of broader regional sources of PM(2.5). In contrast, EC concentrations varied 4-fold across sites (from 1.5 to 6 microg/m(3)), and were associated with bus and truck counts on adjacent streets and, at one site, with the presence of a bus depot. A high correlation (r = 0.95) was observed between EC concentrations measured analytically and a blackness measurement based on PM(2.5) filter reflectance, suggesting the utility of the latter as a surrogate measure of DEP in future community-based studies. These results show that local diesel sources in Harlem create spatial variations in sidewalk concentrations of DEP. The study also demonstrates the feasibility of a new paradigm for community-based research involving full and active partnership between academic scientists and community-based organizations. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:10706526

  10. Size Segregation and Number Density Enhancement of Particles in Accretion Disk Eddies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klahr, H. H.; Henning, Th.

    1996-01-01

    We investigate the conditions for trapping solid dust particles in eddies and discuss the behavior of particles in a non-laminar protoplanetary accretion disk. We considered particle sizes from small dust grains to larger objects, 10(exp -4) cm less than a(sub p) less than 10(exp 2) cm. Independent of the source of turbulence, one can expect eddies to exist in the gas flow of a accretion disk, in the form of randomly occurring turbulent features or as convective cells. Due to the centrifugal force, solid particles are driven out of an eddy. It will be shown that this process is inhibited by the gravitational force induced by the protostar. Because of the mass dependence of the friction time, a given eddy becomes a trap for particles of a characteristic size and causes a local change in the dust density. Thus, the size distribution of the grains is no longer spatially homogeneous on small scales. Our general estimates do not depend on special turbulence or convection models. We calculate the maximal inhomogeneity due to this process. The strongest effect was observed for mm-sized particles, which can be concentrated by a factor of 100 within only 100 years.

  11. Measurement of the amount and number of pollen particles of Cryptomeria japonica (taxodiaceae) by imaging with a photoacoustic microscope.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Katsuhiko; Hoshimiya, Tsutomu

    2006-03-01

    A photoacoustic microscope (PAM), which includes a condenser microphone and a pair of linear-motor-driven pulse stages, was specially designed for spectroscopic applications. The PAM was applied to measure the amount and number of pollen particles of Cryptomeria japonica (CJ), which is known for its allergic function against eyes and nose. The advantage of photoacoustic (PA) imaging is both its high sensitivity and its counting ability up to high concentrations of the specimen. The CJ pollen particles were fixed on a piece of adhesive tape or on albumen (egg white) on a glass slide set in a PA cell. The PA image showed the ability of this method to count CJ pollen from the several-hundred-milligram region to even a single particle. The PA signal obtained was integrated over the specimen surface. The dependence of the PA signal on the amount or number of the pollen particles was measured. The resulting coefficients of correlation of the calibration curves for the amount and the number of pollen particles were 0.94 and 0.97, respectively. PMID:16555767

  12. Evaluation of filter media for particle number, surface area and mass penetrations.

    PubMed

    Li, Lin; Zuo, Zhili; Japuntich, Daniel A; Pui, David Y H

    2012-07-01

    The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) developed a standard for respirator certification under 42 CFR Part 84, using a TSI 8130 automated filter tester with photometers. A recent study showed that photometric detection methods may not be sensitive for measuring engineered nanoparticles. Present NIOSH standards for penetration measurement are mass-based; however, the threshold limit value/permissible exposure limit for an engineered nanoparticle worker exposure is not yet clear. There is lack of standardized filter test development for engineered nanoparticles, and development of a simple nanoparticle filter test is indicated. To better understand the filter performance against engineered nanoparticles and correlations among different tests, initial penetration levels of one fiberglass and two electret filter media were measured using a series of polydisperse and monodisperse aerosol test methods at two different laboratories (University of Minnesota Particle Technology Laboratory and 3M Company). Monodisperse aerosol penetrations were measured by a TSI 8160 using NaCl particles from 20 to 300 nm. Particle penetration curves and overall penetrations were measured by scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS), condensation particle counter (CPC), nanoparticle surface area monitor (NSAM), and TSI 8130 at two face velocities and three layer thicknesses. Results showed that reproducible, comparable filtration data were achieved between two laboratories, with proper control of test conditions and calibration procedures. For particle penetration curves, the experimental results of monodisperse testing agreed well with polydisperse SMPS measurements. The most penetrating particle sizes (MPPSs) of electret and fiberglass filter media were ~50 and 160 nm, respectively. For overall penetrations, the CPC and NSAM results of polydisperse aerosols were close to the penetration at the corresponding median particle sizes. For each filter type, power

  13. Airborne Single Particle Mass Spectrometers (SPLAT II & miniSPLAT) and New Software for Data Visualization and Analysis in a Geo-Spatial Context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zelenyuk, Alla; Imre, Dan; Wilson, Jacqueline; Zhang, Zhiyuan; Wang, Jun; Mueller, Klaus

    2015-02-01

    Understanding the effect of aerosols on climate requires knowledge of the size and chemical composition of individual aerosol particles—two fundamental properties that determine an aerosol's optical properties and ability to serve as cloud condensation or ice nuclei. Here we present our aircraft-compatible single particle mass spectrometers, SPLAT II and its new, miniaturized version, miniSPLAT that measure in-situ and in real-time the size and chemical composition of individual aerosol particles with extremely high sensitivity, temporal resolution, and sizing precision on the order of a monolayer. Although miniSPLAT's size, weight, and power consumption are significantly smaller, its performance is on par with SPLAT II. Both instruments operate in dual data acquisition mode to measure, in addition to single particle size and composition, particle number concentrations, size distributions, density, and asphericity with high temporal resolution. We also present ND-Scope, our newly developed interactive visual analytics software package. ND-Scope is designed to explore and visualize the vast amount of complex, multidimensional data acquired by our single particle mass spectrometers, along with other aerosol and cloud characterization instruments on-board aircraft. We demonstrate that ND-Scope makes it possible to visualize the relationships between different observables and to view the data in a geo-spatial context, using the interactive and fully coupled Google Earth and Parallel Coordinates displays. Here we illustrate the utility of ND-Scope to visualize the spatial distribution of atmospheric particles of different compositions, and explore the relationship between individual particle compositions and their activity as cloud condensation nuclei.

  14. A comparative study of the number and mass of fine particles emitted with diesel fuel and marine gas oil (MGO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabi, Md. Nurun; Brown, Richard J.; Ristovski, Zoran; Hustad, Johan Einar

    2012-09-01

    The current investigation reports on diesel particulate matter emissions, with special interest in fine particles from the combustion of two base fuels. The base fuels selected were diesel fuel and marine gas oil (MGO). The experiments were conducted with a four-stroke, six-cylinder, direct injection diesel engine. The results showed that the fine particle number emissions measured by both SMPS and ELPI were higher with MGO compared to diesel fuel. It was observed that the fine particle number emissions with the two base fuels were quantitatively different but qualitatively similar. The gravimetric (mass basis) measurement also showed higher total particulate matter (TPM) emissions with the MGO. The smoke emissions, which were part of TPM, were also higher for the MGO. No significant changes in the mass flow rate of fuel and the brake-specific fuel consumption (BSFC) were observed between the two base fuels.

  15. EVOLUTION OF PARTICLE NUMBER DISTRIBUTION NEAR ROADWAYS. PART II: THE ROAD-TO-AMBIENT PROCESS (R827352C011)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 'road-to-ambient' evolution of particle number distributions near the 405 and 710 freeways in Los Angeles, California, in both summer and winter, were analyzed and then simulated by a multi-component sectional aerosol dynamic model. Condensation/evaporation and dilution we...

  16. Characterisation of sub-micron particle number concentrations and formation events in the western Bushveld Igneous Complex, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirsikko, A.; Vakkari, V.; Tiitta, P.; Manninen, H. E.; Gagné, S.; Laakso, H.; Kulmala, M.; Mirme, A.; Mirme, S.; Mabaso, D.; Beukes, J. P.; Laakso, L.

    2012-05-01

    South Africa holds significant mineral resources, with a substantial fraction of these reserves occurring and being processed in a large geological structure termed the Bushveld Igneous Complex (BIC). The area is also highly populated by informal, semi-formal and formal residential developments. However, knowledge of air quality and research related to the atmosphere is still very limited in the area. In order to investigate the characteristics and processes affecting sub-micron particle number concentrations and formation events, air ion and aerosol particle size distributions and number concentrations, together with meteorological parameters, trace gases and particulate matter (PM) were measured for over two years at Marikana in the heart of the western BIC. The observations showed that trace gas (i.e. SO2, NOx, CO) and black carbon concentrations were relatively high, but in general within the limits of local air quality standards. The area was characterised by very high condensation sink due to background aerosol particles, PM10 and O3 concentration. The results indicated that high amounts of Aitken and accumulation mode particles originated from domestic burning for heating and cooking in the morning and evening, while during daytime SO2-based nucleation followed by the growth by condensation of vapours from industrial, residential and natural sources was the most probable source for large number concentrations of nucleation and Aitken mode particles. Nucleation event day frequency was extremely high, i.e. 86% of the analysed days, which to the knowledge of the authors is the highest frequency ever reported. The air mass back trajectory and wind direction analyses showed that the secondary particle formation was influenced both by local and regional pollution and vapour sources. Therefore, our observation of the annual cycle and magnitude of the particle formation and growth rates during nucleation events were similar to results previously published for a semi

  17. Biomass burning layers measured with an airborne Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2) during the Deep Convective Clouds and Chemistry (DC3) experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heimerl, K.; Weinzierl, B.; Minikin, A.; Sauer, D. N.; Fütterer, D.; Lichtenstern, M.; Schlager, H.; Schwarz, J. P.; Markovic, M. Z.; Perring, A. E.; Fahey, D. W.; Huntrieser, H.

    2013-12-01

    , biomass burning plumes were also detected at 11 km altitude over Newfoundland, Canada. rBC mass concentration in these plumes was lower than in the plumes over the central U.S. at 3 to 8 km, and more particles with thin coatings were measured. Acknowledgements: This work has been funded by the German Aerospace Center (DLR) and the Helmholtz Association under grant number VH-NG-606 (Helmholtz-Hochschul-Nachwuchsforschergruppe AerCARE). We thank the DC3 Science Team and DLR Flight Operations for their great support.

  18. Recent Advances in Analytical Methods on Lipoprotein Subclasses: Calculation of Particle Numbers from Lipid Levels by Gel Permeation HPLC Using "Spherical Particle Model".

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Mitsuyo; Yamashita, Shizuya

    2016-01-01

    Recently, we developed an analytical method for determining the lipid levels and particle numbers in lipoprotein subclasses covering a wide size range from chylomicrons to small high density lipoproteins, by using gel permeation high-performance liquid chromatography (GP-HPLC). The challenges in analytical methods on lipoprotein subclasses have been addressed from 1980 by Hara and Okazaki using commercial TSK gel permeation columns. Later, the improvements in the hardware, separation and detection of lipoproteins, and the data processing software, using a Gaussian distribution approximation to calculate lipid levels of lipoprotein subclasses, have been extensively utilized in these analytical methods for over thirty years. In this review, we describe on the recent advances in analytical methods on lipoprotein subclasses based on various techniques, and the calculation of particle numbers from lipid levels by GPHPLC using the "spherical particle model". Free/ester ratio of cholesterol in particular lipoprotein subclass was accurately estimated from triglyceride, total cholesterol (free and esterified) and the size of the particle based on this model originally proposed by Shen and Kezdy. PMID:27041512

  19. SOURCES OF HUMAN EXPOSURE TO AIRBORNE PAH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Personal exposures to airborne particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were studied in several populations in the US, Japan, and Czech Republic. Personal exposure monitors, developed for human exposure biomonitoring studies were used to collect fine particles (<_ 1....

  20. Pharmaceutical quality evaluation of lipid emulsions containing PGE1: alteration in the number of large particles in infusion solutions.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Hiroko; Saito, Haruna; Yomota, Chikako; Kawanishi, Toru

    2009-08-13

    There are two generics of a parenteral lipid emulsion of prostaglandin E1 (PGE(1)) (Lipo-PGE(1)) in addition to two innovators. It was reported the change from innovator to generic in clinical practice caused the slowing of drip rate and formation of aggregates in the infusion line. Thus, we investigated the difference of pharmaceutical quality in these Lipo-PGE(1) formulations. After mixing with some infusion solutions, the mean diameter and number of large particles were determined. Although the mean diameter did not change in any infusion solutions, the number of large particles (diameter >1.0 microm) dramatically increased in generics with Hartmann's solution pH 8 or Lactec injection with 7% sodium bicarbonate. Next, we investigated the effect of these infusion solutions on the retention rate of PGE(1) in lipid particles. The retention rate of PGE(1) in these two infusion solutions decreased more quickly than that in normal saline. Nevertheless, there were no significant differences among the formulations tested. Our results suggest that there is no difference between innovators and generics except in mixing with these infusion solutions. Furthermore, that monitoring the number of large particles can be an effective means of evaluating pharmaceutical interactions and/or the stability of lipid emulsions. PMID:19465103

  1. The effect of an on-orbit near encounter on the number flux density of micron sized particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maag, Carl R.; Tanner, William G.; Stevenson, Tim J.; Borg, Janet; Bibring, Jean-Pierre; Alexander, W. Merle; Maag, Andrew J.

    1993-01-01

    Many materials and techniques have been developed by the authors to sample the flux of particles in Low Earth Orbit (LEO), and through regular insitu sampling of the flux in LEO, the materials and techniques have produced data which complement the data now being amassed by the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) research activities. Recent flight experiments on STS-32, STS-44, STS-46, and STS-52 have been conducted to develop an understanding of the spatial density as a function of size (mass) for particle sizes 1x10(exp -6) cm and larger. In addition to the enumeration of particle impacts, it was also the intent of these experiments that hypervelocity particles be captured and returned intact. Measurements were performed post-flight to determine the flux density, diameters, and subsequent effects on various optical, thermal control, and structural materials. During the course of the STS-44 mission, the Space Shuttle corrected its altitude by 26 km to evade a spent upper stage. The results of this near encounter suggests that a cloud of micron sized particles exist in the vicinity of the object. Data also suggest that the flux density is nearly two (2) orders of magnitude higher than background flux. A comparison of the number flux density along with microphotographs of the captured particles will be presented for the referenced shuttle flights.

  2. Particle mobility size spectrometers: harmonization of technical standards and data structure to facilitate high quality long-term observations of atmospheric particle number size distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiedensohler, A.; Birmili, W.; Nowak, A.; Sonntag, A.; Weinhold, K.; Merkel, M.; Wehner, B.; Tuch, T.; Pfeifer, S.; Fiebig, M.; Fjäraa, A. M.; Asmi, E.; Sellegri, K.; Depuy, R.; Venzac, H.; Villani, P.; Laj, P.; Aalto, P.; Ogren, J. A.; Swietlicki, E.; Roldin, P.; Williams, P.; Quincey, P.; Hüglin, C.; Fierz-Schmidhauser, R.; Gysel, M.; Weingartner, E.; Riccobono, F.; Santos, S.; Grüning, C.; Faloon, K.; Beddows, D.; Harrison, R. M.; Monahan, C.; Jennings, S. G.; O'Dowd, C. D.; Marinoni, A.; Horn, H.-G.; Keck, L.; Jiang, J.; Scheckman, J.; McMurry, P. H.; Deng, Z.; Zhao, C. S.; Moerman, M.; Henzing, B.; de Leeuw, G.

    2010-12-01

    Particle mobility size spectrometers often referred to as DMPS (Differential Mobility Particle Sizers) or SMPS (Scanning Mobility Particle Sizers) have found a wide application in atmospheric aerosol research. However, comparability of measurements conducted world-wide is hampered by lack of generally accepted technical standards with respect to the instrumental set-up, measurement mode, data evaluation as well as quality control. This article results from several instrument intercomparison workshops conducted within the European infrastructure project EUSAAR (European Supersites for Atmospheric Aerosol Research). Under controlled laboratory conditions, the number size distribution from 20 to 200 nm determined by mobility size spectrometers of different design are within an uncertainty range of ±10% after correcting internal particle losses, while below and above this size range the discrepancies increased. Instruments with identical design agreed within ±3% in the peak number concentration when all settings were done carefully. Technical standards were developed for a minimum requirement of mobility size spectrometry for atmospheric aerosol measurements. Technical recommendations are given for atmospheric measurements including continuous monitoring of flow rates, temperature, pressure, and relative humidity for the sheath and sample air in the differential mobility analyser. In cooperation with EMEP (European Monitoring and Evaluation Program), a new uniform data structure was introduced for saving and disseminating the data within EMEP. This structure contains three levels: raw data, processed data, and final particle size distributions. Importantly, we recommend reporting raw measurements including all relevant instrument parameters as well as a complete documentation on all data transformation and correction steps. These technical and data structure standards aim to enhance the quality of long-term size distribution measurements, their comparability between

  3. The combustion of large particles of char in bubbling fluidized beds: The dependence of Sherwood number and the rate of burning on particle diameter

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis, J.S.; Hayhurst, A.N.; Scott, S.A.

    2006-11-15

    Particles of char derived from a variety of fuels (e.g., biomass, sewage sludge, coal, or graphite), with diameters in excess of {approx}1.5mm, burn in fluidized bed combustors containing smaller particles of, e.g., sand, such that the rate is controlled by the diffusion both of O{sub 2} to the burning solid and of the products CO and CO{sub 2} away from it into the particulate phase. It is therefore important to characterize these mass transfer processes accurately. Measurements of the burning rate of char particles made from sewage sludge suggest that the Sherwood number, Sh, increases linearly with the diameter of the fuel particle, d{sub char} (for d{sub char}>{approx}1.5mm). This linear dependence of Sh on d{sub char} is expected from the basic equation Sh=2{epsilon}{sub mf}(1+d{sub char}/2{delta}{sub diff})/{tau}, provided the thickness of the boundary layer for mass transfer, {delta}{sub diff}, is constant in the region of interest (d{sub char}>{approx}1.5mm). Such a dependence is not seen in the empirical equations currently used and based on the Frossling expression. It is found here that for chars made from sewage sludge (for d{sub char}>{approx}1.5mm), the thickness of the boundary layer for mass transfer in a fluidized bed, {delta}{sub diff}, is less than that predicted by empirical correlations based on the Frossling expression. In fact, {delta}{sub diff} is not more than the diameter of the fluidized sand particles. Finally, the experiments in this study indicate that models based on surface renewal theory should be rejected for a fluidized bed, because they give unrealistically short contact times for packets of fluidized particles at the surface of a burning sphere. The result is the new correlation Sh = 2{epsilon}{sub mf}/{tau} + (A{sub cush}/A{sub char})(d{sub char}/ {delta}{sub diff}) for the dependence of Sh on d{sub char}, the diameter of a burning char particle. This equation is based on there being a gas-cushion of fluidizing gas underneath a

  4. Characterisation of sub-micron particle number concentrations and formation events in the western Bushveld Igeneous Complex, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirsikko, A.; Vakkari, V.; Tiitta, P.; Manninen, H. E.; Gagné, S.; Laakso, H.; Kulmala, M.; Mirme, A.; Mirme, S.; Mabaso, D.; Beukes, J. P.; Laakso, L.

    2012-01-01

    South Africa holds significant mineral resources, with a substantial fraction of these reserves occurring in a large geological structure termed the Bushveld Igeneous Complex (BIC). The majority of the world's platinum group metals (PGMs) and chromium originate from the BIC. Considering the importance of PGMs in the manufacturing of automotive catalytic converters, as well as the relatively poor current state of air quality and the general lack of atmospheric research in the BIC, atmospheric related research in this geographical area is of local (South African) and of international interest. The western limb of the BIC is the most exploited, with at least eleven pyrometallurgical smelters occurring within a 55 km radius. Due to the lure of employment in the industrialised BIC, the area is populated by informal, semi-formal and formal residential developments. In order to investigate the characteristics and processes affecting sub-micron particle number concentrations and formation events, air ion and aerosol particle size distribution and concentration measurements were conducted for over two years at Marikana in the heart of the western BIC. Our results indicated that high amounts of Aitken and accumulation mode particles originated from domestic burning for heating and cooking in the morning and evening, while during daytime SO2-based nucleation (from industrial emissions) was the most probable source for large number concentrations of nucleation and Aitken mode particles. Nucleation event day frequency was extremely high, i.e. 86% of the analysed days, which to the knowledge of the authors is the highest frequency ever reported. Secondary particle formation was influenced both by local pollution sources and regional ambient conditions. Therefore, our observation of the annual cycle and magnitude of the particle formation and growth rates during nucleation events were similar to the results from a semi-clean savannah site in South Africa.

  5. Observational Evidence for High-Mach Number Regime of Coronal Shock Waves During Powerful Solar Particle Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouillard, A. P.; Illya, P.; Zucca, P.; Tylka, A. J.; Vainio, R. O.; Vourlidas, A.

    2015-12-01

    Identifying the physical mechanisms that produce the most energetic particles is a long-standing observational and theoretical challenge in astrophysics. Strong shock waves have been proposed as efficient accelerators both in the solar physics and astrophysical contexts via various acceleration mechanisms. The proposed processes rely on shock waves being super-critical or moving several times faster than the characteristic speed of the medium they propagate through (a high MA). Using recent imaging of the NASA STEREO, SOHO and SDO spacecraft, we provide the first observations of the time-dependent 3-dimensional distribution of the expansion speed and MA of a coronal shock wave. These observations show that the high-energy particles measured near Earth are produced at the time of the sharp rise in the shock Mach number (>10) magnetically connected to Earth. These findings provide direct evidence to energetic particles being accelerated during the formation of a strong coronal shock. Using our new technique, we study the longitudinal spread and timing of a number of other energetic particle events during cycle 24.

  6. Tracking a large number of closely spaced objects based on the particle probability hypothesis density filter via optical sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Liangkui; Xu, Hui; An, Wei; Sheng, Weidong; Xu, Dan

    2011-11-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to tracking a large number of closely spaced objects (CSO) in image sequences that is based on the particle probability hypothesis density (PHD) filter and multiassignment data association. First, the particle PHD filter is adopted to eliminate most of the clutters and to estimate multitarget states. In the particle PHD filter, a noniterative multitarget estimation technique is introduced to reliably estimate multitarget states, and an improved birth particle sampling scheme is present to effectively acquire targets among clutters. Then, an integrated track management method is proposed to realize multitarget track continuity. The core of the track management is the track-to-estimation multiassignment association, which relaxes the traditional one-to-one data association restriction due to the unresolved focal plane CSO measurements. Meanwhile, a unified technique of multiple consecutive misses for track deletion is used jointly to cope with the sensitivity of the PHD filter to the missed detections and to eliminate false alarms further, as well as to initiate tracks of large numbers of CSO. Finally, results of two simulations and one experiment show that the proposed approach is feasible and efficient.

  7. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol versus particle number in middle school children

    PubMed Central

    Mietus-Snyder, Michele; Drews, Kimberly L.; Otvos, James D.; Willi, Steven M.; Foster, Gary D.; Jago, Russell; Buse, John B.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To characterize lipids and lipoproteins in a diverse school-based cohort and identify features associated with discordance between low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and LDL particle (LDL-P). Study design Sixth grade children enrolled in the HEALTHY trial (n=2,384; mean age 11.3 ± 0.6 yr; 54.2% female) were evaluated for standard lipids, lipoprotein particles measured by nuclear magnetic resonance, and homeostatic model of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Characteristics of subgroups with values of LDL-C and LDL-P discordant by >20 percentile units, an amount reasoned to be clinically significant, were compared. Results Four hundred twenty-eight (18%) of children were in the LDL-P < LDL-C subgroup and 375 (16%) in the LDL-P > LDL-C subgroup. Those with LDL-P > LDL-C had significantly higher BMI, waist circumference, HOMA-IR, triglycerides, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and reflected a greater Hispanic ethnic composition but fewer of black race than both the concordant (LDL-P ≅ LDL-C) and opposite discordant (LDL-P < LDL-C) subgroups. Conclusions There is as much lipoprotein cholesterol compositional heterogeneity in 6th graders as has been described in adults and a discordant atherogenic phenotype of LDL-P > LDL-C, common in obesity, is often missed when only LDL-C is considered. Conversely, many children with moderate-risk cholesterol measures (75th to 99th percentile) have a lower LDL particle burden. PMID:23415622

  8. Influence of trans-boundary biomass burning impacted air masses on submicron particle number concentrations and size distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betha, Raghu; Zhang, Zhe; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar

    2014-08-01

    Submicron particle number concentration (PNC) and particle size distribution (PSD) in the size range of 5.6-560 nm were investigated in Singapore from 27 June 2009 through 6 September 2009. Slightly hazy conditions lasted in Singapore from 6 to 10 August. Backward air trajectories indicated that the haze was due to the transport of biomass burning impacted air masses originating from wild forest and peat fires in Sumatra, Indonesia. Three distinct peaks in the morning (08:00-10:00), afternoon (13:00-15:00) and evening (16:00-20:00) were observed on a typical normal day. However, during the haze period no distinct morning and afternoon peaks were observed and the PNC (39,775 ± 3741 cm-3) increased by 1.5 times when compared to that during non-haze periods (26,462 ± 6017). The morning and afternoon peaks on the normal day were associated with the local rush hour traffic while the afternoon peak was induced by new particle formation (NPF). Diurnal profiles of PNCs and PSDs showed that primary particle peak diameters were large during the haze (60 nm) period when compared to that during the non-haze period (45.3 nm). NPF events observed in the afternoon period on normal days were suppressed during the haze periods due to heavy particle loading in atmosphere caused by biomass burning impacted air masses.

  9. Mechanism of Cluster DNA Damage Repair in Response to High-Atomic Number and Energy Particles Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Asaithamby, Aroumougame; Chen, David J.

    2012-01-01

    Low-linear energy transfer (LET) radiation (i.e., γ- and X-rays) induces DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) that are rapidly repaired (rejoined). In contrast, DNA damage induced by the dense ionizing track of high-atomic number and energy (HZE) particles are slowly repaired or are irreparable. These unrepaired and/or misrepaired DNA lesions may contribute to the observed higher relative biological effectiveness for cell killing, chromosomal aberrations, mutagenesis, and carcinogenesis in HZE particle irradiated cells compared to those treated with low-LET radiation. The types of DNA lesions induced by HZE particles have been characterized in vitro and usually consist of two or more closely spaced strand breaks, abasic sites, or oxidized bases on opposing strands. It is unclear why these lesions are difficult to repair. In this review, we highlight the potential of a new technology allowing direct visualization of different types of DNA lesions in human cells and document the emerging significance of live-cell imaging for elucidation of the spatio-temporal characterization of complex DNA damage. We focus on the recent insights into the molecular pathways that participate in the repair of HZE particle-induced DSBs. We also discuss recent advances in our understanding of how different end-processing nucleases aid in repair of DSBs with complicated ends generated by HZE particles. Understanding the mechanism underlying the repair of DNA damage induced by HZE particles will have important implications for estimating the risks to human health associated with HZE particle exposure. PMID:21126526

  10. Characterisation of particle mass and number concentration on the east coast of the Malaysian Peninsula during the northeast monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dominick, Doreena; Latif, Mohd Talib; Juneng, Liew; Khan, Md Firoz; Amil, Norhaniza; Mead, Mohammed Iqbal; Nadzir, Mohd Shahrul Mohd; Moi, Phang Siew; Samah, Azizan Abu; Ashfold, Matthew J.; Sturges, William T.; Harris, Neil R. P.; Robinson, Andrew D.; Pyle, John A.

    2015-09-01

    Particle mass concentrations (PM10, PM2.5 and PM1) and particle number concentration ((PNC); 0.27 μm ≤ Dp ≤ 34.00 μm) were measured in the tropical coastal environment of Bachok, Kelantan on the Malaysian Peninsula bordering the southern edge of the South China Sea. Statistical methods were applied on a three-month hourly data set (9th January to 24th March 2014) to study the influence of north-easterly winds on the patterns of particle mass and PNC size distributions. The 24-h concentrations of particle mass obtained in this study were below the standard values detailed by the Recommended Malaysian Air Quality Guideline (RMAQG), United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) and European Union (EU) except for PM2.5, which recorded a 24-h average of 30 ± 18 μg m-3 and exceeded the World Health Organisation (WHO) threshold value (25 μg m-3). Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that PNC with smaller diameter sizes (0.27-4.50 μm) showed a stronger influence, accounting for 57.6% of the variability in PNC data set. Concentrations of both particle mass and PNC increased steadily in the morning with a distinct peak observed at around 8.00 h, related to a combination of dispersion of accumulated particles overnight and local traffic. In addition to local anthropogenic, agricultural burning and forest fire activities, long-range transport also affects the study area. Hotspot and backward wind trajectory observations illustrated that the biomass burning episode (around February-March) significantly influenced PNC. Meteorological parameters influenced smaller size particles (i.e. PM1 and Dp (0.27-0.43 μm)) the most.

  11. Estimating Marine Aerosol Particle Volume and Number from Maritime Aerosol Network Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sayer, A. M.; Smirnov, A.; Hsu, N. C.; Munchak, L. A.; Holben, B. N.

    2012-01-01

    As well as spectral aerosol optical depth (AOD), aerosol composition and concentration (number, volume, or mass) are of interest for a variety of applications. However, remote sensing of these quantities is more difficult than for AOD, as it is more sensitive to assumptions relating to aerosol composition. This study uses spectral AOD measured on Maritime Aerosol Network (MAN) cruises, with the additional constraint of a microphysical model for unpolluted maritime aerosol based on analysis of Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) inversions, to estimate these quantities over open ocean. When the MAN data are subset to those likely to be comprised of maritime aerosol, number and volume concentrations obtained are physically reasonable. Attempts to estimate surface concentration from columnar abundance, however, are shown to be limited by uncertainties in vertical distribution. Columnar AOD at 550 nm and aerosol number for unpolluted maritime cases are also compared with Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data, for both the present Collection 5.1 and forthcoming Collection 6. MODIS provides a best-fitting retrieval solution, as well as the average for several different solutions, with different aerosol microphysical models. The average solution MODIS dataset agrees more closely with MAN than the best solution dataset. Terra tends to retrieve lower aerosol number than MAN, and Aqua higher, linked with differences in the aerosol models commonly chosen. Collection 6 AOD is likely to agree more closely with MAN over open ocean than Collection 5.1. In situations where spectral AOD is measured accurately, and aerosol microphysical properties are reasonably well-constrained, estimates of aerosol number and volume using MAN or similar data would provide for a greater variety of potential comparisons with aerosol properties derived from satellite or chemistry transport model data.

  12. Tomographic Particle Image Velocimetry Measurements of a High Reynolds Number Turbulent Boundary Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkinson, Callum; Stanislas, Michel; Soria, Julio

    2009-11-01

    Streamwise/wall-parallel volumes in the buffer region of a turbulent boundary layer at Reθ =7800 and 11800 are measured using a 4 camera (2048 x 2048 px) tomographic particle image velocimetry (Tomo-PIV) system in the turbulent boundary layer wind tunnel at the Laboratoire de M'ecanique de Lille (LML). Measurement volumes of 1200 x 180 x 1200 pixels are achieved, the large boundary layer provided by this tunnel (δ˜ 0.3 m) resulting in volumes of 470^+ x 70^+ x 470^+ and 920^+ x 140^+ x 920^+ wall units, respectively. The quality of the data acquired by this technique is assessed based on the mean velocity profile, velocity fluctuations, velocity power spectrum and the fluctuating divergence. Streaks and streamwise vortices are examined and an attempt is made to classify the flow using the invariants of the full velocity gradient tensor.

  13. Reformation at a low-Mach-number perpendicular shock: Two-dimensional full particle simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umeda, T.; Kidani, Y.; Matsukiyo, S.; Yamazaki, R.

    2012-12-01

    Large-scale two-dimensional full particle-in-cell simulations are carried out for studying periodic self-reformation of supercritical perpendicular shocks. It is confirmed that the shock reformation becomes absent with specific parameters. When electromagnetic whistler mode waves are strongly excited by the modified two-stream instability, both incoming and reflected ions are strongly scattered and the shock reformation becomes absent. On the other hand, when electrostatic waves are weakly excited or there is no microinstabilities, reflected ions show a coherent behavior and the shock reformation is persistent. In this case, however, the reformation period is modified essentially due to the shock-front ripples. The present simulation result suggests that the persistence and absence of the shock reformation are controlled by the cross-scale coupling between electron-scale microinstabilities and ion-scale shock-front ripples.

  14. Evaluation of number concentration quantification by single-particle inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry: microsecond vs. millisecond dwell times.

    PubMed

    Abad-Álvaro, Isabel; Peña-Vázquez, Elena; Bolea, Eduardo; Bermejo-Barrera, Pilar; Castillo, Juan R; Laborda, Francisco

    2016-07-01

    The quality of the quantitative information in single-particle inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (SP-ICP-MS) depends directly on the number concentration of the nanoparticles in the sample analyzed, which is proportional to the flux of nanoparticles through the plasma. Particle number concentrations must be selected in accordance with the data acquisition frequency, to control the precision from counting statistics and the bias, which is produced by the occurrence of multiple-particle events recorded as single-particle events. With quadrupole mass spectrometers, the frequency of data acquisition is directly controlled by the dwell time. The effect of dwell times from milli- to microseconds (10 ms, 5 ms, 100 μs, and 50 μs) on the quality of the quantitative data has been studied. Working with dwell times in the millisecond range, precision figures about 5 % were achieved, whereas using microsecond dwell times, the suitable fluxes of nanoparticles are higher and precision was reduced down to 1 %; this was independent of the dwell time selected. Moreover, due to the lower occurrence of multiple-nanoparticle events, linear ranges are wider when dwell times equal to or shorter than 100 μs are used. A calculation tool is provided to determine the optimal concentration for any instrument or experimental conditions selected. On the other hand, the use of dwell times in the microsecond range reduces significantly the contribution of the background and/or the presence of dissolved species, in comparison with the use of millisecond dwell times. Although the use of dwell times equal to or shorter than 100 μs offers improved performance working in single-particle mode, the use of conventional dwell times (3-10 ms) should not be discarded, once their limitations are known. PMID:27086011

  15. Matter-wave solitons with the minimum number of particles in two-dimensional quasiperiodic potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burlak, Gennadiy; Malomed, Boris A.

    2012-05-01

    We report results of systematic numerical studies of two-dimensional matter-wave soliton families supported by an external potential, in a vicinity of the junction between stable and unstable branches of the families, where the norm of the solution attains a minimum, facilitating the creation of the soliton. The model is based on the Gross-Pitaevskii equation for the self-attractive condensate loaded into a quasiperiodic (QP) optical lattice (OL). The same model applies to spatial optical solitons in QP photonic crystals. Dynamical properties and stability of the solitons are analyzed with respect to variations of the depth and wave number of the OL. In particular, it is found that the single-peak solitons are stable or not in exact accordance with the Vakhitov-Kolokolov (VK) criterion, while double-peak solitons, which are found if the OL wave number is small enough, are always unstable against splitting.

  16. Factors influencing the number distribution and size of the particles emitted from a modern diesel vehicle in real urban traffic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrios, C. C.; Domínguez-Sáez, A.; Rubio, J. R.; Pujadas, M.

    2012-09-01

    Particle emissions from diesel engine cars depend firstly on exhaust aftertreatment systems but the use of the vehicle becomes also crucial. In urban areas, this use depends on: transport demand, route choices, traffic density, street conditions, weather, driver behaviour and topographical characteristics of the roads. Nowadays, most diesel vehicles in urban areas across Europe are equipped with exhaust aftertreatment systems aiming to reduce the total mass of emitted particles. In comparison to earlier aftertreatment systems, the implementation of modern procedures is causing a reduction in the size of the emitted particles up to a nanometric range. The main goal of this work is the characterization of particle size and number distribution in the submicrometric range from a modern diesel vehicle emission in real traffic conditions in the city of Madrid with the purpose of assessing the actual weight of the different city parameters influencing the particle emission. In order to accomplish this objective, up to 12 on board emission measurement experiments have been performed with a Euro IV Diesel passenger car driving along a single urban circuit in Madrid City. To cover the main external factors, stretch, traffic conditions and driving directions have been considered as independent variables for this study. Assuming a proper car operating conditions, the results show that street characteristics, vehicle density and topographic features are the main factors conditioning the particle emission. Extrapolating our results, a diesel standard passenger car circulating across a city like Madrid can emit more nanoparticles per kilometre (up to 114% more in this study) at peak hour than at off peak hour. Moreover, the driving direction can also influence dramatically the emission of nanoparticles per second. This difference in the emission rate depends on the street but in our study it can be higher than 110% depending on the driving direction.

  17. First Measurements of Neutral Atmospheric Cluster and 1–2 nm Particle Number Size Distributions During Nucleation Events

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, J.; Kuang, C.; Zhao, J.; Chen, M.; Eisele, F. L.; Scheckman, J.; Williams, B. J.; McMurry, P. H.

    2011-02-01

    Recent observations throughout the atmosphere have shown that nucleation occurs frequently (Kulmala et al. 2004). Modeling studies and observations have shown that nucleated particles contribute significantly to concentrations of cloud condensation nuclei (Spracklen et al. 2008), thereby affecting climate (IPCC 2007). Size-resolved measurements extending down to molecular dimensions can provide information on processes that lead to nucleation and would enable development and verification of theories for particle nucleation and growth in the atmosphere and other aerosol systems. This article describes measurements of the complete number size distribution, spanning the size range from vapor molecules and molecular clusters to submicrometer particles, during atmospheric nucleation events. The measurements used two new instruments, the cluster chemical ionization mass spectrometer (Cluster CIMS) and the DEG SMPS. The Cluster CIMS measures neutral molecular clusters from 50 to 900 amu. The DEG SMPS is a scanning mobility particle spectrometer (SMPS) equipped with a diethylene glycol (DEG)-based condensation particle counter (CPC) capable of 1.1 nm mobility diameter particle detection, and overlapping the sizes detected by the Cluster CIMS (Iida et al. 2009; Jiang et al. 2011). The Cluster CIMS distinguishes neutral clusters from ions formed by ion-induced clustering by varying the reaction time for ions with the sampled air (Zhao et al. 2010). It distinguishes clusters from high molecular weight gases by measuring the incremental signal at a specified mass detected during nucleation events. The clusters that were measured in this study contain sulfuric acid, which is known to participate in atmospheric nucleation (Kuang et al. 2008).

  18. Characterizing exposures to airborne metals and nanoparticle emissions in a refinery.

    PubMed

    Miller, Arthur; Drake, Pamela L; Hintz, Patrick; Habjan, Matt

    2010-07-01

    An air quality survey was conducted at a precious metals refinery in order to evaluate worker exposures to airborne metals and to provide detailed characterization of the aerosols. Two areas within the refinery were characterized: a furnace room and an electro-refining area. In line with standard survey practices, both personal and area air filter samples were collected on 37-mm filters and analyzed for metals by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy. In addition to the standard sampling, measurements were conducted using other tools, designed to provide enhanced characterization of the workplace aerosols. The number concentration and number-weighted particle size distribution of airborne particles were measured with a fast mobility particle sizer (FMPS). Custom-designed software was used to correlate particle concentration data with spatial location data to generate contour maps of particle number concentrations in the work areas. Short-term samples were collected in areas of localized high concentrations and analyzed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) to determine particle morphology and elemental chemistry. Analysis of filter samples indicated that all of the workers were exposed to levels of silver above the Occupational Safety and Health Administration permissible exposure limit of 0.01 mg m(-3) even though the localized ventilation was functioning. Measurements with the FMPS indicated that particle number concentrations near the furnace increased up to 1000-fold above the baseline during the pouring of molten metal. Spatial mapping revealed localized elevated particle concentrations near the furnaces and plumes of particles rising into the stairwells and traveling to the upper work areas. Results of TEM/EDS analyses confirmed the high number of nanoparticles measured by the FMPS and indicated the aerosols were rich in metals including silver, lead, antimony, selenium, and zinc. Results of

  19. Particle-in-cell simulations of electron energization from low Mach number quasi-perpendicular shocks in solar flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackman, Eric; Park, Jaehong; Ren, Chuang; Workman, Jared

    2012-10-01

    Low Mach/high beta fast mode shocks can occur in the magnetic reconnection outflows of solar flares. These shocks, which occur above flare loop tops, may provide electron energization responsible for some of the hard X-rays detected by YOHKO and the RHESSE, and radio emission. There has been a dearth of work on understanding the microphysics of these low Mach number shocks. We present new 2D particle-in-cell simulations of low Mach/high beta shocks for the general quasi-perpendicular geometry of field and shock normal to compare with the results for the purely perpendicular case considered in Park et. al. (2012)[Phys.Plasmas 19,062904]. Our aim is to study shock structure and particle acceleration. We find that the modified-two-stream instability sustains the shock and accounts for the entropy creation downstream. We observe the electron Whistler instability in the transition region due to the temperature anisotropy. To have enough simulation electrons above the threshold energy for shock-drift-acceleration (SDA), we inject a two-temperature Maxwellian distribution represented by two separate species, which is approximated to a kappa distribution with κ=10. From particle tracking and the particle energy distribution, we find copious high-energy electrons experiencing SDA.

  20. Observations of condensation nuclei in the 1987 airborne Antarctic ozone experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. C.; Smith, S. D.; Ferry, G. V.; Loewenstein, M.

    1988-01-01

    The condensation nucleus counter (CNC) flown of the NASA ER-2 in the Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment provides a measurement of the number mixing ratio of particles which can be grown by exposure to supersaturated n-butyl alcohol vapor to diameters of a few microns. Such particles are referred to as condensation nuclei (CN). The ER-2 CNC was calibrated with aerosols of known size and concentration and was found to provide an accurate measure of the number concentration of particles larger than about 0.02 micron. Since the number distribution of stratospheric aerosols is usually dominated by particles less than a few tenths of micron in diameter, the upper cutoff of the ER-2 CNC has not been determined experimentally. However, theory suggests that the sampling and counting efficiency should remain near one for particles as large as 1 micron in diameter. Thus, the CN mixing ratio is usually a good measure of the mixing ratio of submicron particles.

  1. Interaction of a spherical particle with freestream turbulent flow: Effect of microscale Reynolds number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagchi, Prosenjit

    2008-11-01

    The interaction of an isolated rigid sphere with an isotropic turbulent ambient flow is considered using a direct numerical simulation. The turbulence field is obtained from one realization of a separate DNS calculation (Donzis et al, JFM (2005), vol. 532; Yeung et al, JFM (2007) vol. 582), and used as the inflow condition for the flow around the sphere. This study is an extension of an earlier work (Bagchi and Balachandar, Phys. Fluids (2003), vol. 15; Bagchi and Balachandar, JFM (2004), vol. 518), where the Taylor microscale Reynolds number, Rλ, of the turbulence field was kept constant at 164. In the present study, we consider the effect of varying Rλ as 38, 90, 140 and 240. The sphere Reynolds number (based on the diameter and relative velocity) is in the range 63 to 400, and the sphere diameter varies from 1 to 8 times the Kolmogorov scale, and 0.18 to 0.0042 times the integral length scale, of the ambient turbulent flow. We present DNS results on the drag and lift forces, and added-mass and history forces on the sphere under varying Rλ, and compare them with the analytical results. Mean, RMS and PDF of these forces are analyzed. We also present transition in the sphere wake as Rλ is varied. Mean wake, and the modulation of the freestream turbulence in the wake are also presented under varying Rλ of the ambient flow.

  2. Land Use Regression Models of On-Road Particulate Air Pollution (Particle Number, Black Carbon, PM2.5, Particle Size) Using Mobile Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Hankey, Steve; Marshall, Julian D

    2015-08-01

    Land Use Regression (LUR) models typically use fixed-site monitoring; here, we employ mobile monitoring as a cost-effective alternative for LUR development. We use bicycle-based, mobile measurements (∼85 h) during rush-hour in Minneapolis, MN to build LUR models for particulate concentrations (particle number [PN], black carbon [BC], fine particulate matter [PM2.5], particle size). We developed and examined 1224 separate LUR models by varying pollutant, time-of-day, and method of spatial and temporal smoothing of the time-series data. Our base-case LUR models had modest goodness-of-fit (adjusted R(2): ∼0.5 [PN], ∼0.4 [PM2.5], 0.35 [BC], ∼0.25 [particle size]), low bias (<4%) and absolute bias (2-18%), and included predictor variables that captured proximity to and density of emission sources. The spatial density of our measurements resulted in a large model-building data set (n = 1101 concentration estimates); ∼25% of buffer variables were selected at spatial scales of <100m, suggesting that on-road particle concentrations change on small spatial scales. LUR model-R(2) improved as sampling runs were completed, with diminishing benefits after ∼40 h of data collection. Spatial autocorrelation of model residuals indicated that models performed poorly where spatiotemporal resolution of emission sources (i.e., traffic congestion) was poor. Our findings suggest that LUR modeling from mobile measurements is possible, but that more work could usefully inform best practices. PMID:26134458

  3. Impact of new particle formation on the concentrations of aerosol number and cloud condensation nuclei around Beijing

    SciTech Connect

    Matsui, H.; Koike, Makoto; Kondo, Yutaka; Takegawa, Nobuyuki; Wiedensohler, A.; Fast, Jerome D.; Zaveri, Rahul A.

    2011-10-13

    New particle formation (NPF) is one of the most important processes in controlling the concentrations of aerosol number (condensation nuclei, CN) and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) in the atmosphere. In this study, we introduced a new aerosol model representation with 20 size bins between 1 nm and 10 {mu}m and activation-type and kinetic nucleation parameterizations into the WRF-chem model (called NPF-explicit WRF-chem). Model calculations were conducted in the Beijing region in China for the periods during the CARE-Beijing 2006 campaign conducted in August and September 2006. Model calculations successfully reproduced the timing of NPF and no-NPF days in the measurements (21 of 26 days). Model calculations also reproduced the subsequent rapid growth of new particles with a time scale of half a day. These results suggest that once a reasonable nucleation rate at a diameter of 1 nm is given, explicit calculations of condensation and coagulation processes can reproduce the clear contrast between NPF and no-NPF days as well as further growth up to several tens nanometers. With this reasonable representation of the NPF process, we show that NPF contributed 20-30% of CN concentrations (> 10 nm in diameter) in and around Beijing on average. We also show that NPF increases CCN concentrations at higher supersaturations (S > 0.2%), while it decreases them at lower supersaturations (S < 0.1%). This is likely because NPF suppresses the increases in both the size and hygroscopicity of pre-existing particles through the competition of condensable gases between new particles and pre-existing particles. Sensitivity calculations show that a reduction of primary aerosol emissions, such as black carbon (BC), would not necessarily decrease CCN concentrations because of an increase in NPF. Sensitivity calculations also suggest that the reduction ratio of primary aerosol and SO2 emissions will be key in enhancing or damping the BC mitigation effect.

  4. Spontaneous thermocapillary interaction of drops, bubbles and particles: Unsteady convective effects at low Peclet numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavrenteva, O. M.; Leshansky, A. M.; Nir, A.

    1999-07-01

    Mass and heat transfer between two adjacent droplets and the surrounding viscous fluid induce local variations in the surface properties of the drops. These may result in a self-induced surface flow and a subsequent motion of the droplets toward or away from each other. Previous studies of this spontaneous thermocapillary interaction were conducted under the limiting assumptions that inertia, convective effects, and interfacial deformation were negligible. In the present paper the effect of convective transport on the spontaneous interaction of droplets at small nonzero Peclet numbers is examined. It is shown that at large separation distances the motion maintains its quasi-steady nature and the correction to the approach velocity is of O(Pe). When the droplets are at closer proximity the temporal changes of the domain are dominant. They result in the appearance of a Basset type history term in the expansion of concentration field and, hence, in the force balance equation. The correction to the approach velocity is of O(Pe1/2) and it depends on the initial position and the evolution in time of the interaction process.

  5. Aerosol number size distributions in the lower troposphere over a background region and megalopolis (Novosibirsk) on result of airborne sounding in 2011-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belan, Boris D.; Kozlov, Artem V.; Simonenkov, Denis V.; Tolmachev, Gennadii N.; Tsaruk, Victoria V.

    2014-11-01

    In this paper we present a comparison of the data on aerosol number size distribution measured with GRIMM 1.109 aerosol spectrometer in the lower troposphere over Novosibirsk and background area 150 km south-west of it during research flights of Optik TU-134 aircraft laboratory carried out along the route Novosibirsk - Ordynskoye - Novosibirsk in 2011-2013. Aerosol number size distributions averaged over 3 years as together so for warm and cold seasons separately are considered here. It is shown that the accumulation of anthropogenic aerosol within the BL over the city is typical for the cold period, which is most likely caused by inversions those are rapidly destroyed by vertical mixing during warm season and anthropogenic aerosols from the city are transported into the free troposphere.

  6. Spatial variability of particle number concentrations and NOx in the Karlsruhe (Germany) area obtained with the mobile laboratory ‘AERO-TRAM'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagemann, Rowell; Corsmeier, Ulrich; Kottmeier, Christoph; Rinke, Rayk; Wieser, Andreas; Vogel, Bernhard

    2014-09-01

    For the first time in Germany, we obtained high-resolution spatial distributions of particle numbers and nitrogen oxides in an urban agglomeration using a tram system. In comparison to particle numbers the NOx concentration decreased much faster with a significantly steeper gradient when going from the inner city to the surrounding area. In case of NOx the decrease was 70% while for particle number concentration it was only 50%. We found an area in the rural surrounding with a second increase of particle numbers without simultaneous enhanced NOx levels. The source of the high particle numbers could be ascribed to industry emissions about 5-10 km away. The mean spatial distribution of particle number concentration depended on wind direction, wind velocity and boundary layer stability. The dependency was particularly strong in the rural area affected by industrial emissions, where individual wind directions led to concentration differences of up to 25%. The particulate concentration was 40% higher during low wind velocities (1-5 m s-1) than during high wind velocities (>5 m s-1). We observed similar findings for the impact of boundary layer stability on particle numbers concentration. Particle pollution was 40% higher for stable stratification compared to neutral or unstable cases.

  7. Characteristics of backward and forward two-particle relative dispersion in turbulence at different Reynolds numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buaria, D.; Sawford, Brian L.; Yeung, P. K.

    2015-10-01

    A new algorithm based on post-processing of saved trajectories has been developed and applied to obtain well-sampled backward and forward relative dispersion statistics in stationary isotropic turbulence, over a range of initial separations ranging from Kolmogorov to energy-containing scales. Detailed results are obtained over a range of Taylor-scale Reynolds numbers, up to 1000, which is higher than in recent work in the literature. Backward dispersion is faster, especially at intermediate times after the ballistic range and before long-time diffusive behavior is reached. Richardson scaling has been demonstrated for the mean-squared separation, and forward and backward Richardson constants estimated to be gf = 0.55 and gb = 1.5, which are close to or comparable to other estimates. However, because of persistent dissipation sub-range effects no corresponding scaling was observed for higher order moments of the separation. Analysis of the separation probability density function showed only transitory agreement with the well-known Richardson prediction. The strong exponential growth of the separation on dissipation sub-range scales was analyzed in terms of a central limit theory approximation. The resulting predictions for the ratio of the growth rates of the third- and fourth-order moments are reasonably consistent with the theory. The backward growth rates, corresponding to the ratio of the magnitude of the smallest to largest Lyapunov exponents, are about 50% greater than the forward growth rates, somewhat higher than other estimates. The predicted asymmetry between backward and forward relative displacements at early times, manifested in a t3 variation of the difference in the backward and forward mean-square relative displacement, was confirmed numerically and explicitly traced to Eulerian properties at the small scales. However, this t3 growth is not simply connected to the t3 growth in the Richardson regime and the asymmetry manifested there by the difference

  8. Personal exposure to airborne dust and microorganisms in agricultural environments.

    PubMed

    Lee, Shu-An; Adhikari, Atin; Grinshpun, Sergey A; McKay, Roy; Shukla, Rakesh; Reponen, Tiina

    2006-03-01

    Airborne dust and microorganisms are associated with respiratory diseases and increased mortality and morbidity. Farmers are at high risk of exposure to both of these hazards. Very limited information, however, is available on the combined exposures to both hazards on different types of farms. Moreover, most of the previous studies have measured the mass concentration of particles ignoring the particle size. In this study, farmers' exposure to airborne dust and microorganisms was studied using our newly developed personal sampling system. Particle number concentration and size distribution were measured with an optical particle counter. Simultaneously, particles were collected on a filter and analyzed for microorganisms. The field measurements were conducted in animal confinements (swine, poultry, and dairy) and during grain harvesting (corn and soybean). The results show the following average concentrations on the workers' breathing zone: 1.7 x 10(6) to 2.9 x 10(7) particles/m(3) for total dust, 0.9 x 10(3) to 3.9 x 10(4) spores/m(3) for total fungal spores, 0.3 x 10(3) to 3.6 x 10(4)CFU/m(3) for culturable fungal spores, 0.3 x 10(4) to 3.3 x 10(8) CFU/m(3) for culturable bacteria, and limit of detection (LOD) to 2.8 x 10(3) CFU/m(3) for culturable actinomycetes in animal confinements. The respective concentrations were 4.4 x 10(6) to 5.8 x 10(7) particles/m(3), 3.4 x 10(4) to 6.1 x 10(6) spores/m(3), 8.2 x 10(4) to 7.4 x 10(6) CFU/m(3), 0.4 x 10(5) to 1.4 x 10(6) CFU/m(3), and LOD to 2.6 x 10(4) CFU/m(3) during grain harvesting. The highest contribution of large particles (3-10 microm) in total particles was found during grain harvesting, whereas the size distribution was dominated by smaller particles (< 3 microm) in animal confinements. High fraction (up to 37%) of particles between 2-10 microm was found to be fungal spores. The results indicate that an increase in the concentration of large dust particles (2-10 microm) during grain harvesting was partially

  9. Non-Gaussian particle number fluctuations in vicinity of the critical point for van der Waals equation of state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vovchenko, V.; Poberezhnyuk, R. V.; Anchishkin, D. V.; Gorenstein, M. I.

    2016-01-01

    The non-Gaussian measures of the particle number fluctuations—skewness Sσ and kurtosis κ {σ }2—are calculated in a vicinity of the critical point (CP). This point corresponds to the end point of the first-order liquid-gas phase transition. The gaseous phase is characterized by the positive values of skewness while the liquid phase has negative skew. The kurtosis appears to be significantly negative at the critical density and supercritical temperatures. The skewness and kurtosis diverge at the CP. The classical van der Waals (VDW) equation of state in the grand canonical ensemble formulation is used in our studies. Neglecting effects of the quantum statistics we succeed to obtain the analytical expressions for the rich structures of the skewness and kurtosis in a wide region around the CP. These results have universal form, i.e., they do not depend on particular values of the VDW parameters a and b. The strongly intensive measures of particle number and energy fluctuations are also considered and show singular behavior in the vicinity of the CP.

  10. Airborne agent concentration analysis

    DOEpatents

    Gelbard, Fred

    2004-02-03

    A method and system for inferring airborne contaminant concentrations in rooms without contaminant sensors, based on data collected by contaminant sensors in other rooms of a building, using known airflow interconnectivity data. The method solves a least squares problem that minimizes the difference between measured and predicted contaminant sensor concentrations with respect to an unknown contaminant release time. Solutions are constrained to providing non-negative initial contaminant concentrations in all rooms. The method can be used to identify a near-optimal distribution of sensors within the building, when then number of available sensors is less than the total number of rooms. This is achieved by having a system-sensor matrix that is non-singular, and by selecting that distribution which yields the lowest condition number of all the distributions considered. The method can predict one or more contaminant initial release points from the collected data.

  11. Number Size Distribution of Ambient Particles in a Typical Urban Site: The First Polish Assessment Based on Long-Term (9 Months) Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Krasa, Andrzej; Rogula-Kozłowska, Wioletta; Błaszczak, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    This work presents results from the long-term measurements of particle number carried out at an urban background station in Zabrze, Poland. Ambient particles with aerodynamic diameters of between 28 nm and 10 μm were investigated by means of a DEKATI thirteen-stage electrical low pressure impactor (ELPI). The particle number-size distribution was bimodal, whilst its density function had the local maxima in the aerodynamic diameter intervals 0.056–0.095 μm and 0.157–0.263 μm. The average particle number in winter was nearly twice as high as in summer. The greatest number concentrations in winter were those of the particles with diameters of between 0.617 and 2.41 μm, that is, the anthropogenic particles from fossil fuel combustion. Approximately 99% of the particles observed in Zabrze had aerodynamic diameters ≤1 μm—they may have originated from the combustion of biomass, liquid, and gaseous fuels in domestic stoves or in car engines. The daily variation of particle number was similar for both seasons—the highest values were observed in the morning (traffic rush hour) and in the afternoon/late evening (traffic and house heating emissions). An additional maximum (0.028–0.056 μm) observed in the early afternoon in summer was due to the intensive formation of new PM particles from gas precursors. PMID:24288492

  12. Do we really need a large number of particles to simulate bimolecular reactive transport with random walk methods? A kernel density estimation approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahbaralam, Maryam; Fernàndez-Garcia, Daniel; Sanchez-Vila, Xavier

    2015-12-01

    Random walk particle tracking methods are a computationally efficient family of methods to solve reactive transport problems. While the number of particles in most realistic applications is in the order of 106-109, the number of reactive molecules even in diluted systems might be in the order of fractions of the Avogadro number. Thus, each particle actually represents a group of potentially reactive molecules. The use of a low number of particles may result not only in loss of accuracy, but also may lead to an improper reproduction of the mixing process, limited by diffusion. Recent works have used this effect as a proxy to model incomplete mixing in porous media. In this work, we propose using a Kernel Density Estimation (KDE) of the concentrations that allows getting the expected results for a well-mixed solution with a limited number of particles. The idea consists of treating each particle as a sample drawn from the pool of molecules that it represents; this way, the actual location of a tracked particle is seen as a sample drawn from the density function of the location of molecules represented by that given particle, rigorously represented by a kernel density function. The probability of reaction can be obtained by combining the kernels associated to two potentially reactive particles. We demonstrate that the observed deviation in the reaction vs time curves in numerical experiments reported in the literature could be attributed to the statistical method used to reconstruct concentrations (fixed particle support) from discrete particle distributions, and not to the occurrence of true incomplete mixing. We further explore the evolution of the kernel size with time, linking it to the diffusion process. Our results show that KDEs are powerful tools to improve computational efficiency and robustness in reactive transport simulations, and indicates that incomplete mixing in diluted systems should be modeled based on alternative mechanistic models and not on a

  13. Non-thermal electron acceleration in low Mach number collisionless shocks. I. Particle energy spectra and acceleration mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Xinyi; Narayan, Ramesh; Sironi, Lorenzo

    2014-10-20

    Electron acceleration to non-thermal energies in low Mach number (M{sub s} ≲ 5) shocks is revealed by radio and X-ray observations of galaxy clusters and solar flares, but the electron acceleration mechanism remains poorly understood. Diffusive shock acceleration, also known as first-order Fermi acceleration, cannot be directly invoked to explain the acceleration of electrons. Rather, an additional mechanism is required to pre-accelerate the electrons from thermal to supra-thermal energies, so they can then participate in the Fermi process. In this work, we use two- and three-dimensional particle-in-cell plasma simulations to study electron acceleration in low Mach number shocks. We focus on the particle energy spectra and the acceleration mechanism in a reference run with M{sub s} = 3 and a quasi-perpendicular pre-shock magnetic field. We find that about 15% of the electrons can be efficiently accelerated, forming a non-thermal power-law tail in the energy spectrum with a slope of p ≅ 2.4. Initially, thermal electrons are energized at the shock front via shock drift acceleration (SDA). The accelerated electrons are then reflected back upstream where their interaction with the incoming flow generates magnetic waves. In turn, the waves scatter the electrons propagating upstream back toward the shock for further energization via SDA. In summary, the self-generated waves allow for repeated cycles of SDA, similarly to a sustained Fermi-like process. This mechanism offers a natural solution to the conflict between the bright radio synchrotron emission observed from the outskirts of galaxy clusters and the low electron acceleration efficiency usually expected in low Mach number shocks.

  14. Distribution and identification of culturable airborne microorganisms in a Swiss milk processing facility.

    PubMed

    Brandl, Helmut; Fricker-Feer, Claudia; Ziegler, Dominik; Mandal, Jyotshna; Stephan, Roger; Lehner, Angelika

    2014-01-01

    Airborne communities (mainly bacteria) were sampled and characterized (concentration levels and diversity) at 1 outdoor and 6 indoor sites within a Swiss dairy production facility. Air samples were collected on 2 sampling dates in different seasons, one in February and one in July 2012 using impaction bioaerosol samplers. After cultivation, isolates were identified by mass spectrometry (matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight) and molecular (sequencing of 16S rRNA and rpoB genes) methods. In general, total airborne particle loads and total bacterial counts were higher in winter than in summer, but remained constant within each indoor sampling site at both sampling times (February and July). Bacterial numbers were generally very low (<100 cfu/m(3) of air) during the different steps of milk powder production. Elevated bacterial concentrations (with mean values of 391 ± 142 and 179 ± 33 cfu/m(3) of air during winter and summer sampling, respectively; n=15) occurred mainly in the "logistics area," where products in closed tins are packed in secondary packaging material and prepared for shipping. However, total bacterial counts at the outdoor site varied, with a 5- to 6-fold higher concentration observed in winter compared with summer. Twenty-five gram-positive and gram-negative genera were identified as part of the airborne microflora, with Bacillus and Staphylococcus being the most frequent genera identified. Overall, the culturable microflora community showed a composition typical and representative for the specific location. Bacterial counts were highly correlated with total airborne particles in the size range 1 to 5 µm, indicating that a simple surveillance system based upon counting of airborne particles could be implemented. The data generated in this study could be used to evaluate the effectiveness of the dairy plant's sanitation program and to identify potential sources of airborne contamination, resulting in increased food safety. PMID

  15. THE BIMODAL DISTRIBUTION: DEVELOPMENT OF THE CONCEPT OF FINE AND COARSE PARTICLES AS SEPARATE AND DISTINCT COMPONENTS OF AIRBORNE PARTICULATE MATTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the early 1970s, it was understood that combustion particles were formed mostly in sizes below 1 um diameter, and windblown dust was suspended in sizes mostly above 1 um diameter. However, particle size distribution was thought of as a single mode. Particles were thought to f...

  16. Airborne and ground based CCN spectral characteristics: Inferences from CAIPEEX - 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varghese, Mercy; Prabha, Thara V.; Malap, Neelam; Resmi, E. A.; Murugavel, P.; Safai, P. D.; Axisa, Duncan; Pandithurai, G.; Dani, K.

    2016-01-01

    A first time comprehensive study of Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN) and associated spectra from both airborne and ground campaigns of the Cloud Aerosol Interaction and Precipitation Enhancement Experiment (CAIPEEX) conducted over the rain shadow region of Western Ghats during September and October 2011 is illustrated. Observations of CCN spectra during clean, polluted and highly polluted conditions indicated significant differences between airborne and ground observations. Vertical variation of CCN concentration is illustrated from airborne observations in the clean, polluted and highly polluted conditions with different air mass characteristics. The cloud base CCN number concentrations are three times less than that of the surface measurements at different supersaturations. Diurnal variations of the ground based CCN number concentration and activation diameter showed bimodality. Atmospheric mixing in the wet conditions is mainly through mechanical mixing. The dry conditions favored convective mixing and were dominated by more CCN than the wet conditions. New particle formation and growth events have been observed and were found more often on days with convective mixing. The average critical activation diameter (at 0.6% SS) observed at the ground is approximately 60 nm and availability of a large number of particles below this limit was due to the new particle formation. Observations give convincing evidence that the precipitable water and liquid water path is inversely proportional to surface CCN number concentration, and this relationship is largely dictated by the meteorological conditions.

  17. Molecular dynamics simulation for the cluster formation process of Lennard-Jones particles: Magic numbers and characteristic features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeshoji, Tamio; Hafskjold, Bjørn; Hashi, Yuichi; Kawazoe, Yoshiyuki

    1996-09-01

    Cluster formation of Lennard-Jones particles (65 536 atoms in a unit cell with an overall number density equal to 0.0149) was simulated by molecular dynamics. The temperature was set to decrease linearly with time by various thermostats, starting from a gas state temperature and ending at zero temperature. With the Nosé-Hoover thermostat, it was found that the translational temperature of the clusters suddenly decreased almost to zero when the cluster formation drastically increased around a reduced temperature (T*) of 0.5, while the internal temperature decreased linearly. Using the Andersen thermostat, which could simulate the aggregation of particles in an inert gas, both the internal and translational temperatures decreased almost linearly with time. When these thermostats were used, cluster-cluster and cluster-atom collisions did not give any magic number peaks in the size distribution up to 250 atoms/cluster at any temperature. Careful tracing of the cluster growth of 13-atom clusters showed no difference in reactivity between icosahedral and nonicosahedral clusters. To simulate cooling in a supersonic jet, a thermostat which controlled only the translational temperature was introduced. After the clusters were formed by cooling the system with this thermostat, their internal temperature stayed at T*≊0.5, while the translational temperature decreased linearly to zero with time as it was controlled. A long-time evaporation from these high-temperature clusters gave peaks at 13 and 19 (and less significantly at 23 and 26) which are magic number sizes corresponding to single, double, triple, and quadruple icosahedra, respectively. The internal temperatures of 13- and 19-atom clusters were higher than those of other size clusters. Higher evaporation energy was observed for the clusters of 13, 19, 23, and 26 atoms than for other size clusters after the long-time evaporation, but only the 13-atom clusters had the higher evaporation energy after cooling by the

  18. PARTICLE-IN-CELL SIMULATIONS OF PARTICLE ENERGIZATION VIA SHOCK DRIFT ACCELERATION FROM LOW MACH NUMBER QUASI-PERPENDICULAR SHOCKS IN SOLAR FLARES

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Jaehong; Ren Chuang; Workman, Jared C.; Blackman, Eric G.

    2013-03-10

    Low Mach number, high beta fast mode shocks can occur in the magnetic reconnection outflows of solar flares. These shocks, which occur above flare loop tops, may provide the electron energization responsible for some of the observed hard X-rays and contemporaneous radio emission. Here we present new two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations of low Mach number/high beta quasi-perpendicular shocks. The simulations show that electrons above a certain energy threshold experience shock-drift-acceleration. The transition energy between the thermal and non-thermal spectrum and the spectral index from the simulations are consistent with some of the X-ray spectra from RHESSI in the energy regime of E {approx}< 40 {approx} 100 keV. Plasma instabilities associated with the shock structure such as the modified-two-stream and the electron whistler instabilities are identified using numerical solutions of the kinetic dispersion relations. We also show that the results from PIC simulations with reduced ion/electron mass ratio can be scaled to those with the realistic mass ratio.

  19. The Use of the Airborne Thermal/Visible Land Application Sensor (ATLAS) to Determine the Thermal Response Numbers for Urban Areas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Rickman, Doug; Quattroch, Dale; Estes. Maury

    2007-01-01

    Although satellite data are very useful for analysis of the urban heat island effect at a coarse scale, they do not lend themselves to developing a better understanding of which surfaces across the city contribute or drive the development of the urban heat island effect. Analysis of thermal energy responses for specific or discrete surfaces typical of the urban landscape (e.g., asphalt, building rooftops, vegetation) requires measurements at a very fine spatial scale (i.e., < 15m) to adequately resolve these surfaces and their attendant thermal energy regimes. Additionally, very fine scale spatial resolution thermal infrared data, such as that obtained from aircraft, are very useful for demonstrating to planning officials, policy makers, and the general populace the benefits of the urban forest. These benefits include mitigating the urban heat island effect, making cities more aesthetically pleasing and more habitable environments, and aid in overall cooling of the community. High spatial resolution thermal data are required to quantify how artificial surfaces within the city contribute to an increase in urban heating and the benefit of cool surfaces (e.g., surface coatings that reflect much of the incoming solar radiation as opposed to absorbing it thereby lowering urban temperatures). The TRN (thermal response number)(Luvall and Holbo 1989) is a technique using aircraft remotely sensed surface temperatures to quantify the thermal response of urban surfaces. The TRN was used to quantify the thermal response of various urban surface types ranging from completely vegetated surfaces to asphalt and concrete parking lots for several cities in the United States.

  20. The Number of Alphaherpesvirus Particles Infecting Axons and the Axonal Protein Repertoire Determines the Outcome of Neuronal Infection

    PubMed Central

    Koyuncu, Orkide O.; Song, Ren; Greco, Todd M.; Cristea, Ileana M.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Infection by alphaherpesviruses invariably results in invasion of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and establishment of either a latent or productive infection. Infection begins with long-distance retrograde transport of viral capsids and tegument proteins in axons toward the neuronal nuclei. Initial steps of axonal entry, retrograde transport, and replication in neuronal nuclei are poorly understood. To better understand how the mode of infection in the PNS is determined, we utilized a compartmented neuron culturing system where distal axons of PNS neurons are physically separated from cell bodies. We infected isolated axons with fluorescent-protein-tagged pseudorabies virus (PRV) particles and monitored viral entry and transport in axons and replication in cell bodies during low and high multiplicities of infection (MOIs of 0.01 to 100). We found a threshold for efficient retrograde transport in axons between MOIs of 1 and 10 and a threshold for productive infection in the neuronal cell bodies between MOIs of 1 and 0.1. Below an MOI of 0.1, the viral genomes that moved to neuronal nuclei were silenced. These genomes can be reactivated after superinfection by a nonreplicating virus, but not by a replicating virus. We further showed that viral particles at high-MOI infections compete for axonal proteins and that this competition determines the number of viral particles reaching the nuclei. Using mass spectrometry, we identified axonal proteins that are differentially regulated by PRV infection. Our results demonstrate the impact of the multiplicity of infection and the axonal milieu on the establishment of neuronal infection initiated from axons. PMID:25805728

  1. Liver, lung and kidney homogenates used as an activation system in mutagenicity studies of airborne particles and of expectorate and urine samples from exposed workers in a coke plant.

    PubMed

    Krøkje, A; Schmid, R; Zahlsen, K

    1991-01-01

    A comparison was made between lung and kidney homogenates on the one hand and liver S9 from rats on the other hand in order to compare their ability to activate promutagens. The Salmonella reversion assay was used on extracts of airborne particles from the top of coke oven batteries, and of expectorate and urine samples from exposed workers in the same coke plant. The contents of benzo[a]anthracene and benzo[a]pyrene in the different test solutions were measured by high-resolution gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Both mutagens were detected in the filter extract and in the expectorates from the exposed workers but not in the expectorates from the control groups or in the urine samples. The liver S9 gave significantly higher mutagenicity than lung and kidney activation with both filter samples and expectorate and urine samples. PMID:1988823

  2. Characteristics of particle number and mass emissions during heavy-duty diesel truck parked active DPF regeneration in an ambient air dilution tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Seungju; Quiros, David C.; Dwyer, Harry A.; Collins, John F.; Burnitzki, Mark; Chernich, Donald; Herner, Jorn D.

    2015-12-01

    Diesel particle number and mass emissions were measured during parked active regeneration of diesel particulate filters (DPF) in two heavy-duty diesel trucks: one equipped with a DPF and one equipped with a DPF + SCR (selective catalytic reduction), and compliant with the 2007 and 2010 emission standards, respectively. The emission measurements were conducted using an ambient air dilution tunnel. During parked active regeneration, particulate matter (PM) mass emissions measured from a 2007 technology truck were significantly higher than the emissions from a 2010 technology truck. Particle number emissions from both trucks were dominated by nucleation mode particles having a diameter less than 50 nm; nucleation mode particles were orders of magnitude higher than accumulation mode particles having a diameter greater than 50 nm. Accumulation mode particles contributed 77.8 %-95.8 % of the 2007 truck PM mass, but only 7.3 %-28.2 % of the 2010 truck PM mass.

  3. Superinfection in Bacteriophage S13 and Determination of the Number of Bacteriophage Particles Which Can Function in an Infected Cell

    PubMed Central