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Sample records for airborne polarimetric synthetic

  1. Flood disaster monitoring in Thailand by using a airborne L-band SAR: Polarimetric and interferometry Synthetic Aperture Radar with L-band(Pi-SAR-L)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawano, N.; Sobue, S.; Shimada, M.; Ohyoshi, K.

    2012-04-01

    It was heavy rainfall around the northern region of Thailand from July to September 2011, which caused flood disaster to quite wide region of Thailand, it finally reached to the Bangkok central in the end of October 2011. Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) conducted an emergency observation by using a airborne L-band SAR: Polarimetric and interferometry Synthetic Aperture Radar with L-band(Pi-SAR-L) from 5th to 27th November to monitor flood area. Pi-SAR-L has a center frequency of 1271.5 MHz, a band width of 50 MHz, a slant range resolution of 3 m, and an acquisition swath of 15 km on the ground. Pi-SAR-L is boarded on an aircraft of the Gulfstream-II operated by the Diamond Air Service(DAS), Japan, and the Gulfstream-II was ferried to the Chieng-Mai airport in the North Thailand, from Japan. In our presentation, we will show flood area around Bangkok and its variations detected by Pi-SAR-L

  2. Initial assessment of an airborne Ku-band polarimetric SAR.

    SciTech Connect

    Raynal, Ann Marie; Doerry, Armin Walter

    2013-02-01

    Polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) has been used for a variety of dual-use research applications since the 1940s. By measuring the direction of the electric field vector from radar echoes, polarimetry may enhance an analysts understanding of scattering effects for both earth monitoring and tactical surveillance missions. Polarimetry may provide insight into surface types, materials, or orientations for natural and man-made targets. Polarimetric measurements may also be used to enhance the contrast between scattering surfaces such as man-made objects and their surroundings. This report represents an initial assessment of the utility of, and applications for, polarimetric SAR at Ku-band for airborne or unmanned aerial systems.

  3. Terrain topography measurement using multipass polarimetric synthetic aperture radar data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuler, Dale L.; Lee, Jong-Sen; Ainsworth, Thomas L.; Grunes, Mitchell R.

    2000-05-01

    A method has been investigated for the measurement of topography using airborne fully polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data. Terrain slopes in both the range and azimuthal directions have been estimated using multipass flight geometries. Using these slope values, the Poisson equation was then solved to create a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) of the terrain topography. The method measures polarimetric orientation angles which are then converted into terrain slopes in the azimuthal direction. The conversion of these orientation angles into terrain slopes requires additional knowledge of the radar look angle and the range direction terrain slopes. The solution for slopes is, therefore, a problem coupled between the range and azimuthal directions. For specialized multipass flight geometries these orthogonal terrain slopes are solved for, and maps of terrain slopes are produced. In particular, the processing of two-pass orthogonal and two-pass antiparallel (headings Θ and Θ+ 180°) NASA - Jet Propulsion Laboratory airborne SAR data sets has been carried out for an area in central California. When orthogonal slopes are derived using either of these data sets, a digital elevation model may be generated. The L band, polarimetric SAR (POLSAR) DEM created by this solution is compared to a coregistered C band, interferometric SAR (IFSAR) DEM. Similar comparisons are made for terrain slopes in the azimuthal - range directions which are generated by the POLSAR and IFSAR elevation data. The polarimetric SAR, operating from an aircraft, or satellite, in a strip-mapping mode, is capable of measuring terrain topography for large areas provided that phase-preserving fully polarimetric data are taken. Polarimetric SAR data are also widely used for studies of crop classification, surface roughness, biomass density, and soil moisture content. All of these studies are adversely affected by scattering changes attributable to topography. The technique investigated here

  4. The Next Generation Airborne Polarimetric Doppler Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vivekanandan, J.; Lee, Wen-Chau; Loew, Eric; Salazar, Jorge; Chandrasekar, V.

    2013-04-01

    NCAR's Electra Doppler radar (ELDORA) with a dual-beam slotted waveguide array using dual-transmitter, dual-beam, rapid scan and step-chirped waveform significantly improved the spatial scale to 300m (Hildebrand et al. 1996). However, ELDORA X-band radar's penetration into precipitation is limited by attenuation and is not designed to collect polarimetric measurements to remotely estimate microphysics. ELDORA has been placed on dormancy because its airborne platform (P3 587) was retired in January 2013. The US research community has strongly voiced the need to continue measurement capability similar to the ELDORA. A critical weather research area is quantitative precipitation estimation/forecasting (QPE/QPF). In recent years, hurricane intensity change involving eye-eyewall interactions has drawn research attention (Montgomery et al., 2006; Bell and Montgomery, 2006). In the case of convective precipitation, two issues, namely, (1) when and where convection will be initiated, and (2) determining the organization and structure of ensuing convection, are key for QPF. Therefore collocated measurements of 3-D winds and precipitation microphysics are required for achieving significant skills in QPF and QPE. Multiple radars in dual-Doppler configuration with polarization capability estimate dynamical and microphysical characteristics of clouds and precipitation are mostly available over land. However, storms over complex terrain, the ocean and in forest regions are not observable by ground-based radars (Bluestein and Wakimoto, 2003). NCAR/EOL is investigating potential configurations for the next generation airborne radar that is capable of retrieving dynamic and microphysical characteristics of clouds and precipitation. ELDORA's slotted waveguide array radar is not compatible for dual-polarization measurements. Therefore, the new design has to address both dual-polarization capability and platform requirements to replace the ELDORA system. NCAR maintains a C-130

  5. Digital Beamforming Synthetic Aperture Radar (DBSAR) Polarimetric Upgrade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rincon, Rafael F.; Perrine, Martin; McLinden, Matthew; Valett, Susan

    2011-01-01

    The Digital Beamforming Synthetic Aperture Radar (DBSAR) is a state-of-the-art radar system developed at NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center for the development and implementation of digital beamforming radar techniques. DBSAR was recently upgraded to polarimetric operation in order to enhance its capability as a science instrument. Two polarimetric approaches were carried out which will be demonstrated in upcoming flight campaigns.

  6. Urban area structuring mapping using an airborne polarimetric SAR image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonetto, Elisabeth; Malak, Charbel

    2009-09-01

    For several years, image classification and pattern recognition algorithms have been developed for the land coverage mapping using radar and multispectral imagery with medium to large pixel size. As several satellites now distribute submetric-pixel and metric-pixel images (for example QUICKBIRD,TERRASAR-X), the research turns to the study of the structure of cities: building structuring, grassy areas, road networks, etc, and the physical description of the urban surfaces. In that context, we propose to underline new potentialities of submetric-pixel polarimetric SAR images. We deal with the characterization of roofs and the mapping of trees. For that purpose, a first analysis based on photo-interpretation and the assessement of several polarimetric descriptors is carried out. Then, an image classification scheme is built using the polarimetric H/alpha-Wishart algorithm, followed by a decision tree. This one is based on the most pertinent polarimetric descriptors and aims at reducing the classification errors. The result proves the potential of such data. Our work relies on an image of a suburban area, acquired by the airborne RAMSES SAR sensor of ONERA.

  7. On-board Polarimetric Calibration of Airborne Multiangle SpectroPolarimetric Imager (AirMSPI) Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Harten, G.; Diner, D. J.; Bull, M. A.; Tkatcheva, I. N.; Jovanovic, V. M.; Seidel, F. C.; Garay, M. J.; Xu, F.; Davis, A. B.; Rheingans, B. E.; Chipman, R. A.

    2015-12-01

    The Airborne Multiangle SpectroPolarimetric Imager (AirMSPI) aims at characterizing atmospheric aerosols and clouds using highly accurate imaging polarimetry. The instrument is deployed regularly onboard the NASA ER2 high-altitude aircraft, which is an ideal testbed for satellite remote sensing. Flying at 20 km altitude, AirMSPI's pushbroom camera typically provides 11×11 km images at 10 m resolution. The target is observed from multiple along-track angles within ±67° using a gimbal mount. Eight spectral bands within 355-935 nm are recorded simultaneously in different detector rows, 3 of which also measure linear polarization: 470, 660 and 865 nm. Photoelastic modulators (PEMs) encode the polarized and total intensities in each polarimetric pixel as the amplitude and offset of a wavelike intensity pattern, such that the ratio of the two is insensitive to pixel-to-pixel differences. This enables an accuracy in the degree of linear polarization of ~0.001, as measured in the lab. To maintain this accuracy in-flight, an optical probe continuously monitors the PEMs' retardances and controls their driving signals. Before and after observing a target, the instrument also observes a validator, which is an extended, polarized light source, located inside the instrument housing. These data are now incorporated in the data processing pipeline to further improve the calibration of the modulation functions. Highly polarized pixels in Earth data are utilized to transfer the validator results to meet the illumination in Earth scenes, as well as to make fine adjustments at higher temporal resolution. The reprocessed polarization products for the PODEX campaign show significant improvements when intercompared with the Research Scanning Polarimeter (RSP, Goddard Institute for Space Studies). We currently evaluate the impact of the on-board polarimetric calibration on aerosol retrievals, and compare against AERONET reference measurements.

  8. The NASA/JPL Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lou, Yunling; Kim,Yunjin; vanZyl, Jakob

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we will briefly describe the instrument characteristics, the evolution of various radar modes, the instrument performance and improvement in the knowledge of the positioning and attitude information of the NASA/JPL airborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR). This system operates in the fully polarimetric mode in the P, L, and C band simultaneously or in the interferometric mode in both the L and C band simultaneously. We also summarize the progress of the data processing effort, especially in the interferometry processing and we address the issue of processing and calibrating the cross-track interferometry data.

  9. Oil detection in a coastal marsh with polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ramsey, Elijah W.; Rangoonwala, Amina; Suzuoki, Yukihiro; Jones, Cathleen E.

    2011-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's airborne Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR) was deployed in June 2010 in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico. UAVSAR is a fully polarimetric L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) sensor for obtaining data at high spatial resolutions. Starting a month prior to the UAVSAR collections, visual observations confirmed oil impacts along shorelines within northeastern Barataria Bay waters in eastern coastal Louisiana. UAVSAR data along several flight lines over Barataria Bay were collected on 23 June 2010, including the repeat flight line for which data were collected in June 2009. Our analysis of calibrated single-look complex data for these flight lines shows that structural damage of shoreline marsh accompanied by oil occurrence manifested as anomalous features not evident in pre-spill data. Freeman-Durden (FD) and Cloude-Pottier (CP) decompositions of the polarimetric data and Wishart classifications seeded with the FD and CP classes also highlighted these nearshore features as a change in dominant scattering mechanism. All decompositions and classifications also identify a class of interior marshes that reproduce the spatially extensive changes in backscatter indicated by the pre- and post-spill comparison of multi-polarization radar backscatter data. FD and CP decompositions reveal that those changes indicate a transform of dominant scatter from primarily surface or volumetric to double or even bounce. Given supportive evidence that oil-polluted waters penetrated into the interior marshes, it is reasonable that these backscatter changes correspond with oil exposure; however, multiple factors prevent unambiguous determination of whether UAVSAR detected oil in interior marshes.

  10. Three-frequency, polarimetric, airborne SAR observations of the Greenland ice sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rignot, E.; Vanzyl, J. J.; Jezek, K.

    1994-01-01

    Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images of the Greenland ice sheet collected by an airborne system clearly reveal the four melting facies of this sheet defined 30 years ago from snow stratigraphy studies by glaciologists. In particular, the radar echoes from the percolation facies have radiometric and polarimetric characteristics that are unique among terrestrial surfaces, but that resemble the exotic radar echoes recorded from the icy Galilean satellites. There, the radar signals interact with subsurface, massive ice features created in the cold, dry snow by seasonal melting and refreezing events. The subsurface features act as efficient reflectors of the incident radiation most likely via internal reflections. In the soaked-snow facies, the radar reflectivity is much lower because radar signals are attenuated by the wetter snow before they can interact with subsurface structures. Inversion algorithms to derive geophysical information from the SAR data are developed in both cases to estimate snow wetness in the soaked-snow facies and the mass of ice water retained in the percolation facies.

  11. Unsupervised segmentation of polarimetric SAR data using the covariance matrix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rignot, Eric J. M.; Chellappa, Rama; Dubois, Pascale C.

    1992-01-01

    A method for unsupervised segmentation of polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data into classes of homogeneous microwave polarimetric backscatter characteristics is presented. Classes of polarimetric backscatter are selected on the basis of a multidimensional fuzzy clustering of the logarithm of the parameters composing the polarimetric covariance matrix. The clustering procedure uses both polarimetric amplitude and phase information, is adapted to the presence of image speckle, and does not require an arbitrary weighting of the different polarimetric channels; it also provides a partitioning of each data sample used for clustering into multiple clusters. Given the classes of polarimetric backscatter, the entire image is classified using a maximum a posteriori polarimetric classifier. Four-look polarimetric SAR complex data of lava flows and of sea ice acquired by the NASA/JPL airborne polarimetric radar (AIRSAR) are segmented using this technique. The results are discussed and compared with those obtained using supervised techniques.

  12. Classification of earth terrain using polarimetric synthetic aperture radar images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lim, H. H.; Swartz, A. A.; Yueh, H. A.; Kong, J. A.; Shin, R. T.; Van Zyl, J. J.

    1989-01-01

    Supervised and unsupervised classification techniques are developed and used to classify the earth terrain components from SAR polarimetric images of San Francisco Bay and Traverse City, Michigan. The supervised techniques include the Bayes classifiers, normalized polarimetric classification, and simple feature classification using discriminates such as the absolute and normalized magnitude response of individual receiver channel returns and the phase difference between receiver channels. An algorithm is developed as an unsupervised technique which classifies terrain elements based on the relationship between the orientation angle and the handedness of the transmitting and receiving polariation states. It is found that supervised classification produces the best results when accurate classifier training data are used, while unsupervised classification may be applied when training data are not available.

  13. Agricultural crop harvest progress monitoring by fully polarimetric synthetic aperture radar imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hao; Zhao, Chunjiang; Yang, Guijun; Li, Zengyuan; Chen, Erxue; Yuan, Lin; Yang, Xiaodong; Xu, Xingang

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic mapping and monitoring of crop harvest on a large spatial scale will provide critical information for the formulation of optimal harvesting strategies. This study evaluates the feasibility of C-band polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (PolSAR) for monitoring the harvesting progress of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) fields. Five multitemporal, quad-pol Radarsat-2 images and one optical ZY-1 02C image were acquired over a farmland area in China during the 2013 growing season. Typical polarimetric signatures were obtained relying on polarimetric decomposition methods. Temporal evolutions of these signatures of harvested fields were compared with the ones of unharvested fields in the context of the entire growing cycle. Significant sensitivity was observed between the specific polarimetric parameters and the harvest status of oilseed rape fields. Based on this sensitivity, a new method that integrates two polarimetric features was devised to detect the harvest status of oilseed rape fields using a single image. The validation results are encouraging even for the harvested fields covered with high residues. This research demonstrates the capability of PolSAR remote sensing in crop harvest monitoring, which is a step toward more complex applications of PolSAR data in precision agriculture.

  14. Contribution of multitemporal polarimetric synthetic aperture radar data for monitoring winter wheat and rapeseed crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betbeder, Julie; Fieuzal, Remy; Philippets, Yannick; Ferro-Famil, Laurent; Baup, Frederic

    2016-04-01

    This paper aims to evaluate the contribution of multitemporal polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data for winter wheat and rapeseed crops parameters [height, leaf area index, and dry biomass (DB)] estimation, during their whole vegetation cycles in comparison to backscattering coefficients and optical data. Angular sensitivities and dynamics of polarimetric indicators were also analyzed following the growth stages of these two common crop types using, in total, 14 radar images (Radarsat-2), 16 optical images (Formosat-2, Spot-4/5), and numerous ground data. The results of this study show the importance of correcting the angular effect on SAR signals especially for copolarized signals and polarimetric indicators associated to single-bounce scattering mechanisms. The analysis of the temporal dynamic of polarimetric indicators has shown their high potential to detect crop growth changes. Moreover, this study shows the high interest of using SAR parameters (backscattering coefficients and polarimetric indicators) for crop parameters estimation during the whole vegetation cycle instead of optical vegetation index. They particularly revealed their high potential for rapeseed height and DB monitoring [i.e., Shannon entropy polarimetry (r2=0.70) and radar vegetation index (r2=0.80), respectively].

  15. Unsupervised polarimetric synthetic aperture radar image classification based on sketch map and adaptive Markov random field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Junfei; Li, Lingling; Liu, Fang; Jiao, Licheng; Liu, Hongying; Yang, Shuyuan; Liu, Lu; Hao, Hongxia

    2016-04-01

    Markov random field (MRF) model is an effective tool for polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (PolSAR) image classification. However, due to the lack of suitable contextual information in conventional MRF methods, there is usually a contradiction between edge preservation and region homogeneity in the classification result. To preserve edge details and obtain homogeneous regions simultaneously, an adaptive MRF framework is proposed based on a polarimetric sketch map. The polarimetric sketch map can provide the edge positions and edge directions in detail, which can guide the selection of neighborhood structures. Specifically, the polarimetric sketch map is extracted to partition a PolSAR image into structural and nonstructural parts, and then adaptive neighborhoods are learned for two parts. For structural areas, geometric weighted neighborhood structures are constructed to preserve image details. For nonstructural areas, the maximum homogeneous regions are obtained to improve the region homogeneity. Experiments are taken on both the simulated and real PolSAR data, and the experimental results illustrate that the proposed method can obtain better performance on both region homogeneity and edge preservation than the state-of-the-art methods.

  16. Improved superpixel-based polarimetric synthetic aperture radar image classification integrating color features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Yanxiao; Zhang, Yi; Li, Ning; Wang, Robert; Hu, Guixiang

    2016-04-01

    Various polarimetric features including scattering matrix, covariance matrix, polarimetric decomposition results, and textural or spatial information have already been used for polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (PolSAR) image classification. However, color features are rarely involved. We propose an improved superpixel-based PolSAR image classification integrating color features. First, we extract the color information using polarimetric decomposition. Second, by combining the color and spatial information of pixels, modified simple linear iterative clustering is used to generate small regions called superpixels. Then we apply Wishart distance to the superpixels to classify them into different classes. This method is demonstrated using the L-band Flevoland PolSAR data from AirSAR and Oberpfaffenhofen PolSAR data from ESAR. The results show that this method works well for areas with homogeneous terrains like farms in terms of both classification accuracy and computational efficiency. Furthermore, the success of the proposed method signifies that more color features can be discovered in the future research works.

  17. Detection of Built-Up Areas Using Polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar Data and Hyperspectral Image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bordbari, R.; Maghsoudi, Y.; Salehi, M.

    2015-12-01

    Polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (POLSAR) is an advantageous data for information extraction about objects and structures by using the wave scattering and polarization properties. Hyperspectral remote sensing exploits the fact that all materials reflect, absorb, and emit electromagnetic energy, at specific wavelengths, in distinctive patterns related to their molecular composition. As a result of their fine spectral resolution, Hyperspectral image (HIS) sensors provide a significant amount of information about the physical and chemical composition of the materials occupying the pixel surface. In target detection applications, the main objective is to search the pixels of an HSI data cube for the presence of a specific material (target). In this research, a hierarchical constrained energy minimization (hCEM) method using 5 different adjusting parameters has been used for target detection from hyperspectral data. Furthermore, to detect the built-up areas from POLSAR data, building objects discriminated from surrounding natural media presented on the scene using Freeman polarimetric target decomposition (PTD) and the correlation coefficient between co-pol and cross-pol channels. Also, target detection method has been implemented based on the different polarization basis for using the more information. Finally a majority voting method has been used for fusing the target maps. The polarimetric image C-band SAR data acquired by Radarsat-2, over San Francisco Bay area was used for the evaluation of the proposed method.

  18. Poyang Lake wetland vegetation biomass inversion using polarimetric RADARSAT-2 synthetic aperture radar data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Guozhuang; Liao, Jingjuan; Guo, Huadong; Liu, Ju

    2015-01-01

    Poyang Lake is the largest freshwater lake in China and one of the most important wetlands in the world. Vegetation, an important component of wetland ecosystems, is one of the main sources of the carbon in the atmosphere. Biomass can quantify the contribution of wetland vegetation to carbon sinks and carbon sources. Synthetic aperture radar (SAR), which can operate in all day and weather conditions and penetrate vegetation to some extent, can be used to retrieve information about vegetation structure and the aboveground biomass. In this study, RADARSAT-2 polarimetric SAR data were used to retrieve aboveground vegetation biomass in the Poyang Lake wetland. Based on the canopy backscatter model, the vegetation backscatter characteristics in the C-band were studied, and a good relation between simulated backscatter and backscatter in the RADARSAT-2 imagery was achieved. Using the backscatter model, pairs of training data were built and used to train the back propagation artificial neural network. The biomass was retrieved using this ANN and compared with the field survey results. The root-mean-square error in the biomass estimation was 45.57 g/m2. This shows that the combination of the model and polarimetric decomposition components can efficiently improve the inversion precision.

  19. An Analytical Calibration Approach for the Polarimetric Airborne C Band Radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pham, Hanh; Kim, Edward J.

    2004-01-01

    Passive microwave remote sensing is sensitive to the quantity and distribution of water in soil and vegetation. During summer 2000, the Microwave Geophysics Group a t the University of Michigan conducted the seventh Radiobrighness Energy Balance Experiment (REBEX-7) over a corn canopy in Michigan. Long time series of brightness temperatures, soil moisture and micrometeorology on the plot were taken. This paper addresses the calibration of the NASA GSFC polarimetric airborne C band microwave radiometer (ACMR) that participated in REBEX-7. These passive polarimeters are typically calibrated using an end-to-end approach based upon a standard artificial target or a well-known geophysical target. Analyzing the major internal functional subsystems offers a different perspective. The primary goal of this approach is to provide a transfer function that not only describes the system in its entire5 but also accounts for the contributions of each subsystem toward the final modified Stokes parameters. This approach does not assume that the radiometric system is linear as it does not take polarization isolation for granted, and it also serves as a realistic instrument simulator, a useful tool for future designs. The ACMR architecture can be partitioned into functional subsystems. The characteristics of each subsystem was extensively measured and the estimated parameters were imported into the overall dosed form system model. Inversion of the model yields a calibration for the modeled Stokes parameters with uncertainties of 0.2 K for the V and H polarizations and 2.4 K for the 3rd and 4th parameters. Application to the full Stokes parameters over a senescent cornfield is presented.

  20. Target-adaptive polarimetric synthetic aperture radar target discrimination using maximum average correlation height filters.

    PubMed

    Sadjadi, Firooz A; Mahalanobis, Abhijit

    2006-05-01

    We report the development of a technique for adaptive selection of polarization ellipse tilt and ellipticity angles such that the target separation from clutter is maximized. From the radar scattering matrix [S] and its complex components, in phase and quadrature phase, the elements of the Mueller matrix are obtained. Then, by means of polarization synthesis, the radar cross section of the radar scatters are obtained at different transmitting and receiving polarization states. By designing a maximum average correlation height filter, we derive a target versus clutter distance measure as a function of four transmit and receive polarization state angles. The results of applying this method on real synthetic aperture radar imagery indicate a set of four transmit and receive angles that lead to maximum target versus clutter discrimination. These optimum angles are different for different targets. Hence, by adaptive control of the state of polarization of polarimetric radar, one can noticeably improve the discrimination of targets from clutter.

  1. Airborne Polarimetric, Two-Color Laser Altimeter Measurements of Lake Ice Cover: A Pathfinder for NASA's ICESat-2 Spaceflight Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harding, David; Dabney, Philip; Valett, Susan; Yu, Anthony; Vasilyev, Aleksey; Kelly, April

    2011-01-01

    The ICESat-2 mission will continue NASA's spaceflight laser altimeter measurements of ice sheets, sea ice and vegetation using a new measurement approach: micropulse, single photon ranging at 532 nm. Differential penetration of green laser energy into snow, ice and water could introduce errors in sea ice freeboard determination used for estimation of ice thickness. Laser pulse scattering from these surface types, and resulting range biasing due to pulse broadening, is assessed using SIMPL airborne data acquired over icecovered Lake Erie. SIMPL acquires polarimetric lidar measurements at 1064 and 532 nm using the micropulse, single photon ranging measurement approach.

  2. The NASA/JPL Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Yun-Jin; Lou, Yun-Ling; vanZyl, Jakob

    1996-01-01

    The NASA/JPL airborne SAR (AIRSAR) system operates in the fully polarimetric mode at P-, L- and C-band simultaneously or in the interferometric mode in both L- and C-band simultaneously. The system became operational in late 1987 and flew its first mission aboard a DC-8 aircraft operated by NASA's Ames Research Center in Mountain View, California. Since then, the AIRSAR has flown missions every year and acquired images in North, Central and South America, Europe and Australia. In this paper, we will briefly describe the instrument characteristics, the evolution of the various radar modes, the instrument performance, and improvement in the knowledge of the positioning and attitude information of the radar. In addition, we will summarize the progress of the data processing effort especially in the interferometry processing. Finally, we will address the issue of processing and calibrating the cross-track interferometry (XTI) data.

  3. Marsh dieback, loss, and recovery mapped with satellite optical, airborne polarimetric radar, and field data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ramsey, Elijah W.; Rangoonwala, Amina; Chi, Zhaohui; Jones, Cathleen E.; Bannister, Terri

    2014-01-01

    Landsat Thematic Mapper and Satellite Pour l'Observation de la Terre (SPOT) satellite based optical sensors, NASA Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle synthetic aperture radar (UAVSAR) polarimetric SAR (PolSAR), and field data captured the occurrence and the recovery of an undetected dieback that occurred between the summers of 2010, 2011, and 2012 in the Spartina alterniflora marshes of coastal Louisiana. Field measurements recorded the dramatic biomass decrease from 2010 to 2011 and a biomass recovery in 2012 dominated by a decrease of live biomass, and the loss of marsh as part of the dieback event. Based on an established relationship, the near-infrared/red vegetation index (VI) and site-specific measurements delineated a contiguous expanse of marsh dieback encompassing 6649.9 ha of 18,292.3 ha of S. alterniflora marshes within the study region. PolSAR data were transformed to variables used in biophysical mapping, and of this variable suite, the cross-polarization HV (horizontal send and vertical receive) backscatter was the best single indicator of marsh dieback and recovery. HV backscatter exhibited substantial and significant changes over the dieback and recovery period, tracked measured biomass changes, and significantly correlated with the live/dead biomass ratio. Within the context of regional trends, both HV and VI indicators started higher in pre-dieback marshes and exhibited substantially and statistically higher variability from year to year than that exhibited in the non-dieback marshes. That distinct difference allowed the capturing of the S. alterniflora marsh dieback and recovery; however, these changes were incorporated in a regional trend exhibiting similar but more subtle biomass composition changes.

  4. The Ecosystems SAR (EcoSAR) an Airborne P-band Polarimetric InSAR for the Measurement of Vegetation Structure, Biomass and Permafrost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rincon, Rafael F.; Fatoyinbo, Temilola; Ranson, K. Jon; Osmanoglu, Batuhan; Sun, Guoqing; Deshpande, Manohar D.; Perrine, Martin L.; Du Toit, Cornelis F.; Bonds, Quenton; Beck, Jaclyn; Lu, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    EcoSAR is a new synthetic aperture radar (SAR) instrument being developed at the NASA/ Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) for the polarimetric and interferometric measurements of ecosystem structure and biomass. The instrument uses a phased-array beamforming architecture and supports full polarimetric measurements and single pass interferometry. This Instrument development is part of NASA's Earth Science Technology Office Instrument Incubator Program (ESTO IIP).

  5. Airborne In Situ and Ground-based Polarimetric Radar Measurements of Tropical Convection in Support of CRYSTAL-FACE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poellot, Michael R.; Kucera, Paul A.

    2004-01-01

    This report describes the work performed by the University of North Dakota (UND) under NASA Grant NAG5-11509, titled Airborne In Situ and Ground-based Polarimetric Radar Measurements of Tropical Convection in Support of CRYSTAL-FACE. This work focused on the collection of data by two key platforms: the UND Citation II research aircraft and the NASA NPOL radar system. The CRYSTAL-FACE (C-F) mission addresses several key issues from the NASA Earth System Enterprise, including the variability of water in the atmosphere, the forcing provided by tropical cirrus and the response of the Earth system to this forcing. In situ measurements and radar observations of tropical convection, cirrus clouds and their environment are core elements of C-F. One of the primary issues that C-F is addressing is the relationship of tropical cirrus anvils to precipitating deep convection. The in situ measurements from C-F are being used to validate remote sensing of Earth-Atmosphere properties, increase our knowledge of upper tropospheric water vapor and its distribution, and increase our knowledge of tropical cirrus cloud morphology and composition. Radar measurements, especially polarimetric diversity observations available fiom the NASA NPOL radar, are providing essential information about the initiation, modulation, and dissipation of convective cores and the generation of associated anvils in tropical convection. Specifically, NPOL radar measurements contain information about convective intensity and its vertical structure for comparison with thermodynamic and kinematic environmental measurements observed from soundings. Because of the polarimetric diversity of MOL, statistics on bulk microphysical properties can be retrieved and compared to the other characteristics of convection and associated cirrus anvils. In summary, the central objectives of this proposal were to deploy the UND Citation research aircraft as an in situ sensing platform for this mission and to provide collaborative

  6. Proceedings of the Third Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR) Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanzyl, Jakob J. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    The Third Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR) Workshop was held on 23-24 May 1991 at JPL. Thirty oral presentations were made and 18 poster papers displayed during the workshop. Papers from these 25 presentations are presented which include analyses of AIRSAR operations and studies in SAR remote sensing, ecology, hydrology, soil science, geology, oceanography, volcanology, and SAR mapping and data handling. Results from these studies indicate the direction and emphasis of future orbital radar-sensor missions that will be launched during the 1990's.

  7. EcoSAR: NASA's P-band fully polarimetric single pass interferometric airborne radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osmanoglu, B.; Rincon, R. F.; Fatoyinbo, T. E.; Lee, S. K.; Sun, G.; Daniyan, O.; Harcum, M. E.

    2014-12-01

    EcoSAR is a new airborne synthetic aperture radar imaging system, developed at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. It is a P-band sensor that employs a non-conventional and innovative design. The EcoSAR system was designed as a multi-disciplinary instrument to image the 3-dimensional surface of the earth from a single pass platform with two antennas. EcoSAR's principal mission is to penetrate the forest canopy to return vital information about the canopy structure and estimate biomass. With a maximum bandwidth of 200 MHz in H and 120 MHz in V polarizations it can provide sub-meter resolution imagery of the study area. EcoSAR's dual antenna, 32 transmit and receive channel architecture provides a test-bed for developing new algorithms in InSAR data processing such as single pass interferometry, full polarimetry, post-processing synthesis of multiple beams, simultaneous measurement over both sides of the flight track, selectable resolution and variable incidence angle. The flexible architecture of EcoSAR will create new opportunities in radar remote sensing of forest biomass, permafrost active layer thickness, and topography mapping. EcoSAR's first test flight occurred between March 27th and April 1st, 2014 over the Andros Island in Bahamas and Corcovado and La Selva National Parks in Costa Rica. The 32 channel radar system collected about 6 TB of radar data in about 12 hours of data collection. Due to the existence of radio and TV communications in the operational frequency band, acquired data contains strong radar frequency interference, which had to be removed prior to beamforming and focusing. Precise locations of the antennas are tracked using high-rate GPS and inertial navigation units, which provide necessary information for accurate processing of the imagery. In this presentation we will present preliminary imagery collected during the test campaign, show examples of simultaneous dual track imaging, as well as a single pass interferogram. The

  8. Case studies of aerosol remote sensing with the Airborne Multiangle SpectroPolarimetric Imager (AirMSPI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diner, D. J.; Xu, F.; Garay, M. J.; Martonchik, J. V.; Kalashnikova, O. V.; Davis, A. B.; Rheingans, B.; Geier, S.; Jovanovic, V.; Bull, M.

    2012-12-01

    The Airborne Multiangle SpectroPolarimetric Imager (AirMSPI) is an 8-band (355, 380, 445, 470, 555, 660, 865, 935 nm) pushbroom camera, measuring polarization in the 470, 660, and 865 nm bands, mounted on a gimbal to acquire multiangular observations over a ±67° along-track range with 10-m spatial resolution across an 11-km wide swath. Among the instrument objectives are exploration of methodologies for combining multiangle, multispectral, polarimetric, and imaging observations to retrieve the optical depth and microphysical properties of tropospheric aerosols. AirMSPI was integrated on NASA's ER-2 high-altitude aircraft in 2010 and has successfully completed a number of flights over land and ocean targets in the Southern California vicinity. In this paper, we present case studies of AirMSPI imagery, interpreted using vector radiative transfer theory. AirMSPI observations over California's Central Valley are compared with model calculations using aerosol properties reported by the Fresno AERONET sunphotometer. Because determination of the radiative impact of different types of aerosols requires accurate attribution of the source of the reflected light along with characterization of the aerosol optical and microphysical properties, we explore the sensitivity of the Fresno measurements to variations in different aerosol properties, demonstrating the value of combining intensity and polarimetry at multiple view angles and spectral bands for constraining particle microphysical properties. Images over ocean to be presented include scenes over nearly cloud-free skies and scenes containing scattered clouds. It is well known that imperfect cloud screening confounds the determination of aerosol impact on radiation; it is perhaps less well appreciated that the effect of cloud reflections in the water can also be problematic. We calculate the magnitude of this effect in intensity and polarization and discuss its potential impact on aerosol retrievals, underscoring the value

  9. Monitoring flooding and vegetation on seasonally inundated floodplains with multifrequency polarimetric synthetic aperture radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hess, Laura Lorraine

    The ability of synthetic aperture radar to detect flooding and vegetation structure was evaluated for three seasonally inundated floodplain sites supporting a broad variety of wetland and upland vegetation types: two reaches of the Solimoes floodplain in the central Amazon, and the Magela Creek floodplain in Northern Territory, Australia. For each site, C- and L-band polarimetric Shuttle Imaging Radar-C (SIR-C) data was obtained at both high- and low-water stages. Inundation status and vegetation structure were documented simultaneous with the SIR-C acquisitions using low-altitude videography and ground measurements. SIR-C images were classified into cover states defined by vegetation physiognomy and presence of standing water, using a decision-tree model with backscattering coefficients at HH, VV, and HV polarizations as input variables. Classification accuracy was assessed using user's accuracy, producer's accuracy, and kappa coefficient for a test population of pixels. At all sites, both C- and L-band were necessary to accurately classify cover types with two dates. HH polarization was most. useful for distinguishing flooded from non-flooded vegetation (C-HH for macrophyte versus pasture, L-HH for flooded versus non-flooded forest), and cross-polarized L-band data provided the best separation between woody and non-woody vegetation. Increases in L-HH backscattering due to flooding were on the order of 3--4 dB for closed-canopy varzea and igapo forest, and 4--7 dB, for open Melaleuca woodland. The broad range of physiognomies and stand structures found in both herbaceous and woody wetland communities, combined with the variation in the amount of emergent canopy caused by water level fluctuations and phenologic changes, resulted in a large range in backscattering characteristics of wetland communities both within and between sites. High accuracies cannot be achieved for these communities using single-date, single-band, single-polarization data, particularly in the

  10. Ice island detection and characterization with airborne synthetic aperture radar

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffries, M.O.; Sackinger, W.M. )

    1990-04-15

    A 1:300,000 scale airborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image of an area of the Arctic Ocean adjacent to the Queen Elizabeth Islands, Canadian High Arctic, is examined to determine the number and characteristics of ice islands in the image and to assess the capability of airborne and satellite SAR to detect ice islands. Twelve ice islands have been identified, and their dimensions range from as large as 5.7 km by 8.7 km to as small as 0.15 km by 0.25 km. A significant SAR characteristic of the shelf ice portions of ice islands is a return with a ribbed texture of alternating lighter and darker grey tones resulting from the indulating shelf ice surfaces of the ice islands. The appearance of the ribbed texture varies according to the ice islands' orientation relative to the illumination direction and consequently the incidence angle. Some ice islands also include extensive areas of textureless dark tone attached to the shelf ice. The weak returns correspond to (1) multiyear landfast sea ice that was attached to the front of the Ward Hunt Ice Shelf at the time of calving and which has remained attached since then and (2) multiyear pack ice that has become attached and consolidated since the calving, indicating that ice islands can increase their area and mass significantly as they drift. Ice islands are easily discernible in SAR images and for the future SAR represents a promising technique to obtain a census of ice islands in the Arctic Ocean. However, any SAR-based census probably will be conservative because ice islands smaller than 300-400 m across are likely to remain undetected, particularly in areas of heavy ice ridging which produces strong SAR clutter.

  11. Airborne Synthetic Aperature Radar (AIRSAR) on left rear fuselage of DC-8 Airborne Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    A view of the Airborne Synthetic Aperature Radar (AIRSAR) antenna on the left rear fuselage of the DC-8. The AIRSAR captures images of the ground from the side of the aircraft and can provide precision digital elevation mapping capabilities for a variety of studies. The AIRSAR is one of a number of research systems that have been added to the DC-8. NASA is using a DC-8 aircraft as a flying science laboratory. The platform aircraft, based at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif., collects data for many experiments in support of scientific projects serving the world scientific community. Included in this community are NASA, federal, state, academic and foreign investigators. Data gathered by the DC-8 at flight altitude and by remote sensing have been used for scientific studies in archeology, ecology, geography, hydrology, meteorology, oceanography, volcanology, atmospheric chemistry, soil science and biology.

  12. Polarimetric target detection techniques and results from the Goddard Space Flight Center Search and Rescue Synthetic Aperature Radar (SAR2) program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Christopher R.; Rais, Houra; Mansfield, Arthur W.

    1998-09-01

    Over the SAR2 programs seven year history, a great deal of original research has been done in the area of automatic target detection for identifying aircraft crash site locations in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery. The efforts have focused on using the polarimetric properties of the radar signal to both improve image quality and distinguish the crash sits from the natural background. A crash sites polarimetric 'signature' is expected to be present even in the absence of a strong intensity return. Several of these advanced methods are summarized and a methodology for their application described. Several detection results are presented using data from the NASA/JPL AirSAR.

  13. Software For Calibration Of Polarimetric SAR Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Zyl, Jakob; Zebker, Howard; Freeman, Anthony; Holt, John; Dubois, Pascale; Chapman, Bruce

    1994-01-01

    POLCAL (Polarimetric Radar Calibration) software tool intended to assist in calibration of synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) systems. In particular, calibrates Stokes-matrix-format data produced as standard product by NASA/Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) airborne imaging synthetic aperture radar (AIRSAR). Version 4.0 of POLCAL is upgrade of version 2.0. New options include automatic absolute calibration of 89/90 data, distributed-target analysis, calibration of nearby scenes with corner reflectors, altitude or roll-angle corrections, and calibration of errors introduced by known topography. Reduces crosstalk and corrects phase calibration without use of ground calibration equipment. Written in FORTRAN 77.

  14. Polarimetric Remote Sensing of Geophysical Medium Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nghiem, S. V.; Yueh, S. H.; Kwok, R.; Nguyen, D. T.

    1993-01-01

    Polarimetric remote sensing of structures in geophysical media is studied in this paper based on their symmetry properties. Orientations of spheroidal scatterers described by spherical, uniform, planophile, plagiothile, erectophile, and extremophile distributions are considered to derive their polarimetric backscattering characteristics. These distributions can be identified from the observed scattering coefficients by comparison with theoretical symmetry calculations. A new parameter is defined to study scattering structures in geophysical media. Experimental observations from polarimetric data acquired by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory airborne synthetic aperture radar over forests, sea ice, and sea surface are presented to illustrate the use of symmetry properties. For forests, the coniferous forest in Mount Shasta area and mixed forests neir Presque Isle show evidence of the centrical symmetry at C band. In sea ice from the Beaufort Sea, multiyear sea ice has a cross-polarized ratio e close to e(sub 0), calculated from symmetry, due to the randomness in the scattering structure. For first-year sea ice, e is much smaller than e(sub 0) as a result of preferential alignment of the columnar structure of the ice. From polarimetric data of a sea surface in the Bering sea, it is observed that e and e(sub 0) are increasing with incident angle and e is greater than e(sub 0) at L band because of the directional feature of sea surface waves. Use of symmetry properties of geophysical media for polarimetric radar calibration is also suggested.

  15. Polarimetric remote sensing of geophysical medium structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nghiem, S. V.; Yueh, S. H.; Kwok, R.; Nguyen, D. T.

    1993-11-01

    Polarimetric remote sensing of structures in geophysical media is studied in this paper based on their symmetry properties. Orientations of spheroidal scatterers described by spherical, uniform, planophile, plagiothile, erectophile, and extremophile distributions are considered to derive their polarimetric backscattering characteristics. These distributions can be identified from the observed scattering coefficients by comparison with theoretical symmetry calculations. A new parameter is defined to study scattering structures in geophysical media. Experimental observations from polarimetric data acquired by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory airborne synthetic aperture radar over forests, sea ice, and sea surface are presented to illustrate the use of symmetry properties. For forests, the coniferous forest in Mount Shasta area and mixed forests near Presque Isle show evidence of the centrical symmetry at C band. In sea ice from the Beaufort Sea, multiyear sea ice has a cross-polarized ratio e close to e0, calculated from symmetry, due to the randomness in the scattering structure. For first-year sea ice, e is much smaller than e0 as a result of preferential alignment of the columnar structure of the ice. From polarimetric data of a sea surface in the Bering sea, it is observed that e and e0 are increasing with incident angle and e is greater than e0 at L band because of the directional feature of sea surface waves. Use of symmetry properties of geophysical media for polarimetric radar calibration is also suggested.

  16. Object-oriented fusion of RADARSAT-2 polarimetric synthetic aperture radar and HJ-1A multispectral data for land-cover classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Yan; Jiang, Qigang; Wang, Bin; Li, Yuanhua; Liu, Shu; Cui, Can

    2016-04-01

    The contribution of the integration of optical and polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (PolSAR) data to accurate land-cover classification was investigated. For this purpose, an object-oriented classification methodology that consisted of polarimetric decomposition, hybrid feature selection, and a support vector machine (SVM) was proposed. A RADARSAT-2 Fine Quad-Pol image and an HJ-1A CCD2 multispectral image were used as data sources. First, polarimetric decomposition was implemented for the RADARSAT-2 image. Sixty-one polarimetric parameters were extracted using different polarimetric decomposition methods and then merged with the main diagonal elements (T11, T22, T33) of the coherency matrix to form a multichannel image with 64 layers. Second, the HJ-1A and the multichannel images were divided into numerous image objects by implementing multiresolution segmentation. Third, 1104 features were extracted from the HJ-1A and the multichannel images for each image object. Fourth, the hybrid feature selection method that combined the ReliefF filter approach and the genetic algorithm (GA) wrapper approach (ReliefF-GA) was used. Finally, land-cover classification was performed by an SVM classifier on the basis of the selected features. Five other classification methodologies were conducted for comparison to verify the contribution of optical and PolSAR data integration and to test the superiority of the proposed object-oriented classification methodology. Comparison results show that HJ-1A data, RADARSAT-2 data, polarimetric decomposition, ReliefF-GA, and SVM have a significant contribution by improving land-cover classification accuracy.

  17. Remote estimation of dielectric permittivity of lunar surface regolith using compact polarimetric synthetic aperture radar data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, A.; Porwal, A.; Dhingra, S.; De, S.; Venkataraman, G.

    2015-12-01

    A new model has been developed to estimate the dielectric permittivity of the lunar surface regolith using S-band hybrid compact polarimetric SAR data obtained from Mini-RF aboard LRO. The surface regolith is modeled as a random medium consisting of elementary ellipsoidal particles smaller than the incident wavelength of S-band. The data, available in the form of Stokes vector, are used to derive a coherency matrix, under the reflection symmetry condition, whose elements are used to calculate the particle anisotropy parameter. Since the anisotropy is bounded by the dielectric permittivity, its relationship with the latter is used for the required estimation. The method is applied to compute the dielectric permittivity of Apollo 17 landing site in Taurus-Littrow valley and to a part of Sinus Iridum. The estimated mean dielectric permittivity values (2.87 ± 0.31) and (3.04 ± 0.31), respectively, are consistent with the previous estimates. The dielectric permittivity values have also been used to discern different units of regolith in both the regions. The advantage of our model is that it does not require any a priori knowledge about the density or composition of the regolith. The available data in the form of Stokes parameters are sufficient for the computation. The model predicts a thin layer of low density, porous fine grained dust on the lunar surface.

  18. Calibration of a polarimetric imaging SAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarabandi, K.; Pierce, L. E.; Ulaby, F. T.

    1991-01-01

    Calibration of polarimetric imaging Synthetic Aperture Radars (SAR's) using point calibration targets is discussed. The four-port network calibration technique is used to describe the radar error model. The polarimetric ambiguity function of the SAR is then found using a single point target, namely a trihedral corner reflector. Based on this, an estimate for the backscattering coefficient of the terrain is found by a deconvolution process. A radar image taken by the JPL Airborne SAR (AIRSAR) is used for verification of the deconvolution calibration method. The calibrated responses of point targets in the image are compared both with theory and the POLCAL technique. Also, response of a distributed target are compared using the deconvolution and POLCAL techniques.

  19. Symmetry in polarimetric remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nghiem, S. V.; Yueh, S. H.; Kwok, R.

    1993-01-01

    Relationships among polarimetric backscattering coefficients are derived from the viewpoint of symmetry groups. For both reciprocal and non-reciprocal media, symmetry encountered in remote sensing due to reflection, rotation, azimuthal, and centrical symmetry groups is considered. The derived properties are general and valid to all scattering mechanisms, including volume and surface scatterings and their interactions, in a given symmetrical configuration. The scattering coefficients calculated from theoretical models for layer random media and rough surfaces are shown to obey the symmetry relations. Use of symmetry properties in remote sensing of structural and environmental responses of scattering media is also discussed. Orientations of spheroidal scatterers described by spherical, uniform, planophile, plagiothile, erectophile, and extremophile distributions are considered to derive their polarimetric backscattering characteristics. These distributions can be identified from the observed scattering coefficients by comparison with theoretical symmetry calculations. A new parameter is then defined to study scattering structures in geophysical media. Observations from polarimetric data acquired by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory airborne synthetic aperture radar over forests, sea ice, and sea surface are presented. Experimental evidences of the symmetry relationships are shown and their use in polarimetric remote sensing is illustrated. For forests, the coniferous forest in Mt. Shasta area (California) and mixed forest near Presque Isle (Maine) exhibit characteristics of the centrical symmetry at C-band. For sea ice in the Beaufort Sea, multi-year sea ice has a cross-polarized ratio e close to e(sub 0), calculated from symmetry, due to the randomness in the scattering structure. First-year sea ice has e much smaller than e(sub 0) due to the preferential alignment of the columnar structure of the ice. From polarimetric data of a sea surface in the Bering Sea, it is

  20. Similarity measures of full polarimetric SAR images fusion for improved SAR image matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, H.

    2015-06-01

    China's first airborne SAR mapping system (CASMSAR) developed by Chinese Academy of Surveying and Mapping can acquire high-resolution and full polarimetric (HH, HV, VH and VV) Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data. It has the ability to acquire X-band full polarimetric SAR data at a resolution of 0.5m. However, the existence of speckles which is inherent in SAR imagery affects visual interpretation and image processing badly, and challenges the assumption that conjugate points appear similar to each other in matching processing. In addition, researches show that speckles are multiplicative speckles, and most similarity measures of SAR image matching are sensitive to them. Thus, matching outcomes of SAR images acquired by most similarity measures are not reliable and with bad accuracy. Meanwhile, every polarimetric SAR image has different backscattering information of objects from each other and four polarimetric SAR data contain most basic and a large amount of redundancy information to improve matching. Therefore, we introduced logarithmically transformation and a stereo matching similarity measure into airborne full polarimetric SAR imagery. Firstly, in order to transform the multiplicative speckles into additivity ones and weaken speckles' influence on similarity measure, logarithmically transformation have to be taken to all images. Secondly, to prevent performance degradation of similarity measure caused by speckles, measure must be free or insensitive of additivity speckles. Thus, we introduced a stereo matching similarity measure, called Normalized Cross-Correlation (NCC), into full polarimetric SAR image matching. Thirdly, to take advantage of multi-polarimetric data and preserve the best similarity measure value, four measure values calculated between left and right single polarimetric SAR images are fused as final measure value for matching. The method was tested for matching under CASMSAR data. The results showed that the method delivered an effective

  1. Hierarchical ship detection and recognition with high-resolution polarimetric synthetic aperture radar imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Haitao; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Ting; Zhao, Di; Meng, Junmin

    2014-01-01

    Ship surveillance by remote sensing technology has become a valuable tool for protecting marine environments. In recent years, the successful launch of advanced synthetic aperture radar (SAR) sensors that have high resolution and multipolarimetric modes has enabled researchers to use SAR imagery for not only ship detection but also ship category recognition. A hierarchical ship detection and recognition scheme is proposed. The complementary information obtained from multipolarimetric modes is used to improve both the detection precision and the recognition accuracy. In the ship detection stage, a three-class fuzzy c-means clustering algorithm is used to calculate the segmenting threshold for prescreening ship candidates. To reduce the false alarm rate (FAR), we use a two-step discrimination strategy. In the first step, we fuse the detection results from multipolarimetric channels to reduce the speckle noise, ambiguities, sidelobes, and other sources of interference. In the second step, we use a binary classifier, which is trained with prior data collected on ships and nonships, to reduce the FAR even further. In the ship category recognition stage, we concatenate texture-based descriptors extracted from multiple polarmetric channels to construct a robust ship representation for category recognition. Furthermore, we construct and release a ship category database with real SAR data. We hope that it can be used to promote investigations of SAR ship recognition in the remote sensing and related academic communities. The proposed method is validated by a comprehensive experimental comparison to the state-of-the-art methods. The validation procedure showed that the proposed method outperforms all of the competing methods by about 5% and 15% in terms of ship detection and recognition, respectively.

  2. Case Studies for UV, O2-A Band and Polarimetric Airborne Remote Sensing Observations of Coastal Waters: Implications for Atmospheric Correction.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhary, J.; van Diedenhoven, B.; Knobelspiesse, K. D.; Cairns, B.; Wasilewski, A. P.; Mccubbin, I. B.

    2014-12-01

    A major challenge for spaceborne observations of ocean color is to correct for atmospheric scattering, which typically contributes ≥85% to the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiance and varies substantially with aerosols. Ocean color missions traditionally analyze TOA radiance in the near-infrared (NIR), where the ocean is black, to constrain the TOA atmospheric scattering in the visible (VIS). However, this procedure is limited by insufficient sensitivity of NIR radiance to absorption and vertical distribution of aerosols, and by uncertainties in the extrapolation of aerosol properties from the NIR to the VIS. To improve atmospheric correction for ocean color observations, one needs to change the traditional procedure for this correction and/or increase the aerosol information. The instruments proposed for the Pre-Aerosol, Clouds, and ocean Ecosystem (PACE) mission include ultraviolet and Oxygen A-band observations, as well as multispectral and multiangle polarimetry, to increase the aerosol information content. However no studies have been performed on whether such observations contain sufficient aerosol information, and on how to use this information, to substantially improve atmospheric correction. To study the atmospheric correction capabilities of PACE-like instruments, we are conducting field experiments off the Coast of California to obtain high-altitude airborne and in-situ observations of water-leaving radiance. The airborne data sets consist of hyperspectral radiance between 380-2500 nm by the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer, and narrow-band multiangle polarimetric data between 410-2250 nm by the Research Scanning Polarimeter. We discuss the quality of and comparisons between these data sets, and their differential sensitivities to variations in aerosol properties and ocean color.

  3. Towards a Semantic Interpretation of Urban Areas with Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Hondt, O.; Guillaso, S.; Hellwich, O.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we introduce a method to detect and reconstruct building parts from tomographic Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) airborne data. Our approach extends recent works in two ways: first, the radiometric information is used to guide the extraction of geometric primitives. Second, building facades and roofs are extracted thanks to geometric classification rules. We demonstrate our method on a 3 image L-Band airborne dataset over the city of Dresden, Germany. Experiments show how our technique allows to use the complementarity between the radiometric image and the tomographic point cloud to extract buildings parts in challenging situations.

  4. MAX-91: Polarimetric SAR results on Montespertoli site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baronti, S.; Luciani, S.; Moretti, S.; Paloscia, S.; Schiavon, G.; Sigismondi, S.

    1993-01-01

    The polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is a powerful sensor for high resolution ocean and land mapping and particularly for monitoring hydrological parameters in large watersheds. There is currently much research in progress to assess the SAR operational capability as well as to estimate the accuracy achievable in the measurements of geophysical parameters with the presently available airborne and spaceborne sensors. An important goal of this research is to improve our understanding of the basic mechanisms that control the interaction of electro-magnetic waves with soil and vegetation. This can be done both by developing electromagnetic models and by analyzing statistical relations between backscattering and ground truth data. A systematic investigation, which aims at a better understanding of the information obtainable from the multi-frequency polarimetric SAR to be used in agro-hydrology, is in progress by our groups within the framework of SIR-C/X-SAR Project and has achieved a most significant milestone with the NASA/JPL Aircraft Campaign named MAC-91. Indeed this experiment allowed us to collect a large and meaningful data set including multi-temporal multi-frequency polarimetric SAR measurements and ground truth. This paper presents some significant results obtained over an agricultural flat area within the Montespertoli site, where intensive ground measurements were carried out. The results are critically discussed with special regard to the information associated with polarimetric data.

  5. a Modified Method for Polarimetric SAR Calibration Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, L.; Li, P.; Yang, J.

    2013-07-01

    Present fully polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) systems often update calibration techniques to further enhance the accuracy to the polarimetric data. In this paper, we propose a modified method to estimate the value of crosstalk based on the corrected observed value. Since Ainsworth calibration algorithm firstly set the value of k to be one. And the value of k relates to the copolarization channel imbalance .We consider the effects of value of k and analyze it. Through comparison to crosstalk results between the stimulated parameters and the estimated parameters, we assume high co-polarization channel imbalance will be obviously to affect crosstalk results. Then, used covariance observation value of the initial value of k rewrites the model to solve related parameters. And crosstalk parameter is calculated by the same iterative method. To verify the effect of the modified calibration method, this letter compares the accuracy of the two methods using the simulated polarimetric SAR data and Chinese airborne X-band polarimetric SAR data. The results confirm that the modified method tends to get more accurate crosstalk results.

  6. Extracting DEM from airborne X-band data based on PolInSAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, X. X.; Huang, G. M.; Zhao, Z.

    2015-06-01

    Polarimetric Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (PolInSAR) is a new trend of SAR remote sensing technology which combined polarized multichannel information and Interferometric information. It is of great significance for extracting DEM in some regions with low precision of DEM such as vegetation coverage area and building concentrated area. In this paper we describe our experiments with high-resolution X-band full Polarimetric SAR data acquired by a dual-baseline interferometric airborne SAR system over an area of Danling in southern China. Pauli algorithm is used to generate the double polarimetric interferometry data, Singular Value Decomposition (SVD), Numerical Radius (NR) and Phase diversity (PD) methods are used to generate the full polarimetric interferometry data. Then we can make use of the polarimetric interferometric information to extract DEM with processing of pre filtering , image registration, image resampling, coherence optimization, multilook processing, flat-earth removal, interferogram filtering, phase unwrapping, parameter calibration, height derivation and geo-coding. The processing system named SARPlore has been exploited based on VC++ led by Chinese Academy of Surveying and Mapping. Finally compared optimization results with the single polarimetric interferometry, it has been observed that optimization ways can reduce the interferometric noise and the phase unwrapping residuals, and improve the precision of DEM. The result of full polarimetric interferometry is better than double polarimetric interferometry. Meanwhile, in different terrain, the result of full polarimetric interferometry will have a different degree of increase.

  7. Automatic oil spill detection on quad polarimetric UAVSAR imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahnemoonfar, Maryam; Dhakal, Shanti

    2016-05-01

    Oil spill on the water bodies has adverse effects on coastal and marine ecology. Oil spill contingency planning is of utmost importance in order to plan for mitigation and remediation of the oceanic oil spill. Remote sensing technologies are used for monitoring the oil spills on the ocean and coastal region. Airborne and satellite sensors such as optical, infrared, ultraviolet, radar and microwave sensors are available for remote surveillance of the ocean. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is used most extensively for oil-spill monitoring because of its capability to operate during day/night and cloud-cover condition. This study detects the possible oil spill regions on fully polarimetric Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle - Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR) images. The UAVSAR image is decomposed using Cloude-Pottier polarimetric decomposition technique to obtain entropy and alpha parameters. In addition, other polarimetric features such as co-polar correlation and degree of polarization are obtained for the UAVSAR images. These features are used to with fuzzy logic based classification to detect oil spill on the SAR images. The experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  8. Indoor experimental facility for airborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) configurations - rail-SAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirose, Getachew; Phelan, Brian R.; Sherbondy, Kelly D.; Ranney, Kenneth I.; Koenig, Francois; Narayanan, Ram M.

    2014-05-01

    The Army Research Laboratory (ARL) is developing an indoor experimental facility to evaluate and assess airborne synthetic-aperture-radar-(SAR)-based detection capabilities. The rail-SAR is located in a multi-use facility that also provides a base for research and development in the area of autonomous robotic navigation. Radar explosive hazard detection is one key sensordevelopment area to be investigated at this indoor facility. In particular, the mostly wooden, multi-story building houses a two (2) story housing structure and an open area built over a large sandbox. The housing structure includes reconfigurable indoor walls which enable the realization of multiple See-Through-The-Wall (STTW) scenarios. The open sandbox, on the other hand, allows for surface and buried explosive hazard scenarios. The indoor facility is not rated for true explosive hazard materials so all targets will need to be inert and contain surrogate explosive fills. In this paper we discuss the current system status and describe data collection exercises conducted using canonical targets and frequencies that may be of interest to designers of ultra-wideband (UWB) airborne, ground penetrating SAR systems. A bi-static antenna configuration will be used to investigate the effects of varying airborne SAR parameters such as depression angle, bandwidth, and integration angle, for various target types and deployment scenarios. Canonical targets data were used to evaluate overall facility capabilities and limitations. These data is analyzed and summarized for future evaluations. Finally, processing techniques for dealing with RF multi-path and RFI due to operating inside the indoor facility are described in detail. Discussion of this facility and its capabilities and limitations will provide the explosive hazard community with a great airborne platform asset for sensor to target assessment.

  9. Progress report on the NASA/JPL airborne synthetic aperture radar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lou, Y.; Imel, D.; Chu, A.; Miller, T.; Moller, D.; Skotnicki, W.

    2001-01-01

    AIRSAR has served as a test-bed for both imaging radar techniques and radar technologies for over a decade. In fact, the polarimetric, cross-track interferometric, and along-track introferometric radar techniques were all developed using AIRSAR.

  10. Operations Manager Tim Miller checks out software for the Airborne Synthetic Aperature Radar (AIRSAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Tim Miller checks out software for the Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR). He was the AIRSAR operations manager for NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The AIRSAR produces imaging data for a range of studies conducted by the DC-8. NASA is using a DC-8 aircraft as a flying science laboratory. The platform aircraft, based at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif., collects data for many experiments in support of scientific projects serving the world scientific community. Included in this community are NASA, federal, state, academic and foreign investigators. Data gathered by the DC-8 at flight altitude and by remote sensing have been used for scientific studies in archeology, ecology, geography, hydrology, meteorology, oceanography, volcanology, atmospheric chemistry, soil science and biology.

  11. Reach scale floodplain inundation dynamics observed using airborne synthetic aperture radar imagery: Data analysis and modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, Paul D.; Wilson, Matthew D.; Horritt, Matthew S.; Mason, David C.; Holden, Nick; Currie, Anthony

    2006-08-01

    SummaryIn this paper, we use an airborne synthetic aperture radar to map river flood inundation synoptically at fine spatial resolution (1.2 m) along a ˜16 km reach of the River Severn, west-central England. Images were obtained at four times through a large flood event between 8th and 17th November 2000 and processed using a statistical active contour algorithm to yield the flood shoreline at each time. Intersection of these data with a high vertical accuracy survey of floodplain topography obtained from airborne laser altimetry permitted the calculation of dynamic changes in inundated area, total reach storage and rates of reach dewatering. In addition, comparison of the data to gauged flow rates, the measured floodplain topography and map data giving the location of embankments and drainage channels on the floodplain yields new insights into the factors controlling the development of inundation patterns at a variety of scales. Finally, the data were used to assess the performance of a simple two-dimensional flood inundation model, LISFLOOD-FP, and allows us, for the first time, to validate the dynamic performance of the model. This process is shown to give new information into structural weaknesses of the model and suggests possible future developments, including the incorporation of a better description of floodplain hydrological processes in the hydraulic model to represent more accurately the dewatering of the floodplain.

  12. Remote sensing of land scenarios with an airborne 94-GHz synthetic aperture radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Essen, Helmut; Makaruschka, R.; Baars, E. Peter

    1996-06-01

    The scattering process of electromagnetic waves is dominated by the match between wavelength and the geometric dimensions of surface structures. With respect to the microwave radar bands millimeter-waves are better matched to small surface features of terrain. Therefore this frequency band is able to gain additional information on the terrain of interest. For high resolution imaging SAR is the favorite solution also for millimeter-wave frequencies. Compared to more classical radar bands millimeter-waves offer advantages in the SAR processing, because due to the higher primary resolution at a given antenna aperture sources of image distortions such as range migration or depth of focus can be neglected at these frequencies. Moreover the inherently short aperture time for a given resolution improves the relation to the time constant of flight instabilities and makes motion compensation a simple process. A coherent, polarimetric, high range resolution radar, operating at a nominal frequency of 94 GHz, has been installed onboard an aircraft to allow remote sensing measurements in a side looking synthetic aperture approach. The radar-raw-data were registered together with time code and inertial data of the aircraft and later on evaluated by an off-line SAR-processor. The resulting images then had to undergo an automatic recognition process to extract certain complex targets using a knowledge based production system. The paper describes the measurement system and discusses the evaluation procedures with emphasis on the applied SAR algorithm. Examples of radar images at 94 GHz are shown and samples of pattern recognition derived from the SAR images are shown.

  13. POLCAL - POLARIMETRIC RADAR CALIBRATION

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanzyl, J.

    1994-01-01

    Calibration of polarimetric radar systems is a field of research in which great progress has been made over the last few years. POLCAL (Polarimetric Radar Calibration) is a software tool intended to assist in the calibration of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) systems. In particular, POLCAL calibrates Stokes matrix format data produced as the standard product by the NASA/Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) airborne imaging synthetic aperture radar (AIRSAR). POLCAL was designed to be used in conjunction with data collected by the NASA/JPL AIRSAR system. AIRSAR is a multifrequency (6 cm, 24 cm, and 68 cm wavelength), fully polarimetric SAR system which produces 12 x 12 km imagery at 10 m resolution. AIRSTAR was designed as a testbed for NASA's Spaceborne Imaging Radar program. While the images produced after 1991 are thought to be calibrated (phase calibrated, cross-talk removed, channel imbalance removed, and absolutely calibrated), POLCAL can and should still be used to check the accuracy of the calibration and to correct it if necessary. Version 4.0 of POLCAL is an upgrade of POLCAL version 2.0 released to AIRSAR investigators in June, 1990. New options in version 4.0 include automatic absolute calibration of 89/90 data, distributed target analysis, calibration of nearby scenes with calibration parameters from a scene with corner reflectors, altitude or roll angle corrections, and calibration of errors introduced by known topography. Many sources of error can lead to false conclusions about the nature of scatterers on the surface. Errors in the phase relationship between polarization channels result in incorrect synthesis of polarization states. Cross-talk, caused by imperfections in the radar antenna itself, can also lead to error. POLCAL reduces cross-talk and corrects phase calibration without the use of ground calibration equipment. Removing the antenna patterns during SAR processing also forms a very important part of the calibration of SAR data. Errors in the

  14. Synthetic aperture radar imagery of airports and surrounding areas: Study of clutter at grazing angles and their polarimetric properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Onstott, Robert G.; Gineris, Denise J.; Clinthorne, James T.

    1991-01-01

    The statistical description of ground clutter at an airport and in the surrounding area is addressed. These data are being utilized in a program to detect microbursts. Synthetic aperture radar data were collected at the Denver Stapleton Airport. Mountain terrain data were examined to determine if they may potentially contribute to range ambiguity problems and degrade microburst detection. Results suggest that mountain clutter may not present a special problem source. The examination of clutter at small grazing angles was continued by examining data collected at especially low altitudes. Cultural objects such as buildings produce strong sources of backscatter at angles of about 85 deg, with responses of 30 dB to 60 dB above the background. Otherwise there are a few sources which produce significant scatter. The polarization properties of hydrospheres and clutter were examined with the intent of determining the optimum polarization. This polarization was determined to be dependent upon the ratio of VV and HH polarizations of both rain and ground clutter.

  15. Polarimetric analysis of radar backscatter from ground-based scatterometers and wheat biomass monitoring with advanced synthetic aperture radar images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Lei; Tong, Ling; Li, Yuxia; Chen, Yan; Tan, Longfei; Guo, Caizheng

    2016-04-01

    This article presents an analysis of the scattering measurements for an entire wheat growth cycle by ground-based scatterometers at a frequency of 5.3 GHz. Since wheat ears are related to wheat growth and yield, the radar backscatter of wheat was analyzed at two different periods, i.e., with and without wheat ears. Simultaneously, parameters such as wheat and soil characteristics as well as volume scattering and soil scattering were analyzed for the two periods during the entire growth cycle. Wheat ears have been demonstrated to have a great influence on radar backscatter; therefore, a modified version of water-cloud model used for retrieving biomass should consider the effect of wheat ears. This work presents two retrieval models based on the water-cloud model and adopts the advanced integral equation model to simulate the soil backscatter before the heading stage and the backscatter from the layer under wheat ears after the heading stage. The research results showed that the biomass retrieved from the advanced synthetic aperture radar (ASAR) images to agree well with the data measured in situ after setting the modified water-cloud model for the growth stages with ears. Furthermore, it was concluded that wheat ears should form an essential component of theoretical modeling as they influence the final yield.

  16. Polarimetric analysis of radar backscatter from ground-based scatterometers and wheat biomass monitoring with advanced synthetic aperture radar images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Lei; Tong, Ling; Li, Yuxia; Chen, Yan; Tan, Longfei; Guo, Caizheng

    2016-04-01

    This article presents an analysis of the scattering measurements for an entire wheat growth cycle by ground-based scatterometers at a frequency of 5.3 GHz. Since wheat ears are related to wheat growth and yield, the radar backscatter of wheat was analyzed at two different periods, i.e., with and without wheat ears. Simultaneously, parameters such as wheat and soil characteristics as well as volume scattering and soil scattering were analyzed for the two periods during the entire growth cycle. Wheat ears have been demonstrated to have a great influence on radar backscatter; therefore, a modified version of water-cloud model used for retrieving biomass should consider the effect of wheat ears. This work presents two retrieval models based on the water-cloud model and adopts the advanced integral equation model to simulate the soil backscatter before the heading stage and the backscatter from the layer under wheat ears after the heading stage. The research results showed that the biomass retrieved from the advanced synthetic aperture radar (ASAR) images to agree well with the data measured in situ after setting the modified water-cloud model for the growth stages with ears. Furthermore, it was concluded that wheat ears should form an essential component of theoretical modeling as they influence the final yield.

  17. Space-borne polarimetric SAR sensors or the golden age of radar polarimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pottier, E.

    2010-06-01

    SAR Polarimetry represents an active area of research in Active Earth Remote Sensing. This interest is clearly supported by the fact that nowadays there exists, or there will exist in a very next future, a non negligible quantity of launched Polarimetric SAR Spaceborne sensors. The ENVISAT satellite, developed by ESA, was launched on March 2002, and was the first Spaceborne sensor offering an innovative dualpolarization Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR) system operating at C-band. The second Polarimetric Spaceborne sensor is ALOS, a Japanese Earth-Observation satellite, developed by JAXA and was launched in January 2006. This mission includes an active L-band polarimetric radar sensor (PALSAR) whose highresolution data may be used for environmental and hazard monitoring. The third Polarimetric Spaceborne sensor is TerraSAR-X, a new German radar satellite, developed by DLR, EADS-Astrium and Infoterra GmbH, was launched on June 2007. This sensor carries a dual-polarimetric and high frequency X-Band SAR sensor that can be operated in different modes and offers features that were not available from space before. At least, the Polarimetric Spaceborne sensor, developed by CSA and MDA, and named RADARSAT-2 was launched in December 2007 The Radarsat program was born out the need for effective monitoring of Canada’s icy waters, and some Radarsat-2 capabilities that benefit sea- and river ice applications are the multi-polarization options that will improve ice-edge detection, ice-type discrimination and structure information. The many advances in these different Polarimetric Spaceborne platforms were developed to respond to specific needs for radar data in environmental monitoring applications around the world, like : sea- and river-ice monitoring, marine surveillance, disaster management, oil spill detection, snow monitoring, hydrology, mapping, geology, agriculture, soil characterisation, forestry applications (biomass, allometry, height…), urban mapping etc

  18. Classification of fully polarimetric F-SAR ( X / S ) airborne radar images using decomposition methods. (Polish Title: Klasyfikacja treści polarymetrycznych obrazów radarowych z wykorzystaniem metod dekompozycji na przykładzie systemu F-SAR ( X / S ))

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mleczko, M.

    2014-12-01

    Polarimetric SAR data is not widely used in practice, because it is not yet available operationally from the satellites. Currently we can distinguish two approaches in POL - In - SAR technology: alternating polarization imaging (Alt - POL) and fully polarimetric (QuadPol). The first represents a subset of another and is more operational, while the second is experimental because classification of this data requires polarimetric decomposition of scattering matrix in the first stage. In the literature decomposition process is divided in two types: the coherent and incoherent decomposition. In this paper the decomposition methods have been tested using data from the high resolution airborne F - SAR system. Results of classification have been interpreted in the context of the land cover mapping capabilities

  19. Processing of polarimetric SAR data for soil moisture estimation over Mahantango watershed area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, K. S.; Teng, W. L.; Wang, J. R.

    1992-01-01

    Microwave remote sensing technique has a high potential for measuring soil moisture due to the large contrast in dielectric constant of dry and wet soils. Recent work by Pults et al. demonstrated the use of X/C-band data for quantitative surface soil moisture extraction from Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) system. Similar technique was adopted using polarimetric SAR data acquired with the JPL-AIRSAR system over the Mahantango watershed area in central Pennsylvania during July 1990. The data sets reported include C-, L-, and P-bands of 10, 13, 15, and 17 July 1990.

  20. Unsupervised Segmentation Of Polarimetric SAR Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rignot, Eric J.; Dubois, Pascale; Van Zyl, Jakob; Kwok, Ronald; Chellappa, Rama

    1994-01-01

    Method of unsupervised segmentation of polarimetric synthetic-aperture-radar (SAR) image data into classes involves selection of classes on basis of multidimensional fuzzy clustering of logarithms of parameters of polarimetric covariance matrix. Data in each class represent parts of image wherein polarimetric SAR backscattering characteristics of terrain regarded as homogeneous. Desirable to have each class represent type of terrain, sea ice, or ocean surface distinguishable from other types via backscattering characteristics. Unsupervised classification does not require training areas, is nearly automated computerized process, and provides nonsubjective selection of image classes naturally well separated by radar.

  1. Unsupervised segmentation of polarimetric SAR data using the covariance matrix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rignot, Eric; Chellappa, Rama; Dubois, Pascale; Kwok, Ronald; Van Zyl, Jacob

    1991-01-01

    An unsupervised selection of polarimetric features useful for the segmentation and analysis of polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data is presented. The technique is based on multidimensional clustering of the parameters composing the polarimetric covariance matrix of the data. Clustering is performed on the logarithm of these quantities. Once the polarimetric cluster centers have been determined, segmentation of the polarimetric data into regions is performed using a maximum likelihood polarimetric classifier. Segmentation maps are further improved using a Markov random field to describe the statistics of the regions and computing the maximum of the product of the local conditional densities. Examples with real polarimetric SAR imagery are given to illustrate the potential of this method.

  2. MAPSAR Image Simulation Based on L-band Polarimetric Data from the SAR-R99B Airborne Sensor (SIVAM System)

    PubMed Central

    Mura, José Claudio; Paradella, Waldir Renato; Dutra, Luciano Vieira; dos Santos, João Roberto; Rudorff, Bernardo Friedrich Theodor; de Miranda, Fernando Pellon; da Silva, Mario Marcos Quintino; da Silva, Wagner Fernando

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the methodology applied to generate simulated multipolarized L-band SAR images of the MAPSAR (Multi-Application Purpose SAR) satellite from the airborne SAR R99B sensor (SIVAM System). MAPSAR is a feasibility study conducted by INPE (National Institute for Space Research) and DLR (German Aerospace Center) targeting a satellite L-band SAR innovative mission for assessment, management and monitoring of natural resources. Examples of simulated products and their applications are briefly discussed. PMID:22389590

  3. Recent Advances in Radar Polarimetry and Polarimetric SAR Interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boerner, Wolfgang-Martin

    2005-01-01

    The development of Radar Polarimetry and Radar Interferometry is advancing rapidly, and these novel radar technologies are revamping Synthetic Aperture Radar Imaging decisively. In this exposition the successive advancements are sketched; beginning with the fundamental formulations and high-lighting the salient points of these diverse remote sensing techniques. Whereas with radar polarimetry the textural fine-structure, target-orientation and shape, symmetries and material constituents can be recovered with considerable improvements above that of standard amplitude-only Polarization Radar ; with radar interferometry the spatial (in depth) structure can be explored. In Polarimetric-Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (POL-IN-SAR) Imaging it is possible to recover such co-registered textural plus spatial properties simultaneously. This includes the extraction of Digital Elevation Maps (DEM) from either fully Polarimetric (scattering matrix) or Interferometric (dual antenna) SAR image data takes with the additional benefit of obtaining co-registered three-dimensional POL-IN-DEM information. Extra-Wide-Band POL-IN-SAR Imaging - when applied to Repeat-Pass Image Overlay Interferometry - provides differential background validation and measurement, stress assessment, and environmental stress-change monitoring capabilities with hitherto unattained accuracy, which are essential tools for improved global biomass estimation. More recently, by applying multiple parallel repeat-pass EWB-POL-D(RP)-IN-SAR imaging along stacked (altitudinal) or displaced (horizontal) flight-lines will result in Tomographic (Multi- Interferometric) Polarimetric SAR Stereo-Imaging , including foliage and ground penetrating capabilities. It is shown that the accelerated advancement of these modern EWB-POL-D(RP)-IN-SAR imaging techniques is of direct relevance and of paramount priority to wide-area dynamic homeland security surveillance and local-to-global environmental ground-truth measurement

  4. Internal wave observations made with an airborne synthetic aperture imaging radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elachi, C.; Apel, J. R.

    1976-01-01

    Synthetic aperture L-band radar flown aboard the NASA CV-990 has observed periodic striations on the ocean surface off the coast of Alaska which have been interpreted as tidally excited oceanic internal waves of less than 500 m length. These radar images are compared to photographic imagery of similar waves taken from Landsat 1. Both the radar and Landsat images reveal variations in reflectivity across each wave in a packet that range from low to high to normal. The variations point to the simultaneous existence of two mechanisms for the surface signatures of internal waves: roughening due to wave-current interactions, and smoothing due to slick formation.

  5. Airborne synthetic aperture radar observations and simulations for waves in ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vachon, Paris W.; Olsen, Richard B.; Krogstad, Harald E.; Liu, Antony K.

    1993-01-01

    The Canada Centre for Remote Sensing CV-580 aircraft collected C-band SAR data over the marginal ice zone off the east coast of Newfoundland during the Labrador Ice Margin Experiment (LIMEX) in March 1989. One component of the LIMEX '89 program was the study of ocean waves penetrating the marginal ice zone. We consider nearly coincidental observations of waves in ice by airborne SAR and wave-induced ice motion measurements. We explain the wave patterns observed in the SAR imagery, and the corresponding SAR image spectra, in terms of SAR wave imaging models. These include the well-known tilt cross-section modulation, linear, quasi-linear, and nonlinear velocity bunching forward mapping models (FMMs), and the assertion that the concept of coherence time limitation applies differently to the cases of waves in ice and open water. We modify the concept of the scene coherence time to include two parts: first, a decorrelation time deduced from the inherent azimuth cutoff in the nonlinear velocity bunching FMM; and second, the intrinsic scene coherence time which is a measure of the time scale over which an open water Bragg scattering patch retains its phase structure. Either of these coherence time scales could dominate the SAR image formation process, depending upon the environmental conditions (the wave spectrum and the wind speed, for example). Observed SAR image spectra and forward mapped ice motion package spectra are favorably compared.

  6. Application of symmetry properties to polarimetric remote sensing with JPL AIRSAR data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nghiem, S. V.; Yueh, Simon H.; Kwok, R.; Li, F. K.

    1992-01-01

    Based on symmetry properties, polarimetric remote sensing of geophysical media is studied. From the viewpoint of symmetry groups, media with reflection, rotation, azimuthal, and centrical symmetries are considered. The symmetries impose relations among polarimetric scattering coefficients, which are valid to all scattering mechanisms in the symmetrical configurations. Various orientation distributions of non-spherical scatterers can be identified from the scattering coefficients by a comparison with the symmetry calculations. Experimental observations are then analyzed for many geophysical scenes acquired with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) airborne polarimetric SAR at microwave frequencies over sea ice and vegetation. Polarimetric characteristics of different ice types are compared with symmetry behaviors. The polarimetric response of a tropical rain forest reveals characteristics close to the centrical symmetry properties, which can be used as a distributed target to relatively calibrate polarimetric radars without any deployment of manmade calibration targets.

  7. Supervised fully polarimetric classification of the Black Forest test site: From MAESTROI to MAC Europe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degrandi, G.; Lavalle, C.; Degroof, H.; Sieber, A.

    1992-01-01

    A study on the performance of a supervised fully polarimetric maximum likelihood classifier for synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data when applied to a specific classification context: forest classification based on age classes and in the presence of a sloping terrain is presented. For the experimental part, the polarimetric AIRSAR data at P, L, and C-band, acquired over the German Black Forest near Freiburg in the frame of the 1989 MAESTRO-1 campaign and the 1991 MAC Europe campaign was used, MAESTRO-1 with an ESA/JRC sponsored campaign, and MAC Europe (Multi-sensor Aircraft Campaign); in both cases the multi-frequency polarimetric JPL Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR) radar was flown over a number of European test sites. The study is structured as follows. At first, the general characteristics of the classifier and the dependencies from some parameters, like frequency bands, feature vector, calibration, using test areas lying on a flat terrain are investigated. Once it is determined the optimal conditions for the classifier performance, we then move on to the study of the slope effect. The bulk of this work is performed using the Maestrol data set. Next the classifier performance with the MAC Europe data is considered. The study is divided into two stages: first some of the tests done on the Maestro data are repeated, to highlight the improvements due to the new processing scheme that delivers 16 look data. Second we experiment with multi images classification with two goals: to assess the possibility of using a training set measured from one image to classify areas in different images; and to classify areas on critical slopes using different viewing angles. The main points of the study are listed and some of the results obtained so far are highlighted.

  8. Scanning Mueller polarimetric microscopy.

    PubMed

    Le Gratiet, Aymeric; Dubreuil, Matthieu; Rivet, Sylvain; Le Grand, Yann

    2016-09-15

    A full Mueller polarimeter was implemented on a commercial laser-scanning microscope. The new polarimetric microscope is based on high-speed polarization modulation by spectral coding using a wavelength-swept laser as a source. Calibration as well as estimation of the measurement errors of the device are reported. The acquisition of Mueller images at the speed of a scanning microscope is demonstrated for the first time. Mueller images of mineral and biological samples illustrate this new polarimetric microscopy. PMID:27628391

  9. Integration of a synthetic vision system with airborne laser range scanner-based terrain referenced navigation for precision approach guidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uijt de Haag, Maarten; Campbell, Jacob; van Graas, Frank

    2005-05-01

    Synthetic Vision Systems (SVS) provide pilots with a virtual visual depiction of the external environment. When using SVS for aircraft precision approach guidance systems accurate positioning relative to the runway with a high level of integrity is required. Precision approach guidance systems in use today require ground-based electronic navigation components with at least one installation at each airport, and in many cases multiple installations to service approaches to all qualifying runways. A terrain-referenced approach guidance system is envisioned to provide precision guidance to an aircraft without the use of ground-based electronic navigation components installed at the airport. This autonomy makes it a good candidate for integration with an SVS. At the Ohio University Avionics Engineering Center (AEC), work has been underway in the development of such a terrain referenced navigation system. When used in conjunction with an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) and a high accuracy/resolution terrain database, this terrain referenced navigation system can provide navigation and guidance information to the pilot on a SVS or conventional instruments. The terrain referenced navigation system, under development at AEC, operates on similar principles as other terrain navigation systems: a ground sensing sensor (in this case an airborne laser scanner) gathers range measurements to the terrain; this data is then matched in some fashion with an onboard terrain database to find the most likely position solution and used to update an inertial sensor-based navigator. AEC's system design differs from today's common terrain navigators in its use of a high resolution terrain database (~1 meter post spacing) in conjunction with an airborne laser scanner which is capable of providing tens of thousands independent terrain elevation measurements per second with centimeter-level accuracies. When combined with data from an inertial navigator the high resolution terrain database and

  10. Status and future of laser scanning, synthetic aperture radar and hyperspectral remote sensing data for forest biomass assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, Barbara

    2010-11-01

    This is a review of the latest developments in different fields of remote sensing for forest biomass mapping. The main fields of research within the last decade have focused on the use of small footprint airborne laser scanning systems, polarimetric synthetic radar interferometry and hyperspectral data. Parallel developments in the field of digital airborne camera systems, digital photogrammetry and very high resolution multispectral data have taken place and have also proven themselves suitable for forest mapping issues. Forest mapping is a wide field and a variety of forest parameters can be mapped or modelled based on remote sensing information alone or combined with field data. The most common information required about a forest is related to its wood production and environmental aspects. In this paper, we will focus on the potential of advanced remote sensing techniques to assess forest biomass. This information is especially required by the REDD (reducing of emission from avoided deforestation and degradation) process. For this reason, new types of remote sensing data such as fullwave laser scanning data, polarimetric radar interferometry (polarimetric systhetic aperture interferometry, PolInSAR) and hyperspectral data are the focus of the research. In recent times, a few state-of-the-art articles in the field of airborne laser scanning for forest applications have been published. The current paper will provide a state-of-the-art review of remote sensing with a particular focus on biomass estimation, including new findings with fullwave airborne laser scanning, hyperspectral and polarimetric synthetic aperture radar interferometry. A synthesis of the actual findings and an outline of future developments will be presented.

  11. Pyxis handheld polarimetric imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chenault, David B.; Pezzaniti, J. Larry; Vaden, Justin P.

    2016-05-01

    The instrumentation for measuring infrared polarization signatures has seen significant advancement over the last decade. Previous work has shown the value of polarimetric imagery for a variety of target detection scenarios including detection of manmade targets in clutter and detection of ground and maritime targets while recent work has shown improvements in contrast for aircraft detection and biometric markers. These data collection activities have generally used laboratory or prototype systems with limitations on the allowable amount of target motion or the sensor platform and usually require an attached computer for data acquisition and processing. Still, performance and sensitivity have been steadily getting better while size, weight, and power requirements have been getting smaller enabling polarimetric imaging for a greater or real world applications. In this paper, we describe Pyxis®, a microbolometer based imaging polarimeter that produces live polarimetric video of conventional, polarimetric, and fused image products. A polarization microgrid array integrated in the optical system captures all polarization states simultaneously and makes the system immune to motion artifacts of either the sensor or the scene. The system is battery operated, rugged, and weighs about a quarter pound, and can be helmet mounted or handheld. On board processing of polarization and fused image products enable the operator to see polarimetric signatures in real time. Both analog and digital outputs are possible with sensor control available through a tablet interface. A top level description of Pyxis® is given followed by performance characteristics and representative data.

  12. Fully polarimetric data from the ARL RailSAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranney, Kenneth; Kirose, Getachew; Phelan, Brian; Sherbondy, Kelly

    2016-05-01

    The U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL) has recently upgraded the indoor, rail-mounted synthetic aperture radar (SAR) system, RailSAR, to enable collection of large amounts of low-frequency, ultrawideband (UWB) data. Our intent is to provide a research tool that is capable of emulating airborne SAR configuration and associated data collection geometries against surrogate explosive hazard threat deployments. By having such a capability, ARL's facility will afford a more rapid response to the ever changing improvised characteristics associated with explosive hazards today and in the future. Therefore, upgrades to this RailSAR tool to improve functionality and performance are needed to meet the potential rapid response assessments to be carried out. The new, lighter RailSAR cart puts less strain on the radar positioning hardware and allows the system to move smoothly along a specified portion of the rail. In previous papers, we have presented co-polarized SAR data collected using the ARL RailSAR. Recently, however, researchers at ARL have leveraged this asset to collect polarimetric data against multiple targets. This paper presents the SAR imagery resulting from these experiments and documents characteristics of certain target signatures that should be of interest to developers of automatic target detection (ATD) algorithms.

  13. Overview and Applications of UAVSAR's Multi-Squint Polarimetric Imaging Mode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott Hensley; Chen, Curtis; Michel, Thierry; Jones, Cathleen; Chapman, Bruce; Muellerschoen, Ron

    2011-01-01

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory has developed a reconfigurable polarimetric L-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR), specifically designed to acquire airborne repeat track interferometric (RTI) SAR data for application to monitoring surface deformation and vegetation structure measurements. The system employs a precision autopilot developed by NASA Dryden that allows the plane to fly precise trajectories usually within a 5 m tube. Also required for robust repeat pass applications is the ability to point the antenna in the same direction on repeat passes to a fraction of an azimuth beamwidth (8? for UAVSAR). This precise pointing is achieved using an electronically scanned antenna whose pointing is based on inertial navigation unit (INU) attitude angle data. The radar design is fully polarimetric with an 80 MHz bandwidth (2 m range resolution) and has a greater than 20 km range swath when flying at its nominal altitude of 12500 m. The ability to electronically steer the beam on a pulse-to-pulse basis has allowed a new mode of SAR data acquisition whereby the radar beam is steered to different squint angles on successive pulses thereby simultaneously generating images at multiple squint angles. This mode offers the possibility of generating vector deformation measurements with a single pair of repeat passes and to obtain greater kz diversity for vegetation studies with a reduced number of passes. This paper will present an overview of the mode, discuss its potential for deformation and vegetation, and show some examples using UAVSAR data.

  14. Performance of Polarimetric Processing Techniques using NAWC P-3 SAR Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teti, J. G., Jr.; Lee, R. R.-Y.; Verdi, J. S.; Boerner, W.-M.

    1996-01-01

    The use of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) polarimetric processing for enhancing the detection, classification, and/or identification of scene scattering features is described. This paper describes and compares the results obtained from applying the polarimetric techniques that have been developed and/or advanced by researchers at MIT Lincoln Laboratory, and basic polarimetric match filter (PMF) techniques that have been modified to treat distributed scatterers. The paper describes the individual polarimetric processing techniques and the formulation used fro their application to polarimetric imagery obtained from the NAWC P-3 SAR. In all cases, the polarimetric techniques have been applied to enhance the detection of distributed scatterers in clutter The emphasis arises from considering most complex scatterers of interest (either man made or natural) as distributed scatterers consisting of multiple scattering centers, and many modern polarimetric radar systems have the resolution performance to resolve the multiple scattering centers. Furthermore, the individual scattering centers of a distributed target can often exhibit different polarimetric scattering characteristics, and consequently do not respond favorably to polarimetric processing techniques derived for individual point scatterers. The treatment of distributed scatterers also includes concepts for tuning the polarimetric ensemble response of individual scattering centers.

  15. Effect of Medium Symmetries on Limiting the Number of Parameters Estimated with Polarimetric SAR Interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moghaddam, M.

    1999-01-01

    The addition of interferometric backscattering pairs to the conventional polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data over forests and other vegetated areas increases the dimensionality of the data space, in principle enabling the estimation of a larger number of parameters.

  16. Polarimetric assist to HSI atmospheric compensation and material identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibney, Mark

    2016-05-01

    In this effort, we investigated how polarimetric HyperSpectral Imaging (pHSI) data might benefit specified Material Identification of diffuse materials in the VNIR. The experiment compared paint reflectivities extracted from polarimetric hyperspectral data acquired in the field to a database of truth reflectivities measured in the lab. Both the polarimetric hyperspectral data and the reflectivities were acquired using an Ocean Optics spectrometer which was polarized using a fast filter wheel loaded with high extinction polarizers. During the experiment, we discovered that the polarized spectra from the polarimetric hyper spectral data could be used to estimate the relative spectral character of the field source (the exo-atmospheric sun plus the atmosphere). This benefit, which strongly parallels the QUAC atmospheric correction method, relies on the natural spectral flatness of the polarized spectrum that originates in the spectral flatness of the index of refraction in the reflective regime. Using this estimate of the field source, excellent estimates of the paint reflectivities (matching 10 paint reflectivities to <= 0.5% RSS) were obtained. The impact of atmospheric upwell on performance was then investigated using these ground based polarimetric hyper spectral data in conjunction with modeled atmospheric path effects. The path effects were modeled using the high fidelity Polarimetry Phenomenology Simulation (PPS) plate model developed by AFRL, which includes polarized Modtran. We conclude with a discussion of actual and potential applications of this method, and how best to convert an existing VNIR HSI sensor into a pHSI sensor for an airborne Proof Of Concept experiment.

  17. General adaptive-neighborhood technique for improving synthetic aperture radar interferometric coherence estimation.

    PubMed

    Vasile, Gabriel; Trouvé, Emmanuel; Ciuc, Mihai; Buzuloiu, Vasile

    2004-08-01

    A new method for filtering the coherence map issued from synthetic aperture radar (SAR) interferometric data is presented. For each pixel of the interferogram, an adaptive neighborhood is determined by a region-growing technique driven by the information provided by the amplitude images. Then pixels in the derived adaptive neighborhood are complex averaged to yield the filtered value of the coherence, after a phase-compensation step is performed. An extension of the algorithm is proposed for polarimetric interferometric SAR images. The proposed method has been applied to both European Remote Sensing (ERS) satellite SAR images and airborne high-resolution polarimetric interferometric SAR images. Both subjective and objective performance analysis, including coherence edge detection, shows that the proposed method provides better results than the standard phase-compensated fixed multilook filter and the Lee adaptive coherence filter.

  18. ISRO's dual frequency airborne SAR pre-cursor to NISAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramanujam, V. Manavala; Suneela, T. J. V. D.; Bhan, Rakesh

    2016-05-01

    The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) have jointly embarked on NASA-ISRO Synthetic Aperture Radar (NISAR) operating in L-band and S-band, which will map Earth's surface every 12 days. As a pre-cursor to the NISAR mission, ISRO is planning an airborne SAR (L&S band) which will deliver NISAR analogue data products to the science community. ISRO will develop all the hardware with the aim of adhering to system design aspects of NISAR to the maximum extent possible. It is a fully polarimetric stripmap SAR and can be operated in single, dual, compact, quasi-quad and full polarimetry modes. It has wide incidence angle coverage from 24°-77° with swath coverage from 5.5km to 15 km. Apart from simultaneous imaging operations, this system can also operate in standalone L/S SAR modes. This system is planned to operate from an aircraft platform with nominal altitude of 8000meters. Antenna for this SAR will be rigidly mounted to the aircraft, whereas, motion compensation will be implemented in the software processor to generate data products. Data products for this airborne SAR will be generated in slant & ground range azimuth dimension and geocoded in HDF5/Geotiff formats. This airborne SAR will help to prepare the Indian scientific community for optimum utilization of NISAR data. In-order to collect useful science data, airborne campaigns are planned from end of 2016 onwards.

  19. Fitting a Two-Component Scattering Model to Polarimetric SAR Data from Forests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeman, Anthony

    2007-01-01

    Two simple scattering mechanisms are fitted to polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) observations of forests. The mechanisms are canopy scatter from a reciprocal medium with azimuthal symmetry and a ground scatter term that can represent double-bounce scatter from a pair of orthogonal surfaces with different dielectric constants or Bragg scatter from a moderately rough surface, which is seen through a layer of vertically oriented scatterers. The model is shown to represent the behavior of polarimetric backscatter from a tropical forest and two temperate forest sites by applying it to data from the National Aeronautic and Space Agency/Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Airborne SAR (AIRSAR) system. Scattering contributions from the two basic scattering mechanisms are estimated for clusters of pixels in polarimetric SAR images. The solution involves the estimation of four parameters from four separate equations. This model fit approach is justified as a simplification of more complicated scattering models, which require many inputs to solve the forward scattering problem. The model is used to develop an understanding of the ground-trunk double-bounce scattering that is present in the data, which is seen to vary considerably as a function of incidence angle. Two parameters in the model fit appear to exhibit sensitivity to vegetation canopy structure, which is worth further exploration. Results from the model fit for the ground scattering term are compared with estimates from a forward model and shown to be in good agreement. The behavior of the scattering from the ground-trunk interaction is consistent with the presence of a pseudo-Brewster angle effect for the air-trunk scattering interface. If the Brewster angle is known, it is possible to directly estimate the real part of the dielectric constant of the trunks, a key variable in forward modeling of backscatter from forests. It is also shown how, with a priori knowledge of the forest height, an estimate for the

  20. Detailed Aerosol Characterization using Polarimetric Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasekamp, Otto; di Noia, Antonio; Stap, Arjen; Rietjens, Jeroen; Smit, Martijn; van Harten, Gerard; Snik, Frans

    2016-04-01

    Anthropogenic aerosols are believed to cause the second most important anthropogenic forcing of climate change after greenhouse gases. In contrast to the climate effect of greenhouse gases, which is understood relatively well, the negative forcing (cooling effect) caused by aerosols represents the largest reported uncertainty in the most recent assessment of the International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). To reduce the large uncertainty on the aerosol effects on cloud formation and climate, accurate satellite measurements of aerosol optical properties (optical thickness, single scattering albedo, phase function) and microphysical properties (size distribution, refractive index, shape) are essential. There is growing consensus in the aerosol remote sensing community that multi-angle measurements of intensity and polarization are essential to unambiguously determine all relevant aerosol properties. This presentations adresses the different aspects of polarimetric remote sensing of atmospheric aerosols, including retrieval algorithm development, validation, and data needs for climate and air quality applications. During past years, at SRON-Netherlands Instite for Space Research retrieval algorithms have been developed that make full use of the capabilities of polarimetric measurements. We will show results of detailed aerosol properties from ground-based- (groundSPEX), airborne- (NASA Research Scanning Polarimeter), and satellite (POLDER) measurements. Also we will discuss observational needs for future instrumentation in order to improve our understanding of the role of aerosols in climate change and air quality.

  1. Polarimetric Signatures of Initiating Convection During MC3E

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emory, Amber

    2012-01-01

    One of the goals of the Mid-latitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E) field campaign was to provide constraints for space-based rainfall retrieval algorithms over land. This study used datasets collected during the 2011 field campaign to combine radiometer and ground-based radar polarimetric retrievals in order to better understand hydrometeor type, habit and distribution for initiating continental convection. Cross-track and conically scanning nadir views from the Conical Scanning Millimeter-wave Imaging Radiometer (CoSMIR) were compared with ground-based polarimetric radar retrievals along the ER-2 flight track. Polarimetric signatures for both airborne radiometers and ground-based radars were well co-located with deep convection to relate radiometric signatures with low-level polarimetric radar data for hydrometeor identification and diameter estimation. For the time period of study, Z(sub DR) values indicated no presence of hail at the surface. However, the Z(sub DR) column extended well above the melting level into the mixed phase region, suggesting a possible source of frozen drop embryos for the future formation of hail. The results shown from this study contribute ground truth datasets for GPM PR algorithm development for convective events, which is an improvement upon previous stratiform precipitation centered framework.

  2. Polarimetric Palsar Calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Touzi, R.; Shimada, M.

    2008-11-01

    Polarimetric PALSAR system parameters are assessed using data sets collected over various calibration sites. The data collected over the Amazonian forest permits validating the zero Faraday rotation hypotheses near the equator. The analysis of the Amazonian forest data and the response of the corner reflectors deployed during the PALSAR acquisitions lead to the conclusion that the antenna is highly isolated (better than -35 dB). Theses results are confirmed using data collected over the Sweden and Ottawa calibration sites. The 5-m height trihedrals deployed in the Sweden calibration site by the Chalmers University of technology permits accurate measurement of antenna parameters, and detection of 2-3 degree Faraday rotation during day acquisition, whereas no Faraday rotation was noted during night acquisition. Small Faraday rotation angles (2-3 degree) have been measured using acquisitions over the DLR Oberpfaffenhofen and the Ottawa calibration sites. The presence of small but still significant Faraday rotation (2-3 degree) induces a CR return at the cross-polarization HV and VH that should not be interpreted as the actual antenna cross-talk. PALSAR antenna is highly isolated (better than -35 dB), and diagonal antenna distortion matrices (with zero cross-talk terms) can be used for accurate calibration of PALSAR polarimetric data.

  3. Polarimetric Multispectral Imaging Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, L.-J.; Chao, T.-H.; Dowdy, M.; Mahoney, C.; Reyes, G.

    1993-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory is developing a remote sensing technology on which a new generation of compact, lightweight, high-resolution, low-power, reliable, versatile, programmable scientific polarimetric multispectral imaging instruments can be built to meet the challenge of future planetary exploration missions. The instrument is based on the fast programmable acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) of tellurium dioxide (TeO2) that operates in the wavelength range of 0.4-5 microns. Basically, the AOTF multispectral imaging instrument measures incoming light intensity as a function of spatial coordinates, wavelength, and polarization. Its operation can be in either sequential, random access, or multiwavelength mode as required. This provides observation flexibility, allowing real-time alternation among desired observations, collecting needed data only, minimizing data transmission, and permitting implementation of new experiments. These will result in optimization of the mission performance with minimal resources. Recently we completed a polarimetric multispectral imaging prototype instrument and performed outdoor field experiments for evaluating application potentials of the technology. We also investigated potential improvements on AOTF performance to strengthen technology readiness for applications. This paper will give a status report on the technology and a prospect toward future planetary exploration.

  4. Digital Beamforming Synthetic Aperture Radar (DBSAR): Performance Analysis During the Eco-3D 2011 and Summer 2012 Flight Campaigns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rincon, Rafael F.; Fatoyinbo, Temilola; Carter, Lynn; Ranson, K. Jon; Vega, Manuel; Osmanoglu, Batuhan; Lee, SeungKuk; Sun, Guoqing

    2014-01-01

    The Digital Beamforming Synthetic Aperture radar (DBSAR) is a state-of-the-art airborne radar developed at NASA/Goddard for the implementation, and testing of digital beamforming techniques applicable to Earth and planetary sciences. The DBSAR measurements have been employed to study: The estimation of vegetation biomass and structure - critical parameters in the study of the carbon cycle; The measurement of geological features - to explore its applicability to planetary science by measuring planetary analogue targets. The instrument flew two test campaigns over the East coast of the United States in 2011, and 2012. During the campaigns the instrument operated in full polarimetric mode collecting data from vegetation and topography features.

  5. Estimating lava volume by precision combination of multiple baseline spaceborne and airborne interferometric synthetic aperture radar: The 1997 eruption of Okmok Volcano, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lu, Zhiming; Fielding, E.; Patrick, M.R.; Trautwein, C.M.

    2003-01-01

    Interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) techniques are used to calculate the volume of extrusion at Okmok volcano, Alaska by constructing precise digital elevation models (DEMs) that represent volcano topography before and after the 1997 eruption. The posteruption DEM is generated using airborne topographic synthetic aperture radar (TOPSAR) data where a three-dimensional affine transformation is used to account for the misalignments between different DEM patches. The preeruption DEM is produced using repeat-pass European Remote Sensing satellite data; multiple interferograms are combined to reduce errors due to atmospheric variations, and deformation rates are estimated independently and removed from the interferograms used for DEM generation. The extrusive flow volume associated with the 1997 eruption of Okmok volcano is 0.154 ?? 0.025 km3. The thickest portion is approximately 50 m, although field measurements of the flow margin's height do not exceed 20 m. The in situ measurements at lava edges are not representative of the total thickness, and precise DEM data are absolutely essential to calculate eruption volume based on lava thickness estimations. This study is an example that demonstrates how InSAR will play a significant role in studying volcanoes in remote areas.

  6. Efficient polarimetric BRDF transformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Björkert, Stefan; Renhorn, Ingmar G. E.

    2016-05-01

    In order to characterize a target, the basic information that is of interest is spectral, polarization and distance. Imaging spectropolarimetry is a powerful tool for obtaining the polarization state of a scene and to discriminate manmade objects in a cluttered background. With respect to polarization, often the measurements are limited to the first three components of the Stokes vector, excluding circular polarization. The scene is therefore characterized in four directions of linear polarization, I0, I90, I45 and I135. An efficient polarimetric BRDF model defined in a local coordinate system has recently been published. The model will now be extended to a global coordinate system for linear polarized radiation. This includes the first three elements of the Stokes vector. We will provide examples for surface of intrinsically different scattering materials, bulk scattering materials and clear coated surfaces.

  7. Geologic Studies of Planetary Surfaces Using Radar Polarimetric Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Lynn M.; Campbell, Donald B.; Campbell, Bruce A.

    2010-01-01

    Radar is a useful remote sensing tool for studying planetary geology because it is sensitive to the composition, structure, and roughness of the surface and can penetrate some materials to reveal buried terrain. The Arecibo Observatory radar system transmits a single sense of circular polarization, and both senses of circular polarization are received, which allows for the construction of the Stokes polarization vector. From the Stokes vector, daughter products such as the circular polarization ratio, the degree of linear polarization, and linear polarization angle are obtained. Recent polarimetric imaging using Arecibo has included Venus and the Moon. These observations can be compared to radar data for terrestrial surfaces to better understand surface physical properties and regional geologic evolution. For example, polarimetric radar studies of volcanic settings on Venus, the Moon and Earth display some similarities, but also illustrate a variety of different emplacement and erosion mechanisms. Polarimetric radar data provides important information about surface properties beyond what can be obtained from single-polarization radar. Future observations using polarimetric synthetic aperture radar will provide information on roughness, composition and stratigraphy that will support a broader interpretation of surface evolution.

  8. A new method to extract forest height from repeat-pass polarimetric and interferometric radar data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavalle, M.; Hensley, S.; Dubayah, R.

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this paper is to present a new remote sensing method and a new physical model that will potentially enable estimating forest height and vegetation 3D structure using radar technology. The method is based on repeat-pass polarimetric-interferometric radar technique; the model is termed random-motion-over-ground (RMoG) model [1, 2]. We will describe a step-by-step procedure that will help the ecosystem community to monitor ecosystems at regional and global scale using radar data available from the forthcoming radar missions. We will show first results of forest height estimated from UAVSAR data and compared against LVIS data. We will quantify the error associated to our method. We will also discuss the improvements that we plan on including in future works. Our ultimate goal is to measure low and large biomass stocks using the large amount of radar data that will be available in the near future. The Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR) is a fully polarimetric L-band airborne radar developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). UAVSAR acquires repeat-pass interferometric data for measuring vegetation structure and monitoring crustal deformations. The UAVSAR team at JPL has acquired and processed several polarimetric-interferometric (Pol-InSAR) datasets over the Harvard Forest in Massachusetts (United States) that allows testing repeat-pass Pol-InSAR technique. Pol-InSAR technique was proposed 15 years ago to estimate vegetation biomass and overcome the inherent saturation of radar backscatter versus biomass [3]. The advantage of Pol-InSAR is the ability to estimate the 3D structure of vegetation using a small number of interferometric acquisitions. In order to extract vegetation properties from Pol-InSAR UAVSAR data, we use a model of temporal-volumetric coherence, the RMoG model, suitable for repeat-pass interferometry. In the RMoG model the vegetation is idealized as a two-layer scattering scenario constituted by a

  9. Bird Migration Echoes Observed by Polarimetric Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minda, Haruya; Furuzawa, Fumie A.; Satoh, Shinsuke; Nakamura, Kenji

    A C-band polarimetric radar on Okinawa Island successfully observed large-scale bird migrations over the western Pacific Ocean. The birds generated interesting polarimetric signatures. This paper describes the signatures and speculates bird behavior.

  10. Real time polarimetric dehazing.

    PubMed

    Mudge, Jason; Virgen, Miguel

    2013-03-20

    Remote sensing is a rich topic due to its utility in gathering detailed accurate information from locations that are not economically feasible traveling destinations or are physically inaccessible. However, poor visibility over long path lengths is problematic for a variety of reasons. Haze induced by light scatter is one cause for poor visibility and is the focus of this article. Image haze comes about as a result of light scattering off particles and into the imaging path causing a haziness to appear on the image. Image processing using polarimetric information of light scatter can be used to mitigate image haze. An imaging polarimeter which provides the Stokes values in real time combined with a "dehazing" algorithm can automate image haze removal for instant applications. Example uses are to improve visual display providing on-the-spot detection or imbedding in an active control loop to improve viewing and tracking while on a moving platform. In addition, removing haze in this manner allows the trade space for a system operational waveband to be opened up to bands which are object matched and not necessarily restricted by scatter effects. PMID:23518739

  11. Through-the-wall polarimetric imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Fauzia; Amin, Moeness G.

    2008-04-01

    Through-the-Wall Imaging is emerging as an affordable sensor technology supporting a variety of applications, such as surveillance and reconnaissance, emergency rescue, and firefighting. Motivated by the desire to understand the underlying phenomenology and performance bounds associated with imaging targets behind walls, several through-the-wall imaging experiments were conducted at the Center for Advanced Communications (CAC), Villanova University. These experiments aimed at supporting resolution, polarization, and localization of indoor targets and objects behind walls, and provided valuable dual-polarized synthetic aperture data measurements of indoor scenes of different complexity and population. In this paper, we present full-polarization imaging results, for a setting of calibrated reflectors behind a typical exterior grade wall. These imaging results provide polarimetric scene characterization and are shown to be in good agreement with the ground truth.

  12. Polarimetric observations of Hungaria asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil-Hutton, R.; Lazzaro, D.; Benavidez, P.

    2007-06-01

    Aims:We present the results of a polarimetric program at Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito (Casleo), San Juan, Argentina. The aim of this campaign is to estimate the polarimetric properties of asteroids belonging to the Hungaria dynamical group. Methods: The data were obtained with the Casprof polarimeter at the 2.15 m telescope. The Casprof polarimeter is a two-hole aperture polarimeter with rapid modulation. The campaign began in 2000, and data on a sample of 24 members of the Hungaria group were obtained. We use the slope - albedo or P_min - albedo relationships to get polarimetric albedos for 18 of these objects. Results: Only two Xe-type objects, 434 Hungaria and 3447 Burkhalter, shown a polarimetric behavior compatible with a high albedo object. The A-type asteroid 1600 Vyssotsky has a polarimetric behavior similar to what was observed by Fornasier et al. (2006) for 863 Benkolea, and four objects show P_min values consistent with dark surfaces. Based on observations carried out at the Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito, operated under agreement between the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas de la República Argentina and the National Universities of La Plata, Córdoba, and San Juan.

  13. Metamaterials for terahertz polarimetric devices

    SciTech Connect

    O'hara, John F; Taylor, Antoinette J; Smirnova, Evgenya; Azad, Abul; Chen, Hou-tong; Peralta, Xomalin G; Brener, Igal

    2008-01-01

    We present experimental and numerical investigations of planar terahertz metamaterial structures designed to interact with the state of polarization. The dependence of metamaterial resonances on polarization results in unique amplitude and phase characteristics of the terahertz transmission, providing the basis for polarimetric terahertz devices. We highlight some potential applications for polarimetric devices and present simulations of a terahertz quarter-wave plate and a polarizing terahertz beam splitter. Although this work was performed at tcrahertz frequencies, it may find applications in other frequency ranges as well.

  14. Metamaterials for terahertz polarimetric devices

    SciTech Connect

    O'hara, John F; Taylor, Antoinette J; Smirnova, Evgenya; Azad, Abul

    2008-01-01

    We present experimental and numerical investigations of planar terahertz metamaterial structures designed to interact with the state of polarization. The dependence of metamaterial resonances on polarization results in unique amplitude and phase characteristics of the terahertz transmission, providing the basis for polarimetric terahertz devices. We highlight some potential applications for polarimetric devices and present simulations of a terahertz quarter-wave plate and a polarizing terahertz beam splitter. Although this work was performed at terahertz frequencies, it may find applications in other frequency ranges as well.

  15. External calibration of polarimetric radar images using distributed targets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yueh, Simon H.; Nghiem, S. V.; Kwok, R.

    1992-01-01

    A new technique is presented for calibrating polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images using only the responses from natural distributed targets. The model for polarimetric radars is assumed to be X = cRST where X is the measured scattering matrix corresponding to the target scattering matrix S distorted by the system matrices T and R (in general T does not equal R(sup t)). To allow for the polarimetric calibration using only distributed targets and corner reflectors, van Zyl assumed a reciprocal polarimetric radar model with T = R(sup t); when applied for JPL SAR data, a heuristic symmetrization procedure is used by POLCAL to compensate the phase difference between the measured HV and VH responses and then take the average of both. This heuristic approach causes some non-removable cross-polarization responses for corner reflectors, which can be avoided by a rigorous symmetrization method based on reciprocity. After the radar is made reciprocal, a new algorithm based on the responses from distributed targets with reflection symmetry is developed to estimate the cross-talk parameters. The new algorithm never experiences problems in convergence and is also found to converge faster than the existing routines implemented for POLCAL. When the new technique is implemented for the JPL polarimetric data, symmetrization and cross-talk removal are performed on a line-by-line (azimuth) basis. After the cross-talks are removed from the entire image, phase and amplitude calibrations are carried out by selecting distributed targets either with azimuthal symmetry along the looking direction or with some well-known volume and surface scattering mechanisms to estimate the relative phases and amplitude responses of the horizontal and vertical channels.

  16. Forest Structure Characterization Using Jpl's UAVSAR Multi-Baseline Polarimetric SAR Interferometry and Tomography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neumann, Maxim; Hensley, Scott; Lavalle, Marco; Ahmed, Razi

    2013-01-01

    This paper concerns forest remote sensing using JPL's multi-baseline polarimetric interferometric UAVSAR data. It presents exemplary results and analyzes the possibilities and limitations of using SAR Tomography and Polarimetric SAR Interferometry (PolInSAR) techniques for the estimation of forest structure. Performance and error indicators for the applicability and reliability of the used multi-baseline (MB) multi-temporal (MT) PolInSAR random volume over ground (RVoG) model are discussed. Experimental results are presented based on JPL's L-band repeat-pass polarimetric interferometric UAVSAR data over temperate and tropical forest biomes in the Harvard Forest, Massachusetts, and in the La Amistad Park, Panama and Costa Rica. The results are partially compared with ground field measurements and with air-borne LVIS lidar data.

  17. Forest Structure Characterization Using JPL's UAVSAR Multi-Baseline Polarimetric SAR Interferometry and Tomography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neumann, Maxim; Hensley, Scott; Lavalle, Marco; Ahmed, Razi

    2013-01-01

    This paper concerns forest remote sensing using JPL's multi-baseline polarimetric interferometric UAVSAR data. It presents exemplary results and analyzes the possibilities and limitations of using SAR Tomography and Polarimetric SAR Interferometry (PolInSAR) techniques for the estimation of forest structure. Performance and error indicators for the applicability and reliability of the used multi-baseline (MB) multi-temporal (MT) PolInSAR random volume over ground (RVoG) model are discussed. Experimental results are presented based on JPL's L-band repeat-pass polarimetric interferometric UAVSAR data over temperate and tropical forest biomes in the Harvard Forest, Massachusetts, and in the La Amistad Park, Panama and Costa Rica. The results are partially compared with ground field measurements and with air-borne LVIS lidar data.

  18. Polarimetric SAR Models for Oil Fields Monitoring in China Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buono, A.; Nunziata, F.; Li, X.; Wei, Y.; Ding, X.

    2014-11-01

    In this study, physical-based models for polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) oil fields monitoring are proposed. They all share a physical rationale relying on the different scattering mechanisms that characterize a free sea surface, an oil slick-covered sea surface, and a metallic target. In fact, sea surface scattering is well modeled by a Bragg-like behaviour, while a strong departure from Bragg scattering is in place when dealing with oil slicks and targets. Furthermore, the proposed polarimetric models aim at addressing simultaneously target and oil slick detection, providing useful extra information with respect to single-pol SAR data in order to approach oil discrimination and classification. Experiments undertaken over East and South China Sea from actual C-band RadarSAT-2 full-pol SAR data witness the soundness of the proposed rationale.

  19. Optical Polarimetric Mapping of Ceres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Bin; Li, Jian-Yang; Kelley, Michael S.

    2016-10-01

    The dwarf planet Ceres, with one quarter of its mass possibly as water, is of particular importance to understanding the origin and the evolution history of water in the inner solar system. It is also a real-life laboratory to study astrobiology. NASA's Dawn is returning detailed geological maps of Ceres until the end of this year. As a complement to the Dawn mission, using SPHERE/ZIMPOL at one of Very Large Telescopes in Chile, we obtained the optical polarimetric maps in the I and V band of the whole surface of Ceres in July and August, 2015. Polarimetric maps of Ceres are sensitive to the physical conditions (such as packing density and particle size distribution) and composition of its surface regolith. The comparative studies between our polarimetric maps and Dawn maps help us to understand the geological evolution and the space weathering processes on Ceres' surface. At the time of the ZIMPOL observations, with the best spatial resolution of about 0.02 arcsecond (equivalent to 30 km), we effectively obtained about 700 independent measurements of the surface in one polarimetric set. I will present the SPHERE observations and discuss our major findings.

  20. Characterization of wetland, forest, and agricultural ecosystems in Belize with airborne radar (AIRSAR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pope, Kevin O.; Rey-Benayas, Jose Maria; Paris, Jack F.

    1992-01-01

    The Shuttle Imaging Radar-C/X-SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) Experiment includes the study of wetland dynamics in the seasonal tropics. In preparation for these wetland studies, airborne P, L, and C band radar (AIRSAR) data of Belize, Guatemala, and Mexico acquired by NASA and JPL in March 1990 were analyzed. The first phase of our study focuses on AIRSAR data from the Gallon Jug test site in northwestern Belize, for which ground data were also collected during the three days prior to the overflight. One of the main objectives of the Gallon Jug study is to develop a method for characterizing wetland vegetation types and their flooding status with multifrequency polarimetric radar data.

  1. Space-Based Remote Sensing of Atmospheric Aerosols: The Multi-Angle Spectro-Polarimetric Frontier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kokhanovsky, A. A.; Davis, A. B.; Cairns, B.; Dubovik, O.; Hasekamp, O. P.; Sano, I.; Mukai, S.; Rozanov, V. V.; Litvinov, P.; Lapyonok, T.; Martin, W.; Wasilewski, A.; Xu, F.; Natraj, V.

    2015-01-01

    The review of optical instrumentation, forward modeling, and inverse problem solution for the polarimetric aerosol remote sensing from space is presented. The special emphasis is given to the description of current airborne and satellite imaging polarimeters and also to modern satellite aerosol retrieval algorithms based on the measurements of the Stokes vector of reflected solar light as detected on a satellite. Various underlying surface reflectance models are discussed and evaluated.

  2. Cosmic Ultraviolet Polarimetric Imaging Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgh, Eric B.; Nordsieck, Kenneth H.; Jaehnig, Kurt P.; Harris, Walter M.; Bershady, Matthew A.

    The Cosmic Ultraviolet Polarimetric Imaging Device (CUPID) is a suborbital sounding rocket payload designed to perform wide-field, polarimetric imaging of the extragalactic ultraviolet background. In doing so, it will also measure the contribution to the UV background from the diffuse Galactic light (DGL), starlight from the Milky Way scattered off of dust. Current uncertanties in the contribution of the DGL to the UV background are due almost entirely to a poor knowledge of the optical properties of the dust in the diffuse ISM at ultraviolet wavelengths. The polarization of the scattered light is sensitive to scattering angle and thus CUPID imaging may help to constrain the spatial distribution and scattering properties of Galactic dust.

  3. Polarimetric Retrievals of Cloud Droplet Number Concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinclair, K.; Cairns, B.; Hair, J. W.; Hu, Y.; Hostetler, C. A.

    2014-12-01

    Cloud droplet number concentration (CDNC) is one of the most significant microphysical properties of liquid clouds and is essential for the understanding of aerosol-cloud interaction. It impacts radiative forcing, cloud evolution, precipitation, global climate and, through observation, can be used to monitor the cloud albedo effect, or the first indirect effect. The IPCC's Fifth Assessment Report continues to consider aerosol-cloud interactions as one of the largest uncertainties in radiative forcing of climate. The SABOR experiment, which was a NASA-led ship and air campaign off the east coast of the United States during July and August of 2014, provided an opportunity for the Research Scanning Polarimeter (RSP) to develop and cross-validate a new approach of sensing CDNC with the High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL). The RSP is an airborne prototype of the Aerosol Polarimetry Sensor (APS) that was on-board the Glory satellite. It is a scanning sensor that provides high-precision measurements of polarized and full-intensity radiances at multiple angles over a wide spectral range. The distinctive feature of the polarimetric technique is that it does not make any assumption of the liquid water profile within the cloud. The approach involves (1) estimating the droplet size distribution from polarized reflectance observations in the rainbow, (2) using polarized reflectance to estimate above cloud water vapor and total reflectance to find how much near infra-red light is being absorbed in clouds, (3) finding cloud physical thickness from the absorption and cloud top pressure retrievals assuming a saturated mixing ratio for water vapor and (4) determining the cloud droplet number concentration from the physical thickness and droplet size distribution retrievals. An overview of the polarimetric technique will be presented along with the results of applying the new approach to SABOR campaign data. An analysis of the algorithm's performance when compared with the HSRL

  4. The NASA Polarimetric Radar (NPOL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petersen, Walter A.; Wolff, David B.

    2013-01-01

    Characteristics of the NASA NPOL S-band dual-polarimetric radar are presented including its operating characteristics, field configuration, scanning capabilities and calibration approaches. Examples of precipitation science data collections conducted using various scan types, and associated products, are presented for different convective system types and previous field campaign deployments. Finally, the NASA NPOL radar location is depicted in its home base configuration within the greater Wallops Flight Facility precipitation research array supporting NASA Global Precipitation Measurement Mission ground validation.

  5. Single-pixel polarimetric imaging.

    PubMed

    Durán, Vicente; Clemente, Pere; Fernández-Alonso, Mercedes; Tajahuerce, Enrique; Lancis, Jesús

    2012-03-01

    We present an optical system that performs Stokes polarimetric imaging with a single-pixel detector. This fact is possible by applying the theory of compressive sampling to the data acquired by a commercial polarimeter without spatial resolution. The measurement process is governed by a spatial light modulator, which sequentially generates a set of preprogrammed light intensity patterns. Experimental results are presented and discussed for an object that provides an inhomogeneous polarization distribution. PMID:22378406

  6. Accounting For Gains And Orientations In Polarimetric SAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeman, Anthony

    1992-01-01

    Calibration method accounts for characteristics of real radar equipment invalidating standard 2 X 2 complex-amplitude R (receiving) and T (transmitting) matrices. Overall gain in each combination of transmitting and receiving channels assumed different even when only one transmitter and one receiver used. One characterizes departure of polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) system from simple 2 X 2 model in terms of single parameter used to transform measurements into format compatible with simple 2 X 2 model. Data processed by applicable one of several prior methods based on simple model.

  7. UAVSAR: A New NASA Airborne SAR System for Science and Technology Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosen, Paul A.; Hensley, Scott; Wheeler, Kevin; Sadowy, Greg; Miller, Tim; Shaffer, Scott; Muellerschoen, Ron; Jones, Cathleen; Zebker, Howard; Madsen, Soren

    2006-01-01

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory is currently building a reconfigurable, polarimetric L-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR), specifically designed to acquire airborne repeat track SAR data for differential interferometric measurements. Differentian interferometry can provide key deformation measurements, important for studies of earthquakes, volcanoes and other dynamically changing phenomena. Using precision real-time GPS and a sensor controlled flight management system, the system will be able to fly predefined paths with great precision. The expected performance of the flight control system will constrain the flight path to be within a 10 m diameter tube about the desired flight track. The radar will be designed to be operable on a UAV (Unpiloted Aria1 Vehicle) but will initially be demonstrated on a NASA Gulfstream III. The radar will be fully polarimetric, with a range bandwidth of 80 MHz (2 m range resolution), and will support a 16 km range swath. The antenna will be electronically steered along track to assure that the antenna beam can be directed independently, regardless of the wind direction and speed. Other features supported by the antenna include elevation monopulse and pulse-to-pulse re-steering capabilities that will enable some novel modes of operation. The system will nominally operate at 45,000 ft (13800 m). The program began as an Instrument Incubator Project (IIP) funded by NASA Earth Science and Technology Office (ESTO).

  8. PHARUS airborne SAR concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snoeij, Paul; Pouwels, Henk; Koomen, Peter J.; Hoogeboom, Peter

    1995-11-01

    to ingest raw data from other SARs on the input side. The combination of the airborne and the ground segment, augmented by the transfer of technological knowledge needed to operate the system, will provide for an autonomous capability of the system user/owner. The PHARUS project has so far resulted in the construction of a C-band, VV-polarized research SAR (PHARS) with a 1- look resolution of 1.5 multiplied by 5 meter (5 multiplied by 5 meter at 7 independent looks) and a swath width of 6 km. This system has been extensively used for research and application projects in Europe, for purposes of mapping, land use inventory, change detection, coastal bathymetry, ship detection and ocean wave measurement. The next system recently completed is a fully polarimetric C-band system with adjustable resolution and swath width (the latter up to 20 km); this system is expected to be operational autumn 1995. The polarimetric capability will provide for a much enhanced discerning power (discrimination between e.g. forest/cultivated, various forest types, etc.). Discrimination by polarimetric signature is an alterative approach, with different possibilities and limitations, to e.g. the use of several frequencies. This paper gives an overview of the SAR research system and the results obtained with this system. The PHARUS design and use are discussed.

  9. Reduction of mine suspected areas by multisensor airborne measurements: first results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Martin; Milisavljevic, Nada; Suess, Helmut; Acheroy, Marc P. J.

    2002-08-01

    Humanitarian demining is a very dangerous, cost and time intensive work, where a lot of effort is usually wasted in inspecting suspected areas that turn out to be mine-free. The main goal of the project SMART (Space and airborne Mined Area Reduction Tools) is to apply a multisensor approach towards corresponding signature data collection, developing adapted data understanding and data processing tools for improving the efficiency and reliability of level 1 minefield surveys by reducing suspected mined areas. As a result, the time for releasing mine-free areas for civilian use should be shortened. In this paper, multisensor signature data collected at four mine suspected areas in different parts of Croatia are presented, their information content is discussed, and first results are described. The multisensor system consists of a multifrequency multipolarization SAR system (DLR Experimental Synthetic Aperture Radar E-SAR), an optical scanner (Daedalus) and a camera (RMK) for color infrared aerial views. E-SAR data were acquired in X-, C-, L- and P- bands, the latter two being fully polarimetric interferometric. This provides pieces of independent information, ranging from high spatial resolution (X-band) to very good penetration abilities (P-band), together with possibilities for polarimetric and interferometric analysis. The Daedalus scanner, with 12 channels between visible and thermal infrared, has a very high spatial resolution. For each of the sensors, the applied processing, geocoding and registration is described. The information content is analyzed in sense of the capability and reliability in describing conditions inside suspected mined areas, as a first step towards identifying their mine-free parts, with special emphasis set on polarimetric and interferometric information.

  10. Development and validation of P-MODTRAN7 and P-MCScene, 1D and 3D polarimetric radiative transfer models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawes, Frederick T.; Berk, Alexander; Richtsmeier, Steven C.

    2016-05-01

    A validated, polarimetric 3-dimensional simulation capability, P-MCScene, is being developed by generalizing Spectral Sciences' Monte Carlo-based synthetic scene simulation model, MCScene, to include calculation of all 4 Stokes components. P-MCScene polarimetric optical databases will be generated by a new version (MODTRAN7) of the government-standard MODTRAN radiative transfer algorithm. The conversion of MODTRAN6 to a polarimetric model is being accomplished by (1) introducing polarimetric data, by (2) vectorizing the MODTRAN radiation calculations and by (3) integrating the newly revised and validated vector discrete ordinate model VDISORT3. Early results, presented here, demonstrate a clear pathway to the long-term goal of fully validated polarimetric models.

  11. Study of Oil spill in Norwegian area using Decomposition Techniques on RISAT-1 Hybrid Polarimetric Data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayasri, P. V.; Usha Sundari, H. S. V.; Kumari, E. V. S. Sita; Prasad, A. V. V.

    2014-11-01

    Over past few years Synthetic Aperture Radar(SAR) has received a considerable attention for monitoring and detection of oil spill due to its unique capabilities to provide wide-area surveillance and day and night measurements, almost independently from atmospheric conditions. The critical part of the oil spill detection is to distinguish oil spills from other natural phenomena. Stokes vector analysis of the image data is studied to estimate the polarized circular and linear components of the backscatter signal which essentially utilize the degree of polarization(m) and relative phase (δ) of the target. In a controlled oil spill experiment conducted at Norwegian bay during 17th to 22nd June 2014, RISAT-1 hybrid polarimetry images were utilized to study the characteristics of oil spill in the sea. The preliminary results obtained by using polarimetric decomposition technique on hybrid polarimetric data to decipher the polarimetric characteristics of oil spills from natural waters are discussed in the paper.

  12. Techniques and Tools for Estimating Ionospheric Effects in Interferometric and Polarimetric SAR Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosen, P.; Lavalle, M.; Pi, X.; Buckley, S.; Szeliga, W.; Zebker, H.; Gurrola, E.

    2011-01-01

    The InSAR Scientific Computing Environment (ISCE) is a flexible, extensible software tool designed for the end-to-end processing and analysis of synthetic aperture radar data. ISCE inherits the core of the ROI_PAC interferometric tool, but contains improvements at all levels of the radar processing chain, including a modular and extensible architecture, new focusing approach, better geocoding of the data, handling of multi-polarization data, radiometric calibration, and estimation and correction of ionospheric effects. In this paper we describe the characteristics of ISCE with emphasis on the ionospheric modules. To detect ionospheric anomalies, ISCE implements the Faraday rotation method using quadpolarimetric images, and the split-spectrum technique using interferometric single-, dual- and quad-polarimetric images. The ability to generate co-registered time series of quad-polarimetric images makes ISCE also an ideal tool to be used for polarimetric-interferometric radar applications.

  13. Polarimetric radar data decomposition and interpretation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, Guoqing; Ranson, K. Jon

    1993-01-01

    Significant efforts have been made to decompose polarimetric radar data into several simple scattering components. The components which are selected because of their physical significance can be used to classify SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) image data. If particular components can be related to forest parameters, inversion procedures may be developed to estimate these parameters from the scattering components. Several methods have been used to decompose an averaged Stoke's matrix or covariance matrix into three components representing odd (surface), even (double-bounce) and diffuse (volume) scatterings. With these decomposition techniques, phenomena, such as canopy-ground interactions, randomness of orientation, and size of scatters can be examined from SAR data. In this study we applied the method recently reported by van Zyl (1992) to decompose averaged backscattering covariance matrices extracted from JPL SAR images over forest stands in Maine, USA. These stands are mostly mixed stands of coniferous and deciduous trees. Biomass data have been derived from field measurements of DBH and tree density using allometric equations. The interpretation of the decompositions and relationships with measured stand biomass are presented in this paper.

  14. Long-range polarimetric imaging through fog.

    PubMed

    Fade, Julien; Panigrahi, Swapnesh; Carré, Anthony; Frein, Ludovic; Hamel, Cyril; Bretenaker, Fabien; Ramachandran, Hema; Alouini, Mehdi

    2014-06-20

    We report an experimental implementation of long-range polarimetric imaging through fog over kilometric distance in real field atmospheric conditions. An incoherent polarized light source settled on a telecommunication tower is imaged at a distance of 1.3 km with a snapshot polarimetric camera including a birefringent Wollaston prism, allowing simultaneous acquisition of two images along orthogonal polarization directions. From a large number of acquisitions datasets and under various environmental conditions (clear sky/fog/haze, day/night), we compare the efficiency of using polarized light for source contrast increase with different signal representations (intensity, polarimetric difference, polarimetric contrast, etc.). With the limited-dynamics detector used, a maximum fourfold increase in contrast was demonstrated under bright background illumination using polarimetric difference image.

  15. Polarimetric thermal emission from periodic water surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yueh, S. H.; Nghiem, S. V.; Kwok, R.; Wilson, W. J.; Li, F. K.; Johnson, J. T.; Kong, J. A.

    1993-01-01

    Experimental results and theoretical calculations are presented to study the polarimetric emission from water surfaces with directional features. For our ground-based Ku-band radiometer measurements, a water pool was constructed on the roof of a building in the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and a fiberglass surface with periodic corrugations in one direction was impressed on the top of the water surface to create a stationary water surface underneath it. It is observed that the measured Stokes parameters of corrugated fiberglass-covered water surfaces are functions of azimuth angles and agree very well with the theoretical calculations. The theory, after being verified by the experimental data, was then used to calculate the Stokes parameters of periodic surfaces without fiberglass surface layer and with rms height of the order of wind-generated water ripples. The magnitudes of the azimuthal variation of the calculated emissivities at horizontal and vertical polarizations corresponding to the first two Stokes parameters are found to be comparable to the values measured by airborne radiometers and SSM/I. In addition, the third Stokes parameter not shown in the literature is seen to have approximately twice the magnitude of the azimuth variation of either T(sub h) or T(sub v), which may make it more sensitive to the row direction, while less susceptive to noises because the atmospheric and system noises tend to be unpolarized and are expected to be cancelled out when the third Stokes parameter is derived as the difference of two or three power measurements, as indicated by another experiment carried out at a swimming pool with complicated surroundings. The results indicate that passive polarimetry is a potential technology in the remote sensing of ocean wind vector which is a crucial component in the understanding of global climate change. Issues related to the application of microwave passive polarimetry to ocean wind are also discussed.

  16. Human polarimetric micro-doppler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahmoush, David; Silvious, Jerry

    2011-06-01

    Modern radars can pick up target motions other than just the principle target Doppler; they pick out the small micro-Doppler variations as well. These can be used to visually identify both the target type as well as the target activity. We model and measure some of the micro-Doppler motions that are amenable to polarimetric measurement. Understanding the capabilities and limitations of radar systems that utilize micro-Doppler to measure human characteristics is important for improving the effectiveness of these systems at securing areas. In security applications one would like to observe humans unobtrusively and without privacy issues, which make radar an effective approach. In this paper we focus on the characteristics of radar systems designed for the estimation of human motion for the determination of whether someone is loaded. Radar can be used to measure the direction, distance, and radial velocity of a walking person as a function of time. Detailed radar processing can reveal more characteristics of the walking human. The parts of the human body do not move with constant radial velocity; the small micro-Doppler signatures are timevarying and therefore analysis techniques can be used to obtain more characteristics. Looking for modulations of the radar return from arms, legs, and even body sway are being assessed by researchers. We analyze these techniques and focus on the improved performance that fully polarimetric radar techniques can add. We perform simulations and fully polarimetric measurements of the varying micro-Doppler signatures of humans as a function of elevation angle and azimuthal angle in order to try to optimize this type of system for the detection of arm motion, especially for the determination of whether someone is carrying something in their arms. The arm is often bent at the elbow, providing a surface similar to a dihedral. This is distinct from the more planar surfaces of the body and allows us to separate the signals from the arm (and

  17. Polarimetric remote sensing of the Earth from satellites: a perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishchenko, M. I.; Glory APS Science Team

    2011-12-01

    attempt to launch a more accurate aerosol-cloud polarimeter, called APS, as part of the NASA Glory Mission failed on 4 March 2011. However, much useful information has been obtained with the air-borne version of APS called RSP. In this talk I will briefly summarize the main results obtained with POLDER and RSP and discuss the prospects of polarimetric remote sensing from Earth-orbiting satellites.

  18. An algorithm for segmenting polarimetric SAR imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geaga, Jorge V.

    2015-05-01

    We have developed an algorithm for segmenting fully polarimetric single look TerraSAR-X, multilook SIR-C and 7 band Landsat 5 imagery using neural nets. The algorithm uses a feedforward neural net with one hidden layer to segment different surface classes. The weights are refined through an iterative filtering process characteristic of a relaxation process. Features selected from studies of fully polarimetric complex single look TerraSAR-X data and multilook SIR-C data are used as input to the net. The seven bands from Landsat 5 data are used as input for the Landsat neural net. The Cloude-Pottier incoherent decomposition is used to investigate the physical basis of the polarimetric SAR data segmentation. The segmentation of a SIR-C ocean surface scene into four classes is presented. This segmentation algorithm could be a very useful tool for investigating complex polarimetric SAR phenomena.

  19. The Geologic Remote Sensing Field Experiment (GRSFE): The first geology multisensor airborne campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Diane L.; Arvidson, Raymond E.

    1991-01-01

    The primary objective of the Geologic Remote Sensing Field Experiment (GRSFE) is to acquire relevant data for geological sites that can be used to test models for extraction of surface property information from remote sensing data for earth, Mars and Venus in support of the Earth Observing System (EOS), Mars Observer, and Magellan, respectively. Over forty scientists from eight universities and three NASA centers are participating in GRSFE which is co-sponsored by the NASA Planetary Geology and Geophysics Program and the NASA Geology Program. Highlights of the airborne campaign included the first simultaneous acquisition of Airborne Visible and Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVRIS) and Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) data on September 29, 1989, and acquisition of Advanced Solid-State Array Spectroradiometer (ASAS), Polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR), and Airborne Terrain Laser Altimeter System (ATLAS) data all within three months of each other. The sites covered were Lunar Crater Volcanic Field and Fish Lake Valley in Nevada; and Cima Volcanic Field, Death Valley, and Ubehebe Crater in California. Coincident field measurements included meteorological and atmospheric measurements, visible/near-infrared and thermal spectra, and characterization of geology and vegetation cover. The GRSFE airborne and field data will be reduced to a suite of standard products and submitted, along with appropriate documentation, to the Planetary Data System (PDS) and the Pilot Land Data System (PLDS). These data will be used for a variety of investigations including paleoclimatic studies in the arid southwestern United States, and analysis of Magellan data. GRSFE data will also be used to support Mars Observer Laser Altimeter (MOLA) and Mars Rover Sample Return (MRSR) simulation studies.

  20. Detection of land degradation with polarimetric SAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, Terrill W.; Farr, Tom G.; van Zyl, Jakob J.

    1992-08-01

    Land degradation is a crucial problem facing the human race. With an ever-increasing population placing increasing stress on agricultural lands, land impoverishment has the potential for adversely impacting the food supply in many regions of the world. The Manix Basin Area of the Mojave desert has been cropped using center pivot irrigation, but since 1973 many fields have been abandoned for economic reasons. Data were collected using the JPL Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR), a multi-spectral radar polarimeter. Analysis of these data revealed unusual polarization responses which we attribute to the formation of wind ripples on the surfaces of fields which had been abandoned for more than 5 years. This conjecture was confirmed through field observations, and the observed polarization responses were effectively modelled using a second-order small perturbation model. These results demonstrate the usefulness of remote sensing techniques supported by limited field work for study of land degradation at synoptic scales.

  1. Airborne Multiangle SpectroPolarimeteric Imager (AirMSPI): Calibration and Comparison with Collocated Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seidel, F. C.; Diner, D. J.; Bruegge, C. J.; Rheingans, B. E.; Garay, M. J.; Daugherty, B. J.; Chipman, R. A.; Davis, A.

    2014-12-01

    The Airborne Multiangle SpectroPolarimetric Imager (AirMSPI) is a pushbroom multiangle spectropolarimetric camera with spectral bands near 355, 380, 445, 470, 555, 660, 865, and 935 nm. Flying on NASAs's high-altitude ER-2 aircraft since 2010, AirMSPI uses dual photoelastic modulator (PEM)-based technology to provide accurate measurements of the Stokes linear polarization parameters Q and U in the 470, 660, and 865 nm bands, providing unique observing capabilities for aerosol, cloud, and surface studies. We describe the methodologies used for radiometric and polarimetric calibration and characterization of the AirMSPI instrument, which make use of a combination of laboratory and vicarious techniques. A 1.65 m integrating sphere and overflights of Ivanpah Playa, NV are used for radiometric calibration. Radiometric cross-comparisons with the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS), also flying on the ER-2, are used to validate the radiometric scale. For polarimetric calibration, a well-calibrated Polarization State Generator is used to provide known polarimetric inputs. A high-extinction rotating wiregrid polarizer is used to derive polarimetric calibration coefficients for each pixel, and the results are then validated using partially polarized light generated using tilted glass plates. Examples of collocated multiangular, polarimetric imagery from AirMSPI and hyperspectral imagery from AVIRIS will be shown, presenting new opportunities for atmosphere and surface remote sensing.

  2. Accumulation of airborne trace elements in mosses, lichens and synthetic materials exposed at urban monitoring stations: towards a harmonisation of the moss-bag technique.

    PubMed

    Giordano, S; Adamo, P; Spagnuolo, V; Tretiach, M; Bargagli, R

    2013-01-01

    Mosses, lichens and cellulose filters were exposed for 17 weeks at four urban monitoring stations in Naples (S Italy) to assess the accumulation of airborne Al, As, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Ti, V, and Zn. In each site, the element accumulation was significantly higher in the moss Hypnum cupressiforme than in the lichen Pseudevernia furfuracea. Acid washed mosses accumulated the highest amount of trace elements, but the differences in element concentrations among the moss samples exposed after water washing and different devitalisation treatments (acid washing, oven drying and water boiling) and between the lichen samples exposed with and without the nylon bag were not statistically significant. The cellulose filters showed the lowest accumulation capability. The reciprocal ordination of sites and exposed materials showed an increasing contamination gradient (especially for Pb, Cu and Zn) from the background site to the trafficked city streets; this pattern was undetectable from PM(10) data recorded by the automatic monitoring devices operating in the four exposure sites. The element profile in exposed materials did not change substantially throughout the urban area and particles of polluted urban soils seem the main source of airborne metals in Naples. Through a comprehensive evaluation of the results from this and previous studies, a protocol is suggested for the moss-bag monitoring of trace element deposition in urban environments.

  3. Analysis of Scattering Components from Fully Polarimetric SAR Images for Improving Accuracies of Urban Density Estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Susaki, J.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we analyze probability density functions (PDFs) of scatterings derived from fully polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images for improving the accuracies of estimated urban density. We have reported a method for estimating urban density that uses an index Tv+c obtained by normalizing the sum of volume and helix scatterings Pv+c. Validation results showed that estimated urban densities have a high correlation with building-to-land ratios (Kajimoto and Susaki, 2013b; Susaki et al., 2014). While the method is found to be effective for estimating urban density, it is not clear why Tv+c is more effective than indices derived from other scatterings, such as surface or double-bounce scatterings, observed in urban areas. In this research, we focus on PDFs of scatterings derived from fully polarimetric SAR images in terms of scattering normalization. First, we introduce a theoretical PDF that assumes that image pixels have scatterers showing random backscattering. We then generate PDFs of scatterings derived from observations of concrete blocks with different orientation angles, and from a satellite-based fully polarimetric SAR image. The analysis of the PDFs and the derived statistics reveals that the curves of the PDFs of Pv+c are the most similar to the normal distribution among all the scatterings derived from fully polarimetric SAR images. It was found that Tv+c works most effectively because of its similarity to the normal distribution.

  4. Advancements in Estimating Crop Growth Stages Using RADARSAT-2 and Terrasar-X Polarimetric Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lampropoulos, G.; Li, Y.; Liu, T.

    2015-04-01

    This paper uses RADARSAT-2 quad Polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar (PolSAR) and TerraSAR-X dual polarimetric SAR data to monitor agriculture crop growth stages. Two RADARSAT-2 Fine Quad Wide (FQW) beam modes FQ2W and FQ10W, each with 5 sets of data and 13 sets of Stripmap TerraSAR-X data were used in the study. Both RADARSAT-2 POLSAR data and TerraSARX data were acquired in summer 2012 outside Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. The study was carried out to two crop types: canola and wheat, each contains 5 regions of interest from ground truth crop classification map in the image scene. Polarimetric features such as differential reflectivity bands ratio, entropy, anisotropy, alpha angle, lambda, scattering diversity and polarization index were evaluated for two crop types. The results from both RADARSAT-2 and TerraSAR-X data were compared and they demonstrated clear relationships between crop growth stages and polarimetric parameters. It is observed that entropy, lambda and differential reflectivity from both data have similar responses to crop growth stages in their common coverage period. The results were also validated using ground truth information.

  5. Polarimetric synthetic aperture radar utilized to track oil spills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migliaccio, Maurizio; Nunziata, Ferdinando; Brown, Carl E.; Holt, Benjamin; Li, Xiaofeng; Pichel, William; Shimada, Masanobu

    2012-04-01

    The continued demand for crude oil and related petroleum products along with the resulting upward spiral of the market price of oil have forced oil exploration and production companies to seek out new reserves farther offshore and in deeper waters. The United States is among the top five nations globally in terms of estimated offshore oil reserves and petroleum production. Yet deepwater drilling to extract these reserves is a major engineering challenge for oil companies. Moreover, such drilling activity also comes with a significant environmental risk, and the extremely high pressures associated with deepwater oil wells mean that the mitigation of accidental releases from a deepwater spill is truly a challenging endeavor.

  6. Summaries of the Sixth Annual JPL Airborne Earth Science Workshop. Volume 2; AIRSAR Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Yun-Jin (Editor)

    1996-01-01

    The Sixth Annual JPL Airborne Earth Science Workshop, held in Pasadena, California, on March 4-8, 1996, was divided into two smaller workshops:(1) The Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) workshop, and The Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR) workshop. This current paper, Volume 2 of the Summaries of the Sixth Annual JPL Airborne Earth Science Workshop, presents the summaries for The Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR) workshop.

  7. Polarimetric analysis of snow-covered and bare lake ice from Ku and X-band scatterometer data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Khadhra, K.; Gunn, G. E.; Duguay, C. R.; Kelly, R. E.

    2011-12-01

    Lake ice plays a key role in regional climate, and has significant physical, biological and socio-economic impacts (e.g. fish overwintering habitat, winter-road transportation, public safety). In the last two decades, there has been growing interest by the international remote sensing community to explore radar polarimetry for glaciological investigations, mainly for glaciers and ice sheet. Polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) could be a potential tool for lake ice cover mapping and ice thickness estimation. In this paper, we represent results from the first investigation of fully polarimetric Ku and X-band (9.6 and 17.2 GHz, respectively) scatterometer data collected over lake near Churchill, Manitoba. Several controlled and calibrated experimental measurements were carried out during winter 2010-2011, as a contribution to the Cold Regions Hydrology High-resolution Observatory (CoReH2O) candidate mission of the European Space Agency (ESA). Scatterometer scans were made on several occasions at five undisturbed static sites on Ramsey Lake. Measurements characterizing snow and ice properties were also gathered immediately after scatterometer scans. Snow depth and density, snow water equivalent, gain size, ice thickness, ice composition and air inclusion in ice volume were determined at each site. This field data set was very important for the interpretation of the polarimetric parameters, e.g. the copolarization ratio, the copolarization phase and the depolarization ratio. First, the polarimetric parameters have been analysed for the two layers (snow and ice) covariance matrix and where snow subsequently removed. Thus, the influence of the snow layer on the polarimetric data could be quantified. Also, the Pauli and Cloude/Pottier polarimetric decompositions were applied for the two-layer and one-layer scattering mechanisms (removed snow) to quantify the effectiveness of these decompositions. Results show that the polarimetric SAR could explain the different

  8. Symmetry properties in polarimetric remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nghiem, S. V.; Yueh, S. H.; Kwok, R.; Li, F. K.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents the relations among polarimetric backscattering coefficients from the viewpoint of symmetry groups. Symmetry of geophysical media encountered in remote sensing due to reflection, rotation, azimuthal, and centrical symmetry groups is considered for both reciprocal and nonreciprocal cases. On the basis of the invariance under symmetry transformations in the linear polarization basis, the scattering coefficients are related by a set of equations which restrict the number of independent parameters in the polarimetric covariance matrix. The properties derived under these transformations are general and apply to all scattering mechanisms in a given symmetrical configuration. The scattering coefficients calculated from theoretical models for layer random media and rough surfaces are shown to obey the derived symmetry relations. Use of symmetry properties in remote sensing of structural and environmental responses of scattering media is discussed. As a practical application, the results from this paper provide new methods for the external calibration of polarimetric radars without the deployment of man-made calibration targets.

  9. Laboratory goniometer approach for spectral polarimetric directionality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furey, John; Zahniser, Shellie; Morgan, Cliff

    2016-05-01

    A two meter inner diameter goniometer provides approximately 0.1° angular positioning precision for a series of spectral and polarimetric instruments to enable measurements of the directionality of polarized reflectance from soils in the laboratory, at 10° increments along the azimuth and zenith. Polarimetric imaging instruments to be mounted on the goniometer, with linear polarizers in rotators in front of each instrument, include broadband focal plane array imagers in the Visible band (Vis), Near InfraRed (NIR), Short Wave InfraRed (SWIR), and Long Wave InfraRed (LWIR) spectral bands, as well as a hyperspectral imager in the Vis through NIR. Two additional hyperspectral polarimetric imagers in the Vis through NIR, and SWIR, are to be mounted separately with angles measured by laser on the goniometer frame.

  10. Stellar Rotation Effects in Polarimetric Microlensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sajadian, Sedighe

    2016-07-01

    It is well known that the polarization signal in microlensing events of hot stars is larger than that of main-sequence stars. Most hot stars rotate rapidly around their stellar axes. The stellar rotation creates ellipticity and gravity-darkening effects that break the spherical symmetry of the source's shape and the circular symmetry of the source's surface brightness respectively. Hence, it causes a net polarization signal for the source star. This polarization signal should be considered in polarimetric microlensing of fast rotating stars. For moderately rotating stars, lensing can magnify or even characterize small polarization signals due to the stellar rotation through polarimetric observations. The gravity-darkening effect due to a rotating source star creates asymmetric perturbations in polarimetric and photometric microlensing curves whose maximum occurs when the lens trajectory crosses the projected position of the rotation pole on the sky plane. The stellar ellipticity creates a time shift (i) in the position of the second peak of the polarimetric curves in transit microlensing events and (ii) in the peak position of the polarimetric curves with respect to the photometric peak position in bypass microlensing events. By measuring this time shift via polarimetric observations of microlensing events, we can evaluate the ellipticity of the projected source surface on the sky plane. Given the characterizations of the FOcal Reducer and low dispersion Spectrograph (FORS2) polarimeter at the Very Large Telescope, the probability of observing this time shift is very small. The more accurate polarimeters of the next generation may well measure these time shifts and evaluate the ellipticity of microlensing source stars.

  11. Theoretical models for polarimetric radar clutter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borgeaud, M.; Shin, R. T.; Kong, J. A.

    1987-01-01

    The Mueller matrix and polarization covariance matrix are described for polarimetric radar systems. The clutter is modeled by a layer of random permittivity, described by a three-dimensional correlation function, with variance, and horizontal and vertical correlation lengths. This model is applied, using the wave theory with Born approximations carried to the second order, to find the backscattering elements of the polarimetric matrices. It is found that 8 out of 16 elements of the Mueller matrix are identically zero, corresponding to a covariance matrix with four zero elements. Theoretical predictions are matched with experimental data for vegetation fields.

  12. Polarimetric applications to identify bee honey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espinosa-Luna, Rafael; Saucedo-Orozco, Izcoatl; Santiago-Lona, Cynthia V.; Franco-Sánchez, Juan M.; Magallanes-Luján, Alejandro

    2011-10-01

    A polarimetric characterization, consisting of the Mueller matrix determination and the measurement of the refractive index, is employed to study bee honey and corn syrup differences. Two samples of commercial marks of bee honey and one sample of commercial mark corn syrup are studied. Results show the corn syrup and one of the bee honey samples have a similar polarimetric behavior, which differs from the second bee honey sample. This behavior can be employed as a simple, qualitative test, to discriminate true bee honey from corn syrup or from adulterated bee honey.s-powe

  13. Random Forest and Rotation Forest for fully polarized SAR image classification using polarimetric and spatial features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Peijun; Samat, Alim; Waske, Björn; Liu, Sicong; Li, Zhenhong

    2015-07-01

    Fully Polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar (PolSAR) has the advantages of all-weather, day and night observation and high resolution capabilities. The collected data are usually sorted in Sinclair matrix, coherence or covariance matrices which are directly related to physical properties of natural media and backscattering mechanism. Additional information related to the nature of scattering medium can be exploited through polarimetric decomposition theorems. Accordingly, PolSAR image classification gains increasing attentions from remote sensing communities in recent years. However, the above polarimetric measurements or parameters cannot provide sufficient information for accurate PolSAR image classification in some scenarios, e.g. in complex urban areas where different scattering mediums may exhibit similar PolSAR response due to couples of unavoidable reasons. Inspired by the complementarity between spectral and spatial features bringing remarkable improvements in optical image classification, the complementary information between polarimetric and spatial features may also contribute to PolSAR image classification. Therefore, the roles of textural features such as contrast, dissimilarity, homogeneity and local range, morphological profiles (MPs) in PolSAR image classification are investigated using two advanced ensemble learning (EL) classifiers: Random Forest and Rotation Forest. Supervised Wishart classifier and support vector machines (SVMs) are used as benchmark classifiers for the evaluation and comparison purposes. Experimental results with three Radarsat-2 images in quad polarization mode indicate that classification accuracies could be significantly increased by integrating spatial and polarimetric features using ensemble learning strategies. Rotation Forest can get better accuracy than SVM and Random Forest, in the meantime, Random Forest is much faster than Rotation Forest.

  14. Segmentation of Polarimetric SAR Images Usig Wavelet Transformation and Texture Features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezaeian, A.; Homayouni, S.; Safari, A.

    2015-12-01

    Polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar (PolSAR) sensors can collect useful observations from earth's surfaces and phenomena for various remote sensing applications, such as land cover mapping, change and target detection. These data can be acquired without the limitations of weather conditions, sun illumination and dust particles. As result, SAR images, and in particular Polarimetric SAR (PolSAR) are powerful tools for various environmental applications. Unlike the optical images, SAR images suffer from the unavoidable speckle, which causes the segmentation of this data difficult. In this paper, we use the wavelet transformation for segmentation of PolSAR images. Our proposed method is based on the multi-resolution analysis of texture features is based on wavelet transformation. Here, we use the information of gray level value and the information of texture. First, we produce coherency or covariance matrices and then generate span image from them. In the next step of proposed method is texture feature extraction from sub-bands is generated from discrete wavelet transform (DWT). Finally, PolSAR image are segmented using clustering methods as fuzzy c-means (FCM) and k-means clustering. We have applied the proposed methodology to full polarimetric SAR images acquired by the Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR) L-band system, during July, in 2012 over an agricultural area in Winnipeg, Canada.

  15. Classification and monitoring of reed belts using dual-polarimetric TerraSAR-X time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heine, Iris; Jagdhuber, Thomas; Itzerott, Sibylle

    2016-04-01

    The shorelines of lakes in northeastern Germany are often covered by reed. These reed belts fulfill an important function as erosion protection, biotope for animals, carbon storage, and as cleaning filter for lake water. However, despite their importance for the limnic ecosystem, reed vegetation in northeastern Germany is not regularly monitored. In this research study we investigate the potential of synthetic aperture radar polarimetry (PolSAR) for seasonal monitoring of reed vegetation. SAR imagery enables sunlight- and (almost) weather-independent monitoring. Polarimetric decomposition techniques allow the physical characterization of the scattering scenario and the involved scatterers. Our study is based on 19 dual-polarimetric (HH/VV) TerraSAR-X images acquired between August 2014 and May 2015. We calculated different polarimetric indices comprising the HH and VV intensities, the dual-polarimetric coherency matrix with dominant and mean alpha scattering angles, entropy and anisotropy (normalized eigen-value difference) as well as combinations of entropy and anisotropy for the analysis of the scattering scenarios. The reed areas in the TerraSAR-X images were classified using a random forest algorithm and validated with high-resolution digital orthophotos. The time series analysis of the reed belts revealed significant seasonal changes in the double bounce sensitive parameters (intensity ratio HH/VV and intensity difference HH-VV, the co-polarimetric coherence phase and the dominant and mean alpha scattering angles). Additionally, the dual-polarimetric coherence (amplitude), anisotropy, entropy, and anisotropy-entropy-combinations showed seasonal changes of reed. In summer, the reed areas are characterized within the X-band SAR data by volume scattering, whereas in winter double-bounce scattering dominates. The volume scattering in summer is caused predominantly by reed leaves. In autumn, the leaves start to wither and fall off, so that in winter predominately

  16. Adaptive polarimetric sensing for optimum radar signature classification using a genetic search algorithm.

    PubMed

    Sadjadi, Firooz A

    2006-08-01

    An automated technique for adaptive radar polarimetric pattern classification is described. The approach is based on a genetic algorithm that uses a probabilistic pattern separation distance function and searches for those transmit and receive states of polarization sensing angles that optimize this function. Seven pattern separation distance functions--the Rayleigh quotient, the Bhattacharyya, divergence, Kolmogorov, Matusta, Kullback-Leibler distances, and the Bayesian probability of error--are used on real, fully polarimetric synthetic aperture radar target signatures. Each of these signatures is represented as functions of transmit and receive polarization ellipticity angles and the angle of polarization ellipse. The results indicate that, based on the majority of the distance functions used, there is a unique set of state of polarization angles whose use will lead to improved classification performance.

  17. Subsurface polarimetric migration imaging for full polarimetric ground-penetrating radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Xuan; Yu, Yue; Liu, Cai; Fehler, Michael

    2015-08-01

    Polarization is a property of electromagnetic wave that generally refers to the locus of the electric field vector, which can be used to characterize surface properties by polarimetric radar. However, its use has been less common in the ground-penetrating radar (GPR) community. Full polarimetric GPR data include scattering matrices, by which the polarization properties can be extracted, at each survey point. Different components of the measured scattering matrix are sensitive to different types of subsurface objects, which offers a potential improvement in the detection ability of GPR. This paper develops a polarimetric migration imaging method. By merging the Pauli polarimetric decomposition technique with the Krichhoff migration equation, we develop a polarimetric migration algorithm, which can extract three migrated coefficients that are sensitive to different types of objects. Then fusing the three migrated coefficients, we can obtain subsurface colour-coded reconstructed object images, which can be employed to interpret both the geometrical information and the scattering mechanism of the subsurface objects. A 3-D full polarimetric GPR data set was acquired in a laboratory experiment and was used to test the method. In the laboratory experiment, four objects-a scatterer, a ball, a plate and a dihedral target-were buried in homogeneous dry sand under a flat ground surface. By merging the reconstructed image with polarization properties, we enhanced the subsurface image and improved the classification ability of GPR.

  18. Airborne Transparencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horne, Lois Thommason

    1984-01-01

    Starting from a science project on flight, art students discussed and investigated various means of moving in space. Then they made acetate illustrations which could be used as transparencies. The projection phenomenon made the illustrations look airborne. (CS)

  19. Passive Polarimetric Microwave Signatures Observed Over Antarctica

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    WindSat satellite-based fully polarimetric passive microwave observations, expressed in the form of the Stokes vector, were analyzed over the Antarctic ice sheet. The vertically and horizontally polarized brightness temperatures (first two Stokes components) from WindSat are shown to be consistent w...

  20. Polarimetric optical imaging of scattering surfaces.

    PubMed

    Barter, J D; Lee, P H

    1996-10-20

    A polarimetric optical specular event detector (OSED) has been developed to provide spatially and temporally resolved polarimetric data of backscattering in the visible from water wave surfaces. The OSED acquires simultaneous, two-dimensionally resolved images of the remote target in two orthogonal planes of polarization. With the use of plane-polarized illumination the OSED presently can measure, in an ensemble of breaking waves, the equivalent four-element polarization matrix common to polarimetric radars. Upgrade to full Stokes parameter state of polarization measurements is straightforward with the use of present single-aperture, multi-imager CCD camera technology. The OSED is used in conjunction with a coherent pulse-chirped radar (PCR), which also measures the four-element polarization matrix, to provide direct time-correlated identification of backscattering mechanisms operative during wave-breaking events which heretofore have not been described theoretically. We describe the instrument and its implementation, and examples of spatially resolved polarimetric data are displayed as correlated with the PCR backscatter cross section and polarization ratio records.

  1. Hyperspectral and Polarimetric Signatures of Vegetation from AirMSPI and AVIRIS Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, B.; Knyazikhin, Y.; Seidel, F. C.; Chen, C.; Yan, K.; Park, T.; CHOI, S.; Mottus, M.; Rautiainen, M.; Stenberg, P.; Myneni, R. B.; Yan, L.

    2015-12-01

    Leaf scattering spectrum is the only optical variable that conveys information about leaf biochemistry. It cannot be directly measured from space because the radiation measured by the sensor is affected by the canopy structure and the atmosphere. Multiangle remote sensing data provide information critical to account for such effects, including structural contributions to measurements of leaf optics. Some radiation is scattered at the surface of leaves, which contains no information on the leaf interior. This represents an additional confounding factor, unless it can be accounted for. Polarization measurements are useful to quantify leaf surface characteristics because radiation scattered at the surface of leaves is partly polarized whereas that from the leaf interior is not. This poster presents analyses of surface reflectance data from Airborne Multiangle SpectroPolarimetric Imager (AirMSPI) and the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS). Our results indicate that 1) sensitivity of spectral reflectance corrected for canopy structure effects to foliar nitrogen (N) content is negatively related to the leaf degree of linear polarization (DOLP); 2) polarized canopy BRF (pBRF) in oblique directions can account up to 52% of reflected radiation; 3) pBRF varies with species, suggesting that leaf surface properties cannot be neglected when interpreting BRF; 4) canopy reflects radiation specularly in all directions. In general our results suggest that hyperspectral, multiangle and polarimetric data are required to monitor leaf biochemistry from space.

  2. Photometric and polarimetric mapping of water turbidity and water depth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halajian, J.; Hallock, H.

    1973-01-01

    A Digital Photometric Mapper (DPM) was used in the Fall of 1971 in an airborne survey of New York and Boston area waters to acquire photometric, spectral and polarimetric data. The object of this study is to analyze these data with quantitative computer processing techniques to assess the potential of the DPM in the measurement and regional mapping of water turbidity and depth. These techniques have been developed and an operational potential has been demonstrated. More emphasis is placed at this time on the methodology of data acquisition, analysis and display than on the quantity of data. The results illustrate the type, quantity and format of information that could be generated operationally with the DPM-type sensor characterized by high photometric stability and fast, accurate digital output. The prototype, single-channel DPM is suggested as a unique research tool for a number of new applications. For the operational mapping of water turbidity and depth, the merits of a multichannel DPM coupled with a laser system are stressed.

  3. Fourth Airborne Geoscience Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The focus of the workshop was on how the airborne community can assist in achieving the goals of the Global Change Research Program. The many activities that employ airborne platforms and sensors were discussed: platforms and instrument development; airborne oceanography; lidar research; SAR measurements; Doppler radar; laser measurements; cloud physics; airborne experiments; airborne microwave measurements; and airborne data collection.

  4. Evaluation of applicability of high-resolution multiangle imaging photo-polarimetric observations for aerosol atmospheric correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalashnikova, Olga; Garay, Michael; Xu, Feng; Diner, David; Seidel, Felix

    2016-07-01

    Multiangle spectro-polarimetric measurements have been advocated as an additional tool for better understanding and quantifying the aerosol properties needed for atmospheric correction for ocean color retrievals. The central concern of this work is the assessment of the effects of absorbing aerosol properties on remote sensing reflectance measurement uncertainty caused by neglecting UV-enhanced absorption of carbonaceous particles and by not accounting for dust nonsphericity. In addition, we evaluate the polarimetric sensitivity of absorbing aerosol properties in light of measurement uncertainties achievable for the next generation of multi-angle polarimetric imaging instruments, and demonstrate advantages and disadvantages of wavelength selection in the UV/VNIR range. In this work a vector Markov Chain radiative transfer code including bio-optical models was used to quantitatively evaluate in water leaving radiances between atmospheres containing realistic UV-enhanced and non-spherical aerosols and the SEADAS carbonaceous and dust-like aerosol models. The phase matrices for the spherical smoke particles were calculated using a standard Mie code, while those for non-spherical dust particles were calculated using the numerical approach developed for modeling dust for the AERONET network of ground-based sunphotometers. As a next step, we have developed a retrieval code that employs a coupled Markov Chain (MC) and adding/doubling radiative transfer method for joint retrieval of aerosol properties and water leaving radiance from Airborne Multiangle SpectroPolarimetric Imager-1 (AirMSPI-1) polarimetric observations. The AirMSPI-1 instrument has been flying aboard the NASA ER-2 high altitude aircraft since October 2010. AirMSPI typically acquires observations of a target area at 9 view angles between ±67° at 10 m resolution. AirMSPI spectral channels are centered at 355, 380, 445, 470, 555, 660, and 865 nm, with 470, 660, and 865 reporting linear polarization. We

  5. Object-oriented change detection based on weighted polarimetric scattering differences on POLSAR images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, X.; Lu, L.; Yang, S.; Huang, G.; Zhao, Z.

    2015-06-01

    For wide application of change detection with SAR imagery, current processing technologies and methods are mostly based on pixels. It is difficult for pixel-based technologies to utilize spatial characteristics of images and topological relations of objects. Object-oriented technology takes objects as processing unit, which takes advantage of the shape and texture information of image. It can greatly improve the efficiency and reliability of change detection. Recently, with the development of polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (PolSAR), more backscattering features on different polarization state can be available for usage of object-oriented change detection study. In this paper, the object-oriented strategy will be employed. Considering the fact that the different target or target's state behaves different backscattering characteristics dependent on polarization state, an object-oriented change detection method that based on weighted polarimetric scattering difference of PolSAR images is proposed. The method operates on the objects generated by generalized statistical region merging (GSRM) segmentation processing. The merit of GSRM method is that image segmentation is executed on polarimetric coherence matrix, which takes full advantages of polarimetric backscattering features. And then, the measurement of polarimetric scattering difference is constructed by combining the correlation of covariance matrix and the difference of scattering power. Through analysing the effects of the covariance matrix correlation and the scattering echo power difference on the polarimetric scattering difference, the weighted method is used to balance the influences caused by the two parts, so that more reasonable weights can be chosen to decrease the false alarm rate. The effectiveness of the algorithm that proposed in this letter is tested by detection of the growth of crops with two different temporal radarsat-2 fully PolSAR data. First, objects are produced by GSRM algorithm

  6. Polarimetric imaging beyond the speckle grain scale.

    PubMed

    Pouget, Lucien; Fade, Julien; Hamel, Cyril; Alouini, Mehdi

    2012-10-20

    We address an experimental Stokes imaging setup allowing one to explore the polarimetric properties of a speckle light field with spatial resolution well beyond the speckle grain scale. We detail how the various experimental difficulties inherent to such measurements can be overcome with a dedicated measurement protocol involving a careful speckle registration step. The setup and protocol are then validated on a metallic reference sample, and used to measure the state of polarization (SOP) of light in each pixel of highly resolved speckle patterns (>2000 pixels per speckle grain) resulting from the scattering of an incident coherent beam on samples exhibiting different polarimetric properties. Evolution of the SOP with spatial averaging and across adjacent speckle grains is eventually addressed.

  7. Polarimetric studies of polyethylene terephtalate flexible substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stchakovsky, M.; Garcia-Caurel, E.; Warenghem, M.

    2008-12-01

    Polymer sheets are currently used worldwide in a wide range of applications. The manufacturing process of these sheets involves extruding machines that stretch the material in both lateral and longitudinal directions with respect to the machine direction, thus inducing birefringence. In most cases, the film obtained is optically biaxial. Polarimetric spectroscopy (Ellipsometry and Mueller Matrix) combined with conoscopic observation are the methods of choice to study these properties. In this work we report an analysis of commercially available polyethylene terephtalate (PET) films used as substrate for food packaging as well as for embedded electronic devices such as solar cells or flexible displays. Initial observation of these films through polarizing microscope in conoscopic mode reveals first the trace of optical axis plane with respect to the film surface and second, whether the optical axis is acute or not. This preliminary study allows optimal sample positioning for further polarimetric studies. The measurements and modelling are done in both reflection and transmission mode on several spectroscopic polarimetric setups from UV to NIR. The models give as a main result, the dielectric tensor of the film as well as its orientation with respect to the laboratory reference frame.

  8. Airborne Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    ATM (Airborne Thematic Mapper) was developed for NSTL (National Space Technology Companies) by Daedalus Company. It offers expanded capabilities for timely, accurate and cost effective identification of areas with prospecting potential. A related system is TIMS, Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner. Originating from Landsat 4, it is also used for agricultural studies, etc.

  9. Advanced Unsupervised Classification Methods to Detect Anomalies on Earthen Levees Using Polarimetric SAR Imagery

    PubMed Central

    Marapareddy, Ramakalavathi; Aanstoos, James V.; Younan, Nicolas H.

    2016-01-01

    Fully polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar (polSAR) data analysis has wide applications for terrain and ground cover classification. The dynamics of surface and subsurface water events can lead to slope instability resulting in slough slides on earthen levees. Early detection of these anomalies by a remote sensing approach could save time versus direct assessment. We used L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) to screen levees for anomalies. SAR technology, due to its high spatial resolution and soil penetration capability, is a good choice for identifying problematic areas on earthen levees. Using the parameters entropy (H), anisotropy (A), alpha (α), and eigenvalues (λ, λ1, λ2, and λ3), we implemented several unsupervised classification algorithms for the identification of anomalies on the levee. The classification techniques applied are H/α, H/A, A/α, Wishart H/α, Wishart H/A/α, and H/α/λ classification algorithms. In this work, the effectiveness of the algorithms was demonstrated using quad-polarimetric L-band SAR imagery from the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory’s (JPL’s) Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR). The study area is a section of the lower Mississippi River valley in the Southern USA, where earthen flood control levees are maintained by the US Army Corps of Engineers. PMID:27322270

  10. Advanced Unsupervised Classification Methods to Detect Anomalies on Earthen Levees Using Polarimetric SAR Imagery.

    PubMed

    Marapareddy, Ramakalavathi; Aanstoos, James V; Younan, Nicolas H

    2016-01-01

    Fully polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar (polSAR) data analysis has wide applications for terrain and ground cover classification. The dynamics of surface and subsurface water events can lead to slope instability resulting in slough slides on earthen levees. Early detection of these anomalies by a remote sensing approach could save time versus direct assessment. We used L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) to screen levees for anomalies. SAR technology, due to its high spatial resolution and soil penetration capability, is a good choice for identifying problematic areas on earthen levees. Using the parameters entropy (H), anisotropy (A), alpha (α), and eigenvalues (λ, λ₁, λ₂, and λ₃), we implemented several unsupervised classification algorithms for the identification of anomalies on the levee. The classification techniques applied are H/α, H/A, A/α, Wishart H/α, Wishart H/A/α, and H/α/λ classification algorithms. In this work, the effectiveness of the algorithms was demonstrated using quad-polarimetric L-band SAR imagery from the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory's (JPL's) Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR). The study area is a section of the lower Mississippi River valley in the Southern USA, where earthen flood control levees are maintained by the US Army Corps of Engineers.

  11. Advanced Unsupervised Classification Methods to Detect Anomalies on Earthen Levees Using Polarimetric SAR Imagery.

    PubMed

    Marapareddy, Ramakalavathi; Aanstoos, James V; Younan, Nicolas H

    2016-01-01

    Fully polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar (polSAR) data analysis has wide applications for terrain and ground cover classification. The dynamics of surface and subsurface water events can lead to slope instability resulting in slough slides on earthen levees. Early detection of these anomalies by a remote sensing approach could save time versus direct assessment. We used L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) to screen levees for anomalies. SAR technology, due to its high spatial resolution and soil penetration capability, is a good choice for identifying problematic areas on earthen levees. Using the parameters entropy (H), anisotropy (A), alpha (α), and eigenvalues (λ, λ₁, λ₂, and λ₃), we implemented several unsupervised classification algorithms for the identification of anomalies on the levee. The classification techniques applied are H/α, H/A, A/α, Wishart H/α, Wishart H/A/α, and H/α/λ classification algorithms. In this work, the effectiveness of the algorithms was demonstrated using quad-polarimetric L-band SAR imagery from the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory's (JPL's) Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR). The study area is a section of the lower Mississippi River valley in the Southern USA, where earthen flood control levees are maintained by the US Army Corps of Engineers. PMID:27322270

  12. Water-Body types identification in urban areas from radarsat-2 fully polarimetric SAR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Lei; Zhang, Hong; Wang, Chao; Chen, Fulong

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a novel method for supervised water-body extraction and water-body types identification from Radarsat-2 fully polarimetric (FP) synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data in complex urban areas. First, supervised water-body extraction using the Wishart classifier is performed, and the false alarms that are formed in built-up areas are removed using morphological processing methods and spatial contextual information. Then, the support vector machine (SVM), the classification and regression tree (CART), TreeBagger (TB), and random forest (RF) classifiers are introduced for water-body types (rivers, lakes, ponds) identification. In SAR images, certain other objects that are misclassified as water are also considered in water-body types identification. Several shape and polarimetric features of each candidate water-body are used for identification. Radarsat-2 PolSAR data that were acquired over Suzhou city and Dongguan city in China are used to validate the effectiveness of the proposed method, and the experimental results are evaluated at both the object and pixel levels. We compared the water-body types classification results using only shape features and the combination of shape and polarimetric features, the experimental results show that the polarimetric features can eliminate the misclassifications from certain other objects like roads to water areas, and the increasement of classification accuracy embodies at both the object and pixel levels. The experimental results show that the proposed methods can achieve satisfactory accuracies at the object level [89.4% (Suzhou), 95.53% (Dongguan)] and the pixel level [96.22% (Suzhou), 97.95% (Dongguan)] for water-body types classification, respectively.

  13. Method for providing a polarization filter for processing synthetic aperture radar image data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dubois, Pascale C. (Inventor); Vanzyl, Jakob J. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A polarization filter can maximize the signal-to-noise ratio of a polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and help discriminate between targets or enhance image features, e.g., enhance contrast between different types of target. The method disclosed is based on the Stokes matrix/ Stokes vector representation, so the targets of interest can be extended targets, and the method can also be applied to the case of bistatic polarimetric radars.

  14. Random Forest Classification of Sediments on Exposed Intertidal Flats Using ALOS-2 Quad-Polarimetric SAR Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, W.; Yang, X.; Liu, G.; Zhou, H.; Ma, W.; Yu, Y.; Li, Z.

    2016-06-01

    Coastal zones are one of the world's most densely populated areas and it is necessary to propose an accurate, cost effective, frequent, and synoptic method of monitoring these complex ecosystems. However, misclassification of sediments on exposed intertidal flats restricts the development of coastal zones surveillance. With the advent of SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) satellites, polarimetric SAR satellite imagery plays an increasingly important role in monitoring changes in coastal wetland. This research investigated the necessity of combining SAR polarimetric features with optical data, and their contribution in accurately sediment classification. Three experimental groups were set to make assessment of the most appropriate descriptors. (i) Several SAR polarimetric descriptors were extracted from scattering matrix using Cloude-Pottier, Freeman-Durden and Yamaguchi methods; (ii) Optical remote sensing (RS) data with R, G and B channels formed the second feature combinations; (iii) The chosen SAR and optical RS indicators were both added into classifier. Classification was carried out using Random Forest (RF) classifiers and a general result mapping of intertidal flats was generated. Experiments were implemented using ALOS-2 L-band satellite imagery and GF-1 optical multi-spectral data acquired in the same period. The weights of descriptors were evaluated by VI (RF Variable Importance). Results suggested that optical data source has few advantages on sediment classification, and even reduce the effect of SAR indicators. Polarimetric SAR feature sets show great potentials in intertidal flats classification and are promising in classifying mud flats, sand flats, bare farmland and tidal water.

  15. Clustering of Multi-Temporal Fully Polarimetric L-Band SAR Data for Agricultural Land Cover Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamiminia, H.; Homayouni, S.; Safari, A.

    2015-12-01

    Recently, the unique capabilities of Polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar (PolSAR) sensors make them an important and efficient tool for natural resources and environmental applications, such as land cover and crop classification. The aim of this paper is to classify multi-temporal full polarimetric SAR data using kernel-based fuzzy C-means clustering method, over an agricultural region. This method starts with transforming input data into the higher dimensional space using kernel functions and then clustering them in the feature space. Feature space, due to its inherent properties, has the ability to take in account the nonlinear and complex nature of polarimetric data. Several SAR polarimetric features extracted using target decomposition algorithms. Features from Cloude-Pottier, Freeman-Durden and Yamaguchi algorithms used as inputs for the clustering. This method was applied to multi-temporal UAVSAR L-band images acquired over an agricultural area near Winnipeg, Canada, during June and July in 2012. The results demonstrate the efficiency of this approach with respect to the classical methods. In addition, using multi-temporal data in the clustering process helped to investigate the phenological cycle of plants and significantly improved the performance of agricultural land cover mapping.

  16. The NASA Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lou, Yunling; Kim, Yunjin; van Zyl, Jakob

    1996-01-01

    None given. (From introduction): ...we will briefly describe the instrument characteristics, the evolution of the various radar modes, the instrument performance and improvement in the knowledge of the positioning and attitude information of the radar. In addition, we will summarize the [rogress of the data processing effort, especially in the interferometry processing. Finally, we will address the issue of processing and calibrating the cross-track interferometry (XTI) data.

  17. Toward Polarimetry with GREGOR -- Testing the GREGOR Polarimetric Unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, A.; Rendtel, J.; Arlt, K.

    The new 1.5 m solar telescope GREGOR with modern scientific instrumentation will become operational in the near future. The GREGOR Polarimetric Unit (GPU) for the calibration of polarimetric measurements with any post-focal device has been developed at the Astrophysical Institute Potsdam (AIP). Here we describe details of the extensive test measurements made in the laboratory of the Solar Observatory ``Einsteinturm''.

  18. Polarimetric 3D integral imaging in photon-starved conditions.

    PubMed

    Carnicer, Artur; Javidi, Bahram

    2015-03-01

    We develop a method for obtaining 3D polarimetric integral images from elemental images recorded in low light illumination conditions. Since photon-counting images are very sparse, calculation of the Stokes parameters and the degree of polarization should be handled carefully. In our approach, polarimetric 3D integral images are generated using the Maximum Likelihood Estimation and subsequently reconstructed by means of a Total Variation Denoising filter. In this way, polarimetric results are comparable to those obtained in conventional illumination conditions. We also show that polarimetric information retrieved from photon starved images can be used in 3D object recognition problems. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on 3D polarimetric photon counting integral imaging. PMID:25836861

  19. Polarimetric Imaging using Two Photoelastic Modulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Yu; Cunningham, Thomas; Diner, David; Davis, Edgar; Sun, Chao; Hancock, Bruce; Gutt, Gary; Zan, Jason; Raouf, Nasrat

    2009-01-01

    A method of polarimetric imaging, now undergoing development, involves the use of two photoelastic modulators in series, driven at equal amplitude but at different frequencies. The net effect on a beam of light is to cause (1) the direction of its polarization to rotate at the average of two excitation frequencies and (2) the amplitude of its polarization to be modulated at the beat frequency (the difference between the two excitation frequencies). The resulting modulated optical light beam is made to pass through a polarizing filter and is detected at the beat frequency, which can be chosen to equal the frame rate of an electronic camera or the rate of sampling the outputs of photodetectors in an array. The method was conceived to satisfy a need to perform highly accurate polarimetric imaging, without cross-talk between polarization channels, at frame rates of the order of tens of hertz. The use of electro-optical modulators is necessitated by a need to obtain accuracy greater than that attainable by use of static polarizing filters over separate fixed detectors. For imaging, photoelastic modulators are preferable to such other electrio-optical modulators as Kerr cells and Pockels cells in that photoelastic modulators operate at lower voltages, have greater angular acceptances, and are easier to use. Prior to the conception of the present method, polarimetric imaging at frame rates of tens of hertz using photoelastic modulators was not possible because the resonance frequencies of photoelastic modulators usually lie in the range from about 20 to about 100 kHz.

  20. Polarimetric clutter modeling: Theory and application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kong, J. A.; Lin, F. C.; Borgeaud, M.; Yueh, H. A.; Swartz, A. A.; Lim, H. H.; Shim, R. T.; Novak, L. M.

    1988-01-01

    The two-layer anisotropic random medium model is used to investigate fully polarimetric scattering properties of earth terrain media. The polarization covariance matrices for the untilted and tilted uniaxial random medium are evaluated using the strong fluctuation theory and distorted Born approximation. In order to account for the azimuthal randomness in the growth direction of leaves in tree and grass fields, an averaging scheme over the azimuthal direction is also applied. It is found that characteristics of terrain clutter can be identified through the analysis of each element of the covariance matrix. Theoretical results are illustrated by the comparison with experimental data provided by MIT Lincoln Laboratory for tree and grass fields.

  1. Polarimetric properties of the Reiner Gamma swirl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Minsup; Kim, Sungsoo S.; Choi, Young-Jun; Garrick-Bethell, Ian

    2016-09-01

    In order to understand the regolith characteristics of the Reiner Gamma swirl, one of the most prominent lunar swirls, we analyze the correlation between the linear polarization flux Q and the intensity I of the swirl. We present comparisons between the phase function (the intensity variation with the phase angle) of the swirl and the phase functions of its neighbors using polarimetric data. We find that the swirl has unusually large Q values for given I values. We also show that the phase function of the swirl is relatively shallow compared to its neighbors. We suggest that the microstructure of the regolith on the Reiner Gamma swirl has been disrupted.

  2. Utilization of AERONET polarimetric measurements for improving retrieval of aerosol microphysics: GSFC, Beijing and Dakar data analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedarenka, Anton; Dubovik, Oleg; Goloub, Philippe; Li, Zhengqiang; Lapyonok, Tatyana; Litvinov, Pavel; Barel, Luc; Gonzalez, Louis; Podvin, Thierry; Crozel, Didier

    2016-08-01

    The study presents the efforts on including the polarimetric data to the routine inversion of the radiometric ground-based measurements for characterization of the atmospheric aerosols and analysis of the obtained advantages in retrieval results. First, to operationally process the large amount of polarimetric data the data preparation tool was developed. The AERONET inversion code adapted for inversion of both intensity and polarization measurements was used for processing. Second, in order to estimate the effect from utilization of polarimetric information on aerosol retrieval results, both synthetic data and the real measurements were processed using developed routine and analyzed. The sensitivity study has been carried out using simulated data based on three main aerosol models: desert dust, urban industrial and urban clean aerosols. The test investigated the effects of utilization of polarization data in the presence of random noise, bias in measurements of optical thickness and angular pointing shift. The results demonstrate the advantage of polarization data utilization in the cases of aerosols with pronounced concentration of fine particles. Further, the extended set of AERONET observations was processed. The data for three sites have been used: GSFC, USA (clean urban aerosol dominated by fine particles), Beijing, China (polluted industrial aerosol characterized by pronounced mixture of both fine and coarse modes) and Dakar, Senegal (desert dust dominated by coarse particles). The results revealed considerable advantage of polarimetric data applying for characterizing fine mode dominated aerosols including industrial pollution (Beijing). The use of polarization corrects particle size distribution by decreasing overestimated fine mode and increasing the coarse mode. It also increases underestimated real part of the refractive index and improves the retrieval of the fraction of spherical particles due to high sensitivity of polarization to particle shape

  3. Polarimetric PALSAR System Model Assessment and Calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Touzi, R.; Shimada, M.

    2009-04-01

    Polarimetric PALSAR system parameters are assessed using data sets collected over various calibration sites. The data collected over the Amazonian forest permits validating the zero Faraday rotation hypotheses near the equator. The analysis of the Amazonian forest data and the response of the corner reflectors deployed during the PALSAR acquisitions lead to the conclusion that the antenna is highly isolated (better than -35 dB). Theses results are confirmed using data collected over the Sweden and Ottawa calibration sites. The 5-m height trihedrals deployed in the Sweden calibration site by the Chalmers University of technology permits accurate measurement of antenna parameters, and detection of 2-3 degree Faraday rotation during day acquisition, whereas no Faraday rotation was noted during night acquisition. Small Faraday rotation angles (2-3 degree) have been measured using acquisitions over the DLR Oberpfaffenhofen and the Ottawa calibration sites. The presence of small but still significant Faraday rotation (2-3 degree) induces a CR return at the crosspolarization HV and VH that should not be interpreted as the actual antenna cross-talk. PALSAR antenna is highly isolated (better than -35 dB), and diagonal antenna distortion matrices (with zero cross-talk terms) can be used for accurate calibration of PALSAR polarimetric data.

  4. [Modeling and Simulation of Spectral Polarimetric BRDF].

    PubMed

    Ling, Jin-jiang; Li, Gang; Zhang, Ren-bin; Tang, Qian; Ye, Qiu

    2016-01-01

    Under the conditions of the polarized light, The reflective surface of the object is affected by many factors, refractive index, surface roughness, and so the angle of incidence. For the rough surface in the different wavelengths of light exhibit different reflection characteristics of polarization, a spectral polarimetric BRDF based on Kirchhof theory is proposee. The spectral model of complex refraction index is combined with refraction index and extinction coefficient spectral model which were got by using the known complex refraction index at different value. Then get the spectral model of surface roughness derived from the classical surface roughness measuring method combined with the Fresnel reflection function. Take the spectral model of refraction index and roughness into the BRDF model, then the spectral polarimetirc BRDF model is proposed. Compare the simulation results of the refractive index varies with wavelength, roughness is constant, the refraction index and roughness both vary with wavelength and origin model with other papers, it shows that, the spectral polarimetric BRDF model can show the polarization characteristics of the surface accurately, and can provide a reliable basis for the application of polarization remote sensing, and other aspects of the classification of substances. PMID:27228737

  5. Analysis of polarimetric terahertz imaging for non-destructive detection of subsurface defects in wind turbine blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Robert Warren

    During the manufacture of wind turbine blades, internal defects can form which negatively affect their structural integrity and can lead to premature failure. These defects are often not detected before the final installation of the blades onto wind turbines in the field. The purpose of this research was to investigate the advantages of using fully-polarimetric inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR) terahertz imaging techniques for scanning the interior structure of the wind turbine blades in order to detect and identify any defects in the blade's internal structure before the blade leaves the manufacturer. Additionally, the research has investigated the use of the Euler parameter polarimetric transformation in improving defect detection, and increasing understanding of the scattering properties of such defects. Use of an image compositing algorithm and of the Euler parameters was found to enhance defect detection.

  6. Polarimetric measures of selected variable stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elias, N. M., II; Koch, R. H.; Pfeiffer, R. J.

    2008-10-01

    Aims: The purpose of this paper is to summarize and interpret unpublished optical polarimetry for numerous program stars that were observed over the past decades at the Flower and Cook Observatory (FCO), University of Pennsylvania. We also make the individual calibrated measures available for long-term comparisons with new data. Methods: We employ three techniques to search for intrinsic variability within each dataset. First, when the observations for a given star and filter are numerous enough and when a period has been determined previously via photometry or spectroscopy, the polarimetric measures are plotted versus phase. If a statistically significant pattern appears, we attribute it to intrinsic variability. Second, we compare means of the FCO data to means from other workers. If they are statistically different, we conclude that the object exhibits long-term intrinsic variability. Third, we calculate the standard deviation for each program star and filter and compare it to the standard deviation estimated from comparable polarimetric standards. If the standard deviation of the program star is at least three times the value estimated from the polarimetric standards, the former is considered intrinsically variable. All of these statements are strengthened when variability appears in multiple filters. Results: We confirm the existence of an electron-scattering cloud at L1 in the β Per system, and find that LY Aur and HR 8281 possess scattering envelopes. Intrinsic polarization was detected for Nova Cas 1993 as early as day +3. We detected polarization variability near the primary eclipse of 32 Cyg. There is marginal evidence for polarization variability of the β Cepheid type star γ Peg. The other objects of this class exhibited no variability. All but one of the β Cepheid objects (ES Vul) fall on a tight linear relationship between linear polarization and E(B-V), in spite of the fact that the stars lay along different lines of sight. This dependence falls

  7. Nonlinear Polarimetric Microscopy for Biomedical Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samim, Masood

    A framework for the nonlinear optical polarimetry and polarimetric microscopy is developed. Mathematical equations are derived in terms of linear and nonlinear Stokes Mueller formalism, which comprehensively characterize the polarization properties of the incoming and outgoing radiations, and provide structural information about the organization of the investigated materials. The algebraic formalism developed in this thesis simplifies many predictions for a nonlinear polarimetry study and provides an intuitive understanding of various polarization properties for radiations and the intervening medium. For polarimetric microscopy experiments, a custom fast-scanning differential polarization microscope is developed, which is also capable of real-time three-dimensional imaging. The setup is equipped with a pair of high-speed resonant and galvanometric scanning mirrors, and supplemented by advanced adaptive optics and data acquisition modules. The scanning mirrors when combined with the adaptive optics deformable mirror enable fast 3D imaging. Deformable membrane mirrors and genetic algorithm optimization routines are employed to improve the imaging conditions including correcting the optical aberrations, maximizing signal intensities, and minimizing point-spread-functions of the focal volume. A field-programmable-gate array (FPGA) chip is exploited to rapidly acquire and process the multidimensional data. Using the nonlinear optical polarimetry framework and the home-built polarization microscope, a few biologically important tissues are measured and analyzed to gain insight as to their structure and dynamics. The structure and distribution of muscle sarcomere myosins, connective tissue collagen, carbohydrate-rich starch, and fruit fly eye retinal molecules are characterized with revealing polarization studies. In each case, using the theoretical framework, polarization sensitive data are analyzed to decipher the molecular orientations and nonlinear optical

  8. MCM Polarimetric Radiometers for Planar Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kangaslahti, Pekka; Dawson, Douglas; Gaier, Todd

    2007-01-01

    A polarimetric radiometer that operates at a frequency of 40 GHz has been designed and built as a prototype of multiple identical units that could be arranged in a planar array for scientific measurements. Such an array is planned for use in studying the cosmic microwave background (CMB). All of the subsystems and components of this polarimetric radiometer are integrated into a single multi-chip module (MCM) of substantially planar geometry. In comparison with traditional designs of polarimetric radiometers, the MCM design is expected to greatly reduce the cost per unit in an array of many such units. The design of the unit is dictated partly by a requirement, in the planned CMB application, to measure the Stokes parameters I, Q, and U of the CMB radiation with high sensitivity. (A complete definition of the Stokes parameters would exceed the scope of this article. In necessarily oversimplified terms, I is a measure of total intensity of radiation, while Q and U are measures of the relationships between the horizontally and vertically polarized components of radiation.) Because the sensitivity of a single polarimeter cannot be increased significantly, the only way to satisfy the high-sensitivity requirement is to make a large array of polarimeters that operate in parallel. The MCM includes contact pins that can be plugged into receptacles on a standard printed-circuit board (PCB). All of the required microwave functionality is implemented within the MCM; any required supporting non-microwave ("back-end") electronic functionality, including the provision of DC bias and control signals, can be implemented by standard PCB techniques. On the way from a microwave antenna to the MCM, the incoming microwave signal passes through an orthomode transducer (OMT), which splits the radiation into an h + i(nu) beam and an h - i(nu) beam (where, using complex-number notation, h denotes the horizontal component, nu denotes the vertical component, and +/-i denotes a +/-90deg phase

  9. Polarimetric characterization of birefringent filter components.

    PubMed

    Mudge, Jason; Mitchell, Keith; Tarbell, Theodore

    2015-01-10

    Over the past 75 years, birefringent filter technology has evolved significantly. For nearly that same period of time, these filters have been designed and used by solar scientists to study the Sun. Prior to assembling these types of filters, each component, e.g., polarizers and wave plates, is characterized to determine its polarimetric parameters to ensure the desired filter design performance. With time and cost becoming an ever increasing issue, it is imperative to test components designated for a birefringent filter efficiently. This article addresses a shift to increased efficiency when testing components of very low volume (<5 units) solar research filters that minimizes high-priced hardware expenditures, i.e., Mueller matrix spectropolarimeter. PMID:25967624

  10. Integrated, Dual Orthogonal Antennas for Polarimetric Ground Penetrating Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pauli, Mario; Wiesbeck, Werner

    2015-04-01

    Ground penetrating radar systems are mostly equipped with single polarized antennas, for example with single linear polarization or with circular polarization. The radiated waves are partly reflected at the ground surface and very often the penetrating waves are distorted in their polarization. The distortion depends on the ground homogeneity and the orientation of the antennas relative to the ground structure. The received signals from the reflecting objects may most times only be classified according to their coverage and intensity. This makes the recognition of the objects difficult or impossible. In airborne and spaceborne Remote Sensing the systems are meanwhile mostly equipped with front ends with dual orthogonal polarized antennas for a full polarimetric operation. The received signals, registered in 2x2 scattering matrices according to co- and cross polarization, are processed for the evaluation of all features of the targets. Ground penetrating radars could also profit from the scientific results of Remote Sensing. The classification of detected objects for their structure and orientation requires more information in the reflected signal than can be measured with a single polarization [1, 2]. In this paper dual linear, orthogonal polarized antennas with a common single, frequency independent phase center, are presented [3]. The relative bandwidth of these antennas can be 1:3, up to 1:4. The antenna is designed to work in the frequency range between 3 GHz and 11 GHz, but can be easily adapted to the GPR frequency range by scaling. The size of the antenna scaled for operation in typical GPR frequencies would approximately be 20 by 20 cm2. By the implementation in a dielectric carrier it could be reduced in size if required. The major problem for ultra wide band, dual polarized antennas is the frequency independent feed network, realizing the required phase shifts. For these antennas a network, which is frequency independent over a wide range, has been

  11. Detecting oil on water using polarimetric imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iler, Amber L.; Hamilton, Patrick D.

    2015-05-01

    Integrity Applications Incorporated (IAI) collected electro-optical polarimetric imagery (PI) to evaluate its effectiveness for detecting oil on water. Data was gathered at multiple sun angles for vegetable oil and crude oil to demonstrate PI sensitivity to different liquids and collection geometries. Unique signatures for oil relative to water were observed. Both oils consistently displayed higher degree of linear polarization (DOLP) values than water, which was expected based on the lower index of refraction of water (1.33) relative to vegetable oil and crude oil (1.47 and 1.47-1.57, respectively). The strength of the polarimetric signatures was found to vary as a function of collection angle relative to the sun, with peak linear polarizations ranging from 40-70% for crude oil and 20-50% for vegetable oil. IAI found that independently scaled DOLP was particularly useful for discriminating these liquids, because it demonstrated the least sensitivity to collection angle, compared to other PI products. Specifically, the DOLP signature of vegetable oil was approximately 20% lower than for crude oil, regardless of collection angle. This finding is consistent with the lower index of refraction values for vegetable oil compared to crude. Based on the promising results presented here, IAI recommends further testing and development of PI for oceanic remote sensing applications such as oil spill/leak detection and for supporting oil cleanup efforts. With additional work, PI may also be applicable to other oceanic environmental issues such as detection of agricultural runoff or effluent from industrial facilities or watercraft.

  12. Dynamic and data-driven classification for polarimetric SAR images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhlmann, S.; Kiranyaz, S.; Ince, T.; Gabbouj, M.

    2011-11-01

    In this paper, we introduce dynamic and scalable Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) terrain classification based on the Collective Network of Binary Classifiers (CNBC). The CNBC framework is primarily adapted to maximize the SAR classification accuracy on dynamically varying databases where variations do occur in any time in terms of (new) images, classes, features and users' relevance feedback. Whenever a "change" occurs, the CNBC dynamically and "optimally" adapts itself to the change by means of its topology and the underlying evolutionary method MD PSO. Thanks to its "Divide and Conquer" type approach, the CNBC can also support varying and large set of (PolSAR) features among which it optimally selects, weighs and fuses the most discriminative ones for a particular class. Each SAR terrain class is discriminated by a dedicated Network of Binary Classifiers (NBC), which encapsulates a set of evolutionary Binary Classifiers (BCs) discriminating the class with a distinctive feature set. Moreover, with each incremental evolution session, new classes/features can be introduced which signals the CNBC to create new corresponding NBCs and BCs within to adapt and scale dynamically to the change. This can in turn be a significant advantage when the current CNBC is used to classify multiple SAR images with similar terrain classes since no or only minimal (incremental) evolution sessions are needed to adapt it to a new classification problem while using the previously acquired knowledge. We demonstrate our proposed classification approach over several medium and highresolution NASA/JPL AIRSAR images applying various polarimetric decompositions. We evaluate and compare the computational complexity and classification accuracy against static Neural Network classifiers. As CNBC classification accuracy can compete and even surpass them, the computational complexity of CNBC is significantly lower as the CNBC body supports high parallelization making it applicable to grid

  13. Oil Detection in a Coastal Marsh with Polarimetric SAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramsey, E., III; Rangoonwala, A.; Suzuoki, Y.; Bannister, T.

    2011-09-01

    The NASA UAVSAR was deployed June 2010 to support Deep Water Horizon oil spill response activities specifically, oil detection and characterization, oil extent mapping in wetlands, coastal resource impact detection, and ecosystem recovery. The UAVSAR platform demonstrated enhanced capability to act rapidly and provide targeted mapping response. Our research focused on the effectiveness of high spatial resolution and fully polarimetric L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PolSAR) for mapping oil in wetlands, specifically within Barataria Bay in eastern coastal Louisiana. Barataria Bay contained a numerous site observations confirming spatially extensive shoreline oil impacts, multiple oil spill UAVSAR collections, and a near anniversary 2009 collection. PolSAR oil detection relied on decomposition and subsequent classifications of the single look complex (SLC) calibrated radar cross sections representing the complex elements of the scattering matrix. Initial analyses results found that shoreline marsh structural damage as well as oil on marsh plants and sediments without canopy structural damage were exhibited as anomalous features on post-spill SLC scenes but were not evident on the pre-spill SLC scene collected in 2009. Pre-spill and post-spill Freeman-Durden (FD) and Cloude-Pottier (CP) decompositions and the Wishart classifications seeded with the FD and CP classes (Wishart-FD) also highlighted these nearshore features as a change in dominate scatter from pre-spill to post-spill. SLC analyses also indicated penetration of oil ladened waters into interior marshes well past the immediate shorelines; however, these post-spill SLC analyses results could not be validated due to the lack of observational data and possible flooding in the pre-spill SLC scene.

  14. Non-Local Means Filter for Polarimetric SAR Speckle Reduction-Experiments Using Terrasar-X Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, J.; Guo, R.; Zhu, X.; Baier, G.; Wang, Y.

    2015-03-01

    The speckle is omnipresent in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images as an intrinsic characteristic. However, it is unwanted in certain applications. Therefore, intelligent filters for speckle reduction are of great importance. It has been demonstrated in several literatures that the non-local means filter can reduce noise while preserving details. This paper discusses non-local means filter for polarimetric SAR (PolSAR) speckle reduction. The impact of different similarity approaches, weight kernels, and parameters in the filter were analysed. A data-driven adaptive weight kernel was proposed. Combined with different similarity measures, it is compared with existing algorithms, using fully polarimetric TerraSAR-X data acquired during the commissioning phase. The proposed approach has overall the best performance in terms of speckle reduction, detail preservation, and polarimetric information preservation. This study suggests the high potential of using the developed non- local means filer for speckle reduction of PolSAR data acquired by the next generation SAR missions, e.g. TanDEM-L and TerraSAR-X NG.

  15. Screening of Earthen Levees Using Synthetic Aperture Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aanstoos, J. V.; O'Hara, C.; Prasad, S.; Dabbiru, L.; Nobrega, R.; Lee, M.

    2009-12-01

    Earthen levees protect large areas of populated and cultivated land in the US from flooding. As shown recently with hurricanes Katrina and Ike and the recent floods in the Midwest, the potential loss of life and property associated with the catastrophic failure of levees can be extremely large. Over the entire US, there are over 100,000 miles of levee structures of varying designs and conditions. Currently, there are limited processes in place to prioritize the monitoring of large numbers of dam and levee structures. Levee managers and federal agencies need to assess levee health rapidly with robust techniques that identify, classify and prioritize levee vulnerabilities with lower costs than traditional soil-boring programs, which can cost many of millions of dollars and provide information about the subsurface only in the immediate vicinity of a small-diameter borehole. This paper reports preliminary results of a project studying the use of airborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) as an aid to the levee screening process. The SAR sensor being studied is the NASA UAVSAR (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle SAR), a fully polarimetric L-band SAR which is specifically designed to acquire airborne repeat track SAR data for differential interferometric measurements. The instrument is capable of sub-meter ground sample distance. NASA has imaged with this instrument 230 km of levees along the lower Mississippi River for use in this study. SAR interferometric mode is capable of identifying vertical displacements on the order of a few millimeters. Its multipolarization measurements can penetrate soil to as much as one meter depth. Thus it is valuable in detecting changes in levees that will be key inputs to a levee vulnerability classification system. Once vulnerable levee reaches have been identified, further actions such as more detailed examination or repairs can be focused on these higher-priority sections. We report on the use of various feature detection algorithms being applied

  16. Multispectral polarimetric system for glucose monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cote, Gerard L.; Gorde, Harshal; Janda, Joseph; Cameron, Brent D.

    1998-05-01

    In this preliminary investigation, a two wavelength optical polarimetric system was used to show the potential of the approach to be used as an in vivo noninvasive glucose monitor. The dual wavelength method is shown as a means of overcoming two of them ore important problems with this approach for glucose monitoring, namely, motion artifact and the presence of other optically chiral components. The use of polarized light is based on the fact that the polarization vector of the light rotates when it interacts with an optically active material such as glucose. The amount of rotation of the light polarization is directly proportional to the optically active molecular concentration and to the sample path length. The end application of this system would be to estimate blood glucose concentrations indirectly by measuring the amount of rotation of the light beam's polarization state due to glucose variations within the aqueous humor of the anterior chamber of the eye. The system was evaluated in vitro in the presence of motion artifact and in combination with albumin, another interfering optical rotatory chemical component. It was shown that the dual wavelength approach has potential for overcoming these problems.

  17. Polarimetric Radar Observations of Hail Formation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, Patrick C.; Rutledge, Steven A.; Petersen, Walter A.; Bringi, V. N.

    2001-08-01

    Analyses are made of the evolution of selected polarimetric radar data fields during periods immediately preceding the onset of near-surface hail indicators [high reflectivity and low differential reflectivity (Zdr)] in two nonsupercellular northeastern Colorado hailstorms. The primary data were obtained from the 11-cm-wavelength, dual-polarization Colorado State University (CSU)-University of Chicago and Illinois State Water Survey radar. In one of the storms, dual-Doppler wind field syntheses were available using additional velocity data collected by the CSU Pawnee S-band radar. In both events, linear depolarization ratio (LDR) values exceeding 25 dB began to appear in the right flank of the 50-dBZ echo core region, within the 0° to 20°C environmental temperature range, approximately 10 minutes prior to the onset of hail at the surface. Scattering calculations suggest that the LDR enhancement may have been caused by an increasing water fraction within the growing hailstones (spongy hail), or the development of a liquid water coat under wet growth conditions. Vertical structure of the Zdr fields was also examined. As hypothesized by Conway and Zrni, it was found that the distinctness of the positive Zdr column associated with supercooled raindrops and incompletely frozen particles above the 0°C height varies from storm to storm.

  18. Polarimetric imaging and radiometry in shallow waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonizzo, Alberto; Gilerson, Alexander; Carrizo, Carlos; Israel, Jean-Paul; Ahmed, Sam

    2012-06-01

    Imaging in scattering media with the purpose of object identification has always been a challenging task. In the ocean, and especially in coastal areas, the situation is one of the worst: absorption and scattering by suspended and dissolved particles take away most of the information and blur the image of the target to be identified. In addition, one has also to take into account the variability of the bottom which, being close to the surface, plays an important role in the resulting integrated light field. Our goal in this study is to gain insight into the effects of the variable environments on the complex polarized underwater realm. We analyze the polarized tridimensional underwater environment. The instruments deployed were an underwater hyperspectral and multi-angular polarimeter, whose accuracy and exactness of results have been previously validated by the means of different radiative transfer calculations; and a green band full-Stokes polarimetric video camera, enclosed in a custom made underwater housing. The results presented here were collected during the first field deployment of the imaging camera. An in-situ validation of the camera with the polarimeter has been obtained and the results have been used to validate the values of the Stokes elements in the images, both for the water column itself and for the underlying bottom.

  19. Urban-area extraction from polarimetric SAR image using combination of target decomposition and orientation angle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Bin; Lu, Da; Wu, Zhilu; Qiao, Zhijun G.

    2016-05-01

    The results of model-based target decomposition are the main features used to discriminate urban and non-urban area in polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (PolSAR) application. Traditional urban-area extraction methods based on modelbased target decomposition usually misclassified ground-trunk structure as urban-area or misclassified rotated urbanarea as forest. This paper introduces another feature named orientation angle to improve urban-area extraction scheme for the accurate mapping in urban by PolSAR image. The proposed method takes randomness of orientation angle into account for restriction of urban area first and, subsequently, implements rotation angle to improve results that oriented urban areas are recognized as double-bounce objects from volume scattering. ESAR L-band PolSAR data of the Oberpfaffenhofen Test Site Area was used to validate the proposed algorithm.

  20. The classification of ambiguity in polarimetric reconstruction of coronal mass ejection

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, Xinghua; Wang, Huaning; Huang, Xin; Du, Zhanle; He, Han

    2014-01-10

    The Thomson scattering theory indicates that there exist explicit and implicit ambiguities in polarimetric analyses of coronal mass ejection (CME) observations. We suggest a classification for these ambiguities in CME reconstruction. Three samples, including double explicit, mixed, and double implicit ambiguity, are shown with the polarimetric analyses of STEREO CME observations. These samples demonstrate that this classification is helpful for improving polarimetric reconstruction.

  1. Cross-calibration between airborne SAR sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zink, Manfred; Olivier, Philippe; Freeman, Anthony

    1993-01-01

    As Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) system performance and experience in SAR signature evaluation increase, quantitative analysis becomes more and more important. Such analyses require an absolute radiometric calibration of the complete SAR system. To keep the expenditure on calibration of future multichannel and multisensor remote sensing systems (e.g., X-SAR/SIR-C) within a tolerable level, data from different tracks and different sensors (channels) must be cross calibrated. The 1989 joint E-SAR/DC-8 SAR calibration campaign gave a first opportunity for such an experiment, including cross sensor and cross track calibration. A basic requirement for successful cross calibration is the stability of the SAR systems. The calibration parameters derived from different tracks and the polarimetric properties of the uncalibrated data are used to describe this stability. Quality criteria for a successful cross calibration are the agreement of alpha degree values and the consistency of radar cross sections of equally sized corner reflectors. Channel imbalance and cross talk provide additional quality in case of the polarimetric DC-8 SAR.

  2. Narrow band 3 × 3 Mueller polarimetric endoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Ji; Ye, Menglong; Singh, Mohan; Clancy, Neil T.; Elson, Daniel S.

    2013-01-01

    Mueller matrix polarimetric imaging has shown potential in tissue diagnosis but is challenging to implement endoscopically. In this work, a narrow band 3 × 3 Mueller matrix polarimetric endoscope was designed by rotating the endoscope to generate 0°, 45° and 90° linearly polarized illumination and positioning a rotating filter wheel in front of the camera containing three polarisers to permit polarization state analysis for backscattered light. The system was validated with a rotating linear polarizer and a diffuse reflection target. Initial measurements of 3 × 3 Mueller matrices on a rat are demonstrated, followed by matrix decomposition into the depolarization and retardance matrices for further analysis. Our work shows the feasibility of implementing polarimetric imaging in a rigid endoscope conveniently and economically in order to reveal diagnostic information. PMID:24298405

  3. A new polarimetric active radar calibrator and calibration technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Jianguo; Xu, Xiaojian

    2015-10-01

    Polarimetric active radar calibrator (PARC) is one of the most important calibrators with high radar cross section (RCS) for polarimetry measurement. In this paper, a new double-antenna polarimetric active radar calibrator (DPARC) is proposed, which consists of two rotatable antennas with wideband electromagnetic polarization filters (EMPF) to achieve lower cross-polarization for transmission and reception. With two antennas which are rotatable around the radar line of sight (LOS), the DPARC provides a variety of standard polarimetric scattering matrices (PSM) through the rotation combination of receiving and transmitting polarization, which are useful for polarimatric calibration in different applications. In addition, a technique based on Fourier analysis is proposed for calibration processing. Numerical simulation results are presented to demonstrate the superior performance of the proposed DPARC and processing technique.

  4. Radiative transfer theory for polarimetric remote sensing of pine forest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, C. C.; Han, H. C.; Shin, Robert T.; Kong, Jin AU; Beaudoin, A.; Letoan, T.

    1992-01-01

    The radiative transfer theory is applied to interpret polarimetric radar backscatter from pine forest with clustered vegetation structures. To take into account the clustered structures with the radiative transfer theory, the scattering function of each cluster is calculated by incorporating the phase interference of scattered fields from each component. Subsequently, the resulting phase matrix is used in the radiative transfer equations to evaluate the polarimetric backscattering coefficients from random medium layers embedded with vegetation clusters. Upon including the multi-scale structures, namely, trunks, primary and secondary branches, as well as needles, we interpret and simulate the polarimetric radar responses from pine forest for different frequencies and looking angles. The preliminary results are shown to be in good agreement with the measured backscattering coefficients at the Landes maritime pine forest during the MAESTRO-1 experiment.

  5. Radiative transfer theory for polarimetric remote sensing of pine forest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, C. C.; Han, H. C.; Shin, R. T.; Kong, J. A.; Beaudoin, A.; Le Toan, T.

    1992-01-01

    The radiative transfer theory is applied to interpret polarimetric radar backscatter from pine forest with clustered vegetation structures. The scattering function of each cluster is calculated by incorporating the phase interference of scattered fields from each component. The resulting phase matrix is used in the radiative transfer equations to evaluate the polarimetric backscattering coefficients from random medium layers embedded with vegetation clusters. Upon including multiscale structures (trunks, primary and secondary branches, and needles), polarimetric radar responses from pine forest for different frequencies and looking angles are interpreted and simulated. Preliminary results are shown to be in good agreement with the measured backscattering coefficients at the Landes maritime pine forest during the MAESTRO-1 experiment.

  6. Detection of land degradation with polarimetric SAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Terrill W.; Farr, Tom G.; Van Zyl, Jakob J.

    1992-01-01

    Multispectral radar polarimeter data were collected over the Manix Basin Area of the Mojave desert using an airborne SAR. An analysis of the data reveals unusual polarization responses which are attributed to the formation of wind ripples on the surfaces of fields that have been abandoned for more than 5 years. This hypothesis has been confirmed through field observations, and a second-order perturbation model is shown to effectively model the polarization responses. The results demonstrate the usefulness of remote sensing techniques for the study of land degradation at synoptic scales.

  7. Polarimetric Observations of σ Orionis E

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carciofi, A. C.; Faes, D. M.; Townsend, R. H. D.; Bjorkman, J. E.

    2013-03-01

    Some massive stars possess strong magnetic fields that confine plasma in the circumstellar environment. These magnetospheres have been studied spectroscopically, photometrically, and, more recently, interferometrically. Here we report on the first firm detection of a magnetosphere in continuum linear polarization, as a result of monitoring σ Ori E at the Pico dos Dias Observatory. The non-zero intrinsic polarization indicates an asymmetric structure whose minor elongation axis is oriented 150.°0 east of the celestial north. A modulation of the polarization was observed with a period of half of the rotation period, which supports the theoretical prediction of the presence of two diametrally opposed, corotating blobs of gas. A phase lag of -0.085 was detected between the polarization minimum and the primary minimum of the light curve, suggestive of a complex shape of the plasma clouds. We present a preliminary analysis of the data with the Rigidly Rotating Magnetosphere model, which could not reproduce simultaneously the photometric and polarimetric data. A toy model comprising two spherical corotating blobs joined by a thin disk proved more successful in reproducing the polarization modulation. With this model we were able to determine that the total scattering mass of the thin disk is similar to the mass of the blobs (2M b/M d = 1.2) and that the blobs are rotating counterclockwise on the plane of the sky. This result shows that polarimetry can provide a diagnostic of the geometry of clouds, which will serve as an important constraint for improving the Rigidly Rotating Magnetosphere model.

  8. POLARIMETRIC OBSERVATIONS OF {sigma} ORIONIS E

    SciTech Connect

    Carciofi, A. C.; Faes, D. M.; Townsend, R. H. D.; Bjorkman, J. E.

    2013-03-20

    Some massive stars possess strong magnetic fields that confine plasma in the circumstellar environment. These magnetospheres have been studied spectroscopically, photometrically, and, more recently, interferometrically. Here we report on the first firm detection of a magnetosphere in continuum linear polarization, as a result of monitoring {sigma} Ori E at the Pico dos Dias Observatory. The non-zero intrinsic polarization indicates an asymmetric structure whose minor elongation axis is oriented 150. Degree-Sign 0 east of the celestial north. A modulation of the polarization was observed with a period of half of the rotation period, which supports the theoretical prediction of the presence of two diametrally opposed, corotating blobs of gas. A phase lag of -0.085 was detected between the polarization minimum and the primary minimum of the light curve, suggestive of a complex shape of the plasma clouds. We present a preliminary analysis of the data with the Rigidly Rotating Magnetosphere model, which could not reproduce simultaneously the photometric and polarimetric data. A toy model comprising two spherical corotating blobs joined by a thin disk proved more successful in reproducing the polarization modulation. With this model we were able to determine that the total scattering mass of the thin disk is similar to the mass of the blobs (2M{sub b}/M{sub d} = 1.2) and that the blobs are rotating counterclockwise on the plane of the sky. This result shows that polarimetry can provide a diagnostic of the geometry of clouds, which will serve as an important constraint for improving the Rigidly Rotating Magnetosphere model.

  9. The X-ray polarimetric view of astrophysical black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matt, Giorgio

    2016-07-01

    Our current X-ray view of astrophysical black holes is based on spectroscopic, imaging and timing analysis. In this talk I will discuss the importance of adding the polarimetric view. The geometry of the X-ray emitting corona, the distribution of accreting matter, the magnetic field in jets and even the space-time close to the event horizon can be probed by X-ray polarimetry. I will also discuss the observational perspectives in view of the X-ray polarimetric missions currently under study at NASA and ESA.

  10. Snapshot spectral and polarimetric imaging; target identification with multispectral video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartlett, Brent D.; Rodriguez, Mikel D.

    2013-05-01

    As the number of pixels continue to grow in consumer and scientific imaging devices, it has become feasible to collect the incident light field. In this paper, an imaging device developed around light field imaging is used to collect multispectral and polarimetric imagery in a snapshot fashion. The sensor is described and a video data set is shown highlighting the advantage of snapshot spectral imaging. Several novel computer vision approaches are applied to the video cubes to perform scene characterization and target identification. It is shown how the addition of spectral and polarimetric data to the video stream allows for multi-target identification and tracking not possible with traditional RGB video collection.

  11. Optimization of Polarimetric Contrast Enhancement Based on Fisher Criterion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Qiming; Chen, Jiong; Yang, Jian

    The optimization of polarimetric contrast enhancement (OPCE) is a widely used method for maximizing the received power ratio of a desired target versus an undesired target (clutter). In this letter, a new model of the OPCE is proposed based on the Fisher criterion. By introducing the well known two-class problem of linear discriminant analysis (LDA), the proposed model is to enlarge the normalized distance of mean value between the target and the clutter. In addition, a cross-iterative numerical method is proposed for solving the optimization with a quadratic constraint. Experimental results with the polarimetric SAR (POLSAR) data demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  12. Automated Data Production For A Novel Airborne Multiangle Spectropolarimetric Imager (AIRMSPI)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jovanovic, V .M.; Bull, M.; Diner, D. J.; Geier, S.; Rheingans, B.

    2012-01-01

    A novel polarimetric imaging technique making use of rapid retardance modulation has been developed by JPL as a part of NASA's Instrument Incubator Program. It has been built into the Airborne Multiangle SpectroPolarimetric Imager (AirMSPI) under NASA's Airborne Instrument Technology Transition Program, and is aimed primarily at remote sensing of the amounts and microphysical properties of aerosols and clouds. AirMSPI includes an 8-band (355, 380, 445, 470, 555, 660, 865, 935 nm) pushbroom camera that measures polarization in a subset of the bands (470, 660, and 865 nm). The camera is mounted on a gimbal and acquires imagery in a configurable set of along-track viewing angles ranging between +67 deg and -67 deg relative to nadir. As a result, near simultaneous multi-angle, multi-spectral, and polarimetric measurements of the targeted areas at a spatial resolution ranging from 7 m to 20 m (depending on the viewing angle) can be derived. An automated data production system is being built to support high data acquisition rate in concert with co-registration and orthorectified mapping requirements. To date, a number of successful engineering checkout flights were conducted in October 2010, August-September 2011, and January 2012. Data products resulting from these flights will be presented.

  13. Two-Dimensional Synthetic-Aperture Radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LeVine, David M.

    2010-01-01

    spatial resolution is most critical and (2) imaging airborne instruments that operate in this wavelength range and have adequate spatial resolution are difficult to build and will be needed in future experiments to validate approaches for remote sensing of soil moisture and ocean salinity. The two-dimensional instrument includes a rectangular array of patch antennas arranged in the form of a cross. The ESTAR uses analog correlation for one dimension, whereas the two-dimensional instrument uses digital correlation. In two dimensions, many more correlation pairs are needed and low-power digital correlators suitable for application in spaceborne remote sensing will help enable this technology. The two-dimensional instrument is dual-polarized and, with modification, capable of operating in a polarimetric mode. A flight test of the instrument took place in June 2003 and it participated in soil moisture experiments during the summers of 2003 and 2004.

  14. Polarimetric Imaging of the Cosmic Ultraviolet Background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordsieck, K. H.; Bershady, M. A.; Harris, W.

    1999-05-01

    The nature of (and even the existence of) the ultraviolet cosmic background is controversial, because of the uncertain contribution of light from bright UV stars scattered by dust within our Galaxy (the UV Diffuse Galactic Light, or "DGL"). Because the DGL consists of light scattered at large angles from a small number of stars, it should be highly polarized, while most proposed sources of extragalactic UV background would be unpolarized, providing a potential way of disentangling the two components. We will discuss such an experiment: an existing sounding rocket payload, the Wide-Field Imaging Survey Polarimeter ("WISP"), and a proposed payload, the Cosmic Ultraviolet Polarimetric Imaging Device ("CUPID"), which would have 20 times the sensitivity of WISP. WISP, a 20 cm off-axis Schmidt telescope with a stressed CaF2 waveplate and a Brewster-angle polarizer, has a 2x4 degree field of view with 1 arcmin resolution at 1700 Ang. The first DGL target for WISP is the "Sandage Region" near M81/M82, an area observed (with different results) by both the UC Berkeley and the JHU UVX UV background experiments. It has known visible-wavelength and IRAS-wavelength "cirrus" which has been identified with DGL. WISP should be able to measure the polarization of any UV cirrus and establish the presence of an unpolarized background. Preliminary data from this target may be available, depending on the actual launch time. CUPID, a 50 cm Paul Baker telescope using reflective filter coatings, should have adequate precision to perform a pixel-by-pixel separation of polarized UV cirrus from any unpolarized background, and its very much improved stray light rejection should allow an accurate zero-point for this putative extragalactic background. Thus the detailed structure of the cosmic background from 15 arcsec to degrees will be determined. We will discuss how such a measurement may be used to confirm or eliminate several possible sources of UV cosmic background. WISP is supported by

  15. Calibration methodology and performance characterization of a polarimetric hyperspectral imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holder, Joel G.; Martin, Jacob A.; Pitz, Jeremey; Pezzaniti, Joseph L.; Gross, Kevin C.

    2014-05-01

    Polarimetric hyperspectral imaging (P-HSI) has the potential to improve target detection, material identification, and background characterization over conventional hyperspectral imaging and polarimetric imaging. To fully exploit the spectro-polarimetric signatures captured by such an instrument, a careful calibration process is required to remove the spectrally- and polarimetrically-dependent system response (gain). Calibration of instruments operating in the long-wave infrared (LWIR, 8μm to 12 μm) is further complicated by the polarized spectral radiation generated within the instrument (offset). This paper presents a calibration methodology developed for a LWIR Telops Hyper-Cam modified for polarimetry by replacing the entrance window with a rotatable holographic wire-grid polarizer (4000 line/mm, ZnSe substrate, 350:1 extinction ratio). A standard Fourier-transform spectrometer (FTS) spectro-radiometric calibration is modified to include a Mueller-matrix approach to account for polarized transmission through and polarized selfemission from each optical interface. It is demonstrated that under the ideal polarizer assumption, two distinct blackbody measurements at polarizer angles of 0°, 45°, 90°, and 135° are sufficient to calibrate the system for apparent degree-of-linear-polarization (DoLP) measurements. Noise-equivalent s1, s2, and DoLP are quantified using a wide-area blackbody. A polarization-state generator is used to determine the Mueller deviation matrix. Finally, a realistic scene involving buildings, cars, sky radiance, and natural vegetation is presented.

  16. Polarimetric Signatures of Sea Ice. Part 1; Theoretical Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nghiem, S. V.; Kwok, R.; Yueh, S. H.; Drinkwater, M. R.

    1995-01-01

    Physical, structural, and electromagnetic properties and interrelating processes in sea ice are used to develop a composite model for polarimetric backscattering signatures of sea ice. Physical properties of sea ice constituents such as ice, brine, air, and salt are presented in terms of their effects on electromagnetic wave interactions. Sea ice structure and geometry of scatterers are related to wave propagation, attenuation, and scattering. Temperature and salinity, which are determining factors for the thermodynamic phase distribution in sea ice, are consistently used to derive both effective permittivities and polarimetric scattering coefficients. Polarimetric signatures of sea ice depend on crystal sizes and brine volumes, which are affected by ice growth rates. Desalination by brine expulsion, drainage, or other mechanisms modifies wave penetration and scattering. Sea ice signatures are further complicated by surface conditions such as rough interfaces, hummocks, snow cover, brine skim, or slush layer. Based on the same set of geophysical parameters characterizing sea ice, a composite model is developed to calculate effective permittivities and backscattering covariance matrices at microwave frequencies for interpretation of sea ice polarimetric signatures.

  17. Agricultural Performance Monitoring with Polarimetric SAR and Optical Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhar, T.; Gray, D.; Menges, C.

    2009-04-01

    This paper presents the results from an experiment measuring yield using TerraSAR-X dual-polarimetric mode and precision agriculture machinery which records harvested amounts every few meters. The experimental field setup and data collection using TerraSAR-X are discussed and some preliminary results are shown.

  18. New cases of unusual polarimetric behavior in asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil-Hutton, R.; Mesa, V.; Cellino, A.; Bendjoya, P.; Peñaloza, L.; Lovos, F.

    2008-04-01

    Aims: Results of different polarimetric campaigns at Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito (Casleo), San Juan, Argentina are presented. The aim of these campaigns was to search for objects exhibiting anomalous polarimetric properties, similar to those shown by the Ld-class asteroid (234) Barbara, among members of the same or similar taxonomic classes. Methods: The data have been obtained with Torino and CASPROF polarimeters at the 2.15 m telescope. The Torino polarimeter is an instrument that allows simultaneous measurement of polarization in five different bands, and CASPROF polarimeter is a two-hole aperture polarimeter with rapid modulation. Results: The campaigns began in 2005, and we found four new asteroids with Barbara-like polarimetric properties: the L-class objects (172) Baucis, (236) Honoria and (980) Anacostia, and the K-class asteroid (679) Pax. The polarimetric properties of the phase-polarization curves of these objects may be produced by a mixture of high- and low-albedo particles in their regolith as a result of the fragmentation of a substrate that is spectrally analog to the CO3/CV3 chondrites. Based on observations carried out at the Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito, operated under agreement between the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas de la República Argentina and the National Universities of La Plata, Córdoba, and San Juan.

  19. Fully Polarimetric Differential Intensity W-band Imager

    SciTech Connect

    Bernacki, Bruce E.; Tedeschi, Jonathan R.; Kelly, James F.; Sheen, David M.; Hall, Thomas E.; Valdez, Patrick LJ; Lechelt, Wayne M.; McMakin, Douglas L.

    2013-05-31

    We present a novel architecture based upon a Dicke-switched heterodyne radiometer architecture employing two identical input sections consisting of horn and orthomode transducer to detect the difference between the H and V polarization states of two separate object patches imaged by the radiometer. We have constructed and described previously a fully polarimetric W-band passive millimeter wave imager constructed to study the phenomenology of anomaly detection using polarimetric image exploitation of the Stokes images. The heterodyne radiometer used a PIN diode switch between the input millimeter wave energy and that of a reference load in order to eliminate the effects of component drifts and reduce the effects of 1/f noise. The differential approach differs from our previous work by comparing H and V polarization states detected by each of the two input horns instead of a reference load to form signals delta H and delta V from closely adjacent paired object patches. This novel imaging approach reduces common mode noise and enhances detection of small changes between the H and V polarization states of two object patches, now given as difference terms of the fully polarimetric radiometer. We present the theory of operation, initial proof of concept experimental results, and extension of the differential radiometer to a system with a binocular fore optics that allow adjustment of the convergence or shear of the object patches viewed by the differential polarimetric imager.

  20. Polarimetric scattering from layered media with multiple species of scatterers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nghiem, S. V.; Kwok, R.; Yueh, S. H.; Kong, J. A.; Hsu, C. C.; Tassoudji, M. A.; Shin, R. T.

    1995-01-01

    Geophysical media are usually heterogeneous and contain multiple species of scatterers. In this paper a model is presented to calculate effective permittivities and polarimetric backscattering coefficients of multispecies-layered media. The same physical description is consistently used in the derivation of both permittivities and scattering coefficients. The strong permittivity fluctuation theory is extended to account for the multiple species of scatterers with a general ellipsoidal shape whose orientations are randomly distributed. Under the distorted Born approximation, polarimetric scattering coefficients are obtained. These calculations are applicable to the special cases of spheroidal and spherical scatterers. The model is used to study effects of scatterer shapes and multispecies mixtures on polarimetric signatures of heterogeneous media. The multispecies model accounts for moisture content in scattering media such as snowpack in an ice sheet. The results indicate a high sensitivity of backscatter to moisture with a stronger dependence for drier snow and ice grain size is important to the backscatter. For frost-covered saline ice, model results for bare ice are compared with measured data at C band and then the frost flower formation is simulated with a layer of fanlike ice crystals including brine infiltration over a rough interface. The results with the frost cover suggest a significant increase in scattering coefficients and a polarimetric signature closer to isotropic characteristics compared to the thin saline ice case.

  1. Optical synthetic aperture radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilovitsh, Asaf; Zach, Shlomo; Zalevsky, Zeev

    2013-06-01

    A method is proposed for increasing the resolution of an object and overcoming the diffraction limit of an optical system installed on top of a moving imaging system, such as an airborne platform or satellite. The resolution improvement is obtained via a two-step process. First, three low resolution differently defocused images are captured and the optical phase is retrieved using an improved iterative Gershberg-Saxton based algorithm. The phase retrieval allows numerical back propagation of the field to the aperture plane. Second, the imaging system is shifted and the first step is repeated. The obtained optical fields at the aperture plane are combined and a synthetically increased lens aperture is generated along the direction of movement, yielding higher imaging resolution. The method resembles a well-known approach from the microwave regime called the synthetic aperture radar in which the antenna size is synthetically increased along the platform propagation direction. The proposed method is demonstrated via Matlab simulation as well as through laboratory experiment.

  2. UAVSAR: Airborne L-band Radar for Repeat Pass Interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moes, Timothy R.

    2009-01-01

    The primary objectives of the UAVSAR Project were to: a) develop a miniaturized polarimetric L-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) for use on an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) or piloted vehicle. b) develop the associated processing algorithms for repeat-pass differential interferometric measurements using a single antenna. c) conduct measurements of geophysical interest, particularly changes of rapidly deforming surfaces such as volcanoes or earthquakes. Two complete systems were developed. Operational Science Missions began on February 18, 2009 ... concurrent development and testing of the radar system continues.

  3. Microphysics in West African squall line with an Xband polarimetric radar and an Hydrometeor Identification Scheme: comparison with in situ measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cazenave, F.; Gosset, M.; Kacou, M.; Alcoba, M.; Fontaine, E.

    2015-12-01

    A better knowledge on the microphysics of tropical continental convective systems is needed in order to improve quantitative precipitation measurements in the Tropics. Satellite passive microwave estimation of tropical rainfall could be improved with a better parameterization of the icy hydrometeors in the Bayesian RAIN estimation algorithm (BRAIN, Viltard et al., 2006) used over continental tropics. To address this important issue specific campaigns that combine aircraft based in situ microphysics probing and polarimetric radar have been organized as part of the CNES/ISRO satellite mission Megha-Tropiques. The first microphysics validation campaign was set up in Niamey in August 2010. The field deployment included the AMMA-CATH 56 rain gages, 3 disdrometers, 2 meteorological radars including the C-band MIT and the Xport X-band dual polarisation radar, and a 4 weeks campaign with the instrumented Falcon 20 from the french operator for environmental research aircrafts equipped with several microphysics probes and the 94Ghz cloud radar RASTA. The objective is to combine scales and methods to converge towards a parameterization of the ice size, mass and density laws inside continental Mesoscale Convective System (MCS). The Particle IDentification algorithm (PID) developed by the Colorado State University (CSU) adapted to the band X by B. Dolan (Dolan et al. 2009) is used to classify seven kind of particles: drizzle or light rain, moderate to heavy rain, wet and dry graupel, wet and dry aggregates and ice crystals. On a limited number of systems, the airborne microphysics sensors provide a detailed in situ reference on the Particle Size Distribution (PSD) that can be compared with the radar PID in the radar pixels located along the flight trajectory. An original approach has been developed for the radar - in situ comparison: it consists in simulating synthetic radar variables from the microphysics probe information and compare the 2 data sets in a common 'radar space

  4. MAPIR: An Airborne Polarmetric Imaging Radiometer in Support of Hydrologic Satellite Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laymon, C.; Al-Hamdan, M.; Crosson, W.; Limaye, A.; McCracken, J.; Meyer, P.; Richeson, J.; Sims, W.; Srinivasan, K.; Varnevas, K.

    2010-01-01

    In this age of dwindling water resources and increasing demands, accurate estimation of water balance components at every scale is more critical to end users than ever before. Several near-term Earth science satellite missions are aimed at global hydrologic observations. The Marshall Airborne Polarimetric Imaging Radiometer (MAPIR) is a dual beam, dual angle polarimetric, scanning L band passive microwave radiometer system developed by the Observing Microwave Emissions for Geophysical Applications (OMEGA) team at MSFC to support algorithm development and validation efforts in support of these missions. MAPIR observes naturally-emitted radiation from the ground primarily for remote sensing of land surface brightness temperature from which we can retrieve soil moisture and possibly surface or water temperature and ocean salinity. MAPIR has achieved Technical Readiness Level 6 with flight heritage on two very different aircraft, the NASA P-3B, and a Piper Navajo.

  5. Lightning Initiation Forecasting: An Operational Dual-Polarimetric Radar Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodard, Crystal J.; Carey, L. D.; Petersen, W. A.; Roeder, W. P.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this NASA MSFC and NOAA CSTAR funded study is to develop and test operational forecast algorithms for the prediction of lightning initiation utilizing the C-band dual-polarimetric radar, UAHuntsville's Advanced Radar for Meteorological and Operational Research (ARMOR). Although there is a rich research history of radar signatures associated with lightning initiation, few studies have utilized dual-polarimetric radar signatures (e.g., Z(sub dr) columns) and capabilities (e.g., fuzzy-logic particle identification [PID] of precipitation ice) in an operational algorithm for first flash forecasting. The specific goal of this study is to develop and test polarimetric techniques that enhance the performance of current operational radar reflectivity based first flash algorithms. Improving lightning watch and warning performance will positively impact personnel safety in both work and leisure environments. Advanced warnings can provide space shuttle launch managers time to respond appropriately to secure equipment and personnel, while they can also provide appropriate warnings for spectators and players of leisure sporting events to seek safe shelter. Through the analysis of eight case dates, consisting of 35 pulse-type thunderstorms and 20 non-thunderstorm case studies, lightning initiation forecast techniques were developed and tested. The hypothesis is that the additional dual-polarimetric information could potentially reduce false alarms while maintaining high probability of detection and increasing lead-time for the prediction of the first lightning flash relative to reflectivity-only based techniques. To test the hypothesis, various physically-based techniques using polarimetric variables and/or PID categories, which are strongly correlated to initial storm electrification (e.g., large precipitation ice production via drop freezing), were benchmarked against the operational reflectivity-only based approaches to find the best compromise between

  6. Analysis of Fully Polarimetric Laboratory Measurements Performed with the WISDOM Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plettemeier, D.; Ciarletti, V.; Cais, P.; Benedix, W.-S.; Zhang, H.; Hamran, S.-E.; Clifford, S.

    2012-04-01

    algorithms were applied to reduce the interference from radiation coupling and cross-talk between transmitting and receiving antenna. The analysis of the laboratory measurement will show features of the fully polarimetric radar system and quantify most of the important performance parameters. Synthetic aperture processing is implemented to increase the azimuth resolution of radar. The three dimensional reconstruction of the positioning of an arrangement of discrete objects will be shown.

  7. Summaries of the Sixth Annual JPL Airborne Earth Science Workshop. Volume 1; AVIRIS Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Robert O. (Editor)

    1996-01-01

    This publication contains the summaries for the Sixth Annual JPL Airborne Earth Science Workshop, held in Pasadena, California, on March 4-8, 1996. The main workshop is divided into two smaller workshops as follows: (1) The Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) workshop, on March 4-6. The summaries for this workshop appear in Volume 1; (2) The Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR) workshop, on March 6-8. The summaries for this workshop appear in Volume 2.

  8. Disaster debris estimation using high-resolution polarimetric stereo-SAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koyama, Christian N.; Gokon, Hideomi; Jimbo, Masaru; Koshimura, Shunichi; Sato, Motoyuki

    2016-10-01

    This paper addresses the problem of debris estimation which is one of the most important initial challenges in the wake of a disaster like the Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami. Reasonable estimates of the debris have to be made available to decision makers as quickly as possible. Current approaches to obtain this information are far from being optimal as they usually rely on manual interpretation of optical imagery. We have developed a novel approach for the estimation of tsunami debris pile heights and volumes for improved emergency response. The method is based on a stereo-synthetic aperture radar (stereo-SAR) approach for very high-resolution polarimetric SAR. An advanced gradient-based optical-flow estimation technique is applied for optimal image coregistration of the low-coherence non-interferometric data resulting from the illumination from opposite directions and in different polarizations. By applying model based decomposition of the coherency matrix, only the odd bounce scattering contributions are used to optimize echo time computation. The method exclusively considers the relative height differences from the top of the piles to their base to achieve a very fine resolution in height estimation. To define the base, a reference point on non-debris-covered ground surface is located adjacent to the debris pile targets by exploiting the polarimetric scattering information. The proposed technique is validated using in situ data of real tsunami debris taken on a temporary debris management site in the tsunami affected area near Sendai city, Japan. The estimated height error is smaller than 0.6 m RMSE. The good quality of derived pile heights allows for a voxel-based estimation of debris volumes with a RMSE of 1099 m3. Advantages of the proposed method are fast computation time, and robust height and volume estimation of debris piles without the need for pre-event data or auxiliary information like DEM, topographic maps or GCPs.

  9. Unsupervised polarimetric SAR urban area classification based on model-based decomposition with cross scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Deliang; Tang, Tao; Ban, Yifang; Su, Yi; Kuang, Gangyao

    2016-06-01

    Since it has been validated that cross-polarized scattering (HV) is caused not only by vegetation but also by rotated dihedrals, in this study, we use rotated dihedral corner reflectors to form a cross scattering matrix and propose an extended four-component model-based decomposition method for PolSAR data over urban areas. Unlike other urban area decomposition techniques which need to discriminate the urban and natural areas before decomposition, this proposed method is applied on PolSAR image directly. The building orientation angle is considered in this scattering matrix, making it flexible and adaptive in the decomposition. Therefore, we can separate cross scattering of urban areas from the overall HV component. Further, the cross and helix scattering components are also compared. Then, using these decomposed scattering powers, the buildings and natural areas can be easily discriminated from each other using a simple unsupervised K-means classifier. Moreover, buildings aligned and not aligned along the radar flight direction can be also distinguished clearly. Spaceborne RADARSAT-2 and airborne AIRSAR full polarimetric SAR data are used to validate the performance of our proposed method. The cross scattering power of oriented buildings is generated, leading to a better decomposition result for urban areas with respect to other state-of-the-art urban decomposition techniques. The decomposed scattering powers significantly improve the classification accuracy for urban areas.

  10. Classification of High Resolution C-Band PolSAR Data on Polarimetric and Texture Features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Lei; Chen, Erxue; Li, Zengyuan; Feng, Qi; Li, Lan

    2014-11-01

    PolSAR image classification is an important technique in the remote sensing area. For high resolution PolSAR image, polarimetric and texture features are equally important for the high resolution PolSAR image classification. The texture features are mainly extracted through Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM) method, but this method has some deficiencies. First, GLCM method can only work on gray-scale images; Secondly, the number of texture features extracted by GLCM method is generally up dozens, or even hundreds. Too many features may exist larger redundancy and will increase the complexity of classification. Therefore, this paper introduces a new texture feature factor-RK that derived from PolSAR image non-Gaussian statistic model.Using the domestic airborne C-band PolSAR image data, we completed classification combined the polarization and texture characteristics.The results showed that this new texture feature factor-RK can overcome the above drawbacks and can achieve same performance compared with GLCM method.

  11. Synthetic oils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hatton, R. E.

    1973-01-01

    Synthetic lubricants are discussed by chemical class and their general strengths and weaknesses in terms of lubrication properties are analyzed. Comparative ratings are given for 14 chemical classes and are used as a guide for lubricant selection. The effects of chemical structure on the properties of the lubricant are described with special emphasis on thermal stability. The diversity of synthetic lubricants which is provided by the wide range of properties permits many applications, some of which are reported.

  12. Classification comparisons between dual-pol, compact polarimetric and quad-pol SAR imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ainsworth, T. L.; Kelly, J. P.; Lee, J.-S.

    We present a study of the polarimetric information content of dual-pol imaging modes and dual-pol imaging extended by polarimetric scattering models. We compare Wishart classifications both among the partial polarimetric datasets and against the full quad-pol dataset. Our emphasis is the inter-comparisons between the classification results based on dual-pol modes, compact polarimetric modes and scattering model extensions of the compact polarimetric modes. We primarily consider novel dual-pol modes, e.g. transmitting a circular polarization and receiving horizontal and vertical polarizations, and the pseudo-quad-pol data derived from polarimetric scattering models based on dual-pol data. We show that the overall classification accuracy of the pseudo-quad-pol data is essential the same as the classification accuracy obtained directly employing the underlying dual-pol imagery.

  13. Empirical assessment of multi-wavelength synthetic aperture radar for land cover and canopy height estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tighe, Mary Lorraine

    Synthetic aperture radar interferometry (InSAR) and polarimetric InSAR (PoIInSAR) techniques have gained traction in the last decade as a viable technology for vegetation parameter estimation at local and regional scales, but large spatial extent methods and physical models are not yet available. This research presents an empirical methodology for use with airborne X-band InSAR and L-band Po1InSAR to classify vegetation type and estimate canopy height over diverse environments and large geographic extents common in North America. The methodology includes: 1) derivation of the scattering phase height centre (hspc) as an initial canopy height estimate by subtracting an InSAR derived digital terrain model from an InSAR digital surface model, 2) classification of vegetation type using InSAR data, 3) correction of h spc using empirically derived factors per vegetation type, and 4) refinement of height estimates at forest edges and gaps. The method yields a root mean square error (RMSE) of 1.00 -- 1.93 m over five vegetation types evaluated, which is a substantial improvement over the 5.4 -- 6.96 m RMSE for raw X- and L-band hspc. Relative height estimate error decreased with increasing canopy height and density; it was generally higher in shrub/wetlands vegetation and lower in dense conifer. Height estimate error also increased with increasing terrain slope, but effects of incidence angle were mixed. This research confirms that the proposed X-band InSAR and L-band PoIInSAR empirical methodology is well-suited to derive land cover and canopy height over large geographic areas and varied vegetation types, providing an alternative to costlier spaceborne InSAR and LiDAR.

  14. Passive Fully Polarimetric W-Band Millimeter-Wave Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Bernacki, Bruce E.; Kelly, James F.; Sheen, David M.; McMakin, Douglas L.; Tedeschi, Jonathan R.; Harris, Robert V.; Mendoza, Albert; Hall, Thomas E.; Hatchell, Brian K.; Valdez, Patrick LJ

    2012-04-01

    We present the theory, design, and experimental results obtained from a scanning passive W-band fully polarimetric imager. Passive millimeter-wave imaging offers persistent day/nighttime imaging and the ability to penetrate dust, clouds and other obscurants, including clothing and dry soil. The single-pixel scanning imager includes both far-field and near-field fore-optics for investigation of polarization phenomena. Using both fore-optics, a variety of scenes including natural and man-made objects was imaged and these results are presented showing the utility of polarimetric imaging for anomaly detection. Analysis includes conventional Stokes-parameter based approaches as well as multivariate image analysis methods.

  15. New scheme for polarimetric glucose sensing without polarizers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkler, Amy M.; Bonnema, Garret T.; Barton, Jennifer K.

    2010-02-01

    Polarimetric glucose sensing is a promising method for noninvasive estimation of blood glucose concentration. Published methods of polarimetric glucose sensing generally rely on measuring the rotation of light as it traverses the aqueous humor of the eye. In this article, an interferometer is described that can detect polarization changes due to glucose without the use of polarization control or polarization analyzing elements. Without polarizers, this system is sensitive to optical activity, inherent to glucose, but minimally sensitive to linear retardance, inherent to the cornea. The underlying principle of the system was experimentally verified using spectral domain optical coherence tomography. A detection scheme involving amplitude modulation was simulated, demonstrating sensitivity to clinically relevant glucose concentrations and an acceptable error due to time varying linear birefringence of the cornea using Clarke Error Grid Analysis.

  16. C-band polarimetric scatterometer for soil studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Alessio, Angelo C.; Mongelli, Antonio; Notarnicola, Claudia; Paparella, Giuseppina; Posa, Francesco; Sabatelli, Vincenzo

    2003-03-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the performances of a polarimetric scatterometer. This sensor can measure the module of the electromagnetic backscattering matrix elements. The knowledge of this matrix permits the computation of all the possible polarisation combinations of transmitted and received signals through a Polarisation Synthesis approach. Scatterometer data are useful for monitoring a large number of soil physical parameters. In particular, the sensitivity of a C-band radar to different growing conditions of vegetation depends on the wave polarisation. As consequences, the possibility of acquiringi both polarisation components presents a great advantage in the vegetarian studies. In addition, this type of ground sensor can permit a fast coverage of the areas of interest. A first test of the polarimetric scatterometer has been performed over an asphalt surface, which has a well-known electromagnetic response. Moreover, a calibration procedure has been tested using both passive (Trihedral Corner Reflector, TCR) and active (Active Radar Calibrator, ARC) radar calibrator.

  17. Ensemble polarimetric SAR image classification based on contextual sparse representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lamei; Wang, Xiao; Zou, Bin; Qiao, Zhijun

    2016-05-01

    Polarimetric SAR image interpretation has become one of the most interesting topics, in which the construction of the reasonable and effective technique of image classification is of key importance. Sparse representation represents the data using the most succinct sparse atoms of the over-complete dictionary and the advantages of sparse representation also have been confirmed in the field of PolSAR classification. However, it is not perfect, like the ordinary classifier, at different aspects. So ensemble learning is introduced to improve the issue, which makes a plurality of different learners training and obtained the integrated results by combining the individual learner to get more accurate and ideal learning results. Therefore, this paper presents a polarimetric SAR image classification method based on the ensemble learning of sparse representation to achieve the optimal classification.

  18. Passive three-dimensional imaging using polarimetric diversity.

    PubMed

    Sadjadi, Firooz A

    2007-02-01

    The results of experiments in developing a method for extracting three-dimensional information from a scene by means of a polarimetric passive imaging sensor are summarized. This sensor provides a full Stokes vector at each sensor pixel location from which degree and angle of linear polarization are computed. The angle of linear polarization provides the azimuth angle of the surface normal vector. The depression angle of this surface normal vector is obtained in terms of the emitting object's index of refraction from the solution of an equation derived from Fresnel equations, Snell's law, and percent of linear polarization. Results of the application of this approach to simulated infrared polarimetric data are provided. PMID:17215928

  19. Measurement of Pancharatnam's phase by robust interferometric and polarimetric methods

    SciTech Connect

    Loredo, J. C.; Ortiz, O.; De Zela, F.; Weingaertner, R.

    2009-07-15

    We report on theoretical calculations and experimental observations of Pancharatnam's phase originating from arbitrary SU(2) transformations applied to polarization states of light. We have implemented polarimetric and interferometric methods, which allow us to cover the full Poincare sphere. As a distinctive feature, our interferometric array is robust against mechanical and thermal disturbances, showing that the polarimetric method is not inherently superior over the interferometric one, as previously assumed. Our strategy effectively amounts to feeding an interferometer with two copropagating beams that are orthogonally polarized with respect to each other. It can be applied to different types of standard arrays, such as a Michelson, a Sagnac, or a Mach-Zehnder interferometer. We exhibit the versatility of our arrangement by performing measurements of Pancharatnam's phases and fringe visibilities that closely fit the theoretical predictions. Our approach can be easily extended to deal with mixed states and to study decoherence effects.

  20. Crop Change Assessment Using Polarimetric RADARSAT-2 Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chen; Shang, Jiali; Vachon, Paris W.; McNairn, Heather

    2011-03-01

    This paper studies the feasibility of monitoring crop growth cycles based on a temporal variation analysis of three elementary radar scattering mechanisms. Crop changes are assessed using RADARSAT-2 polarimetric data. The polarimetric SAR (PolSAR) analysis is based on the Pauli decomposition. Multi-temporal analysis is applied to RGB images constructed using surface scattering, double bounce and volume scattering. The crops studied in this paper are corn, cereals and soybeans. Each crop has unique physical structural characteristics and responds differently to these scattering mechanisms. By monitoring the significant changes that occur in these scattering mechanisms, the crop growth to harvest cycle can be observed and the harvest time can be estimated. In addition, a Maximum Likelihood Classification was performed on the RADARSAT-2 data to produce a crop map. An overall classification accuracy of 85% was achieved.

  1. Integrated quantitative fractal polarimetric analysis of monolayer lung cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, Suman; Zhang, Lin; Quang, Tri; Farrahi, Tannaz; Narayan, Chaya; Deshpande, Aditi; Na, Ying; Blinzler, Adam; Ma, Junyu; Liu, Bo; Giakos, George C.

    2014-05-01

    Digital diagnostic pathology has become one of the most valuable and convenient advancements in technology over the past years. It allows us to acquire, store and analyze pathological information from the images of histological and immunohistochemical glass slides which are scanned to create digital slides. In this study, efficient fractal, wavelet-based polarimetric techniques for histological analysis of monolayer lung cancer cells will be introduced and different monolayer cancer lines will be studied. The outcome of this study indicates that application of fractal, wavelet polarimetric principles towards the analysis of squamous carcinoma and adenocarcinoma cancer cell lines may be proved extremely useful in discriminating among healthy and lung cancer cells as well as differentiating among different lung cancer cells.

  2. Validation of simulated hurricane drop size distributions using polarimetric radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Bonnie R.; Bell, Michael M.; Frambach, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    Recent upgrades to the U.S. radar network now allow for polarimetric measurements of landfalling hurricanes, providing a new data set to validate cloud microphysical parameterizations used in tropical cyclone simulations. Polarimetric radar reflectivity and differential reflectivity simulated by the Weather Research and Forecasting model were compared with real radar observations from 2014 in Hurricanes Arthur and Ana. Six different microphysics parameterizations were tested that were able to capture the major features of both hurricanes, including accurate tracks, precipitation asymmetry, and the approximate intensity of the storms. A high correlation between simulated intensity and rainfall across schemes suggests an intimate link between the latent heating produced by the microphysics and the storm dynamics. Most of the parameterizations produced a higher frequency of larger raindrops than observed. The Thompson aerosol-aware bulk and explicit spectral bin microphysical schemes showed the best fidelity to the observations at a higher computational cost.

  3. Validation of Simulated Hurricane Drop Size Distributions using Polarimetric Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, M. M.; Brown, B. R.; Frambach, A. J.

    2015-12-01

    Recent upgrades to the U.S. radar network now allow for polarimetric measurements of landfalling hurricanes, providing a new dataset to validate cloud microphysical parameterizations used in tropical cyclone simulations. Polarimetric radar variables simulated by the Weather Research and Forecasting model were compared with real radar observations from 2014 in Hurricanes Arthur and Ana. Six different microphysics parameterizations were tested that were able to capture the major features of both hurricanes, including accurate tracks, asymmetric distributions of precipitation, and the approximate intensity of the storms. However, most of the schemes produced a higher frequency of larger raindrops than observed. The Thompson aerosol-aware bulk and a spectral bin microphysical (SBM) scheme showed the best fidelity to the observed joint probability distribution of horizontal and differential reflectivity. The SBM also produced the most accurate intensity and lowest rainfall accumulation, but required much higher computational resources than the bulk schemes.

  4. Snow and glacier mapping with polarimetric SAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shi, Jiancheng; Dozier, Jeff; Rott, Helmut; Davis, Robert E.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the capability of mapping snow and glaciers in alpine regions using synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery when topographic information is not available. The topographic effects on the received power for a resolution cell can be explained by the change in illumination area and incidence angle in a slant-rante representation of SAR imagery. The specific polarization signatures and phase difference between HH and VV components are relatively independent of the illuminated are, and the incidence angle has only a small effect on these parameters. They provide a suitable measurement data set for snow and glacier mapping in a high-relief area. The results show that the C-band images of the enhancement factor, the phase difference between HH and VV scattering components, and the normalized cross product of VV scattering elements provide the capability to discriminate among snow with different wetnesses, glaciers, and rocky regions.

  5. Retrieval of the thickness of undeformed sea ice from simulated C-band compact polarimetric SAR images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xi; Dierking, Wolfgang; Zhang, Jie; Meng, Junmin; Lang, Haitao

    2016-07-01

    In this paper we introduce a parameter for the retrieval of the thickness of undeformed first-year sea ice that is specifically adapted to compact polarimetric (CP) synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images. The parameter is denoted as the "CP ratio". In model simulations we investigated the sensitivity of the CP ratio to the dielectric constant, ice thickness, ice surface roughness, and radar incidence angle. From the results of the simulations we deduced optimal sea ice conditions and radar incidence angles for the ice thickness retrieval. C-band SAR data acquired over the Labrador Sea in circular transmit and linear receive (CTLR) mode were generated from RADARSAT-2 quad-polarization images. In comparison with results from helicopter-borne measurements, we tested different empirical equations for the retrieval of ice thickness. An exponential fit between the CP ratio and ice thickness provides the most reliable results. Based on a validation using other compact polarimetric SAR images from the same region, we found a root mean square (rms) error of 8 cm and a maximum correlation coefficient of 0.94 for the retrieval procedure when applying it to level ice between 0.1 and 0.8 m thick.

  6. Noninvasive Polarimetric-Based Glucose Monitoring: An in Vivo Study

    PubMed Central

    Purvinis, Georgeanne; Cameron, Brent D; Altrogge, Douglas M

    2011-01-01

    Background: Since 1990, there has been significant research devoted toward development of a noninvasive physiological glucose sensor. In this article, we report on the use of optical polarimetry for the noninvasive measurement of physiological glucose concentration in the anterior chamber of the eye of New Zealand white (NZW) rabbits. Method: Measurements were acquired using a custom-designed laser-based optical polarimetry system in a total of seven NZW rabbits anesthetized using an isoflurane-only anesthesia protocol. Aqueous humor-based polarimetric measurements were obtained by coupling light through the anterior chamber of the eye. Blood glucose levels were first stabilized and then altered with intravenous dextrose and insulin administration and measured every 3–5 min with a standard glucometer and intermittently with a YSI 2300 glucose analyzer. Acquired polarimetric glucose signals are calibrated to measured blood glucose concentration. Results: Based on a total of 41 data points, Clarke error grid analysis indicated 93% in zone A, 7% in zone B, and 0% in zones C and D, with reference concentrations between 93 and 521 mg/dl. Errors in prediction are shown to be related to gross movement of the rabbit during the procedures, incurring time-varying corneal birefringence effects that directly affect the measured polarimetric signal. These effects can be compensated for with appropriate design modifications. Conclusions: An optical polarimetry technique was used for in vivo physiological glucose monitoring. The technique demonstrated provides a basis for the development of a noninvasive polarimetric glucose monitor for home, personal, or hospital use. PMID:21527109

  7. Infrared active polarimetric imaging system controlled by image segmentation algorithms: application to decamouflage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vannier, Nicolas; Goudail, François; Plassart, Corentin; Boffety, Matthieu; Feneyrou, Patrick; Leviandier, Luc; Galland, Frédéric; Bertaux, Nicolas

    2016-05-01

    We describe an active polarimetric imager with laser illumination at 1.5 µm that can generate any illumination and analysis polarization state on the Poincar sphere. Thanks to its full polarization agility and to image analysis of the scene with an ultrafast active-contour based segmentation algorithm, it can perform adaptive polarimetric contrast optimization. We demonstrate the capacity of this imager to detect manufactured objects in different types of environments for such applications as decamouflage and hazardous object detection. We compare two imaging modes having different number of polarimetric degrees of freedom and underline the characteristics that a polarimetric imager aimed at this type of applications should possess.

  8. Resolving polarized stellar features thanks to polarimetric interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousselet-Perraut, Karine; Chesneau, Olivier; Vakili, Farrokh; Mourard, Denis; Janel, Sebastien; Lavaud, Laurent; Crocherie, Axel

    2003-02-01

    Polarimetry is a powerful means for detecting and constraining various physical phenomena, such as scattering processes or magnetic fields, occuring in a large panel of stellar objects: extended atmospheres of hot stars, CP stars, Young Stellar Objects, Active Galaxy Nuclei, ... However, the lack of angular resolution is generally a strong handicap to drastically constrain the physical parameters and the geometry of the polarizing phenomena because of the cancelling of the polarized signal. In fact, even if stellar features are strongly polarized, the (spectro-)polarimetric signal integrated over the stellar surface rarely exceeds few percents. Coupling polarimetric and interferometric devices allows to resolve these local polarized structures and thus to constrain complex patchy stellar surfaces and/or environments such as disk topology in T Tauri stars, hot stars radiative winds or oscillations in Be star envelopes. In this article, we explain how interfero-polarimetric observables, basically the contrast and the position of the interference fringe patterns versus polarization (and even versus wavelength) are powerful to address the above scientific drivers and we emphasize on the key point of instrumental and data calibrations: since interferometric measurements are differential ones between 2 or more beams, this strongly relaxes the calibration requirements for the fringe phase observable. Prospects induced by the operation of the optical aperture synthesis arrays are also discussed.

  9. From Maxwell's Equations to Polarimetric SAR Images: A Simulation Approach

    PubMed Central

    Sant'Anna, Sidnei J. S.; da S. Lacava, J. C.; Fernandes, David

    2008-01-01

    A new electromagnetic approach for the simulation of polarimetric SAR images is proposed. It starts from Maxwell's equations, employs the spectral domain full-wave technique, the moment method, and the stationary phase method to compute the far electromagnetic fields scattered by multilayer structures. A multilayer structure is located at each selected position of a regular rectangular grid of coordinates, which defines the scene area under imaging. The grid is determined taking into account the elementary scatter size and SAR operational parameters, such as spatial resolution, pixel spacing, look angle and platform altitude. A two-dimensional separable “sinc” function to represent the SAR spread point function is also considered. Multifrequency sets of single-look polarimetric SAR images are generated, in L-, C- and X-bands and the images are evaluated using several measurements commonly employed in SAR data analysis. The evaluation shows that the proposed simulation process is working properly, since the obtained results are in accordance with those presented in the literature. Therefore, this new approach becomes suitable for carrying out theoretical and practical studies using polarimetric SAR images.

  10. Polarimetric signatures of sea ice. 1: Theoretical model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nghiem, S. V.; Kwok, R.; Yueh, S. H.; Drinkwater, M. R.

    1995-01-01

    Physical, structral, and electromagnetic properties and interrelating processes in sea ice are used to develop a composite model for polarimetric backscattering signatures of sea ice. Physical properties of sea ice constituents such as ice, brine, air, and salt are presented in terms of their effects on electromagnetic wave interactions. Sea ice structure and geometry of scatterers are related to wave propagation, attenuation, and scattering. Temperature and salinity, which are determining factors for the thermodynamic phase distribution in sea ice, are consistently used to derive both effective permittivities and polarimetric scattering coefficients. Polarmetric signatures of sea ice depend on crystal sizes and brine volumes, which are affected by ice growth rates. Desalination by brine expulsion, drainage, or other mechanisms modifies wave penetration and scattering. Sea ice signatures are further complicated by surface conditions such as rough interfaces, hummocks, snow cover, brine skim, or slush layer. Based on the same set of geophysical parameters characterizing sea ice, a composite model is developed to calculate effective permittivities and backscattering covariance matrices at microwave frequencies to interpretation of sea ice polarimetric signatures.

  11. Probing surface properties of Jupiter Trojans by polarimetric observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belskaya, I.; Bagnulo, S.; Stinson, A.; Christou, A.; Muinonen, K.

    2014-07-01

    We present the first polarimetric observations of six Jupiter Trojans, namely (588) Achilles, (1583) Antilochus, (3548) Eurybates, (4543) Phoinix, (6545) 1986 TR_6, and (21601) 1998 XO_{89}. All these objects belong to the L4 population of Jupiter Trojans and have diameters in the range of 50-160 km (Grav et al. 2011). The observations were carried out in 2013 at ESO VLT. Each object was observed at 3-4 different phase angles in the phase-angle range from 7 deg up to 11-12 deg, the largest possible phase angles in the ground-based observations of Trojans. Observations were made in the R band with a typical accuracy of 0.05 %. We have measured negative polarization branch for each object with polarization minima varying from -1 % to -1.3 %. The polarization-phase-angle behavior of the observed Trojans is found to be very similar to that of some low-albedo main-belt asteroids, in particular, the P-type asteroids. We compare photometric and polarimetric phase dependencies of Trojans to the phase curves of inner and outer Solar System bodies. Possible relationships of phase-curve parameters with albedos and spectral properties are investigated. Constraints on the surface properties of Jupiter Trojans from the polarimetric observations are discussed.

  12. Multi-polarimetric textural distinctiveness for outdoor robotic saliency detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haider, S. A.; Scharfenberger, C.; Kazemzadeh, F.; Wong, A.; Clausi, D. A.

    2015-01-01

    Mobile robots that rely on vision, for navigation and object detection, use saliency approaches to identify a set of potential candidates to recognize. The state of the art in saliency detection for mobile robotics often rely upon visible light imaging, using conventional camera setups, to distinguish an object against its surroundings based on factors such as feature compactness, heterogeneity and/or homogeneity. We are demonstrating a novel multi- polarimetric saliency detection approach which uses multiple measured polarization states of a scene. We leverage the light-material interaction known as Fresnel reflections to extract rotationally invariant multi-polarimetric textural representations to then train a high dimensional sparse texture model. The multi-polarimetric textural distinctiveness is characterized using a conditional probability framework based on the sparse texture model which is then used to determine the saliency at each pixel of the scene. It was observed that through the inclusion of additional polarized states into the saliency analysis, we were able to compute noticeably improved saliency maps in scenes where objects are difficult to distinguish from their background due to color intensity similarities between the object and its surroundings.

  13. Synthetic environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukes, George E.; Cain, Joel M.

    1996-02-01

    The Advanced Distributed Simulation (ADS) Synthetic Environments Program seeks to create robust virtual worlds from operational terrain and environmental data sources of sufficient fidelity and currency to interact with the real world. While some applications can be met by direct exploitation of standard digital terrain data, more demanding applications -- particularly those support operations 'close to the ground' -- are well-served by emerging capabilities for 'value-adding' by the user working with controlled imagery. For users to rigorously refine and exploit controlled imagery within functionally different workstations they must have a shared framework to allow interoperability within and between these environments in terms of passing image and object coordinates and other information using a variety of validated sensor models. The Synthetic Environments Program is now being expanded to address rapid construction of virtual worlds with research initiatives in digital mapping, softcopy workstations, and cartographic image understanding. The Synthetic Environments Program is also participating in a joint initiative for a sensor model applications programer's interface (API) to ensure that a common controlled imagery exploitation framework is available to all researchers, developers and users. This presentation provides an introduction to ADS and the associated requirements for synthetic environments to support synthetic theaters of war. It provides a technical rationale for exploring applications of image understanding technology to automated cartography in support of ADS and related programs benefitting from automated analysis of mapping, earth resources and reconnaissance imagery. And it provides an overview and status of the joint initiative for a sensor model API.

  14. Synthetic Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milanovic, Ivana M.

    2003-01-01

    Current investigation of synthetic jets and synthetic jets in cross-flow examined the effects of orifice geometry and dimensions, momentum-flux ratio, cluster of orifices, pitch and yaw angles as well as streamwise development of the flow field. This comprehensive study provided much needed experimental information related to the various control strategies. The results of the current investigation on isolated and clustered synthetic jets with and without cross-flow will be further analyzed and documented in detail. Presentations at national conferences and publication of peer- reviewed journal articles are also expected. Projected publications will present both the mean and turbulent properties of the flow field, comparisons made with the data available in an open literature, as well as recommendations for the future work.

  15. Monitoring land use and degradation using satellite and airborne data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Terrill W.; Farr, Thomas G.; Blom, Ronald G.; Crippen, Robert E.

    1993-01-01

    In July 1990 AVIRIS and AIRSAR data were collected over the Manix Basin Area of the Mojave Desert to study land degradation in an arid area where centerpivot irrigation had been in use. The Manix Basin is located NE of Barstow, California, along Interstate-15 at 34 deg 57 min N 116 deg 35 min W. This region was covered by a series of lakes during the Late Pleistocence and Early Holocene. Beginning in the 1960's, areas were cleared of the native creosote bush-dominated plant community to be used for agricultural purposes. Starting in 1972 fields have been abandoned due to the increased cost of electricity needed to pump the irrigation water, with some fields abandoned as recently as 1988 and 1992. These circumstances provide a time series of abandoned fields which provide the possibility of studying the processes which act on agricultural fields in arid regions when they are abandoned. Ray et al. reported that polarimetric SAR (AIRSAR) could detect that the concentric circular planting furrows plowed on these fields persists for a few years after abandonment and then disappear over time and that wind ripples which form on these fields over time due to wind erosion can be detected with polarimetric radar. Ray et al. used Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) bandpasses to generate NDVI images of the Manix Basin which showed that the fields abandoned for only a few years had higher NDVI's than the undisturbed desert while the fields abandoned for a longer time had NDVI levels lower than that of the undisturbed desert. The purpose of this study is to use a fusion of a time series of satellite data with airborne data to provide a context for the airborne data. The satellite data time series will additionally help to validate the observation and analysis of time-dependent processes observed in the single AVIRIS image of fields abandoned for different periods of time.

  16. Testing a polarimetric cloud imager aboard research vessel Polarstern: comparison of color-based and polarimetric cloud detection algorithms.

    PubMed

    Barta, András; Horváth, Gábor; Horváth, Ákos; Egri, Ádám; Blahó, Miklós; Barta, Pál; Bumke, Karl; Macke, Andreas

    2015-02-10

    Cloud cover estimation is an important part of routine meteorological observations. Cloudiness measurements are used in climate model evaluation, nowcasting solar radiation, parameterizing the fluctuations of sea surface insolation, and building energy transfer models of the atmosphere. Currently, the most widespread ground-based method to measure cloudiness is based on analyzing the unpolarized intensity and color distribution of the sky obtained by digital cameras. As a new approach, we propose that cloud detection can be aided by the additional use of skylight polarization measured by 180° field-of-view imaging polarimetry. In the fall of 2010, we tested such a novel polarimetric cloud detector aboard the research vessel Polarstern during expedition ANT-XXVII/1. One of our goals was to test the durability of the measurement hardware under the extreme conditions of a trans-Atlantic cruise. Here, we describe the instrument and compare the results of several different cloud detection algorithms, some conventional and some newly developed. We also discuss the weaknesses of our design and its possible improvements. The comparison with cloud detection algorithms developed for traditional nonpolarimetric full-sky imagers allowed us to evaluate the added value of polarimetric quantities. We found that (1) neural-network-based algorithms perform the best among the investigated schemes and (2) global information (the mean and variance of intensity), nonoptical information (e.g., sun-view geometry), and polarimetric information (e.g., the degree of polarization) improve the accuracy of cloud detection, albeit slightly.

  17. Mars Airborne Prospecting Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinkraus, J. M.; Wright, M. W.; Rheingans, B. E.; Steinkraus, D. E.; George, W. P.; Aljabri, A.; Hall, J. L.; Scott, D. C.

    2012-06-01

    One novel approach towards addressing the need for innovative instrumentation and investigation approaches is the integration of a suite of four spectrometer systems to form the Mars Airborne Prospecting Spectrometers (MAPS) for prospecting on Mars.

  18. Airborne Microwave Imaging of River Velocities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plant, William J.

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this project was to determine whether airborne microwave remote sensing systems can measure river surface currents with sufficient accuracy to make them prospective instruments with which to monitor river flow from space. The approach was to fly a coherent airborne microwave Doppler radar, developed by APL/UW, on a light airplane along several rivers in western Washington state over an extended period of time. The fundamental quantity obtained by this system to measure river currents is the mean offset of the Doppler spectrum. Since this scatter can be obtained from interferometric synthetic aperture radars (INSARs), which can be flown in space, this project provided a cost effective means for determining the suitability of spaceborne INSAR for measuring river flow.

  19. Synthetic Astrobiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothschild, Lynn J.

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic biology - the design and construction of new biological parts and systems and the redesign of existing ones for useful purposes - has the potential to transform fields from pharmaceuticals to fuels. Our lab has focused on the potential of synthetic biology to revolutionize all three major parts of astrobiology: Where do we come from? Where are we going? and Are we alone? For the first and third, synthetic biology is allowing us to answer whether the evolutionary narrative that has played out on planet earth is likely to have been unique or universal. For example, in our lab we are re-evolving the biosynthetic pathways of amino acids in order to understand potential capabilities of an early organism with a limited repertoire of amino acids and developing techniques for the recovery of metals from spent electronics on other planetary bodies. In the future synthetic biology will play an increasing role in human activities both on earth, in fields as diverse as human health and the industrial production of novel bio-composites. Beyond earth, we will rely increasingly on biologically-provided life support, as we have throughout our evolutionary history. In order to do this, the field will build on two of the great contributions of astrobiology: studies of the origin of life and life in extreme environments.

  20. Synthetic Astrobiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothschild, Lynn J.

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic biology - the design and construction of new biological parts and systems and the redesign of existing ones for useful purposes - has the potential to transform fields from pharmaceuticals to fuels. Our lab has focused on the potential of synthetic biology to revolutionize all three major parts of astrobiology: Where do we come from? Where are we going? and Are we alone? For the first and third, synthetic biology is allowing us to answer whether the evolutionary narrative that has played out on planet earth is likely to have been unique or universal. For example, in our lab we are re-evolving the biosynthetic pathways of amino acids in order to understand potential capabilities of an early organism with a limited repertoire of amino acids and developing techniques for the recovery of metals from spent electronics on other planetary bodies. And what about the limits for life? Can we create organisms that expand the envelope for life? In the future synthetic biology will play an increasing role in human activities both on earth, in fields as diverse as human health and the industrial production of novel bio-composites. Beyond earth, we will rely increasingly on biologically-provided life support, as we have throughout our evolutionary history. In order to do this, the field will build on two of the great contributions of astrobiology: studies of the origin of life and life in extreme environments.

  1. Joint retrieval of aerosol and water-leaving radiance from multispectral, multiangular and polarimetric measurements over ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Feng; Dubovik, Oleg; Zhai, Peng-Wang; Diner, David J.; Kalashnikova, Olga V.; Seidel, Felix C.; Litvinov, Pavel; Bovchaliuk, Andrii; Garay, Michael J.; van Harten, Gerard; Davis, Anthony B.

    2016-07-01

    An optimization approach has been developed for simultaneous retrieval of aerosol properties and normalized water-leaving radiance (nLw) from multispectral, multiangular, and polarimetric observations over ocean. The main features of the method are (1) use of a simplified bio-optical model to estimate nLw, followed by an empirical refinement within a specified range to improve its accuracy; (2) improved algorithm convergence and stability by applying constraints on the spatial smoothness of aerosol loading and Chlorophyll a (Chl a) concentration across neighboring image patches and spectral constraints on aerosol optical properties and nLw across relevant bands; and (3) enhanced Jacobian calculation by modeling and storing the radiative transfer (RT) in aerosol/Rayleigh mixed layer, pure Rayleigh-scattering layers, and ocean medium separately, then coupling them to calculate the field at the sensor. This approach avoids unnecessary and time-consuming recalculations of RT in unperturbed layers in Jacobian evaluations. The Markov chain method is used to model RT in the aerosol/Rayleigh mixed layer and the doubling method is used for the uniform layers of the atmosphere-ocean system. Our optimization approach has been tested using radiance and polarization measurements acquired by the Airborne Multiangle SpectroPolarimetric Imager (AirMSPI) over the AERONET USC_SeaPRISM ocean site (6 February 2013) and near the AERONET La Jolla site (14 January 2013), which, respectively, reported relatively high and low aerosol loadings. Validation of the results is achieved through comparisons to AERONET aerosol and ocean color products. For comparison, the USC_SeaPRISM retrieval is also performed by use of the Generalized Retrieval of Aerosol and Surface Properties algorithm (Dubovik et al., 2011). Uncertainties of aerosol and nLw retrievals due to random and systematic instrument errors are analyzed by truth-in/truth-out tests with three Chl a concentrations, five aerosol loadings

  2. Detection of aircraft crash sites from space using fully polarimetric SIR-C SAR imagery for search and rescue applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Christopher R.; Rais, Houra

    1999-08-01

    The Beaconless Search & Rescue Program at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has been working to solve the technological challenges associated with detecting small aircraft crash sites using synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery. One area of work has focused on the use of fully polarimetric imagery to both improve image quality and distinguish the crash sites from the natural background. Data from aircraft based SARs have been used for development but since a SAR satellite deployment is one possible option for a practical Search and Rescue system, the work is being extended to satellite SAR imagery. This paper presents the results of processing Shuttle Imaging Radar-C (SIR-C) data collected over an aircraft crash site near Wadesboro, North Carolina through the target detection software developed at GSFC. The results demonstrate the ability to achieve crash site detection using SAR data collected from Earth orbit.

  3. Optimal estimation in polarimetric imaging in the presence of correlated noise fluctuations.

    PubMed

    Fade, Julien; Panigrahi, Swapnesh; Alouini, Mehdi

    2014-03-10

    We quantitatively analyze how a polarization-sensitive imager can overcome the precision of a standard intensity camera when estimating a parameter on a polarized source over an intense background. We show that the gain is maximized when the two polarimetric channels are perturbed with significantly correlated noise fluctuations. An optimal estimator is derived and compared to standard intensity and polarimetric estimators.

  4. Even Shallower Exploration with Airborne Electromagnetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auken, E.; Christiansen, A. V.; Kirkegaard, C.; Nyboe, N. S.; Sørensen, K.

    2015-12-01

    Airborne electromagnetics (EM) is in many ways undergoing the same type rapid technological development as seen in the telecommunication industry. These developments are driven by a steadily increasing demand for exploration of minerals, groundwater and geotechnical targets. The latter two areas demand shallow and accurate resolution of the near surface geology in terms of both resistivity and spatial delineation of the sedimentary layers. Airborne EM systems measure the grounds electromagnetic response when subject to either a continuous discrete sinusoidal transmitter signal (frequency domain) or by measuring the decay of currents induced in the ground by rapid transmission of transient pulses (time domain). In the last decade almost all new developments of both instrument hardware and data processing techniques has focused around time domain systems. Here we present a concept for measuring the time domain response even before the transient transmitter current has been turned off. Our approach relies on a combination of new instrument hardware and novel modeling algorithms. The newly developed hardware allows for measuring the instruments complete transfer function which is convolved with the synthetic earth response in the inversion algorithm. The effect is that earth response data measured while the transmitter current is turned off can be included in the inversion, significantly increasing the amount of available information. We demonstrate the technique using both synthetic and field data. The synthetic examples provide insight on the physics during the turn off process and the field examples document the robustness of the method. Geological near surface structures can now be resolved to a degree that is unprecedented to the best of our knowledge, making airborne EM even more attractive and cost-effective for exploration of water and minerals that are crucial for the function of our societies.

  5. Bistatic synthetic aperture radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yates, Gillian

    Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) allows all-weather, day and night, surface surveillance and has the ability to detect, classify and geolocate objects at long stand-off ranges. Bistatic SAR, where the transmitter and the receiver are on separate platforms, is seen as a potential means of countering the vulnerability of conventional monostatic SAR to electronic countermeasures, particularly directional jamming, and avoiding physical attack of the imaging platform. As the receiving platform can be totally passive, it does not advertise its position by RF emissions. The transmitter is not susceptible to jamming and can, for example, operate at long stand-off ranges to reduce its vulnerability to physical attack. This thesis examines some of the complications involved in producing high-resolution bistatic SAR imagery. The effect of bistatic operation on resolution is examined from a theoretical viewpoint and analytical expressions for resolution are developed. These expressions are verified by simulation work using a simple 'point by point' processor. This work is extended to look at using modern practical processing engines for bistatic geometries. Adaptations of the polar format algorithm and range migration algorithm are considered. The principal achievement of this work is a fully airborne demonstration of bistatic SAR. The route taken in reaching this is given, along with some results. The bistatic SAR imagery is analysed and compared to the monostatic imagery collected at the same time. Demonstrating high-resolution bistatic SAR imagery using two airborne platforms represents what I believe to be a European first and is likely to be the first time that this has been achieved outside the US (the UK has very little insight into US work on this topic). Bistatic target characteristics are examined through the use of simulations. This also compares bistatic imagery with monostatic and gives further insight into the utility of bistatic SAR.

  6. Snow mapping in alpine regions with synthetic aperture radar

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, J.; Dozier, J. ); Rott, H. . Inst. for Meteorology and Geophysics)

    1994-01-01

    For climatological and hydrological investigations, the areas covered by snow and glacial ice are important parameters. Active microwave sensors can discriminate snow from other surfaces in all weather conditions, and their spatial resolution is compatible with the topographic variation in alpine regions. Using data acquired with the NASA AIRSAR in the Oetztal Alps in 1989 and 1991, the authors examine the usage of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) to map snow- and glacier-covered areas. By comparing polarimetric SAR data to images from the Landsat Thematic Mapper obtained under clear conditions one week after the SAR flight, they find that SAR data at 5.3 GHz (C-band) can discriminate between areas covered by snow from those that are ice-free. However, they are less suited to discrimination of glacier ice from snow and rock. The overall pixel-by-pixel accuracies--74% from VV polarization alone with topographic information, 76% from polarimetric SAR without any topographic information, and 79% from polarimetric SAR with topographic information--are high enough to justify the use of SAR as the data source in areas that are too cloud-covered to obtain data from the Thematic Mapper. This is especially true for snow discrimination, where accuracies exceed 80%, because mapping of a transient snow cover during a cloudy melt season is often difficult with an optical sensor. The AIRSAR survey was carried out in summer during a heavy rainstorm, when the snow surfaces were unusually rough.

  7. Role of Polarimetric SAR data for discrimination/biophysical parameters of crops based on canopy architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haldar, D.; Chakraborty, M.; Manjunath, K. R.; Parihar, J. S.

    2014-11-01

    Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) sensors have great potential for a wide range of agricultural applications, owing to their capability of all-weather observation. It is particularly useful in tropical regions in Asia where most of the crops are grown in rainy season. The use of SAR images for the assessment of rice-planted area is in operational stage in Asian countries owing to its characteristic temporal signature however, applications of SAR images for the estimation of biophysical plant variables are challenging, especially for crop scattering and discrimination in case of other tropical crops. Canopy geometry and architecture mainly govern the interaction of microwave signal with the vegetation. In this study evaluation of C-band SAR data at different polarization combinations in linear as well as circular polarimetric imaging modes for rabi crops and other associated landuse has been attempted. Also understanding the scattering response of various crops based on canopy architecture was attempted. The scattering parameters were found to vary for planofiles and erectophiles, partitioning of scattering and absorption were determined.

  8. Structural classification of marshes with Polarimetric SAR highlighting the temporal mapping of marshes exposed to oil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ramsey III, Elijah W.; Rangoonwala, Amina; Jones, Cathleen E.

    2015-01-01

    Empirical relationships between field-derived Leaf Area Index (LAI) and Leaf Angle Distribution (LAD) and polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (PolSAR) based biophysical indicators were created and applied to map S. alterniflora marsh canopy structure. PolSAR and field data were collected near concurrently in the summers of 2010, 2011, and 2012 in coastal marshes, and PolSAR data alone were acquired in 2009. Regression analyses showed that LAI correspondence with the PolSAR biophysical indicator variables equaled or exceeded those of vegetation water content (VWC) correspondences. In the final six regressor model, the ratio HV/VV explained 49% of the total 77% explained LAI variance, and the HH-VV coherence and phase information accounted for the remainder. HV/HH dominated the two regressor LAD relationship, and spatial heterogeneity and backscatter mechanism followed by coherence information dominated the final three regressor model that explained 74% of the LAD variance. Regression results applied to 2009 through 2012 PolSAR images showed substantial changes in marsh LAI and LAD. Although the direct cause was not substantiated, following a release of freshwater in response to the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill, the fairly uniform interior marsh structure of 2009 was more vertical and dense shortly after the oil spill cessation. After 2010, marsh structure generally progressed back toward the 2009 uniformity; however, the trend was more disjointed in oil impact marshes.             

  9. Statistical modeling of targets and clutter in single-look non-polarimetric SAR imagery

    SciTech Connect

    Salazar, J.S.; Hush, D.R.; Koch, M.W.; Fogler, R.J.; Hostetler, L.D.

    1998-08-01

    This paper presents a Generalized Logistic (gLG) distribution as a unified model for Log-domain synthetic aperture Radar (SAR) data. This model stems from a special case of the G-distribution known as the G{sup 0}-distribution. The G-distribution arises from a multiplicative SAR model and has the classical K-distribution as another special case. The G{sup 0}-distribution, however, can model extremely heterogeneous clutter regions that the k-distribution cannot model. This flexibility is preserved in the unified gLG model, which is capable of modeling non-polarimetric SAR returns from clutter as well as man-made objects. Histograms of these two types of SAR returns have opposite skewness. The flexibility of the gLG model lies in its shape and shift parameters. The shape parameter describes the differing skewness between target and clutter data while the shift parameter compensates for movements in the mean as the shape parameter changes. A Maximum Likelihood (ML) estimate of the shape parameter gives an optimal measure of the skewness of the SAR data. This measure provides a basis for an optimal target detection algorithm.

  10. Summaries of the Seventh JPL Airborne Earth Science Workshop January 12-16, 1998. Volume 1; AVIRIS Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Robert O. (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    This publication contains the summaries for the Seventh JPL Airborne Earth Science Workshop, held in Pasadena, California, on January 12-16, 1998. The main workshop is divided into three smaller workshops, and each workshop has a volume as follows: (1) Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) Workshop; (2) Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR) Workshop; and (3) Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) Workshop. This Volume 1 publication contains 58 papers taken from the AVIRIS workshop.

  11. Summaries of the Sixth Annual JPL Airborne Earth Science Workshop, March 4-8, 1996. Volume 2; AIRSAR Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Yunjin (Editor)

    1996-01-01

    This publication contains the summaries for the Sixth Annual JPL Airborne Earth Science Workshop, held in Pasadena, California, on March 4-8, 1996. The main workshop is divided into two smaller workshops as follows: The Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) workshop, on March 4-6. The summaries for this workshop appear in Volume 1. The Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR) workshop, on March 6-8. The summaries for this workshop appear in Volume 2.

  12. ON THE ESTIMATE OF MAGNETIC NON-POTENTIALITY OF SUNSPOTS DERIVED USING HINODE SOT/SP OBSERVATIONS: EFFECT OF POLARIMETRIC NOISE

    SciTech Connect

    Gosain, Sanjay; Tiwari, Sanjiv Kumar; Venkatakrishnan, P.

    2010-09-10

    The accuracy of Milne-Eddington (ME) inversions, used to retrieve the magnetic field vector, depends upon the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of the spectro-polarimetric observations. The S/N in real observations varies from pixel to pixel; therefore the accuracy of the field vector also varies over the map. The aim of this work is to study the effect of polarimetric noise on the inference of the magnetic field vector and the magnetic non-potentiality of a real sunspot. To this end, we use the Hinode SOT/SP vector magnetogram of a real sunspot NOAA 10933 as an input to generate synthetic Stokes profiles under ME model assumptions. We then add normally distributed polarimetric noise of the level 0.5% of continuum intensity to these synthetic profiles and invert them again using the ME code. This process is repeated 100 times with different realizations of noise. It is found that within most of the sunspot areas (>90% area) the spread in the (1) field strength is less than 8 G, (2) field inclination is less than 1{sup 0}, and (3) field azimuth is less than 5{sup 0}. Further, we determine the uncertainty in the magnetic non-potentiality of a sunspot as determined by the force-free parameter {alpha}{sub g} and spatially averaged signed shear angle (SASSA). It is found that for the sunspot studied here these parameters are {alpha}{sub g} = -3.5 {+-} 0.37(x10{sup -9} m{sup -1}) and SASSA = -1.68 {+-} 0.{sup 0}014. This suggests that the SASSA is a less dispersed non-potentiality parameter as compared to {alpha}{sub g}. Further, we examine the effect of increasing noise levels, viz. 0.01%, 0.1%, 0.5%, and 1% of continuum intensity, and find that SASSA is less vulnerable to noise as compared to the {alpha}{sub g} parameter.

  13. On the Estimate of Magnetic Non-potentiality of Sunspots Derived Using Hinode SOT/SP Observations: Effect of Polarimetric Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gosain, Sanjay; Tiwari, Sanjiv Kumar; Venkatakrishnan, P.

    2010-09-01

    The accuracy of Milne-Eddington (ME) inversions, used to retrieve the magnetic field vector, depends upon the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of the spectro-polarimetric observations. The S/N in real observations varies from pixel to pixel; therefore the accuracy of the field vector also varies over the map. The aim of this work is to study the effect of polarimetric noise on the inference of the magnetic field vector and the magnetic non-potentiality of a real sunspot. To this end, we use the Hinode SOT/SP vector magnetogram of a real sunspot NOAA 10933 as an input to generate synthetic Stokes profiles under ME model assumptions. We then add normally distributed polarimetric noise of the level 0.5% of continuum intensity to these synthetic profiles and invert them again using the ME code. This process is repeated 100 times with different realizations of noise. It is found that within most of the sunspot areas (>90% area) the spread in the (1) field strength is less than 8 G, (2) field inclination is less than 1°, and (3) field azimuth is less than 5°. Further, we determine the uncertainty in the magnetic non-potentiality of a sunspot as determined by the force-free parameter α g and spatially averaged signed shear angle (SASSA). It is found that for the sunspot studied here these parameters are α g = -3.5 ± 0.37(×10-9 m-1) and SASSA = -1.68 ± 0fdg014. This suggests that the SASSA is a less dispersed non-potentiality parameter as compared to α g . Further, we examine the effect of increasing noise levels, viz. 0.01%, 0.1%, 0.5%, and 1% of continuum intensity, and find that SASSA is less vulnerable to noise as compared to the α g parameter.

  14. Fiber optic polarimetric sensor (FOPS) prototype and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asundi, Anand K.

    2003-10-01

    Incorporation of sensors into structures and machines provide valuable information about their performance and reliability in real time. Fiber Optic Polarimetric Sensor (FOPS) for the smart structure applications is designed, developed and applied to different applications. The sensor monitors the change in the state of polarization of the light beam traversing through the fiber under various loading conditions. This paper describes the characterization, optimization and evaluation of the performance the fiber sensor. It also discusses the different applications of a prototype FOPS system that was developed.

  15. Polarimetric difference interferometer made by ion exchange method*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gut, K.

    2005-10-01

    The paper presents investigations on a planar and channel polarimetric interferometer made by ion exchange in glass for sensor applications.The dependence of the difference of propagation constants of orthogonal modes of the same order on the refractive index of the cover, for planar waveguides obtained during the ion exchange K+-Na+ in the glass BK-7 were determined. Similar measurements have been made for the exchange of Ag+-Na+, determining also the influence of the heating time on those parameters.

  16. Two-mode planar and channel polarimetric difference interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gut, Kazimierz

    2001-08-01

    In the paper are presented investigation of planar and channel polarimetric interferometer made by ion exchange in glass for sensor applications. J have determined the dependence of the difference of propagation constants of orthogonal modes of the same order on the refractive index of the cover, for planar waveguides obtained during the ion exchange K+-Na+ in the glass BK-7. Similar measurements have been made for the exchange AgPLU- Na+, determining also for that case the influence of heating time on those parameters.

  17. Polarimetric detection of the photon excitation of surface plasmons

    SciTech Connect

    Nikitin, A K

    2000-01-31

    A polarimetric method for the detection of surface plasmons, excited by linearly polarised light, was proposed and tested. It was established that this method is not only more sensitive to variations in the parameters of the waveguiding structure but also makes it possible to increase by one - two orders of magnitude the precision of determination of the excitation efficiency and of the phase velocity of the plasmons, compared with the amplitude method for plasmon detection. The possibility of applying the method in sensor devices, in polarimetry, and in the microscopy of conducting surfaces is discussed. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  18. Three axis vector atomic magnetometer utilizing polarimetric technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, Swarupananda

    2016-09-01

    The three axis vector magnetic field measurement based on the interaction of a single elliptically polarized light beam with an atomic system is described. The magnetic field direction dependent atomic responses are extracted by the polarimetric detection in combination with laser frequency modulation and magnetic field modulation techniques. The magnetometer geometry offers additional critical requirements like compact size and large dynamic range for space application. Further, the three axis magnetic field is measured using only the reflected signal (one polarization component) from the polarimeter and thus can be easily expanded to make spatial array of detectors and/or high sensitivity field gradient measurement as required for biomedical application.

  19. Polarimetric optical fiber sensor using a frequency stabilized semiconductor laser

    SciTech Connect

    Tsuchida, H.; Mitsuhashi, Y.; Ishihara, S. )

    1989-05-01

    The authors discuss the performance of a polarimetric optical fiber sensor for remote temperature measurement improved by the use of a frequency stabilized semiconductor laser. The temperature change is measured from the phase delay between two orthogonally polarized modes in a polarization maintaining fiber. The sensor output signal is demodulated utilizing direct modulation of the laser frequency. The center frequency of the modulated laser is locked to a Fabry-Perot interferometer by controlling the injection current. The minimum detectable temperature change is evaluated experimentally to be less than 0.005{sup 0}C, which is seven times smaller than that obtained with the freerunning laser.

  20. Probing the Martian Subsurface with Synthetic Aperture Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, B. A.; Maxwell, T. A.; Freeman, A.

    2005-01-01

    Many regions of the martian surface are covered by fine-grained materials emplaced by volcanic, fluvial, or aeolian processes. These mantling deposits likely hide ancient channel systems (particularly at smaller scale lengths) and volcanic, impact, glacial, or shoreline features. Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) offers the capability to probe meters below the surface, with imaging resolution in the 10 s of m range, to reveal the buried terrain and enhance our understanding of Mars geologic and climate history. This presentation focuses on the practical applications of a Mars orbital SAR, methods for polarimetric and interferometric radar studies, and examples of such techniques for Mars-analog sites on the Moon and Earth.

  1. Phase of Target Scattering for Wetland Characterization using Polarimetric C-Band SAR

    SciTech Connect

    Touzi, R; Deschamps, Mireille C; Rother, Gernot

    2009-09-01

    Wetlands continue to be under threat, and there is a major need for mapping and monitoring wetlands for better management and protection of these sensitive areas. Only a few studies have been published on wetland characterization using polarimetric synthetic aperture radars (SARs). The most successful results have been obtained using the phase difference between HH and VV polarizations, phi{sub HH} - phi{sub VV}, which has shown promise for separating flooded wetland classes. Recently, we have introduced a new decomposition, the Touzi decomposition, which describes target scattering type in terms of a complex entity, the symmetric scattering type. Huynen's target helicity is used to assess the symmetric nature of target scattering. In this paper, the new complex-scattering-type parameters, the magnitude alphas and phase Phi{sub alpha} s, are investigated for wetland characterization. The use of the dominant-scattering-type phase Phi{sub alpha} s makes it possible to discriminate shrub bogs from poor (sedge or shrub) fens. These two classes cannot be separated using phi{sub HH} - phi{sub VV}, or the radiometric scattering information provided by alphas, the Cloude alpha, the entropy H, and the multipolarization HH-HV-VV channels. phi{sub alpha} s, which cannot detect deep (45 cm below the peat surface) water flow in a bog, is more sensitive to the shallower (10-20-cm) fen beneath water, and this makes possible the separation of poor fens from shrub bogs. Phi{sub alpha} s also permits the discrimination of conifer-dominated treed bog from upland deciduous forest under leafy conditions. Target helicity information is exploited to introduce a new parameter, the target asymmetry. The latter is shown very promising for detection of forest changes between leafy and no-leaf conditions. The analysis of low-entropy marsh scattering showed that both the scattering-type magnitude and phas- - e alphas and Phi{sub alpha} s, respectively, as well as the maximum polarization

  2. Airborne data acquisition techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Arro, A.A.

    1980-01-01

    The introduction of standards on acceptable procedures for assessing building heat loss has created a dilemma for the contractor performing airborne thermographic surveys. These standards impose specifications on instrumentation, data acquisition, recording, interpretation, and presentation. Under the standard, the contractor has both the obligation of compliance and the requirement of offering his services at a reasonable price. This paper discusses the various aspects of data acquisition for airborne thermographic surveys and various techniques to reduce the costs of this operation. These techniques include the calculation of flight parameters for economical data acquisition, the selection and use of maps for mission planning, and the use of meteorological forecasts for flight scheduling and the actual execution of the mission. The proper consideration of these factors will result in a cost effective data acquisition and will place the contractor in a very competitive position in offering airborne thermographic survey services.

  3. Synthetic aperture radar capabilities in development

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, M.

    1994-11-15

    The Imaging and Detection Program (IDP) within the Laser Program is currently developing an X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) to support the Joint US/UK Radar Ocean Imaging Program. The radar system will be mounted in the program`s Airborne Experimental Test-Bed (AETB), where the initial mission is to image ocean surfaces and better understand the physics of low grazing angle backscatter. The Synthetic Aperture Radar presentation will discuss its overall functionality and a brief discussion on the AETB`s capabilities. Vital subsystems including radar, computer, navigation, antenna stabilization, and SAR focusing algorithms will be examined in more detail.

  4. Linear polarizer local characterizations by polarimetric imaging for applications to polarimetric sensors for torque measurement for hybrid cars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georges, F.; Remouche, M.; Meyrueis, P.

    2011-06-01

    Usually manufacturer's specifications do not deal with the ability of linear sheet polarizers to have a constant transmittance function over their geometric area. These parameters are fundamental for developing low cost polarimetric sensors(for instance rotation, torque, displacement) specifically for hybrid car (thermic + electricity power). It is then necessary to specially characterize commercial polarizers sheets to find if they are adapted to this kind of applications. In this paper, we present measuring methods and bench developed for this purpose, and some preliminary characterization results. We state conclusions for effective applications to hybrid car gearbox control and monitoring.

  5. Airborne oceanographic lidar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Specifications and preliminary design of an Airborne Oceanographic Lidar (AOL) system, which is to be constructed for installation and used on a NASA Wallops Flight Center (WFC) C-54 research aircraft, are reported. The AOL system is to provide an airborne facility for use by various government agencies to demonstrate the utility and practicality of hardware of this type in the wide area collection of oceanographic data on an operational basis. System measurement and performance requirements are presented, followed by a description of the conceptual system approach and the considerations attendant to its development. System performance calculations are addressed, and the system specifications and preliminary design are presented and discussed.

  6. Airborne rain mapping radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, W. J.; Parks, G. S.; Li, F. K.; Im, K. E.; Howard, R. J.

    1988-01-01

    An airborne scanning radar system for remote rain mapping is described. The airborne rain mapping radar is composed of two radar frequency channels at 13.8 and 24.1 GHz. The radar is proposed to scan its antenna beam over + or - 20 deg from the antenna boresight; have a swath width of 7 km; a horizontal spatial resolution at nadir of about 500 m; and a range resolution of 120 m. The radar is designed to be applicable for retrieving rainfall rates from 0.1-60 mm/hr at the earth's surface, and for measuring linear polarization signatures and raindrop's fall velocity.

  7. Atmospheric correction for ocean spectra retrievals from high-altitude multi-angle, multi-spectral photo-polarimetric remote sensing observations: Results for coastal ocean waters.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhary, J.; van Diedenhoven, B.; Knobelspiesse, K. D.; Cairns, B.; Wasilewski, A. P.; McCubbin, I.

    2015-12-01

    A major challenge for spaceborne observations of ocean color is to correct for atmospheric scattering, which typically contributes ≥85% to the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiance and varies substantially with aerosols. Ocean color missions traditionally analyze TOA radiance in the near-infrared (NIR), where the ocean is black, to constrain the TOA atmospheric scattering in the visible (VIS). However, this procedure is limited by insufficient sensitivity of NIR radiance to absorption and vertical distribution of aerosols, and by uncertainties in the extrapolation of aerosol properties from the NIR to the VIS.To improve atmospheric correction for ocean color observations, one needs to change the traditional procedure for this correction and/or increase the aerosol information. The instruments proposed to increase the aerosol information content for the Pre-Aerosol, Clouds, and ocean Ecosystem (PACE) mission include ultraviolet and Oxygen A-band observations, as well as multispectral and multiangle polarimetry. However few systematic studies have been performed to quantify the improvement such measurements bring to atmospheric correction. To study the polarimetric atmospheric correction capabilities of PACE-like instruments, we conducted field experiments off the Coast of California to obtain high-altitude (65,000 ft) and ship-based observations of water-leaving radiance. The airborne data sets consist of hyperspectral radiance between 380-2500 nm by the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer, and multi-spectral multi-angle polarimetric data between 410-2250 nm by the Research Scanning Polarimeter. We discuss examples of retrieved atmosphere and ocean state vectors, and of corresponding ocean color spectra obtained by subtracting the computed atmospheric scattering contribution from the high-altitude radiance measurements. The ocean color spectra thus obtained are compared with those measured from the ship.

  8. Synthetic Cathinones ("Bath Salts")

    MedlinePlus

    ... still unknown about how synthetic cathinones affect the human brain. Researchers do know that synthetic cathinones are chemically ... of the chemicals in synthetic cathinones affect the human brain. Synthetic cathinones can cause: nosebleeds paranoia increased sociability ...

  9. NASA Airborne Lidar July 1991

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-05-26

    NASA Airborne Lidar July 1991 Data from the 1991 NASA Langley Airborne Lidar flights following the eruption of Pinatubo in July ... and Osborn [1992a, 1992b]. Project Title:  NASA Airborne Lidar Discipline:  Field Campaigns ...

  10. NASA Airborne Lidar May 1992

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-05-26

    NASA Airborne Lidar May 1992 An airborne Nd:YAG (532 nm) lidar was operated by the NASA Langley Research Center about a year following the June 1991 eruption of ... Osborn [1992a, 1992b].  Project Title:  NASA Airborne Lidar Discipline:  Field Campaigns ...

  11. SIMULTANEOUS PHOTOMETRIC AND POLARIMETRIC OBSERVATIONS OF ASTEROID 3 JUNO

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, S.; Yoshida, F.; Shinokawa, K.; Mukai, T.; Kawabata, K. S.

    2009-09-15

    Simultaneous photometric and polarimetric observations of asteroid 3 Juno have been carried out with a low-resolution spectropolarimeter HBS at Okayama Astrophysical Observatory from 2000 August 4 to 8. The amplitude of the light curve was 0.14 mag with almost the same brightness maxima and 0.10 mag different minima. Polarimetric data showed one maximum and minimum in the absolute values of polarization degree |P{sub r} |, and the difference attained 0.149% in the V band. The minimum of |P{sub r} | appeared around the second minimum of the light curve, which means that a bright area exists on the surface of 3 Juno. We found that the values of |P{sub r} | tend to increase 0.1%-0.2% with wavelength, and this result is consistent with the general tendency of S-type asteroids. In addition, we might find that the increase rate of |P{sub r} | is steeper in wavelengths longer than 7000 A. From the variation of polarization degree with the rotation of 3 Juno, we estimated the albedo of the bright area with a simple model and obtained a range of 0.19-0.41.

  12. A high definition Mueller polarimetric endoscope for tissue characterisation.

    PubMed

    Qi, Ji; Elson, Daniel S

    2016-05-12

    The contrast mechanism of medical endoscopy is mainly based on metrics of optical intensity and wavelength. As another fundamental property of light, polarization can not only reveal tissue scattering and absorption information from a different perspective, but can also provide insight into directional tissue birefringence properties to monitor pathological changes in collagen and elastin. Here we demonstrate a low cost wide field high definition Mueller polarimetric endoscope with minimal alterations to a rigid endoscope. We show that this novel endoscopic imaging modality is able to provide a number of image contrast mechanisms besides traditional unpolarized radiation intensity, including linear depolarization, circular depolarization, cross-polarization, directional birefringence and dichroism. This enhances tissue features of interest, and additionally reveals tissue micro-structure and composition, which is of central importance for tissue diagnosis and image guidance for surgery. The potential applications of the Mueller polarimetric endoscope include wide field early epithelial cancer diagnosis, surgical margin detection and energy-based tissue fusion monitoring, and could further benefit a wide range of endoscopic investigations through intra-operative guidance.

  13. A high definition Mueller polarimetric endoscope for tissue characterisation.

    PubMed

    Qi, Ji; Elson, Daniel S

    2016-01-01

    The contrast mechanism of medical endoscopy is mainly based on metrics of optical intensity and wavelength. As another fundamental property of light, polarization can not only reveal tissue scattering and absorption information from a different perspective, but can also provide insight into directional tissue birefringence properties to monitor pathological changes in collagen and elastin. Here we demonstrate a low cost wide field high definition Mueller polarimetric endoscope with minimal alterations to a rigid endoscope. We show that this novel endoscopic imaging modality is able to provide a number of image contrast mechanisms besides traditional unpolarized radiation intensity, including linear depolarization, circular depolarization, cross-polarization, directional birefringence and dichroism. This enhances tissue features of interest, and additionally reveals tissue micro-structure and composition, which is of central importance for tissue diagnosis and image guidance for surgery. The potential applications of the Mueller polarimetric endoscope include wide field early epithelial cancer diagnosis, surgical margin detection and energy-based tissue fusion monitoring, and could further benefit a wide range of endoscopic investigations through intra-operative guidance. PMID:27173145

  14. Single layer spectro-polarimetric filter for advanced LWIR FPAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, A. M.; Kemme, S. A.; Scrymgeour, D. A.; Norwood, R. A.

    2012-06-01

    We explore the spectral and angular selectivity of near surface normal transmission of grating modified metallic surfaces and their ultimate potential for application as narrow-band spectro-polarimetric planar filter components in the development of advanced infrared focal plane arrays. The developed photonic microstructures exhibit tailored spectral transmission characteristics in the long wavelength infrared, and can be fabricated to preferentially transmit a given linear polarization within the design band. Modification of the material and structural properties of the diffractive optical element enables sub-pixel tuning of the spectro-polarimetric response of the device allowing for intelligent engineering of planar filter components for development of advanced focal plane arrays in the long wavelength infrared. The planar nature of the developed components leaves them immune to fabrication issues that typically plague thin film interference filters used for similar applications in the infrared, namely, deposition of multiple low-stress quarter-wavelength films and modification of the film thicknesses for each pixel. The solution developed here presents the opportunity for subpixel modification of the spectral response leading to an efficient, versatile filter component suitable for direct integration with commercially available focal plane array technologies via standard fabrication techniques. We will discuss the theoretical development and analysis of the described components and compare the results to the current state-of-the-art.

  15. Long-wave infrared polarimetric cluster-based vehicle detection.

    PubMed

    Dickson, Christopher N; Wallace, Andrew M; Kitchin, Matthew; Connor, Barry

    2015-12-01

    The sensory perception of other vehicles in cluttered environments is an essential component of situational awareness for a mobile vehicle. However, vehicle detection is normally applied to visible imagery sequences, while in this paper we investigate how polarized, infrared imagery can add additional discriminatory power. Using knowledge about the properties of the objects of interest and the scene environment, we have developed a polarimetric cluster-based descriptor to detect vehicles using long-wave infrared radiation in the range of 8-12 μm. Our approach outperforms both intensity and polarimetric image histogram descriptors applied to the infrared data. For example, at a false positive rate of 0.01 per detection window, our cluster approach results in a true positive rate of 0.63 compared to a rate of 0.05 for a histogram of gradient descriptor trained and tested on the same dataset. In conclusion, we discuss the potential of this new approach in comparison with state-of-the-art infrared and conventional video detection. PMID:26831384

  16. Integrated computational imaging system for enhanced polarimetric measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haider, Shahid A.; Kazemzadeh, Farnoud; Clausi, David A.; Wong, Alexander

    2015-09-01

    Polarimetry is a common technique used in chemistry for solution characterization and analysis, giving insight into the molecular structure of a solution measured through the rotation of linearly polarized light. This rotation is characterized by the Boits law. Without large optical path lengths, or high concentrations of solution, these optical rotations are typically very small, requiring elaborate and costly apparatuses. To ensure that the rotation measurements are accurate, these devices usually perform complex optical procedures or time-averaged point measurements to ensure that any intensity variation seen is a product of optical rotation and not from inherent noise sources in the system, such as sensor or shot noise. Time averaging is a lengthy process and rarely utilizes all of the information available on the sensor. To this end, we have developed a novel integrated, miniature, computational imaging system that enhances polarimetric measurements by taking advantage of the full spot size observed on an array detector. This computational imaging system is capable of using a single acquisition at unity gain to enhance the polarimetric measurements using a probabilistic framework, which accounts for inherent noise and optical characteristics in the acquisition process, to take advantage of spatial intensity relations. This approach is faster than time-averaging methods and can better account for any measurement uncertainties. In preliminary experiments, this system has produced comparably consistent measurements across multiple trials with the same chemical solution than time averaging techniques.

  17. A high definition Mueller polarimetric endoscope for tissue characterisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Ji; Elson, Daniel S.

    2016-05-01

    The contrast mechanism of medical endoscopy is mainly based on metrics of optical intensity and wavelength. As another fundamental property of light, polarization can not only reveal tissue scattering and absorption information from a different perspective, but can also provide insight into directional tissue birefringence properties to monitor pathological changes in collagen and elastin. Here we demonstrate a low cost wide field high definition Mueller polarimetric endoscope with minimal alterations to a rigid endoscope. We show that this novel endoscopic imaging modality is able to provide a number of image contrast mechanisms besides traditional unpolarized radiation intensity, including linear depolarization, circular depolarization, cross-polarization, directional birefringence and dichroism. This enhances tissue features of interest, and additionally reveals tissue micro-structure and composition, which is of central importance for tissue diagnosis and image guidance for surgery. The potential applications of the Mueller polarimetric endoscope include wide field early epithelial cancer diagnosis, surgical margin detection and energy-based tissue fusion monitoring, and could further benefit a wide range of endoscopic investigations through intra-operative guidance.

  18. A high definition Mueller polarimetric endoscope for tissue characterisation

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Ji; Elson, Daniel S.

    2016-01-01

    The contrast mechanism of medical endoscopy is mainly based on metrics of optical intensity and wavelength. As another fundamental property of light, polarization can not only reveal tissue scattering and absorption information from a different perspective, but can also provide insight into directional tissue birefringence properties to monitor pathological changes in collagen and elastin. Here we demonstrate a low cost wide field high definition Mueller polarimetric endoscope with minimal alterations to a rigid endoscope. We show that this novel endoscopic imaging modality is able to provide a number of image contrast mechanisms besides traditional unpolarized radiation intensity, including linear depolarization, circular depolarization, cross-polarization, directional birefringence and dichroism. This enhances tissue features of interest, and additionally reveals tissue micro-structure and composition, which is of central importance for tissue diagnosis and image guidance for surgery. The potential applications of the Mueller polarimetric endoscope include wide field early epithelial cancer diagnosis, surgical margin detection and energy-based tissue fusion monitoring, and could further benefit a wide range of endoscopic investigations through intra-operative guidance. PMID:27173145

  19. Determining index of refraction from polarimetric hyperspectral radiance measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Jacob A.; Gross, Kevin C.

    2015-09-01

    Polarimetric hyperspectral imaging (P-HSI) combines two of the most common remote sensing modalities. This work leverages the combination of these techniques to improve material classification. Classifying and identifying materials requires parameters which are invariant to changing viewing conditions, and most often a material's reflectivity or emissivity is used. Measuring these most often requires assumptions be made about the material and atmospheric conditions. Combining both polarimetric and hyperspectral imaging, we propose a method to remotely estimate the index of refraction of a material. In general, this is an underdetermined problem because both the real and imaginary components of index of refraction are unknown at every spectral point. By modeling the spectral variation of the index of refraction using a few parameters, however, the problem can be made overdetermined. A number of different functions can be used to describe this spectral variation, and some are discussed here. Reducing the number of spectral parameters to fit allows us to add parameters which estimate atmospheric downwelling radiance and transmittance. Additionally, the object temperature is added as a fit parameter. The set of these parameters that best replicate the measured data is then found using a bounded Nelder-Mead simplex search algorithm. Other search algorithms are also examined and discussed. Results show that this technique has promise but also some limitations, which are the subject of ongoing work.

  20. Classification of Forest Regrowth Stage using Polarimetric Decomposition and Foliage Projective Cover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clewley, D.; Lucas, R.; Bunting, P.; Moghaddam, M.

    2012-12-01

    Within Queensland, Australia extensive clearing of vegetation for agriculture has occurred within the Brigalow Belt Bioregion (BBB), reducing forests dominated by Acacia harpophylla (brigalow) to 10 % of their former extent. Where cleared land is left abandoned or unmanaged regeneration is rapid, Regenerating vegetation represents a more efficient and cost effective method for carbon sequestration than direct planting and offers a number of benefits over plantation forest, particularly in terms of provision of habitat for native fauna. To effectively protect regenerating vegetation, maps of the distribution of forests at different stages of regeneration are required. Whilst mapping approaches have traditionally focused on optical data, the high canopy cover of brigalow regrowth in all but the very early stages limits discrimination of forests at different stages of growth. The combination of optical data, namely Landsat derived Foliage Projective Cover (FPC) and Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) Phased Array L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) backscatter data have previously been investigated for mapping regrowth. This study therefore aimed to investigate the potential of the alpha-Entropy (α/H) decomposition (S Cloude and E Pottier, "An entropy based classification scheme for land applications of polarimetric SAR," 1997, IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 68-78) applied to polarimetric ALOS PALSAR backscatter for mapping regrowth stage combined with FPC data to account for canopy variations. The study focused on the Tara Downs subregion, located in the Western Darling Downs, within the south of the BBB. PALSAR data were acquired over the study site in fully-polarimetric mode (incidence angle mid swath ~ 26 degrees). From these data α/H layers were generated and stacked with FPC data. Considering only those areas known to contain brigalow prior to clearing and with an FPC > 9 %, k-means clustering was applied, with

  1. Synthetic Cannabinoids.

    PubMed

    Mills, Brooke; Yepes, Andres; Nugent, Kenneth

    2015-07-01

    Synthetic cannabinoids (SCBs), also known under the brand names of "Spice," "K2," "herbal incense," "Cloud 9," "Mojo" and many others, are becoming a large public health concern due not only to their increasing use but also to their unpredictable toxicity and abuse potential. There are many types of SCBs, each having a unique binding affinity for cannabinoid receptors. Although both Δ-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and SCBs stimulate the same receptors, cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) and cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2), studies have shown that SCBs are associated with higher rates of toxicity and hospital admissions than is natural cannabis. This is likely due to SCBs being direct agonists of the cannabinoid receptors, whereas THC is a partial agonist. Furthermore, the different chemical structures of SCBs found in Spice or K2 may interact in unpredictable ways to elicit previously unknown, and the commercial products may have unknown contaminants. The largest group of users is men in their 20s who participate in polydrug use. The most common reported toxicities with SCB use based on studies using Texas Poison Control records are tachycardia, agitation and irritability, drowsiness, hallucinations, delusions, hypertension, nausea, confusion, dizziness, vertigo and chest pain. Acute kidney injury has also been strongly associated with SCB use. Treatment mostly involves symptom management and supportive care. More research is needed to identify which contaminants are typically found in synthetic marijuana and to understand the interactions between different SBCs to better predict adverse health outcomes.

  2. Airborne Radar Interferometric Repeat-Pass Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hensley, Scott; Michel, Thierry R.; Jones, Cathleen E.; Muellerschoen, Ronald J.; Chapman, Bruce D.; Fore, Alexander; Simard, Marc; Zebker, Howard A.

    2011-01-01

    Earth science research often requires crustal deformation measurements at a variety of time scales, from seconds to decades. Although satellites have been used for repeat-track interferometric (RTI) synthetic-aperture-radar (SAR) mapping for close to 20 years, RTI is much more difficult to implement from an airborne platform owing to the irregular trajectory of the aircraft compared with microwave imaging radar wavelengths. Two basic requirements for robust airborne repeat-pass radar interferometry include the ability to fly the platform to a desired trajectory within a narrow tube and the ability to have the radar beam pointed in a desired direction to a fraction of a beam width. Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR) is equipped with a precision auto pilot developed by NASA Dryden that allows the platform, a Gulfstream III, to nominally fly within a 5 m diameter tube and with an electronically scanned antenna to position the radar beam to a fraction of a beam width based on INU (inertial navigation unit) attitude angle measurements.

  3. Airborne Fraunhofer Line Discriminator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gabriel, F. C.; Markle, D. A.

    1969-01-01

    Airborne Fraunhofer Line Discriminator enables prospecting for fluorescent materials, hydrography with fluorescent dyes, and plant studies based on fluorescence of chlorophyll. Optical unit design is the coincidence of Fraunhofer lines in the solar spectrum occurring at the characteristic wavelengths of some fluorescent materials.

  4. Recognizing Airborne Hazards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Christian M.

    1990-01-01

    The heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems in older buildings often do not adequately handle air-borne contaminants. Outlines a three-stage Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) assessment and describes a case in point at a Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, school. (MLF)

  5. Airborne asbestos in buildings.

    PubMed

    Lee, R J; Van Orden, D R

    2008-03-01

    The concentration of airborne asbestos in buildings nationwide is reported in this study. A total of 3978 indoor samples from 752 buildings, representing nearly 32 man-years of sampling, have been analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. The buildings that were surveyed were the subject of litigation related to suits alleging the general building occupants were exposed to a potential health hazard as a result the presence of asbestos-containing materials (ACM). The average concentration of all airborne asbestos structures was 0.01structures/ml (s/ml) and the average concentration of airborne asbestos > or = 5microm long was 0.00012fibers/ml (f/ml). For all samples, 99.9% of the samples were <0.01 f/ml for fibers longer than 5microm; no building averaged above 0.004f/ml for fibers longer than 5microm. No asbestos was detected in 27% of the buildings and in 90% of the buildings no asbestos was detected that would have been seen optically (> or = 5microm long and > or = 0.25microm wide). Background outdoor concentrations have been reported at 0.0003f/ml > or = 5microm. These results indicate that in-place ACM does not result in elevated airborne asbestos in building atmospheres approaching regulatory levels and that it does not result in a significantly increased risk to building occupants.

  6. International Symposium on Airborne Geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mogi, Toru; Ito, Hisatoshi; Kaieda, Hideshi; Kusunoki, Kenichiro; Saltus, Richard W.; Fitterman, David V.; Okuma, Shigeo; Nakatsuka, Tadashi

    2006-05-01

    Airborne geophysics can be defined as the measurement of Earth properties from sensors in the sky. The airborne measurement platform is usually a traditional fixed-wing airplane or helicopter, but could also include lighter-than-air craft, unmanned drones, or other specialty craft. The earliest history of airborne geophysics includes kite and hot-air balloon experiments. However, modern airborne geophysics dates from the mid-1940s when military submarine-hunting magnetometers were first used to map variations in the Earth's magnetic field. The current gamut of airborne geophysical techniques spans a broad range, including potential fields (both gravity and magnetics), electromagnetics (EM), radiometrics, spectral imaging, and thermal imaging.

  7. Phenomenology Studies Using a Scanning Fully Polarimetric Passive W-Band Millimeter Wave Imager

    SciTech Connect

    Bernacki, Bruce E.; Kelly, James F.; Sheen, David M.; McMakin, Douglas L.; Tedeschi, Jonathan R.; Hall, Thomas E.; Hatchell, Brian K.; Valdez, Patrick LJ

    2011-05-01

    We present experimental results obtained from a scanning passive W-band fully polarimetric imager. In addition to a conventional approach to polarimetric image analysis in which the Stokes I, Q, U, and V images were formed and displayed, we present an alternative method for polarimetric image exploitation based upon multivariate image analysis (MIA). MIA uses principal component analysis (PCA) and 2D scatter or score plots to identify various pixel classes in the image compared with the more conventional scene-based image analysis approaches. Multivariate image decomposition provides a window into the complementary interplay between spatial and statistical correlations contained in the data.

  8. Synthetic Brainbows

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Y.; Otsuna, H.; Hansen, C.

    2014-01-01

    Brainbow is a genetic engineering technique that randomly colorizes cells. Biological samples processed with this technique and imaged with confocal microscopy have distinctive colors for individual cells. Complex cellular structures can then be easily visualized. However, the complexity of the Brainbow technique limits its applications. In practice, most confocal microscopy scans use different florescence staining with typically at most three distinct cellular structures. These structures are often packed and obscure each other in rendered images making analysis difficult. In this paper, we leverage a process known as GPU framebuffer feedback loops to synthesize Brainbow-like images. In addition, we incorporate ID shuffing and Monte-Carlo sampling into our technique, so that it can be applied to single-channel confocal microscopy data. The synthesized Brainbow images are presented to domain experts with positive feedback. A user survey demonstrates that our synthetic Brainbow technique improves visualizations of volume data with complex structures for biologists. PMID:25018576

  9. Photoreactivation in Airborne Mycobacterium parafortuitum

    PubMed Central

    Peccia, Jordan; Hernandez, Mark

    2001-01-01

    Photoreactivation was observed in airborne Mycobacterium parafortuitum exposed concurrently to UV radiation (254 nm) and visible light. Photoreactivation rates of airborne cells increased with increasing relative humidity (RH) and decreased with increasing UV dose. Under a constant UV dose with visible light absent, the UV inactivation rate of airborne M. parafortuitum cells decreased by a factor of 4 as RH increased from 40 to 95%; however, under identical conditions with visible light present, the UV inactivation rate of airborne cells decreased only by a factor of 2. When irradiated in the absence of visible light, cellular cyclobutane thymine dimer content of UV-irradiated airborne M. parafortuitum and Serratia marcescens increased in response to RH increases. Results suggest that, unlike in waterborne bacteria, cyclobutane thymine dimers are not the most significant form of UV-induced DNA damage incurred by airborne bacteria and that the distribution of DNA photoproducts incorporated into UV-irradiated airborne cells is a function of RH. PMID:11526027

  10. Ultrawideband synthetic vision sensor for airborne wire detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontana, Robert J.; Larrick, J. F.; Cade, Jeffrey E.; Rivers, Eugene P., Jr.

    1998-07-01

    A low cost, miniature ultra wideband (UWB) radar has demonstrated the ability to detect suspended wires and other small obstacles at distances exceeding several hundred feet using an average output power of less than 10 microwatts. Originally developed as a high precision UWB radar altimeter for the Navy's Program Executive Office for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles and Cruise Missiles, an improved sensitivity version was recently developed for the Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC Dahlgren Division) as part of the Marine Corps Warfighting Laboratory's Hummingbird program for rotary wing platforms. Utilizing a short pulse waveform of approximately 2.5 nanoseconds in duration, the receiver processor exploits the leading edge of the radar return pulse to achieve range resolutions of less than one foot. The resultant 400 MHz bandwidth spectrum produces both a broad frequency excitation for enhanced detection, as well as a low probability of intercept and detection (LPI/D) signature for covert applications. This paper describes the design and development of the ultra wideband sensor, as well as performance results achieved during field testing at NSWC's Dahlgren, VA facility. These results are compared with those achieved with a high resolution EHF radar and a laser-based detection system.

  11. Multiwaveband polarimetric observations of NRAO 530 on parsec-scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y. J.; Shen, Z.-Q.; Feng, S.-W.

    2010-10-01

    We report on Very Long Baseline Array polarimetric observations of NRAO 530 at 5, 8, 15, 22 and 43 GHz made during one week in 1997 February. We present the total intensity, the fractional polarization and the electric vector position angle (EVPA) distributions at all these frequencies. A model fitting has been performed to the full polarization visibility data. From this, the fitted southernmost component A is confirmed as the core of the radio structure with relatively high brightness temperature and hard spectrum between 15 and 43 GHz in comparison with the central component B of dominant flux. The relatively high degree of polarization for the component A may arise from its complex radio structure, which can be resolved at 86 GHz. In contrast, the component B shows a well-fitted power-law spectrum with a spectral index of about -0.5 (f ~ να), and a linear correlation between EVPAs and wavelength square with an observed rotation measure of about -1062 rad m-2, indicating its structural singleness. Assuming that the component B has a comparable degree of polarization without depolarization at these frequencies, the decrease in fractional polarization with wavelength mainly results from opacity and Faraday rotation, in which the opacity plays quite a large role. A spine-sheath-like structure in fractional polarization (m) is detected, covering almost the whole emission region at 5 and 8 GHz, with a degree of polarization relatively low along the jet spine, becoming higher towards two sides of the jet. The linear polarization at 5 GHz shows three separate polarized emission regions with alternately aligned and orthogonal polarization vectors down the jet. The polarization goes to zero between the top two regions, with the highest polarization level occurring at the top and bottom. The 5- and 8-GHz images show EVPA changes across the width of the jet as well as along the jet. These complex polarimetric properties can be explained in terms of either the presence of

  12. Impact of CCD camera SNR on polarimetric accuracy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhenyue; Wang, Xia; Pacheco, Shaun; Liang, Rongguang

    2014-11-10

    A comprehensive charge-coupled device (CCD) camera noise model is employed to study the impact of CCD camera signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) on polarimetric accuracy. The study shows that the standard deviations of the measured degree of linear polarization (DoLP) and angle of linear polarization (AoLP) are mainly dependent on the camera SNR. With increase in the camera SNR, both the measurement errors and the standard deviations caused by the CCD camera noise decrease. When the DoLP of the incident light is smaller than 0.1, the camera SNR should be at least 75 to achieve a measurement error of less than 0.01. When the input DoLP is larger than 0.5, a SNR of 15 is sufficient to achieve the same measurement accuracy. An experiment is carried out to verify the simulation results.

  13. K-distribution and polarimetric terrain radar clutter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yueh, S. H.; Kong, J. A.; Jao, J. K.; Shin, R. T.; Novak, L. M.

    1989-01-01

    A multivariate K-distribution is proposed to model the statistics of fully polarimetric radar data from earth terrain with polarizations HH, HV, VH, and VV. In this approach, correlated polarizations of radar signals, as characterized by a covariance matrix, are treated as the sum of N n-dimensional random vectors; N obeys the negative binomial distribution with a parameter alpha and mean N-bar. Subsequently, an n-dimensional K-distribution, with either zero or nonzero mean, is developed in the limit of infinite N-bar or illuminated area. The probability density function (PDF) of the K-distributed vector normalized by its Euclidean norm is independent of the parameter alpha and is the same as that derived from a zero-mean Gaussian-distributed random vector.

  14. Multiscale Segmentation of Polarimetric SAR Image Based on Srm Superpixels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, F.; Yang, J.; Wu, L.; Li, D.

    2016-06-01

    Multi-scale segmentation of remote sensing image is more systematic and more convenient for the object-oriented image analysis compared to single-scale segmentation. However, the existing pixel-based polarimetric SAR (PolSAR) image multi-scale segmentation algorithms are usually inefficient and impractical. In this paper, we proposed a superpixel-based binary partition tree (BPT) segmentation algorithm by combining the generalized statistical region merging (GSRM) algorithm and the BPT algorithm. First, superpixels are obtained by setting a maximum region number threshold to GSRM. Then, the region merging process of the BPT algorithm is implemented based on superpixels but not pixels. The proposed algorithm inherits the advantages of both GSRM and BPT. The operation efficiency is obviously improved compared to the pixel-based BPT segmentation. Experiments using the Lband ESAR image over the Oberpfaffenhofen test site proved the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  15. Soil Moisture Estimation under Vegetation Applying Polarimetric Decomposition Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jagdhuber, T.; Schön, H.; Hajnsek, I.; Papathanassiou, K. P.

    2009-04-01

    Polarimetric decomposition techniques and inversion algorithms are developed and applied on the OPAQUE data set acquired in spring 2007 to investigate their potential and limitations for soil moisture estimation. A three component model-based decomposition is used together with an eigenvalue decomposition in a combined approach to invert for soil moisture over bare and vegetated soils at L-band. The applied approach indicates a feasible capability to invert soil moisture after decomposing volume and ground scattering components over agricultural land surfaces. But there are still deficiencies in modeling the volume disturbance. The results show a root mean square error below 8.5vol.-% for the winter crop fields (winter wheat, winter triticale and winter barley) and below 11.5Vol-% for the summer crop field (summer barley) whereas all fields have a distinct volume layer of 55-85cm height.

  16. Preliminary measurements of contrast in polarimetric signatures of humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodgkin, Van A.; Deaver, Dawne M.; LeMaster, Daniel A.

    2014-05-01

    The reflective bands in modern imaging, i.e., the visible through the short wave infrared (SWIR), have become very attractive for use in both daytime and low light target acquisition and surveillance. In addition, the nature of the target in modern conflict again includes the human body as a principle target. The spectral natures of the reflectivities of humans, their clothing, what they may be carrying, and the environments in which they are immersed, along with the spectral nature and strength of the light sources that illuminate them, have been the essential components of the contrasts in the signatures that are used in models that predict probabilities of target acquisition and discrimination. What has been missing is the impact that polarization in these signatures can have on image contrast. This paper documents a preliminary investigation into the contrast in active and passive polarimetric signatures of humans holding two-handed objects in the SWIR.

  17. SEEDS Polarimetric Imagery of the AB Aur Protoplanetary Disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wisniewski, John P.; Fukagawa, M.; Grady, C.; Hashimoto, J.; Hodapp, K.; Kudo, T.; Munetake, M.; Okamoto, Y.; Tamura, M.; SEEDS Team

    2011-01-01

    The Strategic Exploration of Exoplanets and Disks with Subaru (SEEDS) is a large survey which will be observing roughly 200 protoplanetary and debris disk systems over the next five years using the HiCIAO coronagraph + AO188 system on the Subaru telescope. We present new J-band polarimetric differential imagery of the proto-type Herbig Ae star, AB Aurigae, which diagnoses scattered light from the system between 20 - 540 AU at a resolution of roughly 8 AU. We discuss the morphology we observe in the outer disk region in the context of previous observations of the system, and compare/contrast the morphology in the inner disk region with recent H-band imagery of the system made with HiCIAO (Hashimoto et al 2010). This work was supported in part by NSF grants AST 0802230 and AST 1009314 and the AAS' Chretien International Research Grant.

  18. Structure of polarimetric purity of a Mueller matrix and sources of depolarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil, José J.

    2016-06-01

    The depolarization properties of a medium with associated Mueller matrix M are characterized through two complementary sets of parameters, namely 1) the three indices of polarimetric purity (IPP), which are directly linked to the relative weights of the spectral components of M and provide complete information on the structure of polarimetric randomness, but are insensitive to the specific polarimetric behaviors that introduce the lack of randomness, and 2) the set of three components of purity (CP), constituted by the polarizance, the diattenuation and the degree of spherical purity. The relations between these sets of physical invariant quantities are studied by means of their representation into a common purity figure. Furthermore, the polarimetric properties of a general Mueller matrix M are parameterized in terms of sixteen meaningful quantities, three of them being the IPP, which together with the CP provide complete information on the integral depolarization properties of the medium.

  19. Synthetic Aperture Radar Image Formation in Reconfigurable Logic

    SciTech Connect

    DUDLEY,PETER A.

    2001-06-01

    This paper studies the implementation of polar format, synthetic aperture radar image formation in modern Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA's). The polar format algorithm is described in rough terms and each of the processing steps is mapped to FPGA logic. This FPGA logic is analyzed with respect to throughput and circuit size for compatibility with airborne image formation.

  20. Polarimetric Exploration of Solar System Small Bodies: Search for Habitability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanamandra-Fisher, Padma A.

    2015-08-01

    The overarching goals for the remote sensing and robotic exploration of our solar system and exoplanetary systems are: (1) understanding the formation of planetary systems and their diversity; and (2) search for habitability. These goals can be realized with the inclusion of spectrophotopolarimetry as a complementary approach to standard techniques of imaging and spectroscopy. Since all objects have unique polarimetric signatures, like fingerprints, much can be learned about the scattering object. Although polarization, in general, is elliptical by nature, special cases such as linear and circular polarimetric signatures provide insight into the various types of scattering media and are valuable tools to be developed. Additionally, spectral dependence of polarization is important to separate the macroscopic (bulk) properties of the scattering medium from the microscopic (particulate) properties of the scattering medium. The search for habitability can benefit from spectrophotopolarimetry. While linear polarization of reflected light by solar system objects (planetary atmospheres, satellites, rings systems, comets, asteroids, dust, etc.) provides insight into the scattering characteristics of aerosols and hazes in atmospheres and surficial properties of atmosphereless objects, circular polarization and related chirality) or handedness, a property of molecules that exhibit mirror-image symmetry, similar to right and left hands) can serve as diagnostic of biological activity. All known life forms on earth are chiral and pre-dominantly left-handed. However, many of these applications suffer from lack of detailed observations, instrumentation, dedicated missions and numerical/retrieval methods. I will present a review of the field, with advances made in instrumentation, measurements and applications to prospective missions.

  1. Polarimetric remote sensing of Solar System objects: a perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishchenko, M. I.

    2012-12-01

    Aerosol and cloud particles exert a strong influence on climates of the Earth and other planets. Microscopic regolith particles covering the surfaces of many Solar System bodies and particles forming cometary atmospheres have a strong and often controlling effect on many ambient physical and chemical processes. Moreover, they are "living witnesses" of the history of the formation and evolution of the Solar System. Therefore, detailed and accurate knowledge of the physical and chemical properties of such particles has the utmost scientific and practical importance. More often than not it is impracticable to collect samples of such particles and subject them to a laboratory test. Therefore, in most cases one has to rely on theoretical analyses of remote measurements of the electromagnetic radiation scattered by the particles. Fortunately, the scattering and absorption properties of small particles often exhibit a strong dependence on their size, shape, orientation, and refractive index. This factor makes remote sensing an extremely useful and often the only practicable means of physical and chemical particle characterization in geophysics and planetary astrophysics. For a long time remote-sensing studies had relied on measurements of only the scattered intensity and its spectral dependence. Eventually it has become recognized that polarimetric characteristics of the scattered radiation contain much more accurate and specific information about such important properties of particles as their size, morphology, and chemical composition. Continuing progress in electromagnetic scattering theory coupled with great advances in the polarization measurement capability has resulted in overwhelming examples of the immense practical power of polarimetric remote sensing which are no longer possible to ignore. As a result of persistent research efforts, polarimetry has become one of the most informative, accurate, and efficient means of terrestrial and planetary remote sensing.

  2. An improved method for polarimetric image restoration in interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratley, Luke; Johnston-Hollitt, Melanie

    2016-11-01

    Interferometric radio astronomy data require the effects of limited coverage in the Fourier plane to be accounted for via a deconvolution process. For the last 40 years this process, known as `cleaning', has been performed almost exclusively on all Stokes parameters individually as if they were independent scalar images. However, here we demonstrate for the case of the linear polarization P, this approach fails to properly account for the complex vector nature resulting in a process which is dependent on the axes under which the deconvolution is performed. We present here an improved method, `Generalized Complex CLEAN', which properly accounts for the complex vector nature of polarized emission and is invariant under rotations of the deconvolution axes. We use two Australia Telescope Compact Array data sets to test standard and complex CLEAN versions of the Högbom and SDI (Steer-Dwedney-Ito) CLEAN algorithms. We show that in general the complex CLEAN version of each algorithm produces more accurate clean components with fewer spurious detections and lower computation cost due to reduced iterations than the current methods. In particular, we find that the complex SDI CLEAN produces the best results for diffuse polarized sources as compared with standard CLEAN algorithms and other complex CLEAN algorithms. Given the move to wide-field, high-resolution polarimetric imaging with future telescopes such as the Square Kilometre Array, we suggest that Generalized Complex CLEAN should be adopted as the deconvolution method for all future polarimetric surveys and in particular that the complex version of an SDI CLEAN should be used.

  3. [Air-borne disease].

    PubMed

    Lameiro Vilariño, Carmen; del Campo Pérez, Victor M; Alonso Bürger, Susana; Felpeto Nodar, Irene; Guimarey Pérez, Rosa; Pérez Alvarellos, Alberto

    2003-11-01

    Respiratory protection is a factor which worries nursing professionals who take care of patients susceptible of transmitting microorganisms through the air more as every day passes. This type of protection covers the use of surgical or hygienic masks against the transmission of infection by airborne drops to the use of highly effective masks or respirators against the transmission of airborne diseases such as tuberculosis or SARS, a recently discovered disease. The adequate choice of this protective device and its correct use are fundamental in order to have an effective protection for exposed personnel. The authors summarize the main protective respiratory devices used by health workers, their characteristics and degree of effectiveness, as well as the circumstances under which each device is indicated for use. PMID:14705591

  4. Ground truth measurement for the analysis of airborne SAR data recorded over Oberpfaffenhofen, FRG, 1989

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayer, T.; Wieneke, F.; Winter, R.

    1990-01-01

    As a preliminary investigation to the joint multiparameter SIR-C/X-SAR shuttle experiment of NASA/JPL (USA), DLR (FRG), and PSN (Italy) which is scheduled for the year 1992 an airborne SAR campaign was conducted over Oberpfaffenhofen, FRG, in August 1989. Primarily this campaign was planned to test and verify equipment and algorithms developed at the DLR to calibrate multifrequency polarimetric SAR data. Oberpfaffenhofen is designated as one of the super test sites for the SIR-C/X-SAR experiment which will be imaged under all circumstances except severe mission errors. A super test site drives radar parameters and look directions and the recorded SAR data will be calibrated. In addition ancillary data will be available for the site. During the airborne STAR campaign conducted in the week of August 14th 1989 various sensor types were used to record remote sensing data over the calibration test site and its vicinity: the polarimetric DC-8 JPL-SAR (P-, L-, C-band), the DLR airborne SAR (C-, X-band), color infrared aerial photography (DLR), and the truck-mounted scatterometer (C- and X-band) of the Institute for Navigation, University of Stuttgart (INS). Because of this variety of different sensor types used and out of the fact that sufficiently large forested and agriculturally used areas were planned to be covered by these sensors, the interest of several German research groups involved in investigations concerning SAR land applications arose. The following groups carried out different ground-truth measurements: University of Bonn, Institute for plant cultivation (plant morphology and moisture content); University of Braunschweig, Institute for Geography (soil moisture and surface roughness); University of Freiburg, Institute for Geography (dielectric soil properties, landuse); and University of Munich, Institute for Geography (landuse inventory, plant, surface, and soil parameters). This paper presents the joint ground truth activities of the Institute for Geography

  5. Summaries of the 4th Annual JPL Airborne Geoscience Workshop. Volume 2: TIMS Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Realmuto, Vincent J. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    This is volume 2 of a three volume set of publications that contain the summaries for the Fourth Annual JPL Airborne Geoscience Workshop, held in Washington, D.C. on October 25-29, 1993. The main workshop is divided into three smaller workshops as follows: The Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) workshop, on October 25-26. The summaries for this workshop appear in Volume 1. The Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) workshop, on October 27. The summaries for this workshop appear in Volume 2. The Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR) workshop, on October 28-29. The summaries for this workshop appear in Volume 3.

  6. Summaries of the Third Annual JPL Airborne Geoscience Workshop. Volume 1: AVIRIS Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Robert O. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    This publication contains the preliminary agenda and summaries for the Third Annual JPL Airborne Geoscience Workshop, held at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, on 1-5 June 1992. This main workshop is divided into three smaller workshops as follows: (1) the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) workshop, on June 1 and 2; (2) the Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) workshop, on June 3; and (3) the Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR) workshop, on June 4 and 5. The summaries are contained in Volumes 1, 2, and 3, respectively.

  7. Summaries of the 4th Annual JPL Airborne Geoscience Workshop. Volume 3: AIRSAR Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanzyl, Jakob (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    This publication contains the summaries for the Fourth Annual JPL Airborne Geoscience Workshop, held in Washington, D.C. on October 25-29, 1993. The main workshop is divided into three smaller workshops as follows: The Airborne Visible/Infrared Spectrometer (AVIRIS) workshop, on October 25-26, whose summaries appear in Volume 1; The Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) workshop, on October 27, whose summaries appear in Volume 2; and The Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR) workshop, on October 28-29, whose summaries appear in this volume, Volume 3.

  8. Summaries of the Third Annual JPL Airborne Geoscience Workshop. Volume 2: TIMS Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Realmuto, Vincent J. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    This publication contains the preliminary agenda and summaries for the Third Annual JPL Airborne Geoscience Workshop, held at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, on 1-5 June 1992. This main workshop is divided into three smaller workshops as follows: (1) the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) workshop, on June 1 and 2; the summaries for this workshop appear in Volume 1; (2) the Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) workshop, on June 3; the summaries for this workshop appear in Volume 2; and (3) the Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR) workshop, on June 4 and 5; the summaries for this workshop appear in Volume 3.

  9. Summaries of the Fifth Annual JPL Airborne Earth Science Workshop. Volume 1: AVIRIS Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Robert O. (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    This publication is the first of three containing summaries for the Fifth Annual JPL Airborne Earth Science Workshop, held in Pasadena, California, on January 23-26, 1995. The main workshop is divided into three smaller workshops as follows: (1) The Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) workshop, on January 23-24. The summaries for this workshop appear in this volume; (2) The Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR) workshop, on January 25-26. The summaries for this workshop appear in Volume 3; and (3) The Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) workshop, on January 26. The summaries for this workshop appear in Volume 2.

  10. Summaries of the Fifth Annual JPL Airborne Earth Science Workshop. Volume 2: TIMS Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Realmuto, Vincent J. (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    This publication is the second volume of the summaries for the Fifth Annual JPL Airborne Earth Science Workshop, held in Pasadena, California, on January 23-26, 1995. The main workshop is divided into three smaller workshops as follows: (1) The Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) workshop on January 23-24. The summaries for this workshop appear in Volume 1; (2) The Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR) workshop on January 25-26. The summaries for this workshop appear in volume 3; and (3) The Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) workshop on January 26. The summaries for this workshop appear in this volume.

  11. Summaries of the 4th Annual JPL Airborne Geoscience Workshop. Volume 1: AVIRIS Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Robert O. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    This publication contains the summaries for the Fourth Annual JPL Airborne Geoscience Workshop, held in Washington, D. C. October 25-29, 1993 The main workshop is divided into three smaller workshops as follows: The Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) workshop, October 25-26 (the summaries for this workshop appear in this volume, Volume 1); The Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TMIS) workshop, on October 27 (the summaries for this workshop appear in Volume 2); and The Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR) workshop, October 28-29 (the summaries for this workshop appear in Volume 3).

  12. Summaries of the Third Annual JPL Airborne Geoscience Workshop. Volume 3: AIRSAR Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanzyl, Jakob (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    This publication contains the preliminary agenda and summaries for the Third Annual JPL Airborne Geoscience Workshop, held at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, on 1-5 June 1992. This main workshop is divided into three smaller workshops as follows: (1) the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) workshop, on June 1 and 2; the summaries for this workshop appear in Volume 1; (2) the Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) workshop, on June 3; the summaries for this workshop appear in Volume 2; and (3) the Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR) workshop, on June 4 and 5; the summaries for this workshop appear in Volume 3.

  13. Summaries of the Fifth Annual JPL Airborne Earth Science Workshop. Volume 3: AIRSAR Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanzyl, Jakob (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    This publication is the third containing summaries for the Fifth Annual JPL Airborne Earth Science Workshop, held in Pasadena, California, on January 23-26, 1995. The main workshop is divided into three smaller workshops as follows: (1) The Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) workshop, on January 23-24. The summaries for this workshop appear in Volume 1; (2) The Airborne synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR) workshop, on January 25-26. The summaries for this workshop appear in this volume; and (3) The Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) workshop, on January 26. The summaries for this workshop appear in Volume 2.

  14. MLS airborne antenna research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, C. L.; Burnside, W. D.

    1975-01-01

    The geometrical theory of diffraction was used to analyze the elevation plane pattern of on-aircraft antennas. The radiation patterns for basic elements (infinitesimal dipole, circumferential and axial slot) mounted on fuselage of various aircrafts with or without radome included were calculated and compared well with experimental results. Error phase plots were also presented. The effects of radiation patterns and error phase plots on the polarization selection for the MLS airborne antenna are discussed.

  15. Airborne forest fire research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattingly, G. S.

    1974-01-01

    The research relating to airborne fire fighting systems is reviewed to provide NASA/Langley Research Center with current information on the use of aircraft in forest fire operations, and to identify research requirements for future operations. A literature survey, interview of forest fire service personnel, analysis and synthesis of data from research reports and independent conclusions, and recommendations for future NASA-LRC programs are included.

  16. Mutagenicity of airborne particles.

    PubMed

    Chrisp, C E; Fisher, G L

    1980-09-01

    The physical and chemical properties of airborne particles are important for the interpretation of their potential biologic significance as genotoxic hazards. For polydisperse particle size distributions, the smallest, most respirable particles are generally the most mutagenic. Particulate collection for testing purposes should be designed to reduce artifact formation and allow condensation of mutagenic compounds. Other critical factors such as UV irradiation, wind direction, chemical reactivity, humidity, sample storage, and temperature of combustion are important. Application of chemical extraction methods and subsequent class fractionation techniques influence the observed mutagenic activity. Particles from urban air, coal fly ash, automobile and diesel exhaust, agricultural burning and welding fumes contain primarily direct-acting mutagens. Cigarette smoke condensate, smoke from charred meat and protein pyrolysates, kerosene soot and cigarette smoke condensates contain primarily mutagens which require metabolic activation. Fractionation coupled with mutagenicity testing indicates that the most potent mutagens are found in the acidic fractions of urban air, coal fly ash, and automobile diesel exhaust, whereas mutagens in rice straw smoke and cigarette smoke condensate are found primarily in the basic fractions. The interaction of the many chemical compounds in complex mixtures from airborne particles is likely to be important in determining mutagenic or comutagenic potentials. Because the mode of exposure is generally frequent and prolonged, the presence of tumor-promoting agents in complex mixtures may be a major factor in evaluation of the carcinogenic potential of airborne particles.

  17. Mammalian airborne allergens.

    PubMed

    Aalberse, Rob C

    2014-01-01

    Historically, horse dandruff was a favorite allergen source material. Today, however, allergic symptoms due to airborne mammalian allergens are mostly a result of indoor exposure, be it at home, at work or even at school. The relevance of mammalian allergens in relation to the allergenic activity of house dust extract is briefly discussed in the historical context of two other proposed sources of house dust allergenic activity: mites and Maillard-type lysine-sugar conjugates. Mammalian proteins involved in allergic reactions to airborne dust are largely found in only 2 protein families: lipocalins and secretoglobins (Fel d 1-like proteins), with a relatively minor contribution of serum albumins, cystatins and latherins. Both the lipocalin and the secretoglobin family are very complex. In some instances this results in a blurred separation between important and less important allergenic family members. The past 50 years have provided us with much detailed information on the genomic organization and protein structure of many of these allergens. However, the complex family relations, combined with the wide range of post-translational enzymatic and non-enzymatic modifications, make a proper qualitative and quantitative description of the important mammalian indoor airborne allergens still a significant proteomic challenge. PMID:24925404

  18. Airborne wireless communication systems, airborne communication methods, and communication methods

    DOEpatents

    Deaton, Juan D.; Schmitt, Michael J.; Jones, Warren F.

    2011-12-13

    An airborne wireless communication system includes circuitry configured to access information describing a configuration of a terrestrial wireless communication base station that has become disabled. The terrestrial base station is configured to implement wireless communication between wireless devices located within a geographical area and a network when the terrestrial base station is not disabled. The circuitry is further configured, based on the information, to configure the airborne station to have the configuration of the terrestrial base station. An airborne communication method includes answering a 911 call from a terrestrial cellular wireless phone using an airborne wireless communication system.

  19. Creep rate estimation along the Hayward fault using polarimetric SAR interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alipour, S.; Tiampo, K. F.; Samsonov, S. V.; Gonzalez, P. J.

    2011-12-01

    The Hayward fault running through eastern San Francisco Bay represents a significant seismic hazard in northern California. Surface geodetic measurements, including those from creepmeters and continuous GPS, manifest aseismic creep equivalent to 4-9 mm/yr along this fault. Comparison with the long-term slip rate estimates of ~9 mm/yr suggest that up to several meters of slip potential has accumulated since the last large event, making the Hayward fault now capable of M>6.5 earthquakes. Here we apply polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar interferometry (PolInSAR) on quad-pol Radarsat-2 images acquired from 2008 to 2011 in order to map the surface creep along the northern thirty km of the Hayward fault. In addition to quantifying aseismic creep across the fault, the polInSAR data depict another sharp discontinuity in range change to the northeast of the fault, an indication of ongoing creep along a second fault in that region. Comparison of the recent creep rate estimates along the Hayward fault with the previous measurements proves that there is consistency in the right-lateral aseismic slip. However, vertical movements corresponding to landslides on slopes near Berkeley display a lower mean velocity for the period 2008-2011 than 1992-2000. Modeling of the slip distribution using the polInSAR data in conjunction with creepmeter and GPS data provides additional insights into the depth of the creeping zone and the locking segments of the fault, an indicator of the extent of any probable rupture and the magnitude of the potential future event.

  20. Modeling Surface Roughness to Estimate Surface Moisture Using Radarsat-2 Quad Polarimetric SAR Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurtyawan, R.; Saepuloh, A.; Budiharto, A.; Wikantika, K.

    2016-08-01

    Microwave backscattering from the earth's surface depends on several parameters such as surface roughness and dielectric constant of surface materials. The two parameters related to water content and porosity are crucial for estimating soil moisture. The soil moisture is an important parameter for ecological study and also a factor to maintain energy balance of land surface and atmosphere. Direct roughness measurements to a large area require extra time and cost. Heterogeneity roughness scale for some applications such as hydrology, climate, and ecology is a problem which could lead to inaccuracies of modeling. In this study, we modeled surface roughness using Radasat-2 quad Polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar (PolSAR) data. The statistical approaches to field roughness measurements were used to generate an appropriate roughness model. This modeling uses a physical SAR approach to predicts radar backscattering coefficient in the parameter of radar configuration (wavelength, polarization, and incidence angle) and soil parameters (surface roughness and dielectric constant). Surface roughness value is calculated using a modified Campbell and Shepard model in 1996. The modification was applied by incorporating the backscattering coefficient (σ°) of quad polarization HH, HV and VV. To obtain empirical surface roughness model from SAR backscattering intensity, we used forty-five sample points from field roughness measurements. We selected paddy field in Indramayu district, West Java, Indonesia as the study area. This area was selected due to intensive decreasing of rice productivity in the Northern Coast region of West Java. Third degree polynomial is the most suitable data fitting with coefficient of determination R2 and RMSE are about 0.82 and 1.18 cm, respectively. Therefore, this model is used as basis to generate the map of surface roughness.

  1. THREE-DIMENSIONAL POLARIMETRIC CORONAL MASS EJECTION LOCALIZATION TESTED THROUGH TRIANGULATION

    SciTech Connect

    Moran, Thomas G.; Davila, Joseph M.

    2010-03-20

    We have tested the validity of the coronal mass ejection (CME) polarimetric reconstruction technique for the first time using triangulation and demonstrated that it can provide the angle and distance of CMEs to the plane of the sky. In this study, we determined the three-dimensional orientation of the CMEs that occurred on 2007 August 21 and 2007 December 31 using polarimetric observations obtained simultaneously with the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory/Sun Earth Connection Coronal and Heliospheric Investigation spacecraft COR1-A and COR1-B coronagraphs. We obtained the CME orientations using both the triangulation and polarimetric techniques and found that angles to the sky plane yielded by the two methods agree to within {approx} 5 deg., validating the polarimetric reconstruction technique used to analyze CMEs observed with the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory/Large Angle Spectrometric Coronagraph. In addition, we located the CME source regions using EUV and magnetic field measurements and found that the corresponding mean angles to the sky plane of those regions agreed with those yielded by the geometric and polarimetric methods within uncertainties. Furthermore, we compared the locations provided by polarimetric COR1 analysis with those determined from other analyses using COR2 observations combined with geometric techniques and forward modeling. We found good agreement with those studies relying on geometric techniques but obtained results contradictory to those provided by forward modeling.

  2. Polarimetric phenomenology in the reflective regime: a case study using polarized hyperspectral data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibney, Mark

    2016-05-01

    Understanding the phenomenology of polarimetric data is necessary if we want to obtain the maximum benefit when we exploit that data. To first order, polarimetric phenomenology is driven by two things; the target material type (specular or diffuse) and the illuminating source (point (sun) or extended (body emission)). Polarimetric phenomenology can then be broken into three basic categories; ([specular material/sun source], [diffuse/sun], [specular/body]) where we have assigned body emission to the IR passband where materials are generally specular. The task of interest determines the category of interest since the task determines the dominant target material and the illuminating source (eg detecting diffuse targets under trees in VNIR = [diffuse/sun] category). In this paper, a specific case study for the important [diffuse/sun] category will be presented. For the reflective regime (0.3 - 3.0um), the largest polarimetric signal is obtained when the sun illuminates a significant portion of the material BRDF lobe. This naturally points us to problems whose primary target materials are diffuse since the BRDF lobe for specular materials is tiny (low probability of acquiring on the BRDF lobe) and glinty (high probability of saturating the sensor when on lobe). In this case study, we investigated signatures of solar illuminated diffuse paints acquired by a polarimetric hyperspectral sensor. We will discuss the acquisition, reduction and exploitation of that data, and use it to illustrate the primary characteristics of reflective polarimetric phenomenology.

  3. High-resolution Linear Polarimetric Imaging for the Event Horizon Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chael, Andrew A.; Johnson, Michael D.; Narayan, Ramesh; Doeleman, Sheperd S.; Wardle, John F. C.; Bouman, Katherine L.

    2016-09-01

    Images of the linear polarizations of synchrotron radiation around active galactic nuclei (AGNs) highlight their projected magnetic field lines and provide key data for understanding the physics of accretion and outflow from supermassive black holes. The highest-resolution polarimetric images of AGNs are produced with Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI). Because VLBI incompletely samples the Fourier transform of the source image, any image reconstruction that fills in unmeasured spatial frequencies will not be unique and reconstruction algorithms are required. In this paper, we explore some extensions of the Maximum Entropy Method (MEM) to linear polarimetric VLBI imaging. In contrast to previous work, our polarimetric MEM algorithm combines a Stokes I imager that only uses bispectrum measurements that are immune to atmospheric phase corruption, with a joint Stokes Q and U imager that operates on robust polarimetric ratios. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our technique on 7 and 3 mm wavelength quasar observations from the VLBA and simulated 1.3 mm Event Horizon Telescope observations of Sgr A* and M87. Consistent with past studies, we find that polarimetric MEM can produce superior resolution compared to the standard CLEAN algorithm, when imaging smooth and compact source distributions. As an imaging framework, MEM is highly adaptable, allowing a range of constraints on polarization structure. Polarimetric MEM is thus an attractive choice for image reconstruction with the EHT.

  4. The ROHP-PAZ mission and the polarimetric and non-polarimetric effects of rain and other fozen hydrometeors on GNSS Radio-Occultation signals.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De La Torre Juarez, M.; Padulles, R.; Cardellach, E.; Tomás, S.; Turk, J.; Ao, C. O.; Oliveras, S.; Rius, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Radio Occultation and Heavy Precipitation experiment aboard the PAZ Low Earth Orbiter (ROHP-PAZ) will test, for the first time, the new polarimetric radio occultation (RO) concept. This is a mission of opportunity: The Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation (MICINN) approved in 2009 a proposal to include a polarimetric Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) RO payload on board of the Spanish Earth Observation satellite PAZ. The launch of the satellite is scheduled for October 2015, and it will be followed by a 6-month commissioning phase period and has an expected life of 7 years, with a goal of 10 years.The concept is similar to that used in some polarimetric weather radars: to measure the differential phase shift between the two polarimetric components of the received signal, although in this case we will use the forward scattering geometry instead of the backscattering one. It will allow us to retrieve precipitation and other hydrometeors information, and simultaneous thermodynamic vertical profiles which will help to the understanding of the thermodynamic processes beyond heavy rain events. A sensitivity analysis has been performed, showing that the rain-induced effect is above PAZ detectability threshold in 90% of the events with along-ray averaged rain rate higher than 5 mm/h. Also, a ground field campaign has been conducted prior to the launch of the satellite. The measurements from the campaign have shown the first experimental evidences that precipitation and frozen hydrometeors induce a noticeable effect into the polarimetric RO observables. We will present here the actual status of the mission and the results from the field campaign. We will also discuss the results of the theoretical study of the thermodynamics and the effects of rain and frozen hydrometeors into standard and polarimetric RO, based on a large collocation exercise of COSMIC and TerrasSar-X with TRMM, GPM and CloudSat.

  5. Synthetic peptides.

    PubMed

    Francis, M J

    1996-01-01

    Efforts to produce more stable and defined vaccines have concentrated on studying, in detail, the immune response to many infectious diseases in order to identify the antigenic sites on the pathogens that are involved in stimulating protective immumty. Armed with this knowledge, it is possible to mimic such sites by producing short chains of amino acids (peptides) and to use these as the basis for novel vaccines. The earliest documented work on peptide immunization is actually for a plant virus, tobacco mosaic virus. In 1963, Anderer (1) demonstrated that rabbit antibodies to an isolated hexapeptide fragment from the virus-coat protein coupled to bovine serum albumm would neutralize the infectious vn-us in culture. Two years later, he used a synthetically produced copy of the same peptide to confirm this observation. This was pioneering work, and it was over 10 years before the next example of a peptide that elicited antivirus antibody appeared following work by Sela and his colleagues (2) on a virus, MS2 bacteriophage, which infects bacteria. The emergence of more accessible techniques for sequencing proteins in 1977, coupled with the ability to synthesize readily peptides already developed in 1963, heralded a decade of intensive research into experimental peptide vaccines. The first demonstration that peptides could elicit protective immunity in vivo, in addition to neutralizing activity in vitro, was obtained using a peptide from the VP1 coat protein of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) in 1982, with the guinea pig as a laboratory animal model (3, 4). PMID:21359696

  6. Airborne Submillimeter Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zmuidzinas, J.

    1998-01-01

    This is the final technical report for NASA-Ames grant NAG2-1068 to Caltech, entitled "Airborne Submillimeter Spectroscopy", which extended over the period May 1, 1996 through January 31, 1998. The grant was funded by the NASA airborne astronomy program, during a period of time after the Kuiper Airborne Observatory was no longer operational. Instead. this funding program was intended to help develop instrument concepts and technology for the upcoming SOFIA (Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy) project. SOFIA, which is funded by NASA and is now being carried out by a consortium lead by USRA (Universities Space Research Association), will be a 747 aircraft carrying a 2.5 meter diameter telescope. The purpose of our grant was to fund the ongoing development of sensitive heterodyne receivers for the submillimeter band (500-1200 GHz), using sensitive superconducting (SIS) detectors. In 1997 July we submitted a proposal to USRA to construct a heterodyne instrument for SOFIA. Our proposal was successful [1], and we are now continuing our airborne astronomy effort with funding from USRA. A secondary purpose of the NAG2-1068 grant was to continue the anaIN'sis of astronomical data collected with an earlier instrument which was flown on the NASA Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO). The KAO instrument and the astronomical studies which were carried out with it were supported primarily under another grant, NAG2-744, which extended over October 1, 1991 through Januarv 31, 1997. For a complete description of the astronomical data and its anailysis, we refer the reader to the final technical report for NAG2-744, which was submitted to NASA on December 1. 1997. Here we report on the SIS detector development effort for SOFIA carried out under NAG2-1068. The main result of this effort has been the demonstration of SIS mixers using a new superconducting material niobium titanium nitride (NbTiN), which promises to deliver dramatic improvements in sensitivity in the 700

  7. Airborne Oceanographic Lidar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bressel, C.; Itzkan, I.; Nunes, J. E.; Hoge, F.

    1977-01-01

    The Airborne Oceanographic Lidar (AOL), a spatially scanning range-gated device installed on board a NASA C-54 aircraft, is described. The AOL system is capable of measuring topographical relief or water depth (bathymetry) with a range resolution of plus or minus 0.3 m in the vertical dimension. The system may also be used to measure fluorescent spectral signatures from 3500 to 8000 A with a resolution of 100 A. Potential applications of the AOL, including sea state measurements, water transparency assessments, oil spill identification, effluent identification and crop cover assessment are also mentioned.

  8. Initial Polarimetric Analysis of the Vestoid Asteroid Family

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maleszewski, C.; McMillan, R. S.; Smith, P.

    2013-12-01

    Observations of polarized light scattered off of asteroid regolith have been used to compare the major asteroid taxonomic types. Members within a taxonomic type tend to have similar polarimetric phase curves (linear polarization vs. phase angle). The polarization also exhibits a wavelength dependence. For the S-complex, the polarization decreases linearly with increasing wavelength. This is different from the C-complex, which has the opposite dependence of polarization on wavelength. The slope of wavelength dependence also changes with phase angle for both complexes; at higher phase angles, the wavelength dependence is steeper. One of the less analyzed taxonomic types with regards to polarization is the V-type. Focus has been placed on the largest member of the V-types: Vesta. However, the Vestoids, which are thought to be collisional remnants of Vesta, have not been analyzed. Due to Vesta's differentiation, the Vestoids as a whole should contain members with significant differences in composition. This in turn should mean significant variations in the polarization observed from these bodies. In order to confirm such differences, we have begun a polarimetric survey of Vestoids. Over thirty observations of six different Vestoids were obtained using the SPOL spectropolarimeter (http://james.as.arizona.edu/~psmith/SPOL/ ) and Steward Observatory telescopes. The wavelength dependence of linear polarization was plotted with respect to the observed phase angle. The linear polarization trends in each of the synthesized B, V, and R bandpasses do not fit a single curve, contrary to that displayed by ensembles of asteroids in other taxonomic complexes. This suggests that these particular targets have dissimilar albedos. This is consistent with the range of albedos measured for the Vestoids through thermal models. However, there is no discernable trend for individual Vestoids with regards to wavelength dependence. Unlike the S- and C-complexes, our data show examples in which

  9. Airborne concentrations of peanut protein.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Rodney M; Barnes, Charles S

    2013-01-01

    Food allergy to peanut is a significant health problem, and there are reported allergic reactions to peanuts despite not eating or having physical contact with peanuts. It is presumed that an allergic reaction may have occurred from inhalation of airborne peanut allergens. The purpose of this study was to detect the possible concentrations of airborne peanut proteins for various preparations and during specific activities. Separate Ara h 1 and Ara h 2 monoclonal enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and a polyclonal sandwich enzyme immunoassay for peanuts were used to detect the amount of airborne peanut protein collected using a Spincon Omni 3000 air collector (Sceptor Industries, Inc., Kansas City, MO) under different peanut preparation methods and situations. Air samples were measured for multiple peanut preparations and scenarios. Detectable amounts of airborne peanut protein were measured using a whole peanut immunoassay when removing the shells of roasted peanut. No airborne peanut allergen (Ara h 1 or Ara h 2) or whole peanut protein above the LLD was measured in any of the other peanut preparation collections. Ara h 1, Ara h 2, and polyclonal peanut proteins were detected from water used to boil peanuts. Small amounts of airborne peanut protein were detected in the scenario of removing shells from roasted peanuts; however, Ara h 1 and Ara h 2 proteins were unable to be consistently detected. Although airborne peanut proteins were detected, the concentration of airborne peanut protein that is necessary to elicit a clinical allergic reaction is unknown.

  10. Airborne ballistic camera tracking systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redish, W. L.

    1976-01-01

    An operational airborne ballistic camera tracking system was tested for operational and data reduction feasibility. The acquisition and data processing requirements of the system are discussed. Suggestions for future improvements are also noted. A description of the data reduction mathematics is outlined. Results from a successful reentry test mission are tabulated. The test mission indicated that airborne ballistic camera tracking systems are feasible.

  11. Airborne concentrations of peanut protein.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Rodney M; Barnes, Charles S

    2013-01-01

    Food allergy to peanut is a significant health problem, and there are reported allergic reactions to peanuts despite not eating or having physical contact with peanuts. It is presumed that an allergic reaction may have occurred from inhalation of airborne peanut allergens. The purpose of this study was to detect the possible concentrations of airborne peanut proteins for various preparations and during specific activities. Separate Ara h 1 and Ara h 2 monoclonal enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and a polyclonal sandwich enzyme immunoassay for peanuts were used to detect the amount of airborne peanut protein collected using a Spincon Omni 3000 air collector (Sceptor Industries, Inc., Kansas City, MO) under different peanut preparation methods and situations. Air samples were measured for multiple peanut preparations and scenarios. Detectable amounts of airborne peanut protein were measured using a whole peanut immunoassay when removing the shells of roasted peanut. No airborne peanut allergen (Ara h 1 or Ara h 2) or whole peanut protein above the LLD was measured in any of the other peanut preparation collections. Ara h 1, Ara h 2, and polyclonal peanut proteins were detected from water used to boil peanuts. Small amounts of airborne peanut protein were detected in the scenario of removing shells from roasted peanuts; however, Ara h 1 and Ara h 2 proteins were unable to be consistently detected. Although airborne peanut proteins were detected, the concentration of airborne peanut protein that is necessary to elicit a clinical allergic reaction is unknown. PMID:23406937

  12. Weighing of moving vehicles using fiber optic polarimetric sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng-Lee, Hooi Leng; Kannathal, N.; Lau, Jun Kiat; Song, Zi Chen Desmond; Seah, Wei Siong; Asundi, Anand K.

    2013-06-01

    Vehicular weight measurement while the vehicle is in motion has a significant application in traffic monitoring and weight regulation. While a conventional weighing scale requires vehicles to be sidetracked to a weighing scale, the current on-line system can provide a means of instantaneous measurement while the vehicle is moving. This would improve the throughput of heavily laden vehicles. The basis of this system is a Fiber Optic Polarimetric Sensor (FOPS) based on the principle of change in polarization of the light transmitting through the polarization maintaining (PM) fiber when subjected to external perturbation. The system is capable of static, transient and dynamic measurements. Circularly polarized laser light is coupled into the PM fiber, which is then subjected to the weight of the moving vehicle driven over it. The output from the photodetector is then displayed and analyzed using the software developed using LabView. The relationship between the weight of the moving vehicle and the wheel signature generated as vehicle passes over the pad is represented using a mathematical model. An accuracy of 86% in weight measurement of moving vehicles is achieved through this proposed system.

  13. Degree of ice particle surface roughness inferred from polarimetric observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hioki, Souichiro; Yang, Ping; Baum, Bryan A.; Platnick, Steven; Meyer, Kerry G.; King, Michael D.; Riedi, Jerome

    2016-06-01

    The degree of surface roughness of ice particles within thick, cold ice clouds is inferred from multi-directional, multi-spectral satellite polarimetric observations over oceans, assuming a column-aggregate particle habit. An improved roughness inference scheme is employed that provides a more noise-resilient roughness estimate than the conventional best-fit approach. The improvements include the introduction of a quantitative roughness parameter based on empirical orthogonal function analysis and proper treatment of polarization due to atmospheric scattering above clouds. A global 1-month data sample supports the use of a severely roughened ice habit to simulate the polarized reflectivity associated with ice clouds over ocean. The density distribution of the roughness parameter inferred from the global 1-month data sample and further analyses of a few case studies demonstrate the significant variability of ice cloud single-scattering properties. However, the present theoretical results do not agree with observations in the tropics. In the extratropics, the roughness parameter is inferred but 74 % of the sample is out of the expected parameter range. Potential improvements are discussed to enhance the depiction of the natural variability on a global scale.

  14. Polarimetric glucose sensing in an artificial eye anterior chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malik, Bilal H.; Pirnstill, Casey W.; Coté, Gerard L.

    2012-03-01

    The application of optical polarimetry to glucose sensing in the anterior chamber of the eye has emerged as a potential technique to noninvasively ascertain blood glucose levels. One of the major limiting factors preventing the realization of such a device is the time varying corneal birefringence due to motion artifact in the eye. The varying birefringence confounds the optical activity of glucose, and thus, needs to be taken into account in order to successfully predict the glucose concentration in the aqueous humor of the eye. Our group has developed a multi-spectral optical polarimetric approach which can minimize the effect of corneal birefringence coupled with motion artifact by treating it as common mode noise to multiple wavelengths. Here, we present the application of a real-time closed-loop dual wavelength polarimeter to ex vivo glucose sensing in excised New Zealand White rabbits' corneas mounted on an artificial anterior chamber. Our PID control system can reach stability in less than 100 ms which is fast enough to overcome motion artifact due to heart beat and respiration. The system can predict the glucose concentration with a standard error of less than 26 mg/dL in the physiologic glucose range of 0 - 500 mg/dL. Our results indicate that dualwavelength polarimetry has the potential to noninvasively probe glucose through the anterior chamber of the eye.

  15. Dehazing method through polarimetric imaging and multi-scale analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Lei; Shao, Xiaopeng; Liu, Fei; Wang, Lin

    2015-05-01

    An approach for haze removal utilizing polarimetric imaging and multi-scale analysis has been developed to solve one problem that haze weather weakens the interpretation of remote sensing because of the poor visibility and short detection distance of haze images. On the one hand, the polarization effects of the airlight and the object radiance in the imaging procedure has been considered. On the other hand, one fact that objects and haze possess different frequency distribution properties has been emphasized. So multi-scale analysis through wavelet transform has been employed to make it possible for low frequency components that haze presents and high frequency coefficients that image details or edges occupy are processed separately. According to the measure of the polarization feather by Stokes parameters, three linear polarized images (0°, 45°, and 90°) have been taken on haze weather, then the best polarized image min I and the worst one max I can be synthesized. Afterwards, those two polarized images contaminated by haze have been decomposed into different spatial layers with wavelet analysis, and the low frequency images have been processed via a polarization dehazing algorithm while high frequency components manipulated with a nonlinear transform. Then the ultimate haze-free image can be reconstructed by inverse wavelet reconstruction. Experimental results verify that the dehazing method proposed in this study can strongly promote image visibility and increase detection distance through haze for imaging warning and remote sensing systems.

  16. Polarimetric scattering behavior of materials at terahertz frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiGiovanni, David Anthony

    Terahertz spectroscopic techniques have long been used to characterize the electromagnetic behavior of materials for use in radar, astronomy, and remote sensing applications. Spectroscopic information is valuable, but additional information about materials is present in the polarization of the scattered radiation. This thesis has investigated the polarimetric scattering behavior of various rough dielectric and metallic materials from 100 GHz to 1.55 THz. Common building materials and terrain, such as sand, gravel, soil, concrete, and roofing shingles, were studied. In order to obtain a better understanding of basic rough surface scattering phenomenology in this region of the spectrum, roughened metal and plastic samples were studied as well. The scattering behavior of these materials was studied as a function of incident angle, roughness, frequency, and polarization. Theoretical scattering models were used to compare measured results to theoretical predictions. Good agreement was observed between scattering measurements and theoretical predictions based on the small perturbation theory for the roughened metal surfaces. However, a substantial disagreement was observed for the rough dielectric surfaces and is discussed.

  17. Status of PEM-based polarimetric MSE development at KSTAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, Jinseok; Chung, Jinil; Oh, Seung Tae; Ko, Won-Ha; de Bock, Maarten; Ong, Henry; Lange, Guido

    2014-10-01

    A multi-chord PEM (photo elastic modulator)-based polarimetric motional Stark effect (MSE) system is under development for the KSTAR tokamak. The conceptual design for the front optics was optimized to preserve not only the polarization state of the input light for the MSE measurements but also the signal intensity of the existing charge exchange spectroscopy (CES) system that will share the front optics with the MSE. The optics design incorporates how to determine the number of channels and the number of fibers for each channel. A dielectric coating will be applied on the mirror to minimize the relative reflectivity and the phase shift between the two orthogonal polarization components of the incident light. Lenses with low stress-birefringence constants will be adopted to minimize non-linear and random changes in the polarization through the lenses, which is a trade-off with the rather high Faraday rotation in the lenses because the latter effect is linear and can be relatively easily calibrated out. Intensive spectrum measurements and their comparisons with the simulated spectra are done to assist the design of the bandpass filter system that will also use tilting stages to remotely control the passband. Following the system installation in 2014, the MSE measurements are expected to be performed during the 2015 KSTAR campaign.

  18. Estimating index of refraction from polarimetric hyperspectral imaging measurements.

    PubMed

    Martin, Jacob A; Gross, Kevin C

    2016-08-01

    Current material identification techniques rely on estimating reflectivity or emissivity which vary with viewing angle. As off-nadir remote sensing platforms become increasingly prevalent, techniques robust to changing viewing geometries are desired. A technique leveraging polarimetric hyperspectral imaging (P-HSI), to estimate complex index of refraction, N̂(ν̃), an inherent material property, is presented. The imaginary component of N̂(ν̃) is modeled using a small number of "knot" points and interpolation at in-between frequencies ν̃. The real component is derived via the Kramers-Kronig relationship. P-HSI measurements of blackbody radiation scattered off of a smooth quartz window show that N̂(ν̃) can be retrieved to within 0.08 RMS error between 875 cm-1 ≤ ν̃ ≤ 1250 cm-1. P-HSI emission measurements of a heated smooth Pyrex beaker also enable successful N̂(ν̃) estimates, which are also invariant to object temperature. PMID:27505760

  19. Polarimetric spectra analysis for tokamak pitch angle measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, J.; Chung, J.; Lange, A. G. G.; de Bock, M. F. M.

    2013-10-01

    Measurements of the internal magnetic field structures using conventional polarimetric approaches are considered extremely challenging in fusion-reactor environments whereas the information on current density profiles is essential to establish steady-state and advance operation scenarios in such reactor-relevant devices. Therefore, on ITER a hybrid system is proposed for the current density measurements that uses both polarimetry and spectral measurements. The spectrum-based approaches have been tested in the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) during the past two plasma campaigns. As such, KSTAR is a test-bed for the proposed ITER hybrid system. Measurements in the plasma core are based on the motional Stark effect (MSE) spectrum of the neutral beam emission. For the edge profiles, the Zeeman effect (ZE) acting on the lithium emission spectrum of the newly installed (2013) Lithium-beam-diagnostic is exploited. The neutral beam emission spectra, complicated by the multi-ion-source beam injection, are successfully fitted making use of the data provided by the Atomic Data and Analysis Structure (ADAS) database package. This way pitch angle profiles could be retrieved from the beam emission spectra. With the same spectrometer/CCD hardware as on MSE, but with a different wavelength range and different lines of sight, the first ZE spectrum measurements have been made. The Zeeman splitting comparable to and greater than the instrumental broadening has been routinely detected at high toroidal field operations ( ~ 3 Tesla).

  20. Envisat ASAR Polarimetric Data for Soil Moisture Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Y. S.; Singh, A. K.; Sharma, S.; Venkataraman, G.

    2007-03-01

    ENVISAT ASAR Data acquired over four test sites were analyzed for soil moisture mapping using various models. The polarimetric data covers dual polarized HH/VV, HH/HV and single polarized VV in swaths IS2, IS2, IS4, IS5 and IS6. SIR-C L- and C-band data were also used for the verification of models. Dubois et al. empirical and linear regression equations were used for soil moisture estimation. The test sites cover bare, rice, sugarcane, corn, etc. fields. Using the SIR-C data, we found that Dubois et al. model overestimates soil moisture at C-band compared to L-band. The difference is about 5%. The linear regressions equations developed by Baghdadi et al. predict soil moisture with reasonable accuracy for bare fields using ENVISAT ASAR data. However, these regression equations are site specific and do not take into account surface roughness and vegetation cover. More groundtruth data are needed for the verification of these relations.

  1. Estimating index of refraction from polarimetric hyperspectral imaging measurements.

    PubMed

    Martin, Jacob A; Gross, Kevin C

    2016-08-01

    Current material identification techniques rely on estimating reflectivity or emissivity which vary with viewing angle. As off-nadir remote sensing platforms become increasingly prevalent, techniques robust to changing viewing geometries are desired. A technique leveraging polarimetric hyperspectral imaging (P-HSI), to estimate complex index of refraction, N̂(ν̃), an inherent material property, is presented. The imaginary component of N̂(ν̃) is modeled using a small number of "knot" points and interpolation at in-between frequencies ν̃. The real component is derived via the Kramers-Kronig relationship. P-HSI measurements of blackbody radiation scattered off of a smooth quartz window show that N̂(ν̃) can be retrieved to within 0.08 RMS error between 875 cm-1 ≤ ν̃ ≤ 1250 cm-1. P-HSI emission measurements of a heated smooth Pyrex beaker also enable successful N̂(ν̃) estimates, which are also invariant to object temperature.

  2. CAROLS: A New Airborne L-Band Radiometer for Ocean Surface and Land Observations

    PubMed Central

    Zribi, Mehrez; Pardé, Mickael; Boutin, Jacquline; Fanise, Pascal; Hauser, Daniele; Dechambre, Monique; Kerr, Yann; Leduc-Leballeur, Marion; Reverdin, Gilles; Skou, Niels; Søbjærg, Sten; Albergel, Clement; Calvet, Jean Christophe; Wigneron, Jean Pierre; Lopez-Baeza, Ernesto; Rius, Antonio; Tenerelli, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    The “Cooperative Airborne Radiometer for Ocean and Land Studies” (CAROLS) L-Band radiometer was designed and built as a copy of the EMIRAD II radiometer constructed by the Technical University of Denmark team. It is a fully polarimetric and direct sampling correlation radiometer. It is installed on board a dedicated French ATR42 research aircraft, in conjunction with other airborne instruments (C-Band scatterometer—STORM, the GOLD-RTR GPS system, the infrared CIMEL radiometer and a visible wavelength camera). Following initial laboratory qualifications, three airborne campaigns involving 21 flights were carried out over South West France, the Valencia site and the Bay of Biscay (Atlantic Ocean) in 2007, 2008 and 2009, in coordination with in situ field campaigns. In order to validate the CAROLS data, various aircraft flight patterns and maneuvers were implemented, including straight horizontal flights, circular flights, wing and nose wags over the ocean. Analysis of the first two campaigns in 2007 and 2008 leads us to improve the CAROLS radiometer regarding isolation between channels and filter bandwidth. After implementation of these improvements, results show that the instrument is conforming to specification and is a useful tool for Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite validation as well as for specific studies on surface soil moisture or ocean salinity. PMID:22346599

  3. Statistical analysis of multilook polarimetric SAR data and terrain classification with adaptive distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Guoqing; Huang, ShunJi; Torre, Andrea; Rubertone, Franco S.

    1995-11-01

    This paper deals with analysis of statistical properties of multi-look processed polarimetric SAR data. Based on an assumption that the multi-look polarimetric measurement is a product between a Gamma-distributed texture variable and a Wishart-distributed polarimetric speckle variable, it is shown that the multi-look polarimetric measurement from a nonhomogeneous region obeys a generalized K-distribution. In order to validate this statistical model, two of its varied versions, multi-look intensity and amplitude K-distributions are particularly compared with histograms of the observed multi-look SAR data of three terrain types, ocean, forest-like and city regions, and with four empirical distribution models, Gaussian, log-normal, gamma and Weibull models. A qualitative relation between the degree of nonhomogeneity of a textured scene and the well-fitting statistical model is then empirically established. Finally, a classifier with adaptive distributions guided by the order parameter of the texture distribution estimated with local statistics is introduced to perform terrain classification, experimental results with both multi-look fully polarimetric data and multi-look single-channel intensity/amplitude data indicate its effectiveness.

  4. Atmospheric polarimetric effects on GNSS Radio Occultations: the ROHP-PAZ field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padullés, R.; Cardellach, E.; de la Torre Juárez, M.; Tomás, S.; Turk, F. J.; Oliveras, S.; Ao, C. O.; Rius, A.

    2015-07-01

    This study describes the first experimental observations showing that hydrometeors induce polarimetric signatures in Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signals. This evidence is relevant to the PAZ Low Earth Orbiter, which will test the concept and applications of polarimetric GNSS Radio Occultation (RO) (i.e. ROs obtained with a two-polarization antenna). A ground field campaign was carried out in preparation for PAZ to verify the theoretical sensitivity studies about this concept (Cardellach et al., 2015). The main aim of the campaign is to identify and understand the factors that might affect the polarimetric GNSS observables. Studied for the first time, GNSS signals measured with two polarimetric antennas (H, horizontal and V, vertical) are shown to discriminate heavy rain events, by comparing the measured phase difference between the H and V phase delays (Δ Φ) in different weather scenarios. The measured phase difference indicates higher dispersion under rain conditions. When individual events are examined, significant increases of Δ Φ occur when the radio signals cross rain cells. Moreover, the amplitude of such signal is much higher than the theoretical prediction for precipitation; thus other sources of polarimetric signatures have been explored and identified. Modelling of other hydrometeors like melting particles and ice crystals have been proposed to explain the obtained measurements, with good agreement in more than 90 % of the cases.

  5. Atmospheric polarimetric effects on GNSS radio occultations: the ROHP-PAZ field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padullés, R.; Cardellach, E.; de la Torre Juárez, M.; Tomás, S.; Turk, F. J.; Oliveras, S.; Ao, C. O.; Rius, A.

    2016-01-01

    This study describes the first experimental observations showing that hydrometeors induce polarimetric signatures in global navigation satellite system (GNSS) signals. This evidence is relevant to the PAZ low Earth orbiter, which will test the concept and applications of polarimetric GNSS radio occultation (RO) (i.e. ROs obtained with a dual-polarization antenna). A ground field campaign was carried out in preparation for PAZ to verify the theoretical sensitivity studies on this concept (Cardellach et al., 2015). The main aim of the campaign is to identify and understand the factors that might affect the polarimetric GNSS observables. Studied for the first time, GNSS signals measured with two polarimetric antennas (H, horizontal, and V, vertical) are shown to discriminate between heavy rain events by comparing the measured phase difference between the H and V phase delays (ΔΦ) in different weather scenarios. The measured phase difference indicates higher dispersion under rain conditions. When individual events are examined, significant increases in ΔΦ occur when the radio signals cross rain cells. Moreover, the amplitude of such a signal is much higher than the theoretical prediction for precipitation; thus, other sources of polarimetric signatures have been explored and identified. Modelling of other hydrometeors, such as melting particles and ice crystals, have been proposed to explain the obtained measurements, with good agreement in more than 90 % of the cases.

  6. GLORI: A GNSS-R Dual Polarization Airborne Instrument for Land Surface Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Motte, Erwan; Zribi, Mehrez; Fanise, Pascal; Egido, Alejandro; Darrozes, José; Al-Yaari, Amen; Baghdadi, Nicolas; Baup, Frédéric; Dayau, Sylvia; Fieuzal, Remy; Frison, Pierre-Louis; Guyon, Dominique; Wigneron, Jean-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Global Navigation Satellite System-Reflectometry (GNSS-R) has emerged as a remote sensing tool, which is complementary to traditional monostatic radars, for the retrieval of geophysical parameters related to surface properties. In the present paper, we describe a new polarimetric GNSS-R system, referred to as the GLObal navigation satellite system Reflectometry Instrument (GLORI), dedicated to the study of land surfaces (soil moisture, vegetation water content, forest biomass) and inland water bodies. This system was installed as a permanent payload on a French ATR42 research aircraft, from which simultaneous measurements can be carried out using other instruments, when required. Following initial laboratory qualifications, two airborne campaigns involving nine flights were performed in 2014 and 2015 in the Southwest of France, over various types of land cover, including agricultural fields and forests. Some of these flights were made concurrently with in situ ground truth campaigns. Various preliminary applications for the characterisation of agricultural and forest areas are presented. Initial analysis of the data shows that the performance of the GLORI instrument is well within specifications, with a cross-polarization isolation better than −15 dB at all elevations above 45°, a relative polarimetric calibration accuracy better than 0.5 dB, and an apparent reflectivity sensitivity better than −30 dB, thus demonstrating its strong potential for the retrieval of land surface characteristics. PMID:27213393

  7. GLORI: A GNSS-R Dual Polarization Airborne Instrument for Land Surface Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Motte, Erwan; Zribi, Mehrez; Fanise, Pascal; Egido, Alejandro; Darrozes, José; Al-Yaari, Amen; Baghdadi, Nicolas; Baup, Frédéric; Dayau, Sylvia; Fieuzal, Remy; Frison, Pierre-Louis; Guyon, Dominique; Wigneron, Jean-Pierre

    2016-05-20

    Global Navigation Satellite System-Reflectometry (GNSS-R) has emerged as a remote sensing tool, which is complementary to traditional monostatic radars, for the retrieval of geophysical parameters related to surface properties. In the present paper, we describe a new polarimetric GNSS-R system, referred to as the GLObal navigation satellite system Reflectometry Instrument (GLORI), dedicated to the study of land surfaces (soil moisture, vegetation water content, forest biomass) and inland water bodies. This system was installed as a permanent payload on a French ATR42 research aircraft, from which simultaneous measurements can be carried out using other instruments, when required. Following initial laboratory qualifications, two airborne campaigns involving nine flights were performed in 2014 and 2015 in the Southwest of France, over various types of land cover, including agricultural fields and forests. Some of these flights were made concurrently with in situ ground truth campaigns. Various preliminary applications for the characterisation of agricultural and forest areas are presented. Initial analysis of the data shows that the performance of the GLORI instrument is well within specifications, with a cross-polarization isolation better than -15 dB at all elevations above 45°, a relative polarimetric calibration accuracy better than 0.5 dB, and an apparent reflectivity sensitivity better than -30 dB, thus demonstrating its strong potential for the retrieval of land surface characteristics.

  8. GLORI: A GNSS-R Dual Polarization Airborne Instrument for Land Surface Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Motte, Erwan; Zribi, Mehrez; Fanise, Pascal; Egido, Alejandro; Darrozes, José; Al-Yaari, Amen; Baghdadi, Nicolas; Baup, Frédéric; Dayau, Sylvia; Fieuzal, Remy; Frison, Pierre-Louis; Guyon, Dominique; Wigneron, Jean-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Global Navigation Satellite System-Reflectometry (GNSS-R) has emerged as a remote sensing tool, which is complementary to traditional monostatic radars, for the retrieval of geophysical parameters related to surface properties. In the present paper, we describe a new polarimetric GNSS-R system, referred to as the GLObal navigation satellite system Reflectometry Instrument (GLORI), dedicated to the study of land surfaces (soil moisture, vegetation water content, forest biomass) and inland water bodies. This system was installed as a permanent payload on a French ATR42 research aircraft, from which simultaneous measurements can be carried out using other instruments, when required. Following initial laboratory qualifications, two airborne campaigns involving nine flights were performed in 2014 and 2015 in the Southwest of France, over various types of land cover, including agricultural fields and forests. Some of these flights were made concurrently with in situ ground truth campaigns. Various preliminary applications for the characterisation of agricultural and forest areas are presented. Initial analysis of the data shows that the performance of the GLORI instrument is well within specifications, with a cross-polarization isolation better than -15 dB at all elevations above 45°, a relative polarimetric calibration accuracy better than 0.5 dB, and an apparent reflectivity sensitivity better than -30 dB, thus demonstrating its strong potential for the retrieval of land surface characteristics. PMID:27213393

  9. Modeling for Airborne Contamination

    SciTech Connect

    F.R. Faillace; Y. Yuan

    2000-08-31

    The objective of Modeling for Airborne Contamination (referred to from now on as ''this report'') is to provide a documented methodology, along with supporting information, for estimating the release, transport, and assessment of dose to workers from airborne radioactive contaminants within the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) subsurface during the pre-closure period. Specifically, this report provides engineers and scientists with methodologies for estimating how concentrations of contaminants might be distributed in the air and on the drift surfaces if released from waste packages inside the repository. This report also provides dose conversion factors for inhalation, air submersion, and ground exposure pathways used to derive doses to potentially exposed subsurface workers. The scope of this report is limited to radiological contaminants (particulate, volatile and gaseous) resulting from waste package leaks (if any) and surface contamination and their transport processes. Neutron activation of air, dust in the air and the rock walls of the drift during the preclosure time is not considered within the scope of this report. Any neutrons causing such activation are not themselves considered to be ''contaminants'' released from the waste package. This report: (1) Documents mathematical models and model parameters for evaluating airborne contaminant transport within the MGR subsurface; and (2) Provides tables of dose conversion factors for inhalation, air submersion, and ground exposure pathways for important radionuclides. The dose conversion factors for air submersion and ground exposure pathways are further limited to drift diameters of 7.62 m and 5.5 m, corresponding to the main and emplacement drifts, respectively. If the final repository design significantly deviates from these drift dimensions, the results in this report may require revision. The dose conversion factors are further derived by using concrete of sufficient thickness to simulate the drift

  10. Comparison with CLPX II airborne data using DMRT model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Xu, X.; Liang, D.; Andreadis, K.M.; Tsang, L.; Josberger, E.G.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we considered a physical-based model which use numerical solution of Maxwell Equations in three-dimensional simulations and apply into Dense Media Radiative Theory (DMRT). The model is validated in two specific dataset from the second Cold Land Processes Experiment (CLPX II) at Alaska and Colorado. The data were all obtain by the Ku-band (13.95GHz) observations using airborne imaging polarimetric scatterometer (POLSCAT). Snow is a densely packed media. To take into account the collective scattering and incoherent scattering, analytical Quasi-Crystalline Approximation (QCA) and Numerical Maxwell Equation Method of 3-D simulation (NMM3D) are used to calculate the extinction coefficient and phase matrix. DMRT equations were solved by iterative solution up to 2nd order for the case of small optical thickness and full multiple scattering solution by decomposing the diffuse intensities into Fourier series was used when optical thickness exceed unity. It was shown that the model predictions agree with the field experiment not only co-polarization but also cross-polarization. For Alaska region, the input snow structure data was obtain by the in situ ground observations, while for Colorado region, we combined the VIC model to get the snow profile. ??2009 IEEE.

  11. Airborne agent concentration analysis

    DOEpatents

    Gelbard, Fred

    2004-02-03

    A method and system for inferring airborne contaminant concentrations in rooms without contaminant sensors, based on data collected by contaminant sensors in other rooms of a building, using known airflow interconnectivity data. The method solves a least squares problem that minimizes the difference between measured and predicted contaminant sensor concentrations with respect to an unknown contaminant release time. Solutions are constrained to providing non-negative initial contaminant concentrations in all rooms. The method can be used to identify a near-optimal distribution of sensors within the building, when then number of available sensors is less than the total number of rooms. This is achieved by having a system-sensor matrix that is non-singular, and by selecting that distribution which yields the lowest condition number of all the distributions considered. The method can predict one or more contaminant initial release points from the collected data.

  12. Airborne Wind Turbine

    SciTech Connect

    2010-09-01

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: Makani Power is developing an Airborne Wind Turbine (AWT) that eliminates 90% of the mass of a conventional wind turbine and accesses a stronger, more consistent wind at altitudes of near 1,000 feet. At these altitudes, 85% of the country can offer viable wind resources compared to only 15% accessible with current technology. Additionally, the Makani Power wing can be economically deployed in deep offshore waters, opening up a resource which is 4 times greater than the entire U.S. electrical generation capacity. Makani Power has demonstrated the core technology, including autonomous launch, land, and power generation with an 8 meter wingspan, 20 kW prototype. At commercial scale, Makani Power aims to develop a 600 kW, 28 meter wingspan product capable of delivering energy at an unsubsidized cost competitive with coal, the current benchmark for low-cost power.

  13. Oil source-fingerprinting in support of polarimetric radar mapping of Macondo-252 oil in Gulf Coast marshes.

    PubMed

    Ramsey, Elijah; Meyer, Buffy M; Rangoonwala, Amina; Overton, Edward; Jones, Cathleen E; Bannister, Terri

    2014-12-15

    Polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (PolSAR) data exhibited dramatic, spatially extensive changes from June 2009 to June 2010 in Barataria Bay, Louisiana. To determine whether these changes were associated with the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill, twenty-nine sediment samples were collected in 2011 from shoreline and nearshore-interior coastal marsh locations where oil was not observed visually or with optical sensors during the spill. Oil source-fingerprinting and polytopic vector analysis were used to link DWH oil to PolSAR changes. Our results prove that DWH oil extended beyond shorelines and confirm the association between presence of DWH oil and PolSAR change. These results show that the DWH oil spill probably affected much more of the southeastern Louisiana marshland than originally concluded from ground and aerial surveys and verify that PolSAR is a powerful tool for tracking oil intrusion into marshes with high probability even where contamination is not visible from above the canopy.

  14. Oil source-fingerprinting in support of polarimetric radar mapping of Macondo-252 oil in Gulf Coast marshes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ramsey III, Elijah W.; Meyer, Buffy M.; Rangoonwala, Amina; Overton, Edward; Jones, Cathleen E.; Bannister, Terri

    2014-01-01

    Polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (PolSAR) data exhibited dramatic, spatially extensive changes from June 2009 to June 2010 in Barataria Bay, Louisiana. To determine whether these changes were associated with the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill, twenty-nine sediment samples were collected in 2011 from shoreline and nearshore–interior coastal marsh locations where oil was not observed visually or with optical sensors during the spill. Oil source-fingerprinting and polytopic vector analysis were used to link DWH oil to PolSAR changes. Our results prove that DWH oil extended beyond shorelines and confirm the association between presence of DWH oil and PolSAR change. These results show that the DWH oil spill probably affected much more of the southeastern Louisiana marshland than originally concluded from ground and aerial surveys and verify that PolSAR is a powerful tool for tracking oil intrusion into marshes with high probability even where contamination is not visible from above the canopy.

  15. Dynamic scene generation, multimodal sensor design, and target tracking demonstration for hyperspectral/polarimetric performance-driven sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Presnar, Michael D.; Raisanen, Alan D.; Pogorzala, David R.; Kerekes, John P.; Rice, Andrew C.

    2010-04-01

    Simulation of moving vehicle tracking has been demonstrated using hyperspectral and polarimetric imagery (HSI/PI). Synthetic HSI/PI image cubes of an urban scene containing moving vehicle content were generated using the Rochester Institute of Technology's Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Image Generation (DIRSIG) Megascene #1 model. Video streams of sensor-reaching radiance frames collected from a virtual orbiting aerial platform's imaging sensor were used to test adaptive sensor designs in a target tracking application. A hybrid division-of-focal-plane imaging sensor boasting an array of 2×2 superpixels containing both micromirrors and micropolarizers was designed for co-registered HSI/PI aerial remote sensing. Pixel-sized aluminum wire-grid linear polarizers were designed and simulated to measure transmittance, extinction ratio, and diattenuation responses in the presence of an electric field. Wire-grid spacings of 500 [nm] and 80 [nm] were designed for lithographic deposition and etching processes. Both micromirror-relayed panchromatic imagery and micropolarizer-collected PI were orthorectified and then processed by Numerica Corporation's feature-aided target tracker to perform multimodal adaptive performance-driven sensing of moving vehicle targets. Hyperspectral responses of selected target pixels were measured using micromirror-commanded slits to bolster track performance. Unified end-to-end track performance case studies were completed using both panchromatic and degree of linear polarization sensor modes.

  16. Assessing integration of intensity, polarimetric scattering, interferometric coherence and spatial texture metrics in PALSAR-derived land cover classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Huiran; Mountrakis, Giorgos; Stehman, Stephen V.

    2014-12-01

    Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is an important alternative to optical remote sensing due to its ability to acquire data regardless of weather conditions and day/night cycle. The Phased Array type L-band SAR (PALSAR) onboard the Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) provided new opportunities for vegetation and land cover mapping. Most previous studies employing PALSAR investigated the use of one or two feature types (e.g. intensity, coherence); however, little effort has been devoted to assessing the simultaneous integration of multiple types of features. In this study, we bridged this gap by evaluating the potential of using numerous metrics expressing four feature types: intensity, polarimetric scattering, interferometric coherence and spatial texture. Our case study was conducted in Central New York State, USA using multitemporal PALSAR imagery from 2010. The land cover classification implemented an ensemble learning algorithm, namely random forest. Accuracies of each classified map produced from different combinations of features were assessed on a pixel-by-pixel basis using validation data obtained from a stratified random sample. Among the different combinations of feature types evaluated, intensity was the most indispensable because intensity was included in all of the highest accuracy scenarios. However, relative to using only intensity metrics, combining all four feature types increased overall accuracy by 7%. Producer's and user's accuracies of the four vegetation classes improved considerably for the best performing combination of features when compared to classifications using only a single feature type.

  17. Feasibility of inter-comparing airborne and spaceborne observations of radar backscattering coefficients

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper investigates the feasibility of using an airborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) to validate spaceborne SAR data. This is directed at soil moisture sensing and the recently launched Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) satellite. The value of this approach is related to the fact that vicar...

  18. Airborne Cloud Computing Environment (ACCE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardman, Sean; Freeborn, Dana; Crichton, Dan; Law, Emily; Kay-Im, Liz

    2011-01-01

    Airborne Cloud Computing Environment (ACCE) is JPL's internal investment to improve the return on airborne missions. Improve development performance of the data system. Improve return on the captured science data. The investment is to develop a common science data system capability for airborne instruments that encompasses the end-to-end lifecycle covering planning, provisioning of data system capabilities, and support for scientific analysis in order to improve the quality, cost effectiveness, and capabilities to enable new scientific discovery and research in earth observation.

  19. Integrated Data Processing Methodology for Airborne Repeat-pass Differential SAR Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dou, C.; Guo, H.; Han, C.; Yue, X.; Zhao, Y.

    2014-11-01

    Short temporal baseline and multiple ground deformation information can be derived from the airborne differential synthetic aperture radar Interforemetry (D-InSAR). However, affected by the turbulence of the air, the aircraft would deviate from the designed flight path with high frequent vibrations and changes both in the flight trajectory and attitude. Restricted by the accuracy of the position and orientation system (POS), these high frequent deviations can not be accurately reported, which would pose great challenges in motion compensation and interferometric process. Thus, these challenges constrain its wider applications. The objective of this paper is to investigate the accurate estimation and compensation of the residual motion errors in the airborne SAR imagery and time-varying baseline errors between the diffirent data acquirations, furthermore, to explore the integration data processing theory for the airborne D-InSAR system, and thus help to accomplish the correct derivation of the ground deformation by using the airborne D-InSAR measurements.

  20. Airborne Radar Observations of Severe Hailstorms: Implications for Future Spaceborne Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heymsfield, Gerald M.; Tian, Lin; Li, Lihua; McLinden, Matthew; Cervantes, Jaime I.

    2013-01-01

    A new dual-frequency (Ku and Ka band) nadir-pointing Doppler radar on the high-altitude NASA ER-2 aircraft, called the High-Altitude Imaging Wind and Rain Airborne Profiler (HIWRAP), has collected data over severe thunderstorms in Oklahoma and Kansas during the Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E). The overarching motivation for this study is to understand the behavior of the dualwavelength airborne radar measurements in a global variety of thunderstorms and how these may relate to future spaceborne-radar measurements. HIWRAP is operated at frequencies that are similar to those of the precipitation radar on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (Ku band) and the upcoming Global Precipitation Measurement mission satellite's dual-frequency (Ku and Ka bands) precipitation radar. The aircraft measurements of strong hailstorms have been combined with ground-based polarimetric measurements to obtain a better understanding of the response of the Ku- and Ka-band radar to the vertical distribution of the hydrometeors, including hail. Data from two flight lines on 24 May 2011 are presented. Doppler velocities were approx. 39m/s2at 10.7-km altitude from the first flight line early on 24 May, and the lower value of approx. 25m/s on a second flight line later in the day. Vertical motions estimated using a fall speed estimate for large graupel and hail suggested that the first storm had an updraft that possibly exceeded 60m/s for the more intense part of the storm. This large updraft speed along with reports of 5-cm hail at the surface, reflectivities reaching 70 dBZ at S band in the storm cores, and hail signals from polarimetric data provide a highly challenging situation for spaceborne-radar measurements in intense convective systems. The Ku- and Ka-band reflectivities rarely exceed approx. 47 and approx. 37 dBZ, respectively, in these storms.

  1. Study of Movement and Seepage Along Levees Using DINSAR and the Airborne UAVSAR Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Cathleen E.; Bawden, Gerald; Deverel, Steven; Dudas, Joel; Hensley, Scott

    2012-01-01

    We have studied the utility of high resolution SAR (synthetic aperture radar) for levee monitoring using UAVSAR (Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar) data collected along the dikes and levees in California's Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta and along the lower Mississippi River. Our study has focused on detecting and tracking changes that are indicative of potential problem spots, namely deformation of the levees, subsidence along the levee toe, and seepage through the levees, making use of polarimetric and interferometric SAR techniques. Here was present some results of those studies, which show that high resolution, low noise SAR imaging could supplement more traditional ground-based monitoring methods by providing early indicators of seepage and deformation.

  2. Polarimetric studies of comet C/2009 P1 (Garradd)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, H. S.; Medhi, B. J.; Wolf, S.; Bertrang, G.; Deb Roy, P.; Chakraborty, A.

    2013-12-01

    We present the optical imaging polarimetric observations of comet C/2009 P1 (Garradd) at three different phase angles e.g. 28.2°, 28.1° and 21.6°. The observations were carried out using the Inter University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics (IUCAA) Faint Object Spectrograph and Camera mounted on Cassegrain focus of the 2 m telescope of IGO, IUCAA, Pune, in Rcomet, R photometric bands, on 2012 March 21 and 22 and Aryabhatta Research Institute of observational sciencES (ARIES) Imaging Polarimeter mounted on Cassegrain focus of the 1.04 m Sampurnanand Telescope of ARIES, Nainital, in R photometric band, on 2012 May 23. We show the presence of a jet activity in the rotational-gradient-treated image of comet Garradd at phase angle 28.1°. These jets are mainly oriented towards the Sun and extended up to ˜5100 km from the cometary photocentre. The antisolar extension of the jet seems to be fainter, which is extended up to ˜1800 km. It is found that the comet Garradd shows negative polarization at phase angle 21.6°. The degree of polarization derived for Garradd is in good agreement with other comets at nearly similar phase angles e.g. comets 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, 22P/Kopff, 1P/Halley, C/1990 K1 (Levy), 4P/Faye and C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp) at phase angle ˜28°, and 47P/Ashbrook-Jackson at phase angle ˜21.6°, respectively. It is also found that the degree of polarization of dusty coma of comet Garradd at phase angle ˜28° is high but not as high as in the case of comet Hale-Bopp.

  3. Polarimetric Glucose Sensing Using Brewster Reflection off of Eye Lens: Theoretical Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boeckle, Stefan; Rovati, Luigi; Ansari, Rafat R.

    2002-01-01

    An important task of in vivo polarimetric glucose sensing is to find an appropriate way to optically access the aqueous humor of the human eye. In this paper two different approaches are analyzed theoretically and applied to the eye model of Le Grand. First approach is the tangential path of Cote, et al. (G.L. Cot6, M.D. Fox, and R.B. Northrop: Noninvasive Optical Polarimetric Glucose Sensing Using a True Phase Measurement Technique. IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, vol. 39, no. 7, pp. 752-756, 1992.) and the second is a new scheme of this paper of applying Brewster reflection off the eye lens.

  4. Polarimetric radar and aircraft observations of saggy bright bands during MC3E

    DOE PAGES

    Matthew R. Kumjian; Giangrande, Scott E.; Mishra, Subashree; Toto, Tami; Ryzhkov, Alexander V.; Bansemer, Aaron

    2016-03-19

    Polarimetric radar observations increasingly are used to understand cloud microphysical processes, which is critical for improving their representation in cloud and climate models. In particular, there has been recent focus on improving representations of ice collection processes (e.g., aggregation, riming), as these influence precipitation rate, heating profiles, and ultimately cloud life cycles. However, distinguishing these processes using conventional polarimetric radar observations is difficult, as they produce similar fingerprints. This necessitates improved analysis techniques and integration of complementary data sources. Furthermore, the Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E) provided such an opportunity.

  5. HPLC enantiomeric resolution of (+)-cinchonine and (-)-cinchonidine with diode-laser polarimetric detection

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz, A.N.; Sanchez, F.G.; Gallardo, A.A.; Pareja, A.G.

    1996-12-31

    The combination of UV and diode-laser polarimetric detection of chiral molecules offers significant advantages in high performance liquid chromatography. The method described here circumvents the derivatization step and the use of chiral stationary or mobile phases for the resolution of enantiomers. Data acquisition of the polarimeter was performed with AC/DC interface and software Pico ADC-100 coupled to the polarimeter detector. Quantitative methods in the range 1-150 {mu}g and 1-600 {mu}g of (+)-cinchonine and (-)-cinchonidine, respectively, were established. Enantiomeric ratio determined by using UV and diode-laser polarimetric data without chiral separation is discussed. 10 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Improved Model-Based Polarimetric Decomposition Using the POlINSAR Similarity Parameter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latrache, H.; Ouarzeddine, M.; Souissi, B.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we present a new approach to solve the problem of volume scattering ambiguity in urban area, for that we propose a volume model based on the polarimetric interferometric similarity parameter (PISP) . The new model is more adaptive and fits better with both forest and oriented built-up areas. Thereby, a new model-based polarimetric decomposition scheme is developed. To test the performance of the proposed method ESAR PolInSAR L bande data of Oberpfaffenhofen, Germany is used. Comparison experiments show that the proposed method gives good results, since all the oriented built-up areas are well discriminated as double or odd bounce structures.

  7. High-resolution fibre-fed spectrograph for the 6-m telescope. Polarimetric unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukushkin, D. E.; Sazonenko, D. A.; Bakholdin, A. V.; Yushkin, M. V.; Bychkov, V. D.

    2016-04-01

    We report the computation of the design of a polarimetric unit for the optical scheme of the fiberfed high-resolution spectrograph for the 6-m Russian telescope.We discuss a variant of its integration into the design of conversion optics at the input of the fiber path if the instrument and estimate the efficiency of the entire pre-fiber optical system. The luminous efficiency of the assembly is equal to 80 and 90% when operated in the polarimetry and normal spectroscopic modes, respectively.We estimate the lower limit for the distorting instrumental effects of the polarimetric unit.

  8. Polarimetric Ku-Band Scatterometer for High Accuracy, Large Swath Global Wind Vector Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsai, Wu-Yang; Nghiem, Son V.; Huddleston, James; Spencer, Michael; Stiles, Bryan; West, Richard

    2000-01-01

    In the past, wind measurements from space using fan-beam antennas, such as Seasat Scatterometer (SASS-1), ERS-1 &2, and NASA scatterometer (NSCAT), required up to six large stick-like antennas and suffered a nadir gap of up to 400 km. In the near future, a spinning pencil-beam scatterometer system is to be used for the SeaWinds scatterometer on QuikSCAT (QSCAT) and on ADEOS-2 (SeaWinds). This scatterometer, though offering wind measurements in the nadir region, still suffers from degraded performance in the nadir and outer swath. The purpose of this paper is to present an advanced polarimetric spinning pencil-beam scatterometer system, which can significantly improve the wind performance across the entire swath. The polarimetric scatterometer simultaneously measures co-polarized backscatter and the polarimetric correlation of co- and cross-polarized radar returns from the ocean surface. The advantage over the conventional scatterometer system is that, while the co-polarization radar returns are even function of the wind direction, the polarimetric correlation is an odd function of wind direction due to the reflection symmetry of the wind roughened surface. Therefore, this polarimetric scatterometer system can provide additional, equivalent measurements at azimuth angle 45degree away from the corresponding co-polarization measurements. The combined co-polarization and correlation measurements enable good wind performance across the whole swath to be obtained. In this paper, we will first present the theoretical formulation of all of the key components required for designing a polarimetric scatterometer. Then, we show that good wind performance can be achieved by a slight improvement in the signal-to-noise ratio of the current QSCAT/SeaWinds design. We then present the predicated wind performance using computer simulation based on a model function for the co-polarized backscatter obtained from actual spaceborne scatterometer data and an estimated model function for

  9. Estimating Forest Vertical Structure from Multialtitude, Fixed-Baseline Radar Interferometric and Polarimetric Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Treuhaft, Robert N.; Law, Beverly E.; Siqueira, Paul R.

    2000-01-01

    Parameters describing the vertical structure of forests, for example tree height, height-to-base-of-live-crown, underlying topography, and leaf area density, bear on land-surface, biogeochemical, and climate modeling efforts. Single, fixed-baseline interferometric synthetic aperture radar (INSAR) normalized cross-correlations constitute two observations from which to estimate forest vertical structure parameters: Cross-correlation amplitude and phase. Multialtitude INSAR observations increase the effective number of baselines potentially enabling the estimation of a larger set of vertical-structure parameters. Polarimetry and polarimetric interferometry can further extend the observation set. This paper describes the first acquisition of multialtitude INSAR for the purpose of estimating the parameters describing a vegetated land surface. These data were collected over ponderosa pine in central Oregon near longitude and latitude -121 37 25 and 44 29 56. The JPL interferometric TOPSAR system was flown at the standard 8-km altitude, and also at 4-km and 2-km altitudes, in a race track. A reference line including the above coordinates was maintained at 35 deg for both the north-east heading and the return southwest heading, at all altitudes. In addition to the three altitudes for interferometry, one line was flown with full zero-baseline polarimetry at the 8-km altitude. A preliminary analysis of part of the data collected suggests that they are consistent with one of two physical models describing the vegetation: 1) a single-layer, randomly oriented forest volume with a very strong ground return or 2) a multilayered randomly oriented volume; a homogeneous, single-layer model with no ground return cannot account for the multialtitude correlation amplitudes. Below the inconsistency of the data with a single-layer model is followed by analysis scenarios which include either the ground or a layered structure. The ground returns suggested by this preliminary analysis seem

  10. Study of scattering characteristics of lunar equatorial region using Chandrayaan-1 Mini-SAR polarimetric data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saran, Sriram; Das, Anup; Mohan, Shiv; Chakraborty, Manab

    2012-10-01

    The miniaturized synthetic aperture radar Mini-SAR onboard Indian Chandrayaan-1 mission was the first ever lunar orbiting SAR that acquired several data strips covering a wide variety of geological units over lunar equatorial and low latitude regions, some of which were not studied earlier at radar wavelengths. The Mini-SAR observations, complemented by high resolution optical imagery and higher incidence angle radar datasets, were effectively used to create a catalog of SAR backscatter properties of various lunar geological features. The radar backscatter along with the parameters circular polarization ratio (CPR), relative phase (δ) and m (the degree of polarization)-chi (the Poincare ellipticity) decomposition technique were used to study the scattering mechanisms, surface/sub-surface roughness and regional topography of some of the craters and their ejecta fields. The study revealed that the Taylor and Descartes craters in the lunar highlands region were characterized by high backscatter and low CPR values, while the Maunder and Kopff craters in the Mare Orientale basin were characterized by relatively low backscatter and elevated CPR values. The fresh crater Jackson and its ejecta blankets on the lunar far-side showed very high backscatter along with elevated CPR values due to the presence of abundant wavelength-scale scatterers. The radar dark Pyroclastic Orientale ring deposits showed both low backscatter and low CPR values, as reported by previous radar observations of pyroclastic deposits. The elevated CPR values corresponding to the interior and exterior of Santos Dumont crater could be attributed to rough crater walls and regional topography, respectively. Finally, attempt was made to bring out the differences in the origin of two similar-sized craters Taylor and Kopff, with the help of SAR polarimetric parameters. Differences in the CPR values of Mare and highland craters were attributed to the sensitivity of CPR to the ilmenite content and presence of

  11. Plant synthetic biology.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wusheng; Stewart, C Neal

    2015-05-01

    Plant synthetic biology is an emerging field that combines engineering principles with plant biology toward the design and production of new devices. This emerging field should play an important role in future agriculture for traditional crop improvement, but also in enabling novel bioproduction in plants. In this review we discuss the design cycles of synthetic biology as well as key engineering principles, genetic parts, and computational tools that can be utilized in plant synthetic biology. Some pioneering examples are offered as a demonstration of how synthetic biology can be used to modify plants for specific purposes. These include synthetic sensors, synthetic metabolic pathways, and synthetic genomes. We also speculate about the future of synthetic biology of plants.

  12. Airborne Particulate Threat Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Patrick Treado; Oksana Klueva; Jeffrey Beckstead

    2008-12-31

    Aerosol threat detection requires the ability to discern between threat agents and ambient background particulate matter (PM) encountered in the environment. To date, Raman imaging technology has been demonstrated as an effective strategy for the assessment of threat agents in the presence of specific, complex backgrounds. Expanding our understanding of the composition of ambient particulate matter background will improve the overall performance of Raman Chemical Imaging (RCI) detection strategies for the autonomous detection of airborne chemical and biological hazards. Improving RCI detection performance is strategic due to its potential to become a widely exploited detection approach by several U.S. government agencies. To improve the understanding of the ambient PM background with subsequent improvement in Raman threat detection capability, ChemImage undertook the Airborne Particulate Threat Assessment (APTA) Project in 2005-2008 through a collaborative effort with the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), under cooperative agreement number DE-FC26-05NT42594. During Phase 1 of the program, a novel PM classification based on molecular composition was developed based on a comprehensive review of the scientific literature. In addition, testing protocols were developed for ambient PM characterization. A signature database was developed based on a variety of microanalytical techniques, including scanning electron microscopy, FT-IR microspectroscopy, optical microscopy, fluorescence and Raman chemical imaging techniques. An automated particle integrated collector and detector (APICD) prototype was developed for automated collection, deposition and detection of biothreat agents in background PM. During Phase 2 of the program, ChemImage continued to refine the understanding of ambient background composition. Additionally, ChemImage enhanced the APICD to provide improved autonomy, sensitivity and specificity. Deliverables included a Final Report detailing our

  13. [SYNTHETIC PEPTIDE VACCINES].

    PubMed

    Sergeyev, O V; Barinsky, I F

    2016-01-01

    An update on the development and trials of synthetic peptide vaccines is reviewed. The review considers the successful examples of specific protection as a result of immunization with synthetic peptides using various protocols. The importance of conformation for the immunogenicity of the peptide is pointed out. An alternative strategy of the protection of the organism against the infection using synthetic peptides is suggested.

  14. [From synthetic biology to synthetic humankind].

    PubMed

    Nouvel, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an historical survey of the expression "synthetic biology" in order to identify its main philosophical components. The result of the analysis is then used to investigate the meaning of the notion of "synthetic man". It is shown that both notions share a common philosophical background that can be summed up by the short but meaningful assertion: "biology is technology". The analysis allows us to distinguish two notions that are often confused in transhumanist literature: the notion of synthetic man and the notion of renewed man. The consequences of this crucial distinction are discussed.

  15. Estimation of Canopy Water Content in Konza Parry Grasslands Using Synthetic Aperture Radar Measurements During FIFE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saatchi, Sasan S.; van Zyl, Jacob J.; Asrar, Ghassem

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents the development of an algorithm to retrieve the canopy water contents of natural grasslands and pasture from synthetic aperture radar (SAR) measurements. The development on this algorithm involves three interrelated steps: (1) calibration of SAR data for ground topographic variations, (2) development and validation of backscatter model for cross-polarized ratio. The polarimetric radar data acquired by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory AIRSAR system during the 1989 First International Satellite land Surface Climatology Project (ISLSCP) Field Experiment (FIFE) used for this study. The SAR data have been calibrated and corrected for the topographical effects by using the digital elevation map of the study area.

  16. Airborne GLM Simulator (FEGS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quick, M.; Blakeslee, R. J.; Christian, H. J., Jr.; Stewart, M. F.; Podgorny, S.; Corredor, D.

    2015-12-01

    Real time lightning observations have proven to be useful for advanced warning and now-casting of severe weather events. In anticipation of the launch of the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) onboard GOES-R that will provide continuous real time observations of total (both cloud and ground) lightning, the Fly's Eye GLM Simulator (FEGS) is in production. FEGS is an airborne instrument designed to provide cal/val measurements for GLM from high altitude aircraft. It consists of a 5 x 5 array of telescopes each with a narrow passband filter to isolate the 777.4 nm neutral oxygen emission triplet radiated by lightning. The telescopes will measure the optical radiance emitted by lightning that is transmitted through the cloud top with a temporal resolution of 10 μs. When integrated on the NASA ER-2 aircraft, the FEGS array with its 90° field-of-view will observe a cloud top area nearly equal to a single GLM pixel. This design will allow FEGS to determine the temporal and spatial variation of light that contributes to a GLM event detection. In addition to the primary telescope array, the instrument includes 5 supplementary optical channels that observe alternate spectral emission features and will enable the use of FEGS for interesting lightning physics applications. Here we present an up-to-date summary of the project and a description of its scientific applications.

  17. Oil Detection in a Coastal Marsh with Polarimetric SAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramsey, E.; Rangoonwala, A.; Suzuoki, Y.; Bannister, T.

    2011-12-01

    The NASA UAVSAR was deployed June 2010 to support Deep Water Horizon oil spill response activities expressly, oil characterization, oil detection in wetlands, and coastal resource impact detection and recovery. The UAVSAR demonstrated enhanced capability to act rapidly and provide targeted mapping responses. Our research focused on the effectiveness of high spatial resolution and fully polarimetric L-band SAR for mapping oil in wetlands, specifically within Barataria Bay in eastern coastal Louisiana (Fig.). The Bay contained numerous site observations confirming spatially extensive shoreline oil impacts, multiple UAVSAR collections, and a near anniversary 2009 collection. PolSAR oil detection relied on decomposition and subsequent classifications of the single look complex (SLC) scenes. Initial analyses results found that shoreline marsh structural damage accompanied by oil occurrence were exhibited as anomalous features on post-spill SLC flightlines but were not evident on the pre-spill SLC flightline collected in 2009. Pre-spill and post-spill Freeman-Durden (FD) and Cloude-Pottier (CP) decompositions and Wishart classifications seeded with the FD and CP classes (Wishart-FD, Wishart-CP)also highlighted these nearshore features as a change in dominate scatter. In addition, all decompositions and classifications identify a class of interior marshes within the central core of the study region that reproduce spatially extensive changes in backscatter exhibited on the pre-spill and post-spill SLC image comparisons and on all post-spill SLC images. The FD and CP decompositions revealed that the change is associated with a transform of dominant scatter from primarily surface or volume to double or even bounce. As a preponderance of evidence supports the penetration of oil-polluted waters into interior marshes, it is reasonable that marshes exhibiting different backscatter in the pre-spill and post-spill SLC renditions, identify interior marshes exposed to flushing

  18. Analysis of Radarsat-2 Full Polarimetric Data for Forest Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maghsoudi, Yasser

    Forests are a major natural resource of the Earth and control a wide range of environmental processes. Forests comprise a major part of the planet's plant biodiversity and have an important role in the global hydrological and biochemical cycles. Among the numerous potential applications of remote sensing in forestry, forest mapping plays a vital role for characterization of the forest in terms of species. Particularly, in Canada where forests occupy 45% of the territory, representing more than 400 million hectares of the total Canadian continental area. In this thesis, the potential of polarimetric SAR (PolSAR) Radarsat-2 data for forest mapping is investigated. This thesis has two principle objectives. First is to propose algorithms for analyzing the PolSAR image data for forest mapping. There are a wide range of SAR parameters that can be derived from PolSAR data. In order to make full use of the discriminative power offered by all these parameters, two categories of methods are proposed. The methods are based on the concept of feature selection and classifier ensemble. First, a nonparametric definition of the evaluation function is proposed and hence the methods NFS and CBFS. Second, a fast wrapper algorithm is proposed for the evaluation function in feature selection and hence the methods FWFS and FWCBFS. Finally, to incorporate the neighboring pixels information in classification an extension of the FWCBFS method i.e. CCBFS is proposed. The second objective of this thesis is to provide a comparison between leaf-on (summer) and leaf-off (fall) season images for forest mapping. Two Radarsat-2 images acquired in fine quad-polarized mode were chosen for this study. The images were collected in leaf-on and leaf-off seasons. We also test the hypothesis whether combining the SAR parameters obtained from both images can provide better results than either individual datasets. The rationale for this combination is that every dataset has some parameters which may be

  19. Assimilation of Dual-Polarimetric Radar Observations with WRF GSI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Xuanli; Mecikalski, John; Fehnel, Traci; Zavodsky, Bradley; Srikishen, Jayanthi

    2014-01-01

    Dual-polarimetric (dual-pol) radar typically transmits both horizontally and vertically polarized radio wave pulses. From the two different reflected power returns, more accurate estimate of liquid and solid cloud and precipitation can be provided. The upgrade of the traditional NWS WSR-88D radar to include dual-pol capabilities will soon be completed for the entire NEXRAD network. Therefore, the use of dual-pol radar network will have a broad impact in both research and operational communities. The assimilation of dual-pol radar data is especially challenging as few guidelines have been provided by previous research. It is our goal to examine how to best use dual-pol radar data to improve forecast of severe storm and forecast initialization. In recent years, the Development Testbed Center (DTC) has released the community Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation (GSI) DA system for the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. The community GSI system runs in independently environment, yet works functionally equivalent to operational centers. With collaboration with the NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center, this study explores regional assimilation of the dual-pol radar variables from the WSR-88D radars for real case storms. Our presentation will highlight our recent effort on incorporating the horizontal reflectivity (ZH), differential reflectivity (ZDR), specific differential phase (KDP), and radial velocity (VR) data for initializing convective storms, with a significant focus being on an improved representation of hydrometeor fields. In addition, discussion will be provided on the development of enhanced assimilation procedures in the GSI system with respect to dual-pol variables. Beyond the dual-pol variable assimilation procedure developing within a GSI framework, highresolution (=1 km) WRF model simulations and storm scale data assimilation experiments will be examined, emphasizing both model initialization and short-term forecast

  20. Cloud thermodynamic phase detection with polarimetrically sensitive passive sky radiometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knobelspiesse, K.; van Diedenhoven, B.; Marshak, A.; Dunagan, S.; Holben, B.; Slutsker, I.

    2014-12-01

    The primary goal of this project has been to investigate if ground-based visible and near-infrared passive radiometers that have polarization sensitivity can determine the thermodynamic phase of overlying clouds, i.e. if they are comprised of liquid droplets or ice particles. While this knowledge is important by itself for our understanding of the global climate, it can also help improve cloud property retrieval algorithms that use total (unpolarized) radiance to determine Cloud Optical Depth (COD). This is a potentially unexploited capability of some instruments in the NASA Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET), which, if practical, could expand the products of that global instrument network at minimal additional cost. We performed simulations that found, for zenith observations, cloud thermodynamic phase is often expressed in the sign of the Q component of the Stokes polarization vector. We chose our reference frame as the plane containing solar and observation vectors, so the sign of Q indicates the polarization direction, parallel (positive) or perpendicular (negative) to that plane. Since the quantity of polarization is inversely proportional to COD, optically thin clouds are most likely to create a signal greater than instrument noise. Besides COD and instrument accuracy, other important factors for the determination of cloud thermodynamic phase are the solar and observation geometry (scattering angles between 40 and 60° are best), and the properties of ice particles (pristine particles may have halos or other features that make them difficult to distinguish from water droplets at specific scattering angles, while extreme ice crystal aspect ratios polarize more than compact particles). We tested the conclusions of our simulations using data from polarimetrically sensitive versions of the Cimel 318 sun photometer/radiometer that comprise AERONET. Most algorithms that exploit Cimel polarized observations use the Degree of Linear Polarization (DoLP), not the

  1. Asteroid photometric and polarimetric phase curves: Joint linear-exponential modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muinonen, K.; Penttilä, A.; Cellino, A.; Belskaya, I. N.; Delbò, M.; Levasseur-Regourd, A. C.; Tedesco, E. F.

    2009-01-01

    We present Markov-Chain Monte-Carlo methods (MCMC) for the derivation of empirical model parameters for photometric and polarimetric phase curves of asteroids. Here we model the two phase curves jointly at phase angles ˜25° using a linear-exponential model, accounting for the opposition effect in disk-integrated brightness and the negative branch in the degree of linear polarization. We apply the MCMC methods to V-band phase curves of asteroids 419 Aurelia (taxonomic class F), 24 Themis (C), 1 Ceres (G), 20 Massalia (S), 55 Pandora (M), and 64 Angelina (E). We show that the photometric and polarimetric phase curves can be described using a common nonlinear parameter for the angular widths of the opposition effect and negative-polarization branch, thus supporting the hypothesis of common physical mechanisms being responsible for the phenomena. Furthermore, incorporating polarimetric observations removes the indeterminacy of the opposition effect for 1 Ceres. We unveil a trend in the interrelation between the enhancement factor of the opposition effect and the angular width: the enhancement factor decreases with decreasing angular width. The minimum polarization and the polarimetric slope at the inversion angle show systematic trends when plotted against the angular width and the normalized photometric slope parameter. Our new approach allows improved analyses of possible similarities and differences among asteroidal surfaces.

  2. Three-Dimensional Road Network by Fusion of Polarimetric and Interferometric SAR Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gamba, P.; Houshmand, B.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper a fuzzy classification procedure is applied to polarimetric radar measurements, and street pixels are detected. These data are successively grouped into consistent roads by means of a dynamic programming approach based on the fuzzy membership function values. Further fusion of the 2D road network extracted and 3D TOPSAR measurements provides a powerful way to analyze urban infrastructures.

  3. A Model with Ellipsoidal Scatterers for Polarimetric Remote Sensing of Anisotropic Layered Media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nghiem, S. V.; Kwok, R.; Kong, J. A.; Shin, R. T.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents a model with ellipsoidal scatterers for applications to polarimetric remote sensing of anisotropic layered media at microwave frequencies. The physical configuration includes an isotropic layer covering an anisotropic layer above a homogeneous half space. The isotropic layer consists of randomly oriented spheroids. The anisotropic layer contains ellipsoidal scatterers with a preferential vertical alignment and random azimuthal orientations. Effective permittivities of the scattering media are calculated with the strong fluctuation theory extended to account for the nonspherical shapes and the scatterer orientation distributions. On the basis of the analytic wave theory, dyadic Green's functions for layered media are used to derive polarimetric backscattering coefficients under the distorted Born approximation. The ellipsoidal shape of the scatterers gives rise to nonzero cross-polarized returns from the untilted anisotropic medium in the first-order approximation. Effects of rough interfaces are estimated by an incoherent addition method. Theoretical results and experimental data are matched at 9 GHz for thick first-year sea ice with a bare surface and with a snow cover at Point Barrow, Alaska. The model is then used to study the sensitivity of polarimetric backscattering coefficients with respect to correlation lengths representing the geometry of brine inclusions. Polarimetric signatures of bare and snow-covered sea ice are also simulated based on the model to investigate effects of different scattering mechanisms.

  4. Polarimetric X-band weather radar measurements in the tropics: radome and rain attenuation correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneebeli, M.; Sakuragi, J.; Biscaro, T.; Angelis, C. F.; Carvalho da Costa, I.; Morales, C.; Baldini, L.; Machado, L. A. T.

    2012-09-01

    A polarimetric X-band radar has been deployed during one month (April 2011) for a field campaign in Fortaleza, Brazil, together with three additional laser disdrometers. The disdrometers are capable of measuring the raindrop size distributions (DSDs), hence making it possible to forward-model theoretical polarimetric X-band radar observables at the point where the instruments are located. This set-up allows to thoroughly test the accuracy of the X-band radar measurements as well as the algorithms that are used to correct the radar data for radome and rain attenuation. For the campaign in Fortaleza it was found that radome attenuation dominantly affects the measurements. With an algorithm that is based on the self-consistency of the polarimetric observables, the radome induced reflectivity offset was estimated. Offset corrected measurements were then further corrected for rain attenuation with two different schemes. The performance of the post-processing steps was analyzed by comparing the data with disdrometer-inferred polarimetric variables that were measured at a distance of 20 km from the radar. Radome attenuation reached values up to 14 dB which was found to be consistent with an empirical radome attenuation vs. rain intensity relation that was previously developed for the same radar type. In contrast to previous work, our results suggest that radome attenuation should be estimated individually for every view direction of the radar in order to obtain homogenous reflectivity fields.

  5. Total Lightning Observations within Electrified Snowfall using Polarimetric Radar LMA, and NWN Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, Christopher J.; Bruning, Eric C.; Carey, Lawrence D.; Blakeslee, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    Tall structures play and important role in development of winter time lightning flashes.To what extent still needs to be assessed. Tower initiated flashes typically occur as banded structures pass near/overhead. Hi resolution RHI s from polarimetric radar show that the lightning has a tendency to propagate through layered structures within these snowstorms.

  6. Advancement in polarimetric glucose sensing: simulation and measurement of birefringence properties of cornea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malik, Bilal H.; Coté, Gerard L.

    2011-03-01

    Clinical guidelines dictate that frequent blood glucose monitoring in diabetic patients is critical towards proper management of the disease. Although, several different types of glucose monitors are now commercially available, most of these devices are invasive, thereby adversely affecting patient compliance. To this end, optical polarimetric glucose sensing through the eye has been proposed as a potential noninvasive means to aid in the control of diabetes. Arguably, the most critical and limiting factor towards successful application of such a technique is the time varying corneal birefringence due to eye motion artifact. We present a spatially variant uniaxial eye model to serve as a tool towards better understanding of the cornea's birefringence properties. The simulations show that index-unmatched coupling of light is spatially limited to a smaller range when compared to the index-matched situation. Polarimetric measurements on rabbits' eyes indicate relative agreement between the modeled and experimental values of corneal birefringence. In addition, the observed rotation in the plane of polarized light for multiple wavelengths demonstrates the potential for using a dual-wavelength polarimetric approach to overcome the noise due to timevarying corneal birefringence. These results will ultimately aid us in the development of an appropriate eye coupling mechanism for in vivo polarimetric glucose measurements.

  7. Image enhancement of surface micro-structure on mucosa for polarimetric endoscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanamori, Katsuhiro

    2015-03-01

    This paper describes a novel image processing method for endoscopy that enhances the appearance of microstructures on mucosa. The new technique employs two pairs of parallel- and crossed-nicols polarimetric images, from which an averaged subtracted polarization image (AVSPI) is calculated. Experiments were first executed using a manual experimental setup with ring-type lighting, two rotating polarizers and a color camera. A new objective evaluation method that uses texture analysis (GLCM) was developed and applied to evaluation of the enhanced microstructure images. Experiments using excised porcine stomach tissue showed better results than with conventional color intensity image processing. Next, an online rigid-type polarimetric endoscope system using a polarized ring-shaped LED and a special three-CCD color polarimetric camera was developed. The two types of equipment described above are quite different as to extinction ratio values, but show similarly enhanced image quality. Our results show that polarimetric endoscopy is not only effective but also practical for hardware implementation.

  8. Performance comparison of fully adaptive and static passive polarimetric imagers in the presence of intensity and polarization contrast.

    PubMed

    Goudail, François; Boffety, Matthieu

    2016-09-01

    We address the comparison of contrast improvement obtained with a fully adaptive polarimetric imager and the best channel of a static polarimetric imager in the presence of both intensity and polarization differences between the target and the background. We develop an in-depth quantitative study of the performance loss incurred by a static imager compared to a fully adaptive one in this case. These results are useful to make a well-informed choice between these two polarimetric imaging architectures in a given application. PMID:27607513

  9. Airborne Laser Polar Nephelometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grams, Gerald W.

    1973-01-01

    A polar nephelometer has been developed at NCAR to measure the angular variation of the intensity of light scattered by air molecules and particles. The system has been designed for airborne measurements using outside air ducted through a 5-cm diameter airflow tube; the sample volume is that which is common to the intersection of a collimated source beam and the detector field of view within the airflow tube. The source is a linearly polarized helium-neon laser beam. The optical system defines a collimated field-of-view (0.5deg half-angle) through a series of diaphragms located behind a I72-mm focal length objective lens. A photomultiplier tube is located immediately behind an aperture in the focal plane of the objective lens. The laser beam is mechanically chopped (on-off) at a rate of 5 Hz; a two-channel pulse counter, synchronized to the laser output, measures the photomultiplier pulse rate with the light beam both on and off. The difference in these measured pulse rates is directly proportional to the intensity of the scattered light from the volume common to the intersection of the laser beam and the detector field-of-view. Measurements can be made at scattering angles from 15deg to 165deg with reference to the direction of propagation of the light beam. Intermediate angles are obtained by selecting the angular increments desired between these extreme angles (any multiple of 0.1deg can be selected for the angular increment; 5deg is used in normal operation). Pulses provided by digital circuits control a stepping motor which sequentially rotates the detector by pre-selected angular increments. The synchronous photon-counting system automatically begins measurement of the scattered-light intensity immediately after the rotation to a new angle has been completed. The instrument has been flown on the NASA Convair 990 airborne laboratory to obtain data on the complex index of refraction of atmospheric aerosols. A particle impaction device is operated simultaneously

  10. Kernel-machine-based classification in multi-polarimetric SAR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Middelmann, Wolfgang; Ebert, Alfons; Thoennessen, Ulrich

    2005-05-01

    The focus of this paper is the classification of military vehicles in multi-polarimetric high-resolution spotlight SAR images in an ATR framework. Kernel machines as robust classification methods are the basis of our approach. A novel kernel machine the Relevance Vector Machine with integrated Generator (RVMG) controlling the trade-off between classification quality and computational effort is used. It combines the high classification quality of the Support Vector Machine by margin maximization and the low effort of the Relevance Vector Machine caused by the special statistical approach. Moreover multi-class classification capability is given by an efficient decision heuristic, an adaptive feature extraction based on Fourier coefficients allows the module to do real time execution, and a parameterized reject criterion is proposed in this paper. Investigations with a nine class data set from QinetiQ deal with fully polarimetric SAR data. The objective is to assess polarimetric features in combination with several kernel machines. Tests approve the high potential of RVMG. Moreover it is shown that polarimetric features can improve the classification quality for hard targets. Among these the simple energy based features prove more favorable than complex ones. Especially the two coplanar polarizations embody the essential information, but a better generalizability is caused by using all four channels. An important property of a classifier used in the ATR framework is the capability to reject objects not belonging to any of the trained classes. Therefore the QinetiQ data are divided into four training classes and five classes of confusion objects. The classification module with reject criterion is controlled by the reject parameter and the kernel parameter. Both parameters are varied to determine ROC curves related to different polarimetric features.

  11. Hydrometeor classification through statistical clustering of polarimetric radar measurements: a semi-supervised approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besic, Nikola; Ventura, Jordi Figueras i.; Grazioli, Jacopo; Gabella, Marco; Germann, Urs; Berne, Alexis

    2016-09-01

    Polarimetric radar-based hydrometeor classification is the procedure of identifying different types of hydrometeors by exploiting polarimetric radar observations. The main drawback of the existing supervised classification methods, mostly based on fuzzy logic, is a significant dependency on a presumed electromagnetic behaviour of different hydrometeor types. Namely, the results of the classification largely rely upon the quality of scattering simulations. When it comes to the unsupervised approach, it lacks the constraints related to the hydrometeor microphysics. The idea of the proposed method is to compensate for these drawbacks by combining the two approaches in a way that microphysical hypotheses can, to a degree, adjust the content of the classes obtained statistically from the observations. This is done by means of an iterative approach, performed offline, which, in a statistical framework, examines clustered representative polarimetric observations by comparing them to the presumed polarimetric properties of each hydrometeor class. Aside from comparing, a routine alters the content of clusters by encouraging further statistical clustering in case of non-identification. By merging all identified clusters, the multi-dimensional polarimetric signatures of various hydrometeor types are obtained for each of the studied representative datasets, i.e. for each radar system of interest. These are depicted by sets of centroids which are then employed in operational labelling of different hydrometeors. The method has been applied on three C-band datasets, each acquired by different operational radar from the MeteoSwiss Rad4Alp network, as well as on two X-band datasets acquired by two research mobile radars. The results are discussed through a comparative analysis which includes a corresponding supervised and unsupervised approach, emphasising the operational potential of the proposed method.

  12. Investigation of Polarimetric and Electrical Characteristics of Natural and Triggered Lightning Strikes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyland, P. T.; Biggerstaff, M. I.; Uman, M. A.; Jordan, D. M.; Hill, J. D.; Pilkey, J. T.; Ngin, T.; Blakeslee, R. J.; Krehbiel, P. R.; Rison, W.; Winn, W. P.; Eack, K.; Trueblood, J.; Edens, H. E.

    2013-12-01

    For the past three summers, the University of Oklahoma has deployed three mobile, polarimetric radars to the International Center for Lightning Research and Testing (ICLRT) at Camp Blanding, Florida and Langmuir Laboratory near Socorro, New Mexico for the purpose of investigating the relationship between cloud structure and the propagation of triggered and natural lightning channels. This presentation will highlight observations from select natural and triggered events at these two facilities. During the summer of 2012, University of Oklahoma radar operators made a launch recommendation to the ICLRT during the passage of Tropical Storm Debby over northeast Florida that resulted in a successful triggered flash with 11 return strokes. The trigger was attempted as precipitation streamers within the stratiform rainbands of Tropical Storm Debby approached the launch site. According to the National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN), there were no reported natural cloud-to-ground (CG) flashes within 60 km of the ICLRT 20 hours before and eight hours after the triggered flash. The recommendation was made based on previous analyses of the storm structure of trigger attempts from the ICLRT that indicated the coincidence of several successful triggers with descending regions of enhanced radar reflectivity, or descending precipitation packets (DePPs). Polarimetric data from the frequency-agile Rapid-scanning X-band Polarimetric (RaXPol) radar as well as data from the lightning mapping array (LMA) and electric field meter (EFM) networks from the ICLRT for this event will be presented. Past analyses also revealed ice alignment signatures in differential phase and specific differential phase as strong electric fields near the top of electrified clouds cause small ice particles to become vertically aligned. These signatures are especially noticeable for circularly polarized radars. Polarimetric data from the Shared Mobile Atmospheric Research & Teaching (SMART) radar and Ra

  13. Polarimetric survey of main-belt asteroids⋆. III. Results for 33 X-type objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cañada-Assandri, M.; Gil-Hutton, R.; Benavidez, P.

    2012-06-01

    Aims: We present results of a polarimetric survey of main-belt asteroids at Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito (Casleo), San Juan, Argentina. The aims of this survey are to increase the database of asteroid polarimetry, to estimate diversity in polarimetric properties of asteroids that belong to different taxonomic classes, and to search for objects that exhibit anomalous polarimetric properties. Methods: The data were obtained with the Torino and CASPROF polarimeters at the 2.15 m telescope. The Torino polarimeter is an instrument that allows the simultaneous measurement of polarization in five different bands, and the CASPROF polarimeter is a two-hole aperture polarimeter with rapid modulation. Results: The survey began in 2003, and up to 2009 data of a sample of more than 170 asteroids were obtained. In this paper the results for 33 X-type objects are presented, several of them are being polarimetrically observed for the first time. Using these data we found polarization curves and polarimetric parameters for different groups among this taxonomic class and that there are objects with very different albedo in the sub-classes of the X taxonomic complex. Based on observations carried out at the Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito, operated under agreement between the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas de la República Argentina and the National Universities of La Plata, Córdoba, and San Juan.Table 1 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/542/A11

  14. Towards automated mapping of lake ice using RADARSAT-2 and simulated RCM compact polarimetric data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duguay, Claude

    2016-04-01

    The Canadian Ice Service (CIS) produces a weekly ice fraction product (a text file with a single lake-wide ice fraction value, in tenth, estimated for about 140 large lakes across Canada and northern United States) created from the visual interpretation of RADARSAT-2 ScanSAR dual-polarization (HH and HV) imagery, complemented by optical satellite imagery (AVHRR, MODIS and VIIRS). The weekly ice product is generated in support of the Canadian Meteorological Centre (CMC) needs for lake ice coverage in their operational numerical weather prediction model. CIS is interested in moving from its current (manual) way of generating the ice fraction product to a largely automated process. With support from the Canadian Space Agency, a project was recently initiated to assess the potential of polarimetric SAR data for lake ice cover mapping in light of the upcoming RADARSAT Constellation Mission (to be launched in 2018). The main objectives of the project are to evaluate: 1) state-of-the-art image segmentation algorithms and 2) RADARSAT-2 polarimetric and simulated RADARSAT Constellation Mission (RCM) compact polarimetric SAR data for ice/open water discrimination. The goal is to identify the best segmentation algorithm and non-polarimetric/polarimetric parameters for automated lake ice monitoring at CIS. In this talk, we will present the background and context of the study as well as initial results from the analysis of RADARSAT-2 Standard Quad-Pol data acquired during the break-up and freeze-up periods of 2015 on Great Bear Lake, Northwest Territories.

  15. Neural Networks algorithm development for polarimetric observations of above cloud aerosols (ACA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segal-Rosenhaimer, M.; Knobelspiesse, K. D.; Redemann, J.

    2015-12-01

    The direct and indirect radiative effects of above clouds aerosols (ACA) are still highly uncertain in current climate assessments. Much of this uncertainty is observational as most orbital remote sensing algorithms were not designed to simultaneously retrieve aerosol and cloud optical properties. Recently, several algorithms have been developed to infer ACA loading and properties using passive, single view angle instruments (OMI, MODIS). Yet, these are not operational and still require rigorous validation. Multiangle polarimetric instruments like POLDER, and RSP show promise for detection and quantification of ACA. However, the retrieval methods for polarimetric measurements entail some drawbacks such as assuming homogeneity of the underlying cloud field for POLDER and retrieved cloud effective radii as an input into RSP scheme. In addition, these methods require computationally expensive RT calculations, which precludes real-time polarimetric data analysis during field campaigns. Here we describe the development of a new algorithm to retrieve atmospheric aerosol and cloud optical properties from observations by polarimetrically sensitive instruments using Neural Networks (NN), which are computationally efficient and fast enough to produce results in the field. This algorithm is specific for ACA, and developed primarily to support the ORACLES (ObseRvations of Aerosols above CLouds and their intEractionS) campaign, which will acquire measurements of ACA in the South-East Atlantic Ocean during episodes of absorbing aerosols above Stratocumulus cloud decks in 2016-18. The algorithm will use a trained NN scheme for concurrent cloud and aerosol microphysical property retrievals that will be input to optimal estimation method. We will discuss the overall retrieval scheme, focusing on the input variables. Specifically, we use principle component analysis (PCA) to examine the information content available to describe the simulated cloud scenes (with adequate noise

  16. First Results from an Airborne Ka-Band SAR Using SweepSAR and Digital Beamforming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadowy, Gregory A.; Ghaemi, Hirad; Hensley, Scott C.

    2012-01-01

    SweepSAR is a wide-swath synthetic aperture radar technique that is being studied for application on the future Earth science radar missions. This paper describes the design of an airborne radar demonstration that simulates an 11-m L-band (1.2-1.3 GHz) reflector geometry at Ka-band (35.6 GHz) using a 40-cm reflector. The Ka-band SweepSAR Demonstration system was flown on the NASA DC-8 airborne laboratory and used to study engineering performance trades and array calibration for SweepSAR configurations. We present an instrument and experiment overview, instrument calibration and first results.

  17. Airborne laser topographic mapping results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krabill, W. B.; Collins, J. G.; Link, L. E.; Swift, R. N.; Butler, M. L.

    1984-01-01

    The results of terrain mapping experiments utilizing the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Airborne Oceanographic Lidar (AOL) over forested areas are presented. The flight tests were conducted as part of a joint NASA/U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (CE) investigation aimed at evaluating the potential of an airborne laser ranging system to provide cross-sectional topographic data on flood plains that are difficult and expensive to survey using conventional techniques. The data described in this paper were obtained in the Wolf River Basin located near Memphis, TN. Results from surveys conducted under winter 'leaves off' and summer 'leaves on' conditions, aspects of day and night operation, and data obtained from decidous and coniferous tree types are compared. Data processing techniques are reviewed. Conclusions relative to accuracy and present limitations of the AOL, and airborne lidar systems in general, to terrain mapping over forested areas are discussed.

  18. An airborne isothermal haze chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hindman, E. E.

    1981-01-01

    Thermal gradient diffusion cloud chambers (TGDCC) are used to determine the concentrations of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) with critical supersaturations greater than or equal to about 0.2%. The CCN concentrations measured with the airborne IHC were lower than theoretically predicted by factors ranging between 7.9 and 9.0. The CCN concentrations measured with the airborne IHC were lower than the concentrations measured with the larger laboratory IHC's by factors ranging between 3.9 and 7.5. The bounds of the supersaturation ranges of the airborne IHC and the CSU-Mee TGDCC do not overlap. Nevertheless, the slopes of the interpolated data between the bounds agree favorably with the theoretical slopes.

  19. WESTERN AIRBORNE CONTAMINANTS ASSESSMENT PROJECT RESEARCH PLAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of the Western Airborne Contaminants Assessment Project (WACAP) is to assess the deposition of airborne contaminants in Western National Parks, providing regional and local information on exposure, accumulation, impacts, and probable sources. This project is being desig...

  20. Evolvable synthetic neural system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curtis, Steven A. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An evolvable synthetic neural system includes an evolvable neural interface operably coupled to at least one neural basis function. Each neural basis function includes an evolvable neural interface operably coupled to a heuristic neural system to perform high-level functions and an autonomic neural system to perform low-level functions. In some embodiments, the evolvable synthetic neural system is operably coupled to one or more evolvable synthetic neural systems in a hierarchy.

  1. Synthetic cathinone abuse

    PubMed Central

    Capriola, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The abuse of synthetic cathinones, widely known as bath salts, has been increasing since the mid-2000s. These substances are derivatives of the naturally occurring compound cathinone, which is the primary psychoactive component of khat. The toxicity of synthetic cathinones includes significant sympathomimetic effects, as well as psychosis, agitation, aggression, and sometimes violent and bizarre behavior. Mephedrone and methylenedioxypyrovalerone are currently the predominantly abused synthetic cathinones. PMID:23869180

  2. [SYNTHETIC PEPTIDE VACCINES].

    PubMed

    Sergeyev, O V; Barinsky, I F

    2016-01-01

    An update on the development and trials of synthetic peptide vaccines is reviewed. The review considers the successful examples of specific protection as a result of immunization with synthetic peptides using various protocols. The importance of conformation for the immunogenicity of the peptide is pointed out. An alternative strategy of the protection of the organism against the infection using synthetic peptides is suggested. PMID:27145593

  3. Airborne Transmission of Bordetella pertussis

    PubMed Central

    Warfel, Jason M.; Beren, Joel; Merkel, Tod J.

    2012-01-01

    Pertussis is a contagious, acute respiratory illness caused by the bacterial pathogen Bordetella pertussis. Although it is widely believed that transmission of B. pertussis occurs via aerosolized respiratory droplets, no controlled study has ever documented airborne transmission of pertussis. We set out to determine if airborne transmission occurs between infected and naive animals, utilizing the baboon model of pertussis. Our results showed that 100% of exposed naive animals became infected even when physical contact was prevented, demonstrating that pertussis transmission occurs via aerosolized respiratory droplets. PMID:22807521

  4. Cloud thermodynamic phase detection with polarimetrically sensitive passive sky radiometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knobelspiesse, K.; van Diedenhoven, B.; Marshak, A.; Dunagan, S.; Holben, B.; Slutsker, I.

    2015-03-01

    The primary goal of this project has been to investigate if ground-based visible and near-infrared passive radiometers that have polarization sensitivity can determine the thermodynamic phase of overlying clouds, i.e., if they are comprised of liquid droplets or ice particles. While this knowledge is important by itself for our understanding of the global climate, it can also help improve cloud property retrieval algorithms that use total (unpolarized) radiance to determine cloud optical depth (COD). This is a potentially unexploited capability of some instruments in the NASA Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET), which, if practical, could expand the products of that global instrument network at minimal additional cost. We performed simulations that found, for zenith observations, that cloud thermodynamic phase is often expressed in the sign of the Q component of the Stokes polarization vector. We chose our reference frame as the plane containing solar and observation vectors, so the sign of Q indicates the polarization direction, parallel (positive) or perpendicular (parallel) to that plane. Since the fraction of linearly polarized to total light is inversely proportional to COD, optically thin clouds are most likely to create a signal greater than instrument noise. Besides COD and instrument accuracy, other important factors for the determination of cloud thermodynamic phase are the solar and observation geometry (scattering angles between 40 and 60° are best), and the properties of ice particles (pristine particles may have halos or other features that make them difficult to distinguish from water droplets at specific scattering angles, while extreme ice crystal aspect ratios polarize more than compact particles). We tested the conclusions of our simulations using data from polarimetrically sensitive versions of the Cimel 318 sun photometer/radiometer that compose a portion of AERONET. Most algorithms that exploit Cimel polarized observations use the degree of

  5. Polarimetric Models of Circumstellar Discs Including Aggregate Dust Grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohan, Mahesh

    The work conducted in this thesis examines the nature of circumstellar discs by investigating irradiance and polarization of scattered light. Two circumstellar discs are investigated. Firstly, H-band high contrast imaging data on the transitional disc of the Herbig Ae/Be star HD169142 are presented. The images were obtained through the polarimetric differential imaging (PDI) technique on the Very Large Telescope (VLT) using the adaptive optics system NACO. Our observations use longer exposure times, allowing us to examine the edges of the disc. Analysis of the observations shows distinct signs of polarization due to circumstellar material, but due to excessive saturation and adaptive optics errors further information on the disc could not be inferred. The HD169142 disc is then modelled using the 3D radiative transfer code Hyperion. Initial models were constructed using a two disc structure, however recent PDI has shown the existence of an annular gap. In addition to this the annular gap is found not to be devoid of dust. This then led to the construction of a four-component disc structure. Estimates of the mass of dust in the gap (2.10E-6 Msun) are made as well as for the planet (1.53E-5 Msun (0.016 Mjupiter)) suspected to be responsible for causing the gap. The predicted polarization was also estimated for the disc, peaking at ~14 percent. The use of realistic dust grains (ballistic aggregate particles) in Monte Carlo code is also examined. The fortran code DDSCAT is used to calculate the scattering properties for aggregates which are used to replace the spherical grain models used by the radiative transfer code Hyperion. Currently, Hyperion uses four independent elements to define the scattering matrix, therefore the use of rotational averaging and a 50/50 percent population of grains and their enantiomers were explored to reduce the number of contributing scattering elements from DDSCAT. A python script was created to extract the scattering data from the DDSCAT

  6. Construction of Polarimetric Radar-Based Reference Rain Maps for the Iowa Flood Studies Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersen, Walt; Krajewski, Witek; Wolff, David; Gatlin, Patrick

    2015-04-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission Iowa Flood Studies (IFloodS) campaign was conducted in central and northeastern Iowa during the months of April-June, 2013. Specific science objectives for IFloodS included quantification of uncertainties in satellite and ground-based estimates of precipitation, 4-D characterization of precipitation physical processes and associated parameters (e.g., size distributions, water contents, types, structure etc.), assessment of the impact of precipitation estimation uncertainty and physical processes on hydrologic predictive skill, and refinement of field observations and data analysis approaches as they pertain to future GPM integrated hydrologic validation and related field studies. In addition to field campaign archival of raw and processed satellite data (including precipitation products), key ground-based platforms such as the NASA NPOL S-band and D3R Ka/Ku-band dual-polarimetric radars, University of Iowa X-band dual-polarimetric radars, a large network of paired rain gauge platforms, and a large network of 2D Video and Parsivel disdrometers were deployed. In something of a canonical approach, the radar (NPOL in particular), gauge and disdrometer observational assets were deployed to create a consistent high-quality distributed (time and space sampling) radar-based ground "reference" rainfall dataset, with known uncertainties, that could be used for assessing the satellite-based precipitation products at a range of space/time scales. Subsequently, the impact of uncertainties in the satellite products could be evaluated relative to the ground-benchmark in coupled weather, land-surface and distributed hydrologic modeling frameworks as related to flood prediction. Relative to establishing the ground-based "benchmark", numerous avenues were pursued in the making and verification of IFloodS "reference" dual-polarimetric radar-based rain maps, and this study documents the process and results as they pertain specifically

  7. Construction of Polarimetric Radar-Based Reference Rain Maps for the Iowa Flood Studies Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petersen, Walter; Wolff, David; Krajewski, Witek; Gatlin, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission Iowa Flood Studies (IFloodS) campaign was conducted in central and northeastern Iowa during the months of April-June, 2013. Specific science objectives for IFloodS included quantification of uncertainties in satellite and ground-based estimates of precipitation, 4-D characterization of precipitation physical processes and associated parameters (e.g., size distributions, water contents, types, structure etc.), assessment of the impact of precipitation estimation uncertainty and physical processes on hydrologic predictive skill, and refinement of field observations and data analysis approaches as they pertain to future GPM integrated hydrologic validation and related field studies. In addition to field campaign archival of raw and processed satellite data (including precipitation products), key ground-based platforms such as the NASA NPOL S-band and D3R Ka/Ku-band dual-polarimetric radars, University of Iowa X-band dual-polarimetric radars, a large network of paired rain gauge platforms, and a large network of 2D Video and Parsivel disdrometers were deployed. In something of a canonical approach, the radar (NPOL in particular), gauge and disdrometer observational assets were deployed to create a consistent high-quality distributed (time and space sampling) radar-based ground "reference" rainfall dataset, with known uncertainties, that could be used for assessing the satellite-based precipitation products at a range of space/time scales. Subsequently, the impact of uncertainties in the satellite products could be evaluated relative to the ground-benchmark in coupled weather, land-surface and distributed hydrologic modeling frameworks as related to flood prediction. Relative to establishing the ground-based "benchmark", numerous avenues were pursued in the making and verification of IFloodS "reference" dual-polarimetric radar-based rain maps, and this study documents the process and results as they pertain specifically

  8. Application of a New Polarimetric Filter to RADARSAT-2 Data of Deception Island (antarctic Peninsula Region) for Surface Cover Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillaso, S.; Schmid, T.; Lopez-Martinez, J.; D'Hondt, O.

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, we describe a new approach to analyse and quantify land surface covers on Deception Island, a volcanic island located in the Northern Antarctic Peninsula region by means of fully polarimetric RADARSAT-2 (C-Band) SAR image. Data have been filtered by a new polarimetric speckle filter (PolSAR-BLF) that is based on the bilateral filter. This filter is locally adapted to the spatial structure of the image by relying on pixel similarities in both the spatial and the radiometric domains. Thereafter different polarimetric features have been extracted and selected before being geocoded. These polarimetric parameters serve as a basis for a supervised classification using the Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier. Finally, a map of landform is generated based on the result of the SVM results.

  9. NASA Airborne Lidar 1982-1984 Flights

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-05-26

    NASA Airborne Lidar 1982-1984 Flights Data from the 1982 NASA Langley Airborne Lidar flights following the eruption of El Chichon ... continuing to January 1984. Transcribed from the following NASA Tech Reports: McCormick, M. P., and M. T. Osborn, Airborne lidar ...

  10. Imager-to-Radiometer In-flight Cross Calibration: RSP Radiometric Comparison with Airborne and Satellite Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCorkel, Joel; Cairns, Brian; Wasilewski, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    This work develops a method to compare the radiometric calibration between a radiometer and imagers hosted on aircraft and satellites. The radiometer is the airborne Research Scanning Polarimeter (RSP), which takes multi-angle, photo-polarimetric measurements in several spectral channels. The RSP measurements used in this work were coincident with measurements made by the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS), which was on the same aircraft. These airborne measurements were also coincident with an overpass of the Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI). First we compare the RSP and OLI radiance measurements to AVIRIS since the spectral response of the multispectral instruments can be used to synthesize a spectrally equivalent signal from the imaging spectrometer data. We then explore a method that uses AVIRIS as a transfer between RSP and OLI to show that radiometric traceability of a satellite-based imager can be used to calibrate a radiometer despite differences in spectral channel sensitivities. This calibration transfer shows agreement within the uncertainty of both the various instruments for most spectral channels.

  11. Dark SPOT Detection Using Intensity and the Degree of Polarization in Fully Polarimetric SAR Images for Oil Polution Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakeri, F.; Amini, J.

    2015-12-01

    Oil spill surveillance is of great environmental and economical interest, directly contributing to improve environmental protection. Monitoring of oil spills using synthetic aperture radar (SAR) has received a considerable attention over the past few years, notably because of SAR data abilities like all-weather and day-and-night capturing. The degree of polarization (DoP) is a less computationally complex quantity characterizing a partially polarized electromagnetic field. The key to the proposed approach is making use of DoP as polarimetric information besides intensity ones to improve dark patches detection as the first step of oil spill monitoring. In the proposed approach first simple intensity threshold segmentation like Otsu method is applied to the image. Pixels with intensities below the threshold are regarded as potential dark spot pixels while the others are potential background pixels. Second, the DoP of potential dark spot pixels is estimated. Pixels with DoP below a certain threshold are the real dark-spot pixels. Choosing the threshold is a critical and challenging step. In order to solve choosing the appropriate threshold, we introduce a novel but simple method based on DoP of potential dark spot pixels. Finally, an area threshold is used to eliminate any remaining false targets. The proposed approach is tested on L band NASA/JPL UAVSAR data, covering the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico. Comparing the obtained results from the new method with conventional approaches like Otsu, K-means and GrowCut shows better achievement of the proposed algorithm. For instance, mean square error (MSE) 65%, Overall Accuracy 20% and correlation 40% are improved.

  12. Airborne Imagery Collections Barrow 2013

    DOE Data Explorer

    Cherry, Jessica; Crowder, Kerri

    2015-07-20

    The data here are orthomosaics, digital surface models (DSMs), and individual frames captured during low altitude airborne flights in 2013 at the Barrow Environmental Observatory. The orthomosaics, thermal IR mosaics, and DSMs were generated from the individual frames using Structure from Motion techniques.

  13. Airborne fungi--a resurvey

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, G.H.; Prince, H.E.; Raymer, W.J.

    1983-07-01

    A 15-month survey of airborne fungi at 14 geographical stations was conducted to determine the incidence of different fungal genera. Five of these stations were surveyed 25 years earlier. A comparison between previous studies and present surveys revealed similar organisms at each station with slight shifts in frequency of dominant genera.

  14. Tropospheric and Airborne Emission Spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glavich, Thomas; Beer, Reinhard

    1996-01-01

    X This paper describes the development of two related instruments, the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) and the Airborne Emission Spectrometer (AES). Both instruments are infrared imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometers, used for measuring the state of the lower atmosphere, and in particular the measurement of ozone and ozone sources and sinks.

  15. Airborne chemicals and forest health

    SciTech Connect

    Woodman, J.N.; Cowling, E.B.

    1987-02-01

    Over the past few years the possible contribution of acid rain to the problem of forest decline has been a cause of increasing public concern. Research has begun to determine whether airborne chemicals are causing or contributing to visible damage and mortality in eastern spruce-fir and sugar maple forests and to changes in tree growth, usually without visible symptoms, in other parts of North America. This paper describes some of the complex biological relationships that determine health and productivity of forests and that make it difficult to distinguish effects of airborne chemicals from effects of natural stress. It describes four major research approaches for assessment of the effects of airborne chemicals on forests, and it summarizes current understanding of the known and possible effects of airborne chemicals on forest trees in North America and Europe. It also briefly describes the major air quality and forest health research programs in North America, and it assesses how ell these programs are likely to meet information needs during the coming decade. 69 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

  16. Airborne asbestos in public buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Chesson, J.; Hatfield, J.; Schultz, B.; Dutrow, E.; Blake, J. )

    1990-02-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency sampled air in 49 government-owned buildings (six buildings with no asbestos-containing material, six buildings with asbestos-containing material in generally good condition, and 37 buildings with damaged asbestos-containing material). This is the most comprehensive study to date of airborne asbestos levels in U.S. public buildings during normal building activities. The air outside each building was also sampled. Air samples were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy using a direct transfer preparation technique. The results show an increasing trend in average airborne asbestos levels; outdoor levels are lowest and levels in buildings with damaged asbestos-containing material are highest. However, the measured levels and the differences between indoors and outdoors and between building categories are small in absolute magnitude. Comparable studies from Canada and the UK, although differing in their estimated concentrations, also conclude that while airborne asbestos levels may be elevated in buildings that contain asbestos, levels are generally low. This conclusion does not eliminate the possibility of higher airborne asbestos levels during maintenance or renovation that disturbs the asbestos-containing material.

  17. Variable Synthetic Capacitance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleinberg, L. L.

    1986-01-01

    Feedback amplifier circuit synthesizes electronically variable capacitance. Variable Synthetic Capacitor is amplifier circuit with follower/feedback configuration. Effective input capacitance depends on input set current. If synthetic capacitor is connected across resonant element of oscillator, oscillator frequency controlled via input set current. Circuit especially suitable for fine frequency adjustments of piezoelectric-crystal or inductor/capacitor resonant oscillators.

  18. Routing architecture and security for airborne networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Hongmei; Xie, Peng; Li, Jason; Xu, Roger; Levy, Renato

    2009-05-01

    Airborne networks are envisioned to provide interconnectivity for terrestial and space networks by interconnecting highly mobile airborne platforms. A number of military applications are expected to be used by the operator, and all these applications require proper routing security support to establish correct route between communicating platforms in a timely manner. As airborne networks somewhat different from traditional wired and wireless networks (e.g., Internet, LAN, WLAN, MANET, etc), security aspects valid in these networks are not fully applicable to airborne networks. Designing an efficient security scheme to protect airborne networks is confronted with new requirements. In this paper, we first identify a candidate routing architecture, which works as an underlying structure for our proposed security scheme. And then we investigate the vulnerabilities and attack models against routing protocols in airborne networks. Based on these studies, we propose an integrated security solution to address routing security issues in airborne networks.

  19. Detection of foliage-obscured vehicle using a multiwavelength polarimetric lidar

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tan, S.; Stoker, J.; Greenlee, S.

    2008-01-01

    Foliage obscured man-made targets detection and identification is of great interest to many applications. In this paper, the backscattered laser signals from a multiwavelength polarimetric lidar were used to detect a vehicle hidden inside a vegetated area. The Polarimetric reflectance data from the lidar at two separate laser wavelengths at 1064 nm and 532 nm revealed distinct target characteristics from both the vehicle and the vegetation. The results from this case study demonstrated the validity of the proposed lidar detection technique. Furthermore, the results could potentially lead to a lidar detection and identification technique for a wide variety of foliage-obscured man-made targets under various application scenarios. ?? 2007 IEEE.

  20. Spectral polarimetric light-scattering by particulate media: 1. Theory of spectral Vector Radiative Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceolato, Romain; Riviere, Nicolas

    2016-07-01

    Spectral polarimetric light-scattering by particulate media has recently attracted growing interests for various applications due to the production of directional broadband light sources. Here the spectral polarimetric light-scattering signatures of particulate media are simulated using a numerical model based on the spectral Vector Radiative Transfer Equation (VRTE). A microphysical analysis is conducted to understand the dependence of the light-scattering signatures upon the microphysical parameters of particles. We reveal that depolarization from multiple scattering results in remarkable spectral and directional features, which are simulated by our model over a wide spectral range from visible to near-infrared. We propose to use these features to improve the inversion of the scattering problem in the fields of remote sensing, astrophysics, material science, or biomedical.

  1. Polarimetric imaging and retrieval of target polarization characteristics in underwater environment.

    PubMed

    Gu, Yalong; Carrizo, Carlos; Gilerson, Alexander A; Brady, Parrish C; Cummings, Molly E; Twardowski, Michael S; Sullivan, James M; Ibrahim, Amir I; Kattawar, George W

    2016-01-20

    Polarized light fields contain more information than simple irradiance and such capabilities provide an advanced tool for underwater imaging. The concept of the beam spread function (BSF) for analysis of scalar underwater imaging was extended to a polarized BSF which considers polarization. The following studies of the polarized BSF in an underwater environment through Monte Carlo simulations and experiments led to a simplified underwater polarimetric imaging model. With the knowledge acquired in the analysis of the polarimetric imaging formation process of a manmade underwater target with known polarization properties, a method to extract the inherent optical properties of the water and to retrieve polarization characteristics of the target was explored. The proposed method for retrieval of underwater target polarization characteristics should contribute to future efforts to reveal the underlying mechanism of polarization camouflage possessed by marine animals and finally to generalize guidelines for creating engineered surfaces capable of similar polarization camouflage abilities in an underwater environment. PMID:26835939

  2. Polarimetric Decomposition Analysis of the Deepwater Horizon Oil Slick Using L-Band UAVSAR Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Cathleen; Minchew, Brent; Holt, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    We report here an analysis of the polarization dependence of L-band radar backscatter from the main slick of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, with specific attention to the utility of polarimetric decomposition analysis for discrimination of oil from clean water and identification of variations in the oil characteristics. For this study we used data collected with the UAVSAR instrument from opposing look directions directly over the main oil slick. We find that both the Cloude-Pottier and Shannon entropy polarimetric decomposition methods offer promise for oil discrimination, with the Shannon entropy method yielding the same information as contained in the Cloude-Pottier entropy and averaged in tensity parameters, but with significantly less computational complexity

  3. Total Lightning Observations within Electrified Snowfall using Polarimetric Radar, LMA, and NLDN Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, Christopher J.; Carey, Lawerence D.; Brunning, Eric C.; Blakeslee, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Four electrified snowfall cases are examined using total lightning measurements from lightning mapping arrays (LMAs), and the National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN) from Huntsville, AL and Washington D.C. In each of these events, electrical activity was in conjunction with heavy snowfall rates, sometimes exceeding 5-8 cm hr-1. A combination of LMA, and NLDN data also indicate that many of these flashes initiated from tall communications towers and traveled over large horizontal distances. During events near Huntsville, AL, the Advanced Radar for Meteorological and Operational Research (ARMOR) C-band polarimetric radar was collecting range height indicators (RHIs) through regions of heavy snowfall. The combination of ARMOR polarimetric radar and VHF LMA observations suggested contiguous layer changes in height between sloping aggregate-dominated layers and horizontally-oriented crystals. These layers may have provided ideal conditions for the development of extensive regions of charge and resultant horizontal propagation of the lightning flashes over large distances.

  4. Optimal design of wide-view-angle waveplate used for polarimetric diagnosis of lithography system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Honggang; Jiang, Hao; Zhang, Chuanwei; Chen, Xiuguo; Liu, Shiyuan

    2016-03-01

    The diagnosis and control of the polarization aberrations is one of the main concerns in a hyper numerical aperture (NA) lithography system. Waveplates are basic and indispensable optical components in the polarimetric diagnosis tools for the immersion lithography system. The retardance of a birefringent waveplate is highly sensitive to the incident angle of the light, which makes the conventional waveplate not suitable to be applied in the polarimetric diagnosis for the immersion lithography system with a hyper NA. In this paper, we propose a method for the optimal design of a wideview- angle waveplate by combining two positive waveplates made from magnesium fluoride (MgF2) and two negative waveplates made from sapphire using the simulated annealing algorithm. Theoretical derivations and numerical simulations are performed and the results demonstrate that the maximum variation in the retardance of the optimally designed wide-view-angle waveplate is less than +/- 0.35° for a wide-view-angle range of +/- 20°.

  5. Relative Astrometry of Compact Flaring Structures in Sgr A* with Polarimetric Very Long Baseline Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Michael D.; Fish, Vincent L.; Doeleman, Sheperd S.; Broderick, Avery E.; Wardle, John F. C.; Marrone, Daniel P.

    2014-10-01

    We demonstrate that polarimetric interferometry can be used to extract precise spatial information about compact polarized flares of Sgr A*. We show that, for a faint dynamical component, a single interferometric baseline suffices to determine both its polarization and projected displacement from the quiescent intensity centroid. A second baseline enables two-dimensional reconstruction of the displacement, and additional baselines can self-calibrate using the flare, enhancing synthesis imaging of the quiescent emission. We apply this technique to simulated 1.3 mm wavelength observations of a "hot spot" embedded in a radiatively inefficient accretion disk around Sgr A*. Our results indicate that, even with current sensitivities, polarimetric interferometry with the Event Horizon Telescope can achieve ~5 μas relative astrometry of compact flaring structures near Sgr A* on timescales of minutes.

  6. Segmenting and extracting terrain surface signatures from fully polarimetric multilook SIR-C data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geaga, Jorge V.

    2016-05-01

    We report results from the segmenting and study of terrain surface signatures of fully polarimetric multilook L-band and C-band SIR-C data. Entropy/alpha/anisotropy decomposition features are available from single multilook pixel data. This eliminates the need to average data from several pixels. Entropy and alpha are utilized in the segmentation along with features we have developed primarily from the eigenanalysis of the Kennaugh matrices of multilook data. We have previously reported on our algorithm for segmenting fully polarimetric single look TerraSAR-X, multilook SIR-C and 7 band Landsat 5 data featuring the iterative application of a feedforward neural network with one hidden layer. A comparison of signatures from simultaneously recorded data at L and C bands is presented. The terrain surfaces surveyed include the ocean, lakes, lake ice, bare ground, desert salt flats, lava beds, vegetation, sand dunes, rough desert surfaces, agricultural and urban areas.

  7. Bayesian classification of polarimetric SAR images using adaptive a priori probabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Zyl, J. J.; Burnette, C. F.

    1992-01-01

    The problem of classifying earth terrain by observed polarimetric scattering properties is tackled with an iterative Bayesian scheme using a priori probabilities adaptively. The first classification is based on the use of fixed and not necessarily equal a priori probabilities, and successive iterations change the a priori probabilities adaptively. The approach is applied to an SAR image in which a single water body covers 10 percent of the image area. The classification accuracy for ocean, urban, vegetated, and total area increase, and the percentage of reclassified pixels decreases greatly as the iteration number increases. The iterative scheme is found to improve the a posteriori classification accuracy of maximum likelihood classifiers by iteratively using the local homogeneity in polarimetric SAR images. A few iterations can improve the classification accuracy significantly without sacrificing key high-frequency detail or edges in the image.

  8. Discrimination characteristics of a wire-grid polarizer for polarimetric detection of multiple polarized beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Donghyun; Moon, Seyoung

    2007-02-01

    The presence of multiple polarized beams can limit the polarimetric discrimination capability of a wire-grid polarizer (WGP). In this study, the effect of linearly polarized background on the polarimetric performance of a WGP has been investigated and compared with that of a perfect polarizer. Simulation results based on rigorous coupled-wave analysis indicate that while a WGP mimics a perfect polarizer in discrimination characteristics, the range of the object polarization angle that can be discriminated against polarized background is fairly limited. The negative impact of Rayleigh anomaly is also discussed. The detectability of the object polarization can be strongly enhanced by employing a multi-cell WGP with multiple polarization orientations.

  9. Polarimetric imaging and retrieval of target polarization characteristics in underwater environment.

    PubMed

    Gu, Yalong; Carrizo, Carlos; Gilerson, Alexander A; Brady, Parrish C; Cummings, Molly E; Twardowski, Michael S; Sullivan, James M; Ibrahim, Amir I; Kattawar, George W

    2016-01-20

    Polarized light fields contain more information than simple irradiance and such capabilities provide an advanced tool for underwater imaging. The concept of the beam spread function (BSF) for analysis of scalar underwater imaging was extended to a polarized BSF which considers polarization. The following studies of the polarized BSF in an underwater environment through Monte Carlo simulations and experiments led to a simplified underwater polarimetric imaging model. With the knowledge acquired in the analysis of the polarimetric imaging formation process of a manmade underwater target with known polarization properties, a method to extract the inherent optical properties of the water and to retrieve polarization characteristics of the target was explored. The proposed method for retrieval of underwater target polarization characteristics should contribute to future efforts to reveal the underlying mechanism of polarization camouflage possessed by marine animals and finally to generalize guidelines for creating engineered surfaces capable of similar polarization camouflage abilities in an underwater environment.

  10. Polarimetric Scattering Database for Non-spherical Ice Particles at Microwave Wavelengths

    DOE Data Explorer

    Aydin, Kultegin; Verlinde, Johannes; Clothiaux, Eugene; Lu, Yinghui; Jiang, Zhiyuan; Botta, Giovanni

    2016-06-21

    A database containing polarimetric single-scattering properties of various types of ice particles at millimeter to centimeter wavelengths is presented. This database is complementary to earlier ones in that it contains complete (polarimetric) scattering property information for each ice particle - 44 plates, 30 columns, 405 branched planar crystals, 660 aggregates, and 640 conical graupel - and direction of incident radiation but is limited to four frequencies (W-, Ka-, Ku- and X-bands), does not include temperature dependencies of the single-scattering properties and does not include scattering properties averaged over randomly oriented ice particles. Rules for constructing the morphologies of ice particles from one database to the next often differ; consequently, analyses that incorporate all of the different databases will contain the most variability, while illuminating important differences between them.

  11. Relative astrometry of compact flaring structures in Sgr A* with polarimetric very long baseline interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Michael D.; Doeleman, Sheperd S.; Fish, Vincent L.; Broderick, Avery E.; Wardle, John F. C.; Marrone, Daniel P.

    2014-10-20

    We demonstrate that polarimetric interferometry can be used to extract precise spatial information about compact polarized flares of Sgr A*. We show that, for a faint dynamical component, a single interferometric baseline suffices to determine both its polarization and projected displacement from the quiescent intensity centroid. A second baseline enables two-dimensional reconstruction of the displacement, and additional baselines can self-calibrate using the flare, enhancing synthesis imaging of the quiescent emission. We apply this technique to simulated 1.3 mm wavelength observations of a 'hot spot' embedded in a radiatively inefficient accretion disk around Sgr A*. Our results indicate that, even with current sensitivities, polarimetric interferometry with the Event Horizon Telescope can achieve ∼5 μas relative astrometry of compact flaring structures near Sgr A* on timescales of minutes.

  12. Development of a Cost-Effective Airborne Remote Sensing System for Coastal Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Kim, Duk-jin; Jung, Jungkyo; Kang, Ki-mook; Kim, Seung Hee; Xu, Zhen; Hensley, Scott; Swan, Aaron; Duersch, Michael

    2015-09-30

    Coastal lands and nearshore marine areas are productive and rapidly changing places. However, these areas face many environmental challenges related to climate change and human-induced impacts. Space-borne remote sensing systems may be restricted in monitoring these areas because of their spatial and temporal resolutions. In situ measurements are also constrained from accessing the area and obtaining wide-coverage data. In these respects, airborne remote sensing sensors could be the most appropriate tools for monitoring these coastal areas. In this study, a cost-effective airborne remote sensing system with synthetic aperture radar and thermal infrared sensors was implemented to survey coastal areas. Calibration techniques and geophysical model algorithms were developed for the airborne system to observe the topography of intertidal flats, coastal sea surface current, sea surface temperature, and submarine groundwater discharge.

  13. Development of a Cost-Effective Airborne Remote Sensing System for Coastal Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Duk-jin; Jung, Jungkyo; Kang, Ki-mook; Kim, Seung Hee; Xu, Zhen; Hensley, Scott; Swan, Aaron; Duersch, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Coastal lands and nearshore marine areas are productive and rapidly changing places. However, these areas face many environmental challenges related to climate change and human-induced impacts. Space-borne remote sensing systems may be restricted in monitoring these areas because of their spatial and temporal resolutions. In situ measurements are also constrained from accessing the area and obtaining wide-coverage data. In these respects, airborne remote sensing sensors could be the most appropriate tools for monitoring these coastal areas. In this study, a cost-effective airborne remote sensing system with synthetic aperture radar and thermal infrared sensors was implemented to survey coastal areas. Calibration techniques and geophysical model algorithms were developed for the airborne system to observe the topography of intertidal flats, coastal sea surface current, sea surface temperature, and submarine groundwater discharge. PMID:26437413

  14. Polarimetric Studies of Magnetic Turbulence with an Interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyeseung; Lazarian, A.; Cho, Jungyeon

    2016-11-01

    We study statistical properties of synchrotron polarization emitted from media with magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence. We use both synthetic and MHD turbulence simulation data for our studies. We obtain the spatial spectrum and its derivative with respect to the wavelength of synchrotron polarization arising from both synchrotron radiation and Faraday rotation fluctuations. In particular, we investigate how the spectrum changes with frequency. We find that our simulations agree with the theoretical predication in Lazarian & Pogosyan. We conclude that the spectrum of synchrotron polarization and its derivative can be very informative tools to obtain detailed information about the statistical properties of MHD turbulence from radio observations of diffuse synchrotron polarization. They are especially useful for recovering the statistics of a turbulent magnetic field as well as the turbulent density of electrons. We also simulate interferometric observations that incorporate the effects of noise and finite telescope beam size, and demonstrate how we recover statistics of underlying MHD turbulence.

  15. Future capabilities of CME polarimetric 3D reconstructions with the METIS instrument: A numerical test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagano, P.; Bemporad, A.; Mackay, D. H.

    2015-10-01

    Context. Understanding the 3D structure of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) is crucial for understanding the nature and origin of solar eruptions. However, owing to the optical thinness of the solar corona we can only observe the line of sight integrated emission. As a consequence the resulting projection effects hide the true 3D structure of CMEs. To derive information on the 3D structure of CMEs from white-light (total and polarized brightness) images, the polarization ratio technique is widely used. The soon-to-be-launched METIS coronagraph on board Solar Orbiter will use this technique to produce new polarimetric images. Aims: This work considers the application of the polarization ratio technique to synthetic CME observations from METIS. In particular we determine the accuracy at which the position of the centre of mass, direction and speed of propagation, and the column density of the CME can be determined along the line of sight. Methods: We perform a 3D MHD simulation of a flux rope ejection where a CME is produced. From the simulation we (i) synthesize the corresponding METIS white-light (total and polarized brightness) images and (ii) apply the polarization ratio technique to these synthesized images and compare the results with the known density distribution from the MHD simulation. In addition, we use recent results that consider how the position of a single blob of plasma is measured depending on its projected position in the plane of the sky. From this we can interpret the results of the polarization ratio technique and give an estimation of the error associated with derived parameters. Results: We find that the polarization ratio technique reproduces with high accuracy the position of the centre of mass along the line of sight. However, some errors are inherently associated with this determination. The polarization ratio technique also allows information to be derived on the real 3D direction of propagation of the CME. The determination of this is of

  16. Performance Considerations for the SIMPL Single Photon, Polarimetric, Two-Color Laser Altimeter as Applied to Measurements of Forest Canopy Structure and Composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dabney, Philip W.; Harding, David J.; Valett, Susan R.; Vasilyev, Aleksey A.; Yu, Anthony W.

    2012-01-01

    The Slope Imaging Multi-polarization Photon-counting Lidar (SIMPL) is a multi-beam, micropulse airborne laser altimeter that acquires active and passive polarimetric optical remote sensing measurements at visible and near-infrared wavelengths. SIMPL was developed to demonstrate advanced measurement approaches of potential benefit for improved, more efficient spaceflight laser altimeter missions. SIMPL data have been acquired for wide diversity of forest types in the summers of 2010 and 2011 in order to assess the potential of its novel capabilities for characterization of vegetation structure and composition. On each of its four beams SIMPL provides highly-resolved measurements of forest canopy structure by detecting single-photons with 15 cm ranging precision using a narrow-beam system operating at a laser repetition rate of 11 kHz. Associated with that ranging data SIMPL provides eight amplitude parameters per beam unlike the single amplitude provided by typical laser altimeters. Those eight parameters are received energy that is parallel and perpendicular to that of the plane-polarized transmit pulse at 532 nm (green) and 1064 nm (near IR), for both the active laser backscatter retro-reflectance and the passive solar bi-directional reflectance. This poster presentation will cover the instrument architecture and highlight the performance of the SIMPL instrument with examples taken from measurements for several sites with distinct canopy structures and compositions. Specific performance areas such as probability of detection, after pulsing, and dead time, will be highlighted and addressed, along with examples of their impact on the measurements and how they limit the ability to accurately model and recover the canopy properties. To assess the sensitivity of SIMPL's measurements to canopy properties an instrument model has been implemented in the FLIGHT radiative transfer code, based on Monte Carlo simulation of photon transport. SIMPL data collected in 2010 over

  17. POLARIMETRIC CALIBRATION OF MIMIR AND THE GALACTIC PLANE INFRARED POLARIZATION SURVEY (GPIPS)

    SciTech Connect

    Clemens, Dan P.; Pinnick, A. F.; Pavel, M. D. E-mail: apinnick@bu.edu

    2012-06-01

    Methods and observations are described for the full field of view (FOV) polarimetric calibration of the Mimir near-infrared imaging polarimeter in support of the Galactic Plane Infrared Polarization Survey and other applications. Polarimetric calibration consisted of three steps: (1) flat fielding using in-dome images obtained with the compound zero-order half-wave-plate (HWP) in the 16 position angles employed in polarimetric observations, (2) mapping and removing the remaining instrumental polarization via observations of globular cluster stars, and (3) using polarization standard stars to convert instrument-based polarization position angles to equatorial and to determine the linear polarimetric efficiency. For Mimir, the polarization flat fielding reduced systematic variations of the polarization efficiency across the FOV by a factor of 20. The 151 observations of eight globular clusters yielded 40,000 stars for measuring the remaining 0.05%-0.45% instrumental polarization to uncertainties of 0.02%-0.04%. After these corrections, the 444 observations of 23 polarized stars enabled equatorial polarization position angles to be determined to typical uncertainties of 0.{sup 0}5, and the on-axis (corrected to full FOV) polarization efficiency of 91.1% {+-} 0.4% to be determined. Fully corrected standard star observations showed excellent agreement with published values of polarization percentage and position angle. Additionally, the observations of four sky fields containing Whittet et al. 'primary' polarization standard stars were analyzed to yield 30 new 'secondary' standards. These are fainter than the primaries, allowing use with larger telescope apertures. The secondary standards have polarization position angle uncertainties under 5 Degree-Sign and range in degree of polarization from 0.4% to 8.5%.

  18. Polarimetric glucose sensing using the Brewster-reflection off the eye lens: theoretical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boeckle, Stefan; Rovati, Luigi; Ansari, Rafat R.

    2002-05-01

    An important task of in vivo polarimetric glucose sensing is to find an appropriate way to optically access the aqueous humor of the human eye. In this paper two different approaches are analyzed theoretically and applied to the eye model of Le Grand. First approach is the tangential path of Cote et al., and the second is a new scheme of this paper of applying Brewster reflection off the eye lens.

  19. Noninvasive polarimetric glucose measurement system for eye phantoms and in-vivo measurement requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawer, Rainer C.; Vollmer, Patrick; Malz, Andre; Stork, Wilhem; Mueller-Glaser, Klaus D.

    2003-10-01

    Non-invasive monitoring of the glucose level is a key technology for improved diagnosis and therapy for Diabetes patients. Optical measurement techniques like polarimetry measuring at the human eye offer promising properties for non-invasive and painless application. This article presents a polarimetric measurement system utilizing the polarizing properties of the Aqueous Humour (AH) for quantative glucose measurements. In particular the special requirements of in-vivo measurements for such a system are discussed.

  20. A Polarimetric Extension of the van Cittert-Zernike Theorem for Use with Microwave Interferometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piepmeier, J. R.; Simon, N. K.

    2004-01-01

    The van Cittert-Zernike theorem describes the Fourier-transform relationship between an extended source and its visibility function. Developments in classical optics texts use scalar field formulations for the theorem. Here, we develop a polarimetric extension to the van Cittert-Zernike theorem with applications to passive microwave Earth remote sensing. The development provides insight into the mechanics of two-dimensional interferometric imaging, particularly the effects of polarization basis differences between the scene and the observer.

  1. Skin biomedical optical imaging system using dual-wavelength polarimetric control with liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safrani, Avner; Aharon, Ofir; Mor, Shahar; Arnon, Ofer; Rosenberg, Lior; Abdulhalim, Ibrahim

    2010-03-01

    Spectropolarimetric skin imaging is becoming an attractive technique for early detection of skin cancer. Using two liquid crystal retarders in combination with a dual-band passive spectral filter and two linear polarizers, we demonstrate the spectral and polarimetric imaging of skin tissue in the near infrared. Based on this concept, a compact prototype module has been built and is being used for clinical evaluation.

  2. A Theoretical Analysis of a New Polarimetric Optical Scheme for Glucose Sensing in the Human Eye

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rovati, Luigi L.; Boeckle, Stefan; Ansari, Rafat R.; Salzman, Jack A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The challenging task of in vivo polarimetric glucose sensing is the identification and selection of a scheme to optically access the aqueous humor of the human eye. In this short communication an earlier approach of Cote et al. is theoretically compared with our new optical scheme. Simulations of the new scheme using the eye model of Navarro, suggest that the new optical geometry can overcome the limitations of the previous approach for in vivo measurements of glucose in a human eye.

  3. Effects of surface materials on polarimetric-thermal measurements: applications to face recognition.

    PubMed

    Short, Nathaniel J; Yuffa, Alex J; Videen, Gorden; Hu, Shuowen

    2016-07-01

    Materials, such as cosmetics, applied to the face can severely inhibit biometric face-recognition systems operating in the visible spectrum. These products are typically made up of materials having different spectral properties and color pigmentation that distorts the perceived shape of the face. The surface of the face emits thermal radiation, due to the living tissue beneath the surface of the skin. The emissivity of skin is approximately 0.99; in comparison, oil- and plastic-based materials, commonly found in cosmetics and face paints, have an emissivity range of 0.9-0.95 in the long-wavelength infrared part of the spectrum. Due to these properties, all three are good thermal emitters and have little impact on the heat transferred from the face. Polarimetric-thermal imaging provides additional details of the face and is also dependent upon the thermal radiation from the face. In this paper, we provide a theoretical analysis on the thermal conductivity of various materials commonly applied to the face using a metallic sphere. Additionally, we observe the impact of environmental conditions on the strength of the polarimetric signature and the ability to recover geometric details. Finally, we show how these materials degrade the performance of traditional face-recognition methods and provide an approach to mitigating this effect using polarimetric-thermal imaging.

  4. IMPROVED SEARCH OF PRINCIPAL COMPONENT ANALYSIS DATABASES FOR SPECTRO-POLARIMETRIC INVERSION

    SciTech Connect

    Casini, R.; Lites, B. W.; Ramos, A. Asensio

    2013-08-20

    We describe a simple technique for the acceleration of spectro-polarimetric inversions based on principal component analysis (PCA) of Stokes profiles. This technique involves the indexing of the database models based on the sign of the projections (PCA coefficients) of the first few relevant orders of principal components of the four Stokes parameters. In this way, each model in the database can be attributed a distinctive binary number of 2{sup 4n} bits, where n is the number of PCA orders used for the indexing. Each of these binary numbers (indices) identifies a group of ''compatible'' models for the inversion of a given set of observed Stokes profiles sharing the same index. The complete set of the binary numbers so constructed evidently determines a partition of the database. The search of the database for the PCA inversion of spectro-polarimetric data can profit greatly from this indexing. In practical cases it becomes possible to approach the ideal acceleration factor of 2{sup 4n} as compared to the systematic search of a non-indexed database for a traditional PCA inversion. This indexing method relies on the existence of a physical meaning in the sign of the PCA coefficients of a model. For this reason, the presence of model ambiguities and of spectro-polarimetric noise in the observations limits in practice the number n of relevant PCA orders that can be used for the indexing.

  5. Improved Search of Principal Component Analysis Databases for Spectro-polarimetric Inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casini, R.; Asensio Ramos, A.; Lites, B. W.; López Ariste, A.

    2013-08-01

    We describe a simple technique for the acceleration of spectro-polarimetric inversions based on principal component analysis (PCA) of Stokes profiles. This technique involves the indexing of the database models based on the sign of the projections (PCA coefficients) of the first few relevant orders of principal components of the four Stokes parameters. In this way, each model in the database can be attributed a distinctive binary number of 24n bits, where n is the number of PCA orders used for the indexing. Each of these binary numbers (indices) identifies a group of "compatible" models for the inversion of a given set of observed Stokes profiles sharing the same index. The complete set of the binary numbers so constructed evidently determines a partition of the database. The search of the database for the PCA inversion of spectro-polarimetric data can profit greatly from this indexing. In practical cases it becomes possible to approach the ideal acceleration factor of 24n as compared to the systematic search of a non-indexed database for a traditional PCA inversion. This indexing method relies on the existence of a physical meaning in the sign of the PCA coefficients of a model. For this reason, the presence of model ambiguities and of spectro-polarimetric noise in the observations limits in practice the number n of relevant PCA orders that can be used for the indexing.

  6. Multitemporal RADARSAT-2 polarimetric SAR data for urban land-cover mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Liang; Ban, Yifang

    2009-09-01

    The objective of this research is to evaluate the performance of multitemporal RADARSAT-2 polarimetric SAR data for urban land use/land-cover classification. Three dates of RADARSAT-2 polarimetric SAR data were acquired during the summer of 2008 over the rural-urban fringe of the Greater Toronto Area. The major land-cover types are residential areas, industry areas, bare land, golf courses, forest, and agricultural crops. The methodology used in this study follow the manner that first extracting the features and then carrying out the supervised classification taking the different feature combinations as an input. Support vectors machine is selected to be the classifier. SAR features including amplitude, intensity, long-term coherence, Freeman-Durden decomposition are extracted and compared by evaluating the classification abilities. Long-term coherence plays an important role in building discrimination in this study. The best classification results achieved by using the three dates HH, VH, HV amplitude layers and the coherence map. The overall accuracy is 82.3%. The results indicate that RADARSAT-2 polarimetric data has a potential to urban land-cover classification with the proper feature combinations.

  7. Multitemporal RADARSAT-2 polarimetric SAR data for urban land-cover mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Liang; Ban, Yifang

    2010-11-01

    The objective of this research is to evaluate the performance of multitemporal RADARSAT-2 polarimetric SAR data for urban land use/land-cover classification. Three dates of RADARSAT-2 polarimetric SAR data were acquired during the summer of 2008 over the rural-urban fringe of the Greater Toronto Area. The major land-cover types are residential areas, industry areas, bare land, golf courses, forest, and agricultural crops. The methodology used in this study follow the manner that first extracting the features and then carrying out the supervised classification taking the different feature combinations as an input. Support vectors machine is selected to be the classifier. SAR features including amplitude, intensity, long-term coherence, Freeman-Durden decomposition are extracted and compared by evaluating the classification abilities. Long-term coherence plays an important role in building discrimination in this study. The best classification results achieved by using the three dates HH, VH, HV amplitude layers and the coherence map. The overall accuracy is 82.3%. The results indicate that RADARSAT-2 polarimetric data has a potential to urban land-cover classification with the proper feature combinations.

  8. Ex vivo Mueller polarimetric imaging of the uterine cervix: a first statistical evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehbinder, Jean; Haddad, Huda; Deby, Stanislas; Teig, Benjamin; Nazac, André; Novikova, Tatiana; Pierangelo, Angelo; Moreau, François

    2016-07-01

    Early detection through screening plays a major role in reducing the impact of cervical cancer on patients. When detected before the invasive stage, precancerous lesions can be eliminated with very limited surgery. Polarimetric imaging is a potential alternative to the standard screening methods currently used. In a previous proof-of-concept study, significant contrasts have been found in polarimetric images acquired for healthy and precancerous regions of excised cervical tissue. To quantify the ability of the technique to differentiate between healthy and precancerous tissue, polarimetric images of seventeen cervical conization specimens (cone-shaped or cylindrical wedges from the uterine cervix) are compared with results from histopathological diagnoses, which is considered to be the "gold standard." The sensitivity and specificity of the technique are calculated for images acquired at wavelengths of 450, 550, and 600 nm, aiming to differentiate between high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN 2-3) and healthy squamous epithelium. To do so, a sliding threshold for the scalar retardance parameter was used for the sample zones, as labeled after histological diagnosis. An optimized value of ˜83% is achieved for both sensitivity and specificity for images acquired at 450 nm and for a threshold scalar retardance value of 10.6 deg. This study paves the way for an application of polarimetry in the clinic.

  9. Optical linear polarimetric observations of Solar System bodies using a Wedged Double Wollaston

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorosabel, J.; García Muñoz, A.; Sánchez-Lavega, A.; Hueso, R.; Pérez Hoyos, S.

    2014-04-01

    The gases and aerosols contained in a planetary atmosphere leave characteristic signatures on the radiation reflected from the planet. The technique of polarimetry utilizes the polarization state of emergent radiation (degree and direction for linearly polarized light) to investigate the atmospheric optical properties of the planet [3]. Polarimetry complements the more extended technique of photometry by probing different atmospheric altitudes, and is very well suited to characterize the particles in suspension in the atmosphere. A classical example for the latter is the identification of the Venus cloud composition as a combination of H2SO4/H2O droplets from the disk-integrated polarization phase curves of the planet [2]. In observations with spatial resolution of the planet disk, polarimetry may be sensitive to the phenomenon of limb polarization and to the occurrence of polar hazes (as for Jupiter, [5]). Despite the potentialities of the technique, there has been no systematic survey of the Solar System planets in polarimetric mode. We report on the first polarimetric tests of Jupiter we have recently carried out with a Wedged Double Wollaston (WeDoWo) prism attached to the ALFOSC instrument, currently mounted at the 2.5m Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT) [4]. In the near future we plan to extend the use of this device to other objects of the Solar System, where polarimetric observations could provide valuable physical information.

  10. Effects of surface materials on polarimetric-thermal measurements: applications to face recognition.

    PubMed

    Short, Nathaniel J; Yuffa, Alex J; Videen, Gorden; Hu, Shuowen

    2016-07-01

    Materials, such as cosmetics, applied to the face can severely inhibit biometric face-recognition systems operating in the visible spectrum. These products are typically made up of materials having different spectral properties and color pigmentation that distorts the perceived shape of the face. The surface of the face emits thermal radiation, due to the living tissue beneath the surface of the skin. The emissivity of skin is approximately 0.99; in comparison, oil- and plastic-based materials, commonly found in cosmetics and face paints, have an emissivity range of 0.9-0.95 in the long-wavelength infrared part of the spectrum. Due to these properties, all three are good thermal emitters and have little impact on the heat transferred from the face. Polarimetric-thermal imaging provides additional details of the face and is also dependent upon the thermal radiation from the face. In this paper, we provide a theoretical analysis on the thermal conductivity of various materials commonly applied to the face using a metallic sphere. Additionally, we observe the impact of environmental conditions on the strength of the polarimetric signature and the ability to recover geometric details. Finally, we show how these materials degrade the performance of traditional face-recognition methods and provide an approach to mitigating this effect using polarimetric-thermal imaging. PMID:27409214

  11. Rainfall rate measurement with a polarimetric radar at an attenuated wavelength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauvageot, Henri; Mesnard, Frédéric; Illingworth, Anthony J.; Goddard, John W. F.

    Among the many ways investigated for radar estimation of rainfall, polarimetric methods are the most promising. However most polarimetric algorithms are degraded by attenuation by precipitation and clouds and by calibration error. A new method was recently proposed in which the differential polarimetric attenuation is used to perform an accurate rain rate measurement. The method is independent of the radar calibration and of the attenuation by undetected clouds. This algorithm is also usable as a qualitative hail detector, as well as a detector of anomalous propagation. The goal of the paper is to describe the results of the first experimental implementation of this method using the 35 GHz RABELAIS radar, as attenuated radar, and the 3 GHz CAMRa radar as a reference. We show that the proposed algorithm is stable and enables us to retrieve the actual rain rate even from an observed signal attenuated by more than 30 dB. The results are insensitive to the value used for the power coefficient of the Z(R) relation.

  12. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Polarimetric measures of selected variable stars (Elias+, 2008)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elias, N. M. Ii; Koch, R. H.; Pfeiffer, R. J.

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to summarize and interpret unpublished optical polarimetry for numerous program stars that were observed over the past decades at the Flower and Cook Observatory (FCO), University of Pennsylvania. We also make the individual calibrated measures available for long-term comparisons with new data. We employ three techniques to search for intrinsic variability within each dataset. First, when the observations for a given star and filter are numerous enough and when a period has been determined previously via photometry or spectroscopy, the polarimetric measures are plotted versus phase. If a statistically significant pattern appears, we attribute it to intrinsic variability. Second, we compare means of the FCO data to means from other workers. If they are statistically different, we conclude that the object exhibits long-term intrinsic variability. Third, we calculate the standard deviation for each program star and filter and compare it to the standard deviation estimated from comparable polarimetric standards. If the standard deviation of the program star is at least three times the value estimated from the polarimetric standards, the former is considered intrinsically variable. All of these statements are strengthened when variability appears in multiple filters. (3 data files).

  13. Multispectral Mueller polarimetric imaging detecting residual cancer and cancer regression after neoadjuvant treatment for colorectal carcinomas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierangelo, Angelo; Manhas, Sandeep; Benali, Abdelali; Fallet, Clément; Totobenazara, Jean-Laurent; Antonelli, Maria-Rosaria; Novikova, Tatiana; Gayet, Brice; De Martino, Antonello; Validire, Pierre

    2013-04-01

    This work is devoted to a first exploration of Mueller polarimetric imaging for the detection of residual cancer after neoadjuvant treatment for the rectum. Three samples of colorectal carcinomas treated by radiochemotherapy together with one untreated sample are analyzed ex vivo before fixation in formalin by using a multispectral Mueller polarimetric imaging system operated from 500 to 700 nm. The Mueller images, analyzed using the Lu-Chipmann decomposition, show negligible diattenuation and retardation. The nonirradiated rectum exhibits a variation of depolarization with cancer evolution stage. At all wavelengths on irradiated samples, the contrast between the footprint of the initial tumor and surrounding healthy tissue is found to be much smaller for complete tumor regression than when a residual tumor is present, even at volume fractions of the order of 5%. This high sensitivity is attributed to the modification of stromal collagen induced by the cancer. The depolarization contrast between treated cancer and healthy tissue is found to increase monotonously with the volume fraction of residual cancer in the red part of the spectrum. Polarimetric imaging is a promising technique for detecting short-time small residual cancers, which is valuable information for pathological diagnosis and patient management by clinicians.

  14. Polarimetric radar and aircraft observations of saggy bright bands during MC3E

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumjian, Matthew R.; Mishra, Subashree; Giangrande, Scott E.; Toto, Tami; Ryzhkov, Alexander V.; Bansemer, Aaron

    2016-04-01

    Polarimetric radar observations increasingly are used to understand cloud microphysical processes, which is critical for improving their representation in cloud and climate models. In particular, there has been recent focus on improving representations of ice collection processes (e.g., aggregation and riming), as these influence precipitation rate, heating profiles, and ultimately cloud life cycles. However, distinguishing these processes using conventional polarimetric radar observations is difficult, as they produce similar fingerprints. This necessitates improved analysis techniques and integration of complementary data sources. The Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E) provided such an opportunity. Quasi-vertical profiles of polarimetric radar variables in two MC3E stratiform precipitation events reveal episodic melting layer sagging. Integrated analyses using scanning and vertically pointing radar and aircraft measurements reveal that saggy bright band signatures are produced when denser, faster-falling, more isometric hydrometeors (relative to adjacent times) descend into the melting layer. In one case, strong circumstantial evidence for riming is found during bright band sagging times. A bin microphysical melting layer model successfully reproduces many aspects of the signature, supporting the observational analysis. If found to be a reliable indicator of riming, saggy bright bands could be a proxy for the presence of supercooled liquid water in stratiform precipitation, which may provide important information for mitigating aircraft icing risks and for constraining microphysical models.

  15. Ex vivo Mueller polarimetric imaging of the uterine cervix: a first statistical evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehbinder, Jean; Haddad, Huda; Deby, Stanislas; Teig, Benjamin; Nazac, André; Novikova, Tatiana; Pierangelo, Angelo; Moreau, François

    2016-07-01

    Early detection through screening plays a major role in reducing the impact of cervical cancer on patients. When detected before the invasive stage, precancerous lesions can be eliminated with very limited surgery. Polarimetric imaging is a potential alternative to the standard screening methods currently used. In a previous proof-of-concept study, significant contrasts have been found in polarimetric images acquired for healthy and precancerous regions of excised cervical tissue. To quantify the ability of the technique to differentiate between healthy and precancerous tissue, polarimetric images of seventeen cervical conization specimens (cone-shaped or cylindrical wedges from the uterine cervix) are compared with results from histopathological diagnoses, which is considered to be the "gold standard." The sensitivity and specificity of the technique are calculated for images acquired at wavelengths of 450, 550, and 600 nm, aiming to differentiate between high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN 2-3) and healthy squamous epithelium. To do so, a sliding threshold for the scalar retardance parameter was used for the sample zones, as labeled after histological diagnosis. An optimized value of ˜83% is achieved for both sensitivity and specificity for images acquired at 450 nm and for a threshold scalar retardance value of 10.6 deg. This study paves the way for an application of polarimetry in the clinic.

  16. Change detection of polarimetric SAR images based on the KummerU Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Quan; Zou, Pengfei; Li, Zhen; Zhang, Ping

    2014-11-01

    In the society of PolSAR image segmentation, change detection and classification, the classical Wishart distribution has been used for a long time, but it especially suit to low-resolution SAR image, because in traditional sensors, only a small number of scatterers are present in each resolution cell. With the improving of SAR systems these years, the classical statistical models can therefore be reconsidered for high resolution and polarimetric information contained in the images acquired by these advanced systems. In this study, SAR image segmentation algorithm based on level-set method, added with distance regularized level-set evolution (DRLSE) is performed using Envisat/ASAR single-polarization data and Radarsat-2 polarimetric images, respectively. KummerU heterogeneous clutter model is used in the later to overcome the homogeneous hypothesis at high resolution cell. An enhanced distance regularized level-set evolution (DRLSE-E) is also applied in the later, to ensure accurate computation and stable level-set evolution. Finally, change detection based on four polarimetric Radarsat-2 time series images is carried out at Genhe area of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, NorthEastern of China, where a heavy flood disaster occurred during the summer of 2013, result shows the recommend segmentation method can detect the change of watershed effectively.

  17. A lithological classification method from fully polarimetric SAR data using Cloude-Pottier decomposition and SVM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Minghui; Zhang, Qi; Chen, Shengbo; Zha, Fengli

    2015-10-01

    This article puts forward a kind of lithological classification method to take advantage of the fully polarimetric SAR data for lithological classification by the combination of cloude-pottier decomposition and support vector machine(SVM). Cloude-pottier target decomposition method is used to extract three characteristic parameters from the fully polarimetric SAR data as polarization entropy(H), scattering Angle(α), and the anisotropic(A) in xingcheng region, Liaoning province. And these parameters are taken as a sample vector and selected as the radial basis function for the SVM classifier. Thus the lithological classification from the fully polarimetric SAR images is implemented for the study area. By the comparation to the geological map, the classification results can consist with the actual rock distribution very well, and the overall classification precision reaches 80.0871%. But wishart supervised classification precision reaches 73.3837% , It shows that the method is feasible and effective for full polarization SAR image classification. Compared with the conventional classification method, it greatly improves the accuracy of interpretation.

  18. [Filter efficiency of commercial face masks in capturing particles and airborne bacteria].

    PubMed

    Minakami, K; Obara, T; Yamauchi, C

    1986-07-01

    The filter efficiency of seven kinds of commercial face mask for particles and airborne bacteria was tested in the wash room of a laboratory animal facility. The filter efficiency of the masks was 19 to 50%, as measured by the weight of particles with diameters below 10 micron, 22 to 71% for particles of the 0.3 micron level, 47 to 90% for the 1 micron level, and 90 to 99.6% for the 5 micron level. The filter efficiency for airborne bacteria was 35 to 81%. Among these even masks tested, glasswool surgery masks, three-sheet synthetic fiber masks with and without charcoal, and 28-sheet gauze masks with glass filter showed generally high efficiency, and single-sheet synthetic fiber masks, 18-sheet of gauze masks and gas masks showed low efficiency.

  19. Saga of synthetic rubber

    SciTech Connect

    Solo, R.A.

    1980-04-01

    The proposal to establish an Energy Mobilization Board and a synthetic fuels industry is reminiscent of World War II efforts to produce synthetic rubber. To avoid the mistakes made in the earlier effort, Mr. Solo suggests that the synthetic-fuel program should (1) use a more-successful technological development project as a model; (2) commit public funding and not rely on profit-oriented private enterprise; and (3) avoid entrusting social planning to single-purpose entities that have not been sensitive to social values. (DCK)

  20. Synthetic Base Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, M.; Fotheringham, J. D.; Hoyes, T. J.; Mortier, R. M.; Orszulik, S. T.; Randles, S. J.; Stroud, P. M.

    The chemical nature and technology of the main synthetic lubricant base fluids is described, covering polyalphaolefins, alkylated aromatics, gas-to-liquid (GTL) base fluids, polybutenes, aliphatic diesters, polyolesters, polyalkylene glycols or PAGs and phosphate esters.Other synthetic lubricant base oils such as the silicones, borate esters, perfluoroethers and polyphenylene ethers are considered to have restricted applications due to either high cost or performance limitations and are not considered here.Each of the main synthetic base fluids is described for their chemical and physical properties, manufacture and production, their chemistry, key properties, applications and their implications when used in the environment.

  1. Building synthetic memory

    PubMed Central

    Inniss, Mara C.; Silver, Pamela A.

    2013-01-01

    Synopsis Cellular memory – conversion of a transient signal into a sustained response – is a common feature of biological systems. Synthetic biologists aim to understand and reengineer such systems in a reliable and predictable manner. Synthetic memory circuits have been designed and built in vitro and in vivo based on diverse mechanisms such as oligonucleotide hybridization, recombination, transcription, phosphorylation, and RNA editing. Thus far, building these circuits has helped us explore the basic principles required for stable memory and ask novel biological questions. Here we discuss strategies for building synthetic memory circuits, their use as research tools, and future applications of these devices in medicine and industry. PMID:24028965

  2. Requiem for synthetic fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, R.

    1982-01-27

    US plans to launch a synthetic fuels industry revive whenever a price or supply crisis occurs, but industrial hopes descend as soon as the short-term market begins improving in terms of real prices. The capital requirements of a synthetic fuels project combined with fears of a noncompetitive product have caused several major oil companies to scale down or cancel their plans. In the author's view, the Reagan administration's hands-off policy and false sense of security from the current oil supply glut have further discouraged industry. The Synthetic Fuels Corporation has been slow to organize, and appears to be favoring small-size plants. (DCK)

  3. Discovery of two distinct polarimetric behaviours of trans-Neptunian objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagnulo, S.; Belskaya, I.; Muinonen, K.; Tozzi, G. P.; Barucci, M. A.; Kolokolova, L.; Fornasier, S.

    2008-11-01

    Context: Trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs) contain the most primitive and thermally least-processed materials from the early accretional phase of the solar system. They allow us to study interrelations between various classes of small bodies, their origin and evolution. Aims: We exploit the use of polarimetric techniques as a remote-sensing tool to characterize the surface of TNOs. Methods: Using FORS1 of the ESO VLT, we have obtained linear-polarization measurements in the Bessell R filter for five TNOs at different values of their phase angle (i.e., the angle between the Sun, the object, and the Earth). Due to the large distance of the targets (⪆30 AU), the observed range of phase angles is limited to about 0°-2°. Results: We have analyzed our new observations of five TNOs, and those of another four TNOs obtained in previous works, and discovered that there exist two classes of objects that exhibit different polarimetric behaviour. Objects with a diameter >1000 km, such as, e.g., Pluto and Eris, show a small polarization in the scattering plane (~0.5%) which slowly changes in the observed phase angle range. In smaller objects such as, e.g., Ixion and Varuna, linear polarization changes rapidly with the phase angle, and reaches ~1% (in the scattering plane) at phase angle 1°. The larger objects have a higher albedo than the smaller ones, and have the capability of retaining volatiles such as CO, N2 and CH4. Both of these facts can be linked to their different polarimetric behaviour compared to smaller objects. Conclusions: In spite of the very limited range of observable phase angles, ground-based polarimetric observations are a powerful tool to identify different properties of the surfaces of TNOs. We suggest that a single polarimetric observation at phase angle ~1° allows one to determine whether the target albedo is low or high. Based on observations made with ESO Telescopes at the La Silla-Paranal Observatory under programme ID 178.C-0036 (PI: A. Barucci).

  4. Linking CAI abundance to polarimetric response in a population of ancient asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devogele, Maxime; Tanga, Paolo; Bendjoya, Philippe; Rivet, Jean-Pierre; Surdej, Jean; Bus, Schelte J.; Sunshine, Jessica M.; Cellino, Alberto; Campins, Humberto; Licandro, Javier; Pinilla-Alonso, Noemi; Carry, Benoit

    2016-10-01

    Polarimetry constitutes one of the fundamental tools for characterizing the surface texture and composition of airless Solar System bodies. In 2006, polarimetric observations led to the discovery of a new type of asteroids, which displays a peculiar polarimetric response. These asteroids are collectively known as "Barbarians", from (234) Barbara the first discovered one.The most commonly accepted explanation for this perculiar polarization response seems to be the presence of a high percentage of fluffy-type Calcium Aluminium-rich Inclusions (CAIs), whose optical properties could produce the observed polarization. Their reflectance spectra also exibit an absorption feature in the near-infrared around 2.1-2.2 microns, that is characteristic of this peculiar group.Based on these results, we organized a systematic polarimetric and near-infrared observational campaign of known Barbarians or candidate asteroids. These campaigns include members of the family of 1040 Klumpkea, 2085 Henan and 729 Watsonia, which are known to contain Barbarian and/or L-type asteroids also suspected to have such a polarimetric behaviour. We have made use of the ToPo polarimeter at the 1m telescope of the Centre pédagogique Planète et Univers (C2PU, Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur, France). The spectroscopic observations in the near-infrared were obtained with the SpeX instrument at the NASA's InfraRed Telescope Facility (IRTF).By combining polarimetry and spectroscopy we find a correlation between the abundance of CAIs and the inversion angle of the phase-polarization curve of Barbarian asteroids. This is the first time that a direct link has been established between a specific polarimetric response and the surface composition of asteroids. In addition, we find a considerable variety of CAI abundance from one object to the other, consistent with a wide range of possible albedos. Since these asteroids constitute a reservoir of primitive Solar System material, understanding their origin can

  5. (abstract) Variations in Polarimetric Backscatter of Saline Ice Grown Under Diurnal Thermal Cycling Condition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nghiem, S. V.; Kwok, R.; Yueh, S. H.; Kong, J. A.; Hsu, C. C.; Ding, K. H.

    1995-01-01

    An experiment was carried out in January 1994 at the Geophysical Research Facility in the Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory. To investigate effects on polarimetric scattering signatures of sea ice growth under diurnal temperature variations, an ice sheet was grown for 2.5 days for the thickness of 10 cm and a polarimetric radar operating at C-band was used to obtain backscattering data in conjunction with ice-characterization measurements. The ice sheet was grown in the late morning of January 19, 1994. The initial growth rate was slow due to high insolation and temperature. As the air temperature dropped during the night, the growth rate increased significantly. The air temperature changed drastically from about -10(deg)C to -35(deg)C between day and night. The temperature cycle was repeated during the next day and the growth rate varied in the same manner. The surface of the ice was partially covered by frost flowers and the areal coverage increased as the ice became thicker. Throughout the ice growth duration of 2.5 days, polarimetric backscatter data were collected at roughly every centimeter of ice growth. For each set of radar measurements of saline ice, a set of calibration measurements was carried out with trihedrial corner reflectors and a metallic sphere. Measured polarimetric backscattering coefficients of the ice sheet reveal a strong correlation between radar data and temperature variations. As the temperature increased (decreased), the backscatter increased (decreased) correspondingly. From the ice-characterization data, temperatures of the air, at the ice-air interface, and in the ice layer had the same variation trend. Another interesting experimental observation is that the salinity measured as a function of ice depth from a sample of 10-cm thich ice indicated that the salinity variations had a similar cycle as the temperature; i.e., the salinity profile recorded the history of the temperature variations. Characterization data of the

  6. Charge-coupled device data processor for an airborne imaging radar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arens, W. E. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    Processing of raw analog echo data from synthetic aperture radar receiver into images on board an airborne radar platform is discussed. Processing is made feasible by utilizing charge-coupled devices (CCD). CCD circuits are utilized to perform input sampling, presumming, range correlation and azimuth correlation in the analog domain. These radar data processing functions are implemented for single-look or multiple-look imaging radar systems.

  7. Large aperture scanning airborne lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J.; Bindschadler, R.; Boers, R.; Bufton, J. L.; Clem, D.; Garvin, J.; Melfi, S. H.

    1988-01-01

    A large aperture scanning airborne lidar facility is being developed to provide important new capabilities for airborne lidar sensor systems. The proposed scanning mechanism allows for a large aperture telescope (25 in. diameter) in front of an elliptical flat (25 x 36 in.) turning mirror positioned at a 45 degree angle with respect to the telescope optical axis. The lidar scanning capability will provide opportunities for acquiring new data sets for atmospheric, earth resources, and oceans communities. This completed facility will also make available the opportunity to acquire simulated EOS lidar data on a near global basis. The design and construction of this unique scanning mechanism presents exciting technological challenges of maintaining the turning mirror optical flatness during scanning while exposed to extreme temperatures, ambient pressures, aircraft vibrations, etc.

  8. What Are Synthetic Cannabinoids?

    MedlinePlus

    ... those produced by marijuana: elevated mood relaxation altered perception —awareness of surrounding objects and conditions symptoms of ... those produced by marijuana: elevated mood relaxation altered perception symptoms of psychosis Synthetic cannabinoids can also cause ...

  9. Analysis of Synthetic Polymers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Charles G.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Reviews techniques for the characterization and analysis of synthetic polymers, copolymers, and blends. Includes techniques for structure determination, separation, and quantitation of additives and residual monomers; determination of molecular weight; and the study of thermal properties including degradation mechanisms. (MVL)

  10. Magnetic airborne survey - geophysical flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Barros Camara, Erick; Nei Pereira Guimarães, Suze

    2016-06-01

    This paper provides a technical review process in the area of airborne acquisition of geophysical data, with emphasis for magnetometry. In summary, it addresses the calibration processes of geophysical equipment as well as the aircraft to minimize possible errors in measurements. The corrections used in data processing and filtering are demonstrated with the same results as well as the evolution of these techniques in Brazil and worldwide.

  11. Synthetic battery cycling techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leibecki, H.; Thaller, L. H.

    1982-01-01

    The group of techniques that as a class are referred to as synthetic battery cycling are described with reference to spacecraft battery systems. Synthetic battery cycling makes use of the capability of computer graphics to illustrate some of the basic characteristics of operation of individual electrodes within an operating electrochemical cell. It can also simulate the operation of an entire string of cells that are used as the energy storage subsystem of a power system.

  12. Synthetic approaches to monofluoroalkenes.

    PubMed

    Landelle, Grégory; Bergeron, Maxime; Turcotte-Savard, Marc-Olivier; Paquin, Jean-François

    2011-05-01

    Monofluoroalkenes are an important fluorinated class of compounds with applications in medicinal chemistry, material sciences and organic chemistry. An overview of methods allowing synthetic access to these fluorinated building blocks is provided. In particular, this critical review, which covers publications up to October 2010, will be divided according to the substitution pattern of the monofluoroalkenes, i.e. di-, tri- or tetra-substituted. Within each group, the various synthetic approaches will be divided according to the reaction type (282 references).

  13. Active synthetic soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ming, Douglas W. (Inventor); Henninger, Donald L. (Inventor); Allen, Earl R. (Inventor); Golden, Dadigamuwage C. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A synthetic soil/fertilizer for horticultural application having all the agronutrients essential for plant growth is disclosed. The soil comprises a synthetic apatite fertilizer having sulfur, magnesium and micronutrients dispersed in a calcium phosphate matrix, a zeolite cation exchange medium saturated with a charge of potassium and nitrogen cations, and an optional pH buffer. Moisture dissolves the apatite and mobilizes the nutrient elements from the apatite matrix and the zeolite charge sites.

  14. Active synthetic soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ming, Douglas W. (Inventor); Henninger, Donald L. (Inventor); Allen, Earl R. (Inventor); Golden, Dadigamuwage C. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A synthetic soil/fertilizer for horticultural application having all the agronutrients essential for plant growth is disclosed. The soil comprises a synthetic apatite fertilizer having sulfur, magnesium, and micronutrients dispersed in a calcium phosphate matrix, a zeolite cation exchange medium saturated with a charge of potassium and nitrogen cations, and an optional pH buffer. Moisture dissolves the apatite and mobilizes the nutrient elements from the apatite matrix and the zeolite charge sites.

  15. Synthetic biology and biosecurity.

    PubMed

    Robienski, Jürgen; Simon, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the conflict fields and legal questions of synthetic biology, esp. concerning biosecurity. A respective jurisprudential discussion has not taken place yet in Germany apart from few statements and recommendations. But in Germany, Europe and the USA, it is generally accepted that a broad discussion is necessary. This is esp. true for the question of biosecurity and the possible dangers arising from Synthetic Biology. PMID:25845204

  16. Synthetic Vision Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prinzel, L.J.; Kramer, L.J.

    2009-01-01

    A synthetic vision system is an aircraft cockpit display technology that presents the visual environment external to the aircraft using computer-generated imagery in a manner analogous to how it would appear to the pilot if forward visibility were not restricted. The purpose of this chapter is to review the state of synthetic vision systems, and discuss selected human factors issues that should be considered when designing such displays.

  17. Airborne particulate matter in spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Acceptability limits and sampling and monitoring strategies for airborne particles in spacecraft were considered. Based on instances of eye and respiratory tract irritation reported by Shuttle flight crews, the following acceptability limits for airborne particles were recommended: for flights of 1 week or less duration (1 mg/cu m for particles less than 10 microns in aerodynamic diameter (AD) plus 1 mg/cu m for particles 10 to 100 microns in AD); and for flights greater than 1 week and up to 6 months in duration (0.2 mg/cu m for particles less than 10 microns in AD plus 0.2 mg/cu m for particles 10 to 100 microns in AD. These numerical limits were recommended to aid in spacecraft atmosphere design which should aim at particulate levels that are a low as reasonably achievable. Sampling of spacecraft atmospheres for particles should include size-fractionated samples of 0 to 10, 10 to 100, and greater than 100 micron particles for mass concentration measurement and elementary chemical analysis by nondestructive analysis techniques. Morphological and chemical analyses of single particles should also be made to aid in identifying airborne particulate sources. Air cleaning systems based on inertial collection principles and fine particle collection devices based on electrostatic precipitation and filtration should be considered for incorporation into spacecraft air circulation systems. It was also recommended that research be carried out in space in the areas of health effects and particle characterization.

  18. NASA Student Airborne Research Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaller, E. L.; Shetter, R. E.

    2012-12-01

    The NASA Student Airborne Research Program (SARP) is a unique summer internship program for advanced undergraduates and early graduate students majoring in the STEM disciplines. SARP participants acquire hands-on research experience in all aspects of an airborne research campaign, including flying onboard an major NASA resource used for studying Earth system processes. In summer 2012, thirty-two participants worked in four interdisciplinary teams to study surface, atmospheric, and oceanographic processes. Participants assisted in the operation of instruments onboard the NASA P-3B aircraft where they sampled and measured atmospheric gases and imaged land and water surfaces in multiple spectral bands. Along with airborne data collection, students participated in taking measurements at field sites. Mission faculty and research mentors helped to guide participants through instrument operation, sample analysis, and data reduction. Over the eight-week program, each student developed an individual research project from the data collected and delivered a conference-style final presentation on his/her results. We will discuss the results and effectiveness of the program from the first four summers and discuss plans for the future.

  19. Spectral imagery: Recent results with the SPIFI and their implications for cometary atmospheric studies. [servocontrolled polarimetric imaging Fabry-Perot interferometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, W. H.

    1981-01-01

    Spectral polarimetric imaging of comets is considered using state-of-the-art methods and a servo-controlled polarimetric imaging Fabry-Perot interferometer is described. Related observational data are shown and sensitivity levels are given which indicate the range of objects which may be studied. Some proposed observational goals are indicated.

  20. Differential Synthetic Aperture Ladar

    SciTech Connect

    Stappaerts, E A; Scharlemann, E

    2005-02-07

    We report a differential synthetic aperture ladar (DSAL) concept that relaxes platform and laser requirements compared to conventional SAL. Line-of-sight translation/vibration constraints are reduced by several orders of magnitude, while laser frequency stability is typically relaxed by an order of magnitude. The technique is most advantageous for shorter laser wavelengths, ultraviolet to mid-infrared. Analytical and modeling results, including the effect of speckle and atmospheric turbulence, are presented. Synthetic aperture ladars are of growing interest, and several theoretical and experimental papers have been published on the subject. Compared to RF synthetic aperture radar (SAR), platform/ladar motion and transmitter bandwidth constraints are especially demanding at optical wavelengths. For mid-IR and shorter wavelengths, deviations from a linear trajectory along the synthetic aperture length have to be submicron, or their magnitude must be measured to that precision for compensation. The laser coherence time has to be the synthetic aperture transit time, or transmitter phase has to be recorded and a correction applied on detection.

  1. BioSAR Airborne Biomass Sensing System

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, R.L.; Johnson, P.

    2007-05-24

    This CRADA was developed to enable ORNL to assist American Electronics, Inc. test a new technology--BioSAR. BioSAR is a an airborne, low frequency (80-120 MHz {approx} FM radio frequencies) synthetic aperture radar (SAR) technology which was designed and built for NASA by ZAI-Amelex under Patrick Johnson's direction. At these frequencies, leaves and small branches are nearly transparent and the majority of the energy reflected from the forest and returned to the radar is from the tree trunks. By measuring the magnitude of the back scatter, the volume of the tree trunk and therefore the biomass of the trunks can be inferred. The instrument was successfully tested on tropical rain forests in Panama. Patrick Johnson, with American Electronics, Inc received a Phase II SBIR grant from DOE Office of Climate Change to further test and refine the instrument. Mr Johnson sought ORNL expertise in measuring forest biomass in order for him to further validate his instrument. ORNL provided ground truth measurements of forest biomass at three locations--the Oak Ridge Reservation, Weyerhaeuser Co. commercial pine plantations in North Carolina, and American Energy and Power (AEP) Co. hardwood forests in southern Ohio, and facilitated flights over these forests. After Mr. Johnson processed the signal data from BioSAR instrument, the processed data were given to ORNL and we attempted to derive empirical relationships between the radar signals and the ground truth forest biomass measurements using standard statistical techniques. We were unsuccessful in deriving such relationships. Shortly before the CRADA ended, Mr Johnson discovered that FM signal from local radio station broadcasts had interfered with the back scatter measurements such that the bulk of the signal received by the BioSAR instrument was not backscatter from the radar but rather was local radio station signals.

  2. Modeling of SDO/HMI spectro-polarimetric data and center-to-limb variation effects with 3D MHD simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitiashvili, Irina; Couvidat, Sebastien

    2014-06-01

    Observations with the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), and, in particular, Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) provide a unique opportunity to investigate various phenomena simultaneously over the whole solar disk. Current state-of-the-art numerical simulations allow us to model the observational data with a high degree of realism, and use the artificial data for interpretation of observed properties ("observables") in terms of the physical conditions, for the testing of new data analysis techniques and the improvement of data calibration. In the current study we use realistic-type 3D radiative MHD simulations of the upper turbulent convective layer and atmosphere of the Sun, obtained with the SolarBox code, and employ the spectro-polarimetric radiative transfer code SPINOR to convert the simulated data into Stokes profiles of the HMI Fe I 6173 A line for different conditions in the solar atmosphere. For testing the HMI calibration the synthetic Stokes profiles are processed through the SDO/JSOC simplified data analysis pipeline. We investigate properties of the HMI observables for various solar features, variations of the line formation height for different angular distances from the disk center, effects of the spatial resolution and iron abundance, and pay particular attention to the center-to-limb variations effects playing important role in local helioseismology measurements.

  3. Developing Lightning Prediction Tools for the CCAFS Dual-Polarimetric Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petersen, W. A.; Carey, L. D.; Deierling, W.; Johnson, E.; Bateman, M.

    2009-01-01

    NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and the University of Alabama Huntsville are collaborating with the 45th Weather Squadron (45WS) to develop improved lightning prediction capabilities for the new C-band dual-polarimetric weather radar being acquired for use by 45WS and launch weather forecasters at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS). In particular, these algorithms will focus on lightning onset, cessation and combined lightning-radar applications for convective winds assessment. Research using radar reflectivity (Z) data for prediction of lightning onset has been extensively discussed in the literature and subsequently applied by launch weather forecasters as it pertains to lightning nowcasting. Currently the forecasters apply a relatively straight forward but effective temperature-Z threshold algorithm for assessing the likelihood of lightning onset in a given storm. In addition, a layered VIL above the freezing level product is used as automated guidance for the onset of lightning. Only limited research and field work has been conducted on lightning cessation using Z and vertically-integrated Z for determining cessation. Though not used operationally vertically-integrated Z (basis for VIL) has recently shown promise as a tool for use in nowcasting lightning cessation. The work discussed herein leverages and expands upon these and similar reflectivity-threshold approaches via the application/addition of over two decades of polarimetric radar research focused on distinct multi-parameter radar signatures of ice/mixed-phase initiation and ice-crystal orientation in highly electrified convective clouds. Specifically, our approach is based on numerous previous studies that have observed repeatable patterns in the behavior of the vertical hydrometeor column as it relates to the temporal evolution of differential reflectivity and depolarization (manifested in either LDR or p(sub hv)), development of in-situ mixed and ice phase microphysics, electric fields, and

  4. Estimating the Concentration of Large Raindrops from Polarimetric Radar and Disdrometer Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carey, Lawrence D.; Petersen, Walter A; Gatlink, Patrick N.

    2013-01-01

    Estimation of rainfall integral parameters, including radar observables, and empirical relations between them are sensitive to the truncation of the drop size distribution (DSD), particularly at the large drop end. The sensitivity of rainfall integral parameters to the maximum drop diameter (D(sub max)) is exacerbated at C-band since resonance effects are pronounced for large drops in excess of 5 mm diameter (D). Due to sampling limitations, it is often difficult to reliably estimate D(sub max) with disdrometers. The resulting uncertainties in D(sub max0 potentially increase errors in radar retrieval methods, particularly at C-band, that rely on disdrometer observations for DSD input to radar models. In fact, D(sub max) is typically an assumed DSD parameter in the development of radar retrieval methods. Because of these very uncertainties, it is difficult to independently confirm disdrometer estimates of D(sub max) with polarimetric radar observations. A couple of approaches can be taken to reduce uncertainty in large drop measurement. Longer integration times can be used for the collection of larger disdrometer samples. However, integration periods must be consistent with a radar resolution volume (RRV) and the temporal and spatial scales of the physical processes affecting the DSD therein. Multiple co-located disdrometers can be combined into a network to increase the sample size within a RRV. However, over a reasonable integration period, a single disdrometer sample volume is many orders of magnitudes less than a RRV so it is not practical to devise a network of disdrometers that has an equivalent volume to a typical RRV. Since knowledge of DSD heterogeneity and large drop occurrence in time and space is lacking, the specific accuracy or even general representativeness of disdrometer based D(sub max) and large drop concentration estimates within a RRV are currently unknown. To address this complex issue, we begin with a simpler question. Is the frequency of

  5. Generation of topographic terrain models utilizing synthetic aperture radar and surface level data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imhoff, Marc L. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Topographical terrain models are generated by digitally delineating the boundary of the region under investigation from the data obtained from an airborne synthetic aperture radar image and surface elevation data concurrently acquired either from an airborne instrument or at ground level. A set of coregistered boundary maps thus generated are then digitally combined in three dimensional space with the acquired surface elevation data by means of image processing software stored in a digital computer. The method is particularly applicable for generating terrain models of flooded regions covered entirely or in part by foliage.

  6. Novel Airborne Imaging Polarimeter Undergoes High-Altitude Flight Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diner, David J.; Pingree, Paula J.; Chipman, Russell A.

    2015-01-01

    Optical and signal processing technologies for high-accuracy polarimetric imaging, aimed at studying the impact of atmospheric haze and clouds on Earth's climate, have been demonstrated on checkout flights aboard NASA's ER-2 aircraft.

  7. Synthetic battery cycling techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leibecki, H. F.; Thaller, L. H.

    1982-01-01

    Synthetic battery cycling makes use of the fast growing capability of computer graphics to illustrate some of the basic characteristics of operation of individual electrodes within an operating electrochemical cell. It can also simulate the operation of an entire string of cells that are used as the energy storage subsystem of a power system. The group of techniques that as a class have been referred to as Synthetic Battery Cycling is developed in part to try to bridge the gap of understanding that exists between single cell characteristics and battery system behavior.

  8. Synthetic guide star generation

    DOEpatents

    Payne, Stephen A.; Page, Ralph H.; Ebbers, Christopher A.; Beach, Raymond J.

    2004-03-09

    A system for assisting in observing a celestial object and providing synthetic guide star generation. A lasing system provides radiation at a frequency at or near 938 nm and radiation at a frequency at or near 1583 nm. The lasing system includes a fiber laser operating between 880 nm and 960 nm and a fiber laser operating between 1524 nm and 1650 nm. A frequency-conversion system mixes the radiation and generates light at a frequency at or near 589 nm. A system directs the light at a frequency at or near 589 nm toward the celestial object and provides synthetic guide star generation.

  9. Synthetic guide star generation

    DOEpatents

    Payne, Stephen A [Castro Valley, CA; Page, Ralph H [Castro Valley, CA; Ebbers, Christopher A [Livermore, CA; Beach, Raymond J [Livermore, CA

    2008-06-10

    A system for assisting in observing a celestial object and providing synthetic guide star generation. A lasing system provides radiation at a frequency at or near 938 nm and radiation at a frequency at or near 1583 nm. The lasing system includes a fiber laser operating between 880 nm and 960 nm and a fiber laser operating between 1524 nm and 1650 nm. A frequency-conversion system mixes the radiation and generates light at a frequency at or near 589 nm. A system directs the light at a frequency at or near 589 nm toward the celestial object and provides synthetic guide star generation.

  10. Geophex airborne unmanned survey system

    SciTech Connect

    Won, I.J.; Taylor, D.W.A.

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of this effort is to design, construct, and evaluate a portable, remotely-piloted, airborne, geophysical survey system. This nonintrusive system will provide {open_quotes}stand-off{close_quotes} capability to conduct surveys and detect buried objects, structures, and conditions of interest at hazardous locations. This system permits two operators to rapidly conduct geophysical characterization of hazardous environmental sites. During a survey, the operators remain remote from, but within visual distance, of, the site. The sensor system never contacts the Earth, but can be positioned near the ground so that weak anomalies can be detected.

  11. Airborne wavemeter validation and calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goad, Joseph H., Jr.; Rinsland, Pamela L.; Kist, Edward H., Jr.; Geier, Erika B.; Banziger, Curtis G.

    1992-01-01

    This manuscript outlines a continuing effort to validate and verify the performance of an airborne autonomous wavemeter for tuning solid state lasers to a desired wavelength. The application is measuring the vertical profiles of atmospheric water vapor using a differential absorption lidar (DIAL) technique. Improved wavemeter performance data for varying ambient temperatures are presented. This resulted when the electronic grounding and shielding were improved. The results with short pulse duration lasers are also included. These lasers show that similar performance could be obtained with lasers operating in the continuous and the pulsed domains.

  12. Geophex Airborne Unmanned Survey System

    SciTech Connect

    Won, I.J.; Keiswetter, D.

    1995-10-01

    The purpose of this effort is to design, construct, and evaluate a portable, remotely-piloted, airborne, geophysical survey system. This non-intrusive system will provide {open_quotes}stand-off{close_quotes} capability to conduct surveys and detect buried objects, structures, and conditions of interest at hazardous locations. This system permits rapid geophysical characterization of hazardous environmental sites. During a survey, the operators remain remote from, but within visual distance of, the site. The sensor system never contacts the Earth, but can be positioned near the ground so that weak geophysical anomalies can be detected.

  13. Airborne Research Experience for Educators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, V. B.; Albertson, R.; Smith, S.; Stockman, S. A.

    2009-12-01

    The Airborne Research Experience for Educators (AREE) Program, conducted by the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center Office of Education in partnership with the AERO Institute, NASA Teaching From Space Program, and California State University Fullerton, is a complete end-to-end residential research experience in airborne remote sensing and atmospheric science. The 2009 program engaged ten secondary educators who specialize in science, technology, engineering or mathematics in a 6-week Student Airborne Research Program (SARP) offered through NSERC. Educators participated in collection of in-flight remote sensor data during flights aboard the NASA DC-8 as well as in-situ research on atmospheric chemistry (bovine emissions of methane); algal blooms (remote sensing to determine location and degree of blooms for further in-situ analysis); and crop classification (exploration of how drought conditions in Central California have impacted almond and cotton crops). AREE represents a unique model of the STEM teacher-as-researcher professional development experience because it asks educators to participate in a research experience and then translate their experiences into classroom practice through the design, implementation, and evaluation of instructional materials that emphasize the scientific research process, inquiry-based investigations, and manipulation of real data. Each AREE Master Educator drafted a Curriculum Brief, Teachers Guide, and accompanying resources for a topic in their teaching assignment Currently, most professional development programs offer either a research experience OR a curriculum development experience. The dual nature of the AREE model engaged educators in both experiences. Educators’ content and pedagogical knowledge of STEM was increased through the review of pertinent research articles during the first week, attendance at lectures and workshops during the second week, and participation in the airborne and in-situ research studies, data

  14. Cyberinfrastructure for Airborne Sensor Webs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freudinger, Lawrence C.

    2009-01-01

    Since 2004 the NASA Airborne Science Program has been prototyping and using infrastructure that enables researchers to interact with each other and with their instruments via network communications. This infrastructure uses satellite links and an evolving suite of applications and services that leverage open-source software. The use of these tools has increased near-real-time situational awareness during field operations, resulting in productivity improvements and the collection of better data. This paper describes the high-level system architecture and major components, with example highlights from the use of the infrastructure. The paper concludes with a discussion of ongoing efforts to transition to operational status.

  15. Requirements for airborne vector gravimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwarz, K. P.; Colombo, O.; Hein, G.; Knickmeyer, E. T.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of airborne vector gravimetry is the determination of the full gravity disturbance vector along the aircraft trajectory. The paper briefly outlines the concept of this method using a combination of inertial and GPS-satellite data. The accuracy requirements for users in geodesy and solid earth geophysics, oceanography and exploration geophysics are then specified. Using these requirements, accuracy specifications for the GPS subsystem and the INS subsystem are developed. The integration of the subsystems and the problems connected with it are briefly discussed and operational methods are indicated that might reduce some of the stringent accuracy requirements.

  16. Biological monitoring of airborne pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Ditz, D.W. )

    1990-01-01

    Common plants such as grasses, mosses, and even goldenrod may turn out to have a new high-tech role as monitors of airborne pollution from solid waste incinerators. Certain plants that respond to specific pollutants can provide continuous surveillance of air quality over long periods of time: they are bio-indicators. Other species accumulate pollutants and can serve as sensitive indicators of pollutants and of food-chain contamination: they are bio-accumulators. Through creative use of these properties, biological monitoring can provide information that cannot be obtained by current methods such as stack testing.

  17. The scattering simulation of DSDs and the polarimetric radar rainfall algorithms at C-band frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, Tanvir

    2014-11-01

    This study explores polarimetric radar rainfall algorithms at C-band frequency using a total of 162,415 1-min raindrop spectra from an extensive disdrometer dataset. Five different raindrop shape models have been tested to simulate polarimetric radar variables-the reflectivity factor (Z), differential reflectivity (Zdr) and specific differential phase (Kdp), through the T-matrix microwave scattering approach. The polarimetric radar rainfall algorithms are developed in the form of R(Z), R(Kdp), R(Z, Zdr) and R(Zdr, Kdp) combinations. Based on the best fitted raindrop spectra models rain rate retrieval information using disdrometer derived rain rate as a reference, the algorithms are further explored in view of stratiform and convective rain regimes. Finally, an “artificial” algorithm is proposed which considers the developed algorithms for stratiform and convective regimes and uses R(Z), R(Kdp) and R(Z, Zdr) in different scenarios. The artificial algorithm is applied to and evaluated by the Thurnham C-band dual polarized radar data in 6 storm cases perceiving the rationalization in terms of rainfall retrieval accuracy as compared to the operational Marshall-Palmer algorithm (Z=200R1.6). A dense network of 73 tipping bucket rain gauges is employed for the evaluation, and the result demonstrates that the artificial algorithm outperforms the Marshall-Palmer algorithm showing R2=0.84 and MAE=0.82 mm as opposed to R2=0.79 and MAE=0.86 mm respectively.

  18. Ex-vivo characterization of human colon cancer by Mueller polarimetric imaging.

    PubMed

    Pierangelo, Angelo; Benali, Abdelali; Antonelli, Maria-Rosaria; Novikova, Tatiana; Validire, Pierre; Gayet, Brice; De Martino, Antonello

    2011-01-17

    Cancerous and healthy human colon samples have been analyzed ex-vivo using a multispectral imaging Mueller polarimeter operated in the visible (from 500 to 700 nm) in a backscattering configuration with diffuse light illumination. Three samples of Liberkühn colon adenocarcinomas have been studied: common, mucinous and treated by radiochemotherapy. For each sample, several specific zones have been chosen, based on their visual staging and polarimetric responses, which have been correlated to the histology of the corresponding cuts. The most relevant polarimetric images are those quantifying the depolarization for incident linearly polarized light. The measured depolarization depends on several factors, namely the presence or absence of tumor, its exophytic (budding) or endophytic (penetrating) nature, its thickness (its degree of ulceration) and its level of penetration in deeper layers (submucosa, muscularis externa and serosa). The cellular density, the concentration of stroma, the presence or absence of mucus and the light penetration depth, which increases with wavelength, are also relevant parameters. Our data indicate that the tissues with the lowest and highest depolarizing powers are respectively mucus-free tumoral tissue with high cellular density and healthy serosa, while healthy submucosa, muscularis externa as well as mucinous tumor probably feature intermediate values. Moreover, the specimen coming from a patient treated successfully with radiochemotherapy exhibited a uniform polarimetric response typical of healthy tissue even in the initially pathological zone. These results demonstrate that multi-spectral Mueller imaging can provide useful contrasts to quickly stage human colon cancer ex-vivo and to distinguish between different histological variants of tumor. PMID:21263698

  19. Multiple-resolution study of Ka-band HRR polarimetric signature data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giles, Robert H.; Kersey, William T.; McFarlin, M. Shane; Woodruff, Bobby G.; Finley, Robbin; Nixon, William E.

    2000-08-01

    SAR resolution and polarization performance studies for ATR algorithms have been the source of recent attention. Thorough investigations are often hindered by the lack of rigorously consistent high-resolution full-polarimetric signature data for a sufficient number of targets across requisite viewing angles, articulations and environmental conditions. While some evaluative performance studies of high-value structures and conceptual radar systems may be effectively studied with limited field radar data, to minimize signature acquisition costs, pose-independent studies of ATR algorithm are best served by signature libraries fashioned to encompass the complexity of the collection scenario. In response to the above requirements, the U.S. Army's National Ground Intelligence Center and Targets Management Office originated, sponsored, and directed a signature project plan to acquire multiple target signature data at Eglin, AFB using a high resolution full-polarimetric Ka-band radar. TMO and NGIC have sponsored researchers at both the Submillimeter-Wave Technology Laboratory and Simulation Technologies to analyze the trade-off between signature resolution and polarimetric features (ongoing research) of this turntable data. The signature data was acquired at five elevations spanning 5 degree to 60 degree for a T-72M1, T-72B, M1, M60-A3 and one classified vehicle. Using signal processing software established in an NGIC/STL-based signature study, researchers executed an HRR and ISAR cross-correlation study involving multiple resolutions to evaluate peak performance levels and to effectively understand signature requirements through the variability of multiple target RCS characteristics. The signature-to-signature variability quantified on the four unclassified MBTs is presented in this report, along with a description and examples of the signature analysis techniques exploited. This signature data is available from NGIC/TMO on request for Government Agencies and Government

  20. Modeling the optical coupling across the anterior chamber of the eye towards polarimetric glucose sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirnstill, Casey W.; Coté, Gerard L.

    2014-02-01

    Millions of people worldwide are affected by diabetes. While glucose sensing technology has come a long way over the past several decades, the current commercially available techniques are still invasive, often leading to poor patient compliance. To minimize invasiveness, focus has been placed on optical techniques to ascertain blood glucose concentrations. Optical polarimetry has shown promise and progress as a viable technique for glucose sensing. Recent developments in polarimetric glucose sensing have been focused on overcoming time varying corneal birefringence due to motion artifacts. Beyond corneal birefringence, the next hurdle toward making this approach viable is the ability to couple polarized light across the eye's anterior chamber. The eye is ideally suited to couple light to the retina. The index mismatch between the air and cornea is partially responsible for the beam bending toward the retina and, while good for vision, it complicates our ability to couple light across the anterior chamber without using an index matching device when performing polarimetric glucose monitoring. In this report, we have designed and modeled a non-index matched coupling scheme constructed with commercially available optics. The optical ray tracing model was performed using CODE V to verify the feasibility of a reflective based non-index matched coupling scheme with respect to index of refraction and anatomical restraints. The ray tracing model was developed for a dual-wavelength system and the effect of refraction and reflection at each optical interface within the setup was evaluated. The modeling results indicate a reflective based optical coupling design could be added to existing polarimetric glucose systems thus removing the need for placing an index matched eye-coupling mechanism over the eye prior to data collection.