Science.gov

Sample records for airborne platforms including

  1. NASA Airborne Science Program: NASA Stratospheric Platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curry, Robert E.

    2010-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration conducts a wide variety of remote sensing projects using several unique aircraft platforms. These vehicles have been selected and modified to provide capabilities that are particularly important for geophysical research, in particular, routine access to very high altitudes, long range, long endurance, precise trajectory control, and the payload capacity to operate multiple, diverse instruments concurrently. While the NASA program has been in operation for over 30 years, new aircraft and technological advances that will expand the capabilities for airborne observation are continually being assessed and implemented. This presentation will review the current state of NASA's science platforms, recent improvements and new missions concepts as well as provide a survey of emerging technologies unmanned aerial vehicles for long duration observations (Global Hawk and Predator). Applications of information technology that allow more efficient use of flight time and the ability to rapidly reconfigure systems for different mission objectives are addressed.

  2. CALIOPE and TAISIR airborne experiment platform

    SciTech Connect

    Chocol, C.J.

    1994-07-01

    Between 1950 and 1970, scientific ballooning achieved many new objectives and made a substantial contribution to understanding near-earth and space environments. In 1986, the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) began development of ballooning technology capable of addressing issues associated with precision tracking of ballistic missiles. In 1993, the Radar Ocean Imaging Project identified the need for a low altitude (1 km) airborne platform for its Radar system. These two technologies and experience base have been merged with the acquisition of government surplus Aerostats by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The CALIOPE and TAISIR Programs can benefit directly from this technology by using the Aerostat as an experiment platform for measurements of the spill facility at NTS.

  3. User definition and mission requirements for unmanned airborne platforms, revised

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhner, M. B.; Mcdowell, J. R.

    1979-01-01

    The airborne measurement requirements of the scientific and applications experiment user community were assessed with respect to the suitability of proposed strawman airborne platforms. These platforms provide a spectrum of measurement capabilities supporting associated mission tradeoffs such as payload weight, operating altitude, range, duration, flight profile control, deployment flexibility, quick response, and recoverability. The results of the survey are used to examine whether the development of platforms is warranted and to determine platform system requirements as well as research and technology needs.

  4. Airborne Science Program: Observing Platforms for Earth Science Investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mace, Thomas H.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the Airborne Science Program and the platforms used for conducting investigations for the Earth System Science. Included is a chart that shows some of the aircraft and the operational altitude and the endurance of the aircraft, views of the Dryden Aircraft Operation Facility, and some of the current aircraft that the facility operates, and the varieties of missions that are flown and the type of instrumentation. Also included is a chart showing the attributes of the various aircraft (i.e., duration, weight for a payload, maximum altitude, airspeed and range) for comparison

  5. Potential Use of CW High Energy Laser on an Airborne Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Joung R.; Cusumano, Salvatore J.; Whiteley, Mathew R.

    2006-05-01

    Beamed energy propulsion (BEP) offers advanced and intellectually satisfying options to a class of space applications by using a high energy laser (HEL) as the prime power that is external to the system being propelled. Included in this class of applications are: launching satellites into orbit, space debris clearing, and orbital maneuvering, among others. Realistic applications or demonstrations of such BEP applications have been limited by the availability of HEL devices ever since the concept was first suggested by Arthur Kantrowitz in 1972. Development of the devices needed for BEP has been slow due to technology challenges and the significant non-recurring engineering costs. In general HEL systems of viable power levels have been exclusively the domain of military research and development. With the recent investment in the airborne platform laser systems, it may now be possible to capitalize on the military successes of such a system. The next decade may hold the possibility of transitioning defense HEL technology into BEP. The transitioning of military technology into civilian applications has occurred many times in the past, so speculation on available sources for BEP is not completely without merit. The concept of an airborne platform for BEP offers mobility and mitigates the coherence, reducing atmospheric turbulence. Operating at 12 kilometers (km), an airborne platform significantly reduces the beam path issues associated with ground to space. The trade-off is that the airborne platform disturbances are much greater and require more creative stabilization solutions than one sitting on "Terra Firma." The use of jitter reduction techniques may provide a profitable compromise for an airborne versus a ground-based system for BEP. This paper concentrates on the potential benefits from the use of an airborne platform for the BEP community.

  6. Electronics design of the airborne stabilized platform attitude acquisition module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jiang; Wei, Guiling; Cheng, Yong; Li, Baolin; Bu, Hongyi; Wang, Hao; Zhang, Zhanwei; Li, Xingni

    2014-02-01

    We present an attitude acquisition module electronics design for the airborne stabilized platform. The design scheme, which is based on Integrated MEMS sensor ADIS16405, develops the attitude information processing algorithms and the hardware circuit. The hardware circuits with a small volume of only 44.9 x 43.6 x 24.6 mm3, has the characteristics of lightweight, modularization and digitalization. The interface design of the PC software uses the combination plane chart with track line to receive the attitude information and display. Attitude calculation uses the Kalman filtering algorithm to improve the measurement accuracy of the module in the dynamic environment.

  7. Detection and tracking of humans from an airborne platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Eekeren, Adam W. M.; Dijk, Judith; Burghouts, Gertjan

    2014-10-01

    Airborne platforms are recording large amounts of video data. Extracting the events which are needed to see is a time-demanding task for analysts. The reason for this is that the sensors record hours of video data in which only a fraction of the footage contains events of interest. For the analyst, it is hard to retrieve such events from the large amounts of video data by hand. A way to extract information more automatically from the data is to detect all humans within the scene. This can be done in a real-time scenario (both on-board as on the ground station) for strategic and tactical purposes and in an offline scenario where the information is analyzed after recording to acquire intelligence (e.g. a daily life pattern). In this paper, we evaluate three different methods for object detection from a moving airborne platform. The first one is a static person detection algorithm. The main advantage of this method is that it can be used on single frames, and therefor does not depend on the stabilization of the platform. The main disadvantage of this method is that the number of pixels needed for the detection is pretty large. The second method is based on detection of motion-in-motion. Here the background is stabilized, and clusters of pixels that move with respect to this stabilized background are detected as moving object. The main advantage is that all moving objects are detected, the main disadvantage is that it heavily depends on the quality of the stabilization. The third method combines both previous detection methods. The detections are tracked using a histogram-based tracker, so that missed detections can be filled in and a trajectory of all objects can be determined. We demonstrate the tracking performance using the three different detections methods on the publicly available UCF-ARG aerial dataset. The performance is evaluated for two human actions (running and digging) and varying object sizes. It is shown that a combined detection approach (static person

  8. COCAP - A compact carbon dioxide analyser for airborne platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunz, Martin; Lavrič, Jošt V.; Jeschag, Wieland; Bryzgalov, Maksym; Hök, Bertil; Heimann, Martin

    2014-05-01

    Airborne platforms are a valuable tool for atmospheric trace gas measurements due to their capability of movement in three dimensions, covering spatial scales from metres to thousands of kilometres. Although crewed research aircraft are flexible in payload and range, their use is limited by high initial and operating costs. Small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) have the potential for substantial cost reduction, but require lightweight, miniaturized and energy-efficient scientific equipment. We are developing a COmpact Carbon dioxide analyser for Airborne Platforms (COCAP). It contains a non-dispersive infrared CO2sensor with a nominal full scale of 3000 μmol/mol. Sampled air is dried with magnesium perchlorate before it enters the sensor. This enables measurement of the dry air mole fraction of CO2, as recommended by the World Meteorological Organization. During post-processing, the CO2 measurement is corrected for temperature and pressure variations in the gas line. Allan variance analysis shows that we achieve a precision of better than 0.4 μmol/mol for 10 s averaging time. We plan to monitor the analyser's stability during flight by measuring reference air from a miniature gas tank in regular intervals. Besides CO2, COCAP measures relative humidity, temperature and pressure of ambient air. An on-board GPS receiver delivers accurate timestamps and allows georeferencing. Data is both stored on a microSD card and simultaneously transferred over a wireless serial interface to a ground station for real-time review. The target weight for COCAP is less than 1 kg. We deploy COCAP on a commercially available fixed-wing UAV (Bormatec Explorer) with a wingspan of 2.2 metres. The UAV has high payload capacity (2.5 kg) as well as sufficient space in the fuselage (80x80x600 mm3). It is built from a shock-resistant foam material, which allows quick repair of minor damages in the field. In case of severe damage spare parts are readily available. Calculations suggest that the

  9. Stellar Occultations from Airborne Platforms: 1988 to 2016

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosh, Amanda S.; Dunham, Edward W.; Zuluaga, Carlos; Levine, Stephen; Person, Michael J.; Van Cleve, Jeffrey E.

    2016-10-01

    Observing a stellar occultation by a solar system body with an airborne telescope requires precise positioning of the observer within the shadow cast onto the Earth. For small bodies like Pluto and Kuiper Belt objects, smaller than the Earth, the challenge is particularly intense, with the accuracy of the astrometric and flight planning determining whether the observation succeeds or fails. From our first airborne occultation by Pluto in 1988 aboard the Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO), to our most recent event by Pluto in 2015 aboard the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA), we have refined our astrometric and flight planning systems to the point where we can now place an airborne observer into the small central flash zone. We will discuss the history of airborne observation of occultations while detailing the improvements in the astrometric processes. Support for this work was provided by NASA SSO grant NNX15AJ82G to Lowell Observatory.

  10. Current Status of International Airborne Platform Data and Instrument Interface Standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freer, Matt; Webster, Chris; Freundinger, Larry

    2016-06-01

    Commission I of the International Society for Photogrammetric and Remote Sensing formed working group I/1 for the purpose of standardizing airborne platform interfaces. The primary mission of this working group is to promote the standardization of instrument interfaces, data formats, and supporting infrastructures; and to facilitate more efficient, flexible, and cost-effective international science flight operations. Within WGI/1 are a number of focused subgroups. This paper addresses the efforts of some of these subgroups having interdependent and overlapping interests; including the development of standard software interfaces for sensors, standardized approaches to management of information over potentially intermittent wireless data links, the development of standardized processing algorithms, and data archival format standards. The data in this report reflect the outcome of work-to-date in the current subgroups.

  11. An Open Source Software and Web-GIS Based Platform for Airborne SAR Remote Sensing Data Management, Distribution and Sharing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Changyong, Dou; Huadong, Guo; Chunming, Han; Ming, Liu

    2014-03-01

    With more and more Earth observation data available to the community, how to manage and sharing these valuable remote sensing datasets is becoming an urgent issue to be solved. The web based Geographical Information Systems (GIS) technology provides a convenient way for the users in different locations to share and make use of the same dataset. In order to efficiently use the airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) remote sensing data acquired in the Airborne Remote Sensing Center of the Institute of Remote Sensing and Digital Earth (RADI), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), a Web-GIS based platform for airborne SAR data management, distribution and sharing was designed and developed. The major features of the system include map based navigation search interface, full resolution imagery shown overlaid the map, and all the software adopted in the platform are Open Source Software (OSS). The functions of the platform include browsing the imagery on the map navigation based interface, ordering and downloading data online, image dataset and user management, etc. At present, the system is under testing in RADI and will come to regular operation soon.

  12. Maintaining Situation Awareness with Autonomous Airborne Observation Platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freed, Michael; Fitzgerald, Will

    2005-01-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) offer tremendous potential as intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR) platforms for early detection of security threats and for acquisition and maintenance of situation awareness in crisis conditions. However, using their capabilities effectively requires addressing a range of practical and theoretical problems. The paper will describe progress by the "Autonomous Rotorcraft Project," a collaborative effort between NASA and the U.S. Army to develop a practical, flexible capability for UAV-based ISR. Important facets of the project include optimization methods for allocating scarce aircraft resources to observe numerous, distinct sites of interest; intelligent flight automation software than integrates high-level plan generation capabilities with executive control, failure response and flight control functions; a system architecture supporting reconfiguration of onboard sensors to address different kinds of threats; and an advanced prototype vehicle designed to allow large-scale production at low cost. The paper will also address human interaction issues including an empirical method for determining how to allocate roles and responsibilities between flight automation and human operations.

  13. Requirements analysis of airborne gravity gradiometry on moving-based platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, L.; Li, Z.; Wu, W.

    2014-12-01

    Airborne gravity and gravity gradient measurement are the most effective ways for the earth gravitational field measurement. Gravity gradient is a derivative of gravity acceleration, due to the high order feature of gravity gradient, it is more sensitive to short wave component, and can reflect the details of the source so that the gravity gradient measurement has wide applications in geophysical science, resource exploration, and inertial navigation. Airborne gravity gradient measurement uses the plane or ship as the platform, and it is efficient and high precision. In this paper, We compared the gravity and gravity gradient measurement, and analyzed the advantages of the gravity gradient measurement compared with gravity measurement. The airborne gravity gradient measurement system and the inertial stabilization platform were discussed. By setting a goal sensitivity of the gravity gradient measurement being 1 E/√Hz, the key factors of the stabilized platform, namely the pointing accuracy, pointing stability, and gyroscope random drift, are 0.5°, 0.01°/hr/√Hz, and 0.01°/hr respectively. Compared with the airborne gravity measurement whose goal sensitivity is 1mGal/√Hz, the requirements of moving-based gravity gradient measurement on the inertial stabilization platform is significantly lower and hence easy to realize, and the major reason is the differential measurement mode being used.

  14. Integrated micro-optofluidic platform for real-time detection of airborne microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jeongan; Kang, Miran; Jung, Jae Hee

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate an integrated micro-optofluidic platform for real-time, continuous detection and quantification of airborne microorganisms. Measurements of the fluorescence and light scattering from single particles in a microfluidic channel are used to determine the total particle number concentration and the microorganism number concentration in real-time. The system performance is examined by evaluating standard particle measurements with various sample flow rates and the ratios of fluorescent to non-fluorescent particles. To apply this method to real-time detection of airborne microorganisms, airborne Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, and Staphylococcus epidermidis cells were introduced into the micro-optofluidic platform via bioaerosol generation, and a liquid-type particle collection setup was used. We demonstrate successful discrimination of SYTO82-dyed fluorescent bacterial cells from other residue particles in a continuous and real-time manner. In comparison with traditional microscopy cell counting and colony culture methods, this micro-optofluidic platform is not only more accurate in terms of the detection efficiency for airborne microorganisms but it also provides additional information on the total particle number concentration. PMID:26522006

  15. Integrated micro-optofluidic platform for real-time detection of airborne microorganisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jeongan; Kang, Miran; Jung, Jae Hee

    2015-11-01

    We demonstrate an integrated micro-optofluidic platform for real-time, continuous detection and quantification of airborne microorganisms. Measurements of the fluorescence and light scattering from single particles in a microfluidic channel are used to determine the total particle number concentration and the microorganism number concentration in real-time. The system performance is examined by evaluating standard particle measurements with various sample flow rates and the ratios of fluorescent to non-fluorescent particles. To apply this method to real-time detection of airborne microorganisms, airborne Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, and Staphylococcus epidermidis cells were introduced into the micro-optofluidic platform via bioaerosol generation, and a liquid-type particle collection setup was used. We demonstrate successful discrimination of SYTO82-dyed fluorescent bacterial cells from other residue particles in a continuous and real-time manner. In comparison with traditional microscopy cell counting and colony culture methods, this micro-optofluidic platform is not only more accurate in terms of the detection efficiency for airborne microorganisms but it also provides additional information on the total particle number concentration.

  16. Integrated micro-optofluidic platform for real-time detection of airborne microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jeongan; Kang, Miran; Jung, Jae Hee

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate an integrated micro-optofluidic platform for real-time, continuous detection and quantification of airborne microorganisms. Measurements of the fluorescence and light scattering from single particles in a microfluidic channel are used to determine the total particle number concentration and the microorganism number concentration in real-time. The system performance is examined by evaluating standard particle measurements with various sample flow rates and the ratios of fluorescent to non-fluorescent particles. To apply this method to real-time detection of airborne microorganisms, airborne Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, and Staphylococcus epidermidis cells were introduced into the micro-optofluidic platform via bioaerosol generation, and a liquid-type particle collection setup was used. We demonstrate successful discrimination of SYTO82-dyed fluorescent bacterial cells from other residue particles in a continuous and real-time manner. In comparison with traditional microscopy cell counting and colony culture methods, this micro-optofluidic platform is not only more accurate in terms of the detection efficiency for airborne microorganisms but it also provides additional information on the total particle number concentration.

  17. Airborne and Ground-Based Platforms for Data Collection in Small Vineyards: Examples from the UK and Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, David R.; Gómez, Cristina; Fahrentrapp, Johannes

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents an overview of some of the low-cost ground and airborne platforms and technologies now becoming available for data collection in small area vineyards. Low-cost UAV or UAS platforms and cameras are now widely available as the means to collect both vertical and oblique aerial still photography and airborne videography in vineyards. Examples of small aerial platforms include the AR Parrot Drone, the DJI Phantom (1 and 2), and 3D Robotics IRIS+. Both fixed-wing and rotary wings platforms offer numerous advantages for aerial image acquisition including the freedom to obtain high resolution imagery at any time required. Imagery captured can be stored on mobile devices such as an Apple iPad and shared, written directly to a memory stick or card, or saved to the Cloud. The imagery can either be visually interpreted or subjected to semi-automated analysis using digital image processing (DIP) software to extract information about vine status or the vineyard environment. At the ground-level, a radio-controlled 'rugged' model 4x4 vehicle can also be used as a mobile platform to carry a number of sensors (e.g. a Go-Pro camera) around a vineyard, thereby facilitating quick and easy field data collection from both within the vine canopy and rows. For the small vineyard owner/manager with limited financial resources, this technology has a number of distinct advantages to aid in vineyard management practices: it is relatively cheap to purchase; requires a short learning-curve to use and to master; can make use of autonomous ground control units for repetitive coverage enabling reliable monitoring; and information can easily be analysed and integrated within a GIS with minimal expertise. In addition, these platforms make widespread use of familiar and everyday, off-the-shelf technologies such as WiFi, Go-Pro cameras, Cloud computing, and smartphones or tablets as the control interface, all with a large and well established end-user support base. Whilst there are

  18. Information management and target detection for multisensor airborne platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jäger, Klaus; Hebel, Marcus; Armbruster, Walter; Bers, Karlheinz

    2006-05-01

    Future military helicopters will be provided with multiple information sources for self-protection and reconnaissance, e.g. imaging IR, laser radar and GPS. In addition, knowledge bases like maps, aerial images, geographical information (GIS) and other previously acquired data can be used for the interpretation of the current scenario. To support the mission, results of data fusion and information management have to be presented to the pilot in an appropriate way. This paper describes concepts and results of our work on IR and laser data fusion for airborne systems. Data is gathered by forward-looking sensors mounted in a helicopter. For further improvement, fusion with collateral information (laser elevation data, aerial images) is used for change detection and definition of regions of interest with respect to the stored and continuously updated database. Results are demonstrated by the analysis of an exemplary data set, showing a scenario with a group of vehicles. Two moving vehicles are detected automatically in both channels (IR, laser) and the results are combined to achieve improved visualization for the pilot.

  19. Prediction and performance measures of atmospheric disturbances on an airborne imaging platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dayton, David C.; Gonglewski, John D.; Martin, Jeffrey B.; Kovacs, Mark A.; Cardani, Joseph C.; Maia, Francisco; Aflalo, Tyson; Shilko, Michael L., Sr.

    2004-02-01

    A series of airborne imaging experiments have been conducted on the island of Maui. The imaging platform was a Twin Otter aircraft, which circled ground target sites. The typical platform altitude was 3000 meters, with a slant range to the target of 9000 meters. This experiment was performed during the day using solar illuminated target buildings, and at night with spotlights used to simulate point sources. Imaging system performance predictions were calculated using standard atmospheric turbulence models, and aircraft boundary layer models. Several different measurement approaches were then used to estimate the actual system performance, and make comparisons with the calculations.

  20. Monitoring of space weather and radioactivity using small airborne platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, R. Giles; Lidgard, Jeffrey; Aplin, Karen L.; Nicoll, Keri A.

    2013-04-01

    Space Weather is increasingly considered as a hazard to society's technological systems, but the effects of energetic particles within the atmosphere - with a potential implication for climate - also present an area in which new scientific knowledge needs to be developed. Routine measurements of energetic particle fluxes made above the surface have been made by the Lebedev Institute, undertaking continuous balloon-carried measurements since 1957. An underexploited measurement opportunity is presented by the conventional weather balloons (radiosondes) launched regularly globally by meteorological services, which could potentially provide a cost-effective alternative to custom balloon flights, as well as the ability to make measurements of particle fluxes at a wide range of latitudes. This work describes the development of a small disposable ionisation sensor, exploiting the well-known response of inexpensive semiconductor devices (e.g. PIN photodiodes) to ionising radiation. Such a Photodiode Radiation Detector (PRD) is particularly suitable for balloon use, as, unlike previous Geiger tube detector systems, only low bias voltages are required, which simplifies the circuitry required, reduces power consumption and entirely removes any high voltage hazard. In addition to providing count rate information, basic energy spectrum information is in principle available from pulse amplitudes generated. We discuss the evaluation and deployment considerations for the use of a PRD on a standard radiosonde platform, to operate within and alongside the existing operational meteorological requirements.

  1. Collection, Storage and Real-Time Transmission of Housekeeping and Instrument Data Aboard Manned NASA Airborne Science Platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Gilst, D. P.; Sorenson, C. E.

    2011-12-01

    Multi-instrument aircraft-based science campaigns require a baseline level of housekeeping service to record and distribute real time data, including timing signals, aircraft state and air data. As campaigns have become more sophisticated with greater integration between aircraft, ground instrumentation, satellites and forecasters in locations around the world, the scope of the services provided by the facility data systems on NASA's airborne science aircraft have increased to include situational awareness displays, real-time interchange of data between instruments and aircraft, and ingest of data to assist in real-time targeting of flights. As the scope of services has expanded, it has become increasingly important to provide standardized interfaces to experimenters to minimize integration complexity, and to make services sufficiently reliable for mission operations to depend upon them. Within the NASA airborne science program in recent years this has been provided by systems based around the core of the REVEAL/NASDAT system, with additional services including satellite communications, data display and ingest of outside data being provided by a mix of custom and COTS hardware and software. With a strong emphasis on transmission of data over industry standard IP and ethernet based networks, this system has been proven on numerous highly diverse missions on the DC-8 over the last 4 years and is being replicated on other NASA Airborne Science Platforms.

  2. RTAP: A mobile real time analytical platform for assessment of airborne contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Mehta, U.J.; Paul, D.G.

    1995-12-31

    The Real Time Analytical Platform (RTAP) provides mobile airborne exposure level assessments for the Monitoring Branch of the US Army Operations Directorate, Chemical Support Division. In order to ensure worker safety and the protection of the environment, a variety of military compounds must be monitored during site-remediation and disposal operations. The instrumentation fielded in the RTAP incorporates an air sampling technique utilizing solid sorbent collection and thermal desorption technology combined with capillary gas chromatography and multiple gas chromatographic detectors. The mobile unit is equipped to analyze a number of surety compounds, delivering documentation to meet regulatory requirements with a high level of sensitivity and selectivity, in real time or near-real time. The system can sample continuously through a heated transfer hose for direct, on-line requirements during site monitoring projects, or easily switch to off-site sampling capability using solid sorbent cartridges for sample collection that are returned to the mobile unit or laboratory for analysis. A description of the instrumentation, screening and confirmation techniques, and instances where the units have been fielded as part of emergency response efforts at several sites will be included in the presentation.

  3. Calibration and Data Efforts of the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) Airborne Observation Platform during its Engineering Development Phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adler, J.; Goulden, T.; Kampe, T. U.; Leisso, N.; Musinsky, J.

    2014-12-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) has collected airborne photographic, lidar, and imaging spectrometer data in 5 of 20 unique ecological climate regions (domains) within the United States. As part of its mission to detect and forecast ecological change at continental scales over multiple decades, NEON Airborne Observation Platform (AOP) will aerially survey the entire network of 60 core and re-locatable terrestrial sites annually, each of which are a minimum of 10km-by-10km in extent. The current effort encompasses three years of AOP engineering test flights; in 2017 NEON will transition to full operational status in all 20 domains. To date the total airborne data collected spans 34 Terabytes, and three of the five sampled domain's L1 data are publically available upon request. The large volume of current data, and the expected data collection over the remaining 15 domains, is challenging NEON's data distribution plans, backup capability, and data discovery processes. To provide the public with the highest quality data, calibration and validation efforts of the camera, lidar, and spectrometer L0 data are implemented to produce L1 datasets. Where available, the collected airborne measurements are validated against ground reference points and surfaces and adjusted for instrumentation and atmospheric effects. The imaging spectrometer data is spectrally and radiometrically corrected using NIST-traceable procedures. This presentation highlights three years of flight operation experiences including:1) Lessons learned on payload re-configuration, data extraction, data distribution, permitting requirements, flight planning, and operational procedures2) Lidar validation through control data comparisons collected at the Boulder Municipal Airport (KBDU), the site of NEON's new hangar facility3) Spectrometer calibration efforts, to include both the laboratory and ground observations

  4. Survey of subsurface geophysical exploration technologies adaptable to an airborne platform

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, K.A.

    1992-12-01

    This report has been prepared by the US Department of Energy (DOE) as part of a Research Development Demonstration Testing and Evaluation (RDDT E) project by EG G Energy Measurement's (EG G/EM) Remote Sensing Laboratory. It examines geophysical detection techniques which may be used in Environmental Restoration/Waste Management (ER/WM) surveys to locate buried waste, waste containers, potential waste migratory paths, and aquifer depths. Because of the Remote Sensing Laboratory's unique survey capabilities, only those technologies which have been adapted or are capable of being adapted to an airborne platform were studied. This survey describes several of the available subsurface survey technologies and discusses the basic capabilities of each: the target detectability, required geologic conditions, and associated survey methods. Because the airborne capabilities of these survey techniques have not been fully developed, the chapters deal mostly with the ground-based capabilities of each of the technologies, with reference made to the airborne capabilities where applicable. The information about each survey technique came from various contractors whose companies employ these specific technologies. EG G/EM cannot guarantee or verify the accuracy of the contractor information; however, the data given is an indication of the technologies that are available.

  5. Survey of subsurface geophysical exploration technologies adaptable to an airborne platform

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, K.A.

    1992-12-01

    This report has been prepared by the US Department of Energy (DOE) as part of a Research Development Demonstration Testing and Evaluation (RDDT&E) project by EG&G Energy Measurement`s (EG&G/EM) Remote Sensing Laboratory. It examines geophysical detection techniques which may be used in Environmental Restoration/Waste Management (ER/WM) surveys to locate buried waste, waste containers, potential waste migratory paths, and aquifer depths. Because of the Remote Sensing Laboratory`s unique survey capabilities, only those technologies which have been adapted or are capable of being adapted to an airborne platform were studied. This survey describes several of the available subsurface survey technologies and discusses the basic capabilities of each: the target detectability, required geologic conditions, and associated survey methods. Because the airborne capabilities of these survey techniques have not been fully developed, the chapters deal mostly with the ground-based capabilities of each of the technologies, with reference made to the airborne capabilities where applicable. The information about each survey technique came from various contractors whose companies employ these specific technologies. EG&G/EM cannot guarantee or verify the accuracy of the contractor information; however, the data given is an indication of the technologies that are available.

  6. Source localization results for airborne acoustic platforms in the 2010 Yuma Proving Ground test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostashev, Vladimir E.; Collier, Sandra L.; Reiff, Christian G.; Cheinet, Sylvain; Ligon, David A.; Wilson, D. Keith; Noble, John M.; Alberts, William C.

    2013-05-01

    Acoustic sensors are being employed on airborne platforms, such as Persistent Threat Detection System (PTDS) and Persistent Ground Surveillance System (PGSS), for source localization. Under certain atmospheric conditions, airborne sensors offer a distinct advantage over ground sensors. Among other factors, the performance of airborne sensors is affected by refraction of sound signals due to vertical gradients in temperature and wind velocity. A comprehensive experiment in source localization with an aerostat-mounted acoustic system was conducted in summer of 2010 at Yuma Proving Ground (YPG). Acoustic sources on the ground consisted of one-pound TNT denotations and small arms firings. The height of the aerostat was approximately 1 km above the ground. In this paper, horizontal, azimuthal, and elevation errors in source localization and their statistics are studied in detail. Initially, straight-line propagation is assumed; then refraction corrections are introduced to improve source localization and decrease the errors. The corrections are based on a recently developed theory [Ostashev, et. al, JASA 2008] which accounts for sound refraction due to vertical profiles of temperature and wind velocity. During the 2010 YPG field test, the vertical profiles were measured only up to a height of approximately 100 m. Therefore, the European Center for Medium-range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) is used to generate the profiles for July of 2010.

  7. Laser hazard analysis for airborne AURA (Big Sky variant) Proteus platform.

    SciTech Connect

    Augustoni, Arnold L.

    2004-02-01

    A laser safety and hazard analysis was performed for the airborne AURA (Big Sky Laser Technology) lidar system based on the 2000 version of the American National Standard Institute's (ANSI) Standard Z136.1, for the Safe Use of Lasers and the 2000 version of the ANSI Standard Z136.6, for the Safe Use of Lasers Outdoors. The AURA lidar system is installed in the instrument pod of a Proteus airframe and is used to perform laser interaction experiments and tests at various national test sites. The targets are located at various distances or ranges from the airborne platform. In order to protect personnel, who may be in the target area and may be subjected to exposures, it was necessary to determine the Maximum Permissible Exposure (MPE) for each laser wavelength, calculate the Nominal Ocular Hazard Distance (NOHD), and determine the maximum 'eye-safe' dwell times for various operational altitudes and conditions. It was also necessary to calculate the appropriate minimum Optical Density (ODmin) of the laser safety eyewear used by authorized personnel who may receive hazardous exposures during ground base operations of the airborne AURA laser system (system alignment and calibration).

  8. The planar electrostatic gradiometer GREMLIT for airborne geodesy and its dedicated controlled platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foulon, Bernard; Christophe, Bruno; Huynh, Phuong-Anh; Lebat, Vincent; Perrot, Eddy

    2015-04-01

    Thanks to global positioning satellites constellations and to recent space gravity missions, the knowledge of the gravity field of the Earth has been considerably improved this last decade. Nevertheless these gravity data do not address spatial resolution shorter than 90 km and airborne gravity data collection will be of the highest interest to complete them at the short wavelengths in particular in the areas where spatial distribution and quality of ground data remain quite uneven like for example land/sea transition. Taking advantage of technologies, developed by ONERA for the GRACE and GOCE space missions, the GREMLIT airborne gravity gradiometer is composed of a double planar electrostatic gradiometer with eight proof-masses in a cubic configuration, the GREMLIT instrument is mounted on a dedicated stabilized platform which is controlled by the common mode outputs of the instrument itself to achieve a sufficient rejection ratio of the perturbations/vibrations induced by the airborne environment in the horizontal directions. The levitation of the proof-masses along the normal gravity and the vibration isolation of the platform are designed to allow the instrument to support 1g ± 1g along the vertical axis. In addition to be well suited to sustain the proof-mass levitation in the Earth's gravity field, the planar configuration of each accelerometer also presents an intrinsic linearity of the horizontal control loops which minimizes the aliasing due to high frequency vibrations or motions generated outside the measurement bandwidth. Realistic simulations, based on actual data and recorded environmental aircraft perturbations, demonstrate that a performance better or equal to one Eötvös can be obtained at least along the two horizontal components of the gravity gradient. If the performance of the electrostatic gradiometer is well assessed through the experience of the space accelerometers, the overall performance has also to take into account the estimated

  9. Fourth Airborne Geoscience Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The focus of the workshop was on how the airborne community can assist in achieving the goals of the Global Change Research Program. The many activities that employ airborne platforms and sensors were discussed: platforms and instrument development; airborne oceanography; lidar research; SAR measurements; Doppler radar; laser measurements; cloud physics; airborne experiments; airborne microwave measurements; and airborne data collection.

  10. Efficiency of Airborne Sample Analysis Platform (ASAP) bioaerosol sampler for pathogen detection

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Anurag; Clark, Elizabeth; McGlothlin, James D.; Mittal, Suresh K.

    2015-01-01

    The threat of bioterrorism and pandemics has highlighted the urgency for rapid and reliable bioaerosol detection in different environments. Safeguarding against such threats requires continuous sampling of the ambient air for pathogen detection. In this study we investigated the efficacy of the Airborne Sample Analysis Platform (ASAP) 2800 bioaerosol sampler to collect representative samples of air and identify specific viruses suspended as bioaerosols. To test this concept, we aerosolized an innocuous replication-defective bovine adenovirus serotype 3 (BAdV3) in a controlled laboratory environment. The ASAP efficiently trapped the surrogate virus at 5 × 103 plaque-forming units (p.f.u.) [2 × 105 genome copy equivalent] concentrations or more resulting in the successful detection of the virus using quantitative PCR. These results support the further development of ASAP for bioaerosol pathogen detection. PMID:26074900

  11. Vehicle tracking in wide area motion imagery from an airborne platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Eekeren, Adam W. M.; van Huis, Jasper R.; Eendebak, Pieter T.; Baan, Jan

    2015-10-01

    Airborne platforms, such as UAV's, with Wide Area Motion Imagery (WAMI) sensors can cover multiple square kilometers and produce large amounts of video data. Analyzing all data for information need purposes becomes increasingly labor-intensive for an image analyst. Furthermore, the capacity of the datalink in operational areas may be inadequate to transfer all data to the ground station. Automatic detection and tracking of people and vehicles enables to send only the most relevant footage to the ground station and assists the image analysts in effective data searches. In this paper, we propose a method for detecting and tracking vehicles in high-resolution WAMI images from a moving airborne platform. For the vehicle detection we use a cascaded set of classifiers, using an Adaboost training algorithm on Haar features. This detector works on individual images and therefore does not depend on image motion stabilization. For the vehicle tracking we use a local template matching algorithm. This approach has two advantages. In the first place, it does not depend on image motion stabilization and it counters the inaccuracy of the GPS data that is embedded in the video data. In the second place, it can find matches when the vehicle detector would miss a certain detection. This results in long tracks even when the imagery is of low frame-rate. In order to minimize false detections, we also integrate height information from a 3D reconstruction that is created from the same images. By using the locations of buildings and roads, we are able to filter out false detections and increase the performance of the tracker. In this paper we show that the vehicle tracks can also be used to detect more complex events, such as traffic jams and fast moving vehicles. This enables the image analyst to do a faster and more effective search of the data.

  12. International Symposium on Airborne Geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mogi, Toru; Ito, Hisatoshi; Kaieda, Hideshi; Kusunoki, Kenichiro; Saltus, Richard W.; Fitterman, David V.; Okuma, Shigeo; Nakatsuka, Tadashi

    2006-05-01

    Airborne geophysics can be defined as the measurement of Earth properties from sensors in the sky. The airborne measurement platform is usually a traditional fixed-wing airplane or helicopter, but could also include lighter-than-air craft, unmanned drones, or other specialty craft. The earliest history of airborne geophysics includes kite and hot-air balloon experiments. However, modern airborne geophysics dates from the mid-1940s when military submarine-hunting magnetometers were first used to map variations in the Earth's magnetic field. The current gamut of airborne geophysical techniques spans a broad range, including potential fields (both gravity and magnetics), electromagnetics (EM), radiometrics, spectral imaging, and thermal imaging.

  13. Novel compact airborne platform for remote sensing applications using the Hyper-Cam infrared hyperspectral imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turcotte, Caroline S.; Puckrin, Eldon; Aube, Françoys; Farley, Vincent; Savary, Simon; Chamberland, Martin

    2013-05-01

    High resolution broad-band imagery in the visible and infrared bands provides valuable detection capabilities based on target shapes and temperatures. However, the spectral resolution provided by a hyperspectral imager adds a spectral dimension to the measurements, which leads to an additional means of detecting and identifying targets based on their spectral signature. The Telops Hyper-Cam sensor is an interferometer-based imaging system that enables the spatial and spectral analysis of targets using a single sensor. It is based on the Fourier-transform technology, which yields high spectral resolution and enables a high accuracy radiometric calibration. It provides datacubes of up to 320×256 pixels at spectral resolutions as fine as 0.25 cm-1. The LWIR version covers the 8.0 to 11.8 μm spectral range. The Hyper-Cam has been recently integrated and flown on a novel airborne gyro-stabilized platform inside a fixed-wing aircraft. The new platform, more compact and more advanced than its predecessor, is described in this paper. The first results of target detection and identification are also presented.

  14. Plants as sources of airborne bacteria, including ice nucleation-active bacteria.

    PubMed

    Lindemann, J; Constantinidou, H A; Barchet, W R; Upper, C D

    1982-11-01

    Vertical wind shear and concentration gradients of viable, airborne bacteria were used to calculate the upward flux of viable cells above bare soil and canopies of several crops. Concentrations at soil or canopy height varied from 46 colony-forming units per m over young corn and wet soil to 663 colony-forming units per m over dry soil and 6,500 colony-forming units per m over a closed wheat canopy. In simultaneous samples, concentrations of viable bacteria in the air 10 m inside an alfalfa field were fourfold higher than those over a field with dry, bare soil immediately upwind. The upward flux of viable bacteria over alfalfa was three- to fourfold greater than over dry soil. Concentrations of ice nucleation-active bacteria were higher over plants than over soil. Thus, plant canopies may constitute a major source of bacteria, including ice nucleation-active bacteria, in the air.

  15. Unmanned Airborne Platforms for Validation of Volcanic Emission Composition and Transport Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pieri, D. C.; Diaz, J. A.; Bland, G.; Fladeland, M. M.

    2012-12-01

    In recent years there has been an increasing realization that current remote sensing retrieval and transport models to detect, characterize, and track airborne volcanic emissions will be much improved fundamentally, and in their application, by the acquisition of in situ validation data. This issue was highlighted by the need for operational estimates of airborne ash concentrations during the 2010 eruption at Eyjafjallajökull-Fimmvörduháls in Iceland. In response, important campaigns were mounted in Europe to conduct airborne in situ observations with manned aircraft to validate ash concentration estimates based on remote sensing data. This effort had immediate application providing crucial accuracy and precision estimates for predicting locations, trajectories, and concentrations of the drifting ash to mitigate the severe economic impacts caused by the continent-wide grounding of aircraft. Manned flying laboratories, however, sustain serious risks if flown into the areas of volcanic plumes and drifting clouds that are of the highest interest, namely the zones of most concentrated ash and gas, which are often opaque to upwelling radiation at the longer infrared wavelengths (e.g., 8-12μm), where ash and gas can be most readily detected. Unmanned airborne vehicles (UAVs), of course, can provide volcanic aerosol and gas sampling and measurement platforms with no risk to flight crews, and can penetrate the most ash-concentrated zones of plumes and drifting clouds. Current interest has been high in developing and testing small UAVs (e.g., NASA, University of Costa Rica, University of Düsseldorf; INGV-Catania and Rome, and others) for proximal sulfur dioxide and solid aerosol observations and sampling in relatively quiescently erupting plumes as a first step toward more far ranging and higher altitude deployments into drifting volcanic ash clouds at regional scales. Nevertheless, in the aftermath of the Icelandic crisis, ash and gas concentrations from analysis of

  16. Developing a Scalable Remote Sampling Design for the NEON Airborne Observation Platform (AOP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musinsky, J.; Wasser, L. A.; Kampe, T. U.; Leisso, N.; Krause, K.; Petroy, S. B.; Cawse-Nicholson, K.; van Aardt, J. A.; Serbin, S.

    2013-12-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) airborne observation platform (AOP) will collect co-registered high-resolution hyperspectral imagery, discrete and waveform LiDAR, and high-resolution digital photography for more than 60 terrestrial and 23 aquatic sites spread across the continental United States, Puerto Rico, Alaska and Hawaii on an annual basis over the next 30 years. These data, to be made freely available to the public, will facilitate the scaling of field-based biological, physical and chemical measurements to regional and continental scales, enabling a better understanding of the relationships between climate variability and change, land use change and invasive species, and their ecological consequences in areas not directly sampled by the NEON facilities. However, successful up-scaling of in situ measurements requires a flight sampling design that captures environmental heterogeneity and diversity (i.e., ecological and topographic gradients), is sensitive to temporal system variation (e.g., phenology), and can respond to major disturbance events. Alignment of airborne campaigns - composed of two payloads for nominal science acquisitions and one payload for PI-driven rapid-response campaigns -- with other ground, airborne (e.g., AVIRIS) and satellite (e.g., Landsat, MODIS) collections will further facilitate scaling between sensors and data sources of varying spatial and spectral resolution and extent. This presentation will discuss the approach, challenges and future goals associated with the development of NEON AOP's sampling design, using examples from the 2013 nominal flight campaigns in the Central Plains (NEON Domain 10) and the Pacific Southwest (Domain 17), and the rapid response flight campaign of the High Park Fire site outside of Fort Collins, CO. Determination of the specific flight coverage areas for each campaign involved analysis of the landscape scale ecological, geophysical and bioclimatic attributes and trends most closely

  17. Using airborne measurements and modelling to determine the leak rate of the Elgin platform in 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mobbs, Stephen D.; Bauguitte, Stephane J.-B.; Wellpott, Axel; O'Shea, Sebastian

    2013-04-01

    On the 25th March 2012 the French multinational oil and gas company Total reported a gas leak at the Elgin gas field in the North Sea following an operation on well G4 on the wellhead platform. During operations to plug and decommission the well methane leaked out which lead to the evacuation of the platform. Total made immense efforts to quickly stop the leak and on the 16th May 2012 the company announced the successful "Top kill". The UK's National Centre for Atmospheric Science (NCAS) supported the Total response to the leak with flights of the Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements (FAAM) BAe-146 aircraft. Between the 3rd of April and the 4th of May five missions were flown. The FAAM aircraft was equipped with a Fast Greenhouse Gas Analyser (FGGA, Model RMT-200, Los Gatos Research Inc., US) to measure CH4 mixing ratios with an accuracy of 0.07±2.48 ppbv. The measurement strategy used followed closely NOAA's during the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) spill in the Gulf of Mexico in 2010. The basis of the method is to sample the cross-wind structure of the plume at different heights downwind of the source. The measurements were then fitted to a Gaussian dispersion model which allowed the calculation of the leak rate. The first mission was flown on the 30th March 2012 only 5 days after Total reported the leak. On this day maximum CH4 concentrations exceeded 2800 ppbv. The plume was very distinct and narrow especially near the platform (10km) and it showed almost perfect Gaussian characteristics. Further downwind the plume was split up into several filaments. On this day the CH4 leak rate was estimated to be 1.1 kg/s. Between the 1st and 2nd mission (03/04/2012) the leak rate decreased significantly to about 0.5 kg/s. From the 2nd flight onwards only a minor decrease in leak rate was calculated. The last mission - while the platform was still leaking - was flown on the 4th of May, when the leak rate was estimated to be 0.3 kg/s. The FAAM aircraft measurements

  18. Supporting relief efforts of the 2010 Haitian earthquake using an airborne multimodal remote sensing platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faulring, Jason W.; McKeown, Donald M.; van Aardt, Jan; Casterline, May V.; Bartlett, Brent D.; Raqueno, Nina

    2011-06-01

    The small island nation of Haiti was devastated in early 2010 following a massive 7.0 earthquake that brought about widespread destruction of infrastructure, many deaths and large-scale displacement of the population in the nation's major cities. The World Bank and ImageCat, Inc tasked the Rochester Institute of Technology's (RIT) Wildfire Airborne Sensor Platform (WASP) to gather a multi-spectral and multi-modal assessment of the disaster over a seven-day period to be used for relief and reconstruction efforts. Traditionally, private sector aerial remote sensing platforms work on processing and product delivery timelines measured in days, a scenario that has the potential to reduce the value of the data in time-sensitive situations such as those found in responding to a disaster. This paper will describe the methodologies and practices used by RIT to deliver an open set of products typically within a twenty-four hour period from when they were initially collected. Response to the Haiti disaster can be broken down into four major sections: 1) data collection and logistics, 2) transmission of raw data from a remote location to a central processing and dissemination location, 3) rapid image processing of a massive amount of raw data, and 4) dissemination of processed data to global organizations utilizing it to provide the maximum benefit. Each section required it's own major effort to ensure the success of the overall mission. A discussion of each section will be provided along with an analysis of methods that could be implemented in future exercises to increase efficiency and effectiveness.

  19. Operational considerations for the application of remotely sensed forest data from LANDSAT or other airborne platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, G. R.; Fethe, T. P.

    1975-01-01

    Research in the application of remotely sensed data from LANDSAT or other airborne platforms to the efficient management of a large timber based forest industry was divided into three phases: (1) establishment of a photo/ground sample correlation, (2) investigation of techniques for multi-spectral digital analysis, and (3) development of a semi-automated multi-level sampling system. To properly verify results, three distinct test areas were selected: (1) Jacksonville Mill Region, Lower Coastal Plain, Flatwoods, (2) Pensacola Mill Region, Middle Coastal Plain, and (3) Mississippi Mill Region, Middle Coastal Plain. The following conclusions were reached: (1) the probability of establishing an information base suitable for management requirements through a photo/ground double sampling procedure, alleviating the ground sampling effort, is encouraging, (2) known classification techniques must be investigated to ascertain the level of precision possible in separating the many densities involved, and (3) the multi-level approach must be related to an information system that is executable and feasible.

  20. High Resolution Airborne Laser Scanning and Hyperspectral Imaging with a Small Uav Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallay, Michal; Eck, Christoph; Zgraggen, Carlo; Kaňuk, Ján; Dvorný, Eduard

    2016-06-01

    The capabilities of unmanned airborne systems (UAS) have become diverse with the recent development of lightweight remote sensing instruments. In this paper, we demonstrate our custom integration of the state-of-the-art technologies within an unmanned aerial platform capable of high-resolution and high-accuracy laser scanning, hyperspectral imaging, and photographic imaging. The technological solution comprises the latest development of a completely autonomous, unmanned helicopter by Aeroscout, the Scout B1-100 UAV helicopter. The helicopter is powered by a gasoline two-stroke engine and it allows for integrating 18 kg of a customized payload unit. The whole system is modular providing flexibility of payload options, which comprises the main advantage of the UAS. The UAS integrates two kinds of payloads which can be altered. Both payloads integrate a GPS/IMU with a dual GPS antenna configuration provided by OXTS for accurate navigation and position measurements during the data acquisition. The first payload comprises a VUX-1 laser scanner by RIEGL and a Sony A6000 E-Mount photo camera. The second payload for hyperspectral scanning integrates a push-broom imager AISA KESTREL 10 by SPECIM. The UAS was designed for research of various aspects of landscape dynamics (landslides, erosion, flooding, or phenology) in high spectral and spatial resolution.

  1. An airborne robotic platform for mapping thermal structure in surface water bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, S. E.; Chung, M.; Detweiler, C.; Ore, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    The significance of thermal heterogeneities in small surface water bodies as drivers of mixing and for habitat provision is increasingly recognized, yet obtaining three-dimensionally resolved observations of the thermal structure of lakes and rivers remains challenging. For relatively shallow water bodies, observations of water temperature from aerial platforms are attractive: they do not require shoreline access, they can be quickly and easily deployed and redeployed, facilitating repeated sampling, and they can rapidly move between measurement locations, allowing multiple measurements to be made during single flights. However, they are also subject to well-known limitations including payload, flight duration and operability, and their effectiveness as a mobile platform for thermal sensing is still poorly characterized. In this talk, I will introduce an aerial thermal sensing platform that enables water temperature measurements to be made and spatially located throughout a water column, and present preliminary results from initial field experiments comparing in-situ temperature observations to those made from the UAS platform. The results highlight the potential scalability of the platform to provide high-resolution 3D thermal mapping of a ~1 ha lake in 2-3 flights (circa 1 hour), sufficient to resolve diurnal variations. Operability constraints and key needs for further development are also identified.

  2. Open loop tracking of radio occultation signals from an airborne platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lulich, Tyler Delfield

    Radio occultation is a remote sensing technique that uses signals from the Global Positioning System (GPS) to determine electron density in the ionosphere, and temperature and water vapor content in the neutral atmosphere. In the lowest part of the atmosphere where there are strong refractivity gradients due to boundary layer structure, the signal may experience rapid phase accelerations, extending beyond the operational range of traditional receiver tracking loops. Open loop (OL) tracking is a method for tracking GPS signals in this situation by replacing a traditional feedback loop with a method that tracks the signal by estimating the deviations from a model-based reference Doppler frequency time history. The open loop (OL) tracking method was originally designed to work using measurements from a stationary receiver, and has been modified to operate using data recorded by a receiver in motion. Occultation data were gathered by the GNSS Instrumentation System for Multistatic and Occultation Sensing (GISMOS) aboard the High-performance Instrumented Airborne Platform for Environmental Research (HIAPER) during flights over the Gulf of Mexico and Southeastern United States in February 2008. Occultations from setting satellites were recorded during five flight days. The OL tracking method was demonstrated on GPS radio occultations recorded during this campaign and was shown to successfully track signals to lower elevations than a high-quality commercial receiver. OL tracking was able to extract continuous phase information down to approximately -3.9, -4.2, and -4.5 degrees elevation relative to the local horizon on three setting occultations observed on 22 February 2008. Finally, the accuracy of OL measurements, averaged over a Fresnel zone, is shown to be on the order of 3 mm/s, which is well within the limit for extracting useful scientific measurements.

  3. 3D frequency airborne electromagnetic modeling including topography with direct solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, W.; Zeng, Z.

    2015-12-01

    Three-dimensional modeling of frequency airborne electromagnetic data is vital to improve the understanding of electromagnetic (EM) responses collected in increasingly complex geologic settings. We developed a modeling scheme for 3D airborne electromagnetic modeling in frequency domain with topography using edge finite element. The rectangular mesh can be transformed to hexahedral in order to simulate the topography effect. The finite element algorithm uses a single edge shape function at each edge of hexahedral elements, guaranteeing the continuity of the tangential electric field while conserving the continuity of magnetic flux at boundaries. Sources singularities are eliminated through a secondary-field approach, in which the primary fields are computed analytically for a homogeneous or a 1D layered background; the secondary fields are computed using edge finite element. The solution of the linear system of equations was obtained using a massive parallel multifrontal solver, because such solver are robust for indefinite and ill-conditioned linear systems. Parallel computing were investigated for their use in mitigating the computational overburden associated with the use of a direct solver, and of its feasibility for 3D frequency airborne electromagnetic forward modeling with the edge finite element. For the multisource problem, when using a direct solver, only competitive if the same factors are used to achieve a solution for multi right-hand sides. We tested our proposed approach using 1D and 3D synthetic models, and they demonstrated it is robust and suitable for 3D frequency airborne electromagnetic modeling. The codes could thus be used to help design new survey, as well to estimate subsurface conductivities through the implementation of an appropriate inversion scheme.

  4. Design and Performance Assessment of a Stable Astigmatic Herriott Cell for Trace Gas Measurements on Airborne Platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyroff, Christoph; Fried, Alan; Richter, Dirk; Walega, James G.; Zahniser, Mark S.; McManus, J. Barry

    2005-01-01

    The present paper discusses a new, more stable, astigmatic Herriott cell employing carbon fiber stabilizing rods. Laboratory tests using a near-IR absorption feature of CO at 1564.168-nm revealed a factor of two improvement in measurement stability compared with the present commercial design when the sampling pressure was changed by +/-2 Torr around 50 Torr. This new cell should significantly enhance our efforts to measure trace gases employing pathlengths of 100 to 200-meters on airborne platforms with minimum detectable line center absorbances of less than 10(exp -6).

  5. Airborne Sunphotometer Studies of Aerosol Properties and Effects, Including Closure Among Satellite, Suborbital Remote, and In situ Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russlee, Philip B.; Schmid, B.; Redemann, J.; Livingston, J. M.; Bergstrom, R. W.; Ramirez, S. A.; Hipskind, R. Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Airborne sunphotometry has been used to measure aerosols from North America, Europe, and Africa in coordination with satellite and in situ measurements in TARFOX (1996), ACE-2 (1997), PRIDE (2000), and SAFARI 2000. Similar coordinated measurements of Asian aerosols are being conducted this spring in ACE-Asia and are planned for North American aerosols this summer in CLAMS. This paper summarizes the approaches used, key results, and implications for aerosol properties and effects, such as single scattering albedo and regional radiative forcing. The approaches exploit the three-dimensional mobility of airborne sunphotometry to access satellite scenes over diverse surfaces (including open ocean with and without sunglint) and to match exactly the atmospheric layers sampled by airborne in situ measurements and other radiometers. These measurements permit tests of the consistency, or closure, among such diverse measurements as aerosol size-resolved chemical composition; number or mass concentration; light extinction, absorption, and scattering (total, hemispheric back and 180 deg.); and radiative fluxes. In this way the airborne sunphotometer measurements provide a key link between satellite and in situ measurements that helps to understand any discrepancies that are found. These comparisons have led to several characteristic results. Typically these include: (1) Better agreement among different types of remote measurements than between remote and in situ measurements. (2) More extinction derived from transmission measurements than from in situ measurements. (3) Larger aerosol absorption inferred from flux radiometry than from in situ measurements. Aerosol intensive properties derived from these closure studies have been combined with satellite-retrieved fields of optical depth to produce fields of regional radiative forcing. We show results for the North Atlantic derived from AVHRR optical depths and aerosol intensive properties from TARFOX and ACE-2. Companion papers

  6. Icepod: A modular approach to the development of an airborne remote sensing and data acquisition platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frearson, N.; Bell, R. E.; Tinto, K. J.; Zappa, C. J.

    2013-12-01

    The New York Air National Guard [NYANG] provides regular airborne support to the National Science Foundation [NSF] moving science parties and their equipment onto and around the ice-sheets in both polar regions during the respective summer seasons. Icepod has been developed to utilize this readily available resource, providing the aircraft with a modular external pod attached to the rear-paratrooper door on either side of the NYANG's ski-equipped LC-130s. The pod is divided into five separate bays each approximately a 2ft cube within which can be mounted an array of remote sensors. Power, heating, sensor control and data management services are provided to each bay. An Ethernet network is used to transfer commands and data packets between the individual sensors and data acquisition system located inside the aircraft. Data for each sensor is stored on ruggedized and removable hard-drives that can be taken off the aircraft at the end of a flight for further analysis. In its current configuration the pod is equipped for the remote sensing of ice sheets and their margins and the bay's contain two radar systems, radar antennas, a vibration isolated optics bay including a scanning laser, Infra-red camera and high-definition visible wave camera. Sensor data is geo-referenced using GNSS and orientation sensors located inside the pod. A Pyrometer provides the downward looking IR Camera with the current sky temperature. In January 2013, the Icepod system was flight certified at the Stratton air base in Schenectady, New York. The system deployed to Greenland in April and July 2013 to test the instrumentation suite over ice and its ease of deployment with the NYANG. Icepod can be operated in two modes, a traditional dedicated science flight mode and a piggy-back mode. In piggy-back mode science parties and their cargo are delivered to their destinations with Icepod installed but stowed. Once they have been delivered the Icepod is deployed and measurements can be taken on the

  7. [Remote sensing of chlorophyll fluorescence at airborne level based on unmanned airship platform and hyperspectral sensor].

    PubMed

    Yang, Pei-Qi; Liu, Zhi-Gang; Ni, Zhuo-Ya; Wang, Ran; Wang, Qing-Shan

    2013-11-01

    The solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (ChlF) has a close relationship with photosynthetic and is considered as a probe of plant photosynthetic activity. In this study, an airborne fluorescence detecting system was constructed by using a hyperspectral imager on board an unmanned airship. Both Fraunhofer Line Discriminator (FLD) and 3FLD used to extract ChlF require the incident solar irradiance, which is always difficult to receive at airborne level. Alternative FLD (aFLD) can overcome the problem by selecting non-fluorescent emitter in the image. However, aFLD is based on the assumption that reflectance is identical around the Fraunhofer line, which is not realistic. A new method, a3FLD, is proposed, which assumes that reflectance varies linearly with the wavelength around Fraunhofer line. The result of simulated data shows that ChlF retrieval error of a3FLD is significantly lower than that of aFLD when vegetation reflectance varies near the Fraunhofer line. The results of hyperspectral remote sensing data with the airborne fluorescence detecting system show that the relative values of retrieved ChlF of 5 kinds of plants extracted by both aFLD and a3FLD are consistent with vegetation growth stage and the ground-level ChlF. The ChlF values of aFLD are about 15% greater than a3FLD. In addition, using aFLD, some non-fluorescent objects have considerable ChlF value, while a3FLD can effectively overcome the problem.

  8. [Remote sensing of chlorophyll fluorescence at airborne level based on unmanned airship platform and hyperspectral sensor].

    PubMed

    Yang, Pei-Qi; Liu, Zhi-Gang; Ni, Zhuo-Ya; Wang, Ran; Wang, Qing-Shan

    2013-11-01

    The solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (ChlF) has a close relationship with photosynthetic and is considered as a probe of plant photosynthetic activity. In this study, an airborne fluorescence detecting system was constructed by using a hyperspectral imager on board an unmanned airship. Both Fraunhofer Line Discriminator (FLD) and 3FLD used to extract ChlF require the incident solar irradiance, which is always difficult to receive at airborne level. Alternative FLD (aFLD) can overcome the problem by selecting non-fluorescent emitter in the image. However, aFLD is based on the assumption that reflectance is identical around the Fraunhofer line, which is not realistic. A new method, a3FLD, is proposed, which assumes that reflectance varies linearly with the wavelength around Fraunhofer line. The result of simulated data shows that ChlF retrieval error of a3FLD is significantly lower than that of aFLD when vegetation reflectance varies near the Fraunhofer line. The results of hyperspectral remote sensing data with the airborne fluorescence detecting system show that the relative values of retrieved ChlF of 5 kinds of plants extracted by both aFLD and a3FLD are consistent with vegetation growth stage and the ground-level ChlF. The ChlF values of aFLD are about 15% greater than a3FLD. In addition, using aFLD, some non-fluorescent objects have considerable ChlF value, while a3FLD can effectively overcome the problem. PMID:24555390

  9. Development of a multi-sensor airborne investigation platform based on an ultra-light aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herd, Rainer; Holst, Jonathan; Lay, Michael

    2013-04-01

    In the year 2012 the chair Raw Material and Natural Resource Management of Brandenburg University of Technology Cottbus, Germany started to develop, construct and assemble a multi-sensor airborne investigation system based on an ultra-light aircraft. The conceptual ideas were born several years before and triggered by the increasing demand of spatial underground information, increasing restrictions to access private property and the lack of affordable commercially operated systems for projects with small budgets. The concept of the presented system comprehends a full composite ultra-light aircraft, the Pipistrel VIRUS which combines a low minimum (65 km/h, a high crusing speed (250 km/h, a long range (1700 km) and a low noise potential. The investigation equipment which can be modified according to the investigation target comprises actually a CsI-y-spectrometer in the fuselage, 2 K-magnetometer at the wing tips and a VLF-EM-receiver underneath the tail. This configuration enables the system to operate for mineral exploration, geological mapping, detection of freshwater resources and brines and different environmental monitoring missions. The development and actual stage of the project will be presented. The first operating flight is scheduled for spring 2013.

  10. A survey of airborne radar systems for deployment on a High Altitude Powered Platform (HAPP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choudhury, B. J.; Leung, K. C.

    1979-01-01

    A survey was conducted to find out the system characteristics of commercially available and unclassified military radars suitable for deployment on a stationary platform. A total of ten domestic and eight foreign manufacturers of the radar systems were identified. Questionnaires were sent to manufacturers requesting information concerning the system characteristics: frequency, power used, weight, volume, power radiated, antenna pattern, resolution, display capabilities, pulse repetition frequency, and sensitivity. A literature search was also made to gather the system characteristics information. Results of the survey are documented and comparisons are made among available radar systems.

  11. Ship emissions of SO2 and NO2: DOAS measurements from airborne platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg, N.; Mellqvist, J.; Jalkanen, J.-P.; Balzani, J.

    2012-05-01

    A unique methodology to measure gas fluxes of SO2 and NO2 from ships using optical remote sensing is described and demonstrated in a feasibility study. The measurement system is based on Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy using reflected skylight from the water surface as light source. A grating spectrometer records spectra around 311 nm and 440 nm, respectively, with the telescope pointed downward at a 30° angle from the horizon. The mass column values of SO2 and NO2 are retrieved from each spectrum and integrated across the plume. A simple geometric approximation is used to calculate the optical path. To obtain the total emission in kg h-1 the resulting total mass across the plume is multiplied with the apparent wind, i.e. a dilution factor corresponding to the vector between the wind and the ship speed. The system was tested in two feasibility studies in the Baltic Sea and Kattegat, from a CASA-212 airplane in 2008 and in the North Sea outside Rotterdam from a Dauphin helicopter in an EU campaign in 2009. In the Baltic Sea the average SO2 emission out of 22 ships was (54 ± 13) kg h-1, and the average NO2 emission was (33 ± 8) kg h-1, out of 13 ships. In the North Sea the average SO2 emission out of 21 ships was (42 ± 11) kg h-1, NO2 was not measured here. The detection limit of the system made it possible to detect SO2 in the ship plumes in 60% of the measurements when the described method was used. A comparison exercise was carried out by conducting airborne optical measurements on a passenger ferry in parallel with onboard measurements. The comparison shows agreement of (-30 ± 14)% and (-41 ± 11)%, respectively, for two days, with equal measurement precision of about 20%. This gives an idea of the measurement uncertainty caused by errors in the simple geometric approximation for the optical light path neglecting scattering of the light in ocean waves and direct and multiple scattering in the exhaust plume under various conditions. A tentative

  12. Airborne reconnaissance in the civilian sector - Agricultural monitoring from high-altitude powered platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youngblood, J. W.; Jackson, R. D.

    1983-01-01

    Design concepts and mission applications for unmanned high-altitude powered platforms (HAPPs) are discussed. A chemically powered HAPP (operating altitude 18-21 km, wingspan 26 m, payload 91 kg, endurance 2-3 days) would use current turboprop technology. A microwave-powered HAPP (operating altitude around 21 km, wingspan 57.9 m, payload 500 kg, endurance weeks or months) would circle within or perform boost-glide maneuvers around a microwave beam of density 1.1 kw/sq m. Of two solar-powered-HAPP designs presented, the more promising uses five vertical solar-panel-bearing fins, two of which can be made horizontal at night, (wingspan 57.8/98.3 m, payload 113 kg, endurance weeks or months). The operating altitude depends on the latitude and season: this HAPP design is shown to be capable of year-round 20-km-altitude flights over the San Joaquin Valley in California, where an agricultural-monitoring mission using Landsat-like remote sensors is proposed. Other applications may be better served by the characteristics of the other HAPPs. The primary advantage of HAPPs over satellites is found to be their ability to provide rapidly available high-resolution continuous or repetitive coverage of specific areas at relatively low cost.

  13. Automated Segmentation and Classification of Coral using Fluid Lensing from Unmanned Airborne Platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Instrella, Ron; Chirayath, Ved

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a growing interest among biologists in monitoring the short and long term health of the world's coral reefs. The environmental impact of climate change poses a growing threat to these biologically diverse and fragile ecosystems, prompting scientists to use remote sensing platforms and computer vision algorithms to analyze shallow marine systems. In this study, we present a novel method for performing coral segmentation and classification from aerial data collected from small unmanned aerial vehicles (sUAV). Our method uses Fluid Lensing algorithms to remove and exploit strong optical distortions created along the air-fluid boundary to produce cm-scale resolution imagery of the ocean floor at depths up to 5 meters. A 3D model of the reef is reconstructed using structure from motion (SFM) algorithms, and the associated depth information is combined with multidimensional maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimation to separate organic from inorganic material and classify coral morphologies in the Fluid-Lensed transects. In this study, MAP estimation is performed using a set of manually classified 100 x 100 pixel training images to determine the most probable coral classification within an interrogated region of interest. Aerial footage of a coral reef was captured off the coast of American Samoa and used to test our proposed method. 90 x 20 meter transects of the Samoan coastline undergo automated classification and are manually segmented by a marine biologist for comparison, leading to success rates as high as 85%. This method has broad applications for coastal remote sensing, and will provide marine biologists access to large swaths of high resolution, segmented coral imagery.

  14. Automated Segmentation and Classification of Coral using Fluid Lensing from Unmanned Airborne Platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Instrella, R.; Chirayath, V.

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, there has been a growing interest among biologists in monitoring the short and long term health of the world's coral reefs. The environmental impact of climate change poses a growing threat to these biologically diverse and fragile ecosystems, prompting scientists to use remote sensing platforms and computer vision algorithms to analyze shallow marine systems. In this study, we present a novel method for performing coral segmentation and classification from aerial data collected from small unmanned aerial vehicles (sUAV). Our method uses Fluid Lensing algorithms to remove and exploit strong optical distortions created along the air-fluid boundary to produce cm-scale resolution imagery of the ocean floor at depths up to 5 meters. A 3D model of the reef is reconstructed using structure from motion (SFM) algorithms, and the associated depth information is combined with multidimensional maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimation to separate organic from inorganic material and classify coral morphologies in the Fluid-Lensed transects. In this study, MAP estimation is performed using a set of manually classified 100 x 100 pixel training images to determine the most probable coral classification within an interrogated region of interest. Aerial footage of a coral reef was captured off the coast of American Samoa and used to test our proposed method. 90 x 20 meter transects of the Samoan coastline undergo automated classification and are manually segmented by a marine biologist for comparison, leading to success rates as high as 85%. This method has broad applications for coastal remote sensing, and will provide marine biologists access to large swaths of high resolution, segmented coral imagery.

  15. Orientation of Oblique Airborne Image Sets - Experiences from the Isprs/eurosdr Benchmark on Multi-Platform Photogrammetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerke, M.; Nex, F.; Remondino, F.; Jacobsen, K.; Kremer, J.; Karel, W.; Hu, H.; Ostrowski, W.

    2016-06-01

    During the last decade the use of airborne multi camera systems increased significantly. The development in digital camera technology allows mounting several mid- or small-format cameras efficiently onto one platform and thus enables image capture under different angles. Those oblique images turn out to be interesting for a number of applications since lateral parts of elevated objects, like buildings or trees, are visible. However, occlusion or illumination differences might challenge image processing. From an image orientation point of view those multi-camera systems bring the advantage of a better ray intersection geometry compared to nadir-only image blocks. On the other hand, varying scale, occlusion and atmospheric influences which are difficult to model impose problems to the image matching and bundle adjustment tasks. In order to understand current limitations of image orientation approaches and the influence of different parameters such as image overlap or GCP distribution, a commonly available dataset was released. The originally captured data comprises of a state-of-the-art image block with very high overlap, but in the first stage of the so-called ISPRS/EUROSDR benchmark on multi-platform photogrammetry only a reduced set of images was released. In this paper some first results obtained with this dataset are presented. They refer to different aspects like tie point matching across the viewing directions, influence of the oblique images onto the bundle adjustment, the role of image overlap and GCP distribution. As far as the tie point matching is concerned we observed that matching of overlapping images pointing to the same cardinal direction, or between nadir and oblique views in general is quite successful. Due to the quite different perspective between images of different viewing directions the standard tie point matching, for instance based on interest points does not work well. How to address occlusion and ambiguities due to different views onto

  16. Monitoring system including an electronic sensor platform and an interrogation transceiver

    DOEpatents

    Kinzel, Robert L.; Sheets, Larry R.

    2003-09-23

    A wireless monitoring system suitable for a wide range of remote data collection applications. The system includes at least one Electronic Sensor Platform (ESP), an Interrogator Transceiver (IT) and a general purpose host computer. The ESP functions as a remote data collector from a number of digital and analog sensors located therein. The host computer provides for data logging, testing, demonstration, installation checkout, and troubleshooting of the system. The IT transmits signals from one or more ESP's to the host computer to the ESP's. The IT host computer may be powered by a common power supply, and each ESP is individually powered by a battery. This monitoring system has an extremely low power consumption which allows remote operation of the ESP for long periods; provides authenticated message traffic over a wireless network; utilizes state-of-health and tamper sensors to ensure that the ESP is secure and undamaged; has robust housing of the ESP suitable for use in radiation environments; and is low in cost. With one base station (host computer and interrogator transceiver), multiple ESP's may be controlled at a single monitoring site.

  17. Nanophotonic lab-on-a-chip platforms including novel bimodal interferometers, microfluidics and grating couplers.

    PubMed

    Duval, Daphné; González-Guerrero, Ana Belén; Dante, Stefania; Osmond, Johann; Monge, Rosa; Fernández, Luis J; Zinoviev, Kirill E; Domínguez, Carlos; Lechuga, Laura M

    2012-05-01

    One of the main limitations for achieving truly lab-on-a-chip (LOC) devices for point-of-care diagnosis is the incorporation of the "on-chip" detection. Indeed, most of the state-of-the-art LOC devices usually require complex read-out instrumentation, losing the main advantages of portability and simplicity. In this context, we present our last advances towards the achievement of a portable and label-free LOC platform with highly sensitive "on-chip" detection by using nanophotonic biosensors. Bimodal waveguide interferometers fabricated by standard silicon processes have been integrated with sub-micronic grating couplers for efficient light in-coupling, showing a phase resolution of 6.6 × 10(-4)× 2π rad and a limit of detection of 3.3 × 10(-7) refractive index unit (RIU) in bulk. A 3D network of SU-8 polymer microfluidics monolithically assembled at the wafer-level was included, ensuring perfect sealing and compact packaging. To overcome some of the drawbacks inherent to interferometric read-outs, a novel all-optical wavelength modulation system has been implemented, providing a linear response and a direct read-out of the phase variation. Sensitivity, specificity and reproducibility of the wavelength modulated BiMW sensor has been demonstrated through the label-free immunodetection of the human hormone hTSH at picomolar level using a reliable biofunctionalization process.

  18. Aerodynamically stabilized instrument platform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bland, Geoffrey L. (Inventor); Miles, Ted K. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A suspension apparatus for suspending instrumentation from an airborne platform may include a generally longitudinal boom having a payload end and a tail end. Yaw and pitch stabilizers may be disposed at the tail end of the boom. A mast that may be selectively translatable on the boom may connect the boom to a tether line of the airborne platform. The payload may be attached to the payload end of the boom. The mast may be positioned axially along the boom at the center of gravity of the combination of the payload, boom, pitch stabilizer, and yaw stabilizer.

  19. Development of a new platform for airborne measurements of atmospheric CO2 and CH4 and comparison with GOSAT measurements at Railroad Valley playa, Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tadic, J.; Loewenstein, M.; Iraci, L. T.; Gore, W.; Schiro, K. A.; Olson, R. A.; Sheffner, E. J.; Yates, E. L.

    2011-12-01

    Measurements of carbon dioxide (CO2) play an important role in understanding the global carbon cycle and its contribution to global warming. In recent years methane (CH4) has received increasing attention as the second most important anthropogenic greenhouse gas because of the high uncertainty of its sources and sinks. Aircraft measurements of greenhouse gases are essential for observations in the free troposphere and lower stratosphere to better understand changes at regional and continental scales. Recently new types of high-accuracy analyzers based on cavity-ring down spectroscopy have become available for use on aircraft. One of them, Picarro 2301-m, was remodeled and adapted for use outside the cabin of an Alpha Jet. In this unique attempt, the instrument was redesigned from a single unit to multiple units that fit inside the Alpha jet wing pod, with special emphasis on internal thermal management. After remodeling, the platform was tested in a laboratory, in a chamber with variable pressure and temperature, and in the field. This newly developed platform exhibits several important characteristics: the modular structure of the platform allows usage of other instruments simultaneously, the platform is capable of measuring both vertical and horizontal profiles of CO2 and CH4, and it is very insensitive to flight maneuvers. The new platform was used on 22-26th of June, 2011, to create spatial and temporal profiles of CO2 and CH4 over a playa in Railroad Valley, Nevada, USA. The playa is a flat, dry lakebed with virtually no vegetation, approximately 15 km x 15 km in size, 1434 m in elevation and 110 km southwest of the nearest city (Ely, Nevada). The time and location of flights were selected to coincide with the overpass of Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT). Airborne (Alpha Jet) in-situ measurements of CO2 and CH4 were collected to support the vicarious calibration experiment to validate column-averaged dry air mole fractions of CO2 and CH4 (XCO2 and

  20. Simulation Framework to Estimate the Performance of CO2 and O2 Sensing from Space and Airborne Platforms for the ASCENDS Mission Requirements Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plitau, Denis; Prasad, Narasimha S.

    2012-01-01

    The Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights Days and Seasons (ASCENDS) mission recommended by the NRC Decadal Survey has a desired accuracy of 0.3% in carbon dioxide mixing ratio (XCO2) retrievals requiring careful selection and optimization of the instrument parameters. NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) is investigating 1.57 micron carbon dioxide as well as the 1.26-1.27 micron oxygen bands for our proposed ASCENDS mission requirements investigation. Simulation studies are underway for these bands to select optimum instrument parameters. The simulations are based on a multi-wavelength lidar modeling framework being developed at NASA LaRC to predict the performance of CO2 and O2 sensing from space and airborne platforms. The modeling framework consists of a lidar simulation module and a line-by-line calculation component with interchangeable lineshape routines to test the performance of alternative lineshape models in the simulations. As an option the line-by-line radiative transfer model (LBLRTM) program may also be used for line-by-line calculations. The modeling framework is being used to perform error analysis, establish optimum measurement wavelengths as well as to identify the best lineshape models to be used in CO2 and O2 retrievals. Several additional programs for HITRAN database management and related simulations are planned to be included in the framework. The description of the modeling framework with selected results of the simulation studies for CO2 and O2 sensing is presented in this paper.

  1. 30 CFR 250.1726 - When must I submit an initial platform removal application and what must it include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false When must I submit an initial platform removal application and what must it include? 250.1726 Section 250.1726 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, REGULATION, AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL...

  2. Sandia Multispectral Airborne Lidar for UAV Deployment

    SciTech Connect

    Daniels, J.W.; Hargis,Jr. P.J.; Henson, T.D.; Jordan, J.D.; Lang, A.R.; Schmitt, R.L.

    1998-10-23

    Sandia National Laboratories has initiated the development of an airborne system for W laser remote sensing measurements. System applications include the detection of effluents associated with the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and the detection of biological weapon aerosols. This paper discusses the status of the conceptual design development and plans for both the airborne payload (pointing and tracking, laser transmitter, and telescope receiver) and the Altus unmanned aerospace vehicle platform. Hardware design constraints necessary to maintain system weight, power, and volume limitations of the flight platform are identified.

  3. A software platform for the comparative analysis of electroanatomic and imaging data including conduction velocity mapping.

    PubMed

    Cantwell, Chris D; Roney, Caroline H; Ali, Rheeda L; Qureshi, Norman A; Lim, Phang Boon; Peters, Nicholas S

    2014-01-01

    Electroanatomic mapping systems collect increasingly large quantities of spatially-distributed electrical data which may be potentially further scrutinized post-operatively to expose mechanistic properties which sustain and perpetuate atrial fibrillation. We describe a modular software platform, developed to post-process and rapidly analyse data exported from electroanatomic mapping systems using a range of existing and novel algorithms. Imaging data highlighting regions of scar can also be overlaid for comparison. In particular, we describe the conduction velocity (CV) mapping algorithm used to highlight wavefront behaviour. CV was found to be particularly sensitive to the spatial distribution of the triangulation points and corresponding activation times. A set of geometric conditions were devised for selecting suitable triangulations of the electrogram set for generating CV maps.

  4. Monolithic carbon structures including suspended single nanowires and nanomeshes as a sensor platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Yeongjin; Heo, Jeong-Il; Madou, Marc; Shin, Heungjoo

    2013-11-01

    With the development of nanomaterial-based nanodevices, it became inevitable to develop cost-effective and simple nanofabrication technologies enabling the formation of nanomaterial assembly in a controllable manner. Herein, we present suspended monolithic carbon single nanowires and nanomeshes bridging two bulk carbon posts, fabricated in a designed manner using two successive UV exposure steps and a single pyrolysis step. The pyrolysis step is accompanied with a significant volume reduction, resulting in the shrinkage of micro-sized photoresist structures into nanoscale carbon structures. Even with the significant elongation of the suspended carbon nanowire induced by the volume reduction of the bulk carbon posts, the resultant tensional stress along the nanowire is not significant but grows along the wire thickness; this tensional stress gradient and the bent supports of the bridge-like carbon nanowire enhance structural robustness and alleviate the stiction problem that suspended nanostructures frequently experience. The feasibility of the suspended carbon nanostructures as a sensor platform was demonstrated by testing its electrochemical behavior, conductivity-temperature relationship, and hydrogen gas sensing capability.

  5. Implementation of a near-real time cross-border web-mapping platform on airborne particulate matter (PM) concentration with open-source software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knörchen, Achim; Ketzler, Gunnar; Schneider, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Although Europe has been growing together for the past decades, cross-border information platforms on environmental issues are still scarce. With regard to the establishment of a web-mapping tool on airborne particulate matter (PM) concentration for the Euregio Meuse-Rhine located in the border region of Belgium, Germany and the Netherlands, this article describes the research on methodical and technical backgrounds implementing such a platform. An open-source solution was selected for presenting the data in a Web GIS (OpenLayers/GeoExt; both JavaScript-based), applying other free tools for data handling (Python), data management (PostgreSQL), geo-statistical modelling (Octave), geoprocessing (GRASS GIS/GDAL) and web mapping (MapServer). The multilingual, made-to-order online platform provides access to near-real time data on PM concentration as well as additional background information. In an open data section, commented configuration files for the Web GIS client are being made available for download. Furthermore, all geodata generated by the project is being published under public domain and can be retrieved in various formats or integrated into Desktop GIS as Web Map Services (WMS).

  6. Development and design of an airborne autonomous wavemeter for laser tuning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goad, Joseph H., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    The development and design of an instrument for making water vapor Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) measurements from a down-looking airborne platform are described. The wavemeter device for this NASA-LASE (Lidar Atmospheric Sensing Experiment) project involves a classical Fabry-Perot interferometer approach. The interoferometer design, breadboard design, data retrieval algorithms, and errors are examined, and the design of the airborne instrument is discussed, including the illumination and imaging considerations, optomechanical component arrangement, electronic configuration, and proposed calibration technique.

  7. Routing architecture and security for airborne networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Hongmei; Xie, Peng; Li, Jason; Xu, Roger; Levy, Renato

    2009-05-01

    Airborne networks are envisioned to provide interconnectivity for terrestial and space networks by interconnecting highly mobile airborne platforms. A number of military applications are expected to be used by the operator, and all these applications require proper routing security support to establish correct route between communicating platforms in a timely manner. As airborne networks somewhat different from traditional wired and wireless networks (e.g., Internet, LAN, WLAN, MANET, etc), security aspects valid in these networks are not fully applicable to airborne networks. Designing an efficient security scheme to protect airborne networks is confronted with new requirements. In this paper, we first identify a candidate routing architecture, which works as an underlying structure for our proposed security scheme. And then we investigate the vulnerabilities and attack models against routing protocols in airborne networks. Based on these studies, we propose an integrated security solution to address routing security issues in airborne networks.

  8. Correlation between Asian Dust and Specific Radioactivities of Fission Products Included in Airborne Samples in Tokushima, Shikoku Island, Japan, Due to the Fukushima Nuclear Accident

    SciTech Connect

    Sakama, M.; Nagano, Y.; Kitade, T.; Shikino, O.; Nakayama, S.

    2014-06-15

    Radioactive fission product {sup 131}I released from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plants (FD-NPP) was first detected on March 23, 2011 in an airborne aerosol sample collected at Tokushima, Shikoku Island, located in western Japan. Two other radioactive fission products, {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs were also observed in a sample collected from April 2 to 4, 2011. The maximum specific radioactivities observed in this work were about 2.5 to 3.5 mBq×m{sup -3} in a airborne aerosol sample collected on April 6. During the course of the continuous monitoring, we also made our first observation of seasonal Asian Dust and those fission products associated with the FDNPP accident concurrently from May 2 to 5, 2011. We found that the specific radioactivities of {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs decreased drastically only during the period of Asian Dust. And also, it was found that this trend was very similar to the atmospheric elemental concentration (ng×m{sup -3}) variation of stable cesium ({sup 133}Cs) quantified by elemental analyses using our developed ICP-DRC-MS instrument.

  9. Correlation between Asian Dust and Specific Radioactivities of Fission Products Included in Airborne Samples in Tokushima, Shikoku Island, Japan, Due to the Fukushima Nuclear Accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakama, M.; Nagano, Y.; Kitade, T.; Shikino, O.; Nakayama, S.

    2014-06-01

    Radioactive fission product 131I released from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plants (FD-NPP) was first detected on March 23, 2011 in an airborne aerosol sample collected at Tokushima, Shikoku Island, located in western Japan. Two other radioactive fission products, 134Cs and 137Cs were also observed in a sample collected from April 2 to 4, 2011. The maximum specific radioactivities observed in this work were about 2.5 to 3.5 mBq×m-3 in a airborne aerosol sample collected on April 6. During the course of the continuous monitoring, we also made our first observation of seasonal Asian Dust and those fission products associated with the FDNPP accident concurrently from May 2 to 5, 2011. We found that the specific radioactivities of 134Cs and 137Cs decreased drastically only during the period of Asian Dust. And also, it was found that this trend was very similar to the atmospheric elemental concentration (ng×m-3) variation of stable cesium (133Cs) quantified by elemental analyses using our developed ICP-DRC-MS instrument.

  10. Urban greenness influences airborne bacterial community composition.

    PubMed

    Mhuireach, Gwynne; Johnson, Bart R; Altrichter, Adam E; Ladau, Joshua; Meadow, James F; Pollard, Katherine S; Green, Jessica L

    2016-11-15

    Urban green space provides health benefits for city dwellers, and new evidence suggests that microorganisms associated with soil and vegetation could play a role. While airborne microorganisms are ubiquitous in urban areas, the influence of nearby vegetation on airborne microbial communities remains poorly understood. We examined airborne microbial communities in parks and parking lots in Eugene, Oregon, using high-throughput sequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene on the Illumina MiSeq platform to identify bacterial taxa, and GIS to measure vegetation cover in buffer zones of different diameters. Our goal was to explore variation among highly vegetated (parks) versus non-vegetated (parking lots) urban environments. A secondary objective was to evaluate passive versus active collection methods for outdoor airborne microbial sampling. Airborne bacterial communities from five parks were different from those of five parking lots (p=0.023), although alpha diversity was similar. Direct gradient analysis showed that the proportion of vegetated area within a 50m radius of the sampling station explained 15% of the variation in bacterial community composition. A number of key taxa, including several Acidobacteriaceae were substantially more abundant in parks, while parking lots had higher relative abundance of Acetobacteraceae. Parks had greater beta diversity than parking lots, i.e. individual parks were characterized by unique bacterial signatures, whereas parking lot communities tended to be similar to each other. Although parks and parking lots were selected to form pairs of nearby sites, spatial proximity did not appear to affect compositional similarity. Our results also showed that passive and active collection methods gave comparable results, indicating the "settling dish" method is effective for outdoor airborne sampling. This work sets a foundation for understanding how urban vegetation may impact microbial communities, with potential implications for designing

  11. Urban greenness influences airborne bacterial community composition.

    PubMed

    Mhuireach, Gwynne; Johnson, Bart R; Altrichter, Adam E; Ladau, Joshua; Meadow, James F; Pollard, Katherine S; Green, Jessica L

    2016-11-15

    Urban green space provides health benefits for city dwellers, and new evidence suggests that microorganisms associated with soil and vegetation could play a role. While airborne microorganisms are ubiquitous in urban areas, the influence of nearby vegetation on airborne microbial communities remains poorly understood. We examined airborne microbial communities in parks and parking lots in Eugene, Oregon, using high-throughput sequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene on the Illumina MiSeq platform to identify bacterial taxa, and GIS to measure vegetation cover in buffer zones of different diameters. Our goal was to explore variation among highly vegetated (parks) versus non-vegetated (parking lots) urban environments. A secondary objective was to evaluate passive versus active collection methods for outdoor airborne microbial sampling. Airborne bacterial communities from five parks were different from those of five parking lots (p=0.023), although alpha diversity was similar. Direct gradient analysis showed that the proportion of vegetated area within a 50m radius of the sampling station explained 15% of the variation in bacterial community composition. A number of key taxa, including several Acidobacteriaceae were substantially more abundant in parks, while parking lots had higher relative abundance of Acetobacteraceae. Parks had greater beta diversity than parking lots, i.e. individual parks were characterized by unique bacterial signatures, whereas parking lot communities tended to be similar to each other. Although parks and parking lots were selected to form pairs of nearby sites, spatial proximity did not appear to affect compositional similarity. Our results also showed that passive and active collection methods gave comparable results, indicating the "settling dish" method is effective for outdoor airborne sampling. This work sets a foundation for understanding how urban vegetation may impact microbial communities, with potential implications for designing

  12. Latest Advancement In Airborne Relative Gravity Instrumentation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brady, N.

    2011-12-01

    Airborne gravity surveying has been performed with widely varying degrees of success since early experimentation with the Lacoste and Romberg dynamic meter in the 1950s. There are a number of different survey systems currently in operation including relative gravity meters and gradiometers. Airborne gravity is ideally suited to rapid, wide coverage surveying and is not significantly more expensive in more remote and inhospitable terrain which makes airborne measurements one of the few viable options available for cost effective exploration. As improved instrumentation has become available, scientific applications have also been able to take advantage for use in determining sub surface geologic structures, for example under ice sheets in Antarctica, and more recently direct measurement of the geoid to improve the vertical datum in the United States. In 2004, Lacoste and Romberg (now Micro-g Lacoste) decided to build on their success with the newly developed AirSea II dynamic meter and use that system as the basis for a dedicated airborne gravity instrument. Advances in electronics, timing and positioning technology created the opportunity to refine both the hardware and software, and to develop a truly turnkey system that would work well for users with little or no airborne gravity experience as well as those with more extensive experience. The resulting Turnkey Airborne Gravity System (TAGS) was successfully introduced in 2007 and has since been flown in applications from oil, gas and mineral exploration surveys to regional gravity mapping and geoid mapping. The system has been mounted in a variety of airborne platforms including depending on the application of interest. The development experience with the TAGS enabled Micro-g Lacoste to embark on a new project in 2010 to completely redesign the mechanical and electronic components of the system rather than continuing incremental upgrades. Building on the capabilities of the original TAGS, the objectives for the

  13. Airborne wireless communication systems, airborne communication methods, and communication methods

    DOEpatents

    Deaton, Juan D.; Schmitt, Michael J.; Jones, Warren F.

    2011-12-13

    An airborne wireless communication system includes circuitry configured to access information describing a configuration of a terrestrial wireless communication base station that has become disabled. The terrestrial base station is configured to implement wireless communication between wireless devices located within a geographical area and a network when the terrestrial base station is not disabled. The circuitry is further configured, based on the information, to configure the airborne station to have the configuration of the terrestrial base station. An airborne communication method includes answering a 911 call from a terrestrial cellular wireless phone using an airborne wireless communication system.

  14. Helios: a Multi-Purpose LIDAR Simulation Framework for Research, Planning and Training of Laser Scanning Operations with Airborne, Ground-Based Mobile and Stationary Platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bechtold, S.; Höfle, B.

    2016-06-01

    In many technical domains of modern society, there is a growing demand for fast, precise and automatic acquisition of digital 3D models of a wide variety of physical objects and environments. Laser scanning is a popular and widely used technology to cover this demand, but it is also expensive and complex to use to its full potential. However, there might exist scenarios where the operation of a real laser scanner could be replaced by a computer simulation, in order to save time and costs. This includes scenarios like teaching and training of laser scanning, development of new scanner hardware and scanning methods, or generation of artificial scan data sets to support the development of point cloud processing and analysis algorithms. To test the feasibility of this idea, we have developed a highly flexible laser scanning simulation framework named Heidelberg LiDAR Operations Simulator (HELIOS). HELIOS is implemented as a Java library and split up into a core component and multiple extension modules. Extensible Markup Language (XML) is used to define scanner, platform and scene models and to configure the behaviour of modules. Modules were developed and implemented for (1) loading of simulation assets and configuration (i.e. 3D scene models, scanner definitions, survey descriptions etc.), (2) playback of XML survey descriptions, (3) TLS survey planning (i.e. automatic computation of recommended scanning positions) and (4) interactive real-time 3D visualization of simulated surveys. As a proof of concept, we show the results of two experiments: First, a survey planning test in a scene that was specifically created to evaluate the quality of the survey planning algorithm. Second, a simulated TLS scan of a crop field in a precision farming scenario. The results show that HELIOS fulfills its design goals.

  15. Airborne Radar Interferometric Repeat-Pass Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hensley, Scott; Michel, Thierry R.; Jones, Cathleen E.; Muellerschoen, Ronald J.; Chapman, Bruce D.; Fore, Alexander; Simard, Marc; Zebker, Howard A.

    2011-01-01

    Earth science research often requires crustal deformation measurements at a variety of time scales, from seconds to decades. Although satellites have been used for repeat-track interferometric (RTI) synthetic-aperture-radar (SAR) mapping for close to 20 years, RTI is much more difficult to implement from an airborne platform owing to the irregular trajectory of the aircraft compared with microwave imaging radar wavelengths. Two basic requirements for robust airborne repeat-pass radar interferometry include the ability to fly the platform to a desired trajectory within a narrow tube and the ability to have the radar beam pointed in a desired direction to a fraction of a beam width. Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR) is equipped with a precision auto pilot developed by NASA Dryden that allows the platform, a Gulfstream III, to nominally fly within a 5 m diameter tube and with an electronically scanned antenna to position the radar beam to a fraction of a beam width based on INU (inertial navigation unit) attitude angle measurements.

  16. Real-time remote detection and measurement for airborne imaging spectroscopy: a case study with methane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, D. R.; Leifer, I.; Bovensmann, H.; Eastwood, M.; Fladeland, M.; Frankenberg, C.; Gerilowski, K.; Green, R. O.; Kratwurst, S.; Krings, T.; Luna, B.; Thorpe, A. K.

    2015-06-01

    Localized anthropogenic sources of atmospheric CH4 are highly uncertain and temporally variable. Airborne remote measurement is an effective method to detect and quantify these emissions. In a campaign context, the science yield can be dramatically increased by real-time retrievals that allow operators to coordinate multiple measurements of the most active areas. This can improve science outcomes for both single- and multiple-platform missions. We describe a case study of the NASA/ESA CO2 and Methane Experiment (COMEX) campaign in California during June and August/September 2014. COMEX was a multi-platform campaign to measure CH4 plumes released from anthropogenic sources including oil and gas infrastructure. We discuss principles for real-time spectral signature detection and measurement, and report performance on the NASA Next Generation Airborne Visible Infrared Spectrometer (AVIRIS-NG). AVIRIS-NG successfully detected CH4 plumes in real-time at Gb s-1 data rates, characterizing fugitive releases in concert with other in situ and remote instruments. The teams used these real-time CH4 detections to coordinate measurements across multiple platforms, including airborne in situ, airborne non-imaging remote sensing, and ground-based in situ instruments. To our knowledge this is the first reported use of real-time trace gas signature detection in an airborne science campaign, and presages many future applications.

  17. Airborne Transparencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horne, Lois Thommason

    1984-01-01

    Starting from a science project on flight, art students discussed and investigated various means of moving in space. Then they made acetate illustrations which could be used as transparencies. The projection phenomenon made the illustrations look airborne. (CS)

  18. Webinar: Airborne Data Discovery and Analysis with Toolsets for Airborne Data (TAD)

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-10-18

    Webinar: Airborne Data Discovery and Analysis with Toolsets for Airborne Data (TAD) Wednesday, October 26, 2016 Join us on ... based on high-level parameter groups, mission, platform and flight data ranges are available. Registration is now open.  Access the full ...

  19. Optical Communications Link to Airborne Transceiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Regehr, Martin W.; Kovalik, Joseph M.; Biswas, Abhijit

    2011-01-01

    An optical link from Earth to an aircraft demonstrates the ability to establish a link from a ground platform to a transceiver moving overhead. An airplane has a challenging disturbance environment including airframe vibrations and occasional abrupt changes in attitude during flight. These disturbances make it difficult to maintain pointing lock in an optical transceiver in an airplane. Acquisition can also be challenging. In the case of the aircraft link, the ground station initially has no precise knowledge of the aircraft s location. An airborne pointing system has been designed, built, and demonstrated using direct-drive brushless DC motors for passive isolation of pointing disturbances and for high-bandwidth control feedback. The airborne transceiver uses a GPS-INS system to determine the aircraft s position and attitude, and to then illuminate the ground station initially for acquisition. The ground transceiver participates in link-pointing acquisition by first using a wide-field camera to detect initial illumination from the airborne beacon, and to perform coarse pointing. It then transfers control to a high-precision pointing detector. Using this scheme, live video was successfully streamed from the ground to the aircraft at 270 Mb/s while simultaneously downlinking a 50 kb/s data stream from the aircraft to the ground.

  20. MITAS: multisensor imaging technology for airborne surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, John D.

    1991-08-01

    MITAS, a unique and low-cost solution to the problem of collecting and processing multisensor imaging data for airborne surveillance operations has been developed, MITAS results from integrating the established and proven real-time video processing, target tracking, and sensor management software of TAU with commercially available image exploitation and map processing software. The MITAS image analysis station (IAS) supports airborne day/night reconnaissance and surveillance missions involving low-altitude collection platforms employing a suite of sensors to perform reconnaissance functions against a variety of ground and sea targets. The system will detect, locate, and recognize threats likely to be encountered in support of counternarcotic operations and in low-intensity conflict areas. The IAS is capable of autonomous, near real-time target exploitation and has the appropriate communication links to remotely located IAS systems for more extended analysis of sensor data. The IAS supports the collection, fusion, and processing of three main imaging sensors: daylight imagery (DIS), forward looking infrared (FLIR), and infrared line scan (IRLS). The MITAS IAS provides support to all aspects of the airborne surveillance mission, including sensor control, real-time image enhancement, automatic target tracking, sensor fusion, freeze-frame capture, image exploitation, target data-base management, map processing, remote image transmission, and report generation.

  1. Upgrades to the Probabilistic NAS Platform Air Traffic Simulation Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, George; Boisvert, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    This document is the final report for the project entitled "Upgrades to the Probabilistic NAS Platform Air Traffic Simulation Software." This report consists of 17 sections which document the results of the several subtasks of this effort. The Probabilistic NAS Platform (PNP) is an air operations simulation platform developed and maintained by the Saab Sensis Corporation. The improvements made to the PNP simulation include the following: an airborne distributed separation assurance capability, a required time of arrival assignment and conformance capability, and a tactical and strategic weather avoidance capability.

  2. Airborne data acquisition techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Arro, A.A.

    1980-01-01

    The introduction of standards on acceptable procedures for assessing building heat loss has created a dilemma for the contractor performing airborne thermographic surveys. These standards impose specifications on instrumentation, data acquisition, recording, interpretation, and presentation. Under the standard, the contractor has both the obligation of compliance and the requirement of offering his services at a reasonable price. This paper discusses the various aspects of data acquisition for airborne thermographic surveys and various techniques to reduce the costs of this operation. These techniques include the calculation of flight parameters for economical data acquisition, the selection and use of maps for mission planning, and the use of meteorological forecasts for flight scheduling and the actual execution of the mission. The proper consideration of these factors will result in a cost effective data acquisition and will place the contractor in a very competitive position in offering airborne thermographic survey services.

  3. Airborne Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    ATM (Airborne Thematic Mapper) was developed for NSTL (National Space Technology Companies) by Daedalus Company. It offers expanded capabilities for timely, accurate and cost effective identification of areas with prospecting potential. A related system is TIMS, Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner. Originating from Landsat 4, it is also used for agricultural studies, etc.

  4. Experimental Validation of a Compound Control Scheme for a Two-Axis Inertially Stabilized Platform with Multi-Sensors in an Unmanned Helicopter-Based Airborne Power Line Inspection System

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiangyang; Jia, Yuan; Zhao, Qiang; Yu, Ruixia

    2016-01-01

    A compound control scheme is proposed to achieve high control performance for a two-axis inertially stabilized platform (ISP) with multi-sensors applied to an unmanned helicopter (UH)-based airborne power line inspection (APLI) system. Compared with the traditional two closed-loop control scheme that is composed of a high-bandwidth rate loop and a lower bandwidth position loop, a new current loop inside rate loop is particularly designed to suppress the influences of voltage fluctuation from power supply and motor back electromotive force (BEMF) on control precision. In this way, the stabilization accuracy of the ISP is greatly improved. The rate loop, which is the middle one, is used to improve sensor’s stability precision through compensating for various disturbances. To ensure the pointing accuracy of the line of sight (LOS) of multi-sensors, the position loop is designed to be the outer one and acts as the main feedback path, by which the accurate pointing angular position is achieved. To validate the scheme, a series of experiments were carried out. The results show that the proposed compound control scheme can achieve reliable control precision and satisfy the requirements of real APLI tasks. PMID:26978371

  5. Experimental Validation of a Compound Control Scheme for a Two-Axis Inertially Stabilized Platform with Multi-Sensors in an Unmanned Helicopter-Based Airborne Power Line Inspection System.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiangyang; Jia, Yuan; Zhao, Qiang; Yu, Ruixia

    2016-01-01

    A compound control scheme is proposed to achieve high control performance for a two-axis inertially stabilized platform (ISP) with multi-sensors applied to an unmanned helicopter (UH)-based airborne power line inspection (APLI) system. Compared with the traditional two closed-loop control scheme that is composed of a high-bandwidth rate loop and a lower bandwidth position loop, a new current loop inside rate loop is particularly designed to suppress the influences of voltage fluctuation from power supply and motor back electromotive force (BEMF) on control precision. In this way, the stabilization accuracy of the ISP is greatly improved. The rate loop, which is the middle one, is used to improve sensor's stability precision through compensating for various disturbances. To ensure the pointing accuracy of the line of sight (LOS) of multi-sensors, the position loop is designed to be the outer one and acts as the main feedback path, by which the accurate pointing angular position is achieved. To validate the scheme, a series of experiments were carried out. The results show that the proposed compound control scheme can achieve reliable control precision and satisfy the requirements of real APLI tasks. PMID:26978371

  6. Airborne system for testing multispectral reconnaissance technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, Dirk-Roger; Doergeloh, Heinrich; Keil, Heiko; Wetjen, Wilfried

    1999-07-01

    There is an increasing demand for future airborne reconnaissance systems to obtain aerial images for tactical or peacekeeping operations. Especially Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) equipped with multispectral sensor system and with real time jam resistant data transmission capabilities are of high interest. An airborne experimental platform has been developed as testbed to investigate different concepts of reconnaissance systems before their application in UAVs. It is based on a Dornier DO 228 aircraft, which is used as flying platform. Great care has been taken to achieve the possibility to test different kinds of multispectral sensors. Hence basically it is capable to be equipped with an IR sensor head, high resolution aerial cameras of the whole optical spectrum and radar systems. The onboard equipment further includes system for digital image processing, compression, coding, and storage. The data are RF transmitted to the ground station using technologies with high jam resistance. The images, after merging with enhanced vision components, are delivered to the observer who has an uplink data channel available to control flight and imaging parameters.

  7. Remote Sensing Observations of Greenhouse Gases from space based and airborne platforms: from SCIAMACHY and MaMap to CarbonSat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burrows, John P.; Schneising, Oliver; Buchwitz, Michael; Bovensmann, Heinrich; Heymann, Jens; Gerilowski, Konstantin; Krings, Thomas; Krautwurst, Sven; Dickerson, Russ

    2015-04-01

    Methane, CH4, e and carbon dioxide, CO2, play an important role in the earth carbon cycle. They are the two most important long lived greenhouse gases produced by anthropogenic fossil fuel combustion. In order to assess accurately the surface fluxes of CH4 or CO2. The Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric ChartographY, SCIAMACHY, was a national contribution to the ESA Envisat platform: the latter being launched on the 28th February 2002 and operating successfully until April 2012. The SCIAMACHY measurements of the up-welling radiation have been used to retrieve the dry mole fraction of XCH4 and XCO2, providing a unique 10 year record at the spatial resolution of 60 kmx30 km. This data has been used to observe the changing CH4 abundance in the atmosphere and identify anthropogenic such as Fracking and natural sources such as wetlands. The Methane and carbon dioxide Mapper, MaMap, was developed as an aircraft demonstration instrument for our CarbonSat and CarbonSat Constellation concepts. CarbonSat is in Phase A B1 studies as one of two candidate missions for ESA's Earth Explorer 8 Mission. Selected results from SCIAMACHY and Mamap will be presented with a focus on methane and the perspective for CarbonSat.

  8. Airborne Optical and Thermal Remote Sensing for Wildfire Detection and Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Allison, Robert S; Johnston, Joshua M; Craig, Gregory; Jennings, Sion

    2016-08-18

    For decades detection and monitoring of forest and other wildland fires has relied heavily on aircraft (and satellites). Technical advances and improved affordability of both sensors and sensor platforms promise to revolutionize the way aircraft detect, monitor and help suppress wildfires. Sensor systems like hyperspectral cameras, image intensifiers and thermal cameras that have previously been limited in use due to cost or technology considerations are now becoming widely available and affordable. Similarly, new airborne sensor platforms, particularly small, unmanned aircraft or drones, are enabling new applications for airborne fire sensing. In this review we outline the state of the art in direct, semi-automated and automated fire detection from both manned and unmanned aerial platforms. We discuss the operational constraints and opportunities provided by these sensor systems including a discussion of the objective evaluation of these systems in a realistic context.

  9. Airborne Optical and Thermal Remote Sensing for Wildfire Detection and Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Allison, Robert S.; Johnston, Joshua M.; Craig, Gregory; Jennings, Sion

    2016-01-01

    For decades detection and monitoring of forest and other wildland fires has relied heavily on aircraft (and satellites). Technical advances and improved affordability of both sensors and sensor platforms promise to revolutionize the way aircraft detect, monitor and help suppress wildfires. Sensor systems like hyperspectral cameras, image intensifiers and thermal cameras that have previously been limited in use due to cost or technology considerations are now becoming widely available and affordable. Similarly, new airborne sensor platforms, particularly small, unmanned aircraft or drones, are enabling new applications for airborne fire sensing. In this review we outline the state of the art in direct, semi-automated and automated fire detection from both manned and unmanned aerial platforms. We discuss the operational constraints and opportunities provided by these sensor systems including a discussion of the objective evaluation of these systems in a realistic context. PMID:27548174

  10. Airborne Optical and Thermal Remote Sensing for Wildfire Detection and Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Allison, Robert S; Johnston, Joshua M; Craig, Gregory; Jennings, Sion

    2016-01-01

    For decades detection and monitoring of forest and other wildland fires has relied heavily on aircraft (and satellites). Technical advances and improved affordability of both sensors and sensor platforms promise to revolutionize the way aircraft detect, monitor and help suppress wildfires. Sensor systems like hyperspectral cameras, image intensifiers and thermal cameras that have previously been limited in use due to cost or technology considerations are now becoming widely available and affordable. Similarly, new airborne sensor platforms, particularly small, unmanned aircraft or drones, are enabling new applications for airborne fire sensing. In this review we outline the state of the art in direct, semi-automated and automated fire detection from both manned and unmanned aerial platforms. We discuss the operational constraints and opportunities provided by these sensor systems including a discussion of the objective evaluation of these systems in a realistic context. PMID:27548174

  11. Airborne seeker evaluation and test system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jollie, William B.

    1991-08-01

    The Airborne Seeker Evaluation Test System (ASETS) is an airborne platform for development, test, and evaluation of air-to-ground seekers and sensors. ASETS consists of approximately 10,000 pounds of equipment, including sixteen racks of control, display, and recording electronics, and a very large stabilized airborne turret, all carried by a modified C- 130A aircraft. The turret measures 50 in. in diameter and extends over 50 in. below the aircraft. Because of the low ground clearance of the C-130, a unique retractor mechanism was designed to raise the turret inside the aircraft for take-offs and landings, and deploy the turret outside the aircraft for testing. The turret has over 7 cubic feet of payload space and can accommodate up to 300 pounds of instrumentation, including missile seekers, thermal imagers, infrared mapping systems, laser systems, millimeter wave radar units, television cameras, and laser rangers. It contains a 5-axis gyro-stabilized gimbal system that will maintain a line of sight in the pitch, roll, and yaw axes to an accuracy better than +/- 125 (mu) rad. The rack-mounted electronics in the aircraft cargo bay can be interchanged to operate any type of sensor and record the data. Six microcomputer subsystems operate and maintain all of the system components during a test mission. ASETS is capable of flying at altitudes between 200 and 20,000 feet, and at airspeeds ranging from 100 to 250 knots. Mission scenarios can include air-to-surface seeker testing, terrain mapping, surface target measurement, air-to-air testing, atmospheric transmission studies, weather data collection, aircraft or missile tracking, background signature measurements, and surveillance. ASETS is fully developed and available to support test programs.

  12. Airborne Relay-Based Regional Positioning System

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyuman; Noh, Hongjun; Lim, Jaesung

    2015-01-01

    Ground-based pseudolite systems have some limitations, such as low vertical accuracy, multipath effects and near-far problems. These problems are not significant in airborne-based pseudolite systems. However, the monitoring of pseudolite positions is required because of the mobility of the platforms on which the pseudolites are mounted, and this causes performance degradation. To address these pseudolite system limitations, we propose an airborne relay-based regional positioning system that consists of a master station, reference stations, airborne relays and a user. In the proposed system, navigation signals are generated from the reference stations located on the ground and are relayed via the airborne relays. Unlike in conventional airborne-based systems, the user in the proposed system sequentially estimates both the locations of airborne relays and his/her own position. Therefore, a delay due to monitoring does not occur, and the accuracy is not affected by the movement of airborne relays. We conducted several simulations to evaluate the performance of the proposed system. Based on the simulation results, we demonstrated that the proposed system guarantees a higher accuracy than airborne-based pseudolite systems, and it is feasible despite the existence of clock offsets among reference stations. PMID:26029953

  13. MLS airborne antenna research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, C. L.; Burnside, W. D.

    1975-01-01

    The geometrical theory of diffraction was used to analyze the elevation plane pattern of on-aircraft antennas. The radiation patterns for basic elements (infinitesimal dipole, circumferential and axial slot) mounted on fuselage of various aircrafts with or without radome included were calculated and compared well with experimental results. Error phase plots were also presented. The effects of radiation patterns and error phase plots on the polarization selection for the MLS airborne antenna are discussed.

  14. Airborne forest fire research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattingly, G. S.

    1974-01-01

    The research relating to airborne fire fighting systems is reviewed to provide NASA/Langley Research Center with current information on the use of aircraft in forest fire operations, and to identify research requirements for future operations. A literature survey, interview of forest fire service personnel, analysis and synthesis of data from research reports and independent conclusions, and recommendations for future NASA-LRC programs are included.

  15. The Next Generation Airborne Polarimetric Doppler Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vivekanandan, J.; Lee, Wen-Chau; Loew, Eric; Salazar, Jorge; Chandrasekar, V.

    2013-04-01

    aircraft in its fleet for airborne atmospheric measurements, including dropsonde, and in situ sampling and remote sensing of clouds, chemistry and aerosols. Therefore, the addition of a precipitation radar to the NSF/NCAR C-130 platform will produce transformational change in its mission. This new design can be cloned for C-130s operated by a number of agencies, including NOAA and the Air Force hurricane reconnaissance fleet. This paper presents a possible configuration of a novel, airborne phased array radar (APAR) to be installed on the NSF/NCAR C-130 aircraft with improved spatial resolution and polarimetric capability to meet or exceed that of ELDORA. The preliminary design, an update of the APAR project, and a future plan will be presented. References: Bell, M. M. , M. T. Montgomery, 2008: Observed Structure, Evolution, and Potential Intensity of Category 5 Hurricane Isabel (2003) from 12 to 14 September. Monthly Weather Review, Vol. 136, Issue 6, pp. 2023-2046. Hildebrand, P. H., W.-C. Lee, C. A. Walther, C. Frush, M. Randall, E. Loew, R. Neitzel, R. Parsons, J. Testud, F. Baudin, and A. LeCornec, 1996: The ELDORA/ASTRAIA airborne Doppler weather radar: High resolution observations from TOGA COARE. Bull. Amer. Metoro. Soc., 77, 213-232 Howard B. Bluestein, Roger M. Wakimoto, 2003: Mobile Radar Observations of Severe Convective Storms re Convective Storms. Meteorological Monographs, Vol. 30, Issue 52, pp. 105-105. Montgomery, M. T., M. M. Bell, S. D. Aberson, M. L. Black, 2006: Hurricane Isabel (2003): New Insights into the Physics of Intense Storms. Part I: Mean Vortex Structure and Maximum Intensity Estimates. Bull. of the American Meteorl. Soc., Vol. 87, Issue 10, pp. 1335-1347.

  16. Airborne infrared hyperspectral imager for intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagueux, Philippe; Puckrin, Eldon; Turcotte, Caroline S.; Gagnon, Marc-André; Bastedo, John; Farley, Vincent; Chamberland, Martin

    2012-09-01

    Persistent surveillance and collection of airborne intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance information is critical in today's warfare against terrorism. High resolution imagery in visible and infrared bands provides valuable detection capabilities based on target shapes and temperatures. However, the spectral resolution provided by a hyperspectral imager adds a spectral dimension to the measurements, leading to additional tools for detection and identification of targets, based on their spectral signature. The Telops Hyper-Cam sensor is an interferometer-based imaging system that enables the spatial and spectral analysis of targets using a single sensor. It is based on the Fourier-transform technology yielding high spectral resolution and enabling high accuracy radiometric calibration. It provides datacubes of up to 320×256 pixels at spectral resolutions as fine as 0.25 cm-1. The LWIR version covers the 8.0 to 11.8 μm spectral range. The Hyper-Cam has been recently used for the first time in two compact airborne platforms: a bellymounted gyro-stabilized platform and a gyro-stabilized gimbal ball. Both platforms are described in this paper, and successful results of high-altitude detection and identification of targets, including industrial plumes, and chemical spills are presented.

  17. Airborne infrared hyperspectral imager for intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puckrin, Eldon; Turcotte, Caroline S.; Gagnon, Marc-André; Bastedo, John; Farley, Vincent; Chamberland, Martin

    2012-06-01

    Persistent surveillance and collection of airborne intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance information is critical in today's warfare against terrorism. High resolution imagery in visible and infrared bands provides valuable detection capabilities based on target shapes and temperatures. However, the spectral resolution provided by a hyperspectral imager adds a spectral dimension to the measurements, leading to additional tools for detection and identification of targets, based on their spectral signature. The Telops Hyper-Cam sensor is an interferometer-based imaging system that enables the spatial and spectral analysis of targets using a single sensor. It is based on the Fourier-transform technology yielding high spectral resolution and enabling high accuracy radiometric calibration. It provides datacubes of up to 320×256 pixels at spectral resolutions as fine as 0.25 cm-1. The LWIR version covers the 8.0 to 11.8 μm spectral range. The Hyper-Cam has been recently used for the first time in two compact airborne platforms: a belly-mounted gyro-stabilized platform and a gyro-stabilized gimbal ball. Both platforms are described in this paper, and successful results of high-altitude detection and identification of targets, including industrial plumes, and chemical spills are presented.

  18. Airborne LIDAR Data Processing and Analysis Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, K.

    2007-12-01

    Airborne LIDAR technology allows accurate and inexpensive measurements of topography, vegetation canopy heights, and buildings over large areas. In order to provide researchers high quality data, NSF has created the National Center for Airborne Laser Mapping (NCALM) to collect, archive, and distribute the LIDAR data. However, the LIDAR systems collect voluminous irregularly-spaced, three-dimensional point measurements of ground and non-ground objects scanned by the laser beneath the aircraft. To advance the use of the technology and data, NCALM is developing public domain algorithms for ground and non-ground measurement classification and tools for data retrieval and transformation. We present the main functions of the ALDPAT (Airborne LIDAR Data Processing and Analysis Tools) developed by NCALM. While Geographic Information Systems (GIS) provide a useful platform for storing, analyzing, and visualizing most spatial data, the shear volume of raw LIDAR data makes most commercial GIS packages impractical. Instead, we have developed a suite of applications in ALDPAT which combine self developed C++ programs with the APIs of commercial remote sensing and GIS software. Tasks performed by these applications include: 1) transforming data into specified horizontal coordinate systems and vertical datums; 2) merging and sorting data into manageable sized tiles, typically 4 square kilometers in dimension; 3) filtering point data to separate measurements for the ground from those for non-ground objects; 4) interpolating the irregularly spaced elevations onto a regularly spaced grid to allow raster based analysis; and 5) converting the gridded data into standard GIS import formats. The ALDPAT 1.0 is available through http://lidar.ihrc.fiu.edu/.

  19. Solid state recorders for airborne reconnaissance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klang, Mark R.

    2003-08-01

    Solid state recorders have become the recorder of choice for meeting airborne ruggedized requirements for reconnaissance and flight test. The cost of solid state recorders have decreased over the past few years that they are now less expense than the traditional high speed tape recorders. CALCULEX, Inc manufactures solid state recorders called MONSSTR (Modular Non-volatile Solid State Recorder). MONSSTR is being used on many different platforms such as F/A-22, Global Hawk, F-14, F-15, F-16, U-2, RF-4, and Tornado. This paper will discuss the advantages of using solid state recorders to meet the airborne reconnaissance requirement and the ability to record instrumentation data. The CALCULEX recorder has the ability to record sensor data and flight test data in the same chassis. This is an important feature because it eliminates additional boxes on the aircraft. The major advantages to using a solid state recorder include; reliability, small size, light weight, and power. Solid state recorders also have a larger storage capacity and higher bandwidth capability than other recording devices.

  20. Real-time remote detection and measurement for airborne imaging spectroscopy: a case study with methane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, D. R.; Leifer, I.; Bovensmann, H.; Eastwood, M.; Fladeland, M.; Frankenberg, C.; Gerilowski, K.; Green, R. O.; Kratwurst, S.; Krings, T.; Luna, B.; Thorpe, A. K.

    2015-10-01

    Localized anthropogenic sources of atmospheric CH4 are highly uncertain and temporally variable. Airborne remote measurement is an effective method to detect and quantify these emissions. In a campaign context, the science yield can be dramatically increased by real-time retrievals that allow operators to coordinate multiple measurements of the most active areas. This can improve science outcomes for both single- and multiple-platform missions. We describe a case study of the NASA/ESA CO2 and MEthane eXperiment (COMEX) campaign in California during June and August/September 2014. COMEX was a multi-platform campaign to measure CH4 plumes released from anthropogenic sources including oil and gas infrastructure. We discuss principles for real-time spectral signature detection and measurement, and report performance on the NASA Next Generation Airborne Visible Infrared Spectrometer (AVIRIS-NG). AVIRIS-NG successfully detected CH4 plumes in real-time at Gb s-1 data rates, characterizing fugitive releases in concert with other in situ and remote instruments. The teams used these real-time CH4 detections to coordinate measurements across multiple platforms, including airborne in situ, airborne non-imaging remote sensing, and ground-based in situ instruments. To our knowledge this is the first reported use of real-time trace-gas signature detection in an airborne science campaign, and presages many future applications. Post-analysis demonstrates matched filter methods providing noise-equivalent (1σ) detection sensitivity for 1.0 % CH4 column enhancements equal to 141 ppm m.

  1. Inter-agency Working Group for Airborne Data and Telemetry Systems (IWGADTS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webster, Chris; Freudinge, Lawrence; Sorenson, Carl; Myers, Jeff; Sullivan, Don; Oolman, Larry

    2009-01-01

    The Interagency Coordinating Committee for Airborne Geosciences Research and Applications (ICCAGRA) was established to improve cooperation and communication among agencies sponsoring airborne platforms and instruments for research and applications, and to serve as a resource for senior level management on airborne geosciences issues. The Interagency Working Group for Airborne Data and Telecommunications Systems (IWGADTS) is a subgroup to ICCAGRA for the purpose of developing recommendations leading to increased interoperability among airborne platforms and instrument payloads, producing increased synergy among research programs with similar goals, and enabling the suborbital layer of the Global Earth Observing System of Systems.

  2. Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer and Airborne Emission Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glavich, T.; Beer, R.

    1996-01-01

    The Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) is an instrument being developed for the NASA Earth Observing System Chemistry Platform. TES will measure the distribution of ozone and its precursors in the lower atmosphere. The Airborne Emission Spectrometer (AES) is an aircraft precursor to TES. Applicable descriptions are given of instrument design, technology challenges, implementation and operations for both.

  3. Raytheon low temperature RSP2 cryocooler airborne testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, B. R.; Bellis, L.; Ellis, M. J.; Conrad, T. J.

    2014-01-01

    The Raytheon Cryocooler Product Line tested the Low Temperature Stirling / Pulse Tube Hybrid 2-Stage (LTRSP2) cryocooler for an airborne application during 2012. Several tests were carried out to verify the ability of the machine to operate in an airborne environment. The vacuum level and heat rejection surface temperatures were varied to determine the performance over the excursions. Vibration testing was performed to prove that the LT-RSP2 cryocooler can operate on an airborne platform. This paper will present the results of the airborne characterization testing.

  4. Raytheon low temperature RSP2 cryocooler airborne testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, B. R.; Bellis, L.; Ellis, M. J.; Conrad, T. J.

    2013-09-01

    The Raytheon Cryocooler Product Line tested the Low Temperature Stirling / Pulse Tube Hybrid 2-Stage (LTRSP2) cryocooler for an airborne application during 2012. Several tests were carried out to verify the ability of the machine to operate in an airborne environment. The vacuum level and heat rejection surface temperatures were varied to determine the performance over the excursions. Vibration testing was performed to prove that the LT-RSP2 cryocooler can operate on an airborne platform. This paper will present the results of the airborne characterization testing.

  5. Airborne Oceanographic Lidar (AOL) (Global Carbon Cycle)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This bimonthly contractor progress report covers the operation, maintenance and data management of the Airborne Oceanographic Lidar and the Airborne Topographic Mapper. Monthly activities included: mission planning, sensor operation and calibration, data processing, data analysis, network development and maintenance and instrument maintenance engineering and fabrication.

  6. Airborne Synthetic Aperature Radar (AIRSAR) on left rear fuselage of DC-8 Airborne Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    A view of the Airborne Synthetic Aperature Radar (AIRSAR) antenna on the left rear fuselage of the DC-8. The AIRSAR captures images of the ground from the side of the aircraft and can provide precision digital elevation mapping capabilities for a variety of studies. The AIRSAR is one of a number of research systems that have been added to the DC-8. NASA is using a DC-8 aircraft as a flying science laboratory. The platform aircraft, based at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif., collects data for many experiments in support of scientific projects serving the world scientific community. Included in this community are NASA, federal, state, academic and foreign investigators. Data gathered by the DC-8 at flight altitude and by remote sensing have been used for scientific studies in archeology, ecology, geography, hydrology, meteorology, oceanography, volcanology, atmospheric chemistry, soil science and biology.

  7. Performance metrics for an airborne imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dayton, David C.; Gonglewski, John D.

    2004-11-01

    A series of airborne imaging experiments have been conducted on the island of Maui and at North Oscura Peak in New Mexico. Two platform altitudes were considered 3000 meters and 600 meters, both with a slant range to the target up to 10000 meters. The airborne imaging platform was a Twin Otter aircraft, which circled ground target sites. The second was a fixed platform on a mountain peak overlooking a valley 600 meters below. The experiments were performed during the day using solar illuminated target buildings. Imaging system performance predictions were calculated using standard atmospheric turbulence models, and aircraft boundary layer models. Several different measurement approaches were then used to estimate the actual system performance, and make comparisons with the calculations.

  8. Airborne Oceanographic Lidar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bressel, C.; Itzkan, I.; Nunes, J. E.; Hoge, F.

    1977-01-01

    The Airborne Oceanographic Lidar (AOL), a spatially scanning range-gated device installed on board a NASA C-54 aircraft, is described. The AOL system is capable of measuring topographical relief or water depth (bathymetry) with a range resolution of plus or minus 0.3 m in the vertical dimension. The system may also be used to measure fluorescent spectral signatures from 3500 to 8000 A with a resolution of 100 A. Potential applications of the AOL, including sea state measurements, water transparency assessments, oil spill identification, effluent identification and crop cover assessment are also mentioned.

  9. Airborne Precision Spacing for Dependent Parallel Operations Interface Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volk, Paul M.; Takallu, M. A.; Hoffler, Keith D.; Weiser, Jarold; Turner, Dexter

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a usability study of proposed cockpit interfaces to support Airborne Precision Spacing (APS) operations for aircraft performing dependent parallel approaches (DPA). NASA has proposed an airborne system called Pair Dependent Speed (PDS) which uses their Airborne Spacing for Terminal Arrival Routes (ASTAR) algorithm to manage spacing intervals. Interface elements were designed to facilitate the input of APS-DPA spacing parameters to ASTAR, and to convey PDS system information to the crew deemed necessary and/or helpful to conduct the operation, including: target speed, guidance mode, target aircraft depiction, and spacing trend indication. In the study, subject pilots observed recorded simulations using the proposed interface elements in which the ownship managed assigned spacing intervals from two other arriving aircraft. Simulations were recorded using the Aircraft Simulation for Traffic Operations Research (ASTOR) platform, a medium-fidelity simulator based on a modern Boeing commercial glass cockpit. Various combinations of the interface elements were presented to subject pilots, and feedback was collected via structured questionnaires. The results of subject pilot evaluations show that the proposed design elements were acceptable, and that preferable combinations exist within this set of elements. The results also point to potential improvements to be considered for implementation in future experiments.

  10. Predictors of airborne endotoxin concentrations in inner city homes.

    PubMed

    Mazique, D; Diette, G B; Breysse, P N; Matsui, E C; McCormack, M C; Curtin-Brosnan, J; Williams, D L; Peng, R D; Hansel, N N

    2011-05-01

    Few studies have assessed in home factors which contribute to airborne endotoxin concentrations. In 85 inner city Baltimore homes, we found no significant correlation between settled dust and airborne endotoxin concentrations. Certain household activities and characteristics, including frequency of dusting, air conditioner use and type of flooring, explained 36-42% of the variability of airborne concentrations. Measurements of both airborne and settled dust endotoxin concentrations may be needed to fully characterize domestic exposure in epidemiologic investigations. PMID:21429483

  11. Stratospheric air sampling platform/sensor tradeoffs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arno, R. D.; Page, W.

    1976-01-01

    Results of a study are described in which in-situ and remote sensing instrumentation are considered for accommodation on airborne platforms capable of reaching stratospheric altitudes. The instrumentation measures trace species of importance to present concerns regarding stratospheric pollution and possible ozone depletion. The platforms examined were the U-2, modified U-2, balloon, rocket, F-15 flown in a zoom-climb maneuver, YF-12, and remotely piloted vehicle (RPV). The sensors and performance characteristics of the platforms are described and special problems of sensor-platform integration are discussed. A typical latitudinal sampling mission is utilized to describe platform logistics problems and how the platforms might perform such missions.

  12. Potential of Airborne Imaging Spectroscopy at Czechglobe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanuš, J.; Fabiánek, T.; Fajmon, L.

    2016-06-01

    Ecosystems, their services, structures and functions are affected by complex environmental processes, which are both natural and human-induced and globally changing. In order to understand how ecosystems behave in globally changing environment, it is important to monitor the current status of ecosystems and their structural and functional changes in time and space. An essential tool allowing monitoring of ecosystems is remote sensing (RS). Many ecosystems variables are being translated into a spectral response recorded by RS instruments. It is however important to understand the complexity and synergies of the key ecosystem variables influencing the reflected signal. This can be achieved by analysing high resolution RS data from multiple sources acquired simultaneously from the same platform. Such a system has been recently built at CzechGlobe - Global Change Research Institute (The Czech Academy of Sciences). CzechGlobe has been significantly extending its research infrastructure in the last years, which allows advanced monitoring of ecosystem changes at hierarchical levels spanning from molecules to entire ecosystems. One of the CzechGlobe components is a laboratory of imaging spectroscopy. The laboratory is now operating a new platform for advanced remote sensing observations called FLIS (Flying Laboratory of Imaging Spectroscopy). FLIS consists of an airborne carrier equipped with passive RS systems. The core instrument of FLIS is a hyperspectral imaging system provided by Itres Ltd. The hyperspectral system consists of three spectroradiometers (CASI 1500, SASI 600 and TASI 600) that cover the reflective spectral range from 380 to 2450 nm, as well as the thermal range from 8 to 11.5 μm. The airborne platform is prepared for mounting of full-waveform laser scanner Riegl-Q780 as well, however a laser scanner is not a permanent part of FLIS. In 2014 the installation of the hyperspectral scanners was completed and the first flights were carried out with all

  13. Design distributed simulation platform for vehicle management system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Zhaodong; Wang, Zhanlin; Qiu, Lihua

    2006-11-01

    Next generation military aircraft requires the airborne management system high performance. General modules, data integration, high speed data bus and so on are needed to share and manage information of the subsystems efficiently. The subsystems include flight control system, propulsion system, hydraulic power system, environmental control system, fuel management system, electrical power system and so on. The unattached or mixed architecture is changed to integrated architecture. That means the whole airborne system is regarded into one system to manage. So the physical devices are distributed but the system information is integrated and shared. The process function of each subsystem are integrated (including general process modules, dynamic reconfiguration), furthermore, the sensors and the signal processing functions are shared. On the other hand, it is a foundation for power shared. Establish a distributed vehicle management system using 1553B bus and distributed processors which can provide a validation platform for the research of airborne system integrated management. This paper establishes the Vehicle Management System (VMS) simulation platform. Discuss the software and hardware configuration and analyze the communication and fault-tolerant method.

  14. Study of airborne science experiment management concepts for application to space shuttle, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulholland, D. R.; Reller, J. O., Jr.; Neel, C. B.; Haughney, L. C.

    1973-01-01

    Airborne research management and shuttle sortie planning at the Ames Research Center are reported. Topics discussed include: basic criteria and procedures for the formulation and approval of airborne missions; ASO management structure and procedures; experiment design, development, and testing aircraft characteristics and experiment interfaces; information handling for airborne science missions; mission documentation requirements; and airborne science methods and shuttle sortie planning.

  15. Segway robotic mobility platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Hoa G.; Morrell, John; Mullens, Katherine D.; Burmeister, Aaron B.; Miles, Susan; Farrington, Nathan; Thomas, Kari M.; Gage, Douglas W.

    2004-12-01

    The Segway Robotic Mobility Platform (RMP) is a new mobile robotic platform based on the self-balancing Segway Human Transporter (HT). The Segway RMP is faster, cheaper, and more agile than existing comparable platforms. It is also rugged, has a small footprint, a zero turning radius, and yet can carry a greater payload. The new geometry of the platform presents researchers with an opportunity to examine novel topics, including people-height sensing and actuation modalities. This paper describes the history and development of the platform, its characteristics, and a summary of current research projects involving the platform at various institutions across the United States.

  16. CARABAS - an airborne VHF SAR system

    SciTech Connect

    Larsson, B.; Frolined, P.O.; Gustavsson, A.

    1996-11-01

    There is an increasing interest in imaging radar systems operating at low frequencies, Examples of civilian and military applications are detection of stealth-designed man-made objects, targets hidden under foliage, biomass estimation, and penetration into glaciers or ground. CARABAS (Coherent All Radio Band Sensing) is a new airborne SAR system developed by FOA. It is designed for operation in the lowest part of the VHF band (20-90 NHz), using horizontal polarisation. This frequency region gives the system a good ability to penetrate vegetation and to some extent ground. CARABAS is the first known SAR sensor with a capability of diffraction limited imaging, i.e. a resolution in magnitude of the adopted wavelengths. A Sabreliner business jet aircraft is used as the airborne platform. Critical parts in the development have been the antenna system, the receiver and the processing algorithms. Based upon the experiences gained with CARABAS I a major system upgrade is now taking place. The new CARABAS II system is scheduled to fly in May 1996. This system is designed to give operational performance while CARABAS I was used to verify the feasibility. The first major field campaigns are planned for the second half of 1996. CARABAS II is jointly developed by FOA and Ericsson Microwave Systems AB in Sweden. This paper will give an overview of the system design and data collected with the current radar system, including some results for forested regions. The achieved system performance will be discussed, with a presentation of the major modifications made in the new CARABAS 11 system. 12 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Modeling for Airborne Contamination

    SciTech Connect

    F.R. Faillace; Y. Yuan

    2000-08-31

    The objective of Modeling for Airborne Contamination (referred to from now on as ''this report'') is to provide a documented methodology, along with supporting information, for estimating the release, transport, and assessment of dose to workers from airborne radioactive contaminants within the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) subsurface during the pre-closure period. Specifically, this report provides engineers and scientists with methodologies for estimating how concentrations of contaminants might be distributed in the air and on the drift surfaces if released from waste packages inside the repository. This report also provides dose conversion factors for inhalation, air submersion, and ground exposure pathways used to derive doses to potentially exposed subsurface workers. The scope of this report is limited to radiological contaminants (particulate, volatile and gaseous) resulting from waste package leaks (if any) and surface contamination and their transport processes. Neutron activation of air, dust in the air and the rock walls of the drift during the preclosure time is not considered within the scope of this report. Any neutrons causing such activation are not themselves considered to be ''contaminants'' released from the waste package. This report: (1) Documents mathematical models and model parameters for evaluating airborne contaminant transport within the MGR subsurface; and (2) Provides tables of dose conversion factors for inhalation, air submersion, and ground exposure pathways for important radionuclides. The dose conversion factors for air submersion and ground exposure pathways are further limited to drift diameters of 7.62 m and 5.5 m, corresponding to the main and emplacement drifts, respectively. If the final repository design significantly deviates from these drift dimensions, the results in this report may require revision. The dose conversion factors are further derived by using concrete of sufficient thickness to simulate the drift

  18. EUFAR the unique portal for airborne research in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gérard, Elisabeth; Brown, Philip

    2016-04-01

    , the website offers easy navigation, and user friendly functionalities. New features also include a section on news and airborne research stories to keep users up-to-date on EUFAR's activities, a career section, photo galleries, and much more. By elaborating new solutions for the web portal, EUFAR continues to serve as an interactive and dynamic platform bringing together experts, early-stage researchers, operators, data users, industry and other stakeholders in the airborne research community. A main focus of the current project is the establishment of a sustainable legal structure for EUFAR. This is critical to ensuring the continuity of EUFAR and securing, at the least, partial financial independence from the European Commission who has been funding the project since its start. After carefully examining different legal forms relevant for EUFAR, the arguments are strongly in favour of establishing an International non-profit Association under the Belgian law (AISBL). Together with the implementation of an Open Access scheme by means of resource-sharing to support the mobility of personnel across countries envisaged in 2016, such a sustainable structure would contribute substantially toward broadening the user base of existing airborne research facilities in Europe and mobilising additional resources for this end. In essence, this would cement EUFAR's position as the key portal for airborne research in Europe.

  19. Airborne laser communication technology and flight test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Li-xin; Zhang, Li-zhong; Li, Xiao-ming; Li, Ying-chao; Jiang, Hui-lin

    2015-11-01

    Reconnaissance aircraft is an important node of the space-air-ground integrated information network, on which equipped with a large number of high-resolution surveillance equipment, and need high speed communications equipment to transmit detected information in real time. Currently RF communication methods cannot meet the needs of communication bandwidth. Wireless laser communication has outstanding advantages high speed, high capacity, security, etc., is an important means to solve the high-speed information transmission of airborne platforms. In this paper, detailed analysis of how the system works, the system components, work processes, link power and the key technologies of airborne laser communication were discussed. On this basis, a prototype airborne laser communications was developed, and high-speed, long-distance communications tests were carried out between the two fixed-wing aircraft, and the airborne precision aiming, atmospheric laser communication impacts on laser communication were tested. The experiments ultimately realize that, the communication distance is 144km, the communication rate is 2.5Gbps. The Airborne laser communication experiments provide technical basis for the application of the conversion equipment.

  20. Second International Airborne Remote Sensing Conference and Exhibition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The conference provided four days of displays and scientific presentations on applications, technology, a science of sub-orbital data gathering and analysis. The twelve displayed aircraft equipped with sophisticated instrumentation represented a wide range of environmental and reconnaissance missions,including marine pollution control, fire detection, Open Skies Treaty verification, thermal mapping, hydrographical measurements, military research, ecological and agricultural observations, geophysical research, atmospheric and meterological observations, and aerial photography. The U.S. Air Force and the On-Site Inspection Agency displayed the new Open Skies Treaty verification Boeing OC 135B that promotes international monitoring of military forces and activities. SRl's Jetstream uses foliage and ground penetrating SAR for forest inventories, toxic waste delineation, and concealed target and buried unexploded ordnance detection. Earth Search Sciences's Gulfstream 1 with prototype miniaturized airborne hyperspectral imaging equipment specializes in accurate mineral differentiation, low-cost hydrocarbon exploration, and nonproliferation applications. John E. Chance and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers displayed the Bell 2 helicopter with SHOALS that performs hydrographic surveying of navigation projects, coastal environment assessment, and nautical charting surveys. Bechtel Nevada and U.S. DOE displayed both the Beech King AIR B-200 platform equipped to provide first response to nuclear accidents and routine environmental surveillance, and the MBB BO-105 helicopter used in spectral analysis for environmental assessment and military appraisal. NASA Ames Research Center's high-altitude Lockheed ER-2 assists in earth resources monitoring research in atmospheric chemistry, oceanography, and electronic sensors; ozone and greenhouse studies and satellite calibration and data validation. Ames also showcased the Learjet 24 Airborne Observatory that completed missions in Venus

  1. CCD video camera and airborne applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturz, Richard A.

    2000-11-01

    The human need to see for ones self and to do so remotely, has given rise to video camera applications never before imagined and growing constantly. The instant understanding and verification offered by video lends its applications to every facet of life. Once an entertainment media, video is now ever present in out daily life. The application to the aircraft platform is one aspect of the video camera versatility. Integrating the video camera into the aircraft platform is yet another story. The typical video camera when applied to more standard scene imaging poses less demanding parameters and considerations. This paper explores the video camera as applied to the more complicated airborne environment.

  2. Airborne Wind Turbine

    SciTech Connect

    2010-09-01

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: Makani Power is developing an Airborne Wind Turbine (AWT) that eliminates 90% of the mass of a conventional wind turbine and accesses a stronger, more consistent wind at altitudes of near 1,000 feet. At these altitudes, 85% of the country can offer viable wind resources compared to only 15% accessible with current technology. Additionally, the Makani Power wing can be economically deployed in deep offshore waters, opening up a resource which is 4 times greater than the entire U.S. electrical generation capacity. Makani Power has demonstrated the core technology, including autonomous launch, land, and power generation with an 8 meter wingspan, 20 kW prototype. At commercial scale, Makani Power aims to develop a 600 kW, 28 meter wingspan product capable of delivering energy at an unsubsidized cost competitive with coal, the current benchmark for low-cost power.

  3. Exposure level and distribution characteristics of airborne bacteria and fungi in Seoul metropolitan subway stations.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki Youn; Kim, Yoon Shin; Kim, Daekeun; Kim, Hyeon Tae

    2011-01-01

    The exposure level and distribution characteristics of airborne bacteria and fungi were assessed in the workers' activity areas (station office, bedroom, ticket office and driver's seat) and passengers' activity areas (station precinct, inside the passenger carriage, and platform) of the Seoul metropolitan subway. Among investigated areas, the levels of airborne bacteria and fungi in the workers' bedroom and station precincts were relatively high. No significant difference was found in the concentration of airborne bacteria and fungi between the underground and above ground activity areas of the subway. The genera identified in all subway activity areas with a 5% or greater detection rate were Staphylococcus, Micrococcus, Bacillus and Corynebacterium for airborne bacteria and Penicillium, Cladosporium, Chrysosporium, Aspergillus for airborne fungi. Staphylococcus and Micrococcus comprised over 50% of the total airborne bacteria and Penicillium and Cladosporium comprised over 60% of the total airborne fungi, thus these four genera are the predominant genera in the subway station. PMID:21173524

  4. Real-time simulation of an airborne radar for overwater approaches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karmarkar, J.; Clark, D.

    1982-01-01

    Software developed to provide a real time simulation of an airborne radar for overwater approaches to oil rig platforms is documented. The simulation is used to study advanced concepts for enhancement of airborne radar approaches (ARA) in order to reduce crew workload, improve approach tracking precision, and reduce weather minimums. ARA's are currently used for offshore helicopter operations to and from oil rigs.

  5. Changing the Way NASA Airborne Science Data Are Managed: Challenges and Benefits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, J.; Ramapriyan, H. K.

    2011-12-01

    For many years NASA has supported the collection of in-situ and remotely sensed science data through the use of airborne platforms. The Airborne Science Program, as part of NASA's Earth Science Division (ESD), currently supports and manages these investigations. The data collected under this program have many uses including, but certainly not limited to, calibration and validation of satellite based measurements and retrieval algorithms, testing new sensor technologies, and measuring the vertical and horizontal distribution of atmospheric constituents. In the past, management of the data was typically the responsibility of the individual principal investigators. Along the way many highly customized strategies for dealing with data discovery, access, distribution, formatting, and preservation issues were developed. In an effort to assure that airborne science data are managed in a more coherent and uniform manner across the program, airborne missions are now being required to adhere to the NASA Earth science data policy and a specific set of Level 1 data management requirements derived from that policy. These requirements include use of NASA ESD-approved data formats and metadata specifications, elimination of periods of exclusive access, and the transfer of data products to a NASA ESD-assigned Data Center. In addition, the manner in which each mission plans to meet these requirements must be documented in a data management plan. The good news is that there is a significant Earth science data management infrastructure in place that can be leveraged to help meet these requirements. However, much of this infrastructure was developed to support satellite missions. Since airborne data are different than satellite data in many ways, this presents some challenges. This presentation will describe the challenges as well as the benefits of this new data management policy.

  6. Airborne pipeline leak detection: UV or IR?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babin, François; Gravel, Jean-François; Allard, Martin

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a study of different approaches to the measurement of the above ground vapor plume created by the spill caused by a small 0.1 l/min (or less) leak in an underground liquid petroleum pipeline. The scenarios are those for the measurement from an airborne platform. The usual approach is that of IR absorption, but in the case of liquid petroleum products, there are drawbacks that will be discussed, especially when using alkanes to detect a leak. The optical measurements studied include UV enhanced Raman lidar, UV fluorescence lidar and IR absorption path integrated lidars. The breadboards used for testing the different approaches will be described along with the set-ups for leak simulation. Although IR absorption would intuitively be the most sensitive, it is shown that UV-Raman could be an alternative. When using the very broad alkane signature in the IR, the varying ground spectral reflectance are a problem. It is also determined that integrated path measurements are preferred, the UV enhanced Raman measurements showing that the vapor plume stays very close to the ground.

  7. Airborne Particulate Threat Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Patrick Treado; Oksana Klueva; Jeffrey Beckstead

    2008-12-31

    Aerosol threat detection requires the ability to discern between threat agents and ambient background particulate matter (PM) encountered in the environment. To date, Raman imaging technology has been demonstrated as an effective strategy for the assessment of threat agents in the presence of specific, complex backgrounds. Expanding our understanding of the composition of ambient particulate matter background will improve the overall performance of Raman Chemical Imaging (RCI) detection strategies for the autonomous detection of airborne chemical and biological hazards. Improving RCI detection performance is strategic due to its potential to become a widely exploited detection approach by several U.S. government agencies. To improve the understanding of the ambient PM background with subsequent improvement in Raman threat detection capability, ChemImage undertook the Airborne Particulate Threat Assessment (APTA) Project in 2005-2008 through a collaborative effort with the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), under cooperative agreement number DE-FC26-05NT42594. During Phase 1 of the program, a novel PM classification based on molecular composition was developed based on a comprehensive review of the scientific literature. In addition, testing protocols were developed for ambient PM characterization. A signature database was developed based on a variety of microanalytical techniques, including scanning electron microscopy, FT-IR microspectroscopy, optical microscopy, fluorescence and Raman chemical imaging techniques. An automated particle integrated collector and detector (APICD) prototype was developed for automated collection, deposition and detection of biothreat agents in background PM. During Phase 2 of the program, ChemImage continued to refine the understanding of ambient background composition. Additionally, ChemImage enhanced the APICD to provide improved autonomy, sensitivity and specificity. Deliverables included a Final Report detailing our

  8. Composite design of an advanced airborne monitoring system

    SciTech Connect

    Busness, K. M.; Alkezweeny, A. J.; Easter, R. C.; Hales, J. M.; Lee, R. N.

    1981-12-01

    Atmospheric chemistry investigations often require a multitude of measurements which can be obtained only through the utilization of airborne sampling platforms. Instrument limitations and the aircraft environment present several considerations for sampling-system design, including such factors as instrument sensitivities and response times, altitude effects, sampling intervals for acquiring samples, and physical compatibility with the aircraft. An aircraft system with an extensive evolutionary instrument array has been in development at PNL for several years during which several special systems have been developed to improve aircraft measurement capabilities. A high-volume air sampling system providing flows of up to 4 m/sup 3//min and simultaneous collection of three filters in parallel has been constructued to reduce filter collection times. A constant pressure inlet system was developed to overcome adverse effects in instrument response resulting from altitude changes. The system functions so that instruments which are connected experinece a constant pre-set pressure regardless of the sampling altitude. This system is particularly useful for airborne operation of a flame photometric sulfur analyzer. Special chemiluminescence NO/NO/sub x/ analyzers utilizing photon counting were built which are capable of fast response and detecton of concentrations in the sub-ppB range.

  9. An automated data exploitation system for airborne sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hai-Wen; McGurr, Mike

    2014-06-01

    Advanced wide area persistent surveillance (WAPS) sensor systems on manned or unmanned airborne vehicles are essential for wide-area urban security monitoring in order to protect our people and our warfighter from terrorist attacks. Currently, human (imagery) analysts process huge data collections from full motion video (FMV) for data exploitation and analysis (real-time and forensic), providing slow and inaccurate results. An Automated Data Exploitation System (ADES) is urgently needed. In this paper, we present a recently developed ADES for airborne vehicles under heavy urban background clutter conditions. This system includes four processes: (1) fast image registration, stabilization, and mosaicking; (2) advanced non-linear morphological moving target detection; (3) robust multiple target (vehicles, dismounts, and human) tracking (up to 100 target tracks); and (4) moving or static target/object recognition (super-resolution). Test results with real FMV data indicate that our ADES can reliably detect, track, and recognize multiple vehicles under heavy urban background clutters. Furthermore, our example shows that ADES as a baseline platform can provide capability for vehicle abnormal behavior detection to help imagery analysts quickly trace down potential threats and crimes.

  10. DC-8 Airborne Laboratory in flight over Palmdale, CA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The DC-8 Airborne Laboratory in a left banking turn above the airport at Palmdale, California. The right wing is silhouetted against the blue sky, while the left wing contrasts with the desert terrain. The former airliner is a 'dash-72' model and has a range of 5,400 miles. The craft can stay airborne for 12 hours and has an operational speed range between 300 and 500 knots. The research flights are made at between 500 and 41,000 feet. The aircraft can carry up to 30,000 lbs of research/science payload equipment installed in 15 mission-definable spaces. NASA is using a DC-8 aircraft as a flying science laboratory. The platform aircraft, based at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif., collects data for many experiments in support of scientific projects serving the world scientific community. Included in this community are NASA, federal, state, academic and foreign investigators. Data gathered by the DC-8 at flight altitude and by remote sensing have been used for scientific studies in archeology, ecology, geography, hydrology, meteorology, oceanography, volcanology, atmospheric chemistry, soil science and biology.

  11. Multiple-platform localization and map building

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nettleton, Eric W.; Durrant-Whyte, Hugh F.; Gibbens, Peter W.; Goektogan, Ali H.

    2000-10-01

    This paper presents current work on decentralized data fusion (DDF) applied to multiple unmanned aerial vehicles. The benefits of decentralizing algorithms, particularly in this field, are enormous. At a mission level, multiple aircraft may fly together sharing information with one another in order to produce more accurate and coherent estimates, and hence increase the chances of success. At the single platform level, algorithms may be decentralized throughout the airframe reducing the probability of catastrophic failure by eliminating the dependency on a particular central processing facility. To this end, a complex simulator has been developed to test and evaluate decentralized picture compilation, platform localization and simultaneous localization and map building (SLAM) algorithms which are to be implemented on multiple airborne vehicles. This simulator is both comprehensive and modular, enabling multiple platforms carrying multiple distributed sensors to be modeled and interchanged easily. The map building and navigation algorithms interface with both the simulator and the real airframe in exactly the same way in order to evaluate the actual flight code as comprehensively as possible. Logged flight data can also be played back through the simulator to the navigation routines instead of simulated sensors. This paper presents the structure of both the simulator and the algorithms that have been developed. An example of decentralized map building is included, and future work in decentralized navigation and SLAM systems is discussed.

  12. Airborne Tactical Free-Electron Laser

    SciTech Connect

    Whitney, Roy; Neil, George

    2007-02-01

    The goal of 100 kilowatts (kW) of directed energy from an airborne tactical platform has proved challenging due to the size and weight of most of the options that have been considered. However, recent advances in Free-Electron Lasers appear to offer a solution along with significant tactical advantages: a nearly unlimited magazine, time structures for periods from milliseconds to hours, radar like functionality, and the choice of the wavelength of light that best meets mission requirements. For an Airborne Tactical Free-Electron Laser (ATFEL) on a platforms such as a Lockheed C-130J-30 and airships, the two most challenging requirements, weight and size, can be met by generating the light at a higher harmonic, aggressively managing magnet weights, managing cryogenic heat loads using recent SRF R&D results, and using FEL super compact design concepts that greatly reduce the number of components. The initial R&D roadmap for achieving an ATFEL is provided in this paper. Performing this R&D is expected to further reduce the weight, size and power requirements for the FELs the Navy is currently developing for shipboard applications, as well as providing performance enhancements for the strategic airborne MW class FELs. The 100 kW ATFEL with its tactical advantages may prove sufficiently attractive for early advancement in the queue of deployed FELs.

  13. Challenges and opportunities of airborne metagenomics.

    PubMed

    Behzad, Hayedeh; Gojobori, Takashi; Mineta, Katsuhiko

    2015-05-06

    Recent metagenomic studies of environments, such as marine and soil, have significantly enhanced our understanding of the diverse microbial communities living in these habitats and their essential roles in sustaining vast ecosystems. The increase in the number of publications related to soil and marine metagenomics is in sharp contrast to those of air, yet airborne microbes are thought to have significant impacts on many aspects of our lives from their potential roles in atmospheric events such as cloud formation, precipitation, and atmospheric chemistry to their major impact on human health. In this review, we will discuss the current progress in airborne metagenomics, with a special focus on exploring the challenges and opportunities of undertaking such studies. The main challenges of conducting metagenomic studies of airborne microbes are as follows: 1) Low density of microorganisms in the air, 2) efficient retrieval of microorganisms from the air, 3) variability in airborne microbial community composition, 4) the lack of standardized protocols and methodologies, and 5) DNA sequencing and bioinformatics-related challenges. Overcoming these challenges could provide the groundwork for comprehensive analysis of airborne microbes and their potential impact on the atmosphere, global climate, and our health. Metagenomic studies offer a unique opportunity to examine viral and bacterial diversity in the air and monitor their spread locally or across the globe, including threats from pathogenic microorganisms. Airborne metagenomic studies could also lead to discoveries of novel genes and metabolic pathways relevant to meteorological and industrial applications, environmental bioremediation, and biogeochemical cycles.

  14. Challenges and Opportunities of Airborne Metagenomics

    PubMed Central

    Behzad, Hayedeh; Gojobori, Takashi; Mineta, Katsuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Recent metagenomic studies of environments, such as marine and soil, have significantly enhanced our understanding of the diverse microbial communities living in these habitats and their essential roles in sustaining vast ecosystems. The increase in the number of publications related to soil and marine metagenomics is in sharp contrast to those of air, yet airborne microbes are thought to have significant impacts on many aspects of our lives from their potential roles in atmospheric events such as cloud formation, precipitation, and atmospheric chemistry to their major impact on human health. In this review, we will discuss the current progress in airborne metagenomics, with a special focus on exploring the challenges and opportunities of undertaking such studies. The main challenges of conducting metagenomic studies of airborne microbes are as follows: 1) Low density of microorganisms in the air, 2) efficient retrieval of microorganisms from the air, 3) variability in airborne microbial community composition, 4) the lack of standardized protocols and methodologies, and 5) DNA sequencing and bioinformatics-related challenges. Overcoming these challenges could provide the groundwork for comprehensive analysis of airborne microbes and their potential impact on the atmosphere, global climate, and our health. Metagenomic studies offer a unique opportunity to examine viral and bacterial diversity in the air and monitor their spread locally or across the globe, including threats from pathogenic microorganisms. Airborne metagenomic studies could also lead to discoveries of novel genes and metabolic pathways relevant to meteorological and industrial applications, environmental bioremediation, and biogeochemical cycles. PMID:25953766

  15. Mars Airborne Prospecting Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinkraus, J. M.; Wright, M. W.; Rheingans, B. E.; Steinkraus, D. E.; George, W. P.; Aljabri, A.; Hall, J. L.; Scott, D. C.

    2012-06-01

    One novel approach towards addressing the need for innovative instrumentation and investigation approaches is the integration of a suite of four spectrometer systems to form the Mars Airborne Prospecting Spectrometers (MAPS) for prospecting on Mars.

  16. Aeroelastic considerations for continuous patrol/high altitude surveillance platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, C. D.; Rocketts, R. H.

    1983-01-01

    For the last several years, an investigation has been conducted regarding the feasibility of unmanned, airborne, High-Altitude Powered Platforms (HAPP), and High Surveillance Platforms for Over-the-Horizon Targeting (HI-SPOT). These airborne platforms have been proposed as a means of achieving a continuous regional communication-relay or for continuous regional surveillance for use in agricultural research or military applications, i.e., fleet support. These platforms would offer improvements over existing orbiting satellites. These improvements are related to better resolution and increased mission flexibility. The required mission endurance up to six months, would be obtained through the use of either solar power, a cryogenically fueled engine, or microwave-power. Attention is given to airborne platform configuration, structure, structural and aerodynamic modeling, modal analysis, and flutter analysis.

  17. AIRBORNE CONTAMINANTS IN WESTERN NORTH AMERICAN NATIONAL PARKS--WHAT WE KNOW AND WANT TO LEARN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Park Service initiated the Western Airborne Contaminants Assessment Project (WACAP) in 2002 to determine if airborne contaminants from regional or distant sources have an impact on remote (typically high elevation) western ecosystems, including Alaska. Eight Nationa...

  18. Airborne particulate matter in spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Acceptability limits and sampling and monitoring strategies for airborne particles in spacecraft were considered. Based on instances of eye and respiratory tract irritation reported by Shuttle flight crews, the following acceptability limits for airborne particles were recommended: for flights of 1 week or less duration (1 mg/cu m for particles less than 10 microns in aerodynamic diameter (AD) plus 1 mg/cu m for particles 10 to 100 microns in AD); and for flights greater than 1 week and up to 6 months in duration (0.2 mg/cu m for particles less than 10 microns in AD plus 0.2 mg/cu m for particles 10 to 100 microns in AD. These numerical limits were recommended to aid in spacecraft atmosphere design which should aim at particulate levels that are a low as reasonably achievable. Sampling of spacecraft atmospheres for particles should include size-fractionated samples of 0 to 10, 10 to 100, and greater than 100 micron particles for mass concentration measurement and elementary chemical analysis by nondestructive analysis techniques. Morphological and chemical analyses of single particles should also be made to aid in identifying airborne particulate sources. Air cleaning systems based on inertial collection principles and fine particle collection devices based on electrostatic precipitation and filtration should be considered for incorporation into spacecraft air circulation systems. It was also recommended that research be carried out in space in the areas of health effects and particle characterization.

  19. NASA Student Airborne Research Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaller, E. L.; Shetter, R. E.

    2012-12-01

    The NASA Student Airborne Research Program (SARP) is a unique summer internship program for advanced undergraduates and early graduate students majoring in the STEM disciplines. SARP participants acquire hands-on research experience in all aspects of an airborne research campaign, including flying onboard an major NASA resource used for studying Earth system processes. In summer 2012, thirty-two participants worked in four interdisciplinary teams to study surface, atmospheric, and oceanographic processes. Participants assisted in the operation of instruments onboard the NASA P-3B aircraft where they sampled and measured atmospheric gases and imaged land and water surfaces in multiple spectral bands. Along with airborne data collection, students participated in taking measurements at field sites. Mission faculty and research mentors helped to guide participants through instrument operation, sample analysis, and data reduction. Over the eight-week program, each student developed an individual research project from the data collected and delivered a conference-style final presentation on his/her results. We will discuss the results and effectiveness of the program from the first four summers and discuss plans for the future.

  20. Open Source Software Reuse in the Airborne Cloud Computing Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khudikyan, S. E.; Hart, A. F.; Hardman, S.; Freeborn, D.; Davoodi, F.; Resneck, G.; Mattmann, C. A.; Crichton, D. J.

    2012-12-01

    Earth science airborne missions play an important role in helping humans understand our climate. A challenge for airborne campaigns in contrast to larger NASA missions is that their relatively modest budgets do not permit the ground-up development of data management tools. These smaller missions generally consist of scientists whose primary focus is on the algorithmic and scientific aspects of the mission, which often leaves data management software and systems to be addressed as an afterthought. The Airborne Cloud Computing Environment (ACCE), developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) to support Earth Science Airborne Program, is a reusable, multi-mission data system environment for NASA airborne missions. ACCE provides missions with a cloud-enabled platform for managing their data. The platform consists of a comprehensive set of robust data management capabilities that cover everything from data ingestion and archiving, to algorithmic processing, and to data delivery. Missions interact with this system programmatically as well as via browser-based user interfaces. The core components of ACCE are largely based on Apache Object Oriented Data Technology (OODT), an open source information integration framework at the Apache Software Foundation (ASF). Apache OODT is designed around a component-based architecture that allows for selective combination of components to create highly configurable data management systems. The diverse and growing community that currently contributes to Apache OODT fosters on-going growth and maturation of the software. ACCE's key objective is to reduce cost and risks associated with developing data management systems for airborne missions. Software reuse plays a prominent role in mitigating these problems. By providing a reusable platform based on open source software, ACCE enables airborne missions to allocate more resources to their scientific goals, thereby opening the doors to increased scientific discovery.

  1. Airborne lidar experiments at the Savannah River Plant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krabill, William B.; Swift, Robert N.

    1985-01-01

    The results of remote sensing experiments at the Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Nuclear Facility utilizing the NASA Airborne Oceanographic Lidar (AOL) are presented. The flights were conducted in support of the numerous environmental monitoring requirements associated with the operation of the facility and for the purpose of furthering research and development of airborne lidar technology. Areas of application include airborne laser topographic mapping, hydrologic studies using fluorescent tracer dye, timber volume estimation, baseline characterization of wetlands, and aquatic chlorophyll and photopigment measurements. Conclusions relative to the usability of airborne lidar technology for the DOE for each of these remote sensing applications are discussed.

  2. Airborne GLM Simulator (FEGS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quick, M.; Blakeslee, R. J.; Christian, H. J., Jr.; Stewart, M. F.; Podgorny, S.; Corredor, D.

    2015-12-01

    Real time lightning observations have proven to be useful for advanced warning and now-casting of severe weather events. In anticipation of the launch of the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) onboard GOES-R that will provide continuous real time observations of total (both cloud and ground) lightning, the Fly's Eye GLM Simulator (FEGS) is in production. FEGS is an airborne instrument designed to provide cal/val measurements for GLM from high altitude aircraft. It consists of a 5 x 5 array of telescopes each with a narrow passband filter to isolate the 777.4 nm neutral oxygen emission triplet radiated by lightning. The telescopes will measure the optical radiance emitted by lightning that is transmitted through the cloud top with a temporal resolution of 10 μs. When integrated on the NASA ER-2 aircraft, the FEGS array with its 90° field-of-view will observe a cloud top area nearly equal to a single GLM pixel. This design will allow FEGS to determine the temporal and spatial variation of light that contributes to a GLM event detection. In addition to the primary telescope array, the instrument includes 5 supplementary optical channels that observe alternate spectral emission features and will enable the use of FEGS for interesting lightning physics applications. Here we present an up-to-date summary of the project and a description of its scientific applications.

  3. Introduction to an airborne remote sensing system equipped onboard the Chinese marine surveillance plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Fang; Wang, Difeng; Pan, Delu; Hao, Zengzhou

    2008-10-01

    The airborne remote sensing system onboard the Chinese Marine Surveillance Plane have three scanners including marine airborne multi-spectrum scanner(MAMS), airborne hyper spectral system(AISA+) and optical-electric platform(MOP) currently. MAMS is developed by Shanghai Institute of Technology and Physics CAS with 11 bands from ultraviolet to infrared and mainly used for inversion of oceanic main factors and pollution information, like chlorophyll, sea surface temperature, red tide, etc. The AISA+ made by Finnish Specim company is a push broom system, consist of a high spectrum scanner head, a miniature GPS/INS sensor and data collecting PC. It is a kind of aviation imaging spectrometer and has the ability of ground target imaging and measuring target spectrum characteristic. The MOP mainly supports for object watching, recording and track. It mainly includes 3 equipments: digital CCD with Sony-DXC390, CANON EOS film camera and digital camera Sony F717. This paper mainly introduces these three remote sensing instruments as well as the ground processing information system, involving the system's hardware and software design, related algorithm research, etc.

  4. SITHON: An Airborne Fire Detection System Compliant with Operational Tactical Requirements

    PubMed Central

    Kontoes, Charalabos; Keramitsoglou, Iphigenia; Sifakis, Nicolaos; Konstantinidis, Pavlos

    2009-01-01

    In response to the urging need of fire managers for timely information on fire location and extent, the SITHON system was developed. SITHON is a fully digital thermal imaging system, integrating INS/GPS and a digital camera, designed to provide timely positioned and projected thermal images and video data streams rapidly integrated in the GIS operated by Crisis Control Centres. This article presents in detail the hardware and software components of SITHON, and demonstrates the first encouraging results of test flights over the Sithonia Peninsula in Northern Greece. It is envisaged that the SITHON system will be soon operated onboard various airborne platforms including fire brigade airplanes and helicopters as well as on UAV platforms owned and operated by the Greek Air Forces. PMID:22399963

  5. SITHON: An Airborne Fire Detection System Compliant with Operational Tactical Requirements.

    PubMed

    Kontoes, Charalabos; Keramitsoglou, Iphigenia; Sifakis, Nicolaos; Konstantinidis, Pavlos

    2009-01-01

    In response to the urging need of fire managers for timely information on fire location and extent, the SITHON system was developed. SITHON is a fully digital thermal imaging system, integrating INS/GPS and a digital camera, designed to provide timely positioned and projected thermal images and video data streams rapidly integrated in the GIS operated by Crisis Control Centres. This article presents in detail the hardware and software components of SITHON, and demonstrates the first encouraging results of test flights over the Sithonia Peninsula in Northern Greece. It is envisaged that the SITHON system will be soon operated onboard various airborne platforms including fire brigade airplanes and helicopters as well as on UAV platforms owned and operated by the Greek Air Forces.

  6. Regional airborne flux measurements in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gioli, B.; Miglietta, F.; Vaccari, F. P.; Zaldei, A.; Hutjes, R. W. A.

    2003-04-01

    The problem of identifying the spatial and temporal distribution of sources and sinks of atmospheric CO2 is the subject of considerable scientific and political debate. Even if it is now possible to estimate within reasonable accuracy the sink strength of European forests at the local scale, difficulties still exist in determining the partitioning of the sinks at the global and regional scales. The aim of the EU-project RECAB (Regional Assessment of the Carbon Balance in Europe) that is coordinated by Alterra, Wageningen (NL), is to bridge the gap between local scale flux measurements and continental scale inversion models by a generic modelling effort and measurement program, focussing on a limited number of selected regions in Europe for which previous measurements exists. This required the establishment of a European facility for airborne measurement of surface fluxes of CO2 at very low altitude, and a research aircraft capable of performing airborne eddy covariance measurements has been acquired by this project and used on several occasions at the different RECAB sites. The aircraft is the italian Sky Arrows ERA (Environmental Research Aircraft) equipped with the NOAA/ARA Mobile Flux Platform (MFP), and a commercial open-path infrared gas analyser. Airborne eddy covariance measurements were made from June 2001 onwards in Southern Spain near Valencia (June and December 2001), in Central Germany near Jena (July 2001), in Sweden near Uppsala (August 2001), in The Netherlands near Wageningen (January and July 2002) and in Italy near Rome (June 2002). Flux towers were present at each site to provide a validation of airborne eddy covariance measurements. This contribution reports some validation results based on the comparison between airborne and ground based flux measurements and some regional scale results for different locations and different seasons, in a wide range of meteorological and ecological settings.

  7. Development of an Airborne Triple-Pulse 2-Micron Integrated Path Differential Absorption Lidar (IPDA) for Simultaneous Airborne Column Measurements of Carbon Dioxide and Water Vapor in the Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Upendra N.; Petros, Mulugeta; Refaat, Tamer F.; Yu, Jirong; Antill, Charles W.; Remus, Ruben

    2016-01-01

    This presentation will provide status and details of an airborne 2-micron triple-pulse integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) lidar being developed at NASA Langley Research Center with support from NASA ESTO Instrument Incubator Program. The development of this active optical remote sensing IPDA instrument is targeted for measuring both atmospheric carbon dioxide and water vapor in the atmosphere from an airborne platform. This presentation will focus on the advancement of the 2-micron triple-pulse IPDA lidar development. Updates on the state-of-the-art triple-pulse laser transmitter will be presented including the status of seed laser locking, wavelength control, receiver and detector upgrades, laser packaging and lidar integration. Future plan for IPDA lidar system for ground integration, testing and flight validation will also be presented.

  8. Development of an Airborne Micropulse Water Vapor DIAL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nehrir, A. R.; Ismail, S.

    2012-12-01

    based instrument is achievable via overdriven current pulses to the TSOA gain medium while maintaining a 1μs and 10 kHz pulse width and PRF, respectively. The increase in the laser transmitter pulse energy will allow for nighttime and daytime water vapor profile retrievals from an airborne platform operating at an 8 km altitude with 2-5 minute integration periods. Results from a numerical model demonstrating the performance of an airborne DIAL system with the mentioned transmitter enhancements will be presented and compared against the existing ground based instrument performance. Furthermore, results from laboratory experiments demonstrating the laser transmitter performance including maximum extractable energy, energy stability, and spectral purity will also be presented.

  9. SWUIS-A: a versatile low-cost UV/VIS/IR imaging system for airborne astronomy and aeronomy research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durda, Daniel D.; Stern, S. Alan; Tomlinson, William; Slater, David C.; Vilas, Faith

    2000-11-01

    We have developed and successfully flight-tested on 14 different airborne missions the hardware and techniques for routinely conducting valuable astronomical and aeronomical observations from high-performance, two-seater military-type aircraft. The SWUIS-A (Southwest Universal Imaging System- Airborne_ system consists of an image-intensified CCD camera with broad band response from the near-UV to the near IR, high-quality foreoptics, a miniaturized video recorder, and aircraft-to-camera power and telemetry interface with associated camera controls, and associated cables, filters, and other minor equipments. SWUIS-A's suite of high-quality foreoptics gives it selectable, variable focal length/variable field-of-view capabilities. The SWUIS-A camera frames at 60Hz video rates, which is a key requirement for both jitter compensation and high time resolution (useful fro occultation, lightning, and auroral studies). Broadband SWUIS-A image coadds can exceed a limiting magnitude of V=10.5 in<1sec with dark sky conditions. A valuable attribute of SWUIS-A airborne observations is the fact that the astronomer flies with the instrument, thereby providing Space Shuttle-like payload specialist capability to close-the-loop in real-time on the research done on each research mission. Key advantages of the small, high-performance aircraft on which we can fly SWUIS-A include significant cost savings over larger, more conventional airborne platforms, worldwide basing obviating the need for expensive, campaign-style movement of specialized large aircraft and their logistics support teams, and ultimately faster reaction times to transient events. Compared to ground-based instruments, airborne research platforms offer superior atmospheric transmission, the mobility to reach remote and often-times otherwise unreachable locations over the Earth, and virtually- guaranteed good weather for observing the sky. Compared to space-based instruments, airborne platforms typically offer substantial

  10. SWUIS-A: A Versatile, Low-Cost UV/VIS/IR Imaging System for Airborne Astronomy and Aeronomy Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durda, Daniel D.; Stern, S. Alan; Tomlinson, William; Slater, David C.; Vilas, Faith

    2001-01-01

    We have developed and successfully flight-tested on 14 different airborne missions the hardware and techniques for routinely conducting valuable astronomical and aeronomical observations from high-performance, two-seater military-type aircraft. The SWUIS-A (Southwest Universal Imaging System - Airborne) system consists of an image-intensified CCD camera with broad band response from the near-UV to the near IR, high-quality foreoptics, a miniaturized video recorder, an aircraft-to-camera power and telemetry interface with associated camera controls, and associated cables, filters, and other minor equipment. SWUIS-A's suite of high-quality foreoptics gives it selectable, variable focal length/variable field-of-view capabilities. The SWUIS-A camera frames at 60 Hz video rates, which is a key requirement for both jitter compensation and high time resolution (useful for occultation, lightning, and auroral studies). Broadband SWUIS-A image coadds can exceed a limiting magnitude of V = 10.5 in <1 sec with dark sky conditions. A valuable attribute of SWUIS-A airborne observations is the fact that the astronomer flies with the instrument, thereby providing Space Shuttle-like "payload specialist" capability to "close-the-loop" in real-time on the research done on each research mission. Key advantages of the small, high-performance aircraft on which we can fly SWUIS-A include significant cost savings over larger, more conventional airborne platforms, worldwide basing obviating the need for expensive, campaign-style movement of specialized large aircraft and their logistics support teams, and ultimately faster reaction times to transient events. Compared to ground-based instruments, airborne research platforms offer superior atmospheric transmission, the mobility to reach remote and often-times otherwise unreachable locations over the Earth, and virtually-guaranteed good weather for observing the sky. Compared to space-based instruments, airborne platforms typically offer

  11. NASA's Coastal and Ocean Airborne Science Testbed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guild, L. S.; Dungan, J. L.; Edwards, M.; Russell, P. B.; Morrow, J. H.; Hooker, S.; Myers, J.; Kudela, R. M.; Dunagan, S.; Soulage, M.; Ellis, T.; Clinton, N. E.; Lobitz, B.; Martin, K.; Zell, P.; Berthold, R. W.; Smith, C.; Andrew, D.; Gore, W.; Torres, J.

    2011-12-01

    The Coastal and Ocean Airborne Science Testbed (COAST) Project is a NASA Earth-science flight mission that will advance coastal ecosystems research by providing a unique airborne payload optimized for remote sensing in the optically complex coastal zone. Teaming NASA Ames scientists and engineers with Biospherical Instruments, Inc. (San Diego) and UC Santa Cruz, the airborne COAST instrument suite combines a customized imaging spectrometer, sunphotometer system, and a new bio-optical radiometer package to obtain ocean/coastal/atmosphere data simultaneously in flight for the first time. The imaging spectrometer (Headwall) is optimized in the blue region of the spectrum to emphasize remote sensing of marine and freshwater ecosystems. Simultaneous measurements supporting empirical atmospheric correction of image data will be accomplished using the Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS-14). Based on optical detectors called microradiometers, the NASA Ocean Biology and Biogeochemistry Calibration and Validation (cal/val) Office team has deployed advanced commercial off-the-shelf instrumentation that provides in situ measurements of the apparent optical properties at the land/ocean boundary including optically shallow aquatic ecosystems (e.g., lakes, estuaries, coral reefs). A complimentary microradiometer instrument package (Biospherical Instruments, Inc.), optimized for use above water, will be flown for the first time with the airborne instrument suite. Details of the October 2011 COAST airborne mission over Monterey Bay demonstrating this new airborne instrument suite capability will be presented, with associated preliminary data on coastal ocean color products, coincident spatial and temporal data on aerosol optical depth and water vapor column content, as well as derived exact water-leaving radiances.

  12. Airborne wavemeter validation and calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goad, Joseph H., Jr.; Rinsland, Pamela L.; Kist, Edward H., Jr.; Geier, Erika B.; Banziger, Curtis G.

    1992-01-01

    This manuscript outlines a continuing effort to validate and verify the performance of an airborne autonomous wavemeter for tuning solid state lasers to a desired wavelength. The application is measuring the vertical profiles of atmospheric water vapor using a differential absorption lidar (DIAL) technique. Improved wavemeter performance data for varying ambient temperatures are presented. This resulted when the electronic grounding and shielding were improved. The results with short pulse duration lasers are also included. These lasers show that similar performance could be obtained with lasers operating in the continuous and the pulsed domains.

  13. 10 CFR 20.1203 - Determination of external dose from airborne radioactive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determination of external dose from airborne radioactive... RADIATION Occupational Dose Limits § 20.1203 Determination of external dose from airborne radioactive material. Licensees shall, when determining the dose from airborne radioactive material, include...

  14. 10 CFR 20.1203 - Determination of external dose from airborne radioactive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Determination of external dose from airborne radioactive... RADIATION Occupational Dose Limits § 20.1203 Determination of external dose from airborne radioactive material. Licensees shall, when determining the dose from airborne radioactive material, include...

  15. 10 CFR 20.1203 - Determination of external dose from airborne radioactive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Determination of external dose from airborne radioactive... RADIATION Occupational Dose Limits § 20.1203 Determination of external dose from airborne radioactive material. Licensees shall, when determining the dose from airborne radioactive material, include...

  16. 10 CFR 20.1203 - Determination of external dose from airborne radioactive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Determination of external dose from airborne radioactive... RADIATION Occupational Dose Limits § 20.1203 Determination of external dose from airborne radioactive material. Licensees shall, when determining the dose from airborne radioactive material, include...

  17. 10 CFR 20.1203 - Determination of external dose from airborne radioactive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Determination of external dose from airborne radioactive... RADIATION Occupational Dose Limits § 20.1203 Determination of external dose from airborne radioactive material. Licensees shall, when determining the dose from airborne radioactive material, include...

  18. Airborne oceanographic lidar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Specifications and preliminary design of an Airborne Oceanographic Lidar (AOL) system, which is to be constructed for installation and used on a NASA Wallops Flight Center (WFC) C-54 research aircraft, are reported. The AOL system is to provide an airborne facility for use by various government agencies to demonstrate the utility and practicality of hardware of this type in the wide area collection of oceanographic data on an operational basis. System measurement and performance requirements are presented, followed by a description of the conceptual system approach and the considerations attendant to its development. System performance calculations are addressed, and the system specifications and preliminary design are presented and discussed.

  19. Airborne rain mapping radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, W. J.; Parks, G. S.; Li, F. K.; Im, K. E.; Howard, R. J.

    1988-01-01

    An airborne scanning radar system for remote rain mapping is described. The airborne rain mapping radar is composed of two radar frequency channels at 13.8 and 24.1 GHz. The radar is proposed to scan its antenna beam over + or - 20 deg from the antenna boresight; have a swath width of 7 km; a horizontal spatial resolution at nadir of about 500 m; and a range resolution of 120 m. The radar is designed to be applicable for retrieving rainfall rates from 0.1-60 mm/hr at the earth's surface, and for measuring linear polarization signatures and raindrop's fall velocity.

  20. NASA Airborne Lidar July 1991

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-05-26

    NASA Airborne Lidar July 1991 Data from the 1991 NASA Langley Airborne Lidar flights following the eruption of Pinatubo in July ... and Osborn [1992a, 1992b]. Project Title:  NASA Airborne Lidar Discipline:  Field Campaigns ...

  1. NASA Airborne Lidar May 1992

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-05-26

    NASA Airborne Lidar May 1992 An airborne Nd:YAG (532 nm) lidar was operated by the NASA Langley Research Center about a year following the June 1991 eruption of ... Osborn [1992a, 1992b].  Project Title:  NASA Airborne Lidar Discipline:  Field Campaigns ...

  2. Airborne Measurement of Ecosystem Carbon Dynamics over Heterogeneous Landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wade, T. J.; Hill, T. C.; Clement, R.; Moncrieff, J.; Disney, M.; Nichol, C. J.; Williams, M. D.

    2009-12-01

    Terrestrial carbon sinks are currently believed to account for the removal and storage of approximately 25% of anthropogenic carbon emissions from the atmosphere. The processes involved are numerous and complex and many feedbacks are at play. The ability to study the dynamics of different ecosystems at scales meaningful to climatic forcing is essential for understanding the key processes involved and identifying crucial sensitivities and thresholds. Airborne platforms with the requisite instrumentation offer the opportunity to directly measure biological processes and atmospheric structures at scales that are not achievable by ground measurements alone. The current generation of small research aircraft such as the University of Edinburgh’s Diamond HK36TTC ECO Dimona present excellent platforms for measurement of both the atmosphere and terrestrial surface. In this study we present results from airborne CO2/H2O flux measuring campaigns in contrasting climatic systems to quantify spatial patterns in ecosystem photosynthesis. Several airborne campaigns were undertaken in Arctic Finland, as part of the Arctic Biosphere Atmosphere Coupling at Multiple Scales (ABACUS) project (2008), and mainland UK as part of the UK Population Biology Network (UKPopNet) 2009 project, to explore the variability in surface CO2 flux across spatial scales larger than captured using conventional ground based eddy covariance. We discuss the application of our aircraft platform as a tool to address the challenge of understanding carbon dynamics within landscapes of heterogeneous vegetation class, terrain and hydrology using complementary datasets acquired from airborne eddy covariance and remote sensing.

  3. Influence of suspended inorganic sediment on airborne laser fluorosensor measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poole, L. R.; Esaias, W. E.

    1983-01-01

    The results of Poole and Esaias (1982) are presently extended to an examination of the influence of inorganic sediment on the water Raman normalization procedure, as well as an assessment of the potential for using the Raman signal to monitor surface water attenuation properties. An optically perfect lidar system is assumed which has geometric properties representative of the Airborne Oceanographic Lidar, and is mounted on an airborne platform flying at an altitude of 150 m above the water surface. The results obtained suggest that caution should be exercised in attempts to quantitatively monitor changes in optical attenuation by means of remote measurements of the Raman scattering signal.

  4. Airborne Microalgae: Insights, Opportunities, and Challenges.

    PubMed

    Tesson, Sylvie V M; Skjøth, Carsten Ambelas; Šantl-Temkiv, Tina; Löndahl, Jakob

    2016-04-01

    Airborne dispersal of microalgae has largely been a blind spot in environmental biological studies because of their low concentration in the atmosphere and the technical limitations in investigating microalgae from air samples. Recent studies show that airborne microalgae can survive air transportation and interact with the environment, possibly influencing their deposition rates. This minireview presents a summary of these studies and traces the possible route, step by step, from established ecosystems to new habitats through air transportation over a variety of geographic scales. Emission, transportation, deposition, and adaptation to atmospheric stress are discussed, as well as the consequences of their dispersal on health and the environment and state-of-the-art techniques to detect and model airborne microalga dispersal. More-detailed studies on the microalga atmospheric cycle, including, for instance, ice nucleation activity and transport simulations, are crucial for improving our understanding of microalga ecology, identifying microalga interactions with the environment, and preventing unwanted contamination events or invasions. PMID:26801574

  5. Airborne Microalgae: Insights, Opportunities, and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Skjøth, Carsten Ambelas; Šantl-Temkiv, Tina; Löndahl, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    Airborne dispersal of microalgae has largely been a blind spot in environmental biological studies because of their low concentration in the atmosphere and the technical limitations in investigating microalgae from air samples. Recent studies show that airborne microalgae can survive air transportation and interact with the environment, possibly influencing their deposition rates. This minireview presents a summary of these studies and traces the possible route, step by step, from established ecosystems to new habitats through air transportation over a variety of geographic scales. Emission, transportation, deposition, and adaptation to atmospheric stress are discussed, as well as the consequences of their dispersal on health and the environment and state-of-the-art techniques to detect and model airborne microalga dispersal. More-detailed studies on the microalga atmospheric cycle, including, for instance, ice nucleation activity and transport simulations, are crucial for improving our understanding of microalga ecology, identifying microalga interactions with the environment, and preventing unwanted contamination events or invasions. PMID:26801574

  6. Column CO2 Measurement From an Airborne Solid-State Double-Pulsed 2-Micron Integrated Path Differential Absorption Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, U. N.; Yu, J.; Petros, M.; Refaat, T. F.; Remus, R.; Fay, J.; Reithmaier, K.

    2014-01-01

    NASA LaRC is developing and integrating a double-Pulsed 2-micron direct detection IPDA lidar for CO2 column measurement from an airborne platform. The presentation will describe the development of the 2-micrometers IPDA lidar system and present the airborne measurement of column CO2 and will compare to in-situ measurement for various ground target of different reflectivity.

  7. Airborne Fraunhofer Line Discriminator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gabriel, F. C.; Markle, D. A.

    1969-01-01

    Airborne Fraunhofer Line Discriminator enables prospecting for fluorescent materials, hydrography with fluorescent dyes, and plant studies based on fluorescence of chlorophyll. Optical unit design is the coincidence of Fraunhofer lines in the solar spectrum occurring at the characteristic wavelengths of some fluorescent materials.

  8. Recognizing Airborne Hazards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Christian M.

    1990-01-01

    The heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems in older buildings often do not adequately handle air-borne contaminants. Outlines a three-stage Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) assessment and describes a case in point at a Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, school. (MLF)

  9. Airborne asbestos in buildings.

    PubMed

    Lee, R J; Van Orden, D R

    2008-03-01

    The concentration of airborne asbestos in buildings nationwide is reported in this study. A total of 3978 indoor samples from 752 buildings, representing nearly 32 man-years of sampling, have been analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. The buildings that were surveyed were the subject of litigation related to suits alleging the general building occupants were exposed to a potential health hazard as a result the presence of asbestos-containing materials (ACM). The average concentration of all airborne asbestos structures was 0.01structures/ml (s/ml) and the average concentration of airborne asbestos > or = 5microm long was 0.00012fibers/ml (f/ml). For all samples, 99.9% of the samples were <0.01 f/ml for fibers longer than 5microm; no building averaged above 0.004f/ml for fibers longer than 5microm. No asbestos was detected in 27% of the buildings and in 90% of the buildings no asbestos was detected that would have been seen optically (> or = 5microm long and > or = 0.25microm wide). Background outdoor concentrations have been reported at 0.0003f/ml > or = 5microm. These results indicate that in-place ACM does not result in elevated airborne asbestos in building atmospheres approaching regulatory levels and that it does not result in a significantly increased risk to building occupants.

  10. Ladder attachment platform

    DOEpatents

    Swygert,; Richard, W [Springfield, SC

    2012-08-28

    A ladder attachment platform is provided that includes a base for attachment to a ladder that has first and second side rails and a plurality of rungs that extend between in a lateral direction. Also included is a user platform for having a user stand thereon that is carried by the base. The user platform may be positioned with respect to the ladder so that it is not located between a first plane that extends through the first side rail and is perpendicular to the lateral direction and a second plane that extends through the second side rail and is perpendicular to the lateral direction.

  11. Airborne Infrared Spectrograph for Eclipse Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golub, L.; Cheimets, P.; DeLuca, E. E.; Samra, J.; Judge, P. G.

    2015-12-01

    Direct measurements of the coronal magnetic field have significant potential to enhance our understanding of coronal dynamics, and improve forecasting models. Of particular interest are observations of coronal field lines in the Transition Corona, the transitional region between closed and open flux systems, providing important information on eruptive instabilities and on the origin of the slow solar wind. While current instruments routinely observe the photospheric and chromospheric magnetic fields, the proposed airborne spectrometer will take a step toward the direct observation of coronal fields by measuring plasma emission in the infrared at high spatial and spectral resolution. The targeted lines are five forbidden magnetic dipole transitions between 1.4 and 4 um. The airborne system will consist of a telescope, grating spectrometer and pointing/stabilization system to be flown on the NSF/NCAR High-performance Instrumented Airborne Platform for Environmental Research (HIAPER) during the 21 August 2017 total solar eclipse. We will discuss the scientific objectives of the 2017 flight, describe details of the instrument design, and present the observing program for the eclipse.

  12. Photoreactivation in Airborne Mycobacterium parafortuitum

    PubMed Central

    Peccia, Jordan; Hernandez, Mark

    2001-01-01

    Photoreactivation was observed in airborne Mycobacterium parafortuitum exposed concurrently to UV radiation (254 nm) and visible light. Photoreactivation rates of airborne cells increased with increasing relative humidity (RH) and decreased with increasing UV dose. Under a constant UV dose with visible light absent, the UV inactivation rate of airborne M. parafortuitum cells decreased by a factor of 4 as RH increased from 40 to 95%; however, under identical conditions with visible light present, the UV inactivation rate of airborne cells decreased only by a factor of 2. When irradiated in the absence of visible light, cellular cyclobutane thymine dimer content of UV-irradiated airborne M. parafortuitum and Serratia marcescens increased in response to RH increases. Results suggest that, unlike in waterborne bacteria, cyclobutane thymine dimers are not the most significant form of UV-induced DNA damage incurred by airborne bacteria and that the distribution of DNA photoproducts incorporated into UV-irradiated airborne cells is a function of RH. PMID:11526027

  13. Airborne Research Experience for Educators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, V. B.; Albertson, R.; Smith, S.; Stockman, S. A.

    2009-12-01

    The Airborne Research Experience for Educators (AREE) Program, conducted by the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center Office of Education in partnership with the AERO Institute, NASA Teaching From Space Program, and California State University Fullerton, is a complete end-to-end residential research experience in airborne remote sensing and atmospheric science. The 2009 program engaged ten secondary educators who specialize in science, technology, engineering or mathematics in a 6-week Student Airborne Research Program (SARP) offered through NSERC. Educators participated in collection of in-flight remote sensor data during flights aboard the NASA DC-8 as well as in-situ research on atmospheric chemistry (bovine emissions of methane); algal blooms (remote sensing to determine location and degree of blooms for further in-situ analysis); and crop classification (exploration of how drought conditions in Central California have impacted almond and cotton crops). AREE represents a unique model of the STEM teacher-as-researcher professional development experience because it asks educators to participate in a research experience and then translate their experiences into classroom practice through the design, implementation, and evaluation of instructional materials that emphasize the scientific research process, inquiry-based investigations, and manipulation of real data. Each AREE Master Educator drafted a Curriculum Brief, Teachers Guide, and accompanying resources for a topic in their teaching assignment Currently, most professional development programs offer either a research experience OR a curriculum development experience. The dual nature of the AREE model engaged educators in both experiences. Educators’ content and pedagogical knowledge of STEM was increased through the review of pertinent research articles during the first week, attendance at lectures and workshops during the second week, and participation in the airborne and in-situ research studies, data

  14. Indoor experimental facility for airborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) configurations - rail-SAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirose, Getachew; Phelan, Brian R.; Sherbondy, Kelly D.; Ranney, Kenneth I.; Koenig, Francois; Narayanan, Ram M.

    2014-05-01

    The Army Research Laboratory (ARL) is developing an indoor experimental facility to evaluate and assess airborne synthetic-aperture-radar-(SAR)-based detection capabilities. The rail-SAR is located in a multi-use facility that also provides a base for research and development in the area of autonomous robotic navigation. Radar explosive hazard detection is one key sensordevelopment area to be investigated at this indoor facility. In particular, the mostly wooden, multi-story building houses a two (2) story housing structure and an open area built over a large sandbox. The housing structure includes reconfigurable indoor walls which enable the realization of multiple See-Through-The-Wall (STTW) scenarios. The open sandbox, on the other hand, allows for surface and buried explosive hazard scenarios. The indoor facility is not rated for true explosive hazard materials so all targets will need to be inert and contain surrogate explosive fills. In this paper we discuss the current system status and describe data collection exercises conducted using canonical targets and frequencies that may be of interest to designers of ultra-wideband (UWB) airborne, ground penetrating SAR systems. A bi-static antenna configuration will be used to investigate the effects of varying airborne SAR parameters such as depression angle, bandwidth, and integration angle, for various target types and deployment scenarios. Canonical targets data were used to evaluate overall facility capabilities and limitations. These data is analyzed and summarized for future evaluations. Finally, processing techniques for dealing with RF multi-path and RFI due to operating inside the indoor facility are described in detail. Discussion of this facility and its capabilities and limitations will provide the explosive hazard community with a great airborne platform asset for sensor to target assessment.

  15. Head-mounted workstation displays for airborne reconnaissance applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Browne, Michael P.

    1998-09-01

    Aircraft reconnaissance operators need to access increasing amounts of information to perform their job effectively. Unfortunately, there is no excess weight, space or power capacity in most airborne platforms for the installation of additional display surfaces. Head mounted workstation displays solve these weight, space and power problems and mitigate information overload by providing a user-friendly interface to displayed information. Savings can be tremendous for large platforms. Over 18 kW of power and over 5,000 pounds could be saved on each Rivet Joint or AWACS platform. Even small platforms such as the E-2C or UAV ground control stations benefit from removal of large, heavy CRT or LCD displays. In addition, head mounted workstation displays provide an increased capability for collaborative mission planning and reduce motion-induced nausea. Kaiser Electronics has already designed and demonstrated a prototype system, VIEWTM, that addresses the needs of the airborne workstation operator. This system is easily reconfigured for multiple tasks and can be designed as a portable workstation for use anywhere within the aircraft (especially for maintenance or supervisory roles). We have validated the VIEWTM design with hundreds of user trials within the airborne reconnaissance community. Adopting such a display system in reconnaissance aircraft will gain significant benefits such as longer on-station time, increased operational altitude and improved operator performance.

  16. An airborne sunphotometer for use with helicopters

    SciTech Connect

    Walthall, C.L.; Halthore, R.N.; Elman, G.C.; Schafer, J.R.; Markham, B.L.

    1996-04-01

    One solution for atmospheric correction and calibration of remotely sensed data from airborne platforms is the use of radiometrically calibrated instruments, sunphotometers and an atmospheric radiative transfer model. Sunphotometers are used to measure the direct solar irradiance at the level at which they are operating and the data are used in the computation of atmospheric optical depth. Atmospheric optical depth is an input to atmospheric correction algorithms that convert at-sensor radiance to required surface properties such as reflectance and temperature. Airborne sun photometry has thus far seen limited use and has not been used with a helicopter platform. The hardware, software, calibration and deployment of an automatic sun-tracking sunphotometer specifically designed for use on a helicopter are described. Sample data sets taken with the system during the 1994 Boreal Ecosystem and Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) are presented. The addition of the sun photometer to the helicopter system adds another tool for monitoring the environment and makes the helicopter remote sensing system capable of collecting calibrated, atmospherically corrected data independent of the need for measurements from other systems.

  17. Using satellite and airborne LiDAR to model woodpecker habitat occupancy at the landscape scale.

    PubMed

    Vierling, Lee A; Vierling, Kerri T; Adam, Patrick; Hudak, Andrew T

    2013-01-01

    Incorporating vertical vegetation structure into models of animal distributions can improve understanding of the patterns and processes governing habitat selection. LiDAR can provide such structural information, but these data are typically collected via aircraft and thus are limited in spatial extent. Our objective was to explore the utility of satellite-based LiDAR data from the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) relative to airborne-based LiDAR to model the north Idaho breeding distribution of a forest-dependent ecosystem engineer, the Red-naped sapsucker (Sphyrapicus nuchalis). GLAS data occurred within ca. 64 m diameter ellipses spaced a minimum of 172 m apart, and all occupancy analyses were confined to this grain scale. Using a hierarchical approach, we modeled Red-naped sapsucker occupancy as a function of LiDAR metrics derived from both platforms. Occupancy models based on satellite data were weak, possibly because the data within the GLAS ellipse did not fully represent habitat characteristics important for this species. The most important structural variables influencing Red-naped Sapsucker breeding site selection based on airborne LiDAR data included foliage height diversity, the distance between major strata in the canopy vertical profile, and the vegetation density near the ground. These characteristics are consistent with the diversity of foraging activities exhibited by this species. To our knowledge, this study represents the first to examine the utility of satellite-based LiDAR to model animal distributions. The large area of each GLAS ellipse and the non-contiguous nature of GLAS data may pose significant challenges for wildlife distribution modeling; nevertheless these data can provide useful information on ecosystem vertical structure, particularly in areas of gentle terrain. Additional work is thus warranted to utilize LiDAR datasets collected from both airborne and past and future satellite platforms (e.g. GLAS, and the planned IceSAT2

  18. Airborne thermography applications in Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, Eduardo H.; Selles, Eduardo J.; Costanzo, Marcelo; Franco, Oscar; Diaz, Jose

    2002-03-01

    Forest fires in summer and sheep buried under the snow in winter have become important problems in the south of our country, in the region named Patagonia. We are studying to find a solution by means of an airborne imaging system whose construction we have just finished. It is a 12 channel multispectral airborne scanner system that can be mounted in a Guarani airplane or in a Learjet; the first is a non- pressurized aircraft for flight at low height and the second is a pressurized one for higher flights. The scanner system is briefly described. Their sensors can detect radiation from the ultra violet to the thermal infrared. The images are visualized in real time in a monitor screen and can be stored in the hard disc of the PC for later processing. The use of this scanner for some applications that include the prevention and fighting of forest fires and the study of the possibility of detection of sheep under snow in the Patagonia is now being accomplished. Theoretical and experimental results in fire detection and a theoretical model for studying the possibility of detection of the buried sheep are presented.

  19. Tunable Infrared Laser Instruments for Airborne Atmospheric Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fried, A.; Diskin, G.; Weibring, P.; Richter, D.; Walega, J. G.; Sachse, G.; Slate, T.; Rana, M.; Podolske, J.

    2008-01-01

    Tunable infrared laser-based instruments on airborne platforms have provided invaluable contributions to atmospheric studies over the past several decades. This paper presents an overview of some recent studies and developments using this approach that were presented at the 2007 Field Laser Applications in Industry and Research (FLAIR, http://www.inoa.it/flair/) conference in Florence, Italy. The present overview only covers select in situ absorption-based instruments that were presented in the airborne session at this conference. In no case are comprehensive details presented. These details can be found in the numerous references given. Additional approaches based upon cavity-enhanced and photoacoustic measurements, which are also making invaluable contributions in airborne atmospheric studies, are not discussed in this brief overview.

  20. Airborne Trace Gas Mapping During the GOSAT-COMEX Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tratt, D. M.; Leifer, I.; Buckland, K. N.; Johnson, P. D.; Van Damme, M.; Pierre-Francois, C.; Clarisse, L.

    2015-12-01

    The GOSAT-COMEX-IASI (Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite - CO2 and Methane EXperiment - Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer) experiment acquired data on 24-27 April 2015 with two aircraft, a mobile ground-based sampling suite, and the GOSAT and IASI platforms. Collections comprised the Kern Front and Kern River oil fields north of Bakersfield, Calif. and the Chino stockyard complex in the eastern Los Angeles Basin. The nested-grid experiment examined the convergence of multiple approaches to total trace gas flux estimation from the experimental area on multiple length-scales, which entailed the integrated analysis of ground-based, airborne, and space-based measurements. Airborne remote sensing was employed to map the spatial distribution of discrete emission sites - crucial information to understanding their relative aggregate contribution to the overall flux estimation. This contribution discusses the methodology in the context of the airborne GHG source mapping component of the GOSAT-COMEX experiment and its application to satellite validation.

  1. Challenges in the Management and Stewardship of Airborne Observational Data at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Earth Observing Laboratory (EOL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aquino, J.; Daniels, M. D.

    2015-12-01

    The National Science Foundation (NSF) provides the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Earth Observing Laboratory (EOL) funding for the operation, maintenance and upgrade of two research aircraft: the NSF/NCAR High-performance Instrumented Airborne Platform for Environmental Research (HIAPER) Gulfstream V and the NSF/NCAR Hercules C-130. A suite of in-situ and remote sensing airborne instruments housed at the EOL Research Aviation Facility (RAF) provide a basic set of measurements that are typically deployed on most airborne field campaigns. In addition, instruments to address more specific research requirements are provided by collaborating participants from universities, industry, NASA, NOAA or other agencies (referred to as Principal Investigator, or PI, instruments). At the 2014 AGU Fall Meeting, a poster (IN13B-3639) was presented outlining the components of Airborne Data Management included field phase data collection, formats, data archival and documentation, version control, storage practices, stewardship and obsolete data formats, and public data access. This talk will cover lessons learned, challenges associated with the above components, and current developments to address these challenges, including: tracking data workflows for aircraft instrumentation to facilitate identification, and correction, of gaps in these workflows; implementation of dataset versioning guidelines; and assignment of Digital Object Identifiers (DOIs) to data and instrumentation to facilitate tracking data and facility use in publications.

  2. [Air-borne disease].

    PubMed

    Lameiro Vilariño, Carmen; del Campo Pérez, Victor M; Alonso Bürger, Susana; Felpeto Nodar, Irene; Guimarey Pérez, Rosa; Pérez Alvarellos, Alberto

    2003-11-01

    Respiratory protection is a factor which worries nursing professionals who take care of patients susceptible of transmitting microorganisms through the air more as every day passes. This type of protection covers the use of surgical or hygienic masks against the transmission of infection by airborne drops to the use of highly effective masks or respirators against the transmission of airborne diseases such as tuberculosis or SARS, a recently discovered disease. The adequate choice of this protective device and its correct use are fundamental in order to have an effective protection for exposed personnel. The authors summarize the main protective respiratory devices used by health workers, their characteristics and degree of effectiveness, as well as the circumstances under which each device is indicated for use. PMID:14705591

  3. Exploratory Meeting on Airborne Doppler Lidar Wind Velocity Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fichtel, G. H. (Editor); Kaufman, J. W. (Editor); Vaughan, W. W. (Editor)

    1980-01-01

    The scientific interests and applications of the Airborne Doppler Lidar Wind Velocity Measurement System to severe storms and local weather are discussed. The main areas include convective phenomena, local circulation, atmospheric boundary layer, atmospheric dispersion, and industrial aerodynamics.

  4. The Sandia Airborne Computer (SANDAC)

    SciTech Connect

    Nava, E.J.

    1992-06-01

    The Sandia Airborne Computer (SANDAC) is a small, modular, high performance, multiprocessor computer originally designed for aerospace applications. It can use a combination of Motorola 68020 and 68040 based processor modules along with AT&T DSP32C based signal processing modules. The system is designed to use up to 15 processors in almost any combination and a complete system can include up to 20 modules. Depending on the mix of processors, total computational throughput can range from 2.5 to greater than 225 Million Instructions Per Second (MIPS). The system is designed so that processors can access all resources in the machine and the inter-processor communication details are completely transparent to the software. In addition to processors, the system includes input/output, memory, and special function modules. Because of its ease of use, small size, durability, and configuration flexibility, SANDAC has been used on applications ranging from missile navigation, guidance, and control systems to medical imaging systems.

  5. Mutagenicity of airborne particles.

    PubMed

    Chrisp, C E; Fisher, G L

    1980-09-01

    The physical and chemical properties of airborne particles are important for the interpretation of their potential biologic significance as genotoxic hazards. For polydisperse particle size distributions, the smallest, most respirable particles are generally the most mutagenic. Particulate collection for testing purposes should be designed to reduce artifact formation and allow condensation of mutagenic compounds. Other critical factors such as UV irradiation, wind direction, chemical reactivity, humidity, sample storage, and temperature of combustion are important. Application of chemical extraction methods and subsequent class fractionation techniques influence the observed mutagenic activity. Particles from urban air, coal fly ash, automobile and diesel exhaust, agricultural burning and welding fumes contain primarily direct-acting mutagens. Cigarette smoke condensate, smoke from charred meat and protein pyrolysates, kerosene soot and cigarette smoke condensates contain primarily mutagens which require metabolic activation. Fractionation coupled with mutagenicity testing indicates that the most potent mutagens are found in the acidic fractions of urban air, coal fly ash, and automobile diesel exhaust, whereas mutagens in rice straw smoke and cigarette smoke condensate are found primarily in the basic fractions. The interaction of the many chemical compounds in complex mixtures from airborne particles is likely to be important in determining mutagenic or comutagenic potentials. Because the mode of exposure is generally frequent and prolonged, the presence of tumor-promoting agents in complex mixtures may be a major factor in evaluation of the carcinogenic potential of airborne particles.

  6. Mammalian airborne allergens.

    PubMed

    Aalberse, Rob C

    2014-01-01

    Historically, horse dandruff was a favorite allergen source material. Today, however, allergic symptoms due to airborne mammalian allergens are mostly a result of indoor exposure, be it at home, at work or even at school. The relevance of mammalian allergens in relation to the allergenic activity of house dust extract is briefly discussed in the historical context of two other proposed sources of house dust allergenic activity: mites and Maillard-type lysine-sugar conjugates. Mammalian proteins involved in allergic reactions to airborne dust are largely found in only 2 protein families: lipocalins and secretoglobins (Fel d 1-like proteins), with a relatively minor contribution of serum albumins, cystatins and latherins. Both the lipocalin and the secretoglobin family are very complex. In some instances this results in a blurred separation between important and less important allergenic family members. The past 50 years have provided us with much detailed information on the genomic organization and protein structure of many of these allergens. However, the complex family relations, combined with the wide range of post-translational enzymatic and non-enzymatic modifications, make a proper qualitative and quantitative description of the important mammalian indoor airborne allergens still a significant proteomic challenge. PMID:24925404

  7. Airborne laser sensors and integrated systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabatini, Roberto; Richardson, Mark A.; Gardi, Alessandro; Ramasamy, Subramanian

    2015-11-01

    The underlying principles and technologies enabling the design and operation of airborne laser sensors are introduced and a detailed review of state-of-the-art avionic systems for civil and military applications is presented. Airborne lasers including Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR), Laser Range Finders (LRF), and Laser Weapon Systems (LWS) are extensively used today and new promising technologies are being explored. Most laser systems are active devices that operate in a manner very similar to microwave radars but at much higher frequencies (e.g., LIDAR and LRF). Other devices (e.g., laser target designators and beam-riders) are used to precisely direct Laser Guided Weapons (LGW) against ground targets. The integration of both functions is often encountered in modern military avionics navigation-attack systems. The beneficial effects of airborne lasers including the use of smaller components and remarkable angular resolution have resulted in a host of manned and unmanned aircraft applications. On the other hand, laser sensors performance are much more sensitive to the vagaries of the atmosphere and are thus generally restricted to shorter ranges than microwave systems. Hence it is of paramount importance to analyse the performance of laser sensors and systems in various weather and environmental conditions. Additionally, it is important to define airborne laser safety criteria, since several systems currently in service operate in the near infrared with considerable risk for the naked human eye. Therefore, appropriate methods for predicting and evaluating the performance of infrared laser sensors/systems are presented, taking into account laser safety issues. For aircraft experimental activities with laser systems, it is essential to define test requirements taking into account the specific conditions for operational employment of the systems in the intended scenarios and to verify the performance in realistic environments at the test ranges. To support the

  8. From Mars to Greenland: Charting gravity with space and airborne instruments - Fields, tides, methods, results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colombo, Oscar L. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    This symposium on space and airborne techniques for measuring gravity fields, and related theory, contains papers on gravity modeling of Mars and Venus at NASA/GSFC, an integrated laser Doppler method for measuring planetary gravity fields, observed temporal variations in the earth's gravity field from 16-year Starlette orbit analysis, high-resolution gravity models combining terrestrial and satellite data, the effect of water vapor corrections for satellite altimeter measurements of the geoid, and laboratory demonstrations of superconducting gravity and inertial sensors for space and airborne gravity measurements. Other papers are on airborne gravity measurements over the Kelvin Seamount; the accuracy of GPS-derived acceleration from moving platform tests; airborne gravimetry, altimetry, and GPS navigation errors; controlling common mode stabilization errors in airborne gravity gradiometry, GPS/INS gravity measurements in space and on a balloon, and Walsh-Fourier series expansion of the earth's gravitational potential.

  9. Airborne Submillimeter Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zmuidzinas, J.

    1998-01-01

    This is the final technical report for NASA-Ames grant NAG2-1068 to Caltech, entitled "Airborne Submillimeter Spectroscopy", which extended over the period May 1, 1996 through January 31, 1998. The grant was funded by the NASA airborne astronomy program, during a period of time after the Kuiper Airborne Observatory was no longer operational. Instead. this funding program was intended to help develop instrument concepts and technology for the upcoming SOFIA (Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy) project. SOFIA, which is funded by NASA and is now being carried out by a consortium lead by USRA (Universities Space Research Association), will be a 747 aircraft carrying a 2.5 meter diameter telescope. The purpose of our grant was to fund the ongoing development of sensitive heterodyne receivers for the submillimeter band (500-1200 GHz), using sensitive superconducting (SIS) detectors. In 1997 July we submitted a proposal to USRA to construct a heterodyne instrument for SOFIA. Our proposal was successful [1], and we are now continuing our airborne astronomy effort with funding from USRA. A secondary purpose of the NAG2-1068 grant was to continue the anaIN'sis of astronomical data collected with an earlier instrument which was flown on the NASA Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO). The KAO instrument and the astronomical studies which were carried out with it were supported primarily under another grant, NAG2-744, which extended over October 1, 1991 through Januarv 31, 1997. For a complete description of the astronomical data and its anailysis, we refer the reader to the final technical report for NAG2-744, which was submitted to NASA on December 1. 1997. Here we report on the SIS detector development effort for SOFIA carried out under NAG2-1068. The main result of this effort has been the demonstration of SIS mixers using a new superconducting material niobium titanium nitride (NbTiN), which promises to deliver dramatic improvements in sensitivity in the 700

  10. [Phylogenetic diversity of airborne microbes in Qingdao downtown in autumn].

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin; Song, Zhi-wen; Xu, Ai-ling; Wu, Deng-deng; Xia, Yan

    2015-04-01

    To determine the community structure of airborne microbes in Qingdao downtown in autumn, the airborne bacteria and fungi were collected by the KC-6120 air sampler and analyzed using the 16S/18S rDNA gene clone library method. Phylogenetic analysis of airborne bacteria showed that they belonged to six major phylogenetic groups: Proteobacteria (78. 8%), Firmicutes (14.6%), Actinobacteria (4.0%), Planctomycetes (1.3%), Cyanobacteria (0.7%), and Deinococcus-Thermus (0.7%). The dominant genera of airborne bacteria included Acinetobacter (39.7%), Staphylococcus (11.3%), Sphingomonas (8.6%), Paracoccus (6.0%) and Massilia (5.3%). The main types of airborne fungi were Ascomycota (97.5%) and Basidiomycota (2.5%). Dominant genera of airborne fungi included Pyrenophora (76.5%), Xylaria (13.6%) and Exophiala (2.5%). The pathogens or conditioned pathogens, such as Acinetobacter, Staphylococcus, or Sphingomonas were detected in the airborne bacteria, whereas certain kinds of fungi, such as P. graminea, X. hypoxylon and Zasmidium angulare that could cause a variety of crop diseases were also detected. PMID:26259454

  11. NASA'S Coastal and Ocean Airborne Science Testbed (COAST): Early Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guild, L. S.; Dungan, J. L.; Edwards, M.; Russell, P. B.; Morrow, J. H.; Kudela, R. M.; Myers, J. S.; Livingston, J.; Lobitz, B.; Torres-Perez, J.

    2012-12-01

    The NASA Coastal and Ocean Airborne Science Testbed (COAST) project advances coastal ecosystems research and ocean color calibration and validation capability by providing a unique airborne payload optimized for remote sensing in the optically complex coastal zone. The COAST instrument suite combines a customized imaging spectrometer, sunphotometer system, and a new bio-optical radiometer package to obtain ocean/coastal/atmosphere data simultaneously in flight for the first time. The imaging spectrometer (Headwall) is optimized in the blue region of the spectrum to emphasize remote sensing of marine and freshwater ecosystems. Simultaneous measurements supporting empirical atmospheric correction of image data is accomplished using the Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS-14). Coastal Airborne In situ Radiometers (C-AIR, Biospherical Instruments, Inc.), developed for COAST for airborne campaigns from field-deployed microradiometer instrumentation, will provide measurements of apparent optical properties at the land/ocean boundary including optically shallow aquatic ecosystems. Ship-based measurements allowed validation of airborne measurements. Radiative transfer modeling on in-water measurements from the HyperPro and Compact-Optical Profiling System (C-OPS, the in-water companion to C-AIR) profiling systems allows for comparison of airborne and in-situ water leaving radiance measurements. Results of the October 2011 Monterey Bay COAST mission include preliminary data on coastal ocean color products, coincident spatial and temporal data on aerosol optical depth and water vapor column content, as well as derived exact water-leaving radiances.

  12. An approach to evaluating reactive airborne wind shear systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Joseph P., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    An approach to evaluating reactive airborne windshear detection systems was developed to support a deployment study for future FAA ground-based windshear detection systems. The deployment study methodology assesses potential future safety enhancements beyond planned capabilities. The reactive airborne systems will be an integral part of planned windshear safety enhancements. The approach to evaluating reactive airborne systems involves separate analyses for both landing and take-off scenario. The analysis estimates the probability of effective warning considering several factors including NASA energy height loss characteristics, reactive alert timing, and a probability distribution for microburst strength.

  13. Operational overview of NASA GTE/CITE 1 airborne instrument intercomparisons - Carbon monoxide, nitric oxide, and hydroxyl instrumentation. [Global Tropospheric Experiment/Chemical Instrumentation Test and Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beck, Sherwin M.; Bendura, Richard J.; Mcdougal, David S.; Hoell, James M., Jr.; Gregory, Gerald L.; Sachse, Glen W.; Hill, Gerald F.; Curfman, Howard J., Jr.; Torres, Arnold L.; Condon, Estelle P.

    1987-01-01

    An overview of the airborne intercomparisons of CO, NO, and OH instrumentation is presented in this first paper of the series on the NASA Global Tropospheric Experiment/Chemical Instrumentation Test and Evaluation (GTE/CITE 1). This paper provides the reader with background information about several important characteristics of the project. These include the overall objectives and approach, the measurements taken, the intercomparison protocol, aircraft platform, profiles of each aircraft flight, and the participants. A synopsis of the overall results of the CO, NO, and OH instrument intercomparisons is also included. Companion papers discuss the detailed results of the CO and NO intercomparison tests as well as pertinent scientific findings.

  14. Real-time airborne hyperspectral imaging of land mines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanco, Tyler; Achal, Steve; McFee, John E.; Anger, Cliff; Young, Jane

    2007-04-01

    DRDC Suffeld and Itres Research have jointly investigated the use of visible and infrared hyperspectral imaging (HSI) for surface and buried land mine detection since 1989. These studies have demonstrated reliable passive HSI detection of surface-laid mines, based on their reflectance spectra, from airborne and ground-based platforms. Commercial HSI instruments collect and store image data at aircraft speeds, but the data are analysed off- line. This is useful for humanitarian demining, but unacceptable for military countermine operations. We have developed a hardware and software system with algorithms that can process the raw hyperspectral data in real time to detect mines. The custom algorithms perform radiometric correction of the raw data, then classify pixels of the corrected data, referencing a spectral signature library. The classification results are stored and displayed in real time, that is, within a few frame times of the data acquisition. Such real-time mine detection was demonstrated for the first time from a slowly moving land vehicle in March 2000. This paper describes an improved system which can achieve real-time detection of mines from an airborne platform, with its commensurately higher data rates. The system is presently compatible with the Itres family of visible/near infrared, short wave infrared and thermal infrared pushbroom hyperspectral imagers and its broadband thermal infrared pushbroom imager. Experiments to detect mines from an airborne platform in real time were conducted at DRDC Suffield in November 2006. Surface-laid land mines were detected in real time from a slowly moving helicopter with generally good detection rates and low false alarm rates. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first time that land mines have been detected from an airborne platform in real time using hyperspectral imaging.

  15. Airborne Contaminants in the TE Lab: How to Reduce Your Exposure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeimet, Denis E.; Merrell, Wayne L.

    1995-01-01

    Details the dangers from airborne contaminants in technology education laboratories and ways to protect students from them, including ventilation, acceptable limits, and guidelines for using respirators. (SK)

  16. PHARUS airborne SAR concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snoeij, Paul; Pouwels, Henk; Koomen, Peter J.; Hoogeboom, Peter

    1995-11-01

    PHARUS (phased array universal SAR) is an airborne SAR concept which is being developed in the Netherlands. The PHARUS system differs from other airborne SARs by the use of a phased array antenna, which provides both for the flexibility in the design as well as for a compact, light-weight instrument that can be carried on small aircraft. The concept allows for the construction of airborne SAR systems on a common generic basis but tailored to specific user needs and can be seen as a preparation for future spaceborne SAR systems using solid state transmitters with electronically steerable phased array antenna. The whole approach is aimed at providing an economic and yet technically sophisticated solution to remote sensing or surveying needs of a specific user. The solid state phased array antenna consists of a collection of radiating patches; the design flexibility for a large part resides in the freedom to choose the number of patches, and thereby the essential radar performance parameters such as resolution and swath width. Another consequence of the use of the phased array antenna is the system's compactness and the possibility to rigidly mount it on a small aircraft. The use of small aircraft of course considerably improves the cost/benefit ratio of the use of airborne SAR. Flight altitude of the system is flexible between about 7,000 and 40,000 feet, giving much operational freedom within the meteo and airspace control limits. In the PHARUS concept the airborne segment is complemented by a ground segment, which consists of a SAR processor, possibly extended by a matching image processing package. (A quick look image is available in real-time on board the aircraft.) The SAR processor is UNIX based and runs on easily available hardware (SUN station). Although the additional image processing software is available, the SAR processing software is nevertheless designed to be able to interface with commercially available image processing software, as well as being able

  17. Multi Sensor and Platforms Setups for Various Airborne Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemper, G.; Vasel, R.

    2016-06-01

    To combine various sensors to get a system for specific use became popular within the last 10 years. Metric mid format cameras meanwhile reach the 100 MPix and entered the mapping market to compete with the big format sensors. Beside that also other sensors as SLR Cameras provide high resolution and enter the aerial surveying market for orthophoto production or monitoring applications. Flexibility, purchase-costs, size and weight are common aspects to design multi-sensor systems. Some sensors are useful for mapping while others are part of environmental monitoring systems. Beside classical surveying aircrafts also UL Airplanes, Para/Trikes or UAVs make use of multi sensor systems. Many of them are customer specific while other already are frequently used in the market. This paper aims to show some setup, their application, what are the results and what are the pros and cons of them are.

  18. Airborne concentrations of peanut protein.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Rodney M; Barnes, Charles S

    2013-01-01

    Food allergy to peanut is a significant health problem, and there are reported allergic reactions to peanuts despite not eating or having physical contact with peanuts. It is presumed that an allergic reaction may have occurred from inhalation of airborne peanut allergens. The purpose of this study was to detect the possible concentrations of airborne peanut proteins for various preparations and during specific activities. Separate Ara h 1 and Ara h 2 monoclonal enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and a polyclonal sandwich enzyme immunoassay for peanuts were used to detect the amount of airborne peanut protein collected using a Spincon Omni 3000 air collector (Sceptor Industries, Inc., Kansas City, MO) under different peanut preparation methods and situations. Air samples were measured for multiple peanut preparations and scenarios. Detectable amounts of airborne peanut protein were measured using a whole peanut immunoassay when removing the shells of roasted peanut. No airborne peanut allergen (Ara h 1 or Ara h 2) or whole peanut protein above the LLD was measured in any of the other peanut preparation collections. Ara h 1, Ara h 2, and polyclonal peanut proteins were detected from water used to boil peanuts. Small amounts of airborne peanut protein were detected in the scenario of removing shells from roasted peanuts; however, Ara h 1 and Ara h 2 proteins were unable to be consistently detected. Although airborne peanut proteins were detected, the concentration of airborne peanut protein that is necessary to elicit a clinical allergic reaction is unknown.

  19. Airborne ballistic camera tracking systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redish, W. L.

    1976-01-01

    An operational airborne ballistic camera tracking system was tested for operational and data reduction feasibility. The acquisition and data processing requirements of the system are discussed. Suggestions for future improvements are also noted. A description of the data reduction mathematics is outlined. Results from a successful reentry test mission are tabulated. The test mission indicated that airborne ballistic camera tracking systems are feasible.

  20. Airborne concentrations of peanut protein.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Rodney M; Barnes, Charles S

    2013-01-01

    Food allergy to peanut is a significant health problem, and there are reported allergic reactions to peanuts despite not eating or having physical contact with peanuts. It is presumed that an allergic reaction may have occurred from inhalation of airborne peanut allergens. The purpose of this study was to detect the possible concentrations of airborne peanut proteins for various preparations and during specific activities. Separate Ara h 1 and Ara h 2 monoclonal enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and a polyclonal sandwich enzyme immunoassay for peanuts were used to detect the amount of airborne peanut protein collected using a Spincon Omni 3000 air collector (Sceptor Industries, Inc., Kansas City, MO) under different peanut preparation methods and situations. Air samples were measured for multiple peanut preparations and scenarios. Detectable amounts of airborne peanut protein were measured using a whole peanut immunoassay when removing the shells of roasted peanut. No airborne peanut allergen (Ara h 1 or Ara h 2) or whole peanut protein above the LLD was measured in any of the other peanut preparation collections. Ara h 1, Ara h 2, and polyclonal peanut proteins were detected from water used to boil peanuts. Small amounts of airborne peanut protein were detected in the scenario of removing shells from roasted peanuts; however, Ara h 1 and Ara h 2 proteins were unable to be consistently detected. Although airborne peanut proteins were detected, the concentration of airborne peanut protein that is necessary to elicit a clinical allergic reaction is unknown. PMID:23406937

  1. Gas platform

    SciTech Connect

    Mo, O.

    1981-11-24

    The invention is related to an offshore platform with storage facilities for natural resources, such as LNG. The invention is particularly concerned with the problem of providing sufficient safety in storing such products, e.g., protection against collision with tankers.

  2. Alternative analysis of airborne laser data collected within conventional multi-parameter airborne geophysical surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahl, Andreas; Supper, R.; Motschka, K.; Schattauer, I.

    2010-05-01

    For the interpretation of airborne gamma-ray spectrometry as well as airborne electromagnetics it is of great importance to determine the distance between the geophysical sensor and the ground surface. Since radar altimeters do not penetrate vegetation, laser altimeters became popular in airborne geophysics over the past years. Currently the airborne geophysical platform of the Geological Survey of Austria (GBA) is equipped with a Riegl LD90-3800VHS-FLP high resolution laser altimeter, measuring the distances according to the first and the last reflected pulse. The goal of the presented study was to explore the possibilities of deriving additional information about the survey area from the laser data and to determine the accuracy of such results. On one hand the difference between the arrival time of the first and the last reflected pulse can be used to determine the height of the vegetation. This parameter is for example important for the correction of damping effects on airborne gamma-ray measurements caused by vegetation. Moreover especially for groundwater studies at catchment scale, this parameter can also be applied to support the spatial assessment of evapotranspiration. In combination with the altitude above geoid, determined by a GPS receiver, a rough digital elevation model of the survey area can be derived from the laser altimetry. Based on a data set from a survey area in the northern part of Austria, close to the border with the Czech Republic, the reliability of such a digital elevation model and the calculated vegetation height was tested. In this study a mean deviation of -1.4m, with a standard deviation of ±3.4m, between the digital elevation model from Upper Austria (25m spatial resolution) and the determined elevation model was determined. We also found an obvious correlation between the calculated vegetation heights greater 15m and the mapped forest published by the ‘Department of Forest Inventory' of the ‘Federal Forest Office' of Austria

  3. Relation of Topography to Airborne Gravity in Afghanistan and the Tectonic Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, W.; Brozena, J. M.; Peters, M. F.

    2012-12-01

    As part of a multi-sensor, multi-disciplinary aerogeophysical survey, the US Naval Research Laboratory collected airborne gravity over most of Afghanistan in 2006 (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1089/Afghan_grv.html). The data were measured using a pair of ZLS Corporation air-sea gravimeters 7 km altitude above mean sea level aboard an NP-3D Orion aircraft operated by the US Navy's Scientific Development Squadron One (VXS-1). Aircraft positions were determined from kinematic GPS measurements in the aircraft relative to five base stations using differential interferometric techniques. Track spacing was set to 4 km over much of Afghanistan, but was increased to 8 km in the northern block of the survey area. Aircraft ground speed averaged between 300 and 380 knots, faster than ideal for high resolution gravity, but enabled approximately 113,000-km of data tracks to be flown in 220 flight hours, covering more than 330000 km2. In this presentation, we investigate the implications of the airborne gravity data for the tectonic development history of Afghanistan. Afghanistan is described as comprising three different platforms (Wheeler et al., 2005): 1) the north Afghanistan platform north of the Hari-Rud fault (HRF), a part of the Eurasian plate for 250-350 my; 2) the accreted terranes south of the HRF including low flats, formed as island arcs and fragments of continental and oceanic crust collided with the Eurasian plate during the closure of the Tethys Ocean in the past 250 my; and 3) the transpressional plate in the east, formed as the Indian plate moves northward since Cretaceous. The Bouguer anomaly map reveals elongated negative values along the east-west striking HRF, which seems to manifest different tectonic developmental histories across the boundary. Over the southern flats in the accreted terranes platform, the Bouguer anomaly map appears to show a continuation of alternating southwest-northeast trending highs and lows like those over the northern high

  4. Airborne Chemical Sensing with Mobile Robots

    PubMed Central

    Lilienthal, Achim J.; Loutfi, Amy; Duckett, Tom

    2006-01-01

    Airborne chemical sensing with mobile robots has been an active research area since the beginning of the 1990s. This article presents a review of research work in this field, including gas distribution mapping, trail guidance, and the different subtasks of gas source localisation. Due to the difficulty of modelling gas distribution in a real world environment with currently available simulation techniques, we focus largely on experimental work and do not consider publications that are purely based on simulations.

  5. CO2 Budget and Rectification Airborne Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grainger, C. A.

    2004-01-01

    The main purpose of this award was to supply a platform for the airborne measurements of gases associated with the CO2 Budget and Regional Airborne Study (COBRA). The original program was to consist of three field programs: the first was to be in 1999, the second in 2000, and the third in 2001. At the end of the second field program, it was agreed that the science could better be served by making the measurements in northern Brazil, rather than in North America. The final North American program would be postponed until after two field programs in Brazil. A substantial amount of effort was diverted into making plans and preparations for the Brazil field programs. The Brazil field programs were originally scheduled to take place in the Fall of 2002 and Spring of 2003. Carrying out the field program in Brazil was going to logistically much more involved than a program in the US. Shipping of equipment, customs, and site preparations required work to begin many months prior to the actual measurement program. Permission to fly in that country was also not trivial and indeed proved to be a major obstacle. When we were not able to get permission to fly in Brazil for the 2002 portion of the experiment, the program was pushed back to 2003. When permission by the Brazilian government was not given in time for a Spring of 2003 field program, the experiment was postponed again to begin in the Fall of 2003.

  6. Calibration Matters: Advances in Strapdown Airborne Gravimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, D.

    2015-12-01

    Using a commercial navigation-grade strapdown inertial measurement unit (IMU) for airborne gravimetry can be advantageous in terms of cost, handling, and space consumption compared to the classical stable-platform spring gravimeters. Up to now, however, large sensor errors made it impossible to reach the mGal-level using such type IMUs as they are not designed or optimized for this kind of application. Apart from a proper error-modeling in the filtering process, specific calibration methods that are tailored to the application of aerogravity may help to bridge this gap and to improve their performance. Based on simulations, a quantitative analysis is presented on how much IMU sensor errors, as biases, scale factors, cross couplings, and thermal drifts distort the determination of gravity and the deflection of the vertical (DOV). Several lab and in-field calibration methods are briefly discussed, and calibration results are shown for an iMAR RQH unit. In particular, a thermal lab calibration of its QA2000 accelerometers greatly improved the long-term drift behavior. Latest results from four recent airborne gravimetry campaigns confirm the effectiveness of the calibrations applied, with cross-over accuracies reaching 1.0 mGal (0.6 mGal after cross-over adjustment) and DOV accuracies reaching 1.1 arc seconds after cross-over adjustment.

  7. Auxiliary DCP data acquisition system. [airborne system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, R. V.

    1975-01-01

    An airborne DCP Data Aquisition System has been designed to augment the ERTS satellite data recovery system. The DCP's are data collection platforms located at pertinent sites. With the appropriate sensors they are able to collect, digitally encode and transmit environmental parameters to the ERTS satellite. The satellite in turn relays these transmissions to a ground station for processing. The satellite is available for such relay duty a minimum of two times in a 24-hour period. The equipment is to obtain continuous DCP data during periods of unusual environmental activity--storms, floods, etc. Two circumstances contributed to the decision to design such a system; (1) Wallops Station utilizes surveillance aircraft in support of rocket launches and also in support of earth resources activities; (2) the area in which Wallops is located, the Delaware and Chesapeake Bay areas, are fertile areas for DCP usage. Therefore, by developing an airborne DCP receiving station and installing it on aircraft more continuous DCP data can be provided from sites in the surrounding areas at relatively low cost.

  8. Fourth Airborne Geoscience Workshop: Summary Minutes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The general theme for the workshop revolved around global environmental change. Over 170 individuals participated in the presentations and ensuing discussions about the many agency activities using airborne platforms and sensors in support of the U.S. Global Change Research Program (GCRP). The U.S. GCRP was developed as a central component of the U.S. Government's approach to global change and its contribution to worldwide efforts. An all-encompassing U.S. plan was developed by the Committee on Earth and Environmental Sciences (CEES), which continues as the interagency coordinating group for the program. The U.S. GCRP was established as a Presidential initiative in the FY90 budget, making it a particularly relevant topic for the workshop. The following are presented in the appendices: (1) final agenda and list of registrants; (2) final list of poster presenters; (3) steering group luncheon participants; (4) the draft resolution; and (5) selected handouts.

  9. An evaluation of PBL parameterizations utilizing compact airborne raman Lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pauly, Rebecca

    The water vapor structure within and above the planetary boundary layer (PBL) plays an essential role in many weather and climate phenomena including the water vapor feedback, thunderstorm formation and maintenance, and precipitation amounts. As a result, the accurate modeling of the PBL and its water vapor structure is critical for accurate climate and weather predictions. The University of Wyoming Compact Airborne Raman Lidar (CARL) is an ideal instrument with which to conduct model evaluation studies because of its ability to measure the fine scale water vapor mixing ratio (WVMR) on a mobile platform. A PBL scheme comparison and sensitivity study was conducted using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model and CARL data from two days in June 2010. The three PBL schemes used were the Mellor, Yamada, Janjic (MYJ) scheme, Yonsei University (YSU) scheme, and the Asymmetric Convective Model Version 2 (ACM2) scheme. The analysis revealed that the MYJ scheme performed best on modeling the magnitude of WVMR in the PBL but that the ACM2 and YSU schemes modeled the vertical structure better. Sensitivity studies modifying the assumptions made to determine the PBL top, k-diffusivity profiles, and surface heat fluxes were conducted. The magnitude of WVMR was improved within the YSU and ACM2 schemes by modifying the vertical diffusivity as well as in the YSU scheme by decreasing the surface sensible heat flux. The convective storms, which formed in each case, were also studied, and results show that runs with higher magnitudes of WVMR modeled these storms more accurately.

  10. Operations Manager Tim Miller checks out software for the Airborne Synthetic Aperature Radar (AIRSAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Tim Miller checks out software for the Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR). He was the AIRSAR operations manager for NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The AIRSAR produces imaging data for a range of studies conducted by the DC-8. NASA is using a DC-8 aircraft as a flying science laboratory. The platform aircraft, based at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif., collects data for many experiments in support of scientific projects serving the world scientific community. Included in this community are NASA, federal, state, academic and foreign investigators. Data gathered by the DC-8 at flight altitude and by remote sensing have been used for scientific studies in archeology, ecology, geography, hydrology, meteorology, oceanography, volcanology, atmospheric chemistry, soil science and biology.

  11. DC-8 Airborne Laboratory in flight during research mission - view from above

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The DC-8 Airborne Science Laboratroy is shown flying above a solid layer of clouds. The aircraft was transferred from the Ames Research Center to the Dryden Flight Research Center in late 1997. Over the past several years, it has undertaken a wide range of research in such fields as archeology, ecology, hydrology, meteorology, oceanography, volcanology, atmospheric chemistry, and other fields. In this photo, it is shown flying over a bank of clouds. NASA is using a DC-8 aircraft as a flying science laboratory. The platform aircraft, based at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif., collects data for many experiments in support of scientific projects serving the world scientific community. Included in this community are NASA, federal, state, academic and foreign investigators. Data gathered by the DC-8 at flight altitude and by remote sensing have been used for scientific studies in archeology, ecology, geography, hydrology, meteorology, oceanography, volcanology, atmospheric chemistry, soil science and biology.

  12. DC-8 Airborne Laboratory in flight over snow-capped Sierra Nevada mountain range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    NASA's DC-8 Airborne Laboratory during a flight over the snow-covered Sierra Nevada Mountains. Over the past several years the DC-8 has conducted research missions in such diverse places as the Pacific in spring and Sweden in winter. NASA is using a DC-8 aircraft as a flying science laboratory. The platform aircraft, based at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif., collects data for many experiments in support of scientific projects serving the world scientific community. Included in this community are NASA, federal, state, academic and foreign investigators. Data gathered by the DC-8 at flight altitude and by remote sensing have been used for scientific studies in archeology, ecology, geography, hydrology, meteorology, oceanography, volcanology, atmospheric chemistry, soil science and biology.

  13. DC-8 Airborne Laboratory in flight over Mint Canyon near the San Gabriel Mountains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    NASA DC-8 airborne laboratory flying over Mint Canyon near the snow-covered San Gabriel Mountains of California. The mostly white aircraft is silhouetted against the darker mountains in the background. NASA is using a DC-8 aircraft as a flying science laboratory. The platform aircraft, based at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif., collects data for many experiments in support of scientific projects serving the world scientific community. Included in this community are NASA, federal, state, academic and foreign investigators. Data gathered by the DC-8 at flight altitude and by remote sensing have been used for scientific studies in archeology, ecology, geography, hydrology, meteorology, oceanography, volcanology, atmospheric chemistry, soil science and biology.

  14. Automated Platform Management System Scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hull, Larry G.

    1990-01-01

    The Platform Management System was established to coordinate the operation of platform systems and instruments. The management functions are split between ground and space components. Since platforms are to be out of contact with the ground more than the manned base, the on-board functions are required to be more autonomous than those of the manned base. Under this concept, automated replanning and rescheduling, including on-board real-time schedule maintenance and schedule repair, are required to effectively and efficiently meet Space Station Freedom mission goals. In a FY88 study, we developed several promising alternatives for automated platform planning and scheduling. We recommended both a specific alternative and a phased approach to automated platform resource scheduling. Our recommended alternative was based upon use of exactly the same scheduling engine in both ground and space components of the platform management system. Our phased approach recommendation was based upon evolutionary development of the platform. In the past year, we developed platform scheduler requirements and implemented a rapid prototype of a baseline platform scheduler. Presently we are rehosting this platform scheduler rapid prototype and integrating the scheduler prototype into two Goddard Space Flight Center testbeds, as the ground scheduler in the Scheduling Concepts, Architectures, and Networks Testbed and as the on-board scheduler in the Platform Management System Testbed. Using these testbeds, we will investigate rescheduling issues, evaluate operational performance and enhance the platform scheduler prototype to demonstrate our evolutionary approach to automated platform scheduling. The work described in this paper was performed prior to Space Station Freedom rephasing, transfer of platform responsibility to Code E, and other recently discussed changes. We neither speculate on these changes nor attempt to predict the impact of the final decisions. As a consequence some of our

  15. Airborne agent concentration analysis

    DOEpatents

    Gelbard, Fred

    2004-02-03

    A method and system for inferring airborne contaminant concentrations in rooms without contaminant sensors, based on data collected by contaminant sensors in other rooms of a building, using known airflow interconnectivity data. The method solves a least squares problem that minimizes the difference between measured and predicted contaminant sensor concentrations with respect to an unknown contaminant release time. Solutions are constrained to providing non-negative initial contaminant concentrations in all rooms. The method can be used to identify a near-optimal distribution of sensors within the building, when then number of available sensors is less than the total number of rooms. This is achieved by having a system-sensor matrix that is non-singular, and by selecting that distribution which yields the lowest condition number of all the distributions considered. The method can predict one or more contaminant initial release points from the collected data.

  16. The Callaway Plant's airborne tritium sampling cart

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, C.C.; Roselius, R.R. )

    1986-07-01

    The water vapor condensation method for sampling airborne tritium offers significant advantages over other methods, including minimal sample preparation, high sensitivity, and independence from collection efficiency and sample flow rate. However, it does have disadvantages that must be overcome in the design of a sampler. This article describes a cart-mounted, portable airborne tritium sampler used at the Callaway Nuclear Plant that incorporates the advantages of the condensation technique while minimizing its shortcomings. The key elements in the design of the sampler are the use of a refrigerated bath to cool a series of three water vapor collection traps and the use of an optical condensation dew point hygrometer to measure the moisture content of the sample. Design considerations for the proper operation of dew point hygrometers are presented, and the method used to convert due point readings to water vapor content is described.

  17. ARMAR: An airborne rain-mapping radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durden, S. L.; Im, E.; Li, F. K.; Ricketts, W.; Tanner, A.; Wilson, W.

    1994-01-01

    A new airborne rain-mapping radar (ARMAR) has been developed by NASA and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for operation on the NASA Ames DC-8 aircraft. The radar operates at 13.8 GHz, the frequency to be used by the radar on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). ARMAR simulates the TRMM radar geometry by looking downward and scanning its antenna in the cross-track direction. This basic compatibility between ARMAR and TRMM allows ARMAR to provide information useful for the TRMM radar design, for rain retrieval algorithm development, and for postlaunch calibration. ARMAR has additional capabilities, including multiple polarization, Doppler velocity measurement, and a radiometer channel for brightness temperature measurement. The system has been tested in both ground-based and airborne configurations. This paper describes the design of the system and shows results of field tests.

  18. Airborne Cloud Computing Environment (ACCE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardman, Sean; Freeborn, Dana; Crichton, Dan; Law, Emily; Kay-Im, Liz

    2011-01-01

    Airborne Cloud Computing Environment (ACCE) is JPL's internal investment to improve the return on airborne missions. Improve development performance of the data system. Improve return on the captured science data. The investment is to develop a common science data system capability for airborne instruments that encompasses the end-to-end lifecycle covering planning, provisioning of data system capabilities, and support for scientific analysis in order to improve the quality, cost effectiveness, and capabilities to enable new scientific discovery and research in earth observation.

  19. Clutter filter design considerations for Airborne Doppler radar detection of windshear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baxa, Ernest G., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    The problem of clutter rejection when processing down-looking Doppler radar returns from a low altitude airborne platform is a paramount problem. With radar as a remote sensor for detecting and predicting windshear in the vicinity of an urban airport, dynamic range requirements can exceed 50 dB because of high clutter to signal ratios. This presentation describes signal processing considerations in the presence of distributed and/or discrete clutter interference. Previous analyses have considered conventional range cell processing of radar returns from a rigidly mounted radar platform using either the Fourier or the pulse-pair method to estimate average windspeed and windspeed variation within a cell. Clutter rejection has been based largely upon analyzing a particular environment in the vicinity of the radar and employing a variety of techniques to reduce interference effects including notch filtering, Fourier domain line editing, and use of clutter maps. For the airborne environment the clutter characteristics may be somewhat different. Conventional clutter rejection methods may have to be changed and new methods will probably be required to provide useful signal to noise ratios. Various considerations are described. A major thrust has been to evaluate the effect of clutter rejection filtering upon the ability to derive useful information from the post-filter radar data. This analysis software is briefly described. Finally, some ideas for future analysis are considered including the use of adaptive filtering for clutter rejection and the estimation of windspeed spatial gradient directly from radar returns as a means of reducing the effects of clutter on the determination of a windshear hazard.

  20. Improved Airborne System for Sensing Wildfires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKeown, Donald; Richardson, Michael

    2008-01-01

    The Wildfire Airborne Sensing Program (WASP) is engaged in a continuing effort to develop an improved airborne instrumentation system for sensing wildfires. The system could also be used for other aerial-imaging applications, including mapping and military surveillance. Unlike prior airborne fire-detection instrumentation systems, the WASP system would not be based on custom-made multispectral line scanners and associated custom- made complex optomechanical servomechanisms, sensors, readout circuitry, and packaging. Instead, the WASP system would be based on commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) equipment that would include (1) three or four electronic cameras (one for each of three or four wavelength bands) instead of a multispectral line scanner; (2) all associated drive and readout electronics; (3) a camera-pointing gimbal; (4) an inertial measurement unit (IMU) and a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver for measuring the position, velocity, and orientation of the aircraft; and (5) a data-acquisition subsystem. It would be necessary to custom-develop an integrated sensor optical-bench assembly, a sensor-management subsystem, and software. The use of mostly COTS equipment is intended to reduce development time and cost, relative to those of prior systems.

  1. Transportation and platforms perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Gary L.

    1992-01-01

    The topics covered are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology; space research and technology (R&T); space R&T mission statement; Space R&T program development; R&T strategy; Office of Space Science and Applications (OSSA) technology needs; transportation technology; and space platforms technology.

  2. Establishment of Airborne Nanoparticle Exposure Chamber System to Assess Nano TiO2 Induced Mice Lung Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chia-Hua; Li, Jui-Ping; Huang, Nai-Chun; Yang, Chung-Shi; Chen, Jen-Kun

    2011-12-01

    A great many governments have schemed their top priority to support the research and development of emerging nanotechnology, which lead to increasing products containing nanomaterials. However, platforms and protocols to evaluate the safety of nanomaterials are not yet established. We therefore design and fabricate a nanoparticle exposure chamber system (NECS) and try to standardize protocols to assess potential health risk of inhalable nanoparticles. This platform comprises: (1) nano-aerosol generators to produce homogeneous airborne nanoparticles, (2) double isolated container to prevent from unexpected exposure to humans, (3) gas supply system for housing animals or incubating cultured cells, and (4) system for automatic control and airborne nanoparticle analysis. The NECS providing multiple functions includes: (1) a secure environment to handle nanomaterials, (2) real-time measurement for the size and distribution of airborne nanoparticles, (3) SOP of safety evaluation for nanomaterials, and (4) key technology for the development of inhalable pharmaceuticals. We used NECS to mimic occupational environment for exploring potential adverse effects of TiO2 nanoparticles. The adult male ICR mice were exposed to 25nm, well-characterized TiO2 particles for 1 and 4 weeks. More than 90% of the inhaled TiO2 nanoparticles deposit in lung tissue, which tends to be captured by alveolar macrophages. Pulmonary function test does not show significant physiological changes between one and 4 weeks exposure. For plasma biochemistry analysis, there are no obvious inflammation responses after exposure for one and 4 weeks; however, disruption of alveolar septa and increased thickness of alveolar epithelial cells were observed. According to our results, the NECS together with our protocols show comprehensive integration and ideally fit the standard of OECD guildelines-TG403, TG412, TG413; it can be further customized to fulfill diverse demands of industry, government, and third party

  3. Extracting dynamic spatial data from airborne imaging sensors to support traffic flow estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toth, C. K.; Grejner-Brzezinska, D.

    The recent transition from analog to totally digital data acquisition and processing techniques in airborne surveying represents a major milestone in the evolution of spatial information science and practice. On one hand, the improved quality of the primary sensor data can provide the foundation for better automation of the information extraction processes. This phenomenon is also strongly supported by continuously expanding computer technology, which offers almost unlimited processing power. On the other hand, the variety of the data, including rich information content and better temporal characteristics, acquired by the new digital sensors and coupled with rapidly advancing processing techniques, is broadening the applications of airborne surveying. One of these new application areas is traffic flow extraction aimed at supporting better traffic monitoring and management. Transportation mapping has always represented a significant segment of civilian mapping and is mainly concerned with road corridor mapping for design and engineering purposes, infrastructure mapping and facility management, and more recently, environmental mapping. In all these cases, the objective of the mapping is to extract the static features of the object space, such as man-made and natural objects, typically along the road network. In contrast, the traffic moving in the transportation network represents a very dynamic environment, which complicates the spatial data extraction processes as the signals of moving vehicles should be identified and removed. Rather than removing and discarding the signals, however, they can be turned into traffic flow information. This paper reviews initial research efforts to extract traffic flow information from laserscanner and digital camera sensors installed in airborne platforms.

  4. Detection of trees using airborne lidar data based on ArcGIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Feifei; Liu, Jingnan; Zhang, Xiaohong

    2006-10-01

    In this article, we use the height difference between the first pulse and last pulse recorded by the airborne laser scanning system to implement a strategy for detection of trees, especially for relatively tall trees. The airborne lidar data we use include 3D coordinates and intensity information of first pulse and last pulse respectively, and the image file of the test area are also available. ArcGIS version 9.0, has been used as the implementation platform as which as effective data processing function and outstanding performance of data analysis such as TIN interpolation and 3D display. To extract trees from the raw data, the data is loaded into ArcGIS to create shapefile recognized by ArcGIS at first, and the corresponding attributes, coordinates, intensity and height difference computed by programming are stored. Then we select the data accord with the filtering condition, a threshold for height difference is given. All the comparisons of 3D coordinates and intensity occur between point data in the same row, in other words, between the first pulse and last pulse. We accept the first pulse which satisfies the height difference threshold as vegetation points. At last, a considerable result of detection of trees has been achieved.

  5. Assessment of airborne environmental bacteria and related factors in 25 underground railway stations in Seoul, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Sung Ho; Yoon, Chung Sik; Ryu, Kyong Nam; Paik, Samuel Y.; Cho, Jun Ho

    2010-05-01

    This study assessed bacterial concentrations in indoor air at 25 underground railway stations in Seoul, Korea, and investigated various related factors including the presence of platform screen doors (PSD), depth of the station, year of construction, temperature, relative humidity, and number of passengers. A total of 72 aerosol samples were collected from all the stations. Concentrations of total airborne bacteria (TAB) ranged from not detected (ND) to 4997 CFU m -3, with an overall geometric mean (GM) of 191 CFU m -3. Airborne bacteria were detected at 23 stations (92%) and Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) were detected at two stations (8%). TAB concentrations of four stations (16%) exceeded 800 CFU m -3, the Korea indoor bio-aerosol guideline. The results of the study showed that TAB concentrations at the stations without PSD showed higher TAB concentrations than those with PSD, though not at statistically significant levels. TAB concentrations of deeper stations revealed significantly higher levels than those of shallower stations. Based on this study, it is recommended that mitigation measures be applied to improve the indoor air quality (IAQ) of underground railway stations in Seoul, with focused attention on deeper stations.

  6. Airborne Lidar for Simultaneous Measurement of Column CO2 and Water Vapor in the Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Upendra N.; Petros, Mulugeta; Refaat, Tamer F.; Antill, Charles W.; Remus, Ruben; Yu, Jirong

    2016-01-01

    The 2-micron wavelength region is suitable for atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) measurements due to the existence of distinct absorption feathers for the gas at this particular wavelength. For more than 20 years, researchers at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) have developed several high-energy and high repetition rate 2-micron pulsed lasers. This paper will provide status and details of an airborne 2-micron triple-pulse integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) lidar. The development of this active optical remote sensing IPDA instrument is targeted for measuring both CO2 and water vapor (H2O) in the atmosphere from an airborne platform. This presentation will focus on the advancement of the 2-micron triple-pulse IPDA lidar development. Updates on the state-of-the-art triple-pulse laser transmitter will be presented including the status of seed laser locking, wavelength control, receiver telescope, detection system and data acquisition. Future plans for the IPDA lidar system for ground integration, testing and flight validation will also be presented.

  7. Overview of hyperspectral remote sensing for mapping marine benthic habitats from airborne and underwater sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dierssen, Heidi M.

    2013-09-01

    The seafloor, with its diverse and dynamic benthic habitats varying on meter to centimeter scales, is difficult to accurately monitor with traditional techniques. The technology used to build imaging spectrometers has rapidly advanced in recent years with the advent of smaller sensors and better signal-to-noise capabilities that has facilitated their use in mapping fine-scale benthic features. Here, the use of such sensors for hyperspectral remote sensing of the seafloor from both airborne and underwater platforms is discussed. Benthic constituents provide a so-called optical fingerprint with spectral properties that are often too subtle to be discerned with simple color photographs or multichannel spectrometers. Applications include the recent field validation of the airborne Portable Remote Imaging SpectroMeter (PRISM), a new imaging sensor package optimized for coastal ocean processes in Elkorn Slough California. In these turbid sediment-laden waters, only subtle spectral differences differentiate seafloor with sediment from that with eelgrass. The ultimate goal is to provide robust radiometric approaches that accurately consider light attenuation by the water column and are able to be applied to diverse habitats without considerable foreknowledge.

  8. Sea Ice Thickness, Freeboard, and Snow Depth products from Operation IceBridge Airborne Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurtz, N. T.; Farrell, S. L.; Studinger, M.; Galin, N.; Harbeck, J. P.; Lindsay, R.; Onana, V. D.; Panzer, B.; Sonntag, J. G.

    2013-01-01

    The study of sea ice using airborne remote sensing platforms provides unique capabilities to measure a wide variety of sea ice properties. These measurements are useful for a variety of topics including model evaluation and improvement, assessment of satellite retrievals, and incorporation into climate data records for analysis of interannual variability and long-term trends in sea ice properties. In this paper we describe methods for the retrieval of sea ice thickness, freeboard, and snow depth using data from a multisensor suite of instruments on NASA's Operation IceBridge airborne campaign. We assess the consistency of the results through comparison with independent data sets that demonstrate that the IceBridge products are capable of providing a reliable record of snow depth and sea ice thickness. We explore the impact of inter-campaign instrument changes and associated algorithm adaptations as well as the applicability of the adapted algorithms to the ongoing IceBridge mission. The uncertainties associated with the retrieval methods are determined and placed in the context of their impact on the retrieved sea ice thickness. Lastly, we present results for the 2009 and 2010 IceBridge campaigns, which are currently available in product form via the National Snow and Ice Data Center

  9. Manipulator mounted transfer platform

    DOEpatents

    Dobbins, James C.; Hoover, Mark A.; May, Kay W.; Ross, Maurice J.

    1990-01-01

    A transfer platform for the conveyance of objects by a manipulator includes a bed frame and saddle clamp secured along an edge of the bed frame and adapted so as to secure the bed frame to a horizontal crosspiece of the manipulator. The platform may thus move with the manipulator in a reciprocal linear path defined by a guide rail. A bed insert may be provided for the support of conveyed objects and a lifting bail may be provided to permit the manipulator arm to install the bed frame upon the crosspiece under remote control.

  10. Study of airborne science experiment management concepts for application to space shuttle. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulholland, D. R.; Reller, J. O., Jr.; Neel, C. B.; Haughney, L. C.

    1973-01-01

    The management concepts and operating procedures are documented as they apply to the planning of shuttle spacelab operations. Areas discussed include: airborne missions; formulation of missions; management procedures; experimenter involvement; experiment development and performance; data handling; safety procedures; and applications to shuttle spacelab planning. Characteristics of the airborne science experience are listed, and references and figures are included.

  11. Study on airborne multispectral imaging fusion detection technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Na; Gao, Jiaobo; Wang, Jun; Cheng, Juan; Gao, Meng; Gao, Fei; Fan, Zhe; Sun, Kefeng; Wu, Jun; Li, Junna; Gao, Zedong; Cheng, Gang

    2014-11-01

    The airborne multispectral imaging fusion detection technology is proposed in this paper. In this design scheme, the airborne multispectral imaging system consists of the multispectral camera, the image processing unit, and the stabilized platform. The multispectral camera can operate in the spectral region from visible to near infrared waveband (0.4-1.0um), it has four same and independent imaging channels, and sixteen different typical wavelengths to be selected based on the different typical targets and background. The related experiments were tested by the airborne multispectral imaging system. In particularly, the camouflage targets were fused and detected in the different complex environment, such as the land vegetation background, the desert hot background and underwater. In the spectral region from 0.4 um to 1.0um, the three different characteristic wave from sixteen typical spectral are selected and combined according to different backgrounds and targets. The spectral image corresponding to the three characteristic wavelengths is resisted and fused by the image processing technology in real time, and the fusion video with typical target property is outputted. In these fusion images, the contrast of target and background is greatly increased. Experimental results confirm that the airborne multispectral imaging fusion detection technology can acquire multispectral fusion image with high contrast in real time, and has the ability of detecting and identification camouflage objects from complex background to targets underwater.

  12. Airborne Remote Sensing of River Flow and Morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuckerman, S.; Anderson, S. P.; McLean, J.; Redford, R.

    2014-12-01

    River morphology, surface slope and flow are some of the fundamental measurements required for surface water monitoring and hydrodynamic research. This paper describes a method of combining bathymetric lidar with space-time processing of mid-wave infrared (MWIR) imagery to simultaneously measure bathymetry, currents and surface slope from an airborne platform. In May 2014, Areté installed a Pushbroom Imaging Lidar for Littoral Surveillance (PILLS) and a FLIR SC8000 MWIR imaging system sampling at 2 Hz in a small twin-engine aircraft. Data was collected over the lower Colorado River between Picacho Park and Parker. PILLS is a compact bathymetric lidar based on streak-tube sensor technology. It provides channel and bank topography and water surface elevation at 1 meter horizontal scales and 25 cm vertical accuracy. Surface currents are derived from the MWIR imagery by tracking surface features using a cross correlation algorithm. This approach enables the retrieval of currents along extended reaches at the forward speed of the aircraft with spatial resolutions down to 5 m with accuracy better than 10 cm/s. The fused airborne data captures current and depth variability on scales of meters over 10's of kilometers collected in just a few minutes. The airborne MWIR current retrievals are combined with the bathymetric lidar data to calculate river discharge which is then compared with real-time streamflow stations. The results highlight the potential for improving our understanding of complex river environments with simultaneous collections from multiple airborne sensors.

  13. ISRO's dual frequency airborne SAR pre-cursor to NISAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramanujam, V. Manavala; Suneela, T. J. V. D.; Bhan, Rakesh

    2016-05-01

    The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) have jointly embarked on NASA-ISRO Synthetic Aperture Radar (NISAR) operating in L-band and S-band, which will map Earth's surface every 12 days. As a pre-cursor to the NISAR mission, ISRO is planning an airborne SAR (L&S band) which will deliver NISAR analogue data products to the science community. ISRO will develop all the hardware with the aim of adhering to system design aspects of NISAR to the maximum extent possible. It is a fully polarimetric stripmap SAR and can be operated in single, dual, compact, quasi-quad and full polarimetry modes. It has wide incidence angle coverage from 24°-77° with swath coverage from 5.5km to 15 km. Apart from simultaneous imaging operations, this system can also operate in standalone L/S SAR modes. This system is planned to operate from an aircraft platform with nominal altitude of 8000meters. Antenna for this SAR will be rigidly mounted to the aircraft, whereas, motion compensation will be implemented in the software processor to generate data products. Data products for this airborne SAR will be generated in slant & ground range azimuth dimension and geocoded in HDF5/Geotiff formats. This airborne SAR will help to prepare the Indian scientific community for optimum utilization of NISAR data. In-order to collect useful science data, airborne campaigns are planned from end of 2016 onwards.

  14. Aerosol Remote Sensing Applications for Airborne Multiangle, Multispectral Shortwave Radiometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Bismarck, Jonas; Ruhtz, Thomas; Starace, Marco; Hollstein, André; Preusker, René; Fischer, Jürgen

    2010-05-01

    Aerosol particles have an important impact on the surface net radiation budget by direct scattering and absorption (direct aerosol effect) of solar radiation, and also by influencing cloud formation processes (semi-direct and indirect aerosol effects). To study the former, a number of multispectral sky- and sunphotometers have been developed at the Institute for Space Sciences of the Free University of Berlin in the past two decades. The latest operational developments were the multispectral aureole- and sunphotometer FUBISS-ASA2, the zenith radiometer FUBISS-ZENITH, and the nadir polarimeter AMSSP-EM, all designed for a flexible use on moving platforms like aircraft or ships. Currently the multiangle, multispectral radiometer URMS/AMSSP (Universal Radiation Measurement System/ Airborne Multispectral Sunphotometer and Polarimeter) is under construction for a Wing-Pod of the high altitude research aircraft HALO operated by DLR. The system is expected to have its first mission on HALO in 2011. The algorithms for the retrieval of aerosol and trace gas properties from the recorded multidirectional, multispectral radiation measurements allow more than deriving standard products, as for instance the aerosol optical depth and the Angstrom exponent. The radiation measured in the solar aureole contains information about the aerosol phasefunction and therefore allows conclusions about the particle type. Furthermore, airborne instrument operation allows vertically resolved measurements. An inversion algorithm, based on radiative transfer simulations and additionally including measured vertical zenith-radiance profiles, allows conclusions about the aerosol single scattering albedo and the relative soot fraction in aerosol layers. Ozone column retrieval is performed evaluating measurements from pixels in the Chappuis absorption band. A retrieval algorithm to derive the water-vapor column from the sunphotometer measurements is currently under development. Of the various airborne

  15. An assessment of the airborne route in hepatitis B transmission.

    PubMed

    Petersen, N J

    1980-01-01

    The experimental and epidemiologic evidence for airborne transmission of hepatitis B is inconclusive and our efforts to detect airborne HBsAg or blood in environments where hepatitis B transmission occurs have been uniformly unsuccessful. In the specific areas investigated: dialysis centers, laboratories, and dental operatories, other major routes of transmission that can explain the spread of hepatitis B invariably are present. Therefore, while airborne taansmission is theoretically possible and probably has occurred, at this time its contribution to the overfall hepatitis B problem cannot be quantitated. we fell comfortable in concluding that airborne HBV does not play a major role in hepatitis B transmission and that true airborne infections are probably rare. Because of the fine line airborne transmission from contract transmission via droplets, we feel it important to emphasize the need to take those precautions that protect against the latter. These include the use of gloves where surfaces become contaminated and masks and glasses to protect the eyes, nose and mouth where the possibility of spatter exists.

  16. WESTERN AIRBORNE CONTAMINANTS ASSESSMENT PROJECT (WACAP): ASSESSING DEPOSITION AND IMPACTS OF PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS AND METALS IN SEVEN NATIONAL PARKS IN THE WESTERN UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Airborne contaminants, especially those that biomagnify in the food chain, can pose serious health threats to wildlife and humans. Biological effects of airborne contaminants include impacts on reproductive success, growth, behavior, disease, and survival. In response to concer...

  17. The Development of Airborne Data for Assessing Models (ADAM) - A central repository of airborne field campaign data archives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, G.; Kleb, M. M.; Aknan, A. A.; Brown, C. C.; Mangosing, D. C.; Thornhill, A.; Rinsland, P. L.

    2010-12-01

    NASA, NOAA, and NSF have conducted over 30 airborne campaigns during the past three decades aimed at gaining an understanding of the tropospheric chemical and physical processes related to climate change and air-quality issues. In recent years, the scientific value of this accumulated airborne data has been increasingly recognized for use in satellite validation and model assessment and evaluation activities. In addition to the high spatial-temporal resolutions, the airborne data, especially from the more recent studies, offers a comprehensive view of the atmosphere through a large suite of the simultaneously observed atmospheric species/parameters, ranging from photochemical precursors to products as well as particle chemical, microphysical, and optical properties. To better facilitate the model assessment and evaluation activities, we are actively engaged in the development of a web-based central airborne data archive: ADAM (Airborne Data for Assessing Models). This effort is sponsored by the NASA MEaSUREs program and is intended to archive data from tropospheric chemistry airborne field campaign since the 1980s. The principal design philosophy of the ADAM web site is to provide an intuitive user interface that allows users to browse, visualize, subset (both spatially and temporally), merge, and download the airborne data, as well as providing adequate metadata associated with the data archive. A working version of the web site which shows the ADAM user interface and functionalities will be presented. Also presented are conventions to establish common names for the atmospheric variables which are often observed during airborne campaigns as well as the approaches to handle missing data and limit of detections. This presentation is intended to serve the purpose of getting feedback from the broad atmospheric community, including both modelers and measurement experts.

  18. Airborne myxomycete spores: detection using molecular techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamono, Akiko; Kojima, Hisaya; Matsumoto, Jun; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Fukui, Manabu

    2009-01-01

    Myxomycetes are organisms characterized by a life cycle that includes a fruiting body stage. Myxomycete fruiting bodies contain spores, and wind dispersal of the spores is considered important for this organism to colonize new areas. In this study, the presence of airborne myxomycetes and the temporal changes in the myxomycete composition of atmospheric particles (aerosols) were investigated with a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based method for Didymiaceae and Physaraceae. Twenty-one aerosol samples were collected on the roof of a three-story building located in Sapporo, Hokkaido Island, northern Japan. PCR analysis of DNA extracts from the aerosol samples indicated the presence of airborne myxomycetes in all the samples, except for the one collected during the snowfall season. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of the PCR products showed seasonally varying banding patterns. The detected DGGE bands were subjected to sequence analyses, and four out of nine obtained sequences were identical to those of fruiting body samples collected in Hokkaido Island. It appears that the difference in the fruiting period of each species was correlated with the seasonal changes in the myxomycete composition of the aerosols. Molecular evidence shows that newly formed spores are released and dispersed in the air, suggesting that wind-driven dispersal of spores is an important process in the life history of myxomycetes. This study is the first to detect airborne myxomycetes with the use of molecular ecological analyses and to characterize their seasonal distribution.

  19. Methods for Sampling of Airborne Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Verreault, Daniel; Moineau, Sylvain; Duchaine, Caroline

    2008-01-01

    Summary: To better understand the underlying mechanisms of aerovirology, accurate sampling of airborne viruses is fundamental. The sampling instruments commonly used in aerobiology have also been used to recover viruses suspended in the air. We reviewed over 100 papers to evaluate the methods currently used for viral aerosol sampling. Differentiating infections caused by direct contact from those caused by airborne dissemination can be a very demanding task given the wide variety of sources of viral aerosols. While epidemiological data can help to determine the source of the contamination, direct data obtained from air samples can provide very useful information for risk assessment purposes. Many types of samplers have been used over the years, including liquid impingers, solid impactors, filters, electrostatic precipitators, and many others. The efficiencies of these samplers depend on a variety of environmental and methodological factors that can affect the integrity of the virus structure. The aerodynamic size distribution of the aerosol also has a direct effect on sampler efficiency. Viral aerosols can be studied under controlled laboratory conditions, using biological or nonbiological tracers and surrogate viruses, which are also discussed in this review. Lastly, general recommendations are made regarding future studies on the sampling of airborne viruses. PMID:18772283

  20. Design definition of a microwave power reception and conversion system for use on a high altitude powered platform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, W. C.

    1981-01-01

    The design definition of a microwave power reception and conversion system for use on high altitude powered platform is presented. The study includes an initial design, construction and test effort on a thin film, printed circuit rectenna. A study of a low altitude demonstration of an airborne rectenna was made starting with the assumption that a fifty foot mechanically steerable parabolic reflector at the Wallops Flight Center would be retrofitted with a low microwave power source consisting of a five kilowatt commercially available magnetron and that a small blimp would be used to support the rectenna.

  1. Integrated line-of-sight Modeling of the Airborne Aero-Optics Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, S.; Blackburn, J.; Thordahl, J.; Wittich, D.; Gordeyev, S.; Jumper, E.

    2013-09-01

    The Airborne Aero-Optics Laboratory (AAOL) is a recently completed research effort to measure the effects of turbulent flow on the wavefront of a laser projected from an airplane in flight. The flight-test system consists of two Cessna Citation Bravo aircraft flying in formation at a distance of approximately 50 m. One aircraft projects a laser beam to the other aircraft which receives the beam using an inertially stabilized turret with a high bandwidth track loop. In addition to its benefit in providing a means for understanding and correcting optical wavefront distortion due to turbulence, AAOL also provides an ideal platform for predicting line-of-sight jitter and comparing it to measured results. AAOL has the essential elements of an airborne optical beam control system and is subject to relevant aero-loading, but operates at low power and provides a relatively inexpensive platform for collecting flight data. This paper presents the integrated AAOL line-of-sight model for prediction of optical jitter due to flight disturbances. To accomplish this, a dynamic simulation model was derived from a finite element model of the system, optical sensitivities and control loops for calculation of closed loop, line-of-sight jitter. Disturbance inputs include measured in-flight base loading and pressure loading on the turret generated from an unsteady computational fluid dynamics model. The influence of model uncertainty was also addressed by considering two separate models. The first model was based on the initial hardware design before hardware assembly. The second model was updated based on modal tests performed on the assembled flight hardware. Frequency-varying model uncertainty factors for both models required to accurately predict the measured flight data were calculated. Predicted results with and without model uncertainty factors will be compared with measured flight data from AAOL.

  2. The NASA Airborne Science Data And Telemetry System (NASDAT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorenson, C. E.; Forgione, J.; Barnes, C.

    2011-12-01

    A system providing a common core set of facility data services across the NASA Airborne Science Program research aircraft fleet is described. The NASA Airborne Science Data And Telemetry System (NASDAT) is a rugged avionics box that fits in a standard aeronautical radio rack mounting tray, and provides both aircraft and experimenter data interfaces. Ethernet, satcom, and legacy connections are supported. Standardized protocols allow this system to serve as an abstraction layer for interfacing any instrument to any aircraft. Built-in Iridium modems allow low rate baseline global data communications. Built on open standards and dynamically reconfigurable, the NASDAT enables any research platform to participate in the wider sensor web, such that remote experimenters can control their instruments, and display applications can receive near real time data. The production NASDAT was built this year, based in part on prototypes which have been flying on several research aircraft such as the NASA DC-8 and Global Hawk.

  3. Detection in urban scenario using combined airborne imaging sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renhorn, Ingmar; Axelsson, Maria; Benoist, Koen; Bourghys, Dirk; Boucher, Yannick; Briottet, Xavier; De Ceglie, Sergio; Dekker, Rob; Dimmeler, Alwin; Dost, Remco; Friman, Ola; Kåsen, Ingebjørg; Maerker, Jochen; van Persie, Mark; Resta, Salvatore; Schwering, Piet; Shimoni, Michal; Haavardsholm, Trym Vegard

    2012-06-01

    The EDA project "Detection in Urban scenario using Combined Airborne imaging Sensors" (DUCAS) is in progress. The aim of the project is to investigate the potential benefit of combined high spatial and spectral resolution airborne imagery for several defense applications in the urban area. The project is taking advantage of the combined resources from 7 contributing nations within the EDA framework. An extensive field trial has been carried out in the city of Zeebrugge at the Belgian coast in June 2011. The Belgian armed forces contributed with platforms, weapons, personnel (soldiers) and logistics for the trial. Ground truth measurements with respect to geometrical characteristics, optical material properties and weather conditions were obtained in addition to hyperspectral, multispectral and high resolution spatial imagery. High spectral/spatial resolution sensor data are used for detection, classification, identification and tracking.

  4. Investigation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions by Surface, Airborne, and Satellite on Local to Continental-Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leifer, I.; Tratt, D. M.; Egland, E. T.; Gerilowski, K.; Vigil, S. A.; Buchwitz, M.; Krings, T.; Bovensmann, H.; Krautwurst, S.; Burrows, J. P.

    2013-12-01

    In situ meteorological observations, including 10-m winds (U), in conjunction with greenhouse gas (GHG - methane, carbon dioxide, water vapor) measurements by continuous wave Cavity Enhanced Absorption Spectroscopy (CEAS) were conducted onboard two specialized platforms: MACLab (Mobile Atmospheric Composition Laboratory in a RV) and AMOG Surveyor (AutoMObile Greenhouse gas) - a converted commuter automobile. AMOG Surveyor data were collected for numerous southern California sources including megacity, geology, fossil fuel industrial, animal husbandry, and landfill operations. MACLab investigated similar sources along with wetlands on a transcontinental scale from California to Florida to Nebraska covering more than 15,000 km. Custom software allowing real-time, multi-parameter data visualization (GHGs, water vapor, temperature, U, etc.) improved plume characterization and was applied to large urban area and regional-scale sources. The capabilities demonstrated permit calculation of source emission strength, as well as enable documenting microclimate variability. GHG transect data were compared with airborne HyperSpectral Imaging data to understand temporal and spatial variability and to ground-truth emission strength derived from airborne imagery. These data also were used to validate satellite GHG products from SCIAMACHY (2003-2005) and GOSAT (2009-2013) that are currently being analyzed to identify significant decadal-scale changes in North American GHG emission patterns resulting from changes in anthropogenic and natural sources. These studies lay the foundation for the joint ESA/NASA COMEX campaign that will map GHG plumes by remote sensing and in situ measurements for a range of strong sources to derive emission strength through inverse plume modeling. COMEX is in support of the future GHG monitoring satellites, such as CarbonSat and HyspIRI. GHG transect data were compared with airborne HyperSpectral Imaging data to understand temporal and spatial variability

  5. Pulsed Doppler lidar airborne scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dimarzio, C. A.; Mcvicker, D. B.; Morrow, C. E.; Negus, C. C.

    1985-01-01

    This report covers the work accomplished during the reporting period on Pulsed Doppler Lidar Airborne Scanner and describes plans for the next reporting period. The objectives during the current phase of the contract are divided into four phases. Phase 1 includes ground testing of the system and analysis of data from the 1981 Severe Storms Test Flights. Phase 2 consists of preflight preparation and planning for the 1983 flight series. The flight test itself will be performed during Phase 3, and Phase 4 consists of post-flight analysis and operation of the system after that flight test. The range profile from five samples taken during Flight 10, around 1700 Z is given. The lowest curve is taken from data collected upwind of Mt. Shasta at about 10,000 feet of altitude, in a clear atmosphere, where no signals were observed. It thus is a good representation of the noise level as a function of range. The next curve was taken downwind of the mountain, and shows evidence of atmospheric returns. There is some question as to whether the data are valid at all ranges, or some ranges are contaminated by the others.

  6. Rapid Development of Bespoke Unmanned Platforms for Atmospheric Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobester, A.; Johnston, S. J.; Scanlan, J. P.; Hart, E. E.; O'Brien, N. S.

    2012-04-01

    The effective deployment of airborne atmospheric science instruments often hinges on the development cycle time of a suitable platform, one that is capable of delivering them to the desired altitude range for a specified amount of time, along a pre-determined trajectory. This could be driven by the need to respond rapidly to sudden, unexpected events (e.g., volcano eruptions, nuclear fallout, etc.) or simply to accommodate the iterative design and flight test cycle of the instrument developer. A shorter development cycle time would also afford us the ability to quickly adapt the hardware and control logic in response to unexpected results during an experimental campaign. We report on recent developments aimed at meeting this demand. As part of the Atmospheric Science Through Robotic Aircraft (ASTRA) initiative we have investigated the use of rapid prototyping technologies to this end, both on the 'airframe' of the platform itself and on the on-board systems. We show how fast multi-disciplinary design optimization techniques, coupled with computer-controlled additive manufacturing (3D printing) and laser cutting methods and electronic prototyping (using standard, modular, programmable building blocks) can lead to the delivery of a fully customized platform integrating a given instrument in a timescale of the order of ten days. Specific examples include the design and testing of a balloon-launched glider sensorcraft and a stratospheric balloon system. The 'vehicle' for the latter was built on a 3D printer using a copolymer thermoplastic material and fitted with a sacrificial protective 'cage' laser-cut from an open-cell foam. The data logging, tracking, sensor integration and communications services of the platform were constructed using the .net Gadgeteer open source hardware kit. The flight planning and eventual post-flight recovery of the system is enabled by a generic, stochastic trajectory simulation tool, also developed as part of the ASTRA initiative. This

  7. Airborne Laser Polar Nephelometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grams, Gerald W.

    1973-01-01

    A polar nephelometer has been developed at NCAR to measure the angular variation of the intensity of light scattered by air molecules and particles. The system has been designed for airborne measurements using outside air ducted through a 5-cm diameter airflow tube; the sample volume is that which is common to the intersection of a collimated source beam and the detector field of view within the airflow tube. The source is a linearly polarized helium-neon laser beam. The optical system defines a collimated field-of-view (0.5deg half-angle) through a series of diaphragms located behind a I72-mm focal length objective lens. A photomultiplier tube is located immediately behind an aperture in the focal plane of the objective lens. The laser beam is mechanically chopped (on-off) at a rate of 5 Hz; a two-channel pulse counter, synchronized to the laser output, measures the photomultiplier pulse rate with the light beam both on and off. The difference in these measured pulse rates is directly proportional to the intensity of the scattered light from the volume common to the intersection of the laser beam and the detector field-of-view. Measurements can be made at scattering angles from 15deg to 165deg with reference to the direction of propagation of the light beam. Intermediate angles are obtained by selecting the angular increments desired between these extreme angles (any multiple of 0.1deg can be selected for the angular increment; 5deg is used in normal operation). Pulses provided by digital circuits control a stepping motor which sequentially rotates the detector by pre-selected angular increments. The synchronous photon-counting system automatically begins measurement of the scattered-light intensity immediately after the rotation to a new angle has been completed. The instrument has been flown on the NASA Convair 990 airborne laboratory to obtain data on the complex index of refraction of atmospheric aerosols. A particle impaction device is operated simultaneously

  8. Developments in Airborne Oceanography and Air-Sea Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melville, W. K.

    2014-12-01

    One of the earliest ocean-related flights was that of Amundsen to be first across the North Pole and Arctic from Svalbard to Alaska in the airship Norge in 1926. Twenty five years later Cox & Munk flew a B-17G "Flying Fortress" bomber over Hawaiian waters measuring sea surface slope statistics from photographs of sun glitter and wind speed from a yacht. The value of Cox & Munk's "airborne oceanography" became apparent another twenty five years later with the short-lived Seasat microwave remote-sensing mission, since interpretation of the Seasat data in geophysical variables required scattering theories that relied on their data. The universal acceptance of remote sensing in oceanography began in 1992 with the launch of, and successful analysis of sea surface height data from, the Topex/Poseidon radar altimeter. With that and the development of more realistic coupled atmosphere-ocean models it became apparent that our understanding of weather and climate variability in both the atmosphere and the ocean depends crucially on our ability to measure processes in boundary layers spanning the interface. Ten years ago UNOLS formed the Scientific Committee for Oceanographic Aircraft Research (SCOAR) "...to improve access to research aircraft facilities for ocean sciences"; an attempt to make access to aircraft as easy as access to research vessels. SCOAR emphasized then that "Aircraft are ideal for both fast-response investigations and routine, long-term measurements, and they naturally combine atmospheric measurements with oceanographic measurements on similar temporal and spatial scales." Since then developments in GPS positioning and miniaturization have made scientific measurements possible from smaller and smaller platforms, including the transition from manned to unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). Furthermore, ship-launched and recovered UAVs have demonstrated how they can enhance the capabilities and reach of the research vessels, "projecting" research and science

  9. A Quantitative Dynamic Simulation of Bremia lactucae Airborne Conidia Concentration above a Lettuce Canopy

    PubMed Central

    Fall, Mamadou Lamine; Van der Heyden, Hervé; Carisse, Odile

    2016-01-01

    Lettuce downy mildew, caused by the oomycete Bremia lactucae Regel, is a major threat to lettuce production worldwide. Lettuce downy mildew is a polycyclic disease driven by airborne spores. A weather-based dynamic simulation model for B. lactucae airborne spores was developed to simulate the aerobiological characteristics of the pathogen. The model was built using the STELLA platform by following the system dynamics methodology. The model was developed using published equations describing disease subprocesses (e.g., sporulation) and assembled knowledge of the interactions among pathogen, host, and weather. The model was evaluated with four years of independent data by comparing model simulations with observations of hourly and daily airborne spore concentrations. The results show an accurate simulation of the trend and shape of B. lactucae temporal dynamics of airborne spore concentration. The model simulated hourly and daily peaks in airborne spore concentrations. More than 95% of the simulation runs, the daily-simulated airborne conidia concentration was 0 when airborne conidia were not observed. Also, the relationship between the simulated and the observed airborne spores was linear. In more than 94% of the simulation runs, the proportion of the linear variation in the hourly-observed values explained by the variation in the hourly-simulated values was greater than 0.7 in all years except one. Most of the errors came from the deviation from the 1:1 line, and the proportion of errors due to the model bias was low. This model is the only dynamic model developed to mimic the dynamics of airborne inoculum and represents an initial step towards improved lettuce downy mildew understanding, forecasting and management. PMID:26953691

  10. A Quantitative Dynamic Simulation of Bremia lactucae Airborne Conidia Concentration above a Lettuce Canopy.

    PubMed

    Fall, Mamadou Lamine; Van der Heyden, Hervé; Carisse, Odile

    2016-01-01

    Lettuce downy mildew, caused by the oomycete Bremia lactucae Regel, is a major threat to lettuce production worldwide. Lettuce downy mildew is a polycyclic disease driven by airborne spores. A weather-based dynamic simulation model for B. lactucae airborne spores was developed to simulate the aerobiological characteristics of the pathogen. The model was built using the STELLA platform by following the system dynamics methodology. The model was developed using published equations describing disease subprocesses (e.g., sporulation) and assembled knowledge of the interactions among pathogen, host, and weather. The model was evaluated with four years of independent data by comparing model simulations with observations of hourly and daily airborne spore concentrations. The results show an accurate simulation of the trend and shape of B. lactucae temporal dynamics of airborne spore concentration. The model simulated hourly and daily peaks in airborne spore concentrations. More than 95% of the simulation runs, the daily-simulated airborne conidia concentration was 0 when airborne conidia were not observed. Also, the relationship between the simulated and the observed airborne spores was linear. In more than 94% of the simulation runs, the proportion of the linear variation in the hourly-observed values explained by the variation in the hourly-simulated values was greater than 0.7 in all years except one. Most of the errors came from the deviation from the 1:1 line, and the proportion of errors due to the model bias was low. This model is the only dynamic model developed to mimic the dynamics of airborne inoculum and represents an initial step towards improved lettuce downy mildew understanding, forecasting and management. PMID:26953691

  11. Advances and Best Practices in Airborne Gravimetry from the U.S. GRAV-D Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diehl, Theresa; Childers, Vicki; Preaux, Sandra; Holmes, Simon; Weil, Carly

    2013-04-01

    The Gravity for the Redefinition of the American Vertical Datum (GRAV-D) project, an official policy of the U.S. National Geodetic Survey as of 2007, is working to survey the entire U.S. and its holdings with high-altitude airborne gravimetry. The goal of the project is to provide a consistent, high-quality gravity dataset that will become the cornerstone of a new gravimetric geoid and national vertical datum in 2022. Over the last five years, the GRAV-D project has surveyed more than 25% of the country, accomplishing almost 500 flights on six different aircraft platforms and producing more than 3.7 Million square km of data thus far. This wealth of experience has led to advances in the collection, processing, and evaluation of high-altitude (20,000 - 35,000 ft) airborne gravity data. This presentation will highlight the most important practical and theoretical advances of the GRAV-D project, giving an introduction to each. Examples of innovation include: 1. Use of navigation grade inertial measurement unit data and precise lever arm measurements for positioning; 2. New quality control tests and software for near real-time analysis of data in the field; 3. Increased accuracy of gravity post-processing by reexamining assumptions and simplifications that were inconsistent with a goal of 1 mGal precision; and 4. Better final data evaluation through crossovers, additional statistics, and inclusion of airborne data into harmonic models that use EGM08 as a base model. The increases in data quality that resulted from implementation of the above advances (and others) will be shown with a case study of the GRAV-D 2008 southern Alaska survey near Anchorage, over Cook Inlet. The case study's statistics and comparisons to global models illustrate the impact that these advances have had on the final airborne gravity data quality. Finally, the presentation will summarize the best practices identified by the project from its last five years of experience.

  12. Characterization of airborne bacteria at an underground subway station.

    PubMed

    Dybwad, Marius; Granum, Per Einar; Bruheim, Per; Blatny, Janet Martha

    2012-03-01

    The reliable detection of airborne biological threat agents depends on several factors, including the performance criteria of the detector and its operational environment. One step in improving the detector's performance is to increase our knowledge of the biological aerosol background in potential operational environments. Subway stations are enclosed public environments, which may be regarded as potential targets for incidents involving biological threat agents. In this study, the airborne bacterial community at a subway station in Norway was characterized (concentration level, diversity, and virulence- and survival-associated properties). In addition, a SASS 3100 high-volume air sampler and a matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry-based isolate screening procedure was used for these studies. The daytime level of airborne bacteria at the station was higher than the nighttime and outdoor levels, and the relative bacterial spore number was higher in outdoor air than at the station. The bacterial content, particle concentration, and size distribution were stable within each environment throughout the study (May to September 2010). The majority of the airborne bacteria belonged to the genera Bacillus, Micrococcus, and Staphylococcus, but a total of 37 different genera were identified in the air. These results suggest that anthropogenic sources are major contributors to airborne bacteria at subway stations and that such airborne communities could harbor virulence- and survival-associated properties of potential relevance for biological detection and surveillance, as well as for public health. Our findings also contribute to the development of realistic testing and evaluation schemes for biological detection/surveillance systems by providing information that can be used to mimic real-life operational airborne environments in controlled aerosol test chambers. PMID:22247150

  13. Characterization of Airborne Bacteria at an Underground Subway Station

    PubMed Central

    Dybwad, Marius; Granum, Per Einar; Bruheim, Per

    2012-01-01

    The reliable detection of airborne biological threat agents depends on several factors, including the performance criteria of the detector and its operational environment. One step in improving the detector's performance is to increase our knowledge of the biological aerosol background in potential operational environments. Subway stations are enclosed public environments, which may be regarded as potential targets for incidents involving biological threat agents. In this study, the airborne bacterial community at a subway station in Norway was characterized (concentration level, diversity, and virulence- and survival-associated properties). In addition, a SASS 3100 high-volume air sampler and a matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry-based isolate screening procedure was used for these studies. The daytime level of airborne bacteria at the station was higher than the nighttime and outdoor levels, and the relative bacterial spore number was higher in outdoor air than at the station. The bacterial content, particle concentration, and size distribution were stable within each environment throughout the study (May to September 2010). The majority of the airborne bacteria belonged to the genera Bacillus, Micrococcus, and Staphylococcus, but a total of 37 different genera were identified in the air. These results suggest that anthropogenic sources are major contributors to airborne bacteria at subway stations and that such airborne communities could harbor virulence- and survival-associated properties of potential relevance for biological detection and surveillance, as well as for public health. Our findings also contribute to the development of realistic testing and evaluation schemes for biological detection/surveillance systems by providing information that can be used to mimic real-life operational airborne environments in controlled aerosol test chambers. PMID:22247150

  14. Using satellite and airborne LiDAR to model woodpecker habitat occupancy at the landscape scale.

    PubMed

    Vierling, Lee A; Vierling, Kerri T; Adam, Patrick; Hudak, Andrew T

    2013-01-01

    Incorporating vertical vegetation structure into models of animal distributions can improve understanding of the patterns and processes governing habitat selection. LiDAR can provide such structural information, but these data are typically collected via aircraft and thus are limited in spatial extent. Our objective was to explore the utility of satellite-based LiDAR data from the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) relative to airborne-based LiDAR to model the north Idaho breeding distribution of a forest-dependent ecosystem engineer, the Red-naped sapsucker (Sphyrapicus nuchalis). GLAS data occurred within ca. 64 m diameter ellipses spaced a minimum of 172 m apart, and all occupancy analyses were confined to this grain scale. Using a hierarchical approach, we modeled Red-naped sapsucker occupancy as a function of LiDAR metrics derived from both platforms. Occupancy models based on satellite data were weak, possibly because the data within the GLAS ellipse did not fully represent habitat characteristics important for this species. The most important structural variables influencing Red-naped Sapsucker breeding site selection based on airborne LiDAR data included foliage height diversity, the distance between major strata in the canopy vertical profile, and the vegetation density near the ground. These characteristics are consistent with the diversity of foraging activities exhibited by this species. To our knowledge, this study represents the first to examine the utility of satellite-based LiDAR to model animal distributions. The large area of each GLAS ellipse and the non-contiguous nature of GLAS data may pose significant challenges for wildlife distribution modeling; nevertheless these data can provide useful information on ecosystem vertical structure, particularly in areas of gentle terrain. Additional work is thus warranted to utilize LiDAR datasets collected from both airborne and past and future satellite platforms (e.g. GLAS, and the planned IceSAT2

  15. Using Satellite and Airborne LiDAR to Model Woodpecker Habitat Occupancy at the Landscape Scale

    PubMed Central

    Vierling, Lee A.; Vierling, Kerri T.; Adam, Patrick; Hudak, Andrew T.

    2013-01-01

    Incorporating vertical vegetation structure into models of animal distributions can improve understanding of the patterns and processes governing habitat selection. LiDAR can provide such structural information, but these data are typically collected via aircraft and thus are limited in spatial extent. Our objective was to explore the utility of satellite-based LiDAR data from the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) relative to airborne-based LiDAR to model the north Idaho breeding distribution of a forest-dependent ecosystem engineer, the Red-naped sapsucker (Sphyrapicus nuchalis). GLAS data occurred within ca. 64 m diameter ellipses spaced a minimum of 172 m apart, and all occupancy analyses were confined to this grain scale. Using a hierarchical approach, we modeled Red-naped sapsucker occupancy as a function of LiDAR metrics derived from both platforms. Occupancy models based on satellite data were weak, possibly because the data within the GLAS ellipse did not fully represent habitat characteristics important for this species. The most important structural variables influencing Red-naped Sapsucker breeding site selection based on airborne LiDAR data included foliage height diversity, the distance between major strata in the canopy vertical profile, and the vegetation density near the ground. These characteristics are consistent with the diversity of foraging activities exhibited by this species. To our knowledge, this study represents the first to examine the utility of satellite-based LiDAR to model animal distributions. The large area of each GLAS ellipse and the non-contiguous nature of GLAS data may pose significant challenges for wildlife distribution modeling; nevertheless these data can provide useful information on ecosystem vertical structure, particularly in areas of gentle terrain. Additional work is thus warranted to utilize LiDAR datasets collected from both airborne and past and future satellite platforms (e.g. GLAS, and the planned IceSAT2

  16. Airborne laser topographic mapping results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krabill, W. B.; Collins, J. G.; Link, L. E.; Swift, R. N.; Butler, M. L.

    1984-01-01

    The results of terrain mapping experiments utilizing the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Airborne Oceanographic Lidar (AOL) over forested areas are presented. The flight tests were conducted as part of a joint NASA/U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (CE) investigation aimed at evaluating the potential of an airborne laser ranging system to provide cross-sectional topographic data on flood plains that are difficult and expensive to survey using conventional techniques. The data described in this paper were obtained in the Wolf River Basin located near Memphis, TN. Results from surveys conducted under winter 'leaves off' and summer 'leaves on' conditions, aspects of day and night operation, and data obtained from decidous and coniferous tree types are compared. Data processing techniques are reviewed. Conclusions relative to accuracy and present limitations of the AOL, and airborne lidar systems in general, to terrain mapping over forested areas are discussed.

  17. An airborne isothermal haze chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hindman, E. E.

    1981-01-01

    Thermal gradient diffusion cloud chambers (TGDCC) are used to determine the concentrations of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) with critical supersaturations greater than or equal to about 0.2%. The CCN concentrations measured with the airborne IHC were lower than theoretically predicted by factors ranging between 7.9 and 9.0. The CCN concentrations measured with the airborne IHC were lower than the concentrations measured with the larger laboratory IHC's by factors ranging between 3.9 and 7.5. The bounds of the supersaturation ranges of the airborne IHC and the CSU-Mee TGDCC do not overlap. Nevertheless, the slopes of the interpolated data between the bounds agree favorably with the theoretical slopes.

  18. A new stratospheric sounding platform based on unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) droppable from meteorological balloon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efremov, Denis; Khaykin, Sergey; Lykov, Alexey; Berezhko, Yaroslav; Lunin, Aleksey

    High-resolution measurements of climate-relevant trace gases and aerosols in the upper troposphere and stratosphere (UTS) have been and remain technically challenging. The high cost of measurements onboard airborne platforms or heavy stratospheric balloons results in a lack of accurate information on vertical distribution of atmospheric constituents. Whereas light-weight instruments carried by meteorological balloons are becoming progressively available, their usage is constrained by the cost of the equipment or the recovery operations. The evolving need in cost-efficient observations for UTS process studies has led to development of small airborne platforms - unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV), capable of carrying small sensors for in-situ measurements. We present a new UAV-based stratospheric sounding platform capable of carrying scientific payload of up to 2 kg. The airborne platform comprises of a latex meteorological balloon and detachable flying wing type UAV with internal measurement controller. The UAV is launched on a balloon to stratospheric altitudes up to 20 km, where it can be automatically released by autopilot or by a remote command sent from the ground control. Having been released from the balloon the UAV glides down and returns to the launch position. Autopilot using 3-axis gyro, accelerometer, barometer, compas and GPS navigation provides flight stabilization and optimal way back trajectory. Backup manual control is provided for emergencies. During the flight the onboard measurement controller stores the data into internal memory and transmits current flight parameters to the ground station via telemetry. Precise operation of the flight control systems ensures safe landing at the launch point. A series of field tests of the detachable stratospheric UAV has been conducted. The scientific payload included the following instruments involved in different flights: a) stratospheric Lyman-alpha hygrometer (FLASH); b) backscatter sonde; c) electrochemical

  19. WESTERN AIRBORNE CONTAMINANTS ASSESSMENT PROJECT RESEARCH PLAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of the Western Airborne Contaminants Assessment Project (WACAP) is to assess the deposition of airborne contaminants in Western National Parks, providing regional and local information on exposure, accumulation, impacts, and probable sources. This project is being desig...

  20. Simplified signal processing for an airborne CO2 Doppler lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwiesow, R. L.; Spowart, M. P.

    1992-01-01

    In the development of the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) airborne infrared lidar system (NAILS), we have emphasized a simple, modular design to suit the instrument to its mission of providing measurements of atmospheric structure and dynamics from an aircraft platform. Based on our research to this point, we believe that a significant simplification of the signal processing approach compared to that now used is possible by using high speed digitization of the signal. The purpose here is to place signal processing in the context of the overall system design and to explore the basis of the alternative technique so that the community can comment on the approach.

  1. An airborne remote sensing system for urban air quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, L. J.; Friedman, E. J.; Keitz, E. L.; Ward, E. A.

    1974-01-01

    Several NASA sponsored remote sensors and possible airborne platforms were evaluated. Outputs of dispersion models for SO2 and CO pollution in the Washington, D.C. area were used with ground station data to establish the expected performance and limitations of the remote sensors. Aircraft/sensor support requirements are discussed. A method of optimum flight plan determination was made. Cost trade offs were performed. Conclusions about the implementation of various instrument packages as parts of a comprehensive air quality monitoring system in Washington are presented.

  2. The fate of airborne polycyclic organic matter.

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, T; Ramdahl, T; Bjørseth, A

    1983-01-01

    Biological tests have shown that a significant part of the mutagenicity of organic extracts of collected airborne particulate matter is not due to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). It is possible that part of these unknown compounds are transformation products of PAH. This survey focuses on the reaction of PAH in the atmosphere with other copollutants, such as nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, ozone and free radicals and their reaction products. Photochemically induced reactions of PAH are also included. The reactivity of particle-associated PAH is discussed in relation to the chemical composition and the physical properties of the carrier. Recommendations for future work are given. PMID:6825615

  3. Airborne Transmission of Bordetella pertussis

    PubMed Central

    Warfel, Jason M.; Beren, Joel; Merkel, Tod J.

    2012-01-01

    Pertussis is a contagious, acute respiratory illness caused by the bacterial pathogen Bordetella pertussis. Although it is widely believed that transmission of B. pertussis occurs via aerosolized respiratory droplets, no controlled study has ever documented airborne transmission of pertussis. We set out to determine if airborne transmission occurs between infected and naive animals, utilizing the baboon model of pertussis. Our results showed that 100% of exposed naive animals became infected even when physical contact was prevented, demonstrating that pertussis transmission occurs via aerosolized respiratory droplets. PMID:22807521

  4. An Overview of the Challenges with and Proposed Solutions for the Ingest and Distribution Processes For Airborne Data Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Northup, E. A.; Beach, A. L., III; Early, A. B.; Kusterer, J.; Quam, B.; Wang, D.; Chen, G.

    2015-12-01

    The current data management practices for NASA airborne field projects have successfully served science team data needs over the past 30 years to achieve project science objectives, however, users have discovered a number of issues in terms of data reporting and format. The ICARTT format, a NASA standard since 2010, is currently the most popular among the airborne measurement community. Although easy for humans to use, the format standard is not sufficiently rigorous to be machine-readable, and there lacks a standard variable naming convention among the many airborne measurement variables. This makes data use and management tedious and resource intensive, and also create problems in Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) data ingest procedures and distribution. Further, most DAACs use metadata models that concentrate on satellite data observations, making them less prepared to deal with airborne data. There also exists a substantial amount of airborne data distributed by websites designed for science team use that are less friendly to users unfamiliar with operations of airborne field studies. A number of efforts are underway to help overcome the issues with airborne data discovery and distribution. The ICARTT Refresh Earth Science Data Systems Working Group (ESDSWG) was established to enable a platform for atmospheric science data providers, users, and data managers to collaborate on developing new criteria for the file format in an effort to enhance airborne data usability. In addition, the NASA Langley Research Center Atmospheric Science Data Center (ASDC) has developed the Toolsets for Airborne Data (TAD) to provide web-based tools and centralized access to airborne in situ measurements of atmospheric composition. This presentation will discuss the aforementioned challenges and attempted solutions in an effort to demonstrate how airborne data management can be improved to streamline data ingest and discoverability to a broader user community.

  5. NASA Airborne Lidar 1982-1984 Flights

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-05-26

    NASA Airborne Lidar 1982-1984 Flights Data from the 1982 NASA Langley Airborne Lidar flights following the eruption of El Chichon ... continuing to January 1984. Transcribed from the following NASA Tech Reports: McCormick, M. P., and M. T. Osborn, Airborne lidar ...

  6. Biophysical influence of airborne carbon nanomaterials on natural pulmonary surfactant.

    PubMed

    Valle, Russell P; Wu, Tony; Zuo, Yi Y

    2015-05-26

    Inhalation of nanoparticles (NP), including lightweight airborne carbonaceous nanomaterials (CNM), poses a direct and systemic health threat to those who handle them. Inhaled NP penetrate deep pulmonary structures in which they first interact with the pulmonary surfactant (PS) lining at the alveolar air-water interface. In spite of many research efforts, there is a gap of knowledge between in vitro biophysical study and in vivo inhalation toxicology since all existing biophysical models handle NP-PS interactions in the liquid phase. This technical limitation, inherent in current in vitro methodologies, makes it impossible to simulate how airborne NP deposit at the PS film and interact with it. Existing in vitro NP-PS studies using liquid-suspended particles have been shown to artificially inflate the no-observed adverse effect level of NP exposure when compared to in vivo inhalation studies and international occupational exposure limits (OELs). Here, we developed an in vitro methodology called the constrained drop surfactometer (CDS) to quantitatively study PS inhibition by airborne CNM. We show that airborne multiwalled carbon nanotubes and graphene nanoplatelets induce a concentration-dependent PS inhibition under physiologically relevant conditions. The CNM aerosol concentrations controlled in the CDS are comparable to those defined in international OELs. Development of the CDS has the potential to advance our understanding of how submicron airborne nanomaterials affect the PS lining of the lung.

  7. Airborne chemicals cause respiratory symptoms in individuals with contact allergy.

    PubMed

    Elberling, J; Linneberg, A; Mosbech, H; Dirksen, A; Menné, T; Nielsen, N H; Madsen, F; Frølund, L; Johansen, J Duus

    2005-02-01

    Exposure to fragrance chemicals causes various eye and airway symptoms. Individuals with perfume contact allergy report these symptoms more frequently than individuals with nickel allergy or no contact allergies. However, the associations between contact allergy and respiratory symptoms elicited by airborne chemicals other than perfumes are unclear. The study aimed to investigate the association between eye and airway symptoms elicited by airborne chemicals (other than perfumes) and contact allergy in a population-based sample. A questionnaire on respiratory symptoms was posted, in 2002, to 1189 individuals who participated in 1997/1998 in a Danish population-based study of allergic diseases. Questions about eye and airway symptoms elicited by different airborne chemicals and airborne proteins were included in the questionnaire. Data from the questionnaire were compared with data on patch testing and prick testing. Having at least 1 positive patch test (adjusted odds ratio 1.7, 95% CI 1.2-2.5) was associated with the symptoms, and the odds ratio increased with the number of positive patch tests (P-value for test for trend <0.05). Bronchial hyperreactivity, female sex and psychological vulnerability were independently associated with symptoms, but no association was found between prick test reactivity to proteins and the symptoms elicited by airborne chemicals.

  8. Space platform advanced technology study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, G.

    1981-01-01

    Current and past space platform and power module studies were utilized to point the way to areas of development for mechanical devices that will be required for the ultimate implementation of a platform erected and serviced by the Shuttle/Orbiter. The study was performed in accordance with a study plan which included: a review of space platform technology; orbiter berthing system requirements; berthing latch interface requirements, design, and model fabrication; berthing umbilical interface requirements and design; adaptive end effector design and model fabrication; and adaptive end effector requirements.

  9. Experimental evaluation of an airborne depth-sounding lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinvall, Ove K.; Koppari, Kurt R.; Karlsson, Ulf C.

    1993-06-01

    An experimental evaluation of an airborne depth-sounding lidar is described. The system, called FLASH (FOA laser airborne sounder for hydrography), is based on a scanning frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser carried by a helicopter. An in-situ profiling instrument for measuring water parameters is also described. This system, called HOSS (hydro-optical sensor system), is also carried by a helicopter and has been used to collect data in parallel with the lidar measurements. A discussion of the lidar performance coupled to the measured water and instrumental parameters is included. Examples of measured wave forms are compared with those obtained by analytical and Monte Carlo modeling.

  10. Risk factors for injuries during airborne static line operations.

    PubMed

    Knapik, Joseph J; Steelman, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    US Army airborne operations began in World War II. Continuous improvements in parachute technology, aircraft exit procedures, and ground landing techniques have reduced the number of injuries over time from 27 per 1,000 descents to about 6 per 1,000 jumps. Studies have identified a number of factors that put parachutists at higher injury risk, including high wind speeds, night jumps, combat loads, higher temperatures, lower fitness, heavier body weight, and older age. Airborne injuries can be reduced by limiting risker training (higher wind speeds, night jumps, combat load) to the minimum necessary for tactical and operational proficiency. Wearing a parachute ankle brace (PAB) will reduce ankle injuries without increasing other injuries and should be considered by all parachutists, especially those with prior ankle problems. A high level of upper body muscular endurance and aerobic fitness is not only beneficial for general health but also associated with lower injury risk during airborne training.

  11. Risk factors for injuries during airborne static line operations.

    PubMed

    Knapik, Joseph J; Steelman, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    US Army airborne operations began in World War II. Continuous improvements in parachute technology, aircraft exit procedures, and ground landing techniques have reduced the number of injuries over time from 27 per 1,000 descents to about 6 per 1,000 jumps. Studies have identified a number of factors that put parachutists at higher injury risk, including high wind speeds, night jumps, combat loads, higher temperatures, lower fitness, heavier body weight, and older age. Airborne injuries can be reduced by limiting risker training (higher wind speeds, night jumps, combat load) to the minimum necessary for tactical and operational proficiency. Wearing a parachute ankle brace (PAB) will reduce ankle injuries without increasing other injuries and should be considered by all parachutists, especially those with prior ankle problems. A high level of upper body muscular endurance and aerobic fitness is not only beneficial for general health but also associated with lower injury risk during airborne training. PMID:25344715

  12. Airborne bacteria in the atmosphere: Presence, purpose, and potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smets, Wenke; Moretti, Serena; Denys, Siegfried; Lebeer, Sarah

    2016-08-01

    Numerous recent studies have highlighted that the types of bacteria present in the atmosphere often show predictable patterns across space and time. These patterns can be driven by differences in bacterial sources of the atmosphere and a wide range of environmental factors, including UV intensity, precipitation events, and humidity. The abundance of certain bacterial taxa is of interest, not only for their ability to mediate a range of chemical and physical processes in the atmosphere, such as cloud formation and ice nucleation, but also for their implications -both beneficial and detrimental-for human health. Consequently, the widespread importance of airborne bacteria has stimulated the search for their applicability. Improving air quality, modelling the dispersal of airborne bacteria (e.g. pathogens) and biotechnological purposes are already being explored. Nevertheless, many technological challenges still need to be overcome to fully understand the roles of airborne bacteria in our health and global ecosystems.

  13. Airborne Imagery Collections Barrow 2013

    DOE Data Explorer

    Cherry, Jessica; Crowder, Kerri

    2015-07-20

    The data here are orthomosaics, digital surface models (DSMs), and individual frames captured during low altitude airborne flights in 2013 at the Barrow Environmental Observatory. The orthomosaics, thermal IR mosaics, and DSMs were generated from the individual frames using Structure from Motion techniques.

  14. Airborne fungi--a resurvey

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, G.H.; Prince, H.E.; Raymer, W.J.

    1983-07-01

    A 15-month survey of airborne fungi at 14 geographical stations was conducted to determine the incidence of different fungal genera. Five of these stations were surveyed 25 years earlier. A comparison between previous studies and present surveys revealed similar organisms at each station with slight shifts in frequency of dominant genera.

  15. Tropospheric and Airborne Emission Spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glavich, Thomas; Beer, Reinhard

    1996-01-01

    X This paper describes the development of two related instruments, the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) and the Airborne Emission Spectrometer (AES). Both instruments are infrared imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometers, used for measuring the state of the lower atmosphere, and in particular the measurement of ozone and ozone sources and sinks.

  16. Airborne chemicals and forest health

    SciTech Connect

    Woodman, J.N.; Cowling, E.B.

    1987-02-01

    Over the past few years the possible contribution of acid rain to the problem of forest decline has been a cause of increasing public concern. Research has begun to determine whether airborne chemicals are causing or contributing to visible damage and mortality in eastern spruce-fir and sugar maple forests and to changes in tree growth, usually without visible symptoms, in other parts of North America. This paper describes some of the complex biological relationships that determine health and productivity of forests and that make it difficult to distinguish effects of airborne chemicals from effects of natural stress. It describes four major research approaches for assessment of the effects of airborne chemicals on forests, and it summarizes current understanding of the known and possible effects of airborne chemicals on forest trees in North America and Europe. It also briefly describes the major air quality and forest health research programs in North America, and it assesses how ell these programs are likely to meet information needs during the coming decade. 69 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

  17. Airborne asbestos in public buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Chesson, J.; Hatfield, J.; Schultz, B.; Dutrow, E.; Blake, J. )

    1990-02-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency sampled air in 49 government-owned buildings (six buildings with no asbestos-containing material, six buildings with asbestos-containing material in generally good condition, and 37 buildings with damaged asbestos-containing material). This is the most comprehensive study to date of airborne asbestos levels in U.S. public buildings during normal building activities. The air outside each building was also sampled. Air samples were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy using a direct transfer preparation technique. The results show an increasing trend in average airborne asbestos levels; outdoor levels are lowest and levels in buildings with damaged asbestos-containing material are highest. However, the measured levels and the differences between indoors and outdoors and between building categories are small in absolute magnitude. Comparable studies from Canada and the UK, although differing in their estimated concentrations, also conclude that while airborne asbestos levels may be elevated in buildings that contain asbestos, levels are generally low. This conclusion does not eliminate the possibility of higher airborne asbestos levels during maintenance or renovation that disturbs the asbestos-containing material.

  18. Airborne remote sensing for geology and the environment; present and future

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watson, Ken; Knepper, Daniel H.

    1994-01-01

    In 1988, a group of leading experts from government, academia, and industry attended a workshop on airborne remote sensing sponsored by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and hosted by the Branch of Geophysics. The purpose of the workshop was to examine the scientific rationale for airborne remote sensing in support of government earth science in the next decade. This report has arranged the six resulting working-group reports under two main headings: (1) Geologic Remote Sensing, for the reports on geologic mapping, mineral resources, and fossil fuels and geothermal resources; and (2) Environmental Remote Sensing, for the reports on environmental geology, geologic hazards, and water resources. The intent of the workshop was to provide an evaluation of demonstrated capabilities, their direct extensions, and possible future applications, and this was the organizational format used for the geologic remote sensing reports. The working groups in environmental remote sensing chose to present their reports in a somewhat modified version of this format. A final section examines future advances and limitations in the field. There is a large, complex, and often bewildering array of remote sensing data available. Early remote sensing studies were based on data collected from airborne platforms. Much of that technology was later extended to satellites. The original 80-m-resolution Landsat Multispectral Scanner System (MSS) has now been largely superseded by the 30-m-resolution Thematic Mapper (TM) system that has additional spectral channels. The French satellite SPOT provides higher spatial resolution for channels equivalent to MSS. Low-resolution (1 km) data are available from the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration's AVHRR system, which acquires reflectance and day and night thermal data daily. Several experimental satellites have acquired limited data, and there are extensive plans for future satellites including those of Japan (JERS), Europe (ESA), Canada

  19. Airborne exposure patterns from a passenger source in aircraft cabins

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, James S.; Jones, Byron W.; Hosni, Mohammad H.; Zhang, Yuanhui; Topmiller, Jennifer L.; Dietrich, Watts L.

    2015-01-01

    Airflow is a critical factor that influences air quality, airborne contaminant distribution, and disease transmission in commercial airliner cabins. The general aircraft-cabin air-contaminant transport effect model seeks to build exposure-spatial relationships between contaminant sources and receptors, quantify the uncertainty, and provide a platform for incorporation of data from a variety of studies. Knowledge of infection risk to flight crews and passengers is needed to form a coherent response to an unfolding epidemic, and infection risk may have an airborne pathogen exposure component. The general aircraf-tcabin air-contaminant transport effect model was applied to datasets from the University of Illinois and Kansas State University and also to case study information from a flight with probable severe acute respiratory syndrome transmission. Data were fit to regression curves, where the dependent variable was contaminant concentration (normalized for source strength and ventilation rate), and the independent variable was distance between source and measurement locations. The data-driven model showed exposure to viable small droplets and post-evaporation nuclei at a source distance of several rows in a mock-up of a twin-aisle airliner with seven seats per row. Similar behavior was observed in tracer gas, particle experiments, and flight infection data for severe acute respiratory syndrome. The study supports the airborne pathway as part of the matrix of possible disease transmission modes in aircraft cabins. PMID:26526769

  20. High Resolution Airborne Digital Imagery for Precision Agriculture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herwitz, Stanley R.

    1998-01-01

    The Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) program is a NASA initiative that seeks to demonstrate the application of cost-effective aircraft and sensor technology to private commercial ventures. In 1997-98, a series of flight-demonstrations and image acquisition efforts were conducted over the Hawaiian Islands using a remotely-piloted solar- powered platform (Pathfinder) and a fixed-wing piloted aircraft (Navajo) equipped with a Kodak DCS450 CIR (color infrared) digital camera. As an ERAST Science Team Member, I defined a set of flight lines over the largest coffee plantation in Hawaii: the Kauai Coffee Company's 4,000 acre Koloa Estate. Past studies have demonstrated the applications of airborne digital imaging to agricultural management. Few studies have examined the usefulness of high resolution airborne multispectral imagery with 10 cm pixel sizes. The Kodak digital camera integrated with ERAST's Airborne Real Time Imaging System (ARTIS) which generated multiband CCD images consisting of 6 x 106 pixel elements. At the designated flight altitude of 1,000 feet over the coffee plantation, pixel size was 10 cm. The study involved the analysis of imagery acquired on 5 March 1998 for the detection of anomalous reflectance values and for the definition of spectral signatures as indicators of tree vigor and treatment effectiveness (e.g., drip irrigation; fertilizer application).

  1. Airborne exposure patterns from a passenger source in aircraft cabins.

    PubMed

    Bennett, James S; Jones, Byron W; Hosni, Mohammad H; Zhang, Yuanhui; Topmiller, Jennifer L; Dietrich, Watts L

    2013-01-01

    Airflow is a critical factor that influences air quality, airborne contaminant distribution, and disease transmission in commercial airliner cabins. The general aircraft-cabin air-contaminant transport effect model seeks to build exposure-spatial relationships between contaminant sources and receptors, quantify the uncertainty, and provide a platform for incorporation of data from a variety of studies. Knowledge of infection risk to flight crews and passengers is needed to form a coherent response to an unfolding epidemic, and infection risk may have an airborne pathogen exposure component. The general aircraf-tcabin air-contaminant transport effect model was applied to datasets from the University of Illinois and Kansas State University and also to case study information from a flight with probable severe acute respiratory syndrome transmission. Data were fit to regression curves, where the dependent variable was contaminant concentration (normalized for source strength and ventilation rate), and the independent variable was distance between source and measurement locations. The data-driven model showed exposure to viable small droplets and post-evaporation nuclei at a source distance of several rows in a mock-up of a twin-aisle airliner with seven seats per row. Similar behavior was observed in tracer gas, particle experiments, and flight infection data for severe acute respiratory syndrome. The study supports the airborne pathway as part of the matrix of possible disease transmission modes in aircraft cabins. PMID:26526769

  2. Data System for HS3 Airborne Field Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maskey, M.; Mceniry, M.; Berendes, T.; Bugbee, K.; Conover, H.; Ramachandran, R.

    2014-12-01

    Hurricane and Severe Storm Sentinel (HS3) is a NASA airborne field campaign aimed at better understanding the physical processes that control hurricane intensity change. HS3 will help answer questions related to the roles of environmental conditions and internal storm structures to storm intensification. Due to the nature of the questions that HS3 mission is addressing, it involves a variety of in-situ, satellite observations, airborne data, meteorological analyses, and simulation data. This variety of datasets presents numerous data management challenges for HS3. The methods used for airborne data management differ greatly from the methods used for space-borne data. In particular, metadata extraction, spatial and temporal indexing, and the large number of instruments and subsequent variables are a few of the data management challenges unique to airborne missions. A robust data system is required to successfully help HS3 scientist achieve their mission goals. Furthermore, the data system also needs to provide for data management that assists in broader use of HS3 data to enable future research activities. The Global Hydrology Resource Center (GHRC) is considering all these needs and designing a data system for HS3. Experience with past airborne field campaign puts GHRC in a good position to address HS3 needs. However, the scale of this mission along with science requirements separates HS3 from previous field campaigns. The HS3 data system will include automated services for geo-location, metadata extraction, discovery, and distribution for all HS3 data. To answer the science questions, the data system will include a visual data exploration tool that is fully integrated into the data catalog. The tool will allow visually augmenting airborne data with analyses and simulations. Satellite data will provide contextual information during such data explorations. All HS3 tools will be supported by an enterprise service architecture that will allow scaling, easy integration

  3. Even Shallower Exploration with Airborne Electromagnetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auken, E.; Christiansen, A. V.; Kirkegaard, C.; Nyboe, N. S.; Sørensen, K.

    2015-12-01

    Airborne electromagnetics (EM) is in many ways undergoing the same type rapid technological development as seen in the telecommunication industry. These developments are driven by a steadily increasing demand for exploration of minerals, groundwater and geotechnical targets. The latter two areas demand shallow and accurate resolution of the near surface geology in terms of both resistivity and spatial delineation of the sedimentary layers. Airborne EM systems measure the grounds electromagnetic response when subject to either a continuous discrete sinusoidal transmitter signal (frequency domain) or by measuring the decay of currents induced in the ground by rapid transmission of transient pulses (time domain). In the last decade almost all new developments of both instrument hardware and data processing techniques has focused around time domain systems. Here we present a concept for measuring the time domain response even before the transient transmitter current has been turned off. Our approach relies on a combination of new instrument hardware and novel modeling algorithms. The newly developed hardware allows for measuring the instruments complete transfer function which is convolved with the synthetic earth response in the inversion algorithm. The effect is that earth response data measured while the transmitter current is turned off can be included in the inversion, significantly increasing the amount of available information. We demonstrate the technique using both synthetic and field data. The synthetic examples provide insight on the physics during the turn off process and the field examples document the robustness of the method. Geological near surface structures can now be resolved to a degree that is unprecedented to the best of our knowledge, making airborne EM even more attractive and cost-effective for exploration of water and minerals that are crucial for the function of our societies.

  4. Airborne Electro-Optical Sensor Simulation System. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayworth, Don

    The total system capability, including all the special purpose and general purpose hardware comprising the Airborne Electro-Optical Sensor Simulation (AEOSS) System, is described. The functional relationship between hardware portions is described together with interface to the software portion of the computer image generation. Supporting rationale…

  5. Low cost airborne microwave landing system receiver, task 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hager, J. B.; Vancleave, J. R.

    1979-01-01

    Work performed on the low cost airborne Microwave Landing System (MLS) receiver is summarized. A detailed description of the prototype low cost MLS receiver is presented. This detail includes block diagrams, schematics, board assembly drawings, photographs of subassemblies, mechanical construction, parts lists, and microprocessor software. Test procedures are described and results are presented.

  6. Airborne imaging sensors for environmental monitoring & surveillance in support of oil spills & recovery efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bostater, Charles R.; Jones, James; Frystacky, Heather; Coppin, Gaelle; Leavaux, Florian; Neyt, Xavier

    2011-11-01

    Collection of pushbroom sensor imagery from a mobile platform requires corrections using inertial measurement units (IMU's) and DGPS in order to create useable imagery for environmental monitoring and surveillance of shorelines in freshwater systems, coastal littoral zones and harbor areas. This paper describes a suite of imaging systems used during collection of hyperspectral imagery in northern Florida panhandle and Gulf of Mexico airborne missions to detect weathered oil in coastal littoral zones. Underlying concepts of pushbroom imagery, the needed corrections for directional changes using DGPS and corrections for platform yaw, pitch, and roll using IMU data is described as well as the development and application of optimal band and spectral regions associated with weathered oil. Pushbroom sensor and frame camera data collected in response to the recent Gulf of Mexico oil spill disaster is presented as the scenario documenting environmental monitoring and surveillance techniques using mobile sensing platforms. Data was acquired during the months of February, March, April and May of 2011. The low altitude airborne systems include a temperature stabilized hyperspectral imaging system capable of up to 1024 spectral channels and 1376 spatial across track pixels flown from 3,000 to 4,500 feet altitudes. The hyperspectral imaging system is collocated with a full resolution high definition video recorder for simultaneous HD video imagery, a 12.3 megapixel digital, a mapping camera using 9 inch film types that yields scanned aerial imagery with approximately 22,200 by 22,200 pixel multispectral imagery (~255 megapixel RGB multispectral images in order to conduct for spectral-spatial sharpening of fused multispectral, hyperspectral imagery. Two high spectral (252 channels) and radiometric sensitivity solid state spectrographs are used for collecting upwelling radiance (sub-meter pixels) with downwelling irradiance fiber optic attachment. These sensors are utilized for

  7. Airborne Hyperspectral Imaging System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behar, Alberto E.; Cooper, Moogega; Adler, John; Jacobson, Tobias

    2012-01-01

    A document discusses a hyperspectral imaging instrument package designed to be carried aboard a helicopter. It was developed to map the depths of Greenland's supraglacial lakes. The instrument is capable of telescoping to twice its original length, allowing it to be retracted with the door closed during takeoff and landing, and manually extended in mid-flight. While extended, the instrument platform provides the attached hyperspectral imager a nadir-centered and unobstructed view of the ground. Before flight, the instrument mount is retracted and securely strapped down to existing anchor points on the floor of the helicopter. When the helicopter reaches the destination lake, the door is opened and the instrument mount is manually extended. Power to the instrument package is turned on, and the data acquisition computer is commanded via a serial cable from an onboard user-operated laptop to begin data collection. After data collection is complete, the instrument package is powered down and the mount retracted, allowing the door to be closed in preparation for landing. The present design for the instrument mount consists of a three-segment telescoping cantilever to allow for a sufficient extended length to see around the landing struts and provide a nadir-centered and unobstructed field of view for the hyperspectral imager. This instrument works on the premise that water preferentially absorbs light with longer wavelengths on the red side of the visible spectrum. This property can be exploited in order to remotely determine the depths of bodies of pure freshwater. An imager flying over such a lake receives light scattered from the surface, the bulk of the water column, and from the lake bottom. The strength of absorption of longer-wavelength light depends on the depth of the water column. Through calibration with in situ measurements of the water depths, a depth-determining algorithm may be developed to determine lake depth from these spectral properties of the

  8. Airborne optical tracking control system design study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-09-01

    The Kestrel LOS Tracking Program involves the development of a computer and algorithms for use in passive tracking of airborne targets from a high altitude balloon platform. The computer receivers track error signals from a video tracker connected to one of the imaging sensors. In addition, an on-board IRU (gyro), accelerometers, a magnetometer, and a two-axis inclinometer provide inputs which are used for initial acquisitions and course and fine tracking. Signals received by the control processor from the video tracker, IRU, accelerometers, magnetometer, and inclinometer are utilized by the control processor to generate drive signals for the payload azimuth drive, the Gimballed Mirror System (GMS), and the Fast Steering Mirror (FSM). The hardware which will be procured under the LOS tracking activity is the Controls Processor (CP), the IRU, and the FSM. The performance specifications for the GMS and the payload canister azimuth driver are established by the LOS tracking design team in an effort to achieve a tracking jitter of less than 3 micro-rad, 1 sigma for one axis.

  9. [Carbon sources metabolic characteristics of airborne microbial communities in constructed wetlands].

    PubMed

    Song, Zhi-Wen; Wang, Lin; Xu, Ai-Ling; Wu, Deng-Deng; Xia, Yan

    2015-02-01

    Using BIOLOG-GN plates, this article describes the carbon sources metabolic characteristics of airborne microbial communities in a free surface-flow constructed wetland in different seasons and clarify the correlation between airborne microbial metabolic functions and environmental factors. The average well color development (AWCD), carbon metabolic profiles and McIntosh values of airborne microbial communities in different seasons were quite different. Analysis of the variations showed that AWCD in spring and summer differed significantly from that in autumn and winter (P < 0.01). In the same season, the degree of utilization of different types of carbon by airborne microbes was different. Summer had a significant difference from other seasons (P < 0.05). Dominant communities of airborne microbes in four seasons were carboxylic acids metabolic community, carbohydrates metabolic community, polymers metabolic community and carboxylic acids metabolic community respectively. Principal component analysis showed that the carbon metabolic characteristics of airborne microbial community in autumn were similar to those in winter but different from those in spring and summer. The characteristics of carbon metabolism revealed differences between summer and spring, autumn, or winter. These differences were mainly caused by amines or amides while the differences between spring and autumn or winter were mainly caused by carboxylic acids. Environmental factors, including changes in wind speed, temperature, and humidity acted to influence the carbon sources metabolic properties of airborne microbial community. The dominant environmental factors that acted to influence the carbon sources metabolic properties of airborne microbial community varied between different seasons.

  10. The alpine Swiss-French airborne gravity survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verdun, Jérôme; Klingelé, Emile E.; Bayer, Roger; Cocard, Marc; Geiger, Alain; Kahle, Hans-Gert

    2003-01-01

    In February 1998, a regional-scale, airborne gravity survey was carried out over the French Occidental Alps within the framework of the GéoFrance 3-D research program.The survey consisted of 18 NS and 16 EW oriented lines with a spacing of 10 and 20 km respectively, covering the whole of the Western French Alps (total area: 50 000 km2; total distance of lines flown: 10 000 km). The equipment was mounted in a medium-size aircraft (DeHavilland Twin Otter) flowing at a constant altitude of 5100 m a.s.l, and at a mean ground speed of about 280 km h-1. Gravity was measured using a LaCoste & Romberg relative, air/sea gravimeter (type SA) mounted on a laser gyro stabilized platform. Data from 5 GPS antennae located on fuselage and wings and 7 ground-based GPS reference stations were used to determine position and aircraft induced accelerations.The gravimeter passband was derived by comparing the vertical accelerations provided by the gravimeter with those estimated from the GPS positions. This comparison showed that the gravimeter is not sensitive to very short wavelength aircraft accelerations, and therefore a simplified formulation for computing airborne gravity measurements was developed. The intermediate and short wavelength, non-gravitational accelerations were eliminated by means of digital, exponential low-pass filters (cut-off wavelength: 16 km). An important issue in airborne gravimetry is the reliability of the airborne gravity surveys when compared to ground surveys. In our studied area, the differences between the airborne-acquired Bouguer anomaly and the ground upward-continued Bouguer anomaly of the Alps shows a good agreement: the rms of these differences is equal to 7.68 mGal for a spatial resolution of 8 km. However, in some areas with rugged topography, the amplitudes of those differences have a striking correlation with the topography. We then argue that the choice of an appropriate density (reduction by a factor of 10 per cent) for computing the

  11. The Tropospheric Wind Lidar Technology Experiment (TWiLiTE): An Airborne Direct Detection Doppler Lidar Instrument Development Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gentry, Bruce; McGill, Matthew; Schwemmer, Geary; Hardesty, Michael; Brewer, Alan; Wilkerson, Thomas; Atlas, Robert; Sirota, Marcos; Lindemann, Scott

    2006-01-01

    Global measurement of tropospheric winds is a key measurement for understanding atmospheric dynamics and improving numerical weather prediction. Global wind profiles remain a high priority for the operational weather community and also for a variety of research applications including studies of the global hydrologic cycle and transport studies of aerosols and trace species. In addition to space based winds, a high altitude airborne system flown on UAV or other advanced platforms would be of great interest for studying mesoscale dynamics and hurricanes. The Tropospheric Wind Lidar Technology Experiment (TWiLiTE) project was selected in 2005 by the NASA Earth Sun Technology Office as part of the Instrument Incubator Program. TWiLiTE will leverage significant research and development investments in key technologies made in the past several years. The primary focus will be on integrating these sub-systems into a complete molecular direct detection Doppler wind lidar system designed for autonomous operation on a high altitude aircraft, such as the NASA WB57, so that the nadir viewing lidar will be able to profile winds through the full troposphere. TWiLiTE is a collaboration involving scientists and technologists from NASA Goddard, NOAA ESRL, Utah State University Space Dynamics Lab and industry partners Michigan Aerospace Corporation and Sigma Space Corporation. NASA Goddard and it's partners have been at the forefront in the development of key lidar technologies (lasers, telescopes, scanning systems, detectors and receivers) required to enable spaceborne global wind lidar measurement. The TWiLiTE integrated airborne Doppler lidar instrument will be the first demonstration of a airborne scanning direct detection Doppler lidar and will serve as a critical milestone on the path to a fixture spaceborne tropospheric wind system. The completed system will have the capability to profile winds in clear air from the aircraft altitude of 18 h to the surface with 250 m vertical

  12. Microgravity Platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Del Basso, Steve

    2000-01-01

    The world's space agencies have been conducting microgravity research since the beginning of space flight. Initially driven by the need to understand the impact of less than- earth gravity physics on manned space flight, microgravity research has evolved into a broad class of scientific experimentation that utilizes extreme low acceleration environments. The U.S. NASA microgravity research program supports both basic and applied research in five key areas: biotechnology - focusing on macro-molecular crystal growth as well as the use of the unique space environment to assemble and grow mammalian tissue; combustion science - focusing on the process of ignition, flame propagation, and extinction of gaseous, liquid, and solid fuels; fluid physics - including aspects of fluid dynamics and transport phenomena; fundamental physics - including the study of critical phenomena, low-temperature, atomic, and gravitational physics; and materials science - including electronic and photonic materials, glasses and ceramics, polymers, and metals and alloys. Similar activities prevail within the Chinese, European, Japanese, and Russian agencies with participation from additional international organizations as well. While scientific research remains the principal objective behind these program, all hope to drive toward commercialization to sustain a long range infrastructure which .benefits the national technology and economy. In the 1997 International Space Station Commercialization Study, conducted by the Potomac Institute for Policy Studies, some viable microgravity commercial ventures were identified, however, none appeared sufficiently robust to privately fund space access at that time. Thus, government funded micro gravity research continues on an evolutionary path with revolutionary potential.

  13. Platform Management System (PMS) evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilley, Mike; Hartley, Jonathan

    1990-01-01

    In fiscal year 1988 a study was begun to define the platform management system (PMS) functions required for the mature platform operations era. The objectives of the task include: (1) defining how to increase the operational productivity of the platform by providing enhanced capability for responding to changing events, (2) influencing the initial PMS design by identifying required 'hooks and scars', and (3) evaluation potential automation techniques that are appropriate given predicted onboard computing resources. Initial platform operations scenarios were defined. The focus was on PMS-related functions where operations enhancements are likely to occur. Operations productivity was defined in terms of scientific productivity of the platform as well as the level of automation of the ground system. The Platform Operations Productivity Enhancement Report was completed earlier this year documenting system enhancements to increase science productivity and ground system automation. Using the baseline PMS defined in the PMS Definition Document as a starting point, the resulting PMS-specific enhancements were molded into a sequence of progressively more sophisticated operations management capabilities. This sequence of upgrades to the PMS has been documented in a PMS Evolution Plan. The plan includes enhancements in the areas of resources scheduling, resource modeling, system and payload anomaly management, and transaction sequence interpretation. A plan for migration of functions from the ground portion of the PMS to the flight portion is also included. The impacts of this plan on the platform are now being documented to ensure that the required 'hooks and scars' are included in the baseline system. Future plans include a prototype of some of the PMS enhancements to address the feasibility of and techniques for implementing these enhancements in the onboard computing environment.

  14. Asthmatic responses to airborne acid aerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Ostro, B.D.; Lipsett, M.J.; Wiener, M.B.; Selner, J.C. )

    1991-06-01

    Controlled exposure studies suggest that asthmatics may be more sensitive to the respiratory effects of acidic aerosols than individuals without asthma. This study investigates whether acidic aerosols and other air pollutants are associated with respiratory symptoms in free-living asthmatics. Daily concentrations of hydrogen ion (H+), nitric acid, fine particulates, sulfates and nitrates were obtained during an intensive air monitoring effort in Denver, Colorado, in the winter of 1987-88. A panel of 207 asthmatics recorded respiratory symptoms, frequency of medication use, and related information in daily diaries. We used a multiple regression time-series model to analyze which air pollutants, if any, were associated with health outcomes reported by study participants. Airborne H+ was found to be significantly associated with several indicators of asthma status, including moderate or severe cough and shortness of breath. Cough was also associated with fine particulates, and shortness of breath with sulfates. Incorporating the participants' time spent outside and exercise intensity into the daily measure of exposure strengthened the association between these pollutants and asthmatic symptoms. Nitric acid and nitrates were not significantly associated with any respiratory symptom analyzed. In this population of asthmatics, several outdoor air pollutants, particularly airborne acidity, were associated with daily respiratory symptoms.

  15. Structures technology project summary: Earth orbiting platforms program area of the space platforms technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bush, Harold

    1991-01-01

    Viewgraphs are presented on the structures technology for the Earth orbiting platforms program. The objective of the work is to develop component and system level structural concepts and design methods to enable in-space construction and deployment of large platform structures in low earth orbit (LEO) and geosynchronous orbit (GEO) including primary platform structures, reflectors and antenna, and habitat and storage modules.

  16. Measurements of Solar Induced Chlorophyll Fluorescence at 685 nm by Airborne Plant Fluorescence Sensor (APFS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, F.; Yee, J. H.; Boldt, J.; Cook, W. B.; Corp, L. A.

    2015-12-01

    Solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (ChlF) by terrestrial vegetation is linked closely to photosynthetic efficiency that can be exploited to monitor the plant health status and to assess the terrestrial carbon budget from space. The weak, broad continuum ChlF signal can be detected from the fill-in of strong O2 absorption lines or solar Fraunhofer lines in the reflected spectral radiation. The Johns Hopkins University, Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) Airborne Plant Fluorescence Sensor (APFS) is a triple etalon Fabry-Perot interferometer designed and optimized specifically for the ChlF sensing from an airborne platform using this line fill-in technique. In this paper, we will present the results of APFS ChlF measurements obtained from a NASA Langley King Air during two airborne campaigns (12/12 in 2014 and 5/20 in 2015) over various land, river, and vegetated targets in Virginia during stressed and growth seasons.

  17. Data correction techniques for the airborne large-aperture static image spectrometer based on image registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Geng; Shi, Dalian; Wang, Shuang; Yu, Tao; Hu, Bingliang

    2015-01-01

    We propose an approach to correct the data of the airborne large-aperture static image spectrometer (LASIS). LASIS is a kind of stationary interferometer which compromises flux output and device stability. It acquires a series of interferograms to reconstruct the hyperspectral image cube. Reconstruction precision of the airborne LASIS data suffers from the instability of the plane platform. Usually, changes of plane attitudes, such as yaws, pitches, and rolls, can be precisely measured by the inertial measurement unit. However, the along-track and across-track translation errors are difficult to measure precisely. To solve this problem, we propose a co-optimization approach to compute the translation errors between the interferograms using an image registration technique which helps to correct the interferograms with subpixel precision. To demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach, experiments are run on real airborne LASIS data and our results are compared with those of the state-of-the-art approaches.

  18. Airborne volcanic plume measurements using a FTIR spectrometer, Kilauea volcano, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGee, K.A.; Gerlach, T.M.

    1998-01-01

    A prototype closed-path Fourier transform infrared spectrometer system (FTIK), operating from battery power and with a Stirling engine microcooler for detector cooling, was successfully used for airborne measurements of sulfur dioxide at Kilauea volcano. Airborne profiles of the volcanic plume emanating from the erupting Pu'u 'O'o vent on the East Rift of Kilauea revealed levels of nearly 3 ppm SO2 in the core of the plume. An emission rate of 2,160 metric tons per day of sulfur dioxide was calculated from the FTIR data, which agrees closely with simultaneous measurements by a correlation spectrometer (COSPEC). The rapid spatial sampling possible from an airborne platform distinguishes the methodology described here from previous FTIR measurements.

  19. Large aperture scanning airborne lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J.; Bindschadler, R.; Boers, R.; Bufton, J. L.; Clem, D.; Garvin, J.; Melfi, S. H.

    1988-01-01

    A large aperture scanning airborne lidar facility is being developed to provide important new capabilities for airborne lidar sensor systems. The proposed scanning mechanism allows for a large aperture telescope (25 in. diameter) in front of an elliptical flat (25 x 36 in.) turning mirror positioned at a 45 degree angle with respect to the telescope optical axis. The lidar scanning capability will provide opportunities for acquiring new data sets for atmospheric, earth resources, and oceans communities. This completed facility will also make available the opportunity to acquire simulated EOS lidar data on a near global basis. The design and construction of this unique scanning mechanism presents exciting technological challenges of maintaining the turning mirror optical flatness during scanning while exposed to extreme temperatures, ambient pressures, aircraft vibrations, etc.

  20. Airborne measurements performed by a light aircraft during Pegasos spring 2013 campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Väänänen, Riikka; Krejci, Radovan; Manninen, Hanna E.; Nieminen, Tuomo; Yli-Juuti, Taina; Kangasluoma, Juha; Pohja, Toivo; Aalto, Pasi P.; Petäjä, Tuukka; Kulmala, Markku

    2014-05-01

    To fully understand the chemical and physical processes in atmosphere, measuring only on-ground is not sufficient. To extend the measurements into the lower troposphere, the University of Helsinki has performed airborne campaigns since 2009. During spring 2013, a light aircraft was used to measure the aerosol size distribution over boreal forests as a part of the Pegasos 'Norhern Mission'. The aims of the measurements were to quantify the vertical profiles of aerosols up to the altitude of 3.5 km, to study the new particle formation in the lower troposphere, to measure the planetary boundary layer evolution, and to support the measurements performed by Zeppelin NT. We used a Cessna 172 light aircraft as a platform. An aerosol and gas inlet was mounted under the right wing and the sample air was conducted inside the cabin where most of the instruments were placed. The aerosol measurement instruments included a TSI 3776 condensation particle counter (CPC) with a cut-off size of 3 nm, a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS), with a size range of 10-350 nm, and a Particle Size Magnifier (PSM) connected with a TSI 3772 condensation particle counter. As the properties of the PSM measuring in airborne conditions were still under testing during the campaign, the setups of the PSM varied between the measurements. Other instruments on board included a Li-Cor Li-840 H2O/Co2-analyzer, a temperature sensor, a relative humidity sensor, and a GPS receiver. Total amount of 45 flights with 118 flight hours were performed between 24th April and 15th June 2013. The majority of the flights were flown around SMEAR II station located in Hyytiälä, and when possible, the flights were synchronized with the Zeppelin flights. Simultaneously, an extensive field campaign to measure aerosol and gas properties was performed on-ground at SMEAR II station. A time series of airborne aerosol data of around 1.5 months allows us to construct statistical vertical profiles of aerosol size

  1. Airborne remote sensing for Deepwater Horizon oil spill emergency response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroutil, Robert T.; Shen, Sylvia S.; Lewis, Paul E.; Miller, David P.; Cardarelli, John; Thomas, Mark; Curry, Timothy; Kudaraskus, Paul

    2010-08-01

    On April 28, 2010, the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Airborne Spectral Photometric Environmental Collection Technology (ASPECT) aircraft was deployed to Gulfport, Mississippi to provide airborne remotely sensed air monitoring and situational awareness data and products in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil rig disaster. The ASPECT aircraft was released from service on August 9, 2010 after having flown over 75 missions that included over 250 hours of flight operation. ASPECT's initial mission responsibility was to provide air quality monitoring (i.e., identification of vapor species) during various oil burning operations. The ASPECT airborne wide-area infrared remote sensing spectral data was used to evaluate the hazard potential of vapors being produced from open water oil burns near the Deepwater Horizon rig site. Other significant remote sensing data products and innovations included the development of an advanced capability to correctly identify, locate, characterize, and quantify surface oil that could reach beaches and wetland areas. This advanced identification product provided the Incident Command an improved capability to locate surface oil in order to improve the effectiveness of oil skimmer vessel recovery efforts directed by the US Coast Guard. This paper discusses the application of infrared spectroscopy and multispectral infrared imagery to address significant issues associated with this national crisis. More specifically, this paper addresses the airborne remote sensing capabilities, technology, and data analysis products developed specifically to optimize the resources and capabilities of the Deepwater Horizon Incident Command structure personnel and their remediation efforts.

  2. Magnetic airborne survey - geophysical flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Barros Camara, Erick; Nei Pereira Guimarães, Suze

    2016-06-01

    This paper provides a technical review process in the area of airborne acquisition of geophysical data, with emphasis for magnetometry. In summary, it addresses the calibration processes of geophysical equipment as well as the aircraft to minimize possible errors in measurements. The corrections used in data processing and filtering are demonstrated with the same results as well as the evolution of these techniques in Brazil and worldwide.

  3. Tension leg platform system

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, R.B.

    1983-12-20

    A tension leg platform system for use in drilling wellbores into the floor of an offshore body of water. Includes in the system is a buoyancy control vessel having a plurality of pull down cables attached thereto which extend to the ocean floor. A plurality of spaced apart anchors disposed at the ocean floor are positioned to receive the lower ends of the respective pull down cables. A submergible hull slidably engages the respective hold down cables such that the hull can be controllably lowered to the ocean floor whereby a canopy carried on the hull will cover an uncontrollably flowing well to conduct the effluent to the water's surface.

  4. The Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition - Prologue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turco, Richard; Plumb, Alan; Condon, Estelle

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents an introduction to the initial scientific results of the Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition (AASE), as well as data from other atmospheric experiments and analyses carried out during the Arctic polar winter of 1989. Mission objectives of the AASE were to study the mechanisms of ozone depletion and redistribution in the northern polar stratosphere, including the influences of Arctic meteorology, and polar stratospheric clouds formed at low temperatures. Some major aspects of the AASE are described including: logistics and operations, meteorology, polar stratospheric clouds, trace composition and chemistry, and ozone depletion. It is concluded that the Arctic-89 experiments have provided the scientific community with a wealth of new information that will contribute to a better understanding of the polar winter stratosphere and the critical problem of global ozone depletion.

  5. The evolution of the geostationary platform concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edelson, Burton I.; Lovell, Robert R.; Cuccia, C. Louis

    1987-01-01

    The paper will review the conceptual development over the last decade of the use of very large spacecraft, i.e., 'platforms', in geostationary orbit. Geostationary platforms were originally conceived as an efficient means of increasing the capacity at a point in the geostationary orbital arc. Also, geostationary platforms have been suggested for mounting very large antennas as will be required for mobile communications, or high power sources as will be required for broadcast services to small terminals. More recently these 'large satellite' platforms were also envisioned as including earth observation and other science payloads. The advent of the Space Station, which can provide a staging base for platform assembly and test in space at low earth orbit prior to launch to geostationary earth orbit, will introduce a new dimension to practical platform design. This paper describes the evolution of concepts for geostationary platforms over the last decade based on both communications and science user scenarios developed worldwide.

  6. Eclipse Parallel Tools Platform

    2005-02-18

    Designing and developing parallel programs is an inherently complex task. Developers must choose from the many parallel architectures and programming paradigms that are available, and face a plethora of tools that are required to execute, debug, and analyze parallel programs i these environments. Few, if any, of these tools provide any degree of integration, or indeed any commonality in their user interfaces at all. This further complicates the parallel developer's task, hampering software engineering practices,more » and ultimately reducing productivity. One consequence of this complexity is that best practice in parallel application development has not advanced to the same degree as more traditional programming methodologies. The result is that there is currently no open-source, industry-strength platform that provides a highly integrated environment specifically designed for parallel application development. Eclipse is a universal tool-hosting platform that is designed to providing a robust, full-featured, commercial-quality, industry platform for the development of highly integrated tools. It provides a wide range of core services for tool integration that allow tool producers to concentrate on their tool technology rather than on platform specific issues. The Eclipse Integrated Development Environment is an open-source project that is supported by over 70 organizations, including IBM, Intel and HP. The Eclipse Parallel Tools Platform (PTP) plug-in extends the Eclipse framwork by providing support for a rich set of parallel programming languages and paradigms, and a core infrastructure for the integration of a wide variety of parallel tools. The first version of the PTP is a prototype that only provides minimal functionality for parallel tool integration of a wide variety of parallel tools. The first version of the PTP is a prototype that only provides minimal functionality for parallel tool integration, support for a small number of parallel architectures

  7. Design criteria and comparison between conventional and subaperture SAR processing in airborne systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prats, Pau; Bara, Marc; Broquetas, Antoni

    2002-02-01

    This paper compares two different approaches for designing airborne SAR systems. The first one is the most common where conventional processing is employed, and therefore wide antenna beams are to be used in order to avoid ambiguities in the final image due to attitude variations. A second approach is proposed to lower the requirements such system imposes based on subaperture processing. The idea is to follow the azimuth variations of the Doppler centroid, without increasing the hardware requirements of the system. As it is shown in this paper, this processing procedure must be complemented with precise radiometric corrections, because the platform may experience small attitude variations, which could increase/decrease the target observation time, inducing a significant azimuth modulation in the final image. This leads to the definition of a new criterion concerning maximum attitude deviations for an airborne platform.

  8. Simulating and testing autonomous behaviour in multiple airborne sensor systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Moira I.; Hernandez, Marcel L.; Cooper, Matthew

    2007-04-01

    The Multiple Airborne Sensor Targeting and Evaluation Rig (MASTER) is a high fidelity simulation environment in which data fusion, tracking and sensor management algorithms developed within QinetiQ Ltd. can be demonstrated and evaluated. In this paper we report an observer trajectory planning tool that adds considerable functionality to MASTER. This planning tool can coordinate multiple sensor platforms in tracking highly manoeuvring targets. It does this by applying instantaneous thrusts to each platform, the magnitude of which is chosen to gain maximum observability of the target. We use an efficient search technique to determine the thrust that should be applied to each platform at each time step, and the planning horizon can either be one-step (greedy) or two-step. The measure of performance used in evaluating each potential sensor manoeuvre (thrust) is the posterior Cramer-Rao lower bound (PCRLB), which gives the best possible (lowest mean square error) tracking performance. We exploit a recent novel approach to approximating the PCRLB for manoeuvring target tracking (the "best-fitting Gaussian" (BFG) approach: Hernandez et al., 2005). A closed-form expression gives the BFG approximation at each sampling time. Hence, the PCRLB can be approximated with a very low computational overhead. As a result, the planning tool can be implemented as an aid to decision-making in real-time, even in this time-critical airborne domain. The functionality of MASTER enables one to access the performance of the planning tool in a range of sensor-target scenarios, enabling one to determine the minimal sensor requirement in order to satisfy mission requirements.

  9. Unique Offerings of the ISS as an Earth Observing Platform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooley, Victor M.

    2013-01-01

    The International Space Station offers unique capabilities for earth remote sensing. An established Earth orbiting platform with abundant power, data and commanding infrastructure, the ISS has been in operation for twelve years as a crew occupied science laboratory and offers low cost and expedited concept-to-operation paths for new sensing technologies. Plug in modularity on external platforms equipped with structural, power and data interfaces standardizes and streamlines integration and minimizes risk and start up difficulties. Data dissemination is also standardized. Emerging sensor technologies and instruments tailored for sensing of regional dynamics may not be worthy of dedicated platforms and launch vehicles, but may well be worthy of ISS deployment, hitching a ride on one of a variety of government or commercial visiting vehicles. As global acceptance of the urgent need for understanding Climate Change continues to grow, the value of ISS, orbiting in Low Earth Orbit, in complementing airborne, sun synchronous polar, geosynchronous and other platform remote sensing will also grow.

  10. Progress in the development of airborne remote sensing instrumentation for the National Ecological Observatory Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kampe, Thomas U.; McCorkel, Joel; Hamlin, Louise; Green, Robert O.; Krause, Keith S.; Johnson, Brian R.

    2011-09-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is a planned facility of the National Science Foundation with the mission to enable understanding and forecasting of the impacts of climate change, land use change and invasive species on continental-scale ecology. Airborne remote sensing plays a critical role by providing measurements at the scale of individual shrubs and larger plants over hundreds of square kilometers. The NEON Airborne Observation Platform is designed to bridge scales from organism and stand scales, as captured by plot and tower observations, to the scale of satellite based remote sensing. Fused airborne spectroscopy and waveform LiDAR is used to quantify vegetation composition and structure. Panchromatic photography at better than 30 cm resolution will retrieve fine-scale information on land use, roads, impervious surfaces, and built structures. NEON will build three airborne systems to allow for regular coverage of NEON sites and the capacity to respond to investigator requests for specific projects. The system design achieves a balance between performance and development cost and risk, taking full advantage of existing commercial airborne LiDAR and camera components. To reduce risk during NEON construction, an imaging spectrometer design verification unit is being developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory to demonstrate that operational and performance requirements can be met. As part of this effort, NEON is also focusing on science algorithm development, computing hardware prototyping and early airborne test flights with similar technologies. This paper presents an overview of the development status of the NEON airborne instrumentation in the context of the NEON mission.

  11. Open systems storage platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Kirby

    1992-01-01

    The building blocks for an open storage system includes a system platform, a selection of storage devices and interfaces, system software, and storage applications CONVEX storage systems are based on the DS Series Data Server systems. These systems are a variant of the C3200 supercomputer with expanded I/O capabilities. These systems support a variety of medium and high speed interfaces to networks and peripherals. System software is provided in the form of ConvexOS, a POSIX compliant derivative of 4.3BSD UNIX. Storage applications include products such as UNITREE and EMASS. With the DS Series of storage systems, Convex has developed a set of products which provide open system solutions for storage management applications. The systems are highly modular, assembled from off the shelf components with industry standard interfaces. The C Series system architecture provides a stable base, with the performance and reliability of a general purpose platform. This combination of a proven system architecture with a variety of choices in peripherals and application software allows wide flexibility in configurations, and delivers the benefits of open systems to the mass storage world.

  12. Analysis of Membrane Lipids of Airborne Micro-Organisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacNaughton, Sarah

    2006-01-01

    A method of characterization of airborne micro-organisms in a given location involves (1) large-volume filtration of air onto glass-fiber filters; (2) accelerated extraction of membrane lipids of the collected micro-organisms by use of pressurized hot liquid; and (3) identification and quantitation of the lipids by use of gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. This method is suitable for use in both outdoor and indoor environments; for example, it can be used to measure airborne microbial contamination in buildings ("sick-building syndrome"). The classical approach to analysis of airborne micro-organisms is based on the growth of cultureable micro-organisms and does not provide an account of viable but noncultureable micro-organisms, which typically amount to more than 90 percent of the micro-organisms present. In contrast, the present method provides an account of all micro-organisms, including cultureable, noncultureable, aerobic, and anaerobic ones. The analysis of lipids according to this method makes it possible to estimate the number of viable airborne micro-organisms present in the sampled air and to obtain a quantitative profile of the general types of micro-organisms present along with some information about their physiological statuses.

  13. Charge-coupled device data processor for an airborne imaging radar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arens, W. E. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    Processing of raw analog echo data from synthetic aperture radar receiver into images on board an airborne radar platform is discussed. Processing is made feasible by utilizing charge-coupled devices (CCD). CCD circuits are utilized to perform input sampling, presumming, range correlation and azimuth correlation in the analog domain. These radar data processing functions are implemented for single-look or multiple-look imaging radar systems.

  14. TELAER: a multi-mode/multi-antenna interferometric airborne SAR system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perna, Stefano; Amaral, Tiago; Berardino, Paolo; Esposito, Carmen; Jackson, Giuseppe; Pauciullo, Antonio; Vaz Junior, Eurico; Wimmer, Christian; Lanari, Riccardo

    2014-05-01

    The present contribution is aimed at showing the capabilities of the TELAER airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) system recently upgraded to the interferometric mode [1]. TELAER is an Italian airborne X-Band SAR system, mounted onboard a LearJet 35A aircraft. Originally equipped with a single TX/RX antenna, it now operates in single-pass interferometric mode thanks to a system upgrading [1] funded by the Italian National Research Council (CNR), via the Italian Ministry of Education, Universities and Research (MIUR), in the framework of a cooperation between CNR and the Italian Agency for Agriculture Subsidy Payments (AGEA). In the frame of such cooperation, CNR has entrusted the Institute for Electromagnetic Sensing of the Environment (IREA) for managing all the activities, included the final flight tests, related to the system upgrading. According to such an upgrading, two additional receiving X-band antennas have been installed in order to allow, simultaneously, single-pass Across-Track and Along-Track interferometry [1]. More specifically, the three antennas are now installed in such a way to produce three different across-track baselines and two different along-track baselines. Moreover, in the frame of the same system upgrading, it has been mounted onboard the Learjet an accurate embedded Global Navigation Satellite System and Inertial Measurement Unit equipment. This allows precise measurement of the tracks described by the SAR antennas during the flight, in order to accurately implement Motion Compensation (MOCO) algorithms [2] during the image formation (focusing) step. It is worth remarking that the TELAER system upgraded to the interferometric mode is very flexible, since the user can set different operational modes characterized by different geometric resolutions and range swaths. In particular, it is possible to reach up to 0.5 m of resolution with a range swath of 2km; conversely, it is possible to enlarge the range swath up to 10 km at expenses of

  15. Airborne intercomparisons of carbon monoxide measurement techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoell, James M., Jr.; Gregory, Gerald L.; Mcdougal, David S.; Sachse, Glen W.; Hill, Gerald F.; Condon, Estelle P.

    1987-01-01

    Results from an airborne intercomparison of techniques to measure tropospheric levels of carbon monoxide (CO) are discussed. The intercomparison was conducted as part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Global Tropospheric Experiment and included a laser differential absorption method and two grab sample/gas chromatograph methods. Measurements were obtained during approximately 90 flight hours, during which the CO mixing ratios ranged from about 60 to 140 ppbv. The level of agreement observed for the ensemble of measurements was well within the overall accuracy stated for each instrument. The correlation observed between the measurements from the respective pairs of instruments ranged from 0.85 to 0.98, with no evidence for the presence of either a constant or proportional bias between any of the instruments.

  16. Airborne Dust Models in Valley Fever Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sprigg, W. A.; Galgiani, J. N.; Vujadinovic, M.; Pejanovic, G.; Vukovic, A. J.; Prasad, A. K.; Djurdjevic, V.; Nickovic, S.

    2011-12-01

    Dust storms (haboobs) struck Phoenix, Arizona, in 2011 on July 5th and again on July 18th. One potential consequence: an estimated 3,600 new cases of Valley Fever in Maricopa County from the first storm alone. The fungi, Coccidioides immitis, the cause of the respiratory infection, Valley Fever, lives in the dry desert soils of the American southwest and southward through Mexico, Central America and South America. The fungi become part of the dust storm and, a few weeks after inhalation, symptoms of Valley Fever may appear, including pneumonia-like illness, rashes, and severe fatigue. Some fatalities occur. Our airborne dust forecast system predicted the timing and extent of the storm, as it has done with other, often different, dust events. Atmosphere/land surface models can be part of public health services to reduce risk of Valley Fever and exacerbation of other respiratory and cardiovascular illness.

  17. Ambrosia airborne pollen concentration modelling and evaluation over Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamaoui-Laguel, Lynda; Vautard, Robert; Viovy, Nicolas; Khvorostyanov, Dmitry; Colette, Augustin

    2014-05-01

    Native from North America, Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. (Common Ragweed) is an invasive annual weed introduced in Europe in the mid-nineteenth century. It has a very high spreading potential throughout Europe and releases very allergenic pollen leading to health problems for sensitive persons. Because of its health effects, it is necessary to develop modelling tools to be able to forecast ambrosia air pollen concentration and to inform allergy populations of allergenic threshold exceedance. This study is realised within the framework of the ATOPICA project (https://www.atopica.eu/) which is designed to provide first steps in tools and estimations of the fate of allergies in Europe due to changes in climate, land use and air quality. To calculate and predict airborne concentrations of ambrosia pollen, a chain of models has been built. Models have been developed or adapted for simulating the phenology (PMP phonological modelling platform), inter-annual production (ORCHIDEE vegetation model), release and airborne processes (CHIMERE chemical transport model) of ragweed pollen. Airborne pollens follow processes similar to air quality pollutants in CHIMERE with some adaptations. The detailed methodology, formulations and input data will be presented. A set of simulations has been performed to simulate airborne concentrations of pollens over long time periods on a large European domain. Hindcast simulations (2000 - 2012) driven by ERA-Interim re-analyses are designed to best simulate past periods airborne pollens. The modelled pollen concentrations are calibrated with observations and validated against additional observations. Then, 20-year long historical simulations (1986 - 2005) are carried out using calibrated ambrosia density distribution and climate model-driven weather in order to serve as a control simulation for future scenarios. By comparison with multi-annual observed daily pollen counts we have shown that the model captures well the gross features of the pollen

  18. Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL) Data Processing Manual

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bonisteel, Jamie M.; Nayegandhi, Amar; Wright, C. Wayne; Brock, John C.; Nagle, David

    2009-01-01

    The Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL) is an example of a Light Detection and Ranging (Lidar) system that utilizes a blue-green wavelength (532 nanometers) to determine the distance to an object. The distance is determined by recording the travel time of a transmitted pulse at the speed of light (fig. 1). This system uses raster laser scanning with full-waveform (multi-peak) resolving capabilities to measure submerged topography and adjacent coastal land elevations simultaneously (Nayegandhi and others, 2009). This document reviews procedures for the post-processing of EAARL data using the custom-built Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS). ALPS software was developed in an open-source programming environment operated on a Linux platform. It has the ability to combine the laser return backscatter digitized at 1-nanosecond intervals with aircraft positioning information. This solution enables the exploration and processing of the EAARL data in an interactive or batch mode. ALPS also includes modules for the creation of bare earth, canopy-top, and submerged topography Digital Elevation Models (DEMs). The EAARL system uses an Earth-centered coordinate and reference system that removes the necessity to reference submerged topography data relative to water level or tide gages (Nayegandhi and others, 2006). The EAARL system can be mounted in an array of small twin-engine aircraft that operate at 300 meters above ground level (AGL) at a speed of 60 meters per second (117 knots). While other systems strive to maximize operational depth limits, EAARL has a narrow transmit beam and receiver field of view (1.5 to 2 milliradians), which improves the depth-measurement accuracy in shallow, clear water but limits the maximum depth to about 1.5 Secchi disk depth (~20 meters) in clear water. The laser transmitter [Continuum EPO-5000 yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG)] produces up to 5,000 short-duration (1.2 nanosecond), low-power (70 microjoules) pulses each second

  19. Airborne rotary separator study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drnevich, R. F.; Nowobilski, J. J.

    1992-01-01

    Several air breathing propulsion concepts for future earth-to-orbit transport vehicles utilize air collection and enrichment, and subsequent storage of liquid oxygen for later use in the vehicle mission. Work performed during the 1960's established the feasibility of substantially reducing weight and volume of a distillation type air separator system by operating the distillation elements in high 'g' fields obtained by rotating the separator assembly. The purpose of this study was to evaluate various fuels and fuel combinations with the objective of minimizing the weight and increase the ready alert capability of the plane. Fuels will be used to provide energy as well as act as heat sinks for the on-board heat rejection system. Fuel energy was used to provide power for air separation as well as to produce refrigeration for liquefaction of oxygen enriched air, besides its primary purpose of vehicle propulsion. The heat generated in the cycle was rejected to the fuel and water which is also carried on board the vehicle.The fuels that were evaluated include JP4, methane, and hydrogen. Hydrogen served as a comparison to the JP4 and methane cases.

  20. Evolutionary space platform concept study. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The Evolutionary Space Platform Concept Study encompassed a 10 month effort to define, evaluate and compare approaches and concepts for evolving unmanned and manned capability platforms beyond the current Space Platform concepts to an evolutionary goal of establishing a permanent manned presence in space. Areas addressed included: special emphasis trade studies on the current unmanned concept, assessment of manned platform concepts, and utility analysis of a manned platform for defense related missions.

  1. Gas turbine bucket with impingement cooled platform

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Raphael Durand

    2002-01-01

    In a turbine bucket having an airfoil portion and a root portion, with a substantially planar platform at an interface between the airfoil portion and root portion, a platform cooling arrangement including at least one bore in the root portion and at least one impingement cooling tube seated in the bore, the tube extending beyond the bore with an outlet in close proximity to a targeted area on an underside of the platform.

  2. Bucket platform cooling scheme and related method

    DOEpatents

    Abuaf, Nesim; Barb, Kevin Joseph; Chopra, Sanjay; Kercher, David Max; Kellock, Iain Robertson; Lenahan, Dean Thomas; Nellian, Sankar; Starkweather, John Howard; Lupe, Douglas Arthur

    2002-01-01

    A turbine bucket includes an airfoil extending from a platform, having high and low pressure sides; a wheel mounting portion; a hollow shank portion located radially between the platform and the wheel mounting portion, the platform having an under surface. An impingement cooling plate is located in the hollow shank portion, spaced from the under surface, and the impingement plate is formed with a plurality of impingement cooling holes therein.

  3. Stabilized floating platforms

    DOEpatents

    Thomas, David G.

    1976-01-01

    The subject invention is directed to a floating platform for supporting nuclear reactors and the like at selected offshore sites. The platform is provided with a stabilizer mechanism which significantly reduces the effects of wave action upon the platform and which comprises a pair of relatively small floats attached by rigid booms to the platform at locations spaced therefrom for reducing wave pitch, acceleration, and the resonance period of the wave.

  4. UAVSAR - A New Airborne L-Band Radar for Repeat Pass Interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mace, Thomas H.; Lou, Yunling

    2009-01-01

    NASA/JPL has developed a new airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) which has become available for use by the scientific community in January, 2009. Pod mounted, the UAVSAR was designed to be portable among a variety of aircraft, including unmanned aerial systems (UAS). The instrument operates in the L-Band, has a resolution under 2m from a GPS altitude of 12Km and a swath width of approximately 20Km. UAVSAR currently flies on a modified Gulfstream-III aircraft, operated by NASA s Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards, California. The G-III platform enables repeat-pass interferometric measurements, by using a modified autopilot and precise kinematic differential GPS to repeatedly fly the aircraft within a specified 10m tube. The antenna is electronically steered along track to assure that the antenna beam can be directed independently, regardless of speed and wind direction. The instrument can be controlled remotely, AS AN OPTION, using the Research Environment for Vehicle Embedded Analysis on Linux (REVEAL). This allows simulation of the telepresence environment necessary for flight on UAS. Potential earth science research and applications include surface deformation, volcano studies, ice sheet dynamics, and vegetation structure.

  5. GeoEarthScope Airborne LiDAR and Satellite InSAR Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, D. A.; Jackson, M. E.; Meertens, C.

    2008-12-01

    UNAVCO has successfully acquired a significant volume of aerial and satellite geodetic imagery as part of GeoEarthScope, a component of the EarthScope Facility project funded by the National Science Foundation. All GeoEarthScope acquisition activities are now complete. Airborne LiDAR data acquisitions took place in 2007 and 2008 and cover a total area of more than 5000 square kilometers. The primary LiDAR survey regions cover features in Northern California, Southern/Eastern California, the Pacific Northwest, the Intermountain Seismic Belt (including the Wasatch and Teton faults and Yellowstone), and Alaska. We have ordered and archived more than 28,000 scenes (more than 81,000 frames) of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data suitable for interferometric analyses covering most of the western U.S. and parts of Alaska and Hawaii from several satellite platforms, including ERS-1/2, ENVISAT and RADARSAT. In addition to ordering data from existing archives, we also tasked the ESA ENVISAT satellite to acquire new SAR data in 2007 and 2008. GeoEarthScope activities were led by UNAVCO, guided by the community and conducted in partnership with the USGS and NASA. Processed imagery products, in addition to formats intended for use in standard research software, can also be viewed using general purpose tools such as Google Earth. We present a summary of these vast geodetic imagery datasets, totaling tens of terabytes, which are freely available to the community.

  6. Mapping of traditional settlements by unmanned airborne vehicles towards architectural restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partsinevelos, Panagiotis; Skoutelis, Nikolaos; Tripolitsiotis, Achilleas; Tsatsarounos, Stelios; Tsitonaki, Anna; Zervos, Panagiotis

    2015-06-01

    Conservation and restoration of traditional settlements are amongst the actions that international directives proclaim in order to protect our cultural heritage. Towards this end, a mandatory base step in all archaeological and historical practices includes the surveying and mapping of the study area. Often, new, unexplored or abandoned settlements are considered, where dense vegetation, damaged structures and ruins, incorporation of newer structures and renovation characteristics make the precise surveying procedure a labor intensive and time consuming procedure. Unmanned airborne vehicles (UAVs) have been effectively incorporated into several cultural heritage projects mainly for mapping archeological sites. However, the majority of relevant publications lack of quantitative evaluation of their results and when such a validation is provided it is rather a procedural error estimation readily available from the software used, without independent ground truth verification. In this study, a low-cost custom-built hexacopter prototype was employed to deliver accurate mapping of the traditional settlement of Kamariotis in east Crete, Greece. The case of Kamariotis settlement included highly dense urban structures with continuous building forms, curved walls and missing terraces, while wild vegetation made classic geodetic surveying unfeasible. The resulting maps were qualitatively compared against the ones derived using Google Earth and the Greek Cadastral Orthophoto Viewing platforms to evaluate their applicability for architectural mapping. Moreover, the overall precision of the photogrammetric procedure was compared against geodetic surveying.

  7. Goodard Space Flight Center/Wallops Flight Facility airborne geoscience support capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Navarro, Roger L.

    1991-01-01

    Goddard Space Flight Center's Wallops Facility (GSFC/WFF), operates six aircraft which are used as airborne geoscience platforms. The aircraft complement consists of two UH-1B helicopters, one twin engine Skyvan, one twin jet T-39, and two four engine turboprop aircraft (P-3 and Electra) offering the research community a wide range of payload, altitude, speed, and range capabilities. WFF's support to a principal investigator include mission planning of all supporting elements, installation of equipment on the aircraft, fabrication of brackets, and adapters as required to adapt payloads to the aircraft, and planning of mission profiles to meet science objectives. The flight regime includes local, regional, and global missions. The WFF aircraft serve scientists at GSFC, other NASA centers, other government agencies, and universities. The WFF mode of operation features the walk on method of conducting research projects. The principal investigator requests aircraft support by letter to WFF and after approval is granted, works with the assigned mission manager to plan all phases of project support. The instrumentation is installed in WFF electronics racks, mounted on the aircraft, the missions are flown, and the equipment is removed when the scientific objectives are met. The principal investigator reimburses WFF for each flight hours, any overtime and travel expenses generated by the project, and for other mission-related expenses such as aircraft support services required at deployment bases.

  8. Geophex airborne unmanned survey system

    SciTech Connect

    Won, I.J.; Taylor, D.W.A.

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of this effort is to design, construct, and evaluate a portable, remotely-piloted, airborne, geophysical survey system. This nonintrusive system will provide {open_quotes}stand-off{close_quotes} capability to conduct surveys and detect buried objects, structures, and conditions of interest at hazardous locations. This system permits two operators to rapidly conduct geophysical characterization of hazardous environmental sites. During a survey, the operators remain remote from, but within visual distance, of, the site. The sensor system never contacts the Earth, but can be positioned near the ground so that weak anomalies can be detected.

  9. Geophex Airborne Unmanned Survey System

    SciTech Connect

    Won, I.J.; Keiswetter, D.

    1995-10-01

    The purpose of this effort is to design, construct, and evaluate a portable, remotely-piloted, airborne, geophysical survey system. This non-intrusive system will provide {open_quotes}stand-off{close_quotes} capability to conduct surveys and detect buried objects, structures, and conditions of interest at hazardous locations. This system permits rapid geophysical characterization of hazardous environmental sites. During a survey, the operators remain remote from, but within visual distance of, the site. The sensor system never contacts the Earth, but can be positioned near the ground so that weak geophysical anomalies can be detected.

  10. Cyberinfrastructure for Airborne Sensor Webs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freudinger, Lawrence C.

    2009-01-01

    Since 2004 the NASA Airborne Science Program has been prototyping and using infrastructure that enables researchers to interact with each other and with their instruments via network communications. This infrastructure uses satellite links and an evolving suite of applications and services that leverage open-source software. The use of these tools has increased near-real-time situational awareness during field operations, resulting in productivity improvements and the collection of better data. This paper describes the high-level system architecture and major components, with example highlights from the use of the infrastructure. The paper concludes with a discussion of ongoing efforts to transition to operational status.

  11. Requirements for airborne vector gravimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwarz, K. P.; Colombo, O.; Hein, G.; Knickmeyer, E. T.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of airborne vector gravimetry is the determination of the full gravity disturbance vector along the aircraft trajectory. The paper briefly outlines the concept of this method using a combination of inertial and GPS-satellite data. The accuracy requirements for users in geodesy and solid earth geophysics, oceanography and exploration geophysics are then specified. Using these requirements, accuracy specifications for the GPS subsystem and the INS subsystem are developed. The integration of the subsystems and the problems connected with it are briefly discussed and operational methods are indicated that might reduce some of the stringent accuracy requirements.

  12. Biological monitoring of airborne pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Ditz, D.W. )

    1990-01-01

    Common plants such as grasses, mosses, and even goldenrod may turn out to have a new high-tech role as monitors of airborne pollution from solid waste incinerators. Certain plants that respond to specific pollutants can provide continuous surveillance of air quality over long periods of time: they are bio-indicators. Other species accumulate pollutants and can serve as sensitive indicators of pollutants and of food-chain contamination: they are bio-accumulators. Through creative use of these properties, biological monitoring can provide information that cannot be obtained by current methods such as stack testing.

  13. Toolsets for Airborne Data - URS and New Documentation

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2015-03-23

    ... airborne field missions, documentation, and EOSDIS User Registration System (URS) authentication. This web application features an intuitive user interface for variable selection across different airborne field studies and ...

  14. Development of a new airborne humidigraph system.

    SciTech Connect

    Pekour, Mikhail S.; Schmid, Beat; Chand, Duli; Hubbe, John M.; Kluzek, Celine D.; Nelson, Danny A.; Tomlinson, Jason M.; Cziczo, Daniel J.

    2012-12-06

    Modeling and measurements of aerosol properties is complicated by the hygroscopic behavior of the aerosols adding significant uncertainty to our best estimates of the direct effect aerosols exert on the radiative balance of the atmosphere. Airborne measurements of aerosol hygroscopicity are particularly challenging but critically needed. This motivated the development of a newly designed system which can measure the dependence of the aerosol light scattering coefficient (σsp) on relative humidity (RH), known as f(RH), in real-time at a rapid rate (<10 s) on an aerial platform. The new system has several advantages over existing systems. It consists of three integrating nephelometers and humidity conditioners for simultaneous measurement of the σsp at three different RHs. The humidity is directly controlled in exchanger cells without significant temperature disturbances and without particle dilution, heating or loss of volatile compounds. The single-wavelength nephelometers are illuminated by LED-based light sources thereby minimizing heating of the sample stream. The flexible design of the RH conditioners, consisting of a number of specially designed exchanger cells (driers or humidifiers), enables us to measure f(RH) under hydration or dehydration conditions (always starting with the aerosol in a known state) with a simple system re-configuration. These exchanger cells have been characterized for losses of particles using latex spheres and laboratory generated ammonium sulfate aerosols. Residence times of 6 - 9 s in the exchangers and subsequent lines is sufficient for most aerosols to attain equilibrium with the new water vapor content. The performance of this system has been assessed aboard DOE’s G-1 research aircraft during test flights over California, Oregon, and Washington.

  15. The Geohazards Exploitation Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laur, Henri; Casu, Francesco; Bally, Philippe; Caumont, Hervé; Pinto, Salvatore

    2016-04-01

    The Geohazards Exploitation Platform, or Geohazards TEP (GEP), is an ESA originated R&D activity of the EO ground segment to demonstrate the benefit of new technologies for large scale processing of EO data. This encompasses on-demand processing for specific user needs, systematic processing to address common information needs of the geohazards community, and integration of newly developed processors for scientists and other expert users. The platform supports the geohazards community's objectives as defined in the context of the International Forum on Satellite EO and Geohazards organised by ESA and GEO in Santorini in 2012. The GEP is a follow on to the Supersites Exploitation Platform (SSEP) an ESA initiative to support the Geohazards Supersites & Natural Laboratories initiative (GSNL). Today the GEP allows to exploit 70+ Terabyte of ERS and ENVISAT archive and the Copernicus Sentinel-1 data available on line. The platform has already engaged 22 European early adopters in a validation activity initiated in March 2015. Since September, this validation has reached 29 single user projects. Each project is concerned with either integrating an application, running on demand processing or systematically generating a product collection using an application available in the platform. The users primarily include 15 geoscience centres and universities based in Europe: British Geological Survey (UK), University of Leeds (UK), University College London (UK), ETH University of Zurich (CH), INGV (IT), CNR-IREA and CNR-IRPI (IT), University of L'Aquila (IT), NOA (GR), Univ. Blaise Pascal & CNRS (FR), Ecole Normale Supérieure (FR), ISTERRE / University of Grenoble-Alpes (FR). In addition, there are users from Africa and North America with the University of Rabat (MA) and the University of Miami (US). Furthermore two space agencies and four private companies are involved: the German Space Research Centre DLR (DE), the European Space Agency (ESA), Altamira Information (ES

  16. SERS diagnostic platforms, methods and systems microarrays, biosensors and biochips

    DOEpatents

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    2007-09-11

    A Raman integrated sensor system for the detection of targets including biotargets includes at least one sampling platform, at least one receptor probe disposed on the sampling platform, and an integrated circuit detector system communicably connected to the receptor. The sampling platform is preferably a Raman active surface-enhanced scattering (SERS) platform, wherein the Raman sensor is a SERS sensor. The receptors can include at least one protein receptor and at least one nucleic acid receptor.

  17. Platform for Action: update.

    PubMed

    1995-01-01

    The Center for Women's Global Leadership (CWGL) has collaborated in the preparation of amendments and strategies designed to withstand the challenges being posed to the Platform for Action of the Fourth World Conference on Women. Specific challenges include the inappropriate use of the word "universal" to modify "human rights." This implies that some human rights are less than universal. The strategy proposed is to accept the use of the word "universal" in this context only when it affirms principles of universality contained in the Vienna Programme of Action and not where its use would restrict the rights to which women are entitled. A second concern is over the use of the word "equity" rather than "equality" when referring to gender relations. The use of these terms will be carefully monitored to insure that "equity" not be used to undermine the principle of gender equality. The third concern is the efforts of some governments to hinder the integration of women's human rights throughout the UN system. Such efforts will be opposed. Fourth, the CWGL will seek the inclusion of language which recognizes the barriers that different groups of women face when trying to secure their rights. Finally, the CWGL will propose inclusion of language recognizing and protecting sexual orientation rights. The CWGL is also going to work to translate the abstract language of the Platform for Action into political organizing potential to insure that governments will follow through on their agreements.

  18. Meeting Review: Airborne Aerosol Inlet Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumgardner, Darrel; Huebert, Barry; Wilson, Chuck

    1991-01-01

    Proceedings from the Airborne Aerosol Inlet Workshop are presented. The two central topics of discussion were the role of aerosols in atmospheric processes and the difficulties in characterizing aerosols. The following topics were discussed during the working sessions: airborne observations to date; identification of inlet design issues; inlet modeling needs and directions; objectives for aircraft experiments; and future laboratory and wind tunnel studies.

  19. Global Test Range: Toward Airborne Sensor Webs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mace, Thomas H.; Freudinger, Larry; DelFrate John H.

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the planned global sensor network that will monitor the Earth's climate, and resources using airborne sensor systems. The vision is an intelligent, affordable Earth Observation System. Global Test Range is a lab developing trustworthy services for airborne instruments - a specialized Internet Service Provider. There is discussion of several current and planned missions.

  20. A Simple Method for Collecting Airborne Pollen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kevan, Peter G.; DiGiovanni, Franco; Ho, Rong H.; Taki, Hisatomo; Ferguson, Kristyn A.; Pawlowski, Agata K.

    2006-01-01

    Pollination is a broad area of study within biology. For many plants, pollen carried by wind is required for successful seed set. Airborne pollen also affects human health. To foster studies of airborne pollen, we introduce a simple device--the "megastigma"--for collecting pollen from the air. This device is flexible, yielding easily obtained data…

  1. The Continuous wavelet in airborne gravimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, X.; Liu, L.

    2013-12-01

    Airborne gravimetry is an efficient method to recover medium and high frequency band of earth gravity over any region, especially inaccessible areas, which can measure gravity data with high accuracy,high resolution and broad range in a rapidly and economical way, and It will play an important role for geoid and geophysical exploration. Filtering methods for reducing high-frequency errors is critical to the success of airborne gravimetry due to Aircraft acceleration determination based on GPS.Tradiontal filters used in airborne gravimetry are FIR,IIR filer and so on. This study recommends an improved continuous wavelet to process airborne gravity data. Here we focus on how to construct the continuous wavelet filters and show their working principle. Particularly the technical parameters (window width parameter and scale parameter) of the filters are tested. Then the raw airborne gravity data from the first Chinese airborne gravimetry campaign are filtered using FIR-low pass filter and continuous wavelet filters to remove the noise. The comparison to reference data is performed to determinate external accuracy, which shows that continuous wavelet filters applied to airborne gravity in this thesis have good performances. The advantages of the continuous wavelet filters over digital filters are also introduced. The effectiveness of the continuous wavelet filters for airborne gravimetry is demonstrated through real data computation.

  2. Airborne Visible Laser Optical Communications Program (AVLOC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, J. H.

    1975-01-01

    The design, development, and operation of airborne and ground-based laser communications and laser radar hardware is described in support of the Airborne Visible Laser Optical Communication program. The major emphasis is placed on the development of a highly flexible test bed for the evaluation of laser communications systems techniques and components in an operational environment.

  3. Laboratory analysis and airborne detection of materials stimulated to luminesce by the sun

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hemphill, W.R.; Theisen, A.F.; Tyson, R.M.

    1984-01-01

    The Fraunhofer line discriminator (FLD) is an airborne electro-optical device used to image materials which have been stimulated to luminesce by the Sun. Such materials include uranium-bearing sandstone, sedimentary phosphate rock, marine oil seeps, and stressed vegetation. Prior to conducting an airborne survey, a fluorescence spectrometer may be used in the laboratory to determine the spectral region where samples of the target material exhibit maximum luminescence, and to select the optimum Fraunhofer line. ?? 1984.

  4. Airborne Separation Assurance and Traffic Management: Research of Concepts and Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballin, Mark G.; Wing, David J.; Hughes, Monica F.; Conway, Sheila R.

    1999-01-01

    To support the need for increased flexibility and capacity in the future National Airspace System, NASA is pursuing an approach that distributes air traffic separation and management tasks to both airborne and ground-based systems. Details of the distributed operations and the benefits and technical challenges of such a system are discussed. Technology requirements and research issues are outlined, and NASA s approach for establishing concept feasibility, which includes development of the airborne automation necessary to support the concept, is described.

  5. SOFIA'S Challenge: Scheduling Airborne Astronomy Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, Jeremy

    2005-01-01

    generate flights enables humans to assess and analyze complex tradeoffs between fuel consumption, estimated science quality and the percentage of scheduled observations. Due to the changing nature of SOFIA scheduling problems, this functionality will play a crucial role in optimizing science and minimizing costs during operations. In the full paper, we will summarize the technical challenges that have been met in order to build this system. These include: design of the search algorithm, design of appropriate heuristics and approximations, and reduction in the size of the search space. We will also describe technical challenges that are currently being addressed, including the extension of the existing approach to handle new solution criteria. Finally, we will describe a variety of cultural challenges that the astronomical community must address in order to successfully use SOFIA, and describe how the AFT can be used to address some of these challenges. Specifically, many of the intended science users are accustomed to using ground-based or space-based observatories; we will identify some differences that arise due to the nature of airborne observatories, and how the AFT can be extended to provide useful services to ease these cultural differences.

  6. Geophex Airborne Unmanned Survey System

    SciTech Connect

    Won, I.L.; Keiswetter, D.

    1995-12-31

    Ground-based surveys place personnel at risk due to the proximity of buried unexploded ordnance (UXO) items or by exposure to radioactive materials and hazardous chemicals. The purpose of this effort is to design, construct, and evaluate a portable, remotely-piloted, airborne, geophysical survey system. This non-intrusive system will provide stand-off capability to conduct surveys and detect buried objects, structures, and conditions of interest at hazardous locations. During a survey, the operators remain remote from, but within visual distance of, the site. The sensor system never contacts the Earth, but can be positioned near the ground so that weak geophysical anomalies can be detected. The Geophex Airborne Unmanned Survey System (GAUSS) is designed to detect and locate small-scale anomalies at hazardous sites using magnetic and electromagnetic survey techniques. The system consists of a remotely-piloted, radio-controlled, model helicopter (RCH) with flight computer, light-weight geophysical sensors, an electronic positioning system, a data telemetry system, and a computer base-station. The report describes GAUSS and its test results.

  7. Airborne cw Doppler lidar (ADOLAR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahm, Stefan; Werner, Christian; Nagel, E.; Herrmann, H.; Klier, M.; Knott, H. P.; Haering, R.; Wildgruber, J.

    1994-12-01

    During the last 10 years the DLR container LDA (Laser Doppler Anemometer) was used for many wind related measurements in the atmospheric boundary layer. The experience out of this were used to construct an airborne Doppler lidar ADOLAR. Based on the available Doppler lidars it is now proposed to perform a campaign to demonstrate the concept of the spaceborne sensor ALADIN, and to answer some questions concerning the signal quality from clouds, water and land. For the continuous wave CO2 laser, the energy is focused by the telescope into the region of investigation. Some of the radiation is back scattered by small aerosol particles drifting with the wind speed through the sensing volume. The back scattered radiation is collected by the telescope and detected by coherent technique. With the laser Doppler method one gets the radial wind component. To determine the magnitude and direction of the horizontal wind, some form of scanning in azimuth and elevation is required. To keep the airborne system compact, the transceiver optics is directly coupled to a wedge scanner which provides the conical scan with the axis in Nadir direction from the aircraft. The system ADOLAR was tested in 1994. Results of the flight over the lake Ammersee are presented and are compared with the data of the inertial reference system of the aircraft.

  8. INL Subsurface Wireless Sensor Platform

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis C. Kunerth; John M. Svoboda; James T. Johnson

    2005-10-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory is developing a versatile micro-power sensor interface platform for periodic subsurface sensing of environmental variables important to waste disposal sites such as volumetric moisture, water potential, and temperature. The key characteristics of the platform architecture are that the platform is passive until externally energized --no internal power source is required -- and that it communicates with a "reader" via short-range telemetry - no wires penetrate the subsurface. Other significant attributes include the potential for a long service life and a compact size that makes it well suited for retrofitting existing landfill structures. Functionally, the sensor package is "read" by a short-range induction coil that activates and powers the sensor platform as well as detects the sensor output via a radio frequency signal generated by the onboard programmable interface controller microchip. As a result, the platform has a functional subsurface communication range of approximately 10 to 12 ft. and can only accept sensors that require low power to operate.

  9. Floor Plans Engine Removal Platform, Hold Down Arm Platform, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Floor Plans - Engine Removal Platform, Hold Down Arm Platform, Hydraulic Equipment Platforms, Isometric Cutaway of Engine Removal Platform, Isometric Cutaway of Hold Down Arm Platform, Isometric Cutaway of Hydraulic Platforms and Engine Support System Access - Marshall Space Flight Center, Saturn V S-IC Static Test Facility, West Test Area, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  10. Airborne Topographic Mapper Calibration Procedures and Accuracy Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Chreston F.; Krabill, William B.; Manizade, Serdar S.; Russell, Rob L.; Sonntag, John G.; Swift, Robert N.; Yungel, James K.

    2012-01-01

    Description of NASA Airborn Topographic Mapper (ATM) lidar calibration procedures including analysis of the accuracy and consistancy of various ATM instrument parameters and the resulting influence on topographic elevation measurements. The ATM elevations measurements from a nominal operating altitude 500 to 750 m above the ice surface was found to be: Horizontal Accuracy 74 cm, Horizontal Precision 14 cm, Vertical Accuracy 6.6 cm, Vertical Precision 3 cm.

  11. Applications of airborne remote sensing in atmospheric sciences research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Serafin, R. J.; Szejwach, G.; Phillips, B. B.

    1984-01-01

    This paper explores the potential for airborne remote sensing for atmospheric sciences research. Passive and active techniques from the microwave to visible bands are discussed. It is concluded that technology has progressed sufficiently in several areas that the time is right to develop and operate new remote sensing instruments for use by the community of atmospheric scientists as general purpose tools. Promising candidates include Doppler radar and lidar, infrared short range radiometry, and microwave radiometry.

  12. Airborne antenna polarization study for the microwave landing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilreath, M. C.

    1976-01-01

    The feasibility of the microwave landing system (MLS) airborne antenna pattern coverage requirements are investigated for a large commercial aircraft using a single omnidirectional antenna. Omnidirectional antennas having vertical and horizontal polarizations were evaluated at several different station locations on a one-eleventh scale model Boeing 737 aircraft. The results obtained during this experimental program are presented which include principal plane antenna patterns and complete volumetric coverage plots.

  13. Airborne detection of asperities: Linking aerogravimetry surveys and earthquake studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, U.; Boedecker, G.

    2003-04-01

    During the last decade, airborne gravimetric surveys have become a reliable and useful geophysical method to explore mid to large scale geologic settings. Ocean continent boundaries down to seamounts are detectable using conventional scalar, platform stabilized airborne gravimetry systems. New systems such as 3-D strap-down instruments promise a better spatial resolution recovering the gravity vector. Airborne gravimetric gradiometer systems are already able to detect small scale gradients in high spatial resolution. Following this trend in aerogravimetry, new research applications are emerging. One of the most challenging and interesting new aspects of airborne gravimetry is the systematic search for asperity structures. Asperities are patches of the oceanic or continental crust that are able to store more stress than the surrounding material. If due to stress overload or other mechanic forces the asperity breaks, up to mega-thrust earthquakes are triggered. The character of an asperity to carry more stress than the weaker environment must be related to its physical properties such as composition, thickness and density. Questions connected to define and detect an asperity are: How large is an asperity? Do asperities have sharp boundaries? Are asperities isolated structures? Do asperities have special gravimetric signatures? Wells et al. (2000) found that off southern Chile slip maxima from earthquakes coincide with forearc gravity lows. It is well accepted that in this region seismicity is a product of the subduction on the active continental margin. It is still debated whether subducted asperities from the oceanic plate are individual earthquake sources or if they i.e. trigger the break of asperities in the continental crust. Apart from this, very few investigations have been made trying to connect gravimetry and asperities. Therefore, the GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam in collaboration with Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften in Munich , FU Berlin

  14. Free-surface microfluidics for detection of airborne explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meinhart, Carl; Piorek, Brian; Banerjee, Sanjoy; Lee, Seung Joon; Moskovits, Martin

    2008-11-01

    A novel microfluidic, remote-sensing, chemical detection platform has been developed for real-time sensing of airborne agents. The key enabling technology is a newly developed concept termed Free-Surface Fluidics (FSF), where one or more fluidic surfaces of a microchannel flow are confined by surface tension and exposed to the surrounding atmosphere. The result is a unique open channel flow environment that is driven by pressure through surface tension, and not subject to body forces, such as gravity. Evaporation and flow rates are controlled by microchannel geometry, surface chemistry and precisely-controlled temperature profiles. The free-surface fluidic architecture is combined with Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) to allow for real-time profiling of atmospheric species and detection of airborne agents. The aggregation of SERS nanoparticles is controlled using microfluidics, to obtain dimer nanoparticle clusters at known streamwise positions in the microchannel. These dimers form SERS hot-spots, which amplify the Raman signal by 8 -- 10 orders of magnitude. Results indicate that explosive agents such as DNT, TNT, RDX, TATP and picric acid in the surrounding atmosphere can be readily detected by the SERS system. Due to the amplification of the SERS system, explosive molecules with concentrations of parts per trillion can be detected, even in the presence of interferent molecules having six orders of magnitude higher concentration.

  15. a New Control Points Based Geometric Correction Algorithm for Airborne Push Broom Scanner Images Without On-Board Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strakhov, P.; Badasen, E.; Shurygin, B.; Kondranin, T.

    2016-06-01

    Push broom scanners, such as video spectrometers (also called hyperspectral sensors), are widely used in the present. Usage of scanned images requires accurate geometric correction, which becomes complicated when imaging platform is airborne. This work contains detailed description of a new algorithm developed for processing of such images. The algorithm requires only user provided control points and is able to correct distortions caused by yaw, flight speed and height changes. It was tested on two series of airborne images and yielded RMS error values on the order of 7 meters (3-6 source image pixels) as compared to 13 meters for polynomial-based correction.

  16. Multisensor airborne imagery collection and processing onboard small unmanned systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linne von Berg, Dale; Anderson, Scott A.; Bird, Alan; Holt, Niel; Kruer, Melvin; Walls, Thomas J.; Wilson, Michael L.

    2010-04-01

    FEATHAR (Fusion, Exploitation, Algorithms, and Targeting for High-Altitude Reconnaissance) is an ONR funded effort to develop and test new tactical sensor systems specifically designed for small manned and unmanned platforms (payload weight < 50 lbs). This program is being directed and executed by the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) in conjunction with the Space Dynamics Laboratory (SDL). FEATHAR has developed and integrated EyePod, a combined long-wave infrared (LWIR) and visible to near infrared (VNIR) optical survey & inspection system, with NuSAR, a combined dual band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) system. These sensors are being tested in conjunction with other ground and airborne sensor systems to demonstrate intelligent real-time cross-sensor cueing and in-air data fusion. Results from test flights of the EyePod and NuSAR sensors will be presented.

  17. An airborne real-time hyperspectral target detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skauli, Torbjorn; Haavardsholm, Trym V.; Kåsen, Ingebjørg; Arisholm, Gunnar; Kavara, Amela; Opsahl, Thomas Olsvik; Skaugen, Atle

    2010-04-01

    An airborne system for hyperspectral target detection is described. The main sensor is a HySpex pushbroom hyperspectral imager for the visible and near-infrared spectral range with 1600 pixels across track, supplemented by a panchromatic line imager. An optional third sensor can be added, either a SWIR hyperspectral camera or a thermal camera. In real time, the system performs radiometric calibration and georeferencing of the images, followed by image processing for target detection and visualization. The current version of the system implements only spectral anomaly detection, based on normal mixture models. Image processing runs on a PC with a multicore Intel processor and an Nvidia graphics processing unit (GPU). The processing runs in a software framework optimized for large sustained data rates. The platform is a Cessna 172 aircraft based close to FFI, modified with a camera port in the floor.

  18. Mapping Slumgullion Landslide in Colorado, USA Using Airborne Repeat-Pass InSAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, H.; Shrestha, R. L.; Carter, W. E.; Glennie, C. L.; Wang, G.; Lu, Z.; Fernandez-Diaz, J. C.; Cao, N.; Zaugg, E.

    2015-12-01

    Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) uses two or more SAR images over the same area to determine landscape topography or ground deformation. An interferogram, generated by the phase components of two coherent SAR images, depicts range changes between the radar and the ground resolution elements, and can be used to derive both landscape topography and subtle changes in surface elevation. However, spaceborne repeat-pass interferometry has two main drawbacks: effects due to differences in atmospheric temperature, pressure, and water vapour at two observation times, and loss of coherence due to long spatial and temporal baselines between observations. Airborne repeat-pass interferometry does not suffer from these drawbacks. The atmospheric effect in case of airborne DInSAR becomes negligible due to smaller swath coverage, and the coherence can be maintained by using smaller spatial and temporal baselines. However, the main technical limitation concerning airborne DInSAR is the need of precise motion compensation with an accurate navigation system to correct for the significant phase errors due to typical flight instability from air turbulence. Here, we present results from a pilot study conducted on July 2015 using both X-band and L-band SlimSAR airborne system over the Slumgullion landslide in Colorado in order to (1) acquire the differential interferograms from the airborne platform, (2) understand their source of errors, and (3) pave a way to improve the precision of the derived surface deformation. The landslide movement estimated from airborne DInSAR is also compared with coincident GPS, terrestrial laser scanning (TLS), airborne LiDAR, and spaceborne DInSAR measurements using COSMO-SkyMed images. The airborne DInSAR system has a potential to provide time-transient variability in land surface topography with high-precision and high-resolution, and provide researchers with greater flexibility in selecting the temporal and spatial baselines of the data

  19. Initial Retrieval Validation from the Joint Airborne IASI Validation Experiment (JAIVEx)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, Daniel K.; Liu, Xu; Smith, WIlliam L.; Larar, Allen M.; Taylor, Jonathan P.; Revercomb, Henry E.; Mango, Stephen A.; Schluessel, Peter; Calbet, Xavier

    2007-01-01

    The Joint Airborne IASI Validation Experiment (JAIVEx) was conducted during April 2007 mainly for validation of the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) on the MetOp satellite, but also included a strong component focusing on validation of the Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS) aboard the AQUA satellite. The cross validation of IASI and AIRS is important for the joint use of their data in the global Numerical Weather Prediction process. Initial inter-comparisons of geophysical products have been conducted from different aspects, such as using different measurements from airborne ultraspectral Fourier transform spectrometers (specifically, the NPOESS Airborne Sounder Testbed Interferometer (NAST-I) and the Scanning-High resolution Interferometer Sounder (S-HIS) aboard the NASA WB-57 aircraft), UK Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements (FAAM) BAe146-301 aircraft insitu instruments, dedicated dropsondes, radiosondes, and ground based Raman Lidar. An overview of the JAIVEx retrieval validation plan and some initial results of this field campaign are presented.

  20. Assessing stream temperature variations in the Pacific Northwest using airborne thermal infrared remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, J.; Cherkauer, K. A.

    2010-12-01

    Stream temperature is an important indicator of water quality, and a significant concern for endangered cold-water fish species in the Pacific Northwest. Thermal-infrared (TIR) remote sensing allows for the observation of water temperatures in entire river systems in a relatively short space of time, as opposed to more traditional point-based in situ observing methods that can capture only localized water conditions. Point measurements can therefore miss important spatial patterns associated with various factors including exposure to solar radiation, urbanization, changes to riparian zone vegetation, and the presence of groundwater returns and springs. In this paper, we analyze moderate resolution TIR imagery collected from an airborne platform for the Green River in Washington State. Five-meter MODIS/ASTER (MASTER) imagery along the main channel of the Green River was acquired in multiple straight line passes with image overlaps occurring at time intervals of between 3 and 30 minutes on August 25 and 27, 2001. Overlaps of two adjacent images provide a detailed comparison of how stream temperature changes over relatively short time scales, while image captured from different days help identify persistent localized temperature differences. Trees and shrubs in the riparian zone increases shading of the stream and reduces along-stream increases in temperature compared to stream reaches with reduced shading, such as urban areas. Longitudinal profiles of stream temperature from upstream to downstream show that other factors, such as sandbars and cold-water seeps, also contribute to along-stream temperature variations.

  1. An Airborne Infrared Spectrometer for Solar Eclipse Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samra, Jenna; DeLuca, Edward E.; Golub, Leon; Cheimets, Peter; Philip, Judge

    2016-05-01

    The airborne infrared spectrometer (AIR-Spec) is an innovative solar spectrometer that will observe the 2017 solar eclipse from the NSF/NCAR High-Performance Instrumented Airborne Platform for Environmental Research (HIAPER). AIR-Spec will image five infrared coronal emission lines to determine whether they may be useful probes of coronal magnetism.The solar magnetic field provides the free energy that controls coronal heating, structure, and dynamics. Energy stored in coronal magnetic fields is released in flares and coronal mass ejections and ultimately drives space weather. Therefore, direct coronal field measurements have significant potential to enhance understanding of coronal dynamics and improve solar forecasting models. Of particular interest are observations of field lines in the transitional region between closed and open flux systems, providing important information on the origin of the slow solar wind.While current instruments routinely observe only the photospheric and chromospheric magnetic fields, AIR-Spec will take a step toward the direct observation of coronal fields by measuring plasma emission in the infrared at high spatial and spectral resolution. During the total solar eclipse of 2017, AIR-Spec will observe five magnetically sensitive coronal emission lines between 1.4 and 4 µm from the HIAPER Gulfstream V at an altitude above 14.9 km. The instrument will measure emission line intensity, width, and Doppler shift, map the spatial distribution of infrared emitting plasma, and search for waves in the emission line velocities.AIR-Spec consists of an optical system (feed telescope, grating spectrometer, and infrared detector) and an image stabilization system, which uses a fast steering mirror to correct the line-of-sight for platform perturbations. To ensure that the instrument meets its research goals, both systems are undergoing extensive performance modeling and testing. These results are shown with reference to the science requirements.

  2. The Multi-Center Airborne Coherent Atmospheric Wind Sensor: Recent Measurements and Future Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothermel, Jeffry; Cutten, Dean R.; Hardesty, R. Michael; Howell, James N.; Darby, Lisa S.; Tratt, David M.; Menzies, Robert T.

    1999-01-01

    The coherent Doppler lidar, when operated from an airborne platform, offers a unique measurement capability for study of atmospheric dynamical and physical properties. This is especially true for scientific objectives requiring measurements in optically-clear air, where other remote sensing technologies such as Doppler radar are at a disadvantage in terms of spatial resolution and coverage. Recent experience suggests airborne coherent Doppler lidar can yield unique wind measurements of--and during operation within--extreme weather phenomena. This paper presents the first airborne coherent Doppler lidar measurements of hurricane wind fields. The lidar atmospheric remote sensing groups of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Environmental Technology Laboratory, and Jet Propulsion Laboratory jointly developed an airborne lidar system, the Multi-center Airborne Coherent Atmospheric Wind Sensor (MACAWS). The centerpiece of MACAWS is the lidar transmitter from the highly successful NOAA Windvan. Other field-tested lidar components have also been used, when feasible, to reduce costs and development time. The methodology for remotely sensing atmospheric wind fields with scanning coherent Doppler lidar was demonstrated in 1981; enhancements were made and the system was reflown in 1984. MACAWS has potentially greater scientific utility, compared to the original airborne scanning lidar system, owing to a factor of approx. 60 greater energy-per-pulse from the NOAA transmitter. MACAWS development was completed and the system was first flown in 1995. Following enhancements to improve performance, the system was re-flown in 1996 and 1998. The scientific motivation for MACAWS is three-fold: obtain fundamental measurements of subgrid scale (i.e., approx. 2-200 km) processes and features which may be used to improve parameterizations in hydrological, climate, and general

  3. Evaluation of Aircraft Platforms for SOFIA by Computational Fluid Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klotz, S. P.; Srinivasan, G. R.; VanDalsem, William (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    The selection of an airborne platform for the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is based not only on economic cost, but technical criteria, as well. Technical issues include aircraft fatigue, resonant characteristics of the cavity-port shear layer, aircraft stability, the drag penalty of the open telescope bay, and telescope performance. Recently, two versions of the Boeing 747 aircraft, viz., the -SP and -200 configurations, were evaluated by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) for their suitability as SOFIA platforms. In each configuration the telescope was mounted behind the wings in an open bay with nearly circular aperture. The geometry of the cavity, cavity aperture, and telescope was identical in both platforms. The aperture was located on the port side of the aircraft and the elevation angle of the telescope, measured with respect to the vertical axis, was 500. The unsteady, viscous, three-dimensional, aerodynamic and acoustic flow fields in the vicinity of SOFIA were simulated by an implicit, finite-difference Navier-Stokes flow solver (OVERFLOW) on a Chimera, overset grid system. The computational domain was discretized by structured grids. Computations were performed at wind-tunnel and flight Reynolds numbers corresponding to one free-stream flow condition (M = 0.85, angle of attack alpha = 2.50, and sideslip angle beta = 0 degrees). The computational domains consisted of twenty-nine(29) overset grids in the wind-tunnel simulations and forty-five(45) grids in the simulations run at cruise flight conditions. The maximum number of grid points in the simulations was approximately 4 x 10(exp 6). Issues considered in the evaluation study included analysis of the unsteady flow field in the cavity, the influence of the cavity on the flow across empennage surfaces, the drag penalty caused by the open telescope bay, and the noise radiating from cavity surfaces and the cavity-port shear layer. Wind-tunnel data were also available to compare

  4. Global deposition of airborne dioxin.

    PubMed

    Booth, Shawn; Hui, Joe; Alojado, Zoraida; Lam, Vicky; Cheung, William; Zeller, Dirk; Steyn, Douw; Pauly, Daniel

    2013-10-15

    We present a global dioxin model that simulates one year of atmospheric emissions, transport processes, and depositions to the earth's terrestrial and marine habitats. We map starting emission levels for each land area, and we also map the resulting deposits to terrestrial and marine environments. This model confirms that 'hot spots' of deposition are likely to be in northern Europe, eastern North America, and in parts of Asia with the highest marine dioxin depositions being the northeast and northwest Atlantic, western Pacific, northern Indian Ocean and the Mediterranean. It also reveals that approximately 40% of airborne dioxin emissions are deposited to marine environments and that many countries in Africa receive more dioxin than they produce, which results in these countries being disproportionately impacted. Since human exposure to dioxin is largely through diet, this work highlights food producing areas that receive higher atmospheric deposits of dioxin than others.

  5. Modis-N airborne simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cech, Steven D.

    1992-01-01

    All required work associated with the above referenced contract has been successfully completed at this time. The Modis-N Airborne Simulator has been developed from existing AB184 Wildfire spectrometer parts as well as new detector arrays, optical components, and associated mechanical and electrical hardware. The various instrument components have been integrated into an operational system which has undergone extensive laboratory calibration and testing. The instrument has been delivered to NASA Ames where it will be installed on the NASA ER-2. The following paragraphs detail the specific tasks performed during the contract effort, the results obtained during the integration and testing of the instrument, and the conclusions which can be drawn from this effort.

  6. A Newly Adopted Helicopter Platform for Geophysical and Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Uwe

    2014-05-01

    The Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources in Hannover owns a Sikorsky S-76B helicopter for geophysical and remote sensing airborne surveys. This platform has been completely refurbished and in parts newly designed to be fit for easy installations of complex geophysical instruments underneath, upon and within the helicopter. The airborne platform is equipped with a modern basic navigation equipment consisting of several GNSS antennae, state of the art inertial navigation systems, laser altimeter and video camera systems. Different other modules can be added to the helicopter as a state of the art gamma spectrometer, a laser scanner, airborne gravity meters etc. within the cabin. Moreover, external sensing systems as a photogrammetric camera, infraread camera or optional mulitspectral systems can be installed on the outer skin of the cabin. Different kinds of bird systems towed underneath the helicopter can be hooked up using standard cabling, glas fibres or wireless LAN. Available birds are equipped for frequency domain electromagnetics or gradient magnetics (IPHT Jena & Supracon, Jena). Besides, large georadar systems can be installed as well. The helicopter is able as well to carry TEM-gear or system in development. Main survey targets are groundwater systems, mineral deposits and natural hazards.

  7. Analysis techniques for airborne laser range safety evaluations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramsburg, M. S.; Jenkins, D. L.; Doerflein, R. D.

    1982-08-01

    Techniques to evaluate safety of airborne laser operations on the range are reported. The objectives of the safety evaluations were to (1) protect civilian and military personnel from the hazards associated with lasers, (2) provide users with the least restrictive constraints in which to perform their mission and still maintain an adequate degree of safety, and (3) develop a data base for the Navy in the event of suspected laser exposure of other related incidents involving military or civilian personnel. A microcomputer code, written in ASNI 77 FORTRAN, has been developed, which will provide safe flight profiles for airborne laser systems. The output of this code can also be used in establishing operating areas for ground based Lasers. Input to the code includes output parameters, NOHD and assigned buffer zone for the laser system, as well as parameters describing the geometry of the range.

  8. Methods to assess airborne concentrations of cotton dust.

    PubMed

    Corn, M

    1987-01-01

    Assessment of concentrations of airborne cotton dust in the factory is necessary to determine adherence to applicable Permissible Exposure Limits (PELs) on a day-to-day basis, as well as for investigatory studies of an epidemiological nature. The latter are required on an ongoing basis to determine the adequacy of PELs to prevent disease in the exposed population. A strategy of sampling includes considerations of the numbers of samples to be obtained for statistical validity and the locations of samples. Current practice is to obtain more "personal samples" of exposure wherever possible, but with regard to cotton dust, instrumentation is not available for such sampling. In the U.S., the vertical elutriator is the instrument of choice for determining the concentrations of cotton dust in air. Results are expressed as milligrams of airborne particulate (cotton dust) per cubic meter. PMID:3434562

  9. Airborne hyperspectral systems for solving remote sensing problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodionov, I. D.; Rodionov, A. I.; Vedeshin, L. A.; Vinogradov, A. N.; Egorov, V. V.; Kalinin, A. P.

    2014-12-01

    A retrospective of airborne hyperspectrometer projects carried out in the ZAO Reagent Scientific Technical Center is presented. Hyperspectral devices developed during the period since the end of 1990s to the present day are described. The line of hyperspectrometers designed in recent times covers the ranges from ultraviolet (0.2 μm) to near infrared (1.0 μm). These devices can be mounted on airborne and automobile carriers, including small-size ones. By now, the developments of hyperspectral devices in ZAO Reagent have reached the finished state and have been prepared for serial production. Their technical characteristics permit one to speak of the creation of wide-range high-aperture ultraspectral high spatial resolution equipment with a possibility of real-time data processing on board.

  10. Geoscience Applications of Airborne and Spaceborne Lidar Altimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harding David J.

    1999-01-01

    Recent advances in lidar altimetry technology have enabled new methods to describe the vertical structure of the Earth's surface with great accuracy. Application of these methods in several geoscience disciplines will be described. Airborne characterization of vegetation canopy structure will be illustrated, including a validation of lidar-derived Canopy Height Profiles for closed-canopy, broadleaf forests. Airborne detection of tectonic landforms beneath dense canopy will also be illustrated, with an application mapping active fault traces in the Puget Lowland of Washington state for earthquake hazard assessment purposes. Application of data from the first and second flights of the Shuttle Laser Altimeter will also be discussed in an assessment of global digital elevation model accuracy and error characteristics. Two upcoming space flight missions will be described, the Vegetation Canopy Lidar (VCL) and the Ice, Cloud and Land Elevation Mission (ICESat), which will provide comprehensive lidar altimeter observations of the Earth's topography and vegetation cover.

  11. An update on the NAST-I airborne FTS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larar, Allen M.; Smith, William L.; Zhou, Daniel K.; Liu, Xu; Noe, Anna; Oliver, Don; Flood, Michael; Rochette, Luc; Tian, Jialin

    2011-11-01

    The NPOESS / NASA Airborne Sounder Testbed - Interferometer (NAST-I) is a well-proven airborne remote sensing system, which has flown in 18 previous field campaigns aboard the high altitude NASA ER-2, Northrop Grumman / Scaled Composites Proteus, and NASA WB-57 aircraft since initially being flight qualified in 1998. While originally developed to provide experimental observations needed to finalize specifications and test proposed designs and data processing algorithms for the Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) to fly on the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) Preparatory Project (NPP) and the Joint Polar Satellite System, JPSS (formerly NPOESS, prior to recent program restructuring), its unprecedented data quality and system characteristics have contributed to a variety of atmospheric research and measurement validation objectives. This paper will provide a program overview and update, including a summary of measurement system capabilities, select scientific results, and recent refurbishment activities.

  12. Airborne Trailblazer: Two decades with NASA Langley's 737 flying laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, Lane E.

    1994-01-01

    This book is the story of a very unique aircraft and the contributions it has made to the air transportation industry. NASA's Boeing 737-100 Transport Systems Research Vehicle started life as the prototype for Boeing's 737 series of aircraft. The airplane was acquired by LaRC in 1974 to conduct research into advanced transport aircraft technologies. In the twenty years that followed, the airplane participated in more than twenty different research projects, evolving from a research tool for a specific NASA program into a national airborne research facility. It played a critical role in developing and gaining acceptance for numerous significant transport technologies including 'glass cockpits,' airborne windshear detection systems, data links for air traffic control communications, the microwave landing system, and the satellite-based global positioning system (GPS).

  13. 1994-1995 CNR LARA project airborne hyperspectral campaigns

    SciTech Connect

    Bianchi, R.; Cavalli, R.M.; Fiumi, L.

    1996-08-01

    CNR established a new laboratory for airborne hyperspectral imaging devoted to environmental problems and since the end of last June 1994 the project (LARA Project) is fully operative to provide hyperspectral data to the national and international scientific community. The Daedalus AA5000 MIVIS (Multispectral Infrared and Visible Imaging Spectrometer) instrument, acquired by CNR (Italian National Research Council) in the framework of its LARA (Airborne Laboratory for Environmental Studies) Project, has been intensively operative. A number of MIVIS deployments have been carried out in Italy and Europe in cooperation with national and international institutions on a variety of sites, including active volcanoes, coastlines, lagoons and ocean, vegetated and cultivated areas, oil polluted surfaces, waste discharges, and archeological sites. One year of activity has shown the high system efficiency, from the survey to data preprocessing and dissemination.

  14. Airborne thermography or infrared remote sensing.

    PubMed

    Goillot, C C

    1975-01-01

    Airborne thermography is part of the more general remote sensing activity. The instruments suitable for image display are infrared line scanners. A great deal of interest has developed during the past 10 years in airborne thermal remote sensing and many applications are in progress. Infrared scanners on board a satellite are used for observation of cloud cover; airborne infrared scanners are used for forest fire detection, heat budget of soils, detecting insect attack, diseases, air pollution damage, water stress, salinity stress on vegetation, only to cite some main applications relevant to agronomy. Using this system it has become possible to get a 'picture' of our thermal environment.

  15. Omnidirectional holonomic platforms

    SciTech Connect

    Pin, F.G.; Killough, S.M.

    1994-06-01

    This paper presents the concepts for a new family of wheeled platforms which feature full omnidirectionality with simultaneous and independently controlled rotational and translational motion capabilities. The authors first present the orthogonal-wheels concept and the two major wheel assemblies on which these platforms are based. They then describe how a combination of these assemblies with appropriate control can be used to generate an omnidirectional capability for mobile robot platforms. The design and control of two prototype platforms are then presented and their respective characteristics with respect to rotational and translational motion control are discussed.

  16. Exposure to airborne particulate matter in the subway system.

    PubMed

    Martins, Vânia; Moreno, Teresa; Minguillón, María Cruz; Amato, Fulvio; de Miguel, Eladio; Capdevila, Marta; Querol, Xavier

    2015-04-01

    The Barcelona subway system comprises eight subway lines, at different depths, with different tunnel dimensions, station designs and train frequencies. An extensive measurement campaign was performed in this subway system in order to characterise the airborne particulate matter (PM) measuring its concentration and investigating its variability, both inside trains and on platforms, in two different seasonal periods (warmer and colder), to better understand the main factors controlling it, and therefore the way to improve air quality. The majority of PM in the underground stations is generated within the subway system, due to abrasion and wear of rail tracks, wheels and braking pads caused during the motion of the trains. Substantial variation in average PM concentrations between underground stations was observed, which might be associated to different ventilation and air conditioning systems, characteristics/design of each station and variations in the train frequency. Average PM2.5 concentrations on the platforms in the subway operating hours ranged from 20 to 51 and from 41 to 91 μg m(-3) in the warmer and colder period, respectively, mainly related to the seasonal changes in the subway ventilation systems. The new subway lines with platform screen doors showed PM2.5 concentrations lower than those in the conventional system, which is probably attributable not only to the more advanced ventilation setup, but also to the lower train frequency and the design of the stations. PM concentrations inside the trains were generally lower than those on the platforms, which is attributable to the air conditioning systems operating inside the trains, which are equipped with air filters. This study allows the analysis and quantification of the impact of different ventilation settings on air quality, which provides an improvement on the knowledge for the general understanding and good management of air quality in the subway system.

  17. Exposure to airborne particulate matter in the subway system.

    PubMed

    Martins, Vânia; Moreno, Teresa; Minguillón, María Cruz; Amato, Fulvio; de Miguel, Eladio; Capdevila, Marta; Querol, Xavier

    2015-04-01

    The Barcelona subway system comprises eight subway lines, at different depths, with different tunnel dimensions, station designs and train frequencies. An extensive measurement campaign was performed in this subway system in order to characterise the airborne particulate matter (PM) measuring its concentration and investigating its variability, both inside trains and on platforms, in two different seasonal periods (warmer and colder), to better understand the main factors controlling it, and therefore the way to improve air quality. The majority of PM in the underground stations is generated within the subway system, due to abrasion and wear of rail tracks, wheels and braking pads caused during the motion of the trains. Substantial variation in average PM concentrations between underground stations was observed, which might be associated to different ventilation and air conditioning systems, characteristics/design of each station and variations in the train frequency. Average PM2.5 concentrations on the platforms in the subway operating hours ranged from 20 to 51 and from 41 to 91 μg m(-3) in the warmer and colder period, respectively, mainly related to the seasonal changes in the subway ventilation systems. The new subway lines with platform screen doors showed PM2.5 concentrations lower than those in the conventional system, which is probably attributable not only to the more advanced ventilation setup, but also to the lower train frequency and the design of the stations. PM concentrations inside the trains were generally lower than those on the platforms, which is attributable to the air conditioning systems operating inside the trains, which are equipped with air filters. This study allows the analysis and quantification of the impact of different ventilation settings on air quality, which provides an improvement on the knowledge for the general understanding and good management of air quality in the subway system. PMID:25616190

  18. Fault Scarp Detection Beneath Dense Vegetation Cover: Airborne Lidar Mapping of the Seattle Fault Zone, Bainbridge Island, Washington State

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harding, David J.; Berghoff, Gregory S.

    2000-01-01

    The emergence of a commercial airborne laser mapping industry is paying major dividends in an assessment of earthquake hazards in the Puget Lowland of Washington State. Geophysical observations and historical seismicity indicate the presence of active upper-crustal faults in the Puget Lowland, placing the major population centers of Seattle and Tacoma at significant risk. However, until recently the surface trace of these faults had never been identified, neither on the ground nor from remote sensing, due to cover by the dense vegetation of the Pacific Northwest temperate rainforests and extremely thick Pleistocene glacial deposits. A pilot lidar mapping project of Bainbridge Island in the Puget Sound, contracted by the Kitsap Public Utility District (KPUD) and conducted by Airborne Laser Mapping in late 1996, spectacularly revealed geomorphic features associated with fault strands within the Seattle fault zone. The features include a previously unrecognized fault scarp, an uplifted marine wave-cut platform, and tilted sedimentary strata. The United States Geologic Survey (USGS) is now conducting trenching studies across the fault scarp to establish ages, displacements, and recurrence intervals of recent earthquakes on this active fault. The success of this pilot study has inspired the formation of a consortium of federal and local organizations to extend this work to a 2350 square kilometer (580,000 acre) region of the Puget Lowland, covering nearly the entire extent (approx. 85 km) of the Seattle fault. The consortium includes NASA, the USGS, and four local groups consisting of KPUD, Kitsap County, the City of Seattle, and the Puget Sound Regional Council (PSRC). The consortium has selected Terrapoint, a commercial lidar mapping vendor, to acquire the data.

  19. Towards a Multi-Mission, Airborne Science Data System Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crichton, D. J.; Hardman, S.; Law, E.; Freeborn, D.; Kay-Im, E.; Lau, G.; Oswald, J.

    2011-12-01

    NASA earth science instruments are increasingly relying on airborne missions. However, traditionally, there has been limited common infrastructure support available to principal investigators in the area of science data systems. As a result, each investigator has been required to develop their own computing infrastructures for the science data system. Typically there is little software reuse and many projects lack sufficient resources to provide a robust infrastructure to capture, process, distribute and archive the observations acquired from airborne flights. At NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), we have been developing a multi-mission data system infrastructure for airborne instruments called the Airborne Cloud Computing Environment (ACCE). ACCE encompasses the end-to-end lifecycle covering planning, provisioning of data system capabilities, and support for scientific analysis in order to improve the quality, cost effectiveness, and capabilities to enable new scientific discovery and research in earth observation. This includes improving data system interoperability across each instrument. A principal characteristic is being able to provide an agile infrastructure that is architected to allow for a variety of configurations of the infrastructure from locally installed compute and storage services to provisioning those services via the "cloud" from cloud computer vendors such as Amazon.com. Investigators often have different needs that require a flexible configuration. The data system infrastructure is built on the Apache's Object Oriented Data Technology (OODT) suite of components which has been used for a number of spaceborne missions and provides a rich set of open source software components and services for constructing science processing and data management systems. In 2010, a partnership was formed between the ACCE team and the Carbon in Arctic Reservoirs Vulnerability Experiment (CARVE) mission to support the data processing and data management needs

  20. The Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor (LVIS): A Medium-Altitude, Digitization-Only, Airborne Laser Altimeter for Mapping Vegetation and Topography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blair, J. Bryan; Rabine, David L.; Hofton, Michelle A.

    1999-01-01

    The Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor (LVIS) is an airborne, scanning laser altimeter designed and developed at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. LVIS operates at altitudes up to 10 km above ground, and is capable of producing a data swath up to 1000 m wide nominally with 25 m wide footprints. The entire time history of the outgoing and return pulses is digitized, allowing unambiguous determination of range and return pulse structure. Combined with aircraft position and attitude knowledge, this instrument produces topographic maps with decimeter accuracy and vertical height and structure measurements of vegetation. The laser transmitter is a diode-pumped Nd:YAG oscillator producing 1064 nm, 10 nsec, 5 mJ pulses at repetition rates up to 500 Hz. LVIS has recently demonstrated its ability to determine topography (including sub-canopy) and vegetation height and structure on flight missions to various forested regions in the U.S. and Central America. The LVIS system is the airborne simulator for the Vegetation Canopy Lidar (VCL) mission (a NASA Earth remote sensing satellite due for launch in 2000), providing simulated data sets and a platform for instrument proof-of-concept studies. The topography maps and return waveforms produced by LVIS provide Earth scientists with a unique data set allowing studies of topography, hydrology, and vegetation with unmatched accuracy and coverage.

  1. Advanced offshore oil platforms

    SciTech Connect

    Ellers, F.S.

    1982-04-01

    Four innovative offshore platforms that are designed to withstand 100-foot waves in waters 600-feet deep are described. These platforms are: (1) Stratfjord B Concrete Gravity-Base Platform; (2) Magnus Steel-Template-Jacket Platform; (3) Hutton Tension-Leg Platform; and (4) Block 280 Guyed Tower. The Statfjord B platform, designed in Norway, rests on four massive concrete columns with storage tanks at the base. It depends solely on its own mass for stability. The Magnus platform, designed by the British, is the heaviest offshore platform yet fabricated, weighing 41,000 tons. Two of the platform's four legs will incorporate flotation chambers so that the structure can be floated to its site in the North Sea. The Hutton structure, also designed in England, will consist of a buoyant hull tethered to the sea floor by slender steel tubes at its four corners. The first platform of its type, the Hutton structure is also destined for the North Sea. The US designed Block 280 guyed tower is designed for service in the Gulf of Mexico in water 1000 feet deep. It will be pinned to the sea floor by a spokelike array of 20 steel cables, each one more than 3000 feet long. The tower and its guys will weigh 43,000 tons, slightly more than the Magnus steel-template jacket and more than four time as much as the Eiffel Tower. At a cost of approximately $2.6 billion, the Magnus is the most expensive offshore platform to date. The Statfjord B was put into production in 1982. The Magnus is scheduled for oil production in 1983. The Hutton and the Block 280 will both be producing in 1984. (JMT)

  2. Data processing of remotely sensed airborne hyperspectral data using the Airborne Processing Library (APL): Geocorrection algorithm descriptions and spatial accuracy assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, Mark A.; Taylor, Benjamin H.; Grant, Michael G.; Shutler, Jamie D.

    2014-03-01

    Remote sensing airborne hyperspectral data are routinely used for applications including algorithm development for satellite sensors, environmental monitoring and atmospheric studies. Single flight lines of airborne hyperspectral data are often in the region of tens of gigabytes in size. This means that a single aircraft can collect terabytes of remotely sensed hyperspectral data during a single year. Before these data can be used for scientific analyses, they need to be radiometrically calibrated, synchronised with the aircraft's position and attitude and then geocorrected. To enable efficient processing of these large datasets the UK Airborne Research and Survey Facility has recently developed a software suite, the Airborne Processing Library (APL), for processing airborne hyperspectral data acquired from the Specim AISA Eagle and Hawk instruments. The APL toolbox allows users to radiometrically calibrate, geocorrect, reproject and resample airborne data. Each stage of the toolbox outputs data in the common Band Interleaved Lines (BILs) format, which allows its integration with other standard remote sensing software packages. APL was developed to be user-friendly and suitable for use on a workstation PC as well as for the automated processing of the facility; to this end APL can be used under both Windows and Linux environments on a single desktop machine or through a Grid engine. A graphical user interface also exists. In this paper we describe the Airborne Processing Library software, its algorithms and approach. We present example results from using APL with an AISA Eagle sensor and we assess its spatial accuracy using data from multiple flight lines collected during a campaign in 2008 together with in situ surveyed ground control points.

  3. Airborne DOAS observations of tropospheric NO2 using an UltraLight Trike and flux calculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constantin, Daniel-Eduard; Voiculescu, Mirela; Merlaud, Alexis; Dragomir, Carmelia; Georgescu, Lucian; Hendrick, Francois; Van Roozendael, Michel

    2016-04-01

    In this paper we present airborne DOAS observations of tropospheric NO2 using an Ultralight Trike (ULT) and associated flux calculation. The instrument onboard the ULT was developed for measuring the tropospheric NO2 Vertical Column Density (VCD). Measurements were performed for several days during 2011-2014, in a region SE of Romania, over the cities of Galati (45.43°N, 28.03°E) and Braila (45.26°N, 27.95°E). Measurements of the NO2 column in the same area were performed using car-DOAS observations. The correlation between the tropospheric NO2 VCD from airborne and mobile ground-based DOAS observations was used to validate the airborne observations. A specific AMF for each case was calculated using the radiative transfer model (RTM) UVspec/DISORT. We present also a comparison between SCDstrato derived from DOMINO (Dutch OMI NO2) and the SCDstrato obtained from ground and airborne measurements. Due to the mobility and flexibility of the ULT flights, this aerial platform provides a promising tool for satellite validation, especially for space observations by high resolution sensors such as the future TROPOMI instrument. A key added value of the ULT-DOAS, illustrated in this work, is the capacity to investigate the spatial variability of NO2 inside the horizontal extent of satellite pixels, e.g. above plant exhaust plumes.

  4. Airborne Measurements in Support of the NASA Atmospheric Carbon and Transport - America (ACT-America) Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meadows, B.; Davis, K.; Barrick, J. D. W.; Browell, E. V.; Chen, G.; Dobler, J. T.; Fried, A.; Lauvaux, T.; Lin, B.; McGill, M. J.; Miles, N. L.; Nehrir, A. R.; Obland, M. D.; O'Dell, C.; Sweeney, C.; Yang, M. M.

    2015-12-01

    NASA announced the research opportunity Earth Venture Suborbital - 2 (EVS-2) mission in support of the NASA's science strategic goals and objectives in 2013. Penn State University, NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC), and other academic institutions, government agencies, and industrial companies together formulated and proposed the Atmospheric Carbon and Transport - America (ACT - America) suborbital mission, which was subsequently selected for implementation. The airborne measurements that are part of ACT-America will provide a unique set of remote and in-situ measurements of CO2 over North America at spatial and temporal scales not previously available to the science community and this will greatly enhance our understanding of the carbon cycle. ACT - America will consist of five airborne campaigns, covering all four seasons, to measure regional atmospheric carbon distributions and to evaluate the accuracy of atmospheric transport models used to assess carbon sinks and sources under fair and stormy weather conditions. This coordinated mission will measure atmospheric carbon in the three most important regions of the continental US carbon balance: Northeast, Midwest, and South. Data will be collected using 2 airborne platforms (NASA Wallops' C-130 and NASA Langley's B-200) with both in-situ and lidar instruments, along with instrumented ground towers and under flights of the Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO-2) satellite. This presentation provides an overview of the ACT-America instruments, with particular emphasis on the airborne CO2 and backscatter lidars, and the, rationale, approach, and anticipated results from this mission.

  5. Validation of Satellite Ammonia Retrievals using Airborne Hyperspectral Thermal-Infrared Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tratt, D. M.; Hall, J. L.; Chang, C. S.; Qian, J.; Clarisse, L.; Van Damme, M.; Clerbaux, C.; Hurtmans, D.; Coheur, P.

    2011-12-01

    We demonstrate the utility of a new airborne sensor with the requisite spatial, spectral, and radiometric resolution to characterize "point" sources of ammonia emission. Flights were conducted over California's San Joaquin Valley, which is a region of intensive agriculture and animal husbandry that has been identified as one of the single largest sources of atmospheric free ammonia worldwide. Airborne data acquisition operations were coordinated with daytime overpasses of the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) aboard the European Space Agency's MetOp-A platform. IASI is capable of measuring total columns of ammonia and the primary purpose of this investigation was to compare and validate the IASI ammonia product against high-spatial-resolution airborne retrievals acquired contemporaneously over the same footprint. The ~12-km pixel size of the IASI satellite measurements cannot resolve the local-scale variability of ammonia abundance and consequently cannot characterize the often compact source emissions. The nominal 2-m pixel size of the airborne data revealed variability of ammonia concentration at several different scales within the IASI footprint. At this pixel size, well-defined plumes issuing from individual dairy facilities could be imaged and their dispersion characteristics resolved. Retrieved ammonia concentrations in excess of 50 ppb were inferred for some of the strongest discrete plumes.

  6. Airborne Measurements in Support of the NASA Atmospheric Carbon and Transport - America (ACT-America) Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meadows, Byron; Davis, Ken; Barrick, John; Browell, Edward; Chen, Gao; Dobler, Jeremy; Fried, Alan; Lauvaux, Thomas; Lin, Bing; McGill, Matt; Miles, Natasha; Nehrir, Amin; Obland, Michael; O'Dell, Chris; Sweeney, Colm; Yang, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    NASA announced the research opportunity Earth Venture Suborbital -2 (EVS-2) mission in support of the NASA's science strategic goals and objectives in 2013. Penn State University, NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC), and other academic institutions, government agencies, and industrial companies together formulated and proposed the Atmospheric Carbon and Transport -America (ACT -America) suborbital mission, which was subsequently selected for implementation. The airborne measurements that are part of ACT-America will provide a unique set of remote and in-situ measurements of CO2 over North America at spatial and temporal scales not previously available to the science community and this will greatly enhance our understanding of the carbon cycle. ACT -America will consist of five airborne campaigns, covering all four seasons, to measure regional atmospheric carbon distributions and to evaluate the accuracy of atmospheric transport models used to assess carbon sinks and sources under fair and stormy weather conditions. This coordinated mission will measure atmospheric carbon in the three most important regions of the continental US carbon balance: Northeast, Midwest, and South. Data will be collected using 2 airborne platforms (NASA Wallops' C-130 and NASA Langley's B-200) with both in-situ and lidar instruments, along with instrumented ground towers and under flights of the Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO-2) satellite. This presentation provides an overview of the ACT-America instruments, with particular emphasis on the airborne CO2and backscatter lidars, and the, rationale, approach, and anticipated results from this mission.

  7. Effect of land uses and wind direction on the contribution of local sources to airborne pollen.

    PubMed

    Rojo, Jesús; Rapp, Ana; Lara, Beatriz; Fernández-González, Federico; Pérez-Badia, Rosa

    2015-12-15

    The interpretation of airborne pollen levels in cities based on the contribution of the surrounding flora and vegetation is a useful tool to estimate airborne allergen concentrations and, consequently, to determine the allergy risk for local residents. This study examined the pollen spectrum in a city in central Spain (Guadalajara) and analysed the vegetation landscape and land uses within a radius of 20km in an attempt to identify and locate the origin of airborne pollen and to determine the effect of meteorological variables on pollen emission and dispersal. The results showed that local wind direction was largely responsible for changes in the concentrations of different airborne pollen types. The land uses contributing most to airborne pollen counts were urban green spaces, though only 0.1% of the total surface area studied, and broadleaved forest which covered 5% of the study area. These two types of land use together accounted for 70% of the airborne pollen. Crops, scrubland and pastureland, though covering 80% of the total surface area, contributed only 18.6% to the total pollen count, and this contribution mainly consisted of pollen from Olea and herbaceous plants, including Poaceae, Urticaceae and Chenopodiaceae-Amaranthaceae. Pollen from ornamental species were mainly associated with easterly (Platanus), southerly (Cupressaceae) and westerly (Cupressaceae and Platanus) winds from the areas where the city's largest parks and gardens are located. Quercus pollen was mostly transported by winds blowing in from holm-oak stands on the eastern edge of the city. The highest Populus pollen counts were associated with easterly and westerly winds blowing in from areas containing rivers and streams. The airborne pollen counts generally rose with increasing temperature, solar radiation and hours of sunlight, all of which favour pollen release. In contrast, pollen counts declined with increased relative humidity and rainfall, which hinder airborne pollen transport.

  8. Effect of land uses and wind direction on the contribution of local sources to airborne pollen.

    PubMed

    Rojo, Jesús; Rapp, Ana; Lara, Beatriz; Fernández-González, Federico; Pérez-Badia, Rosa

    2015-12-15

    The interpretation of airborne pollen levels in cities based on the contribution of the surrounding flora and vegetation is a useful tool to estimate airborne allergen concentrations and, consequently, to determine the allergy risk for local residents. This study examined the pollen spectrum in a city in central Spain (Guadalajara) and analysed the vegetation landscape and land uses within a radius of 20km in an attempt to identify and locate the origin of airborne pollen and to determine the effect of meteorological variables on pollen emission and dispersal. The results showed that local wind direction was largely responsible for changes in the concentrations of different airborne pollen types. The land uses contributing most to airborne pollen counts were urban green spaces, though only 0.1% of the total surface area studied, and broadleaved forest which covered 5% of the study area. These two types of land use together accounted for 70% of the airborne pollen. Crops, scrubland and pastureland, though covering 80% of the total surface area, contributed only 18.6% to the total pollen count, and this contribution mainly consisted of pollen from Olea and herbaceous plants, including Poaceae, Urticaceae and Chenopodiaceae-Amaranthaceae. Pollen from ornamental species were mainly associated with easterly (Platanus), southerly (Cupressaceae) and westerly (Cupressaceae and Platanus) winds from the areas where the city's largest parks and gardens are located. Quercus pollen was mostly transported by winds blowing in from holm-oak stands on the eastern edge of the city. The highest Populus pollen counts were associated with easterly and westerly winds blowing in from areas containing rivers and streams. The airborne pollen counts generally rose with increasing temperature, solar radiation and hours of sunlight, all of which favour pollen release. In contrast, pollen counts declined with increased relative humidity and rainfall, which hinder airborne pollen transport

  9. Airborne 2-Micron Double-Pulsed Integrated Path Differential Absorption Lidar for Column CO2 Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Upendra N.; Yu, Jirong; Petros, Mulugeta; Refaat, Tamer F.; Remus, Ruben G.; Fay, James J.; Reithmaier, Karl

    2014-01-01

    Double-pulse 2-micron lasers have been demonstrated with energy as high as 600 millijouls and up to 10 Hz repetition rate. The two laser pulses are separated by 200 microseconds and can be tuned and locked separately. Applying double-pulse laser in DIAL system enhances the CO2 measurement capability by increasing the overlap of the sampled volume between the on-line and off-line. To avoid detection complicity, integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) lidar provides higher signal-to-noise ratio measurement compared to conventional range-resolved DIAL. Rather than weak atmospheric scattering returns, IPDA rely on the much stronger hard target returns that is best suited for airborne platforms. In addition, the IPDA technique measures the total integrated column content from the instrument to the hard target but with weighting that can be tuned by the transmitter. Therefore, the transmitter could be tuned to weight the column measurement to the surface for optimum CO2 interaction studies or up to the free troposphere for optimum transport studies. Currently, NASA LaRC is developing and integrating a double-Pulsed 2-micron direct detection IPDA lidar for CO2 column measurement from an airborne platform. The presentation will describe the development of the 2-micron IPDA lidar system and present the airborne measurement of column CO2 and will compare to in-situ measurement for various ground target of different reflectivity.

  10. Leveraging Realtime Data in Airborne Campaigns: From COMEX to Disaster Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leifer, I.; Thompson, D. R.; Bovensmann, H.; Eastwood, M. L.; Fladeland, M. M.; Gerilowski, K.; Green, R. O.; Krautwurst, S.; Krings, T.; Luna, B.; Di Benedetto, J.; Morey, M.

    2015-12-01

    The COMEX (CO2 and Methane eXperiment) campaign leveraged real-time remote sensing and in situ data spanning multiple airborne and surface mobile platforms and interplatform communications to improve dramatically science outcomes. COMEX realtime remote sensing of strong methane plumes released from a producing oil field in Southern California by the non-imaging spectrometer MAMAP (Methane Airborne MAPper) were used to shift the survey strategy of the AVIRIS NG (Airborne Visual InfraRed Imaging Spectrometer-Next Generation) instrument on a separate airplane from an area of few plumes to an area of high activity. Concurrently, a ground team was re-directed to collect mobile surface validation data by the AMOG (AutoMObile gas) Surveyor in the new area. On all platforms, realtime analysis were used to adapt the survey patterns such as making tactical decisions to repeat certain swaths or flight lines by AVIRIS NG and by MAMAP and to adapt surface survey patterns. The AVIRIS-NG realtime algorithms were developed for methane; however, oil exhibits spectral features that are similar, enabling their testing on AVIRIS-NG data acquired during the Santa Barbara Oil Spill. The effort determined that realtime oil mapping currently is feasible. For oil spill disaster response as well as other disaster response applications, the tactical advantages of realtime remote sensing for time-critical data collections will facilitate greater roles played by remote sensing in future disaster response.

  11. Cloud Based Applications and Platforms (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Brodt-Giles, D.

    2014-05-15

    Presentation to the Cloud Computing East 2014 Conference, where we are highlighting our cloud computing strategy, describing the platforms on the cloud (including Smartgrid.gov), and defining our process for implementing cloud based applications.

  12. Isprs Benchmark for Multi-Platform Photogrammetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nex, F.; Gerke, M.; Remondino, F.; Przybilla, H.-J.; Bäumker, M.; Zurhorst, A.

    2015-03-01

    Airborne high resolution oblique imagery systems and RPAS/UAVs are very promising technologies that will keep on influencing the development of geomatics in the future years closing the gap between terrestrial and classical aerial acquisitions. These two platforms are also a promising solution for National Mapping and Cartographic Agencies (NMCA) as they allow deriving complementary mapping information. Although the interest for the registration and integration of aerial and terrestrial data is constantly increasing, only limited work has been truly performed on this topic. Several investigations still need to be undertaken concerning algorithms ability for automatic co-registration, accurate point cloud generation and feature extraction from multiplatform image data. One of the biggest obstacles is the non-availability of reliable and free datasets to test and compare new algorithms and procedures. The Scientific Initiative "ISPRS benchmark for multi-platform photogrammetry", run in collaboration with EuroSDR, aims at collecting and sharing state-of-the-art multi-sensor data (oblique airborne, UAV-based and terrestrial images) over an urban area. These datasets are used to assess different algorithms and methodologies for image orientation and dense matching. As ground truth, Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS), Aerial Laser Scanning (ALS) as well as topographic networks and GNSS points were acquired to compare 3D coordinates on check points (CPs) and evaluate cross sections and residuals on generated point cloud surfaces. In this paper, the acquired data, the pre-processing steps, the evaluation procedures as well as some preliminary results achieved with commercial software will be presented.

  13. Assessment of airborne microorganisms by real-time PCR: optimistic findings and research challenges.

    PubMed

    Oppliger, Anne; Masclaux, Frederic G; Niculita-Hirzel, Helene

    2011-01-01

    Most airborne microorganisms are natural components of our ecosystem. Soil, vegetation and animals, including humans, are sources for aerial release of these living or dead cells. In the past, assessment of airborne microorganisms was mainly restricted to occupational health concerns. Indeed, in several occupations, exposure to very high concentrations of non-infectious airborne bacteria and fungi, result in allergenic, toxic or irritant reactions. Recently, the threat of bioterrorism and pandemics have highlighted the urgent need to increase knowledge of bioaerosol ecology. More fundamentally, airborne bacterial and fungal communities begin to draw much more consideration from environmental microbiologists, who have neglected this area for a long time. This increased interest of scientists is to a great part due to the development and use of real-time PCR techniques to identify and quantify airborne microorganisms. Even if the advantages of the PCR technology are obvious, researchers are confronted with new problems. This review describes the methodological state of the art in bioaerosols field and emphasizes the future challenges and perspectives of the real-time PCR-based methods for airborne microorganism studies. PMID:21196388

  14. Development status of the planar electrostatic gradiometer GREMLIT for airborne geodesy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foulon, B.; Christophe, B.; Douch, K.; Panet, I.

    2012-12-01

    The GREMLIT airborne gravity gradiometer is taking advantage of technologies, formerly developed by ONERA for the GRACE and GOCE space missions. Built using a planar configuration with four proof-masses at the corners of a square, the gradiometer is mounted on a dedicated stabilized platform which is controlled by the common mode outputs of the instrument itself to achieve a sufficient rejection ratio of the perturbations/vibrations induced by the airborne environment in the horizontal directions. The levitation of the proof-masses along the normal gravity and the vibration isolation of the platform are designed to allow the instrument to support between +2.5 g and 0 g along the vertical axis. With the help of additional fiber gyro data, the gradiometer differential measurements provide the necessary information to extract the 3 Tyy, Tzz and Tyz independent components of the gravity gradient tensor at the location of the instrument. In addition to be especially well suited to sustain the proof-mass levitation in the Earth's gravity field, such a planar configuration also presents an intrinsic linearity of the horizontal control loops which minimizes the aliasing due to high frequency vibrations or motions generated outside the measurement bandwidth. The compactness of the gradiometer design, with all the electrodes of the 4 accelerometers engrave on the same ULE plate, ensures excellent dimensional stability, good thermal homogeneity and makes the conception of the stabilized platform easier. The detailed error budget of the gradiometer instrument associated with the estimated performance of the platform and the assumed characteristics of the additional attitude, rate and position sensors lead to expect a performance objective between 0.1 and 1 Eötvös taking into account the difficulty of measurements onboard an aircraft by comparison to the particularly conducive satellite measurement environment. The GREMLIT gravity gradiometer systems is more particularly

  15. Principles for Sampling Airborne Radioactivity from Stacks

    SciTech Connect

    Glissmeyer, John A.

    2010-10-18

    This book chapter describes the special processes involved in sampling the airborne effluents from nuclear faciities. The title of the book is Radioactive Air Sampling Methods. The abstract for this chapter was cleared as PNNL-SA-45941.

  16. Airborne Gamma-Spectrometry in Switzerland

    SciTech Connect

    Butterweck, Gernot; Bucher, Benno; Rybach, Ladislaus

    2008-08-07

    Airborne gamma-spectrometry is able to obtain fast radiological information over large areas. The airborne gamma-spectrometry unit deployed in Switzerland by the Swiss National Emergency Operations Centre (NEOC) consists of a Swiss army Super Puma helicopter equipped with four NaI-Detectors with a total volume of 17 liters, associated electronics and a real-time data evaluation and mapping unit developed by the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) and the Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI). The operational readiness of the airborne gamma-spectrometry system is validated in annual exercises of one week duration. Data from 2005 and 2006 exercises are represented in maps of {sup 137}Cs activity concentration for two towns located in southern and western Switzerland. An indicator of man-made radioactivity (MMGC ratio) is demonstrated for an area with four different types of nuclear installations. The intercomparison between airborne gamma-spectrometry and ground measurements showed good agreement between both methods.

  17. SOURCES OF HUMAN EXPOSURE TO AIRBORNE PAH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Personal exposures to airborne particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were studied in several populations in the US, Japan, and Czech Republic. Personal exposure monitors, developed for human exposure biomonitoring studies were used to collect fine particles (<_ 1....

  18. Airborne chemistry: acoustic levitation in chemical analysis.

    PubMed

    Santesson, Sabina; Nilsson, Staffan

    2004-04-01

    This review with 60 references describes a unique path to miniaturisation, that is, the use of acoustic levitation in analytical and bioanalytical chemistry applications. Levitation of small volumes of sample by means of a levitation technique can be used as a way to avoid solid walls around the sample, thus circumventing the main problem of miniaturisation, the unfavourable surface-to-volume ratio. Different techniques for sample levitation have been developed and improved. Of the levitation techniques described, acoustic or ultrasonic levitation fulfils all requirements for analytical chemistry applications. This technique has previously been used to study properties of molten materials and the equilibrium shape()and stability of liquid drops. Temperature and mass transfer in levitated drops have also been described, as have crystallisation and microgravity applications. The airborne analytical system described here is equipped with different and exchangeable remote detection systems. The levitated drops are normally in the 100 nL-2 microL volume range and additions to the levitated drop can be made in the pL-volume range. The use of levitated drops in analytical and bioanalytical chemistry offers several benefits. Several remote detection systems are compatible with acoustic levitation, including fluorescence imaging detection, right angle light scattering, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. Applications include liquid/liquid extractions, solvent exchange, analyte enrichment, single-cell analysis, cell-cell communication studies, precipitation screening of proteins to establish nucleation conditions, and crystallisation of proteins and pharmaceuticals. PMID:14762640

  19. Collaboration Portals for NASA's Airborne Field Campaigns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conover, Helen; Kulkami, Ajinkya; Garrett, Michele; Goodman, Michael; Peterson, Walter Arthur; Drewry, Marilyn; Hardin, Danny M.; He, Matt

    2011-01-01

    The University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH), in collaboration with the Global Hydrology Resource Center, a NASA Earth Science Data Center, has provided information management for a number of NASA Airborne Field campaigns, both hurricane science investigations and satellite instrument validation. Effective field campaign management requires communication and coordination tools, including utilities for personnel to upload and share flight plans, weather forecasts, a variety of mission reports, preliminary science data, and personal photos. Beginning with the Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) hurricane field campaign in 2010, we have provided these capabilities via a Drupal-based collaboration portal. This portal was reused and modified for the Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E), part of the Global Precipitation Measurement mission ground validation program. An end goal of these development efforts is the creation of a Drupal profile for field campaign management. This presentation will discuss experiences with Drupal in developing and using these collaboration portals. Topics will include Drupal modules used, advantages and disadvantages of working with Drupal in this context, and how the science teams used the portals in comparison with other communication and collaboration tools.

  20. Collaboration Portals for NASA's Airborne Field Campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conover, H.; Kulkarni, A.; Garrett, M.; Goodman, M.; Petersen, W. A.; Drewry, M.; Hardin, D. M.; He, M.

    2011-12-01

    The University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH), in collaboration with the Global Hydrology Resource Center, a NASA Earth Science Data Center, has provided information management for a number of NASA Airborne Field campaigns, both hurricane science investigations and satellite instrument validation. Effective field campaign management requires communication and coordination tools, including utilities for personnel to upload and share flight plans, weather forecasts, a variety of mission reports, preliminary science data, and personal photos. Beginning with the Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) hurricane field campaign in 2010, we have provided these capabilities via a Drupal-based collaboration portal. This portal was reused and modified for the Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E), part of the Global Precipitation Measurement mission ground validation program. An end goal of these development efforts is the creation of a Drupal profile for field campaign management. This presentation will discuss experiences with Drupal in developing and using these collaboration portals. Topics will include Drupal modules used, advantages and disadvantages of working with Drupal in this context, and how the science teams used the portals in comparison with other communication and collaboration tools.

  1. Technology-enabled Airborne Spacing and Merging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hull, James; Barmore, Bryan; Abbott, Tetence

    2005-01-01

    Over the last several decades, advances in airborne and groundside technologies have allowed the Air Traffic Service Provider (ATSP) to give safer and more efficient service, reduce workload and frequency congestion, and help accommodate a critically escalating traffic volume. These new technologies have included advanced radar displays, and data and communication automation to name a few. In step with such advances, NASA Langley is developing a precision spacing concept designed to increase runway throughput by enabling the flight crews to manage their inter-arrival spacing from TRACON entry to the runway threshold. This concept is being developed as part of NASA s Distributed Air/Ground Traffic Management (DAG-TM) project under the Advanced Air Transportation Technologies Program. Precision spacing is enabled by Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B), which provides air-to-air data exchange including position and velocity reports; real-time wind information and other necessary data. On the flight deck, a research prototype system called Airborne Merging and Spacing for Terminal Arrivals (AMSTAR) processes this information and provides speed guidance to the flight crew to achieve the desired inter-arrival spacing. AMSTAR is designed to support current ATC operations, provide operationally acceptable system-wide increases in approach spacing performance and increase runway throughput through system stability, predictability and precision spacing. This paper describes problems and costs associated with an imprecise arrival flow. It also discusses methods by which Air Traffic Controllers achieve and maintain an optimum interarrival interval, and explores means by which AMSTAR can assist in this pursuit. AMSTAR is an extension of NASA s previous work on in-trail spacing that was successfully demonstrated in a flight evaluation at Chicago O Hare International Airport in September 2002. In addition to providing for precision inter-arrival spacing, AMSTAR

  2. Miniaturized Airborne Imaging Central Server System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, Xiuhong

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, some remote-sensing applications require advanced airborne multi-sensor systems to provide high performance reflective and emissive spectral imaging measurement rapidly over large areas. The key or unique problem of characteristics is associated with a black box back-end system that operates a suite of cutting-edge imaging sensors to collect simultaneously the high throughput reflective and emissive spectral imaging data with precision georeference. This back-end system needs to be portable, easy-to-use, and reliable with advanced onboard processing. The innovation of the black box backend is a miniaturized airborne imaging central server system (MAICSS). MAICSS integrates a complex embedded system of systems with dedicated power and signal electronic circuits inside to serve a suite of configurable cutting-edge electro- optical (EO), long-wave infrared (LWIR), and medium-wave infrared (MWIR) cameras, a hyperspectral imaging scanner, and a GPS and inertial measurement unit (IMU) for atmospheric and surface remote sensing. Its compatible sensor packages include NASA s 1,024 1,024 pixel LWIR quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) imager; a 60.5 megapixel BuckEye EO camera; and a fast (e.g. 200+ scanlines/s) and wide swath-width (e.g., 1,920+ pixels) CCD/InGaAs imager-based visible/near infrared reflectance (VNIR) and shortwave infrared (SWIR) imaging spectrometer. MAICSS records continuous precision georeferenced and time-tagged multisensor throughputs to mass storage devices at a high aggregate rate, typically 60 MB/s for its LWIR/EO payload. MAICSS is a complete stand-alone imaging server instrument with an easy-to-use software package for either autonomous data collection or interactive airborne operation. Advanced multisensor data acquisition and onboard processing software features have been implemented for MAICSS. With the onboard processing for real time image development, correction, histogram-equalization, compression, georeference, and

  3. A framework for multi-platform mobile mapping data registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Taher Fathy

    Currently, there is an enormous number of Geomatics sensory data available for use in mapping applications. These data are collected from different platforms, using different sensors, and encapsulating different amount of information. The topic of multi-sensor data fusion has received, over the years, a lot of attention by the scientific community for many applications. Multi-sensor data fusion techniques combine data from multiple sensors and related information from associated databases, to achieve improved accuracies and more specific inferences than could be achieved by the use of a single sensor alone. Mobile mapping systems are efficient tools for collecting multi-sensor data that can be used to build and update geographic information systems base maps. The concept of mobile mapping became the mapping standard. Despite the first mobile mapping system was installed on a van, the application has no longer limited to vans. It is now installed on various types of platforms, running in land, sea, and air. Many researchers have proposed different fusion schemes for integrating different sensory data. This fusion process can be broadly classified into pictorial to pictorial, pictorial to non-pictorial, and non pictorial to non-pictorial. Yet, many researchers have investigated different fusion schemes, however there is less amount of attention towards the fusion of airborne and land-based mobile mapping systems' imagery/navigation data. This research introduces a novel data fusion scheme between mobile mapping data, collected from different platforms. The fusion includes both pictorial measurements, in addition to navigation data available from system's navigation component. The fusion is done using generic Bundle Adjustment (BA) engine, which is a generalization of the standard bundle adjustment frameworks. The proposed framework has been adapted to fit the special requirements imposed by the proposed fusion scheme like higher order registration primitives, multi

  4. Downscaling of Airborne Wind Energy Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fechner, Uwe; Schmehl, Roland

    2016-09-01

    Airborne wind energy systems provide a novel solution to harvest wind energy from altitudes that cannot be reached by wind turbines with a similar nominal generator power. The use of a lightweight but strong tether in place of an expensive tower provides an additional cost advantage, next to the higher capacity factor and much lower total mass. This paper investigates the scaling effects of airborne wind energy systems. The energy yield of airborne wind energy systems, that work in pumping mode of operation is at least ten times higher than the energy yield of conventional solar systems. For airborne wind energy systems the yield is defined per square meter wing area. In this paper the dependency of the energy yield on the nominal generator power for systems in the range of 1 kW to 1 MW is investigated. For the onshore location Cabauw, The Netherlands, it is shown, that a generator of just 1.4 kW nominal power and a total system mass of less than 30 kg has the theoretical potential to harvest energy at only twice the price per kWh of large scale airborne wind energy systems. This would make airborne wind energy systems a very attractive choice for small scale remote and mobile applications as soon as the remaining challenges for commercialization are solved.

  5. 34 CFR 303.15 - Include; including.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Include; including. 303.15 Section 303.15 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR INFANTS AND TODDLERS...

  6. Advanced science and applications space platform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, J.; Runge, F. C.

    1981-01-01

    Requirements for and descriptions of the mission equipment, subsystems, configuration, utilities, and interfaces for an Advanced Science and Applications Space Platform (ASASP) are developed using large space structure technology. Structural requirements and attitude control system concepts are emphasized. To support the development of ASASP requirements, a mission was described that would satisfy the requirements of a representative set of payloads requiring large separation distances selected from the Science and Applications Space Platform data base. Platform subsystems are defined which support the payload requirements and a physical platform concept is developed. Structural system requirements which include utilities accommodation, interface requirements, and platform strength and stiffness requirements are developed. An attitude control system concept is also described. The resultant ASASP is analyzed and technological developments deemed necessary in the area of large space systems are recommended.

  7. Sources of airborne microorganisms in the built environment.

    PubMed

    Prussin, Aaron J; Marr, Linsey C

    2015-01-01

    Each day people are exposed to millions of bioaerosols, including whole microorganisms, which can have both beneficial and detrimental effects. The next chapter in understanding the airborne microbiome of the built environment is characterizing the various sources of airborne microorganisms and the relative contribution of each. We have identified the following eight major categories of sources of airborne bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the built environment: humans; pets; plants; plumbing systems; heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning systems; mold; dust resuspension; and the outdoor environment. Certain species are associated with certain sources, but the full potential of source characterization and source apportionment has not yet been realized. Ideally, future studies will quantify detailed emission rates of microorganisms from each source and will identify the relative contribution of each source to the indoor air microbiome. This information could then be used to probe fundamental relationships between specific sources and human health, to design interventions to improve building health and human health, or even to provide evidence for forensic investigations. PMID:26694197

  8. NASA's Student Airborne Research Program (2009-2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaller, E. L.; Shetter, R. E.

    2013-12-01

    The NASA Student Airborne Research Program (SARP) is a unique summer internship program for rising senior undergraduates majoring in any of the STEM disciplines. SARP participants acquire hands-on research experience in all aspects of an airborne research campaign, including flying onboard an major NASA resource used for studying Earth system processes. In summer 2013, thirty-two participants worked in four interdisciplinary teams to study surface, atmospheric, and oceanographic processes. Participants assisted in the operation of instruments onboard the NASA DC-8 aircraft where they sampled and measured atmospheric gases and imaged land and water surfaces in multiple spectral bands. Along with airborne data collection, students participated in taking measurements at field sites. Mission faculty and research mentors helped to guide participants through instrument operation, sample analysis, and data reduction. Over the eight-week program, each student developed an individual research project from the data collected and delivered a conference-style final presentation on his/her results. Several students will present the results of their research in science sessions at this meeting. We will discuss the results and effectiveness of the program over the past five summers and plans for the future.

  9. Sources of airborne microorganisms in the built environment.

    PubMed

    Prussin, Aaron J; Marr, Linsey C

    2015-12-22

    Each day people are exposed to millions of bioaerosols, including whole microorganisms, which can have both beneficial and detrimental effects. The next chapter in understanding the airborne microbiome of the built environment is characterizing the various sources of airborne microorganisms and the relative contribution of each. We have identified the following eight major categories of sources of airborne bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the built environment: humans; pets; plants; plumbing systems; heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning systems; mold; dust resuspension; and the outdoor environment. Certain species are associated with certain sources, but the full potential of source characterization and source apportionment has not yet been realized. Ideally, future studies will quantify detailed emission rates of microorganisms from each source and will identify the relative contribution of each source to the indoor air microbiome. This information could then be used to probe fundamental relationships between specific sources and human health, to design interventions to improve building health and human health, or even to provide evidence for forensic investigations.

  10. Airborne trace contaminants of possible interest in CELSS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garavelli, J. S.

    1986-01-01

    One design goal of Closed Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS) for long duration space missions is to maintain an atmosphere which is healthy for all the desirable biological species and not deleterious to any of the mechanical components in that atmosphere. CELESS design must take into account the interactions of at least six major components; (1) humans and animals, (2) higher plants, (3) microalgae, (4) bacteria and fungi, (5) the waste processing system, and (6) other mechanical systems. Each of these major components can be both a source and a target of airborne trace contaminants in a CELSS. A range of possible airborne trace contaminants is discussed within a chemical classification scheme. These contaminants are analyzed with respect to their probable sources among the six major components and their potential effects on those components. Data on airborne chemical contaminants detected in shuttle missions is presented along with this analysis. The observed concentrations of several classes of compounds, including hydrocarbons, halocarbons, halosilanes, amines and nitrogen oxides, are considered with respect to the problems which they present to CELSS.

  11. Study of cloud properties using airborne and satellite measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boscornea, Andreea; Stefan, Sabina; Vajaiac, Sorin Nicolae

    2014-08-01

    The present study investigates cloud microphysics properties using aircraft and satellite measurements. Cloud properties were drawn from data acquired both from in situ measurements with state of the art airborne instrumentation and from satellite products of the MODIS06 System. The used aircraft was ATMOSLAB - Airborne Laboratory for Environmental Atmospheric Research, property of the National Institute for Aerospace Research "Elie Carafoli" (INCAS), Bucharest, Romania, which is specially equipped for this kind of research. The main tool of the airborne laboratory is a Cloud, Aerosol and Precipitation Spectrometer - CAPS (30 bins, 0.51- 50 μm). The data was recorded during two flights during the winter 2013-2014, over a flat region in the south-eastern part of Romania (between Bucharest and Constanta). The analysis of cloud particle size variations and cloud liquid water content provided by CAPS can explain cloud processes, and can also indicate the extent of aerosols effects on clouds. The results, such as cloud coverage and/or cloud types, microphysical parameters of aerosols on the one side and the cloud microphysics parameters obtained from aircraft flights on the other side, was used to illustrate the importance of microphysics cloud properties for including the radiative effects of clouds in the regional climate models.

  12. Algorithms used in the Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nagle, David B.; Wright, C. Wayne

    2016-05-23

    The Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS) analyzes Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL) data—digitized laser-return waveforms, position, and attitude data—to derive point clouds of target surfaces. A full-waveform airborne lidar system, the EAARL seamlessly and simultaneously collects mixed environment data, including submerged, sub-aerial bare earth, and vegetation-covered topographies.ALPS uses three waveform target-detection algorithms to determine target positions within a given waveform: centroid analysis, leading edge detection, and bottom detection using water-column backscatter modeling. The centroid analysis algorithm detects opaque hard surfaces. The leading edge algorithm detects topography beneath vegetation and shallow, submerged topography. The bottom detection algorithm uses water-column backscatter modeling for deeper submerged topography in turbid water.The report describes slant range calculations and explains how ALPS uses laser range and orientation measurements to project measurement points into the Universal Transverse Mercator coordinate system. Parameters used for coordinate transformations in ALPS are described, as are Interactive Data Language-based methods for gridding EAARL point cloud data to derive digital elevation models. Noise reduction in point clouds through use of a random consensus filter is explained, and detailed pseudocode, mathematical equations, and Yorick source code accompany the report.

  13. Algorithms used in the Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nagle, David B.; Wright, C. Wayne

    2016-01-01

    The Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS) analyzes Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL) data—digitized laser-return waveforms, position, and attitude data—to derive point clouds of target surfaces. A full-waveform airborne lidar system, the EAARL seamlessly and simultaneously collects mixed environment data, including submerged, sub-aerial bare earth, and vegetation-covered topographies.ALPS uses three waveform target-detection algorithms to determine target positions within a given waveform: centroid analysis, leading edge detection, and bottom detection using water-column backscatter modeling. The centroid analysis algorithm detects opaque hard surfaces. The leading edge algorithm detects topography beneath vegetation and shallow, submerged topography. The bottom detection algorithm uses water-column backscatter modeling for deeper submerged topography in turbid water.The report describes slant range calculations and explains how ALPS uses laser range and orientation measurements to project measurement points into the Universal Transverse Mercator coordinate system. Parameters used for coordinate transformations in ALPS are described, as are Interactive Data Language-based methods for gridding EAARL point cloud data to derive digital elevation models. Noise reduction in point clouds through use of a random consensus filter is explained, and detailed pseudocode, mathematical equations, and Yorick source code accompany the report.

  14. Challenges and Successes Managing Airborne Science Data for CARVE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardman, S. H.; Dinardo, S. J.; Lee, E. C.

    2014-12-01

    The Carbon in Arctic Reservoirs Vulnerability Experiment (CARVE) mission collects detailed measurements of important greenhouse gases on local to regional scales in the Alaskan Arctic and demonstrates new remote sensing and improved modeling capabilities to quantify Arctic carbon fluxes and carbon cycle-climate processes. Airborne missions offer a number of challenges when it comes to collecting and processing the science data and CARVE is no different. The biggest challenge relates to the flexibility of the instrument payload. Within the life of the mission, instruments may be removed from or added to the payload, or even reconfigured on a yearly, monthly or daily basis. Although modification of the instrument payload provides a distinct advantage for airborne missions compared to spaceborne missions, it does tend to wreak havoc on the underlying data system when introducing changes to existing data inputs or new data inputs that require modifications to the pipeline for processing the data. In addition to payload flexibility, it is not uncommon to find unsupported files in the field data submission. In the case of CARVE, these include video files, photographs taken during the flight and screen shots from terminal displays. These need to captured, saved and somehow integrated into the data system. The CARVE data system was built on a multi-mission data system infrastructure for airborne instruments called the Airborne Cloud Computing Environment (ACCE). ACCE encompasses the end-to-end lifecycle covering planning, provisioning of data system capabilities, and support for scientific analysis in order to improve the quality, cost effectiveness, and capabilities to enable new scientific discovery and research in earth observation. This well-tested and proven infrastructure allows the CARVE data system to be easily adapted in order to handle the challenges posed by the CARVE mission and to successfully process, manage and distribute the mission's science data. This

  15. Coarse particulate matter and airborne endotoxin within wood stove homes.

    PubMed

    McNamara, M; Thornburg, J; Semmens, E; Ward, T; Noonan, C

    2013-12-01

    Emissions from indoor biomass burning are a major public health concern in developing areas of the world. Less is known about indoor air quality, particularly airborne endotoxin, in homes burning biomass fuel in residential wood stoves in higher income countries. A filter-based sampler was used to evaluate wintertime indoor coarse particulate matter (PM₁₀₋₂.₅) and airborne endotoxin (EU/m³, EU/mg) concentrations in 50 homes using wood stoves as their primary source of heat in western Montana. We investigated number of residents, number of pets, dampness (humidity), and frequency of wood stove usage as potential predictors of indoor airborne endotoxin concentrations. Two 48-h sampling events per home revealed a mean winter PM₁₀₋₂.₅ concentration (± s.d.) of 12.9 (± 8.6) μg/m³, while PM₂.₅ concentrations averaged 32.3 (± 32.6) μg/m³. Endotoxin concentrations measured from PM₁₀₋₂.₅ filter samples were 9.2 (± 12.4) EU/m³ and 1010 (± 1524) EU/mg. PM₁₀₋₂.₅ and PM₂.₅ were significantly correlated in wood stove homes (r = 0.36, P < 0.05). The presence of pets in the homes was associated with PM₁₀₋₂.₅ but not with endotoxin concentrations. Importantly, none of the other measured home characteristics was a strong predictor of airborne endotoxin, including frequency of residential wood stove usage.

  16. Calibration and Validation of the National Ecological Observatory Network's Airborne Imaging Spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leisso, N.

    2015-12-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is being constructed by the National Science Foundation and is slated for completion in 2017. NEON is designed to collect data to improve the understanding of changes in observed ecosystems. The observatory will produce data products on a variety of spatial and temporal scales collected from individual sites strategically located across the U.S. including Alaska, Hawaii, and Puerto Rico. Data sources include standardized terrestrial, instrumental, and aquatic observation systems in addition to three airborne remote sensing observation systems installed into leased Twin Otter aircraft. The Airborne Observation Platforms (AOP) are designed to collect 3-band aerial imagery, waveform and discrete LiDAR, and high-fidelity imaging spectroscopy data over the NEON sites annually at or near peak-greenness. The NEON Imaging Spectrometer (NIS) is a Visible and Shortwave Infrared (VSWIR) sensor designed by NASA JPL for ecological applications. Spectroscopic data is collected at 5-nm intervals across the solar-reflective spectral region (380-nm to 2500-nm) in a 34-degree FOV swath. A key uncertainty driver to the derived remote sensing NEON data products is the calibration of the imaging spectrometers. In addition, the calibration and accuracy of the higher-level data product algorithms is essential to the overall NEON mission to detect changes in the collected ecosystems over the 30-year expected lifetime. The typical calibration workflow of the NIS consists of the characterizing the focal plane, spectral calibration, and radiometric calibration. Laboratory spectral calibration is based on well-defined emission lines in conjunction with a scanning monochromator to define the individual spectral response functions. The radiometric calibration is NIST traceable and transferred to the NIS with an integrating sphere calibrated through the use of transfer radiometers. The laboratory calibration is monitored and maintained through

  17. The probability of laser caused ocular injury to the aircrew of undetected aircraft violating the exclusion zone about the airborne aura LIDAR.

    SciTech Connect

    Augustoni, Arnold L.

    2006-12-01

    The probability of a laser caused ocular injury, to the aircrew of an undetected aircraft entering the exclusion zone about the AURA LIDAR airborne platform with the possible violation of the Laser Hazard Zone boundary, was investigated and quantified for risk analysis and management.

  18. Overview Of Haze And Smoke Measurements in Northern High Latitudes And California During ARCTAS Using The NASA Ames Airborne Sunphotometer And Associated In Situ And Remote Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, P. B.; Redemann, J.; Livingston, J.; Shinozuka, Y.; Ramachandran, S.; Johnson, R. R.; Clarke, A. D.; Howell, S. G.; McNaughton, C.; Holben, B.; O'Neill, N.; McArthur, B.; Reid, E.; Ferrare, R. A.; Hostetler, C. A.

    2009-12-01

    The 14-channel NASA Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS-14) operated in a suite of remote and in-situ sensors aboard the NASA P-3 aircraft during the 2008 Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS) field campaign. Included were 8 Spring flights in the Arctic and 13 Summer flights (3 in California and 10 in Canada), each coordinated with one or more satellite overpasses, other aircraft (e.g., NASA B-200 and DC-8, NOAA P-3), and/or ground-based Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) measurements. This presentation gives an overview of AATS-14 aerosol optical depth (AOD) spectra and related parameters such as Angstrom exponent and fine mode fraction. We quantify the mutual consistency of AODs calculated from measurements by AATS-14, by the HiGEAR (University of Hawaii Group for Environmental Aerosol Research) suite of P-3 in-situ optical instruments, and by AERONET . The vertical integral of the HiGEAR in-situ scattering and absorption coefficients recorded during spiral profiles typically falls within 10% ± 0.02 of the AATS-14 AOD values interpolated to 450, 550 and 700 nm. Corresponding Angstrom exponents typically differ by ~0.1. AATS-14 AODs adjusted for the contribution of the layer below the aircraft (estimated with HiGEAR data) generally agree with the full column AERONET values to within the combined uncertainties. Example results from multi-platform comparisons are also shown. These results provide context for the more detailed AATS-14 results in other presentations, e.g., by Redemann et al. (focusing on the multi-platform, multi-sensor smoke case of 30 Jun 2008), Livingston et al. (comparisons to MODIS, MISR, OMI, POLDER, CALIPSO, and airborne lidar), and Shinozuka et al. (relationship to cloud condensation nuclei and other measurements).

  19. Data products of NASA Goddard's LiDAR, hyperspectral, and thermal airborne imager (G-LiHT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corp, Lawrence A.; Cook, Bruce D.; McCorkel, Joel; Middleton, Elizabeth M.

    2015-06-01

    Scientists in the Biospheric Sciences Laboratory at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center have undertaken a unique instrument fusion effort for an airborne package that integrates commercial off the shelf LiDAR, Hyperspectral, and Thermal components. G-LiHT is a compact, lightweight and portable system that can be used on a wide range of airborne platforms to support a number of NASA Earth Science research projects and space-based missions. G-LiHT permits simultaneous and complementary measurements of surface reflectance, vegetation structure, and temperature, which provide an analytical framework for the development of new algorithms for mapping plant species composition, plant functional types, biodiversity, biomass, carbon stocks, and plant growth. G-LiHT and its supporting database are designed to give scientists open access to the data that are needed to understand the relationship between ecosystem form and function and to stimulate the advancement of synergistic algorithms. This system will enhance our ability to design new missions and produce data products related to biodiversity and climate change. G-LiHT has been operational since 2011 and has been used to collect data for a number of NASA and USFS sponsored studies, including NASA's Carbon Monitoring System (CMS) and the American ICESat/GLAS Assessment of Carbon (AMIGA-Carb). These acquisitions target a broad diversity of forest communities and ecoregions across the United States and Mexico. Here, we will discuss the components of G-LiHT, their calibration and performance characteristics, operational implementation, and data processing workflows. We will also provide examples of higher level data products that are currently available.

  20. Scanning L-Band Active Passive (SLAP)—FLIGHT Results from a New Airborne Simulator for Smap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, E. J.; Faulkner, T.; Wu, A.; Patel, H.

    2014-12-01

    1. Introduction and BackgroundThis paper introduces a new NASA airborne instrument, the Scanning L-band Active Passive (SLAP), which is specially tailored to simulate SMAP. 2. Description of SLAPSLAP has both passive (radiometer) and active (radar) microwave L-band imaging capabilities. The radiometer observes at 1.4 GHz using duplicate front end hardware from the SMAP satellite radiometer. It also includes a duplicate of the digital backend development unit for SMAP, thus the novel Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) detection and mitigation features and algorithms for SMAP are duplicated with very high fidelity in SLAP. The digital backend provides 4-Stokes polarization capability. The real-aperture radar operates in the 1215-1300 MHz band with quad-pol capability. Radar and radiometer share one antenna via diplexers that are spare units from the Aquarius satellite instrument. 3. Flight ResultsSLAP's initial flights were conducted in Dec 2013 over the eastern shore of Maryland and successfully demonstrated radiometer imaging over 2 full SMAP 36x36 km grid cells at 1km resolution within 3 hrs, easily meeting the SMAP post-launch cal/val airborne mapping requirements. A second flight on the same day also demonstrated SLAP's quick-turn abilities and high-resolution/wide-swath capabilities with 200m resolution across a 1500m swath from 2000 ft AGL. Additional flights were conducted as part of the GPM iPHEX campaign in May, 2014. 4. ConclusionThis paper presents flight data and imagery, as well as details of the radiometer and radar performance and calibration. The paper will also describe the mission performance achievable on the King Air and other platforms.

  1. View from second floor platform looking up at subsequent platforms. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View from second floor platform looking up at subsequent platforms. Note the Shuttle assembly outlined by the platform edges. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Saturn V Dynamic Test Facility, East Test Area, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  2. Locating spilled oil with airborne laser fluorosensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Carl E.; Fingas, Mervin F.; Nelson, Robert D.; Mullin, Joseph V.

    1999-02-01

    Locating oil in marine and terrestrial environments is a daunting task. There are commercially available off the shelf (COTS) sensors with a wide field-of-view (FOV) which can be used to map the overall extent of the spill. These generic sensors, however, lack the specificity required to positively identify oil and related products. The problem is exacerbated along beach and shoreline environments where a variety of organic and inorganic substrates are present. One sensor that can detect and classify oil in these environments is the laser fluorosensor. Laser fluorosensors have been under development by several agencies around the world for the past two decades. Environment Canada has been involved with laser fluorosensor development since the early 1990s. The prototype system was known as the Laser Environmental Airborne Fluorosensor (LEAF). The LEAF has recently been modified to provide real-time oil spill detection and classification. Fluorescence spectra are collected and analyzed at the rate of 100 Hz. Geo-referenced maps showing the locations of oil contamination are produced in real-time onboard the aircraft. While the LEAF has proven to be an excellent prototype sensor and a good operational tool, it has some deficiencies when it comes to oil spill response operations. A consortium including Environment Canada and the Minerals Management Service has recently funded the development of a new fluorosensor, called the Scanning Laser Environmental Airborne Fluorosensor (SLEAF). The SLEAF was designed to detect and map oil in shoreline environments where other non-specific sensors experience difficulty. Oil tends to pile up in narrow bands along the high tide line on beaches. A nadir-looking, small footprint sensor such as the LEAF would have difficulty locating oil in this situation. The SLEAF employs a pair of conical scanning mirrors to direct the laser beam in a circular pattern below the aircraft. With a sampling rate of 400 Hz and real-time spectral analysis

  3. Overview of the Airborne Tropical TRopopause EX

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Hanwant B.; Jensen, Eric J.; Pfister, Leonhard

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Airborne Tropical TRopopause EXperiment (ATTREX) is a series of airborne campaigns focused on understanding physical processes in the Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL) and their role in atmospheric chemistry and climate. ATTREX is using the high-altitude, long-duration NASA Global Hawk Unmanned Air System to make in situ and remote-sensing measurements spanning the Pacific. A particular ATIREX emphasis is to better understand the dehydration of air as it passes through the cold tropical tropopause region. The ATTREX payload contains 12 in situ and remote sensing instruments that measure water vapor, clouds, multiple gaseous tracers (CO, CO2, CH4, NMHC, SF6, CFCs, N2O), reactive chemical compounds (O3, BrO, NO2), meteorological parameters, and radiative fluxes. ATTREX flight series have been conducted in the fall of 2011 from Armstrong Flight Research Center (AFRC) in California, in the winter of 2013 from AFRC, and in the winter/spring of 2014 from Guam. The first two f light series provided extensive sampling of the central and eastern Pacific, whereas the last flight series permitted sampling in the western Pacific. The sampling strategy has primarily involved repeated ascents and descents through the depth of the TTL (about 13-19 km). Over 100 TTL profiles were obtained on each flight series. The ATTREX dataset includes TTL water vapor measurements with unprecedented accuracy, ice crystal size distributions and habits. The cloud and water measurements provide unique information about TTL cloud formation, the persistence of supersaturation with respect to ice, and dehydration. The plethora of tracers measured on the Global Hawk flights are providing unique information about TTL transport pathways and time scales. The meteorological measurements are revealing dynamical phenomena controlling the TTL thermal structure, and the radiation measurements are providing information about heating rates associated with TTL clouds and water vapor. This presentation

  4. The 1979 Southeastern Virginia Urban Plume Study (SEV-UPS): Surface and airborne studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, J. H.; Eaton, W. C.; Saeger, M. L.; Strong, R. B.; Tommerdahl, J. B.

    1980-01-01

    The operation of two surface monitoring stations (one in downtown Norfolk, Virginia, one south of the city near the Great Dismal Swamp) and the collection of 40 hours of airborne measurements is described. Surface site measurements of ozone, oxides of nitrogen, sulfur dioxide, temperature, dew point, b sub seat, and condensation nuclei were made. Instrument calibrations, quality assurance audits, and preliminary data analysis in support of the Urban Plume Study were also made. The air pollution problems that were addressed are discussed. Data handling procedures followed for the surface stations are presented. The operation of the aircraft sampling platform is described. Aircraft sampling procedures are discussed. A preliminary descriptive analysis of the aircraft data is given along with data or plots for surface sites, airborne studies, hydrocarbon species, and instrument performance audits. Several of the aircraft flights clearly show the presence of an urban ozone plume downwind of Norfolk in the direction of the mean wind flow.

  5. Visualizing Airborne and Satellite Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bierwirth, Victoria A.

    2011-01-01

    Remote sensing is a process able to provide information about Earth to better understand Earth's processes and assist in monitoring Earth's resources. The Cloud Absorption Radiometer (CAR) is one remote sensing instrument dedicated to the cause of collecting data on anthropogenic influences on Earth as well as assisting scientists in understanding land-surface and atmospheric interactions. Landsat is a satellite program dedicated to collecting repetitive coverage of the continental Earth surfaces in seven regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Combining these two aircraft and satellite remote sensing instruments will provide a detailed and comprehensive data collection able to provide influential information and improve predictions of changes in the future. This project acquired, interpreted, and created composite images from satellite data acquired from Landsat 4-5 Thematic Mapper (TM) and Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+). Landsat images were processed for areas covered by CAR during the Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCT AS), Cloud and Land Surface Interaction Campaign (CLASIC), Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment-Phase B (INTEXB), and Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI) 2000 missions. The acquisition of Landsat data will provide supplemental information to assist in visualizing and interpreting airborne and satellite imagery.

  6. Medicinal smoke reduces airborne bacteria.

    PubMed

    Nautiyal, Chandra Shekhar; Chauhan, Puneet Singh; Nene, Yeshwant Laxman

    2007-12-01

    This study represents a comprehensive analysis and scientific validation of our ancient knowledge about the effect of ethnopharmacological aspects of natural products' smoke for therapy and health care on airborne bacterial composition and dynamics, using the Biolog microplate panels and Microlog database. We have observed that 1h treatment of medicinal smoke emanated by burning wood and a mixture of odoriferous and medicinal herbs (havan sámagri=material used in oblation to fire all over India), on aerial bacterial population caused over 94% reduction of bacterial counts by 60 min and the ability of the smoke to purify or disinfect the air and to make the environment cleaner was maintained up to 24h in the closed room. Absence of pathogenic bacteria Corynebacterium urealyticum, Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens, Enterobacter aerogenes (Klebsiella mobilis), Kocuria rosea, Pseudomonas syringae pv. persicae, Staphylococcus lentus, and Xanthomonas campestris pv. tardicrescens in the open room even after 30 days is indicative of the bactericidal potential of the medicinal smoke treatment. We have demonstrated that using medicinal smoke it is possible to completely eliminate diverse plant and human pathogenic bacteria of the air within confined space. PMID:17913417

  7. Performance Basis for Airborne Separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wing, David J.

    2008-01-01

    Emerging applications of Airborne Separation Assistance System (ASAS) technologies make possible new and powerful methods in Air Traffic Management (ATM) that may significantly improve the system-level performance of operations in the future ATM system. These applications typically involve the aircraft managing certain components of its Four Dimensional (4D) trajectory within the degrees of freedom defined by a set of operational constraints negotiated with the Air Navigation Service Provider. It is hypothesized that reliable individual performance by many aircraft will translate into higher total system-level performance. To actually realize this improvement, the new capabilities must be attracted to high demand and complexity regions where high ATM performance is critical. Operational approval for use in such environments will require participating aircraft to be certified to rigorous and appropriate performance standards. Currently, no formal basis exists for defining these standards. This paper provides a context for defining the performance basis for 4D-ASAS operations. The trajectory constraints to be met by the aircraft are defined, categorized, and assessed for performance requirements. A proposed extension of the existing Required Navigation Performance (RNP) construct into a dynamic standard (Dynamic RNP) is outlined. Sample data is presented from an ongoing high-fidelity batch simulation series that is characterizing the performance of an advanced 4D-ASAS application. Data of this type will contribute to the evaluation and validation of the proposed performance basis.

  8. Reassessment of offshore platforms

    SciTech Connect

    Nair, V.V.D.; Kuhn, J.M. )

    1993-05-01

    Data from Hurricane Andrew demonstrated that the systems and procedures in place for evacuating offshore workers and minimizing oil spills and environmental damage functioned as planned. While the vast majority of the platforms survived the storm with no damage, a few of the older platforms (installed prior to 1972) either collapsed or suffered severe damage. The collapsed platforms were designed with insufficient deck height to clear the storm waves. In recent years, the API RP 2A has introduced guidance for minimum air gap, minimum structures, platform inspection and platform reuse. These provisions, coupled with natural attribution of the older platforms, will significantly improve the performance of platforms in the future. The reliability of NDT techniques to detect major structural defects should be improved through continued research. While flooded member detection is used by several operators as a screening tool to detect major defects underwater, its reliability is not always good and further research is needed in this area. Another area of high priority research is related to the use of Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROV) to perform underwater inspection of structures. 51 refs., 7 figs.

  9. NASA three-laser airborne differential absorption lidar system electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, R. J.; Copeland, G. D.

    1984-01-01

    The system control and signal conditioning electronics of the NASA three laser airborne differential absorption lidar (DIAL) system are described. The multipurpose DIAL system was developed for the remote measurement of gas and aerosol profiles in the troposphere and lower stratosphere. A brief description and photographs of the majority of electronics units developed under this contract are presented. The precision control system; which includes a master control unit, three combined NASA laser control interface/quantel control units, and three noise pulse discriminator/pockels cell pulser units; is described in detail. The need and design considerations for precision timing and control are discussed. Calibration procedures are included.

  10. Evolutionary space platform concept study. Volume 2, part B: Manned space platform concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Logical, cost-effective steps in the evolution of manned space platforms are investigated and assessed. Tasks included the analysis of requirements for a manned space platform, identifying alternative concepts, performing system analysis and definition of the concepts, comparing the concepts and performing programmatic analysis for a reference concept.

  11. Aerosol Optical Depth Measurements by Airborne Sun Photometer in SOLVE II: Comparisons to SAGE III, POAM III and Airborne Spectrometer Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, P.; Livingston, J.; Schmid, B.; Eilers, J.; Kolyer, R.; Redemann, J.; Ramirez, S.; Yee, J-H.; Swartz, W.; Shetter, R.

    2004-01-01

    The 14-channel NASA Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS-14) measured solar-beam transmission on the NASA DC-8 during the Second SAGE III Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment (SOLVE II). This paper presents AATS-14 results for multiwavelength aerosol optical depth (AOD), including its spatial structure and comparisons to results from two satellite sensors and another DC-8 instrument. These are the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III (SAGE III), the Polar Ozone and Aerosol Measurement III (POAM III) and the Direct beam Irradiance Airborne Spectrometer (DIAS).

  12. Diversity and seasonal dynamics of airborne archaea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fröhlich-Nowoisky, J.; Ruzene Nespoli, C.; Pickersgill, D. A.; Galand, P. E.; Müller-Germann, I.; Nunes, T.; Gomes Cardoso, J.; Almeida, S. M.; Pio, C.; Andreae, M. O.; Conrad, R.; Pöschl, U.; Després, V. R.

    2014-11-01

    Archaea are widespread and abundant in many terrestrial and aquatic environments, and are thus outside extreme environments, accounting for up to ~10% of the prokaryotes. Compared to bacteria and other microorganisms, however, very little is known about the abundance, diversity, and dispersal of archaea in the atmosphere. By means of DNA analysis and Sanger sequencing targeting the 16S rRNA (435 sequences) and amoA genes in samples of air particulate matter collected over 1 year at a continental sampling site in Germany, we obtained first insights into the seasonal dynamics of airborne archaea. The detected archaea were identified as Thaumarchaeota or Euryarchaeota, with soil Thaumarchaeota (group I.1b) being present in all samples. The normalized species richness of Thaumarchaeota correlated positively with relative humidity and negatively with temperature. This together with an increase in bare agricultural soil surfaces may explain the diversity peaks observed in fall and winter. The detected Euryarchaeota were mainly predicted methanogens with a low relative frequency of occurrence. A slight increase in their frequency during spring may be linked to fertilization processes in the surrounding agricultural fields. Comparison with samples from the Cape Verde islands (72 sequences) and from other coastal and continental sites indicates that the proportions of Euryarchaeota are enhanced in coastal air, which is consistent with their suggested abundance in marine surface waters. We conclude that air transport may play an important role in the dispersal of archaea, including assumed ammonia-oxidizing Thaumarchaeota and methanogens.

  13. Diversity and seasonal dynamics of airborne Archaea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fröhlich-Nowoisky, J.; Ruzene Nespoli, C.; Pickersgill, D. A.; Galand, P. E.; Müller-Germann, I.; Nunes, T.; Gomes Cardoso, J.; Marta Almeida, S.; Pio, C.; Andreae, M. O.; Conrad, R.; Pöschl, U.; Després, V. R.

    2014-05-01

    Archaea are widespread and abundant in many terrestrial and aquatic environments, accounting for up to ∼10% of the prokaryotes. Compared to Bacteria and other microorganisms, however, very little is known about the abundance, diversity, and dispersal of Archaea in the atmosphere. By DNA analysis targeting the 16S rRNA and amoA genes in samples of air particulate matter collected over one year at a continental sampling site in Germany, we obtained first insights into the seasonal dynamics of airborne Archaea. The detected Archaea were identified as Thaumarchaeota or Euryarchaeota, with soil Thaumarchaeota (group I.1b) being present in all samples. The normalized species richness of Thaumarchaeota correlated positively with relative humidity and negatively with temperature. This together with an increase of bare agricultural soil surfaces may explain the diversity peaks observed in fall and winter. The detected Euryarchaeota were mainly methanogens with a low relative frequency of occurrence. A slight increase in their frequency during spring may be linked to fertilization processes in the surrounding agricultural fields. Comparison with samples from the Cape Verde islands and from other coastal and continental sites indicates that the proportions of Euryarchaeota are enhanced in coastal air, which is consistent with their suggested abundance in marine surface waters. We conclude that air transport may play an important role for the dispersal of Archaea, including ammonia-oxidizing Thaumarchaeota and methanogens. Also, anthropogenic activities might influence the atmospheric abundance and diversity of Archaea.

  14. Ion-Beam Analysis of Airborne Pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrington, Charles; Gleason, Colin; Schuff, Katie; Battaglia, Maria; Moore, Robert; Turley, Colin; Labrake, Scott; Vineyard, Michael

    2010-11-01

    An undergraduate laboratory research program in ion-beam analysis (IBA) of atmospheric aerosols is being developed to study pollution in the Capitol District and Adirondack Mountains of New York. The IBA techniques applied in this project include proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE), proton induced gamma-ray emission (PIGE), Rutherford backscattering (RBS), and proton elastic scattering analysis (PESA). These methods are well suited for studying air pollution because they are quick, non-destructive, require little to no sample preparation, and capable of investigating microscopic samples. While PIXE spectrometry is used to analyze most elements from silicon to uranium, the other techniques are being applied to measure some of the remaining elements and complement PIXE in the study of aerosols. The airborne particulate matter is collected using nine-stage cascade impactors that separate the particles according to size and the samples are bombarded with proton beams from the Union College 1.1-MV Pelletron Accelerator. The reaction products are measured with SDD X-ray, Ge gamma-ray, and Si surface barrier charged particle detectors. Here we report on the progress we have made on the PIGE, RBS, and PESA analysis of aerosol samples.

  15. Airborne biological particles and electric fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benninghoff, William S.; Benninghoff, Anne S.

    1982-01-01

    In November and December 1977 at McMurdo Station in Antarctica we investigated the kinds, numbers, and deposition of airborne particles larger than 2 μm while measuring electric field gradient at 2.5 m above the ground. Elementary collecting devices were used: Staplex Hi-Volume and Roto-rod samplers, Tauber (static sedimentation) traps, petrolatum-coated microscope slides, and snow (melted and filtered). The electric fields were measured by a rotating dipole (Stanford Radioscience Laboratory field mill number 2). During periods of blowing snow and dust the electric field gradient was + 500 to + 2500 V/m, and Tauber traps with grounded covers collected 2 or more times as much snow and dust as the ones with ungrounded covers. During falling snow the electric field gradient was -1000 to -1500 V/m, and the ungrounded traps collected almost twice as much snow and dust as those grounded. These observations suggest that under the prevailing weather conditions in polar regions the probable net effect is deposition of greater quantities of dust, including diaspores and minute organisms, on wet, grounded surfaces. This hypothesis needs examination for its use in explanation of biological distribution patterns.

  16. Airborne measured analytic signal for UXO detection

    SciTech Connect

    Gamey, T.J.; Holladay, J.S.; Mahler, R.

    1997-10-01

    The Altmark Tank Training Range north of Haldensleben, Germany has been in operation since WWI. Weapons training and testing has included cavalry, cannon, small arms, rail guns, and tank battalions. Current plans are to convert the area to a fully digital combat training facility. Instead of using blank or dummy ordnance, hits will be registered with lasers and computers. Before this can happen, the 25,000 ha must be cleared of old debris. In support of this cleanup operation, Aerodat Inc., in conjunction with IABG of Germany, demonstrated a new high resolution magnetic survey technique involving the measurement of 3-component magnetic gradient data. The survey was conducted in May 1996, and covered 500 ha in two blocks. The nominal line spacing was 10 m, and the average sensor altitude was 7 m. The geologic column consisted of sands over a sedimentary basin. Topographic relief was generally flat with approximately 3 m rolling dunes and occasional man-made features such as fox holes, bunkers, tank traps and reviewing stands. Trees were sparse and short (2-3 metres) due to frequent burn off and tank activity. As such, this site was nearly ideal for low altitude airborne surveying.

  17. SLAPex Freeze/Thaw 2015: The First Dedicated Soil Freeze/Thaw Airborne Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Edward; Wu, Albert; DeMarco, Eugenia; Powers, Jarrett; Berg, Aaron; Rowlandson, Tracy; Freeman, Jacqueline; Gottfried, Kurt; Toose, Peter; Roy, Alexandre; Derksen, Chris; Royer, Alain; Belair, Stephane; Houser, Paul; McDonald, Kyle; Entin, Jared; Lewis, Kristen

    2016-01-01

    Soil freezing and thawing is an important process in the terrestrial water, energy, and carbon cycles, marking the change between two very different hydraulic, thermal, and biological regimes. NASA's Soil Moisture Active/Passive (SMAP) mission includes a binary freeze/thaw data product. While there have been ground-based remote sensing field measurements observing soil freeze/thaw at the point scale, and airborne campaigns that observed some frozen soil areas (e.g., BOREAS), the recently-completed SLAPex Freeze/Thaw (F/T) campaign is the first airborne campaign dedicated solely to observing frozen/thawed soil with both passive and active microwave sensors and dedicated ground truth, in order to enable detailed process-level exploration of the remote sensing signatures and in situ soil conditions. SLAPex F/T utilized the Scanning L-band Active/Passive (SLAP) instrument, an airborne simulator of SMAP developed at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, and was conducted near Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, in October/November, 2015. Future soil moisture missions are also expected to include soil freeze/thaw products, and the loss of the radar on SMAP means that airborne radar-radiometer observations like those that SLAP provides are unique assets for freeze/thaw algorithm development. This paper will present an overview of SLAPex F/T, including descriptions of the site, airborne and ground-based remote sensing, ground truth, as well as preliminary results.

  18. The BIRD payload platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, Ingo; Briess, Klaus; Baerwald, Wolfgang; Skrbek, Wolfgang; Schrandt, Fredrich

    2003-04-01

    For hot spot events as forest fires, volcanic activity or burning oil spills and coal seams a dedicate dspace instrumentation does not exist. With its successful launch end of October 2001 with the Indian Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle the German Aerospace Center starts closing this gap with the micro-satellite mission BIRD. As space segment serves a three-axis stabilized satellite of 92 kg including a contingent of over 30% for the scientific instruments. The main payload of the BIRD micro-satellite is the newly developed Hot Spot Recognition System. It's a dual-channel instrument for middle and thermal IR imagery based on cooled MCT line detectors. The miniaturization by integrated detector/cooler assemblies provides a highly efficient design. A complement for the hot spot detection is the wide-angle stereo-scanner WAOSS-B. It is a hardware re-use dedicated to vegetation and cloud assessment in the visible spectral range. Besides the main objective of hot spot detection the mission has to answer several technological questions of the operation of cooled detectors in space, special aspects of their adaptation to the satellite platform as well as their calibration.

  19. Reproducible Experiment Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Likhomanenko, Tatiana; Rogozhnikov, Alex; Baranov, Alexander; Khairullin, Egor; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey

    2015-12-01

    Data analysis in fundamental sciences nowadays is an essential process that pushes frontiers of our knowledge and leads to new discoveries. At the same time we can see that complexity of those analyses increases fast due to a) enormous volumes of datasets being analyzed, b) variety of techniques and algorithms one have to check inside a single analysis, c) distributed nature of research teams that requires special communication media for knowledge and information exchange between individual researchers. There is a lot of resemblance between techniques and problems arising in the areas of industrial information retrieval and particle physics. To address those problems we propose Reproducible Experiment Platform (REP), a software infrastructure to support collaborative ecosystem for computational science. It is a Python based solution for research teams that allows running computational experiments on shared datasets, obtaining repeatable results, and consistent comparisons of the obtained results. We present some key features of REP based on case studies which include trigger optimization and physics analysis studies at the LHCb experiment.

  20. Applications for the MATILDA robotic platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munkeby, Steve H.; Jones, Don; Bugg, George; Smith, Kathryn

    2002-07-01

    Most robotic platforms have, up to this point, been designed with emphasis placed on improving mobility technologies. Minimal emphasis has been placed on payloads and mission execution. Using a top-down approach, Mesa Associates, Inc. identified specific UGV mission applications and structured its MATILDA platform using these applications for vehicle mobility and motion control requirements. Specific applications identified for the MATILDA platform include: Target surveillance, explosive device neutralization, material pickup and transport, weapon transport and firing, and law enforcement. Current performance results, lessons-learned, technical hurdles, and future applications are examined.

  1. ARM for Platform Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patte, Mathieu; Poupat, Jean-Luc; Le Meur, Patrick

    2015-09-01

    The activities described in this paper are part of the CNES R&T “Study of a Cortex-R ARM based architecture” performed by Airbus DS Space System & Electronics in 2014. With the support of CNES, Airbus DS has performed the porting of a representative space application software on an ARM based demonstration platform. This paper presents the platform itself, the activities performed at software level and the first results on this evaluation study.

  2. Novel solid state sensor platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colvin, Arthur E., Jr.; Bargeron, C. Brent; Phillips, Terry E.; Miragliotta, Joseph A.; Givens, Robert B.

    1998-05-01

    A unique solid-state optical sensor configuration has been invented that can serve as a development platform for a host of chemical and biochemical sensors in either gaseous or liquid environments. We present results from measurements from the first adaptation of the device to oxygen sensing via fluorescence quenching and note the distinct advantages over existing electrochemical and more recent fiber-optic methods. The platform technology itself features greatly enhanced energy efficiency, high sensitivity, low-power consumption, ease of miniaturization, low cost, high-volume manufacturability using standard methods, very fast response/recovery profiles, and high reliability. The oxygen sensor embodiment has been demonstrated to operate well over the temperature range from -20 to 50 degrees C, not to be interfered with by other common gases including water vapor at high levels, and capable of response times less than 100 milliseconds.

  3. Photon-Counting Multikilohertz Microlaser Altimeters for Airborne and Spaceborne Topographic Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degnan, John J.; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    We consider the optimum design of photon-counting microlaser altimeters operating from airborne and spaceborne platforms under both day and night conditions. Extremely compact Q-switched microlaser transmitters produce trains of low energy pulses at multi-kHz rates and can easily generate subnanosecond pulse-widths for precise ranging. To guide the design, we have modeled the solar noise background and developed simple algorithms, based on Post-Detection Poisson Filtering (PDPF), to optimally extract the weak altimeter signal from a high noise background during daytime operations. Practical technology issues, such as detector and/or receiver dead times, have also been considered in the analysis. We describe an airborne prototype, being developed under NASA's instrument Incubator Program, which is designed to operate at a 10 kHz rate from aircraft cruise altitudes up to 12 km with laser pulse energies on the order of a few microjoules. We also analyze a compact and power efficient system designed to operate from Mars orbit at an altitude of 300 km and sample the Martian surface at rates up to 4.3 kHz using a 1 watt laser transmitter and an 18 cm telescope. This yields a Power-Aperture Product of 0.24 W-square meter, corresponding to a value almost 4 times smaller than the Mars Orbiting Laser Altimeter (0. 88W-square meter), yet the sampling rate is roughly 400 times greater (4 kHz vs 10 Hz) Relative to conventional high power laser altimeters, advantages of photon-counting laser altimeters include: (1) a more efficient use of available laser photons providing up to two orders of magnitude greater surface sampling rates for a given laser power-telescope aperture product; (2) a simultaneous two order of magnitude reduction in the volume, cost and weight of the telescope system; (3) the unique ability to spatially resolve the source of the surface return in a photon counting mode through the use of pixellated or imaging detectors; and (4) improved vertical and

  4. Cloud shortwave radiative effect and cloud properties estimated from airborne measurements of transmitted and reflected light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LeBlanc, Samuel E.; Redemann, Jens; Segal-Rosenheimer, Michal; Kacenelenbogen, Meloë; Shinozuka, Yohei; Flynn, Connor; Russell, Philip; Schmid, Beat; Schmidt, K. Sebastian; Pilewskie, Peter; Song, Shi

    2015-04-01

    from aircraft by using the Spectrometer for Sky-Scanning, Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research (4STAR) instrument. The 4STAR instrument was deployed on an airborne platform during SEAC4RS and TCAP. During SEAC4RS, the Solar Spectral Flux Radiometer (SSFR) was also deployed alongside 4STAR. The cloud optical thickness and effective radius from the retrieval based on transmitted shortwave radiation are compared to cloud properties obtained from above the cloud by using reflected shortwave radiation measured with SSFR, with the enhanced MODIS Airborne Simulator (eMAS), with the Research Scanning Polarimeter (RSP), and from in situ cloud probes. For TCAP, we compare cloud properties retrieved using 4STAR and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS).

  5. FIELD ACTIVITIES AND PRELIMINARY RESULTS FROM THE INVESTIGATION OF WESTERN AIRBORNE CONTAMINANTS IN TWO HIGH ELEVATION WATERSHEDS OF ROCKY MOUNTAIN NATIONAL PARK

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Park Service initiated the Western Airborne Contaminants Assessment Project (WACAP) in 2002 to determine if airborne contaminants from long-range transport and/or regional sources are having an impact on remote western ecosystems, including AK. Rocky Mountain Nation...

  6. Active airborne contamination control using electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Veatch, B.D.

    1994-06-01

    In spite of our best efforts, radioactive airborne contamination continues to be a formidable problem at many of the Department of Energy (DOE) weapons complex sites. For workers that must enter areas with high levels of airborne contamination, personnel protective equipment (PPE) can become highly restrictive, greatly diminishing productivity. Rather than require even more restrictive PPE for personnel in some situations, the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) is actively researching and developing methods to aggressively combat airborne contamination hazards using electrophoretic technology. With appropriate equipment, airborne particulates can be effectively removed and collected for disposal in one simple process. The equipment needed to implement electrophoresis is relatively inexpensive, highly reliable, and very compact. Once airborne contamination levels are reduced, less PPE is required and a significant cost savings may be realized through decreased waste and maximized productivity. Preliminary ``cold,`` or non-radioactive, testing results at the RFP have shown the technology to be effective on a reasonable scale, with several potential benefits and an abundance of applications.

  7. Application of 2D-GCMS reveals many industrial chemicals in airborne particulate matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, Mohammed S.; West, Charles E.; Scarlett, Alan G.; Rowland, Steven J.; Harrison, Roy M.

    2013-02-01

    Samples of airborne particulate matter (PM2.5) have been collected in Birmingham, UK and extracted with dichloromethane prior to analysis by two-dimensional GC separation and TOFMS analysis. Identification of compounds using the NIST spectral library has revealed a remarkable diversity of compounds, some of which have not been previously reported in airborne analyses. Groups of compounds identified in this study include a large number of oxygenated VOC including linear and branched compounds, substituted aromatic compounds and alicyclic compounds, oxygenated polycyclic aromatic and alicyclic compounds, organic nitrogen compounds, branched chain VOC and substituted aromatic VOC, phthalates, organo-phosphates and organo-sulphate compounds. Many of the compounds identified are mass production chemicals, which due to their semi-volatility enter the atmosphere and subsequently partition onto pre-existing aerosol. Their contribution to the toxicity of airborne particulate matter is currently unknown but might be significant. The diverse industrial uses and potential sources of the identified compounds are reported.

  8. Sensor motion control and mobile platforms for aquatic remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bostater, Charles R., Jr.

    2006-09-01

    Modern remote sensing systems used in repetitive environmental monitoring and surveillance applications are used on various platforms. These platforms can be categorized as stationary (fixed) or moving platforms. The sensing systems monitor the ambient environment which also may have inherent motion, such as the water surface with water waves. This is particularly the case for airborne or ship borne sensing of aquatic environments and is true for ground based walking or crawling systems. The time sequential comparison and spatial registration of sensor images, particularly "hyperspectral imagery" requires pixel to pixel registration for science based change and target (or medium) detection applications. These applications require sensor motion control combined with platform motion control. If the pixel sizes are small - on the order of 1 meter to less than 1 mm, then "nano-positioning accuracy" may be necessary for various aspects of the camera or surveillance sensor system, and/or related sensors used to control the moving platform. In this paper and presentation, an overview of converging technologies to sensor motion control and nano-positioning is discussed. The paper and presentation will demonstrate that the technologies converging on this aspect of remote sensing monitoring systems will require professionals with a combination of skills that are not readily available in today's workforce nor taught in educational programs today - especially at the undergraduate level. Thus there is a need to consider new avenues for educating professionals necessary to engineer and apply these converging technologies to important social environmental monitoring and surveillance needs.

  9. Calibration of the National Ecological Observatory Network's Airborne Imaging Spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leisso, N.; Kampe, T. U.; Karpowicz, B. M.

    2014-12-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is currently under construction by the National Science Foundation. NEON is designed to collect data on the causes and responses to change in the observed ecosystem. The observatory will combine site data collected by terrestrial, instrumental, and aquatic observation systems with airborne remote sensing data. The Airborne Observation Platform (AOP) is designed to collect high-resolution aerial imagery, waveform and discrete LiDAR, and high-fidelity imaging spectroscopic data over the NEON sites annually at or near peak-greenness. Three individual airborne sensor packages will be installed in leased Twin Otter aircraft and used to the collect the NEON sites as NEON enters operations. A key driver to the derived remote sensing data products is the calibration of the imaging spectrometers. This is essential to the overall NEON mission to detect changes in the collected ecosystems over the 30-year expected lifetime. The NEON Imaging Spectrometer (NIS) is a Visible and Shortwave Infrared (VSWIR) grating spectrometer designed by NASA JPL. Spectroscopic data is collected at 5-nm intervals from 380-2500-nm. A single 480 by 640 pixel HgCdTe Focal Plane Array collects dispersed light from a grating tuned for efficiency across the solar-reflective utilized in a push-broom configuration. Primary calibration of the NIS consists of the characterizing the FPA behavior, spectral calibration, and radiometric calibration. To this end, NEON is constructing a Sensor Test Facility to calibrate the NEON sensors. This work discusses the initial NIS laboratory calibration and verification using vicarious calibration techniques during operations. Laboratory spectral calibration is based on well-defined emission lines in conjunction with a scanning monochromator to define the individual spectral response functions. A NIST traceable FEL bulb is used to radiometrically calibrate the imaging spectrometer. An On-board Calibration (OBC) system

  10. Comparison of airborne and spaceborne TIR data for studying volcanic geothermal areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaughan, R. G.; Heasler, H.; Jaworowski, C.; Bergfeld, D.; Evans, W.

    2015-12-01

    Mapping and quantifying the surface expression of geothermal heat flux in volcanic geothermal areas is important for establishing baseline thermal activity to better detect and understand any future changes that may be related to hydrothermal or volcanic processes, or human activities. Volcanic geothermal areas are often too large and inaccessible for only field-based thermal monitoring, so thermal infrared (TIR) remote sensing tools are also used. High resolution (sub-meter) airborne TIR imagery can be used for detailed, quantitative analyses of small, subtle geothermal features. Airborne data acquisitions have the advantage of being able to be acquired under ideal conditions (e.g., predawn, cloud-free), but the disadvantage of high costs - thus precluding high-frequency monitoring. Satellite-based TIR data from the Landsat 8 platform are freely available and can be acquired regularly for change detection, but are acquired with coarser spatial resolution (e.g., 100-m pixels), and thus are not as sensitive to subtle thermal characteristics. Two geothermal areas with clear, nighttime TIR data from nearly concurrent (within days) airborne and spaceborne instruments were investigated: Norris Geyser Basin in Yellowstone National Park, WY; and the Casa Diablo geothermal field, near Mammoth Lakes, CA. At Norris Geyser Basin, the area covered by high-resolution airborne TIR imagery is almost entirely geothermally heated ground, with hundreds of fumaroles, hot springs, and thermal drainages - although some non-geothermal background is exposed. With the coarser resolution Landsat 8 data, there are thermal variations within the smaller area covered by the airborne data, but the entire area appears to be thermally anomalous with respect to the non-geothermal background outside the basin. In the geothermal field around the Casa Diablo geothermal site, there are numerous, small areas of geothermal heating that are clearly distinguishable above the background by the high

  11. Airborne space laser communication system and experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiao-Ming; Zhang, Li-zhong; Meng, Li-Xin

    2015-11-01

    Airborne space laser communication is characterized by its high speed, anti-electromagnetic interference, security, easy to assign. It has broad application in the areas of integrated space-ground communication networking, military communication, anti-electromagnetic communication. This paper introduce the component and APT system of the airborne laser communication system design by Changchun university of science and technology base on characteristic of airborne laser communication and Y12 plan, especially introduce the high communication speed and long distance communication experiment of the system that among two Y12 plans. In the experiment got the aim that the max communication distance 144Km, error 10-6 2.5Gbps - 10-7 1.5Gbps capture probability 97%, average capture time 20s. The experiment proving the adaptability of the APT and the high speed long distance communication.

  12. Airborne pollen trends in the Iberian Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Galán, C; Alcázar, P; Oteros, J; García-Mozo, H; Aira, M J; Belmonte, J; Diaz de la Guardia, C; Fernández-González, D; Gutierrez-Bustillo, M; Moreno-Grau, S; Pérez-Badía, R; Rodríguez-Rajo, J; Ruiz-Valenzuela, L; Tormo, R; Trigo, M M; Domínguez-Vilches, E

    2016-04-15

    Airborne pollen monitoring is an effective tool for studying the reproductive phenology of anemophilous plants, an important bioindicator of plant behavior. Recent decades have revealed a trend towards rising airborne pollen concentrations in Europe, attributing these trends to an increase in anthropogenic CO2 emissions and temperature. However, the lack of water availability in southern Europe may prompt a trend towards lower flowering intensity, especially in herbaceous plants. Here we show variations in flowering intensity by analyzing the Annual Pollen Index (API) of 12 anemophilous taxa across 12 locations in the Iberian Peninsula, over the last two decades, and detecting the influence of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). Results revealed differences in the distribution and flowering intensity of anemophilous species. A negative correlation was observed between airborne pollen concentrations and winter averages of the NAO index. This study confirms that changes in rainfall in the Mediterranean region, attributed to climate change, have an important impact on the phenology of plants.

  13. Design and fabrication of a large airborne phased-array antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooke, William P.; Harris, Joseph M.; Jameson, Calvin R.

    1989-01-01

    A large phased-array antenna has been developed and mounted for missile test range trials on the Dash 8 aircraft, with a view to eventual installation on the E-9A Airborne Platform. The antenna is a one-dimensional scan, multiple-channel phased array of 30-ft length and 30-in height. This polarization-insensitive antenna operates in the 2.2-2.4 range, and uses modular parts to improve reliability and reduce maintenance time; being electronically steerable, the phased-array antenna is able to simultaneously receive five independent telemetry signals within its field-of-view.

  14. Compounds in airborne particulates - Salts and hydrocarbons. [at Cleveland, OH

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, R. B.; Antoine, A. C.; Fordyce, J. S.; Neustadter, H. E.; Leibecki, H. F.

    1977-01-01

    Concentrations of 10 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), the aliphatics as a group, sulfate, nitrate, fluoride, acidity, and carbon in the airborne particulate matter were measured at 16 sites in Cleveland, OH over a 1-year period during 1971 and 1972. Analytical methods used included gas chromatography, colorimetry, and combustion techniques. Uncertainties in the concentrations associated with the sampling procedures, and the analytical methods are evaluated. The data are discussed relative to other studies and source origins. High concentrations downwind of coke ovens for 3,4 benzopyrene are discussed. Hydrocarbon correlation studies indicated no significant relations among compounds studied.

  15. Proceedings of the Third Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR) Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanzyl, Jakob J. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    The Third Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR) Workshop was held on 23-24 May 1991 at JPL. Thirty oral presentations were made and 18 poster papers displayed during the workshop. Papers from these 25 presentations are presented which include analyses of AIRSAR operations and studies in SAR remote sensing, ecology, hydrology, soil science, geology, oceanography, volcanology, and SAR mapping and data handling. Results from these studies indicate the direction and emphasis of future orbital radar-sensor missions that will be launched during the 1990's.

  16. Tropospheric Airborne Meteorological Data Reporting (TAMDAR) Sensor Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daniels, Taumi S.

    2002-01-01

    In response to recommendations from the National Aviation Weather Program Council, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is working with industry to develop an electronic pilot reporting capability for small aircraft. This paper describes the Tropospheric Airborne Meteorological Data Reporting (TAMDAR) sensor development effort. NASA is working with industry to develop a sensor capable of measuring temperature, relative humidity, magnetic heading, pressure, icing, and average turbulence energy dissipation. Users of the data include National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) forecast modelers, air traffic controllers, flight service stations, airline operation centers, and pilots. Preliminary results from flight tests are presented.

  17. An integrated decision model for the application of airborne sensors for improved response to accidental and terrorist chemical vapor releases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapitan, Loginn

    This research created a new model which provides an integrated approach to planning the effective selection and employment of airborne sensor systems in response to accidental or intentional chemical vapor releases. The approach taken was to use systems engineering and decision analysis methods to construct a model architecture which produced a modular structure for integrating both new and existing components into a logical procedure to assess the application of airborne sensor systems to address chemical vapor hazards. The resulting integrated process model includes an internal aggregation model which allowed differentiation among alternative airborne sensor systems. Both models were developed and validated by experts and demonstrated using appropriate hazardous chemical release scenarios. The resultant prototype integrated process model or system fills a current gap in capability allowing improved planning, training and exercise for HAZMAT teams and first responders when considering the selection and employment of airborne sensor systems. Through the research process, insights into the current response structure and how current airborne capability may be most effectively used were generated. Furthermore, the resultant prototype system is tailorable for local, state, and federal application, and can potentially be modified to help evaluate investments in new airborne sensor technology and systems. Better planning, training and preparedness exercising holds the prospect for the effective application of airborne assets for improved response to large scale chemical release incidents. Improved response will result in fewer casualties and lives lost, reduced economic impact, and increased protection of critical infrastructure when faced with accidental and intentional terrorist release of hazardous industrial chemicals. With the prospect of more airborne sensor systems becoming available, this prototype system integrates existing and new tools into an effective

  18. Microarray platform for omics analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mecklenburg, Michael; Xie, Bin

    2001-09-01

    Microarray technology has revolutionized genetic analysis. However, limitations in genome analysis has lead to renewed interest in establishing 'omic' strategies. As we enter the post-genomic era, new microarray technologies are needed to address these new classes of 'omic' targets, such as proteins, as well as lipids and carbohydrates. We have developed a microarray platform that combines self- assembling monolayers with the biotin-streptavidin system to provide a robust, versatile immobilization scheme. A hydrophobic film is patterned on the surface creating an array of tension wells that eliminates evaporation effects thereby reducing the shear stress to which biomolecules are exposed to during immobilization. The streptavidin linker layer makes it possible to adapt and/or develop microarray based assays using virtually any class of biomolecules including: carbohydrates, peptides, antibodies, receptors, as well as them ore traditional DNA based arrays. Our microarray technology is designed to furnish seamless compatibility across the various 'omic' platforms by providing a common blueprint for fabricating and analyzing arrays. The prototype microarray uses a microscope slide footprint patterned with 2 by 96 flat wells. Data on the microarray platform will be presented.

  19. Assessing inhalation exposure from airborne soil contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Shinn, J.H.

    1998-04-01

    A method of estimation of inhalation exposure to airborne soil contaminants is presented. this method is derived from studies of airborne soil particles with radioactive tags. The concentration of contaminants in air (g/m{sup 3}) can be derived from the product of M, the suspended respirable dust mass concentration (g/m{sup 3}), S, the concentration of contaminant in the soil (g/g), and E{sub f}, an enhancement factor. Typical measurement methods and values of M, and E{sub f} are given along with highlights of experiences with this method.

  20. Detection and enumeration of airborne biocontaminants.

    PubMed

    Stetzenbach, Linda D; Buttner, Mark P; Cruz, Patricia

    2004-06-01

    The sampling and analysis of airborne microorganisms has received attention in recent years owing to concerns with mold contamination in indoor environments and the threat of bioterrorism. Traditionally, the detection and enumeration of airborne microorganisms has been conducted using light microscopy and/or culture-based methods; however, these analyses are time-consuming, laborious, subjective and lack sensitivity and specificity. The use of molecular methods, such as quantitative polymerase chain reaction amplification, can enhance monitoring strategies by increasing sensitivity and specificity, while decreasing the time required for analysis.

  1. National center for airborne laser mapping proposed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, Bill; Shrestha, Ramesh L.; Dietrich, Bill

    Researchers from universities, U.S. government agencies, U.S. national laboratories, and private industry met in the spring to learn about the current capabilities of Airborne Laser Swath Mapping (ALSM), share their experiences in using the technology for a wide variety of research applications, outline research that would be made possible by research-grade ALSM data, and discuss the proposed operation and management of the brand new National Center for Airborne Laser Mapping (NCALM).The workshop successfully identified a community of researchers with common interests in the advancement and use of ALSM—a community which strongly supports the immediate establishment of the NCALM.

  2. Transactional Network Platform: Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Katipamula, Srinivas; Lutes, Robert G.; Ngo, Hung; Underhill, Ronald M.

    2013-10-31

    In FY13, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) with funding from the Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Building Technologies Office (BTO) designed, prototyped and tested a transactional network platform to support energy, operational and financial transactions between any networked entities (equipment, organizations, buildings, grid, etc.). Initially, in FY13, the concept demonstrated transactions between packaged rooftop air conditioners and heat pump units (RTUs) and the electric grid using applications or "agents" that reside on the platform, on the equipment, on a local building controller or in the Cloud. The transactional network project is a multi-lab effort with Oakridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) also contributing to the effort. PNNL coordinated the project and also was responsible for the development of the transactional network (TN) platform and three different applications associated with RTUs. This document describes two applications or "agents" in details, and also summarizes the platform. The TN platform details are described in another companion document.

  3. Transmitter Pulse Estimation and Measurements for Airborne TDEM Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vetrov, A.; Mejzr, I.

    2013-12-01

    The processing and interpretation of Airborne Time Domain EM data requires precise description of the transmitter parameters, including shape, amplitude and length of the transmitted pulse. There are several ways to measure pulse shape of the transmitter loop. Transmitted pulse can be recorded by a current monitor installed on the loop. The current monitor readings do not give exact image due to own time-domain physical characteristics of the current monitor. Another way is to restore the primary pulse shape from the receiver data recorded on-time, if such is possible. The receiver gives exact image of the primary field projection combined with the ground response, which can be minimized at high altitude pass, usually with a transmitter elevation higher than 1500 ft from the ground. The readings on the receiver are depending on receiver position and orientation. Modeling of airborne TDEM transmitter pulse allows us to compare estimated and measured shape of the pulse and apply required corrections. Airborne TDEM system transmitter pulse shape has been studied by authors while developing P-THEM system. The data has been gathered during in-doors and out-doors ground tests in Canada, as well as during flight tests in Canada and in India. The P-THEM system has three-axes receiver that is suspended on a tow-cable in the midpoint between the transmitter and the helicopter. The P-THEM receiver geometry does not require backing coils to dump the primary field. The system records full-wave data from the receiver and current monitor installed on the transmitter loop, including on-time and off-time data. The modeling of the transmitter pulse allowed us to define the difference between estimated and measured values. The higher accuracy pulse shape can be used for better data processing and interpretation. A developed model can be applied to similar systems and configurations.

  4. 14 CFR 125.223 - Airborne weather radar equipment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Airborne weather radar equipment... Equipment Requirements § 125.223 Airborne weather radar equipment requirements. (a) No person may operate an airplane governed by this part in passenger-carrying operations unless approved airborne weather...

  5. 14 CFR 121.357 - Airborne weather radar equipment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Airborne weather radar equipment... § 121.357 Airborne weather radar equipment requirements. (a) No person may operate any transport... December 31, 1964, unless approved airborne weather radar equipment has been installed in the airplane....

  6. 14 CFR 125.223 - Airborne weather radar equipment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airborne weather radar equipment... Equipment Requirements § 125.223 Airborne weather radar equipment requirements. (a) No person may operate an airplane governed by this part in passenger-carrying operations unless approved airborne weather...

  7. 14 CFR 125.223 - Airborne weather radar equipment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Airborne weather radar equipment... Equipment Requirements § 125.223 Airborne weather radar equipment requirements. (a) No person may operate an airplane governed by this part in passenger-carrying operations unless approved airborne weather...

  8. 14 CFR 135.175 - Airborne weather radar equipment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airborne weather radar equipment... Aircraft and Equipment § 135.175 Airborne weather radar equipment requirements. (a) No person may operate a large, transport category aircraft in passenger-carrying operations unless approved airborne...

  9. 14 CFR 135.175 - Airborne weather radar equipment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Airborne weather radar equipment... Aircraft and Equipment § 135.175 Airborne weather radar equipment requirements. (a) No person may operate a large, transport category aircraft in passenger-carrying operations unless approved airborne...

  10. 14 CFR 121.357 - Airborne weather radar equipment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Airborne weather radar equipment... § 121.357 Airborne weather radar equipment requirements. (a) No person may operate any transport... December 31, 1964, unless approved airborne weather radar equipment has been installed in the airplane....

  11. 14 CFR 125.223 - Airborne weather radar equipment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Airborne weather radar equipment... Equipment Requirements § 125.223 Airborne weather radar equipment requirements. (a) No person may operate an airplane governed by this part in passenger-carrying operations unless approved airborne weather...

  12. 14 CFR 121.357 - Airborne weather radar equipment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Airborne weather radar equipment... § 121.357 Airborne weather radar equipment requirements. (a) No person may operate any transport... December 31, 1964, unless approved airborne weather radar equipment has been installed in the airplane....

  13. 14 CFR 135.175 - Airborne weather radar equipment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Airborne weather radar equipment... Aircraft and Equipment § 135.175 Airborne weather radar equipment requirements. (a) No person may operate a large, transport category aircraft in passenger-carrying operations unless approved airborne...

  14. 14 CFR 125.223 - Airborne weather radar equipment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Airborne weather radar equipment... Equipment Requirements § 125.223 Airborne weather radar equipment requirements. (a) No person may operate an airplane governed by this part in passenger-carrying operations unless approved airborne weather...

  15. 14 CFR 121.357 - Airborne weather radar equipment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airborne weather radar equipment... § 121.357 Airborne weather radar equipment requirements. (a) No person may operate any transport... December 31, 1964, unless approved airborne weather radar equipment has been installed in the airplane....

  16. 14 CFR 135.175 - Airborne weather radar equipment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Airborne weather radar equipment... Aircraft and Equipment § 135.175 Airborne weather radar equipment requirements. (a) No person may operate a large, transport category aircraft in passenger-carrying operations unless approved airborne...

  17. 14 CFR 135.175 - Airborne weather radar equipment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Airborne weather radar equipment... Aircraft and Equipment § 135.175 Airborne weather radar equipment requirements. (a) No person may operate a large, transport category aircraft in passenger-carrying operations unless approved airborne...

  18. 14 CFR 121.357 - Airborne weather radar equipment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Airborne weather radar equipment... § 121.357 Airborne weather radar equipment requirements. (a) No person may operate any transport... December 31, 1964, unless approved airborne weather radar equipment has been installed in the airplane....

  19. The research and realization of embedded GIS cross platform technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Ze-ming; Li, Jing; Wang, Zhi-gang; Yue, Chun-sheng

    2008-10-01

    For the reason of embedded processors and embedded operating systems, and under the rapid motivation of application demands, cross platform technique has become a key point and developing direction in embedded GIS field, with the main purpose that once the application software has been written, it can run on multiple platforms with little modification or without modification. At present, cross platform technique includes three major aspects: middleware technique, Java Virtual Machine technique and abstract layer technique. Among these three techniques, the realization process of middleware has a close contact with the host operating system platform. Java Language has a good cross platform property relying on Java virtual machine, but code execution efficiency is poor. Abstract layer technique also has a good cross platform property, high code execution efficiency and better expansibility, but the interface definition and relative realization of abstract layer are more complicated. A fine software system architecture structure is important to ensure success for any software system. Obeying the hierarchical and modular design principle of cross platform software methods, after analyzing and comparing the advantages and disadvantages of the three cross platform techniques in details, abstract layer technique is adopted in this paper to design the software system architecture of embedded GIS cross platform, and describes the interior components of software developing platform layer. At present this cross platform architecture has been successfully realized on WinCE and Vxworks platforms, and the performance of operating map is very good.

  20. Comparison of airborne bacterial communities from a hog farm and spray field.

    PubMed

    Arfken, Ann M; Song, Bongkeun; Sung, Jung-Suk

    2015-05-01

    Airborne bacteria from hog farms may have detrimental impacts on human health, particularly in terms of antibiotic resistance and pathogen zoonosis. Despite human health risks, very little is known about the composition and diversity of airborne bacteria from hog farms and hog-related spray fields. We used pyrosequencing analysis of 16S rRNA genes to compare airborne bacterial communities in a North Carolina hog farm and lagoon spray field. In addition, we isolated and identified antibiotic-resistant bacteria from both air samples. Based on 16S rRNA gene pyrosequence analysis, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria were the dominant phyla in airborne bacterial communities from both hog farm and spray field sites. Within the Firmicutes genera, Clostridium spp. were more abundant in the hog farm, whereas Staphylococcus spp. were higher in the spray field. The presence of opportunitic pathogens, including several Staphylococcus species and Propionibacterium acnes, was detected in both bioaerosol communities based on phylogenetic analysis. The isolation and identification of antibiotic-resistant bacteria from air samples also showed similar results with dominance of Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria in both hog farm and spray field air. Thus, the existence of opportunistic pathogens and antibiotic resistant bacteria in airborne communities evidences potential health risks to farmers and other residents from swine bioaerosol exposure.

  1. Generic aspects of the airborne spread of human pathogens indoors and emerging air decontamination technologies.

    PubMed

    Ijaz, M Khalid; Zargar, Bahram; Wright, Kathryn E; Rubino, Joseph R; Sattar, Syed A

    2016-09-01

    Indoor air can be an important vehicle for a variety of human pathogens. This review provides examples of airborne transmission of infectious agents from experimental and field studies and discusses how airborne pathogens can contaminate other parts of the environment to give rise to secondary vehicles leading air-surface-air nexus with possible transmission to susceptible hosts. The following groups of human pathogens are covered because of their known or potential airborne spread: vegetative bacteria (staphylococci and legionellae), fungi (Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Cladosporium spp and Stachybotrys chartarum), enteric viruses (noro- and rotaviruses), respiratory viruses (influenza and coronaviruses), mycobacteria (tuberculous and nontuberculous), and bacterial spore formers (Clostridium difficile and Bacillus anthracis). An overview of methods for experimentally generating and recovering airborne human pathogens is included, along with a discussion of factors that influence microbial survival in indoor air. Available guidelines from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and other global regulatory bodies for the study of airborne pathogens are critically reviewed with particular reference to microbial surrogates that are recommended. Recent developments in experimental facilities to contaminate indoor air with microbial aerosols are presented, along with emerging technologies to decontaminate indoor air under field-relevant conditions. Furthermore, the role that air decontamination may play in reducing the contamination of environmental surfaces and its combined impact on interrupting the risk of pathogen spread in both domestic and institutional settings is discussed. PMID:27590695

  2. Developing a social media platform for nurses.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Jennifer; Kennedy, Maggie

    2015-11-18

    Social media tools provide opportunities for nurses to connect with colleagues and patients and to advance personally and professionally. This article describes the process of developing an innovative social media platform at a large, multi-centre teaching hospital, The Ottawa Hospital, Canada, and its benefits for nurses. The platform, TOH Nurses, was developed using a nursing process approach, involving assessment, planning, implementation and evaluation. The aim of this initiative was to address the barriers to communication inherent in the large number of nurses employed by the organisation, the physical size of the multi-centre hospital and the shift-work nature of nursing. The platform was used to provide educational materials for clinical nurses, and to share information about professional practice. The implications of using a social media platform in a healthcare setting were considered carefully during its development and implementation, including concerns regarding privacy and confidentiality. PMID:26576914

  3. Paper - a potential platform in pharmaceutical development.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Hsun; Kuo, Zong-Keng; Cheng, Chao-Min

    2015-01-01

    Paper is predominantly composed of cellulose fibers that have an inherent ability to wick fluids by capillary action; it provides an interesting diagnostic platform that is inexpensive, easily obtained, and eco-friendly. Paper has been used in various types of biologically relevant applications including paper-based molecular assays, paper-based ELISA (P-ELISA), paper-based nucleic acid assays, and paper-based cell assays. Based on recent successes with the use of paper as a platform, we contend that paper is not only very suitable for diagnostics but could provide a more advantageous platform than current plastics-based platforms for drug discovery, and would be useful for accomplishing in vitro pre-compound screening steps while offering a possible solution to several economic obstacles inherent in the pharmaceutical industry.

  4. Universal visualization platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gee, Alexander G.; Li, Hongli; Yu, Min; Smrtic, Mary Beth; Cvek, Urska; Goodell, Howie; Gupta, Vivek; Lawrence, Christine; Zhou, Jainping; Chiang, Chih-Hung; Grinstein, Georges G.

    2005-03-01

    Although there are a number of visualization systems to choose from when analyzing data, only a few of these allow for the integration of other visualization and analysis techniques. There are even fewer visualization toolkits and frameworks from which one can develop ones own visualization applications. Even within the research community, scientists either use what they can from the available tools or start from scratch to define a program in which they are able to develop new or modified visualization techniques and analysis algorithms. Presented here is a new general-purpose platform for constructing numerous visualization and analysis applications. The focus of this system is the design and experimentation of new techniques, and where the sharing of and integration with other tools becomes second nature. Moreover, this platform supports multiple large data sets, and the recording and visualizing of user sessions. Here we introduce the Universal Visualization Platform (UVP) as a modern data visualization and analysis system.

  5. LAN MAP: An Innovative Airborne Light at Night Mapping Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craine, Eric R.; Craine, B. L.; Craine, E. M.; Craine, P. R.

    2013-01-01

    Widespread installation of inefficient and misdirected artificial light at night (LAN) has led to increasing concerns about light pollution and its impact, not only on astronomical facilities but larger communities as well. Light pollution impacts scientific research, environmental ecosystems, human health, and quality of life. In recent years, the public policy response to light pollution has included formulation of government codes to regulate lighting design and installation. Various environmental groups now include light pollution among their rallying themes to protest both specific and general developments. The latter efforts are often conducted in the absence of any quantitative data and are frequently charged by emotion rather than reason. To bring some scientific objectivity, and quantitative data, to these discussions, we have developed a suite of tools for simultaneous photometric measurements and temporal monitoring of both local communities and the sky overhead. We have also developed novel protocols for the use of these tools, including a triad of airborne, ground mobile, and ground static photometric surveys. We present a summary of these tools and protocols, with special emphasis on the airborne systems, and discuss baseline and follow-up measurements of LAN environments in the vicinity of numerous observatories in Arizona, the home of the initial LAN MAP surveys.

  6. Nanopaper as an Optical Sensing Platform.

    PubMed

    Morales-Narváez, Eden; Golmohammadi, Hamed; Naghdi, Tina; Yousefi, Hossein; Kostiv, Uliana; Horák, Daniel; Pourreza, Nahid; Merkoçi, Arben

    2015-07-28

    Bacterial cellulose nanopaper (BC) is a multifunctional material known for numerous desirable properties: sustainability, biocompatibility, biodegradability, optical transparency, thermal properties, flexibility, high mechanical strength, hydrophilicity, high porosity, broad chemical-modification capabilities and high surface area. Herein, we report various nanopaper-based optical sensing platforms and describe how they can be tuned, using nanomaterials, to exhibit plasmonic or photoluminescent properties that can be exploited for sensing applications. We also describe several nanopaper configurations, including cuvettes, plates and spots that we printed or punched on BC. The platforms include a colorimetric-based sensor based on nanopaper containing embedded silver and gold nanoparticles; a photoluminescent-based sensor, comprising CdSe@ZnS quantum dots conjugated to nanopaper; and a potential up-conversion sensing platform constructed from nanopaper functionalized with NaYF4:Yb(3+)@Er(3+)&SiO2 nanoparticles. We have explored modulation of the plasmonic or photoluminescent properties of these platforms using various model biologically relevant analytes. Moreover, we prove that BC is and advantageous preconcentration platform that facilitates the analysis of small volumes of optically active materials (∼4 μL). We are confident that these platforms will pave the way to optical (bio)sensors or theranostic devices that are simple, transparent, flexible, disposable, lightweight, miniaturized and perhaps wearable.

  7. The Personal Motion Platform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Brian Vandellyn

    1993-01-01

    The Neutral Body Posture experienced in microgravity creates a biomechanical equilibrium by enabling the internal forces within the body to find their own balance. A patented reclining chair based on this posture provides a minimal stress environment for interfacing with computer systems for extended periods. When the chair is mounted on a 3 or 6 axis motion platform, a generic motion simulator for simulated digital environments is created. The Personal Motion Platform provides motional feedback to the occupant in synchronization with their movements inside the digital world which enhances the simulation experience. Existing HMD based simulation systems can be integrated to the turnkey system. Future developments are discussed.

  8. Effluent monitoring Quality Assurance Project Plan for radioactive airborne emissions data. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Frazier, T.P.

    1995-12-01

    This Quality Assurance Project Plan addresses the quality assurance requirements for compiling Hanford Site radioactive airborne emissions data. These data will be reported to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the US Department of Energy, and the Washington State Department of Health. Effluent Monitoring performs compliance assessments on radioactive airborne sampling and monitoring systems. This Quality Assurance Project Plan is prepared in compliance with interim guidelines and specifications. Topics include: project description; project organization and management; quality assurance objectives; sampling procedures; sample custody; calibration procedures; analytical procedures; monitoring and reporting criteria; data reduction, verification, and reporting; internal quality control; performance and system audits; corrective actions; and quality assurance reports.

  9. Simulation of Terminal-Area Flight Management System Arrivals with Airborne Spacing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callantine, Todd J.; Lee, Paul U.; Mercer, Joey S.; Palmer, Everett A.; Prevot, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    A simulation evaluated the feasibility and potential benefits of using decision support tools to support time-based airborne spacing and merging for aircraft arriving in the terminal area on charted Flight Management System (FMS) routes. Sixteen trials were conducted in each treatment combination of a 2X2 repeated-measures design. In trials 'with ground tools' air traffic controller participants managed traffic using sequencing and spacing tools. In trials 'with air tools' approximately seventy-five percent of aircraft assigned to the primary landing runway were equipped for airborne spacing, including flight simulators flown by commercial pilots. The results indicate that airborne spacing improves spacing accuracy and is feasible for FMS operations and mixed spacing equipage. Controllers and pilots can manage spacing clearances that contain two call signs without difficulty. For best effect, both decision support tools and spacing guidance should exhibit consistently predictable performance, and merging traffic flows should be well coordinated.

  10. Application of airborne infrared technology to monitor building heat loss. [Michigan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanis, F. J.; Sampson, R. E.

    1977-01-01

    The application of airborne infrared technology to the requirements for energy conservation in buildings was studied. Quantitative airborne data of the City of Ypsilanti, Michigan, were collected and processed to identify roof temperatures. A thermal scanner was flown at an altitude of 1,200 feet with two thermal bands 8.2-9.3 micrometers and 10.4-12.5 micrometers recorded by an analog system. Calibration was achieved by standard hot and cold plates. Using a thermal model to interpret ceiling insulation status, environmental factors were found to influence the relation between roof temperature and insulation. These include interior and sky temperatures, roofing materials, and the pitch and orientation of the roof. A follow-up mail survey established the ability to identify insulated and uninsulated houses from the airborne infrared data.

  11. The NASA airborne astronomy program - A perspective on its contributions to science, technology, and education

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, Harold P.

    1992-01-01

    The publication records from NASA's airborne observatories are examined to evaluate the contribution of the airborne astronomy program to technological development and scientific/educational progress. The breadth and continuity of program is detailed with reference to its publication history, discipline representation, literature citations, and to the ability of such a program to address nonrecurring and unexpected astronomical phenomena. Community involvement in the airborne-observation program is described in terms of the number of participants, institutional affiliation, and geographic distribution. The program utilizes instruments including heterodyne and grating spectrometers, high-speed photometers, and Fabry-Perot spectrometers with wide total spectral ranges, resolutions, and numbers of channels. The potential of the program for both astronomical training and further scientific, theoretical, and applied development is underscored.

  12. Platform superstructures: Design and construction

    SciTech Connect

    Boswell, L.F.

    1984-01-01

    This volume was written to fulfill the need for information relating to the design, construction and installation of offshore platform superstructures which sustain the essential drilling, production and life support facilities and account for the major part of the overall project costs in the exploration and production of oil and gas. Contents include: Topside facilities design-an overall perspective. Load-out and sea transport. Hook-up and commissioning. Alternatives to modular construction. After design and construction come operation: a maintenance view.

  13. Airborne and ground-based measurements of the trace gases and particles emitted from prescribed fires in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Burling, Ian; Yokelson, Robert J.; Akagi, Sheryl; Urbanski, Shawn; Wold, Cyle E.; Griffith, David WT; Johnson, Timothy J.; Reardon, James; Weise, David

    2011-12-07

    We measured the emission factors for 19 trace gas species and particulate matter (PM2.5) from 14 prescribed fires in chaparral and oak savanna in the southwestern US, as well as pine forest understory in the southeastern US and Sierra Nevada mountains of California. These are likely the most extensive emission factor field measurements for temperate biomass burning to date and the only published emission factors for temperate oak savanna fuels. This study helps close the gap in emissions data available for temperate zone fires relative to tropical biomass burning. We present the first field measurements of the biomass burning emissions of glycolaldehyde, a possible precursor for aqueous phase secondary organic aerosol formation. We also measured the emissions of phenol, another aqueous phase secondary organic aerosol precursor. Our data confirm previous suggestions that urban deposition can impact the NOx emission factors and thus subsequent plume chemistry. For two fires, we measured the emissions in the convective smoke plume from our airborne platform at the same time the unlofted residual smoldering combustion emissions were measured with our ground-based platform after the flame front passed through. The smoke from residual smoldering combustion was characterized by emission factors for hydrocarbon and oxygenated organic species that were up to ten times higher than in the lofted plume, including significant 1,3-butadiene and isoprene concentrations which were not observed in the lofted plume. This should be considered in modeling the air quality impacts of smoke that disperses at ground level, and we show that the normally-ignored unlofted emissions can also significantly impact estimates of total emissions. Preliminary evidence of large emissions of monoterpenes was seen in the residual smoldering spectra, but we have not yet quantified these emissions. These data should lead to an improved capacity to model the impacts of biomass burning in similar

  14. Airborne and ground-based measurements of the trace gases and particles emitted by prescribed fires in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burling, I. R.; Yokelson, R. J.; Akagi, S. K.; Urbanski, S. P.; Wold, C. E.; Griffith, D. W. T.; Johnson, T. J.; Reardon, J.; Weise, D. R.

    2011-12-01

    We have measured emission factors for 19 trace gas species and particulate matter (PM2.5) from 14 prescribed fires in chaparral and oak savanna in the southwestern US, as well as conifer forest understory in the southeastern US and Sierra Nevada mountains of California. These are likely the most extensive emission factor field measurements for temperate biomass burning to date and the only published emission factors for temperate oak savanna fuels. This study helps to close the gap in emissions data available for temperate zone fires relative to tropical biomass burning. We present the first field measurements of the biomass burning emissions of glycolaldehyde, a possible precursor for aqueous phase secondary organic aerosol formation. We also measured the emissions of phenol, another aqueous phase secondary organic aerosol precursor. Our data confirm previous observations that urban deposition can impact the NOx emission factors and thus subsequent plume chemistry. For two fires, we measured both the emissions in the convective smoke plume from our airborne platform and the unlofted residual smoldering combustion emissions with our ground-based platform. The smoke from residual smoldering combustion was characterized by emission factors for hydrocarbon and oxygenated organic species that were up to ten times higher than in the lofted plume, including high 1,3-butadiene and isoprene concentrations which were not observed in the lofted plume. This should be considered in modeling the air quality impacts for smoke that disperses at ground level. We also show that the often ignored unlofted emissions can significantly impact estimates of total emissions. Preliminary evidence suggests large emissions of monoterpenes in the residual smoldering smoke. These data should lead to an improved capacity to model the impacts of biomass burning in similar temperate ecosystems.

  15. Selectable Hyperspectral Airborne Remote-sensing Kit (SHARK) on the Vision II turbine rotorcraft UAV over the Florida Keys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holasek, R. E.; Nakanishi, K.; Swartz, B.; Zacaroli, R.; Hill, B.; Naungayan, J.; Herwitz, S.; Kavros, P.; English, D. C.

    2013-12-01

    As part of the NASA ROSES program, the NovaSol Selectable Hyperspectral Airborne Remote-sensing Kit (SHARK) was flown as the payload on the unmanned Vision II helicopter. The goal of the May 2013 data collection was to obtain high resolution visible and near-infrared (visNIR) hyperspectral data of seagrasses and coral reefs in the Florida Keys. The specifications of the SHARK hyperspectral system and the Vision II turbine rotorcraft will be described along with the process of integrating the payload to the vehicle platform. The minimal size, weight, and power (SWaP) specifications of the SHARK system is an ideal match to the Vision II helicopter and its flight parameters. One advantage of the helicopter over fixed wing platforms is its inherent ability to take off and land in a limited area and without a runway, enabling the UAV to be located in close proximity to the experiment areas and the science team. Decisions regarding integration times, waypoint selection, mission duration, and mission frequency are able to be based upon the local environmental conditions and can be modified just prior to take off. The operational procedures and coordination between the UAV pilot, payload operator, and scientist will be described. The SHARK system includes an inertial navigation system and digital elevation model (DEM) which allows image coordinates to be calculated onboard the aircraft in real-time. Examples of the geo-registered images from the data collection will be shown. SHARK mounted below VTUAV. SHARK deployed on VTUAV over water.

  16. Airborne In Situ and Ground-based Polarimetric Radar Measurements of Tropical Convection in Support of CRYSTAL-FACE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poellot, Michael R.; Kucera, Paul A.

    2004-01-01

    This report describes the work performed by the University of North Dakota (UND) under NASA Grant NAG5-11509, titled Airborne In Situ and Ground-based Polarimetric Radar Measurements of Tropical Convection in Support of CRYSTAL-FACE. This work focused on the collection of data by two key platforms: the UND Citation II research aircraft and the NASA NPOL radar system. The CRYSTAL-FACE (C-F) mission addresses several key issues from the NASA Earth System Enterprise, including the variability of water in the atmosphere, the forcing provided by tropical cirrus and the response of the Earth system to this forcing. In situ measurements and radar observations of tropical convection, cirrus clouds and their environment are core elements of C-F. One of the primary issues that C-F is addressing is the relationship of tropical cirrus anvils to precipitating deep convection. The in situ measurements from C-F are being used to validate remote sensing of Earth-Atmosphere properties, increase our knowledge of upper tropospheric water vapor and its distribution, and increase our knowledge of tropical cirrus cloud morphology and composition. Radar measurements, especially polarimetric diversity observations available fiom the NASA NPOL radar, are providing essential information about the initiation, modulation, and dissipation of convective cores and the generation of associated anvils in tropical convection. Specifically, NPOL radar measurements contain information about convective intensity and its vertical structure for comparison with thermodynamic and kinematic environmental measurements observed from soundings. Because of the polarimetric diversity of MOL, statistics on bulk microphysical properties can be retrieved and compared to the other characteristics of convection and associated cirrus anvils. In summary, the central objectives of this proposal were to deploy the UND Citation research aircraft as an in situ sensing platform for this mission and to provide collaborative

  17. Simulation system of airborne FLIR searcher

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Kefeng; Li, Yu; Gao, Jiaobo; Wang, Jun; Wang, Jilong; Xie, Junhu; Ding, Na; Sun, Dandan

    2014-11-01

    Airborne Forward looking infra-red (FLIR) searcher simulation system can provide multi-mode simulated test environment that almost actual field environment, and can simulate integrated performance and external interface of airborne FLIR simulation system. Furthermore, the airborne FLIR searcher simulation system can support the algorithm optimization of image processing, and support the test and evaluation of electro-optical system, and also support the line test of software and evaluate the performance of the avionics system. The detailed design structure and information cross-linking relationship of each component are given in this paper. The simulation system is composed of the simulation center, the FLIR actuator, the FLIR emulator, and the display control terminal. The simulation center can generate the simulated target and aircraft flying data in the operation state of the airborne FLIR Searcher. The FLIR actuator can provide simulation scene. It can generate the infrared target and landform based scanning scene, response to the commands from simulation center and the FLIR actuator and operation control unit. The infrared image generated by the FLIR actuator can be processed by the FLIR emulator using PowerPC hardware framework and processing software based on VxWorks system. It can detect multi-target and output the DVI video and the multi-target detection information which corresponds to the working state of the FLIR searcher. Display control terminal can display the multi-target detection information in two-dimension situation format, and realize human-computer interaction function.

  18. Toolsets for Airborne Data Beta Release

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-09-17

    ... for Airborne Data (TAD), developed at the Atmospheric Science Data Center (ASDC) at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) to promote ... and Houston, and DC3 will be added shortly. Early next year we plan to add DISCOVER-AQ Colorado and SEAC4RS to the TAD database. We ...

  19. A Technique for Airborne Aerobiological Sampling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mill, R. A.; And Others

    1972-01-01

    Report of a study of airborne micro-organisms collected over the Oklahoma City Metropolitan area and immediate environments, to investigate the possibility that a cloud of such organisms might account for the prevalence of some respiratory diseases in and around urban areas. (LK)

  20. Airborne Satcom Terminal Research at NASA Glenn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoder, Doug; Zakrajsek, Robert

    2002-01-01

    NASA Glenn has constructed an airborne Ku-band satellite terminal, which provides wideband full-duplex ground-aircraft communications. The terminal makes use of novel electronically-steered phased array antennas and provides IP connectivity to and from the ground. The satcom terminal communications equipment may be easily changed whenever a new configuration is required, enhancing the terminal's versatility.