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Sample records for airborne radioactive substances

  1. Principles for Sampling Airborne Radioactivity from Stacks

    SciTech Connect

    Glissmeyer, John A.

    2010-10-18

    This book chapter describes the special processes involved in sampling the airborne effluents from nuclear faciities. The title of the book is Radioactive Air Sampling Methods. The abstract for this chapter was cleared as PNNL-SA-45941.

  2. Automatic Searching Radioactive Sources by Airborne Radioactive Survey Using Multicopter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rim, H.; Eun, S. B.; Kim, K.; Park, S.; Jung, H. K.

    2015-12-01

    In order to prepare emergency situation lost a dangerous radioelement source in advance and to search a radioactive source automatically, we develop airborne radioelement survey system by multicopter. This multicopter radioelement survey system consists of a small portable customized BGO (Bismuth Germanate Oxide) detector, video recording part, wireless connecting part to ground pilot, GPS, and several equipments for automatic flight. This system is possible to search flight by preprogramed lines. This radioactive detecting system are tested to find intentional hidden source, The performance of detecting a source is well proved with very low flight altitude in spite of depending on the magnitude of radioelement sources. The advantage of multicopter system, one of UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle), is to avoid the potential of close access to a dangerous radioactive source by using fully automatic searching capability. In this paper, we introduce our multicopter system for detecting radioactive source and synthetic case history for demonstrating this system.

  3. Discrimination of airborne radioactivity from radon progeny

    SciTech Connect

    Ching-Jiang Chen; Pao-Shan Weng; Tieh-Chi Chu

    1994-05-01

    Naturally occurring radon and thoron progeny are the most interfering nuclides in the aerosol monitoring system. The high background and fluctuation of natural radioactivity on the filter can cause an error message to the aerosol monitor. A theoretical model was applied in the simulation of radon and thoron progeny behavior in the environment and on the filter. Results show that even a small amount of airborne nuclides on the filter could be discriminated by using the beta:alpha activity ratio instead of gross beta or alpha counting. This method can increase the sensitivity and reliability of real-time aerosol monitoring. 8 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Airborne radioactivity surveys for phosphate in Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moxham, Robert M.

    1954-01-01

    Airborne radioactivity surveys totaling 5, 600 traverse miles were made in 10 areas in Florida, which were thought to be geologically favorable for deposits of uraniferous phosphate. Abnormal radioactivity was recorded in 8 of the 10 areas surveyed. The anomalies are located in Bradford, Clay, Columbia, DeSoto, Dixie, Lake, Marion, Orange, Sumter, Taylor, and Union Counties. Two of the anomalies were investigated briefly on the ground. One resulted from a deposit of river-pebble phosphate in the Peace River valley; the river-pebble samples contain an average of 0.013 percent equivalent uranium. The other anomaly resulted from outcrops of leached phosphatic rock containing as much as 0. 016 percent equivalent uranium. Several anomalies in other areas were recorded at or near localities where phosphate deposits have been reported.

  5. Airborne radioactivity surveys for phosphate in Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moxham, Robert M.

    1953-01-01

    Airborne radioactivity surveys totalling 5,600 traverse miles were made in ten areas in Florida, which were thought to be geologically favorable for the occurrence of uraniferous phosphate deposits. Abnormal radioactivity was recorded in eight of the ten areas surveyed. The anomalies are located in Bradford, Clay, Columbia, DeSoto, Dixie, Lake, Marion, Orange, Sumter, Taylor, and Union Counties. Two of the anomalies were investigated briefly on the ground. One resulted from a deposit of river-pebble phosphate in the Peace River valley; samples of the river pebble contain an average of 0.013 percent equivalent uranium. The other anomaly resulted from outcrops of leached phosphate rock containing as much as 0.016 percent equivalent uranium. Several anomalies in other areas were recorded at or near localities where phosphate deposits have been reported to occur.

  6. Radioactive substances in tap water.

    PubMed

    Atsuumi, Ryo; Endo, Yoshihiko; Suzuki, Akihiko; Kannotou, Yasumitu; Nakada, Masahiro; Yabuuchi, Reiko

    2014-01-01

    A 9.0 magnitude (M) earthquake with an epicenter off the Sanriku coast occurred at 14: 46 on March 11, 2011. TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (F-1 NPP) was struck by the earthquake and its resulting tsunami. Consequently a critical nuclear disaster developed, as a large quantity of radioactive materials was released due to a hydrogen blast. On March 16(th), 2011, radioiodine and radioactive cesium were detected at levels of 177 Bq/kg and 58 Bq/kg, respectively, in tap water in Fukushima city (about 62km northwest of TEPCO F-1 NPP). On March 20th, radioiodine was detected in tap water at a level of 965 Bq/kg, which is over the value-index of restrictions on food and drink intake (radioiodine 300 Bq/kg (infant intake 100 Bq/kg)) designated by the Nuclear Safety Commission. Therefore, intake restriction measures were taken regarding drinking water. After that, although the all intake restrictions were lifted, in order to confirm the safety of tap water, an inspection system was established to monitor all tap water in the prefecture. This system has confirmed that there has been no detection of radioiodine or radioactive cesium in tap water in the prefecture since May 5(th), 2011. Furthermore, radioactive strontium ((89) Sr, (90)Sr) and plutonium ((238)Pu, (239)Pu+(240)Pu) in tap water and the raw water supply were measured. As a result, (89) Sr, (238)Pu, (239)Pu+(240)Pu were undetectable and although (90)Sr was detected, its committed effective dose of 0.00017 mSv was much lower than the yearly 0.1 mSv of the World Health Organization guidelines for drinking water quality. In addition, the results did not show any deviations from past inspection results.

  7. 10 CFR 20.1203 - Determination of external dose from airborne radioactive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determination of external dose from airborne radioactive... RADIATION Occupational Dose Limits § 20.1203 Determination of external dose from airborne radioactive material. Licensees shall, when determining the dose from airborne radioactive material, include...

  8. 10 CFR 20.1203 - Determination of external dose from airborne radioactive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Determination of external dose from airborne radioactive... RADIATION Occupational Dose Limits § 20.1203 Determination of external dose from airborne radioactive material. Licensees shall, when determining the dose from airborne radioactive material, include...

  9. 10 CFR 20.1203 - Determination of external dose from airborne radioactive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Determination of external dose from airborne radioactive... RADIATION Occupational Dose Limits § 20.1203 Determination of external dose from airborne radioactive material. Licensees shall, when determining the dose from airborne radioactive material, include...

  10. 10 CFR 20.1203 - Determination of external dose from airborne radioactive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Determination of external dose from airborne radioactive... RADIATION Occupational Dose Limits § 20.1203 Determination of external dose from airborne radioactive material. Licensees shall, when determining the dose from airborne radioactive material, include...

  11. 10 CFR 20.1203 - Determination of external dose from airborne radioactive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Determination of external dose from airborne radioactive... RADIATION Occupational Dose Limits § 20.1203 Determination of external dose from airborne radioactive material. Licensees shall, when determining the dose from airborne radioactive material, include...

  12. Field investigation of airborne radioactivity anomalies in Marquette County, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    James, Harold L.

    1950-01-01

    The broad radioactivity anomalies recorded by the airborne detector in the vicinity of Republic, Marquette County, Michigan, coincide rather closely with parts of a granitic complex chiefly of Archean age. Ground examination of the rock in these areas of high radioactivity shows that the granitic rock typically yields two to four times the normal background activity. Fissures, shear zones, veins, and pegmatites were tested carefully. None exhibited activity higher than that of the adjacent granitic rock. It is significant that the zones of more-than-average radio-activity are related to the larger elements of the geology - in fact, the information will be of considerable value in reconsideration of some of the regional problems.

  13. Functional requirements document for measuring emissions of airborne radioactive materials

    SciTech Connect

    Criddle, J.D. Jr.

    1994-09-01

    This document states the functional requirements and procedures for systems making measurements of radioactive airborne emissions from facilities at the Hanford Site. The following issues are addressed in this document: Definition of the program objectives; Selection of the overall approach to collecting the samples; Sampling equipment design; Sampling equipment maintenance, and quality assurance issues. The intent of this document is to assist WHC in demonstrating a high quality of air emission measurements with verified system performance based on documented system design, testing, inspection, and maintenance.

  14. Monitoring radioactive plumes by airborne gamma-ray spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Grasty, R.L.; Hovgaard, J.; Multala, J.

    1996-06-01

    Airborne gamma-ray spectrometer surveys using large volume sodium-iodide detectors are routinely flown throughout the world for mineral exploration and geological mapping. Techniques have now been developed to detect and map man-made sources of radiation. In Canada, airborne gamma-rays surveys have been flown around nuclear reactors to map {sup 41}Ar plumes from nuclear reactors and to calculate the dose rate at ground level. In May 1986, the Finnish Geological survey aircraft flew through a radioactive plume from the Chernobyl nuclear accident. As the aircraft flew through the plume, the aircraft became increasingly contaminated. By measuring the final aircraft contamination, the activity of the plume could be separated from the contamination due to the aircraft. Within 1 h of encountering the plume, the aircraft activity was comparable to the maximum levels found in the plume. From an analysis of the gamma-ray spectra, the concentration of {sup 131}I and {sup 140}La within the plume were calculated as a function of time.

  15. Airborne radioactive effluent study at the Savannah River Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchard, R.L.; Broadway, J.A.; Sensintaffar, E.L.; Kirk, W.P.; Kahn, B.; Garrett, A.J.

    1984-07-01

    Under the Clean Air Act, Sections 112 and 122 as amended in 1977, the Office of Radiation Programs (OPR) of the United States Environmental Protection Agency is currently developing standards for radionuclides emitted to the air by several source categories. In order to confirm source-term measurements and pathway calculations for radiation exposures to humans offsite, the ORP performs field studies at selected facilities that emit radionuclides. This report describes the field study conducted at the Savannah River Plant (SRP), a laboratory operated by E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Company for the US Department of Energy. This purpose of the study at ARP was to verify reported airborne releases and resulting radiation doses from the facility. Measurements of radionuclide releases for brief periods were compared with measurements performed by SRP staff on split samples and with annual average releases reported by SRP for the same facilities. The dispersion model used by SRP staff to calculate radiation doses offsite was tested by brief environmental radioactivity measurements performed simultaneously with the release measurements, and by examining radioactivity levels in environmental samples. This report describes in detail all measurements made and data collected during the field study and presents the results obtained. 34 references, 18 figures, 49 tables.

  16. An electrostatic precipitator for the study of airborne radioactivity.

    PubMed

    Andrews, L L; Schery, S D; Wilkening, M H

    1984-04-01

    An system has been developed to measure airborne radioactivity using electrostatic precipitation for collection and alpha-particle spectroscopy for detection. Features include good energy resolution (e.g. 170 and 300 KeV for full-width half maximum and full-width tenth maximum for 7.7-MeV alpha particles using a 7-cm2 area detector; and 52- and 122-KeV, respectively, using 1.2-cm2 area detector) and versatile computer control for collection, counting and data reduction. Aerosols bearing the radioactive atoms are deposited on a foil tape by electrostatic precipitation for a predetermined time after which the foil is moved under a solid-state detector to count the alpha-particle emissions. Activities are determined at the same frequency as samples are collected. Helium gas can be introduced at the detector to reduce energy loss and improve resolution. Although in principle certain aerosol sizes could be difficult to collect, in practice no difficulties were observed for typical environmental conditions, provided sufficiently low air-sampling rates were used. One important application is the measurement of 222Rn daughters. The sensitivity is such that detection of individual daughter concentrations less than 0.1 pCi/l. with only a 10% counting error is possible.

  17. Exposure of hairdressing apprentices to airborne hazardous substances

    PubMed Central

    Mounier-Geyssant, Estelle; Oury, Véronique; Mouchot, Lory; Paris, Christophe; Zmirou-Navier, Denis

    2006-01-01

    Background Few studies have investigated exposure of hairdressing apprentices to airborne irritants. This study describes exposure levels of apprentices to chemical products used in hairdressing salons in relation with their activity. Methods Following a two stages study design, a group of 300 students completed a questionnaire on their work activities and environment. Among these, a group of 28 subjects volunteered to undergo personal exposure and workplace concentrations measurements over a work shift, during a cold and a hot season, with the agreement of the salon owners. Three chemical substances were studied (ammonia, hydrogen peroxide and persulfates) because they are respiratory tract irritants and because their concentrations could be quantified within a 5 to 8 hour shift period. Results Personal exposure values for H2O2and NH3 (averages [standard deviations] are 0.05 [0.04] and 0.90 [0.76] mg.m-3, respectively) were greater than workplace ambient air concentrations (corresponding values of 0.04 [0.03] and 0.68 [0.42] mg.m-3) for H2O2 and NH3, with no significant seasonal variation. By contrast, workplace concentrations of persulfates (0.019 [0.018] mg.m-3) were greater than personal exposure (0.016 [0.021] mg.m-3, a finding that is consistent with the fact that bleaching is more often undertaken by senior hairdressers. However, all exposure values were lower than the current TLV TWA values. This study also shows that over half of technical spaces where chemical substances used for dying, permanenting or bleaching are manipulated, have no ventilation system, and not even a door or a window opening outside. Conclusion The study hairdressing salons, on average, were small, the most probable reason why occupational hygiene measures such as appropriate ventilation were too seldom implemented. As a consequence, young apprentices and senior hairdressers experience substantial exposure to known airways irritants. PMID:16893447

  18. Airborne radioactivity survey in the vicinity of Grants, McKinley and Valencia Counties, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stead, Frank W.

    1951-01-01

    An airborne radioactivity survey in the vicinity of Grants, New Mexico, was made on May 28. 1951; aeromagnetic measurements were made concurrently with the radioactivity measurements. Several radioactivity anomalies were noted in conjunction with negative magnetic anomalies; this association is unusual and may reflect a genetic relationship between the uranium mineralization and the geologic structure causing the negative magnetic effect. Further investigation of the vicinity of the anomalies near the Haystack area, including ground magnetometer survey, seems warranted.

  19. [Bone-seeking radioactive substances in nuclear medicine].

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, G

    1976-12-01

    The concept of bone affinity of a radioactive tracer is developed on theoretical grounds and is discussed on the basis of the various substances used in nuclear medical diagnosis of bone disease. On the basis of results on the uptake of very short lived nuclides and extremely large molecules, evidence is provided that the incorporation of the tracer in the apatite crystal is not a primary criterion of bone affinity since incorporation cannot take place on timelimiting grounds in the former case and on spatial grounds in the latter. The fixation on bone is therefore more likely the result of non-specific adsorption processes. The utility of a radioactive substance in practical application in nuclear medicine depends on the radioactive characteristics of the nuclide and on its behavior in the organism. In this context the quality of the scintigram is particularly dependent on the mode and rate of elimination of that fraction of the tracer that is not bound by the skeleton. The various mechanism which cause differences in the uptake of tracer by healthy and pathological bone tissue are discussed with special regard to the role of blood flow. PMID:1012921

  20. Airborne radioactivity surveys in the Mojave Desert region, Kern, Riverside, and San Bernardino Counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moxham, Robert M.

    1952-01-01

    Airborne radioactivity surveys in the Mojave Desert region Kern, Riverside, and Bernardino counties were made in five areas recommended as favorable for the occurrence of radioactive raw materials: (1) Rock Corral area, San Bernardino County. (2) Searles Station area, Kern county. (3) Soledad area, Kern County. (4) White Tank area, Riverside and San Bernardino counties. (5) Harvard Hills area, San Bernardino County. Anomalous radiation was detected in all but the Harvard Hills area. The radioactivity anomalies detected in the Rock Corral area are of the greatest amplitude yet recorded by the airborne equipment over natural sources. The activity is apparently attributable to the thorium-beating mineral associated with roof pendants of crystalline metamorphic rocks in a granitic intrusive. In the Searles Station, Soledad, and White Tank area, several radioactivity anomalies of medium amplitude were recorded, suggesting possible local concentrations of radioactive minerals.

  1. Drilling of airborne radioactivity anomalies in Florida, Georgia, and South Carolina, 1954

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cathcart, J.B.

    1954-01-01

    From April 22 to May 19, 1953, airborne radioactivity surveys totalling 5,600 traverse miles were made in 10 areas in Florida (Moxham, 1954).  Abnormal radioactivity was recorded in Bradford, Clay, DeSoto, Dixie, Lake, Marion, Orange, Sumter, Taylor, and Union Counties, Florida.  Additional airborne surveys were made in the Spring of 1954 in Hardee and Manatee Counties, Florida, on the drainage of the Altamaha River in Georgia, and in the area of the old phosphate workings in and around Charleston County, South Carolina.

  2. Effluent monitoring Quality Assurance Project Plan for radioactive airborne emissions data. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Frazier, T.P.

    1995-12-01

    This Quality Assurance Project Plan addresses the quality assurance requirements for compiling Hanford Site radioactive airborne emissions data. These data will be reported to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the US Department of Energy, and the Washington State Department of Health. Effluent Monitoring performs compliance assessments on radioactive airborne sampling and monitoring systems. This Quality Assurance Project Plan is prepared in compliance with interim guidelines and specifications. Topics include: project description; project organization and management; quality assurance objectives; sampling procedures; sample custody; calibration procedures; analytical procedures; monitoring and reporting criteria; data reduction, verification, and reporting; internal quality control; performance and system audits; corrective actions; and quality assurance reports.

  3. Airborne radioactivity survey of the Miller Hill area, Carbon county, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meuschke, J.L.; Moxham, R.M.

    1953-01-01

    The accompanying map shows the results of an airborne radioactivity survey covering 65 square miles northwest of Miller Hill, Carbon county, Wyoming. The survey was made by the U.S. Geological Survey as part of a cooperative program with the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. At 500 feet above the ground, the width of the zone from which anomalous radioactivity is measured varies with the intensity of radiation of the source and, for strong sources, the width would be as much as 1,400 feet. Quarter-mile spacing of the flight paths of the aircraft should be adequate to detect anomalies from strong sources of radioactivity. However, small areas of considerable radioactivity midway between flight paths may not be noted. The approximate location of each radioactivity anomaly is shown on the accompanying map. The plotted position of an anomaly may be in error by as much as a quarter of a mile owing to errors in the available base maps up to several square miles in which it is impossible to find and plot recognizable landmarks. The radioactivity anomalies shown on the accompanying map cannot be interpreted in terms of either the radioactive content or the extent of the source materials. The present technique of airborne radioactivity measurement does not permit distinguishing between activity due to thorium and that due to uranium. An anomaly, therefore, may represent radioactivity due entirely to uranium, or to thorium, or to a combination of uranium and thorium. The radioactivity that is recorded by airborne measurements at 500 feet above the ground can be caused by: 1. A moderately large area in which the rocks and soils are slightly more radioactive than the rocks and soils of the surrounding area. 2. A smaller area in which the rocks and soils are considerably more radioactive than rocks and soils in the surrounding area. 3. A very small area in which to rocks and soils are much more radioactive than the rocks and soils of the surrounding area. Any particular anomaly

  4. Airborne radioactivity survey of parts of Atlantic Ocean beach, Virginia to Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moxham, R.M.; Johnson, R.W.

    1953-01-01

    The accompanying maps show the results of an airborne radioactivity survey along the Atlantic Ocean beach from Cape Henry, Virginia to Cape Fear, North Carolina and from Savannah Bach Georgia to Miami Beach, Florida. The survey was made March 23-24, 1953, as part of a cooperative program with the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. The survey was made with scintillation detection equipment mounted in a Douglas DC-3 aircraft and consisted of one flight line, at a 500-foot altitude, parallel to the beach. The vertical projection of the flight line coincided approximately with the landward limit of the modern beach. The width of the zone on the ground from which anomalous radiation is measured at the normal 500 foot flight altitude varies with the areal extent radioactivity of the source. For strong sources of radioactivity the width of the zone would be as much as 1,400 feet. The location of the flight lines is shown on the index map below. No abnormal radioactivity was detected along the northern flight line between Cape Henry, Virginia and Cape Fear, North Carolina. Along the southern flight line fourteen areas of abnormal radioactivity were detected between Savannah Beach, Georgia and Anastasia Island, Florida as shown on the map on the left. The abnormal radioactivity is apparently due to radioactive minerals associated with "black sand" deposits with occur locally along the beach in this region. The present technique of airborne radioactivity measurement does not permit distinguishing between activity sue to thorium and that due to uranium. An anomaly, therefore, may represent radioactivity due entirely to one or to a combination of these elements. It is not possible to determine the extent or radioactive content of the materials responsible for the abnormal radioactivity. The information given on the accompanying map indicates only those localities of greater-than-average radioactivity and, therefore suggest areas in which uranium and thorium deposits are more

  5. Savannah River Site Ingestion Pathway Methodology Manual for Airborne Radioactive Releases

    SciTech Connect

    Vincent, A.W. III

    2001-01-03

    This manual documents a recommended methodology for determining the ingestion pathway consequences of hypothetical accidental airborne radiological releases from facilities at the Savannah River Site. Both particulate and tritiated radioactive contaminants are addressed. Other approaches should be applied for evaluation of routine releases.

  6. A Computer Code to Estimate Environmental Concentration and Dose Due to Airborne Release of Radioactive Material.

    1991-03-15

    Version 00 ORION-II was developed to estimate environmental concentration and dose due to airborne release of radioactive material from multiple sources of the nuclear fuel cycle facilities. ORION-II is an updated version of ORION and is applicable to the sensitivity study of dose assessment at nuclear fuel cycle facilities.

  7. Airborne radioactivity Survey of part of Saratoga NW quadrangle, Carbon County, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henderson, J.R.

    1954-01-01

    The accompanying map shows the results of an airborne radioactivity survey in 133 square miles of Saratoga NW quadrangle, Wyoming. This area is part of a larger survey made in southern Carbon and Sweetwater Counties by the U. S. Geological Survey, November 9-24, 1953. The work was undertaken as part of a cooperative program with the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission.

  8. Airborne radioactivity survey of parts of the Atlantic Ocean beach, North and South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meuschke, J.L.; Moxham, R.M.; Bortner, T.E.

    1953-01-01

    The accompanying map shows the results of an airborne radioactivity survey along the Atlantic Ocean beach between Edisto Island, South Carolina and Cape Fear, North Carolina. The survey was made May 20, 1953, as part of a cooperative program with the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. The survey was made with scintillation detection equipment mounted in a Douglas DC-3 aircraft and consisted of one flight line, at a 500-foot altitude, parallel to the beach. The vertical projection of the flight line coincided approximately with the landward limit of the modern beach. The width of the zone on the ground from which anomalous radiation is measured at the nominal 500 foot flight altitude varies with areal extent and intensity of radioactivity of the source. For strong sources of radioactivity the width of the zone may be as much as 1400 feet. The accompanying maps show the approximate locations of the areas of greater-than-average radioactivity (at left) and the location of the traverse flown (at right). The abnormal radioactivity is apparently caused by radioactive minerals associated with "black sand" deposits which occur locally along the beach in this region. The present technique of airborne radioactivity measurement does not permit distinguishing between activity due to thorium and that due to uranium. An anomaly, therefore, may represent radioactivity due entirely to one or a combination of these elements. It is not possible to determine the extent or radioactive content of the materials responsible for the abnormal radioactivity. The information given in the accompanying map showing the localities of greater-than-average radioactivity therefore, suggests areas in which uranium and thorium deposits are more likely to occur.

  9. Airborne radioactivity survey of the Gulf of Mexico beach between Sanibel Island and Caladesi Island, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meuschke, J.L.; Moxham, R.M.; Bortner, T.E.

    1953-01-01

    The accompanying map shows the results of an airborne radioactivity survey along the Gulf of Mexico beach between Sanibel Island and Caladesi Island in Florida. This survey was made May 4, 1953, as part of a cooperative program with the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. The survey was made with scintillation detection equipment mounted in a Douglas DC-3 aircraft and consisted of one flight line, at a 500-foot altitude , parallel to the beach. The vertical projection of the flight line coincided approximately with the landward limit of the modern beach. The width of the zone on the ground from which anomalous radiation is measured at the nominal 500 foot flight altitude varies with the areal extent and intensity of the radioactivity the width of the zone may be as much as 1400 feet. The accompanying map and index map show the approximate locations of the areas of greater-than-average radioactivity and the location of the traverse flown. The abnormal radioactivity is apparently caused by radioactive minerals associated with "black sand" deposits which occur locally along the beach in the region. The present technique of airborne radioactivity measurement does not permit distinguishing between activity due to thorium and that due to uranium. An anomaly, therefore, may represent radioactivity due entirely to one or to a combination of these elements. It is not possible to determine the extent or radioactive content of the materials responsible for the abnormal radioactivity. The information given in the accompanying map showing the localities of greater-than-average radioactivity therefore, suggests area in which uranium or thorium deposits are more likely to occur.

  10. [The main directions of improving the system of state accounting and control of radioactive substances and radioactive waste products].

    PubMed

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a modification of the basic directions of state accounting and control of radioactive substances and radioactive waste products, whose implementation will significantly improve the efficiency of its operation at the regional level. Selected areas are designed to improve accounting and control system for the submission of the enterprises established by the reporting forms, the quality of the information contained in them, as well as structures of information and process for collecting, analyzing and data processing concerning radioactive substances and waste products.

  11. Airborne radioactivity of portions of the Defiance Uplift and Carrizo Mountains, Apache county, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, R.W.; Moxham, R.M.

    1953-01-01

    The accompanying map shows the results of an airborne radioactivity survey covering 940 square miles in Apache county, Arizona. The survey was made by the U.S. Geological Survey from September 8 to October 3, 1952, as part of a cooperative program with the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. The survey was made with scintillation-detection equipment mounted in a Douglas DC-3 aircraft. Parallel traverse lines, spaced at quarter-mile intervals, were flown approximately 500 feet above the ground. Aerial photographs were used for pilot guidance, and the flight path of the aircraft was recorded by a gyro-stabilized, continuous-strip-film camera. The distance of the aircraft from the ground was measured with a continuously recording radio altimeter. At 500 feet above the ground, the width of the zone from which anomalous radioactivity is measured varies with the intensity of radiation of the source and, for strong sources, the width would be as much as 1,400 feet. Quarter-mile spacing of the flight paths of the aircraft should be adequate to detect anomalies from strong sources of radioactivity. However, small areas of considerable radioactivity midway between flight paths may not be noted. The approximate location of each radioactivity anomaly is shown on the accompanying map. The plotted position of an anomaly may be in error by as much as a quarter of a mile owing to errors in the available base maps up to several square miles in which it is impossible to find and plot recognizable landmarks. The radioactivity anomaly that is recorded by airborne measurements at 500 feet above the ground can be caused by: 1. A moderately large area in which the rocks and soils are slightly more radioactive than the rocks and soils of the surrounding area. 2. A smaller area in which the rocks and soils are considerably more radioactive than rocks and soils in the surrounding area. 3. A very small area in which to rocks and soils are much more radioactive than the rocks and soils of the

  12. Airborne radioactivity survey of the Tabernacle Buttes area, Sublette and Fremont counties, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1953-01-01

    The accompanying map shows the results of an airborne radioactivity survey in an area of 670 square miles in Sublette and Fremont counties, Wyoming. The survey was made by the U.S. Geological Survey, October 20, 1952, as part of a cooperative program with the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. The survey was made with scintillation-detection equipment mounted in a Douglas DC-3 aircraft. Parallel traverse lines, spaced at quarter-mile intervals, were flown approximately 500 feet above the ground. Aerial photographs were used for pilot guidance, and the flight path of the aircraft was recorded by a gyro-stabilized, continuous-strip-film camera. The distance of the aircraft from the ground was measured with a continuously recording radio altimeter. At 500 feet above the ground, the width of the zone from which anomalous radioactivity is measured varies with the intensity of radiation of the source and, for strong sources, the width would be as much as 1,400 feet. Quarter-mile spacing of the flight paths of the aircraft should be adequate to detect anomalies from strong sources of radioactivity. However, small areas of considerable radioactivity midway between flight paths may not be noted. The approximate location of each radioactivity anomaly is shown on the accompanying map. The plotted position of an anomaly may be in error by as much as a quarter of a mile owing to errors in the available base maps up to several square miles in which it is impossible to find and plot recognizable landmarks. The radioactivity anomaly that is recorded by airborne measurements at 500 feet above the ground can be caused by: 1. A moderately large area in which the rocks and soils are slightly more radioactive than the rocks and soils of the surrounding area. 2. A smaller area in which the rocks and soils are considerably more radioactive than rocks and soils in the surrounding area. 3. A very small area in which to rocks and soils are much more radioactive than the rocks and soils of the

  13. Airborne radioactivity survey of the Devils Tower area, Crook county, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henderson, J.R.; Moxham, R.M.

    1953-01-01

    The accompanying map shows the results of an airborne radioactivity survey covering 45 square miles northwest of Devils Tower, Crook County, Wyoming. The survey was made by the U.S. Geological Survey on September 4, 1952, as part of a cooperative program with the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. The survey was made with scintillation-detection equipment mounted in a Douglas DC-3 aircraft. Parallel traverse lines, spaced at quarter-mile intervals, were flown approximately 500 feet above the ground. Aerial photographs were used for pilot guidance, and the flight path of the aircraft was recorded by a gyro-stabilized, continuous-strip-film camera. The distance of the aircraft from the ground was measured with a continuously recording radio altimeter. At 500 feet above the ground, the width of the zone from which anomalous radioactivity is measured varies with the intensity of radiation of the source and, for strong sources, the width would be as much as 1,400 feet. Quarter-mile spacing of the flight paths of the aircraft should be adequate to detect anomalies from strong sources of radioactivity. However, small areas of considerable radioactivity midway between flight paths may not be noted. The approximate location of each radioactivity anomaly is shown on the accompanying map. The plotted position of an anomaly may be in error by as much as a quarter of a mile owing to errors in the available base maps up to several square miles in which it is impossible to find and plot recognizable landmarks. The radioactivity that is recorded by airborne measurements at 500 feet above the ground can be caused by: 1. A moderately large area in which the rocks and soils are slightly more radioactive than the rocks and soils of the surrounding area. 2. A smaller area in which the rocks and soils are considerably more radioactive than rocks and soils in the surrounding area. 3. A very small area in which to rocks and soils are much more radioactive than the rocks and soils of the

  14. Airborne radioactivity survey of the Aspen Mountain area, Sweetwater county, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meuschke, J.L.; Moxham, R.M.

    1953-01-01

    The accompanying map shows the results of an airborne radioactivity survey covering 700 square miles in the Aspen Mountain area, Sweetwater county, Wyoming. The survey was made by the U.S. Geological Survey, October 22, 1952, as part of a cooperative program with the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. The survey was made with scintillation-detection equipment mounted in a Douglas DC-3 aircraft. Parallel traverse lines, spaced at quarter-mile intervals, were flown approximately 500 feet above the ground. Aerial photographs were used for pilot guidance, and the flight path of the aircraft was recorded by a gyro-stabilized, continuous-strip-film camera. The distance of the aircraft from the ground was measured with a continuously recording radio altimeter. At 500 feet above the ground, the width of the zone from which anomalous radioactivity is measured varies with the intensity of radiation of the source and, for strong sources, the width would be as much as 1,400 feet. Quarter-mile spacing of the flight paths of the aircraft should be adequate to detect anomalies from strong sources of radioactivity. However, small areas of considerable radioactivity midway between flight paths may not be noted. The approximate location of each radioactivity anomaly is shown on the accompanying map. The plotted position of an anomaly may be in error by as much as a quarter of a mile owing to errors in the available base maps up to several square miles in which it is impossible to find and plot recognizable landmarks. The radioactivity anomaly that is recorded by airborne measurements at 500 feet above the ground can be caused by: 1. A moderately large area in which the rocks and soils are slightly more radioactive than the rocks and soils of the surrounding area. 2. A smaller area in which the rocks and soils are considerably more radioactive than rocks and soils in the surrounding area. 3. A very small area in which to rocks and soils are much more radioactive than the rocks and soils

  15. Airborne radioactivity survey of the West Lonetree area, Uinta county, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meuschke, J.L.; Moxham, R.M.

    1953-01-01

    The accompanying map shows the results of an airborne radioactivity survey in an area of 154 square miles in Uinta county, Wyoming. The survey was made by the U.S. Geological Survey, October 23, 1952, as part of a cooperative program with the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. The survey was made with scintillation-detection equipment mounted in a Douglas DC-3 aircraft. Parallel traverse lines, spaced at quarter-mile intervals, were flown approximately 500 feet above the ground. Aerial photographs were used for pilot guidance, and the flight path of the aircraft was recorded by a gyro-stabilized, continuous-strip-film camera. The distance of the aircraft from the ground was measured with a continuously recording radio altimeter. At 500 feet above the ground, the width of the zone from which anomalous radioactivity is measured varies with the intensity of radiation of the source and, for strong sources, the width would be as much as 1,400 feet. Quarter-mile spacing of the flight paths of the aircraft should be adequate to detect anomalies from strong sources of radioactivity. However, small areas of considerable radioactivity midway between flight paths may not be noted. The approximate location of each radioactivity anomaly is shown on the accompanying map. The plotted position of an anomaly may be in error by as much as a quarter of a mile owing to errors in the available base maps up to several square miles in which it is impossible to find and plot recognizable landmarks. The radioactivity anomaly that is recorded by airborne measurements at 500 feet above the ground can be caused by: 1. A moderately large area in which the rocks and soils are slightly more radioactive than the rocks and soils of the surrounding area. 2. A smaller area in which the rocks and soils are considerably more radioactive than rocks and soils in the surrounding area. 3. A very small area in which to rocks and soils are much more radioactive than the rocks and soils of the surrounding area

  16. Airborne radioactivity surveys of parts of Savery SW and Savery SE quadrangles, Carbon County, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henderson, J.R.

    1954-01-01

    The accompanying map shows the results of an airborne radioactivity survey in 222 square miles of Savery SW and Savery SE quadrangles, Wyoming. This area is part of a larger survey made in southern Carbon and Sweetwater Counties by the U. S. Geological Survey, November 9-24, 1953. The work was undertaken as part of a cooperative program with the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission.

  17. Airborne radioactivity survey of parts of Savery NW and Savery NE quadrangles, Carbon County, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henderson, J.R.

    1954-01-01

    The accompanying map shows the results of an airborne radioactivity survey in 266 square miles of Savery NW and Savery NE quadrangles, Wyoming. This area is part of a larger survey made in southern Carbon and Sweetwater Counties by the U. S. Geological Survey, November 9-24, 1953. The work was undertaken as part of a cooperative program with the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission.

  18. Identification of airborne radioactive spatial patterns in Europe - Feasibility study using Beryllium-7.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Ceballos, M A; Cinelli, G; Tollefsen, T; Marín-Ferrer, M

    2016-05-01

    The present study proposes a methodology to identify spatial patterns in airborne radioactive particles in Europe. The methodology is based on transforming the activity concentrations in the set of stations for each month (monthly index), due to the tightly spaced sampling intervals (daily to monthly), in combination with hierarchical and non-hierarchical clustering approaches, due to the lack of a priori knowledge of the number of clusters to be created. Three different hierarchical cluster methodologies are explored to set the optimal number of clusters necessary to initialize the non-hierarchical one (k-means). To evaluate this methodology, cosmogenic beryllium-7 ((7)Be) data, collected between 2007 and 2010 at 19 sampling stations in European Union (EU) countries and stored in the Radioactivity Environmental Monitoring (REM) database, are used. This methodology yields a solution with three distinguishable clusters (south, central and north), each with a different evolution of the (7)Be monthly index. Clear differences between monthly indices are shown in both intensity and time trends, following a latitudinal distribution of the sampling stations. This cluster result is evaluated performing ANOVA analysis, considering the original (7)Be activity concentrations grouped in each cluster. The statistical results (among clusters and sampling stations within clusters) confirm the spatial distribution of (7)Be in Europe, and, hence, reinforce the use of this methodology. Finally, the impact of tropopause height on this grouping is successfully tested, suggesting its influence on the spatial distribution of (7)Be in Europe. For airborne radioactive particles the analysis gave valuable results that improve knowledge of these atmospheric compounds in Europe. Hence, this work addresses a methodology to a grouping of airborne sampling stations, 1) allowing a better understanding of the distribution of (7)Be activity concentrations in the EU, and 2) serving as a basis for

  19. Identification of airborne radioactive spatial patterns in Europe - Feasibility study using Beryllium-7.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Ceballos, M A; Cinelli, G; Tollefsen, T; Marín-Ferrer, M

    2016-05-01

    The present study proposes a methodology to identify spatial patterns in airborne radioactive particles in Europe. The methodology is based on transforming the activity concentrations in the set of stations for each month (monthly index), due to the tightly spaced sampling intervals (daily to monthly), in combination with hierarchical and non-hierarchical clustering approaches, due to the lack of a priori knowledge of the number of clusters to be created. Three different hierarchical cluster methodologies are explored to set the optimal number of clusters necessary to initialize the non-hierarchical one (k-means). To evaluate this methodology, cosmogenic beryllium-7 ((7)Be) data, collected between 2007 and 2010 at 19 sampling stations in European Union (EU) countries and stored in the Radioactivity Environmental Monitoring (REM) database, are used. This methodology yields a solution with three distinguishable clusters (south, central and north), each with a different evolution of the (7)Be monthly index. Clear differences between monthly indices are shown in both intensity and time trends, following a latitudinal distribution of the sampling stations. This cluster result is evaluated performing ANOVA analysis, considering the original (7)Be activity concentrations grouped in each cluster. The statistical results (among clusters and sampling stations within clusters) confirm the spatial distribution of (7)Be in Europe, and, hence, reinforce the use of this methodology. Finally, the impact of tropopause height on this grouping is successfully tested, suggesting its influence on the spatial distribution of (7)Be in Europe. For airborne radioactive particles the analysis gave valuable results that improve knowledge of these atmospheric compounds in Europe. Hence, this work addresses a methodology to a grouping of airborne sampling stations, 1) allowing a better understanding of the distribution of (7)Be activity concentrations in the EU, and 2) serving as a basis for

  20. Enhanced airborne radioactivity during a pine pollen release episode.

    PubMed

    Tschiersch, J; Frank, G; Roth, P; Wagenpfeil, F; Watterson, F; Watterson, J

    1999-07-01

    A single episode of pine pollen release in the highly contaminated area of Novozybkov, Russian Federation, which led to enhanced atmospheric concentrations of 137Cs is discussed. The pollen grains were sampled by a rotating arm impactor and analysed by gamma-spectrometry for 137Cs activity and by image analysis for their size. In the vicinity of a forest, a maximum concentration of 4.5+/-0.4 mBq m(-3) was measured, and a mean activity per pollen grain of 260+/-80 nBq was determined. The emission rate of the Novozybkov mixed pine forest was estimated to be approximately 400 Bq m(-2) per year. Because of the large size of pine pollen grains (about 50 microm) and the short emission period of 5-8 days per year, the estimated potential annual inhalation doses are very low. Biological emissions including pollen release may be a source of increased airborne radionuclide concentrations at larger distances from the source areas as well. PMID:10461761

  1. Air modelling as an alternative to sampling for low-level radioactive airborne releases

    SciTech Connect

    Morgenstern, M.Y.; Hueske, K.

    1995-05-01

    This paper describes our efforts to assess the effect of airborne releases at one DOE laboratory using air modelling based on historical data. Among the facilities affected by these developments is Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in New Mexico. RCRA, as amended by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) in 1984, requires all facilities which involve the treatment, storage, and disposal of hazardous waste obtain a RCRA/HSWA waste facility permit. LANL complied with CEARP by initiating a process of identifying potential release sites associated with LANL operations prior to filing a RCRA/HSWA permit application. In the process of preparing the RCRA/HSWA waste facility permit application to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), a total of 603 Solid Waste Management Units (SWMUs) were identified as part of the requirements of the HSWA Module VIH permit requirements. The HSWA Module VIII permit requires LANL to determine whether there have been any releases of hazardous waste or hazardous constituents from SWMUs at the facility dating from the 1940`s by performing a RCRA Facility Investigation to address known or suspected releases from specified SWMUs to affected media (i.e. soil, groundwater, surface water, and air). Among the most troublesome of the potential releases sites are those associated with airborne radioactive releases. In order to assess health risks associated with radioactive contaminants in a manner consistent with exposure standards currently in place, the DOE and LANL have established Screening Action Levels (SALs) for radioactive soil contamination. The SALs for each radionuclide in soil are derived from calculations based on a residential scenario in which individuals are exposed to contaminated soil via inhalation and ingestion as well as external exposure to gamma emitters in the soil. The applicable SALs are shown.

  2. A kinematic model to estimate effective dose of radioactive substances in a human body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, S.; Yamada, T.

    2013-05-01

    The great earthquake occurred in the north-east area in Japan in March 11, 2011. Facility system to control Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station was completely destroyed by the following giant tsunami. From the damaged reactor containment vessels, an amount of radioactive substances had leaked and diffused in the vicinity of this station. Radiological internal exposure became a serious social issue both in Japan and all over the world. The present study provides an easily understandable, kinematic-based model to estimate the effective dose of radioactive substances in a human body by simplifying the complicated mechanism of metabolism. International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has developed a sophisticated model, which is well-known as a standard method to calculate the effective dose for radiological protection. However, owing to that ICRP method is fine, it is rather difficult for non-professional people of radiology to gasp the whole images of the movement and the influences of radioactive substances in a human body. Therefore, in the present paper we propose a newly-derived and easily-understandable model to estimate the effective dose. The present method is very similar with the traditional and conventional tank model in hydrology. Ingestion flux of radioactive substances corresponds to rain intensity and the storage of radioactive substances to the water storage in a basin in runoff analysis. The key of the present method is to estimate the energy radiated in the radioactive nuclear disintegration of an atom by using classical theory of β decay and special relativity for various kinds of radioactive atoms. The parameters used in this model are only physical half-time and biological half-time, and there are no operational parameters or coefficients to adjust our theoretical runoff to ICRP. Figure shows the time-varying effective dose with ingestion duration, and we can confirm the validity of our model. The time-varying effective dose with

  3. Various consequences regarding hypothetical dispersion of airborne radioactivity in a city center.

    PubMed

    Jonsson, Lage; Plamboeck, Agneta H; Johansson, Erik; Waldenvik, Mattias

    2013-02-01

    In case of dispersion of airborne radioactive material in a city center a number of questions will prompt for an answer. While many questions can get their answers in due course of time based on results of tests and sampling, a good understanding of the quantitative effect of dispersion will be very helpful to rescue staff, in particular in the early stage. In the following dose and dose rate estimates are presented for three scenarios including dispersion of radioactivity in a city center. In one case the activity is released in an open place, in another from a roof and in the third case from a source on a street where the wind is blowing along the street. In each case, at specific positions, estimates are made of dose from inhalation, and dose rates for contamination on skin as well as from radioactive particles deposited onto ground, walls and roofs (external exposure) in the city center. It should be noted that the deposition pattern in urban areas varies greatly which means that the consequences are difficult to predict. The dispersion is influenced by recirculation behind tall buildings and diverted flow close to street-ends, which have significant effects on the deposit pattern. Regarding the relative importance of contributions to total dose it is found that inhalation could play a major role for long term effects while dose to skin might dominate acute effects.

  4. Validation of Monte Carlo model of HPGe detector for field-station measurement of airborne radioactivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šolc, J.; Kovář, P.; Dryák, P.

    2016-03-01

    A Monte Carlo (MC) model of a mechanically-cooled High Purity Germanium detection system IDM-200-V™ manufactured by ORTEC® was created, optimized and validated within the scope of the Joint Research Project ENV57 ``Metrology for radiological early warning networks in Europe''. The validation was performed for a planar source homogeneously distributed on a filter placed on top of the detector end cap and for point sources positioned farther from the detector by comparing simulated full-energy peak (FEP) detection efficiencies with the ones measured with two or three different pieces of the IDM detector. True coincidence summing correction factors were applied to the measured FEP efficiencies. Relative differences of FEP efficiencies laid within 8% that is fully satisfactory for the intended use of the detectors as instruments for airborne radioactivity measurement in field-stations. The validated MC model of the IDM-200-V™ detector is now available for further MC calculations planned in the ENV57 project.

  5. Quality Assurance Project Plan for radioactive airborne emissions data compilation and reporting

    SciTech Connect

    Burris, S.A.; Thomas, S.P.

    1994-02-01

    This Quality Assurance Project Plan addresses the quality assurance requirements for compiling data from radioactie aiborne emissions. These data will be reported to the US Environmental Protection Agency, the US Department of Energy, and the Washington State Department of Health. Hanford Site radioactive airborne emissions are reported to the US Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 61, ``National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants , ``Subpart H, ``National Emissions Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other Than Radon From Department of Energy Facilities`` (EPA 1989a). Reporting to US Department of Energy is performed in compliance with requirements of US Department of Energy Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program (DOE 1988a).

  6. Airborne radioactivity survey of parts of Baggs SW and Baggs SE quadrangles, Carbon and Sweetwater counties, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henderson, J.R.

    1954-01-01

    The accompanying map shows the results of an airborne radioactivity survey in 151 square miles of Baggs SW and Baggs SE quadrangles, Wyoming. This area is part of a larger survey made in southern Carbon and Sweetwater counties by the U.S. Geological Survey, November 9-24, 1953. The work was undertaken as part of a cooperative program with the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. The survey was made with scintillation detection equipment mounted in a C-47 aircraft and consisted of parallel east-west flight lines spaced at quarter mile intervals, flown approximately 500 feet above the ground. Aerial photographs were used for pilot guidance, and the flight path of the aircraft was recorded by a gyrostabilized, continuous-strip-film camera. The distance of the aircraft from the ground was measured with a continuously recording radio altimeter. The width of the zone on the ground form which the anomalous radiation is measured at the nominal 500 foot flight altitude varied with the areal extent and the intensity of radioactivity of the source. For strong sources of radioactivity the width of the zone may be as much as 1,400 feet. Thus, quarter mile spacing of the flight lines would be adequate to detect anomalies from strong sources of radioactivity; however, small areas of considerable radioactivity midway between flight lines may not be noted. The approximate locations of twelve radioactivity anomalies are shown on the accompanying map. The plotted position of the anomalies may be in error by as much as a quarter mile owing to the errors in available base maps or to the existence of areas on the base maps up to several square miles in which it is impossible to find and plot recognizable landmarks. The present technique of airborne radioactivity measurement does not permit distinguishing between activity due to thorium and that due to uranium. An anomaly, therefore, may represent radioactivity due entirely to one or to a combination of these elements. The radioactivity

  7. Airborne radioactivity survey of parts of Sand Creek SW and Sand Creek SE quadrangles, Sweetwater county, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henderson, J.R.

    1954-01-01

    The accompanying map shows the results of an airborne radioactivity survey in 125 square miles of Sand Creek SW and Sand Creek SE quadrangles, Wyoming. This area is part of a larger survey made in southern Carbon and Sweetwater counties by the U.S. Geological Survey, November 9-24, 1953. The work was undertaken as part of a cooperative program with the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. The survey was made with scintillation detection equipment mounted in a C-47 aircraft and consisted of parallel east-west flight lines spaced at quarter mile intervals, flown approximately 500 feet above the ground. Aerial photographs were used for pilot guidance, and the flight path of the aircraft was recorded by a gyrostabilized, continuous-strip-film camera. The distance of the aircraft from the ground was measured with a continuously recording radio altimeter. The width of the zone on the ground form which the anomalous radiation is measured at the nominal 500 foot flight altitude varied with the areal extent and the intensity of radioactivity of the source. For strong sources of radioactivity the width of the zone may be as much as 1,400 feet. Thus, quarter mile spacing of the flight lines would be adequate to detect anomalies from strong sources of radioactivity; however, small areas of considerable radioactivity midway between flight lines may not be noted. The approximate locations of nine radioactivity anomalies are shown on the accompanying map. The plotted position of the anomalies may be in error by as much as a quarter mile owing to the errors in available base maps or to the existence of areas on the base maps up to several square miles in which it is impossible to find and plot recognizable landmarks. The present technique of airborne radioactivity measurement does not permit distinguishing between activity due to thorium and that due to uranium. An anomaly, therefore, may represent radioactivity due entirely to one or to a combination of these elements. The

  8. Apparatus and methods for monitoring the concentrations of hazardous airborne substances, especially lead

    DOEpatents

    Zaromb, Solomon

    2004-07-13

    Air is sampled at a rate in excess of 100 L/min, preferably at 200-300 L/min, so as to collect therefrom a substantial fraction, i.e., at least 20%, preferably 60-100%, of airborne particulates. A substance of interest (analyte), such as lead, is rapidly solubilized from the the collected particulates into a sample of liquid extractant, and the concentration of the analyte in the extractant sample is determined. The high-rate air sampling and particulate collection may be effected with a high-throughput filter cartridge or with a recently developed portable high-throughput liquid-absorption air sampler. Rapid solubilization of lead is achieved by a liquid extractant comprising 0.1-1 M of acetic acid or acetate, preferably at a pH of 5 or less and preferably with inclusion of 1-10% of hydrogen peroxide. Rapid determination of the lead content in the liquid extractant may be effected with a colorimetric or an electroanalytical analyzer.

  9. Dynamic uptake of radioactive substance in rat salivary gland following /sup 3/H-melatonin administration

    SciTech Connect

    Withyachumnarnkul, B.; Wongprapairot, P.; Trakulrungsi, W.

    1987-01-01

    Dynamics of radioactive accumulation in rat greater salivary gland following systemic administration of /sup 3/H-melatonin was studied to determine a possible action of the hormone in the gland. Progressive decline of /sup 3/H-melatonin concentrations was found in the serum, lung, skeletal muscle, liver, kidney, and salivary gland during 60 min following the administration. On the contrary, there was a progressive accumulation of radioactive substance other than /sup 3/H-melatonin in the salivary gland but not in other tissues mentioned. The radioactivity was also progressively and preferentially localized in the nuclear fraction of the gland cells. These results suggest a possible direct action of melatonin derivative in rat salivary gland.

  10. Sunglint effects on the characterization of optically active substances in high spatial resolution airborne hyperspectral images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Streher, A. S.; Faria Barbosa, C. Clemente; Soares Galvão, L.; Goodman, J. A.; Silva, T. S.

    2013-05-01

    Sunglint, also known as the specular reflection of light from water surfaces, is a component of sensor-received radiance that represents a confounding factor on the characterization of water bodies by remote sensing. In airborne remote sensing images, the effect of sunglint can be minimized by optimizing the flight paths, directing the sensor towards or away from the Sun, and by keeping solar zenith angles between 30° and 60°. However, these guidelines cannot always be applied, often due to the irregular spatial pattern of lakes, estuaries and coastlines. The present study assessed the impact of sunglint on the relationship between the optically active substances (OAS) concentration, in optically complex waters, and the spectral information provided by an airborne high spatial resolution hyperspectral sensor (SpecTIR). The Ibitinga reservoir, located in southeastern Brazil (state of São Paulo), was selected as the study area because of its meandering shape. As a result, there is demanding constant changes in data acquisition geometry to achieve complete coverage, therefore not allowing sunglint conditions to be minimized during image acquisition. Field data collection was carried out on October 23 and 24, 2011. During these two days, 15 water stations along the reservoir were sampled, concurrently with the SpecTIR image acquisition in 357 bands (398-2455 nm) and at 3 m spatial resolution. Chlorophyll, pheophytin, total suspended solids, organic and inorganic suspended solids and colored dissolved matter were determined in laboratory. The images were corrected for the atmospheric effects using the Fast Line-of-sight Atmospheric Analysis of Spectral Hypercubes (FLAASH) algorithm and then geometrically corrected. In order to evaluate the sunglint effects on the OAS characterization, the images were corrected for such effects using the deglint algorithm from Goodman et al. (2008). The SpecTIR 662-nm band reflectance was selected to be correlated to the OAS due to

  11. Experience gained at the Novovoronezh nuclear power plant with development and introduction of a unified automated system for accounting and control of radioactive substances and radioactive wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulka, S. K.; Rosnovskii, S. V.

    2014-02-01

    A unified automated system for accounting and control of radioactive substances and radioactive wastes was developed at the Novovoronezh nuclear power plant. The system consists of several interconnected subsystems, which can be developed and put in operation in a stage-wise manner. As of the first quarter of 2013, the subsystems for accounting liquid and solid radioactive wastes, very low-active wastes, and tracers have been developed. The experience gained from the development and putting in use of these systems showed that this is an efficient, timely, and much needed software product.

  12. [Medical and hygienic aspects of instrumental supervision system over nuclear materials and radioactive substances transport on Russian Federation territory].

    PubMed

    Grabskiĭ, Iu V; Gavrish, N N; Shevchenko, G T; Viaz'min, S O; Pertsev, V S; Kirillov, V F; Tsov'ianov, A G

    2014-01-01

    Hygienic evaluation of radiation situation in operation of mobile and stationery elements within a project of national system for instrumental supervision over nuclear materials and radioactive substances transport, created with a Global initiative against nuclear terrorism. Levels of exposure to ionizing radiation of the screening complexes appeared to match requirements on radiation safety for service personnel and general population.

  13. Evaluation of radioactive environmental hazards in Area-3, Northern Palmyrides, Central Syria using airborne spectrometric gamma technique.

    PubMed

    Asfahani, J; Aissa, M; Al-Hent, R

    2016-01-01

    Airborne spectrometric gamma data are used in this paper to estimate the degree of radioactive hazard on humanity in Area-3, Northern Palmyrides, Central Syria. Exposure Rate (ER), Absorbed Dose Rate (ADR), Annual Effective Dose Rate (AEDR), and Heat Production (HP) of the eleven radiometric units included in the established lithological scored map in the study area have been computed to evaluate the radiation background influence in humans. The results obtained indicate that a human body in Area-3 is subjected to radiation hazards in the acceptable limits for long duration exposure. The highest radiogenetic heat production values in Area-3 correspond to the phosphatic locations characterized by relatively high values of uranium and thorium. PMID:26569554

  14. Evaluation of radioactive environmental hazards in Area-3, Northern Palmyrides, Central Syria using airborne spectrometric gamma technique.

    PubMed

    Asfahani, J; Aissa, M; Al-Hent, R

    2016-01-01

    Airborne spectrometric gamma data are used in this paper to estimate the degree of radioactive hazard on humanity in Area-3, Northern Palmyrides, Central Syria. Exposure Rate (ER), Absorbed Dose Rate (ADR), Annual Effective Dose Rate (AEDR), and Heat Production (HP) of the eleven radiometric units included in the established lithological scored map in the study area have been computed to evaluate the radiation background influence in humans. The results obtained indicate that a human body in Area-3 is subjected to radiation hazards in the acceptable limits for long duration exposure. The highest radiogenetic heat production values in Area-3 correspond to the phosphatic locations characterized by relatively high values of uranium and thorium.

  15. Novel method for estimation of the indoor-to-outdoor airborne radioactivity ratio following the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yanliang; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Janik, Miroslaw; Tokonami, Shinji; Hosoda, Masahiro; Sorimachi, Atsuyuki; Kearfott, Kimberlee

    2015-12-01

    The accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) in Japan resulted in significant releases of fission products. While substantial data exist concerning outdoor air radioactivity following the accident, the resulting indoor radioactivity remains pure speculation without a proper method for estimating the ratio of the indoor to outdoor airborne radioactivity, termed the airborne sheltering factor (ASF). Lacking a meaningful value of the ASF, it is difficult to assess the inhalation doses to residents and evacuees even when outdoor radionuclide concentrations are available. A simple model was developed and the key parameters needed to estimate the ASF were obtained through data fitting of selected indoor and outdoor airborne radioactivity measurement data obtained following the accident at a single location. Using the new model with values of the air exchange rate, interior air volume, and the inner surface area of the dwellings, the ASF can be estimated for a variety of dwelling types. Assessment of the inhalation dose to individuals readily follows from the value of the ASF, the person's indoor occupancy factor, and the measured outdoor radioactivity concentration. PMID:26188529

  16. Novel method for estimation of the indoor-to-outdoor airborne radioactivity ratio following the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yanliang; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Janik, Miroslaw; Tokonami, Shinji; Hosoda, Masahiro; Sorimachi, Atsuyuki; Kearfott, Kimberlee

    2015-12-01

    The accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) in Japan resulted in significant releases of fission products. While substantial data exist concerning outdoor air radioactivity following the accident, the resulting indoor radioactivity remains pure speculation without a proper method for estimating the ratio of the indoor to outdoor airborne radioactivity, termed the airborne sheltering factor (ASF). Lacking a meaningful value of the ASF, it is difficult to assess the inhalation doses to residents and evacuees even when outdoor radionuclide concentrations are available. A simple model was developed and the key parameters needed to estimate the ASF were obtained through data fitting of selected indoor and outdoor airborne radioactivity measurement data obtained following the accident at a single location. Using the new model with values of the air exchange rate, interior air volume, and the inner surface area of the dwellings, the ASF can be estimated for a variety of dwelling types. Assessment of the inhalation dose to individuals readily follows from the value of the ASF, the person's indoor occupancy factor, and the measured outdoor radioactivity concentration.

  17. A simple and fractal analysis of the European on-line network for airborne radioactivity monitoring.

    PubMed

    Raes, F; Graziani, G; Girardi, F

    1991-09-01

    We introduce two simple descriptors and use the fractal dimension to characterize the capability of a monitoring network to either 'spot', 'delineate' or 'track' a pollution cloud moving across a territory. The descriptors are applied to the 'European' monitoring network for radioactive aerosol (i.e. the sum of the national networks). Simple analysis shows that on average the time and space resolution of the network are well balanced for tracking the movement of a radioactive cloud. Such tracking, however, can only be started one or two days after the release. The geographical inhomogeneity of the network is quantified by a fractal dimension of 1.6, implying that radioactive clouds with a dimension less than 0.4 might not be detected by the network.

  18. Spectrum correction algorithm for detectors in airborne radioactivity monitoring equipment NH-UAV based on a ratio processing method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Ye; Tang, Xiao-Bin; Wang, Peng; Meng, Jia; Huang, Xi; Wen, Liang-Sheng; Chen, Da

    2015-10-01

    The unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) radiation monitoring method plays an important role in nuclear accidents emergency. In this research, a spectrum correction algorithm about the UAV airborne radioactivity monitoring equipment NH-UAV was studied to measure the radioactive nuclides within a small area in real time and in a fixed place. The simulation spectra of the high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector and the lanthanum bromide (LaBr3) detector in the equipment were obtained using the Monte Carlo technique. Spectrum correction coefficients were calculated after performing ratio processing techniques about the net peak areas between the double detectors on the detection spectrum of the LaBr3 detector according to the accuracy of the detection spectrum of the HPGe detector. The relationship between the spectrum correction coefficient and the size of the source term was also investigated. A good linear relation exists between the spectrum correction coefficient and the corresponding energy (R2=0.9765). The maximum relative deviation from the real condition reduced from 1.65 to 0.035. The spectrum correction method was verified as feasible.

  19. Computerized Mathematical Models of Spray Washout of Airborne Contaminants (Radioactivity) in Containment Vessels.

    2003-05-23

    Version 01 Distribution is restricted to the United States Only. SPIRT predicts the washout of airborne contaminants in containment vessels under postulated loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) conditions. SPIRT calculates iodine removal constants (lambdas) for post-LOCA containment spray systems. It evaluates the effect of the spectrum of drop sizes emitted by the spray nozzles, the effect of drop coalescence, and the precise solution of the time-dependent diffusion equation. STEAM-67 routines are included for calculating the properties ofmore » steam and water according to the 1967 ASME Steam Tables.« less

  20. 41 CFR 50-204.22 - Exposure to airborne radioactive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... excess of the limits specified in Table I of Appendix B to 10 CFR Part 20. The limits given in Table I... average concentration in excess of the limits specified in Table II of Appendix B to 10 CFR Part 20. For... radioactive material. 50-204.22 Section 50-204.22 Public Contracts and Property Management Other...

  1. 41 CFR 50-204.22 - Exposure to airborne radioactive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... excess of the limits specified in Table I of appendix B to 10 CFR part 20. The limits given in Table I... average concentration in excess of the limits specified in Table II of Appendix B to 10 CFR part 20. For... radioactive material. 50-204.22 Section 50-204.22 Public Contracts and Property Management Other...

  2. 41 CFR 50-204.22 - Exposure to airborne radioactive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... excess of the limits specified in Table I of Appendix B to 10 CFR Part 20. The limits given in Table I... average concentration in excess of the limits specified in Table II of Appendix B to 10 CFR Part 20. For... radioactive material. 50-204.22 Section 50-204.22 Public Contracts and Property Management Other...

  3. 41 CFR 50-204.22 - Exposure to airborne radioactive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... excess of the limits specified in Table I of appendix B to 10 CFR part 20. The limits given in Table I... average concentration in excess of the limits specified in Table II of appendix B to 10 CFR part 20. For... radioactive material. 50-204.22 Section 50-204.22 Public Contracts and Property Management Other...

  4. 41 CFR 50-204.22 - Exposure to airborne radioactive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... excess of the limits specified in Table I of Appendix B to 10 CFR Part 20. The limits given in Table I... average concentration in excess of the limits specified in Table II of Appendix B to 10 CFR Part 20. For... radioactive material. 50-204.22 Section 50-204.22 Public Contracts and Property Management Other...

  5. Development of an ASIC for Si/CdTe detectors in a radioactive substance visualizing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harayama, Atsushi; Takeda, Shin`ichiro; Sato, Goro; Ikeda, Hirokazu; Watanabe, Shin; Takahashi, Tadayuki

    2014-11-01

    We report on the recent development of a 64-channel analog front-end ASIC for a new gamma-ray imaging system designed to visualize radioactive substances. The imaging system employs a novel Compton camera which consists of silicon (Si) and cadmium telluride (CdTe) detectors. The ASIC is intended for the readout of pixel/pad detectors utilizing Si/CdTe as detector materials, and covers a dynamic range up to 1.4 MeV. The readout chip consists of 64 identical signal channels and was implemented with X-FAB 0.35 μm CMOS technology. Each channel contains a charge-sensitive amplifier, a pole-zero cancellation circuit, a low-pass filter, a comparator, and a sample-hold circuit, along with a Wilkinson-type A-to-D converter. We observed an equivalent noise charge of ~500 e- and a noise slope of ~5 e-/pF (r.m.s.) with a power consumption of 2.1 mW per channel. The chip works well when connected to Schottky CdTe diodes, and delivers spectra with good energy resolution, such as ~12 keV (FWHM) at 662 keV and ~24 keV (FWHM) at 1.33 MeV.

  6. Simultaneous sampling of indoor and outdoor airborne radioactivity after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Sorimachi, Atsuyuki; Arae, Hideki; Sahoo, Sarata Kumar; Janik, Miroslaw; Hosoda, Masahiro; Tokonami, Shinji

    2014-02-18

    Several studies have estimated inhalation doses for the public because of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident. Most of them were based on measurement of radioactivity in outdoor air and included the assumption that people stayed outdoors all day. Although this assumption gives a conservative estimate, it is not realistic. The "air decontamination factor" (ratio of indoor to outdoor air radionuclide concentrations) was estimated from simultaneous sampling of radioactivity in both inside and outside air of one building. The building was a workplace and located at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) in Chiba Prefecture, Japan. Aerosol-associated radioactive materials in air were collected onto filters, and the filters were analyzed by γ spectrometry at NIRS. The filter sampling was started on March 15, 2011 and was continued for more than 1 year. Several radionuclides, such as (131)I, (134)Cs, and (137)Cs were found by measuring the filters with a germanium detector. The air decontamination factor was around 0.64 for particulate (131)I and 0.58 for (137)Cs. These values could give implications for the ratio of indoor to outdoor radionuclide concentrations after the FDNPP accident for a similar type of building.

  7. Selected annotated bibliography of the geology of uraniferous and radioactive native bituminous substances, exclusive of coals, in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Harriet Nell

    1956-01-01

    followed without deviation or further discussion. The stratigraphic nomenclature also is that used by the authors. In this bibliography emphasis is placed on reports dealing with the uranium contents and radioactivity of native bituminous substances rather than on mineralogical and chemical studies of these substances. The distribution of the substances described in the references is shown on the accompanying map. The indicated presence of these substances does not infer that they contain sufficient radioactive elements to constitute ores.

  8. Use of unabsorbed radioactive marker substances in a re-assessment of the radioactive triolein test of fat absorption

    PubMed Central

    Ditchburn, R. K.; Smith, A. H.; Hayter, C. J.

    1971-01-01

    The radioactive triolein test has been compared with two chemical methods for the assessment of fat absorption in a group of inpatients from general medical wards. The special feature of the investigation is the use of a radioactive faecal marker to measure the completeness of faecal collections during the investigation period. Estimations of unabsorbed 131I triolein and faecal fat measured by the chemical methods were made on the same specimens. The results showed that only 48% of the patients provided a complete collection of faeces (defined as a recovery of more than 90% of the faecal marker). From these patients good correlations were found between the triolein absorption test and the two chemical methods. It is suggested that previous criticism of the radioactive triolein test may have been due to incomplete faecal collections causing false results. PMID:5094681

  9. Correlation between Asian Dust and Specific Radioactivities of Fission Products Included in Airborne Samples in Tokushima, Shikoku Island, Japan, Due to the Fukushima Nuclear Accident

    SciTech Connect

    Sakama, M.; Nagano, Y.; Kitade, T.; Shikino, O.; Nakayama, S.

    2014-06-15

    Radioactive fission product {sup 131}I released from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plants (FD-NPP) was first detected on March 23, 2011 in an airborne aerosol sample collected at Tokushima, Shikoku Island, located in western Japan. Two other radioactive fission products, {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs were also observed in a sample collected from April 2 to 4, 2011. The maximum specific radioactivities observed in this work were about 2.5 to 3.5 mBq×m{sup -3} in a airborne aerosol sample collected on April 6. During the course of the continuous monitoring, we also made our first observation of seasonal Asian Dust and those fission products associated with the FDNPP accident concurrently from May 2 to 5, 2011. We found that the specific radioactivities of {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs decreased drastically only during the period of Asian Dust. And also, it was found that this trend was very similar to the atmospheric elemental concentration (ng×m{sup -3}) variation of stable cesium ({sup 133}Cs) quantified by elemental analyses using our developed ICP-DRC-MS instrument.

  10. Correlation between Asian Dust and Specific Radioactivities of Fission Products Included in Airborne Samples in Tokushima, Shikoku Island, Japan, Due to the Fukushima Nuclear Accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakama, M.; Nagano, Y.; Kitade, T.; Shikino, O.; Nakayama, S.

    2014-06-01

    Radioactive fission product 131I released from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plants (FD-NPP) was first detected on March 23, 2011 in an airborne aerosol sample collected at Tokushima, Shikoku Island, located in western Japan. Two other radioactive fission products, 134Cs and 137Cs were also observed in a sample collected from April 2 to 4, 2011. The maximum specific radioactivities observed in this work were about 2.5 to 3.5 mBq×m-3 in a airborne aerosol sample collected on April 6. During the course of the continuous monitoring, we also made our first observation of seasonal Asian Dust and those fission products associated with the FDNPP accident concurrently from May 2 to 5, 2011. We found that the specific radioactivities of 134Cs and 137Cs decreased drastically only during the period of Asian Dust. And also, it was found that this trend was very similar to the atmospheric elemental concentration (ng×m-3) variation of stable cesium (133Cs) quantified by elemental analyses using our developed ICP-DRC-MS instrument.

  11. 10 CFR 835.603 - Radiological areas and radioactive material areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... radioactivity area. The words “Caution, Airborne Radioactivity Area” or “Danger, Airborne Radioactivity Area” shall be posted at each airborne radioactivity area. (e) Contamination area. The words...

  12. 10 CFR 835.603 - Radiological areas and radioactive material areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... radioactivity area. The words “Caution, Airborne Radioactivity Area” or “Danger, Airborne Radioactivity Area” shall be posted at each airborne radioactivity area. (e) Contamination area. The words...

  13. 10 CFR 835.603 - Radiological areas and radioactive material areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... radioactivity area. The words “Caution, Airborne Radioactivity Area” or “Danger, Airborne Radioactivity Area” shall be posted at each airborne radioactivity area. (e) Contamination area. The words...

  14. 10 CFR 835.603 - Radiological areas and radioactive material areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... radioactivity area. The words “Caution, Airborne Radioactivity Area” or “Danger, Airborne Radioactivity Area” shall be posted at each airborne radioactivity area. (e) Contamination area. The words...

  15. 10 CFR 835.603 - Radiological areas and radioactive material areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... radioactivity area. The words “Caution, Airborne Radioactivity Area” or “Danger, Airborne Radioactivity Area” shall be posted at each airborne radioactivity area. (e) Contamination area. The words...

  16. Radioactive substances legislative amendments in the UK: concepts employed in the development of the new exclusion and exemption regime.

    PubMed

    Ashworth, Allan; Chandler, Steve

    2014-03-01

    A new radioactive substances regulatory regime came into effect across the UK on 1 October 2011, accompanied by Government and regulator's guidance. The legislation sets new activity thresholds for what is within its scope and for what is exempt from the permitting requirements. These thresholds are, for the first time, clearly based on the levels in the Basic Safety Standards Directive; distinguish between NORM industrial activities and practices; and are derived from different dose constraints. There are new exemption provisions for NORM, aqueous liquids and gaseous wastes.

  17. Radioactive substances legislative amendments in the UK: concepts employed in the development of the new exclusion and exemption regime.

    PubMed

    Ashworth, Allan; Chandler, Steve

    2014-03-01

    A new radioactive substances regulatory regime came into effect across the UK on 1 October 2011, accompanied by Government and regulator's guidance. The legislation sets new activity thresholds for what is within its scope and for what is exempt from the permitting requirements. These thresholds are, for the first time, clearly based on the levels in the Basic Safety Standards Directive; distinguish between NORM industrial activities and practices; and are derived from different dose constraints. There are new exemption provisions for NORM, aqueous liquids and gaseous wastes. PMID:24441764

  18. Methods for determination of radioactive substances in water and fluvial sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thatcher, Leland Lincoln; Janzer, Victor J.; Edwards, Kenneth W.

    1977-01-01

    Analytical methods for the determination of some of the more important components of fission or neutron activation product radioactivity and of natural radioactivity found in water are reported. The report for each analytical method includes conditions for application of the method, a summary of the method, interferences, required apparatus and reagents, analytical procedures, calculations, reporting of results, and estimation of precision. The fission product isotopes considered are cesium-137, strontium-90, and ruthenium-106. The natural radioelements and isotopes considered are uranium, lead-210, radium-226, radium-228, tritium, and carbon-14. A gross radioactivity survey method and a uranium isotope ratio method are given. When two analytical methods are in routine use for an individual isotope, both methods are reported with identification of the specific areas of application of each. Techniques for the collection and preservation of water samples to be analyzed for radioactivity are discussed.

  19. Development and calibration of a real-time airborne radioactivity monitor using direct gamma-ray spectrometry with two scintillation detectors.

    PubMed

    Casanovas, R; Morant, J J; Salvadó, M

    2014-07-01

    The implementation of in-situ gamma-ray spectrometry in an automatic real-time environmental radiation surveillance network can help to identify and characterize abnormal radioactivity increases quickly. For this reason, a Real-time Airborne Radioactivity Monitor using direct gamma-ray spectrometry with two scintillation detectors (RARM-D2) was developed. The two scintillation detectors in the RARM-D2 are strategically shielded with Pb to permit the separate measurement of the airborne isotopes with respect to the deposited isotopes.In this paper, we describe the main aspects of the development and calibration of the RARM-D2 when using NaI(Tl) or LaBr3(Ce) detectors. The calibration of the monitor was performed experimentally with the exception of the efficiency curve, which was set using Monte Carlo (MC) simulations with the EGS5 code system. Prior to setting the efficiency curve, the effect of the radioactive source term size on the efficiency calculations was studied for the gamma-rays from (137)Cs. Finally, to study the measurement capabilities of the RARM-D2, the minimum detectable activity concentrations for (131)I and (137)Cs were calculated for typical spectra at different integration times. PMID:24607535

  20. Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB)/Radioactive Waste Annual Inventory for Calendar Year 2014

    SciTech Connect

    Layton, Deborah L.

    2015-06-01

    The Toxic Substances Control Act, 40 CFR 761.65(a)(1) provides an exemption from the one year storage time limit for PCB/radioactive waste. PCB/radioactive waste may exceed the one year time limit provided that the provisions at 40 CFR 761.65(a)(2)(ii) and 40 CFR 761.65(a)(2)(iii) are followed. These two subsections require, (ii) "A written record documenting all continuing attempts to secure disposal is maintained until the waste is disposed of" and (iii) "The written record required by subsection (ii) of this section is available for inspection or submission if requested by EPA." EPA Region 10 has requested the Department of Energy (DOE) to submit an inventory of radioactive-contaminated PCB waste in storage at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) for the previous calendar year. The annual inventory is separated into two parts, INL without Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project (AMWTP) (this includes Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC, CH2M-WG Idaho, LLC, and the Naval Reactors Facility), and AMWTP.

  1. Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB)/Radioactive Waste Annual Inventory for Calendar Year 2013

    SciTech Connect

    no author on report

    2014-06-01

    The Toxic Substances Control Act, 40 CFR 761.65(a)(1) provides an exemption from the one year storage time limit for PCB/radioactive waste. PCB/radioactive waste may exceed the one year time limit provided that the provisions at 40 CFR 761.65(a)(2)(ii) and 40 CFR 761.65(a)(2)(iii) are followed. These two subsections require, (ii) "A written record documenting all continuing attempts to secure disposal is maintained until the waste is disposed of" and (iii) "The written record required by subsection (ii) of this section is available for inspection or submission if requested by EPA." EPA Region 10 has requested the Department of Energy (DOE) to submit an inventory of radioactive-contaminated PCB waste in storage at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) for the previous calendar year. The annual inventory is separated into two parts, INL without Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project (AMWTP) (this includes Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC, CH2M-WG Idaho, LLC, and the Naval Reactors Facility), and AMWTP.

  2. Illustrative assessment of human health issues arising from the potential release of chemotoxic substances from a generic geological disposal facility for radioactive waste.

    PubMed

    Wilson, James C; Thorne, Michael C; Towler, George; Norris, Simon

    2011-12-01

    Many countries have a programme for developing an underground geological disposal facility for radioactive waste. A case study is provided herein on the illustrative assessment of human health issues arising from the potential release of chemotoxic and radioactive substances from a generic geological disposal facility (GDF) for radioactive waste. The illustrative assessment uses a source-pathway-receptor methodology and considers a number of human exposure pathways. Estimated exposures are compared with authoritative toxicological assessment criteria. The possibility of additive and synergistic effects resulting from exposures to mixtures of chemical contaminants or a combination of radiotoxic and chemotoxic substances is considered. The case study provides an illustration of how to assess human health issues arising from chemotoxic species released from a GDF for radioactive waste and highlights potential difficulties associated with a lack of data being available with which to assess synergistic effects. It also highlights how such difficulties can be addressed.

  3. Environmental hazards and distribution of radioactive black sand along the Rosetta coastal zone in Egypt using airborne spectrometric and remote sensing data.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, M F; Aziz, A M; Ghieth, B M

    2014-11-01

    High-resolution airborne gamma ray spectrometry, conducted in 2003, was used to estimate radioactive elements spatial abundance along the Rosetta coastal zone area. It was noticed that both Uranium and Thorium are concentrated in the black sand deposits along the beach. In contrary, Potassium was observed in high level abundance at the cultivated Nile Delta lands due to the accumulated usage of fertilizers. Exposure Rate (ER), Absorbed Dose Rate (ADR) and Annual Effective Dose Rate (AEDR) were calculated to evaluate the radiation background influence in human. Results indicated that the human body in the study sites is subjected to radiation hazards exceeds the accepted limit for long duration exposure. In addition, the areas covered by the highest concentration of Uranium and Thorium show the highest level of radiogenic heat production. Detection the environmental hazards of the radioactive black sands in the study site encouraged this research to monitor the spatial and temporal distribution of these sediments. The Landsat Thematic Mapper images acquired in 1990, 2003 and 2013 were analyzed using remote sensing image processing techniques. Image enhancements, classification and changes detection indicated a positive significant relationship between the patterns of coastline changes and distribution of the radioactive black sand in the study sites. The radioactive black sands are usually concentrated in the eroded areas. Therefore, in 1990 high concentration of the radioactive black sands were observed along the eastern and western flanks of the Rosetta promontory. Distribution of these sediments decreased due to the construction of the protective sea walls. Most of the radioactive black sands are transported toward the east in Abu Khashaba bay under the effect of the longshore currents and toward the west in Alexandria and Abu Quir bay under the action of the seasonal reverse currents.

  4. Evaluation of the adsorptive behavior of cesium and strontium on hydroxyapatite and zeolite for decontamination of radioactive substances.

    PubMed

    Ozeki, K; Aoki, H

    2016-08-12

    Removal of radioactive substances, such as cesium (Cs) and strontium (Sr), has become an emerging issue after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Disaster. To assess the possibility that hydroxyapatite (HA) and zeolites can be used for removal of radioactive substances, the adsorption capacities of Cs and Sr on the HA and a zeolite were investigated. The influence of Fe ions on Cs and Sr adsorption on the HA and the zeolite was also evaluated, because Fe ions are the most effective inhibitor of Cs adsorption on the zeolite.In the Cs adsorption process on the HA and the zeolite, the zeolite showed a higher adsorption ratio than the HA, and the maximum sorption capacity of the zeolite was calculated as 196 mg/g, whereas the HA showed a higher Sr adsorption ratio than the zeolite. The maximum sorption capacity of Sr on the HA was 123 mg/g. Under coexistence with Fe, Cs adsorption on the zeolite decreased with increasing Fe concentration, reaching 2.0 ± 0.8% at 0.1 M Fe concentration. In contrast, Cs adsorption on the zeolite was improved by adding the HA. In the case of coexistence of the HA, the Cs adsorption on the mixture of the HA and the zeolite was 52.4% ± 3.6 % at 0.1 M Fe concentration, although Cs adsorption on the HA alone was quite low. In the Fe adsorption processes of the HA and the zeolite, the HA exhibited a maximum sorption capacity of 256 mg/g, which was much higher than that of the zeolite (111 mg/g). The high affinity of Fe on the HA contributes to the improvement of the deteriorated Cs adsorption on the zeolite due to Fe ions. PMID:27567777

  5. Latitudinal gradient of airborne polyfluorinated alkyl substances in the marine atmosphere between Germany and South Africa (53 degrees N-33 degrees S).

    PubMed

    Jahnke, Annika; Berger, Urs; Ebinghaus, Ralf; Temme, Christian

    2007-05-01

    Neutral, volatile polyfluorinated alkyl substances (PFAS) were determined in high-volume air samples collected onboard the German research vessel Polarstern during cruise ANTXXIII-1 between Bremerhaven, Germany (53 degrees N) and Capetown, Republic of South Africa (33 degrees S) in fall 2005. An optimized and validated analytical protocol was used for the determination of several fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs) as well as N-alkylated fluorooctane sulfonamides and sulfonamidoethanols (FOSAs/FOSEs). Quantitative analyses were done by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. This study provides the first concentration data of airborne PFAS from the Southern Hemisphere. Results indicate a strongly decreasing concentration gradient from the European continent toward less industrialized regions. The study confirms that airborne PFAS are mainly restricted to the Northern Hemisphere with a maximum concentration of 190 pg/m3 (8:2 FTOH) in the first sample collected in the channel between the European mainland and the UK. However, south of the equator, trace amounts of several FTOHs and FOSAs with a maximum of 14 pg/m3 (8:2 FTOH) could still be detected. Furthermore, a selection of ionic PFAS including perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) were determined in the particulate phase of high-volume air samples by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Levels of ionic PFAS were almost 2 orders of magnitude lower than those of neutral PFAS, with maximum concentrations in the first sample of 2.5 pg/m3 (PFOS) and 2.0 pg/m3 (PFOA).

  6. A Monte Carlo program to calculate the exposure rate from airborne radioactive gases inside a nuclear reactor containment building.

    PubMed

    Sherbini, S; Tamasanis, D; Sykes, J; Porter, S W

    1986-12-01

    A program was developed to calculate the exposure rate resulting from airborne gases inside a reactor containment building. The calculations were performed at the location of a wall-mounted area radiation monitor. The program uses Monte Carlo techniques and accounts for both the direct and scattered components of the radiation field at the detector. The scattered component was found to contribute about 30% of the total exposure rate at 50 keV and dropped to about 7% at 2000 keV. The results of the calculations were normalized to unit activity per unit volume of air in the containment. This allows the exposure rate readings of the area monitor to be used to estimate the airborne activity in containment in the early phases of an accident. Such estimates, coupled with containment leak rates, provide a method to obtain a release rate for use in offsite dose projection calculations.

  7. Utilization of airborne gamma ray spectrometric data for geological mapping, radioactive mineral exploration and environmental monitoring of southeastern Aswan city, South Eastern Desert, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youssef, Mohamed A. S.; Elkhodary, Shadia T.

    2013-12-01

    The present work utilizes airborne gamma ray spectrometric data in a trial to refine surface geology of igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary rocks, detect any radioactive mineralization and monitor environment at southeastern Aswan city, South Eastern Desert, Egypt. This area is mainly covered with igneous rocks (younger granites, older granites, metasediments, metavolcanics, metagabbro, Tertiary basalt and ring complex), metamorphic rocks as well as sedimentary rocks (Um Barmil Formation, Timsah Formation, Abu Aggag Formation and wadi sediments). Airborne gamma ray spectrometry can be very helpful in mapping surface geology. This provides estimates of the apparent surface concentrations of the most common naturally occurring radioactive elements, such as potassium (K), equivalent uranium (eU) and equivalent thorium (eTh). This is based on the assumption that, the absolute and relative concentrations of these radioelements vary measurably and significantly with lithology. The composite image technique is used to display simultaneously three parameters of the three radioelement concentrations and their three binary ratios on one image. The technique offers much in terms of lithological discrimination, based on colour differences and showed efficiency in defining areas, where different lithofacies occur within areas mapped as one continuous lithology. The integration between surface geological information and geophysical data led to detailing the surface geology and the contacts between different rock units. Significant locations or favourable areas for uranium exploration are defined, where the measurements exceed (X + 2S), taking X as the arithmetic mean of eU, eU/eTh and eU/K measurements and S as the standard deviation corresponding to each variables. The study area shows the presence of four relatively high uraniferous zones. These zones cannot be ignored and need further ground follow-up. In addition, the trend analysis based on the three radioelement maps and

  8. A portable Si/CdTe Compton camera and its applications to the visualization of radioactive substances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeda, Shin`ichiro; Harayama, Atsushi; Ichinohe, Yuto; Odaka, Hirokazu; Watanabe, Shin; Takahashi, Tadayuki; Tajima, Hiroyasu; Genba, Kei; Matsuura, Daisuke; Ikebuchi, Hiroshi; Kuroda, Yoshikatsu; Tomonaka, Tetsuya

    2015-07-01

    Gamma-ray imagers with the potential for visualizing the distribution of radioactive materials are required in the fields of astrophysics, medicine, nuclear applications, and homeland security. Based on the technology of the Si/CdTe Compton camera, we have manufactured the first commercial Compton camera for practical use. Through field tests in Fukushima, we demonstrated that the camera is capable of hot spot detection and the evaluation of radioactive decontamination.

  9. Abscess scan - radioactive

    MedlinePlus

    Radioactive abscess scan; Abscess scan; Indium Scan; Indium-labelled white blood cell scan ... the white blood cells are tagged with a radioactive substance called indium. The cells are then injected ...

  10. Kinetic assays for determining in vitro APS reductase activity in plants without the use of radioactive substances.

    PubMed

    Brychkova, Galina; Yarmolinsky, Dmitry; Sagi, Moshe

    2012-09-01

    Adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate (APS) reductase (APR; EC 1.8.4.9) catalyzes the two-electron reduction of APS to sulfite and AMP, a key step in the sulfate assimilation pathway in higher plants. In spite of the importance of this enzyme, methods currently available for detection of APR activity rely on radioactive labeling and can only be performed in a very few specially equipped laboratories. Here we present two novel kinetic assays for detecting in vitro APR activity that do not require radioactive labeling. In the first assay, APS is used as substrate and reduced glutathione (GSH) as electron donor, while in the second assay APS is replaced by an APS-regenerating system in which ATP sulfurylase catalyzes APS in the reaction medium, which employs sulfate and ATP as substrates. Both kinetic assays rely on fuchsin colorimetric detection of sulfite, the final product of APR activity. Incubation of the desalted protein extract, prior to assay initiation, with tungstate that inhibits the oxidation of sulfite by sulfite oxidase activity, resulted in enhancement of the actual APR activity. The reliability of the two methods was confirmed by assaying leaf extract from Arabidopsis wild-type and APR mutants with impaired or overexpressed APR2 protein, the former lacking APR activity and the latter exhibiting much higher activity than the wild type. The assays were further tested on tomato leaves, which revealed a higher APR activity than Arabidopsis. The proposed APR assays are highly specific, technically simple and readily performed in any laboratory.

  11. Monitoring of radioactive substances in foods distributed in Kyoto, Japan (1991-2011). - Comparison of detection rates and concentrations before and after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident - .

    PubMed

    Banno, Yukinori; Namikawa, Mikio; Miwa, Mariko; Ban, Soichirou; Orito, Taichi; Semura, Shunsuke; Kawakami, Masahiro; Doi, Naoya; Miyake, Shiro; Ishikawa, Yasuhiro

    2013-01-01

    Since the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident, radioactive substances have been continually monitored in foods collected in the city of Kyoto, Japan. The importance of the monitoring was increased by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in March 2011. Here, the detection rates and concentrations of radioactive substances were compared among food samples collected before and after the accident in Fukushima prefecture. Before the accident, (137)Cs was the only radioactive substance detected in foods. The detection rate was 70% for fish and shellfish samples and the highest concentration was 1.7 Bq/kg. It was also 83% for fresh mushroom samples and the highest concentration was 7.5 Bq/kg. In contrast, the detection rate was low for vegetables and the concentrations were also lower than those of the above samples. On the other hand, after the accident, (131)I was detected in food produced in the Tohoku and Kanto areas. Actually, (131)I (3,400 Bq/kg), (134)Cs (280 Bq/kg), and (137)Cs (280 Bq/kg) were detected in mizuna, a leaf vegetable, on March 23, 2011. These radioactive substances were detected in all leaf vegetable samples examined in March and April 2011, but they were not detected in samples examined in November 2011. (131)I was not detected in any food sample examined after May 2011. However, (137)Cs (average=7.9 Bq/kg) was consistently detected in fish and shellfish samples until November, although the concentrations were less than the regulatory limits. It appears unlikely that foods containing radioactive substances over the regulatory limits are currently being distributed in Kyoto.

  12. Radioactivity and food

    SciTech Connect

    Olszyna-Marzys, A.E. )

    1990-03-01

    Two topics relating to radioactivity and food are discussed: food irradiation for preservation purposes, and food contamination from radioactive substances. Food irradiation involves the use of electromagnetic energy (x and gamma rays) emitted by radioactive substances or produced by machine in order to destroy the insects and microorganisms present and prevent germination. The sanitary and economic advantages of treating food in this way are discussed. Numerous studies have confirmed that under strictly controlled conditions no undesirable changes take place in food that has been irradiated nor is radioactivity induced. Reference is made to the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station, which aroused public concern about irradiated food. The events surrounding the accident are reviewed, and its consequences with regard to contamination of different foods with radioactive substances, particularly iodine-131 and cesium-137, are described. Also discussed are the steps that have been taken by different international organizations to set limits on acceptable radioactivity in food.15 references.

  13. Dynamic radioactive particle source

    DOEpatents

    Moore, Murray E.; Gauss, Adam Benjamin; Justus, Alan Lawrence

    2012-06-26

    A method and apparatus for providing a timed, synchronized dynamic alpha or beta particle source for testing the response of continuous air monitors (CAMs) for airborne alpha or beta emitters is provided. The method includes providing a radioactive source; placing the radioactive source inside the detection volume of a CAM; and introducing an alpha or beta-emitting isotope while the CAM is in a normal functioning mode.

  14. Airborne Transparencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horne, Lois Thommason

    1984-01-01

    Starting from a science project on flight, art students discussed and investigated various means of moving in space. Then they made acetate illustrations which could be used as transparencies. The projection phenomenon made the illustrations look airborne. (CS)

  15. Fourth Airborne Geoscience Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The focus of the workshop was on how the airborne community can assist in achieving the goals of the Global Change Research Program. The many activities that employ airborne platforms and sensors were discussed: platforms and instrument development; airborne oceanography; lidar research; SAR measurements; Doppler radar; laser measurements; cloud physics; airborne experiments; airborne microwave measurements; and airborne data collection.

  16. Airborne Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    ATM (Airborne Thematic Mapper) was developed for NSTL (National Space Technology Companies) by Daedalus Company. It offers expanded capabilities for timely, accurate and cost effective identification of areas with prospecting potential. A related system is TIMS, Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner. Originating from Landsat 4, it is also used for agricultural studies, etc.

  17. Airborne Gamma-Spectrometry in Switzerland

    SciTech Connect

    Butterweck, Gernot; Bucher, Benno; Rybach, Ladislaus

    2008-08-07

    Airborne gamma-spectrometry is able to obtain fast radiological information over large areas. The airborne gamma-spectrometry unit deployed in Switzerland by the Swiss National Emergency Operations Centre (NEOC) consists of a Swiss army Super Puma helicopter equipped with four NaI-Detectors with a total volume of 17 liters, associated electronics and a real-time data evaluation and mapping unit developed by the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) and the Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI). The operational readiness of the airborne gamma-spectrometry system is validated in annual exercises of one week duration. Data from 2005 and 2006 exercises are represented in maps of {sup 137}Cs activity concentration for two towns located in southern and western Switzerland. An indicator of man-made radioactivity (MMGC ratio) is demonstrated for an area with four different types of nuclear installations. The intercomparison between airborne gamma-spectrometry and ground measurements showed good agreement between both methods.

  18. Active airborne contamination control using electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Veatch, B.D.

    1994-06-01

    In spite of our best efforts, radioactive airborne contamination continues to be a formidable problem at many of the Department of Energy (DOE) weapons complex sites. For workers that must enter areas with high levels of airborne contamination, personnel protective equipment (PPE) can become highly restrictive, greatly diminishing productivity. Rather than require even more restrictive PPE for personnel in some situations, the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) is actively researching and developing methods to aggressively combat airborne contamination hazards using electrophoretic technology. With appropriate equipment, airborne particulates can be effectively removed and collected for disposal in one simple process. The equipment needed to implement electrophoresis is relatively inexpensive, highly reliable, and very compact. Once airborne contamination levels are reduced, less PPE is required and a significant cost savings may be realized through decreased waste and maximized productivity. Preliminary ``cold,`` or non-radioactive, testing results at the RFP have shown the technology to be effective on a reasonable scale, with several potential benefits and an abundance of applications.

  19. Radioactive ion detector

    DOEpatents

    Bower, K.E.; Weeks, D.R.

    1997-08-12

    Apparatus for detecting the presence, in aqueous media, of substances which emit alpha and/or beta radiation and determining the oxidation state of these radioactive substances, that is, whether they are in cationic or anionic form. In one embodiment, a sensor assembly has two elements, one comprised of an ion-exchange material which binds cations and the other comprised of an ion-exchange material which binds anions. Each ion-exchange element is further comprised of a scintillation plastic and a photocurrent generator. When a radioactive substance to which the sensor is exposed binds to either element and emits alpha or beta particles, photons produced in the scintillation plastic illuminate the photocurrent generator of that element. Sensing apparatus senses generator output and thereby indicates whether cationic species or anionic species or both are present and also provides an indication of species quantity. 2 figs.

  20. Radioactive ion detector

    DOEpatents

    Bower, Kenneth E.; Weeks, Donald R.

    1997-01-01

    Apparatus for detecting the presence, in aqueous media, of substances which emit alpha and/or beta radiation and determining the oxidation state of these radioactive substances, that is, whether they are in cationic or anionic form. In one embodiment, a sensor assembly has two elements, one comprised of an ion-exchange material which binds cations and the other comprised of an ion-exchange material which binds anions. Each ion-exchange element is further comprised of a scintillation plastic and a photocurrent generator. When a radioactive substance to which the sensor is exposed binds to either element and emits alpha or beta particles, photons produced in the scintillation plastic illuminate the photocurrent generator of that element. Sensing apparatus senses generator output and thereby indicates whether cationic species or anionic species or both are present and also provides an indication of species quantity.

  1. Investigating humic substances interactions with Th4+, UO22+, and NpO2+ at high pH: Relevance to cementitious disposal of radioactive wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stockdale, Anthony; Bryan, Nick D.; Lofts, Stephen; Tipping, Edward

    2013-11-01

    A number of geodisposal concepts for intermediate level radioactive waste involve geological emplacement within cementitious repositories. Such facilities, once rehydrated with groundwater, will create high pH environments due to aqueous phase reaction of the cements. This work focuses on the interactions of several important long-lived radionuclide cations with dissolved organic matter (DOM) constituents (humic and fulvic acids) under high pH conditions. We also sought to test the comprehensive speciation model WHAM/Humic Ion Binding Model VII for these specific conditions. Results for Th demonstrate high fractions present as organic complexes at all pH values. Binding of neptunyl to DOM shows a maximum over the pH range expected within an evolving repository. Uranyl exhibits decreasing binding with pH, however, the majority of metal in solution is present as organic complexes under the lower pH conditions investigated (10-10.5). We have updated the WHAM/Model VII binding values for UO22+, and have for the first time added NpO2+ values to the database. These updates now allow application of the model for more complex mixtures across the entire repository pH range. Calculations for three simulated cement interstitial waters (representing different degradation phases) suggest U(VI) and Np(V) are not likely to be significantly bound to DOM under these conditions.

  2. Assessing inhalation exposure from airborne soil contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Shinn, J.H.

    1998-04-01

    A method of estimation of inhalation exposure to airborne soil contaminants is presented. this method is derived from studies of airborne soil particles with radioactive tags. The concentration of contaminants in air (g/m{sup 3}) can be derived from the product of M, the suspended respirable dust mass concentration (g/m{sup 3}), S, the concentration of contaminant in the soil (g/g), and E{sub f}, an enhancement factor. Typical measurement methods and values of M, and E{sub f} are given along with highlights of experiences with this method.

  3. Modeling for Airborne Contamination

    SciTech Connect

    F.R. Faillace; Y. Yuan

    2000-08-31

    The objective of Modeling for Airborne Contamination (referred to from now on as ''this report'') is to provide a documented methodology, along with supporting information, for estimating the release, transport, and assessment of dose to workers from airborne radioactive contaminants within the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) subsurface during the pre-closure period. Specifically, this report provides engineers and scientists with methodologies for estimating how concentrations of contaminants might be distributed in the air and on the drift surfaces if released from waste packages inside the repository. This report also provides dose conversion factors for inhalation, air submersion, and ground exposure pathways used to derive doses to potentially exposed subsurface workers. The scope of this report is limited to radiological contaminants (particulate, volatile and gaseous) resulting from waste package leaks (if any) and surface contamination and their transport processes. Neutron activation of air, dust in the air and the rock walls of the drift during the preclosure time is not considered within the scope of this report. Any neutrons causing such activation are not themselves considered to be ''contaminants'' released from the waste package. This report: (1) Documents mathematical models and model parameters for evaluating airborne contaminant transport within the MGR subsurface; and (2) Provides tables of dose conversion factors for inhalation, air submersion, and ground exposure pathways for important radionuclides. The dose conversion factors for air submersion and ground exposure pathways are further limited to drift diameters of 7.62 m and 5.5 m, corresponding to the main and emplacement drifts, respectively. If the final repository design significantly deviates from these drift dimensions, the results in this report may require revision. The dose conversion factors are further derived by using concrete of sufficient thickness to simulate the drift

  4. Substance use

    MedlinePlus

    Substance abuse; Illicit drug abuse; Narcotic abuse; Hallucinogen abuse ... Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013. Weiss RD. Drugs of abuse. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil ...

  5. Geophex Airborne Unmanned Survey System

    SciTech Connect

    Won, I.L.; Keiswetter, D.

    1995-12-31

    Ground-based surveys place personnel at risk due to the proximity of buried unexploded ordnance (UXO) items or by exposure to radioactive materials and hazardous chemicals. The purpose of this effort is to design, construct, and evaluate a portable, remotely-piloted, airborne, geophysical survey system. This non-intrusive system will provide stand-off capability to conduct surveys and detect buried objects, structures, and conditions of interest at hazardous locations. During a survey, the operators remain remote from, but within visual distance of, the site. The sensor system never contacts the Earth, but can be positioned near the ground so that weak geophysical anomalies can be detected. The Geophex Airborne Unmanned Survey System (GAUSS) is designed to detect and locate small-scale anomalies at hazardous sites using magnetic and electromagnetic survey techniques. The system consists of a remotely-piloted, radio-controlled, model helicopter (RCH) with flight computer, light-weight geophysical sensors, an electronic positioning system, a data telemetry system, and a computer base-station. The report describes GAUSS and its test results.

  6. Quality Assurance Program Plan for radionuclide airborne emissions monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Vance, L.M.

    1993-07-01

    This Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) describes the quality assurance requirements and responsibilities for radioactive airborne emissions measurements activities from regulated stacks are controlled at the Hanford Site. Detailed monitoring requirements apply to stacks exceeding 1% of the standard of 10 mrem annual effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual from operations of the Hanford Site.

  7. 10 CFR 835.209 - Concentrations of radioactive material in air.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Concentrations of radioactive material in air. 835.209... External Exposure § 835.209 Concentrations of radioactive material in air. (a) The derived air... exposures to airborne radioactive material. (b) The estimation of internal dose shall be based on...

  8. Mars Airborne Prospecting Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinkraus, J. M.; Wright, M. W.; Rheingans, B. E.; Steinkraus, D. E.; George, W. P.; Aljabri, A.; Hall, J. L.; Scott, D. C.

    2012-06-01

    One novel approach towards addressing the need for innovative instrumentation and investigation approaches is the integration of a suite of four spectrometer systems to form the Mars Airborne Prospecting Spectrometers (MAPS) for prospecting on Mars.

  9. Radioactive Wastes.

    PubMed

    Choudri, B S; Baawain, Mahad

    2016-10-01

    Papers reviewed herein present a general overview of radioactive waste activities around the world in 2015. These include safety assessments, decommission and decontamination of nuclear facilities, fusion facilities, transportation and management solutions for the final disposal of low and high level radioactive wastes (LLW and HLW), interim storage and final disposal options for spent fuel (SF), and tritiated wastes, with a focus on environmental impacts due to the mobility of radionuclides in water, soil and ecosystem alongwith other progress made in the management of radioactive wastes. PMID:27620100

  10. Radioactive Wastes.

    PubMed

    Choudri, B S; Baawain, Mahad

    2015-10-01

    Papers reviewed herein present a general overview of radioactive waste activities around the world in 2014. These include safety assessments, decommission and decontamination of nuclear facilities, fusion facilities, transportation and management solutions for the final disposal of low and high level radioactive wastes (LLW and HLW), interim storage and final disposal options for spent fuel (SF), and tritiated wastes, with a focus on environmental impacts due to the mobility of radionuclides in water, soil and ecosystem alongwith other progress made in the management of radioactive wastes.

  11. Radioactive Wastes.

    PubMed

    Choudri, B S; Baawain, Mahad

    2016-10-01

    Papers reviewed herein present a general overview of radioactive waste activities around the world in 2015. These include safety assessments, decommission and decontamination of nuclear facilities, fusion facilities, transportation and management solutions for the final disposal of low and high level radioactive wastes (LLW and HLW), interim storage and final disposal options for spent fuel (SF), and tritiated wastes, with a focus on environmental impacts due to the mobility of radionuclides in water, soil and ecosystem alongwith other progress made in the management of radioactive wastes.

  12. Radioactive Wastes.

    PubMed

    Choudri, B S; Baawain, Mahad

    2015-10-01

    Papers reviewed herein present a general overview of radioactive waste activities around the world in 2014. These include safety assessments, decommission and decontamination of nuclear facilities, fusion facilities, transportation and management solutions for the final disposal of low and high level radioactive wastes (LLW and HLW), interim storage and final disposal options for spent fuel (SF), and tritiated wastes, with a focus on environmental impacts due to the mobility of radionuclides in water, soil and ecosystem alongwith other progress made in the management of radioactive wastes. PMID:26420096

  13. Simulated Radioactivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boettler, James L.

    1972-01-01

    Describes the errors in the sugar-cube experiment related to radioactivity as described in Project Physics course. The discussion considers some of the steps overlooked in the experiment and generalizes the theory beyond the sugar-cube stage. (PS)

  14. Radioactivity Calculations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onega, Ronald J.

    1969-01-01

    Three problems in radioactive buildup and decay are presented and solved. Matrix algebra is used to solve the second problem. The third problem deals with flux depression and is solved by the use of differential equations. (LC)

  15. Concentrating Radioactivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrmann, Richard A.

    1974-01-01

    By concentrating radioactivity contained on luminous dials, a teacher can make a high reading source for classroom experiments on radiation. The preparation of the source and its uses are described. (DT)

  16. Substance use - prescription drugs

    MedlinePlus

    ... substance use; Oxycodone - substance use; Hydrocodone - substance use; Morphine - substance use; Fentanyl - substance use ... fluff, hydros, v-itamin, vic, vike, Watson-387. Morphine. Drugs include Avinza, Duramorph, Kadian, Ormorph, Roxanol. Street ...

  17. Techniques of Water-Resources Investigations of the United States Geological Survey. Book 5, Laboratory Analysis. Chapter A5, Methods for Determination of Radioactive Substances in Water and Fluvial Sediments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thatcher, L. L.; And Others

    Analytical methods for determining important components of fission and natural radioactivity found in water are reported. The discussion of each method includes conditions for application of the method, a summary of the method, interferences, required apparatus, procedures, calculations and estimation of precision. Isotopes considered are…

  18. Airborne data acquisition techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Arro, A.A.

    1980-01-01

    The introduction of standards on acceptable procedures for assessing building heat loss has created a dilemma for the contractor performing airborne thermographic surveys. These standards impose specifications on instrumentation, data acquisition, recording, interpretation, and presentation. Under the standard, the contractor has both the obligation of compliance and the requirement of offering his services at a reasonable price. This paper discusses the various aspects of data acquisition for airborne thermographic surveys and various techniques to reduce the costs of this operation. These techniques include the calculation of flight parameters for economical data acquisition, the selection and use of maps for mission planning, and the use of meteorological forecasts for flight scheduling and the actual execution of the mission. The proper consideration of these factors will result in a cost effective data acquisition and will place the contractor in a very competitive position in offering airborne thermographic survey services.

  19. Airborne oceanographic lidar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Specifications and preliminary design of an Airborne Oceanographic Lidar (AOL) system, which is to be constructed for installation and used on a NASA Wallops Flight Center (WFC) C-54 research aircraft, are reported. The AOL system is to provide an airborne facility for use by various government agencies to demonstrate the utility and practicality of hardware of this type in the wide area collection of oceanographic data on an operational basis. System measurement and performance requirements are presented, followed by a description of the conceptual system approach and the considerations attendant to its development. System performance calculations are addressed, and the system specifications and preliminary design are presented and discussed.

  20. Airborne rain mapping radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, W. J.; Parks, G. S.; Li, F. K.; Im, K. E.; Howard, R. J.

    1988-01-01

    An airborne scanning radar system for remote rain mapping is described. The airborne rain mapping radar is composed of two radar frequency channels at 13.8 and 24.1 GHz. The radar is proposed to scan its antenna beam over + or - 20 deg from the antenna boresight; have a swath width of 7 km; a horizontal spatial resolution at nadir of about 500 m; and a range resolution of 120 m. The radar is designed to be applicable for retrieving rainfall rates from 0.1-60 mm/hr at the earth's surface, and for measuring linear polarization signatures and raindrop's fall velocity.

  1. RADIOACTIVE BATTERY

    DOEpatents

    Birden, J.H.; Jordan, K.C.

    1959-11-17

    A radioactive battery which includes a capsule containing the active material and a thermopile associated therewith is presented. The capsule is both a shield to stop the radiations and thereby make the battery safe to use, and an energy conventer. The intense radioactive decay taking place inside is converted to useful heat at the capsule surface. The heat is conducted to the hot thermojunctions of a thermopile. The cold junctions of the thermopile are thermally insulated from the heat source, so that a temperature difference occurs between the hot and cold junctions, causing an electrical current of a constant magnitude to flow.

  2. Radioactivity method.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duval, J.S.

    1980-01-01

    Radioactivity measurements have played an important role in geophysics since about 1935, and they have increased in importance to the present. The most important areas of application have been in petroleum and uranium exploration. Radioactivity measurements have proved useful in geologic mapping, as well as in specialized applications such as reactor-site monitoring. The technological development of the method has reached a plateau, and the future of the method for some applications will depend upon development of more sophisticated data processing and interpretation. -Author

  3. NASA Airborne Lidar July 1991

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-05-26

    NASA Airborne Lidar July 1991 Data from the 1991 NASA Langley Airborne Lidar flights following the eruption of Pinatubo in July ... and Osborn [1992a, 1992b]. Project Title:  NASA Airborne Lidar Discipline:  Field Campaigns ...

  4. NASA Airborne Lidar May 1992

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-05-26

    NASA Airborne Lidar May 1992 An airborne Nd:YAG (532 nm) lidar was operated by the NASA Langley Research Center about a year following the June 1991 eruption of ... Osborn [1992a, 1992b].  Project Title:  NASA Airborne Lidar Discipline:  Field Campaigns ...

  5. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Tichler, J.; Norden, K.; Congemi, J. )

    1989-10-01

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commercial light water reactors during 1987 have been compiled and reported. Data on solid waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports issued by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1987 release data are summarized in tabular form. Data covering specific radionuclides are summarized. 16 tabs.

  6. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Tichler, J.; Norden, K.; Congemi, J. )

    1991-05-01

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commercial light water reactors during 1988 have been compiled and reported. Data on solid waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports issued by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1988 release data are summarized in tabular form. Data covering specific radionuclides are summarized. 16 tabs.

  7. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Tichler, J.; Benkovitz, C.

    1981-11-01

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commercial light water reactors during 1979 have been compiled and reported. Data on solid waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports issued by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1979 release data are compared with previous year's releases in tabular form. Data covering specific radionuclides are summarized.

  8. Radioactive Waste.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blaylock, B. G.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of radioactive waste disposal, covering publications of 1976-77. Some of the studies included are: (1) high-level and long-lived wastes, and (2) release and burial of low-level wastes. A list of 42 references is also presented. (HM)

  9. Radioactive wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Devarakonda, M.S.; Hickox, J.A.

    1996-11-01

    This paper provides a review of literature published in 1995 on the subject of radioactive wastes. Topics covered include: national programs; waste repositories; mixed wastes; decontamination and decommissioning; remedial actions and treatment; and environmental occurrence and transport of radionuclides. 155 refs.

  10. Airborne Fraunhofer Line Discriminator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gabriel, F. C.; Markle, D. A.

    1969-01-01

    Airborne Fraunhofer Line Discriminator enables prospecting for fluorescent materials, hydrography with fluorescent dyes, and plant studies based on fluorescence of chlorophyll. Optical unit design is the coincidence of Fraunhofer lines in the solar spectrum occurring at the characteristic wavelengths of some fluorescent materials.

  11. Recognizing Airborne Hazards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Christian M.

    1990-01-01

    The heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems in older buildings often do not adequately handle air-borne contaminants. Outlines a three-stage Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) assessment and describes a case in point at a Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, school. (MLF)

  12. Airborne asbestos in buildings.

    PubMed

    Lee, R J; Van Orden, D R

    2008-03-01

    The concentration of airborne asbestos in buildings nationwide is reported in this study. A total of 3978 indoor samples from 752 buildings, representing nearly 32 man-years of sampling, have been analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. The buildings that were surveyed were the subject of litigation related to suits alleging the general building occupants were exposed to a potential health hazard as a result the presence of asbestos-containing materials (ACM). The average concentration of all airborne asbestos structures was 0.01structures/ml (s/ml) and the average concentration of airborne asbestos > or = 5microm long was 0.00012fibers/ml (f/ml). For all samples, 99.9% of the samples were <0.01 f/ml for fibers longer than 5microm; no building averaged above 0.004f/ml for fibers longer than 5microm. No asbestos was detected in 27% of the buildings and in 90% of the buildings no asbestos was detected that would have been seen optically (> or = 5microm long and > or = 0.25microm wide). Background outdoor concentrations have been reported at 0.0003f/ml > or = 5microm. These results indicate that in-place ACM does not result in elevated airborne asbestos in building atmospheres approaching regulatory levels and that it does not result in a significantly increased risk to building occupants.

  13. International Symposium on Airborne Geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mogi, Toru; Ito, Hisatoshi; Kaieda, Hideshi; Kusunoki, Kenichiro; Saltus, Richard W.; Fitterman, David V.; Okuma, Shigeo; Nakatsuka, Tadashi

    2006-05-01

    Airborne geophysics can be defined as the measurement of Earth properties from sensors in the sky. The airborne measurement platform is usually a traditional fixed-wing airplane or helicopter, but could also include lighter-than-air craft, unmanned drones, or other specialty craft. The earliest history of airborne geophysics includes kite and hot-air balloon experiments. However, modern airborne geophysics dates from the mid-1940s when military submarine-hunting magnetometers were first used to map variations in the Earth's magnetic field. The current gamut of airborne geophysical techniques spans a broad range, including potential fields (both gravity and magnetics), electromagnetics (EM), radiometrics, spectral imaging, and thermal imaging.

  14. Photoreactivation in Airborne Mycobacterium parafortuitum

    PubMed Central

    Peccia, Jordan; Hernandez, Mark

    2001-01-01

    Photoreactivation was observed in airborne Mycobacterium parafortuitum exposed concurrently to UV radiation (254 nm) and visible light. Photoreactivation rates of airborne cells increased with increasing relative humidity (RH) and decreased with increasing UV dose. Under a constant UV dose with visible light absent, the UV inactivation rate of airborne M. parafortuitum cells decreased by a factor of 4 as RH increased from 40 to 95%; however, under identical conditions with visible light present, the UV inactivation rate of airborne cells decreased only by a factor of 2. When irradiated in the absence of visible light, cellular cyclobutane thymine dimer content of UV-irradiated airborne M. parafortuitum and Serratia marcescens increased in response to RH increases. Results suggest that, unlike in waterborne bacteria, cyclobutane thymine dimers are not the most significant form of UV-induced DNA damage incurred by airborne bacteria and that the distribution of DNA photoproducts incorporated into UV-irradiated airborne cells is a function of RH. PMID:11526027

  15. Technical basis for removal of 221-T tunnel from airborne radiological area status

    SciTech Connect

    Geuther, W.J., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-30

    This document provides the technical basis for removal of the 221-T Tunnel from airborne radiological control. T Plant Radiological Control has evaluated air sampling data and engineering controls, and determined the necessary administrative controls to make this transition. With these administrative controls (specified within document) in place, the tunnel can be removed from Airborne Radioactive Area status. The removal of the tunnel from airborne status will allow work to be performed within the tunnel under controlled conditions, as outlined in this technical basis, without the use of respiratory protection equipment.

  16. RECENT ADVANCES IN THE MODELING OF AIRBORNE SUBSTANCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Since the 1950's, the primary mission of the Atmospheric Modeling Division has been to develop and evaluate air quality simulation models. While the Division has traditionally focused the research on the meteorological aspects of these models, this focus has expanded in recent...

  17. 75 FR 64744 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-20

    ... class of controlled substance listed in schedule II. The company plans to manufacture a radioactive... investigational new drug (IND) submission and clinical trials. Any other such applicant, and any person who is presently registered with DEA to manufacture such a substance, may file comments or objections to...

  18. [Air-borne disease].

    PubMed

    Lameiro Vilariño, Carmen; del Campo Pérez, Victor M; Alonso Bürger, Susana; Felpeto Nodar, Irene; Guimarey Pérez, Rosa; Pérez Alvarellos, Alberto

    2003-11-01

    Respiratory protection is a factor which worries nursing professionals who take care of patients susceptible of transmitting microorganisms through the air more as every day passes. This type of protection covers the use of surgical or hygienic masks against the transmission of infection by airborne drops to the use of highly effective masks or respirators against the transmission of airborne diseases such as tuberculosis or SARS, a recently discovered disease. The adequate choice of this protective device and its correct use are fundamental in order to have an effective protection for exposed personnel. The authors summarize the main protective respiratory devices used by health workers, their characteristics and degree of effectiveness, as well as the circumstances under which each device is indicated for use. PMID:14705591

  19. MLS airborne antenna research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, C. L.; Burnside, W. D.

    1975-01-01

    The geometrical theory of diffraction was used to analyze the elevation plane pattern of on-aircraft antennas. The radiation patterns for basic elements (infinitesimal dipole, circumferential and axial slot) mounted on fuselage of various aircrafts with or without radome included were calculated and compared well with experimental results. Error phase plots were also presented. The effects of radiation patterns and error phase plots on the polarization selection for the MLS airborne antenna are discussed.

  20. Airborne forest fire research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattingly, G. S.

    1974-01-01

    The research relating to airborne fire fighting systems is reviewed to provide NASA/Langley Research Center with current information on the use of aircraft in forest fire operations, and to identify research requirements for future operations. A literature survey, interview of forest fire service personnel, analysis and synthesis of data from research reports and independent conclusions, and recommendations for future NASA-LRC programs are included.

  1. Mutagenicity of airborne particles.

    PubMed

    Chrisp, C E; Fisher, G L

    1980-09-01

    The physical and chemical properties of airborne particles are important for the interpretation of their potential biologic significance as genotoxic hazards. For polydisperse particle size distributions, the smallest, most respirable particles are generally the most mutagenic. Particulate collection for testing purposes should be designed to reduce artifact formation and allow condensation of mutagenic compounds. Other critical factors such as UV irradiation, wind direction, chemical reactivity, humidity, sample storage, and temperature of combustion are important. Application of chemical extraction methods and subsequent class fractionation techniques influence the observed mutagenic activity. Particles from urban air, coal fly ash, automobile and diesel exhaust, agricultural burning and welding fumes contain primarily direct-acting mutagens. Cigarette smoke condensate, smoke from charred meat and protein pyrolysates, kerosene soot and cigarette smoke condensates contain primarily mutagens which require metabolic activation. Fractionation coupled with mutagenicity testing indicates that the most potent mutagens are found in the acidic fractions of urban air, coal fly ash, and automobile diesel exhaust, whereas mutagens in rice straw smoke and cigarette smoke condensate are found primarily in the basic fractions. The interaction of the many chemical compounds in complex mixtures from airborne particles is likely to be important in determining mutagenic or comutagenic potentials. Because the mode of exposure is generally frequent and prolonged, the presence of tumor-promoting agents in complex mixtures may be a major factor in evaluation of the carcinogenic potential of airborne particles.

  2. Mammalian airborne allergens.

    PubMed

    Aalberse, Rob C

    2014-01-01

    Historically, horse dandruff was a favorite allergen source material. Today, however, allergic symptoms due to airborne mammalian allergens are mostly a result of indoor exposure, be it at home, at work or even at school. The relevance of mammalian allergens in relation to the allergenic activity of house dust extract is briefly discussed in the historical context of two other proposed sources of house dust allergenic activity: mites and Maillard-type lysine-sugar conjugates. Mammalian proteins involved in allergic reactions to airborne dust are largely found in only 2 protein families: lipocalins and secretoglobins (Fel d 1-like proteins), with a relatively minor contribution of serum albumins, cystatins and latherins. Both the lipocalin and the secretoglobin family are very complex. In some instances this results in a blurred separation between important and less important allergenic family members. The past 50 years have provided us with much detailed information on the genomic organization and protein structure of many of these allergens. However, the complex family relations, combined with the wide range of post-translational enzymatic and non-enzymatic modifications, make a proper qualitative and quantitative description of the important mammalian indoor airborne allergens still a significant proteomic challenge. PMID:24925404

  3. Airborne wireless communication systems, airborne communication methods, and communication methods

    DOEpatents

    Deaton, Juan D.; Schmitt, Michael J.; Jones, Warren F.

    2011-12-13

    An airborne wireless communication system includes circuitry configured to access information describing a configuration of a terrestrial wireless communication base station that has become disabled. The terrestrial base station is configured to implement wireless communication between wireless devices located within a geographical area and a network when the terrestrial base station is not disabled. The circuitry is further configured, based on the information, to configure the airborne station to have the configuration of the terrestrial base station. An airborne communication method includes answering a 911 call from a terrestrial cellular wireless phone using an airborne wireless communication system.

  4. Airborne Submillimeter Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zmuidzinas, J.

    1998-01-01

    This is the final technical report for NASA-Ames grant NAG2-1068 to Caltech, entitled "Airborne Submillimeter Spectroscopy", which extended over the period May 1, 1996 through January 31, 1998. The grant was funded by the NASA airborne astronomy program, during a period of time after the Kuiper Airborne Observatory was no longer operational. Instead. this funding program was intended to help develop instrument concepts and technology for the upcoming SOFIA (Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy) project. SOFIA, which is funded by NASA and is now being carried out by a consortium lead by USRA (Universities Space Research Association), will be a 747 aircraft carrying a 2.5 meter diameter telescope. The purpose of our grant was to fund the ongoing development of sensitive heterodyne receivers for the submillimeter band (500-1200 GHz), using sensitive superconducting (SIS) detectors. In 1997 July we submitted a proposal to USRA to construct a heterodyne instrument for SOFIA. Our proposal was successful [1], and we are now continuing our airborne astronomy effort with funding from USRA. A secondary purpose of the NAG2-1068 grant was to continue the anaIN'sis of astronomical data collected with an earlier instrument which was flown on the NASA Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO). The KAO instrument and the astronomical studies which were carried out with it were supported primarily under another grant, NAG2-744, which extended over October 1, 1991 through Januarv 31, 1997. For a complete description of the astronomical data and its anailysis, we refer the reader to the final technical report for NAG2-744, which was submitted to NASA on December 1. 1997. Here we report on the SIS detector development effort for SOFIA carried out under NAG2-1068. The main result of this effort has been the demonstration of SIS mixers using a new superconducting material niobium titanium nitride (NbTiN), which promises to deliver dramatic improvements in sensitivity in the 700

  5. Progress on detection of radioactivity by airborne equipment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stead, Frank W.

    1949-01-01

    Coincidence and anti-coincidence counting rate meters and also an air conductivity meter have been installed in a transport plane to measure gamma radiation from ground sources. Materials containing 0.01 percent uranium can be detected at 500 feet and at an airspeed of 150 miles per hour.

  6. Monitoring of space weather and radioactivity using small airborne platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, R. Giles; Lidgard, Jeffrey; Aplin, Karen L.; Nicoll, Keri A.

    2013-04-01

    Space Weather is increasingly considered as a hazard to society's technological systems, but the effects of energetic particles within the atmosphere - with a potential implication for climate - also present an area in which new scientific knowledge needs to be developed. Routine measurements of energetic particle fluxes made above the surface have been made by the Lebedev Institute, undertaking continuous balloon-carried measurements since 1957. An underexploited measurement opportunity is presented by the conventional weather balloons (radiosondes) launched regularly globally by meteorological services, which could potentially provide a cost-effective alternative to custom balloon flights, as well as the ability to make measurements of particle fluxes at a wide range of latitudes. This work describes the development of a small disposable ionisation sensor, exploiting the well-known response of inexpensive semiconductor devices (e.g. PIN photodiodes) to ionising radiation. Such a Photodiode Radiation Detector (PRD) is particularly suitable for balloon use, as, unlike previous Geiger tube detector systems, only low bias voltages are required, which simplifies the circuitry required, reduces power consumption and entirely removes any high voltage hazard. In addition to providing count rate information, basic energy spectrum information is in principle available from pulse amplitudes generated. We discuss the evaluation and deployment considerations for the use of a PRD on a standard radiosonde platform, to operate within and alongside the existing operational meteorological requirements.

  7. PHARUS airborne SAR concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snoeij, Paul; Pouwels, Henk; Koomen, Peter J.; Hoogeboom, Peter

    1995-11-01

    PHARUS (phased array universal SAR) is an airborne SAR concept which is being developed in the Netherlands. The PHARUS system differs from other airborne SARs by the use of a phased array antenna, which provides both for the flexibility in the design as well as for a compact, light-weight instrument that can be carried on small aircraft. The concept allows for the construction of airborne SAR systems on a common generic basis but tailored to specific user needs and can be seen as a preparation for future spaceborne SAR systems using solid state transmitters with electronically steerable phased array antenna. The whole approach is aimed at providing an economic and yet technically sophisticated solution to remote sensing or surveying needs of a specific user. The solid state phased array antenna consists of a collection of radiating patches; the design flexibility for a large part resides in the freedom to choose the number of patches, and thereby the essential radar performance parameters such as resolution and swath width. Another consequence of the use of the phased array antenna is the system's compactness and the possibility to rigidly mount it on a small aircraft. The use of small aircraft of course considerably improves the cost/benefit ratio of the use of airborne SAR. Flight altitude of the system is flexible between about 7,000 and 40,000 feet, giving much operational freedom within the meteo and airspace control limits. In the PHARUS concept the airborne segment is complemented by a ground segment, which consists of a SAR processor, possibly extended by a matching image processing package. (A quick look image is available in real-time on board the aircraft.) The SAR processor is UNIX based and runs on easily available hardware (SUN station). Although the additional image processing software is available, the SAR processing software is nevertheless designed to be able to interface with commercially available image processing software, as well as being able

  8. Airborne Oceanographic Lidar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bressel, C.; Itzkan, I.; Nunes, J. E.; Hoge, F.

    1977-01-01

    The Airborne Oceanographic Lidar (AOL), a spatially scanning range-gated device installed on board a NASA C-54 aircraft, is described. The AOL system is capable of measuring topographical relief or water depth (bathymetry) with a range resolution of plus or minus 0.3 m in the vertical dimension. The system may also be used to measure fluorescent spectral signatures from 3500 to 8000 A with a resolution of 100 A. Potential applications of the AOL, including sea state measurements, water transparency assessments, oil spill identification, effluent identification and crop cover assessment are also mentioned.

  9. Effects of particle size and velocity on burial depth of airborne particles in glass fiber filters

    SciTech Connect

    Higby, D.P.

    1984-11-01

    Air sampling for particulate radioactive material involves collecting airborne particles on a filter and then determining the amount of radioactivity collected per unit volume of air drawn through the filter. The amount of radioactivity collected is frequently determined by directly measuring the radiation emitted from the particles collected on the filter. Counting losses caused by the particle becoming buried in the filter matrix may cause concentrations of airborne particulate radioactive materials to be underestimated by as much as 50%. Furthermore, the dose calculation for inhaled radionuclides will also be affected. The present study was designed to evaluate the extent to which particle size and sampling velocity influence burial depth in glass-fiber filters. Aerosols of high-fired /sup 239/PuO/sub 2/ were collected at various sampling velocities on glass-fiber filters. The fraction of alpha counts lost due to burial was determined as the ratio of activity detected by direct alpha count to the quantity determined by photon spectrometry. The results show that burial of airborne particles collected on glass-fiber filters appears to be a weak function of sampling velocity and particle size. Counting losses ranged from 0 to 25%. A correction that assumes losses of 10 to 15% would ensure that the concentration of airborne alpha-emitting radionuclides would not be underestimated when glass-fiber filters are used. 32 references, 21 figures, 11 tables.

  10. Assessment of Airborne Particles. Fundamentals, Applications, and Implications to Inhalation Toxicity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercer, Thomas T., Ed.; And Others

    Concern over chemical and radioactive particulate matter in industry and over rapidly increasing air pollution has stimulated research both on the properties of airborne particles and methods for assessing them and on their biological effects following inhalation. The Third Rochester International Conference on Environmental Toxicity was,…

  11. Airborne concentrations of peanut protein.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Rodney M; Barnes, Charles S

    2013-01-01

    Food allergy to peanut is a significant health problem, and there are reported allergic reactions to peanuts despite not eating or having physical contact with peanuts. It is presumed that an allergic reaction may have occurred from inhalation of airborne peanut allergens. The purpose of this study was to detect the possible concentrations of airborne peanut proteins for various preparations and during specific activities. Separate Ara h 1 and Ara h 2 monoclonal enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and a polyclonal sandwich enzyme immunoassay for peanuts were used to detect the amount of airborne peanut protein collected using a Spincon Omni 3000 air collector (Sceptor Industries, Inc., Kansas City, MO) under different peanut preparation methods and situations. Air samples were measured for multiple peanut preparations and scenarios. Detectable amounts of airborne peanut protein were measured using a whole peanut immunoassay when removing the shells of roasted peanut. No airborne peanut allergen (Ara h 1 or Ara h 2) or whole peanut protein above the LLD was measured in any of the other peanut preparation collections. Ara h 1, Ara h 2, and polyclonal peanut proteins were detected from water used to boil peanuts. Small amounts of airborne peanut protein were detected in the scenario of removing shells from roasted peanuts; however, Ara h 1 and Ara h 2 proteins were unable to be consistently detected. Although airborne peanut proteins were detected, the concentration of airborne peanut protein that is necessary to elicit a clinical allergic reaction is unknown.

  12. Airborne ballistic camera tracking systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redish, W. L.

    1976-01-01

    An operational airborne ballistic camera tracking system was tested for operational and data reduction feasibility. The acquisition and data processing requirements of the system are discussed. Suggestions for future improvements are also noted. A description of the data reduction mathematics is outlined. Results from a successful reentry test mission are tabulated. The test mission indicated that airborne ballistic camera tracking systems are feasible.

  13. Airborne concentrations of peanut protein.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Rodney M; Barnes, Charles S

    2013-01-01

    Food allergy to peanut is a significant health problem, and there are reported allergic reactions to peanuts despite not eating or having physical contact with peanuts. It is presumed that an allergic reaction may have occurred from inhalation of airborne peanut allergens. The purpose of this study was to detect the possible concentrations of airborne peanut proteins for various preparations and during specific activities. Separate Ara h 1 and Ara h 2 monoclonal enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and a polyclonal sandwich enzyme immunoassay for peanuts were used to detect the amount of airborne peanut protein collected using a Spincon Omni 3000 air collector (Sceptor Industries, Inc., Kansas City, MO) under different peanut preparation methods and situations. Air samples were measured for multiple peanut preparations and scenarios. Detectable amounts of airborne peanut protein were measured using a whole peanut immunoassay when removing the shells of roasted peanut. No airborne peanut allergen (Ara h 1 or Ara h 2) or whole peanut protein above the LLD was measured in any of the other peanut preparation collections. Ara h 1, Ara h 2, and polyclonal peanut proteins were detected from water used to boil peanuts. Small amounts of airborne peanut protein were detected in the scenario of removing shells from roasted peanuts; however, Ara h 1 and Ara h 2 proteins were unable to be consistently detected. Although airborne peanut proteins were detected, the concentration of airborne peanut protein that is necessary to elicit a clinical allergic reaction is unknown. PMID:23406937

  14. RESRAD. Site-Specific Residual Radioactivity

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, C.

    1989-06-01

    RESRAD is designed to derive site-specific guidelines for allowable residual concentrations of radionuclides in soil. A guideline is defined as a radionuclide concentration or a level of radiation or radioactivity that is acceptable if a site is to be used without radiological restrictions. Guidelines are expressed as (1) concentrations of residual radionuclides in soil, (2) concentrations of airborne radon decay products, (3) levels of external gamma radiation, (4) levels of radioactivity from surface contamination, and (5) concentrations of residual radionuclides in air and water. Soil is defined as unconsolidated earth material, including rubble and debris that may be present. The controlling principles of all guidelines are (1) the annual radiation dose received by a member of the critical population group from the residual radioactive material - predicted by a realistic but reasonably conservative analysis and averaged over a 50 year period - should not exceed 100 mrem/yr, and (2) doses should be kept as low as reasonably achievable. All significant exposure pathways for the critical population group are considered in deriving soil guidelines. These pathways include direct exposure to external radiation from the contaminated soil material; internal radiation from inhalation of airborne radionuclides; and internal radiation from ingestion of plant foods grown in the contaminated soil, meat and milk from livestock fed with contaminated fodder and water, drinking water from a contaminated well, and fish from a contaminated pond.

  15. Destruction of genotoxic wastes mixed with radioactive products.

    PubMed

    Simonnet, F; Orts, J C; Simonnet, G

    1989-12-01

    Before their disposal, genotoxic substances are destroyed by strong oxidizing agents. If there are molecules labelled with radionuclides in the medium which is oxidized, then this treatment may bring about the release of gaseous radioactive compounds. We have looked for evidence of such a release following the action of K permanganate and sodium hypochlorite on molecules labelled with 3H, 14C, 32P, and 125I. Among the compounds examined, only those labelled with 14C showed significant quantities of radioactive gas released, with values up to 60% of the total radioactivity. For the other products, less than 0.6% of the radioactivity appeared in a volatile form.

  16. Radioactive decay.

    PubMed

    Groch, M W

    1998-01-01

    When a parent radionuclide decays to its daughter radionuclide by means of alpha, beta, or isomeric transition, the decay follows an exponential form, which is characterized by the decay constant lambda. The decay constant represents the probability per unit time that a single radioatom will decay. The decay equation can be used to provide a useful expression for radionuclide decay, the half-life, the time when 50% of the radioatoms present will have decayed. Radiotracer half-life has direct implications in nuclear imaging, radiation therapy, and radiation safety because radionuclide half-life affects the ability to evaluate tracer kinetics and create appropriate nuclear images and also affects organ, tumor, and whole-body radiation dose. The number of radioatoms present in a sample is equal to the activity, defined as the number of transitions per unit time, divided by the decay constant; the mass of radioatoms present in a sample can be calculated to determine the specific activity (activity per unit mass). The dynamic relationship between the number of parent and daughter atoms present over time may lead to radioactive equilibrium, which takes two forms--secular and transient--and has direct relevance to generator-produced radionuclides.

  17. Airborne agent concentration analysis

    DOEpatents

    Gelbard, Fred

    2004-02-03

    A method and system for inferring airborne contaminant concentrations in rooms without contaminant sensors, based on data collected by contaminant sensors in other rooms of a building, using known airflow interconnectivity data. The method solves a least squares problem that minimizes the difference between measured and predicted contaminant sensor concentrations with respect to an unknown contaminant release time. Solutions are constrained to providing non-negative initial contaminant concentrations in all rooms. The method can be used to identify a near-optimal distribution of sensors within the building, when then number of available sensors is less than the total number of rooms. This is achieved by having a system-sensor matrix that is non-singular, and by selecting that distribution which yields the lowest condition number of all the distributions considered. The method can predict one or more contaminant initial release points from the collected data.

  18. Airborne Wind Turbine

    SciTech Connect

    2010-09-01

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: Makani Power is developing an Airborne Wind Turbine (AWT) that eliminates 90% of the mass of a conventional wind turbine and accesses a stronger, more consistent wind at altitudes of near 1,000 feet. At these altitudes, 85% of the country can offer viable wind resources compared to only 15% accessible with current technology. Additionally, the Makani Power wing can be economically deployed in deep offshore waters, opening up a resource which is 4 times greater than the entire U.S. electrical generation capacity. Makani Power has demonstrated the core technology, including autonomous launch, land, and power generation with an 8 meter wingspan, 20 kW prototype. At commercial scale, Makani Power aims to develop a 600 kW, 28 meter wingspan product capable of delivering energy at an unsubsidized cost competitive with coal, the current benchmark for low-cost power.

  19. Airborne Cloud Computing Environment (ACCE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardman, Sean; Freeborn, Dana; Crichton, Dan; Law, Emily; Kay-Im, Liz

    2011-01-01

    Airborne Cloud Computing Environment (ACCE) is JPL's internal investment to improve the return on airborne missions. Improve development performance of the data system. Improve return on the captured science data. The investment is to develop a common science data system capability for airborne instruments that encompasses the end-to-end lifecycle covering planning, provisioning of data system capabilities, and support for scientific analysis in order to improve the quality, cost effectiveness, and capabilities to enable new scientific discovery and research in earth observation.

  20. AIRBORNE RADIATION DETECTOR

    DOEpatents

    Cartmell, T.R.; Gifford, J.F.

    1959-08-01

    An ionization chamber used for measuring the radioactivity of dust present in atmospheric air is described. More particularly. the patent describes a device comprising two concentric open ended, electrically connected cylinders between which is disposed a wire electrcde. A heating source is disposed inside of the cylinder to circulate air through the space between the two cylinders by convective flow. A high voltage electric field between the wire electrcde of the electrically connected cylinder will cause ionization of the air as it passes therethrough.

  1. Airborne Particulate Threat Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Patrick Treado; Oksana Klueva; Jeffrey Beckstead

    2008-12-31

    Aerosol threat detection requires the ability to discern between threat agents and ambient background particulate matter (PM) encountered in the environment. To date, Raman imaging technology has been demonstrated as an effective strategy for the assessment of threat agents in the presence of specific, complex backgrounds. Expanding our understanding of the composition of ambient particulate matter background will improve the overall performance of Raman Chemical Imaging (RCI) detection strategies for the autonomous detection of airborne chemical and biological hazards. Improving RCI detection performance is strategic due to its potential to become a widely exploited detection approach by several U.S. government agencies. To improve the understanding of the ambient PM background with subsequent improvement in Raman threat detection capability, ChemImage undertook the Airborne Particulate Threat Assessment (APTA) Project in 2005-2008 through a collaborative effort with the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), under cooperative agreement number DE-FC26-05NT42594. During Phase 1 of the program, a novel PM classification based on molecular composition was developed based on a comprehensive review of the scientific literature. In addition, testing protocols were developed for ambient PM characterization. A signature database was developed based on a variety of microanalytical techniques, including scanning electron microscopy, FT-IR microspectroscopy, optical microscopy, fluorescence and Raman chemical imaging techniques. An automated particle integrated collector and detector (APICD) prototype was developed for automated collection, deposition and detection of biothreat agents in background PM. During Phase 2 of the program, ChemImage continued to refine the understanding of ambient background composition. Additionally, ChemImage enhanced the APICD to provide improved autonomy, sensitivity and specificity. Deliverables included a Final Report detailing our

  2. Characterization of the airborne activity confinement system prefilter material

    SciTech Connect

    Long, T.A.; Monson, P.R.

    1992-05-01

    A general concern with assessing the effects of postulated severe accidents is predicting and preventing the release of radioactive isotopes to the environment at the Savannah River Site (SRS) reactor. Unless the confinement systems are breached in an accident the Airborne Activity Confinement System forces all of the internal air through the filter compartments. Proper modeling of the radioactivity released to the environment requires knowledge of the filtering characteristics of the demisters, the HEPA`s, and the charcoal beds. An investigation of the mass loading characteristics for a range of particle sizes was performed under the direction of Vince Novick of Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) for the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) in connection with the restart of the K reactor. Both solid and liquid aerosols were used to challenge sample prefilter and HEPA filters. The results of the ANL investigation are reported in this document.

  3. Characterization of the airborne activity confinement system prefilter material

    SciTech Connect

    Long, T.A.; Monson, P.R.

    1992-05-01

    A general concern with assessing the effects of postulated severe accidents is predicting and preventing the release of radioactive isotopes to the environment at the Savannah River Site (SRS) reactor. Unless the confinement systems are breached in an accident the Airborne Activity Confinement System forces all of the internal air through the filter compartments. Proper modeling of the radioactivity released to the environment requires knowledge of the filtering characteristics of the demisters, the HEPA's, and the charcoal beds. An investigation of the mass loading characteristics for a range of particle sizes was performed under the direction of Vince Novick of Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) for the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) in connection with the restart of the K reactor. Both solid and liquid aerosols were used to challenge sample prefilter and HEPA filters. The results of the ANL investigation are reported in this document.

  4. Airborne GLM Simulator (FEGS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quick, M.; Blakeslee, R. J.; Christian, H. J., Jr.; Stewart, M. F.; Podgorny, S.; Corredor, D.

    2015-12-01

    Real time lightning observations have proven to be useful for advanced warning and now-casting of severe weather events. In anticipation of the launch of the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) onboard GOES-R that will provide continuous real time observations of total (both cloud and ground) lightning, the Fly's Eye GLM Simulator (FEGS) is in production. FEGS is an airborne instrument designed to provide cal/val measurements for GLM from high altitude aircraft. It consists of a 5 x 5 array of telescopes each with a narrow passband filter to isolate the 777.4 nm neutral oxygen emission triplet radiated by lightning. The telescopes will measure the optical radiance emitted by lightning that is transmitted through the cloud top with a temporal resolution of 10 μs. When integrated on the NASA ER-2 aircraft, the FEGS array with its 90° field-of-view will observe a cloud top area nearly equal to a single GLM pixel. This design will allow FEGS to determine the temporal and spatial variation of light that contributes to a GLM event detection. In addition to the primary telescope array, the instrument includes 5 supplementary optical channels that observe alternate spectral emission features and will enable the use of FEGS for interesting lightning physics applications. Here we present an up-to-date summary of the project and a description of its scientific applications.

  5. Airborne Geophysical Surveys Applied to Hydrocarbon Resource Development Environmental Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, B. D.; Ball, L. B.; Finn, C.; Kass, A.; Thamke, J.

    2014-12-01

    mapping AEM surveys could also be effectively used in mapping tectonic features. Airborne radiometric methods have not been routinely used in hydrocarbon environmental studies but might be useful in understanding the surficial distribution of deposits related to naturally occurring radioactive materials.

  6. Substance use and multiculturalism.

    PubMed

    Adrian, M

    1996-01-01

    This paper reviews intercultural variability of substance use behaviors, including availability of international statistics on consumption of alcohol and other drugs, as well as the use of drugs available locally only. Within a conceptual framework of intercultural relations, it considers the history of transcultural spread of substance use behaviors and possible reactions to the introduction of new drugs within a culture or jurisdiction, including illustrations of the "law of alien poisons." Although intercultural views of substance use have generally concentrated on majority groups' views of substance use in minority groups, minority and non-Western views of substance use need to be considered in the context of increasing international and intercultural communications that increase the rate at which substance use behaviors spread. Both Western and non-Western experiences with substance use and misuse must be taken into account so that better interventions can be developed to deal with addictions and other substance-related problems. PMID:8908704

  7. Substance Abuse and Trauma.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Shannon; Suárez, Liza

    2016-10-01

    There is a strong, bidirectional link between substance abuse and traumatic experiences. Teens with cooccurring substance use disorders (SUDs) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have significant functional and psychosocial impairment. Common neurobiological foundations point to the reinforcing cycle of trauma symptoms, substance withdrawal, and substance use. Treatment of teens with these issues should include a systemic and integrated approach to both the SUD and the PTSD. PMID:27613348

  8. An aerial survey of radioactivity associated with Atomic Energy plants

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, F.J.; Harlan, W.E.; Humphrey, P.A.; Kane, R.L.; Reinhardt, P.W.

    1992-09-02

    The project covered was an endeavor to (1) compare a group of laboratory instruments as airborne detectors of radioactivity and (2) simultaneously obtain data relative to the diffusion rate of radioactive contamination emitted into the atmosphere from off-gas stacks of production runs. Research was conducted in the Oak Ridge, Tennessee and Hanford, Washington areas. Detection was accomplished at a maximum distance of seventeen miles from the plant. Very little information of a conclusive nature was gained concerning the diffusion. Further research with the nuclear instruments, using a stronger source, is recommended. To obtain conclusive information concerning the meteorological aspects of the project, a larger observational program will be needed.

  9. Assessment of dry and wet atmospheric deposits of radioactive aerosols: application to Fukushima radiocaesium fallout.

    PubMed

    Gonze, Marc-André; Renaud, Philippe; Korsakissok, Irène; Kato, Hiroaki; Hinton, Thomas G; Mourlon, Christophe; Simon-Cornu, Marie

    2014-10-01

    The Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear accident led to massive atmospheric deposition of radioactive substances onto the land surfaces. The spatial distribution of deposits has been estimated by Japanese authorities for gamma-emitting radionuclides through either airborne monitoring surveys (since April 2011) or in situ gamma-ray spectrometry of bare soil areas (since summer 2011). We demonstrate that significant differences exist between the two surveys for radiocaesium isotopes and that these differences can be related to dry deposits through the use of physically based relationships involving aerosol deposition velocities. The methodology, which has been applied to cesium-134 and cesium-137 deposits within 80-km of the nuclear site, provides reasonable spatial estimations of dry and wet deposits that are discussed and compared to atmospheric numerical simulations from the Japanese Atomic Energy Agency and the French Institute of Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety. As a complementary approach to numerical simulations, this field-based analysis has the possibility to contribute information that can be applied to the understanding and assessment of dose impacts to human populations and the environment around Fukushima. PMID:25196232

  10. Airborne Laser Polar Nephelometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grams, Gerald W.

    1973-01-01

    A polar nephelometer has been developed at NCAR to measure the angular variation of the intensity of light scattered by air molecules and particles. The system has been designed for airborne measurements using outside air ducted through a 5-cm diameter airflow tube; the sample volume is that which is common to the intersection of a collimated source beam and the detector field of view within the airflow tube. The source is a linearly polarized helium-neon laser beam. The optical system defines a collimated field-of-view (0.5deg half-angle) through a series of diaphragms located behind a I72-mm focal length objective lens. A photomultiplier tube is located immediately behind an aperture in the focal plane of the objective lens. The laser beam is mechanically chopped (on-off) at a rate of 5 Hz; a two-channel pulse counter, synchronized to the laser output, measures the photomultiplier pulse rate with the light beam both on and off. The difference in these measured pulse rates is directly proportional to the intensity of the scattered light from the volume common to the intersection of the laser beam and the detector field-of-view. Measurements can be made at scattering angles from 15deg to 165deg with reference to the direction of propagation of the light beam. Intermediate angles are obtained by selecting the angular increments desired between these extreme angles (any multiple of 0.1deg can be selected for the angular increment; 5deg is used in normal operation). Pulses provided by digital circuits control a stepping motor which sequentially rotates the detector by pre-selected angular increments. The synchronous photon-counting system automatically begins measurement of the scattered-light intensity immediately after the rotation to a new angle has been completed. The instrument has been flown on the NASA Convair 990 airborne laboratory to obtain data on the complex index of refraction of atmospheric aerosols. A particle impaction device is operated simultaneously

  11. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants. Annual report 1978

    SciTech Connect

    Tichler, J.; Benkovitz, C.

    1981-03-01

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commerical light water reactors during 1978 have been compiled and reported. Data on soild waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1978 release data are compared with previous years releases in tabular form. Data covering specific radionuclides are summarized.

  12. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants. Annual report, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Tichler, J.; Benkovitz, C.

    1983-01-01

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commercial light water reactors during 1980 have been compiled and reported. Data on solid waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports issued by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1980 release data are summarized in tabular form. Data covering specific radionuclides are summarized.

  13. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants: Annual report, 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Tichler, J.; Norden, K.; Congemi, J.

    1988-01-01

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commercial light water reactors during 1985 have been compiled and reported. Data on solid waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports issued by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1985 release data are summarized in tabular form. Data covering specific radionuclides are summarized.

  14. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants: Annual report, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Tichler, J.; Norden, K.; Congemi, J.

    1987-08-01

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commercial light water reactors during 1984 have been compiled and reported. Data on solid waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports issued by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1984 release data are summarized in tabular form. Data covering specific radionuclides are summarized.

  15. Radioactive diagnostic agent

    SciTech Connect

    Shigematsu, A.; Aihara, M.; Matsuda, M.; Suzuki, A.; Tsuya, A.

    1984-02-07

    A radioactive diagnostic agent for renal cortex, adrenal cortex, myocardium, brain stem, spinal nerve, etc., which comprises as an essential component monoiodoacetic acid wherein the iodine atom is radioactive.

  16. Measurement of airborne {sup 218}Po - A Bayesian approach

    SciTech Connect

    Groer, P.G.; Lo, Y.

    1996-12-01

    The standard mathematical treatment of the buildup and decay of airborne radionuclides on a filter paper uses the solutions of the so-called bateman equations adapted to the sampling process. The equations can be interpreted as differential equations for the expectation of an underlying stochastic process, which describes the random fluctuations in the accumulation and decay of the sampled radioactive atoms. The process for the buildup and decay of airborne {sup 218}Po can be characterized as an {open_quotes}immigration-death process{close_quotes} in the widely adopted, biologically based jargon. The probability distribution for the number of {sup 218}Po atoms, accumulated after sampling time t, is Poisson. We show that the distribution of the number of counts, registered by a detector with efficiency {epsilon} during a counting period T after the end of sampling, it also Poisson, with mean dependent on {epsilon},t,T, the flowrate and N{sub o}, the number of airborne {sup 218}Po atoms per unit volume. This Poisson distribution was used to construct the likelihood given the observed number of counts. After inversion with Bayes` Theorem we obtained the posterior density for N{sub o}. This density characterizes the remaining uncertainty about the measured under of {sup 218}Po atoms per unit volume of air. 6 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Airborne laser topographic mapping results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krabill, W. B.; Collins, J. G.; Link, L. E.; Swift, R. N.; Butler, M. L.

    1984-01-01

    The results of terrain mapping experiments utilizing the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Airborne Oceanographic Lidar (AOL) over forested areas are presented. The flight tests were conducted as part of a joint NASA/U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (CE) investigation aimed at evaluating the potential of an airborne laser ranging system to provide cross-sectional topographic data on flood plains that are difficult and expensive to survey using conventional techniques. The data described in this paper were obtained in the Wolf River Basin located near Memphis, TN. Results from surveys conducted under winter 'leaves off' and summer 'leaves on' conditions, aspects of day and night operation, and data obtained from decidous and coniferous tree types are compared. Data processing techniques are reviewed. Conclusions relative to accuracy and present limitations of the AOL, and airborne lidar systems in general, to terrain mapping over forested areas are discussed.

  18. An airborne isothermal haze chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hindman, E. E.

    1981-01-01

    Thermal gradient diffusion cloud chambers (TGDCC) are used to determine the concentrations of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) with critical supersaturations greater than or equal to about 0.2%. The CCN concentrations measured with the airborne IHC were lower than theoretically predicted by factors ranging between 7.9 and 9.0. The CCN concentrations measured with the airborne IHC were lower than the concentrations measured with the larger laboratory IHC's by factors ranging between 3.9 and 7.5. The bounds of the supersaturation ranges of the airborne IHC and the CSU-Mee TGDCC do not overlap. Nevertheless, the slopes of the interpolated data between the bounds agree favorably with the theoretical slopes.

  19. WESTERN AIRBORNE CONTAMINANTS ASSESSMENT PROJECT RESEARCH PLAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of the Western Airborne Contaminants Assessment Project (WACAP) is to assess the deposition of airborne contaminants in Western National Parks, providing regional and local information on exposure, accumulation, impacts, and probable sources. This project is being desig...

  20. Airborne Transmission of Bordetella pertussis

    PubMed Central

    Warfel, Jason M.; Beren, Joel; Merkel, Tod J.

    2012-01-01

    Pertussis is a contagious, acute respiratory illness caused by the bacterial pathogen Bordetella pertussis. Although it is widely believed that transmission of B. pertussis occurs via aerosolized respiratory droplets, no controlled study has ever documented airborne transmission of pertussis. We set out to determine if airborne transmission occurs between infected and naive animals, utilizing the baboon model of pertussis. Our results showed that 100% of exposed naive animals became infected even when physical contact was prevented, demonstrating that pertussis transmission occurs via aerosolized respiratory droplets. PMID:22807521

  1. NASA Airborne Lidar 1982-1984 Flights

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-05-26

    NASA Airborne Lidar 1982-1984 Flights Data from the 1982 NASA Langley Airborne Lidar flights following the eruption of El Chichon ... continuing to January 1984. Transcribed from the following NASA Tech Reports: McCormick, M. P., and M. T. Osborn, Airborne lidar ...

  2. Airborne Imagery Collections Barrow 2013

    DOE Data Explorer

    Cherry, Jessica; Crowder, Kerri

    2015-07-20

    The data here are orthomosaics, digital surface models (DSMs), and individual frames captured during low altitude airborne flights in 2013 at the Barrow Environmental Observatory. The orthomosaics, thermal IR mosaics, and DSMs were generated from the individual frames using Structure from Motion techniques.

  3. Airborne fungi--a resurvey

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, G.H.; Prince, H.E.; Raymer, W.J.

    1983-07-01

    A 15-month survey of airborne fungi at 14 geographical stations was conducted to determine the incidence of different fungal genera. Five of these stations were surveyed 25 years earlier. A comparison between previous studies and present surveys revealed similar organisms at each station with slight shifts in frequency of dominant genera.

  4. Tropospheric and Airborne Emission Spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glavich, Thomas; Beer, Reinhard

    1996-01-01

    X This paper describes the development of two related instruments, the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) and the Airborne Emission Spectrometer (AES). Both instruments are infrared imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometers, used for measuring the state of the lower atmosphere, and in particular the measurement of ozone and ozone sources and sinks.

  5. Airborne chemicals and forest health

    SciTech Connect

    Woodman, J.N.; Cowling, E.B.

    1987-02-01

    Over the past few years the possible contribution of acid rain to the problem of forest decline has been a cause of increasing public concern. Research has begun to determine whether airborne chemicals are causing or contributing to visible damage and mortality in eastern spruce-fir and sugar maple forests and to changes in tree growth, usually without visible symptoms, in other parts of North America. This paper describes some of the complex biological relationships that determine health and productivity of forests and that make it difficult to distinguish effects of airborne chemicals from effects of natural stress. It describes four major research approaches for assessment of the effects of airborne chemicals on forests, and it summarizes current understanding of the known and possible effects of airborne chemicals on forest trees in North America and Europe. It also briefly describes the major air quality and forest health research programs in North America, and it assesses how ell these programs are likely to meet information needs during the coming decade. 69 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

  6. Airborne asbestos in public buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Chesson, J.; Hatfield, J.; Schultz, B.; Dutrow, E.; Blake, J. )

    1990-02-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency sampled air in 49 government-owned buildings (six buildings with no asbestos-containing material, six buildings with asbestos-containing material in generally good condition, and 37 buildings with damaged asbestos-containing material). This is the most comprehensive study to date of airborne asbestos levels in U.S. public buildings during normal building activities. The air outside each building was also sampled. Air samples were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy using a direct transfer preparation technique. The results show an increasing trend in average airborne asbestos levels; outdoor levels are lowest and levels in buildings with damaged asbestos-containing material are highest. However, the measured levels and the differences between indoors and outdoors and between building categories are small in absolute magnitude. Comparable studies from Canada and the UK, although differing in their estimated concentrations, also conclude that while airborne asbestos levels may be elevated in buildings that contain asbestos, levels are generally low. This conclusion does not eliminate the possibility of higher airborne asbestos levels during maintenance or renovation that disturbs the asbestos-containing material.

  7. Substance use - amphetamines

    MedlinePlus

    Substance abuse - amphetamines; Drug abuse - amphetamines; Drug use - amphetamines ... There are different kinds of street amphetamines. Common ones ... Dextroamphetamine (ADHD medicine used illegally): dexies, kiddie- ...

  8. Simulation of atmospheric dispersion of radioactivity from the Chernobyl accident

    SciTech Connect

    Lange, R.; Sullivan, T.J.; Gudiksen, P.H. )

    1989-07-01

    Measurements of airborne radioactivity over Europe, Japan, and the United States indicated that the release from the Chernobyl reactor accident in the Soviet Union on April 26, 1986 contained a wide spectrum of fission up to heights of 7 km or more within a few days after the initial explosion. This high-altitude presence of radioactivity would in part be attributable to atmospheric dynamics factors other than the thermal energy released in the initial explosion. Indications were that two types of releases had taken place -- an initial powerful explosion followed by days of a less energetic reactor fire. The Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) utilized three-dimensional atmospheric dispersion models to determine the characteristics of the source term (release) and the evolution of the spatial distributions of the airborne radioactivity as it was transported over Europe and subsequently over the northern hemisphere. This paper describes the ARAC involvement and the results of the hemispheric model calculations which graphically depict the extensive dispersal of radioactivity. 1 fig.

  9. Routing architecture and security for airborne networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Hongmei; Xie, Peng; Li, Jason; Xu, Roger; Levy, Renato

    2009-05-01

    Airborne networks are envisioned to provide interconnectivity for terrestial and space networks by interconnecting highly mobile airborne platforms. A number of military applications are expected to be used by the operator, and all these applications require proper routing security support to establish correct route between communicating platforms in a timely manner. As airborne networks somewhat different from traditional wired and wireless networks (e.g., Internet, LAN, WLAN, MANET, etc), security aspects valid in these networks are not fully applicable to airborne networks. Designing an efficient security scheme to protect airborne networks is confronted with new requirements. In this paper, we first identify a candidate routing architecture, which works as an underlying structure for our proposed security scheme. And then we investigate the vulnerabilities and attack models against routing protocols in airborne networks. Based on these studies, we propose an integrated security solution to address routing security issues in airborne networks.

  10. Comparisons between radioactive and non-radioactive gas lantern mantles.

    PubMed

    Furuta, E; Yoshizawa, Y; Aburai, T

    2000-12-01

    Gas lantern mantles containing radioactive thorium have been used for more than 100 years. Although thorium was once believed to be indispensable for giving a bright light, non-radioactive mantles are now available. From the radioactivities of the daughter nuclides, we estimated the levels of radioactivity of 232Th and 228Th in 11 mantles. The mantles contained various levels of radioactivity from background levels to 1410 +/- 140 Bq. Our finding that radioactive and non-radioactive mantles are equally bright suggests that there is no advantage in using radioactive mantles. A remaining problem is that gas lantern mantles are sold without any information about radioactivity.

  11. Substance Abuse. Policy Statement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Collaboration for Youth, Washington, DC.

    This paper presents the policy statement on substance abuse from the National Collaboration for Youth (NCY). The policy statement section lists programs and activities supported by the NCY. A section on background includes a statement of the issue of substance abuse. Areas examined in this section include alcohol abuse and drunk driving among…

  12. Substance Abuse and Disability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sales, Amos

    A review of the literature provides the conclusion that individuals with a disability versus those without a disability are more likely to have a substance abuse problem and less likely to get effective treatment. Data suggest 10-40% of all individuals in treatment for substance abuse have a coexisting physical or mental disability. Alcohol rates…

  13. Radioactive Waste Management Basis

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, B K

    2009-06-03

    The purpose of this Radioactive Waste Management Basis is to describe the systematic approach for planning, executing, and evaluating the management of radioactive waste at LLNL. The implementation of this document will ensure that waste management activities at LLNL are conducted in compliance with the requirements of DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management, and the Implementation Guide for DOE Manual 435.1-1, Radioactive Waste Management Manual. Technical justification is provided where methods for meeting the requirements of DOE Order 435.1 deviate from the DOE Manual 435.1-1 and Implementation Guide.

  14. Large aperture scanning airborne lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J.; Bindschadler, R.; Boers, R.; Bufton, J. L.; Clem, D.; Garvin, J.; Melfi, S. H.

    1988-01-01

    A large aperture scanning airborne lidar facility is being developed to provide important new capabilities for airborne lidar sensor systems. The proposed scanning mechanism allows for a large aperture telescope (25 in. diameter) in front of an elliptical flat (25 x 36 in.) turning mirror positioned at a 45 degree angle with respect to the telescope optical axis. The lidar scanning capability will provide opportunities for acquiring new data sets for atmospheric, earth resources, and oceans communities. This completed facility will also make available the opportunity to acquire simulated EOS lidar data on a near global basis. The design and construction of this unique scanning mechanism presents exciting technological challenges of maintaining the turning mirror optical flatness during scanning while exposed to extreme temperatures, ambient pressures, aircraft vibrations, etc.

  15. Magnetic airborne survey - geophysical flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Barros Camara, Erick; Nei Pereira Guimarães, Suze

    2016-06-01

    This paper provides a technical review process in the area of airborne acquisition of geophysical data, with emphasis for magnetometry. In summary, it addresses the calibration processes of geophysical equipment as well as the aircraft to minimize possible errors in measurements. The corrections used in data processing and filtering are demonstrated with the same results as well as the evolution of these techniques in Brazil and worldwide.

  16. Combustion aerosols formed during burning of radioactively contaminated materials: Experimental results

    SciTech Connect

    Halverson, M.A.; Ballinger, M.Y.; Dennis, G.W.

    1987-03-01

    Safety assessments and environmental impact statements for nuclear fuel cycle facilities require an estimate of potential airborne releases. Radioactive aerosols generated by fires were investigated in experiments in which combustible solids and liquids were contaminated with radioactive materials and burned. Uranium in powder and liquid form was used to contaminate five fuel types: polychloroprene, polystyrene, polymethylmethacrylate, cellulose, and a mixture of 30% tributylphosphate (TBP) in kerosene. Heat flux, oxygen concentration, air flow, contaminant concentration, and type of ignition were varied in the experiments. The highest release (7.1 wt %) came from burning TBP/kerosene over contaminated nitric acid. Burning cellulose contaminated with uranyl nitrate hexahydrate liquid gave the lowest release (0.01 wt %). Rate of release and particle size distribution of airborne radioactive particles were highly dependent on the type of fuel burned.

  17. Airborne particulate matter in spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Acceptability limits and sampling and monitoring strategies for airborne particles in spacecraft were considered. Based on instances of eye and respiratory tract irritation reported by Shuttle flight crews, the following acceptability limits for airborne particles were recommended: for flights of 1 week or less duration (1 mg/cu m for particles less than 10 microns in aerodynamic diameter (AD) plus 1 mg/cu m for particles 10 to 100 microns in AD); and for flights greater than 1 week and up to 6 months in duration (0.2 mg/cu m for particles less than 10 microns in AD plus 0.2 mg/cu m for particles 10 to 100 microns in AD. These numerical limits were recommended to aid in spacecraft atmosphere design which should aim at particulate levels that are a low as reasonably achievable. Sampling of spacecraft atmospheres for particles should include size-fractionated samples of 0 to 10, 10 to 100, and greater than 100 micron particles for mass concentration measurement and elementary chemical analysis by nondestructive analysis techniques. Morphological and chemical analyses of single particles should also be made to aid in identifying airborne particulate sources. Air cleaning systems based on inertial collection principles and fine particle collection devices based on electrostatic precipitation and filtration should be considered for incorporation into spacecraft air circulation systems. It was also recommended that research be carried out in space in the areas of health effects and particle characterization.

  18. NASA Student Airborne Research Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaller, E. L.; Shetter, R. E.

    2012-12-01

    The NASA Student Airborne Research Program (SARP) is a unique summer internship program for advanced undergraduates and early graduate students majoring in the STEM disciplines. SARP participants acquire hands-on research experience in all aspects of an airborne research campaign, including flying onboard an major NASA resource used for studying Earth system processes. In summer 2012, thirty-two participants worked in four interdisciplinary teams to study surface, atmospheric, and oceanographic processes. Participants assisted in the operation of instruments onboard the NASA P-3B aircraft where they sampled and measured atmospheric gases and imaged land and water surfaces in multiple spectral bands. Along with airborne data collection, students participated in taking measurements at field sites. Mission faculty and research mentors helped to guide participants through instrument operation, sample analysis, and data reduction. Over the eight-week program, each student developed an individual research project from the data collected and delivered a conference-style final presentation on his/her results. We will discuss the results and effectiveness of the program from the first four summers and discuss plans for the future.

  19. Radioactive waste disposal package

    DOEpatents

    Lampe, Robert F.

    1986-01-01

    A radioactive waste disposal package comprising a canister for containing vitrified radioactive waste material and a sealed outer shell encapsulating the canister. A solid block of filler material is supported in said shell and convertible into a liquid state for flow into the space between the canister and outer shell and subsequently hardened to form a solid, impervious layer occupying such space.

  20. Radioactive waste disposal package

    DOEpatents

    Lampe, Robert F.

    1986-11-04

    A radioactive waste disposal package comprising a canister for containing vitrified radioactive waste material and a sealed outer shell encapsulating the canister. A solid block of filler material is supported in said shell and convertible into a liquid state for flow into the space between the canister and outer shell and subsequently hardened to form a solid, impervious layer occupying such space.

  1. A Remote Radioactivity Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jona, Kemi; Vondracek, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Imagine a high school with very few experimental resources and limited budgets that prevent the purchase of even basic laboratory equipment. For example, many high schools do not have the means of experimentally studying radioactivity because they lack Geiger counters and/or good radioactive sources. This was the case at the first high school one…

  2. Radioactive Wastes. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Charles H.

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by the United States Atomic Energy Commission. This booklet deals with the handling, processing and disposal of radioactive wastes. Among the topics discussed are: The Nature of Radioactive Wastes; Waste Management; and Research and Development. There are…

  3. Supervision: Substance and Style

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gellerman, Saul W.

    1976-01-01

    Argues that managerial style and substance are inextricably intertwined, illustrating the discussion with excerpts from an extensive study and job analysis of first-line supervisors in a food packaging plant. (JG)

  4. Substance use during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Forray, Ariadna

    2016-01-01

    Prenatal substance use is a critical public health concern that is linked with several harmful maternal and fetal consequences. The most frequently used substance in pregnancy is tobacco, followed by alcohol, cannabis and other illicit substances. Unfortunately, polysubstance use in pregnancy is common, as well as psychiatric comorbidity, environmental stressors, and limited and disrupted parental care, all of which can compound deleterious maternal and fetal outcomes. There are few existing treatments for prenatal substance use and these mainly comprise behavioral and psychosocial interventions. Contingency management has been shown to be the most efficacious of these. The purpose of this review is to examine the recent literature on the prenatal use of tobacco, alcohol, cannabis, stimulants, and opioids, including the effects of these on maternal and fetal health and the current therapeutic options. PMID:27239283

  5. Toxic substances handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Junod, T. L.

    1979-01-01

    Handbook, published in conjunction with Toxic Substances Alert Program at NASA Lewis Research Center, profiles 187 toxic chemicals in their relatively pure states and include 27 known or suspected carcinogens.

  6. Substance Abuse/Use

    MedlinePlus

    ... Video Games Video Sharing Sites Webcasts/ Webinars Widgets Wikis Follow Us on New Media Virtual Office Hours ... users when they are included as part of medical and substance abuse treatment and prevention services. Syringe ...

  7. Substance use during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Forray, Ariadna

    2016-01-01

    Prenatal substance use is a critical public health concern that is linked with several harmful maternal and fetal consequences. The most frequently used substance in pregnancy is tobacco, followed by alcohol, cannabis and other illicit substances. Unfortunately, polysubstance use in pregnancy is common, as well as psychiatric comorbidity, environmental stressors, and limited and disrupted parental care, all of which can compound deleterious maternal and fetal outcomes. There are few existing treatments for prenatal substance use and these mainly comprise behavioral and psychosocial interventions. Contingency management has been shown to be the most efficacious of these. The purpose of this review is to examine the recent literature on the prenatal use of tobacco, alcohol, cannabis, stimulants, and opioids, including the effects of these on maternal and fetal health and the current therapeutic options. PMID:27239283

  8. Toxic substances alert program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Junod, T. L.

    1978-01-01

    A toxicity profile is provided, of 187 toxic substances procured by NASA Lewis Research Center during a 3 1/2 year period, including 27 known or suspected carcinogens. The goal of the program is to assure that the center's health and safety personnel are aware of the procurement and use of toxic substances and to alert and inform the users of these materials as to the toxic characteristics and the control measures needed to ensure their safe use. The program also provides a continuing record of the toxic substances procured, who procured them, what other toxic substances the user has obtained in the past, and where similar materials have been used elsewhere at the center.

  9. Substance use - LSD

    MedlinePlus

    ... drugs called hallucinogens. These are substances that cause hallucinations . These are things that you see, hear, or ... amount is needed to cause effects such as hallucinations. LSD users call their hallucinogenic experiences "trips." Depending ...

  10. Substance use - phencyclidine (PCP)

    MedlinePlus

    ... drugs called hallucinogens. These are substances that cause hallucinations . These are things that you see, hear, or ... up, excited, tense, confused, or irritable ( agitation ), having hallucinations Physical reactions may include muscle breakdown or twitching, ...

  11. Organic substances in water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greeson, Phillip E.

    1981-01-01

    This is the third of several compilations of briefing papers on water quality by the U.S. Geological Survey. Each briefing paper is prepared in a simple, nontechnical, easy-to-understand manner. This U.S. Geological Survey Circular contains papers on selected organic substances in water. Briefing papers are included on ' Why study organic substances in water. ', ' Taste and odor in water ', and ' Classification and fractionation of organic solutes in natural waters'. (USGS)

  12. A Remote Radioactivity Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jona, Kemi; Vondracek, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Imagine a high school with very few experimental resources and limited budgets that prevent the purchase of even basic laboratory equipment. For example, many high schools do not have the means of experimentally studying radioactivity because they lack Geiger counters and/or good radioactive sources. This was the case at the first high school one of us (MV) worked at, and after talking with numerous colleagues we know this is still the case at many schools. What options are there then for physics teachers to allow their students to experimentally investigate certain characteristics of radioactivity, such as how distance affects the intensity of radiation coming from a radioactive source? There are computer simulations that can be run, or perhaps the teacher has a light sensor and tries to make an analogy between the intensity of light from a light bulb and the intensity of radiation from a radioactive source based on geometric arguments to get an inverse-square law. But for many there is no direct experimental option if one does not possess a Geiger counter and good radioactive sample. It is for that teacher and class of students that an online, remote radioactivity experiment was created.

  13. Review of organic nitrile incineration at the Toxic Substances Control Act Incinerator

    SciTech Connect

    1997-10-01

    Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (LMES) operates the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP), formerly called the Oak Ridge K-25 Site, where uranium was enriched under contract with the US Department of Energy (DOE). Currently, ETTP missions include environmental management, waste management (WM), and the development of new technologies. As part of its WM mission, ETTP operates the TSCA (Toxic Substances Control Act) Incinerator (TSCAI) for treatment of hazardous waste and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) contaminated with low-level radioactivity. Beginning in the autumn of 1995, employees from diverse ETTP buildings and departments reported experiencing headaches, fatigue, depression, muscle aches, sleeplessness, and muscle tremors. These symptoms were judged by a physician in the ETTP Health Services Department to be consistent with chronic exposures to hydrogen cyanide (HCN). The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) was called in to perform a health hazard evaluation to ascertain whether the employees` illnesses were in fact caused by occupational exposure to HCN. The NIOSH evaluation found no patterns for employees` reported symptoms with respect to work location or department. NIOSH also conducted a comprehensive air sampling study, which did not detect airborne cyanides at the ETTP. Employees, however, expressed concerns that the burning of nitrile-bearing wastes at the TSCAI might have produced HCN as a combustion product. Therefore, LMES and DOE established a multidisciplinary team (TSCAI Technical Review Team) to make a more detailed review of the possibility that combustion of nitrile-bearing wastes at the TSCAI might have either released nitriles or created HCN as a product of incomplete combustion (PIC).

  14. Airborne and ground reconnaissance of part of the syenite complex near Wausau, Marathon county, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vickers, R.C.

    1955-01-01

    Airborne and ground reconnaissance for radioactive minerals in part of the syenite complex near Wausau, Marathon county, Wis., found 12 radioactive mineral localities. The rocks in the area are of Precambrian age and consist of syenite and nepheline syenite, which have intruded older granite, greenstone, quartzite, and argillite. There are very few outcrops, and much of the bedrock is deeply weathered and covered by residual soil. Thorium-bearing zircon pegatite float was found within the area of syenite and nepheline syenite at four localities. Reddish-brown euhedral to subeuhedral crystals of well-zoned zircon (variety cyrtolite) comprise more than 40 percent of some of the specimens. The radioactive mineral at four localities outside the area of syneites was identified as thorogummite, which occurred in nodular masses in residual soil. Alinement of the thorogummite float and associated radioactivity suggests that the thorogummite has resulted from weathering of narrow veins or pegmatites containing thorium-bearing minerals. Unidentified thorium-bearing minerals were found at three localities, and a specimen of allanite weighing about 2 pounds was found at one locality. Shallow trenches at two of the largest radioactivity anomalies showed that the radioactive material extended down into weathered bedrock. The occurrences might warrant additional physical exploration should there be sufficient demand for thorium. Further reconnaissance in the area would probably result in the discovery of additional occurrences.

  15. Geophex airborne unmanned survey system

    SciTech Connect

    Won, I.J.; Taylor, D.W.A.

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of this effort is to design, construct, and evaluate a portable, remotely-piloted, airborne, geophysical survey system. This nonintrusive system will provide {open_quotes}stand-off{close_quotes} capability to conduct surveys and detect buried objects, structures, and conditions of interest at hazardous locations. This system permits two operators to rapidly conduct geophysical characterization of hazardous environmental sites. During a survey, the operators remain remote from, but within visual distance, of, the site. The sensor system never contacts the Earth, but can be positioned near the ground so that weak anomalies can be detected.

  16. Airborne wavemeter validation and calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goad, Joseph H., Jr.; Rinsland, Pamela L.; Kist, Edward H., Jr.; Geier, Erika B.; Banziger, Curtis G.

    1992-01-01

    This manuscript outlines a continuing effort to validate and verify the performance of an airborne autonomous wavemeter for tuning solid state lasers to a desired wavelength. The application is measuring the vertical profiles of atmospheric water vapor using a differential absorption lidar (DIAL) technique. Improved wavemeter performance data for varying ambient temperatures are presented. This resulted when the electronic grounding and shielding were improved. The results with short pulse duration lasers are also included. These lasers show that similar performance could be obtained with lasers operating in the continuous and the pulsed domains.

  17. Geophex Airborne Unmanned Survey System

    SciTech Connect

    Won, I.J.; Keiswetter, D.

    1995-10-01

    The purpose of this effort is to design, construct, and evaluate a portable, remotely-piloted, airborne, geophysical survey system. This non-intrusive system will provide {open_quotes}stand-off{close_quotes} capability to conduct surveys and detect buried objects, structures, and conditions of interest at hazardous locations. This system permits rapid geophysical characterization of hazardous environmental sites. During a survey, the operators remain remote from, but within visual distance of, the site. The sensor system never contacts the Earth, but can be positioned near the ground so that weak geophysical anomalies can be detected.

  18. Airborne Research Experience for Educators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, V. B.; Albertson, R.; Smith, S.; Stockman, S. A.

    2009-12-01

    The Airborne Research Experience for Educators (AREE) Program, conducted by the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center Office of Education in partnership with the AERO Institute, NASA Teaching From Space Program, and California State University Fullerton, is a complete end-to-end residential research experience in airborne remote sensing and atmospheric science. The 2009 program engaged ten secondary educators who specialize in science, technology, engineering or mathematics in a 6-week Student Airborne Research Program (SARP) offered through NSERC. Educators participated in collection of in-flight remote sensor data during flights aboard the NASA DC-8 as well as in-situ research on atmospheric chemistry (bovine emissions of methane); algal blooms (remote sensing to determine location and degree of blooms for further in-situ analysis); and crop classification (exploration of how drought conditions in Central California have impacted almond and cotton crops). AREE represents a unique model of the STEM teacher-as-researcher professional development experience because it asks educators to participate in a research experience and then translate their experiences into classroom practice through the design, implementation, and evaluation of instructional materials that emphasize the scientific research process, inquiry-based investigations, and manipulation of real data. Each AREE Master Educator drafted a Curriculum Brief, Teachers Guide, and accompanying resources for a topic in their teaching assignment Currently, most professional development programs offer either a research experience OR a curriculum development experience. The dual nature of the AREE model engaged educators in both experiences. Educators’ content and pedagogical knowledge of STEM was increased through the review of pertinent research articles during the first week, attendance at lectures and workshops during the second week, and participation in the airborne and in-situ research studies, data

  19. Cyberinfrastructure for Airborne Sensor Webs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freudinger, Lawrence C.

    2009-01-01

    Since 2004 the NASA Airborne Science Program has been prototyping and using infrastructure that enables researchers to interact with each other and with their instruments via network communications. This infrastructure uses satellite links and an evolving suite of applications and services that leverage open-source software. The use of these tools has increased near-real-time situational awareness during field operations, resulting in productivity improvements and the collection of better data. This paper describes the high-level system architecture and major components, with example highlights from the use of the infrastructure. The paper concludes with a discussion of ongoing efforts to transition to operational status.

  20. Requirements for airborne vector gravimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwarz, K. P.; Colombo, O.; Hein, G.; Knickmeyer, E. T.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of airborne vector gravimetry is the determination of the full gravity disturbance vector along the aircraft trajectory. The paper briefly outlines the concept of this method using a combination of inertial and GPS-satellite data. The accuracy requirements for users in geodesy and solid earth geophysics, oceanography and exploration geophysics are then specified. Using these requirements, accuracy specifications for the GPS subsystem and the INS subsystem are developed. The integration of the subsystems and the problems connected with it are briefly discussed and operational methods are indicated that might reduce some of the stringent accuracy requirements.

  1. Biological monitoring of airborne pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Ditz, D.W. )

    1990-01-01

    Common plants such as grasses, mosses, and even goldenrod may turn out to have a new high-tech role as monitors of airborne pollution from solid waste incinerators. Certain plants that respond to specific pollutants can provide continuous surveillance of air quality over long periods of time: they are bio-indicators. Other species accumulate pollutants and can serve as sensitive indicators of pollutants and of food-chain contamination: they are bio-accumulators. Through creative use of these properties, biological monitoring can provide information that cannot be obtained by current methods such as stack testing.

  2. Toolsets for Airborne Data - URS and New Documentation

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2015-03-23

    ... airborne field missions, documentation, and EOSDIS User Registration System (URS) authentication. This web application features an intuitive user interface for variable selection across different airborne field studies and ...

  3. Airborne contact dermatitis: common causes in the USA.

    PubMed

    Schloemer, Julie A; Zirwas, Matthew J; Burkhart, Craig G

    2015-03-01

    Airborne contact dermatitis (ABCD) is an inflammatory reaction involving the skin upon exposure to allergenic agents or irritants suspended in air. In allergic ABCD, the hypersensitivity is classified as a type IV reaction. Substances responsible for such reactions can be of plant or non-plant origin. Commonly reported plants include those of the Compositae family, which includes ragweed, goldenrod, and sunflowers. Establishing an accurate diagnosis is critical for preventing exposure and improving symptoms in patients. Obtaining a detailed history and performing a physical examination to determine the sites of involvement, as well as patch testing to establish the causative allergen, are the main methods of arriving at the correct diagnosis. Treatment often involves avoidance of the allergens or irritants when possible and may also include the application of topical barrier creams or systemic therapy in more severe cases. This article reviews the topic of ABCD and highlights its most common etiologies in the USA. PMID:24981079

  4. Radioactive iodine uptake

    MedlinePlus

    ... much radioactive iodine is taken up by your thyroid gland in a certain time period. A similar test ... over the area of your neck where the thyroid gland is located. The probe detects the location and ...

  5. Understanding radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, R.L.

    1981-12-01

    This document contains information on all aspects of radioactive wastes. Facts are presented about radioactive wastes simply, clearly and in an unbiased manner which makes the information readily accessible to the interested public. The contents are as follows: questions and concerns about wastes; atoms and chemistry; radioactivity; kinds of radiation; biological effects of radiation; radiation standards and protection; fission and fission products; the Manhattan Project; defense and development; uses of isotopes and radiation; classification of wastes; spent fuels from nuclear reactors; storage of spent fuel; reprocessing, recycling, and resources; uranium mill tailings; low-level wastes; transportation; methods of handling high-level nuclear wastes; project salt vault; multiple barrier approach; research on waste isolation; legal requiremnts; the national waste management program; societal aspects of radioactive wastes; perspectives; glossary; appendix A (scientific American articles); appendix B (reference material on wastes). (ATT)

  6. Meeting Review: Airborne Aerosol Inlet Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumgardner, Darrel; Huebert, Barry; Wilson, Chuck

    1991-01-01

    Proceedings from the Airborne Aerosol Inlet Workshop are presented. The two central topics of discussion were the role of aerosols in atmospheric processes and the difficulties in characterizing aerosols. The following topics were discussed during the working sessions: airborne observations to date; identification of inlet design issues; inlet modeling needs and directions; objectives for aircraft experiments; and future laboratory and wind tunnel studies.

  7. Airborne Relay-Based Regional Positioning System

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyuman; Noh, Hongjun; Lim, Jaesung

    2015-01-01

    Ground-based pseudolite systems have some limitations, such as low vertical accuracy, multipath effects and near-far problems. These problems are not significant in airborne-based pseudolite systems. However, the monitoring of pseudolite positions is required because of the mobility of the platforms on which the pseudolites are mounted, and this causes performance degradation. To address these pseudolite system limitations, we propose an airborne relay-based regional positioning system that consists of a master station, reference stations, airborne relays and a user. In the proposed system, navigation signals are generated from the reference stations located on the ground and are relayed via the airborne relays. Unlike in conventional airborne-based systems, the user in the proposed system sequentially estimates both the locations of airborne relays and his/her own position. Therefore, a delay due to monitoring does not occur, and the accuracy is not affected by the movement of airborne relays. We conducted several simulations to evaluate the performance of the proposed system. Based on the simulation results, we demonstrated that the proposed system guarantees a higher accuracy than airborne-based pseudolite systems, and it is feasible despite the existence of clock offsets among reference stations. PMID:26029953

  8. Airborne Oceanographic Lidar (AOL) (Global Carbon Cycle)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This bimonthly contractor progress report covers the operation, maintenance and data management of the Airborne Oceanographic Lidar and the Airborne Topographic Mapper. Monthly activities included: mission planning, sensor operation and calibration, data processing, data analysis, network development and maintenance and instrument maintenance engineering and fabrication.

  9. Global Test Range: Toward Airborne Sensor Webs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mace, Thomas H.; Freudinger, Larry; DelFrate John H.

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the planned global sensor network that will monitor the Earth's climate, and resources using airborne sensor systems. The vision is an intelligent, affordable Earth Observation System. Global Test Range is a lab developing trustworthy services for airborne instruments - a specialized Internet Service Provider. There is discussion of several current and planned missions.

  10. A Simple Method for Collecting Airborne Pollen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kevan, Peter G.; DiGiovanni, Franco; Ho, Rong H.; Taki, Hisatomo; Ferguson, Kristyn A.; Pawlowski, Agata K.

    2006-01-01

    Pollination is a broad area of study within biology. For many plants, pollen carried by wind is required for successful seed set. Airborne pollen also affects human health. To foster studies of airborne pollen, we introduce a simple device--the "megastigma"--for collecting pollen from the air. This device is flexible, yielding easily obtained data…

  11. The Continuous wavelet in airborne gravimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, X.; Liu, L.

    2013-12-01

    Airborne gravimetry is an efficient method to recover medium and high frequency band of earth gravity over any region, especially inaccessible areas, which can measure gravity data with high accuracy,high resolution and broad range in a rapidly and economical way, and It will play an important role for geoid and geophysical exploration. Filtering methods for reducing high-frequency errors is critical to the success of airborne gravimetry due to Aircraft acceleration determination based on GPS.Tradiontal filters used in airborne gravimetry are FIR,IIR filer and so on. This study recommends an improved continuous wavelet to process airborne gravity data. Here we focus on how to construct the continuous wavelet filters and show their working principle. Particularly the technical parameters (window width parameter and scale parameter) of the filters are tested. Then the raw airborne gravity data from the first Chinese airborne gravimetry campaign are filtered using FIR-low pass filter and continuous wavelet filters to remove the noise. The comparison to reference data is performed to determinate external accuracy, which shows that continuous wavelet filters applied to airborne gravity in this thesis have good performances. The advantages of the continuous wavelet filters over digital filters are also introduced. The effectiveness of the continuous wavelet filters for airborne gravimetry is demonstrated through real data computation.

  12. Airborne Visible Laser Optical Communications Program (AVLOC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, J. H.

    1975-01-01

    The design, development, and operation of airborne and ground-based laser communications and laser radar hardware is described in support of the Airborne Visible Laser Optical Communication program. The major emphasis is placed on the development of a highly flexible test bed for the evaluation of laser communications systems techniques and components in an operational environment.

  13. Radioactive gold ring dermatitis

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.A.; Aldrich, J.E. )

    1990-08-01

    A superficial squamous cell carcinoma developed in a woman who wore a radioactive gold ring for more than 30 years. Only part of the ring was radioactive. Radiation dose measurements indicated that the dose to basal skin layer was 2.4 Gy (240 rad) per week. If it is assumed that the woman continually wore her wedding ring for 37 years since purchase, she would have received a maximum dose of approximately 4600 Gy.

  14. Temporary Personal Radioactivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Fred

    2012-01-01

    As part of a bone scan procedure to look for the spread of prostate cancer, I was injected with radioactive technetium. In an effort to occupy/distract my mind, I used a Geiger counter to determine if the radioactive count obeyed the inverse-square law as a sensor was moved away from my bladder by incremental distances. (Contains 1 table and 2…

  15. Container for radioactive materials

    DOEpatents

    Fields, Stanley R.

    1985-01-01

    A container for housing a plurality of canister assemblies containing radioactive material and disposed in a longitudinally spaced relation within a carrier to form a payload package concentrically mounted within the container. The payload package includes a spacer for each canister assembly, said spacer comprising a base member longitudinally spacing adjacent canister assemblies from each other and a sleeve surrounding the associated canister assembly for centering the same and conducting heat from the radioactive material in a desired flow path.

  16. Impact of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident on hemodialysis facilities: an evaluation of radioactive contaminants in water used for hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Kamei, Daigo; Kuno, Tsutomu; Sato, Sumihiko; Nitta, Kosaku; Akiba, Takashi

    2012-02-01

    Following the crisis at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant caused by the 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami, radioactive substances ((131) I, (134) Cs, (137) Cs) were detected in tap water throughout eastern Japan. There is now concern that internal exposure to radioactive substances in the dialysate could pose a danger to hemodialysis patients. Radioactive substances were measured in three hemodialysis facilities before and after purification of tap water for use in hemodialysis. Radioactive iodine was detected at levels between 13 and 15 Bq/kg in tap water from the three facilities, but was not detected by reverse osmosis membrane at any of the facilities. We confirmed that the amount of radioactive substances in dialysate fell below the limit of detection (7-8 Bq/kg) by reverse osmosis membrane. It is now necessary to clarify the maximum safe level of radiation in dialysate for chronic hemodialysis patients.

  17. Airborne cw Doppler lidar (ADOLAR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahm, Stefan; Werner, Christian; Nagel, E.; Herrmann, H.; Klier, M.; Knott, H. P.; Haering, R.; Wildgruber, J.

    1994-12-01

    During the last 10 years the DLR container LDA (Laser Doppler Anemometer) was used for many wind related measurements in the atmospheric boundary layer. The experience out of this were used to construct an airborne Doppler lidar ADOLAR. Based on the available Doppler lidars it is now proposed to perform a campaign to demonstrate the concept of the spaceborne sensor ALADIN, and to answer some questions concerning the signal quality from clouds, water and land. For the continuous wave CO2 laser, the energy is focused by the telescope into the region of investigation. Some of the radiation is back scattered by small aerosol particles drifting with the wind speed through the sensing volume. The back scattered radiation is collected by the telescope and detected by coherent technique. With the laser Doppler method one gets the radial wind component. To determine the magnitude and direction of the horizontal wind, some form of scanning in azimuth and elevation is required. To keep the airborne system compact, the transceiver optics is directly coupled to a wedge scanner which provides the conical scan with the axis in Nadir direction from the aircraft. The system ADOLAR was tested in 1994. Results of the flight over the lake Ammersee are presented and are compared with the data of the inertial reference system of the aircraft.

  18. Airborne thermography applications in Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, Eduardo H.; Selles, Eduardo J.; Costanzo, Marcelo; Franco, Oscar; Diaz, Jose

    2002-03-01

    Forest fires in summer and sheep buried under the snow in winter have become important problems in the south of our country, in the region named Patagonia. We are studying to find a solution by means of an airborne imaging system whose construction we have just finished. It is a 12 channel multispectral airborne scanner system that can be mounted in a Guarani airplane or in a Learjet; the first is a non- pressurized aircraft for flight at low height and the second is a pressurized one for higher flights. The scanner system is briefly described. Their sensors can detect radiation from the ultra violet to the thermal infrared. The images are visualized in real time in a monitor screen and can be stored in the hard disc of the PC for later processing. The use of this scanner for some applications that include the prevention and fighting of forest fires and the study of the possibility of detection of sheep under snow in the Patagonia is now being accomplished. Theoretical and experimental results in fire detection and a theoretical model for studying the possibility of detection of the buried sheep are presented.

  19. Adolescent substance use during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Hall, J A; Henggeler, S W; Felice, M E; Reynoso, T; Williams, N M; Sheets, R

    1993-04-01

    Substance use during pregnancy may be a key mediator of the association between adolescent childbearing and poor newborn outcome. Substance use during pregnancy was evaluated for 50 teens who were consecutive patients at an inner-city university clinic. Although teens reported typical lifetime rates of substance use, self-reports and two urine assays indicated minimal substance use throughout pregnancy. Findings suggest that the adolescents exercised judicious decision making in light of the known health risks of substance use during pregnancy.

  20. Approaching Suspicious Substances Safely

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    A mineral identification tool that was developed for NASA's Mars Rover Technology Development program is now serving as a powerful tool for U.S. law enforcement agencies and military personnel to identify suspicious liquid and solid substances. The tool can measure unknown substances through glass and plastic packaging materials with the RamanProbe(TradeMark) focused fiber-optic probe. The probe length can be extended up to 200 meters to enable users to analyze potentially dangerous substances at a safe distance. In many cases, the spectrometer and personnel are kept in a safe zone while the probe is positioned next to the sample being analyzed. Being able to identify chemicals in remote locations also saves users time and labor, since otherwise the samples would need to be collected, transported, and prepared prior to measurement in the laboratory.

  1. Risks and Chemical Substances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumberg, Avrom A.

    1994-01-01

    Examines exposure to chemicals within the home and three important ways in which hazardous substances can be identified and evaluated. Suggests a rational picture of human health risks and contains an introductory discussion of reasons for exposure, epidemiology, cancer causes and patterns, animal testing, toxins, and risk. (LZ)

  2. Drug and Substance Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Latest Research Getting More Help Related Topics Anxiety COPD Delirium Depression Pain Management Prevention Related News Older Adults Who Drink Alcohol at Risk for Drug Interactions Monday, November 23, 2015 Join our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Drug and Substance Abuse ...

  3. Substance Abuse and Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sales, Amos, Ed.

    This book focuses on the identification of practical knowledge and skills needed for counseling individuals with substance abuse problems. It is a resource for practitioners, students, and faculty in school counseling, rehabilitation counseling, mental health counseling, school psychology, or social work in recognizing, preventing, and treating…

  4. Substance abuse in women.

    PubMed

    Greenfield, Shelly F; Back, Sudie E; Lawson, Katie; Brady, Kathleen T

    2010-06-01

    Gender differences in substance use disorders (SUDs) and treatment outcomes for women with SUDs have been a focus of research in the last 15 years. This article reviews gender differences in the epidemiology of SUDs, highlighting the convergence of male/female prevalence ratios of SUDs in the last 20 years. The telescoping course of SUDs, recent research on the role of neuroactive gonadal steroid hormones in craving and relapse, and sex differences in stress reactivity and relapse to substance abuse are described. The role of co-occurring mood and anxiety, eating, and posttraumatic stress disorders is considered in the epidemiology, natural history, and treatment of women with SUDs. Women's use of alcohol, stimulants, opioids, cannabis, and nicotine are examined in terms of recent epidemiology, biologic and psychosocial effects, and treatment. Although women may be less likely to enter substance abuse treatment than men over the course of the lifetime, once they enter treatment, gender itself is not a predictor of treatment retention, completion, or outcome. Research on gender-specific treatments for women with SUDs and behavioral couples treatment has yielded promising results for substance abuse treatment outcomes in women.

  5. Adolescent Substance Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorne, Craig R.; DeBlassie, Richard R.

    1985-01-01

    Cummings (1979), citing evidence from the National Institute of Drug Abuse, reports that one of every eleven adult Americans suffers from a severe addictive problem. Drug addiction is epidemic among teenagers; one of every six teenagers suffers from a severe addictive problem. This paper focuses on adolescent drug/substance abuse. (Author)

  6. Substance Use Prevention Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Judy

    This report outlines the Hillsborough County, Florida, Head Start Program's project to field test with young children and their families curricula that were designed to prevent alcohol and other drug problems. A national search conducted by means of computers, individual contacts, and other methods yielded information on 22 substance abuse…

  7. Radioactivity in food crops

    SciTech Connect

    Drury, J.S.; Baldauf, M.F.; Daniel, E.W.; Fore, C.S.; Uziel, M.S.

    1983-05-01

    Published levels of radioactivity in food crops from 21 countries and 4 island chains of Oceania are listed. The tabulation includes more than 3000 examples of 100 different crops. Data are arranged alphabetically by food crop and geographical origin. The sampling date, nuclide measured, mean radioactivity, range of radioactivities, sample basis, number of samples analyzed, and bibliographic citation are given for each entry, when available. Analyses were reported most frequently for /sup 137/Cs, /sup 40/K, /sup 90/Sr, /sup 226/Ra, /sup 228/Ra, plutonium, uranium, total alpha, and total beta, but a few authors also reported data for /sup 241/Am, /sup 7/Be, /sup 60/Co, /sup 55/Fe, /sup 3/H, /sup 131/I, /sup 54/Mn, /sup 95/Nb, /sup 210/Pb, /sup 210/Po, /sup 106/Ru, /sup 125/Sb, /sup 228/Th, /sup 232/Th, and /sup 95/Zr. Based on the reported data it appears that radioactivity from alpha emitters in food crops is usually low, on the order of 0.1 Bq.g/sup -1/ (wet weight) or less. Reported values of beta radiation in a given crop generally appear to be several orders of magnitude greater than those of alpha emitters. The most striking aspect of the data is the great range of radioactivity reported for a given nuclide in similar food crops with different geographical origins.

  8. Accumulation of radioactive cesium released from Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in terrestrial cyanobacteria Nostoc commune.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Hideaki; Shirato, Susumu; Tahara, Tomoya; Sato, Kenji; Takenaka, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident released large amounts of radioactive substances into the environment and contaminated the soil of Tohoku and Kanto districts in Japan. Removal of radioactive material from the environment is an urgent problem, and soil purification using plants is being considered. In this study, we investigated the ability of 12 seed plant species and a cyanobacterium to accumulate radioactive material. The plants did not accumulate radioactive material at high levels, but high accumulation was observed in the terrestrial cyanobacterium Nostoc commune. In Nihonmatsu City, Fukushima Prefecture, N. commune accumulated 415,000 Bq/kg dry weight (134)Cs and 607,000 Bq kg(-1) dry weight (137)Cs. The concentration of cesium in N. commune tended to be high in areas where soil radioactivity was high. A cultivation experiment confirmed that N. commune absorbed radioactive cesium from polluted soil. These data demonstrated that radiological absorption using N. commune might be suitable for decontaminating polluted soil.

  9. Global deposition of airborne dioxin.

    PubMed

    Booth, Shawn; Hui, Joe; Alojado, Zoraida; Lam, Vicky; Cheung, William; Zeller, Dirk; Steyn, Douw; Pauly, Daniel

    2013-10-15

    We present a global dioxin model that simulates one year of atmospheric emissions, transport processes, and depositions to the earth's terrestrial and marine habitats. We map starting emission levels for each land area, and we also map the resulting deposits to terrestrial and marine environments. This model confirms that 'hot spots' of deposition are likely to be in northern Europe, eastern North America, and in parts of Asia with the highest marine dioxin depositions being the northeast and northwest Atlantic, western Pacific, northern Indian Ocean and the Mediterranean. It also reveals that approximately 40% of airborne dioxin emissions are deposited to marine environments and that many countries in Africa receive more dioxin than they produce, which results in these countries being disproportionately impacted. Since human exposure to dioxin is largely through diet, this work highlights food producing areas that receive higher atmospheric deposits of dioxin than others.

  10. The Sandia Airborne Computer (SANDAC)

    SciTech Connect

    Nava, E.J.

    1992-06-01

    The Sandia Airborne Computer (SANDAC) is a small, modular, high performance, multiprocessor computer originally designed for aerospace applications. It can use a combination of Motorola 68020 and 68040 based processor modules along with AT&T DSP32C based signal processing modules. The system is designed to use up to 15 processors in almost any combination and a complete system can include up to 20 modules. Depending on the mix of processors, total computational throughput can range from 2.5 to greater than 225 Million Instructions Per Second (MIPS). The system is designed so that processors can access all resources in the machine and the inter-processor communication details are completely transparent to the software. In addition to processors, the system includes input/output, memory, and special function modules. Because of its ease of use, small size, durability, and configuration flexibility, SANDAC has been used on applications ranging from missile navigation, guidance, and control systems to medical imaging systems.

  11. Modis-N airborne simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cech, Steven D.

    1992-01-01

    All required work associated with the above referenced contract has been successfully completed at this time. The Modis-N Airborne Simulator has been developed from existing AB184 Wildfire spectrometer parts as well as new detector arrays, optical components, and associated mechanical and electrical hardware. The various instrument components have been integrated into an operational system which has undergone extensive laboratory calibration and testing. The instrument has been delivered to NASA Ames where it will be installed on the NASA ER-2. The following paragraphs detail the specific tasks performed during the contract effort, the results obtained during the integration and testing of the instrument, and the conclusions which can be drawn from this effort.

  12. Airborne thermography or infrared remote sensing.

    PubMed

    Goillot, C C

    1975-01-01

    Airborne thermography is part of the more general remote sensing activity. The instruments suitable for image display are infrared line scanners. A great deal of interest has developed during the past 10 years in airborne thermal remote sensing and many applications are in progress. Infrared scanners on board a satellite are used for observation of cloud cover; airborne infrared scanners are used for forest fire detection, heat budget of soils, detecting insect attack, diseases, air pollution damage, water stress, salinity stress on vegetation, only to cite some main applications relevant to agronomy. Using this system it has become possible to get a 'picture' of our thermal environment.

  13. Trapping radioactive ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kluge, H.-J.; Blaum, K.

    2004-12-01

    Trapping devices for atomic and nuclear physics experiments with radioactive ions are becoming more and more important at accelerator facilities. While about ten years ago only one online Penning trap experiment existed, namely ISOLTRAP at ISOLDE/CERN, meanwhile almost every radioactive beam facility has installed or plans an ion trap setup. This article gives an overview on ion traps in the operation, construction or planing phase which will be used for fundamental studies with short-lived radioactive nuclides such as mass spectrometry, laser spectroscopy and nuclear decay spectroscopy. In addition, this article summarizes the use of gas cells and radiofrequency quadrupole (Paul) traps at different facilities as a versatile tool for ion beam manipulation like retardation, cooling, bunching, and cleaning.

  14. Radioactivity of Consumer Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, David; Jokisch, Derek; Fulmer, Philip

    2006-11-01

    A variety of consumer products and household items contain varying amounts of radioactivity. Examples of these items include: FiestaWare and similar glazed china, salt substitute, bananas, brazil nuts, lantern mantles, smoke detectors and depression glass. Many of these items contain natural sources of radioactivity such as Uranium, Thorium, Radium and Potassium. A few contain man-made sources like Americium. This presentation will detail the sources and relative radioactivity of these items (including demonstrations). Further, measurements of the isotopic ratios of Uranium-235 and Uranium-238 in several pieces of china will be compared to historical uses of natural and depleted Uranium. Finally, the presenters will discuss radiation safety as it pertains to the use of these items.

  15. Radioactive mixed waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Jasen, W.G.; Erpenbeck, E.G.

    1993-02-01

    Various types of waste have been generated during the 50-year history of the Hanford Site. Regulatory changes in the last 20 years have provided the emphasis for better management of these wastes. Interpretations of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 (AEA), the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA), and the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) have led to the definition of radioactive mixed wastes (RMW). The radioactive and hazardous properties of these wastes have resulted in the initiation of special projects for the management of these wastes. Other solid wastes at the Hanford Site include low-level wastes, transuranic (TRU), and nonradioactive hazardous wastes. This paper describes a system for the treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) of solid radioactive waste.

  16. Container for radioactive materials

    DOEpatents

    Fields, S.R.

    1984-05-30

    A container is claimed for housing a plurality of canister assemblies containing radioactive material. The several canister assemblies are stacked in a longitudinally spaced relation within a carrier to form a payload concentrically mounted within the container. The payload package includes a spacer for each canister assembly, said spacer comprising a base member longitudinally spacing adjacent canister assemblies from each other and sleeve surrounding the associated canister assembly for centering the same and conducting heat from the radioactive material in a desired flow path. 7 figures.

  17. Stress, substance abuse, and addiction.

    PubMed

    Duffing, Tiffany M; Greiner, Stefanie G; Mathias, Charles W; Dougherty, Donald M

    2014-01-01

    Experiencing stressful life events is reciprocally associated with substance use and abuse. The nature of these relationships varies based on the age of stress exposure and stage of substance use involvement. This chapter reviews the developmental and biological processes involved in the relationship of stress exposure and substance use initiation, substance use maintenance and relapse, and response to substance abuse treatment. Special emphasis is given to describing the various stress-related mechanisms involved in substance use and abuse, highlighting the differences between each of these phases of drug use and drawing upon current research to make suggestions for treatments of substance use disorder (SUD) patients. Stress is inherent to the experience of life and, in many situations, unavoidable. Through ongoing research and treatment development, there is the potential to modify the relationship of stress with ongoing substance use and abuse. PMID:24510301

  18. Elder Abuse and Substance Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Additional Resources Return to: What is Elder Abuse? Elder Abuse and Substance Abuse Substance abuse has been identified ... the most frequently cited risk factor associated with elder abuse and neglect. It may be the victim and/ ...

  19. SOURCES OF HUMAN EXPOSURE TO AIRBORNE PAH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Personal exposures to airborne particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were studied in several populations in the US, Japan, and Czech Republic. Personal exposure monitors, developed for human exposure biomonitoring studies were used to collect fine particles (<_ 1....

  20. Experiences managing radioactive material at the National Ignition Facility.

    PubMed

    Thacker, Rick L

    2013-06-01

    The National Ignition Facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is the world's largest and most energetic laser system for inertial confinement fusion and experiments studying high energy density science. Many experiments performed at the National Ignition Facility involve radioactive materials; these may take the form of tritium and small quantities of depleted uranium used in targets, activation products created by neutron-producing fusion experiments, and fission products produced by the fast fissioning of the depleted uranium. While planning for the introduction of radioactive material, it was recognized that some of the standard institutional processes would need to be customized to accommodate aspects of NIF operations, such as surface contamination limits, radiological postings, airborne tritium monitoring protocols, and personnel protective equipment. These customizations were overlaid onto existing work practices to accommodate the new hazard of radioactive materials. This paper will discuss preparations that were made prior to the introduction of radioactive material, the types of radiological work activities performed, and the hazards and controls encountered. Updates to processes based on actual monitoring results are also discussed. PMID:23629067

  1. The GIS-based SafeAirView software for the concentration assessment of radioactive pollutants after an accidental release.

    PubMed

    Canepa, Elisa; D'Alberti, Francesco; D'Amati, Francesco; Triacchini, Giuseppe

    2007-02-01

    The European Commission Joint Research Centre (JRC) in Ispra (Italy) has long been running nuclear installations for research purposes. The Nuclear Decommissioning and Facilities Management Unit (NDFM) is responsible for the surveillance of radioactivity levels in nuclear emergency conditions. The NDFM Unit has commissioned the implementation of a specifically developed decision support system, which can be used for quick emergency evaluation in the case of hypothetical accident and for emergency exercises. The requisites were to be a user-friendly software, able to quickly calculate and display values of air and ground radioactive contamination in the complex area around JRC, following an accidental release of radioactive substances from a JRC nuclear research installation. The developed software, named "SafeAirView", is an advanced implementation of GIS technology applied to an existing MS-DOS mode dispersion model, SAFE_AIR (Simulation of Air pollution From Emissions_Above Inhomogeneous Regions). SAFE_AIR is a numerical model which simulates transport, diffusion, and deposition of airborne pollutants emitted in the low atmosphere above complex orography at both local and regional scale, under non-stationary and inhomogeneous emission and meteorological conditions. SafeAirView makes use of user-friendly MS-Windows type interface which drives the dispersion model by a sequential and continuous input-output process, allowing a real time simulation. The GIS environment allows a direct interaction with the territory elements in which the simulation takes place, using data for the JRC Ispra region represented in geo-referenced cartography. Furthermore it offers the possibility to relate concentrations with population distribution and other geo-referenced maps, in a geographic view. Output concentration and deposition patterns can be plotted and/or exported. In spite of the selected specific databases, the SafeAirView software architecture is a general structure

  2. Toxic Substances Control Act

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-15

    This Reference Book contains a current copy of the Toxic Substances Control Act and those regulations that implement the statute and appear to be most relevant to DOE activities. The document is provided to DOE and contractor staff for informational purposes only and should not be interpreted as legal guidance. Questions concerning this Reference Book may be directed to Mark Petts, EH-231 (202/586-2609).

  3. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants. Volume 13, Annual report 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Tichler, J.; Doty, K.; Lucadamo, K.

    1995-08-01

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commercial light water reactors during 1992 have been compiled and reported. The summary data for the years 1973 through 1991 are included for comparison. Data on solid waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports issued by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1992 release data are summarized in tabular form. Data covering specific radionuclides are summarized.

  4. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants. Volume 11: Annual report, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Tichler, J.; Doty, K.; Congemi, J.

    1993-10-01

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commercial light water reactors during 1990 have been compiled and reported. Data on solid waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports issued by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1990 release data are summarized in tabular form. Data covering specific radionuclides are summarized.

  5. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants: Annual report, 1993. Volume 14

    SciTech Connect

    Tichler, J.; Doty, K.; Lucadamo, K.

    1995-12-01

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commercial light water reactors during 1993 have been compiled and reported. The summary data for the years 1974 through 1992 are included for comparison. Data on solid waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports issued by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1993 release data are summarized in tabular form. Data covering specific radionuclides are summarized.

  6. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants. Annual report, 1983. Volume 4

    SciTech Connect

    Tichler, J.; Norden, K.

    1986-08-01

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commercial light water reactors during 1983 have been compiled and reported. Data on solid waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports issued by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1983 release data are summarized in tabular form. Data covering specific radionuclides are summarized.

  7. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants. Annual report 1991, Volume 12

    SciTech Connect

    Tichler, J.; Doty, K.; Congemi, J.

    1994-05-01

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commercial light water reactors during 1991 have been compiled and reported. Data on solid waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports issued by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1991 release data are summarized in tabular form. Data Covering specific radionuclides are summarized.

  8. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants. Annual report 1989: Volume 10

    SciTech Connect

    Tichler, J.; Norden, K.; Congemi, J.

    1992-09-01

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commercial light water reactors during 1989 have been compiled and reported. The summary data for the years 1970 through 1988 are included for comparison. Data on solid waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports issued by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1989 release data are summarized in tabular form. Data covering specific radionuclides are summarized.

  9. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants. Annual report 1981. Vol. 2

    SciTech Connect

    Tichler, J.; Benkovitz, C.

    1984-06-01

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commercial light water reactors during 1981 have been compiled and reported. Data on solid waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports issued by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1981 release data are summarized in tabular form. Data covering specific radionuclides are summarized.

  10. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants. Annual report, 1982. Volume 3

    SciTech Connect

    Tichler, J.; Norden, K.

    1986-02-01

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commercial light water reactors during 1982 have been compiled and reported. Data on solid waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports issued by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1982 release data are summarized in tabular form. Data covering specific radionuclides are summarized.

  11. Radioactivity test (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... type of nuclear test performed to evaluate thyroid function. The patient ingests radioactive iodine (I-123 or I-131) capsules or liquid. After a time (usually 6 and 24-hours later), a gamma probe is placed over the thyroid gland to ...

  12. TABLE OF RADIOACTIVE ELEMENTS.

    SciTech Connect

    HOLDEN,N.E.

    2001-06-29

    For those chemical elements which have no stable nuclides with a terrestrial isotopic composition, the data on radioactive half-lives and relative atomic masses for the nuclides of interest and importance have been evaluated and the recommended values and uncertainties are listed.

  13. Viewer Makes Radioactivity "Visible"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yin, L. I.

    1983-01-01

    Battery operated viewer demonstrates feasibility of generating threedimensional visible light simulations of objects that emit X-ray or gamma rays. Ray paths are traced for two pinhold positions to show location of reconstructed image. Images formed by pinholes are converted to intensified visible-light images. Applications range from radioactivity contamination surveys to monitoring radioisotope absorption in tumors.

  14. Radioactivity: A Natural Phenomenon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ronneau, C.

    1990-01-01

    Discussed is misinformation people have on the subject of radiation. The importance of comparing artificial source levels of radiation to natural levels is emphasized. Measurements of radioactivity, its consequences, and comparisons between the risks induced by radiation in the environment and from artificial sources are included. (KR)

  15. AIR RADIOACTIVITY MONITOR

    DOEpatents

    Bradshaw, R.L.; Thomas, J.W.

    1961-04-11

    The monitor is designed to minimize undesirable background buildup. It consists of an elongated column containing peripheral electrodes in a central portion of the column, and conduits directing an axial flow of radioactively contaminated air through the center of the column and pure air through the annular portion of the column about the electrodes. (AEC)

  16. Radioactive Decay - An Analog.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGeachy, Frank

    1988-01-01

    Presents an analog of radioactive decay that allows the student to grasp the concept of half life and the exponential nature of the decay process. The analog is devised to use small, colored, plastic poker chips or counters. Provides the typical data and a graph which supports the analog. (YP)

  17. Radioactivity and foods

    SciTech Connect

    Olszyna-Marzys, A.E. )

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe and contrast two relationships between radiation and food--on the one hand, beneficial preservation of food by controlled exposure to ionizing radiation; and, on the other, contamination of food by accidental incorporation of radioactive nuclides within the food itself. In food irradiation, electrons or electromagnetic radiation is used to destroy microorganisms and insects or prevent seed germination. The economic advantages and health benefits of sterilizing food in this manner are clear, and numerous studies have confirmed that under strictly controlled conditions no undersirable changes or induced radioactivity is produced in the irradiated food. An altogether different situation is presented by exposure of food animals and farming areas to radioactive materials, as occurred after the major Soviet nuclear reactor accident at Chenobyl. This article furnishes the basic information needed to understand the nature of food contamination associated with that event and describes the work of international organizations seeking to establish appropriate safe limits for levels of radioactivity in foods.

  18. Substance abuse and criminal behavior.

    PubMed

    Bradford, J M; Greenberg, D M; Motayne, G G

    1992-09-01

    As forensic psychiatry develops as a clinical subspecialty, clinical skill in understanding, treating, and predicting violent behavior will become more important. This article addresses the importance of understanding the relationship between substance abuse and violent behavior. This article also discusses morbidity and mortality in substance abuse, the demographics of substance abuse and criminality, and the clinical aspects of the forensic psychiatric evaluation.

  19. Toxic Substances in the Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clearing: Nature and Learning in the Pacific Northwest, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the nature of toxic substances, examining pesticides and herbicides, heavy metals, industrial chemicals, and household substances. Includes a list of major toxic substances (indicating what they are, where they are found, and health concerns) and a student activity on how pesticides enter the food chain. (JN)

  20. Downscaling of Airborne Wind Energy Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fechner, Uwe; Schmehl, Roland

    2016-09-01

    Airborne wind energy systems provide a novel solution to harvest wind energy from altitudes that cannot be reached by wind turbines with a similar nominal generator power. The use of a lightweight but strong tether in place of an expensive tower provides an additional cost advantage, next to the higher capacity factor and much lower total mass. This paper investigates the scaling effects of airborne wind energy systems. The energy yield of airborne wind energy systems, that work in pumping mode of operation is at least ten times higher than the energy yield of conventional solar systems. For airborne wind energy systems the yield is defined per square meter wing area. In this paper the dependency of the energy yield on the nominal generator power for systems in the range of 1 kW to 1 MW is investigated. For the onshore location Cabauw, The Netherlands, it is shown, that a generator of just 1.4 kW nominal power and a total system mass of less than 30 kg has the theoretical potential to harvest energy at only twice the price per kWh of large scale airborne wind energy systems. This would make airborne wind energy systems a very attractive choice for small scale remote and mobile applications as soon as the remaining challenges for commercialization are solved.

  1. Challenges and opportunities of airborne metagenomics.

    PubMed

    Behzad, Hayedeh; Gojobori, Takashi; Mineta, Katsuhiko

    2015-05-06

    Recent metagenomic studies of environments, such as marine and soil, have significantly enhanced our understanding of the diverse microbial communities living in these habitats and their essential roles in sustaining vast ecosystems. The increase in the number of publications related to soil and marine metagenomics is in sharp contrast to those of air, yet airborne microbes are thought to have significant impacts on many aspects of our lives from their potential roles in atmospheric events such as cloud formation, precipitation, and atmospheric chemistry to their major impact on human health. In this review, we will discuss the current progress in airborne metagenomics, with a special focus on exploring the challenges and opportunities of undertaking such studies. The main challenges of conducting metagenomic studies of airborne microbes are as follows: 1) Low density of microorganisms in the air, 2) efficient retrieval of microorganisms from the air, 3) variability in airborne microbial community composition, 4) the lack of standardized protocols and methodologies, and 5) DNA sequencing and bioinformatics-related challenges. Overcoming these challenges could provide the groundwork for comprehensive analysis of airborne microbes and their potential impact on the atmosphere, global climate, and our health. Metagenomic studies offer a unique opportunity to examine viral and bacterial diversity in the air and monitor their spread locally or across the globe, including threats from pathogenic microorganisms. Airborne metagenomic studies could also lead to discoveries of novel genes and metabolic pathways relevant to meteorological and industrial applications, environmental bioremediation, and biogeochemical cycles.

  2. Challenges and Opportunities of Airborne Metagenomics

    PubMed Central

    Behzad, Hayedeh; Gojobori, Takashi; Mineta, Katsuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Recent metagenomic studies of environments, such as marine and soil, have significantly enhanced our understanding of the diverse microbial communities living in these habitats and their essential roles in sustaining vast ecosystems. The increase in the number of publications related to soil and marine metagenomics is in sharp contrast to those of air, yet airborne microbes are thought to have significant impacts on many aspects of our lives from their potential roles in atmospheric events such as cloud formation, precipitation, and atmospheric chemistry to their major impact on human health. In this review, we will discuss the current progress in airborne metagenomics, with a special focus on exploring the challenges and opportunities of undertaking such studies. The main challenges of conducting metagenomic studies of airborne microbes are as follows: 1) Low density of microorganisms in the air, 2) efficient retrieval of microorganisms from the air, 3) variability in airborne microbial community composition, 4) the lack of standardized protocols and methodologies, and 5) DNA sequencing and bioinformatics-related challenges. Overcoming these challenges could provide the groundwork for comprehensive analysis of airborne microbes and their potential impact on the atmosphere, global climate, and our health. Metagenomic studies offer a unique opportunity to examine viral and bacterial diversity in the air and monitor their spread locally or across the globe, including threats from pathogenic microorganisms. Airborne metagenomic studies could also lead to discoveries of novel genes and metabolic pathways relevant to meteorological and industrial applications, environmental bioremediation, and biogeochemical cycles. PMID:25953766

  3. Environmental Radioactivity, Temperature, and Precipitation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riland, Carson A.

    1996-01-01

    Reports that environmental radioactivity levels vary with temperature and precipitation and these effects are due to radon. Discusses the measurement of this environmental radioactivity and the theory behind it. (JRH)

  4. The Radium Terrors. Science Fiction and Radioactivity before the Bomb.

    PubMed

    Candela, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    At the beginning of the 20th century the collective imagination was fascinated and terrified by the discovery of radium. A scientific imagery sprang up around radioactivity and was disseminated by public lectures and newspaper articles discussing the ambiguous power of this strange substance. It was claimed that radium could be used to treat cholera, typhus and tuberculosis, but at the same time there were warnings that it could be used for military purposes. The media and the scientists themselves employed a rich vocabulary influenced by religion, alchemy and magic. The ambivalent power of radioactive elements exerted a great influence on science fiction novelists. This paper will examine some significant works published in Europe, America and Russia during the first decades of the 20th century and their role in the creation of the complex imagery of radioactivity that seized the public imagination long before the invention of the atomic bomb.

  5. The Radium Terrors. Science Fiction and Radioactivity before the Bomb.

    PubMed

    Candela, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    At the beginning of the 20th century the collective imagination was fascinated and terrified by the discovery of radium. A scientific imagery sprang up around radioactivity and was disseminated by public lectures and newspaper articles discussing the ambiguous power of this strange substance. It was claimed that radium could be used to treat cholera, typhus and tuberculosis, but at the same time there were warnings that it could be used for military purposes. The media and the scientists themselves employed a rich vocabulary influenced by religion, alchemy and magic. The ambivalent power of radioactive elements exerted a great influence on science fiction novelists. This paper will examine some significant works published in Europe, America and Russia during the first decades of the 20th century and their role in the creation of the complex imagery of radioactivity that seized the public imagination long before the invention of the atomic bomb. PMID:26245007

  6. [The history of radioactivity and its applications in hygiene and therapy].

    PubMed

    Corrao, Carmela Romana Natalina; Serarcangeli, Carla

    2011-01-01

    Since Antiquity, the observation of matter and its composition has been fascinating for the human mind. It represented the core of philosophical studies since the atomistic theory by Leucippus and Democritus, as well as of the opposed theory of elements by Empedocles, Plato and Aristoteles. Research on the atom, on its spontaneous or artificial disgregation, on the practical application of radioactive substances has strongly influenced daily life and the development of knowledge. Products containing radioactive substances have been used, often without regulation or control, in many scientific fields, as well as in medicine and cosmetics.

  7. Method for calcining radioactive wastes

    DOEpatents

    Bjorklund, William J.; McElroy, Jack L.; Mendel, John E.

    1979-01-01

    This invention relates to a method for the preparation of radioactive wastes in a low leachability form by calcining the radioactive waste on a fluidized bed of glass frit, removing the calcined waste to melter to form a homogeneous melt of the glass and the calcined waste, and then solidifying the melt to encapsulate the radioactive calcine in a glass matrix.

  8. Visualizing Airborne and Satellite Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bierwirth, Victoria A.

    2011-01-01

    Remote sensing is a process able to provide information about Earth to better understand Earth's processes and assist in monitoring Earth's resources. The Cloud Absorption Radiometer (CAR) is one remote sensing instrument dedicated to the cause of collecting data on anthropogenic influences on Earth as well as assisting scientists in understanding land-surface and atmospheric interactions. Landsat is a satellite program dedicated to collecting repetitive coverage of the continental Earth surfaces in seven regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Combining these two aircraft and satellite remote sensing instruments will provide a detailed and comprehensive data collection able to provide influential information and improve predictions of changes in the future. This project acquired, interpreted, and created composite images from satellite data acquired from Landsat 4-5 Thematic Mapper (TM) and Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+). Landsat images were processed for areas covered by CAR during the Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCT AS), Cloud and Land Surface Interaction Campaign (CLASIC), Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment-Phase B (INTEXB), and Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI) 2000 missions. The acquisition of Landsat data will provide supplemental information to assist in visualizing and interpreting airborne and satellite imagery.

  9. Medicinal smoke reduces airborne bacteria.

    PubMed

    Nautiyal, Chandra Shekhar; Chauhan, Puneet Singh; Nene, Yeshwant Laxman

    2007-12-01

    This study represents a comprehensive analysis and scientific validation of our ancient knowledge about the effect of ethnopharmacological aspects of natural products' smoke for therapy and health care on airborne bacterial composition and dynamics, using the Biolog microplate panels and Microlog database. We have observed that 1h treatment of medicinal smoke emanated by burning wood and a mixture of odoriferous and medicinal herbs (havan sámagri=material used in oblation to fire all over India), on aerial bacterial population caused over 94% reduction of bacterial counts by 60 min and the ability of the smoke to purify or disinfect the air and to make the environment cleaner was maintained up to 24h in the closed room. Absence of pathogenic bacteria Corynebacterium urealyticum, Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens, Enterobacter aerogenes (Klebsiella mobilis), Kocuria rosea, Pseudomonas syringae pv. persicae, Staphylococcus lentus, and Xanthomonas campestris pv. tardicrescens in the open room even after 30 days is indicative of the bactericidal potential of the medicinal smoke treatment. We have demonstrated that using medicinal smoke it is possible to completely eliminate diverse plant and human pathogenic bacteria of the air within confined space. PMID:17913417

  10. Pulsed Doppler lidar airborne scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dimarzio, C. A.; Mcvicker, D. B.; Morrow, C. E.; Negus, C. C.

    1985-01-01

    This report covers the work accomplished during the reporting period on Pulsed Doppler Lidar Airborne Scanner and describes plans for the next reporting period. The objectives during the current phase of the contract are divided into four phases. Phase 1 includes ground testing of the system and analysis of data from the 1981 Severe Storms Test Flights. Phase 2 consists of preflight preparation and planning for the 1983 flight series. The flight test itself will be performed during Phase 3, and Phase 4 consists of post-flight analysis and operation of the system after that flight test. The range profile from five samples taken during Flight 10, around 1700 Z is given. The lowest curve is taken from data collected upwind of Mt. Shasta at about 10,000 feet of altitude, in a clear atmosphere, where no signals were observed. It thus is a good representation of the noise level as a function of range. The next curve was taken downwind of the mountain, and shows evidence of atmospheric returns. There is some question as to whether the data are valid at all ranges, or some ranges are contaminated by the others.

  11. Performance Basis for Airborne Separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wing, David J.

    2008-01-01

    Emerging applications of Airborne Separation Assistance System (ASAS) technologies make possible new and powerful methods in Air Traffic Management (ATM) that may significantly improve the system-level performance of operations in the future ATM system. These applications typically involve the aircraft managing certain components of its Four Dimensional (4D) trajectory within the degrees of freedom defined by a set of operational constraints negotiated with the Air Navigation Service Provider. It is hypothesized that reliable individual performance by many aircraft will translate into higher total system-level performance. To actually realize this improvement, the new capabilities must be attracted to high demand and complexity regions where high ATM performance is critical. Operational approval for use in such environments will require participating aircraft to be certified to rigorous and appropriate performance standards. Currently, no formal basis exists for defining these standards. This paper provides a context for defining the performance basis for 4D-ASAS operations. The trajectory constraints to be met by the aircraft are defined, categorized, and assessed for performance requirements. A proposed extension of the existing Required Navigation Performance (RNP) construct into a dynamic standard (Dynamic RNP) is outlined. Sample data is presented from an ongoing high-fidelity batch simulation series that is characterizing the performance of an advanced 4D-ASAS application. Data of this type will contribute to the evaluation and validation of the proposed performance basis.

  12. Webinar: Airborne Data Discovery and Analysis with Toolsets for Airborne Data (TAD)

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-10-18

    Webinar: Airborne Data Discovery and Analysis with Toolsets for Airborne Data (TAD) Wednesday, October 26, 2016 Join us on ... based on high-level parameter groups, mission, platform and flight data ranges are available. Registration is now open.  Access the full ...

  13. NASA's Coastal and Ocean Airborne Science Testbed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guild, L. S.; Dungan, J. L.; Edwards, M.; Russell, P. B.; Morrow, J. H.; Hooker, S.; Myers, J.; Kudela, R. M.; Dunagan, S.; Soulage, M.; Ellis, T.; Clinton, N. E.; Lobitz, B.; Martin, K.; Zell, P.; Berthold, R. W.; Smith, C.; Andrew, D.; Gore, W.; Torres, J.

    2011-12-01

    The Coastal and Ocean Airborne Science Testbed (COAST) Project is a NASA Earth-science flight mission that will advance coastal ecosystems research by providing a unique airborne payload optimized for remote sensing in the optically complex coastal zone. Teaming NASA Ames scientists and engineers with Biospherical Instruments, Inc. (San Diego) and UC Santa Cruz, the airborne COAST instrument suite combines a customized imaging spectrometer, sunphotometer system, and a new bio-optical radiometer package to obtain ocean/coastal/atmosphere data simultaneously in flight for the first time. The imaging spectrometer (Headwall) is optimized in the blue region of the spectrum to emphasize remote sensing of marine and freshwater ecosystems. Simultaneous measurements supporting empirical atmospheric correction of image data will be accomplished using the Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS-14). Based on optical detectors called microradiometers, the NASA Ocean Biology and Biogeochemistry Calibration and Validation (cal/val) Office team has deployed advanced commercial off-the-shelf instrumentation that provides in situ measurements of the apparent optical properties at the land/ocean boundary including optically shallow aquatic ecosystems (e.g., lakes, estuaries, coral reefs). A complimentary microradiometer instrument package (Biospherical Instruments, Inc.), optimized for use above water, will be flown for the first time with the airborne instrument suite. Details of the October 2011 COAST airborne mission over Monterey Bay demonstrating this new airborne instrument suite capability will be presented, with associated preliminary data on coastal ocean color products, coincident spatial and temporal data on aerosol optical depth and water vapor column content, as well as derived exact water-leaving radiances.

  14. Assessment of airborne exposure and dermal contact to acrylamide during chemical grouting operations. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    McHugh, J.M.

    1987-07-22

    Acrylamide exposure may occur by inhalation, ingestion and skin absorption; acrylamide is a neurotoxin and an irritant. The report details the results of field studies to assess airborne exposure and dermal contact to acrylamide during chemical grouting operations. Occupational exposures to acrylamide were characterized for sewer mainline, lateral line, and manhole maintenance operations. The objective of the study was to collect exposure data based on observations and measurements to be used as an integral part of a quantitative risk assessment by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Toxic Substances.

  15. Hazardous substance liability insurance

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-03-01

    The study was carried out to meet requirements of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act of 1980. It considers the adequacy and feasibility of private insurance to protect owners and operators of ships covered by the Act and for post-closure financial responsibility for hazardous waste disposal facilities. The report is in three parts: Pt. 1 is an introduction to the hazardous substance insurance problem; Pt. 2 considers the adequacy of private insurance for owners and operators of vessels and facilities; Pt. 3 focuses on the problem of a private insurance alternative to the Post-Closure Liability Fund for 'inactive' hazardous waste disposal facilities.

  16. Dynamic Radioactive Source for Evaluating and Demonstrating Time-dependent Performance of Continuous Air Monitors.

    PubMed

    McLean, Thomas D; Moore, Murray E; Justus, Alan L; Hudston, Jonathan A; Barbé, Benoît

    2016-11-01

    Evaluation of continuous air monitors in the presence of a plutonium aerosol is time intensive, expensive, and requires a specialized facility. The Radiation Protection Services Group at Los Alamos National Laboratory has designed a Dynamic Radioactive Source, intended to replace plutonium aerosol challenge testing. The Dynamic Radioactive Source is small enough to be inserted into the sampler filter chamber of a typical continuous air monitor. Time-dependent radioactivity is introduced from electroplated sources for real-time testing of a continuous air monitor where a mechanical wristwatch motor rotates a mask above an alpha-emitting electroplated disk source. The mask is attached to the watch's minute hand, and as it rotates, more of the underlying source is revealed. The measured alpha activity increases with time, simulating the arrival of airborne radioactive particulates at the air sampler inlet. The Dynamic Radioactive Source allows the temporal behavior of puff and chronic release conditions to be mimicked without the need for radioactive aerosols. The new system is configurable to different continuous air monitor designs and provides an in-house testing capability (benchtop compatible). It is a repeatable and reusable system and does not contaminate the tested air monitor. Test benefits include direct user control, realistic (plutonium) aerosol spectra, and iterative development of continuous air monitor alarm algorithms. Data obtained using the Dynamic Radioactive Source has been used to elucidate alarm algorithms and to compare the response time of two commercial continuous air monitors. PMID:27682903

  17. Kinetics of Radioactive Decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagy, S.

    At present there are over 3,000 known nuclides (see the Appendix in Vol. 2 on the “Table of the Nuclides”), 265 of which are stable, while the rest, i.e., more than 90% of them, are radioactive. The chemical applications of the specific isotopes of chemical elements are mostly connected with the latter group, including quite a number of metastable nuclear isomers, making the kinetics of radioactive decay an important chapter of nuclear chemistry. After giving a phenomenological and then a statistical interpretation of the exponential law, the various combinations of individual decay processes as well as the cases of equilibrium and nonequilibrium will be discussed. Half-life systematics of the different decay modes detailed in Chaps. 2 and 4 of this volume are also summarized.

  18. Sources of radioactive ions

    SciTech Connect

    Alonso, J.R.

    1985-05-01

    Beams of unstable nuclei can be formed by direct injection of the radioactive atoms into an ion source, or by using the momentum of the primary production beam as the basis for the secondary beam. The effectiveness of this latter mechanism in secondary beam formation, i.e., the quality of the emerging beam (emittance, intensity, energy spread), depends critically on the nuclear reaction kinematics, and on the magnitude of the incident beam energy. When this beam energy significantly exceeds the energies typical of the nuclear reaction process, many of the qualities of the incident beam can be passed on to the secondary beam. Factors affecting secondary beam quality are discussed, along with techniques for isolating and purifying a specific secondary product. The ongoing radioactive beam program at the Bevalac is used as an example, with applications, present performance and plans for improvements.

  19. Table of radioactive elements

    SciTech Connect

    Holden, N.E.

    1985-01-01

    As has been the custom in the past, the Commission publishes a table of relative atomic masses and halflives of selected radionuclides. The information contained in this table will enable the user to calculate the atomic weight for radioactive materials with a variety of isotopic compositions. The atomic masses have been taken from the 1984 Atomic Mass Table. Some of the halflives have already been documented.

  20. PROCESSING OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, B.M. Jr.; Barton, G.B.

    1961-11-14

    A process for treating radioactive waste solutions prior to disposal is described. A water-soluble phosphate, borate, and/or silicate is added. The solution is sprayed with steam into a space heated from 325 to 400 deg C whereby a powder is formed. The powder is melted and calcined at from 800 to 1000 deg C. Water vapor and gaseous products are separated from the glass formed. (AEC)

  1. Parental substance use impairment, parenting and substance use disorder risk.

    PubMed

    Arria, Amelia M; Mericle, Amy A; Meyers, Kathleen; Winters, Ken C

    2012-07-01

    Using data from a nationally representative sample, this study investigated substance use disorder (SUD) among respondents with ages 15-54 years as a function of their parents' substance-related impairment and parents' treatment history. In addition, associations among maternal and paternal substance-related impairment, specific parenting behaviors, and risk for SUD in the proband were examined. As expected, parental substance-related impairment was associated with SUD. Paternal treatment history was associated with a decreased risk for SUD in the proband but did not appear to be associated with positive parenting practices. Results of post hoc analyses suggested that parenting behaviors might operate differently to influence SUD risk in children where parents are affected by substance use problems compared with nonaffected families. Future research is warranted to better understand the complex relationships among parental substance use, treatment, parenting behaviors, and SUD risk in offspring. Opportunities might exist within treatment settings to improve parenting skills.

  2. Radioactive waste storage issues

    SciTech Connect

    Kunz, D.E.

    1994-08-15

    In the United States we generate greater than 500 million tons of toxic waste per year which pose a threat to human health and the environment. Some of the most toxic of these wastes are those that are radioactively contaminated. This thesis explores the need for permanent disposal facilities to isolate radioactive waste materials that are being stored temporarily, and therefore potentially unsafely, at generating facilities. Because of current controversies involving the interstate transfer of toxic waste, more states are restricting the flow of wastes into - their borders with the resultant outcome of requiring the management (storage and disposal) of wastes generated solely within a state`s boundary to remain there. The purpose of this project is to study nuclear waste storage issues and public perceptions of this important matter. Temporary storage at generating facilities is a cause for safety concerns and underscores, the need for the opening of permanent disposal sites. Political controversies and public concern are forcing states to look within their own borders to find solutions to this difficult problem. Permanent disposal or retrievable storage for radioactive waste may become a necessity in the near future in Colorado. Suitable areas that could support - a nuclear storage/disposal site need to be explored to make certain the health, safety and environment of our citizens now, and that of future generations, will be protected.

  3. Radioactive deposits of Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lovering, T.G.

    1953-01-01

    Thirty-five occurrences of radioactive rocks had been reported from Nevada prior to 1952. Twenty-five of these had been investigated by the U. S. Geological Survey and the U. S. Atomic Energy Commission. Of those investigated, uranium minerals were identified in 13; two contained a thorium mineral (monazite); the source of radioactivity on 7 properties was not ascertained; and one showed no abnormal radioactivity. Of the other reported occurrences, one is said to contain uraniferous hydrocarbons and 9 are placers containing thorian monazite. Pitchblende occurs at two localities; the East Walker River area, and the Stalin's Present prospect, where it is sparsely disseminated in tabular bodies cutting granitic rocks. Other uranium minerals found in the state include: carnotite, tyuyamunite, autunite, torbernite, gummite, uranophane, kasolite, and an unidentified mineral which may be dumontit. Monazite is the only thorium mineral of possible economic importance that has been reported. From an economic standpoint 9 only 4 of the properties examined showed reserves of uranium ore in 1952; these are: the Green Monster mine, which shipped 5 tons of ore to Marysvale, Utah, during 1951, the Majuba Hill mine, the Stalin's Present prospect, and the West Willys claim in the Washington district. Reserves of ore grade are small on all of these properties and probably cannot be developed commercially unless an ore-buying station is set up nearby. No estimate has been made of thorium reserves and no commercial deposits of thorium are known.

  4. Radioactive deposits of Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lovering, T.G.

    1954-01-01

    Thirty-five occurrences of radioactive rocks had been reported from Nevada prior to 1952. Twenty-five of these had been investigated by personnel of the U. S. Geological Surveyor of the U. S. Atomic Energy Commission. Of those investigated, uranium minerals were identified at 13 sites; two sites contained a thorium mineral (monazite); the source of radioactivity on nine properties was not ascertained, and one showed no abnormal radioactivity. Of the other reported occurrences, one is said to contain uraniferous hydrocarbons and nine are placers containing thorian monazite. Pitchblende occurs at two localities, the East Walker River area, and the Stalin's Present prospect, where it is sparsely disseminated in tabular bodies cutting granitic rocks. Other uranium minerals found in the state include: carnotite, tyuyamunite, autunite, torbernite, gummite, uranophane, kasolite, and an unidentified mineral which may be dumontite. Monazite is the only thorium mineral of possible economic importance that has been reported. From an economic standpoint, only four of the properties examined showed reserves of uranium ore in 1952; these are: the Green Monster mine, which shipped 5 tons of ore to Marysvale, Utah, during 1951; the Majuba Hill mine; the Stalin's Present prospect; and the West Willys claim in the Washington district. No estimate has been made of thorium reserves and no commercial deposits of thorium are known.

  5. Substance abuse: an overview.

    PubMed

    Comerci, G D; Schwebel, R

    2000-02-01

    Substance abuse continues to be a major adolescent health risk. Despite encouraging trends toward decreased drug use in the late 1980s, an increase in use occurred in the early 1990s and only now is beginning to level off. A brief update on the status of the most commonly abused substances is provided. A discussion of current research is given in support of viewing drug addiction as a medical condition, i.e., a "brain disease." Reasons are suggested to explain why adolescents use and abuse drugs and why trends occur in their use. Two aspects of diagnosis are reviewed: psychiatric and medical comorbidity and drug screening and laboratory assessment of the adolescent. Prevention and early intervention are presented with an emphasis on drug education, behavioral wellness, family communication, doctor-patient discussion and assessment, and referral. Commentary is made on the ethics of care; issues of confidentiality and the right to privacy with regard to drug testing and sharing of information are explored. A review of various policy statements of the American Academy of Pediatrics and other medical organizations is presented.

  6. Airborne laser communication technology and flight test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Li-xin; Zhang, Li-zhong; Li, Xiao-ming; Li, Ying-chao; Jiang, Hui-lin

    2015-11-01

    Reconnaissance aircraft is an important node of the space-air-ground integrated information network, on which equipped with a large number of high-resolution surveillance equipment, and need high speed communications equipment to transmit detected information in real time. Currently RF communication methods cannot meet the needs of communication bandwidth. Wireless laser communication has outstanding advantages high speed, high capacity, security, etc., is an important means to solve the high-speed information transmission of airborne platforms. In this paper, detailed analysis of how the system works, the system components, work processes, link power and the key technologies of airborne laser communication were discussed. On this basis, a prototype airborne laser communications was developed, and high-speed, long-distance communications tests were carried out between the two fixed-wing aircraft, and the airborne precision aiming, atmospheric laser communication impacts on laser communication were tested. The experiments ultimately realize that, the communication distance is 144km, the communication rate is 2.5Gbps. The Airborne laser communication experiments provide technical basis for the application of the conversion equipment.

  7. Metabolic relationships of the isolated fractions of the pectic substances of actively growing sycamore cells.

    PubMed

    Stoddart, R W; Northcote, D H

    1967-10-01

    1. d-Glucose and l-arabinose serve as precursors of the pectic polysaccharides of sycamore suspension-callus tissue. 2. The rates and characteristics of the incorporation of radioactive sucrose, glucose and mesoinositol by sycamore callus tissue have been compared and shown to be different. 3. The time-course of the incorporation of radioactive glucose into the major fractions within the cells has been determined. Approx. 7-10% of the radioactivity incorporated is present in the whole pectin of the cells. 4. A study of the continuous incorporation of radioactive glucose showed that the neutral arabinan-galactan fraction of the pectin quickly became saturated with the radioactive label. During the incorporation of radioactivity from a pulse of radioactive glucose the neutral fraction became progressively less labelled, with a corresponding increase in the radioactivity of the weakly acidic pectinic acid, which is known to contain neutral sugars. 5. When the cells were exposed to a pulse of radioactive l-arabinose, the label accumulated first in the neutral fraction and then after 4hr. it passed to the weakly acidic pectinic acid with a corresponding decrease in the radioactivity of the neutral fraction. 6. The product that was initially labelled during the first hour of exposure of the cells in the stationary phase to radioactive glucose was identified as an incompletely methylated galacturonan in which the radioactivity was present in the anhydrogalacturonide residues. This polysaccharide probably acts as the precursor of the polyuronide portions of both the strongly acidic and weakly acidic pectinic acids. 7. The observations are discussed in relation to the structure of the pectic substances and their function in cell growth and development. A tentative model for their metabolic relationship is put forward.

  8. ASSESSMENT OF RADIOACTIVE AND NON-RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINANTS FOUND IN LOW LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE STREAMS

    SciTech Connect

    R.H. Little, P.R. Maul, J.S.S. Penfoldag

    2003-02-27

    This paper describes and presents the findings from two studies undertaken for the European Commission to assess the long-term impact upon the environment and human health of non-radioactive contaminants found in various low level radioactive waste streams. The initial study investigated the application of safety assessment approaches developed for radioactive contaminants to the assessment of nonradioactive contaminants in low level radioactive waste. It demonstrated how disposal limits could be derived for a range of non-radioactive contaminants and generic disposal facilities. The follow-up study used the same approach but undertook more detailed, disposal system specific calculations, assessing the impacts of both the non-radioactive and radioactive contaminants. The calculations undertaken indicated that it is prudent to consider non-radioactive, as well as radioactive contaminants, when assessing the impacts of low level radioactive waste disposal. For some waste streams with relatively low concentrations of radionuclides, the potential post-closure disposal impacts from non-radioactive contaminants can be comparable with the potential radiological impacts. For such waste streams there is therefore an added incentive to explore options for recycling the materials involved wherever possible.

  9. Substance abuse and child maltreatment.

    PubMed

    Wells, Kathryn

    2009-04-01

    Pediatricians and other medical providers caring for children need to be aware of the dynamics in the significant relationship between substance abuse and child maltreatment. A caregiver's use and abuse of alcohol, marijuana, heroin, cocaine, methamphetamine, and other drugs place the child at risk in multiple ways. Members of the medical community need to understand these risks because the medical community plays a unique and important role in identifying and caring for these children. Substance abuse includes the abuse of legal drugs as well as the use of illegal drugs. The abuse of legal substances may be just as detrimental to parental functioning as abuse of illicit substances. Many substance abusers are also polysubstance users and the compounded effect of the abuse of multiple substances may be difficult to measure. Often other interrelated social features, such as untreated mental illness, trauma history, and domestic violence, affect these families.

  10. SIZE DISTRIBUTION AND RATE OF PRODUCTION OF AIRBORNE PARTICULATE MATTER GENERATED DURING METAL CUTTING

    SciTech Connect

    M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.; S.K. Dua, Ph.D., C.H.P.; Hillol Guha, Ph.D.

    2001-01-01

    During deactivation and decommissioning activities, thermal cutting tools, such as plasma torch, laser, and gasoline torch, are used to cut metals. These activities generate fumes, smoke and particulates. These airborne species of matter, called aerosols, may be inhaled if suitable respiratory protection is not used. Inhalation of the airborne metallic aerosols has been reported to cause ill health effects, such as acute respiratory syndrome and chromosome damage in lymphocytes. In the nuclear industry, metals may be contaminated with radioactive materials. Cutting these metals, as in size reduction of gloveboxes and tanks, produces high concentrations of airborne transuranic particles. Particles of the respirable size range (size < 10 {micro}m) deposit in various compartments of the respiratory tract, the fraction and the site in the respiratory tract depending on the size of the particles. The dose delivered to the respiratory tract depends on the size distribution of the airborne particulates (aerosols) and their concentration and radioactivity/toxicity. The concentration of airborne particulate matter in an environment is dependent upon the rate of their production and the ventilation rate. Thus, measuring aerosol size distribution and generation rate is important for (1) the assessment of inhalation exposures of workers, (2) the selection of respiratory protection equipment, and (3) the design of appropriate filtration systems. Size distribution of the aerosols generated during cutting of different metals by plasma torch was measured. Cutting rates of different metals, rate of generation of respirable mass, as well as the fraction of the released kerf that become respirable were determined. This report presents results of these studies. Measurements of the particles generated during cutting of metal plates with a plasma arc torch revealed the presence of particles with mass median aerodynamic diameters of particles close to 0.2 {micro}m, arising from

  11. Airborne measurements of organic bromine compounds in the Pacific tropical tropopause layer.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Maria A; Atlas, Elliot L; Saiz-Lopez, Alfonso; Rodriguez-Lloveras, Xavier; Kinnison, Douglas E; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Tilmes, Simone; Filus, Michal; Harris, Neil R P; Meneguz, Elena; Ashfold, Matthew J; Manning, Alistair J; Cuevas, Carlos A; Schauffler, Sue M; Donets, Valeria

    2015-11-10

    Very short-lived brominated substances (VSLBr) are an important source of stratospheric bromine, an effective ozone destruction catalyst. However, the accurate estimation of the organic and inorganic partitioning of bromine and the input to the stratosphere remains uncertain. Here, we report near-tropopause measurements of organic brominated substances found over the tropical Pacific during the NASA Airborne Tropical Tropopause Experiment campaigns. We combine aircraft observations and a chemistry-climate model to quantify the total bromine loading injected to the stratosphere. Surprisingly, despite differences in vertical transport between the Eastern and Western Pacific, VSLBr (organic + inorganic) contribute approximately similar amounts of bromine [∼6 (4-9) parts per trillion] [corrected] to the stratospheric input at the tropical tropopause. These levels of bromine cause substantial ozone depletion in the lower stratosphere, and any increases in future abundances (e.g., as a result of aquaculture) will lead to larger depletions. PMID:26504212

  12. Airborne measurements of organic bromine compounds in the Pacific tropical tropopause layer.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Maria A; Atlas, Elliot L; Saiz-Lopez, Alfonso; Rodriguez-Lloveras, Xavier; Kinnison, Douglas E; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Tilmes, Simone; Filus, Michal; Harris, Neil R P; Meneguz, Elena; Ashfold, Matthew J; Manning, Alistair J; Cuevas, Carlos A; Schauffler, Sue M; Donets, Valeria

    2015-11-10

    Very short-lived brominated substances (VSLBr) are an important source of stratospheric bromine, an effective ozone destruction catalyst. However, the accurate estimation of the organic and inorganic partitioning of bromine and the input to the stratosphere remains uncertain. Here, we report near-tropopause measurements of organic brominated substances found over the tropical Pacific during the NASA Airborne Tropical Tropopause Experiment campaigns. We combine aircraft observations and a chemistry-climate model to quantify the total bromine loading injected to the stratosphere. Surprisingly, despite differences in vertical transport between the Eastern and Western Pacific, VSLBr (organic + inorganic) contribute approximately similar amounts of bromine [∼6 (4-9) parts per trillion] [corrected] to the stratospheric input at the tropical tropopause. These levels of bromine cause substantial ozone depletion in the lower stratosphere, and any increases in future abundances (e.g., as a result of aquaculture) will lead to larger depletions.

  13. Airborne measurements of organic bromine compounds in the Pacific tropical tropopause layer

    PubMed Central

    Navarro, Maria A.; Atlas, Elliot L.; Saiz-Lopez, Alfonso; Rodriguez-Lloveras, Xavier; Kinnison, Douglas E.; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Tilmes, Simone; Filus, Michal; Harris, Neil R. P.; Meneguz, Elena; Ashfold, Matthew J.; Manning, Alistair J.; Cuevas, Carlos A.; Schauffler, Sue M.; Donets, Valeria

    2015-01-01

    Very short-lived brominated substances (VSLBr) are an important source of stratospheric bromine, an effective ozone destruction catalyst. However, the accurate estimation of the organic and inorganic partitioning of bromine and the input to the stratosphere remains uncertain. Here, we report near-tropopause measurements of organic brominated substances found over the tropical Pacific during the NASA Airborne Tropical Tropopause Experiment campaigns. We combine aircraft observations and a chemistry−climate model to quantify the total bromine loading injected to the stratosphere. Surprisingly, despite differences in vertical transport between the Eastern and Western Pacific, VSLBr (organic + inorganic) contribute approximately similar amounts of bromine [∼6 (4−9) parts per thousand] to the stratospheric input at the tropical tropopause. These levels of bromine cause substantial ozone depletion in the lower stratosphere, and any increases in future abundances (e.g., as a result of aquaculture) will lead to larger depletions. PMID:26504212

  14. Airborne Microalgae: Insights, Opportunities, and Challenges.

    PubMed

    Tesson, Sylvie V M; Skjøth, Carsten Ambelas; Šantl-Temkiv, Tina; Löndahl, Jakob

    2016-04-01

    Airborne dispersal of microalgae has largely been a blind spot in environmental biological studies because of their low concentration in the atmosphere and the technical limitations in investigating microalgae from air samples. Recent studies show that airborne microalgae can survive air transportation and interact with the environment, possibly influencing their deposition rates. This minireview presents a summary of these studies and traces the possible route, step by step, from established ecosystems to new habitats through air transportation over a variety of geographic scales. Emission, transportation, deposition, and adaptation to atmospheric stress are discussed, as well as the consequences of their dispersal on health and the environment and state-of-the-art techniques to detect and model airborne microalga dispersal. More-detailed studies on the microalga atmospheric cycle, including, for instance, ice nucleation activity and transport simulations, are crucial for improving our understanding of microalga ecology, identifying microalga interactions with the environment, and preventing unwanted contamination events or invasions. PMID:26801574

  15. Airborne space laser communication system and experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiao-Ming; Zhang, Li-zhong; Meng, Li-Xin

    2015-11-01

    Airborne space laser communication is characterized by its high speed, anti-electromagnetic interference, security, easy to assign. It has broad application in the areas of integrated space-ground communication networking, military communication, anti-electromagnetic communication. This paper introduce the component and APT system of the airborne laser communication system design by Changchun university of science and technology base on characteristic of airborne laser communication and Y12 plan, especially introduce the high communication speed and long distance communication experiment of the system that among two Y12 plans. In the experiment got the aim that the max communication distance 144Km, error 10-6 2.5Gbps - 10-7 1.5Gbps capture probability 97%, average capture time 20s. The experiment proving the adaptability of the APT and the high speed long distance communication.

  16. Airborne pollen trends in the Iberian Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Galán, C; Alcázar, P; Oteros, J; García-Mozo, H; Aira, M J; Belmonte, J; Diaz de la Guardia, C; Fernández-González, D; Gutierrez-Bustillo, M; Moreno-Grau, S; Pérez-Badía, R; Rodríguez-Rajo, J; Ruiz-Valenzuela, L; Tormo, R; Trigo, M M; Domínguez-Vilches, E

    2016-04-15

    Airborne pollen monitoring is an effective tool for studying the reproductive phenology of anemophilous plants, an important bioindicator of plant behavior. Recent decades have revealed a trend towards rising airborne pollen concentrations in Europe, attributing these trends to an increase in anthropogenic CO2 emissions and temperature. However, the lack of water availability in southern Europe may prompt a trend towards lower flowering intensity, especially in herbaceous plants. Here we show variations in flowering intensity by analyzing the Annual Pollen Index (API) of 12 anemophilous taxa across 12 locations in the Iberian Peninsula, over the last two decades, and detecting the influence of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). Results revealed differences in the distribution and flowering intensity of anemophilous species. A negative correlation was observed between airborne pollen concentrations and winter averages of the NAO index. This study confirms that changes in rainfall in the Mediterranean region, attributed to climate change, have an important impact on the phenology of plants.

  17. Airborne Microalgae: Insights, Opportunities, and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Skjøth, Carsten Ambelas; Šantl-Temkiv, Tina; Löndahl, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    Airborne dispersal of microalgae has largely been a blind spot in environmental biological studies because of their low concentration in the atmosphere and the technical limitations in investigating microalgae from air samples. Recent studies show that airborne microalgae can survive air transportation and interact with the environment, possibly influencing their deposition rates. This minireview presents a summary of these studies and traces the possible route, step by step, from established ecosystems to new habitats through air transportation over a variety of geographic scales. Emission, transportation, deposition, and adaptation to atmospheric stress are discussed, as well as the consequences of their dispersal on health and the environment and state-of-the-art techniques to detect and model airborne microalga dispersal. More-detailed studies on the microalga atmospheric cycle, including, for instance, ice nucleation activity and transport simulations, are crucial for improving our understanding of microalga ecology, identifying microalga interactions with the environment, and preventing unwanted contamination events or invasions. PMID:26801574

  18. Urban greenness influences airborne bacterial community composition.

    PubMed

    Mhuireach, Gwynne; Johnson, Bart R; Altrichter, Adam E; Ladau, Joshua; Meadow, James F; Pollard, Katherine S; Green, Jessica L

    2016-11-15

    Urban green space provides health benefits for city dwellers, and new evidence suggests that microorganisms associated with soil and vegetation could play a role. While airborne microorganisms are ubiquitous in urban areas, the influence of nearby vegetation on airborne microbial communities remains poorly understood. We examined airborne microbial communities in parks and parking lots in Eugene, Oregon, using high-throughput sequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene on the Illumina MiSeq platform to identify bacterial taxa, and GIS to measure vegetation cover in buffer zones of different diameters. Our goal was to explore variation among highly vegetated (parks) versus non-vegetated (parking lots) urban environments. A secondary objective was to evaluate passive versus active collection methods for outdoor airborne microbial sampling. Airborne bacterial communities from five parks were different from those of five parking lots (p=0.023), although alpha diversity was similar. Direct gradient analysis showed that the proportion of vegetated area within a 50m radius of the sampling station explained 15% of the variation in bacterial community composition. A number of key taxa, including several Acidobacteriaceae were substantially more abundant in parks, while parking lots had higher relative abundance of Acetobacteraceae. Parks had greater beta diversity than parking lots, i.e. individual parks were characterized by unique bacterial signatures, whereas parking lot communities tended to be similar to each other. Although parks and parking lots were selected to form pairs of nearby sites, spatial proximity did not appear to affect compositional similarity. Our results also showed that passive and active collection methods gave comparable results, indicating the "settling dish" method is effective for outdoor airborne sampling. This work sets a foundation for understanding how urban vegetation may impact microbial communities, with potential implications for designing

  19. Urban greenness influences airborne bacterial community composition.

    PubMed

    Mhuireach, Gwynne; Johnson, Bart R; Altrichter, Adam E; Ladau, Joshua; Meadow, James F; Pollard, Katherine S; Green, Jessica L

    2016-11-15

    Urban green space provides health benefits for city dwellers, and new evidence suggests that microorganisms associated with soil and vegetation could play a role. While airborne microorganisms are ubiquitous in urban areas, the influence of nearby vegetation on airborne microbial communities remains poorly understood. We examined airborne microbial communities in parks and parking lots in Eugene, Oregon, using high-throughput sequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene on the Illumina MiSeq platform to identify bacterial taxa, and GIS to measure vegetation cover in buffer zones of different diameters. Our goal was to explore variation among highly vegetated (parks) versus non-vegetated (parking lots) urban environments. A secondary objective was to evaluate passive versus active collection methods for outdoor airborne microbial sampling. Airborne bacterial communities from five parks were different from those of five parking lots (p=0.023), although alpha diversity was similar. Direct gradient analysis showed that the proportion of vegetated area within a 50m radius of the sampling station explained 15% of the variation in bacterial community composition. A number of key taxa, including several Acidobacteriaceae were substantially more abundant in parks, while parking lots had higher relative abundance of Acetobacteraceae. Parks had greater beta diversity than parking lots, i.e. individual parks were characterized by unique bacterial signatures, whereas parking lot communities tended to be similar to each other. Although parks and parking lots were selected to form pairs of nearby sites, spatial proximity did not appear to affect compositional similarity. Our results also showed that passive and active collection methods gave comparable results, indicating the "settling dish" method is effective for outdoor airborne sampling. This work sets a foundation for understanding how urban vegetation may impact microbial communities, with potential implications for designing

  20. Predictors of airborne endotoxin concentrations in inner city homes.

    PubMed

    Mazique, D; Diette, G B; Breysse, P N; Matsui, E C; McCormack, M C; Curtin-Brosnan, J; Williams, D L; Peng, R D; Hansel, N N

    2011-05-01

    Few studies have assessed in home factors which contribute to airborne endotoxin concentrations. In 85 inner city Baltimore homes, we found no significant correlation between settled dust and airborne endotoxin concentrations. Certain household activities and characteristics, including frequency of dusting, air conditioner use and type of flooring, explained 36-42% of the variability of airborne concentrations. Measurements of both airborne and settled dust endotoxin concentrations may be needed to fully characterize domestic exposure in epidemiologic investigations. PMID:21429483

  1. Sandia Multispectral Airborne Lidar for UAV Deployment

    SciTech Connect

    Daniels, J.W.; Hargis,Jr. P.J.; Henson, T.D.; Jordan, J.D.; Lang, A.R.; Schmitt, R.L.

    1998-10-23

    Sandia National Laboratories has initiated the development of an airborne system for W laser remote sensing measurements. System applications include the detection of effluents associated with the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and the detection of biological weapon aerosols. This paper discusses the status of the conceptual design development and plans for both the airborne payload (pointing and tracking, laser transmitter, and telescope receiver) and the Altus unmanned aerospace vehicle platform. Hardware design constraints necessary to maintain system weight, power, and volume limitations of the flight platform are identified.

  2. Detection and enumeration of airborne biocontaminants.

    PubMed

    Stetzenbach, Linda D; Buttner, Mark P; Cruz, Patricia

    2004-06-01

    The sampling and analysis of airborne microorganisms has received attention in recent years owing to concerns with mold contamination in indoor environments and the threat of bioterrorism. Traditionally, the detection and enumeration of airborne microorganisms has been conducted using light microscopy and/or culture-based methods; however, these analyses are time-consuming, laborious, subjective and lack sensitivity and specificity. The use of molecular methods, such as quantitative polymerase chain reaction amplification, can enhance monitoring strategies by increasing sensitivity and specificity, while decreasing the time required for analysis.

  3. National center for airborne laser mapping proposed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, Bill; Shrestha, Ramesh L.; Dietrich, Bill

    Researchers from universities, U.S. government agencies, U.S. national laboratories, and private industry met in the spring to learn about the current capabilities of Airborne Laser Swath Mapping (ALSM), share their experiences in using the technology for a wide variety of research applications, outline research that would be made possible by research-grade ALSM data, and discuss the proposed operation and management of the brand new National Center for Airborne Laser Mapping (NCALM).The workshop successfully identified a community of researchers with common interests in the advancement and use of ALSM—a community which strongly supports the immediate establishment of the NCALM.

  4. PERSPECTIVE: Fireworks and radioactivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breitenecker, Katharina

    2009-09-01

    both reaction products and unburnt constituents of a pyrotechnic mixture. One major environmental concern in pyrotechnics focuses on the emission of heavy metals. This is the topic discussed in the article by Georg Steinhauser and Andreas Musilek in this issue [4]. A possible interrelationship between respiratory effects and fireworks emissions of barium-rich aerosols was also raised last year [5]. In recent years the potential hazard of naturally occurring radioactive material has become of importance to the scientific community. Naturally occurring radionuclides can be of terrestrial or cosmological origin. Terrestrial radionuclides were present in the presolar cloud that later contracted in order to build our solar system. These radionuclides—mainly heavy metals—and their non-radioactive isotopes are nowadays fixed in the matrix of the Earth's structure. Usually, their percentage is quite small compared to their respective stable isotopes—though there are exceptions like in the case of radium. The problem with environmental pollution due to naturally occurring radioactive material begins when this material is concentrated due to mining and milling, and later further processed [6]. Environmental pollution due to radioactive material goes back as far as the Copper and Iron Ages, when the first mines were erected in order to mine ores (gold, silver, copper, iron, etc), resulting in naturally occurring radioactive material being set free with other dusts into the atmosphere. So where is the link between pyrotechnics and radioactivity? In this article presented by Georg Steinhauser and Andreas Musilek [4], the pyrotechnic ingredients barium nitrate and strontium nitrate are explored with respect to their chemical similarities to radium. The fundamental question, therefore, was whether radium can be processed together with barium and strontium. If so, the production and ignition of these pyrotechnic ingredients could cause atmospheric pollution with radium aerosols

  5. Soldiering with Substance: Substance and Steroid Use among Military Personnel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bucher, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    The military provides a unique social environment given the organization and culture of the institution. Understanding substance use by those inside this institution provides insight into both the population as well as substance use in general. Using data collected from in-depth interviews, this article explores the nature and extent of substance…

  6. Study of proton radioactivities

    SciTech Connect

    Davids, C.N.; Back, B.B.; Henderson, D.J.

    1995-08-01

    About a dozen nuclei are currently known to accomplish their radioactive decay by emitting a proton. These nuclei are situated far from the valley of stability, and mark the very limits of existence for proton-rich nuclei: the proton drip line. A new 39-ms proton radioactivity was observed following the bombardment of a {sup 96}Ru target by a beam of 420-MeV {sup 78}Kr. Using the double-sided Si strip detector implantation system at the FMA, a proton group having an energy of 1.05 MeV was observed, correlated with the implantation of ions having mass 167. The subsequent daughter decay was identified as {sup 166}Os by its characteristic alpha decay, and therefore the proton emitter is assigned to the {sup 167}Ir nucleus. Further analysis showed that a second weak proton group from the same nucleus is present, indicating an isomeric state. Two other proton emitters were discovered recently at the FMA: {sup 171}Au and {sup 185}Bi, which is the heaviest known proton radioactivity. The measured decay energies and half-lives will enable the angular momentum of the emitted protons to be determined, thus providing spectroscopic information on nuclei that are beyond the proton drip line. In addition, the decay energy yields the mass of the nucleus, providing a sensitive test of mass models in this extremely proton-rich region of the chart of the nuclides. Additional searches for proton emitters will be conducted in the future, in order to extend our knowledge of the location of the proton drip line.

  7. [Polonium: the radioactive killer from tobacco smoke].

    PubMed

    Zagà, Vincenzo; Gattavecchia, Enrico

    2008-01-01

    Among all carcinogenic substances contained in tobacco smoke, Polonium 210 (Po-210), with a half-life of 138 days, is one of the most dangerous, by exerting a devastating, chronic, slow and progressive carcinogenesis activity. The main source of Po-210 in tobacco is represented by fertilizers (polyphosphates) containing radium-226 (Ra-222) which decades to plumb 210 (Pb-210). Through the thricomes Pb-210 is concentrated in the tobacco leaves, where it turns to Po-210, which at the cigarette combustion temperature (800-900 degrees C) reaches the gaseous state and it is absorbed by the micro particles released into tobacco smoke. Thus, smoke becomes radioactive in both its gaseous and corpuscular components and reaches the airways, where, particularly at the branches level and together with other substances, it exerts its carcinogenic activity, especially in those subjects with impaired respiratory mucosal clearance. The carcinogenic risk/one year lifetime of a smoker of 20 cigarettes per day is equivalent to that of undertaking 300 chest x-rays. It is calculated that Po-210 may be independently responsible of 4 lung cancers every 10,000 smokers. During cigarette's combustion, tobacco smoke is also released in the air, contributing to serious health risks for those exposed to passive smoke.

  8. The Bayo Canyon/radioactive lanthanum (RaLa) program

    SciTech Connect

    Dummer, J.E.; Taschner, J.C.; Courtright, C.C.

    1996-04-01

    LANL conducted 254 radioactive lanthanum (RaLa) implosion experiments Sept. 1944-March 1962, in order to test implosion designs for nuclear weapons. High explosives surrounding common metals (surrogates for Pu) and a radioactive source containing up to several thousand curies of La, were involved in each experiment. The resulting cloud was deposited as fallout, often to distances of several miles. This report was prepared to summarize existing records as an aid in evaluating the off-site impact, if any, of this 18-year program. The report provides a historical setting for the program, which was conducted in Technical Area 10, Bayo Canyon about 3 miles east of Los Alamos. A description of the site is followed by a discussion of collateral experiments conducted in 1950 by US Air Force for developing an airborne detector for tracking atmospheric nuclear weapons tests. All known off-site data from the RaLa program are tabulated and discussed. Besides the radiolanthanum, other potential trace radioactive material that may have been present in the fallout is discussed and amounts estimated. Off-site safety considerations are discussed; a preliminary off-site dose assessment is made. Bibliographical data on 33 persons important to the program are presented as footnotes.

  9. Reconnaissance for radioactive materials in the southern part of Brazil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pierson, Charles T.; Haynes, Donald D.; Filho, Evaristo Ribeiro

    1957-01-01

    During 1954-1956 a reconnaissance for radioactive minerals was made with carborne, airborne and handborne scintillation equipment in the southern Brazilian states of Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo, Parana, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul. During the traverse covering more than 5,000 kilometers the authors checked the radioactivity of Precambrian igneous and metamorphic rocks, Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic sedimentary rocks, and Mesozoic alkalic intrusive and basaltic extrusive rocks. The 22 samples collected contained from 0.003 to 0.029 percent equivalent uranium oxide and from 0.10 to 0.91 percent equivalent thorimn; two samples were taken from radioactive pegmati tes for mineralogic studies. None of the localities is at present a commercial source of uranium or thorium; however, additional work should be done near the alkalic stock at Lages in the State of Santa Catarina and at the Passo das Tropas fossil plant locality near Santa Maria in the state of Rio Grande do Sul. Near Lages highly altered alkalic rock from a dike contained 0.026 percent uranium oxide. At Passo das Tropas highly altered, limonite-impregnated sandstone from the Rio do Rasto group of sedimentary rocks contained 0.029 percent uranium oxide.

  10. 14 CFR 125.223 - Airborne weather radar equipment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Airborne weather radar equipment... Equipment Requirements § 125.223 Airborne weather radar equipment requirements. (a) No person may operate an airplane governed by this part in passenger-carrying operations unless approved airborne weather...

  11. 14 CFR 121.357 - Airborne weather radar equipment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Airborne weather radar equipment... § 121.357 Airborne weather radar equipment requirements. (a) No person may operate any transport... December 31, 1964, unless approved airborne weather radar equipment has been installed in the airplane....

  12. 14 CFR 125.223 - Airborne weather radar equipment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airborne weather radar equipment... Equipment Requirements § 125.223 Airborne weather radar equipment requirements. (a) No person may operate an airplane governed by this part in passenger-carrying operations unless approved airborne weather...

  13. 14 CFR 125.223 - Airborne weather radar equipment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Airborne weather radar equipment... Equipment Requirements § 125.223 Airborne weather radar equipment requirements. (a) No person may operate an airplane governed by this part in passenger-carrying operations unless approved airborne weather...

  14. 14 CFR 135.175 - Airborne weather radar equipment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airborne weather radar equipment... Aircraft and Equipment § 135.175 Airborne weather radar equipment requirements. (a) No person may operate a large, transport category aircraft in passenger-carrying operations unless approved airborne...

  15. 14 CFR 135.175 - Airborne weather radar equipment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Airborne weather radar equipment... Aircraft and Equipment § 135.175 Airborne weather radar equipment requirements. (a) No person may operate a large, transport category aircraft in passenger-carrying operations unless approved airborne...

  16. 14 CFR 121.357 - Airborne weather radar equipment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Airborne weather radar equipment... § 121.357 Airborne weather radar equipment requirements. (a) No person may operate any transport... December 31, 1964, unless approved airborne weather radar equipment has been installed in the airplane....

  17. 14 CFR 125.223 - Airborne weather radar equipment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Airborne weather radar equipment... Equipment Requirements § 125.223 Airborne weather radar equipment requirements. (a) No person may operate an airplane governed by this part in passenger-carrying operations unless approved airborne weather...

  18. 14 CFR 121.357 - Airborne weather radar equipment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Airborne weather radar equipment... § 121.357 Airborne weather radar equipment requirements. (a) No person may operate any transport... December 31, 1964, unless approved airborne weather radar equipment has been installed in the airplane....

  19. 14 CFR 135.175 - Airborne weather radar equipment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Airborne weather radar equipment... Aircraft and Equipment § 135.175 Airborne weather radar equipment requirements. (a) No person may operate a large, transport category aircraft in passenger-carrying operations unless approved airborne...

  20. 14 CFR 125.223 - Airborne weather radar equipment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Airborne weather radar equipment... Equipment Requirements § 125.223 Airborne weather radar equipment requirements. (a) No person may operate an airplane governed by this part in passenger-carrying operations unless approved airborne weather...

  1. 14 CFR 121.357 - Airborne weather radar equipment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airborne weather radar equipment... § 121.357 Airborne weather radar equipment requirements. (a) No person may operate any transport... December 31, 1964, unless approved airborne weather radar equipment has been installed in the airplane....

  2. 14 CFR 135.175 - Airborne weather radar equipment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Airborne weather radar equipment... Aircraft and Equipment § 135.175 Airborne weather radar equipment requirements. (a) No person may operate a large, transport category aircraft in passenger-carrying operations unless approved airborne...

  3. 14 CFR 135.175 - Airborne weather radar equipment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Airborne weather radar equipment... Aircraft and Equipment § 135.175 Airborne weather radar equipment requirements. (a) No person may operate a large, transport category aircraft in passenger-carrying operations unless approved airborne...

  4. 14 CFR 121.357 - Airborne weather radar equipment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Airborne weather radar equipment... § 121.357 Airborne weather radar equipment requirements. (a) No person may operate any transport... December 31, 1964, unless approved airborne weather radar equipment has been installed in the airplane....

  5. Radioactive and magnetic investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heye, D.; Beiersdorf, H.

    1979-01-01

    Age and growth pattern determination of manganese nodules were explored. Two methods are discussed: (1) measurement of the presence of radioactive iodine isotopes; which is effective only up to 3.105 years, and (2) measurements of magnetism. The growth rates of three nodules were determined. The surface of the nodule was recent, and the overall age of the nodule could be determined with accuracy of better than 30%. Measurement of paleomagnetic effect was attempted to determine wider age ranges, however, the measured sign changes could not be interpreted as paleomagnetic reversals.

  6. Radioactive waste material disposal

    DOEpatents

    Forsberg, Charles W.; Beahm, Edward C.; Parker, George W.

    1995-01-01

    The invention is a process for direct conversion of solid radioactive waste, particularly spent nuclear fuel and its cladding, if any, into a solidified waste glass. A sacrificial metal oxide, dissolved in a glass bath, is used to oxidize elemental metal and any carbon values present in the waste as they are fed to the bath. Two different modes of operation are possible, depending on the sacrificial metal oxide employed. In the first mode, a regenerable sacrificial oxide, e.g., PbO, is employed, while the second mode features use of disposable oxides such as ferric oxide.

  7. Radioactive waste material disposal

    DOEpatents

    Forsberg, C.W.; Beahm, E.C.; Parker, G.W.

    1995-10-24

    The invention is a process for direct conversion of solid radioactive waste, particularly spent nuclear fuel and its cladding, if any, into a solidified waste glass. A sacrificial metal oxide, dissolved in a glass bath, is used to oxidize elemental metal and any carbon values present in the waste as they are fed to the bath. Two different modes of operation are possible, depending on the sacrificial metal oxide employed. In the first mode, a regenerable sacrificial oxide, e.g., PbO, is employed, while the second mode features use of disposable oxides such as ferric oxide. 3 figs.

  8. Material for radioactive protection

    DOEpatents

    Taylor, R.S.; Boyer, N.W.

    A boron containing burn resistant, low-level radiation protection material useful, for example, as a liner for radioactive waste disposal and storage, a component for neutron absorber, and a shield for a neutron source is described. The material is basically composed of borax in the range of 25 to 50%, coal tar in the range of 25 to 37.5%, with the remainder being an epoxy resin mix. A preferred composition is 50% borax, 25% coal tar and 25% epoxy resin. The material is not susceptible to burning and is about 1/5 the cost of existing radiation protection material utilized in similar applications.

  9. Method of solidifying waste materials, such as radioactive or toxic materials, contained in aqueous solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Knieper, J.; May, K.; Printz, H.

    1984-07-24

    A method is disclosed of solidifying waste materials, such as radioactive or toxic materials, which are contained in aqueous solutions. To accomplish this solidification, an inorganic, non-metallic binding agent such as gypsum is intermixed with the aqueous solution and a substance such as pumice or ceramic tile which promotes the intermixing of the binding agent and the aqueous solution.

  10. Levels of radioactivity in Qatar

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Thani, A.A.; Abdul-Majid, S.; Mohammed, K.

    1995-12-31

    The levels of natural and man-made radioactivity in soil and seabed were measured in Qatar to assess radiation exposure levels and to evaluate any radioactive contamination that may have reached the country from fallout or due to the Chernobyl accident radioactivity release. Qatar peninsula is located on the Arabian Gulf, 4500 km from Chernobyl, and has an area of {approximately}11,600 km{sup 2} and a population of {approximately}600,000.

  11. Determining a pre-mining radiological baseline from historic airborne gamma surveys: a case study.

    PubMed

    Bollhöfer, Andreas; Beraldo, Annamarie; Pfitzner, Kirrilly; Esparon, Andrew; Doering, Che

    2014-01-15

    Knowing the baseline level of radioactivity in areas naturally enriched in radionuclides is important in the uranium mining context to assess radiation doses to humans and the environment both during and after mining. This information is particularly useful in rehabilitation planning and developing closure criteria for uranium mines as only radiation doses additional to the natural background are usually considered 'controllable' for radiation protection purposes. In this case study we have tested whether the method of contemporary groundtruthing of a historic airborne gamma survey could be used to determine the pre-mining radiological conditions at the Ranger mine in northern Australia. The airborne gamma survey was flown in 1976 before mining started and groundtruthed using ground gamma dose rate measurements made between 2007 and 2009 at an undisturbed area naturally enriched in uranium (Anomaly 2) located nearby the Ranger mine. Measurements of (226)Ra soil activity concentration and (222)Rn exhalation flux density at Anomaly 2 were made concurrent with the ground gamma dose rate measurements. Algorithms were developed to upscale the ground gamma data to the same spatial resolution as the historic airborne gamma survey data using a geographic information system, allowing comparison of the datasets. Linear correlation models were developed to estimate the pre-mining gamma dose rates, (226)Ra soil activity concentrations, and (222)Rn exhalation flux densities at selected areas in the greater Ranger region. The modelled levels agreed with measurements made at the Ranger Orebodies 1 and 3 before mining started, and at environmental sites in the region. The conclusion is that our approach can be used to determine baseline radiation levels, and provide a benchmark for rehabilitation of uranium mines or industrial sites where historical airborne gamma survey data are available and an undisturbed radiological analogue exists to groundtruth the data.

  12. Radioactive waste processing apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Nelson, Robert E.; Ziegler, Anton A.; Serino, David F.; Basnar, Paul J.

    1987-01-01

    Apparatus for use in processing radioactive waste materials for shipment and storage in solid form in a container is disclosed. The container includes a top, and an opening in the top which is smaller than the outer circumference of the container. The apparatus includes an enclosure into which the container is placed, solution feed apparatus for adding a solution containing radioactive waste materials into the container through the container opening, and at least one rotatable blade for blending the solution with a fixing agent such as cement or the like as the solution is added into the container. The blade is constructed so that it can pass through the opening in the top of the container. The rotational axis of the blade is displaced from the center of the blade so that after the blade passes through the opening, the blade and container can be adjusted so that one edge of the blade is adjacent the cylindrical wall of the container, to insure thorough mixing. When the blade is inside the container, a substantially sealed chamber is formed to contain vapors created by the chemical action of the waste solution and fixant, and vapors emanating through the opening in the container.

  13. Substances and Heart Rhythm Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... in others. These rhythm problems are rarely serious. Substance Abuse: Drugs and Inhalants Abusing legal or illegal drugs ... people, alcohol can cause heart rhythm disturbances. Alcohol abuse is a major risk factor for High ... herbs and other substances used in over-the-counter remedies are believed ...

  14. Adolescent Substance Abuse and Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dhawan, Anju; Balhara, Yatan Pal Singh; Natasha, M. Phil.

    2007-01-01

    Adolescent substance abuse is a major public health concern. It is associated with an increased incidence of various psychiatric disorders like depressive disorders, anxiety disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and conduct disorders and the relationship between mental and behavioral disorders and the substance use problems seems…

  15. Toxic Substances List. 1972 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Herbert E., Ed.; And Others

    The second edition of the Toxic Substances List, containing some 13,000 entries, is prepared annually by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) in compliance with the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970. The purpose of the List is to identify all known toxic substances but not to quantitate the hazard. The List…

  16. Michigan Household Hazardous Substance Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senior, Janet; Stone Nancy

    Common household hazardous substances include cleansers, drain cleaners, automotive products, paints, solvents, and pesticides. This handbook was designed to serve as a resource for people frequently contacted by the public for information on household hazardous substances and wastes. Included in the handbook are: (1) an introduction to Michigan's…

  17. Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer and Airborne Emission Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glavich, T.; Beer, R.

    1996-01-01

    The Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) is an instrument being developed for the NASA Earth Observing System Chemistry Platform. TES will measure the distribution of ozone and its precursors in the lower atmosphere. The Airborne Emission Spectrometer (AES) is an aircraft precursor to TES. Applicable descriptions are given of instrument design, technology challenges, implementation and operations for both.

  18. Simulation system of airborne FLIR searcher

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Kefeng; Li, Yu; Gao, Jiaobo; Wang, Jun; Wang, Jilong; Xie, Junhu; Ding, Na; Sun, Dandan

    2014-11-01

    Airborne Forward looking infra-red (FLIR) searcher simulation system can provide multi-mode simulated test environment that almost actual field environment, and can simulate integrated performance and external interface of airborne FLIR simulation system. Furthermore, the airborne FLIR searcher simulation system can support the algorithm optimization of image processing, and support the test and evaluation of electro-optical system, and also support the line test of software and evaluate the performance of the avionics system. The detailed design structure and information cross-linking relationship of each component are given in this paper. The simulation system is composed of the simulation center, the FLIR actuator, the FLIR emulator, and the display control terminal. The simulation center can generate the simulated target and aircraft flying data in the operation state of the airborne FLIR Searcher. The FLIR actuator can provide simulation scene. It can generate the infrared target and landform based scanning scene, response to the commands from simulation center and the FLIR actuator and operation control unit. The infrared image generated by the FLIR actuator can be processed by the FLIR emulator using PowerPC hardware framework and processing software based on VxWorks system. It can detect multi-target and output the DVI video and the multi-target detection information which corresponds to the working state of the FLIR searcher. Display control terminal can display the multi-target detection information in two-dimension situation format, and realize human-computer interaction function.

  19. Toolsets for Airborne Data Beta Release

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-09-17

    ... for Airborne Data (TAD), developed at the Atmospheric Science Data Center (ASDC) at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) to promote ... and Houston, and DC3 will be added shortly. Early next year we plan to add DISCOVER-AQ Colorado and SEAC4RS to the TAD database. We ...

  20. A Technique for Airborne Aerobiological Sampling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mill, R. A.; And Others

    1972-01-01

    Report of a study of airborne micro-organisms collected over the Oklahoma City Metropolitan area and immediate environments, to investigate the possibility that a cloud of such organisms might account for the prevalence of some respiratory diseases in and around urban areas. (LK)

  1. Airborne Satcom Terminal Research at NASA Glenn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoder, Doug; Zakrajsek, Robert

    2002-01-01

    NASA Glenn has constructed an airborne Ku-band satellite terminal, which provides wideband full-duplex ground-aircraft communications. The terminal makes use of novel electronically-steered phased array antennas and provides IP connectivity to and from the ground. The satcom terminal communications equipment may be easily changed whenever a new configuration is required, enhancing the terminal's versatility.

  2. Mutagenicity of airborne particulates in the rubber industry.

    PubMed

    Barański, B; Indulski, J; Janik-Spiechowicz, E; Palus, J

    1989-12-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the mutagenic activity of airborne particulate matter in the rubber industry. Air was sucked through Whatman glass-fibre filters with Staplex pumps and adsorbed substances and fume particles were extracted with acetone or toluene for 2 h in a ultrasonic cleaner. After separation of the insoluble solid phase by filtration, solvent was evaporated at a temperature of 70 degrees C in an argon atmosphere. The residue was stored at -20 degrees C. Mutagenicity was determined by the Salmonella plate incorporation assay with the tester strain TA98 and activity is related either to the weight of aerosol (rev mg-1) or to the volume of atmospheric sample (rev m-3). The fumes emitted from the tyre tread line, calender feeding, and tyre vulcanizing processes, showed the highest mutagenic activity (55-211 rev mg-1, + S9). At these and at other workplaces (extruder mill, carbon black station, mixer loading), mutagenic activity related to the volume of air was in the range of 22-158 rev m-3, + S9. The results indicate the need to reduce and monitor mutagenic contamination in order to increase the safety of work in the rubber industry. PMID:2693511

  3. Ecological Role of Soils upon Radioactive Contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsvetnov, Evgeny; Shcheglov, Alexei; Tsvenova, Olga

    2016-04-01

    The ecological role of soils upon radioactive contamination is clearly manifested in the system of notions about ecosystems services, i.e., benefits gained by humans from ecosystems and their components, including soils (Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, 2005). For the soils, these services are considered on the basis of soil functions in the biosphere that belong to the protective ecosystem functions within the group of soil functions known under the names of "Buffer and protective biogeocenotic shield" (at the level of particular biogeocenoses) and "Protective shield of the biosphere" (at the global biospheric level) (according to Dobrovol'skii & Nikitin, 2005). With respect to radionuclides, this group includes (1) the depositing function, i.e., the accumulation and long-term sequestration of radioactive substances by the soil after atmospheric fallout; (2) the geochemical function, i.e., the regulation of horizontal and vertical fluxes of radionuclides in the system of geochemically conjugated landscapes and in the soil-groundwater and soil-plant systems; and (3) the dose-forming function that is manifested by the shielding capacity of the soil with respect to the external ionizing radiation (lowering of the dose from external radiation) and by the regulation of the migration of radionuclides in the trophic chain (lowering of the dose from internal radiation). The depositing and geochemical functions of the soils are interrelated, which is seen from quantitative estimates of the dynamics of the fluxes of radionuclides in the considered systems (soil-plant, soil-groundwater, etc.). The downward migration of radionuclides into the lower soil layers proceeds very slowly: for decades, more than 90% of the pool of radionuclides is stored in the topmost 10 cm of the soil profile. In the first 3-5 years after the fallout, the downward migration of radionuclides with infiltrating water flows decreases from several percent to decimals and hundredths of percent from the

  4. Infrared airborne spectroradiometer survey results in the western Nevada area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, W.; Chang, S. H.; Kuo, J. T.

    1982-01-01

    The Mark II airborne spectroradiometer system was flown over several geologic test sites in western Nevada. The infrared mineral absorption bands were observed and recorded for the first time using an airborne system with high spectral resolution in the 2.0 to 2.5 micron region. The data show that the hydrothermal alteration zone minerals, carbonates, and other minerals are clearly visible in the airborne survey mode. The finer spectral features that distinguish the various minerals with infrared bands are also clearly visible in the airborne survey data. Using specialized computer pattern recognition methods, it is possible to identify mineralogy and map alteration zones and lithologies by airborne spectroradiometer survey techniques.

  5. CALIOPE airborne CO{sub 2} DIAL (CACDI) system design

    SciTech Connect

    Mietz, D.; Archuleta, B.; Archuleta, J.

    1997-09-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory is currently developing an airborne CO{sub 2} Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) system based on second generation technology demonstrated last summer at NTS. The CALIOPE Airborne CO{sub 2} DIAL (CACDI) system requirements have been compiled based on the mission objectives and SONDIAL model trade studies. Subsystem designs have been developed based on flow down from these system requirements, as well as experience gained from second generation ground tests and N-ABLE (Non-proliferation AirBorne Lidar Experiments) airborne experiments. This paper presents the CACDI mission objectives, system requirements, the current subsystem design, and provides an overview of the airborne experimental plan.

  6. Apple fruit pectic substances

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, A. J.; Northcote, D. H.

    1965-01-01

    1. The pectic substances of apple have been extracted and separated into a pure pectinic acid and a neutral arabinan–galactan complex by precipitation of the acidic component with ethanol and with cetylpyridinium chloride. 2. The composition of the fractions has been determined. The pectinic acid contained galacturonic acid, arabinose, galactose, rhamnose, xylose and several trace sugars. 3. Transelimination degradation of the pectinic acid gave rise to two components completely separable by zone electrophoresis and by Sephadex gel filtration. Analysis of these components confirmed that the pectinic acid molecules contained long chains of esterified galacturonosyl residues, but showed in addition that more neutral portions containing a high proportion of arabinofuranose residues were attached to them. 4. The identification of rhamnose, galactose and xylose in aldobiouronic acids obtained from a partial hydrolysate of pectinic acid has shown that these sugars are covalently linked in the molecule, and it is suggested that the galacturonosyl-(1→2)-rhamnose link is a general feature of pectinic acid structure. 5. The possible biological significance of pectinic acid structure has been discussed. 6. The arabinan–galactan complex contained nearly equal quantities of arabinose and galactose residues and some of its physical properties have been investigated. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6.Fig. 9. PMID:14340052

  7. Regional airborne flux measurements in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gioli, B.; Miglietta, F.; Vaccari, F. P.; Zaldei, A.; Hutjes, R. W. A.

    2003-04-01

    The problem of identifying the spatial and temporal distribution of sources and sinks of atmospheric CO2 is the subject of considerable scientific and political debate. Even if it is now possible to estimate within reasonable accuracy the sink strength of European forests at the local scale, difficulties still exist in determining the partitioning of the sinks at the global and regional scales. The aim of the EU-project RECAB (Regional Assessment of the Carbon Balance in Europe) that is coordinated by Alterra, Wageningen (NL), is to bridge the gap between local scale flux measurements and continental scale inversion models by a generic modelling effort and measurement program, focussing on a limited number of selected regions in Europe for which previous measurements exists. This required the establishment of a European facility for airborne measurement of surface fluxes of CO2 at very low altitude, and a research aircraft capable of performing airborne eddy covariance measurements has been acquired by this project and used on several occasions at the different RECAB sites. The aircraft is the italian Sky Arrows ERA (Environmental Research Aircraft) equipped with the NOAA/ARA Mobile Flux Platform (MFP), and a commercial open-path infrared gas analyser. Airborne eddy covariance measurements were made from June 2001 onwards in Southern Spain near Valencia (June and December 2001), in Central Germany near Jena (July 2001), in Sweden near Uppsala (August 2001), in The Netherlands near Wageningen (January and July 2002) and in Italy near Rome (June 2002). Flux towers were present at each site to provide a validation of airborne eddy covariance measurements. This contribution reports some validation results based on the comparison between airborne and ground based flux measurements and some regional scale results for different locations and different seasons, in a wide range of meteorological and ecological settings.

  8. Airborne laser sensors and integrated systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabatini, Roberto; Richardson, Mark A.; Gardi, Alessandro; Ramasamy, Subramanian

    2015-11-01

    The underlying principles and technologies enabling the design and operation of airborne laser sensors are introduced and a detailed review of state-of-the-art avionic systems for civil and military applications is presented. Airborne lasers including Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR), Laser Range Finders (LRF), and Laser Weapon Systems (LWS) are extensively used today and new promising technologies are being explored. Most laser systems are active devices that operate in a manner very similar to microwave radars but at much higher frequencies (e.g., LIDAR and LRF). Other devices (e.g., laser target designators and beam-riders) are used to precisely direct Laser Guided Weapons (LGW) against ground targets. The integration of both functions is often encountered in modern military avionics navigation-attack systems. The beneficial effects of airborne lasers including the use of smaller components and remarkable angular resolution have resulted in a host of manned and unmanned aircraft applications. On the other hand, laser sensors performance are much more sensitive to the vagaries of the atmosphere and are thus generally restricted to shorter ranges than microwave systems. Hence it is of paramount importance to analyse the performance of laser sensors and systems in various weather and environmental conditions. Additionally, it is important to define airborne laser safety criteria, since several systems currently in service operate in the near infrared with considerable risk for the naked human eye. Therefore, appropriate methods for predicting and evaluating the performance of infrared laser sensors/systems are presented, taking into account laser safety issues. For aircraft experimental activities with laser systems, it is essential to define test requirements taking into account the specific conditions for operational employment of the systems in the intended scenarios and to verify the performance in realistic environments at the test ranges. To support the

  9. The Beginnings of Airborne Astronomy, 1920 - 1930: an Historical Narrative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craine, E. R.

    1984-01-01

    The emergence of airborne astronomy in the early twentieth century is recounted. The aerial expedition to observe the solar eclipse on September 10, 1923, is described. Observation of the total solar eclipse of January 24, 1925, is discussed. The Honey Lake aerial expedition to study the solar eclipse of April 28, 1930, is also described. Four major accomplishments in airborne astronomy during the period 1920 to 1930 are listed. Airborne expeditions were undertaken at every logical opportunity, starting a continuous sequence of airborne astronomical expeditions which was to remain unbroken, except by World War II, to the present day. Although the scientific returns of the first ten years were modest, they did exist. Interest in, and support for, airborne astronomy was generated not only among astronomers but also among the public. Albert Stevens, arguably the true father of airborne astronomy, was to become interested in applying his considerable skill and experience to the airborne acquisition of astronomical data.

  10. Stefan Meyer: Pioneer of Radioactivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiter, Wolfgang L.

    2001-03-01

    Stefan Meyer was one of the pioneers in radioactivity research and director of the Vienna Radium Institute, the first institution in the world devoted exclusively to radioactivity. I give here a biographical sketch of Meyer and of some of his colleagues and an overview of the research activities at the Radium Institute.

  11. Radioactive elements in stellar atmospheres

    SciTech Connect

    Gopka, Vira; Yushchenko, Alexander; Goriely, Stephane; Shavrina, Angelina; Kang, Young Woon

    2006-07-12

    The identification of lines of radioactive elements (Tc, Pm and elements with 83radioactive decay of Th and U in the upper levels of stellar atmospheres, contamination of stellar atmosphere by recent SN explosion, and spallation reactions.

  12. Boar spermatozoa as a biosensor for detecting toxic substances in indoor dust and aerosols.

    PubMed

    Andersson, M A; Mikkola, R; Rasimus, S; Hoornstra, D; Salin, P; Rahkila, R; Heikkinen, M; Mattila, S; Peltola, J; Kalso, S; Salkinoja-Salonen, M

    2010-10-01

    The presence, quantity and origins of potentially toxic airborne substances were searched in moisture damaged indoor environments, where building related ill health symptoms were suspected and reference sites with no health complaints. Boar spermatozoa were used as the toxicity sensor. Indoor aerosols and dusts were collected from kindergartens, schools, offices and residences (n=25) by electrostatic filtering, vacuuming, wiping from elevated surfaces and from the interior of personal computers. Toxicity was measured from the ethanol or methanol extracts of the dusts and aerosols. EC(50) was expressed as the lowest concentration of the airborne substance that inhibited motility of >50% of the exposed sperm cells compared to vehicle control, within 30 min, 1 day or 3-4 days of exposure. Remarkably toxic aerosols (EC(50) Airborn dispersal of valinomycin from Streptomyces griseus cultures was evaluated using a flow-through chamber. Significant amounts of valinomycin (LC-MS assay) and toxicity (boar sperm motility assay) were carried by air and were after 14 days mainly recovered from the interior surfaces of the flow chamber.

  13. Heavy fragment radioactivities

    SciTech Connect

    Price, P.B.

    1987-12-10

    This recently discovered mode of radioactive decay, like alpha decay and spontaneous fission, is believed to involve tunneling through the deformation-energy barrier between a very heavy nucleus and two separated fragments the sum of whose masses is less than the mass of the parent nucleus. In all known cases the heavier of the two fragments is close to doubly magic /sup 208/Pb, and the lighter fragment has even Z. Four isotopes of Ra are known to emit /sup 14/C nuclei; several isotopes of U as well as /sup 230/Th and /sup 231/Pa emit Ne nuclei; and /sup 234/U exhibits four hadronic decay modes: alpha decay, spontaneous fission, Ne decay and Mg decay.

  14. Low Radioactivity in CANDLES

    SciTech Connect

    Kishimoto, T.; Ogawa, I.; Hazama, R.; Yoshida, S.; Umehara, S.; Matsuoka, K.; Sakai, H.; Yokoyama, D.; Mukaida, K.; Ichihara, K.; Tatewaki, Y.; Kishimoto, K.; Hirano, Y.; Yanagisawa, A.; Ajimura, S.

    2005-09-08

    CANDLES is the project to search for double beta decay of 48Ca by using CaF2 crystals. Double beta decay of 48Ca has the highest Q value among all nuclei whose double beta decay is energetically allowed. This feature makes the study almost background free and becomes important once the study is limited by the backgrounds. We studied double beta decays of 48Ca by using ELEGANTS VI detector system which features CaF2(Eu) crystals. We gave the best limit on the lifetime of neutrino-less double beta decay of 48Ca although further development is vital to reach the neutrino mass of current interest for which CANDLES is designed. In this article we present how CANDLES can achieve low radioactivity, which is the key for the future double beta decay experiment.

  15. Radioactive waste processing apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Nelson, R.E.; Ziegler, A.A.; Serino, D.F.; Basnar, P.J.

    1985-08-30

    Apparatus for use in processing radioactive waste materials for shipment and storage in solid form in a container is disclosed. The container includes a top, and an opening in the top which is smaller than the outer circumference of the container. The apparatus includes an enclosure into which the container is placed, solution feed apparatus for adding a solution containing radioactive waste materials into the container through the container opening, and at least one rotatable blade for blending the solution with a fixing agent such as cement or the like as the solution is added into the container. The blade is constructed so that it can pass through the opening in the top of the container. The rotational axis of the blade is displaced from the center of the blade so that after the blade passes through the opening, the blade and container can be adjusted so that one edge of the blade is adjacent the cylindrical wall of the container, to insure thorough mixing. When the blade is inside the container, a substantially sealed chamber is formed to contain vapors created by the chemical action of the waste solution and fixant, and vapors emanating through the opening in the container. The chamber may be formed by placing a removable extension over the top of the container. The extension communicates with the apparatus so that such vapors are contained within the container, extension and solution feed apparatus. A portion of the chamber includes coolant which condenses the vapors. The resulting condensate is returned to the container by the force of gravity.

  16. PERSPECTIVE: Fireworks and radioactivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breitenecker, Katharina

    2009-09-01

    both reaction products and unburnt constituents of a pyrotechnic mixture. One major environmental concern in pyrotechnics focuses on the emission of heavy metals. This is the topic discussed in the article by Georg Steinhauser and Andreas Musilek in this issue [4]. A possible interrelationship between respiratory effects and fireworks emissions of barium-rich aerosols was also raised last year [5]. In recent years the potential hazard of naturally occurring radioactive material has become of importance to the scientific community. Naturally occurring radionuclides can be of terrestrial or cosmological origin. Terrestrial radionuclides were present in the presolar cloud that later contracted in order to build our solar system. These radionuclides—mainly heavy metals—and their non-radioactive isotopes are nowadays fixed in the matrix of the Earth's structure. Usually, their percentage is quite small compared to their respective stable isotopes—though there are exceptions like in the case of radium. The problem with environmental pollution due to naturally occurring radioactive material begins when this material is concentrated due to mining and milling, and later further processed [6]. Environmental pollution due to radioactive material goes back as far as the Copper and Iron Ages, when the first mines were erected in order to mine ores (gold, silver, copper, iron, etc), resulting in naturally occurring radioactive material being set free with other dusts into the atmosphere. So where is the link between pyrotechnics and radioactivity? In this article presented by Georg Steinhauser and Andreas Musilek [4], the pyrotechnic ingredients barium nitrate and strontium nitrate are explored with respect to their chemical similarities to radium. The fundamental question, therefore, was whether radium can be processed together with barium and strontium. If so, the production and ignition of these pyrotechnic ingredients could cause atmospheric pollution with radium aerosols

  17. Epidemiology of Substance Use Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Merikangas, Kathleen R.; McClair, Vetisha L.

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological studies of substance use and substance use disorders (SUDs) have provided an abundance of data on the patterns of substance use in nationally representative samples across the world (Degenhardt et al. 2008; Johnston et al. 2011; SAMHSA 2011). This paper presents a summary of the goals, methods and recent findings on the epidemiology of substance use and disorders in the general population of adults and adolescents and describes the methods and findings on the genetic epidemiology of drug use disorders. The high 12 month prevalence rates of substance dependence in U.S. adults (about 12% for alcohol and 2–3% for illicit drugs) approximate those of other mental disorders as well as chronic physical disorders with major public health impact. New findings from the nationally representative samples of U.S. youth reveal that the lifetime prevalence of alcohol use disorders is approximately 8% and illicit drug use disorders is 2–3% (Merikangas et al. 2010; Swendsen et al. in press, SAMSHA, 2011). The striking increase in prevalence rates from ages 13 to 18 highlight adolescence as the key period of development of substance use disorders. The application of genetic epidemiological studies has consistently demonstrated that genetic factors have a major influence on progression of substance use to dependence, whereas environmental factors unique to the individual play an important role in exposure and initial use of substances. Identification of specific susceptibility genes and environmental factors that influence exposure and progression of drug use may enhance our ability to prevent and treat substance use disorders. PMID:22543841

  18. Enhancement factors for resuspended aerosol radioactivity: Effects of topsoil disturbance

    SciTech Connect

    Shinn, J.H.

    1991-11-01

    The enhancement factor for airborne radionuclides resuspended by wind is defined as the ratio of the activity density (Bq g{sup {minus}1}) in the aerosol to the activity density in the underlying surface of contaminated soil. Enhancement factors are useful for assessment of worst-case exposure scenarios and transport conditions, and are one of the criteria for setting environmental standards for radioactivity in soil. This paper presents results of experimental studies where resuspension of {sup 239}Pu was measured when air concentrations were equilibrated to the soil surface. Enhancement factors were observed for several types of man-made disturbances (bulldozer-blading, soil raking, vacuum-cleaning) and natural disturbances (springtime thaw, soil-drying, wildfire). For some cases, enhancement factors are compared over range of geographical locations (Bikini Atoll, California, Nevada, and South Carolina). The particle-size distributions of aerosol activity are compared to particle-size distributions of the underlying soil.

  19. Latest Advancement In Airborne Relative Gravity Instrumentation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brady, N.

    2011-12-01

    Airborne gravity surveying has been performed with widely varying degrees of success since early experimentation with the Lacoste and Romberg dynamic meter in the 1950s. There are a number of different survey systems currently in operation including relative gravity meters and gradiometers. Airborne gravity is ideally suited to rapid, wide coverage surveying and is not significantly more expensive in more remote and inhospitable terrain which makes airborne measurements one of the few viable options available for cost effective exploration. As improved instrumentation has become available, scientific applications have also been able to take advantage for use in determining sub surface geologic structures, for example under ice sheets in Antarctica, and more recently direct measurement of the geoid to improve the vertical datum in the United States. In 2004, Lacoste and Romberg (now Micro-g Lacoste) decided to build on their success with the newly developed AirSea II dynamic meter and use that system as the basis for a dedicated airborne gravity instrument. Advances in electronics, timing and positioning technology created the opportunity to refine both the hardware and software, and to develop a truly turnkey system that would work well for users with little or no airborne gravity experience as well as those with more extensive experience. The resulting Turnkey Airborne Gravity System (TAGS) was successfully introduced in 2007 and has since been flown in applications from oil, gas and mineral exploration surveys to regional gravity mapping and geoid mapping. The system has been mounted in a variety of airborne platforms including depending on the application of interest. The development experience with the TAGS enabled Micro-g Lacoste to embark on a new project in 2010 to completely redesign the mechanical and electronic components of the system rather than continuing incremental upgrades. Building on the capabilities of the original TAGS, the objectives for the

  20. Infant of a substance using mother

    MedlinePlus

    ... Maternal substance use; Maternal drug use; Narcotic exposure - infant; Substance use disorder - infant ... ARE THE SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS SEEN IN AN INFANT OF A SUBSTANCE-ABUSING MOTHER? Babies born to ...

  1. 77 FR 24746 - Constraint on Releases of Airborne Radioactive Materials to the Environment for Licensees Other...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-25

    ... rates in unrestricted areas. II. Further Information On April 20, 2010 (75 FR 20645), DG-4018 was... (75 FR 36445). The public comment period closed on August 23, 2010. The Federal Register notice (FRN) dated June 25, 2010 (75 FR 36445), inadvertently cited the ADAMS accession number for the original...

  2. Substance misuse and substance-related disorders in forensic psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Gendel, Michael H

    2006-09-01

    There is a broad range of substance-related problems that arise for the forensic psychiatrist. For many, what is most challenging about addressing these issues are the complex behavioral, biological, clinical, and social phenomena involved. Substance- related illnesses are on the cutting edge of brain research. Substance-related behavior that brings individuals to the attention of forensic psychiatrists involves a wide spectrum of substance use patterns, but even substance misuse may have profound and relevant effects, forensically. The social forces that mold our laws and attitudes toward addictive drug use are at work in almost every forensic context. Substance-related issues provide a rich medium for the application of forensic psychiatric principles and practice. As in all of forensic psychiatric work, the psychiatrist should be familiar with each forensic context in which addiction issues arise. They should become familiar with the relevant definitions, criteria, and legal requirements that apply in each specific area of their practice, rather than assume that clinical definitions and clinical reasoning will carry them. Comfort and effectiveness with addiction issues requires willingness to continually educate oneself about this rapidly changing field, and familiarity with one's own attitudes and beliefs regarding addictive illness.

  3. Environmental radioactive intercomparison program and radioactive standards program

    SciTech Connect

    Dilbeck, G.

    1993-12-31

    The Environmental Radioactivity Intercomparison Program described herein provides quality assurance support for laboratories involved in analyzing public drinking water under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) Regulations, and to the environmental radiation monitoring activities of various agencies. More than 300 federal and state nuclear facilities and private laboratories participate in some phase of the program. This presentation describes the Intercomparison Program studies and matrices involved, summarizes the precision and accuracy requirements of various radioactive analytes, and describes the traceability determinations involved with radioactive calibration standards distributed to the participants. A summary of program participants, sample and report distributions, and additional responsibilities of this program are discussed.

  4. Rail assembly for use in a radioactive environment

    DOEpatents

    Watts, Ralph E.

    1989-01-01

    An improved rail assembly and method of construction thereof is disclosed herein that is particularly adapted for use with a crane trolley in a hot cell environment which is exposed to airborne and liquidborne radioactive contaminants. The rail assembly is generally comprised of a support wall having an elongated, rail-housing recess having a floor, side wall and ceiling. The floor of the recess is defined at least in part by the load-bearing surface of a rail, and is substantially flat, level and crevice-free to facilitate the drainage of liquids out of the recess. The ceiling of the recess overhangs and thereby captures trolley wheels within the recess to prevent them from becoming dislodged from the recess during a seismic disturbance. Finally, the interior of the recess includes a power track having a slot for receiving a sliding electrical connector from the crane trolley. The power track is mounted in an upper corner of the recess with its connector-receiving groove oriented downwardly to facilitate the drainage of liquidborne contaminants and to discourage the collection of airborne contaminants within the track.

  5. High level radioactive waste management facility design criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Sheikh, N.A.; Salaymeh, S.R.

    1993-10-01

    This paper discusses the engineering systems for the structural design of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). At the DWPF, high level radioactive liquids will be mixed with glass particles and heated in a melter. This molten glass will then be poured into stainless steel canisters where it will harden. This process will transform the high level waste into a more stable, manageable substance. This paper discuss the structural design requirements for this unique one of a kind facility. A special emphasis will be concentrated on the design criteria pertaining to earthquake, wind and tornado, and flooding.

  6. Substance Abuse in the Military

    MedlinePlus

    ... Although illicit drug use is lower among U.S. military personnel than among civilians, heavy alcohol and tobacco use, ... in identifying and treating substance use problems in military personnel, as does lack of confidentiality that deters many ...

  7. Substance Abuse in Rural Areas

    MedlinePlus

    ... of death from overdose and suicide. Rural and Urban Substance Abuse Rates (ages 12 and older, unless ... among rural youth aged 12-13 than among urban youth the same age. This study suggests that ...

  8. Efficiency calibration and minimum detectable activity concentration of a real-time UAV airborne sensor system with two gamma spectrometers.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiao-Bin; Meng, Jia; Wang, Peng; Cao, Ye; Huang, Xi; Wen, Liang-Sheng; Chen, Da

    2016-04-01

    A small-sized UAV (NH-UAV) airborne system with two gamma spectrometers (LaBr3 detector and HPGe detector) was developed to monitor activity concentration in serious nuclear accidents, such as the Fukushima nuclear accident. The efficiency calibration and determination of minimum detectable activity concentration (MDAC) of the specific system were studied by MC simulations at different flight altitudes, different horizontal distances from the detection position to the source term center and different source term sizes. Both air and ground radiation were considered in the models. The results obtained may provide instructive suggestions for in-situ radioactivity measurements of NH-UAV.

  9. Efficiency calibration and minimum detectable activity concentration of a real-time UAV airborne sensor system with two gamma spectrometers.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiao-Bin; Meng, Jia; Wang, Peng; Cao, Ye; Huang, Xi; Wen, Liang-Sheng; Chen, Da

    2016-04-01

    A small-sized UAV (NH-UAV) airborne system with two gamma spectrometers (LaBr3 detector and HPGe detector) was developed to monitor activity concentration in serious nuclear accidents, such as the Fukushima nuclear accident. The efficiency calibration and determination of minimum detectable activity concentration (MDAC) of the specific system were studied by MC simulations at different flight altitudes, different horizontal distances from the detection position to the source term center and different source term sizes. Both air and ground radiation were considered in the models. The results obtained may provide instructive suggestions for in-situ radioactivity measurements of NH-UAV. PMID:26773821

  10. Genetic studies of substance abuse.

    PubMed

    Vanyukov, M M; Tarter, R E

    2000-05-01

    Genetic studies of substance abuse indicate that variation in the risk for the disorder in the population is contributed by differences in both individual genotypes and environment. Recent developments in genetics raise the possibility of disentangling the complex system of genotype-environment interaction that determines the development of the individual behavioral phenotype. This paper reviews the concepts, methods and results pertaining to genetic investigation of substance abuse.

  11. Radioactive deposits in California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walker, George W.; Lovering, Tom G.

    1954-01-01

    Reconnaissance examination by Government geologists of many areas, mine properties, and prospects in California during the period between 1948 and 1953 has confirmed the presence of radioactive materials in place at more than 40 localities. Abnormal radioactivity at these localities is due to concentrations of primary and secondary uranium minerals, to radon gas, radium (?), and to thorium minerals. Of the known occurrences only three were thought to contain uranium oxide (uranitite or pitchblende), 4 contained uranium-bearing columbate, tantalate, or titanate minerals, 12 contained secondary uranium minerals, such as autunite, carnotite, and torbernite, one contained radon gas, 7 contained thorium minerals, and, at the remaining 16 localities, the source of the anomalous radiation was not positively determined. The occurrences in which uranium oxide has been tentatively identified include the Rathgeb mine (Calaveras County), the Yerih group of claims (San Bernardino County), and the Rainbow claim (Madera County). Occurrences of secondary uranium minerals are largely confined to the arid desert regions of south-eastern California including deposits in San Bernardino, Kern, Inyo, and Imperial Counties. Uranium-bearing columbate, tantalate, or titanate minerals have been reported from pegmatite and granitic rock in southeastern and eastern California. Thorium minerals have been found in vein deposits in eastern San Bernardino County and from pegmatites and granitic rocks in various parts of southeastern California; placer concentrations of thorium minerals are known from nearly all areas in the State that are underlain, in part, by plutonic crystalline rocks. The primary uranium minerals occur principally as minute accessory crystals in pegmatite or granitic rock, or with base-metal sulfide minerals in veins. Thorium minerals also occur as accessory crystals in pegmatite or granitic rock, in placer deposits derived from such rock, and, at Mountain Pass, in veins

  12. [Influence of nuclear reactor accident at Chernobyl' on the environmental radioactivity in Toyama].

    PubMed

    Morita, M; Shoji, M; Honda, T; Sakanoue, M

    1987-06-01

    The environmental radioactivity caused by the reactor accident at Chernobyl' was investigated from May 7 to May 31 of 1986 in Toyama. Measurement of radioactivities in airborne particles, rain water, drinking water, milk, and mugwort are carried out by gamma-ray spectrometry (pure Ge detector; ORTEC GMX-23195). Ten different nuclides (103Ru, 106Ru, 131I, 132Te-I, 134Cs, 136Cs, 137Cs, 140Ba-La) are identified from samples of airborne particles. In the air samples, a maximum radioactivity concentration of each nuclide is observed on 13th May 1986. The time of the reactor shut-down and the flux of thermal neutron at the reactor were calculated from 131I/132I and 137Cs/134Cs ratio. The exposure dose in Toyama by this accident is given as follows: internal exposure; [thyroid] adult-59 microSv, child-140 microSv, baby-130 microSv, [total body] adult-0.2 microSv, child, baby-0.4 microSv, external exposure; 7 microSv, effective dose equivalent; adult-9 microSv, child-12 Sv, baby-11 microSv.

  13. Molecular spectroscopy from the Kuiper Airborne Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beckwith, S.

    1985-01-01

    Interstellar and circumstellar molecules are investigated through medium-resolution infrared spectrosocpy of the vibration-rotation and pure rotational transitions. A primary goal was the construction and improvement of instrumentation for the near and middle infrared regions, wavelengths between 2 and 10 microns. The main instrument was a cooled grating spectrometer with an interchangeable detector focal plane which could be used on the Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO) for airborne observations, and also at ground-based facilities. Interstellar shock waves were investigated by H2 emission from the Orion Nebula, W51, and the proto-planetary nebulae CRL 2688 and CRL 618. The observations determined the physical conditions in shocked molecular gas near these objects. From these it was possible to characterize the energetic history of mass loss from both pre- and post-main sequence stars in the regions.

  14. Performance metrics for an airborne imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dayton, David C.; Gonglewski, John D.

    2004-11-01

    A series of airborne imaging experiments have been conducted on the island of Maui and at North Oscura Peak in New Mexico. Two platform altitudes were considered 3000 meters and 600 meters, both with a slant range to the target up to 10000 meters. The airborne imaging platform was a Twin Otter aircraft, which circled ground target sites. The second was a fixed platform on a mountain peak overlooking a valley 600 meters below. The experiments were performed during the day using solar illuminated target buildings. Imaging system performance predictions were calculated using standard atmospheric turbulence models, and aircraft boundary layer models. Several different measurement approaches were then used to estimate the actual system performance, and make comparisons with the calculations.

  15. Airborne Infrared Spectroscopy of 1994 Western Wildfires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Worden, Helen; Beer, Reinhard; Rinsland, Curtis P.

    1997-01-01

    In the summer of 1994 the 0.07/ cm resolution infrared Airborne Emission Spectrometer (AES) acquired spectral data over two wildfires, one in central Oregon on August 3 and the other near San Luis Obispo, California, on August 15. The spectrometer was on board a NASA DC-8 research aircraft, flying at an altitude of 12 km. The spectra from both fires clearly show features due to water vapor, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, ammonia, methanol, formic acid, and ethylene at significantly higher abundance and temperature than observed in downlooking spectra of normal atmospheric and ground conditions. Column densities are derived for several species, and molar ratios are compared with previous biomass fire measurements. We believe that this is the first time such data have been acquired by airborne spectral remote sensing.

  16. Analyzing Options for Airborne Emergency Wireless Communications

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Schmitt; Juan Deaton; Curt Papke; Shane Cherry

    2008-03-01

    In the event of large-scale natural or manmade catastrophic events, access to reliable and enduring commercial communication systems is critical. Hurricane Katrina provided a recent example of the need to ensure communications during a national emergency. To ensure that communication demands are met during these critical times, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) under the guidance of United States Strategic Command has studied infrastructure issues, concerns, and vulnerabilities associated with an airborne wireless communications capability. Such a capability could provide emergency wireless communications until public/commercial nodes can be systematically restored. This report focuses on the airborne cellular restoration concept; analyzing basic infrastructure requirements; identifying related infrastructure issues, concerns, and vulnerabilities and offers recommended solutions.

  17. BOREAS RSS-12 Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Nickeson, Jaime (Editor); Lobitz, Brad; Spanner, Michael; Wrigley, Robert

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS RSS-12 team collected both ground and airborne sunphotometer measurements for use in characterizing the aerosol optical properties of the atmosphere during the BOREAS data collection activities. These measurements are to be used to: 1) measure the magnitude and variability of the aerosol optical depth in both time and space; 2) determine the optical properties of the boreal aerosols; and 3) atmospherically correct remotely sensed data acquired during BOREAS. This data set contains airborne tracking sunphotometer data that were acquired from the C-130 aircraft during its flights over the BOREAS study areas. The data cover selected days and times from May to September 1994. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  18. The Callaway Plant's airborne tritium sampling cart

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, C.C.; Roselius, R.R. )

    1986-07-01

    The water vapor condensation method for sampling airborne tritium offers significant advantages over other methods, including minimal sample preparation, high sensitivity, and independence from collection efficiency and sample flow rate. However, it does have disadvantages that must be overcome in the design of a sampler. This article describes a cart-mounted, portable airborne tritium sampler used at the Callaway Nuclear Plant that incorporates the advantages of the condensation technique while minimizing its shortcomings. The key elements in the design of the sampler are the use of a refrigerated bath to cool a series of three water vapor collection traps and the use of an optical condensation dew point hygrometer to measure the moisture content of the sample. Design considerations for the proper operation of dew point hygrometers are presented, and the method used to convert due point readings to water vapor content is described.

  19. Airborne Microwave Imaging of River Velocities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plant, William J.

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this project was to determine whether airborne microwave remote sensing systems can measure river surface currents with sufficient accuracy to make them prospective instruments with which to monitor river flow from space. The approach was to fly a coherent airborne microwave Doppler radar, developed by APL/UW, on a light airplane along several rivers in western Washington state over an extended period of time. The fundamental quantity obtained by this system to measure river currents is the mean offset of the Doppler spectrum. Since this scatter can be obtained from interferometric synthetic aperture radars (INSARs), which can be flown in space, this project provided a cost effective means for determining the suitability of spaceborne INSAR for measuring river flow.

  20. ARMAR: An airborne rain-mapping radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durden, S. L.; Im, E.; Li, F. K.; Ricketts, W.; Tanner, A.; Wilson, W.

    1994-01-01

    A new airborne rain-mapping radar (ARMAR) has been developed by NASA and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for operation on the NASA Ames DC-8 aircraft. The radar operates at 13.8 GHz, the frequency to be used by the radar on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). ARMAR simulates the TRMM radar geometry by looking downward and scanning its antenna in the cross-track direction. This basic compatibility between ARMAR and TRMM allows ARMAR to provide information useful for the TRMM radar design, for rain retrieval algorithm development, and for postlaunch calibration. ARMAR has additional capabilities, including multiple polarization, Doppler velocity measurement, and a radiometer channel for brightness temperature measurement. The system has been tested in both ground-based and airborne configurations. This paper describes the design of the system and shows results of field tests.

  1. Music, Substance Use, and Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Meng-Jinn; Miller, Brenda A.; Grube, Joel W.; Waiters, Elizabeth D.

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study investigated whether young people’s substance use and aggressive behaviors are related to their listening to music containing messages of substance use and violence. Method Data were collected using self-administered questionnaires and from a sample of community college students aged 15-25 (N = 1056; 43% male). A structural equation modeling method was used to simultaneously assess the associations between listening to various genres of music, alcohol use, illicit drug use, and aggressive behaviors, taking into account respondents’ age, gender, race/ethnicity, and level of sensation seeking. Results Listening to rap music was significantly and positively associated with alcohol use, problematic alcohol use, illicit drug use, and aggressive behaviors when all other variables were controlled. Additionally, alcohol and illicit drug use were positively associated with listening to musical genres of techno and reggae. Control variables such as sensation seeking, age, gender and race/ethnicity were significantly related to substance use and aggressive behaviors. Conclusion The findings suggest that young people’s substance use and aggressive behaviors may be related to their frequent exposure to music containing references to substance use and violence. Conversely, music listening preference may reflect some personal predispositions or lifestyle preferences. Alternatively, substance use, aggression and music preference are independent constructs, but share common “third factors.” PMID:16608146

  2. Final disposal of radioactive waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freiesleben, H.

    2013-06-01

    In this paper the origin and properties of radioactive waste as well as its classification scheme (low-level waste - LLW, intermediate-level waste - ILW, high-level waste - HLW) are presented. The various options for conditioning of waste of different levels of radioactivity are reviewed. The composition, radiotoxicity and reprocessing of spent fuel and their effect on storage and options for final disposal are discussed. The current situation of final waste disposal in a selected number of countries is mentioned. Also, the role of the International Atomic Energy Agency with regard to the development and monitoring of international safety standards for both spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste management is described.

  3. RADIOACTIVE CONCENTRATOR AND RADIATION SOURCE

    DOEpatents

    Hatch, L.P.

    1959-12-29

    A method is presented for forming a permeable ion exchange bed using Montmorillonite clay to absorb and adsorb radioactive ions from liquid radioactive wastes. A paste is formed of clay, water, and a material that fomns with clay a stable aggregate in the presence of water. The mixture is extruded into a volume of water to form clay rods. The rods may then be used to remove radioactive cations from liquid waste solutions. After use, the rods are removed from the solution and heated to a temperature of 750 to 1000 deg C to fix the ratioactive cations in the clay.

  4. SELF SINTERING OF RADIOACTIVE WASTES

    DOEpatents

    McVay, T.N.; Johnson, J.R.; Struxness, E.G.; Morgan, K.Z.

    1959-12-29

    A method is described for disposal of radioactive liquid waste materials. The wastes are mixed with clays and fluxes to form a ceramic slip and disposed in a thermally insulated container in a layer. The temperature of the layer rises due to conversion of the energy of radioactivity to heat boillng off the liquid to fomn a dry mass. The dry mass is then covered with thermal insulation, and the mass is self-sintered into a leach-resistant ceramic cake by further conversion of the energy of radioactivity to heat.

  5. Star formation and extinct radioactivities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cameron, A. G. W.

    1984-01-01

    An assessment is made of the evidence for the existence of now-extinct radioactivities in primitive solar system material, giving attention to implications for the early stages of sun and solar system formation. The characteristics of possible disturbances in dense molecular clouds which can initiate the formation of cloud cores is discussed, with emphasis on these disturbances able to generate fresh radioactivities. A one-solar mass red giant star on the asymptotic giant branch appears to have been the best candidate to account for the short-lived extinct radioactivities in the early solar system.

  6. Airborne Chemical Sensing with Mobile Robots

    PubMed Central

    Lilienthal, Achim J.; Loutfi, Amy; Duckett, Tom

    2006-01-01

    Airborne chemical sensing with mobile robots has been an active research area since the beginning of the 1990s. This article presents a review of research work in this field, including gas distribution mapping, trail guidance, and the different subtasks of gas source localisation. Due to the difficulty of modelling gas distribution in a real world environment with currently available simulation techniques, we focus largely on experimental work and do not consider publications that are purely based on simulations.

  7. NASA's Airborne Astronomy Program - Lessons For SOFIA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erickson, Edwin F.

    2007-07-01

    Airborne astronomy was pioneered and has evolved at NASA Ames Research Center near San Francisco, California, since 1965. Nowhere else in the world has a similar program been implemented. Its many unique features deserve description, especially for the benefit of planning the operation of SOFIA, the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy, and in particular since NASA Headquarters’ recent decision to base SOFIA operations at Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards, California instead of at Ames. The history of Ames’ airborne astronomy program is briefly summarized. Discussed in more detail are the operations and organization of the 21-year Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO) program, which provide important lessons for SOFIA. The KAO program is our best prototype for planning effective SOFIA operations. Principal features of the KAO program which should be retained on SOFIA are: unique science, innovative new science instruments and technologies, training of young scientists, an effective education and public outreach program, flexibility, continuous improvement, and efficient operations with a lean, well integrated team. KAO program features which should be improved upon with SOFIA are: (1) a management structure that is dedicated primarily to safely maximizing scientific productivity for the resources available, headed by a scientist who is the observatory director, and (2) stimuli to assure prompt distribution and accessibility of data to the scientific community. These and other recommendations were recorded by the SOFIA Science Working Group in 1995, when the KAO was decommissioned to start work on SOFIA. Further operational and organizational factors contributing to the success of the KAO program are described. Their incorporation into SOFIA operations will help assure the success of this new airborne observatory. SOFIA is supported by NASA in the U.S. and DLR (the German Aerospace Center) in Germany.

  8. Flight results for the airborne Raman lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heaps, William S.; Burris, John F.

    1995-01-01

    The airborne Raman lidar recently completed a series of flight tests aboard a C-130 aircraft operated by the NASA Wallops Flight Facility. The Raman lidar is intended to make simultaneous remote measurements of methane, water vapor, temperature, and pressure. The principal purpose of the measurements is to aid in the investigation of polar phenomena related to the formation of ozone 'holes' by permitting the identification of the origin of air parcels using methane as a tracer.

  9. Airborne electronics for automated flight systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graves, G. B., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    The increasing importance of airborne electronics for use in automated flight systems is briefly reviewed with attention to both basic aircraft control functions and flight management systems for operational use. The requirements for high levels of systems reliability are recognized. Design techniques are discussed and the areas of control systems, computing and communications are considered in terms of key technical problems and trends for their solution.

  10. Holographic Airborne Rotating Lidar Instrument Experiment (HARLIE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwemmer, Geary K.

    1998-01-01

    Scanning holographic lidar receivers are currently in use in two operational lidar systems, PHASERS (Prototype Holographic Atmospheric Scanner for Environmental Remote Sensing) and now HARLIE (Holographic Airborne Rotating Lidar Instrument Experiment). These systems are based on volume phase holograms made in dichromated gelatin (DCG) sandwiched between 2 layers of high quality float glass. They have demonstrated the practical application of this technology to compact scanning lidar systems at 532 and 1064 nm wavelengths, the ability to withstand moderately high laser power and energy loading, sufficient optical quality for most direct detection systems, overall efficiencies rivaling conventional receivers, and the stability to last several years under typical lidar system environments. Their size and weight are approximately half of similar performing scanning systems using reflective optics. The cost of holographic systems will eventually be lower than the reflective optical systems depending on their degree of commercialization. There are a number of applications that require or can greatly benefit from a scanning capability. Several of these are airborne systems, which either use focal plane scanning, as in the Laser Vegetation Imaging System or use primary aperture scanning, as in the Airborne Oceanographic Lidar or the Large Aperture Scanning Airborne Lidar. The latter class requires a large clear aperture opening or window in the aircraft. This type of system can greatly benefit from the use of scanning transmission holograms of the HARLIE type because the clear aperture required is only about 25% larger than the collecting aperture as opposed to 200-300% larger for scan angles of 45 degrees off nadir.

  11. Airborne Infrared Spectrograph for Eclipse Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golub, L.; Cheimets, P.; DeLuca, E. E.; Samra, J.; Judge, P. G.

    2015-12-01

    Direct measurements of the coronal magnetic field have significant potential to enhance our understanding of coronal dynamics, and improve forecasting models. Of particular interest are observations of coronal field lines in the Transition Corona, the transitional region between closed and open flux systems, providing important information on eruptive instabilities and on the origin of the slow solar wind. While current instruments routinely observe the photospheric and chromospheric magnetic fields, the proposed airborne spectrometer will take a step toward the direct observation of coronal fields by measuring plasma emission in the infrared at high spatial and spectral resolution. The targeted lines are five forbidden magnetic dipole transitions between 1.4 and 4 um. The airborne system will consist of a telescope, grating spectrometer and pointing/stabilization system to be flown on the NSF/NCAR High-performance Instrumented Airborne Platform for Environmental Research (HIAPER) during the 21 August 2017 total solar eclipse. We will discuss the scientific objectives of the 2017 flight, describe details of the instrument design, and present the observing program for the eclipse.

  12. Optical Communications Link to Airborne Transceiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Regehr, Martin W.; Kovalik, Joseph M.; Biswas, Abhijit

    2011-01-01

    An optical link from Earth to an aircraft demonstrates the ability to establish a link from a ground platform to a transceiver moving overhead. An airplane has a challenging disturbance environment including airframe vibrations and occasional abrupt changes in attitude during flight. These disturbances make it difficult to maintain pointing lock in an optical transceiver in an airplane. Acquisition can also be challenging. In the case of the aircraft link, the ground station initially has no precise knowledge of the aircraft s location. An airborne pointing system has been designed, built, and demonstrated using direct-drive brushless DC motors for passive isolation of pointing disturbances and for high-bandwidth control feedback. The airborne transceiver uses a GPS-INS system to determine the aircraft s position and attitude, and to then illuminate the ground station initially for acquisition. The ground transceiver participates in link-pointing acquisition by first using a wide-field camera to detect initial illumination from the airborne beacon, and to perform coarse pointing. It then transfers control to a high-precision pointing detector. Using this scheme, live video was successfully streamed from the ground to the aircraft at 270 Mb/s while simultaneously downlinking a 50 kb/s data stream from the aircraft to the ground.

  13. Airborne myxomycete spores: detection using molecular techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamono, Akiko; Kojima, Hisaya; Matsumoto, Jun; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Fukui, Manabu

    2009-01-01

    Myxomycetes are organisms characterized by a life cycle that includes a fruiting body stage. Myxomycete fruiting bodies contain spores, and wind dispersal of the spores is considered important for this organism to colonize new areas. In this study, the presence of airborne myxomycetes and the temporal changes in the myxomycete composition of atmospheric particles (aerosols) were investigated with a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based method for Didymiaceae and Physaraceae. Twenty-one aerosol samples were collected on the roof of a three-story building located in Sapporo, Hokkaido Island, northern Japan. PCR analysis of DNA extracts from the aerosol samples indicated the presence of airborne myxomycetes in all the samples, except for the one collected during the snowfall season. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of the PCR products showed seasonally varying banding patterns. The detected DGGE bands were subjected to sequence analyses, and four out of nine obtained sequences were identical to those of fruiting body samples collected in Hokkaido Island. It appears that the difference in the fruiting period of each species was correlated with the seasonal changes in the myxomycete composition of the aerosols. Molecular evidence shows that newly formed spores are released and dispersed in the air, suggesting that wind-driven dispersal of spores is an important process in the life history of myxomycetes. This study is the first to detect airborne myxomycetes with the use of molecular ecological analyses and to characterize their seasonal distribution.

  14. Airborne Tactical Free-Electron Laser

    SciTech Connect

    Whitney, Roy; Neil, George

    2007-02-01

    The goal of 100 kilowatts (kW) of directed energy from an airborne tactical platform has proved challenging due to the size and weight of most of the options that have been considered. However, recent advances in Free-Electron Lasers appear to offer a solution along with significant tactical advantages: a nearly unlimited magazine, time structures for periods from milliseconds to hours, radar like functionality, and the choice of the wavelength of light that best meets mission requirements. For an Airborne Tactical Free-Electron Laser (ATFEL) on a platforms such as a Lockheed C-130J-30 and airships, the two most challenging requirements, weight and size, can be met by generating the light at a higher harmonic, aggressively managing magnet weights, managing cryogenic heat loads using recent SRF R&D results, and using FEL super compact design concepts that greatly reduce the number of components. The initial R&D roadmap for achieving an ATFEL is provided in this paper. Performing this R&D is expected to further reduce the weight, size and power requirements for the FELs the Navy is currently developing for shipboard applications, as well as providing performance enhancements for the strategic airborne MW class FELs. The 100 kW ATFEL with its tactical advantages may prove sufficiently attractive for early advancement in the queue of deployed FELs.

  15. Airborne multispectral detection of regrowth cotton fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westbrook, John K.; Suh, Charles P.-C.; Yang, Chenghai; Lan, Yubin; Eyster, Ritchie S.

    2015-01-01

    Effective methods are needed for timely areawide detection of regrowth cotton plants because boll weevils (a quarantine pest) can feed and reproduce on these plants beyond the cotton production season. Airborne multispectral images of regrowth cotton plots were acquired on several dates after three shredding (i.e., stalk destruction) dates. Linear spectral unmixing (LSU) classification was applied to high-resolution airborne multispectral images of regrowth cotton plots to estimate the minimum detectable size and subsequent growth of plants. We found that regrowth cotton fields can be identified when the mean plant width is ˜0.2 m for an image resolution of 0.1 m. LSU estimates of canopy cover of regrowth cotton plots correlated well (r2=0.81) with the ratio of mean plant width to row spacing, a surrogate measure of plant canopy cover. The height and width of regrowth plants were both well correlated (r2=0.94) with accumulated degree-days after shredding. The results will help boll weevil eradication program managers use airborne multispectral images to detect and monitor the regrowth of cotton plants after stalk destruction, and identify fields that may require further inspection and mitigation of boll weevil infestations.

  16. Improved Airborne System for Sensing Wildfires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKeown, Donald; Richardson, Michael

    2008-01-01

    The Wildfire Airborne Sensing Program (WASP) is engaged in a continuing effort to develop an improved airborne instrumentation system for sensing wildfires. The system could also be used for other aerial-imaging applications, including mapping and military surveillance. Unlike prior airborne fire-detection instrumentation systems, the WASP system would not be based on custom-made multispectral line scanners and associated custom- made complex optomechanical servomechanisms, sensors, readout circuitry, and packaging. Instead, the WASP system would be based on commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) equipment that would include (1) three or four electronic cameras (one for each of three or four wavelength bands) instead of a multispectral line scanner; (2) all associated drive and readout electronics; (3) a camera-pointing gimbal; (4) an inertial measurement unit (IMU) and a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver for measuring the position, velocity, and orientation of the aircraft; and (5) a data-acquisition subsystem. It would be necessary to custom-develop an integrated sensor optical-bench assembly, a sensor-management subsystem, and software. The use of mostly COTS equipment is intended to reduce development time and cost, relative to those of prior systems.

  17. Methods for Sampling of Airborne Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Verreault, Daniel; Moineau, Sylvain; Duchaine, Caroline

    2008-01-01

    Summary: To better understand the underlying mechanisms of aerovirology, accurate sampling of airborne viruses is fundamental. The sampling instruments commonly used in aerobiology have also been used to recover viruses suspended in the air. We reviewed over 100 papers to evaluate the methods currently used for viral aerosol sampling. Differentiating infections caused by direct contact from those caused by airborne dissemination can be a very demanding task given the wide variety of sources of viral aerosols. While epidemiological data can help to determine the source of the contamination, direct data obtained from air samples can provide very useful information for risk assessment purposes. Many types of samplers have been used over the years, including liquid impingers, solid impactors, filters, electrostatic precipitators, and many others. The efficiencies of these samplers depend on a variety of environmental and methodological factors that can affect the integrity of the virus structure. The aerodynamic size distribution of the aerosol also has a direct effect on sampler efficiency. Viral aerosols can be studied under controlled laboratory conditions, using biological or nonbiological tracers and surrogate viruses, which are also discussed in this review. Lastly, general recommendations are made regarding future studies on the sampling of airborne viruses. PMID:18772283

  18. MITAS: multisensor imaging technology for airborne surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, John D.

    1991-08-01

    MITAS, a unique and low-cost solution to the problem of collecting and processing multisensor imaging data for airborne surveillance operations has been developed, MITAS results from integrating the established and proven real-time video processing, target tracking, and sensor management software of TAU with commercially available image exploitation and map processing software. The MITAS image analysis station (IAS) supports airborne day/night reconnaissance and surveillance missions involving low-altitude collection platforms employing a suite of sensors to perform reconnaissance functions against a variety of ground and sea targets. The system will detect, locate, and recognize threats likely to be encountered in support of counternarcotic operations and in low-intensity conflict areas. The IAS is capable of autonomous, near real-time target exploitation and has the appropriate communication links to remotely located IAS systems for more extended analysis of sensor data. The IAS supports the collection, fusion, and processing of three main imaging sensors: daylight imagery (DIS), forward looking infrared (FLIR), and infrared line scan (IRLS). The MITAS IAS provides support to all aspects of the airborne surveillance mission, including sensor control, real-time image enhancement, automatic target tracking, sensor fusion, freeze-frame capture, image exploitation, target data-base management, map processing, remote image transmission, and report generation.

  19. Cryospheric Applications of Modern Airborne Photogrammetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nolan, M.

    2014-12-01

    Airborne photogrammetry is undergoing a renaissance. Lower-cost equipment, more powerful software, and simplified methods have lowered the barriers-to-entry significantly and now allow repeat-mapping of cryospheric dynamics that were previously too expensive to consider. The current state-of-the-art is the ability to use an airborne equipment package costing less than $20,000 to make topographic maps on landscape-scales at 10 cm pixel size with a vertical repeatability of about 10 cm. Nearly any surface change on the order of decimeters can be measured using these techniques through analysis of time-series of such maps. This presentation will discuss these new methods and their application to cryospheric dynamics such as the measurement of snow depth, coastal erosion, valley-glacier volume-change, permafrost thaw, frost heave of infrastructure, river bed geomorphology, and aufeis melt. Because of the expense of other airborne methods, by necessity measurements of these dynamics are currently most often made on the ground along benchmark transects that are then extrapolated to the broader scale. The ability to directly measure entire landscapes with equal or higher accuracy than transects eliminates the need to extrapolate them and the ability to do so at lower costs than transects may revolutionize the way we approach studying change in the cryosphere, as well as our understanding of the cryosphere itself.

  20. Radioactive Waste Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baisden, P. A.; Atkins-Duffin, C. E.

    Issues related to the management of radioactive wastes are presented with specific emphasis on high-level wastes generated as a result of energy and materials production using nuclear reactors. The final disposition of these high-level wastes depends on which nuclear fuel cycle is pursued, and range from once-through burning of fuel in a light water reactor followed by direct disposal in a geologic repository to more advanced fuel cycles (AFCs) where the spent fuel is reprocessed or partitioned to recover the fissile material (primarily 235U and 239Pu) as well as the minor actinides (MAs) (neptunium, americium, and curium) and some long-lived fission products (e.g., 99Tc and 129I). In the latter fuel cycle, the fissile materials are recycled through a reactor to produce more energy, the short-lived fission products are vitrified and disposed of in a geologic repository, and the minor actinides and long-lived fission products are converted to less radiotoxic or otherwise stable nuclides by a process called transmutation. The advantages and disadvantages of the various fuel cycle options and the challenges to the management of nuclear wastes they represent are discussed.

  1. Radioactive decay data tables

    SciTech Connect

    Kocher, D.C.

    1981-01-01

    The estimation of radiation dose to man from either external or internal exposure to radionuclides requires a knowledge of the energies and intensities of the atomic and nuclear radiations emitted during the radioactive decay process. The availability of evaluated decay data for the large number of radionuclides of interest is thus of fundamental importance for radiation dosimetry. This handbook contains a compilation of decay data for approximately 500 radionuclides. These data constitute an evaluated data file constructed for use in the radiological assessment activities of the Technology Assessments Section of the Health and Safety Research Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The radionuclides selected for this handbook include those occurring naturally in the environment, those of potential importance in routine or accidental releases from the nuclear fuel cycle, those of current interest in nuclear medicine and fusion reactor technology, and some of those of interest to Committee 2 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection for the estimation of annual limits on intake via inhalation and ingestion for occupationally exposed individuals.

  2. Measurement of airborne 131I, 134)Cs and 137Cs due to the Fukushima reactor incident in Milan (Italy).

    PubMed

    Clemenza, M; Fiorini, E; Previtali, E; Sala, E

    2012-12-01

    After the earthquake and the tsunami occurred in Japan on March 2011, four of the Fukushima reactors had released in air a large amount of radioactive isotopes that diffused all over the world. The presence of airborne (131)I, (134)Cs, and (137)Cs in air particulate due to this accident were detected and measured in the Low Radioactivity Laboratory operating in the Department of Environmental Sciences of the University of Milano-Bicocca. The sensitivity of the detecting apparatus is of 0.2 uBq/m(3) of air. Concentration and time distribution of these radiocontaminations ranging from a few to 400 uBq/m(3) for the (131)I and of a few tens of uBq/m(3) for the (137)Cs and (134)Cs.

  3. Process for treating radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Chino, K.; Kawamura, F.; Kikuchi, M.; Yusa, H.

    1982-11-30

    N-beta-(Aminoethyl)-gamma-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (NH2(CH2)2NH(CH2)3SI(OCH3)3) as a silane coupling agent and SiO(2 -x)(ONa)x/2(OH)x/2 as colloidal silica are mixed into a radioactive liquid waste containing sodium sulfate as a main component, coming from a boiling water-type, nuclear power plant as an effluent. The resulting mixed radioactive liquid waste is supplied into a vessel provided with a rotating shaft with blades. The rotating shaft is revolved while heating the radioactive liquid waste in the vessel, thereby making the radioactive liquid waste into powder. The resulting powder containing the silane coupling agent and the colloidal silica is shaped into pellets by a pelletizer. The pellets having a low hygroscopicity and a high strength are obtained.

  4. Radioactive stilbene derivatives in radioimmunoassay

    SciTech Connect

    Jouquey, A.; Touyer, G.

    1985-07-16

    Novel radioactive stilbene derivatives marked with iodine 125 or 131 possessing an iodine acceptor group and marked with iodine 125 or 131 and their preparation and antigens obtained therefrom and a process for preparing said antigens.

  5. Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM)

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, P.

    1997-02-01

    This paper discusses the broad problems presented by Naturally Occuring Radioactive Materials (NORM). Technologically Enhanced naturally occuring radioactive material includes any radionuclides whose physical, chemical, radiological properties or radionuclide concentration have been altered from their natural state. With regard to NORM in particular, radioactive contamination is radioactive material in an undesired location. This is a concern in a range of industries: petroleum; uranium mining; phosphorus and phosphates; fertilizers; fossil fuels; forestry products; water treatment; metal mining and processing; geothermal energy. The author discusses in more detail the problem in the petroleum industry, including the isotopes of concern, the hazards they present, the contamination which they cause, ways to dispose of contaminated materials, and regulatory issues. He points out there are three key programs to reduce legal exposure and problems due to these contaminants: waste minimization; NORM assesment (surveys); NORM compliance (training).

  6. Radioactive waste material melter apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Newman, D.F.; Ross, W.A.

    1990-04-24

    An apparatus for preparing metallic radioactive waste material for storage is disclosed. The radioactive waste material is placed in a radiation shielded enclosure. The waste material is then melted with a plasma torch and cast into a plurality of successive horizontal layers in a mold to form a radioactive ingot in the shape of a spent nuclear fuel rod storage canister. The apparatus comprises a radiation shielded enclosure having an opening adapted for receiving a conventional transfer cask within which radioactive waste material is transferred to the apparatus. A plasma torch is mounted within the enclosure. A mold is also received within the enclosure for receiving the melted waste material and cooling it to form an ingot. The enclosure is preferably constructed in at least two parts to enable easy transport of the apparatus from one nuclear site to another. 8 figs.

  7. Radioactive waste material melter apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Newman, Darrell F.; Ross, Wayne A.

    1990-01-01

    An apparatus for preparing metallic radioactive waste material for storage is disclosed. The radioactive waste material is placed in a radiation shielded enclosure. The waste material is then melted with a plasma torch and cast into a plurality of successive horizontal layers in a mold to form a radioactive ingot in the shape of a spent nuclear fuel rod storage canister. The apparatus comprises a radiation shielded enclosure having an opening adapted for receiving a conventional transfer cask within which radioactive waste material is transferred to the apparatus. A plasma torch is mounted within the enclosure. A mold is also received within the enclosure for receiving the melted waste material and cooling it to form an ingot. The enclosure is preferably constructed in at least two parts to enable easy transport of the apparatus from one nuclear site to another.

  8. Radioactivity of the Cooling Water

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Wigner, E. P.

    1943-03-01

    The most important source of radioactivity at the exit manifold of the pile will be due to O{sup 19}, formed by neutron absorption of O{sup 18}. A recent measurement of Fermi and Weil permits to estimate that it will be safe to stay about 80 minutes daily close to the exit manifolds without any shield. Estimates are given for the radioactivities from other sources both in the neighborhood and farther away from the pile.

  9. Storage depot for radioactive material

    DOEpatents

    Szulinski, Milton J.

    1983-01-01

    Vertical drilling of cylindrical holes in the soil, and the lining of such holes, provides storage vaults called caissons. A guarded depot is provided with a plurality of such caissons covered by shielded closures preventing radiation from penetrating through any linear gap to the atmosphere. The heat generated by the radioactive material is dissipated through the vertical liner of the well into the adjacent soil and thus to the ground surface so that most of the heat from the radioactive material is dissipated into the atmosphere in a manner involving no significant amount of biologically harmful radiation. The passive cooling of the radioactive material without reliance upon pumps, personnel, or other factor which might fail, constitutes one of the most advantageous features of this system. Moreover this system is resistant to damage from tornadoes or earthquakes. Hermetically sealed containers of radioactive material may be positioned in the caissons. Loading vehicles can travel throughout the depot to permit great flexibility of loading and unloading radioactive materials. Radioactive material can be shifted to a more closely spaced caisson after ageing sufficiently to generate much less heat. The quantity of material stored in a caisson is restricted by the average capacity for heat dissipation of the soil adjacent such caisson.

  10. 49 CFR 172.556 - RADIOACTIVE placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false RADIOACTIVE placard. 172.556 Section 172.556... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.556 RADIOACTIVE placard. (a) Except for size and color, the RADIOACTIVE... on the RADIOACTIVE placard must be white in the lower portion with a yellow triangle in the...

  11. 49 CFR 172.556 - RADIOACTIVE placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false RADIOACTIVE placard. 172.556 Section 172.556... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.556 RADIOACTIVE placard. (a) Except for size and color, the RADIOACTIVE... on the RADIOACTIVE placard must be white in the lower portion with a yellow triangle in the...

  12. 49 CFR 172.556 - RADIOACTIVE placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false RADIOACTIVE placard. 172.556 Section 172.556... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.556 RADIOACTIVE placard. (a) Except for size and color, the RADIOACTIVE... on the RADIOACTIVE placard must be white in the lower portion with a yellow triangle in the...

  13. 49 CFR 172.556 - RADIOACTIVE placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false RADIOACTIVE placard. 172.556 Section 172.556... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.556 RADIOACTIVE placard. (a) Except for size and color, the RADIOACTIVE... on the RADIOACTIVE placard must be white in the lower portion with a yellow triangle in the...

  14. 49 CFR 172.556 - RADIOACTIVE placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false RADIOACTIVE placard. 172.556 Section 172.556... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.556 RADIOACTIVE placard. (a) Except for size and color, the RADIOACTIVE... on the RADIOACTIVE placard must be white in the lower portion with a yellow triangle in the...

  15. 31 CFR 20.610 - Controlled substance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Controlled substance. 20.610 Section 20.610 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 20.610 Controlled substance. Controlled substance means a controlled substance...

  16. Airborne infectious disease and the suppression of pulmonary bioaerosols.

    PubMed

    Fiegel, Jennifer; Clarke, Robert; Edwards, David A

    2006-01-01

    The current understanding of airborne pathogen spread in relation to the new methods of suppressing exhaled bioaerosols using safe surface-active materials, such as isotonic saline, is reviewed here. We discuss the physics of bioaerosol generation in the lungs, what is currently known about the relationship between expired bioaerosols and airborne infectious disease and current methods of airborne infectious disease containment. We conclude by reviewing recent experiments that suggest the delivery of isotonic saline can significantly diminish exhaled aerosol--generated from airway lining fluid in the course of natural breathing. We also discuss these implications in relation to airborne infectious disease control.

  17. Raytheon low temperature RSP2 cryocooler airborne testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, B. R.; Bellis, L.; Ellis, M. J.; Conrad, T. J.

    2014-01-01

    The Raytheon Cryocooler Product Line tested the Low Temperature Stirling / Pulse Tube Hybrid 2-Stage (LTRSP2) cryocooler for an airborne application during 2012. Several tests were carried out to verify the ability of the machine to operate in an airborne environment. The vacuum level and heat rejection surface temperatures were varied to determine the performance over the excursions. Vibration testing was performed to prove that the LT-RSP2 cryocooler can operate on an airborne platform. This paper will present the results of the airborne characterization testing.

  18. Raytheon low temperature RSP2 cryocooler airborne testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, B. R.; Bellis, L.; Ellis, M. J.; Conrad, T. J.

    2013-09-01

    The Raytheon Cryocooler Product Line tested the Low Temperature Stirling / Pulse Tube Hybrid 2-Stage (LTRSP2) cryocooler for an airborne application during 2012. Several tests were carried out to verify the ability of the machine to operate in an airborne environment. The vacuum level and heat rejection surface temperatures were varied to determine the performance over the excursions. Vibration testing was performed to prove that the LT-RSP2 cryocooler can operate on an airborne platform. This paper will present the results of the airborne characterization testing.

  19. Airborne lidar experiments at the Savannah River Plant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krabill, William B.; Swift, Robert N.

    1985-01-01

    The results of remote sensing experiments at the Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Nuclear Facility utilizing the NASA Airborne Oceanographic Lidar (AOL) are presented. The flights were conducted in support of the numerous environmental monitoring requirements associated with the operation of the facility and for the purpose of furthering research and development of airborne lidar technology. Areas of application include airborne laser topographic mapping, hydrologic studies using fluorescent tracer dye, timber volume estimation, baseline characterization of wetlands, and aquatic chlorophyll and photopigment measurements. Conclusions relative to the usability of airborne lidar technology for the DOE for each of these remote sensing applications are discussed.

  20. Update on Banned Substances 2013

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Kenneth P.; Rainbow, Catherine R.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Doping has been pervasive throughout the history of athletic competitions and has only recently been regulated by organizations such as the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA), US Anti-Doping Agency (USADA), and the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA). These regulatory bodies were created to preserve fair play and maintain the safety of the participants. Their updated 2013 lists of banned substances and practices include a variety of drugs and practices that could cause harm to an athlete or give one an unfair competitive advantage. Evidence Acquisition: Published websites for the WADA, USADA, and NCAA were investigated. These governing bodies update and publish their lists annually. Results: The WADA, USADA, and NCAA monitor anabolic steroids, hormones, growth factors, β-agonists, hormone and metabolic modulators, masking agents, street drugs, manipulation of blood and blood components, chemical and physical manipulation, gene doping, stimulants, narcotics, glucocorticosteroids, and β-blockers. Some substances may be used by athletes but require formal exemption. The WADA has also recently created a category of nonapproved substances that have yet to be identified to curb athletes from experimenting with new doping agents. Conclusion: The lists of banned substances and practices per the WADA, USADA, and NCAA are in place to ensure the integrity of sports and maintain safe competition. Health care providers who work with athletes under the jurisdiction of these organizations should review updated lists of banned substances when prescribing medications. PMID:24427415

  1. Tracking of airborne radionuclides from the damaged Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear reactors by European networks.

    PubMed

    Masson, O; Baeza, A; Bieringer, J; Brudecki, K; Bucci, S; Cappai, M; Carvalho, F P; Connan, O; Cosma, C; Dalheimer, A; Didier, D; Depuydt, G; De Geer, L E; De Vismes, A; Gini, L; Groppi, F; Gudnason, K; Gurriaran, R; Hainz, D; Halldórsson, Ó; Hammond, D; Hanley, O; Holeý, K; Homoki, Zs; Ioannidou, A; Isajenko, K; Jankovic, M; Katzlberger, C; Kettunen, M; Kierepko, R; Kontro, R; Kwakman, P J M; Lecomte, M; Leon Vintro, L; Leppänen, A-P; Lind, B; Lujaniene, G; Mc Ginnity, P; Mc Mahon, C; Malá, H; Manenti, S; Manolopoulou, M; Mattila, A; Mauring, A; Mietelski, J W; Møller, B; Nielsen, S P; Nikolic, J; Overwater, R M W; Pálsson, S E; Papastefanou, C; Penev, I; Pham, M K; Povinec, P P; Ramebäck, H; Reis, M C; Ringer, W; Rodriguez, A; Rulík, P; Saey, P R J; Samsonov, V; Schlosser, C; Sgorbati, G; Silobritiene, B V; Söderström, C; Sogni, R; Solier, L; Sonck, M; Steinhauser, G; Steinkopff, T; Steinmann, P; Stoulos, S; Sýkora, I; Todorovic, D; Tooloutalaie, N; Tositti, L; Tschiersch, J; Ugron, A; Vagena, E; Vargas, A; Wershofen, H; Zhukova, O

    2011-09-15

    Radioactive emissions into the atmosphere from the damaged reactors of the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant (NPP) started on March 12th, 2011. Among the various radionuclides released, iodine-131 ((131)I) and cesium isotopes ((137)Cs and (134)Cs) were transported across the Pacific toward the North American continent and reached Europe despite dispersion and washout along the route of the contaminated air masses. In Europe, the first signs of the releases were detected 7 days later while the first peak of activity level was observed between March 28th and March 30th. Time variations over a 20-day period and spatial variations across more than 150 sampling locations in Europe made it possible to characterize the contaminated air masses. After the Chernobyl accident, only a few measurements of the gaseous (131)I fraction were conducted compared to the number of measurements for the particulate fraction. Several studies had already pointed out the importance of the gaseous (131)I and the large underestimation of the total (131)I airborne activity level, and subsequent calculations of inhalation dose, if neglected. The measurements made across Europe following the releases from the Fukushima NPP reactors have provided a significant amount of new data on the ratio of the gaseous (131)I fraction to total (131)I, both on a spatial scale and its temporal variation. It can be pointed out that during the Fukushima event, the (134)Cs to (137)Cs ratio proved to be different from that observed after the Chernobyl accident. The data set provided in this paper is the most comprehensive survey of the main relevant airborne radionuclides from the Fukushima reactors, measured across Europe. A rough estimate of the total (131)I inventory that has passed over Europe during this period was <1% of the released amount. According to the measurements, airborne activity levels remain of no concern for public health in Europe.

  2. Women and substance use disorders.

    PubMed

    Hecksher, Dorte; Hesse, Morten

    2009-01-01

    Substance use disorders belong to the class of externalizing behaviours that are generally more common among men than women. Those women who do have substance disorders therefore deviate more from the norms of society compared with men, tend to live in an environment characterized by high risk of violence and other forms of abuse, and tend to be survivors of childhood trauma. In terms of seeking treatment, women often have difficulty acknowledging their problems with substance use disorders, and professionals are reluctant to ask women about drug or alcohol use. Even when they do seek treatment, women in many countries face practical and financial barriers to access treatment. For women who do enter treatment, outcomes are generally comparable to outcomes for men, suggesting that facilitating entry into treatment can yield substantial benefits for women with addictions.

  3. Anticancer substances of mushroom origin.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, T S; Krupodorova, T A; Barshteyn, V Y; Artamonova, A B; Shlyakhovenko, V A

    2014-06-01

    The present status of investigations about the anticancer activity which is inherent to medicinal mushrooms, as well as their biomedical potential and future prospects are discussed. Mushroom products and extracts possess promising immunomodulating and anticancer effects, so the main biologically active substances of mushrooms responsible for immunomodulation and direct cytoto-xicity toward cancer cell lines (including rarely mentioned groups of anticancer mushroom proteins), and the mechanisms of their antitumor action were analyzed. The existing to date clinical trials of mushroom substances are mentioned. Mushroom anticancer extracts, obtained by the different solvents, are outlined. Modern approaches of cancer treatment with implication of mushroom products, including DNA vaccinotherapy with mushroom immunomodulatory adjuvants, creation of prodrugs with mushroom lectins that can recognize glycoconjugates on the cancer cell surface, development of nanovectors etc. are discussed. The future prospects of mushroom anticancer substances application, including chemical modification of polysaccharides and terpenoids, gene engineering of proteins, and implementation of vaccines are reviewed.

  4. [Investigation of radioactivity measurement of medical radioactive waste].

    PubMed

    Koizumi, Kiyoshi; Masuda, Kazutaka; Kusakabe, Kiyoko; Kinoshita, Fujimi; Kobayashi, Kazumi; Yamamoto, Tetsuo; Kanaya, Shinichi; Kida, Tetsuo; Yanagisawa, Masamichi; Iwanaga, Tetsuo; Ikebuchi, Hideharu; Kusama, Keiji; Namiki, Nobuo; Okuma, Hiroshi; Fujimura, Yoko; Horikoshi, Akiko; Tanaka, Mamoru

    2004-11-01

    To explore the possibility of which medical radioactive wastes could be disposed as general wastes after keeping them a certain period of time and confirming that their radioactivity reach a background level (BGL), we made a survey of these wastes in several nuclear medicine facilities. The radioactive wastes were collected for one week, packed in a box according to its half-life, and measured its radioactivity by scintillation survey meter with time. Some wastes could reach a BGL within 10 times of half-life, but 19% of the short half-life group (group 1) including 99mTc and 123I, and 8% of the middle half-life group (group 2) including 67Ga, (111)In, and 201Tl did not reach a BGL within 20 times of half-life. A reason for delaying the time of reaching a BGL might be partially attributed to high initial radiation dose rate or heavy package weight. However, mixing with the nuclides of longer half-life was estimated to be the biggest factor affecting this result. When disposing medical radioactive wastes as general wastes, it is necessary to avoid mixing with radionuclide of longer half-life and confirm that it reaches a BGL by actual measurement.

  5. Container and closure means for storage of radioactive material

    SciTech Connect

    Bienek, H.; Finkbeiner, R.; Wick, W.

    1984-03-20

    In the final storage of radioactive substances in containers, these containers must be sealed so as to be gas-tight by means of a cover, before they are taken to the final storage place. In order to avoid thermal stress, which has up till now been customary, of the radioactive substances on the one hand and of the container and cover on the other hand, it is proposed that the container and the sealing cover should be suitably ground on their seating areas which cooperate with each other, and when the container is closed the cover is held by prestressing on the seating area of the container. In a preferred method, after grinding, a thin equalizing layer of a highly corrosion-resistant, deformable material is applied to at least one of the seating surfaces of the container and cover, in order to achieve a compensation for any roughness which may be present, which will improve the sealing, depending on the technically and/or economically possible extent of the grinding. It is also possible, however, to form the prestressing by means of a lapped contact.

  6. Adolescent pregnancy and substance use.

    PubMed

    Flanagan, P; Kokotailo, P

    1999-03-01

    The question of just what is the relationship of early pregnancy and childbearing and substance use among adolescents remains unanswered. From a public health perspective, both behaviors are unwanted, and populations that are at risk are often at high risk for both. Perhaps prevention of one behavior may be expected to prevent the other. This, however, may be too simplistic a notion, grounded in misconception of the role of early pregnancy and specific cultural context. Furthermore, several studies have documented a decline of drug use during pregnancy and just after delivery among adolescent mothers. Does this trend continue through the parenting years? If so, for whom? What are the individual maternal, child, and family environmental characteristics that predict a decline in use or continued abstinence after early childbearing? Within the context of poverty, lower educational attainment, minority status, and high prevalence of alcohol and drug use, pregnancy may play a positive role. With a change in role, young women may be less likely than nonparenting peers and less likely than prior to their own pregnancy to become deeply involved in the negative behaviors, such as smoking, drinking, and substance use. Perhaps this is a potential opportunity to intervene. To summarize, the health risk behaviors of substance use and adolescent pregnancy and childbearing appear to be linked. Youths who become pregnant before they complete high school represent a particular group of young women who may be at higher risk than the general population for substance use, at least cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana. Yet, most pregnant teenagers are not substance users. Among those who are, frequency and amounts of use in most samples were low compared with adult samples of pregnant women. Furthermore, there is evidence that teenagers perceive substance use as a risk to their pregnancies and their unborn children. Among users, there is a decrease in use and increase in quit rates

  7. Medications for Substance Use Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Douaihy, Antoine B.; Kelly, Thomas M.; Sullivan, Carl

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the authors briefly review the pharmacotherapeutic agents that are currently available for the treatment of substance use disorders. Nicotine replacement therapies are most effective for tobacco cessation. Naltrexone, acamprosate, and disulfiram are effective for reducing alcohol use. The most effective pharmacotherapies for opiate use disorders are agonist therapies, including methadone and buprenorphine. The authors also examine recent advances in medication development for other substance use disorders such as stimulant addiction. The role of medication adherence and behavioral treatments and the integration of behavioral and pharmacotherapeutic interventions are also discussed. PMID:23731419

  8. Substance Use Among College Students.

    PubMed

    Skidmore, Chloe R; Kaufman, Erin A; Crowell, Sheila E

    2016-10-01

    Emerging adulthood has heightened risk for substance use. College students experience unique challenges, making them prone to use of alcohol, marijuana, and nonmedical use of prescription drugs. This article reviews rates of college students' substance use, risk factors, and populations at elevated risk. Consequences include legal, academic, and mental health problems; engagement in other risky behaviors; increased rates of injury; and death. Researchers, clinicians, and university administrators must identify those at greatest risk and provide prevention and intervention programs. Despite broad evidence supporting such programs, many students fail to access appropriate treatment. Future research should elucidate treatment barriers. PMID:27613349

  9. Airborne Astronomy Symposium. A symposium commemorating the tenth anniversary of operations of the Kuiper Airborne Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thronson, H. A., Jr. (Editor); Erickson, E. F. (Editor)

    1984-01-01

    Airborne infrared astronomy is discussed with respect to observations of the solar system, stars, star formation, and the interstellar medium. Far infrared characteristics of the Milky Way, its center, and other galaxies are considered. The instrumentation associated with IR astronomy is addressed.

  10. Laser links for mobile airborne nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griethe, Wolfgang; Knapek, Markus; Horwath, Joachim

    2015-05-01

    Remotely Piloted Aircrafts (RPA's) and especially Medium Altitude Long Endurance (MALE) and High Altitude Long Endurance (HALE) are currently operated over long distances, often across several continents. This is only made possible by maintaining Beyond Line Of Side (BLOS) radio links between ground control stations and unmanned vehicles via geostationary (GEO) satellites. The radio links are usually operated in the Ku-frequency band and used for both, vehicle command & control (C2) - it also refers to Command and Non-Payload Communication (CNPC) - as well as transmission of intelligence data - the associated communication stream also refers to Payload Link (PL). Even though this scheme of communication is common practice today, various other issues are raised thereby. The paper shows that the current existing problems can be solved by using the latest technologies combined with altered intuitive communication strategies. In this context laser communication is discussed as a promising technology for airborne applications. It is clearly seen that for tactical reasons, as for instance RPA cooperative flying, Air-to-Air communications (A2A) is more advantageous than GEO satellite communications (SatCom). Hence, together with in-flight test results the paper presents a design for a lightweight airborne laser terminal, suitable for use onboard manned or unmanned airborne nodes. The advantages of LaserCom in combination with Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) technologies particularly for Persistent Wide Area Surveillance (PWAS) are highlighted. Technical challenges for flying LaserCom terminals aboard RPA's are outlined. The paper leads to the conclusion that by combining both, LaserCom and ISR, a new quality for an overall system arises which is more than just the sum of two separate key technologies.

  11. Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition 2: An Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, James G.; Toon, Owen B.

    1993-01-01

    The sudden onset of ozone depletion in the antarctic vortex set a precedent for both the time scale and the severity of global change. The Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment (AAOE), staged from Punta Arenas, Chile, in 1987, established that CFCs, halons, and methyl bromide, the dominant sources of chlorine and bromine radicals in the stratosphere, control the rate of ozone destruction over the Antarctic; that the vortex is depleted in reactive nitrogen and water vapor; and that diabatic cooling during the antarctic winter leads to subsidence within the vortex core, importing air from higher altitudes and lower latitudes. This last conclusion is based on observed dramatic distortion in the tracer fields, most notably N2O. In 1989, the first Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition (AASE-I), staged from Stavanger, Norway, and using the same aircraft employed for AAOE (the NASA ER-2 and the NASA DC-8), discovered that while NO(x) and to some degree NO(y) were perturbed within the arctic vortex, there was little evidence for desiccation. Under these (in contrast to the antarctic) marginally perturbed conditions, however, Cl0 was found to be dramatically enhanced such that a large fraction of the available (inorganic) chlorine resided in the form of Cl0 and its dimer ClOOCl. This leaves two abiding issues for the northern hemisphere and the mission of the second Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition (AASE-II): (1) Will significant ozone erosion occur within the arctic vortex in the next ten years as chlorine loading in the stratosphere exceeds four parts per billion by volume? and (2) Which mechanisms are responsible for the observed ozone erosion poleward of 30 deg N in the winter/spring northern hemisphere reported in satellite observations?

  12. Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition 2: An overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, James G.; Toon, Owen B.

    1993-01-01

    The sudden onset of ozone depletion in the antarctic vortex set a precedent for both the time scale and the severity of global change. The Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment (AAOE), stages from Punta Arenas, Chile, in 1987, established that CFCs, halons, and methyl bromide, the dominant sources of chlorine and bromide radicals in the stratosphere, control the rate of ozone destruction over the Antarctic; that the vortex is depleted in reactive nitrogen and water vapor; and that diabatic cooling during the antarctic winter leads to subsidence within the vortex core, importing air from higher altitudes and lower latitudes. This last conclusion is based on observed dramatic distortion in the tracer fields, most notably N2O. In 1989, the first Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition (AASE-1), staged from Stavanger, Norway, and using the same aircraft employed for AAOE (the NASA ER-2 and the NASA DC-8), discovered that while NO(x) and to some degree NO(y) were perturbed within the arctic vortex, there was little evidence for desiccation. Under these (in contrast to the antarctic) marginally perturbed conditions, however, ClO was found to be dramatically enhanced such that a large fraction of the available (inorganic) chlorine resided in the form of ClO and its dimer ClOOCl. This leaves two abiding issues for the northern hemisphere and the mission of the second Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition (AASE-2): (1) Will significant ozone erosion occur within the arctic vortex in the next ten years as chlorine loading in the stratosphere exceeds four parts per billion by volume? (2) Which mechanisms are responsible for the observed ozone erosion poleward of 30 deg N in the winter/spring northern hemisphere reported in satellite observations?

  13. Even Shallower Exploration with Airborne Electromagnetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auken, E.; Christiansen, A. V.; Kirkegaard, C.; Nyboe, N. S.; Sørensen, K.

    2015-12-01

    Airborne electromagnetics (EM) is in many ways undergoing the same type rapid technological development as seen in the telecommunication industry. These developments are driven by a steadily increasing demand for exploration of minerals, groundwater and geotechnical targets. The latter two areas demand shallow and accurate resolution of the near surface geology in terms of both resistivity and spatial delineation of the sedimentary layers. Airborne EM systems measure the grounds electromagnetic response when subject to either a continuous discrete sinusoidal transmitter signal (frequency domain) or by measuring the decay of currents induced in the ground by rapid transmission of transient pulses (time domain). In the last decade almost all new developments of both instrument hardware and data processing techniques has focused around time domain systems. Here we present a concept for measuring the time domain response even before the transient transmitter current has been turned off. Our approach relies on a combination of new instrument hardware and novel modeling algorithms. The newly developed hardware allows for measuring the instruments complete transfer function which is convolved with the synthetic earth response in the inversion algorithm. The effect is that earth response data measured while the transmitter current is turned off can be included in the inversion, significantly increasing the amount of available information. We demonstrate the technique using both synthetic and field data. The synthetic examples provide insight on the physics during the turn off process and the field examples document the robustness of the method. Geological near surface structures can now be resolved to a degree that is unprecedented to the best of our knowledge, making airborne EM even more attractive and cost-effective for exploration of water and minerals that are crucial for the function of our societies.

  14. Airborne seeker evaluation and test system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jollie, William B.

    1991-08-01

    The Airborne Seeker Evaluation Test System (ASETS) is an airborne platform for development, test, and evaluation of air-to-ground seekers and sensors. ASETS consists of approximately 10,000 pounds of equipment, including sixteen racks of control, display, and recording electronics, and a very large stabilized airborne turret, all carried by a modified C- 130A aircraft. The turret measures 50 in. in diameter and extends over 50 in. below the aircraft. Because of the low ground clearance of the C-130, a unique retractor mechanism was designed to raise the turret inside the aircraft for take-offs and landings, and deploy the turret outside the aircraft for testing. The turret has over 7 cubic feet of payload space and can accommodate up to 300 pounds of instrumentation, including missile seekers, thermal imagers, infrared mapping systems, laser systems, millimeter wave radar units, television cameras, and laser rangers. It contains a 5-axis gyro-stabilized gimbal system that will maintain a line of sight in the pitch, roll, and yaw axes to an accuracy better than +/- 125 (mu) rad. The rack-mounted electronics in the aircraft cargo bay can be interchanged to operate any type of sensor and record the data. Six microcomputer subsystems operate and maintain all of the system components during a test mission. ASETS is capable of flying at altitudes between 200 and 20,000 feet, and at airspeeds ranging from 100 to 250 knots. Mission scenarios can include air-to-surface seeker testing, terrain mapping, surface target measurement, air-to-air testing, atmospheric transmission studies, weather data collection, aircraft or missile tracking, background signature measurements, and surveillance. ASETS is fully developed and available to support test programs.

  15. Airborne LIDAR Data Processing and Analysis Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, K.

    2007-12-01

    Airborne LIDAR technology allows accurate and inexpensive measurements of topography, vegetation canopy heights, and buildings over large areas. In order to provide researchers high quality data, NSF has created the National Center for Airborne Laser Mapping (NCALM) to collect, archive, and distribute the LIDAR data. However, the LIDAR systems collect voluminous irregularly-spaced, three-dimensional point measurements of ground and non-ground objects scanned by the laser beneath the aircraft. To advance the use of the technology and data, NCALM is developing public domain algorithms for ground and non-ground measurement classification and tools for data retrieval and transformation. We present the main functions of the ALDPAT (Airborne LIDAR Data Processing and Analysis Tools) developed by NCALM. While Geographic Information Systems (GIS) provide a useful platform for storing, analyzing, and visualizing most spatial data, the shear volume of raw LIDAR data makes most commercial GIS packages impractical. Instead, we have developed a suite of applications in ALDPAT which combine self developed C++ programs with the APIs of commercial remote sensing and GIS software. Tasks performed by these applications include: 1) transforming data into specified horizontal coordinate systems and vertical datums; 2) merging and sorting data into manageable sized tiles, typically 4 square kilometers in dimension; 3) filtering point data to separate measurements for the ground from those for non-ground objects; 4) interpolating the irregularly spaced elevations onto a regularly spaced grid to allow raster based analysis; and 5) converting the gridded data into standard GIS import formats. The ALDPAT 1.0 is available through http://lidar.ihrc.fiu.edu/.

  16. Aircraft deployment, and airborne arctic stratospheric expedition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Condon, Estelle; Tuck, Adrian; Hipskind, Steve; Toon, Brian; Wegener, Steve

    1990-01-01

    The Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition had two primary objectives: to study the production and loss mechanisms of ozone in the north polar stratosphere and to study the effect on ozone distribution of the Arctic Polar Vortex and of the cold temperatures associated with the formation of Polar Stratospheric Clouds. Two specially instrumented NASA aircraft were flown over the Arctic region. Each aircraft flew to acquire data on the meteorological, chemical and cloud physical phenomena that occur in the polar stratosphere during winter. The chemical processes which occur in the polar stratosphere during winter were also observed and studied. The data acquired are being analyzed.

  17. Airborne optical detection of oil on water.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millard, J. P.; Arvesen, J. C.

    1972-01-01

    Airborne measurements were made over controlled oil-spill test sites to evaluate various techniques, utilizing reflected sunlight, for detecting oil on water. The results of these measurements show that (1) maximum contrast between oil and water is in the UV and red portions of the spectrum; (2) minimum contrast is in the blue-green; (3) differential polarization appears to be a very promising technique; (4) no characteristic absorption bands, which would permit one oil to be distinguished from another, were discovered in the spectral regions measured; (5) sky conditions greatly influence the contrast between oil and water; and (6) highest contrast was achieved under overcast sky conditions.

  18. The fate of airborne polycyclic organic matter.

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, T; Ramdahl, T; Bjørseth, A

    1983-01-01

    Biological tests have shown that a significant part of the mutagenicity of organic extracts of collected airborne particulate matter is not due to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). It is possible that part of these unknown compounds are transformation products of PAH. This survey focuses on the reaction of PAH in the atmosphere with other copollutants, such as nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, ozone and free radicals and their reaction products. Photochemically induced reactions of PAH are also included. The reactivity of particle-associated PAH is discussed in relation to the chemical composition and the physical properties of the carrier. Recommendations for future work are given. PMID:6825615

  19. CCD video camera and airborne applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturz, Richard A.

    2000-11-01

    The human need to see for ones self and to do so remotely, has given rise to video camera applications never before imagined and growing constantly. The instant understanding and verification offered by video lends its applications to every facet of life. Once an entertainment media, video is now ever present in out daily life. The application to the aircraft platform is one aspect of the video camera versatility. Integrating the video camera into the aircraft platform is yet another story. The typical video camera when applied to more standard scene imaging poses less demanding parameters and considerations. This paper explores the video camera as applied to the more complicated airborne environment.

  20. Refractive acoustic devices for airborne sound.

    PubMed

    Cervera, F; Sanchis, L; Sánchez-Pérez, J V; Martínez-Sala, R; Rubio, C; Meseguer, F; López, C; Caballero, D; Sánchez-Dehesa, J

    2002-01-14

    We show that a sonic crystal made of periodic distributions of rigid cylinders in air acts as a new material which allows the construction of refractive acoustic devices for airborne sound. It is demonstrated that, in the long-wave regime, the crystal has low impedance and the sound is transmitted at subsonic velocities. Here, the fabrication and characterization of a convergent lens are presented. Also, an example of a Fabry-Perot interferometer based on this crystal is analyzed. It is concluded that refractive devices based on sonic crystals behave in a manner similar to that of optical systems.

  1. The GeoTASO airborne spectrometer project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leitch, J. W.; Delker, T.; Good, W.; Ruppert, L.; Murcray, F.; Chance, K.; Liu, X.; Nowlan, C.; Janz, S. J.; Krotkov, N. A.; Pickering, K. E.; Kowalewski, M.; Wang, J.

    2014-10-01

    The NASA ESTO-funded Geostationary Trace gas and Aerosol Sensor Optimization (GeoTASO) development project demonstrates a reconfigurable multi-order airborne spectrometer and tests the performance of spectra separation and filtering on the sensor spectral measurements and subsequent trace gas and aerosol retrievals. The activities support mission risk reduction for the UV-Visible air quality measurements from geostationary orbit for the TEMPO and GEMS missions1 . The project helps advance the retrieval algorithm readiness through retrieval performance tests using scene data taken with varying sensor parameters. We report initial results of the project.

  2. Refractive acoustic devices for airborne sound.

    PubMed

    Cervera, F; Sanchis, L; Sánchez-Pérez, J V; Martínez-Sala, R; Rubio, C; Meseguer, F; López, C; Caballero, D; Sánchez-Dehesa, J

    2002-01-14

    We show that a sonic crystal made of periodic distributions of rigid cylinders in air acts as a new material which allows the construction of refractive acoustic devices for airborne sound. It is demonstrated that, in the long-wave regime, the crystal has low impedance and the sound is transmitted at subsonic velocities. Here, the fabrication and characterization of a convergent lens are presented. Also, an example of a Fabry-Perot interferometer based on this crystal is analyzed. It is concluded that refractive devices based on sonic crystals behave in a manner similar to that of optical systems. PMID:11801014

  3. Radioactive Nanomaterials for Multimodality Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Daiqin; Dougherty, Casey A.; Yang, Dongzhi; Wu, Hongwei; Hong, Hao

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear imaging techniques, including primarily positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), can provide quantitative information for a biological event in vivo with ultra-high sensitivity, however, the comparatively low spatial resolution is their major limitation in clinical application. By convergence of nuclear imaging with other imaging modalities like computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and optical imaging, the hybrid imaging platforms can overcome the limitations from each individual imaging technique. Possessing versatile chemical linking ability and good cargo-loading capacity, radioactive nanomaterials can serve as ideal imaging contrast agents. In this review, we provide a brief overview about current state-of-the-art applications of radioactive nanomaterials in the circumstances of multimodality imaging. We present strategies for incorporation of radioisotope(s) into nanomaterials along with applications of radioactive nanomaterials in multimodal imaging. Advantages and limitations of radioactive nanomaterials for multimodal imaging applications are discussed. Finally, a future perspective of possible radioactive nanomaterial utilization is presented for improving diagnosis and patient management in a variety of diseases. PMID:27227167

  4. Photocatalytic: oxidation of volatile organic compounds present in airborne environment adjacent to sewage treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Raillard, C; Héquet, V; Le Cloirec, P; Legrand, J

    2004-01-01

    Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from wastewater in municipal sewage or industrial wastewater treatment plants are often overlooked as sources of exposure to hazardous substances. The impact of such emissions on local airborne environments represents a growing source of scientific, toxicological and public health interest. Actually, VOCs are suspected to be quite dangerous for human health. Some of them belong to the family of odorous compounds and can cause serious annoyance in the neighbourhood of the emission sources. A way to remove VOCs released from sewers and wastewater treatment facilities could be to degrade them by photocatalytic oxidation. TiO2-based photocatalysts are known to be efficient for this kind of application. In the present work TiO2 P25 Degussa was deposited on glass supports. These materials were tested for the degradation of butanone-2 in a photocatalytic reactor. The influence of water vapour (relative humidity) was shown using the Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetic model. PMID:14979545

  5. Applications Where Snap is BPM for Radioactive Waste Assay

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, T.J.

    2008-07-01

    Historically, the Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE) at Aldermaston in the United Kingdom (UK), has used a variety of assay techniques to measure the radioactive content of a diverse range of waste packages from decommissioning, operational and legacy sources. The regulator, the Environment Agency in the UK, places conditions and limits on AWE through an authorisation within the Radioactive Substances Act (RSA93). The conditions and limits require Best Practical Means (BPM) measurements to be used to demonstrate compliance with the authorisation. Hence, the assay technique employed needs to achieve a balance between risk of exposure, environmental considerations, technological considerations, health and safety considerations and cost effectiveness, without being grossly disproportionate in terms of money, time or trouble. Recently published work has concluded that the Spectral Non-destructive Assay Platform (SNAP) assay system is BPM for Depleted Uranium (DU) waste assay at AWE (1) and low level plutonium in soft drummed waste, HEPA filters and soils (2-4). The purpose of this paper is to highlight other applications where SNAP represents BPM for radioactive waste assay. This has been done by intercomparison studies of SNAP with other assay techniques, such as Segmented Gamma Scanner (SGS) and Passive Neutron Coincidence Counter (PNCC). It has been concluded that, for a large range of waste packages encountered at AWE, SNAP is BPM. (author)

  6. Matters of Substance: Students' Voices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Gertrude

    2007-01-01

    America's romance with certainty leads to a belief that substances improve life and fits with the New Psychiatry. It's use of psychotropic medications to treat an array of mental illnesses changes evaluations, treatment and emergency coverage. The rising abuse of its prescription drugs alters the campus party scene, and challenges pretenses about…

  7. Substance Abuse by Anesthesiology Residents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lutsky, Irving; And Others

    1991-01-01

    The analysis of 183 responses to a survey of former anesthesiology residents of the Medical College of Wisconsin found that 29 had been self-administered problematic substance abusers during their residencies, 23 had been alcohol dependent, and 6 had been drug dependent. More than 85 percent of respondents considered the drug policy information…

  8. Juvenile Justice and Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chassin, Laurie

    2008-01-01

    Laurie Chassin focuses on the elevated prevalence of substance use disorders among young offenders in the juvenile justice system and on efforts by the justice system to provide treatment for these disorders. She emphasizes the importance of diagnosing and treating these disorders, which are linked both with continued offending and with a broad…

  9. Substance Use as Impression Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharp, Mark J.; Getz, J. Greg

    1996-01-01

    Examines the function of substance use as an impression management tactic. Introductory psychology students (n=377) responded to a survey instrument measuring self-monitoring, perceived success in impression management, interaction anxiety, and self-esteem. Results suggest that alcohol use may serve an impression management function. (JPS)

  10. Pharmacotherapy for Substance Use Disorders.

    PubMed

    Klein, Jared Wilson

    2016-07-01

    This article reviews the current pharmacotherapy options available for the treatment of patients with substance use disorders. In the United States there are medications available to treat tobacco use disorders (nicotine replacement, bupropion, and varenicline), alcohol use disorders (naltrexone and acamprosate), and opioid use disorders (methadone and buprenorphine). These medications are likely underused and physicians should more readily prescribe for eligible patients. PMID:27235620

  11. Substance Abuse and Teacher Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fimian, Michael J.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Examined on-the-job stress in relationship with need to use and frequency of use of over-the-counter (OTC) and prescription (P) drugs and alcohol (A), across five teacher samples (N=1,788). Results showed high stress frequencies were significantly related to the frequent use of OTC, P, and A substances. (Author/BH)

  12. Substance Use and Early Marriage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martino, Steven C.; Collins, Rebecca L.; Ellickson, Phyllis L.

    2004-01-01

    Prior work indicates that substance use is related to adolescent marriage. We describe two different processes that may account for this relationship and hypothesize patterns of association that would be consistent or inconsistent with each. Using data from a study that followed west coast youth from 7th grade to young adulthood N3,324, we…

  13. SOFIA's Airborne Astronomy Ambassadors: An External Evaluation of Cycle 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) represents a partnership between NASA and the German Aerospace Center (DLR). The observatory itself is a Boeing 747 SP that has been modified to serve as the world's largest airborne research observatory. The SOFIA Airborne Astronomy Ambassadors (AAA) program is a component of SOFIA's…

  14. 54. DETAIL OF GENERAL ELECTRIC AIRBORNE BEACON EQUIPMENT TEST SET ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    54. DETAIL OF GENERAL ELECTRIC AIRBORNE BEACON EQUIPMENT TEST SET (LEFT) AND ASSOCIATED GOULD BRUSH CHART RECORDERS (RIGHT). ELAPSED TIME COUNTER SITS ATOP AIRBORNE BEACON EQUIPMENT TEST SET. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Operations Building, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  15. OPTIMIZING THE PAKS METHOD FOR MEASURING AIRBORNE ACROLEIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Airborne acrolein is produced from the combustion of fuel and tobacco and is of concern due to its potential for respiratory tract irritation and other adverse health effects. DNPH active-sampling is a method widely used for sampling airborne aldehydes and ketones (carbonyls); ...

  16. Enumerating Spore-Forming Bacteria Airborne with Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Ying; Barengoltz, Jack

    2006-01-01

    A laboratory method has been conceived to enable the enumeration of (1) Cultivable bacteria and bacterial spores that are, variously, airborne by themselves or carried by, parts of, or otherwise associated with, other airborne particles; and (2) Spore-forming bacteria among all of the aforementioned cultivable microbes.

  17. Experimental evaluation of an airborne depth sounding lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinvall, Ove; Koppari, Kurt; Karlsson, Ulf

    1992-12-01

    An experimental evaluation of an airborne depth sounding lidar called FLASH (FOA Laser Airborne Sounder for Hydrography) is presented. The lidar is based on a scanning frequency doubled Nd-YAG laser and is borne by a helicopter. An example of measured waveforms is compared with those obtained by analytical and Monte Carlo modeling.

  18. 76 FR 76333 - Notification for Airborne Wind Energy Systems (AWES)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-07

    ... Statement can be found in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-19478), as well as... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 77 Notification for Airborne Wind Energy Systems (AWES) AGENCY...,'' to airborne wind energy systems (AWES). In addition, this notice requests information from...

  19. Adaptive Restoration of Airborne Daedalus AADS1268 ATM Thermal Data

    SciTech Connect

    D. Yuan; E. Doak; P. Guss; A. Will

    2002-01-01

    To incorporate the georegistration and restoration processes into airborne data processing in support of U.S. Department of Energy's nuclear emergency response task, we developed an adaptive restoration filter for airborne Daedalus AADS1268 ATM thermal data based on the Wiener filtering theory. Preliminary assessment shows that this filter enhances the detectability of small weak thermal anomalies in AADS1268 thermal images.

  20. Adaptive restoration of airborne Daedalus AADS1268 ATM thermal data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Ding; Doak, Edwin L.; Guss, Paul; Will, Alan

    2002-03-01

    To incorporate the georegistration and restoration processes into airborne data processing in support of DOE's nuclear emergency response task, we developed an adaptive restoration filter for airborne Daedalus AADS1268 ATM thermal data based on the Wiener filtering theory. Preliminary assessment shows that this filter enhances the detectability of small weak thermal anomalies in AADS1268 thermal images.

  1. 14 CFR 135.173 - Airborne thunderstorm detection equipment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Airborne thunderstorm detection equipment... Aircraft and Equipment § 135.173 Airborne thunderstorm detection equipment requirements. (a) No person may... the aircraft is equipped with either approved thunderstorm detection equipment or approved...

  2. 14 CFR 135.173 - Airborne thunderstorm detection equipment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Airborne thunderstorm detection equipment... Aircraft and Equipment § 135.173 Airborne thunderstorm detection equipment requirements. (a) No person may... the aircraft is equipped with either approved thunderstorm detection equipment or approved...

  3. 14 CFR 135.173 - Airborne thunderstorm detection equipment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airborne thunderstorm detection equipment... Aircraft and Equipment § 135.173 Airborne thunderstorm detection equipment requirements. (a) No person may... the aircraft is equipped with either approved thunderstorm detection equipment or approved...

  4. 14 CFR 135.173 - Airborne thunderstorm detection equipment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Airborne thunderstorm detection equipment... Aircraft and Equipment § 135.173 Airborne thunderstorm detection equipment requirements. (a) No person may... the aircraft is equipped with either approved thunderstorm detection equipment or approved...

  5. Insights into the superhydrophobicity of metallic surfaces prepared by electrodeposition involving spontaneous adsorption of airborne hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Peng; Cao, Ling; Zhao, Wei; Xia, Yue; Huang, Wei; Li, Zelin

    2015-01-01

    Electrochemical fabrication of micro/nanostructured metallic surfaces with superhydrophobicity has recently aroused great attention. However, the origin still remains unclear why smooth hydrophilic metal surfaces become superhydrophobic by making micro/nanostructures without additional surface modifications. In this work, several superhydrophobic micro/nanostructured metal surfaces were prepared by a facile one-step electrodeposition process, including non-noble and noble metals such as copper, nickel, cadmium, zinc, gold, and palladium with (e.g. Cu) or without (e.g. Au) surface oxide films. We demonstrated by SEM and XPS that both hierarchical micro/nanostructures and spontaneous adsorption of airborne hydrocarbons endowed these surfaces with excellent superhydrophobicity. We revealed by XPS that the adsorption of airborne hydrocarbons at the Ar+-etched clean Au surface was rather quick, such that organic contamination can hardly be prevented in practical operation of surface wetting investigation. We also confirmed by XPS that ultraviolet-O3 treatment of the superhydrophobic metal surfaces did not remove the adsorbed hydrocarbons completely, but mainly oxidized them into hydrophilic oxygen-containing organic substances. We hope our findings here shed new light on deeper understanding of superhydrophobicity for micro/nanostructured metal surfaces with and without surface oxide films.

  6. Radioactivity in bottled mineral waters.

    PubMed

    Martín Sánchez, A; Rubio Montero, M P; Gómez Escobar, V; Jurado Vargas, M

    1999-06-01

    Consumption of bottled mineral water is a growing practice and is sometimes a necessity rather than a choice. In this work, a study of the radioactive content of a wide selection of commercial bottled mineral waters for human intake was carried out. The origins of the analyzed waters were very different, coming from various locations in France, Portugal and Spain. Their total alpha and beta activity concentrations were determined and also gamma spectrometry was used to detect some radionuclides. In some cases, the waters presented high values of the total alpha and beta activity concentrations surpassing the reference levels established by the CSN, the Spanish. Regulatory Organization. In these cases, a determination of uranium and 226Ra was also performed by using low-level liquid scintillation counting. The results revealed a strong correlation between radioactive content and dry residue, and lead one to conclude that high radioactive content is mainly related to the mineralization in waters of underground origin.

  7. Sorting of solid radioactive wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Marek, J.; Pecival, I.; Hejtman, J.; Wildman, J.; Cechak, T.

    1993-12-31

    In the nuclear power plants solid radioactive wastes are produced during regular operation and during small repairs. It is necessary to sort them into the highly contaminated wastes for which a special procedure for storage is necessary and waste that is not radioactive and can be stored in the environment under specific regulations. The aim of the project was to propose and to construct equipment, which is able to sort the waste with a high degree of reliability and to distinguish highly contaminated wastes from wastes which are less dangerous to the environment. The sensitivity of the detection system was tested by a mathematical model. The radioactive wastes from the primary part of the nuclear power plant can have three composition types. Details of the composition of the radioisotopes mixture are presented.

  8. Stellar Occultations from Airborne Platforms: 1988 to 2016

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosh, Amanda S.; Dunham, Edward W.; Zuluaga, Carlos; Levine, Stephen; Person, Michael J.; Van Cleve, Jeffrey E.

    2016-10-01

    Observing a stellar occultation by a solar system body with an airborne telescope requires precise positioning of the observer within the shadow cast onto the Earth. For small bodies like Pluto and Kuiper Belt objects, smaller than the Earth, the challenge is particularly intense, with the accuracy of the astrometric and flight planning determining whether the observation succeeds or fails. From our first airborne occultation by Pluto in 1988 aboard the Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO), to our most recent event by Pluto in 2015 aboard the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA), we have refined our astrometric and flight planning systems to the point where we can now place an airborne observer into the small central flash zone. We will discuss the history of airborne observation of occultations while detailing the improvements in the astrometric processes. Support for this work was provided by NASA SSO grant NNX15AJ82G to Lowell Observatory.

  9. Airborne gamma radiation soil moisture measurements over short flight lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peck, Eugene L.; Carrol, Thomas R.; Lipinski, Daniel M.

    1990-01-01

    Results are presented on airborne gamma radiation measurements of soil moisture condition, carried out along short flight lines as part of the First International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project Field Experiment (FIFE). Data were collected over an area in Kansas during the summers of 1987 and 1989. The airborne surveys, together with ground measurements, provide the most comprehensive set of airborne and ground truth data available in the U.S. for calibrating and evaluating airborne gamma flight lines. Analysis showed that, using standard National Weather Service weights for the K, Tl, and Gc radiation windows, the airborne soil moisture estimates for the FIFE lines had a root mean square error of no greater than 3.0 percent soil moisture. The soil moisture estimates for sections having acquisition time of at least 15 sec were found to be reliable.

  10. CO2 Budget and Rectification Airborne Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grainger, C. A.

    2004-01-01

    The main purpose of this award was to supply a platform for the airborne measurements of gases associated with the CO2 Budget and Regional Airborne Study (COBRA). The original program was to consist of three field programs: the first was to be in 1999, the second in 2000, and the third in 2001. At the end of the second field program, it was agreed that the science could better be served by making the measurements in northern Brazil, rather than in North America. The final North American program would be postponed until after two field programs in Brazil. A substantial amount of effort was diverted into making plans and preparations for the Brazil field programs. The Brazil field programs were originally scheduled to take place in the Fall of 2002 and Spring of 2003. Carrying out the field program in Brazil was going to logistically much more involved than a program in the US. Shipping of equipment, customs, and site preparations required work to begin many months prior to the actual measurement program. Permission to fly in that country was also not trivial and indeed proved to be a major obstacle. When we were not able to get permission to fly in Brazil for the 2002 portion of the experiment, the program was pushed back to 2003. When permission by the Brazilian government was not given in time for a Spring of 2003 field program, the experiment was postponed again to begin in the Fall of 2003.

  11. Airborne Dust in Space Vehicles and Habitats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John

    2006-01-01

    Airborne dust, suspended inside a space vehicle or in future celestial habitats, can present a serious threat to crew health if it is not controlled. During the Apollo missions to the moon, lunar dust brought inside the capsule caused eye irritation and breathing difficulty to the crew when they launched from the moon and re-acquired "microgravity." During Shuttle flights reactive and toxic dusts such as lithium hydroxide have created a risk to crew health, and fine particles from combustion events can be especially worrisome. Under nominal spaceflight conditions, airborne dusts and particles tend to be larger than on earth because of the absence of gravity settling. Aboard the ISS, dusts are effectively managed by HEPA filters, although floating dust in newly-arrived modules can be a nuisance. Future missions to the moon and to Mars will present additional challenges because of the possibility that external dust will enter the breathing atmosphere of the habitat and reach the crew's respiratory system. Testing with simulated lunar and Martian dust has shown that these materials are toxic when placed into the lungs of test animals. Defining and evaluating the physical and chemical properties of Martian dusts through robotic missions will challenge our ability to prepare better dust simulants and to determine the risk to crew health from exposure to such dusts.

  12. Sampling of airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Otson, R.; Leach, J.M.; Chung, L.T.K.

    1987-07-01

    Limitations of NIOSH sampling method P and CAM 183 were defined for airborne standard mixtures of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) generated as vapors in a flow-through apparatus. The PAH fell into three categories: those that were too volatile to be collected by the NIOSH filtration method at normal ambient temperatures and were best sampled with Tenax or XAD-2 sorbent (i.e., indane, naphthalene, biphenyl, acenaphthene, fluorene, 9,10-dihydrophenanthrene, phenathrene, and anthracene); those that were quantitatively collected by filters, even after a brief airborne residence time (i.e., benz(a)anthracene, chrysene, benzo(a)pyrene, dibenz(a,h)anthracene, and benzo(ghi)perylene); and those that partitioned between filter and sorbent (i.e., fluoranthene and pyrene). A combination glass fiber/silver membrane filter backed by two sorbent tubes in series gave overall mean recoveries of 94-96% for the 15 PAH studied at total concentrations of, nominally, 0.2 and 0.02 mg/m/sup 3/. Individual PAH concentrations were 0.03-0.05 and 0.003-0.005 mg/m/sup 3/, respectively.

  13. Solid state recorders for airborne reconnaissance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klang, Mark R.

    2003-08-01

    Solid state recorders have become the recorder of choice for meeting airborne ruggedized requirements for reconnaissance and flight test. The cost of solid state recorders have decreased over the past few years that they are now less expense than the traditional high speed tape recorders. CALCULEX, Inc manufactures solid state recorders called MONSSTR (Modular Non-volatile Solid State Recorder). MONSSTR is being used on many different platforms such as F/A-22, Global Hawk, F-14, F-15, F-16, U-2, RF-4, and Tornado. This paper will discuss the advantages of using solid state recorders to meet the airborne reconnaissance requirement and the ability to record instrumentation data. The CALCULEX recorder has the ability to record sensor data and flight test data in the same chassis. This is an important feature because it eliminates additional boxes on the aircraft. The major advantages to using a solid state recorder include; reliability, small size, light weight, and power. Solid state recorders also have a larger storage capacity and higher bandwidth capability than other recording devices.

  14. Airborne soil organic particles generated by precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bingbing; Harder, Tristan H.; Kelly, Stephen T.; Piens, Dominique S.; China, Swarup; Kovarik, Libor; Keiluweit, Marco; Arey, Bruce W.; Gilles, Mary K.; Laskin, Alexander

    2016-06-01

    Airborne organic particles play a critical role in Earth's climate, public health, air quality, and hydrological and carbon cycles. However, sources and formation mechanisms for semi-solid and solid organic particles are poorly understood and typically neglected in atmospheric models. Laboratory evidence suggests that fine particles can be formed from impaction of mineral surfaces by droplets. Here, we use chemical imaging of particles collected following rain events in the Southern Great Plains, Oklahoma, USA and after experimental irrigation to show that raindrop impaction of soils generates solid organic particles. We find that after rain events, sub-micrometre solid particles, with a chemical composition consistent with soil organic matter, contributed up to 60% of atmospheric particles. Our irrigation experiments indicate that intensive water impaction is sufficient to cause ejection of airborne soil organic particles from the soil surface. Chemical imaging and micro-spectroscopy analysis of particle physico-chemical properties suggest that these particles may have important impacts on cloud formation and efficiently absorb solar radiation. We suggest that raindrop-induced formation of solid organic particles from soils may be a widespread phenomenon in ecosystems such as agricultural systems and grasslands where soils are exposed to strong, episodic precipitation events.

  15. Photoacoustic study of airborne and model aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alebić-Juretić, A.; Zetzsch, C.; Dóka, O.; Bicanic, D.

    2003-01-01

    Airborne particulates of either natural or anthropogenic origin constitute a significant portion of atmospheric pollution. Environmental xenobiotics, among which are polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and pesticides, often adsorb to aerosols and as such are transported through the atmosphere with the physicochemical properties of the aerosols determining the lifetime of these organic compounds. As an example, the resistance of some PAHs against the photolysis is explained by the effect of the aerosol's "inner filter" that reduces the intensity of incident light reaching the mineral particles. On the other hand, some constituents of the aerosols can act as catalytic and/or stoichiometric reagents in atmospheric reactions on the solid surfaces. In the study described here the photoacoustic (PA) spectroscopy in the UV-Vis was used to investigate natural and model aerosols. The PA spectra obtained from coal and wood ashes and of Saharan sand, all three representatives of airborne aerosols, provide the evidence for the existence of the "inner filter." Furthermore, valuable information about the different nature of the interaction between the model aerosols and adsorbed organics (e.g., PAH-pyranthrene and silica, alumina, and MgO) has been obtained. Finally, the outcome of the study conducted with powdered mixtures of chalk and black carbon suggests that the PA method is a candidate method for determination of carbon content in stack ashes.

  16. Airborne Methane Measurements using Optical Parametric Amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riris, H.; Numata, K.; Li, S.; Wu, S.; Ramanathan, A.; Dawsey, M.; Abshire, J. B.; Kawa, S. R.; Mao, J.

    2012-12-01

    We report on airborne methane measurements with an active sensing instrument using widely tunable, seeded optical parametric generation (OPG). Methane is a strong greenhouse gas on Earth and it is also a potential biogenic marker on Mars and other planetary bodies. Methane in the Earth's atmosphere survives for a shorter time than CO2 but its impact on climate change can be larger than CO2. Carbon and methane emissions from land are expected to increase as permafrost melts exposing millennial-age carbon stocks to respiration (aerobic-CO2 and anaerobic-CH4) and fires. Methane emissions from clathrates in the Arctic Ocean and on land are also likely to respond to climate warming. However, there is considerable uncertainty in present Arctic flux levels, as well as how fluxes will change with the changing environment and more measurements are needed. In this paper we report on an airborne demonstration of atmospheric methane column optical depth measurements at 1.65 μm using widely tunable, seeded optical parametric amplifier (OPA) and a photon counting detector. Our results show good agreement between the experimentally derived optical depth measurements and theoretical calculations and follow the expected changes for aircraft altitudes from 3 to 11 km. The technique has also been used to measure carbon dioxide and monoxide, water vapor, and other trace gases in the near and mid-infrared spectral regions on the ground.

  17. An airborne sunphotometer for use with helicopters

    SciTech Connect

    Walthall, C.L.; Halthore, R.N.; Elman, G.C.; Schafer, J.R.; Markham, B.L.

    1996-04-01

    One solution for atmospheric correction and calibration of remotely sensed data from airborne platforms is the use of radiometrically calibrated instruments, sunphotometers and an atmospheric radiative transfer model. Sunphotometers are used to measure the direct solar irradiance at the level at which they are operating and the data are used in the computation of atmospheric optical depth. Atmospheric optical depth is an input to atmospheric correction algorithms that convert at-sensor radiance to required surface properties such as reflectance and temperature. Airborne sun photometry has thus far seen limited use and has not been used with a helicopter platform. The hardware, software, calibration and deployment of an automatic sun-tracking sunphotometer specifically designed for use on a helicopter are described. Sample data sets taken with the system during the 1994 Boreal Ecosystem and Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) are presented. The addition of the sun photometer to the helicopter system adds another tool for monitoring the environment and makes the helicopter remote sensing system capable of collecting calibrated, atmospherically corrected data independent of the need for measurements from other systems.

  18. Calibration Matters: Advances in Strapdown Airborne Gravimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, D.

    2015-12-01

    Using a commercial navigation-grade strapdown inertial measurement unit (IMU) for airborne gravimetry can be advantageous in terms of cost, handling, and space consumption compared to the classical stable-platform spring gravimeters. Up to now, however, large sensor errors made it impossible to reach the mGal-level using such type IMUs as they are not designed or optimized for this kind of application. Apart from a proper error-modeling in the filtering process, specific calibration methods that are tailored to the application of aerogravity may help to bridge this gap and to improve their performance. Based on simulations, a quantitative analysis is presented on how much IMU sensor errors, as biases, scale factors, cross couplings, and thermal drifts distort the determination of gravity and the deflection of the vertical (DOV). Several lab and in-field calibration methods are briefly discussed, and calibration results are shown for an iMAR RQH unit. In particular, a thermal lab calibration of its QA2000 accelerometers greatly improved the long-term drift behavior. Latest results from four recent airborne gravimetry campaigns confirm the effectiveness of the calibrations applied, with cross-over accuracies reaching 1.0 mGal (0.6 mGal after cross-over adjustment) and DOV accuracies reaching 1.1 arc seconds after cross-over adjustment.

  19. Spatial variability in airborne pollen concentrations.

    PubMed

    Raynor, G S; Ogden, E C; Hayes, J V

    1975-03-01

    Tests were conducted to determine the relationship between airborne pollen concentrations and distance. Simultaneous samples were taken in 171 tests with sets of eight rotoslide samplers spaced from one to 486 M. apart in straight lines. Use of all possible pairs gave 28 separation distances. Tests were conducted over a 2-year period in urban and rural locations distant from major pollen sources during both tree and ragweed pollen seasons. Samples were taken at a height of 1.5 M. during 5-to 20-minute periods. Tests were grouped by pollen type, location, year, and direction of the wind relative to the line. Data were analyzed to evaluate variability without regard to sampler spacing and variability as a function of separation distance. The mean, standard deviation, coefficient of variation, ratio of maximum to the mean, and ratio of minimum to the mean were calculated for each test, each group of tests, and all cases. The average coefficient of variation is 0.21, the maximum over the mean, 1.39 and the minimum over the mean, 0.69. No relationship was found with experimental conditions. Samples taken at the minimum separation distance had a mean difference of 18 per cent. Differences between pairs of samples increased with distance in 10 of 13 groups. These results suggest that airborne pollens are not always well mixed in the lower atmosphere and that a sample becomes less representative with increasing distance from the sampling location.

  20. Airborne Radar Interferometric Repeat-Pass Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hensley, Scott; Michel, Thierry R.; Jones, Cathleen E.; Muellerschoen, Ronald J.; Chapman, Bruce D.; Fore, Alexander; Simard, Marc; Zebker, Howard A.

    2011-01-01

    Earth science research often requires crustal deformation measurements at a variety of time scales, from seconds to decades. Although satellites have been used for repeat-track interferometric (RTI) synthetic-aperture-radar (SAR) mapping for close to 20 years, RTI is much more difficult to implement from an airborne platform owing to the irregular trajectory of the aircraft compared with microwave imaging radar wavelengths. Two basic requirements for robust airborne repeat-pass radar interferometry include the ability to fly the platform to a desired trajectory within a narrow tube and the ability to have the radar beam pointed in a desired direction to a fraction of a beam width. Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR) is equipped with a precision auto pilot developed by NASA Dryden that allows the platform, a Gulfstream III, to nominally fly within a 5 m diameter tube and with an electronically scanned antenna to position the radar beam to a fraction of a beam width based on INU (inertial navigation unit) attitude angle measurements.