Science.gov

Sample records for airborne radioactivity areas

  1. Airborne radioactivity survey of the Miller Hill area, Carbon county, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meuschke, J.L.; Moxham, R.M.

    1953-01-01

    The accompanying map shows the results of an airborne radioactivity survey covering 65 square miles northwest of Miller Hill, Carbon county, Wyoming. The survey was made by the U.S. Geological Survey as part of a cooperative program with the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. At 500 feet above the ground, the width of the zone from which anomalous radioactivity is measured varies with the intensity of radiation of the source and, for strong sources, the width would be as much as 1,400 feet. Quarter-mile spacing of the flight paths of the aircraft should be adequate to detect anomalies from strong sources of radioactivity. However, small areas of considerable radioactivity midway between flight paths may not be noted. The approximate location of each radioactivity anomaly is shown on the accompanying map. The plotted position of an anomaly may be in error by as much as a quarter of a mile owing to errors in the available base maps up to several square miles in which it is impossible to find and plot recognizable landmarks. The radioactivity anomalies shown on the accompanying map cannot be interpreted in terms of either the radioactive content or the extent of the source materials. The present technique of airborne radioactivity measurement does not permit distinguishing between activity due to thorium and that due to uranium. An anomaly, therefore, may represent radioactivity due entirely to uranium, or to thorium, or to a combination of uranium and thorium. The radioactivity that is recorded by airborne measurements at 500 feet above the ground can be caused by: 1. A moderately large area in which the rocks and soils are slightly more radioactive than the rocks and soils of the surrounding area. 2. A smaller area in which the rocks and soils are considerably more radioactive than rocks and soils in the surrounding area. 3. A very small area in which to rocks and soils are much more radioactive than the rocks and soils of the surrounding area. Any particular anomaly

  2. Airborne radioactivity survey of the Tabernacle Buttes area, Sublette and Fremont counties, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1953-01-01

    The accompanying map shows the results of an airborne radioactivity survey in an area of 670 square miles in Sublette and Fremont counties, Wyoming. The survey was made by the U.S. Geological Survey, October 20, 1952, as part of a cooperative program with the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. The survey was made with scintillation-detection equipment mounted in a Douglas DC-3 aircraft. Parallel traverse lines, spaced at quarter-mile intervals, were flown approximately 500 feet above the ground. Aerial photographs were used for pilot guidance, and the flight path of the aircraft was recorded by a gyro-stabilized, continuous-strip-film camera. The distance of the aircraft from the ground was measured with a continuously recording radio altimeter. At 500 feet above the ground, the width of the zone from which anomalous radioactivity is measured varies with the intensity of radiation of the source and, for strong sources, the width would be as much as 1,400 feet. Quarter-mile spacing of the flight paths of the aircraft should be adequate to detect anomalies from strong sources of radioactivity. However, small areas of considerable radioactivity midway between flight paths may not be noted. The approximate location of each radioactivity anomaly is shown on the accompanying map. The plotted position of an anomaly may be in error by as much as a quarter of a mile owing to errors in the available base maps up to several square miles in which it is impossible to find and plot recognizable landmarks. The radioactivity anomaly that is recorded by airborne measurements at 500 feet above the ground can be caused by: 1. A moderately large area in which the rocks and soils are slightly more radioactive than the rocks and soils of the surrounding area. 2. A smaller area in which the rocks and soils are considerably more radioactive than rocks and soils in the surrounding area. 3. A very small area in which to rocks and soils are much more radioactive than the rocks and soils of the

  3. Airborne radioactivity survey of the Aspen Mountain area, Sweetwater county, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meuschke, J.L.; Moxham, R.M.

    1953-01-01

    The accompanying map shows the results of an airborne radioactivity survey covering 700 square miles in the Aspen Mountain area, Sweetwater county, Wyoming. The survey was made by the U.S. Geological Survey, October 22, 1952, as part of a cooperative program with the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. The survey was made with scintillation-detection equipment mounted in a Douglas DC-3 aircraft. Parallel traverse lines, spaced at quarter-mile intervals, were flown approximately 500 feet above the ground. Aerial photographs were used for pilot guidance, and the flight path of the aircraft was recorded by a gyro-stabilized, continuous-strip-film camera. The distance of the aircraft from the ground was measured with a continuously recording radio altimeter. At 500 feet above the ground, the width of the zone from which anomalous radioactivity is measured varies with the intensity of radiation of the source and, for strong sources, the width would be as much as 1,400 feet. Quarter-mile spacing of the flight paths of the aircraft should be adequate to detect anomalies from strong sources of radioactivity. However, small areas of considerable radioactivity midway between flight paths may not be noted. The approximate location of each radioactivity anomaly is shown on the accompanying map. The plotted position of an anomaly may be in error by as much as a quarter of a mile owing to errors in the available base maps up to several square miles in which it is impossible to find and plot recognizable landmarks. The radioactivity anomaly that is recorded by airborne measurements at 500 feet above the ground can be caused by: 1. A moderately large area in which the rocks and soils are slightly more radioactive than the rocks and soils of the surrounding area. 2. A smaller area in which the rocks and soils are considerably more radioactive than rocks and soils in the surrounding area. 3. A very small area in which to rocks and soils are much more radioactive than the rocks and soils

  4. Airborne radioactivity survey of the West Lonetree area, Uinta county, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meuschke, J.L.; Moxham, R.M.

    1953-01-01

    The accompanying map shows the results of an airborne radioactivity survey in an area of 154 square miles in Uinta county, Wyoming. The survey was made by the U.S. Geological Survey, October 23, 1952, as part of a cooperative program with the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. The survey was made with scintillation-detection equipment mounted in a Douglas DC-3 aircraft. Parallel traverse lines, spaced at quarter-mile intervals, were flown approximately 500 feet above the ground. Aerial photographs were used for pilot guidance, and the flight path of the aircraft was recorded by a gyro-stabilized, continuous-strip-film camera. The distance of the aircraft from the ground was measured with a continuously recording radio altimeter. At 500 feet above the ground, the width of the zone from which anomalous radioactivity is measured varies with the intensity of radiation of the source and, for strong sources, the width would be as much as 1,400 feet. Quarter-mile spacing of the flight paths of the aircraft should be adequate to detect anomalies from strong sources of radioactivity. However, small areas of considerable radioactivity midway between flight paths may not be noted. The approximate location of each radioactivity anomaly is shown on the accompanying map. The plotted position of an anomaly may be in error by as much as a quarter of a mile owing to errors in the available base maps up to several square miles in which it is impossible to find and plot recognizable landmarks. The radioactivity anomaly that is recorded by airborne measurements at 500 feet above the ground can be caused by: 1. A moderately large area in which the rocks and soils are slightly more radioactive than the rocks and soils of the surrounding area. 2. A smaller area in which the rocks and soils are considerably more radioactive than rocks and soils in the surrounding area. 3. A very small area in which to rocks and soils are much more radioactive than the rocks and soils of the surrounding area

  5. Airborne radioactivity survey of the Devils Tower area, Crook county, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henderson, J.R.; Moxham, R.M.

    1953-01-01

    The accompanying map shows the results of an airborne radioactivity survey covering 45 square miles northwest of Devils Tower, Crook County, Wyoming. The survey was made by the U.S. Geological Survey on September 4, 1952, as part of a cooperative program with the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. The survey was made with scintillation-detection equipment mounted in a Douglas DC-3 aircraft. Parallel traverse lines, spaced at quarter-mile intervals, were flown approximately 500 feet above the ground. Aerial photographs were used for pilot guidance, and the flight path of the aircraft was recorded by a gyro-stabilized, continuous-strip-film camera. The distance of the aircraft from the ground was measured with a continuously recording radio altimeter. At 500 feet above the ground, the width of the zone from which anomalous radioactivity is measured varies with the intensity of radiation of the source and, for strong sources, the width would be as much as 1,400 feet. Quarter-mile spacing of the flight paths of the aircraft should be adequate to detect anomalies from strong sources of radioactivity. However, small areas of considerable radioactivity midway between flight paths may not be noted. The approximate location of each radioactivity anomaly is shown on the accompanying map. The plotted position of an anomaly may be in error by as much as a quarter of a mile owing to errors in the available base maps up to several square miles in which it is impossible to find and plot recognizable landmarks. The radioactivity that is recorded by airborne measurements at 500 feet above the ground can be caused by: 1. A moderately large area in which the rocks and soils are slightly more radioactive than the rocks and soils of the surrounding area. 2. A smaller area in which the rocks and soils are considerably more radioactive than rocks and soils in the surrounding area. 3. A very small area in which to rocks and soils are much more radioactive than the rocks and soils of the

  6. 10 CFR 835.603 - Radiological areas and radioactive material areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... radioactivity area. The words “Caution, Airborne Radioactivity Area” or “Danger, Airborne Radioactivity Area” shall be posted at each airborne radioactivity area. (e) Contamination area. The words...

  7. 10 CFR 835.603 - Radiological areas and radioactive material areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... radioactivity area. The words “Caution, Airborne Radioactivity Area” or “Danger, Airborne Radioactivity Area” shall be posted at each airborne radioactivity area. (e) Contamination area. The words...

  8. 10 CFR 835.603 - Radiological areas and radioactive material areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... radioactivity area. The words “Caution, Airborne Radioactivity Area” or “Danger, Airborne Radioactivity Area” shall be posted at each airborne radioactivity area. (e) Contamination area. The words...

  9. 10 CFR 835.603 - Radiological areas and radioactive material areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... radioactivity area. The words “Caution, Airborne Radioactivity Area” or “Danger, Airborne Radioactivity Area” shall be posted at each airborne radioactivity area. (e) Contamination area. The words...

  10. 10 CFR 835.603 - Radiological areas and radioactive material areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... radioactivity area. The words “Caution, Airborne Radioactivity Area” or “Danger, Airborne Radioactivity Area” shall be posted at each airborne radioactivity area. (e) Contamination area. The words...

  11. Evaluation of radioactive environmental hazards in Area-3, Northern Palmyrides, Central Syria using airborne spectrometric gamma technique.

    PubMed

    Asfahani, J; Aissa, M; Al-Hent, R

    2016-01-01

    Airborne spectrometric gamma data are used in this paper to estimate the degree of radioactive hazard on humanity in Area-3, Northern Palmyrides, Central Syria. Exposure Rate (ER), Absorbed Dose Rate (ADR), Annual Effective Dose Rate (AEDR), and Heat Production (HP) of the eleven radiometric units included in the established lithological scored map in the study area have been computed to evaluate the radiation background influence in humans. The results obtained indicate that a human body in Area-3 is subjected to radiation hazards in the acceptable limits for long duration exposure. The highest radiogenetic heat production values in Area-3 correspond to the phosphatic locations characterized by relatively high values of uranium and thorium. PMID:26569554

  12. Evaluation of radioactive environmental hazards in Area-3, Northern Palmyrides, Central Syria using airborne spectrometric gamma technique.

    PubMed

    Asfahani, J; Aissa, M; Al-Hent, R

    2016-01-01

    Airborne spectrometric gamma data are used in this paper to estimate the degree of radioactive hazard on humanity in Area-3, Northern Palmyrides, Central Syria. Exposure Rate (ER), Absorbed Dose Rate (ADR), Annual Effective Dose Rate (AEDR), and Heat Production (HP) of the eleven radiometric units included in the established lithological scored map in the study area have been computed to evaluate the radiation background influence in humans. The results obtained indicate that a human body in Area-3 is subjected to radiation hazards in the acceptable limits for long duration exposure. The highest radiogenetic heat production values in Area-3 correspond to the phosphatic locations characterized by relatively high values of uranium and thorium.

  13. Airborne radioactivity surveys for phosphate in Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moxham, Robert M.

    1954-01-01

    Airborne radioactivity surveys totaling 5, 600 traverse miles were made in 10 areas in Florida, which were thought to be geologically favorable for deposits of uraniferous phosphate. Abnormal radioactivity was recorded in 8 of the 10 areas surveyed. The anomalies are located in Bradford, Clay, Columbia, DeSoto, Dixie, Lake, Marion, Orange, Sumter, Taylor, and Union Counties. Two of the anomalies were investigated briefly on the ground. One resulted from a deposit of river-pebble phosphate in the Peace River valley; the river-pebble samples contain an average of 0.013 percent equivalent uranium. The other anomaly resulted from outcrops of leached phosphatic rock containing as much as 0. 016 percent equivalent uranium. Several anomalies in other areas were recorded at or near localities where phosphate deposits have been reported.

  14. Airborne radioactivity surveys for phosphate in Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moxham, Robert M.

    1953-01-01

    Airborne radioactivity surveys totalling 5,600 traverse miles were made in ten areas in Florida, which were thought to be geologically favorable for the occurrence of uraniferous phosphate deposits. Abnormal radioactivity was recorded in eight of the ten areas surveyed. The anomalies are located in Bradford, Clay, Columbia, DeSoto, Dixie, Lake, Marion, Orange, Sumter, Taylor, and Union Counties. Two of the anomalies were investigated briefly on the ground. One resulted from a deposit of river-pebble phosphate in the Peace River valley; samples of the river pebble contain an average of 0.013 percent equivalent uranium. The other anomaly resulted from outcrops of leached phosphate rock containing as much as 0.016 percent equivalent uranium. Several anomalies in other areas were recorded at or near localities where phosphate deposits have been reported to occur.

  15. Principles for Sampling Airborne Radioactivity from Stacks

    SciTech Connect

    Glissmeyer, John A.

    2010-10-18

    This book chapter describes the special processes involved in sampling the airborne effluents from nuclear faciities. The title of the book is Radioactive Air Sampling Methods. The abstract for this chapter was cleared as PNNL-SA-45941.

  16. Automatic Searching Radioactive Sources by Airborne Radioactive Survey Using Multicopter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rim, H.; Eun, S. B.; Kim, K.; Park, S.; Jung, H. K.

    2015-12-01

    In order to prepare emergency situation lost a dangerous radioelement source in advance and to search a radioactive source automatically, we develop airborne radioelement survey system by multicopter. This multicopter radioelement survey system consists of a small portable customized BGO (Bismuth Germanate Oxide) detector, video recording part, wireless connecting part to ground pilot, GPS, and several equipments for automatic flight. This system is possible to search flight by preprogramed lines. This radioactive detecting system are tested to find intentional hidden source, The performance of detecting a source is well proved with very low flight altitude in spite of depending on the magnitude of radioelement sources. The advantage of multicopter system, one of UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle), is to avoid the potential of close access to a dangerous radioactive source by using fully automatic searching capability. In this paper, we introduce our multicopter system for detecting radioactive source and synthetic case history for demonstrating this system.

  17. Discrimination of airborne radioactivity from radon progeny

    SciTech Connect

    Ching-Jiang Chen; Pao-Shan Weng; Tieh-Chi Chu

    1994-05-01

    Naturally occurring radon and thoron progeny are the most interfering nuclides in the aerosol monitoring system. The high background and fluctuation of natural radioactivity on the filter can cause an error message to the aerosol monitor. A theoretical model was applied in the simulation of radon and thoron progeny behavior in the environment and on the filter. Results show that even a small amount of airborne nuclides on the filter could be discriminated by using the beta:alpha activity ratio instead of gross beta or alpha counting. This method can increase the sensitivity and reliability of real-time aerosol monitoring. 8 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Field investigation of airborne radioactivity anomalies in Marquette County, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    James, Harold L.

    1950-01-01

    The broad radioactivity anomalies recorded by the airborne detector in the vicinity of Republic, Marquette County, Michigan, coincide rather closely with parts of a granitic complex chiefly of Archean age. Ground examination of the rock in these areas of high radioactivity shows that the granitic rock typically yields two to four times the normal background activity. Fissures, shear zones, veins, and pegmatites were tested carefully. None exhibited activity higher than that of the adjacent granitic rock. It is significant that the zones of more-than-average radio-activity are related to the larger elements of the geology - in fact, the information will be of considerable value in reconsideration of some of the regional problems.

  19. Airborne radioactivity surveys in the Mojave Desert region, Kern, Riverside, and San Bernardino Counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moxham, Robert M.

    1952-01-01

    Airborne radioactivity surveys in the Mojave Desert region Kern, Riverside, and Bernardino counties were made in five areas recommended as favorable for the occurrence of radioactive raw materials: (1) Rock Corral area, San Bernardino County. (2) Searles Station area, Kern county. (3) Soledad area, Kern County. (4) White Tank area, Riverside and San Bernardino counties. (5) Harvard Hills area, San Bernardino County. Anomalous radiation was detected in all but the Harvard Hills area. The radioactivity anomalies detected in the Rock Corral area are of the greatest amplitude yet recorded by the airborne equipment over natural sources. The activity is apparently attributable to the thorium-beating mineral associated with roof pendants of crystalline metamorphic rocks in a granitic intrusive. In the Searles Station, Soledad, and White Tank area, several radioactivity anomalies of medium amplitude were recorded, suggesting possible local concentrations of radioactive minerals.

  20. Airborne radioactivity survey in the vicinity of Grants, McKinley and Valencia Counties, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stead, Frank W.

    1951-01-01

    An airborne radioactivity survey in the vicinity of Grants, New Mexico, was made on May 28. 1951; aeromagnetic measurements were made concurrently with the radioactivity measurements. Several radioactivity anomalies were noted in conjunction with negative magnetic anomalies; this association is unusual and may reflect a genetic relationship between the uranium mineralization and the geologic structure causing the negative magnetic effect. Further investigation of the vicinity of the anomalies near the Haystack area, including ground magnetometer survey, seems warranted.

  1. Drilling of airborne radioactivity anomalies in Florida, Georgia, and South Carolina, 1954

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cathcart, J.B.

    1954-01-01

    From April 22 to May 19, 1953, airborne radioactivity surveys totalling 5,600 traverse miles were made in 10 areas in Florida (Moxham, 1954).  Abnormal radioactivity was recorded in Bradford, Clay, DeSoto, Dixie, Lake, Marion, Orange, Sumter, Taylor, and Union Counties, Florida.  Additional airborne surveys were made in the Spring of 1954 in Hardee and Manatee Counties, Florida, on the drainage of the Altamaha River in Georgia, and in the area of the old phosphate workings in and around Charleston County, South Carolina.

  2. An electrostatic precipitator for the study of airborne radioactivity.

    PubMed

    Andrews, L L; Schery, S D; Wilkening, M H

    1984-04-01

    An system has been developed to measure airborne radioactivity using electrostatic precipitation for collection and alpha-particle spectroscopy for detection. Features include good energy resolution (e.g. 170 and 300 KeV for full-width half maximum and full-width tenth maximum for 7.7-MeV alpha particles using a 7-cm2 area detector; and 52- and 122-KeV, respectively, using 1.2-cm2 area detector) and versatile computer control for collection, counting and data reduction. Aerosols bearing the radioactive atoms are deposited on a foil tape by electrostatic precipitation for a predetermined time after which the foil is moved under a solid-state detector to count the alpha-particle emissions. Activities are determined at the same frequency as samples are collected. Helium gas can be introduced at the detector to reduce energy loss and improve resolution. Although in principle certain aerosol sizes could be difficult to collect, in practice no difficulties were observed for typical environmental conditions, provided sufficiently low air-sampling rates were used. One important application is the measurement of 222Rn daughters. The sensitivity is such that detection of individual daughter concentrations less than 0.1 pCi/l. with only a 10% counting error is possible.

  3. 10 CFR 20.1203 - Determination of external dose from airborne radioactive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determination of external dose from airborne radioactive... RADIATION Occupational Dose Limits § 20.1203 Determination of external dose from airborne radioactive material. Licensees shall, when determining the dose from airborne radioactive material, include...

  4. 10 CFR 20.1203 - Determination of external dose from airborne radioactive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Determination of external dose from airborne radioactive... RADIATION Occupational Dose Limits § 20.1203 Determination of external dose from airborne radioactive material. Licensees shall, when determining the dose from airborne radioactive material, include...

  5. 10 CFR 20.1203 - Determination of external dose from airborne radioactive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Determination of external dose from airborne radioactive... RADIATION Occupational Dose Limits § 20.1203 Determination of external dose from airborne radioactive material. Licensees shall, when determining the dose from airborne radioactive material, include...

  6. 10 CFR 20.1203 - Determination of external dose from airborne radioactive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Determination of external dose from airborne radioactive... RADIATION Occupational Dose Limits § 20.1203 Determination of external dose from airborne radioactive material. Licensees shall, when determining the dose from airborne radioactive material, include...

  7. 10 CFR 20.1203 - Determination of external dose from airborne radioactive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Determination of external dose from airborne radioactive... RADIATION Occupational Dose Limits § 20.1203 Determination of external dose from airborne radioactive material. Licensees shall, when determining the dose from airborne radioactive material, include...

  8. Airborne radioactivity Survey of part of Saratoga NW quadrangle, Carbon County, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henderson, J.R.

    1954-01-01

    The accompanying map shows the results of an airborne radioactivity survey in 133 square miles of Saratoga NW quadrangle, Wyoming. This area is part of a larger survey made in southern Carbon and Sweetwater Counties by the U. S. Geological Survey, November 9-24, 1953. The work was undertaken as part of a cooperative program with the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission.

  9. Airborne radioactivity survey of parts of Atlantic Ocean beach, Virginia to Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moxham, R.M.; Johnson, R.W.

    1953-01-01

    The accompanying maps show the results of an airborne radioactivity survey along the Atlantic Ocean beach from Cape Henry, Virginia to Cape Fear, North Carolina and from Savannah Bach Georgia to Miami Beach, Florida. The survey was made March 23-24, 1953, as part of a cooperative program with the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. The survey was made with scintillation detection equipment mounted in a Douglas DC-3 aircraft and consisted of one flight line, at a 500-foot altitude, parallel to the beach. The vertical projection of the flight line coincided approximately with the landward limit of the modern beach. The width of the zone on the ground from which anomalous radiation is measured at the normal 500 foot flight altitude varies with the areal extent radioactivity of the source. For strong sources of radioactivity the width of the zone would be as much as 1,400 feet. The location of the flight lines is shown on the index map below. No abnormal radioactivity was detected along the northern flight line between Cape Henry, Virginia and Cape Fear, North Carolina. Along the southern flight line fourteen areas of abnormal radioactivity were detected between Savannah Beach, Georgia and Anastasia Island, Florida as shown on the map on the left. The abnormal radioactivity is apparently due to radioactive minerals associated with "black sand" deposits with occur locally along the beach in this region. The present technique of airborne radioactivity measurement does not permit distinguishing between activity sue to thorium and that due to uranium. An anomaly, therefore, may represent radioactivity due entirely to one or to a combination of these elements. It is not possible to determine the extent or radioactive content of the materials responsible for the abnormal radioactivity. The information given on the accompanying map indicates only those localities of greater-than-average radioactivity and, therefore suggest areas in which uranium and thorium deposits are more

  10. Airborne radioactivity survey of parts of the Atlantic Ocean beach, North and South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meuschke, J.L.; Moxham, R.M.; Bortner, T.E.

    1953-01-01

    The accompanying map shows the results of an airborne radioactivity survey along the Atlantic Ocean beach between Edisto Island, South Carolina and Cape Fear, North Carolina. The survey was made May 20, 1953, as part of a cooperative program with the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. The survey was made with scintillation detection equipment mounted in a Douglas DC-3 aircraft and consisted of one flight line, at a 500-foot altitude, parallel to the beach. The vertical projection of the flight line coincided approximately with the landward limit of the modern beach. The width of the zone on the ground from which anomalous radiation is measured at the nominal 500 foot flight altitude varies with areal extent and intensity of radioactivity of the source. For strong sources of radioactivity the width of the zone may be as much as 1400 feet. The accompanying maps show the approximate locations of the areas of greater-than-average radioactivity (at left) and the location of the traverse flown (at right). The abnormal radioactivity is apparently caused by radioactive minerals associated with "black sand" deposits which occur locally along the beach in this region. The present technique of airborne radioactivity measurement does not permit distinguishing between activity due to thorium and that due to uranium. An anomaly, therefore, may represent radioactivity due entirely to one or a combination of these elements. It is not possible to determine the extent or radioactive content of the materials responsible for the abnormal radioactivity. The information given in the accompanying map showing the localities of greater-than-average radioactivity therefore, suggests areas in which uranium and thorium deposits are more likely to occur.

  11. Airborne radioactivity of portions of the Defiance Uplift and Carrizo Mountains, Apache county, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, R.W.; Moxham, R.M.

    1953-01-01

    The accompanying map shows the results of an airborne radioactivity survey covering 940 square miles in Apache county, Arizona. The survey was made by the U.S. Geological Survey from September 8 to October 3, 1952, as part of a cooperative program with the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. The survey was made with scintillation-detection equipment mounted in a Douglas DC-3 aircraft. Parallel traverse lines, spaced at quarter-mile intervals, were flown approximately 500 feet above the ground. Aerial photographs were used for pilot guidance, and the flight path of the aircraft was recorded by a gyro-stabilized, continuous-strip-film camera. The distance of the aircraft from the ground was measured with a continuously recording radio altimeter. At 500 feet above the ground, the width of the zone from which anomalous radioactivity is measured varies with the intensity of radiation of the source and, for strong sources, the width would be as much as 1,400 feet. Quarter-mile spacing of the flight paths of the aircraft should be adequate to detect anomalies from strong sources of radioactivity. However, small areas of considerable radioactivity midway between flight paths may not be noted. The approximate location of each radioactivity anomaly is shown on the accompanying map. The plotted position of an anomaly may be in error by as much as a quarter of a mile owing to errors in the available base maps up to several square miles in which it is impossible to find and plot recognizable landmarks. The radioactivity anomaly that is recorded by airborne measurements at 500 feet above the ground can be caused by: 1. A moderately large area in which the rocks and soils are slightly more radioactive than the rocks and soils of the surrounding area. 2. A smaller area in which the rocks and soils are considerably more radioactive than rocks and soils in the surrounding area. 3. A very small area in which to rocks and soils are much more radioactive than the rocks and soils of the

  12. Airborne radioactivity survey of the Gulf of Mexico beach between Sanibel Island and Caladesi Island, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meuschke, J.L.; Moxham, R.M.; Bortner, T.E.

    1953-01-01

    The accompanying map shows the results of an airborne radioactivity survey along the Gulf of Mexico beach between Sanibel Island and Caladesi Island in Florida. This survey was made May 4, 1953, as part of a cooperative program with the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. The survey was made with scintillation detection equipment mounted in a Douglas DC-3 aircraft and consisted of one flight line, at a 500-foot altitude , parallel to the beach. The vertical projection of the flight line coincided approximately with the landward limit of the modern beach. The width of the zone on the ground from which anomalous radiation is measured at the nominal 500 foot flight altitude varies with the areal extent and intensity of the radioactivity the width of the zone may be as much as 1400 feet. The accompanying map and index map show the approximate locations of the areas of greater-than-average radioactivity and the location of the traverse flown. The abnormal radioactivity is apparently caused by radioactive minerals associated with "black sand" deposits which occur locally along the beach in the region. The present technique of airborne radioactivity measurement does not permit distinguishing between activity due to thorium and that due to uranium. An anomaly, therefore, may represent radioactivity due entirely to one or to a combination of these elements. It is not possible to determine the extent or radioactive content of the materials responsible for the abnormal radioactivity. The information given in the accompanying map showing the localities of greater-than-average radioactivity therefore, suggests area in which uranium or thorium deposits are more likely to occur.

  13. Airborne radioactivity surveys of parts of Savery SW and Savery SE quadrangles, Carbon County, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henderson, J.R.

    1954-01-01

    The accompanying map shows the results of an airborne radioactivity survey in 222 square miles of Savery SW and Savery SE quadrangles, Wyoming. This area is part of a larger survey made in southern Carbon and Sweetwater Counties by the U. S. Geological Survey, November 9-24, 1953. The work was undertaken as part of a cooperative program with the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission.

  14. Airborne radioactivity survey of parts of Savery NW and Savery NE quadrangles, Carbon County, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henderson, J.R.

    1954-01-01

    The accompanying map shows the results of an airborne radioactivity survey in 266 square miles of Savery NW and Savery NE quadrangles, Wyoming. This area is part of a larger survey made in southern Carbon and Sweetwater Counties by the U. S. Geological Survey, November 9-24, 1953. The work was undertaken as part of a cooperative program with the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission.

  15. Functional requirements document for measuring emissions of airborne radioactive materials

    SciTech Connect

    Criddle, J.D. Jr.

    1994-09-01

    This document states the functional requirements and procedures for systems making measurements of radioactive airborne emissions from facilities at the Hanford Site. The following issues are addressed in this document: Definition of the program objectives; Selection of the overall approach to collecting the samples; Sampling equipment design; Sampling equipment maintenance, and quality assurance issues. The intent of this document is to assist WHC in demonstrating a high quality of air emission measurements with verified system performance based on documented system design, testing, inspection, and maintenance.

  16. Monitoring radioactive plumes by airborne gamma-ray spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Grasty, R.L.; Hovgaard, J.; Multala, J.

    1996-06-01

    Airborne gamma-ray spectrometer surveys using large volume sodium-iodide detectors are routinely flown throughout the world for mineral exploration and geological mapping. Techniques have now been developed to detect and map man-made sources of radiation. In Canada, airborne gamma-rays surveys have been flown around nuclear reactors to map {sup 41}Ar plumes from nuclear reactors and to calculate the dose rate at ground level. In May 1986, the Finnish Geological survey aircraft flew through a radioactive plume from the Chernobyl nuclear accident. As the aircraft flew through the plume, the aircraft became increasingly contaminated. By measuring the final aircraft contamination, the activity of the plume could be separated from the contamination due to the aircraft. Within 1 h of encountering the plume, the aircraft activity was comparable to the maximum levels found in the plume. From an analysis of the gamma-ray spectra, the concentration of {sup 131}I and {sup 140}La within the plume were calculated as a function of time.

  17. Airborne radioactive effluent study at the Savannah River Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchard, R.L.; Broadway, J.A.; Sensintaffar, E.L.; Kirk, W.P.; Kahn, B.; Garrett, A.J.

    1984-07-01

    Under the Clean Air Act, Sections 112 and 122 as amended in 1977, the Office of Radiation Programs (OPR) of the United States Environmental Protection Agency is currently developing standards for radionuclides emitted to the air by several source categories. In order to confirm source-term measurements and pathway calculations for radiation exposures to humans offsite, the ORP performs field studies at selected facilities that emit radionuclides. This report describes the field study conducted at the Savannah River Plant (SRP), a laboratory operated by E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Company for the US Department of Energy. This purpose of the study at ARP was to verify reported airborne releases and resulting radiation doses from the facility. Measurements of radionuclide releases for brief periods were compared with measurements performed by SRP staff on split samples and with annual average releases reported by SRP for the same facilities. The dispersion model used by SRP staff to calculate radiation doses offsite was tested by brief environmental radioactivity measurements performed simultaneously with the release measurements, and by examining radioactivity levels in environmental samples. This report describes in detail all measurements made and data collected during the field study and presents the results obtained. 34 references, 18 figures, 49 tables.

  18. Technical basis for removal of 221-T tunnel from airborne radiological area status

    SciTech Connect

    Geuther, W.J., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-30

    This document provides the technical basis for removal of the 221-T Tunnel from airborne radiological control. T Plant Radiological Control has evaluated air sampling data and engineering controls, and determined the necessary administrative controls to make this transition. With these administrative controls (specified within document) in place, the tunnel can be removed from Airborne Radioactive Area status. The removal of the tunnel from airborne status will allow work to be performed within the tunnel under controlled conditions, as outlined in this technical basis, without the use of respiratory protection equipment.

  19. Airborne radioactivity survey of parts of Baggs SW and Baggs SE quadrangles, Carbon and Sweetwater counties, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henderson, J.R.

    1954-01-01

    The accompanying map shows the results of an airborne radioactivity survey in 151 square miles of Baggs SW and Baggs SE quadrangles, Wyoming. This area is part of a larger survey made in southern Carbon and Sweetwater counties by the U.S. Geological Survey, November 9-24, 1953. The work was undertaken as part of a cooperative program with the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. The survey was made with scintillation detection equipment mounted in a C-47 aircraft and consisted of parallel east-west flight lines spaced at quarter mile intervals, flown approximately 500 feet above the ground. Aerial photographs were used for pilot guidance, and the flight path of the aircraft was recorded by a gyrostabilized, continuous-strip-film camera. The distance of the aircraft from the ground was measured with a continuously recording radio altimeter. The width of the zone on the ground form which the anomalous radiation is measured at the nominal 500 foot flight altitude varied with the areal extent and the intensity of radioactivity of the source. For strong sources of radioactivity the width of the zone may be as much as 1,400 feet. Thus, quarter mile spacing of the flight lines would be adequate to detect anomalies from strong sources of radioactivity; however, small areas of considerable radioactivity midway between flight lines may not be noted. The approximate locations of twelve radioactivity anomalies are shown on the accompanying map. The plotted position of the anomalies may be in error by as much as a quarter mile owing to the errors in available base maps or to the existence of areas on the base maps up to several square miles in which it is impossible to find and plot recognizable landmarks. The present technique of airborne radioactivity measurement does not permit distinguishing between activity due to thorium and that due to uranium. An anomaly, therefore, may represent radioactivity due entirely to one or to a combination of these elements. The radioactivity

  20. Airborne radioactivity survey of parts of Sand Creek SW and Sand Creek SE quadrangles, Sweetwater county, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henderson, J.R.

    1954-01-01

    The accompanying map shows the results of an airborne radioactivity survey in 125 square miles of Sand Creek SW and Sand Creek SE quadrangles, Wyoming. This area is part of a larger survey made in southern Carbon and Sweetwater counties by the U.S. Geological Survey, November 9-24, 1953. The work was undertaken as part of a cooperative program with the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. The survey was made with scintillation detection equipment mounted in a C-47 aircraft and consisted of parallel east-west flight lines spaced at quarter mile intervals, flown approximately 500 feet above the ground. Aerial photographs were used for pilot guidance, and the flight path of the aircraft was recorded by a gyrostabilized, continuous-strip-film camera. The distance of the aircraft from the ground was measured with a continuously recording radio altimeter. The width of the zone on the ground form which the anomalous radiation is measured at the nominal 500 foot flight altitude varied with the areal extent and the intensity of radioactivity of the source. For strong sources of radioactivity the width of the zone may be as much as 1,400 feet. Thus, quarter mile spacing of the flight lines would be adequate to detect anomalies from strong sources of radioactivity; however, small areas of considerable radioactivity midway between flight lines may not be noted. The approximate locations of nine radioactivity anomalies are shown on the accompanying map. The plotted position of the anomalies may be in error by as much as a quarter mile owing to the errors in available base maps or to the existence of areas on the base maps up to several square miles in which it is impossible to find and plot recognizable landmarks. The present technique of airborne radioactivity measurement does not permit distinguishing between activity due to thorium and that due to uranium. An anomaly, therefore, may represent radioactivity due entirely to one or to a combination of these elements. The

  1. Enhanced airborne radioactivity during a pine pollen release episode.

    PubMed

    Tschiersch, J; Frank, G; Roth, P; Wagenpfeil, F; Watterson, F; Watterson, J

    1999-07-01

    A single episode of pine pollen release in the highly contaminated area of Novozybkov, Russian Federation, which led to enhanced atmospheric concentrations of 137Cs is discussed. The pollen grains were sampled by a rotating arm impactor and analysed by gamma-spectrometry for 137Cs activity and by image analysis for their size. In the vicinity of a forest, a maximum concentration of 4.5+/-0.4 mBq m(-3) was measured, and a mean activity per pollen grain of 260+/-80 nBq was determined. The emission rate of the Novozybkov mixed pine forest was estimated to be approximately 400 Bq m(-2) per year. Because of the large size of pine pollen grains (about 50 microm) and the short emission period of 5-8 days per year, the estimated potential annual inhalation doses are very low. Biological emissions including pollen release may be a source of increased airborne radionuclide concentrations at larger distances from the source areas as well. PMID:10461761

  2. Various consequences regarding hypothetical dispersion of airborne radioactivity in a city center.

    PubMed

    Jonsson, Lage; Plamboeck, Agneta H; Johansson, Erik; Waldenvik, Mattias

    2013-02-01

    In case of dispersion of airborne radioactive material in a city center a number of questions will prompt for an answer. While many questions can get their answers in due course of time based on results of tests and sampling, a good understanding of the quantitative effect of dispersion will be very helpful to rescue staff, in particular in the early stage. In the following dose and dose rate estimates are presented for three scenarios including dispersion of radioactivity in a city center. In one case the activity is released in an open place, in another from a roof and in the third case from a source on a street where the wind is blowing along the street. In each case, at specific positions, estimates are made of dose from inhalation, and dose rates for contamination on skin as well as from radioactive particles deposited onto ground, walls and roofs (external exposure) in the city center. It should be noted that the deposition pattern in urban areas varies greatly which means that the consequences are difficult to predict. The dispersion is influenced by recirculation behind tall buildings and diverted flow close to street-ends, which have significant effects on the deposit pattern. Regarding the relative importance of contributions to total dose it is found that inhalation could play a major role for long term effects while dose to skin might dominate acute effects.

  3. Effluent monitoring Quality Assurance Project Plan for radioactive airborne emissions data. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Frazier, T.P.

    1995-12-01

    This Quality Assurance Project Plan addresses the quality assurance requirements for compiling Hanford Site radioactive airborne emissions data. These data will be reported to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the US Department of Energy, and the Washington State Department of Health. Effluent Monitoring performs compliance assessments on radioactive airborne sampling and monitoring systems. This Quality Assurance Project Plan is prepared in compliance with interim guidelines and specifications. Topics include: project description; project organization and management; quality assurance objectives; sampling procedures; sample custody; calibration procedures; analytical procedures; monitoring and reporting criteria; data reduction, verification, and reporting; internal quality control; performance and system audits; corrective actions; and quality assurance reports.

  4. Savannah River Site Ingestion Pathway Methodology Manual for Airborne Radioactive Releases

    SciTech Connect

    Vincent, A.W. III

    2001-01-03

    This manual documents a recommended methodology for determining the ingestion pathway consequences of hypothetical accidental airborne radiological releases from facilities at the Savannah River Site. Both particulate and tritiated radioactive contaminants are addressed. Other approaches should be applied for evaluation of routine releases.

  5. A Computer Code to Estimate Environmental Concentration and Dose Due to Airborne Release of Radioactive Material.

    1991-03-15

    Version 00 ORION-II was developed to estimate environmental concentration and dose due to airborne release of radioactive material from multiple sources of the nuclear fuel cycle facilities. ORION-II is an updated version of ORION and is applicable to the sensitivity study of dose assessment at nuclear fuel cycle facilities.

  6. Radioactive tank waste remediation focus area

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    EM`s Office of Science and Technology has established the Tank Focus Area (TFA) to manage and carry out an integrated national program of technology development for tank waste remediation. The TFA is responsible for the development, testing, evaluation, and deployment of remediation technologies within a system architecture to characterize, retrieve, treat, concentrate, and dispose of radioactive waste stored in the underground stabilize and close the tanks. The goal is to provide safe and cost-effective solutions that are acceptable to both the public and regulators. Within the DOE complex, 335 underground storage tanks have been used to process and store radioactive and chemical mixed waste generated from weapon materials production and manufacturing. Collectively, thes tanks hold over 90 million gallons of high-level and low-level radioactive liquid waste in sludge, saltcake, and as supernate and vapor. Very little has been treated and/or disposed or in final form.

  7. Identification of airborne radioactive spatial patterns in Europe - Feasibility study using Beryllium-7.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Ceballos, M A; Cinelli, G; Tollefsen, T; Marín-Ferrer, M

    2016-05-01

    The present study proposes a methodology to identify spatial patterns in airborne radioactive particles in Europe. The methodology is based on transforming the activity concentrations in the set of stations for each month (monthly index), due to the tightly spaced sampling intervals (daily to monthly), in combination with hierarchical and non-hierarchical clustering approaches, due to the lack of a priori knowledge of the number of clusters to be created. Three different hierarchical cluster methodologies are explored to set the optimal number of clusters necessary to initialize the non-hierarchical one (k-means). To evaluate this methodology, cosmogenic beryllium-7 ((7)Be) data, collected between 2007 and 2010 at 19 sampling stations in European Union (EU) countries and stored in the Radioactivity Environmental Monitoring (REM) database, are used. This methodology yields a solution with three distinguishable clusters (south, central and north), each with a different evolution of the (7)Be monthly index. Clear differences between monthly indices are shown in both intensity and time trends, following a latitudinal distribution of the sampling stations. This cluster result is evaluated performing ANOVA analysis, considering the original (7)Be activity concentrations grouped in each cluster. The statistical results (among clusters and sampling stations within clusters) confirm the spatial distribution of (7)Be in Europe, and, hence, reinforce the use of this methodology. Finally, the impact of tropopause height on this grouping is successfully tested, suggesting its influence on the spatial distribution of (7)Be in Europe. For airborne radioactive particles the analysis gave valuable results that improve knowledge of these atmospheric compounds in Europe. Hence, this work addresses a methodology to a grouping of airborne sampling stations, 1) allowing a better understanding of the distribution of (7)Be activity concentrations in the EU, and 2) serving as a basis for

  8. Identification of airborne radioactive spatial patterns in Europe - Feasibility study using Beryllium-7.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Ceballos, M A; Cinelli, G; Tollefsen, T; Marín-Ferrer, M

    2016-05-01

    The present study proposes a methodology to identify spatial patterns in airborne radioactive particles in Europe. The methodology is based on transforming the activity concentrations in the set of stations for each month (monthly index), due to the tightly spaced sampling intervals (daily to monthly), in combination with hierarchical and non-hierarchical clustering approaches, due to the lack of a priori knowledge of the number of clusters to be created. Three different hierarchical cluster methodologies are explored to set the optimal number of clusters necessary to initialize the non-hierarchical one (k-means). To evaluate this methodology, cosmogenic beryllium-7 ((7)Be) data, collected between 2007 and 2010 at 19 sampling stations in European Union (EU) countries and stored in the Radioactivity Environmental Monitoring (REM) database, are used. This methodology yields a solution with three distinguishable clusters (south, central and north), each with a different evolution of the (7)Be monthly index. Clear differences between monthly indices are shown in both intensity and time trends, following a latitudinal distribution of the sampling stations. This cluster result is evaluated performing ANOVA analysis, considering the original (7)Be activity concentrations grouped in each cluster. The statistical results (among clusters and sampling stations within clusters) confirm the spatial distribution of (7)Be in Europe, and, hence, reinforce the use of this methodology. Finally, the impact of tropopause height on this grouping is successfully tested, suggesting its influence on the spatial distribution of (7)Be in Europe. For airborne radioactive particles the analysis gave valuable results that improve knowledge of these atmospheric compounds in Europe. Hence, this work addresses a methodology to a grouping of airborne sampling stations, 1) allowing a better understanding of the distribution of (7)Be activity concentrations in the EU, and 2) serving as a basis for

  9. Novel method for estimation of the indoor-to-outdoor airborne radioactivity ratio following the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yanliang; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Janik, Miroslaw; Tokonami, Shinji; Hosoda, Masahiro; Sorimachi, Atsuyuki; Kearfott, Kimberlee

    2015-12-01

    The accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) in Japan resulted in significant releases of fission products. While substantial data exist concerning outdoor air radioactivity following the accident, the resulting indoor radioactivity remains pure speculation without a proper method for estimating the ratio of the indoor to outdoor airborne radioactivity, termed the airborne sheltering factor (ASF). Lacking a meaningful value of the ASF, it is difficult to assess the inhalation doses to residents and evacuees even when outdoor radionuclide concentrations are available. A simple model was developed and the key parameters needed to estimate the ASF were obtained through data fitting of selected indoor and outdoor airborne radioactivity measurement data obtained following the accident at a single location. Using the new model with values of the air exchange rate, interior air volume, and the inner surface area of the dwellings, the ASF can be estimated for a variety of dwelling types. Assessment of the inhalation dose to individuals readily follows from the value of the ASF, the person's indoor occupancy factor, and the measured outdoor radioactivity concentration. PMID:26188529

  10. Novel method for estimation of the indoor-to-outdoor airborne radioactivity ratio following the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yanliang; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Janik, Miroslaw; Tokonami, Shinji; Hosoda, Masahiro; Sorimachi, Atsuyuki; Kearfott, Kimberlee

    2015-12-01

    The accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) in Japan resulted in significant releases of fission products. While substantial data exist concerning outdoor air radioactivity following the accident, the resulting indoor radioactivity remains pure speculation without a proper method for estimating the ratio of the indoor to outdoor airborne radioactivity, termed the airborne sheltering factor (ASF). Lacking a meaningful value of the ASF, it is difficult to assess the inhalation doses to residents and evacuees even when outdoor radionuclide concentrations are available. A simple model was developed and the key parameters needed to estimate the ASF were obtained through data fitting of selected indoor and outdoor airborne radioactivity measurement data obtained following the accident at a single location. Using the new model with values of the air exchange rate, interior air volume, and the inner surface area of the dwellings, the ASF can be estimated for a variety of dwelling types. Assessment of the inhalation dose to individuals readily follows from the value of the ASF, the person's indoor occupancy factor, and the measured outdoor radioactivity concentration.

  11. Monitoring of space weather and radioactivity using small airborne platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, R. Giles; Lidgard, Jeffrey; Aplin, Karen L.; Nicoll, Keri A.

    2013-04-01

    Space Weather is increasingly considered as a hazard to society's technological systems, but the effects of energetic particles within the atmosphere - with a potential implication for climate - also present an area in which new scientific knowledge needs to be developed. Routine measurements of energetic particle fluxes made above the surface have been made by the Lebedev Institute, undertaking continuous balloon-carried measurements since 1957. An underexploited measurement opportunity is presented by the conventional weather balloons (radiosondes) launched regularly globally by meteorological services, which could potentially provide a cost-effective alternative to custom balloon flights, as well as the ability to make measurements of particle fluxes at a wide range of latitudes. This work describes the development of a small disposable ionisation sensor, exploiting the well-known response of inexpensive semiconductor devices (e.g. PIN photodiodes) to ionising radiation. Such a Photodiode Radiation Detector (PRD) is particularly suitable for balloon use, as, unlike previous Geiger tube detector systems, only low bias voltages are required, which simplifies the circuitry required, reduces power consumption and entirely removes any high voltage hazard. In addition to providing count rate information, basic energy spectrum information is in principle available from pulse amplitudes generated. We discuss the evaluation and deployment considerations for the use of a PRD on a standard radiosonde platform, to operate within and alongside the existing operational meteorological requirements.

  12. Spectrum correction algorithm for detectors in airborne radioactivity monitoring equipment NH-UAV based on a ratio processing method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Ye; Tang, Xiao-Bin; Wang, Peng; Meng, Jia; Huang, Xi; Wen, Liang-Sheng; Chen, Da

    2015-10-01

    The unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) radiation monitoring method plays an important role in nuclear accidents emergency. In this research, a spectrum correction algorithm about the UAV airborne radioactivity monitoring equipment NH-UAV was studied to measure the radioactive nuclides within a small area in real time and in a fixed place. The simulation spectra of the high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector and the lanthanum bromide (LaBr3) detector in the equipment were obtained using the Monte Carlo technique. Spectrum correction coefficients were calculated after performing ratio processing techniques about the net peak areas between the double detectors on the detection spectrum of the LaBr3 detector according to the accuracy of the detection spectrum of the HPGe detector. The relationship between the spectrum correction coefficient and the size of the source term was also investigated. A good linear relation exists between the spectrum correction coefficient and the corresponding energy (R2=0.9765). The maximum relative deviation from the real condition reduced from 1.65 to 0.035. The spectrum correction method was verified as feasible.

  13. Air modelling as an alternative to sampling for low-level radioactive airborne releases

    SciTech Connect

    Morgenstern, M.Y.; Hueske, K.

    1995-05-01

    This paper describes our efforts to assess the effect of airborne releases at one DOE laboratory using air modelling based on historical data. Among the facilities affected by these developments is Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in New Mexico. RCRA, as amended by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) in 1984, requires all facilities which involve the treatment, storage, and disposal of hazardous waste obtain a RCRA/HSWA waste facility permit. LANL complied with CEARP by initiating a process of identifying potential release sites associated with LANL operations prior to filing a RCRA/HSWA permit application. In the process of preparing the RCRA/HSWA waste facility permit application to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), a total of 603 Solid Waste Management Units (SWMUs) were identified as part of the requirements of the HSWA Module VIH permit requirements. The HSWA Module VIII permit requires LANL to determine whether there have been any releases of hazardous waste or hazardous constituents from SWMUs at the facility dating from the 1940`s by performing a RCRA Facility Investigation to address known or suspected releases from specified SWMUs to affected media (i.e. soil, groundwater, surface water, and air). Among the most troublesome of the potential releases sites are those associated with airborne radioactive releases. In order to assess health risks associated with radioactive contaminants in a manner consistent with exposure standards currently in place, the DOE and LANL have established Screening Action Levels (SALs) for radioactive soil contamination. The SALs for each radionuclide in soil are derived from calculations based on a residential scenario in which individuals are exposed to contaminated soil via inhalation and ingestion as well as external exposure to gamma emitters in the soil. The applicable SALs are shown.

  14. Inversion of Airborne Electromagnetic Survey Data, Styx River Area, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kass, A.; Minsley, B. J.; Smith, B. D.; Burns, L.; Emond, A.

    2014-12-01

    A joint effort by the US Geological Survey (USGS) and the Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys (DGGS) aims to add value to public domain airborne electromagnetic (AEM) data, collected in Alaska, through the application of newly developed advanced inversion methods to produce resistivity depth sections along flight lines. Derivative products are new geophysical data maps, interpretative profiles and displays. An important task of the new processing is to facilitate calibration or leveling between adjacent surveys flown with different systems in different years. The new approach will facilitate integration of the geophysical data in the interpretation and construction of geologic framework, resource evaluations and to geotechnical studies. Four helicopter airborne electromagnetic (AEM) surveys have been flown in the Styx River area by the DGGS; Styx River, Middle Styx, East Styx, and Farewell. The Styx River flown in 2008 and Middle Styx in flown 2013, cover an area of 2300 square kilometers. These data consist of frequency-domain DIGHEM V surveys which have been numerically processed and interpreted to yield a three-dimensional model of electrical resistivity. We describe the numerical interpretation methodology (inversion) in detail, from quality assessment to interpretation. We show two methods of inversion used in these datasets, deterministic and stochastic, and describe how we use these results to define calibration parameters and assess the quality of the datasets. We also describe the difficulties and procedures for combining datasets acquired at different times.

  15. Validation of Monte Carlo model of HPGe detector for field-station measurement of airborne radioactivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šolc, J.; Kovář, P.; Dryák, P.

    2016-03-01

    A Monte Carlo (MC) model of a mechanically-cooled High Purity Germanium detection system IDM-200-V™ manufactured by ORTEC® was created, optimized and validated within the scope of the Joint Research Project ENV57 ``Metrology for radiological early warning networks in Europe''. The validation was performed for a planar source homogeneously distributed on a filter placed on top of the detector end cap and for point sources positioned farther from the detector by comparing simulated full-energy peak (FEP) detection efficiencies with the ones measured with two or three different pieces of the IDM detector. True coincidence summing correction factors were applied to the measured FEP efficiencies. Relative differences of FEP efficiencies laid within 8% that is fully satisfactory for the intended use of the detectors as instruments for airborne radioactivity measurement in field-stations. The validated MC model of the IDM-200-V™ detector is now available for further MC calculations planned in the ENV57 project.

  16. Quality Assurance Project Plan for radioactive airborne emissions data compilation and reporting

    SciTech Connect

    Burris, S.A.; Thomas, S.P.

    1994-02-01

    This Quality Assurance Project Plan addresses the quality assurance requirements for compiling data from radioactie aiborne emissions. These data will be reported to the US Environmental Protection Agency, the US Department of Energy, and the Washington State Department of Health. Hanford Site radioactive airborne emissions are reported to the US Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 61, ``National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants , ``Subpart H, ``National Emissions Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other Than Radon From Department of Energy Facilities`` (EPA 1989a). Reporting to US Department of Energy is performed in compliance with requirements of US Department of Energy Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program (DOE 1988a).

  17. Infrared airborne spectroradiometer survey results in the western Nevada area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, W.; Chang, S. H.; Kuo, J. T.

    1982-01-01

    The Mark II airborne spectroradiometer system was flown over several geologic test sites in western Nevada. The infrared mineral absorption bands were observed and recorded for the first time using an airborne system with high spectral resolution in the 2.0 to 2.5 micron region. The data show that the hydrothermal alteration zone minerals, carbonates, and other minerals are clearly visible in the airborne survey mode. The finer spectral features that distinguish the various minerals with infrared bands are also clearly visible in the airborne survey data. Using specialized computer pattern recognition methods, it is possible to identify mineralogy and map alteration zones and lithologies by airborne spectroradiometer survey techniques.

  18. Radioactivity concentrations in soils of the Xiazhuang granite area, China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ya-Xin; Wu, Xin-Min; Jiang, Zhong-Ying; Wang, Wei-Xing; Lu, Ji-Gen; Lin, Jun; Wang, Lei-Ming; Hsia, Yuan-Fu

    2005-08-01

    The natural radioactivity of soils at the Xiazhuang granite massif of Southern China has been studied. The radioactivities of 55 samples have been measured with a low-background HPGe detector. The radioactivity concentrations of (238)U and (40)K ranged from 40.2 to 442 and from 442 to 913 Bq/kg, respectively, while the radioactivity concentration of (232)Th varied only slightly. In order to evaluate the radiological hazard of the natural radioactivity, the radium equivalent activity (Ra(eq)), the absorbed dose rate (D ), the annual effective dose rate and the external hazard index (H(ex)) have been calculated and compared with the internationally approved values. The study provides background radioactivity concentrations in a granite area, specifically, the area in the vicinity of a uranium mine in Southern China. The data can be used in exploring granite-type uranium deposits.

  19. Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site Safety Assessment Document

    SciTech Connect

    Horton, K.K.; Kendall, E.W.; Brown, J.J.

    1980-02-01

    The Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Safety Assessment Document evaluates site characteristics, facilities and operating practices which contribute to the safe handling and storage/disposal of radioactive wastes at the Nevada Test Site. Physical geography, cultural factors, climate and meteorology, geology, hydrology (with emphasis on radionuclide migration), ecology, natural phenomena, and natural resources are discussed and determined to be suitable for effective containment of radionuclides. Also considered, as a separate section, are facilities and operating practices such as monitoring; storage/disposal criteria; site maintenance, equipment, and support; transportation and waste handling; and others which are adequate for the safe handling and storage/disposal of radioactive wastes. In conclusion, the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site is suitable for radioactive waste handling and storage/disposal for a maximum of twenty more years at the present rate of utilization.

  20. Environmental hazards and distribution of radioactive black sand along the Rosetta coastal zone in Egypt using airborne spectrometric and remote sensing data.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, M F; Aziz, A M; Ghieth, B M

    2014-11-01

    High-resolution airborne gamma ray spectrometry, conducted in 2003, was used to estimate radioactive elements spatial abundance along the Rosetta coastal zone area. It was noticed that both Uranium and Thorium are concentrated in the black sand deposits along the beach. In contrary, Potassium was observed in high level abundance at the cultivated Nile Delta lands due to the accumulated usage of fertilizers. Exposure Rate (ER), Absorbed Dose Rate (ADR) and Annual Effective Dose Rate (AEDR) were calculated to evaluate the radiation background influence in human. Results indicated that the human body in the study sites is subjected to radiation hazards exceeds the accepted limit for long duration exposure. In addition, the areas covered by the highest concentration of Uranium and Thorium show the highest level of radiogenic heat production. Detection the environmental hazards of the radioactive black sands in the study site encouraged this research to monitor the spatial and temporal distribution of these sediments. The Landsat Thematic Mapper images acquired in 1990, 2003 and 2013 were analyzed using remote sensing image processing techniques. Image enhancements, classification and changes detection indicated a positive significant relationship between the patterns of coastline changes and distribution of the radioactive black sand in the study sites. The radioactive black sands are usually concentrated in the eroded areas. Therefore, in 1990 high concentration of the radioactive black sands were observed along the eastern and western flanks of the Rosetta promontory. Distribution of these sediments decreased due to the construction of the protective sea walls. Most of the radioactive black sands are transported toward the east in Abu Khashaba bay under the effect of the longshore currents and toward the west in Alexandria and Abu Quir bay under the action of the seasonal reverse currents.

  1. Urban area structuring mapping using an airborne polarimetric SAR image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonetto, Elisabeth; Malak, Charbel

    2009-09-01

    For several years, image classification and pattern recognition algorithms have been developed for the land coverage mapping using radar and multispectral imagery with medium to large pixel size. As several satellites now distribute submetric-pixel and metric-pixel images (for example QUICKBIRD,TERRASAR-X), the research turns to the study of the structure of cities: building structuring, grassy areas, road networks, etc, and the physical description of the urban surfaces. In that context, we propose to underline new potentialities of submetric-pixel polarimetric SAR images. We deal with the characterization of roofs and the mapping of trees. For that purpose, a first analysis based on photo-interpretation and the assessement of several polarimetric descriptors is carried out. Then, an image classification scheme is built using the polarimetric H/alpha-Wishart algorithm, followed by a decision tree. This one is based on the most pertinent polarimetric descriptors and aims at reducing the classification errors. The result proves the potential of such data. Our work relies on an image of a suburban area, acquired by the airborne RAMSES SAR sensor of ONERA.

  2. Airborne SAR/IFSAR for mapping in urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chayakula, Thongthit

    There are many problems in topographic mapping in an urban area. Traditional land survey is a very time consuming technique and can be very expensive. Photogrammetry is a popular choice but there are some problems such as clouds and limited operational time. Since Synthetic Aperture Radar, (SAR), is an active remote sensing system and its signal can penetrate through clouds, it can be operated at any time of day and is a independent of the weather. SAR could be a good solution for topographic mapping in an urban area. Combining SAR data and Interferometric radar technology can provide enough information for topographic mapping. Information can be extracted from SAR intensity Image. This thesis focuses on feature extraction and classification for topographic mapping in an urban area from airborne interferometric SAR data. A new algorithm is described which is simple and practical but yet very efficient for feature extraction and for object-based feature classification. An adapted Canny-Petrou-Kittler algorithm is applied for edge detection. Since the algorithm provides good detection, good localization and only one response to a single edge, it is an ideal edge detection for dense urban areas. Since the SAR image is noisy by its nature, small weak edges are expected. The modified non-maximal technique is also proposed to reduce unwanted edge. The technique of generation of bald earth DEM is proposed to obtain a normalised DEM for feature extraction. Region growing from edge detection is then applied to extract a more accurate shape of the feature and generate feature surface by using topographic parameters. The extracted feature is then classified by object-oriented classification technique, in which the classification is performed at object level not pixel level. And at the end of the process 3D city model can be produced.

  3. 10 CFR 63.112 - Requirements for preclosure safety analysis of the geologic repository operations area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... to control access to high radiation areas or airborne radioactivity areas; (6) Means to prevent and..., concentrations of radioactive material in air, and increased radioactivity in effluents; (8) Ability...

  4. 10 CFR 63.112 - Requirements for preclosure safety analysis of the geologic repository operations area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... to control access to high radiation areas or airborne radioactivity areas; (6) Means to prevent and..., concentrations of radioactive material in air, and increased radioactivity in effluents; (8) Ability...

  5. 10 CFR 63.112 - Requirements for preclosure safety analysis of the geologic repository operations area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... to control access to high radiation areas or airborne radioactivity areas; (6) Means to prevent and..., concentrations of radioactive material in air, and increased radioactivity in effluents; (8) Ability...

  6. 10 CFR 63.112 - Requirements for preclosure safety analysis of the geologic repository operations area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... to control access to high radiation areas or airborne radioactivity areas; (6) Means to prevent and..., concentrations of radioactive material in air, and increased radioactivity in effluents; (8) Ability...

  7. 10 CFR 63.112 - Requirements for preclosure safety analysis of the geologic repository operations area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... to control access to high radiation areas or airborne radioactivity areas; (6) Means to prevent and..., concentrations of radioactive material in air, and increased radioactivity in effluents; (8) Ability...

  8. Airborne ammonia and ammonium within the Northern Adriatic area, Croatia.

    PubMed

    Alebic-Juretic, Ana

    2008-08-01

    Determination of airborne ammonia started in the early 1980s, as a part of air pollution monitoring of industrial plants. Due to high emissions, the city of Rijeka was one of the most polluted in Croatia in the mid-1980s. Considerable reductions in SO2 and NO(x) emissions led to lower airborne levels of these pollutants in the mid 1990s. In spite of the coke plant closure in 1994, there was only a weak decline in airborne ammonia over the period 1980--2005, with annual means in the range of 12-20 microg m(-3) at urban Site 1 and 6-28 microg m(-3) at suburban Site 2. Similar behaviour has been observed with ammonium in bulk rainwater samples since 1996. Higher and approximately equal deposition of nitrogen as ammonium (N-NH4+) were obtained for the urban Site 1 and the mountainous Site 4, but with different causative facts. Ammonium's contribution to total nitrogen (NO3(-)+NH4+) deposition is approximately two thirds, even for a remote Site 3.

  9. The Macroecology of Airborne Pollen in Australian and New Zealand Urban Areas

    PubMed Central

    Haberle, Simon G.; Bowman, David M. J. S.; Newnham, Rewi M.; Johnston, Fay H.; Beggs, Paul J.; Buters, Jeroen; Campbell, Bradley; Erbas, Bircan; Godwin, Ian; Green, Brett J.; Huete, Alfredo; Jaggard, Alison K.; Medek, Danielle; Murray, Frank; Newbigin, Ed; Thibaudon, Michel; Vicendese, Don; Williamson, Grant J.; Davies, Janet M.

    2014-01-01

    The composition and relative abundance of airborne pollen in urban areas of Australia and New Zealand are strongly influenced by geographical location, climate and land use. There is mounting evidence that the diversity and quality of airborne pollen is substantially modified by climate change and land-use yet there are insufficient data to project the future nature of these changes. Our study highlights the need for long-term aerobiological monitoring in Australian and New Zealand urban areas in a systematic, standardised, and sustained way, and provides a framework for targeting the most clinically significant taxa in terms of abundance, allergenic effects and public health burden. PMID:24874807

  10. Utilization of airborne gamma ray spectrometric data for geological mapping, radioactive mineral exploration and environmental monitoring of southeastern Aswan city, South Eastern Desert, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youssef, Mohamed A. S.; Elkhodary, Shadia T.

    2013-12-01

    The present work utilizes airborne gamma ray spectrometric data in a trial to refine surface geology of igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary rocks, detect any radioactive mineralization and monitor environment at southeastern Aswan city, South Eastern Desert, Egypt. This area is mainly covered with igneous rocks (younger granites, older granites, metasediments, metavolcanics, metagabbro, Tertiary basalt and ring complex), metamorphic rocks as well as sedimentary rocks (Um Barmil Formation, Timsah Formation, Abu Aggag Formation and wadi sediments). Airborne gamma ray spectrometry can be very helpful in mapping surface geology. This provides estimates of the apparent surface concentrations of the most common naturally occurring radioactive elements, such as potassium (K), equivalent uranium (eU) and equivalent thorium (eTh). This is based on the assumption that, the absolute and relative concentrations of these radioelements vary measurably and significantly with lithology. The composite image technique is used to display simultaneously three parameters of the three radioelement concentrations and their three binary ratios on one image. The technique offers much in terms of lithological discrimination, based on colour differences and showed efficiency in defining areas, where different lithofacies occur within areas mapped as one continuous lithology. The integration between surface geological information and geophysical data led to detailing the surface geology and the contacts between different rock units. Significant locations or favourable areas for uranium exploration are defined, where the measurements exceed (X + 2S), taking X as the arithmetic mean of eU, eU/eTh and eU/K measurements and S as the standard deviation corresponding to each variables. The study area shows the presence of four relatively high uraniferous zones. These zones cannot be ignored and need further ground follow-up. In addition, the trend analysis based on the three radioelement maps and

  11. A Monte Carlo program to calculate the exposure rate from airborne radioactive gases inside a nuclear reactor containment building.

    PubMed

    Sherbini, S; Tamasanis, D; Sykes, J; Porter, S W

    1986-12-01

    A program was developed to calculate the exposure rate resulting from airborne gases inside a reactor containment building. The calculations were performed at the location of a wall-mounted area radiation monitor. The program uses Monte Carlo techniques and accounts for both the direct and scattered components of the radiation field at the detector. The scattered component was found to contribute about 30% of the total exposure rate at 50 keV and dropped to about 7% at 2000 keV. The results of the calculations were normalized to unit activity per unit volume of air in the containment. This allows the exposure rate readings of the area monitor to be used to estimate the airborne activity in containment in the early phases of an accident. Such estimates, coupled with containment leak rates, provide a method to obtain a release rate for use in offsite dose projection calculations.

  12. Analysis and tracing of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and mutagenicity of airborne particulates from the Taipei area.

    PubMed

    Wei, Y H; Chang, K T; Chiang, P C; Chang, S C

    1991-02-01

    In a 3-year study, we determined the mutagenicity and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) of airborne particulates collected during December 1987-September 1988 (216 samples), October 1988-January 1989 (81 samples), and October 1989-April 1990 (52 samples) from 9 locations in the Taipei area. We found that dichloromethane extracts of all the samples were mutagenic to Salmonella typhimurium in the Ames test. Moreover, the mutagenicity was much higher in the presence of rat liver microsomal fraction (S9 mixture) than that observed in its absence, which indicates that airborne particulates contained both direct and indirect mutagens. The average mutagenicity of the samples collected in the 3-year period was 137, 127, and 118 histidine revertants/10 m3 air, respectively. On the other hand, we found that dichloromethane extracts of each airborne particulate sample contained 14 PAHs with wide variations in concentration and relative distribution. The levels of Pha, Flu, Pyr, and Ben were much higher than the PAHs with higher ring numbers such as BaP, BeP, Pr, IP, and DbA. The average PAH content was 8.0, 5.0, and 7.8 ng/m3 air for airborne particulates collected during December 1986-September 1987, October 1988-January 1989, and October 1989-April 1990, respectively. Among the 9 stations, Fu Hsing Elementary School and Chung Hsing University (Taipei campus), which are, respectively, located in the downtown area and a heavy traffic zone, had significantly higher levels of mutagenicity and PAHs than did the other stations. Moreover, comparative analysis of PAH levels of airborne particulates over the 3-year period revealed an interesting season-dependent change of PAH content in airborne particulates from the Taipei area. The concentrations of individual and total PAHs were consistently lower in the summer than those in the winter. A similar pattern of seasonal change was also observed in the mutagenicity of airborne particulate samples examined. It is worth mentioning

  13. Comparison of airborne and spaceborne TIR data for studying volcanic geothermal areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaughan, R. G.; Heasler, H.; Jaworowski, C.; Bergfeld, D.; Evans, W.

    2015-12-01

    Mapping and quantifying the surface expression of geothermal heat flux in volcanic geothermal areas is important for establishing baseline thermal activity to better detect and understand any future changes that may be related to hydrothermal or volcanic processes, or human activities. Volcanic geothermal areas are often too large and inaccessible for only field-based thermal monitoring, so thermal infrared (TIR) remote sensing tools are also used. High resolution (sub-meter) airborne TIR imagery can be used for detailed, quantitative analyses of small, subtle geothermal features. Airborne data acquisitions have the advantage of being able to be acquired under ideal conditions (e.g., predawn, cloud-free), but the disadvantage of high costs - thus precluding high-frequency monitoring. Satellite-based TIR data from the Landsat 8 platform are freely available and can be acquired regularly for change detection, but are acquired with coarser spatial resolution (e.g., 100-m pixels), and thus are not as sensitive to subtle thermal characteristics. Two geothermal areas with clear, nighttime TIR data from nearly concurrent (within days) airborne and spaceborne instruments were investigated: Norris Geyser Basin in Yellowstone National Park, WY; and the Casa Diablo geothermal field, near Mammoth Lakes, CA. At Norris Geyser Basin, the area covered by high-resolution airborne TIR imagery is almost entirely geothermally heated ground, with hundreds of fumaroles, hot springs, and thermal drainages - although some non-geothermal background is exposed. With the coarser resolution Landsat 8 data, there are thermal variations within the smaller area covered by the airborne data, but the entire area appears to be thermally anomalous with respect to the non-geothermal background outside the basin. In the geothermal field around the Casa Diablo geothermal site, there are numerous, small areas of geothermal heating that are clearly distinguishable above the background by the high

  14. 75 FR 22674 - Airborne Area Navigation Equipment Using Loran-C Inputs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-29

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Airborne Area Navigation Equipment Using Loran-C Inputs AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of cancellation of: (1) Loran-C navigation system Technical Standard Orders (TSO); and (2) the revocation of Loran-C navigation system TSO...

  15. 75 FR 42819 - Airborne Area Navigation Equipment Using Loran-C Inputs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-22

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Airborne Area Navigation Equipment Using Loran-C Inputs AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT ACTION: Notice of cancellation of: (1) Loran-C navigation system Technical Standard Orders (TSO); and (2) the revocation of Loran-C navigation system TSO...

  16. A simple and fractal analysis of the European on-line network for airborne radioactivity monitoring.

    PubMed

    Raes, F; Graziani, G; Girardi, F

    1991-09-01

    We introduce two simple descriptors and use the fractal dimension to characterize the capability of a monitoring network to either 'spot', 'delineate' or 'track' a pollution cloud moving across a territory. The descriptors are applied to the 'European' monitoring network for radioactive aerosol (i.e. the sum of the national networks). Simple analysis shows that on average the time and space resolution of the network are well balanced for tracking the movement of a radioactive cloud. Such tracking, however, can only be started one or two days after the release. The geographical inhomogeneity of the network is quantified by a fractal dimension of 1.6, implying that radioactive clouds with a dimension less than 0.4 might not be detected by the network.

  17. Simulation of Terminal-Area Flight Management System Arrivals with Airborne Spacing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callantine, Todd J.; Lee, Paul U.; Mercer, Joey S.; Palmer, Everett A.; Prevot, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    A simulation evaluated the feasibility and potential benefits of using decision support tools to support time-based airborne spacing and merging for aircraft arriving in the terminal area on charted Flight Management System (FMS) routes. Sixteen trials were conducted in each treatment combination of a 2X2 repeated-measures design. In trials 'with ground tools' air traffic controller participants managed traffic using sequencing and spacing tools. In trials 'with air tools' approximately seventy-five percent of aircraft assigned to the primary landing runway were equipped for airborne spacing, including flight simulators flown by commercial pilots. The results indicate that airborne spacing improves spacing accuracy and is feasible for FMS operations and mixed spacing equipage. Controllers and pilots can manage spacing clearances that contain two call signs without difficulty. For best effect, both decision support tools and spacing guidance should exhibit consistently predictable performance, and merging traffic flows should be well coordinated.

  18. Computerized Mathematical Models of Spray Washout of Airborne Contaminants (Radioactivity) in Containment Vessels.

    2003-05-23

    Version 01 Distribution is restricted to the United States Only. SPIRT predicts the washout of airborne contaminants in containment vessels under postulated loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) conditions. SPIRT calculates iodine removal constants (lambdas) for post-LOCA containment spray systems. It evaluates the effect of the spectrum of drop sizes emitted by the spray nozzles, the effect of drop coalescence, and the precise solution of the time-dependent diffusion equation. STEAM-67 routines are included for calculating the properties ofmore » steam and water according to the 1967 ASME Steam Tables.« less

  19. 41 CFR 50-204.22 - Exposure to airborne radioactive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... excess of the limits specified in Table I of Appendix B to 10 CFR Part 20. The limits given in Table I... average concentration in excess of the limits specified in Table II of Appendix B to 10 CFR Part 20. For... radioactive material. 50-204.22 Section 50-204.22 Public Contracts and Property Management Other...

  20. 41 CFR 50-204.22 - Exposure to airborne radioactive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... excess of the limits specified in Table I of appendix B to 10 CFR part 20. The limits given in Table I... average concentration in excess of the limits specified in Table II of Appendix B to 10 CFR part 20. For... radioactive material. 50-204.22 Section 50-204.22 Public Contracts and Property Management Other...

  1. 41 CFR 50-204.22 - Exposure to airborne radioactive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... excess of the limits specified in Table I of Appendix B to 10 CFR Part 20. The limits given in Table I... average concentration in excess of the limits specified in Table II of Appendix B to 10 CFR Part 20. For... radioactive material. 50-204.22 Section 50-204.22 Public Contracts and Property Management Other...

  2. 41 CFR 50-204.22 - Exposure to airborne radioactive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... excess of the limits specified in Table I of appendix B to 10 CFR part 20. The limits given in Table I... average concentration in excess of the limits specified in Table II of appendix B to 10 CFR part 20. For... radioactive material. 50-204.22 Section 50-204.22 Public Contracts and Property Management Other...

  3. 41 CFR 50-204.22 - Exposure to airborne radioactive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... excess of the limits specified in Table I of Appendix B to 10 CFR Part 20. The limits given in Table I... average concentration in excess of the limits specified in Table II of Appendix B to 10 CFR Part 20. For... radioactive material. 50-204.22 Section 50-204.22 Public Contracts and Property Management Other...

  4. Simultaneous sampling of indoor and outdoor airborne radioactivity after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Sorimachi, Atsuyuki; Arae, Hideki; Sahoo, Sarata Kumar; Janik, Miroslaw; Hosoda, Masahiro; Tokonami, Shinji

    2014-02-18

    Several studies have estimated inhalation doses for the public because of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident. Most of them were based on measurement of radioactivity in outdoor air and included the assumption that people stayed outdoors all day. Although this assumption gives a conservative estimate, it is not realistic. The "air decontamination factor" (ratio of indoor to outdoor air radionuclide concentrations) was estimated from simultaneous sampling of radioactivity in both inside and outside air of one building. The building was a workplace and located at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) in Chiba Prefecture, Japan. Aerosol-associated radioactive materials in air were collected onto filters, and the filters were analyzed by γ spectrometry at NIRS. The filter sampling was started on March 15, 2011 and was continued for more than 1 year. Several radionuclides, such as (131)I, (134)Cs, and (137)Cs were found by measuring the filters with a germanium detector. The air decontamination factor was around 0.64 for particulate (131)I and 0.58 for (137)Cs. These values could give implications for the ratio of indoor to outdoor radionuclide concentrations after the FDNPP accident for a similar type of building.

  5. Summary of radioactive solid waste received in the 200 Areas during calendar year 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Hladek, K.L.

    1996-06-06

    Westinghouse Hanford Company manages and operates the Hanford Site 200 Area radioactive solid waste storage and disposal facilities for the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office. These facilities include radioactive solid waste disposal sites and radioactive solid waste storage areas. This document summarizes the amount of radioactive materials that have been buried and stored in the 200 Area radioactive solid waste storage and disposal facilities since startup in 1944 through calendar year 1995. This report does not include backlog waste, solid radioactive wastes in storage or disposed of in other areas, or facilities such as the underground tank farms. Unless packaged within the scope of WHC-EP-0063, Hanford Site Solid Waste Acceptance Criteria, liquid waste data are not included in this document. This annual report provides a summary of the radioactive solid waste received in the both the 200-East and 200-West Areas during the calendar year 1995.

  6. [Radioactivity in Harz area drinking water after Chernobyl].

    PubMed

    Hennighausen, R H

    1999-11-01

    After the reactor accident in Chernobyl on April 26th, 1986 drinking water pollution was in Lower Saxony a problem in the Harz mountains. With the rainout of the radioactive clouds radioactivity came into the water-barrages, brooks und pools for drinking water supply. Good drinking water management supervised by the district community physician limited radioactive nuclides in drinking water. Drinking water path was approximately only 5% of the exposure to radioactive nuclides in the Harz region due to Chernobyl in 1986.

  7. Airborne magnetic mapping of volcanic areas - state-of-the-art and future perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Supper, Robert; Paoletti, Valeria; Okuma, Shigeo

    2015-04-01

    Traditionally airborne magnetics surveys in volcanology are used for mapping regional geological features, fault zones and to develop a magnetic model of the volcanic subsurface. Within an Austrian-Italian-Japanese cooperation, several volcanic areas including Mt. Vesuvius, Ischia, Campi Flegreii and Aeolian Islands in Italy and Socorro Island in Mexico were mapped by high-resolution magnetic mapping during the last 15 years. In this paper, general conclusions from this long-term cooperation project on airborne magnetics in volcanic areas will be summarised. Basically the results showed the results from airborne magnetics could be used for three major purposes: 1. Developing a rough model for the magnetisation below the volcano down to several kilometres by applying advanced magnetic inversion algorithms helped to define the possible depth of the current or past magma chamber. Due to the complexity of the subsurface of volcanic areas, inversion of data was much dependent on constraints coming from other geoscientific disciplines. 2. After applying certain steps of reduction (topographic correction, field transformation) and a combination of source selective filtering, important regional structural trends could be derived from the alignment of the residual magnetic anomalies. 3. On the other hand during recent years, research has also focused on repeated measurements of the magnetic field of volcanic areas (differential in respect of time = differential magnetic measurements - DMM) using airborne sensors. Long-term temporal magnetic field variations in active volcanic areas can be caused by a changing size of the magma chamber or a general rise in temperature. This is caused by the fact that magnetization disappears, when a magnetic material is warmed up over a certain temperature (Curie- temperature). In consequence the resulting total magnetic field changes. Therefore, determining areas showing changes in the magnetic field could help to select areas where a

  8. Satellite imagery and airborne geophysics for geologic mapping of the Edembo area, Eastern Hoggar (Algerian Sahara)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamri, Takfarinas; Djemaï, Safouane; Hamoudi, Mohamed; Zoheir, Basem; Bendaoud, Abderrahmane; Ouzegane, Khadidja; Amara, Massinissa

    2016-03-01

    Satellite imagery combined with airborne geophysical data and field observations were employed for new geologic mapping of the Edembo area in the Eastern Hoggar (Tuareg Shield, Sahara). Multi-spectral band fusion, filtering, and transformation techniques, i.e., band combination, band-rationing and principal component analysis of ETM+ and ASTER data are used for better spectral discrimination of the different rocks units. A thematic map assessed by field data and available geologic information is compiled by supervised classification of satellite data with high overall accuracy (>90%). The automated extraction technique efficiently aided the detection of the structural lineaments, i.e., faults, shear zones, and joints. Airborne magnetic and Gamma-ray spectrometry data showed the pervasiveness of the large structures beneath the Paleozoic sedimentary cover and aeolian sands. The aeroradiometric K-range is used for discrimination of the high-K granitoids of Djanet from the peralumineous granites of Edembo, and to verify the Silurian sediments with their high K-bearing minerals. The new geological map is considered to be a high resolution improvement on all pre-existing maps of this hardly accessible area in the Tuareg Shield. Integration of the airborne geophysical and space-borne imagery data can hence provide a rapid means of geologically mapping areas hitherto poorly known or difficult to access.

  9. Investigation of coastal areas in Northern Germany using airborne geophysical surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miensopust, Marion; Siemon, Bernhard; Wiederhold, Helga; Steuer, Annika; Ibs-von Seht, Malte; Voß, Wolfgang; Meyer, Uwe

    2014-05-01

    Since 2000, the German Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR) carried out several airborne geophysical surveys in Northern Germany to investigate the coastal areas of the North Sea and some of the North and East Frisian Islands. Several of those surveys were conducted in cooperation with the Leibniz Institute for Applied Geophysics (LIAG). Two helicopter-borne geophysical systems were used, namely the BGR system, which collects simultaneously frequency-domain electromagnetic, magnetic and radiometric data, and the SkyTEM system, a time-domain electromagnetic system developed by the University of Aarhus. Airborne geophysical surveys enable to investigate huge areas almost completely with high lateral resolution in a relatively short time at economic cost. In general, the results can support geological and hydrogeological mapping. Of particular importance are the airborne electromagnetic results, as the surveyed parameter - the electrical conductivity - depends on both lithology and groundwater status. Therefore, they can reveal buried valleys and the distribution of sandy and clayey sediments as well as salinization zones and fresh-water occurrences. The often simultaneously recorded magnetic and radiometric data support the electromagnetic results. Lateral changes of Quaternary and Tertiary sediments (shallow source - several tens of metres) as well as evidences of the North German Basin (deep source - several kilometres) are revealed by the magnetic results. The radiometric data indicate the various mineral compositions of the soil sediments. This BGR/LIAG project aims to build up a geophysics data base (http://geophysics-database.de/) which contains all airborne geophysical data sets. However, the more significant effort is to create a reference data set as basis for monitoring climate or man-made induced changes of the salt-water/fresh-water interface at the German North Sea coast. The significance of problems for groundwater extraction

  10. Genetics of cattails in radioactively contaminated areas around Chornobyl.

    PubMed

    Tsyusko, Olga V; Smith, Michael H; Oleksyk, Taras K; Goryanaya, Julia; Glenn, Travis C

    2006-08-01

    Research on populations from radioactively contaminated areas around Chornobyl has produced ambiguous results for the presence of radiation effects. More studies are needed to provide information on whether radiation exposure at Chornobyl significantly affected genetic diversity in natural populations of various taxa. Eleven and nine variable microsatellite loci were used to test for differences in genetic diversity between reference and Chornobyl populations of two cattail species (Typha angustifolia and Typha latifolia, respectively) from Ukraine. Our purpose was to determine whether radiation had a significant impact on genetic diversities of the Chornobyl Typha populations, or if their genetic composition might be better explained by species demography and/or changes in population dynamics, mainly in sexual and asexual reproduction. Populations closest to the reactor had increased genetic diversities and high number of genets, which likely were due to factors other than radiation including increased gene flow among Chornobyl populations, enhanced sexual reproduction within populations, and/or origin of the genets from seed bank. Both Typha species also demonstrated small but significant effects associated with latitude, geographical regions, and watersheds. Typha's demography in Ukraine possibly varies with these three factors, and the small difference between Chornobyl and reference populations of T. latifolia detected after partitioning the total genetic variance between them is probably due primarily to these factors. However, the positive correlations of several genetic characteristics with radionuclide concentrations suggest that radiation may have also affected genetics of Chornobyl Typha populations but much less than was expected considering massive contamination of the Chornobyl area. PMID:16842431

  11. Radioactivity in the groundwater of a high background radiation area.

    PubMed

    Shabana, E I; Kinsara, A A

    2014-11-01

    Natural radioactivity was measured in groundwater samples collected from 37 wells scattered in an inhabited area of high natural background radiation, in a purpose of radiation protection. The study area is adjacent to Aja heights of granitic composition in Hail province, Saudi Arabia. Initial screening for gross α and gross β activities showed levels exceeded the national regulation limits set out for gross α and gross β activities in drinking water. The gross α activity ranged from 0.17 to 5.41 Bq L(-)(1) with an average value of 2.15 Bq L(-)(1), whereas gross β activity ranged from 0.48 to 5.16 Bq L(-)(1), with an average value of 2.60 Bq L(-)(1). The detail analyses indicated that the groundwater of this province is contaminated with uranium and radium ((226)Ra and (228)Ra). The average activity concentrations of (238)U, (234)U, (226)Ra and (228)Ra were 0.40, 0.77, 0.29 and 0.46 Bq L(-)(1), respectively. The higher uranium content was found in the samples of granitic aquifers, whereas the higher radium content was found in the samples of sandstone aquifers. Based on the obtained results, mechanism of leaching of the predominant radionuclides has been discussed in detail.

  12. Radioactivity in the groundwater of a high background radiation area.

    PubMed

    Shabana, E I; Kinsara, A A

    2014-11-01

    Natural radioactivity was measured in groundwater samples collected from 37 wells scattered in an inhabited area of high natural background radiation, in a purpose of radiation protection. The study area is adjacent to Aja heights of granitic composition in Hail province, Saudi Arabia. Initial screening for gross α and gross β activities showed levels exceeded the national regulation limits set out for gross α and gross β activities in drinking water. The gross α activity ranged from 0.17 to 5.41 Bq L(-)(1) with an average value of 2.15 Bq L(-)(1), whereas gross β activity ranged from 0.48 to 5.16 Bq L(-)(1), with an average value of 2.60 Bq L(-)(1). The detail analyses indicated that the groundwater of this province is contaminated with uranium and radium ((226)Ra and (228)Ra). The average activity concentrations of (238)U, (234)U, (226)Ra and (228)Ra were 0.40, 0.77, 0.29 and 0.46 Bq L(-)(1), respectively. The higher uranium content was found in the samples of granitic aquifers, whereas the higher radium content was found in the samples of sandstone aquifers. Based on the obtained results, mechanism of leaching of the predominant radionuclides has been discussed in detail. PMID:25087070

  13. Airborne Quercus pollen in SW Spain: Identifying favourable conditions for atmospheric transport and potential source areas.

    PubMed

    Maya-Manzano, José María; Fernández-Rodríguez, Santiago; Smith, Matt; Tormo-Molina, Rafael; Reynolds, Andrew M; Silva-Palacios, Inmaculada; Gonzalo-Garijo, Ángela; Sadyś, Magdalena

    2016-11-15

    The pollen grains of Quercus spp. (oak trees) are allergenic. This study investigates airborne Quercus pollen in SW Spain with the aim identifying favourable conditions for atmospheric transport and potential sources areas. Two types of Quercus distribution maps were produced. Airborne Quercus pollen concentrations were measured at three sites located in the Extremadura region (SW Spain) for 3 consecutive years. The seasonal occurrence of Quercus pollen in the air was investigated, as well as days with pollen concentrations ≥80Pm(-3). The distance that Quercus pollen can be transported in appreciable numbers was calculated using clusters of back trajectories representing the air mass movement above the source areas (oak woodlands), and by using a state-of-the-art dispersion model. The two main potential sources of Quercus airborne pollen captured in SW Spain are Q. ilex subsp. ballota and Q. suber. The minimum distances between aerobiological stations and Quercus woodlands have been estimated as: 40km (Plasencia), 66km (Don Benito), 62km (Zafra) from the context of this study. Daily mean Quercus pollen concentration can exceed 1,700Pm(-3), levels reached not less than 24 days in a single year. High Quercus pollen concentration were mostly associated with moderate wind speed events (6-10ms(-1)), whereas that a high wind speed (16-20ms(-1)) seems to be associated with low concentrations. PMID:27443456

  14. Manganese survey in airborne particulate matter from a mining area at Hidalgo State, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldape, F.; Hernández-Méndez, B.; Flores M, J.

    1999-04-01

    A manganese (Mn) survey in airborne particulate matter from a mining area located in Hidalgo State (Mexico) was performed using PIXE. Deposits of Mn ore, first discovered in 1959 and under continuous exploitation since 1962, are nowadays considered as one of the most important of their kind in the American Continent. Afterwards, local inhabitants have been under continuous overexposure to dusts and water highly enriched with Mn. Since no information was available about Mn content in airborne particulate matter in that area, especially in the respirable fraction PM 2.5, airborne particles were collected simultaneously at two sites located on opposite sides of the rim of the mining valley, and along the line of prevailing local winds. The sample collection was performed on eight alternate days, taking two samples per day (day-time and night-time) at each sampling site, using Stacked Filter Units (SFUs) of the Davis design to separate particles into fine (PM 2.5) and coarse (PM 15) sizes. The samples were PIXE analyzed and the results of this study revealed that Mn content, in both fine and coarse fractions, were in excess of the general urban background level of 40 ng/m 3 (US Environmental Protection Agency, 1990) in more than 50% of the samples, which indicate severe environmental deterioration in the place under study.

  15. Airborne Quercus pollen in SW Spain: Identifying favourable conditions for atmospheric transport and potential source areas.

    PubMed

    Maya-Manzano, José María; Fernández-Rodríguez, Santiago; Smith, Matt; Tormo-Molina, Rafael; Reynolds, Andrew M; Silva-Palacios, Inmaculada; Gonzalo-Garijo, Ángela; Sadyś, Magdalena

    2016-11-15

    The pollen grains of Quercus spp. (oak trees) are allergenic. This study investigates airborne Quercus pollen in SW Spain with the aim identifying favourable conditions for atmospheric transport and potential sources areas. Two types of Quercus distribution maps were produced. Airborne Quercus pollen concentrations were measured at three sites located in the Extremadura region (SW Spain) for 3 consecutive years. The seasonal occurrence of Quercus pollen in the air was investigated, as well as days with pollen concentrations ≥80Pm(-3). The distance that Quercus pollen can be transported in appreciable numbers was calculated using clusters of back trajectories representing the air mass movement above the source areas (oak woodlands), and by using a state-of-the-art dispersion model. The two main potential sources of Quercus airborne pollen captured in SW Spain are Q. ilex subsp. ballota and Q. suber. The minimum distances between aerobiological stations and Quercus woodlands have been estimated as: 40km (Plasencia), 66km (Don Benito), 62km (Zafra) from the context of this study. Daily mean Quercus pollen concentration can exceed 1,700Pm(-3), levels reached not less than 24 days in a single year. High Quercus pollen concentration were mostly associated with moderate wind speed events (6-10ms(-1)), whereas that a high wind speed (16-20ms(-1)) seems to be associated with low concentrations.

  16. Correlation between Asian Dust and Specific Radioactivities of Fission Products Included in Airborne Samples in Tokushima, Shikoku Island, Japan, Due to the Fukushima Nuclear Accident

    SciTech Connect

    Sakama, M.; Nagano, Y.; Kitade, T.; Shikino, O.; Nakayama, S.

    2014-06-15

    Radioactive fission product {sup 131}I released from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plants (FD-NPP) was first detected on March 23, 2011 in an airborne aerosol sample collected at Tokushima, Shikoku Island, located in western Japan. Two other radioactive fission products, {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs were also observed in a sample collected from April 2 to 4, 2011. The maximum specific radioactivities observed in this work were about 2.5 to 3.5 mBq×m{sup -3} in a airborne aerosol sample collected on April 6. During the course of the continuous monitoring, we also made our first observation of seasonal Asian Dust and those fission products associated with the FDNPP accident concurrently from May 2 to 5, 2011. We found that the specific radioactivities of {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs decreased drastically only during the period of Asian Dust. And also, it was found that this trend was very similar to the atmospheric elemental concentration (ng×m{sup -3}) variation of stable cesium ({sup 133}Cs) quantified by elemental analyses using our developed ICP-DRC-MS instrument.

  17. Correlation between Asian Dust and Specific Radioactivities of Fission Products Included in Airborne Samples in Tokushima, Shikoku Island, Japan, Due to the Fukushima Nuclear Accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakama, M.; Nagano, Y.; Kitade, T.; Shikino, O.; Nakayama, S.

    2014-06-01

    Radioactive fission product 131I released from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plants (FD-NPP) was first detected on March 23, 2011 in an airborne aerosol sample collected at Tokushima, Shikoku Island, located in western Japan. Two other radioactive fission products, 134Cs and 137Cs were also observed in a sample collected from April 2 to 4, 2011. The maximum specific radioactivities observed in this work were about 2.5 to 3.5 mBq×m-3 in a airborne aerosol sample collected on April 6. During the course of the continuous monitoring, we also made our first observation of seasonal Asian Dust and those fission products associated with the FDNPP accident concurrently from May 2 to 5, 2011. We found that the specific radioactivities of 134Cs and 137Cs decreased drastically only during the period of Asian Dust. And also, it was found that this trend was very similar to the atmospheric elemental concentration (ng×m-3) variation of stable cesium (133Cs) quantified by elemental analyses using our developed ICP-DRC-MS instrument.

  18. Summary of radioactive solid waste received in the 200 Areas during calendar year 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.D.; Hagel, D.L.

    1994-09-01

    Westinghouse Hanford Company manages and operates the Hanford Site 200 Areas radioactive solid waste storage and disposal facilities for the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office. These facilities include radioactive solid waste disposal sites and radioactive solid waste storage areas. This document summarizes the amount of radioactive materials that have been buried and stored in the 200 Areas radioactive solid waste storage and disposal facilities since startup in 1944 through calendar year 1993. This report does not include backlog waste, solid radioactive waste in storage or disposed of in other areas, or facilities such as the underground tank farms. Unless packaged within the scope of WHC-EP-0063, ``Hanford Site Solid Waste Acceptance Criteria,`` (WHC 1988), liquid waste data are not included in this document.

  19. Radioactive Tank Waste Remediation Focus Area. Technology summary

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    In February 1991, DOE`s Office of Technology Development created the Underground Storage Tank Integrated Demonstration (UST-ID), to develop technologies for tank remediation. Tank remediation across the DOE Complex has been driven by Federal Facility Compliance Agreements with individual sites. In 1994, the DOE Office of Environmental Management created the High Level Waste Tank Remediation Focus Area (TFA; of which UST-ID is now a part) to better integrate and coordinate tank waste remediation technology development efforts. The mission of both organizations is the same: to focus the development, testing, and evaluation of remediation technologies within a system architecture to characterize, retrieve, treat, concentrate, and dispose of radioactive waste stored in USTs at DOE facilities. The ultimate goal is to provide safe and cost-effective solutions that are acceptable to both the public and regulators. The TFA has focused on four DOE locations: the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington, the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) near Idaho Falls, Idaho, the Oak Ridge Reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and the Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken, South Carolina.

  20. 77 FR 24746 - Constraint on Releases of Airborne Radioactive Materials to the Environment for Licensees Other...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-25

    ... rates in unrestricted areas. II. Further Information On April 20, 2010 (75 FR 20645), DG-4018 was... (75 FR 36445). The public comment period closed on August 23, 2010. The Federal Register notice (FRN) dated June 25, 2010 (75 FR 36445), inadvertently cited the ADAMS accession number for the original...

  1. Characterization of airborne particulates in Bangkok urban area by neutron activation analysis.

    PubMed

    Nouchpramool, S; Sumitra, T; Leenanuphunt, V

    1999-01-01

    Samples of airborne particulates were collected in a residential area and in an area near a busy highway in Bangkok during the period from January 1997 to May 1998. A stacked filter system was used for the former site and a Partisol 2000 was used for the latter site. Both 2.5 microns and 10-micron particulates were collected every week. The total suspended particulate matters were also collected at the latter site. The samples were analyzed by neutron activation analysis utilizing neutron flux from a 2-MW TRIGA MARK III research reactor. The elements most frequently detected in the airborne particulates were Al, As, Br, Ca, Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, I, K, La, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Th, Ti, V, and Zn. The enrichment factor and factor analysis were used to investigate trends, sources, and origin of the atmospheric aerosols. Anthropogenic elements in road dust, construction dust, motor vehicles emission, and other combustion components were identified. A comparative study of data between both sites was performed and it was found that the mass concentration in the area close to the highway was about three times higher than in the residential area. PMID:10676491

  2. INTERPRETATION OF AIRBORNE ELECTROMAGNETIC AND MAGNETIC DATA IN THE 600 AREA

    SciTech Connect

    CUMMINS GD

    2010-11-11

    As part of the 200-PO-1 Phase I geophysical surveys, Fugro Airborne Surveys was contracted to collect airborne electromagnetic (EM) and magnetic surveys of the Hanford Site 600 Area. Two helicopter survey systems were used with the HeliGEOTEM{reg_sign} time domain portion flown between June 19th and June 20th, 2008, and the RESOLVE{reg_sign} frequency domain portion was flown from June 29th to July 1st, 2008. Magnetic data were acquired contemporaneously with the electromagnetic surveys using a total-field cesium vapor magnetometer. Approximately 925 line kilometers (km) were flown using the HeliGEOTEM{reg_sign} II system and 412 line kilometers were flown using the RESOLVE{reg_sign} system. The HeliGEOTEM system has an effective penetration of roughly 250 meters into the ground and the RESOLVE system has an effective penetration of roughly 60 meters. Acquisition parameters and preliminary results are provided in SGW-39674, Airborne Electromagnetic Survey Report, 200-PO-1 Groundwater Operable Unit, 600 Area, Hanford Site. Airborne data are interpreted in this report in an attempt to identify areas of likely preferential groundwater flow within the aquifer system based on the presence of paleochannels or fault zones. The premise for the interpretation is that coarser-grained intervals have filled in scour channels created by episodic catastrophic flood events during the late Pleistocene. The interpretation strategy used the magnetic field anomaly data and existing bedrock maps to identify likely fault or lineament zones. Combined analysis of the magnetic, 60-Hz noise monitor, and flight-altitude (radar) data were used to identify zones where EM response is more likely due to cultural interference and or bedrock structures. Cross-sectional and map view presentations of the EM data were used to identify more electrically resistive zones that likely correlate with coarser-grained intervals. The resulting interpretation identifies one major northwest-southeast trending

  3. Development and calibration of a real-time airborne radioactivity monitor using direct gamma-ray spectrometry with two scintillation detectors.

    PubMed

    Casanovas, R; Morant, J J; Salvadó, M

    2014-07-01

    The implementation of in-situ gamma-ray spectrometry in an automatic real-time environmental radiation surveillance network can help to identify and characterize abnormal radioactivity increases quickly. For this reason, a Real-time Airborne Radioactivity Monitor using direct gamma-ray spectrometry with two scintillation detectors (RARM-D2) was developed. The two scintillation detectors in the RARM-D2 are strategically shielded with Pb to permit the separate measurement of the airborne isotopes with respect to the deposited isotopes.In this paper, we describe the main aspects of the development and calibration of the RARM-D2 when using NaI(Tl) or LaBr3(Ce) detectors. The calibration of the monitor was performed experimentally with the exception of the efficiency curve, which was set using Monte Carlo (MC) simulations with the EGS5 code system. Prior to setting the efficiency curve, the effect of the radioactive source term size on the efficiency calculations was studied for the gamma-rays from (137)Cs. Finally, to study the measurement capabilities of the RARM-D2, the minimum detectable activity concentrations for (131)I and (137)Cs were calculated for typical spectra at different integration times. PMID:24607535

  4. Summary of radioactive solid waste received in the 200 areas during calendar year 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Hladek, K.L.

    1997-05-21

    Rust Federal Services of Hanford Inc. manages and operates the Hanford Site 200 Area radioactive solid waste storage and disposal facilities for the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office under contract DE-AC06-87RL10930. These facilities include storage areas and disposal sites for radioactive solid waste. This document summarizes the amount of radioactive materials that have been buried and stored in the 200 Area radioactive solid waste storage and disposal facilities from startup in 1944 through calendar year 1996. This report does not include backlog waste, solid radioactive wastes in storage or disposed of in other areas, or facilities such as the underground tank farms. Unless packaged within the scope of WHC-EP-0063, Hanford Site Solid Waste Acceptance Criteria, liquid waste data are not included in this document.

  5. Comparison of deposited surface area of airborne ultrafine particles generated from two welding processes.

    PubMed

    Gomes, J F; Albuquerque, P C; Miranda, Rosa M; Santos, Telmo G; Vieira, M T

    2012-09-01

    This article describes work performed on the assessment of the levels of airborne ultrafine particles emitted in two welding processes metal-active gas (MAG) of carbon steel and friction-stir welding (FSW) of aluminium in terms of deposited area in alveolar tract of the lung using a nanoparticle surface area monitor analyser. The obtained results showed the dependence from process parameters on emitted ultrafine particles and clearly demonstrated the presence of ultrafine particles, when compared with background levels. The obtained results showed that the process that results on the lower levels of alveolar-deposited surface area is FSW, unlike MAG. Nevertheless, all the tested processes resulted in important doses of ultrafine particles that are to be deposited in the human lung of exposed workers.

  6. Multispectral thermal airborne TASI-600 data to study the Pompeii (IT) archaeological area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palombo, Angelo; Pascucci, Simone; Pergola, Nicola; Pignatti, Stefano; Santini, Federico; Soldovieri, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    The management of archaeological areas refers to the conservation of the ruins/buildings and the eventual prospection of new areas having an archaeological potential. In this framework, airborne remote sensing is a well-developed geophysical tool for supporting the archaeological surveys of wide areas. The spectral regions applied in archaeological remote sensing spans from the VNIR to the TIR. In particular, the archaeological thermal imaging considers that materials absorb, emit, transmit, and reflect the thermal infrared radiation at different rate according to their composition, density and moisture content. Despite its potential, thermal imaging in archaeological applications are scarce. Among them, noteworthy are the ones related to the use of Landsat and ASTER [1] and airborne remote sensing [2, 3, 4 and 5]. In view of these potential in Cultural Heritage applications, the present study aims at analysing the usefulness of the high spatial resolution thermal imaging on the Pompeii archaeological park. To this purpose TASI-600 [6] airborne multispectral thermal imagery (32 channels from 8 to 11.5 nm with a spectral resolution of 100nm and a spatial resolution of 1m/pixel) was acquired on December the 7th, 2015. Airborne survey has been acquired to get useful information on the building materials (both ancient and of consolidation) characteristics and, whenever possible, to retrieve quick indicators on their conservation status. Thermal images will be, moreover, processed to have an insight of the critical environmental issues impacting the structures (e.g. moisture). The proposed study shows the preliminary results of the airborne deployments, the pre-processing of the multispectral thermal imagery and the retrieving of accurate land surface temperatures (LST). LST map will be analysed to describe the thermal pattern of the city of Pompeii and detect any thermal anomalies. As far as the ongoing TASI-600 sensors pre-processing, it will include: (a) radiometric

  7. Long-term airborne contamination studied by attic dust in an industrial area: Ajka, Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Völgyesi, P.; Jordan, G.; Szabo, Cs.

    2012-04-01

    Heavy industrial activities such as mining, metal industry, coal fired power plants have produced large amount of by-products and wide-spread pollution, particularly in the period of centrally dictated economy after WWII, in Hungary. Several studies suggest that significant amount of these pollutants have been deposited in the urban environment. Nowadays, more than half of the world's population is living in urban areas and people spend almost 80% of their lives indoors in developed countries increasing human health risk due to contamination present in urban dwellings. Attic dust sampling was applied to determine the long-term airborne contamination load in the industrial town of Ajka (Hungary). There has been a high industrial activity in Ajka since the end of the 19th century. In addition to aluminum and alumina industry, coal mining, coal fired power plant and glass industry sites, generated numerous waste heaps which act as multi-contamination sources in the area. In October 2010 the Ajka red mud tailings pond failed and caused an accidental regional contamination of international significance. The major objective of this research was to study and map the spatial distribution of heavy metal contamination in airborne attic dust samples. At 27 sampling sites 30 attic dust samples were collected. Sampling strategy followed a grid-based stratified random sampling design. In each cell a house for attic dust sample collection was selected that was located the closest to a randomly generated point in the grid cell. The project area covers a 8x8 grid of 1x1 km cells with a total area of 64 km2. In order to represent long-term industrial pollution, houses with attics kept intact for at least 30-40 years were selected for sampling. Sampling included the collection of background samples remotely placed from the industrialized urban area. The concentration of the major and toxic elements (Al, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, P, S, and As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Li, Mo, Ni, Pb, Se, Sn

  8. [Seasonal Dynamics of Airborne Pollens and Its Relationship with Meteorological Factors in Beijing Urban Area].

    PubMed

    Meng, Ling; Wang, Xiao-ke; Ouyang, Zhi-yun; Ren, Yu-fen; Wang, Qiao-huan

    2016-02-15

    The seasonal dynamics of airborne pollens and their relationship with meteorological conditions, which are considered to be important factors for appropriate construction of urban green system and reliable prevention of tropic pollinosis, were investigated in Beijing urban area. The airborne pollens were monitored from December 31st 2011 to December 31st 2012 by Burkard volumetric trap, and the data were analyzed. The results revealed that: (1) In 2012 the pollen dispersion period lasted 238 days from March 17 to November 18th, accounting for 65% of the year. There were two peaks of pollen amount in air, which occurred from March to May and from August to October, respectively. In the spring peak, tree pollens such as Oleaceae, Populus and Salix pollens were the dominant, accounting for 53% of the total annual pollens, while in the autumn period, weed pollens such as Compositae, Chenopodiaceae and Amaranthaceae pollens made up about 40% of the annual total value; (2) The highly allergenic weeds pollens dominated in autumn, which caused a high incidence of tropic pollinosis; (3) The airborne pollen amount of Beijing urban area was significantly affected by meteorological condition like the wind speed, temperature, humidity, precipitation and so on; (4) When temperature ranged from OC to 15 degrees C, the pollen amount showed positive relation with temperature; while in the temperature range of 18 degrees C to 30 degrees C, it showed negative relation; (5) The average temperature of spring and autumn season in 2012 was 17 degrees C, and 79% of airborne pollens were detected in these two seasons. This temperature condition was conducive to the pollen dispersion. (6) The pollen amount showed negative relation with relative moisture between 20% and 50% and larger than 70%, while in the moisture range of 50% to 60%, it showed positive relation; (7) The wind speed smaller than 3 m x s(-1) was good to pollen distribution, when it was larger than 4 m x s(-1) or the wind

  9. Nevada Test 1999 Waste Management Monitoring Report, Area 3 and Area 5 radioactive waste management sites

    SciTech Connect

    Yvonne Townsend

    2000-05-01

    Environmental monitoring data were collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). These monitoring data include radiation exposure, air, groundwater, meteorology, vadose zone, and biota data. Although some of these media (radiation exposure, air, and groundwater) are reported in detail in other Bechtel Nevada reports (Annual Site Environmental Report [ASER], the National Emissions Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants [NESHAP] report, and the Annual Groundwater Monitoring Report), they are also summarized in this report to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and environmental compliance. Direct radiation monitoring data indicate that exposure at and around the RWMSs is not above background levels. Air monitoring data indicate that tritium concentrations are slightly above background levels, whereas radon concentrations are not above background levels. Groundwater monitoring data indicate that the groundwater in the alluvial aquifer beneath the Area 5 RWMS has not been affected by the facility. Meteorology data indicate that 1999 was a dry year: rainfall totaled 3.9 inches at the Area 3 RWMS (61 percent of average) and 3.8 inches at the Area 5 RWMS (75 percent of average). Vadose zone monitoring data indicate that 1999 rainfall infiltrated less than one foot before being returned to the atmosphere by evaporation. Soil-gas tritium data indicate very slow migration, and tritium concentrations in biota were insignificant. All 1999 monitoring data indicate that the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMSs are performing as expected at isolating buried waste.

  10. Central Facilities Area Facilities Radioactive Waste Management Basis and DOE Manual 435.1-1 Compliance Tables

    SciTech Connect

    Lisa Harvego; Brion Bennett

    2011-11-01

    Department of Energy Order 435.1, 'Radioactive Waste Management,' along with its associated manual and guidance, requires development and maintenance of a radioactive waste management basis for each radioactive waste management facility, operation, and activity. This document presents a radioactive waste management basis for Idaho National Laboratory's Central Facilities Area facilities that manage radioactive waste. The radioactive waste management basis for a facility comprises existing laboratory-wide and facilityspecific documents. Department of Energy Manual 435.1-1, 'Radioactive Waste Management Manual,' facility compliance tables also are presented for the facilities. The tables serve as a tool for developing the radioactive waste management basis.

  11. Temporal variability and effect of environmental variables on airborne bacterial communities in an urban area of Northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Bertolini, Valentina; Gandolfi, Isabella; Ambrosini, Roberto; Bestetti, Giuseppina; Innocente, Elena; Rampazzo, Giancarlo; Franzetti, Andrea

    2013-07-01

    Despite airborne microorganisms representing a relevant fraction of atmospheric suspended particles, only a small amount of information is currently available on their abundance and diversity and very few studies have investigated the environmental factors influencing the structure of airborne bacterial communities. In this work, we used quantitative PCR and Illumina technology to provide a thorough description of airborne bacterial communities in the urban area of Milan (Italy). Forty samples were collected in 10-day sampling sessions, with one session per season. The mean bacterial abundance was about 10⁴ ribosomal operons per m³ of air and was lower in winter than in the other seasons. Communities were dominated by Actinobacteridae, Clostridiales, Sphingobacteriales and few proteobacterial orders (Burkholderiales, Rhizobiales, Sphingomonadales and Pseudomonadales). Chloroplasts were abundant in all samples. A higher abundance of Actinobacteridae, which are typical soil-inhabiting bacteria, and a lower abundance of chloroplasts in samples collected on cold days were observed. The variation in community composition observed within seasons was comparable to that observed between seasons, thus suggesting that airborne bacterial communities show large temporal variability, even between consecutive days. The structure of airborne bacterial communities therefore suggests that soil and plants are the sources which contribute most to the airborne communities of Milan atmosphere, but the structure of the bacterial community seems to depend mainly on the source of bacteria that predominates in a given period of time.

  12. Levels of radioactivity in fish from streams near F-Area and H-Area seepage basins

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, C.E. Jr.; Loehle, C.

    1991-05-01

    This report summarizes results of recent analyses of radioactivity in fish from SRS streams near the F-Area and H-Area seepage basins. Fish were collected from headwater areas of Four Mile Creek and Pen Branch, from just below the H-Area seepage basin, and from three sites downstream in Four Mile Creek. These fish were analyzed for gross alpha and gross beta radioactivity using standard EPA methods. Levels of gross alpha and nonvolatile beta radioactivity in fish were found to be comparable to levels previously reported for these sites. Gross alpha activity was not found to be influenced by Separations Area discharges. Nonvolatile beta activity was higher in the nonvolatile beta activity was attributable to Cs-137 and K-40. The dosimetric consequences of consuming fish from this area were found to be well below DOE guidelines.

  13. A&M. Radioactive parts security storage area under construction. Camera facing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    A&M. Radioactive parts security storage area under construction. Camera facing southerly. Building on left is TAN-648, warehouse for radioactive parts. Steel framework is visible. Building on right is TAN-647, dolly storage warehouse. Note fiberglass windows in side wall. Photographer: M. Holmes. Date: November 23, 1959. INEEL negative no. 59-6083 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  14. NCRP Program Area Committee 5: Environmental Radiation and Radioactive Waste Issues.

    PubMed

    Chen, S Y; Napier, Bruce

    2016-02-01

    Program Area Committee 5 of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) focuses its activities on environmental radiation and radioactive waste issues. The Committee completed a number of reports in these subject areas, most recently NCRP Report No. 175, Decision Making for Late-Phase Recovery from Major Nuclear or Radiological Incidents. Historically this Committee addressed emerging issues of the nation pertaining to radioactivity or radiation in the environment or radioactive waste issues due either to natural origins or to manmade activities.

  15. Radioactive liquid wastes discharged to ground in the 200 Areas during 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Sliger, G.J.

    1982-03-01

    This document summarizes radioactive liquids discharged to the ground in the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site and is provided pursuant to DOE Order 5484.1. There are twenty-three liquid effluent discharge streams in the 200 Areas, twenty of which are normally contaminated or potentially contaminated with radioactive material. Of these twenty streams, one discharged radioactive material above Table I concentration guides and two others discharged material above Table II concentration guides, as noted below. The three noncontaminated streams are included to maintain an accurate record of total volume of liquid discharged to each specific waste site.

  16. A 0.4 to 10 GHz airborne electromagnetic environment survey of USA urban areas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, R. E.; Hill, J. S.

    1976-01-01

    An airborne electromagnetic-environment survey of some U.S. metropolitan areas measured terrestrial emissions within the broad frequency spectrum from 0.4 to 10 GHz. A Cessna 402 commercial aircraft was fitted with both nadir-viewing and horizon-viewing antennas and instrumentation, including a spectrum analyzer, a 35 mm continuous film camera, and a magnetic tape recorder. Most of the flights were made at a nominal altitude of 10,000 feet, and Washington, D. C., Baltimore, Philadelphia, New York, and Chicago were surveyed. The 450 to 470 MHz land-mobile UHF band is especially crowded, and the 400 to 406 MHz space bands are less active. This paper discusses test measurements obtained up to 10 GHz. Sample spectrum analyzer photograhs were selected from a total of 5,750 frames representing 38 hours of data.

  17. 0.4- to 10-GHz airborne electromagnetic-environment survey of United States urban areas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, R. E.; Hill, J. S.

    1976-01-01

    An airborne electromagnetic-environment survey of some U.S. metropolitan areas measured terrestrial emissions within the broad-frequency spectrum from 0.4 to 10 GHz. A Cessna 402 commercial aircraft was fitted with both nadir-viewing and horizon-viewing antennas and instrumentation, including a spectrum analyzer, a 35-mm continuous-film camera, and a magnetic-tape recorder. Most of the flights were made at a nominal altitude of 10,000 ft, and Washington, Baltimore, Philadelphia, New York, and Chicago were surveyed. The 450- to 470-MHz land-mobile UHF band is especially crowded, and the 400- to 406-MHz space bands are less active. Test measurements obtained up to 10 GHz are discussed. Sample spectrum-analyzer photographs were selected from a total of 5750 frames representing 38 hours of data.

  18. Bayesian classifier applications of airborne hyperspectral imagery processing for forested areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozoderov, Vladimir; Kondranin, Timofei; Dmitriev, Egor; Kamentsev, Vladimir

    2015-06-01

    Pattern recognition problem is outlined in the context of textural and spectral analysis of remote sensing imagery processing. Main attention is paid to Bayesian classifier that can be used to realize the processing procedures based on parallel machine-learning algorithms and high-productive computers. We consider the maximum of the posterior probability principle and the formalism of Markov random fields for the neighborhood description of the pixels for the related classes of objects with the emphasis on forests of different species and ages. The energy category of the selected classes serves to account for the likelihood measure between the registered radiances and the theoretical distribution functions approximating remotely sensed data. Optimization procedures are undertaken to solve the pattern recognition problem of the texture description for the forest classes together with finding thin nuances of their spectral distribution in the feature space. As a result, possible redundancy of the channels for imaging spectrometer due to their correlations is removed. Difficulties are revealed due to different sampling data while separating pixels, which characterize the sunlit tops, shaded space and intermediate cases of the Sun illumination conditions on the hyperspectral images. Such separation of pixels for the forest classes is maintained to enhance the recognition accuracy, but learning ensembles of data need to be agreed for these categories of pixels. We present some results of the Bayesian classifier applicability for recognizing airborne hyperspectral images using the relevant improvements in separating such pixels for the forest classes on a test area of the 4 × 10 km size encompassed by 13 airborne tracks, each forming the images by 500 pixels across the track and from 10,000 to 14,000 pixels along the track. The spatial resolution of each image is near to 1 m from the altitude near to 2 km above the ground level. The results of the hyperspectral imagery

  19. 2002 Waste Management Monitoring Report Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Y. E. Townsend

    2003-06-01

    Environmental, subsidence, and meteorological monitoring data were collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS)(refer to Figure 1). These monitoring data include radiation exposure, air, groundwater,meteorology, vadose zone, subsidence, and biota data. Although some of these media (radiation exposure, air, and groundwater) are reported in detail in other Bechtel Nevada (BN) reports (Annual Site Environmental Report [ASER], the National Emissions Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants [NESHAP] report, and the Annual Groundwater Monitoring Report), they are also summarized in this report to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and environmental compliance. Direct radiation monitoring data indicate that exposure at and around the RWMSs is not above background levels. Air monitoring data indicate that tritium concentrations are slightly above background levels. Groundwater monitoring data indicate that the groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the Area 5 RWMS has not been affected by the facility. Meteorological data indicate that 2002 was a dry year: rainfall totaled 26 mm (1.0 in) at the Area 3 RWMS and 38 mm (1.5 in) at the Area 5 RWMS. Vadose zone monitoring data indicate that 2002 rainfall infiltrated less than 30 cm (1 ft) before being returned to the atmosphere by evaporation. Soil-gas tritium monitoring data indicate slow subsurface migration, and tritium concentrations in biota were lower than in previous years. Special investigations conducted in 2002 included: a comparison between waste cover water contents measured by neutron probe and coring; and a comparison of four methods for measuring radon concentrations in air. All 2002 monitoring data indicate that the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMSs are performing within expectations of the model and parameter assumptions for the facility Performance Assessments (PAs).

  20. Vehicle tracking in wide area motion imagery from an airborne platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Eekeren, Adam W. M.; van Huis, Jasper R.; Eendebak, Pieter T.; Baan, Jan

    2015-10-01

    Airborne platforms, such as UAV's, with Wide Area Motion Imagery (WAMI) sensors can cover multiple square kilometers and produce large amounts of video data. Analyzing all data for information need purposes becomes increasingly labor-intensive for an image analyst. Furthermore, the capacity of the datalink in operational areas may be inadequate to transfer all data to the ground station. Automatic detection and tracking of people and vehicles enables to send only the most relevant footage to the ground station and assists the image analysts in effective data searches. In this paper, we propose a method for detecting and tracking vehicles in high-resolution WAMI images from a moving airborne platform. For the vehicle detection we use a cascaded set of classifiers, using an Adaboost training algorithm on Haar features. This detector works on individual images and therefore does not depend on image motion stabilization. For the vehicle tracking we use a local template matching algorithm. This approach has two advantages. In the first place, it does not depend on image motion stabilization and it counters the inaccuracy of the GPS data that is embedded in the video data. In the second place, it can find matches when the vehicle detector would miss a certain detection. This results in long tracks even when the imagery is of low frame-rate. In order to minimize false detections, we also integrate height information from a 3D reconstruction that is created from the same images. By using the locations of buildings and roads, we are able to filter out false detections and increase the performance of the tracker. In this paper we show that the vehicle tracks can also be used to detect more complex events, such as traffic jams and fast moving vehicles. This enables the image analyst to do a faster and more effective search of the data.

  1. Airborne Gamma-Spectrometry in Switzerland

    SciTech Connect

    Butterweck, Gernot; Bucher, Benno; Rybach, Ladislaus

    2008-08-07

    Airborne gamma-spectrometry is able to obtain fast radiological information over large areas. The airborne gamma-spectrometry unit deployed in Switzerland by the Swiss National Emergency Operations Centre (NEOC) consists of a Swiss army Super Puma helicopter equipped with four NaI-Detectors with a total volume of 17 liters, associated electronics and a real-time data evaluation and mapping unit developed by the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) and the Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI). The operational readiness of the airborne gamma-spectrometry system is validated in annual exercises of one week duration. Data from 2005 and 2006 exercises are represented in maps of {sup 137}Cs activity concentration for two towns located in southern and western Switzerland. An indicator of man-made radioactivity (MMGC ratio) is demonstrated for an area with four different types of nuclear installations. The intercomparison between airborne gamma-spectrometry and ground measurements showed good agreement between both methods.

  2. Multispectral thermal airborne TASI-600 data to study the Pompeii (IT) archaeological area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palombo, Angelo; Pascucci, Simone; Pergola, Nicola; Pignatti, Stefano; Santini, Federico; Soldovieri, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    The management of archaeological areas refers to the conservation of the ruins/buildings and the eventual prospection of new areas having an archaeological potential. In this framework, airborne remote sensing is a well-developed geophysical tool for supporting the archaeological surveys of wide areas. The spectral regions applied in archaeological remote sensing spans from the VNIR to the TIR. In particular, the archaeological thermal imaging considers that materials absorb, emit, transmit, and reflect the thermal infrared radiation at different rate according to their composition, density and moisture content. Despite its potential, thermal imaging in archaeological applications are scarce. Among them, noteworthy are the ones related to the use of Landsat and ASTER [1] and airborne remote sensing [2, 3, 4 and 5]. In view of these potential in Cultural Heritage applications, the present study aims at analysing the usefulness of the high spatial resolution thermal imaging on the Pompeii archaeological park. To this purpose TASI-600 [6] airborne multispectral thermal imagery (32 channels from 8 to 11.5 nm with a spectral resolution of 100nm and a spatial resolution of 1m/pixel) was acquired on December the 7th, 2015. Airborne survey has been acquired to get useful information on the building materials (both ancient and of consolidation) characteristics and, whenever possible, to retrieve quick indicators on their conservation status. Thermal images will be, moreover, processed to have an insight of the critical environmental issues impacting the structures (e.g. moisture). The proposed study shows the preliminary results of the airborne deployments, the pre-processing of the multispectral thermal imagery and the retrieving of accurate land surface temperatures (LST). LST map will be analysed to describe the thermal pattern of the city of Pompeii and detect any thermal anomalies. As far as the ongoing TASI-600 sensors pre-processing, it will include: (a) radiometric

  3. Airborne Precision Spacing: A Trajectory-based Approach to Improve Terminal Area Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barmore, Bryan

    2006-01-01

    Airborne Precision Spacing has been developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) over the past seven years as an attempt to benefit from the capabilities of the flight deck to precisely space their aircraft relative to another aircraft. This development has leveraged decades of work on improving terminal area operations, especially the arrival phase. With APS operations, the air traffic controller instructs the participating aircraft to achieve an assigned inter-arrival spacing interval at the runway threshold, relative to another aircraft. The flight crew then uses airborne automation to manage the aircraft s speed to achieve the goal. The spacing tool is designed to keep the speed within acceptable operational limits, promote system-wide stability, and meet the assigned goal. This reallocation of tasks with the controller issuing strategic goals and the flight crew managing the tactical achievement of those goals has been shown to be feasible through simulation and flight test. A precision of plus or minus 2-3 seconds is generally achievable. Simulations of long strings of arriving traffic show no signs of instabilities or compression waves. Subject pilots have rated the workload to be similar to current-day operations and eye-tracking data substantiate this result. This paper will present a high-level review of research results over the past seven years from a variety of tests and experiments. The results will focus on the precision and accuracy achievable, flow stability and some major sources of uncertainty. The paper also includes a summary of the flight crew s procedures and interface and a brief concept overview.

  4. Nevada Test Site 2008 Waste Management Monitoring Report Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2009-06-23

    Environmental monitoring data were collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada Test Site. These data are associated with radiation exposure, air, groundwater, meteorology, vadose zone, subsidence, and biota. This report summarizes the 2008 environmental data to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and to support environmental compliance and performance assessment (PA) activities.

  5. Reduction of mine suspected areas by multisensor airborne measurements: first results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Martin; Milisavljevic, Nada; Suess, Helmut; Acheroy, Marc P. J.

    2002-08-01

    Humanitarian demining is a very dangerous, cost and time intensive work, where a lot of effort is usually wasted in inspecting suspected areas that turn out to be mine-free. The main goal of the project SMART (Space and airborne Mined Area Reduction Tools) is to apply a multisensor approach towards corresponding signature data collection, developing adapted data understanding and data processing tools for improving the efficiency and reliability of level 1 minefield surveys by reducing suspected mined areas. As a result, the time for releasing mine-free areas for civilian use should be shortened. In this paper, multisensor signature data collected at four mine suspected areas in different parts of Croatia are presented, their information content is discussed, and first results are described. The multisensor system consists of a multifrequency multipolarization SAR system (DLR Experimental Synthetic Aperture Radar E-SAR), an optical scanner (Daedalus) and a camera (RMK) for color infrared aerial views. E-SAR data were acquired in X-, C-, L- and P- bands, the latter two being fully polarimetric interferometric. This provides pieces of independent information, ranging from high spatial resolution (X-band) to very good penetration abilities (P-band), together with possibilities for polarimetric and interferometric analysis. The Daedalus scanner, with 12 channels between visible and thermal infrared, has a very high spatial resolution. For each of the sensors, the applied processing, geocoding and registration is described. The information content is analyzed in sense of the capability and reliability in describing conditions inside suspected mined areas, as a first step towards identifying their mine-free parts, with special emphasis set on polarimetric and interferometric information.

  6. Surface and airborne measurements of organosulfur and methanesulfonate over the western United States and coastal areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorooshian, Armin; Crosbie, Ewan; Maudlin, Lindsay C.; Youn, Jong-Sang; Wang, Zhen; Shingler, Taylor; Ortega, Amber M.; Hersey, Scott; Woods, Roy K.

    2015-08-01

    This study reports on ambient measurements of organosulfur (OS) and methanesulfonate (MSA) over the western United States and coastal areas. Particulate OS levels are highest in summertime and generally increase as a function of sulfate (a precursor) and sodium (a marine tracer) with peak levels at coastal sites. The ratio of OS to total sulfur is also highest at coastal sites, with increasing values as a function of normalized difference vegetation index and the ratio of organic carbon to elemental carbon. Correlative analysis points to significant relationships between OS and biogenic emissions from marine and continental sources, factors that coincide with secondary production, and vanadium due to a suspected catalytic role. A major OS species, methanesulfonate (MSA), was examined with intensive field measurements, and the resulting data support the case for vanadium's catalytic influence. Mass size distributions reveal a dominant MSA peak between aerodynamic diameters of 0.32-0.56 µm at a desert and coastal site with nearly all MSA mass (≥84%) in submicrometer sizes; MSA:non-sea-salt sulfate ratios vary widely as a function of particle size and proximity to the ocean. Airborne data indicate that relative to the marine boundary layer, particulate MSA levels are enhanced in urban and agricultural areas and also the free troposphere when impacted by biomass burning. Some combination of fires and marine-derived emissions leads to higher MSA levels than either source alone. Finally, MSA differences in cloud water and out-of-cloud aerosol are discussed.

  7. Wide-Area Mapping of Forest with National Airborne Laser Scanning and Field Inventory Datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monnet, J.-M.; Ginzler, C.; Clivaz, J.-C.

    2016-06-01

    Airborne laser scanning (ALS) remote sensing data are now available for entire countries such as Switzerland. Methods for the estimation of forest parameters from ALS have been intensively investigated in the past years. However, the implementation of a forest mapping workflow based on available data at a regional level still remains challenging. A case study was implemented in the Canton of Valais (Switzerland). The national ALS dataset and field data of the Swiss National Forest Inventory were used to calibrate estimation models for mean and maximum height, basal area, stem density, mean diameter and stem volume. When stratification was performed based on ALS acquisition settings and geographical criteria, satisfactory prediction models were obtained for volume (R2 = 0.61 with a root mean square error of 47 %) and basal area (respectively 0.51 and 45 %) while height variables had an error lower than 19%. This case study shows that the use of nationwide ALS and field datasets for forest resources mapping is cost efficient, but additional investigations are required to handle the limitations of the input data and optimize the accuracy.

  8. A&M. Radioactive parts security storage area. camera facing northwest. Outdoor ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    A&M. Radioactive parts security storage area. camera facing northwest. Outdoor storage of concrete storage casks. Photographer: M. Holmes. Date: November 21, 1959. INEEL negative no. 59-6081 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  9. A&M. Radioactive parts security storage area, heat removal storage casks. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    A&M. Radioactive parts security storage area, heat removal storage casks. Plan, section, and details. Ralph M. Parsons 1480-7 ANP/GE-3-720-S-1. Date: November 1958. Approved by INEEL Classification Office for public release. INEEL index no. 034-0720-60-693-107459 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  10. [Estimating Leaf Area Index of Crops Based on Hyperspectral Compact Airborne Spectrographic Imager (CASI) Data].

    PubMed

    Tang, Jian-min; Liao, Qin-hong; Liu, Yi-qing; Yang, Gui-jun; Feng, Hai-kuanr; Wang, Ji-hua

    2015-05-01

    The fast estimation of leaf area index (LAI) is significant for learning the crops growth, monitoring the disease and insect, and assessing the yield of crops. This study used the hyperspectral compact airborne spectrographic imager (CASI) data of Zhangye city, in Heihe River basin, on July 7, 2012, and extracted the spectral reflectance accurately. The potential of broadband and red-edge vegetation index for estimating the LAI of crops was comparatively investigated by combined with the field measured data. On this basis, the sensitive wavebands for estimating the LAI of crops were selected and two new spectral indexes (NDSI and RSI) were constructed, subsequently, the spatial distribution of LAI in study area was analyzed. The result showed that broadband vegetation index NDVI had good effect for estimating the LAI when the vegetation coverage is relatively lower, the R2 and RMSE of estimation model were 0. 52, 0. 45 (p<0. 01) , respectively. For red-edge vegetation index, CIred edge took the different crop types into account fully, thus it gained the same estimation accuracy with NDVI. NDSI(569.00, 654.80) and RSI(597.60, 654.80) were constructed by using waveband combination algorithm, which has superior estimation results than NDVI and CIred edge. The R2 of estimation model used NDSI(569.00, 654.80) was 0. 77(p<0. 000 1), it mainly used the wavebands near the green peak and red valley of vegetation spectrum. The spatial distribution map of LAI was made according to the functional relationship between the NDSI(569.00, 654.80) and LAI. After analyzing this map, the LAI values were lower in the northwest of study area, this indicated that more fertilizer should be increased in this area. This study can provide technical support for the agricultural administrative department to learn the growth of crops quickly and make a suitable fertilization strategy. PMID:26415459

  11. Airborne electromagnetic mapping of the base of aquifer in areas of western Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abraham, Jared D.; Cannia, James C.; Bedrosian, Paul A.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Ball, Lyndsay B.; Sibray, Steven S.

    2012-01-01

    Airborne geophysical surveys of selected areas of the North and South Platte River valleys of Nebraska, including Lodgepole Creek valley, collected data to map aquifers and bedrock topography and thus improve the understanding of groundwater - surface-water relationships to be used in water-management decisions. Frequency-domain helicopter electromagnetic surveys, using a unique survey flight-line design, collected resistivity data that can be related to lithologic information for refinement of groundwater model inputs. To make the geophysical data useful to multidimensional groundwater models, numerical inversion converted measured data into a depth-dependent subsurface resistivity model. The inverted resistivity model, along with sensitivity analyses and test-hole information, is used to identify hydrogeologic features such as bedrock highs and paleochannels, to improve estimates of groundwater storage. The two- and three-dimensional interpretations provide the groundwater modeler with a high-resolution hydrogeologic framework and a quantitative estimate of framework uncertainty. The new hydrogeologic frameworks improve understanding of the flow-path orientation by refining the location of paleochannels and associated base of aquifer highs. These interpretations provide resource managers high-resolution hydrogeologic frameworks and quantitative estimates of framework uncertainty. The improved base of aquifer configuration represents the hydrogeology at a level of detail not achievable with previously available data.

  12. Aviation System Capacity Program Terminal Area Productivity Project: Ground and Airborne Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giulianetti, Demo J.

    2001-01-01

    Ground and airborne technologies were developed in the Terminal Area Productivity (TAP) project for increasing throughput at major airports by safely maintaining good-weather operating capacity during bad weather. Methods were demonstrated for accurately predicting vortices to prevent wake-turbulence encounters and to reduce in-trail separation requirements for aircraft approaching the same runway for landing. Technology was demonstrated that safely enabled independent simultaneous approaches in poor weather conditions to parallel runways spaced less than 3,400 ft apart. Guidance, control, and situation-awareness systems were developed to reduce congestion in airport surface operations resulting from the increased throughput, particularly during night and instrument meteorological conditions (IMC). These systems decreased runway occupancy time by safely and smoothly decelerating the aircraft, increasing taxi speed, and safely steering the aircraft off the runway. Simulations were performed in which optimal trajectories were determined by air traffic control (ATC) and communicated to flight crews by means of Center TRACON Automation System/Flight Management System (CTASFMS) automation to reduce flight delays, increase throughput, and ensure flight safety.

  13. A United States perspective on long-term management of areas contaminated with radioactive materials.

    PubMed

    Jones, C Rick

    2004-01-01

    The US has far-reaching and extensive experience in the long-term management of areas contaminated with radioactive materials. This experience base includes the Department of Energy's continued follow-up with Hiroshima and Nagasaki from the 1940s at the Radiological Effects Research Foundation in Hiroshima, Japan, the long-term management of the Marshall Islands Programme, the clean-up of the US nuclear weapons complex and the ongoing management of accident sites such as in Palomares, Spain. This paper discusses the lessons learnt and best practices gained from this far-reaching and extensive experience in the long-term management of areas contaminated with radioactive materials.

  14. Surface and Airborne Measurements of Organosulfur and Methanesulfonate Over the Western United States and Coastal Areas

    PubMed Central

    Sorooshian, Armin; Crosbie, Ewan; Maudlin, Lindsay C.; Youn, Jong-Sang; Wang, Zhen; Shingler, Taylor; Ortega, Amber M.; Hersey, Scott; Woods, Roy K.

    2015-01-01

    This study reports on ambient measurements of organosulfur (OS) and methanesulfonate (MSA) over the western United States and coastal areas. Particulate OS levels are highest in summertime, and generally increase as a function of sulfate (a precursor) and sodium (a marine tracer) with peak levels at coastal sites. The ratio of OS to total sulfur (TS) is also highest at coastal sites, with increasing values as a function of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and the ratio of organic carbon to elemental carbon. Correlative analysis points to significant relationships between OS and biogenic emissions from marine and continental sources, factors that coincide with secondary production, and vanadium due to a suspected catalytic role. A major OS species, methanesulfonate (MSA), was examined with intensive field measurements and the resulting data support the case for vanadium’s catalytic influence. Mass size distributions reveal a dominant MSA peak between aerodynamic diameters of 0.32—0.56 μm at a desert and coastal site with nearly all MSA mass (≥ 84%) in sub-micrometer sizes; MSA:non-sea salt sulfate ratios vary widely as a function of particle size and proximity to the ocean. Airborne data indicate that relative to the marine boundary layer, particulate MSA levels are enhanced in urban and agricultural areas, and also the free troposphere when impacted by biomass burning. Some combination of fires and marine-derived emissions leads to higher MSA levels than either source alone. Finally, MSA differences in cloud water and out-of-cloud aerosol are discussed. PMID:26413434

  15. Radioactive liquid wastes discharged to ground in the 200 areas during 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Sliger, G.J.

    1980-03-06

    An overall summary is presented giving the radioactive liquid waste discharged to the ground during the current year of 1979 and since startup (for both total and decayed depositions) with the Rockwell Hanford Operations (Rockwell) control zone (200 Area plateau). Overall summaries are also presented for 200 East and for 200 West Area. The data contains an estimate of the radioactivity discharged to individual ponds, cribs and specific retention sites during the following periods: (1) All four quarters of 1979; and (2) from startup through December 31, 1979. The location and reference drawings of each disposal site, and the usage dates of each disposal site are given. The estimates for the radioactivity discharged to the ponds also include major nonradioactive streams. The waste discharged during 1979 to each active disposal site is detailed on a month-to-month basis, along with the monthly maximum concentration and average concentration data.

  16. Institutional Control Policies and Implementation for the Area 5 and Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Vefa Yucel, Greg Shott, Denise Wieland, et al.

    2007-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) has implemented varying institutional control policies in performance assessment/composite analysis (PA/CA) calculations for the Area 5 and Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) (Shott et al., 1998; 2000; Bechtel Nevada [BN] and Neptune and Company Inc. [Neptune], 2006). The facilities are within the actively maintained boundaries of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) that are enforced by NNSA/NSO. Under current policies, access required for exposure of the member of public (MOP) or the inadvertent human intruder (IHI) is prohibited. Uncertainties affecting institutional control policies are the duration and effectiveness of the controls during the post-closure period. Implementing a uniform set of institutional control policies for the RWMSs that encompasses waste management and environmental restoration programs and is consistent with the end-state vision for the environmental management programs for the NTS (DOE, 2006) is a primary goal of the maintenance program. The NNSA/NSO Performance Management Plan (DOE, 2002) complies with DOE Policy P455.1, 'Use of Risk-Based End States' (DOE, 2003a). Expected future land uses are a driver in selecting acceptable end state conditions and clean-up goals for the NTS. NNSA/NSO Environmental Management's (EM's) land management assumptions and framework for Environmental Management activities are as follows: The NTS will remain under federal control in perpetuity as an NNSA test site, and the large buffer zone surrounding the NTS (the Nevada Test and Training Range) is assumed to remain under the control of the U.S. Air Force. There are no plans for transfer of any NTS lands to other agencies or public entities. Access will continue to be restricted to the NTS and the surrounding areas. For management purposes, NNSA/NV EM activities have been established based on the source of contamination and type of waste

  17. Radionuclide concentrations in vegetation at a solid radioactive waste-disposal area in southeastern Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Arthur, W.J. III

    1982-07-01

    Concentrations of /sup 238/Pu, /sup 239,240/Pu, and /sup 241/Am in crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum (L.) Gaertn) and Russian thistle (Salsola kali L.) samples collected at a solid radioactive waste-disposal area in southeastern Idaho were significantly (P less than or equal to 0.05) greater than concentrations in control vegetation. No significant differences were found for /sup 90/Sr or /sup 137/Cs concentrations between the waste-disposal and control-area vegetation. Russian thistle had more radionuclide contamination than crested wheatgrass, presumably because of its greater rooting depth and spreading growth. The total radionuclide inventory of /sup 90/Sr, /sup 137/Cs, /sup 238/Pu, /sup 239,240/Pu, and /sup 241/Am in vegetation at the 36-ha waste-disposal area (77 ..mu..Ci) was not significantly (P > 0.05) greater than the 17 ..mu..Ci in control-area vegetation. Ninety percent of the radioactivity in waste-disposal area vegetation and 99% in control-area vegetation were attributed to /sup 90/Sr and /sup 137/Cs. The Pu inventory in Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) vegetation was only 0.02% of the quantity of Pu estimated to occur in SDA surface soils in 1974. Accumulation of radionuclides by vegetation is not considered a major mode of radionuclide transport through the environment surrounding this radioactive-waste-disposal area.

  18. Comparative analysis of different retrieval methods for mapping grassland leaf area index using airborne imaging spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atzberger, Clement; Darvishzadeh, Roshanak; Immitzer, Markus; Schlerf, Martin; Skidmore, Andrew; le Maire, Guerric

    2015-12-01

    Fine scale maps of vegetation biophysical variables are useful status indicators for monitoring and managing national parks and endangered habitats. Here, we assess in a comparative way four different retrieval methods for estimating leaf area index (LAI) in grassland: two radiative transfer model (RTM) inversion methods (one based on look-up-tables (LUT) and one based on predictive equations) and two statistical modelling methods (one partly, the other entirely based on in situ data). For prediction, spectral data were used that had been acquired over Majella National Park in Italy by the airborne hyperspectral HyMap instrument. To assess the performance of the four investigated models, the normalized root mean squared error (nRMSE) and coefficient of determination (R2) between estimates and in situ LAI measurements are reported (n = 41). Using a jackknife approach, we also quantified the accuracy and robustness of empirical models as a function of the size of the available calibration data set. The results of the study demonstrate that the LUT-based RTM inversion yields higher accuracies for LAI estimation (R2 = 0.91, nRMSE = 0.18) as compared to RTM inversions based on predictive equations (R2 = 0.79, nRMSE = 0.38). The two statistical methods yield accuracies similar to the LUT method. However, as expected, the accuracy and robustness of the statistical models decrease when the size of the calibration database is reduced to fewer samples. The results of this study are of interest for the remote sensing community developing improved inversion schemes for spaceborne hyperspectral sensors applicable to different vegetation types. The examples provided in this paper may also serve as illustrations for the drawbacks and advantages of physical and empirical models.

  19. Effectiveness of airborne multispectral thermal data for karst groundwater resources recognition in coastal areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pignatti, Stefano; Fusilli, Lorenzo; Palombo, Angelo; Santini, Federico; Pascucci, Simone

    2013-04-01

    Currently the detection, use and management of groundwater in karst regions can be considered one of the most significant procedures for solving water scarcity problems during periods of low rainfall this because groundwater resources from karst aquifers play a key role in the water supply in karst areas worldwide [1]. In many countries of the Mediterranean area, where karst is widespread, groundwater resources are still underexploited, while surface waters are generally preferred [2]. Furthermore, carbonate aquifers constitute a crucial thermal water resource outside of volcanic areas, even if there is no detailed and reliable global assessment of thermal water resources. The composite hydrogeological characteristics of karst, particularly directions and zones of groundwater distribution, are not up till now adequately explained [3]. In view of the abovementioned reasons the present study aims at analyzing the detection capability of high spatial resolution thermal remote sensing of karst water resources in coastal areas in order to get useful information on the karst springs flow and on different characteristics of these environments. To this purpose MIVIS [4, 5] and TASI-600 [6] airborne multispectral thermal imagery (see sensors' characteristics in Table 1) acquired on two coastal areas of the Mediterranean area interested by karst activity, one located in Montenegro and one in Italy, were used. One study area is located in the Kotor Bay, a winding bay on the Adriatic Sea surrounded by high mountains in south-western Montenegro and characterized by many subaerial and submarine coastal springs related to deep karstic channels. The other study area is located in Santa Cesarea (Italy), encompassing coastal cold springs, the main local source of high quality water, and also a noticeable thermal groundwater outflow. The proposed study shows the preliminary results of the two airborne deployments on these areas. The preprocessing of the multispectral thermal imagery

  20. Evaluation of the area factor used in the RESRAD code for the estimation of airborne contaminant concentrations of finite area sources

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Y.S.; Yu, C.; Wang, S.K.

    1998-07-01

    The area factor is used in the RESRAD code to estimate the airborne contaminant concentrations for a finite area of contaminated soils. The area factor model used in RESRAD version 5.70 and earlier (referred to as the old area factor) was a simple, but conservative, mixing model that tended to overestimate the airborne concentrations of radionuclide contaminants. An improved and more realistic model for the area factor (referred to here as the new area factor) is described in this report. The new area factor model is designed to reflect site-specific soil characteristics and meteorological conditions. The site-specific parameters considered include the size of the source area, average particle diameter, and average wind speed. Other site-specific parameters (particle density, atmospheric stability, raindrop diameter, and annual precipitation rate) were assumed to be constant. The model uses the Gaussian plume model combined with contaminant removal processes, such as dry and wet deposition of particulates. Area factors estimated with the new model are compared with old area factors that were based on the simple mixing model. In addition, sensitivity analyses are conducted for parameters assumed to be constant. The new area factor model has been incorporated into RESRAD version 5.75 and later.

  1. Problem of radioactive ash and sewage sludge management in the population areas of the Chernobyl zone

    SciTech Connect

    Basharin, A.V.; Kavkhuta, G.A.; Rozdyalovskaya, L.F.; Ivansky, I.I.

    1995-12-31

    The Chernobyl accident has brought about an unprecedented health risk to the population in the area of nuclear fall-out and has created unusual radioactive decontamination and waste management problems. One of them which has proven to be self-dependent is radioactively contaminated municipal domestic wastes, in particular sewage sludge arising from waste water treatment and ash wastes produced by domestic heating facilities from the use of local contaminated fire-wood and peat. This paper`s intention is to show the present situation and outline the actions being taken to carry out the recommendations in the field of management and regulation.

  2. Nevada Test Site 2007 Data Report: Groundwater Monitoring Program Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2008-01-01

    This report is a compilation of the groundwater sampling results from three monitoring wells located near the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nye County, Nevada, for calendar year 2007. The NTS is an approximately 3,561 square kilometer (1,375 square mile) restricted-access federal installation located approximately 105 kilometers (65 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1). Pilot wells UE5PW-1, UE5PW-2, and UE5PW-3 are used to monitor the groundwater at the Area 5 RWMS (Figure 2). In addition to groundwater monitoring results, this report includes information regarding site hydrogeology, well construction, sample collection, and meteorological data measured at the Area 5 RWMS. The disposal of low-level radioactive waste and mixed low-level radioactive waste at the Area 5 RWMS is regulated by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 435.1, 'Radioactive Waste Management'. The disposal of mixed low-level radioactive waste is also regulated by the state of Nevada under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulation Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 265, 'Interim Status Standards for Owners and Operators of Hazardous Waste Treatment, Storage, and Disposal Facilities' (CFR, 1999). The format of this report was requested by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) in a letter dated August 12, 1997. The appearance and arrangement of this document have been modified slightly since that date to provide additional information and to facilitate the readability of the document. The objective of this report is to satisfy any Area 5 RWMS reporting agreements between DOE and NDEP.

  3. A&M. Radioactive parts security storage area. Camera facing north. Fourrail ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    A&M. Radioactive parts security storage area. Camera facing north. Four-rail track leads to south end (front door) of TAN-647. Dolly is loaded with transport cask and liner. To its right, view shows back end of TAN-648, which is accessed by road on its north side. Photographer: M. Holmes. Date: December 21, 1959. INEEL negative no. 59-6080. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  4. Nevada Test Site 2000 Annual Data Report: Groundwater Monitoring Program Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    SciTech Connect

    Y. E.Townsend

    2001-02-01

    This report is a compilation of the calendar year 2000 groundwater sampling results from the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS). Contamination indicator data are presented in control chart and tabular form with investigation levels (IL) indicated. Gross water chemistry data are presented in graphical and tabular form. Other information in the report includes, the Cumulative Chronology for Area 5 RWMS Groundwater Monitoring Program, a brief description of the site hydrogeology, and the groundwater sampling procedure.

  5. A&M. Radioactive parts security storage area, TAN647 and TAN648. Plot ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    A&M. Radioactive parts security storage area, TAN-647 and TAN-648. Plot plan, fencing details. Relationship to hot shop and railroad turntable. Ralph M. Parsons 1480-7-ANP/GE-3-102. Date: November 19958. Approved by INEEL Classification Office for public release. INEEL index no. 034-0100-00-693-107447 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  6. Towards a Semantic Interpretation of Urban Areas with Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Hondt, O.; Guillaso, S.; Hellwich, O.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we introduce a method to detect and reconstruct building parts from tomographic Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) airborne data. Our approach extends recent works in two ways: first, the radiometric information is used to guide the extraction of geometric primitives. Second, building facades and roofs are extracted thanks to geometric classification rules. We demonstrate our method on a 3 image L-Band airborne dataset over the city of Dresden, Germany. Experiments show how our technique allows to use the complementarity between the radiometric image and the tomographic point cloud to extract buildings parts in challenging situations.

  7. Radioactive liquid wastes discharged to ground in the 200 areas during 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Aldrich, R.C.; Sliger, G.J.

    1981-03-09

    This document is tabulated quarterly for the purpose of summarizing the radioactive liquid wastes that have been discharged to the ground in the 200 Areas. In addition to data for 1980, cumulative data since plant startup are presented. Also in this document is a listing of decayed activity to the various plant sites. An overall summary is presented giving the radioactive liquid waste discharged to the ground during the current year of 1980 and since startup (for both total and decayed depositions) with the Rockwell Hanford Operations (Rockwell) control zone (200 Area plateau). Overall summaries are also presented for 200 East and for 200 West Area. The data contain an estimate of the radioactivity discharged to individual periods: (1) all four quarters of 1980; and (2) from startup through December 31, 1980. The location and reference drawings of each disposal site, and the usage dates of each disposal site are given. The estimates for the radioactivity discharged to the ponds also include major nonradioactive streams. The waste discharged during 1980 to each active disposal site is detailed on a month-to-month basis along with the monthly maximum concentration and average concentration data.

  8. Active airborne contamination control using electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Veatch, B.D.

    1994-06-01

    In spite of our best efforts, radioactive airborne contamination continues to be a formidable problem at many of the Department of Energy (DOE) weapons complex sites. For workers that must enter areas with high levels of airborne contamination, personnel protective equipment (PPE) can become highly restrictive, greatly diminishing productivity. Rather than require even more restrictive PPE for personnel in some situations, the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) is actively researching and developing methods to aggressively combat airborne contamination hazards using electrophoretic technology. With appropriate equipment, airborne particulates can be effectively removed and collected for disposal in one simple process. The equipment needed to implement electrophoresis is relatively inexpensive, highly reliable, and very compact. Once airborne contamination levels are reduced, less PPE is required and a significant cost savings may be realized through decreased waste and maximized productivity. Preliminary ``cold,`` or non-radioactive, testing results at the RFP have shown the technology to be effective on a reasonable scale, with several potential benefits and an abundance of applications.

  9. Speciation of radioactive soil particles in the Fukushima contaminated area by IP autoradiography and microanalyses.

    PubMed

    Mukai, Hiroki; Hatta, Tamao; Kitazawa, Hideaki; Yamada, Hirohisa; Yaita, Tsuyoshi; Kogure, Toshihiro

    2014-11-18

    Radioactive soil particles several tens of micrometers in size were collected from litter soil in the radiation contaminated area by the Fukushima nuclear plant accident and characterized using electron and X-ray microanalyses. The radioactive particles were discriminated by autoradiography using imaging plates (IP) on which microgrids were formed by laser ablation in order to find the particles under microscopy. Fifty radioactive particles were identified and classified into three types from their morphology and chemical composition, namely: (1) aggregates of clay minerals, (2) organic matter containing clay mineral particulates, and (3) weathered biotite originating from local granite. With respect to the second type, dissolution of the organic matter did not reduce the radiation, suggesting that the radionuclides were also fixed by the clay minerals. The weathered biotite grains have a plate-like shape with well-developed cleavages inside the grains, and kaolin group minerals and goethite filling the cleavage spaces. The reduction of the radiation intensity was measured before and after the trimming of the plate edges using a focused ion beam (FIB), to examine whether radioactive cesium primarily sorbed at frayed edges. The radiation was attenuated in proportion to the volume decrease by the edge trimming, implying that radioactive cesium was sorbed uniformly in the porous weathered biotite. PMID:25343443

  10. Speciation of radioactive soil particles in the Fukushima contaminated area by IP autoradiography and microanalyses.

    PubMed

    Mukai, Hiroki; Hatta, Tamao; Kitazawa, Hideaki; Yamada, Hirohisa; Yaita, Tsuyoshi; Kogure, Toshihiro

    2014-11-18

    Radioactive soil particles several tens of micrometers in size were collected from litter soil in the radiation contaminated area by the Fukushima nuclear plant accident and characterized using electron and X-ray microanalyses. The radioactive particles were discriminated by autoradiography using imaging plates (IP) on which microgrids were formed by laser ablation in order to find the particles under microscopy. Fifty radioactive particles were identified and classified into three types from their morphology and chemical composition, namely: (1) aggregates of clay minerals, (2) organic matter containing clay mineral particulates, and (3) weathered biotite originating from local granite. With respect to the second type, dissolution of the organic matter did not reduce the radiation, suggesting that the radionuclides were also fixed by the clay minerals. The weathered biotite grains have a plate-like shape with well-developed cleavages inside the grains, and kaolin group minerals and goethite filling the cleavage spaces. The reduction of the radiation intensity was measured before and after the trimming of the plate edges using a focused ion beam (FIB), to examine whether radioactive cesium primarily sorbed at frayed edges. The radiation was attenuated in proportion to the volume decrease by the edge trimming, implying that radioactive cesium was sorbed uniformly in the porous weathered biotite.

  11. Variations in the structure of airborne bacterial communities in a downwind area during an Asian dust (Kosa) event.

    PubMed

    Maki, Teruya; Puspitasari, Findya; Hara, Kazutaka; Yamada, Maromu; Kobayashi, Fumihisa; Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Iwasaka, Yasunobu

    2014-08-01

    Asian dust (Kosa) events transport airborne microorganisms that significantly impact biological ecosystems, human health, and ice-cloud formation in downwind areas. However, the composition and population dynamics of airborne bacteria have rarely been investigated in downwind areas during Kosa events. In this study, air samplings were sequentially performed at the top of a 10-m high building within the Kosa event arrival area (Kanazawa City, Japan) from May 1 to May 7, 2011, during a Kosa event. The particle concentrations of bacterial cells and mineral particles were ten-fold higher during the Kosa event than on non-Kosa event days. A 16S ribosomal DNA clone library prepared from the air samples primarily contained sequences from three phyla: Cyanobacteria, Firmicutes, and Alphaproteobacteria. The clones from Cyanobacteria were mainly from a marine type of Synechococcus species that was dominant during the first phase of the Kosa event and was continuously detected throughout the Kosa event. The clones from Alphaproteobacteria were mainly detected at the initial and final periods of the Kosa event, and phylogenetic analysis showed that their sequences clustered with those from a marine bacterial clade (the SAR clade) and Sphingomonas spp. During the middle of the Kosa event, the Firmicutes species Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus pumilus were predominant; these species are known to be predominant in the atmosphere above the Chinese desert, which is the source of the dust during Kosa events. The clones obtained after the Kosa event had finished were mainly from Bacillus megaterium, which is thought to originate from local terrestrial areas. Our results suggest that airborne bacterial communities at the ground level in areas affected by Kosa events change their species compositions during a Kosa event toward those containing terrestrial and pelagic bacteria transported from the Sea of Japan and the continental area of China by the Kosa event. PMID:24815557

  12. Airborne electromagnetic and magnetic geophysical survey data of the Yukon Flats and Fort Wainwright areas, central Alaska, June 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ball, Lyndsay B.; Smith, Bruce D.; Minsley, Burke J.; Abraham, Jared D.; Voss, Clifford I.; Astley, Beth N.; Deszcz-Pan, Maria; Cannia, James C.

    2011-01-01

    In June 2010, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted airborne electromagnetic and magnetic surveys of the Yukon Flats and Fort Wainwright study areas in central Alaska. These data were collected to estimate the three-dimensional distribution of permafrost at the time of the survey. These data were also collected to evaluate the effectiveness of these geophysical methods at mapping permafrost geometry and to better define the physical properties of the subsurface in discontinuous permafrost areas. This report releases digital data associated with these surveys. Inverted resistivity depth sections are also provided in this data release, and data processing and inversion methods are discussed.

  13. Airborne Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    ATM (Airborne Thematic Mapper) was developed for NSTL (National Space Technology Companies) by Daedalus Company. It offers expanded capabilities for timely, accurate and cost effective identification of areas with prospecting potential. A related system is TIMS, Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner. Originating from Landsat 4, it is also used for agricultural studies, etc.

  14. Improving estimation of tree carbon stocks by harvesting aboveground woody biomass within airborne LiDAR flight areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colgan, M.; Asner, G. P.; Swemmer, A. M.

    2011-12-01

    harvesting of trees is not possible within KNP, this was a unique opportunity to fell trees already scheduled to be cleared for mining operations. The area was first flown by the Carnegie Airborne Observatory in early May, prior to harvest, to enable correlation of LiDAR-measured tree height and crown diameter to harvested tree mass. Results include over 4,000 harvested stems and 13 species-specific biomass equations, including seven Kruger woody species previously without allometry. We found existing biomass stem allometry over-estimates ACD in the field, whereas airborne estimates based on harvest data avoid this bias while maintaining similar precision to field-based estimates. Lastly, a new airborne algorithm estimating biomass at the tree-level reduced error from tree canopies "leaning" into field plots but whose stems are outside plot boundaries. These advances pave the way to better understanding of savanna and forest carbon density at landscape and regional scales.

  15. Airborne Geophysical Surveys Illuminate the Geologic and Hydrothermal Framework of the Pilgrim Springs Geothermal Area, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McPhee, D. K.; Glen, J. M.; Bedrosian, P. A.

    2012-12-01

    An airborne magnetic and frequency-domain electromagnetic (EM) survey of the Pilgrim Springs geothermal area, located on the Seward Peninsula in west-central Alaska, delineates key structures controlling hydrothermal fluid flow. Hot springs, nearby thawed regions, and high lake temperatures are indicative of high heat flow in the region that is thought to be related to recent volcanism. By providing a region-wide geologic and geophysical framework, this work will provide informed decisions regarding drill-site planning and further our understanding of geothermal systems in active extensional basins. Helicopter magnetic and EM data were acquired using a Fugro RESOLVE system equipped with a high sensitivity cesium magnetometer and a multi-coil, multi-frequency EM system sensitive to the frequency range of 400-140,000 Hz. The survey was flown ~40 m above ground along flight lines spaced 0.2-0.4 km apart. Various derivative and filtering methods, including maximum horizontal gradient of the pseudogravity transformation of the magnetic data, are used to locate faults, contacts, and structural domains. A dominant northwest trending anomaly pattern characterizes the northeastern portion of the survey area between Pilgrim Springs and Hen and Chickens Mountain and may reflect basement structures. The area south of the springs, however, is dominantly characterized by east-west trending, range-front-parallel anomalies likely caused by late Cenozoic structures associated with the north-south extension that formed the basin. Regionally, the springs are characterized by a magnetic high punctuated by several east-west trending magnetic lows, the most prominent occurring directly over the springs. The lows may result from demagnetization of magnetic material along range-front parallel features that dissect the basin. We inverted in-phase and quadrature EM data along each profile using the laterally-constrained inversion of Auken et al. (2005). Data were inverted for 20-layer

  16. CASI/SASI airborne hyperspectral remote sensing anomaly extraction of metallogenic prediction research in Gansu Beishan South Beach area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Che, Yongfei; Zhao, Yingjun

    2014-11-01

    Hyperspectral remote sensing has one of the technical advantages atlas. The known deposits of Gansu Beishan South Beach deposits as the study area, based on the theory of wall rock alteration, using airborne hyperspectral remote sensing data (CASI/SASI), extracted mineralization alteration information and analysis. Based on airborne hyperspectral remote sensing mineral mapping results in the study area, Combining analysising of possible mineral formation fluid properties, spatial distribution characteristics and time evolution with analysising of mineral formation environment (lithology and tectonic environment), construction of the South Beach gold deposit location model, the deposit location model as a guide, comprehensive analysis of mineralization geological background and surface geochemical data, delineated mineralization favorable areas. The field investigation showed that signs of altered development of strong in the delineation of the mineralization favorable areas and metallogenic potential of better, is worth paying attention to the prospecting target area. Further explanation that the hyperspectral remote sensing can provide accurate and reliable information for the prospecting, and is worthy of further mining the ore prospecting potential.

  17. [Radioecological investigation of the soil cover of eastern Urals State radioactive reserve and neighboring areas].

    PubMed

    Mikhaĭlovskaia, L N; Molchanova, I V; Karavaeva, E N; Pozolotina, V N; Tarasov, O V

    2011-01-01

    The contamination levels and spatial distribution of 90Sr and 137Cs in the soil cover of the Eastern Ural State Radioactive Reserve and neighboring areas have been studied. Situated in the Chelyabinsk region, the Reserve embraces the frontal part of the Eastern Urals Radioactive Trace. This Trace emerged in 1957 as a result of the nuclear accident at the Production Association "Mayak". In the studied areas, the content of radionuclides in soils decreases exponentially as the distance from the source of contamination increases. 90Sr received by the soil cover as a result of the accident in 1957 has remained the main contaminant of the Reserve central part (97% of the total contamination). Its contribution throughout western neighboring areas reduces up to 67%, which decreases the effect of 90Sr on the environment. Within eastern neighboring areas, soil is mainly contaminated by 137Cs received as a result of the wind disseminated dried sediments from the shores of Lake Karachay (1967) that was used for dumping high-level radioactive waste. Also observed was enrichment of forest litters with this radionuclide due to current atmospheric fallout.

  18. Analysis of airborne LiDAR as a basis for digital soil mapping in Alpine areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kringer, K.; Tusch, M.; Geitner, C.; Meißl, G.; Rutzinger, M.

    2009-04-01

    Especially in mountainous regions like the Alps the formation of soil is highly influenced by relief characteristics. Among all factors included in Jenny's (1941) model for soil development, relief is the one most commonly used in approaches to create digital soil maps and to derive soil properties from secondary data sources (McBratney et al. 2003). Elevation data, first order (slope, aspect) and second order derivates (plan, profile and cross-sectional curvature) as well as complex morphometric parameters (various landform classifications, e.g., Wood 1996) and compound indices (e.g., topographic wetness indices, vertical distance to drainage network, insolation) can be calculated from digital elevation models (DEM). However, while being an important source of information for digital soil mapping on small map scales, "conventional" DEMs are of limited use for the design of large scale conceptual soil maps for small areas due to rather coarse raster resolutions with cell sizes ranging from 20 to 100 meters. Slight variations in elevation and small landform features might not be discernible even though they might have a significant effect to soil formation, e.g., regarding the influence of groundwater in alluvial soils or the extent of alluvial fans. Nowadays, Airborne LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) provides highly accurate data for the elaboration of high-resolution digital terrain models (DTM) even in forested areas. In the project LASBO (Laserscanning in der Bodenkartierung) the applicability of digital terrain models derived from LiDAR for the identification of soil-relevant geomorphometric parameter is investigated. Various algorithms which were initially designed for coarser raster data are applied on high-resolution DTMs. Test areas for LASBO are located in the region of Bruneck (Italy) and near the municipality of Kramsach in the Inn Valley (Austria). The freely available DTM for Bruneck has a raster resolution of 2.5 meters while in Kramsach a DTM with

  19. Nevada National Security Site 2013 Data Report: Groundwater Monitoring Program Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, David B

    2014-02-13

    This report is a compilation of the groundwater sampling results from the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada. Groundwater samples from the aquifer immediately below the Area 5 RWMS have been collected and analyzed and static water levels have been measured in this aquifer since 1993. This report updates these data to include the 2013 results. Beginning with this report, analysis results for leachate collected from the mixed-waste cell at the Area 5 RWMS (Cell 18) are also included.

  20. Flood Assessment Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2007-07-01

    A flood assessment was conducted at the Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in Nye County, Nevada (Figure 1-1). The study area encompasses the watershed of Yucca Flat, a closed basin approximately 780 square kilometers (km2) (300 square miles) in size. The focus of this effort was on a drainage area of approximately 94 km2 (36 mi2), determined from review of topographic maps and aerial photographs to be the only part of the Yucca Flat watershed that could directly impact the Area 3 RWMS. This smaller area encompasses portions of the Halfpint Range, including Paiute Ridge, Jangle Ridge, Carbonate Ridge, Slanted Buttes, Cockeyed Ridge, and Banded Mountain. The Area 3 RWMS is located on coalescing alluvial fans emanating from this drainage area.

  1. An approach to detecting delayed effects of radioactive contamination on industrial-urban-area dwellers

    SciTech Connect

    Privalova, L.I.; Katsnelson, B.A. ); Polzik, E.V.; Kazantsev, V.S. ); Lipatov, G.Ya. ); Beikin, Y.B. )

    1994-05-01

    Detecting changes in humans that result from radioactive contamination of the area of residence many years after an incident (i.e., when the radiation has substantially decayed) presents a difficult epidemiological problem. Problems of this kind are even more complicated in areas where the population is continually exposed to other harmful man-made factors. The city of Kamensk-Uralsky (Sverdlovsk region, Russia) is a good case in point. In 1957, part of Kamensk-Uralsky was contaminated as the result of an accident at the Kyshtym nuclear plant. In addition, the population of the contaminated area is being exposed to atmospheric emissions from several industrial enterprises. Two comparable groups of residents were formed: one in the contaminated area and another in a control area within the same city characterized by similar levels of chemical pollution but substantially lower radioactive contamination. The groups were composed of only those people who had been living in these areas continually since time of the accident and who were under 15 years of age at the time of the accident. The groups were matched by sex, age, and socio-occupational characteristics. For each subject, data were gathered on more than 50 parameters including hematological, immunological, and biochemical indices of the health status. All these data were obtained from blood tests taken in the fall of 1992. Data processing was carried out with the help of a computerized mathematical pattern recognition methodology, which ensured reliable discrimination between the generalized health status in the areas under study. We found that the health status of inhabitants of the area more contaminated with radioactive fallouts were adversely affected by radiation.

  2. Characterization Report for the 92-Acre Area of the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtel Nevada; U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2006-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office manages two low-level Radioactive Waste Management Sites at the Nevada Test Site. The Area 5 RWMS uses engineered shallow-land burial cells to dispose of packaged waste. This report summarizes characterization and monitoring work pertinent to the 92-Acre Area in the southeast part of the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites. The decades of characterization and assessment work at the Area 5 RWMS indicate that the access controls, waste operation practices, site design, final cover design, site setting, and arid natural environment contribute to a containment system that meets regulatory requirements and performance objectives for the short- and long-term protection of the environment and public. The available characterization and Performance Assessment information is adequate to support design of the final cover and development of closure plans. No further characterization is warranted to demonstrate regulatory compliance. U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office is proceeding with the development of closure plans for the six closure units of the 92-Acre Area.

  3. A system to geometrically rectify and map airborne scanner imagery and to estimate ground area. [by computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spencer, M. M.; Wolf, J. M.; Schall, M. A.

    1974-01-01

    A system of computer programs were developed which performs geometric rectification and line-by-line mapping of airborne multispectral scanner data to ground coordinates and estimates ground area. The system requires aircraft attitude and positional information furnished by ancillary aircraft equipment, as well as ground control points. The geometric correction and mapping procedure locates the scan lines, or the pixels on each line, in terms of map grid coordinates. The area estimation procedure gives ground area for each pixel or for a predesignated parcel specified in map grid coordinates. The results of exercising the system with simulated data showed the uncorrected video and corrected imagery and produced area estimates accurate to better than 99.7%.

  4. Reconnaissance for radioactivity in the Gold Hill mining area, Boulder county, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Campbell, R.H.

    1955-01-01

    Several radioactive deposits were found as a result of reconnaissance in the Gold Hill mining area, Boulder County, Colo. The ore deposits of the area have been worked chiefly for gold. All ore shipped has come from fissure veins, mist of which are gold telluride veins. There are, however, some important sulfide veins which show a vague zonal distribution of pyritic gold ores and silver-lead ores. The results of this reconnaissance suggest a possible relationship of the radioactive deposits to this indistinct sulfide zoning; however, the zoning is so obscure that its practical application to prospecting for uranium is of doubtful value at the present time. Pitchblende, tobernite, metatrobernite, and schroeckingerite have been identified in specimens from the area; however, no uranium minerals have yet been identified from most of the radioactive deposits, and the uraniferous material present is probably in disseminated small particles. Although selected sampled from several localities assay 0.10 percent uranium or more, the known deposits are small and probably are not of immediate economic importance.

  5. Performance Assessment Transport Modeling of Uranium at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site at the Nevada National Security Site

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Radioactive Waste

    2010-10-12

    Following is a brief summary of the assumptions that are pertinent to the radioactive isotope transport in the GoldSim Performance Assessment model of the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, with special emphasis on the water-phase reactive transport of uranium, which includes depleted uranium products.

  6. Nevada Test Site, 2006 Waste Management Monitoring Report, Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites

    SciTech Connect

    David B. Hudson

    2007-06-30

    Environmental monitoring data were collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada Test Site. These data are associated with radiation exposure, air, groundwater, meteorology, vadose zone, subsidence, and biota. This report summarizes the 2006 environmental data to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and to support environmental compliance and performance assessment (PA) activities. Some of these data (e.g., radiation exposure, air, and groundwater) are presented in other reports (U.S. Department of Energy, 2006; Warren and Grossman, 2007; National Security Technologies, LLC, 2007). Direct radiation monitoring data indicate that exposure levels around the RWMSs are at or below background levels. Air monitoring data at the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMSs indicate that tritium concentrations are slightly above background levels. There is no detectable man-made radioactivity by gamma spectroscopy, and concentrations of americium and plutonium are only slightly above detection limits at the Area 3 RWMS. Measurements at the Area 5 RWMS show that radon flux from waste covers is no higher than natural radon flux from undisturbed soil in Area 5. Groundwater monitoring data indicate that the groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the Area 5 RWMS is not impacted by facility operations. Precipitation during 2006 totaled 98.6 millimeters (mm) (3.9 inches [in.]) at the Area 3 RWMS and 80.7 mm (3.2 in.) at the Area 5 RWMS. Soil-gas tritium monitoring continues to show slow subsurface migration consistent with previous results. Moisture from precipitation at Area 5 remains at the bottom of the bare-soil weighing lysimeter, but this same moisture has been removed from the vegetated weighing lysimeter by evapotranspiration. Vadose zone data from the operational waste pit covers show that evaporation continues to slowly remove soil moisture that came from the heavy precipitation in the fall of 2004 and the spring of

  7. Radioactive liquid wastes discharged to ground in the 200 areas during 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Sliger, G.J.

    1983-03-02

    This document summarizes radioactive liquids discharged to the ground in the 200 Areas of the Hanford Sites and is provided pursuant to Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5484.1A, Environmental Protection, Safety, and Health Protection Information Reporting Requirements. There are twenty-five liquid effluent discharge streams in the 200 Areas, twenty-one of which are normally contaminated or potentially contaminated with radioactive material. Of these twenty-one streams, two discharged radioactive material above Table I concentration guides, and one other discharged material above Table II concentration guides. The four noncontaminated streams are included to maintain an accurate record of total volume of liquid discharged to each specific waste site. B-Plant process condensate (BCP) exceeded Table I for Sr-90 by a factor of 15 and Cs-137 by a factor of 3.5. Discharge point ws the 216-B-62 Crib. Plans have been developed to provide effluent treatment improvements which will bring this waste stream below Table I concentration guides for all radioisotopes. PUREX process condensate (PDD) exceeded Table II for Cs-137 by a factor of 2.6. Discharge point was the 216-A-10 Crib. UO-3 Plant process condensate (U-12) exceeded Table I for total uranium by a factor of 11. Discharge point was the 216-U-12 Crib. (Note: The uranium limits for liquid have recently been reduced, and the UO-3 Plant has made process changes to meet the new limits in the future.)

  8. Airborne gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey: Christmas Mountains, Texas Detail Area. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    Volume IIA contains the following: geology of Christmas Mountain; radioactive mineral occurrences in Texas; geophysical data interpretation; references; and appendices for stacked profiles, geologic histograms; geochemical histograms; speed and altitude histograms; geologic statistical tables; geochemical statistical tables; magnetic and ancillary profiles, and test line data. (ATT)

  9. Levels and spatial distribution of airborne chemical elements in a heavy industrial area located in the north of Spain.

    PubMed

    Lage, J; Almeida, S M; Reis, M A; Chaves, P C; Ribeiro, T; Garcia, S; Faria, J P; Fernández, B G; Wolterbeek, H T

    2014-01-01

    The adverse health effects of airborne particles have been subjected to intense investigation in recent years; however, more studies on the chemical characterization of particles from pollution emissions are needed to (1) identify emission sources, (2) better understand the relative toxicity of particles, and (3) pinpoint more targeted emission control strategies and regulations. The main objective of this study was to assess the levels and spatial distribution of airborne chemical elements in a heavy industrial area located in the north of Spain. Instrumental and biomonitoring techniques were integrated and analytical methods for k0 instrumental neutron activation analysis and particle-induced x-ray emission were used to determine element content in aerosol filters and lichens. Results indicated that in general local industry contributed to the emissions of As, Sb, Cu, V, and Ni, which are associated with combustion processes. In addition, the steelwork emitted significant quantities of Fe and Mn and the cement factory was associated with Ca emissions. The spatial distribution of Zn and Al also indicated an important contribution of two industries located outside the studied area. PMID:25072718

  10. Closure Strategy Nevada Test Site Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2007-03-01

    This paper presents an overview of the strategy for closure of part of the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), which is about 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1). The Area 5 RWMS is in the northern part of Frenchman Flat, approximately 14 miles north of Mercury. The Area 5 RWMS encompasses 732 acres subdivided into quadrants, and is bounded by a 1,000-foot (ft)-wide buffer zone. The northwest and southwest quadrants have not been developed. The northeast and southeast quadrants have been used for disposal of unclassified low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and indefinite storage of classified materials. This paper focuses on closure of the 38 waste disposal and classified material storage units within the southeast quadrant of the Area 5 RWMS, called the ''92-Acre Area''. The U.S Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) is currently planning to close the 92-Acre Area by 2011. Closure planning for this site must take into account the regulatory requirements for a diversity of waste streams, disposal and storage configurations, disposal history, and site conditions. For ease of discussion, the 92-Acre Area has been subdivided into six closure units defined by waste type, location, and similarity in regulatory requirements. Each of the closure units contains one or more waste disposal units; waste disposal units are also called waste disposal cells. The paper provides a brief background of the Area 5 RWMS, identifies key closure issues for the 92-Acre Area, recommends actions to address the issues, and provides the National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), schedule for closure.

  11. Indoor air climate and microbiological airborne: contamination in various hospital areas.

    PubMed

    Berardi, B M; Leoni, E

    1993-07-01

    Indoor climate indices and microbiological airborne contamination were evaluated in a department of a general hospital in Bologna only partially equipped with an air conditioning system. To determine the environmental parameters, an ANADATA (LSI) climate analyzer with relative transducers was used. The Effective Temperature (ET), the New Effective Temperature (ET*) and the Fanger indices (PMV-PPD) were calculated using the parameters measured. Microbial count measurements were taken with an S.A.S. (Surface Air System) sampler, to ascertain the total bacterial count at 37 degrees C, and the fungal particle, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa counts. Carbon dioxide air concentrations were also measured to evaluate the efficacy of air exchange. The Fanger indices were not within the range of thermal comfort in most rooms (52% in winter, 62% in summer). Air microbial counts were higher in the hospital wards and surgeries than in the offices and laboratories. In particular, coagulase-positive staphylococci were present only in the air of the patients' rooms. The microbial contamination was not correlated with the air conditioning system, but probably caused by the turnover in the hospital population, the number of people and their behaviour. However the most important measure to prevent airborne contamination and to reduce the number of microorganisms in the air is an efficient source control. Better management of the air conditioning system, by means of adequate air exchange and thermal adjustment, would lead to a notable improvement in indoor air quality, especially in units with hospitalized patients.

  12. Nevada Test Site 2005 Waste Management Monitoring Report Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites

    SciTech Connect

    David B. Hudson, Cathy A. Wills

    2006-08-01

    Environmental monitoring data were collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada Test Site. These data are associated with radiation exposure, air, groundwater, meteorology, vadose zone, subsidence, and biota. This report summarizes the 2005 environmental data to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and to support environmental compliance and performance assessment activities. Some of these data (e.g., radiation exposure, air, and groundwater) are presented in other reports (U.S. Department of Energy, 2005; Grossman, 2005; Bechtel Nevada, 2006). Direct radiation monitoring data indicate that exposure levels around the RWMSs are at or below background levels. Air monitoring data at the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMSs indicate that tritium concentrations are slightly above background levels. There is no detectable man-made radioactivity by gamma spectroscopy, and concentrations of americium and plutonium are only slightly above detection limits at the Area 3 RWMS. Measurements at the Area 5 RWMS show that radon flux from waste covers is no higher than natural radon flux from undisturbed soil in Area 5. Groundwater monitoring data indicate that the groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the Area 5 RWMS is not impacted by facility operations. Precipitation during 2005 totaled 219.1 millimeters (mm) (8.63 inches [in.]) at the Area 3 RWMS and 201.4 mm (7.93 in.) at the Area 5 RWMS. Soil-gas tritium monitoring continues to show slow subsurface migration consistent with previous results. Moisture from precipitation at Area 5 has percolated to the bottom of the bare-soil weighing lysimeter, but this same moisture has been removed from the vegetated weighing lysimeter by evapotranspiration. Vadose zone data from the operational waste pit covers show that precipitation from the fall of 2004 and the spring of 2005 infiltrated past the deepest sensors at 188 centimeters (6.2 feet) and remains in the pit cover

  13. Result Summary for the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site Performance Assessment Model Version 4.113

    SciTech Connect

    Shott, G. J.

    2012-04-15

    Preliminary results for Version 4.113 of the Nevada National Security Site Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site performance assessment model are summarized. Version 4.113 includes the Fiscal Year 2011 inventory estimate.

  14. Defenses against keratinolytic bacteria in birds living in radioactively contaminated areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Rodríguez, Magdalena; Møller, Anders Pape; Mousseau, Timothy A.; Soler, Juan J.

    2016-10-01

    Microorganisms have shaped the evolution of a variety of defense mechanisms against pathogenic infections. Radioactivity modifies bacterial communities and, therefore, bird hosts breeding in contaminated areas are expected to adapt to the new bacterial environment. We tested this hypothesis in populations of barn swallows ( Hirundo rustica) from a gradient of background radiation levels at Chernobyl and uncontaminated controls from Denmark. Investment in defenses against keratinolytic bacteria was measured from feather structure (i.e., susceptibility to degradation) and uropygial secretions. We studied degradability of tail feathers from areas varying in contamination in laboratory experiments using incubation of feathers with a feather-degrading bacterium, Bacillus licheniformis, followed by measurement of the amount of keratin digested. The size of uropygial glands and secretion amounts were quantified, followed by antimicrobial tests against B. licheniformis and quantification of wear of feathers. Feathers of males, but not of females, from highly contaminated areas degraded at a lower rate than those from medium and low contamination areas. However, feathers of both sexes from the Danish populations showed little evidence of degradation. Individual barn swallows from the more contaminated areas of Ukraine produced the largest uropygial secretions with higher antimicrobial activity, although wear of feathers did not differ among males from different populations. In Denmark, swallows produced smaller quantities of uropygial secretion with lower antimicrobial activity, which was similar to swallow populations from uncontaminated areas in Ukraine. Therefore, barn swallows breeding in contaminated areas invested more in all defenses against keratinolytic bacteria than in uncontaminated areas of Ukraine and Denmark, although they had similar levels of feather wear. Strong natural selection exerted by radioactivity may have selected for individuals with higher defense

  15. Defenses against keratinolytic bacteria in birds living in radioactively contaminated areas.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Rodríguez, Magdalena; Møller, Anders Pape; Mousseau, Timothy A; Soler, Juan J

    2016-10-01

    Microorganisms have shaped the evolution of a variety of defense mechanisms against pathogenic infections. Radioactivity modifies bacterial communities and, therefore, bird hosts breeding in contaminated areas are expected to adapt to the new bacterial environment. We tested this hypothesis in populations of barn swallows (Hirundo rustica) from a gradient of background radiation levels at Chernobyl and uncontaminated controls from Denmark. Investment in defenses against keratinolytic bacteria was measured from feather structure (i.e., susceptibility to degradation) and uropygial secretions. We studied degradability of tail feathers from areas varying in contamination in laboratory experiments using incubation of feathers with a feather-degrading bacterium, Bacillus licheniformis, followed by measurement of the amount of keratin digested. The size of uropygial glands and secretion amounts were quantified, followed by antimicrobial tests against B. licheniformis and quantification of wear of feathers. Feathers of males, but not of females, from highly contaminated areas degraded at a lower rate than those from medium and low contamination areas. However, feathers of both sexes from the Danish populations showed little evidence of degradation. Individual barn swallows from the more contaminated areas of Ukraine produced the largest uropygial secretions with higher antimicrobial activity, although wear of feathers did not differ among males from different populations. In Denmark, swallows produced smaller quantities of uropygial secretion with lower antimicrobial activity, which was similar to swallow populations from uncontaminated areas in Ukraine. Therefore, barn swallows breeding in contaminated areas invested more in all defenses against keratinolytic bacteria than in uncontaminated areas of Ukraine and Denmark, although they had similar levels of feather wear. Strong natural selection exerted by radioactivity may have selected for individuals with higher defense

  16. Defenses against keratinolytic bacteria in birds living in radioactively contaminated areas.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Rodríguez, Magdalena; Møller, Anders Pape; Mousseau, Timothy A; Soler, Juan J

    2016-10-01

    Microorganisms have shaped the evolution of a variety of defense mechanisms against pathogenic infections. Radioactivity modifies bacterial communities and, therefore, bird hosts breeding in contaminated areas are expected to adapt to the new bacterial environment. We tested this hypothesis in populations of barn swallows (Hirundo rustica) from a gradient of background radiation levels at Chernobyl and uncontaminated controls from Denmark. Investment in defenses against keratinolytic bacteria was measured from feather structure (i.e., susceptibility to degradation) and uropygial secretions. We studied degradability of tail feathers from areas varying in contamination in laboratory experiments using incubation of feathers with a feather-degrading bacterium, Bacillus licheniformis, followed by measurement of the amount of keratin digested. The size of uropygial glands and secretion amounts were quantified, followed by antimicrobial tests against B. licheniformis and quantification of wear of feathers. Feathers of males, but not of females, from highly contaminated areas degraded at a lower rate than those from medium and low contamination areas. However, feathers of both sexes from the Danish populations showed little evidence of degradation. Individual barn swallows from the more contaminated areas of Ukraine produced the largest uropygial secretions with higher antimicrobial activity, although wear of feathers did not differ among males from different populations. In Denmark, swallows produced smaller quantities of uropygial secretion with lower antimicrobial activity, which was similar to swallow populations from uncontaminated areas in Ukraine. Therefore, barn swallows breeding in contaminated areas invested more in all defenses against keratinolytic bacteria than in uncontaminated areas of Ukraine and Denmark, although they had similar levels of feather wear. Strong natural selection exerted by radioactivity may have selected for individuals with higher defense

  17. Distribution of radioactive cesium and stable cesium in cattle kept on a highly contaminated area of Fukushima nuclear accident.

    PubMed

    Sato, Itaru; Okada, Keiji; Sasaki, Jun; Chida, Hiroyuki; Satoh, Hiroshi; Miura, Kiyoshi; Kikuchi, Kaoru; Otani, Kumiko; Sato, Shusuke

    2015-07-01

    Radioactivity inspection of slaughtered cattle is generally conducted using a portion of the neck muscle; however, there is limited information about the distribution of radioactive cesium in cattle. In this study, therefore, we measured not only radioactive cesium but also stable cesium in various tissues of 19 cattle that had been kept in the area highly contaminated by the Fukushima nuclear accident. Skeletal muscles showed approximately 1.5-3.0 times higher concentration of radioactive cesium than internal organs. Radioactive cesium concentration in the tenderloin and top round was about 1.2 times as high as that in the neck muscle. The kidney showed the highest concentration of radioactive cesium among internal organs, whereas the liver was lowest. Radioactive cesium concentration in the blood was about 8% of that in the neck muscle. Characteristics of stable cesium distribution were almost the same as those of radioactive cesium. Correlation coefficient between radioactive cesium and stable cesium in tissues of individual cattle was 0.981 ± 0.012. When a suspicious level near 100 Bq/kg is detected in the neck of slaughtered cattle, re-inspection should be conducted using a different region of muscle, for example top round, to prevent marketing of beef that violates the Food Sanitation Act.

  18. Airborne Observations of Mercury Emissions from the Chicago/Gary Urban/Industrial Area during the 2013 NOMADSS Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gratz, L.; Ambrose, J. L., II; Jaffe, D. A.; Knote, C. J.; Jaegle, L.; Selin, N. E.; Campos, T. L.; Flocke, F. M.; Reeves, J. M.; Stechman, D. M.; Stell, M. H.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Knapp, D. J.; Montzka, D.; Tyndall, G. S.; Mauldin, L.; Cantrell, C. A.; Apel, E. C.; Hornbrook, R. S.; Blake, N. J.

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric emissions from the Chicago/Gary urban/industrial area significantly enhance ambient mercury (Hg) concentrations and lead to increased levels of atmospheric mercury deposition within the Lake Michigan Basin (Gratz et al., 2013a; Gratz et al., 2013b; Landis and Keeler, 2002; Landis et al., 2002; Vette et al., 2002). In this study we use airborne observations of total atmospheric Hg (THg) collected over Lake Michigan during summer 2013 as part of the Nitrogen, Oxidants, Mercury, and Aerosol Distributions, Sources, and Sinks (NOMADSS) field campaign to quantify the outflow of total atmospheric Hg from the Chicago/Gary urban/industrial area. We use concurrent airborne measurements of THg, carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and sulfur dioxide (SO2) to calculate measured enhancement ratios (ER) and thus characterize Chicago/Gary emissions. We determine the observed THg/CO ER in outflow from Chicago/Gary to be 2.11x10-7 mol mol-1, which is comparable to values reported in the literature for other major U.S. urban/industrial areas (Radke et al., 2007; Talbot et al., 2008; Weiss-Penzias et al., 2013). We also employ the FLEXPART Lagrangian transport and dispersion model to simulate air mass transport during plume encounters. We convolve the emissions of each species from the 2011 U.S. EPA National Emissions Inventory (NEI) with the FLEXPART-modeled air mass transport to compare our observations to inventoried emission ratios (EmR). We find that the inventoried THg/CO EmRs are biased low by -63% to -67% compared to the observed ERs for the Chicago/Gary area. This suggests that there are many small emission sources that are not fully accounted for within the inventory, and/or that the re-emission of legacy Hg is a significant source of THg to the atmosphere in this region.

  19. Assessment of natural radioactivity levels in soil samples from some areas in Assiut, Egypt.

    PubMed

    El-Gamal, Hany; Farid, M El-Azab; Abdel Mageed, A I; Hasabelnaby, M; Hassanien, Hassanien M

    2013-12-01

    The natural radioactivity of soil samples from Assiut city, Egypt, was studied. The activity concentrations of 28 samples were measured with a NaI(Tl) detector. The radioactivity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th, and (40)K showed large variations, so the results were classified into two groups (A and B) to facilitate the interpretation of the results. Group A represents samples collected from different locations in Assiut and characterized by low activity concentrations with average values of 46.15 ± 9.69, 30.57 ± 4.90, and 553.14 ± 23.19 for (226)Ra, (232)Th, and (40)K, respectively. Group B represents samples mainly collected from the area around Assiut Thermal Power Plant and characterized by very high activity concentrations with average values of 3,803 ± 145, 1,782 ± 98, and 1,377 ± 78 for (226)Ra, (232)Th, and (40)K, respectively. In order to evaluate the radiological hazard of the natural radioactivity, the radium equivalent activity (Raeq), the absorbed dose rate (D), the annual effective dose rate (E), the external hazard index (H ex), and the annual gonadal dose equivalent (AGDE) have been calculated and compared with the internationally approved values. For group A, the calculated averages of these parameters are in good agreement with the international recommended values except for the absorbed dose rate and the AGDE values which are slightly higher than the international recommended values. However, for group B, all obtained averages of these parameters are much higher by several orders of magnitude than the international recommended values. The present work provides a background of radioactivity concentrations in the soil of Assiut.

  20. A comparison between satellite and airborne multispectral data for the assessment of Mangrove areas in the eastern Caribbean

    SciTech Connect

    Green, E.P.; Edwards, A.J.; Mumby, P.J.

    1997-06-01

    Satellite (SPOT XS and Landsat TM) and airborne multispectral (CASI) imagery was acquired from the Turks and Caicos Islands, British West Indies. The descriptive resolution and accuracy of each image type is compared for two applications: mangrove habitat mapping and the measurement of mangrove canopy characteristics (leaf area index and canopy closure). Mangroves could be separated from non-mangrove vegetation to an accuracy of only 57% with SPOT XS data but better discrimination could be achieved with either Landsat TM or CASI (in both cases accuracy was >90%). CASI data permitted a more accurate classification of different mangrove habitats than was possible using Landsat TM. Nine mangrove habitats could be mapped to an accuracy of 85% with the high-resolution airborne data compared to 31% obtained with TM. A maximum of three mangrove habitats were separable with Landsat TM: the accuracy of this classification was 83%. Measurement of mangrove canopy characteristics is achieved more accurately with CASI than with either satellite sensor, but high costs probably make it a less cost-effective option. The cost-effectiveness of each sensor is discussed for each application.

  1. [Cytogenetic studies on submerged plants from the Yenisei river area in the zone of radioactive contamination].

    PubMed

    Muratova, E N; Goriachkina, O V; Kornilova, M G; Pimenov, A V; Sedel'nikova, T S; Bolsunovskiĭ, A Ia

    2014-01-01

    Cytogenetic studies on three species of submerged plants from different parts of the Yenisei river area subjected to radioactive impact of the Krasnoyarsk Mining-and-Chemical Plant and the Electrochemical Factory have been conducted. A high level of irregularities in anatelophase and metaphase of mitoses has been revealed in test samples compared to the control: agglutination and fragmentation of chromosomes, lagging chromosomes, bridges, fragments, misdivisions, and others. The natuie of the disorders indicates that they are related in part to the direct damage to the chromosome structure and in part to damage to the spindle. PMID:25720290

  2. [Cytogenetic studies on submerged plants from the Yenisei river area in the zone of radioactive contamination].

    PubMed

    Muratova, E N; Goriachkina, O V; Kornilova, M G; Pimenov, A V; Sedel'nikova, T S; Bolsunovskiĭ, A Ia

    2014-01-01

    Cytogenetic studies on three species of submerged plants from different parts of the Yenisei river area subjected to radioactive impact of the Krasnoyarsk Mining-and-Chemical Plant and the Electrochemical Factory have been conducted. A high level of irregularities in anatelophase and metaphase of mitoses has been revealed in test samples compared to the control: agglutination and fragmentation of chromosomes, lagging chromosomes, bridges, fragments, misdivisions, and others. The natuie of the disorders indicates that they are related in part to the direct damage to the chromosome structure and in part to damage to the spindle.

  3. Ecological characteristics of small mammals on a radioactive waste disposal area in southeastern Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Groves, C.R.; Keller, B.L.

    1983-01-01

    Species composition, diversity, biomass and densities of small mammal populations were examined in crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum) and Russian thistle (Salsola kali) habitats on a solid radioactive waste disposal area and in native sagebrush (Artemisia tridentala) habitat surrounding the disposal area. The 15-month live-trapping study resulted in the marketing of 2384 individuals representing 10 species of small mammals. The deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus) was the most common rodent in both disposal area habitats and the adjacent sagebrush habitat; Ord's kangaroo rat (Dipodomys ordii) was also an abundant rodent in all vegetation types. The montane vole (Microtus montanus) was common only in crested wheatgrass stands on the disposal area. Although the adjacent native sagebrush habitat had the highest species diversity and the Russian thistle habitat on the disposal area had the lowest, the total rodent density was not significantly different among the three vegetation types. Crested wheatgrass within the disposal area contained the largest rodent biomass throughout the study, in part due to an increasing M. montanus population. The peak small mammal biomass of 5000 g/ha in creasted wheatgrass and sagebrush habitats was considerably higher than previously reported for similar habitats. Differences in diversity and biomass between the disposal area and surrounding native habitat are most likely related to differences in soil compaction and vegetation between these two areas.

  4. Environmental radioactivity studies in the proposed Lambapur and Peddagattu uranium mining areas of Andhra Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Vinay Kumar Reddy, K; Gopal Reddy, Ch; Vidya Sagar, D; Yadagiri Reddy, P; Rama Reddy, K

    2012-08-01

    The present work was aimed at the establishment of baseline radioactive data in the proposed Lambapur and Peddagattu uranium mining areas in the Andhra Pradesh state, India. The background concentrations of naturally occurring radioactivity in the near-surface soils of the study areas were estimated and the results were analysed. The (238)U concentration in the near-surface soil of the study area was found to vary from 100 to 176 Bq kg(-1), with a mean of 138±24 Bq kg(-1). (232)Th in the study area soils was found to vary between 64 and 116 Bq kg(-1), with a mean of 83±15 Bq kg(-1). The (40)K concentration was found to vary between 309 and 373 Bq kg(-1), with a mean of 343±20 Bq kg(-1). The mean natural background radiation levels were also measured with thermoluminescence (TL) dosimetry technique and with a µR-survey meter, in the villages of the study area. Dose rates measured by TL are found to vary from 1287 to 3363 μGy y(-1), with a mean of 2509 ± 424 μGy y(-1). The dose rates measured in the same villages with a μR-survey meter were found to be in the range of 1211-3255 μGy y(-1), with a mean of 2524 ± 395 μGy y(-1). The mean radiation levels in the study area are found to be relatively high when compared with (Indian) national and international averages. Correlations among radon, thoron and gamma dose rates were found to be poor. The pre-operational data produced in this work will be useful for comparison with future radiation levels during the proposed uranium mining operations.

  5. Historical records of radioactive contamination in biota at the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, A.R.; Markes, B.M.; Schmidt, J.W.; Shah, A.N.; Weiss, S.G.; Wilson, K.J.

    1994-06-01

    This document summarizes and reports a literature search of 85 environmental monitoring records of wildlife and vegetation (biota) at the 200 East Area and the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site since 1965. These records were published annually and provided the majority of the data in this report. Additional sources of data have included records of specific facilities, such as site characterization documents and preoperational environmental surveys. These documents have been released for public use. Records before 1965 were still being researched and therefore not included in this document. The intent of compiling these data into a single source was to identify past and current concentrations of radionuclides in biota at specific facilities and waste sites within each operable unit that may be used to help guide cleanup activities in the 200 Areas to be completed under the Comprehensive Environmental Response and Liability Act (CERCLA). The 200 East Area and 200 West Area were the locations of the Hanford Site separation and process facilities and waste management units. For the purposes of this document, a sample was of interest if a Geiger-Mueller counter equipped with a pancake probe-indicated beta/gamma emitting radioactivity above 200 counts per minute (cpm), or if laboratory radioanalyses indicated a radionuclide concentration equaled or exceeded 10 picocuries per gram (pCi/g). About 4,500 individual cases of monitoring for radionuclide uptake or transport in biota in the 200 Areas environs were included in the documents reviewed. About 1,900 (i.e., 42%) of these biota had radionuclide concentrations in excess of 10 pCi/g. These radionuclide transport or uptake cases were distributed among 45 species of wildlife (primarily small mammals and feces) and 30 species of vegetation. The wildlife species most commonly associated with radioactive contamination were the house mouse and the deer mouse and of vegetation species, the Russian thistle.

  6. Retrieval of effective leaf area index (LAIe) and leaf area density (LAD) profile at individual tree level using high density multi-return airborne LiDAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yi; West, Geoff

    2016-08-01

    As an important canopy structure indicator, leaf area index (LAI) proved to be of considerable implications for forest ecosystem and ecological studies, and efficient techniques for accurate LAI acquisitions have long been highlighted. Airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR), often termed as airborne laser scanning (ALS), once was extensively investigated for this task but showed limited performance due to its low sampling density. Now, ALS systems exhibit more competing capacities such as high density and multi-return sampling, and hence, people began to ask the questions like-"can ALS now work better on the task of LAI prediction?" As a re-examination, this study investigated the feasibility of LAI retrievals at the individual tree level based on high density and multi-return ALS, by directly considering the vertical distributions of laser points lying within each tree crown instead of by proposing feature variables such as quantiles involving laser point distribution modes at the plot level. The examination was operated in the case of four tree species (i.e. Picea abies, Pinus sylvestris, Populus tremula and Quercus robur) in a mixed forest, with their LAI-related reference data collected by using static terrestrial laser scanning (TLS). In light of the differences between ALS- and TLS-based LAI characterizations, the methods of voxelization of 3D scattered laser points, effective LAI (LAIe) that does not distinguish branches from canopies and unified cumulative LAI (ucLAI) that is often used to characterize the vertical profiles of crown leaf area densities (LADs) was used; then, the relationships between the ALS- and TLS-derived LAIes were determined, and so did ucLAIs. Tests indicated that the tree-level LAIes for the four tree species can be estimated based on the used airborne LiDAR (R2 = 0.07, 0.26, 0.43 and 0.21, respectively) and their ucLAIs can also be derived. Overall, this study has validated the usage of the contemporary high density multi

  7. [Specific Features of Radioactive Pollution of Soils of Catchment Areas of Lake Shablish (Distant Zone of the East Ural Radioactive Trace)].

    PubMed

    Deryagin, V V; Levina, S G; Sutyagin, A A; Parfilova, N S

    2015-01-01

    Specific features of 90Sr and 137Cs distribution and accumulation in soil cuts of superaqueous and eluvial positions of catchment areas of Lake Shablish located in a distant zone of the East Ural radioactive trace are considered. Some physical and chemical characteristics of the soils were defined. It is established that the signs typical for the lake ecosystems of distant East-Ural radioactive trace zone which underwent impact of technogenic influence are common for soils of catchment areas of Lake Shablish. The distinctions in some characteristic features of the specific activity of long-living radionuclides for the soils of superaqueous and eluvial positions of catchment areas connected with the character of the water regime of soils are shown.

  8. [Specific Features of Radioactive Pollution of Soils of Catchment Areas of Lake Shablish (Distant Zone of the East Ural Radioactive Trace)].

    PubMed

    Deryagin, V V; Levina, S G; Sutyagin, A A; Parfilova, N S

    2015-01-01

    Specific features of 90Sr and 137Cs distribution and accumulation in soil cuts of superaqueous and eluvial positions of catchment areas of Lake Shablish located in a distant zone of the East Ural radioactive trace are considered. Some physical and chemical characteristics of the soils were defined. It is established that the signs typical for the lake ecosystems of distant East-Ural radioactive trace zone which underwent impact of technogenic influence are common for soils of catchment areas of Lake Shablish. The distinctions in some characteristic features of the specific activity of long-living radionuclides for the soils of superaqueous and eluvial positions of catchment areas connected with the character of the water regime of soils are shown. PMID:26964351

  9. Quantitative risk assessment of the New York State operated West Valley Radioactive Waste Disposal Area.

    PubMed

    Garrick, B John; Stetkar, John W; Bembia, Paul J

    2010-08-01

    This article is based on a quantitative risk assessment (QRA) that was performed on a radioactive waste disposal area within the Western New York Nuclear Service Center in western New York State. The QRA results were instrumental in the decision by the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority to support a strategy of in-place management of the disposal area for another decade. The QRA methodology adopted for this first of a kind application was a scenario-based approach in the framework of the triplet definition of risk (scenarios, likelihoods, consequences). The measure of risk is the frequency of occurrence of different levels of radiation dose to humans at prescribed locations. The risk from each scenario is determined by (1) the frequency of disruptive events or natural processes that cause a release of radioactive materials from the disposal area; (2) the physical form, quantity, and radionuclide content of the material that is released during each scenario; (3) distribution, dilution, and deposition of the released materials throughout the environment surrounding the disposal area; and (4) public exposure to the distributed material and the accumulated radiation dose from that exposure. The risks of the individual scenarios are assembled into a representation of the risk from the disposal area. In addition to quantifying the total risk to the public, the analysis ranks the importance of each contributing scenario, which facilitates taking corrective actions and implementing effective risk management. Perhaps most importantly, quantification of the uncertainties is an intrinsic part of the risk results. This approach to safety analysis has demonstrated many advantages of applying QRA principles to assessing the risk of facilities involving hazardous materials.

  10. Comparison of remote consequences in Taraxacum officinale seed progeny collected in radioactively or chemically contaminated areas.

    PubMed

    Pozolotina, Vera N; Antonova, Elena V; Bezel, Victor S

    2012-10-01

    We carried out a comparative study of seed progeny taken from the dandelion (Taraxacum officinale s.l.) coenopopulations exposed for a long time to radioactive or chemical contamination originated from the East-Ural radioactive trace zone (EURT) or Nizhniy Tagil metallurgical combine impact zone (NTMC), respectively. Coenopopulations from EURT, NTMC and background areas significantly differ from each other with respect to the qualitative and quantitative composition of allozyme phenes. An analysis of clonal diversity showed the uniqueness of all coenopopulations in terms of their phenogenetics. P-generation seed viability was found to decrease in a similar manner as all types of the industrial stress increased. Studies of F (1)-generation variability in radio- and metal resistance by family analysis showed that seed progeny from EURT impact zone possessed high viability that, however, was accompanied by development of latent injuries resulting in low resistance to additional man-caused impacts. In F (1)-generation originated from NTMC zone, high seed viability was combined with increased resistance to provocative heavy metal and radiation exposure. No significant differences in responses to 'habitual' and 'new' factors, i.e. pre-adaptation effect, were found in samples from the contaminated areas.

  11. Study of the Use of an Airborne Electromagnetic Method to Extract Data on Areas Likely to Cause Landslides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahara, T.; Seto, S.; Noike, K.; Mori, K.; Kinoshita, A.; Mizuno, H.; Kawato, K.; Okumura, M.; Kageura, R.

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, there have been studies of the use of airborne electromagnetic methods to extract data on the areas likely to cause deep-seated catastrophic landslides or shallow landslides. In this data extraction, it is important to show the underground geological structures and hydrological conditions by using specific electrical resistance. However, there have been insufficient studies in this field. Therefore, in this study, we focused on areas in which deep-seated catastrophic landslides or shallow landslides had occurred in the past. We then used the distributions of specific electrical resistance to study the geological structure and hydrological conditions of areas likely to cause landslides. First, in each study area, we tried to understand the geological planar distributions and the characteristics of the specific electrical resistance. Next, we tried to use the specific electrical resistance to understand the characteristics of the landslides areas. Last, we used the results to determine the geological distribution and hydrological condition of areas likely to cause deep-seated catastrophic landslides or shallow landslides. We obtained the following results. In areas in which deep-seated catastrophic landslides had occurred, we found two distribution patterns of specific electrical resistance. In the first pattern, the specific electrical resistance changed suddenly around the face of the collapse. In the second pattern, the specific resistance was low overall in areas of high groundwater. In areas in which shallow landslides had occurred, we found that the contour of the specific electrical resistance was vertical and that groundwater was able to flow easily from the geologic boundary.

  12. Hierarchical Higher Order Crf for the Classification of Airborne LIDAR Point Clouds in Urban Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niemeyer, J.; Rottensteiner, F.; Soergel, U.; Heipke, C.

    2016-06-01

    We propose a novel hierarchical approach for the classification of airborne 3D lidar points. Spatial and semantic context is incorporated via a two-layer Conditional Random Field (CRF). The first layer operates on a point level and utilises higher order cliques. Segments are generated from the labelling obtained in this way. They are the entities of the second layer, which incorporates larger scale context. The classification result of the segments is introduced as an energy term for the next iteration of the point-based layer. This framework iterates and mutually propagates context to improve the classification results. Potentially wrong decisions can be revised at later stages. The output is a labelled point cloud as well as segments roughly corresponding to object instances. Moreover, we present two new contextual features for the segment classification: the distance and the orientation of a segment with respect to the closest road. It is shown that the classification benefits from these features. In our experiments the hierarchical framework improve the overall accuracies by 2.3% on a point-based level and by 3.0% on a segment-based level, respectively, compared to a purely point-based classification.

  13. Airborne PBDEs in specialized occupational settings, houses and outdoor urban areas in Greece.

    PubMed

    Mandalakis, Manolis; Atsarou, Vassiliki; Stephanou, Euripides G

    2008-09-01

    Airborne polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were measured in workplaces, homes and urban outdoor air in Greece. The geometric mean concentrations of total PBDEs (sum of 19 congeners) in offices (205 pg m(-3)), internet cafes/computer rooms (127 pg m(-3)) and computers/electronics shops (85 pg m(-3)) were significantly higher than those in furniture stores (12 pg m(-3)), homes (8 pg m(-3)) and outdoor air (18 pg m(-3)). The daily inhalation intake of PBDEs estimated for the employees of the four occupational settings ranged from 0.2 to 1.4 ng day(-1) and it was significantly lower than the expected dietary intake (approximately 77 ng day(-1)). Although inhalation generally represented a small fraction of the overall daily exposure to PBDEs (approximately 1%), the results from a heavily contaminated office (10,848 pg m(-3) of total PBDEs) indicated that the intake from this route (65 ng day(-1)) may, in some extreme cases, be as important as diet.

  14. Improved progressive TIN densification filtering algorithm for airborne LiDAR data in forested areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xiaoqian; Guo, Qinghua; Su, Yanjun; Xue, Baolin

    2016-07-01

    Filtering of light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data into the ground and non-ground points is a fundamental step in processing raw airborne LiDAR data. This paper proposes an improved progressive triangulated irregular network (TIN) densification (IPTD) filtering algorithm that can cope with a variety of forested landscapes, particularly both topographically and environmentally complex regions. The IPTD filtering algorithm consists of three steps: (1) acquiring potential ground seed points using the morphological method; (2) obtaining accurate ground seed points; and (3) building a TIN-based model and iteratively densifying TIN. The IPTD filtering algorithm was tested in 15 forested sites with various terrains (i.e., elevation and slope) and vegetation conditions (i.e., canopy cover and tree height), and was compared with seven other commonly used filtering algorithms (including morphology-based, slope-based, and interpolation-based filtering algorithms). Results show that the IPTD achieves the highest filtering accuracy for nine of the 15 sites. In general, it outperforms the other filtering algorithms, yielding the lowest average total error of 3.15% and the highest average kappa coefficient of 89.53%.

  15. [Effect of parting surfaces on the transmission of airborne organisms at junctions between areas of different hygienic standards].

    PubMed

    Burchard, H U; Ohgke, H; Beckert, J

    1985-12-01

    Parting surfaces between areas having different standards of hygienic requirements, represent naturally the weak points in the hygienic conception of operating theatres. These boundary areas between the operation room on the one hand and the adjoining entrance lock for the staff on the other are of specific interest in this connection. While opening the connecting doors, dust particles may be whirled up due to turbulence, thermic, constructional and other effects, which are difficult to be identified and may then settle down directly on the operating area after reaching there from the entrance lock through the airways. Since bacteria are in most cases attached to particles, it may be assumed that each air flow loaded with dust particles is also a potential carrier of air-borne germs (contact germs----contaminated dust particles----air borne germs----settling germs). Therefore, the present paper is to be understood as a contribution towards the application of methods for identifying air-borne routes of infection in the operating area and finding ways and means for their elimination. In comparison with the investigations done by Esdorn and Kanz during simulated and operating activities respectively, the experiments described in this paper have been carried out while the operating theatre was not running. It is to be assumed that even under these tranquil conditions, parting surfaces appear to act as permanent disturbing factors. Transmission of germs from the entrance lock for the staff to the operating room is only then possible, if the doors suffer functional disturbance and the entrance lock is found hygienically in objectionable condition. Functional measures regarding construction aim, therefore, at the principle of clear-cut separation of the clean side from the unclean in the design and running of operating theatres, as specified in the guidelines of the Bundesgesundheitsamt. The constructional conception of entrance lock can contribute to achieving almost

  16. Preliminary assessment of airborne imaging spectrometer and airborne thematic mapper data acquired for forest decline areas in the Federal Republic of Germany

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herrmann, Karin; Ammer, Ulrich; Rock, Barrett; Paley, Helen N.

    1988-01-01

    This study evaluated the utility of data collected by the high-spectral resolution airborne imaging spectrometer (AIS-2, tree mode, spectral range 0.8-2.2 microns) and the broad-band Daedalus airborne thematic mapper (ATM, spectral range 0.42-13.0 micron) in assessing forest decline damage at a predominantly Scotch pine forest in the FRG. Analysis of spectral radiance values from the ATM and raw digital number values from AIS-2 showed that higher reflectance in the near infrared was characteristic of high damage (heavy chlorosis, limited needle loss) in Scotch pine canopies. A classification image of a portion of the AIS-2 flight line agreed very well with a damage assessment map produced by standard aerial photointerpretation techniques.

  17. Estimating Radiological Doses to Predators Foraging in a Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Area

    SciTech Connect

    L.Soholt; G.Gonzales; P.Fresquez; K.Bennett; E.Lopez

    2003-03-01

    Since 1957, Los Alamos National Laboratory has operated Area G as its low-level, solid radioactive waste management and disposal area. Although the waste management area is developed, plants, small mammals, and avian and mammalian predators still occupy the less disturbed and revegetated portions of the land. For almost a decade, we have monitored the concentrations of selected radionuclides in soils, plants, and small mammals at Area G. The radionuclides tritium, plutonium-238, and plutonium-239 are regularly found at levels above regional background in all three media. Based on radionuclide concentrations in mice collected from 1994 to 1999, we calculated doses to higher trophic levels (owl, hawk, kestrel, and coyote) that forage on the waste management area. These predators play important functions in the regional ecosystems and are an important part of local Native American traditional tales that identify the uniqueness of their culture. The estimated doses are compared to Department of Energy's interim limit of 0.1 rad/day for the protection of terrestrial wildlife. We used exposure parameters that were derived from the literature for each receptor, including Environmental Protection Agency's exposure factors handbook. Estimated doses to predators ranged from 9E-06 to 2E-04 rad/day, assuming that they forage entirely on the waste management area. These doses are greater than those calculated for predators foraging exclusively in reference areas, but are still well below the interim dose limit. We believe that these calculated doses represent upper-bound estimates of exposure for local predators because the larger predators forage over areas that are much greater than the 63-acre waste management area. Based on these results, we concluded that predators foraging on this area do not face a hazard from radiological exposure under current site conditions.

  18. Radon potential mapping of the Tralee-Castleisland and Cavan areas (Ireland) based on airborne gamma-ray spectrometry and geology.

    PubMed

    Appleton, J D; Doyle, E; Fenton, D; Organo, C

    2011-06-01

    The probability of homes in Ireland having high indoor radon concentrations is estimated on the basis of known in-house radon measurements averaged over 10 km × 10 km grid squares. The scope for using airborne gamma-ray spectrometer data for the Tralee-Castleisland area of county Kerry and county Cavan to predict the radon potential (RP) in two distinct areas of Ireland is evaluated in this study. Airborne data are compared statistically with in-house radon measurements in conjunction with geological and ground permeability data to establish linear regression models and produce radon potential maps. The best agreement between the percentage of dwellings exceeding the reference level (RL) for radon concentrations in Ireland (% > RL), estimated from indoor radon data, and modelled RP in the Tralee-Castleisland area is produced using models based on airborne gamma-ray spectrometry equivalent uranium (eU) and ground permeability data. Good agreement was obtained between the % > RL from indoor radon data and RP estimated from eU data in the Cavan area using terrain specific models. In both areas, RP maps derived from eU data are spatially more detailed than the published 10 km grid map. The results show the potential for using airborne radiometric data for producing RP maps.

  19. Nevada Test Site 2001 Waste Management Monitoring Report Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Y. E. Townsend

    2002-06-01

    Environmental monitoring data, subsidence monitoring data, and meteorology monitoring data were collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) (refer to Figure 1). These monitoring data include radiation exposure, air, groundwater, meteorology, vadose zone, subsidence, and biota data. Although some of these media (radiation exposure, air, and groundwater) are reported in detail in other Bechtel Nevada (BN) reports (Annual Site Environmental Report [ASER], the National Emissions Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants [NESHAP] report, and the Annual Groundwater Monitoring Report), they are also summarized in this report to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and environmental compliance. Direct radiation monitoring data indicate that exposure at and around the RWMSs is not above background levels. Air monitoring data indicate that tritium concentrations are slightly above background levels. Groundwater monitoring data indicate that the groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the Area 5 RWMS has not been affected by the facility. Meteorology data indicate that 2001 was an average rainfall year: rainfall totaled 150 mm (5.9 in) at the Area 3 RWMS and 120 mm (4.7 in) at the Area 5 RWMS. Vadose zone monitoring data indicate that 2001 rainfall infiltrated less than one meter (3 ft) before being returned to the atmosphere by evaporation. Soil-gas tritium monitoring data indicate slow subsurface migration, and tritium concentrations in biota were lower than in previous years. All 2001 monitoring data indicate that the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMSs are performing within expectations of the model and parameter assumptions for the facility performance assessments.

  20. Nevada Test Site 2000 Waste Management Monitoring Report Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Yvonne Townsend

    2001-06-01

    Environmental monitoring data, subsidence monitoring data, and meteorology monitoring data were collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) (refer to Figure 1). These monitoring data include radiation exposure, air, groundwater, meteorology, vadose zone, subsidence, and biota data. Although some of these media (radiation exposure, air, and groundwater) are reported in detail in other Bechtel Nevada reports (Annual Site Environmental Report [ASER], the National Emissions Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants [NESHAP] report, and the Annual Groundwater Monitoring Report), they are also summarized in this report to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and environmental compliance. Direct radiation monitoring data indicate that exposure at and around the RWMSs is not above background levels. Air monitoring data indicate that tritium concentrations are slightly above background levels, whereas radon concentrations are not above background levels. Groundwater monitoring data indicate that the groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the Area 5 RWMS has not been affected by the facility. Meteorology data indicate that 2000 was an average rainfall year: rainfall totaled 167 mm (6.6 in) at the Area 3 RWMS (annual average is 156 mm [6.5 in]) and 123 mm (4.8 in) at the Area 5 RWMS (annual average is 127 mm [5.0 in]). Vadose zone monitoring data indicate that 2000 rainfall infiltrated less than one meter (3 ft) before being returned to the atmosphere by evaporation. Soil-gas tritium monitoring data indicate slow subsurface migration, and tritium concentrations in biota were lower than in previous years. All 2000 monitoring data indicate that the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMSs are performing well at isolating buried waste.

  1. Evaluation of Vertical Lacunarity Profiles in Forested Areas Using Airborne Laser Scanning Point Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Székely, B.; Kania, A.; Standovár, T.; Heilmeier, H.

    2016-06-01

    The horizontal variation and vertical layering of the vegetation are important properties of the canopy structure determining the habitat; three-dimensional (3D) distribution of objects (shrub layers, understory vegetation, etc.) is related to the environmental factors (e.g., illumination, visibility). It has been shown that gaps in forests, mosaic-like structures are essential to biodiversity; various methods have been introduced to quantify this property. As the distribution of gaps in the vegetation is a multi-scale phenomenon, in order to capture it in its entirety, scale-independent methods are preferred; one of these is the calculation of lacunarity. We used Airborne Laser Scanning point clouds measured over a forest plantation situated in a former floodplain. The flat topographic relief ensured that the tree growth is independent of the topographic effects. The tree pattern in the plantation crops provided various quasi-regular and irregular patterns, as well as various ages of the stands. The point clouds were voxelized and layers of voxels were considered as images for two-dimensional input. These images calculated for a certain vicinity of reference points were taken as images for the computation of lacunarity curves, providing a stack of lacunarity curves for each reference points. These sets of curves have been compared to reveal spatial changes of this property. As the dynamic range of the lacunarity values is very large, the natural logarithms of the values were considered. Logarithms of lacunarity functions show canopy-related variations, we analysed these variations along transects. The spatial variation can be related to forest properties and ecology-specific aspects.

  2. Black-backed woodpecker habitat suitability mapping using conifer snag basal area estimated from airborne laser scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casas Planes, Á.; Garcia, M.; Siegel, R.; Koltunov, A.; Ramirez, C.; Ustin, S.

    2015-12-01

    Occupancy and habitat suitability models for snag-dependent wildlife species are commonly defined as a function of snag basal area. Although critical for predicting or assessing habitat suitability, spatially distributed estimates of snag basal area are not generally available across landscapes at spatial scales relevant for conservation planning. This study evaluates the use of airborne laser scanning (ALS) to 1) identify individual conifer snags and map their basal area across a recently burned forest, and 2) map habitat suitability for a wildlife species known to be dependent on snag basal area, specifically the black-backed woodpecker (Picoides arcticus). This study focuses on the Rim Fire, a megafire that took place in 2013 in the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California, creating large patches of medium- and high-severity burned forest. We use forest inventory plots, single-tree ALS-derived metrics and Gaussian processes classification and regression to identify conifer snags and estimate their stem diameter and basal area. Then, we use the results to map habitat suitability for the black-backed woodpecker using thresholds for conifer basal area from a previously published habitat suitability model. Local maxima detection and watershed segmentation algorithms resulted in 75% detection of trees with stem diameter larger than 30 cm. Snags are identified with an overall accuracy of 91.8 % and conifer snags are identified with an overall accuracy of 84.8 %. Finally, Gaussian process regression reliably estimated stem diameter (R2 = 0.8) using height and crown area. This work provides a fast and efficient methodology to characterize the extent of a burned forest at the tree level and a critical tool for early wildlife assessment in post-fire forest management and biodiversity conservation.

  3. Assessment of natural radioactivity and (137)Cs in some coastal areas of the Saudi Arabian gulf.

    PubMed

    Al-Ghamdi, H; Al-Muqrin, A; El-Sharkawy, A

    2016-03-15

    The levels of natural radioactivity have been investigated in some Saudi Arabian Gulf coastal areas. Sampling sites were chosen according to the presence of nearby non-nuclear industrial activities such as, the two main water desalination plants in Al Khobar and Al Jubail, and Maaden phosphate complex in Ras Al Khair, to ensure that effluents discharges into the Arabian Gulf didn't enhance radioactivity in seawater and shore sediments. Seawater samples were analyzed for radium isotopes (Ra-226 & Ra-228) and measured by gamma spectrometry using high purity germanium detector, after radiochemical separation of the isotopes by co-precipitation with MnO2. Shore sediment samples were analyzed for (226)Ra, (228)Ra ((232)Th), (4)°K and (137)Cs using gamma sepectrometry. A small variation was observed in the activity concentrations of the investigated radioisotopes, and the activity levels were comparable to those reported in literature. Quality assurance and methods validation were established through the efficiency calibration of the detectors, the estimation of uncertainties, the use of blanks, the analysis of standard reference materials and the intercomparison and proficiency tests. Radiological hazards were assessed, and the annual effective dose had an average value of 0.02 mSv. On the basis of the current results, we may conclude that any radiological hazards to the public visiting these shores are not expected. PMID:26895593

  4. Assessment of natural radioactivity and (137)Cs in some coastal areas of the Saudi Arabian gulf.

    PubMed

    Al-Ghamdi, H; Al-Muqrin, A; El-Sharkawy, A

    2016-03-15

    The levels of natural radioactivity have been investigated in some Saudi Arabian Gulf coastal areas. Sampling sites were chosen according to the presence of nearby non-nuclear industrial activities such as, the two main water desalination plants in Al Khobar and Al Jubail, and Maaden phosphate complex in Ras Al Khair, to ensure that effluents discharges into the Arabian Gulf didn't enhance radioactivity in seawater and shore sediments. Seawater samples were analyzed for radium isotopes (Ra-226 & Ra-228) and measured by gamma spectrometry using high purity germanium detector, after radiochemical separation of the isotopes by co-precipitation with MnO2. Shore sediment samples were analyzed for (226)Ra, (228)Ra ((232)Th), (4)°K and (137)Cs using gamma sepectrometry. A small variation was observed in the activity concentrations of the investigated radioisotopes, and the activity levels were comparable to those reported in literature. Quality assurance and methods validation were established through the efficiency calibration of the detectors, the estimation of uncertainties, the use of blanks, the analysis of standard reference materials and the intercomparison and proficiency tests. Radiological hazards were assessed, and the annual effective dose had an average value of 0.02 mSv. On the basis of the current results, we may conclude that any radiological hazards to the public visiting these shores are not expected.

  5. Information Strategy of Nuclear Training Center Ljubljana in the Area of Radioactive Waste Management

    SciTech Connect

    Jeneie, I.

    2008-07-01

    Slovenia has plans to build a repository for low- and medium-radioactive waste by 2013, the location in the very neighborhood of nuclear power plant is almost chosen, but the final approval hasn't been granted yet. The main obstacle is public opinion. Public information activities are therefore vitally important. One of the most important players in this area in Slovenia is Nuclear Training Center in Ljubljana. Though its main task is training of nuclear professionals, it has a significant role in dissemination of knowledge about radioactivity and nuclear technology also among general public. Public information is focused on youngsters. Almost one half of every generation of schoolchildren in Slovenia visits the Information center yearly and in May 2007, we have celebrated the 100,000. visitor since its opening. Live lectures, exhibition, publications and laboratory demonstrations are offered. To measure the opinion of youngsters about nuclear power and get a feed-back for our activities about 1000 youngsters are polled every year since 1993 using the same basic set of questions. The paper describes the information strategy, types of lectures and information materials, permanent exhibition with the most important exhibits. Furthermore, the results of yearly polls of our visitors and comparison with relevant Euro-barometer polls are presented. (authors)

  6. Geology Report: Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site DOE/Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2006-07-01

    Surficial geologic studies near the Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) were conducted as part of a site characterization program. Studies included evaluation of the potential for future volcanism and Area 3 fault activity that could impact waste disposal operations at the Area 3 RWMS. Future volcanic activity could lead to disruption of the Area 3 RWMS. Local and regional studies of volcanic risk indicate that major changes in regional volcanic activity within the next 1,000 years are not likely. Mapped basalts of Paiute Ridge, Nye Canyon, and nearby Scarp Canyon are Miocene in age. There is a lack of evidence for post-Miocene volcanism in the subsurface of Yucca Flat, and the hazard of basaltic volcanism at the Area 3 RWMS, within the 1,000-year regulatory period, is very low and not a forseeable future event. Studies included a literature review and data analysis to evaluate unclassified published and unpublished information regarding the Area 3 and East Branch Area 3 faults mapped in Area 3 and southern Area 7. Two trenches were excavated along the Area 3 fault to search for evidence of near-surface movement prior to nuclear testing. Allostratigraphic units and fractures were mapped in Trenches ST02 and ST03. The Area 3 fault is a plane of weakness that has undergone strain resulting from stress imposed by natural events and underground nuclear testing. No major vertical displacement on the Area 3 fault since the Early Holocene, and probably since the Middle Pleistocene, can be demonstrated. The lack of major displacement within this time frame and minimal vertical extent of minor fractures suggest that waste disposal operations at the Area 3 RWMS will not be impacted substantially by the Area 3 fault, within the regulatory compliance period. A geomorphic surface map of Yucca Flat utilizes the recent geomorphology and soil characterization work done in adjacent northern Frenchman Flat. The approach taken was to adopt the map unit boundaries (line

  7. Optimization of the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site Closure Cover

    SciTech Connect

    Shott, Greg; Yucel, Vefa

    2009-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Manual DOE M 435.1-1, “Radioactive Waste Management Manual,” requires that performance assessments demonstrate that releases of radionuclides to the environment are as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). Quantitative cost benefit analysis of radiation protection options is one component of the ALARA process. This report summarizes a quantitative cost benefit analysis of closure cover thickness for the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) on the Nevada Test Site. The optimum cover thickness that maintains doses ALARA is shown to be the thickness with the minimum total closure cost. Total closure cost is the sum of cover construction cost and the health detriment cost. Cover construction cost is estimated based on detailed cost estimates for closure of the 92-acre Low-Level Waste Management Unit (LLWMU). The health detriment cost is calculated as the product of collective dose and a constant monetary value of health detriment in units of dollars per unit collective dose. Collective dose is the sum of all individual doses in an exposed population and has units of person-sievert (Sv). Five discrete cover thickness options ranging from 2.5 to 4.5 meters (m) (8.2 to 15 feet [ft]) are evaluated. The optimization was subject to the constraints that (1) options must meet all applicable regulatory requirements and that (2) individual doses be a small fraction of background radiation dose. Total closure cost is found to be a monotonically increasing function of cover thickness for the 92-ac LLWMU, the Northern Expansion Area, and the entire Area 5 RWMS. The cover construction cost is orders of magnitude greater than the health detriment cost. Two-thousand Latin hypercube sampling realizations of the relationship between total closure cost and cover thickness are generated. In every realization, the optimum cover thickness is 2.5 m (8.2 ft) for the 92-ac Low-Level Waste Management Unit, the Northern Expansion Area, and the entire

  8. Closure Plan for the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2008-09-01

    The Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RMWS) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) is managed and operated by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). This document is the first update of the preliminary closure plan for the Area 5 RWMS at the NTS that was presented in the Integrated Closure and Monitoring Plan (DOE, 2005a). The major updates to the plan include a new closure schedule, updated closure inventory, updated site and facility characterization data, the Title II engineering cover design, and the closure process for the 92-Acre Area of the RWMS. The format and content of this site-specific plan follows the Format and Content Guide for U.S. Department of Energy Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility Closure Plans (DOE, 1999a). This interim closure plan meets closure and post-closure monitoring requirements of the order DOE O 435.1, manual DOE M 435.1-1, Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 191, 40 CFR 265, Nevada Administrative Code (NAC) 444.743, and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) requirements as incorporated into NAC 444.8632. The Area 5 RWMS accepts primarily packaged low-level waste (LLW), low-level mixed waste (LLMW), and asbestiform low-level waste (ALLW) for disposal in excavated disposal cells.

  9. Nevada National Security Site 2012 Data Report: Groundwater Monitoring Program Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2013-02-11

    This report is a compilation of the groundwater sampling results from the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS). The data have been collected since 1993 and include calendar year 2012 results. During 2012, groundwater samples were collected and static water levels were measured at the three pilot wells surrounding the Area 5 RWMS. Groundwater samples were collected at UE5PW-1, UE5PW-2, and UE5PW-3 on March 21, August 7, August 21, and September 11, 2012, and static water levels were measured at each of the three pilot wells on March 19, June 6, August 2, and October 15, 2012. Groundwater samples were analyzed for the following indicators of contamination: pH, specific conductance, total organic carbon, total organic halides, and tritium. Indicators of general water chemistry (cations and anions) were also measured. Final results from samples collected in 2012 were within the limits established by agreement with the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection for each analyte. These data indicate that there has been no measurable impact to the uppermost aquifer from the Area 5 RWMS. There were no significant changes in measured groundwater parameters compared to previous years. The report contains an updated cumulative chronology for the Area 5 RWMS Groundwater Monitoring Program and a brief description of the site hydrogeology.

  10. Radionuclide concentrations in vegetation at radioactive-waste disposal Area G during the 1994 growing season

    SciTech Connect

    Fresquez, P.R.; Biggs, J.B.; Bennett, K.D.

    1995-07-01

    Overstory (pinon pine) and understory (grass and forb) vegetation samples were collected within and around selected points at Area G-a low-level radioactive solid-waste disposal facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory-for the analysis of tritium ({sup 3}H), strontium ({sup 90}Sr), plutonium ({sup 238} Pu and {sup 239}Pu), cesium ({sup 137}Cs), americium ({sup 241}Am), and total uranium. In general, most vegetation samples collected within and around Area G contained radionuclide levels in higher concentrations than vegetation collected from background areas. Tritium, in particular, was detected as high as 5,800 pCi/mL in overstory vegetation collected outside the fence just west of the tritium shafts; this suggests that tritium is migrating from this waste repository through subsurface pathways. Also, understory vegetation collected north of the transuranic (TRU) pads (outside the fence of Area G) contained the highest values of {sup 90}Sr, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 137}Cs, and {sup 241}Am, and may be a result of surface holding, storage, or disposal activities.

  11. Nevada National Security Site 2010 Data Report: Groundwater Monitoring Program Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2011-01-01

    This report is a compilation of the groundwater sampling results from the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS). The data have been collected since 1993 and include calendar year 2010 results. During 2010, groundwater samples were collected and static water levels were measured at the three pilot wells surrounding the Area 5 RWMS. Samples were collected at UE5PW-1 on March 10 and August 10, 2010; at UE5PW-2 on March 10, August 10, and August 25, 2010; and at UE5PW-3 on March 31, August 10, and August 25, 2010. Static water levels were measured at each of the three pilot wells on March 1, April 26, August 9, and November 9, 2010. Groundwater samples were analyzed for the following indicators of contamination: pH, specific conductance, total organic carbon, total organic halides, and tritium. Indicators of general water chemistry (cations and anions) were also measured. Results from all samples collected in 2010 were within the limits established by agreement with the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection for each analyte. These data indicate that there has been no measurable impact to the uppermost aquifer from the Area 5 RWMS. There were no significant changes in measured groundwater parameters compared to previous years. The report contains an updated cumulative chronology for the Area 5 RWMS Groundwater Monitoring Program and a brief description of the site hydrogeology.

  12. Airborne total gaseous mercury and exposure in a Venezuelan mining area.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Sanchez, Antonio; Contreras, Felicia; Adams, Meliton; Santos, Fernando

    2006-10-01

    This paper presents a short-term monitoring study of total gaseous mercury (TGM) in air, and exposure to airborne mercury. The evaluation was carried out in polluted mining sites (El Callao, Venezuela), where for decades mercury has been used in diverse stages of gold mining activities. The contamination is mainly due to emission of Hg0 during gold amalgamation and burning, which can cause direct human health risks. Total gaseous mercury (TGM) in air was analysed in mill, jewellery and indoor house sites, and at different heights (height profiles near the surface) at polluted and not polluted sites. Mercury concentration in air was measured with a portable mercury analyser (Lumex Ra-915+). Time weighted average mercury (TWA) was calculated for the evaluation of mercury exposure. TWA values ranged between 0.28 microg m(-3) and >100 microg m(-3). These measurements were done during sunny and dry days. In the case of mills and gold workshops, the values were over the limit recommended by the World Health Organization to exposure (25 microg m(-3)) and NIOSH limit (50 microg m(-3)). Indoors in a house, the air Hg average value was 2.58 microg m(-3) exceeding EPA (0.3 microg m(-3)) and ATSDR (1 microg m(-3)) guidelines. The mercury concentration at different height profiles, varied between 1766 microg m(-3) and 0.014 microg m(-3). Mercury height profiles were described by a power function model of the form c(Hg) = ah(-b), where a parameter describes the magnitude of Hg emission. For polluted sites there was a significant correlation between a and Hg in soil or Hg emission from soil to air, while b is only significantly correlated with air temperature. An air and soil mercury measurement transect was carried out at a mill site up to a distance of 1000 m, and it was observed that the air mercury concentration decreases with increasing distance from the mill site, and inversely to Hg soil content.

  13. Temporal and spatial variations of airborne Mg, Cl, Na, Ca and K in rural areas of Norway

    PubMed

    Torseth; Hanssen; Semb

    1999-08-30

    The Norwegian air chemistry monitoring network includes measurements of gaseous and particulate compounds in air at 12 rural sites. The sampling method is designed to determine concentration levels of sulphur and nitrogen compounds and uses a three-stage filter pack sampler. Concentration levels of base-cations and sea salts may also be determined from the chemical analysis of the filter extracts. In this study, concentration levels of water soluble Mg, Cl, Na, Ca and K in air have been investigated in terms of temporal, seasonal and spatial trends during the period 1986-1996. The results have been combined with precipitation chemistry data to estimate total deposition, and to evaluate the relative importance of dry deposition. While Na, Cl and Mg are of marine origin, which is clearly reflected in concentration ratios and spatial gradients, Ca and K are of a mixed origin. Air trajectory analyses indicate that air masses originating in Eastern Europe result in significantly higher airborne concentrations of non-sea salt Ca and K, than air from other sectors. Major sources of airborne Ca and K in Norway are expected to be of anthropogenic origin from combustion plants and industrial processes in Eastern Europe, while aeolian dust from agricultural areas within Europe or from Sahara is of limited importance. Concentration levels of non-sea salt base-cations in air were 20-30% lower during the 1990s, compared to 1986-1989. Precipitation chemistry data available since the early 1980s indicate even larger reductions, and in the order of 50%. Total deposition of non-sea salt base-cations during 1993-1996 was generally below 10 mmol(c) m-2 year-1, whereas in coastal areas with large precipitation amounts, inputs exceeding 15 mmol(c) m-2 year-1 occurred. Deposition of base-cations may thus counteract up to 25% of the strong acid anion input, but more typically in the order of 5-10%. Dry deposition of non-sea salt base-cations of southern Norway is comparatively small

  14. Plutonium Equivalent Inventory for Belowground Radioactive Waste at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Technical Area 54, Area G Disposal Facility - Fiscal Year 2011

    SciTech Connect

    French, Sean B.; Shuman, Rob

    2012-04-18

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) generates radioactive waste as a result of various activities. Many aspects of the management of this waste are conducted at Technical Area 54 (TA-54); Area G plays a key role in these management activities as the Laboratory's only disposal facility for low-level radioactive waste (LLW). Furthermore, Area G serves as a staging area for transuranic (TRU) waste that will be shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant for disposal. A portion of this TRU waste is retrievably stored in pits, trenches, and shafts. The radioactive waste disposed of or stored at Area G poses potential short- and long-term risks to workers at the disposal facility and to members of the public. These risks are directly proportional to the radionuclide inventories in the waste. The Area G performance assessment and composite analysis (LANL, 2008a) project long-term risks to members of the public; short-term risks to workers and members of the public, such as those posed by accidents, are addressed by the Area G Documented Safety Analysis (LANL, 2011a). The Documented Safety Analysis uses an inventory expressed in terms of plutonium-equivalent curies, referred to as the PE-Ci inventory, to estimate these risks. The Technical Safety Requirements for Technical Area 54, Area G (LANL, 2011b) establishes a belowground radioactive material limit that ensures the cumulative projected inventory authorized for the Area G site is not exceeded. The total belowground radioactive waste inventory limit established for Area G is 110,000 PE-Ci. The PE-Ci inventory is updated annually; this report presents the inventory prepared for 2011. The approach used to estimate the inventory is described in Section 2. The results of the analysis are presented in Section 3.

  15. Nevada Test Site 2009 Waste Management Monitoring Report Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Radioactive Waste

    2010-06-23

    Environmental monitoring data were collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). These data are associated with radiation exposure, air, groundwater, meteorology, vadose zone, subsidence, and biota. This report summarizes the 2009 environmental data to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and to support environmental compliance and performance assessment (PA) activities. Some of these data (e.g., radiation exposure, air, and groundwater) are presented in other reports. Direct radiation monitoring data indicate exposure levels at the RWMSs are within the range of background levels measured at the NTS. Air monitoring data at the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMSs indicate that tritium concentrations are slightly above background levels. All gamma spectroscopy results for air particulates collected at the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMS were below the minimum detectable concentrations, and concentrations of americium and plutonium are only slightly above detection limits. The measured levels of radionuclides in air particulates and moisture are below derived concentration guides for these radionuclides. Radon flux from waste covers is well below regulatory limits. Groundwater monitoring data indicate that the groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the Area 5 RWMS is not impacted by facility operations. The 87.6 millimeters (mm) (3.45 inches [in.]) of precipitation at the Area 3 RWMS during 2009 is 43 percent below the average of 152.4 mm (6.00 in.), and the 62.7 mm (2.47 in.) of precipitation at the Area 5 RWMS during 2009 is 49 percent below the average of 122.5 mm (4.82 in.). Soil-gas tritium monitoring at borehole GCD-05 continues to show slow subsurface migration consistent with previous results. Water balance measurements indicate that evapotranspiration from the vegetated weighing lysimeter dries the soil and prevents downward percolation of precipitation more effectively than evaporation

  16. Brazil Fire Characterization and Burn Area Estimation Using the Airborne Infrared Disaster Assessment (AIRDAS) System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brass, J. A.; Riggan, P. J.; Ambrosia, V. G.; Lockwood, R. N.; Pereira, J. A.; Higgins, R. G.; Peterson, David L. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Remotely sensed estimations of regional and global emissions from biomass combustion have been used to characterize fire behavior, determine fire intensity, and estimate burn area. Highly temporal, low resolution satellite data have been used to calculate estimates of fire numbers and area burned. These estimates of fire activity and burned area have differed dramatically, resulting in a wide range of predictions on the ecological and environmental impacts of fires. As part of the Brazil/United States Fire Initiative, an aircraft campaign was initiated in 1992 and continued in 1994. This multi-aircraft campaign was designed to assist in the characterization of fire activity, document fire intensity and determine area burned over prescribed, agricultural and wildland fires in the savanna and forests of central Brazil. Using a unique, multispectral scanner (AIRDAS), designed specifically for fire characterization, a variety of fires and burned areas were flown with a high spatial and high thermal resolution scanner. The system was used to measure flame front size, rate of spread, ratio of smoldering to flaming fronts and fire intensity. In addition, long transects were flown to determine the size of burned areas within the cerrado and transitional ecosystems. The authors anticipate that the fire activity and burned area estimates reported here will lead to enhanced information for precise regional trace gas prediction.

  17. Three-Dimensional Wind Profiling of Offshore Wind Energy Areas With Airborne Doppler Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, Grady J.; Beyon, Jeffrey Y.; Cowen, Larry J.; Kavaya, Michael J.; Grant, Michael S.

    2014-01-01

    A technique has been developed for imaging the wind field over offshore areas being considered for wind farming. This is accomplished with an eye-safe 2-micrometer wavelength coherent Doppler lidar installed in an aircraft. By raster scanning the aircraft over the wind energy area (WEA), a three-dimensional map of the wind vector can be made. This technique was evaluated in 11 flights over the Virginia and Maryland offshore WEAs. Heights above the ocean surface planned for wind turbines are shown to be within the marine boundary layer, and the wind vector is seen to show variation across the geographical area of interest at turbine heights.

  18. Assessment of seismic loading on structures based on airborne LiDAR data from the Kalochori urban area (N. Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rovithis, Emmanouil; Kirtas, Emmanouil; Marini, Eleftheria; Bliziotis, Dimitris; Maltezos, Evangelos; Pitilakis, Dimitris; Makra, Konstantia; Savvaidis, Alexandros

    2016-08-01

    Airborne LiDAR monitoring integrated with field data is employed to assess the fundamental period and the seismic loading of structures composing an urban area under prescribed earthquake scenarios. Α piecewise work-flow is adopted by combining geometrical data of the building stock derived from a LiDAR-based 3D city model, structural data from in-situ inspections on representative city blocks and results of soil response analyses. The procedure is implemented in the residential area of Kalochori, (west of Thessaloniki in Northern Greece). Special attention is paid to the in-situ inspection of the building stock in order to discriminate recordings between actual buildings and man-made constructions that do not conform to seismic design codes and to acquire additional building stock data on structural materials, typologies and number of stories which is not feasible by the LiDAR process. The processed LiDAR and field data are employed to compute the fundamental period of each building by means of code-defined formulas. Knowledge of soil conditions in the Kalochoti area allows for soil response analyses to obtain free-field at ground surface under earthquake scenarios with varying return period. Upon combining the computed vibrational characteristics of the structures with the free-field response spectra, the seismic loading imposed on the structures of the urban area under investigation is derived for each one of the prescribed seismic motions. Results are presented in GIS environment in the form of spatially distributed spectral accelerations with direct implications in seismic vulnerability studies of an urban area.

  19. Nevada Test Site 2007 Waste Management Monitoring Report Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2008-06-01

    Environmental monitoring data were collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada Test Site. These data are associated with radiation exposure, air, groundwater, meteorology, vadose zone, subsidence, and biota. This report summarizes the 2007 environmental data to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and to support environmental compliance and performance assessment (PA) activities. Some of these data (e.g., radiation exposure, air, and groundwater) are presented in other reports (National Security Technologies, LLC, 2007a; 2008; Warren and Grossman, 2008). Direct radiation monitoring data indicate exposure levels at the RWMSs are at background levels. Air monitoring data at the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMSs indicate that tritium concentrations are slightly above background levels. A single gamma spectroscopy measurement for cesium was slightly above the minimum detectable concentration, and concentrations of americium and plutonium are only slightly above detection limits at the Area 3 RWMS. The measured levels of radionuclides in air particulates are below derived concentration guides for these radionuclides. Radon flux from waste covers is well below regulatory limits. Groundwater monitoring data indicate that the groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the Area 5 RWMS is not impacted by facility operations. The 136.8 millimeters (mm) (5.39 inches [in.]) of precipitation at the Area 3 RWMS during 2007 is 13 percent below the average of 158.1 mm (6.22 in.), and the 123.8 mm (4.87 in.) of precipitation at the Area 5 RWMS during 2007 is 6 percent below the average of 130.7 mm (5.15 in.). Soil-gas tritium monitoring at borehole GCD-05U continues to show slow subsurface migration consistent with previous results. Water balance measurements indicate that evapotranspiration from the vegetated weighing lysimeter dries the soil and prevents downward movement percolation of precipitation more effectively

  20. Nevada Test Site 2001 Data Report: Groundwater Monitoring Program Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    SciTech Connect

    Y. E. Townsend

    2002-02-01

    This report is a compilation of the calendar year 2001 groundwater sampling results from the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS). Contamination indicator data are presented in control chart and tabular form with investigation levels (ILs) indicated. Gross water chemistry data are presented in graphical and tabular form. Other information in the report includes, the Cumulative Chronology for Area 5 RWMS Groundwater Monitoring Program, a brief description of the site hydrogeology, and the groundwater sampling procedure. Wells Ue5PW-1, Ue5PW-2, and Ue5PW-3 were sampled semiannually for the required analytes: pH, specific conductance, major cations/anions, metals, tritium, total organic carbon (TOC), and total organic halogen (TOX). Due to detections of TOC and TOX in some samples collected in 2000, a plan, as approved by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP), was executed to collect an increased number and type of samples in 2001. Results from all samples collected in 2001 were below ILs. These data indicate that there has been no measurable impact to the uppermost aquifer from the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulated unit within the Area 5 RWMS and confirm that the detections of TOC and TOX in 2000 were false positives. There were no major changes noted in the monitored groundwater elevation. There continues to be an extremely small gradient to the northeast with an average flow velocity of less than one foot per year.

  1. Fate of Brine Applied to Unpaved Roads at a Radioactive Waste Subsurface Disposal Area

    SciTech Connect

    Larry C. Hull; Carolyn W. Bishop

    2004-02-01

    Between 1984 and 1993, MgCl2 brine was used to suppress dust on unpaved roads at a radioactive waste subsurface disposal area. Because Cl– might enhance corrosion of buried metals in the waste, we investigated the distribution and fate of Cl– in the vadose zone using pore water samples collected from suction lysimeters and soluble salt concentrations extracted from sediment samples. The Cl/Br mass ratio and the total dissolved Cl– concentration of pore water show that brine contamination occurs primarily within 13 m of treated roads, but can extend as much as 30 m laterally in near-surface sedimentary deposits. Within the deep vadose zone, which consists of interlayered basalt lava flows and sedimentary interbeds, brine has moved up to 110 m laterally. This lateral migration suggests formation of perched water and horizontal transport during periods of high recharge. In a few locations, brine migrated to depths of 67 m within 3 to 5 yr. Elevated Cl– concentrations were found to depths of 2 m in roadbed material. In drainage ditches along roads, where runoff accumulates and recharge of surface water is high, Cl– was flushed from the sediments in 3 to 4 yr. In areas of lower recharge, Cl– remained in the sediments after 5 yr. Vertical brine movement is directly related to surface recharge through sediments. The distribution of Cl– in pore water and sediments is consistent with estimates of vadose zone residence times and spatial distribution of surface water recharge from other investigations at the subsurface disposal area.

  2. Nevada Test Site 2009 Data Report: Groundwater Monitoring Program, Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2010-01-19

    This report is a compilation of the groundwater sampling results from the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS). The data have been collected since 1993 and include calendar year 2009 results. During 2009, groundwater at each of the three pilot wells was sampled on March 10, 2009, and August 18, 2009, and water levels at each of the three pilot wells were measured on February 17, May 6, August 17, and November 10, 2009. Groundwater samples were analyzed for the following indicators of contamination: pH, specific conductance, total organic carbon, total organic halides, and tritium. Indicators of general water chemistry (cations and anions) were also measured. Results from all samples collected in 2009 were within the limits established by agreement with the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection for each analyte. These data indicate that there has been no measurable impact to the uppermost aquifer from the Area 5 RWMS. There were no significant changes in measured groundwater parameters compared to previous years. The report contains an updated cumulative chronology for the Area 5 RWMS Groundwater Monitoring Program and a brief description of the site hydrogeology.

  3. Radioactive Air Emissions Notice of Construction (NOC) for the 300 Area Process Sewer Cleanout

    SciTech Connect

    MENARD, N.M.

    2000-06-16

    This document serves as a NOC pursuant to the requirements of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247-060, and as a request for approval to construct pursuant to 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 61.07, for the cleanout of sections of the 300 Area PS. Approval of the NOC will allow the pressure washing of certain pipe sections, the sump in the TEDF lift station, and the cleaning of PS 16 of the 300 Area PS that contains low levels of radioactivity. Section 15.0 of this NOC discusses the estimated total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) to the offsite maximally exposed individual (MEI) resulting from the unabated emissions from these cleaning activities. Using the currently approved unit dose conversion factors in HNF-3602, the estimated potential TEDE to the MEI resulting from the unabated, fugitive emissions from cleanout of the 300 Area PS is 4.70 E-05 millirem (mrem) per year. This dose was derived by conservatively estimating the doses from both the pressure washing and the use of the Guzzler{trademark} for removal of the liquid/soil mixture, as described in Section 5.0. and adding these doses together.

  4. Nevada National Security Site 2013 Waste Management Monitoring Report Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, D. B.

    2014-08-01

    Environmental monitoring data are collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) within the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). These data are associated with radiation exposure, air, groundwater, meteorology, and vadose zone. This report summarizes the 2013 environmental data to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and to support environmental compliance and performance assessment (PA) activities. Some of these data (e.g., radiation exposure, air, and groundwater) are presented in other reports (National Security Technologies, LLC, 2013; 2014a; 2014b). Direct radiation monitoring data indicate exposure levels at the RWMSs are within the range of background levels measured at the NNSS. Slightly elevated exposure levels outside the Area 3 RWMS are attributed to nearby historical aboveground nuclear weapons tests. Air monitoring data show tritium concentrations in water vapor and americium and plutonium concentrations in air particles are close to detection limits and background levels. The measured levels of radionuclides in air particulates and moisture are below Derived Concentration Standards for these radionuclides. Groundwater monitoring data indicate the groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the Area 5 RWMS is not impacted by RWMS operations. Results of groundwater analysis from wells around the Area 5 RWMS were all below established investigation levels. Leachate samples collected from the leachate collection system at the mixed low-level waste cell were below established contaminant regulatory limits. The 105.8 millimeters (mm) (4.17 inches [in.]) of precipitation at the Area 3 RWMS during 2013 is 30% below the average of 150.3 mm (5.92 in.), and the 117.5 mm (4.63 in.) of precipitation at the Area 5 RWMS during 2013 is 5% below the average of 123.6 mm (4.86 in.). Water balance measurements indicate that evapotranspiration from the vegetated weighing lysimeter dries the soil and prevents

  5. Nevada National Security Site 2011 Waste Management Monitoring Report, Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2012-07-31

    Environmental monitoring data are collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). These data are associated with radiation exposure, air, groundwater, meteorology, and vadose zone. This report summarizes the 2011 environmental data to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and to support environmental compliance and performance assessment (PA) activities. Some of these data (e.g., radiation exposure, air, and groundwater) are presented in other reports. Direct radiation monitoring data indicate exposure levels at the RWMSs are within the range of background levels measured at the NNSS. Slightly elevated exposure levels outside the Area 3 RWMS are attributed to nearby historical aboveground nuclear weapons tests. Air monitoring data show tritium concentrations in water vapor and americium and plutonium concentrations in air particles are only slightly above detection limits and background levels. The measured levels of radionuclides in air particulates and moisture are below derived concentration guides for these radionuclides. During the last 2 weeks of March 2011, gamma spectroscopy results for air particles showed measurable activities of iodine-131 (131I), cesium-134 (134Cs), and cesium-137 (137Cs). These results are attributed to the release of fission products from the damaged Fukushima Daiichi power plant in Japan. The remaining gamma spectroscopy results for air particulates collected at the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMS were below minimum detectable concentrations. Groundwater monitoring data indicate the groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the Area 5 RWMS is not impacted by RWMS operations. Results of groundwater analysis from wells around the Area 5 RWMS were all below established investigation levels. The 86.3 millimeters (mm) (3.40 inches [in.]) of precipitation at the Area 3 RWMS during 2011 is 44% below the average of 154.1 mm (6.07 in.), and the 64.8 mm

  6. Nevada National Security Site 2012 Waste Management Monitoring Report Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, David B.

    2013-09-10

    Environmental monitoring data are collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). These data are associated with radiation exposure, air, groundwater, meteorology, and vadose zone. This report summarizes the 2012 environmental data to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and to support environmental compliance and performance assessment (PA) activities. Some of these data (e.g., radiation exposure, air, and groundwater) are presented in other reports (National Security Technologies, LLC, 2012; 2013a; 2013b). Direct radiation monitoring data indicate exposure levels at the RWMSs are within the range of background levels measured at the NNSS. Slightly elevated exposure levels outside the Area 3 RWMS are attributed to nearby historical aboveground nuclear weapons tests. Air monitoring data show tritium concentrations in water vapor and americium and plutonium concentrations in air particles are only slightly above detection limits and background levels. The measured levels of radionuclides in air particulates and moisture are below Derived Concentration Standards for these radionuclides. Groundwater monitoring data indicate the groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the Area 5 RWMS is not impacted by RWMS operations. Results of groundwater analysis from wells around the Area 5 RWMS were all below established investigation levels. Leachate samples collected from the leachate collection system at the mixed low-level waste cell were below established contaminant regulatory limits. The 133.9 millimeters (mm) (5.27 inches [in.]) of precipitation at the Area 3 RWMS during 2012 is 12% below the average of 153.0 mm (6.02 in.), and the 137.6 mm (5.42 in.) of precipitation at the Area 5 RWMS during 2012 is 11% below the average of 122.4 mm (4.82 in.). Water balance measurements indicate that evapotranspiration from the vegetated weighing lysimeter dries the soil and prevents

  7. Nevada National Security Site 2010 Waste Management Monitoring Report Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2011-06-01

    Environmental monitoring data were collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). These data are associated with radiation exposure, air, groundwater, meteorology, vadose zone, subsidence, and biota. This report summarizes the 2010 environmental data to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and to support environmental compliance and performance assessment (PA) activities. Some of these data (e.g., radiation exposure, air, and groundwater) are presented in other reports (National Security Technologies, LLC, 2010a; 2010b; 2011). Direct radiation monitoring data indicate exposure levels at the RWMSs are within the range of background levels measured at the NNSS. Air monitoring data at the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMSs indicate that tritium concentrations are slightly above background levels. All gamma spectroscopy results for air particulates collected at the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMS were below the minimum detectable concentrations, and concentrations of americium and plutonium are only slightly above detection limits. The measured levels of radionuclides in air particulates and moisture are below derived concentration guides for these radionuclides. Groundwater monitoring data indicate that the groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the Area 5 RWMS is not impacted by facility operations. The 246.9 millimeters (mm) (9.72 inches [in.]) of precipitation at the Area 3 RWMS during 2010 is 56 percent above the average of 158.7 mm (6.25 in.), and the 190.4 mm (7.50 in.) of precipitation at the Area 5 RWMS during 2010 is 50 percent above the average of 126.7 mm (4.99 in.). Soil-gas tritium monitoring at borehole GCD-05 continues to show slow subsurface migration consistent with previous results. Water balance measurements indicate that evapotranspiration from the vegetated weighing lysimeter dries the soil and prevents downward percolation of precipitation more effectively than

  8. Composite Analysis for the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    V. Yucel

    2001-09-01

    This report summarizes the results of a Composite Analysis (CA) for the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS). The Area 5 RWMS is a US Department of Energy (DOE)-operated low-level radioactive waste (LLW) management site located in northern Frenchman Flat on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The Area 5 RWMS has disposed of low-level radioactive waste in shallow unlined pits and trenches since 1960. Transuranic waste (TRU) and high-specific activity waste was disposed in Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) boreholes from 1983 to 1989. The purpose of this CA is to determine if continuing operation of the Area 5 RWMS poses an acceptable or unacceptable risk to the public considering the total waste inventory and all other interacting sources of radioactive material in the vicinity. Continuing operation of the Area 5 RWMS will be considered acceptable if the total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) is less than 100 mrem in a year. If the TEDE exceeds 30 mrem in a year, a cost-benefit options analysis must be performed to determine if cost-effective management options exist to reduce the dose further. If the TEDE is found to be less than 30 mrem in a year, an analysis may be performed if warranted to determine if doses are as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA).

  9. Radioactivity concentrations and dose assessment for soil samples from Kestanbol granite area, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Merdanoğlu, B; Altinsoy, N

    2006-01-01

    The concentrations and distribution of natural and anthropogenic radionuclides in soils from around the Kestanbol (Canakkale), Turkey were investigated with an aim of evaluating the environmental radioactivity and radiological health hazard. Concentrations of radionuclides in the samples were determined by gamma ray spectrometer using HPGe detector. In the soils in general, the concentration of (232)Th was found to be higher than that of the (238)U and the activities of (232)Th and (238)U in this area are higher than the world average. (137)Cs was observed in all the samples, ranging from 0.37 +/- 0.22 to 36.03 +/- 0.54 Bq kg(-1). The mean radium equivalent activity, external hazard index and terrestrial absorbed dose rate for the area under study are 498 Bq kg(-1), 1.4 and 219 nGy h(-1), respectively. The annual effective dose to the public was found to be 269 muSv. The present data were compared with data obtained from different countries.

  10. Geologic features of areas of abnormal radioactivity south of Ocala, Marion County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Espenshade, Gilbert H.

    1956-01-01

    Areas of abnormal radioactivity south of Ocala, Marion County, Fla., discovered in 1953 by aerial survey, were investigated by surface examination and by 10 power auger drill holes. Inter-bedded clay, clayey sand, and uraniferous phosphorite occur in the areas of anomalous radioactivityo Miocene fossils occur at three localities in these beds which are evidently outliers- of Miocene sediments on the Ocala limestone of Eocene age. The preserved outliers are southwest of the main belt of Miocene sediments. The principal uraniferous rocks are clayey, sandy, pellet phosphori1te that occurs in beds a few feet thick, and very porous, phosphatic sand rock which makes abundant float at many places. Apatite forms the phosphate pellets in the unweathered phosphorite. The very porous, phosphatic sand rock is the highly leached residuum of the pellet phosphorite and is composed mainly of quartz, kaolinite, wavellite, and crandallite (pseudowavellite). It closely resembles the aluminum phosphate rock of the 'leached zone' of the Bone Valley formation in the land-pebble phosphate district.

  11. Numerical Studies of Radioactive Sediment Deposition on Reservoirs in Fukushima Coastal Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Susumu; Itakura, Mitsuhiro; Okumura, Masahiko; Machida, Masahiko; Kitamura, Akihiro

    2014-05-01

    The transportation of radioactive Cs is mainly brought about by movement of silt- and clay-sized particles in rivers. Therefore, predicting such a fine sediment flow and deposition in rivers has been one of central issues toward environmental recovery after the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant (FDNPP) accident. For the purpose of the Cs transport prediction, we concentrate on a few reservoirs in Fukushima costal area, since they are temporal destinations for contaminated silt and clay transported by rivers. We numerically study how the river water together with floating silt and clays penetrate into the reservoirs and where the sediments settle on the bottom surface of the reservoirs by using 2D river simulation framework named iRIC developed by Shimizu et al. In this presentation, we reveal the typical deposition pattern in the target reservoirs and compare the results with direct sampling data for the sediments on the reservoir bottom surfaces. We believe that the obtained information is useful in planning the water supply and treatment for highly-contaminated districts in Fukushima costal area.

  12. Nevada Test Site 2002 Data Report: Groundwater Monitoring Program Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    SciTech Connect

    Y. E. Townsend

    2003-02-01

    This report is a compilation of the calendar year 2002 groundwater sampling results from the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS). Wells Ue5PW-1, Ue5PW-2, and Ue5PW-3 were sampled semiannually for the required analytes: pH, specific conductance, major cations/anions, metals, tritium, total organic carbon (TOC), and total organic halogen (TOX). Results from all samples collected in 2002 were within established criteria. These data indicate that there has been no measurable impact to the uppermost aquifer from the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act(RCRA) regulated unit within the RWMS-5 and confirm that the detections of TOC and TOX in 2000 were false positives. Contamination indicator data are presented in control chart and tabular form with investigation levels (ILs) indicated. Gross water chemistry data are presented in graphical and tabular form. There were no major changes noted in the monitored groundwater elevation. There continues to be an extremely small gradient to the northeast with an average flow velocity of less than one foot per year. Other information in the report includes, the Cumulative Chronology for Area 5 RWMS Groundwater Monitoring Program, a brief description of the site hydrogeology, and the groundwater sampling procedure.

  13. Radioactivity in Virgin Soils and Soils from Some Areas with Closed Uranium Mining Facilities in Bulgaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yordanova, I.; Staneva, D.; Misheva, L.; Bineva, Ts.; Banov, M.

    2012-04-01

    The soil radioecology is an important part of the environmental research in the country. Since the beginning of the 1970's regular monitoring of the content of different radionuclides in Bulgarian soils has been done. Objective of the studies were virgin soils from high mountain areas, hills and plains (the region of Kozloduy NPP and the Danube river valley). Natural and men-made radionuclides were observed. In the 25-year period after the the contamination with radionuclides due to the 1986 Chernobyl NPP accident a rich data base has been collected, recording the radiation status of the soils in Bulgaria. Special attention has been paid to the contamination with the long-lived technogenic radionuclides caesium-137 and strontium-90. This paper presents a summary of the obtained results. Caesium-137 and strontium-90 were the main men-made radionuclides detected in the examined Bulgarian soils few years after the Chernobyl NPP accident. Their content in the soils from high mountain areas (Rodopa and Rila mountains) is several times higher than that in the soils from North Bulgaria and Sofia fields. High non-homogenity in the pollution within small areas (even as small as several square meters) has been observed. Natural radioactivity was also studied. Averaged values for natural radionuclides like uranium-238, thorium-232, and radium-226 in virgin soils from different areas in the country are presented. A comparison of the dynamics of their behavior throughout the years is done. Bulgaria is a country with intensive uranium mining activities in the past years. That is why radiological monitoring of closed uranium mining facilities in different regions of the country are obligatory and of great interest. This work presents results from such investigations made in regions where remediation has been done. The results have been evaluated according to the Bulgarian radionuclide environment contamination legislation. The necessity of permanent environmental monitoring is

  14. Nevada National Security Site 2011 Data Report: Groundwater Monitoring Program Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2012-02-27

    This report is a compilation of the groundwater sampling results from the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS). The data have been collected since 1993 and include calendar year 2011 results. During 2011, groundwater samples were collected and static water levels were measured at the three pilot wells surrounding the Area 5 RWMS. Samples were collected at UE5PW-1 on March 8, August 2, August 24, and October 19, 2011; at UE5PW-2 on March 8, August 2, August 23, and October 19, 2011; and at UE5PW-3 on March 8, August 2, August 23, and October 19, 2011. Static water levels were measured at each of the three pilot wells on March 1, June 7, August 1, and October 17, 2011. Groundwater samples were analyzed for the following indicators of contamination: pH, specific conductance, total organic carbon, total organic halides, and tritium. Indicators of general water chemistry (cations and anions) were also measured. Initial total organic carbon and total organic halides results for samples collected in August 2011 were above previous measurements and, in some cases, above the established investigation limits. However, after field sample pumps and tubing were disinfected with Clorox solution, the results returned to normal levels. Final results from samples collected in 2011 were within the limits established by agreement with the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection for each analyte. These data indicate that there has been no measurable impact to the uppermost aquifer from the Area 5 RWMS. There were no significant changes in measured groundwater parameters compared to previous years. The report contains an updated cumulative chronology for the Area 5 RWMS Groundwater Monitoring Program and a brief description of the site hydrogeology.

  15. Detection of monomethylarsenic compounds originating from pesticide in airborne particulate matter sampled in an agricultural area in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukai, Hitoshi; Ambe, Yoshinari

    Alkylarsenic species in airborne particulate matter sampled in an agricultural area in Japan were investigated. The monomethyl form of arsenic, which has not been found so far in the air, was detected in a concentration as much as 1.4 ng m -3 in a sample collected on a sunny summer day. It had a different size distribution from that of di- and tri-methyl forms of arsenic. The mean particle diameter containing monomethylarsenic compound was 2-4 μm, while those of the di- and/or tri-methyl forms of arsenic were 0.2-0.5 μm. This monomethyl form is thought to originate from the alkylarsenic pesticide spread over rice fields, based on the relation between variation in its concentration and meteorological conditions. Alkylarsenic pesticide appears to be blown up by the wind when the land surface is dry. Further, the methylation of arsenic in nature was found to be influenced by humidity and temperature.

  16. Analysis of potential debris flow source areas on Mount Shasta, California, by using airborne and satellite remote sensing data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crowley, J.K.; Hubbard, B.E.; Mars, J.C.

    2003-01-01

    Remote sensing data from NASA's Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) and the first spaceborne imaging spectrometer, Hyperion, show hydrothermally altered rocks mainly composed of natroalunite, kaolinite, cristobalite, and gypsum on both the Mount Shasta and Shastina cones. Field observations indicate that much of the visible altered rock consists of talus material derived from fractured rock zones within and adjacent to dacitic domes and nearby lava flows. Digital elevation data were utilized to distinguish steeply sloping altered bedrock from more gently sloping talus materials. Volume modeling based on the imagery and digital elevation data indicate that Mount Shasta drainage systems contain moderate volumes of altered rock, a result that is consistent with Mount Shasta's Holocene record of mostly small to moderate debris flows. Similar modeling for selected areas at Mount Rainier and Mount Adams, Washington, indicates larger altered rock volumes consistent with the occurrence of much larger Holocene debris flows at those volcanoes. The availability of digital elevation and spectral data from spaceborne sensors, such as Hyperion and the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflectance Radiometer (ASTER), greatly expands opportunities for studying potential debris flow source characteristics at stratovolcanoes around the world. ?? 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Snow measurement system for airborne snow surveys (GPR system from helicopter) in high mountian areas.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorteberg, Hilleborg K.

    2010-05-01

    In the hydropower industry, it is important to have precise information about snow deposits at all times, to allow for effective planning and optimal use of the water. In Norway, it is common to measure snow density using a manual method, i.e. the depth and weight of the snow is measured. In recent years, radar measurements have been taken from snowmobiles; however, few energy supply companies use this method operatively - it has mostly been used in connection with research projects. Agder Energi is the first Norwegian power producer in using radar tecnology from helicopter in monitoring mountain snow levels. Measurement accuracy is crucial when obtaining input data for snow reservoir estimates. Radar screening by helicopter makes remote areas more easily accessible and provides larger quantities of data than traditional ground level measurement methods. In order to draw up a snow survey system, it is assumed as a basis that the snow distribution is influenced by vegetation, climate and topography. In order to take these factors into consideration, a snow survey system for fields in high mountain areas has been designed in which the data collection is carried out by following the lines of a grid system. The lines of this grid system is placed in order to effectively capture the distribution of elevation, x-coordinates, y-coordinates, aspect, slope and curvature in the field. Variation in climatic conditions are also captured better when using a grid, and dominant weather patterns will largely be captured in this measurement system.

  18. Vertical distribution of airborne bacterial communities in an Asian-dust downwind area, Noto Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maki, Teruya; Hara, Kazutaka; Kobayashi, Fumihisa; Kurosaki, Yasunori; Kakikawa, Makiko; Matsuki, Atsushi; Chen, Bin; Shi, Guangyu; Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Iwasaka, Yasunobu

    2015-10-01

    Bacterial populations transported from ground environments to the atmosphere get dispersed throughout downwind areas and can influence ecosystem dynamics, human health, and climate change. However, the vertical bacterial distribution in the free troposphere was rarely investigated in detail. We collected aerosols at altitudes of 3000 m, 1000 m, and 10 m over the Noto Peninsula, Japan, where the westerly winds carry aerosols from continental and marine areas. During the sampling period on March 10, 2012, the air mass at 3000 m was transported from the Chinese desert region by the westerly winds, and a boundary layer was formed below 2000 m. Pyrosequencing targeting 16S rRNA genes (16S rDNA) revealed that the bacterial community at 3000 m was predominantly composed of terrestrial bacteria, such as Bacillus and Actinobacterium species. In contrast, those at 1000 m and 10 m included marine bacteria belonging to the classes Cyanobacteria and Alphaproteobacteria. The entire 16S rDNA sequences in the clone libraries were identical to those of the terrestrial and marine bacterial species, which originated from the Chinese desert region and the Sea of Japan, respectively. The origins of air masses and meteorological conditions contribute to vertical variations in the bacterial communities in downwind atmosphere.

  19. Personal exposure to airborne ultrafine particles in the urban area of Milan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cattaneo, A.; Garramone, G.; Taronna, M.; Peruzzo, C.; Cavallo, D. M.

    2009-02-01

    The relevance of health effects related to ultrafine particles (UFPs; aerodynamic diameter < 100 nm) can be better evaluated using high-resolution strategies for measuring particle number concentrations. In this study, two different portable Condensation Particle Counters (CPCs) were used to measure personal exposure to UFPs in the central area of Milan for one week period during spring, with three sampling sessions per day. Experimental data were continuously collected along an established urban pathway, moving afoot or by different private and public means of transport. Correlation analysis between data measured by two CPCs was performed and general results showed a good agreement, especially at concentrations lower than 2×105 particles /cm3. UFPs measures were divided on the basis of crossed environments or micro-environments, days of the week and day time (hours). The highest measured mean concentrations and data variability were observed during walking time and moving on motorized vehicles (bus and car), indicating that the highest exposure to UFPs can be reached near motorized traffic. The lowest exposures were observed in green areas and in office microenvironments. An appreciable difference between working and non-working days was observed. Concentration patterns and variation by days of the week and time periods appears related to time trends in traffic intensity.

  20. Airborne Forward-Looking Interferometer for the Detection of Terminal-Area Hazards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, Leanne; Gimmestad, Gary; Lane, Sarah; Smith, Bill L.; Kireev, Stanislav; Daniels, Taumi S.; Cornman, Larry; Sharman, Bob

    2014-01-01

    The Forward Looking Interferometer (FLI) program was a multi-year cooperative research effort to investigate the use of imaging radiometers with high spectral resolution, using both modeling/simulation and field experiments, along with sophisticated data analysis techniques that were originally developed for analysis of data from space-based radiometers and hyperspectral imagers. This investigation has advanced the state of knowledge in this technical area, and the FLI program developed a greatly improved understanding of the radiometric signal strength of aviation hazards in a wide range of scenarios, in addition to a much better understanding of the real-world functionality requirements for hazard detection instruments. The project conducted field experiments on three hazards (turbulence, runway conditions, and wake vortices) and analytical studies on several others including volcanic ash, reduced visibility conditions, in flight icing conditions, and volcanic ash.

  1. Wide-area mapping of small-scale features in agricultural landscapes using airborne remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connell, Jerome; Bradter, Ute; Benton, Tim G.

    2015-11-01

    Natural and semi-natural habitats in agricultural landscapes are likely to come under increasing pressure with the global population set to exceed 9 billion by 2050. These non-cropped habitats are primarily made up of trees, hedgerows and grassy margins and their amount, quality and spatial configuration can have strong implications for the delivery and sustainability of various ecosystem services. In this study high spatial resolution (0.5 m) colour infrared aerial photography (CIR) was used in object based image analysis for the classification of non-cropped habitat in a 10,029 ha area of southeast England. Three classification scenarios were devised using 4 and 9 class scenarios. The machine learning algorithm Random Forest (RF) was used to reduce the number of variables used for each classification scenario by 25.5 % ± 2.7%. Proportion of votes from the 4 class hierarchy was made available to the 9 class scenarios and where the highest ranked variables in all cases. This approach allowed for misclassified parent objects to be correctly classified at a lower level. A single object hierarchy with 4 class proportion of votes produced the best result (kappa 0.909). Validation of the optimum training sample size in RF showed no significant difference between mean internal out-of-bag error and external validation. As an example of the utility of this data, we assessed habitat suitability for a declining farmland bird, the yellowhammer (Emberiza citronella), which requires hedgerows associated with grassy margins. We found that ∼22% of hedgerows were within 200 m of margins with an area >183.31 m2. The results from this analysis can form a key information source at the environmental and policy level in landscape optimisation for food production and ecosystem service sustainability.

  2. Genotoxicity biomarkers for airborne particulate matter (PM2.5) in an area under petrochemical influence.

    PubMed

    Lemos, Andréia Torres; Lemos, Clarice Torres de; Flores, Andressa Negreiros; Pantoja, Eduarda Ozório; Rocha, Jocelita Aparecida Vaz; Vargas, Vera Maria Ferrão

    2016-09-01

    The effects of fine inhalable particles (PM2.5) were evaluated in an area under the influence of a petrochemical industry, investigating the sensitivity of different genotoxicity biomarkers. Organic extracts were obtained from PM2.5 samples at two sites, positioned in the first and second preferential wind direction in the area. The extracts were evaluated with Salmonella/microsome assay, microsuspension method, strains TA98, YG1021 and YG1024. The mammalian metabolization fraction (S9) was used to evaluate metabolite mutagenicity. The Comet Assay (CA) and Micronuclei Test were used in a Chinese hamster lung cell line (V79). All extracts showed mutagenicity in Salmonella, and nitrogenated compounds were strongly present. Genotoxicity were found in CA in almost all extracts and the micronuclei induction at the Site in the first (Autumn 1, Winter 1), and in the second (Spring 2) wind direction. V79 showed cytotoxicity in all samples. The three biomarkers were concordant in characterization Site NO with worse quality, compatible with the greater pollutants dispersion in the first wind direction. All PM2.5 concentrations were lower than those recommended by air quality standards but genotoxic effects were detected in all samples, corroborating that these standards are inadequate as quality indicators. The Salmonella/microsome assay proved sensitive to PM2.5 mutagenicity, with an outstanding influence of nitroarenes and aromatic amines. Analyses using CA and the micronucleus test broadened the levels of response that involve different damage induction mechanisms. Results show that the complex PM2.5 composition can provoke various genotoxic effects and the use of different bioassays is essential to understand its effects.

  3. Genotoxicity biomarkers for airborne particulate matter (PM2.5) in an area under petrochemical influence.

    PubMed

    Lemos, Andréia Torres; Lemos, Clarice Torres de; Flores, Andressa Negreiros; Pantoja, Eduarda Ozório; Rocha, Jocelita Aparecida Vaz; Vargas, Vera Maria Ferrão

    2016-09-01

    The effects of fine inhalable particles (PM2.5) were evaluated in an area under the influence of a petrochemical industry, investigating the sensitivity of different genotoxicity biomarkers. Organic extracts were obtained from PM2.5 samples at two sites, positioned in the first and second preferential wind direction in the area. The extracts were evaluated with Salmonella/microsome assay, microsuspension method, strains TA98, YG1021 and YG1024. The mammalian metabolization fraction (S9) was used to evaluate metabolite mutagenicity. The Comet Assay (CA) and Micronuclei Test were used in a Chinese hamster lung cell line (V79). All extracts showed mutagenicity in Salmonella, and nitrogenated compounds were strongly present. Genotoxicity were found in CA in almost all extracts and the micronuclei induction at the Site in the first (Autumn 1, Winter 1), and in the second (Spring 2) wind direction. V79 showed cytotoxicity in all samples. The three biomarkers were concordant in characterization Site NO with worse quality, compatible with the greater pollutants dispersion in the first wind direction. All PM2.5 concentrations were lower than those recommended by air quality standards but genotoxic effects were detected in all samples, corroborating that these standards are inadequate as quality indicators. The Salmonella/microsome assay proved sensitive to PM2.5 mutagenicity, with an outstanding influence of nitroarenes and aromatic amines. Analyses using CA and the micronucleus test broadened the levels of response that involve different damage induction mechanisms. Results show that the complex PM2.5 composition can provoke various genotoxic effects and the use of different bioassays is essential to understand its effects. PMID:27343868

  4. Wide-area mapping of small-scale features in agricultural landscapes using airborne remote sensing

    PubMed Central

    O’Connell, Jerome; Bradter, Ute; Benton, Tim G.

    2015-01-01

    Natural and semi-natural habitats in agricultural landscapes are likely to come under increasing pressure with the global population set to exceed 9 billion by 2050. These non-cropped habitats are primarily made up of trees, hedgerows and grassy margins and their amount, quality and spatial configuration can have strong implications for the delivery and sustainability of various ecosystem services. In this study high spatial resolution (0.5 m) colour infrared aerial photography (CIR) was used in object based image analysis for the classification of non-cropped habitat in a 10,029 ha area of southeast England. Three classification scenarios were devised using 4 and 9 class scenarios. The machine learning algorithm Random Forest (RF) was used to reduce the number of variables used for each classification scenario by 25.5 % ± 2.7%. Proportion of votes from the 4 class hierarchy was made available to the 9 class scenarios and where the highest ranked variables in all cases. This approach allowed for misclassified parent objects to be correctly classified at a lower level. A single object hierarchy with 4 class proportion of votes produced the best result (kappa 0.909). Validation of the optimum training sample size in RF showed no significant difference between mean internal out-of-bag error and external validation. As an example of the utility of this data, we assessed habitat suitability for a declining farmland bird, the yellowhammer (Emberiza citronella), which requires hedgerows associated with grassy margins. We found that ∼22% of hedgerows were within 200 m of margins with an area >183.31 m2. The results from this analysis can form a key information source at the environmental and policy level in landscape optimisation for food production and ecosystem service sustainability. PMID:26664131

  5. Nevada National Security Site 2014 Data Report: Groundwater Monitoring Program Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, David

    2015-02-19

    This report is a compilation of the groundwater sampling results from the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada. Groundwater samples from the aquifer immediately below the Area 5 RWMS have been collected and analyzed and static water levels have been measured in this aquifer since 1993. This report updates these data to include the 2014 results. Analysis results for leachate contaminants collected from the mixed-waste cell at the Area 5 RWMS (Cell 18) are also included. During 2014, groundwater samples were collected and static water levels were measured at three wells surrounding the Area 5 RWMS. Groundwater samples were collected at wells UE5PW-1, UE5PW-2, and UE5PW-3 on March 11 and August 12, 2014, and static water levels were measured at each of these wells on March 10, June 2, August 11, and October 14, 2014. Groundwater samples were analyzed for the following indicators of contamination: pH, specific conductance, total organic carbon, total organic halides, and tritium. General water chemistry (cations and anions) was also measured. Results from samples collected in 2014 are within the limits established by agreement with the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection for each analyte. The data from the shallow aquifer indicate that there has been no measurable impact to the uppermost aquifer from the Area 5 RWMS, and there were no significant changes in measured groundwater parameters compared to previous years. Leachate from above the primary liner of Cell 18 drains into a sump and is collected in a tank at the ground surface. Cell 18 began receiving waste in January 2011. Samples were collected from the tank when the leachate volume approached the 3,000-gallon tank capacity. Leachate samples have been collected 16 times since January 2011. During 2014, samples were collected on February 25, March 5, May 20, August 12, September 16, November 11, and December 16. Each leachate sample was

  6. Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS) point cloud ground filtering for area of an active landslide (Doren, Western Austria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brodić, Nenad; Cvijetinović, Željko; Milenković, Milutin; Dorninger, Peter; Mitrović, Momir

    2014-05-01

    Ground filtering of point cloud is the primary step required for Digital Terrain Model (DTM) generation. The procedure is especially interesting for forested areas, since LiDAR systems can measure terrain elevation under vegetation cover with a high level of penetration. This work analyzes the potential of ALS data ground filtering for area of an active landslide. The results of ALS filtering, for example, may improve geomorphological and motion-detection studies. ALS data was collected during flight campaign 2011 under leaf-off conditions for Doren region, Vorarlberg, Western Austria. In this area, non-ground objects are mostly low vegetation such as shrubs, small trees etc. The vegetation is more dense in lower part of the landslide where erosion is smaller. Vegetation points can be removed based on the hypothesis that these are significantly higher than their neighboring points. However, in case of steep terrain, ground points may have the same heights as vegetation points, and thus, local slope should be considered. Also, if terrain roughness increases, the classification may become even more complex. Software system OPALS (Orientation and Processing of Airborne Laser Scanning data, Vienna University of Technology) was used for processing the ALS data. Labeling ground points has been made using physical and geometrical attributes (parameters) of ALS points. Also additional attributes were calculated in order to improve extraction. Since bare ground surface is usually smooth and continuous unlike vegetation, standard deviation of local elevations was used as roughness measure to differentiate these surfaces. EchoRatio (ER) was adopted as a measure of surface penetrability, while number of echoes and differentiation between echoes (EchoNumber) were also deployed in filtering. Since the ground points are measurements from bare-earth that are usually the lowest surface features in a local area, normalized height was defined as a rank of neighboring points

  7. PCDD/Fs and PCBs in airborne particulate matter of the greater Thessaloniki area, N. Greece.

    PubMed

    Kouimtzis, Th; Samara, C; Voutsa, D; Balafoutis, Ch; Müller, L

    2002-04-01

    Particle-bound polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were monitored at two sites in northern Greece for an eight-month period in 1999. PCDD/F concentrations were close to the lower end of reported values worldwide. Excepting a few cases, the PCDD/Fs homologue profile was stable. The gaseous PCDD/F fractions calculated were found to account for a small percentage of the total concentrations (<2% for OCDD/Fs and HpCDD/Fs, while 30-35% for TCDFs). Particle-bound PCBs were also found at low concentrations which, however, were higher at the urban site. Calculations of the dry deposition of particulate PCDD/ Fs and PCBs gave mean values of 0.52 and 0.59 pg I-TEQ/m2/day of PCDD/Fs, while 242 and 74 pg/m2/day of sigmaPCBs for the urban and the semirural areas respectively. An anticorrelation of PCDD/F concentrations with ambient temperature was derived particularly for the lower chlorinated congeners. A weak association with winds of western and southern origin was also observed. Factor analysis and literature source profiles were employed to identify possible emission sources. It was appeared that the PCDD/F compositional pattern of TSP is influenced by mixed sources the most prominent being uncontrolled fires and car exhausts. PMID:11993635

  8. Integrity assessment plan for PNL 300 area radioactive hazardous waste tank system. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), operated by Battelle Memorial Institute under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy, operates tank systems for the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL), that contain dangerous waste constituents as defined by Washington State Department of Ecology (WDOE) Dangerous Waste Regulations, Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303-040(18). Chapter 173-303-640(2) of the WAC requires the performance of integrity assessments for each existing tank system that treats or stores dangerous waste, except those operating under interim status with compliant secondary containment. This Integrity Assessment Plan (IAP) identifies all tasks that will be performed during the integrity assessment of the PNL-operated Radioactive Liquid Waste Systems (RLWS) associated with the 324 and 325 Buildings located in the 300 Area of the Hanford Site. It describes the inspections, tests, and analyses required to assess the integrity of the PNL RLWS (tanks, ancillary equipment, and secondary containment) and provides sufficient information for adequate budgeting and control of the assessment program. It also provides necessary information to permit the Independent, Qualified, Registered Professional Engineer (IQRPE) to approve the integrity assessment program.

  9. Extended storage of low-level radioactive waste: potential problem areas

    SciTech Connect

    Siskind, B.; Dougherty, D.R.; MacKenzie, D.R.

    1985-01-01

    If a state or state compact does not have adequate disposal capacity for low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) by 1986 as required by the Low-Level Waste Policy Act, then extended storage of certain LLRW may be necessary. The issue of extended storage of LLRW is addressed in order to determine for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission the areas of concern and the actions recommended to resolve these concerns. The focus is on the properties and behavior of the waste form and waste container. Storage alternatives are considered in order to characterize the likely storage environments for these wastes. The areas of concern about extended storage of LLRW are grouped into two categories: 1. Behavior of the waste form and/or container during storage, e.g., radiolytic gas generation, radiation-enhanced degradation of polymeric materials, and corrosion. 2. Effects of extended storage on the properties of the waste form and/or container that are important after storage (e.g., radiation-induced oxidative embrittlement of high-density polyethylene and the weakening of steel containers resulting from corrosion by the waste). The additional information and actions required to address these concerns are discussed and, in particular, it is concluded that further information is needed on the rates of corrosion of container material by Class A wastes and on the apparent dose-rate dependence of radiolytic processes in Class B and C waste packages. Modifications to the guidance for solidified wastes and high-integrity containers in NRC's Technical Position on Waste Form are recommended. 27 references.

  10. Extracts of airborne particulates collected at different locations in the Copenhagen area induce the expression of cytochrome P-450IA1

    SciTech Connect

    Roepstorff, V.; Ostenfeldt, N.; Autrup, H. )

    1990-08-01

    Acetone extracts of airborne particulates collected at different sites in the greater Copenhagen area were tested for their ability to induce the expression of cytochrome P-450IA1 RNA in a human breast cancer cell line, T47-D. The induction efficiency was expressed as an benz(a) anthracene equivalents, that is, the amount of benz(a)anthracene required to give the same level of induction. A significantly higher level of induction of P-450IA1 RNA was seen with samples collected on days with a smog alert. The inducibility of samples collected in rural areas was lower, but no significant difference in inducibility was found between samples collected in urban and suburban areas. Lack of correlation between the mutagenic activity in the Ames assay and the P-450IA1-inducing activity of the samples suggests that the complex mixture of compounds found in airborne particulates may have different biological activities in the two short-term test systems. Measurements of P-450IA1 inducibility provide a new, sensitive approach to assess the biological activity of material present in air pollution. The presence in airborne particulates of chemical compounds that induce cytochrome P-450IA1 an enzyme responsible for the metabolism of ubiquitous chemical carcinogens, suggests that the general environment may change an individual's response to the impact of exogenous chemicals, including the carcinogens present in cigarette smoke.

  11. Mapping Weathering and Alteration Minerals in the Comstock and Geiger Grade Areas using Visible to Thermal Infrared Airborne Remote Sensing Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughan, Greg R.; Calvin, Wendy M.

    2005-01-01

    To support research into both precious metal exploration and environmental site characterization a combination of high spatial/spectral resolution airborne visible, near infrared, short wave infrared (VNIR/SWIR) and thermal infrared (TIR) image data were acquired to remotely map hydrothermal alteration minerals around the Geiger Grade and Comstock alteration regions, and map the mineral by-products of weathered mine dumps in Virginia City. Remote sensing data from the Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS), SpecTIR Corporation's airborne hyperspectral imager (HyperSpecTIR), the MODIS-ASTER airborne simulator (MASTER), and the Spatially Enhanced Broadband Array Spectrograph System (SEBASS) were acquired and processed into mineral maps based on the unique spectral signatures of image pixels. VNIR/SWIR and TIR field spectrometer data were collected for both calibration and validation of the remote data sets, and field sampling, laboratory spectral analyses and XRD analyses were made to corroborate the surface mineralogy identified by spectroscopy. The resulting mineral maps show the spatial distribution of several important alteration minerals around each study area including alunite, quartz, pyrophyllite, kaolinite, montmorillonite/muscovite, and chlorite. In the Comstock region the mineral maps show acid-sulfate alteration, widespread propylitic alteration and extensive faulting that offsets the acid-sulfate areas, in contrast to the larger, dominantly acid-sulfate alteration exposed along Geiger Grade. Also, different mineral zones within the intense acid-sulfate areas were mapped. In the Virginia City historic mining district the important weathering minerals mapped include hematite, goethite, jarosite and hydrous sulfate minerals (hexahydrite, alunogen and gypsum) located on mine dumps. Sulfate minerals indicate acidic water forming in the mine dump environment. While there is not an immediate threat to the community, there are clearly sources of

  12. Fate and transport processes controlling the migration of hazardous and radioactive materials from the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS)

    SciTech Connect

    Estrella, R.

    1994-10-01

    Desert vadose zones have been considered as suitable environments for the safe and long-term isolation of hazardous wastes. Low precipitation, high evapotranspiration and thick unsaturated alluvial deposits commonly found in deserts make them attractive as waste disposal sites. The fate and transport of any contaminant in the subsurface is ultimately determined by the operating retention and transformation processes in the system and the end result of the interactions among them. Retention (sorption) and transformation are the two major processes that affect the amount of a contaminant present and available for transport. Retention processes do not affect the total amount of a contaminant in the soil system, but rather decrease or eliminate the amount available for transport at a given point in time. Sorption reactions retard the contaminant migration. Permanent binding of solute by the sorbent is also possible. These processes and their interactions are controlled by the nature of the hazardous waste, the properties of the porous media and the geochemical and environmental conditions (temperature, moisture and vegetation). The present study summarizes the available data and investigates the fate and transport processes that govern the migration of contaminants from the Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) in Area 5 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). While the site is currently used only for low-level radioactive waste disposal, past practices have included burial of material now considered hazardous. Fundamentals of chemical and biological transformation processes are discussed subsequently, followed by a discussion of relevant results.

  13. Test plan and preliminary report of airborne electromagentic environment survey over USA urban areas 0.4 to 18.0 GHz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, R. E.; Hill, J. S.

    1975-01-01

    An airborne electromagnetic environment survey is described of five urban areas where terrestrially-generated radio-frequency interference was measured over the frequency range from 0.4 to 18.0 GHz. A chartered Cessna 402 aircraft contained necessary measurement test equipment, including the receiving antennas mounted beneath the fuselage. Urban areas including Washington, D.C.; Baltimore, MD; Philadelphia, PA; New York, NY; Chicago, ILL; and Palestine, TX were surveyed. A flight test plan and preliminary test results for the 0.4 to 1.4 GHz frequency range, are included; a final test report describes more detailed results.

  14. Airborne Passive Remote Sensing of the Troposphere in Nashville/Middle Tennessee Area During the 1995 Southern Oxidants Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rider, D. M.; Worden, H. M.; Beer, R.; Nandi, S.; Sparks, L. C.

    1998-01-01

    In July of 1995 the Airborne Emission Spectrometer was deployed to Nashville, Tennessee to participate in the 1995 Ozone Study Intensive Campaign of the Southern Oxidants Study. AES is a high resolution mid-infrared interferometer that measures the spectrum of upwelling radiation in the 650-4250 cm-1 range.

  15. Natural radioactivity in geothermal waters, Alhambra Hot Springs and nearby areas, Jefferson County, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leonard, Robert B.; Janzer, Victor J.

    1978-01-01

    Radioactive hot springs issue from a fault zone in crystalline rock of the Boulder batholith at Alhambra, Jefferson County, in southwestern Montana. The discharge contains high concentrations of radon, and the gross alpha activity and the concentration of adium-226 exceed maximum levels recommended by the Environmental Protection Agency for drinking water. Part of the discharge is diverted for space heating, bathing, and domestic use. The radioactive thermal waters at measured temperatures of about 60°C are of the sodium bicarbonate type and saturated with respect to calcium carbonate. Radium-226 in the rock and on fractured surfaces or coprecipitated with calcium carbonate probably is the principal source of radon that is dissolved in the thermal water and discharged with other gases from some wells and springs. Local surface water and shallow ground water are of the calcium bicarbonate type and exhibit low background activity. The temperature, percent sodium, and radioactivity of mixed waters adjacent to the fault zone increase with depth. Samples from most of the major hot springs in southwestern Montana have been analyzed for gross alpha and beta activity. The high level of radioactivity at Alhambra appears to be related to leaching of radioactive material from siliceous veins by ascending thermal waters and is not a normal characteristic of hot springs issuing from fractured crystalline rock in Montana.

  16. Correlation between meteorological conditions and mutagenicity of airborne particulate samples in a tropical monsoon climate area from Kaohsiung City, Taiwan

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, H.; Su, S.Y.; Liu, K.S.; Chou, M.C.

    1994-12-31

    Kaohsiung is a city of 1.5 million located in the southern part of Taiwan. It has a serious air pollution problem mainly attributable to much industrial and commercial activity. In order to estimate the effects of traffic, season, and meteorological conditions on the mutagenicity of Kaohsiung City`s urban ambient particulate matter, 624 airborne particulate samples were collected on a weekly basis from 12 locations for an entire year. The mutagenic potential of acetone extracts of air samples was evaluated by the Salmonella/microsomal test with S. typhimurium TA98 in the presence and absence of S9 mixtures. The air samples from November 1990 showed the highest direct and indirect mutagenicity among the 12 months, whereas those from June and July 1991 had the lowest direct and indirect mutagenic activity, respectively. The mutagenicity showed a good correlation with amounts of the acetone extractable matter of airborne particulates. The meteorological conditions, monthly mean precipitation, and wind speed also showed a good correspondence with mutagenicity. Wind direction and temperature had a moderate relationship. The major mutagenic fractions of air samples that had the highest mutagenic activity in a month were purified using Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography, and the contents of PAHs, 1-NP, and DNPs were analyzed by HPLC. The characteristic concentration ratios of PAHs indicated that, for the main pollution sources of airborne particulates from Kaohsiung city, the mobile sources were more important than the stationary ones. The total amounts of 1-NP and DNPs in airborne particulates seemed to correspond to their mutagenicity. Although the total amounts of 1-NP and DNPs in the air samples correlated with their mutagenicity, the major mutagenic chemicals in the airborne particulate samples from Kaohsiung City need further investigation.

  17. Closure Plan for the Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2007-09-01

    The Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RMWS) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) is managed and operated by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec) for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). This document is the first update of the interim closure plan for the Area 3 RWMS, which was presented in the Integrated Closure and Monitoring Plan (ICMP) (DOE, 2005). The format and content of this plan follows the Format and Content Guide for U.S. Department of Energy Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility Closure Plans (DOE, 1999a). The major updates to the plan include a new closure date, updated closure inventory, the new institutional control policy, and the Title II engineering cover design. The plan identifies the assumptions and regulatory requirements, describes the disposal sites and the physical environment in which they are located, presents the design of the closure cover, and defines the approach and schedule for both closing and monitoring the site. The Area 3 RWMS accepts low-level waste (LLW) from across the DOE Complex in compliance with the NTS Waste Acceptance Criteria (NNSA/NSO, 2006). The Area 3 RWMS accepts both packaged and unpackaged unclassified bulk LLW for disposal in subsidence craters that resulted from deep underground tests of nuclear devices in the early 1960s. The Area 3 RWMS covers 48 hectares (119 acres) and comprises seven subsidence craters--U-3ax, U-3bl, U-3ah, U-3at, U-3bh, U-3az, and U-3bg. The area between craters U-3ax and U-3bl was excavated to form one large disposal unit (U-3ax/bl); the area between craters U-3ah and U-3at was also excavated to form another large disposal unit (U-3ah/at). Waste unit U-3ax/bl is closed; waste units U-3ah/at and U-3bh are active; and the remaining craters, although currently undeveloped, are available for disposal of waste if required. This plan specifically addresses the closure of the U-3ah/at and the U-3bh LLW units. A final closure

  18. Potential for Subsidence at the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Area

    SciTech Connect

    Keck, K.A.; Seitz, R.R.

    2002-09-26

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management requires that DOE low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facilities receive a Disposal Authorization Statement (DAS) from DOE-Headquarters. The DAS for the LLW disposal facility at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) was granted in April 2000 and included a number of conditions that must be addressed. A maintenance plan (Schuman 2000) was prepared that identifies the tasks to be completed to address the conditions in the DAS as well as a schedule for their completion. The need for a subsidence analysis was one of the conditions identified for the DAS, and thus, a task to prepare a subsidence analysis was included in the maintenance plan. This document provides the information necessary to satisfy that requirement.

  19. 2010 Annual Summary Report for the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Management Sites at the Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2011-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office performed an annual review of the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) Performance Assessments (PAs) and Composite Analyses (CAs) in fiscal year (FY) 2010. This annual summary report presents data and conclusions from the FY 2010 review, and determines the adequacy of the PAs and CAs. Operational factors (e.g., waste forms and containers, facility design, and waste receipts), closure plans, monitoring results, and research and development (R&D) activities were reviewed to determine the adequacy of the PAs. Likewise, the environmental restoration activities at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) (formerly the Nevada Test Site) relevant to the sources of residual radioactive material that are considered in the CAs, the land-use planning, and the results of the environmental monitoring and R&D activities were reviewed to determine the adequacy of the CAs.

  20. Radioactivity in soils and sediments in and adjacent to the Los Alamos area, 1974-1977

    SciTech Connect

    Purtymun, W.D.; Peters, R.J.; Stoker, A.K.

    1980-02-01

    Soils and sediments are analyzed for gross alpha, gross beta, /sup 238/Pu, /sup 239/Pu, /sup 137/Cs, /sup 90/Sr, and total uranium as part of the continuing Environmental Monitoring Program at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. This report documents the levels of radioactivity of radionuclides in soils and sediments in northern New Mexico from natural sources and worldwide fallout as well as at seven on-site soil and sediment stations which contain radioactivity contributed by the Laboratory for the period 1974 through 1977.

  1. Adaption of the MODIS aerosol retrieval algorithm using airborne spectral surface reflectance measurements over urban areas: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jäkel, E.; Mey, B.; Levy, R.; Gu, X.; Yu, T.; Li, Z.; Althausen, D.; Heese, B.; Wendisch, M.

    2015-12-01

    MODIS (MOderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) retrievals of aerosol optical depth (AOD) are biased over urban areas, primarily because the reflectance characteristics of urban surfaces are different than that assumed by the retrieval algorithm. Specifically, the operational "dark-target" retrieval is tuned towards vegetated (dark) surfaces and assumes a spectral relationship to estimate the surface reflectance in blue and red wavelengths. From airborne measurements of surface reflectance over the city of Zhongshan, China, were collected that could replace the assumptions within the MODIS retrieval algorithm. The subsequent impact was tested upon two versions of the operational algorithm, Collections 5 and 6 (C5 and C6). AOD retrieval results of the operational and modified algorithms were compared for a specific case study over Zhongshan to show minor differences between them all. However, the Zhongshan-based spectral surface relationship was applied to a much larger urban sample, specifically to the MODIS data taken over Beijing between 2010 and 2014. These results were compared directly to ground-based AERONET (AErosol RObotic NETwork) measurements of AOD. A significant reduction of the differences between the AOD retrieved by the modified algorithms and AERONET was found, whereby the mean difference decreased from 0.27±0.14 for the operational C5 and 0.19±0.12 for the operational C6 to 0.10±0.15 and -0.02±0.17 by using the modified C5 and C6 retrievals. Since the modified algorithms assume a higher contribution by the surface to the total measured reflectance from MODIS, consequently the overestimation of AOD by the operational methods is reduced. Furthermore, the sensitivity of the MODIS AOD retrieval with respect to different surface types was investigated. Radiative transfer simulations were performed to model reflectances at top of atmosphere for predefined aerosol properties. The reflectance data were used as input for the retrieval methods. It

  2. Impact of fertilizers on background radioactivity level in two newly developed desert areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Fawzia

    A survey of soils and plants was carried out to determine the environmental gamma background radiation levels in two newly developed desert areas. The materials and the standards were analyzed by gamma spectroscopy; a shielded high purity germanium detector was used to measure the natural concentration of 238U, 232Th and 40K activities in the samples. The radionuclide content in some commercial fertilizers was determined. The results of the analysis of specific activities in the fertilizers under study were 1.27-950.09 Bq/kg for 238U, 0.73-162.16 Bq/kg for 232Th and 10.22-23845.24 Bq/kg for 40K. All natural soil samples showed low-activity concen-trations. The concentrations of 238U (6.13-38.84 Bq/kg) and 232Th (2.58-25.69 Bq/kg) are quite similar, whereas that of 40K (113.91-9314.11 Bq/kg) are much higher for plant samples. Some of the results obtained are larger than the permissible international radioactivity levels. It is suitable in this regard to compare the activity values of the imported fertilizers and that fabricated in Egypt. The absorbed dose rate was found to be 1.91-1027 nGy/h and the radium equivalent activity concentration was 4.02-1840.98 Bq/kg for fertilizer samples. Soil and plant sample results were 11.86-415E29 nGy/h and 24.20-750.52 Bq/kg for the absorbed dose rate and the radium equivalent activity concentration, respectively. Banana plant contains the largest values. This article presents actual data from investigations of the soil-plant transfer of the primordial radionuclides for some fruits growing on these soils. The transfer factors of 0.35-1.821 for 238U, 0.227-0.480 for 232Th and 1.95-31.85 for 40K were obtained. The increase of the transfer of 40K reflects its great uptake to the fruits. Observed soil-plant factors vary widely, mainly as a result of different soil, vegetation types and environmental conditions. Taking into account the transfer factors of 137Cs to plants, the measured activity concentrations of this isotope should not

  3. Airborne wireless communication systems, airborne communication methods, and communication methods

    DOEpatents

    Deaton, Juan D.; Schmitt, Michael J.; Jones, Warren F.

    2011-12-13

    An airborne wireless communication system includes circuitry configured to access information describing a configuration of a terrestrial wireless communication base station that has become disabled. The terrestrial base station is configured to implement wireless communication between wireless devices located within a geographical area and a network when the terrestrial base station is not disabled. The circuitry is further configured, based on the information, to configure the airborne station to have the configuration of the terrestrial base station. An airborne communication method includes answering a 911 call from a terrestrial cellular wireless phone using an airborne wireless communication system.

  4. Software Quality Assurance Plan for GoldSim Models Supporting the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites Performance Assessment Program

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory J. Shott, Vefa Yucel

    2007-01-03

    This Software Quality Assurance Plan (SQAP) applies to the development and maintenance of GoldSim models supporting the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) performance assessments (PAs) and composite analyses (CAs). Two PA models have been approved by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) as of November 2006 for the PA maintenance work undertaken by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec). NNSA/NSO asked NSTec to assume the custodianship of the models for future development and maintenance. The models were initially developed by Neptune and Company (N&C).

  5. Dynamic radioactive particle source

    DOEpatents

    Moore, Murray E.; Gauss, Adam Benjamin; Justus, Alan Lawrence

    2012-06-26

    A method and apparatus for providing a timed, synchronized dynamic alpha or beta particle source for testing the response of continuous air monitors (CAMs) for airborne alpha or beta emitters is provided. The method includes providing a radioactive source; placing the radioactive source inside the detection volume of a CAM; and introducing an alpha or beta-emitting isotope while the CAM is in a normal functioning mode.

  6. Airborne polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PBDD/Fs), and dechlorane plus (DP) in concentrated vehicle parking areas.

    PubMed

    Li, Huiru; Liu, Hehuan; Mo, Ligui; Sheng, Guoying; Fu, Jiamo; Peng, Ping'an

    2016-06-01

    This study investigated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PBDD/Fs), and dechlorane plus (DP) in air around three concentrated vehicle parking areas (underground, indoor, and outdoor) in a metropolitan of South China. The parking areas showed higher concentrations of PBDEs, PBDD/Fs, and DP than their adjacent urban area or distinct congener/isomer profiles, which indicate their local emission sources. The highest PBDE and DP concentrations were found in the outdoor parking lot, which might be related to the heating effect of direct sunlight exposure. Multi-linear regression analysis results suggest that deca-BDEs without noticeable transformation contributed most to airborne PBDEs in all studied areas, followed by penta-BDEs. The statistically lower anti-DP fractions in the urban area than that of commercial product signified its degradation/transformation during transportation. Neither PBDEs nor vehicle exhaust contributed much to airborne PBDD/Fs in the parking areas. There were 68.1-100 % of PBDEs, PBDD/Fs, and DP associated with particles. Logarithms of gas-particle distribution coefficients (K ps) of PBDEs were significantly linear-correlated with those of their sub-cooled vapor pressures (p Ls) and octanol-air partition coefficients (K OAs) in all studied areas. The daily inhalation doses of PBDEs, DP, and PBDD/Fs were individually estimated as 89.7-10,741, 2.05-39.4, and 0.12-4.17 pg kg(-1) day(-1) for employees in the parking areas via Monte Carlo simulation.

  7. Extraction of multilayer vegetation coverage using airborne LiDAR discrete points with intensity information in urban areas: A case study in Nanjing City, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Wenquan; Zhao, Shuhe; Feng, Xuezhi; Chen, Lei

    2014-08-01

    Urban vegetation is of a strategic importance for the life quality in the increasing urbanized societies. However, it is still difficult to extract accurately urban vegetation vertical distribution with remote sensing images. This paper presented an effective method to extract multilayer vegetation coverage in urban areas using airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) discrete points with intensity information. It was applied in Nanjing City, one of the ecological cities in China. Firstly, a median filtering algorithm based on discrete points was used to restrain high-frequency noise. The airborne LiDAR data intensities of different urban objects were analyzed and obtained three rules, which can distinguish between vegetation and non-vegetation in urban areas, after removing the influence of topography. According to the footprint size and principles of distribution of the point cloud, multilayer vegetation coverage, including trees, shrubs and grass, was achieved by the inverse distance weighting (IDW) interpolation method. The results show that the overall accuracy of the vegetation point classification is 94.57%, which is much accurate than that of the methods in TerraSolid software, through comparing with the investigation in the field and Digital Orthophoto Maps (DOM). This method proposed in our work can be applied to in the extraction of multilayer vegetation coverage in urban area.

  8. Highly reduced mass loss rates and increased litter layer in radioactively contaminated areas.

    PubMed

    Mousseau, Timothy A; Milinevsky, Gennadi; Kenney-Hunt, Jane; Møller, Anders Pape

    2014-05-01

    The effects of radioactive contamination from Chernobyl on decomposition of plant material still remain unknown. We predicted that decomposition rate would be reduced in the most contaminated sites due to an absence or reduced densities of soil invertebrates. If microorganisms were the main agents responsible for decomposition, exclusion of large soil invertebrates should not affect decomposition. In September 2007 we deposited 572 bags with uncontaminated dry leaf litter from four species of trees in the leaf litter layer at 20 forest sites around Chernobyl that varied in background radiation by more than a factor 2,600. Approximately one quarter of these bags were made of a fine mesh that prevented access to litter by soil invertebrates. These bags were retrieved in June 2008, dried and weighed to estimate litter mass loss. Litter mass loss was 40% lower in the most contaminated sites relative to sites with a normal background radiation level for Ukraine. Similar reductions in litter mass loss were estimated for individual litter bags, litter bags at different sites, and differences between litter bags at pairs of neighboring sites differing in level of radioactive contamination. Litter mass loss was slightly greater in the presence of large soil invertebrates than in their absence. The thickness of the forest floor increased with the level of radiation and decreased with proportional loss of mass from all litter bags. These findings suggest that radioactive contamination has reduced the rate of litter mass loss, increased accumulation of litter, and affected growth conditions for plants. PMID:24590204

  9. Alteration mineral mapping and metallogenic prediction using CASI/SASI airborne hyperspectral data in Mingshujing area of Gansu Province, NW China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yu; Zhao, Yingjun; Qin, Kai; Tian, Feng

    2016-04-01

    Hyperspectral remote sensing is a frontier of remote sensing. Due to its advantage of integrated image with spectrum, it can realize objects identification, superior to objects classification of multispectral remote sensing. Taken the Mingshujing area in Gansu Province of China as an example, this study extracted the alteration minerals and thus to do metallogenic prediction using CASI/SASI airborne hyperspectral data. The Mingshujing area, located in Liuyuan region of Gansu Province, is dominated by middle Variscan granites and Indosinian granites, with well developed EW- and NE-trending faults. In July 2012, our project team obtained the CASI/SASI hyperspectral data of Liuyuan region by aerial flight. The CASI hyperspectral data have 32 bands and the SASI hyperspectral data have 88 bands, with spectral resolution of 15nm for both. The hyperspectral raw data were first preprocessed, including radiometric correction and geometric correction. We then conducted atmospheric correction using empirical line method based on synchronously measured ground spectra to obtain hyperspectral reflectance data. Spectral dimension of hyperspectral data was reduced by the minimum noise fraction transformation method, and then purity pixels were selected. After these steps, image endmember spectra were obtained. We used the endmember spectrum election method based on expert knowledge to analyze the image endmember spectra. Then, the mixture tuned matched filter (MTMF) mapping method was used to extract mineral information, including limonite, Al-rich sericite, Al-poor sericite and chlorite. Finally, the distribution of minerals in the Mingshujing area was mapped. According to the distribution of limonite and Al-rich sericite mapped by CASI/SASI hyperspectral data, we delineated five gold prospecting areas, and further conducted field verification in these areas. It is shown that there are significant gold mineralized anomalies in surface in the Baixianishan and Xitan prospecting

  10. Hydrogeologic data for science trench boreholes at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    A program to conduct drilling, sampling, and laboratory testing was designed and implemented to obtain important physical, geochemical, and hydrologic property information for the near surface portion of thick unsaturated alluvial sediments at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS). These data are required to understand and simulate infiltration and redistribution of water as well as the transport of solutes in the immediate vicinity of existing and future low-level, mixed, and high-specific-activity waste disposal cells at the site. The program was designed specifically to meet data needs associated with a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Part B permit application for disposal of hazardous mixed waste, possible RCRA waivers involving mixed waste, DOE Order 5820.2A, ``Radioactive Waste Management,`` and 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 191 requirements for land disposal of radioactive waste. The hydrologic condition data, when combined with hydrologic property data, indicate that very little net liquid flow (if any) is occurring in the upper vadose zone, and the direction of movement is upward. It follows that vapor movement is probably the dominant mechanism of water transport in this upper region, except immediately following precipitation events.

  11. 2004 Annual Summary Report for the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Vefa Yucel

    2005-01-01

    The Maintenance Plan for the Performance Assessments and Composite Analyses for the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites at the Nevada Test Site (Bechtel Nevada, 2000) requires an annual review to assess the adequacy of the performance assessments (PAs) and composite analyses (CAs) for each of the facilities, and reports the results in an annual summary report to the U.S. Department of Energy Headquarters. The Disposal Authorization Statements for the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) also require that such reviews be made and that secondary or minor unresolved issues be tracked and addressed as part of the maintenance plan (U.S. Department of Energy [DOE]). The U.S. Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office performed annual reviews in fiscal year (FY) 2004 by evaluating operational factors and research results that impact the continuing validity of the PA and CA results. This annual summary report presents data and conclusions from the FY 2004 review, and determines the adequacy of the PAs and CAs. Operational factors, such as the waste form and containers, facility design, waste receipts, closure plans, as well as monitoring results and research and development (R&D) activities were reviewed in FY 2004 for the determination of the adequacy of the PAs. Likewise, the environmental restoration activities at the Nevada Test Site relevant to the sources of residual radioactive material that are considered in the CAs, the land-use planning, and the results of the environmental monitoring and R&D activities were reviewed for the determination of the adequacy of the CAs.

  12. 2006 Annual Summary Report for the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory J, Shott, Vefa Yucel

    2007-03-01

    The Maintenance Plan for the Performance Assessments and Composite Analyses for the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites at the Nevada Test Site (National Security Technologies, LLC, 2006) requires an annual review to assess the adequacy of the performance assessments (PAs) and composite analyses (CAs) for each of the facilities, with the results submitted as an annual summary report to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Headquarters. The Disposal Authorization Statements for the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) also require that such reviews be made and that secondary or minor unresolved issues be tracked and addressed as part of the maintenance plan (DOE, 2000; 2002). The DOE, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office performed annual reviews in fiscal year (FY) 2006 by evaluating operational factors and research results that impact the continuing validity of the PAs and CAs results. This annual summary report presents data and conclusions from the FY 2006 review, and determines the adequacy of the PAs and CAs. Operational factors, such as the waste form and containers, facility design, waste receipts, and closure plans, as well as monitoring results and research and development (R&D) activities, were reviewed in FY 2006 for determination of the adequacy of the PAs. Likewise, the environmental restoration activities at the Nevada Test Site relevant to the sources of residual radioactive material that are considered in the CAs, the land-use planning, and the results of the environmental monitoring and R&D activities were reviewed for determination of the adequacy of the CAs.

  13. Airborne Transparencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horne, Lois Thommason

    1984-01-01

    Starting from a science project on flight, art students discussed and investigated various means of moving in space. Then they made acetate illustrations which could be used as transparencies. The projection phenomenon made the illustrations look airborne. (CS)

  14. Maintenance Plan for the Performance Assessments and Composite Analyses for the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites at the NTS

    SciTech Connect

    Vefa Yucel

    2007-01-03

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Manual M 435.1-1 requires that performance assessments (PAs) and composite analyses (CAs) for low-level waste (LLW) disposal facilities be maintained by the field offices. This plan describes the activities performed to maintain the PA and the CA for the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). This plan supersedes the Maintenance Plan for the Performance Assessments and Composite Analyses for the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites at the Nevada Test Site (DOE/NV/11718--491-REV 1, dated September 2002). The plan is based on U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 435.1 (DOE, 1999a), DOE Manual M 435.1-1 (DOE, 1999b), the DOE M 435.1-1 Implementation Guide DOE G 435.1-1 (DOE, 1999c), and the Maintenance Guide for PAs and CAs (DOE, 1999d). The plan includes a current update on PA/CA documentation, a revised schedule, and a section on Quality Assurance.

  15. Characterization ReportOperational Closure Covers for the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtel Nevada Geotechnical Sciences

    2005-06-01

    Bechtel Nevada (BN) manages two low-level Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). The Area 3 RWMS is located in south-central Yucca Flat and the Area 5 RWMS is located about 15 miles south, in north-central Frenchman Flat. Though located in two separate topographically closed basins, they are similar in climate and hydrogeologic setting. The Area 5 RWMS uses engineered shallow-land burial cells to dispose of packaged waste, while the Area 3 RWMS uses subsidence craters formed from underground testing of nuclear weapons for the disposal of packaged and unpackaged bulk waste. Over the next several decades, most waste disposal units at both the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMSs are anticipated to be closed. Closure of the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMSs will proceed through three phases: operational closure, final closure, and institutional control. Many waste disposal units at the Area 5RWMS are operationally closed and final closure has been placed on one unit at the Area 3 RWMS (U-3ax/bl). Because of the similarities between the two sites (e.g., type of wastes, environmental factors, operational closure cover designs, etc.), many characterization studies and data collected at the Area 3 RWMS are relevant and applicable to the Area 5 RWMS. For this reason, data and closure strategies from the Area 3 RWMS are referred to as applicable. This document is an interim Characterization Report – Operational Closure Covers, for the Area 5 RWMS. The report briefly describes the Area 5 RWMS and the physical environment where it is located, identifies the regulatory requirements, reviews the approach and schedule for closing, summarizes the monitoring programs, summarizes characterization studies and results, and then presents conclusions and recommendations.

  16. Semi-Blind Source Separation for Estimation of Clay Content Over Semi-Vegetated Areas, from Vnir/swir Hyperspectral Airborne Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouerghemmi, W.; Gomez, C.; Nacer, S.; Lagacherie, P.

    2015-08-01

    The applicability of Visible, Near-Infrared and Short Wave Infrared (VNIR/SWIR) hyperspectral imagery for soil property mapping decreases when surfaces are partially covered by vegetation. The objective of this research was to develop and evaluate a methodology based on the "double-extraction" technique, for clay content estimation over semi-vegetated surfaces using VNIR/SWIR hyperspectral airborne data. The "double-extraction" technique initially proposed by Ouerghemmi et al. (2011) consists of 1) an extraction of a soil reflectance spectrum ssoil from semi-vegetated spectra using a Blind Source Separation technique, and 2) an extraction of clay content from the soil reflectance spectrum ssoil, using a multivariate regression method. In this paper, the Source Separation approach is Semi-Blind thanks to the integration of field knowledge in Source Separation model. And the multivariate regression method is a partial least squares regression (PLSR) model. This study employed VNIR/SWIR HyMap airborne data acquired in a French Mediterranean region over an area of 24 km2. Our results showed that our methodology based on the "double-extraction" technique is accurate for clay content estimation when applied to pixels under a specific Cellulose Absorption Index threshold. Finally the clay content can be estimated over around 70% of the semi-vegetated pixels of our study area, which may offer an extension of soil properties mapping, at the moment restricted to bare soils.

  17. An aerial survey of radioactivity associated with Atomic Energy plants

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, F.J.; Harlan, W.E.; Humphrey, P.A.; Kane, R.L.; Reinhardt, P.W.

    1992-09-02

    The project covered was an endeavor to (1) compare a group of laboratory instruments as airborne detectors of radioactivity and (2) simultaneously obtain data relative to the diffusion rate of radioactive contamination emitted into the atmosphere from off-gas stacks of production runs. Research was conducted in the Oak Ridge, Tennessee and Hanford, Washington areas. Detection was accomplished at a maximum distance of seventeen miles from the plant. Very little information of a conclusive nature was gained concerning the diffusion. Further research with the nuclear instruments, using a stronger source, is recommended. To obtain conclusive information concerning the meteorological aspects of the project, a larger observational program will be needed.

  18. Problems and Tasks of TRAINING at Courses for Enhancement of Qualification in the Radioactive Waste Management Area

    SciTech Connect

    Sobolev, I. A.; Dmitriev, S. A.; Batyukhnova, O. G.; Shcherbatova, T. D.; Ojovan, M. I.; Arustamov, A. E.

    2002-02-25

    Requirements to the professional competence of the personnel engaged in the area of the radioactive waste management are increased. Higher school cannot supply the branch with the qualified personnel; therefore special attention should be given to the system of staff retraining and to the increase of their qualification. In that paper the analysis of SIA ''Radon'' experience on the organization and carrying out training at courses of qualification improvement is represented. The main criterion of the analysis is the research of an education efficiency. Also here the basic directions of the training process improving are submitted as well as the requirements that should be considered when forming the teaching staff and trainees groups.

  19. Radioactive Waste Management - A Priority Thematic Area Within The Euratom 6th Framework Programme (2002-2006)

    SciTech Connect

    Raynal, M.; von Maravic, H.

    2003-02-24

    The European Union's Sixth Framework Programme for Research and Technological Development and the specific EURATOM Framework Programme for Research and Training in Nuclear Energy (2002-2006)-EURATOM FP6--are the major building blocks for the European Commission to strengthen the foundations of the European Research Area, an open market for knowledge and science in Europe. The absence of a broadly agreed approach for radioactive waste management and disposal in the European Union caused the European Commission to raise the issue to a priority key area of research and development within EURATOM FP6. The sub-programme is aimed at looking to a widely agreed approach to waste disposal and will explore also the technical and economic potential of concepts for nuclear energy generation able to make better use of fissile material and generate less waste. To achieve these goals, participating research institutions are invited to invest in durable and structured partnerships by implementing ''new instruments'' for projects--Integrated Projects and Network of Excellence. In 2002 the European Commission consulted the research community on its readiness to prepare actions that use these ''new instruments'' for research topics in the priority area ''management of radioactive waste'' to assist in preparation of the work programme 2002-2006 of the EURATOM FP6. In parallel and under the last call for proposals of EURATOM FP5 the Commission launched two topic-related ''Thematic Networks'' that are bringing European research forces together and will create potential interest for future development within FP6.

  20. Radioactively contaminated areas: Bioindicator species and biomarkers of effect in an early warning scheme for a preliminary risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Lourenço, Joana; Mendo, Sónia; Pereira, Ruth

    2016-11-01

    Concerns about the impacts on public health and on the natural environment have been raised regarding the full range of operational activities related to uranium mining and the rest of the nuclear fuel cycle (including nuclear accidents), nuclear tests and depleted uranium from military ammunitions. However, the environmental impacts of such activities, as well as their ecotoxicological/toxicological profile, are still poorly studied. Herein, it is discussed if organisms can be used as bioindicators of human health effects, posed by lifetime exposure to radioactively contaminated areas. To do so, information was gathered from several studies performed on vertebrates, invertebrate species and humans, living in these contaminated areas. The retrieved information was compared, to determine which are the most used bioindicators and biomarkers and also the similarities between human and non-human biota responses. The data evaluated are used to support the proposal for an early warning scheme, based on bioindicator species and on the most sensitive and commonly shared biomarkers, to perform a screening evaluation of radioactively contaminated sites. This scheme could be used to support decision-making for a deeper evaluation of risks to human health, making it possible to screen a large number of areas, without disturbing and alarming local populations.

  1. Radioactively contaminated areas: Bioindicator species and biomarkers of effect in an early warning scheme for a preliminary risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Lourenço, Joana; Mendo, Sónia; Pereira, Ruth

    2016-11-01

    Concerns about the impacts on public health and on the natural environment have been raised regarding the full range of operational activities related to uranium mining and the rest of the nuclear fuel cycle (including nuclear accidents), nuclear tests and depleted uranium from military ammunitions. However, the environmental impacts of such activities, as well as their ecotoxicological/toxicological profile, are still poorly studied. Herein, it is discussed if organisms can be used as bioindicators of human health effects, posed by lifetime exposure to radioactively contaminated areas. To do so, information was gathered from several studies performed on vertebrates, invertebrate species and humans, living in these contaminated areas. The retrieved information was compared, to determine which are the most used bioindicators and biomarkers and also the similarities between human and non-human biota responses. The data evaluated are used to support the proposal for an early warning scheme, based on bioindicator species and on the most sensitive and commonly shared biomarkers, to perform a screening evaluation of radioactively contaminated sites. This scheme could be used to support decision-making for a deeper evaluation of risks to human health, making it possible to screen a large number of areas, without disturbing and alarming local populations. PMID:27343869

  2. Microorganisms associated with feathers of barn swallows in radioactively contaminated areas around chernobyl.

    PubMed

    Czirják, Gábor Arpád; Møller, Anders Pape; Mousseau, Timothy A; Heeb, Philipp

    2010-08-01

    The Chernobyl catastrophe provides a rare opportunity to study the ecological and evolutionary consequences of low-level, environmental radiation on living organisms. Despite some recent studies about negative effects of environmental radiation on macroorganisms, there is little knowledge about the effect of radioactive contamination on diversity and abundance of microorganisms. We examined abundance patterns of total cultivable bacteria and fungi and the abundance of feather-degrading bacterial subset present on feathers of barn swallows (Hirundo rustica), a colonial migratory passerine, around Chernobyl in relation to levels of ground level environmental radiation. After controlling for confounding variables, total cultivable bacterial loads were negatively correlated with environmental radioactivity, whereas abundance of fungi and feather-degrading bacteria was not significantly related to contamination levels. Abundance of both total and feather-degrading bacteria increased with barn swallow colony size, showing a potential cost of sociality. Males had lower abundance of feather-degrading bacteria than females. Our results show the detrimental effects of low-level environmental radiation on total cultivable bacterial assemblage on feathers, while the abundance of other microorganism groups living on barn swallow feathers, such as feather-degrading bacteria, are shaped by other factors like host sociality or host sex. These data lead us to conclude that the ecological effects of Chernobyl may be more general than previously assumed and may have long-term implications for host-microbe interactions and overall ecosystem functioning.

  3. Distribution of leached radioactive material in the Legin Group Area, San Miguel County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rogers, Allen S.

    1950-01-01

    Radioactivity anomalies, which are small in magnitude, and probably are not caused by extensions of known uranium-vanadium ore bodies, were detected during the gamma-ray logging of diamond-drill holes in the Legin group of claims, southwest San Miguel County, Colo. The positions of these anomalies are at the top surfaces of mudstone strata within, and at the base of, the ore-bearing sandstone of the Salt Wash member of the Morrison formation. The distribution of these anomalies suggests that ground water has leached radioactive material from the ore bodies and has carried it down dip and laterally along the top surfaces of underlying impermeable mudstone strata for distance as great as 300 feet. The anomalies are probably caused by radon and its daughter elements. Preliminary tests indicate that radon in quantities up to 10-7 curies per liter may be present in ground water flowing along sandstone-mudstone contacts under carnotite ore bodies. In comparison, the radium content of the same water is less than 10-10 curies per liter. Further substantiation of the relationship between ore bodies, the movement of water, and the radon-caused anomalies may greatly increase the scope of gamma-ray logs of drill holes as an aid to prospecting.

  4. Airborne oceanographic lidar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Specifications and preliminary design of an Airborne Oceanographic Lidar (AOL) system, which is to be constructed for installation and used on a NASA Wallops Flight Center (WFC) C-54 research aircraft, are reported. The AOL system is to provide an airborne facility for use by various government agencies to demonstrate the utility and practicality of hardware of this type in the wide area collection of oceanographic data on an operational basis. System measurement and performance requirements are presented, followed by a description of the conceptual system approach and the considerations attendant to its development. System performance calculations are addressed, and the system specifications and preliminary design are presented and discussed.

  5. Management of the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site using Decision-based, Probabilistic Performance Assessment Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Carilli, J.; Crowe, B.; Black, P.; Tauxe, J.; Stockton, T.; Catlett, K.; Yucel, V.

    2003-02-27

    Low-level radioactive waste from cleanup activities at the Nevada Test Site and from multiple sites across the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex is disposed at two active Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMS) on the Nevada Test Site. These facilities, which are managed by the DOE National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, were recently designated as one of two regional disposal centers and yearly volumes of disposed waste now exceed 50,000 m3 (> 2 million ft3). To safely and cost-effectively manage the disposal facilities, the Waste Management Division of Environmental Management has implemented decision-based management practices using flexible and problem-oriented probabilistic performance assessment modeling. Deterministic performance assessments and composite analyses were completed originally for the Area 5 and Area 3 RWMSs located in, respectively, Frenchman Flat and Yucca Flat on the Nevada Test Site. These documents provide the technical bases for issuance of disposal authorization statements for continuing operation of the disposal facilities. Both facilities are now in a maintenance phase that requires testing of conceptual models, reduction of uncertainty, and site monitoring all leading to eventual closure of the facilities and transition to long-term stewardship.

  6. SAFETY ASPECTS RELATED TO THE RADIOACTIVELY CONTAMINATED FOREST AREAS IN BELARUS

    SciTech Connect

    SULLIVAN,T.; GIBBS,B.; ANDERSSON,K.G.; ROED,J.; RYMKEVICH,V.; BREKKE,D.

    1998-03-01

    Doses currently received in Belarus through various pathways related to the contamination of forests are evaluated through calculations. A major pathway is, as expected, generally found to be the external radiation from a contaminated forest floor. Also other pathways may in some cases be highly significant. Generally, it is found that the dose contributions to people spending time in the contaminated forest or consuming forest products are highest, whereas for instance doses received from domestic use of fire-wood are found to be negligible. Recommendations for storage of waste from combustion plants fired with radioactive forest material are also given, together with an estimate of the specific activity of the waste to be disposed of.

  7. Fourth Airborne Geoscience Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The focus of the workshop was on how the airborne community can assist in achieving the goals of the Global Change Research Program. The many activities that employ airborne platforms and sensors were discussed: platforms and instrument development; airborne oceanography; lidar research; SAR measurements; Doppler radar; laser measurements; cloud physics; airborne experiments; airborne microwave measurements; and airborne data collection.

  8. Evaluation of structural and geological factors in orogenic gold type mineralisation in the Kervian area, north-west Iran, using airborne geophysical data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almasi, Alireza; Jafarirad, Alireza; Kheyrollahi, Hasan; Rahimi, Mana; Afzal, Peyman

    2014-03-01

    The Piranshahr-Sardasht-Saqqez Zone (PSSZ) in the north-west of the Sanandaj-Sirjan metamorphic zone (SSZ) hosts some major Iranian gold deposits. In the south-east of PSSZ, there is a north-east trending orogenic gold belt which contains three gold deposits/occurrences (Qolqoleh, Kervian and Ghabaghloujeh). In this research, studies are focused on processing and analysing airborne magnetic and radiometric data in order to find applicable indicators for prospecting gold in this area. Former studies on the gold deposits/occurrences in the study area suggest three essential factors in local orogenic gold mineralisation: (1) intersecting deep bending structures/shear zones, (2) Fe-rich mafic meta-volcanic lithologies (primary source and host rocks) and (3) altered mylonitic granites (secondary host rock). Geological structures and lithological contacts can be mapped based on locating edges in the magnetic field at different depths. In this study, we extracted the structure from aeromagnetic data by reduction to the pole, upward continuation and applying a tilt derivative filter to the horizontal derivative of the upward continued data. Upward continuation was to several levels from 500 to 4000 m. Afterwards, a 3D architecture was built based on extracted subsurface lineaments in different levels. This 3D model can assist in the visualisation of the underground shape of structures that may influence gold mineralisation. Moreover, mafic meta-volcanic rocks in the study area, which contain magnetic minerals such as magnetite, titanomagnetite and ilmenite, can be mapped using aeromagnetic data. Mylonitic granites, which are the other host rock in the deposits, were mapped using airborne radiometric data.

  9. Environmental-Impact Assessment of Natural Radioactivity Around a Traditional Mining Area in Al-Ibedia, Sudan.

    PubMed

    Idriss, Hajo; Salih, Isam; Alaamer, Abdulaziz S; Saleh, Almuaiz; Abdelgali, M Y

    2016-05-01

    Recently, in the Sudan, traditional gold mining has been growing rapidly and has become a very attractive and popular economic activity. Mining activity is recognized as one of the sources of radioactivity contamination. Hence, the radioactivity concentration and radiological hazard due to exposure of radionuclides (226)Ra, (232)Th, and (40)K were evaluated. The measurements were performed using gamma-ray spectrometry with an NaI (Tl) detector. The results show that (226)Ra, (232)Th, and (40)K activity concentration ranged from 2.66 to 18.47, 9.20 to 51.87, and 0.17 to 419.77 Bq/kg with average values of 7.54 ± 4.91, 20.74 ± 11.29, and 111.87 ± 136.84 Bq/kg, respectively. In contrast, (222)Rn in soil, (222)Rn in air, and (226)Ra in vegetables along with radiation dose were computed and compared with the international recommended levels. Potential radiological effects to miners and the public due to (226)Ra, (232)Th, (40)K, and (222)Rn are insignificant. (226)Ra transferred to vegetables appears to be negligible compared with the allowable limit 1.0 mSv/year set by United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR). The average value of the annual gonadal dose equivalent (AGDE) is lower than the global average of 300 µSv/year (UNSCEAR 2000). However, some locations exhibit values >300 µSv/year. To the best of our knowledge, so far there seems to be no data regarding radioactivity monitoring in traditional mining areas in the Sudan. PMID:26979743

  10. Environmental-Impact Assessment of Natural Radioactivity Around a Traditional Mining Area in Al-Ibedia, Sudan.

    PubMed

    Idriss, Hajo; Salih, Isam; Alaamer, Abdulaziz S; Saleh, Almuaiz; Abdelgali, M Y

    2016-05-01

    Recently, in the Sudan, traditional gold mining has been growing rapidly and has become a very attractive and popular economic activity. Mining activity is recognized as one of the sources of radioactivity contamination. Hence, the radioactivity concentration and radiological hazard due to exposure of radionuclides (226)Ra, (232)Th, and (40)K were evaluated. The measurements were performed using gamma-ray spectrometry with an NaI (Tl) detector. The results show that (226)Ra, (232)Th, and (40)K activity concentration ranged from 2.66 to 18.47, 9.20 to 51.87, and 0.17 to 419.77 Bq/kg with average values of 7.54 ± 4.91, 20.74 ± 11.29, and 111.87 ± 136.84 Bq/kg, respectively. In contrast, (222)Rn in soil, (222)Rn in air, and (226)Ra in vegetables along with radiation dose were computed and compared with the international recommended levels. Potential radiological effects to miners and the public due to (226)Ra, (232)Th, (40)K, and (222)Rn are insignificant. (226)Ra transferred to vegetables appears to be negligible compared with the allowable limit 1.0 mSv/year set by United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR). The average value of the annual gonadal dose equivalent (AGDE) is lower than the global average of 300 µSv/year (UNSCEAR 2000). However, some locations exhibit values >300 µSv/year. To the best of our knowledge, so far there seems to be no data regarding radioactivity monitoring in traditional mining areas in the Sudan.

  11. Fiscal Year 2005 Annual Summary Report for the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Vefa Yucel

    2006-01-01

    The Performance Assessment (PA) maintenance plan requires an annual review to determine if current operations and conditions at the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) remain consistent with PA and composite analysis (CA) assumptions and models. This report summarizes the fiscal year (FY) 2005 annual review findings for the Area 3 RWMS PA only. The PA Maintenance Plan states that no annual review or summary reporting will be carried out in years that a PA or CA revision is undertaken (Bechtel Nevada [BN], 2002). Updated PA results for the Area 5 RWMS were published in an addendum to the Area 5 RWMS PA report in September 2005. A federal review of the draft addendum report took place in early FY 2006 (October November 2005). The review team found the addendum acceptable without conditions. The review team's recommendation will be presented to the Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility Federal Review Group in early 2006. The addendum was revised in January 2006 and incorporated comments from the review team (BN, 2006). Table 1 summarizes the updated Area 5 RWMS PA results presented in the addendum.

  12. Radionuclide Concentrations in Soils and Vegetation at Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Area G during the 1997 Growing Season

    SciTech Connect

    L. Naranjo, Jr.; P. R. Fresquez; R. J. Wechsler

    1998-08-01

    Soil and overstory and understory vegetation (washed and unwashed) collected at eight locations within and around Area G-a low-level radioactive solid-waste disposal facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory-were analyzed for 3H, 238Pu, 239Pu, 137CS, 234U, 235U, 228AC, Be, 214Bi, 60Co, 40& 54Mn, 22Na, 214Pb and 208Tl. In general, most radionuclide concentrations, with the exception of 3Ef and ~9Pu, in soils and overstory and understory vegetation collected from within and around Area G were within upper (95'%) level background concentrations. Although 3H concentrations in vegetation from most sites were significantly higher than background (>2 pCi mL-l), concentrations decreased markedly in comparison to last year's results. The highest `H concentration in vegetation was detected from a juniper tree that was growing over tritium shaft /+150; it contained 530,000 pCi 3H mL-l. Also, as in the pas~ the transuranic waste pad area contained the highest levels of 239Pu in soils and in understory vegetation as compared to other areas at Area G.

  13. Radionuclide concentrations in soils and vegetation at radioactive-waste disposal Area G during the 1996 growing season. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Fresquez, P.R.; Vold, E.L.; Naranjo, L. Jr.

    1997-07-01

    Soil and overstory and understory vegetation (washed and unwashed) collected at eight locations within and around Area G--a low-level radioactive solid-waste disposal facility at Los Alamos National laboratory--were analyzed for {sup 3}H, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 234}U, {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, {sup tot}U, {sup 228}Ac, {sup 214}Bi, {sup 60}Co, {sup 40}K, {sup 54}Mn, {sup 22}Na, {sup 214}Pb, and {sup 208}Tl. Also, heavy metals (Ag, As, Ba, Be, Cd, Cr, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, and Tl) in soil and vegetation were determined. In general, most radionuclide concentrations, with the exception of {sup 3}H and {sup 239}Pu, in soils and washed and unwashed overstory and understory vegetation collected from within and around Area G were within upper limit background concentrations. Tritium was detected as high as 14,744 pCi mL{sup {minus}1} in understory vegetation collected from transuranic (TRU) waste pad {number_sign}4, and the TRU waste pad area contained the highest levels of {sup 239}Pu in soils and in understory vegetation as compared to other areas at Area G.

  14. Decontamination and decommissioning of the Argonne National Laboratory East Area radioactively contaminated surplus facilities: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kline, W.H.; Fassnacht, G.F.; Moe, H.J.

    1987-07-01

    ANL has decontaminated and decommissioned (D and D) seven radiologically contaminated surplus facilities at its Illinois site: a ''Hot'' Machine Shop (Building 17) and support facilities; Fan House No. 1 (Building 37), Fan House No. 2 (Building 38), the Pangborn Dust Collector (Building 41), and the Industrial Waste Treatment Plant (Building 34) for exhaust air from machining of radioactive materials. Also included were a Nuclear Materials Storage Vault (Building 16F) and a Nuclear Research Laboratory (Building 22). The D and D work involved dismantling of all process equipment and associated plumbing, ductwork, drain lines, etc. After radiation surveys, floor and wall coverings, suspended ceilings, room partitions, pipe, conduit and electrical gear were taken down as necessary. In addition, underground sewers were excavated. The grounds around each facility were also thoroughly surveyed. Contaminated materials and soil were packaged and shipped to a low-level waste burial site, while nonactive debris was buried in the ANL landfill. Clean, reusable items were saved, and clean metal scrap was sold for salvage. After the decommissioning work, each building was torn down and the site relandscaped. The project was completed in 1985, ahead of schedule, with substantial savings.

  15. Mapping large areas of radioactively contaminated land with a self adapted, handheld, GPS coupled, scintillation detector.

    PubMed

    Paridaens, Johan

    2008-03-01

    In Belgium, during several decennia, a phosphate plant discharged radium chloride containing waste water into two small rivers. One of those is part of a hydrographically very complex ecosystem with lots of small tributaries and hundreds of hectares of flooding zones. Hence, the river banks and large parts of these flooding zones have become contaminated with radium, heavy metals and chlorides. During a foot campaign, using a home made portable data logging system, consisting of a commercial 2.5 kg NaI detector, a computer mouse sized GPS, and a small pocket PC, the radioactive contamination of about 600 ha of sometimes very rough terrain was measured and mapped. The resulting very detailed radium contamination maps shed a whole new light on the water flow patterns of the ecosystem. The apparatus can also be used for efficiently guiding sampling campaigns for investigating other types of contamination. The ground maps are also compared to existing maps from helicopter measurements, evaluating strengths and weaknesses from both methods. PMID:17904702

  16. Heavy Metal Content in Airborne Dust of Childhood Leukemia Cluster Areas: Even Small Towns Have Air Pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheppard, P. R.; Witten, M. L.

    2004-12-01

    Currently in the US, there are at least two ongoing clusters of childhood leukemia, where the incidence rate over the last several years has exceeded the national norm. In Fallon, Nevada, a town of 8,000 people, 16 children have been diagnosed with leukemia since 1995, three of whom have died. In Sierra Vista, Arizona, a town of 38,000 people, 12 children have been diagnosed since 1998, two of whom have died. A possible third cluster of childhood leukemia and other cancers is being monitored in Elk Grove, California, a suburb of Sacramento. For the purpose of characterizing the heavy metal content of airborne dust of these three communities, total suspended particulate samples were collected from each town as well as from nearby towns that could be considered as control comparisons. Sampling was done using portable high-volume blowers and glass- or quartz-fiber filter media. Filters were measured for elemental concentrations using inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. To date, our most notable results are from the Nevada region. Compared to other control towns in the region, Fallon had significantly more tungsten in its airborne dust. Uranium was also higher in dust of Fallon than in other control towns. Uranium is a known health hazard, though it is not necessarily specifically related to childhood leukemia. The role of tungsten in childhood leukemia has not been widely studied. However, other research has identified tungsten exposure as an environmental concern in Fallon. A CDC study of human tissue samples from Fallon has shown high tungsten levels in people of Fallon, and a USGS study of drinking water in Fallon also has shown high tungsten there. Tree-ring research on selected trees has shown high tungsten values in recent rings compared to earlier rings. While these multiple indications of tungsten in the Fallon environment do not directly lead to the conclusion that tungsten causes leukemia, they do combine to suggest that biomedical research on the

  17. [Contrast study on natural radioactive nuclides contents of rice between Xiangshan uranium deposit area, Jiangxi and non-uranium depsoit area].

    PubMed

    Liu, Ping-Hui; Ye, Chang-Sheng; Xie, Shu-Rong; Rui, Yu-Kui

    2009-07-01

    The contents of natural radioactive nuclides such as uranium and thorium in paddies were analyzed and compared by means of ICP-MS. Totally 14 paddy samples were distinguished into two groups and collected from two rice planting area. One group (12 paddy samples) was collected from the Xiangshan uranium deposit area, Jiangxi province; while the other group (2 samples) collected from non-uranium deposit suburban area of Fuzhou city, Jiangxi, as comparison samples. The distance between the two sampling areas is about 80 kilometers. Before analysis, those paddy samples were continuously carbonized by two hours first, then continuously incinerated for 8 hours at the temperature of 600 degrees centigrade. The results show that the uranium contents in the paddy ash of samples gotten from Xiangshan uranium deposit area range from 0.053 to 1.482 microg x g(-1). The uranium contents of two comparison paddy samples ash are 0.059 and 0.061 microg x g(-1), respectiovely. The average uranium content of paddy ash of uranium deposit area is 0.323 microg x g(-1). Compared with the comparison samples, the uranium contents of paddy ash of uranium deposit area are considerably high, 5.30 times that of non-uranium deposit area. The thorium contents in paddy ash of the uranium deposit area, however, are relatively low and less than that of samples collected from non-uranium deposit area, which range from 0.029 to 0.311 microg x g(-1); The average level is 0.104 microg x g(-1), only about 50% of that of paddy ash sampled from non-urnaium deposit area. Moreover, there is significant linearity correlation between uranium and thorium contents of paddy sampled from Xiangshan uranium deposit area. The positive effects show that the thorium contents of paddy increase as uranium contents of paddy in uranium deposit area increase. The causes for the remarkable difference in uranium contents in paddy between urianium deposit area and non-uranium deposit area are not clear yet. The research on

  18. Integrated Closure and Monitoring Plan for the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    S. E. Rawlinson

    2001-09-01

    Bechtel Nevada (BN) manages two low-level Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) (one site is in Area 3 and the other is in Area 5) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) for the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office (NNSA/NV). The current DOE Order governing management of radioactive waste is 435.1. Associated with DOE Order 435.1 is a Manual (DOE M 435.1-1) and Guidance (DOE G 435.1-1). The Manual and Guidance specify that preliminary closure and monitoring plans for a low-level waste (LLW) management facility be developed and initially submitted with the Performance Assessment (PA) and Composite Analysis (CA) for that facility. The Manual and Guidance, and the Disposal Authorization Statement (DAS) issued for the Area 3 RWMS further specify that the preliminary closure and monitoring plans be updated within one year following issuance of a DAS. This Integrated Closure and Monitoring Plan (ICMP) fulfills both requirements. Additional updates will be conducted every third year hereafter. This document is an integrated plan for closing and monitoring both RWMSs, and is based on guidance issued in 1999 by the DOE for developing closure plans. The plan does not follow the format suggested by the DOE guidance in order to better accommodate differences between the two RWMSs, especially in terms of operations and site characteristics. The modification reduces redundancy and provides a smoother progression of the discussion. The closure and monitoring plans were integrated because much of the information that would be included in individual plans is the same, and integration provides efficient presentation and program management. The ICMP identifies the regulatory requirements, describes the disposal sites and the physical environment where they are located, and defines the approach and schedule for both closing and monitoring the sites.

  19. The use of airborne hyperspectral data for tree species classification in a species-rich Central European forest area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, Ronny; Reu, Björn; Wirth, Christian; Doktor, Daniel; Vohland, Michael

    2016-10-01

    The success of remote sensing approaches to assess tree species diversity in a heterogeneously mixed forest stand depends on the availability of both appropriate data and suitable classification algorithms. To separate the high number of in total ten broadleaf tree species in a small structured floodplain forest, the Leipzig Riverside Forest, we introduce a majority based classification approach for Discriminant Analysis based on Partial Least Squares (PLS-DA), which was tested against Random Forest (RF) and Support Vector Machines (SVM). The classifier performance was tested on different sets of airborne hyperspectral image data (AISA DUAL) that were acquired on single dates in August and September and also stacked to a composite product. Shadowed gaps and shadowed crown parts were eliminated via spectral mixture analysis (SMA) prior to the pixel-based classification. Training and validation sets were defined spectrally with the conditioned Latin hypercube method as a stratified random sampling procedure. In the validation, PLS-DA consistently outperformed the RF and SVM approaches on all datasets. The additional use of spectral variable selection (CARS, "competitive adaptive reweighted sampling") combined with PLS-DA further improved classification accuracies. Up to 78.4% overall accuracy was achieved for the stacked dataset. The image recorded in August provided slightly higher accuracies than the September image, regardless of the applied classifier.

  20. Radionuclide Concentration in Soils and Vegetation at Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Area G during 2005

    SciTech Connect

    P.R. Fresquez; M.W. McNaughton; M.J. Winch

    2005-10-01

    Soil samples were collected at 15 locations and unwashed overstory and understory vegetation samples were collected from up to nine locations within and around the perimeter of Area G, the primary disposal facility for low-level radioactive solid waste at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Soil and plant samples were also collected from the proposed expansion area west of Area G for the purpose of gaining preoperational baseline data. Soil and plant samples were analyzed for radionuclides that have shown a history of detection in past years; these included {sup 3}H, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239,240}Pu, {sup 241}Am, {sup 234}U, {sup 235}U, and {sup 238}U for soils and {sup 3}H, {sup 238}Pu, and {sup 239,240}Pu for plants. As in previous years, the highest levels of {sup 3}H in soils and vegetation were detected at the south portion of Area G near the {sup 3}H shafts; whereas, the highest concentrations of the Pu isotopes were detected in the northern and northeastern portions near the pads for transuranic waste. All concentrations of radionuclides in soils and vegetation, however, were still very low (pCi range) and far below LANL screening levels and regulatory standards.

  1. Radionuclide concentrations in/on vegetation at radioactive-waste disposal Area G during the 1995 growing season. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Fresquez, P.R.; Vold, E.L.; Naranjo, L. Jr.

    1996-03-01

    Overstory (pinon pine) and understory (grass and forb) vegetation were collected within and around selected points at Area G--a low- level radioactive solid-waste disposal facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory--for the analysis of tritium ({sup 3}H), strontium ({sup 90}Sr), plutonium ({sup 238}Pu and {sup 239}Pu), cesium ({sup 137}Cs), and total uranium. Also, heavy metals (Ag, As, Ba, Be, Cd, Cr, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, and Tl) in/on vegetation were determined. In general, most (unwashed) vegetation collected within and around Area G contained {sup 3}H, uranium, {sup 238}Pu, and {sup 239}Pu in higher concentrations than vegetation collected from background areas. Tritium, in particular, was detected as high as 7300 pCi mL{sup -1} in understory vegetation collected from the west side of the transuranic (TRU) pads. The south and west ends of the tritium shaft field also contained elevated levels of {sup 3}H in overstory, and especially in understory vegetation, as compared to background; this suggests that {sup 3}H may be migrating from this waste repository through surface and subsurface pathways. Also, understory vegetation collected north of the TRU pads (adjacent to the fence line of Area G) contained the highest values of {sup 238}Pu and {sup 239}Pu as compared to background, and may be a result of surface holding, storage, and/or disposal activities.

  2. 2007 Annual Summary Report for the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2008-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of an annual review of conditions affecting the operation of the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) and a determination of the continuing adequacy of the performance assessments (PAs) and composite analyses (CAs). The Area 5 RWMS PA documentation consists of the original PA (Shott et al., 1998), referred to as the 1998 Area 5 RWMS PA and supporting addenda (Bechtel Nevada [BN], 2001b; 2006a). The Area 5 RWMS CA was issued as a single document (BN, 2001a) and has a single addendum (BN, 2001c). The Area 3 PA and CA were issued in a single document (Shott et al., 2000). The Maintenance Plan for the PAs and CAs (National Security Technologies, LLC [NSTec], 2006) and the Disposal Authorization Statements (DASs) for the Area 3 and 5 RWMSs (U.S. Department of Energy [DOE], 2000; 2002) require preparation of an annual summary and a determination of the continuing adequacy of the PAs and CAs. The annual summary report is submitted to DOE Headquarters. Following the annual report format in the DOE PA/CA Maintenance Guide (DOE, 1999), this report presents the annual summary for the PAs in Section 2.0 and the CAs in Section 3.0. The annual summary for the PAs includes the following: Section 2.1 summarizes changes in waste disposal operations; Section 2.1.5 provides an evaluation of the new estimates of the closure inventories derived from the actual disposals through fiscal year (FY) 2007; Section 2.2 summarizes the results of the monitoring conducted under the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office's (NNSA/NSO's) Integrated Closure and Monitoring Plan for the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites at the Nevada Test Site (BN, 2005), and the research and development (R&D) activities; Section 2.4 is a summary of changes in facility design, operation, or expected future conditions; monitoring and R&D activities; and the maintenance program; and Section 2

  3. Seasonal trends in environmental tritium concentrations in a small forest adjacent to a radioactive waste storage area

    SciTech Connect

    Amano, H. ); Garten, C.T. Jr. . Environmental Sciences Div.)

    1992-03-01

    Tritium (HTO) concentrations were studied for an entire year in a floodplain forest adjacent to a low-level radioactive solid waste storage areas (SWSA No. 5) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) near Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA. Tritium in soil was the principal source of HTO to the deciduous forest. Evaporation from the surface soil along with transpiration from tree leaves both contributed to HTO in the forest atmosphere. During the growing season, transpiration was the principal contributor of HTO to the forest atmosphere, while during he dormant season, the main source of atmospheric HTO was evaporation from the surface soil. This paper discovers seasonal changes and the characteristics of vegetation which will influence the relative importance of evaporation and transpiration as sources of atmospheric HTO near the ground in temperate deciduous forests.

  4. Seasonal trends in environmental tritium concentrations in a small forest adjacent to a radioactive waste storage area

    SciTech Connect

    Amano, Hikaru ); Garten, C.T. Jr. )

    1991-01-01

    Tritium (HTO) concentrations were studied for an entire year in a floodplain forest adjacent to a low-level radioactive solid waste storage area (SWSA No. 5) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) near Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA. Tritium in soil was the principal source of HTO to the deciduous forest. Evaporation from the surface soil along with transpiration from trees leaves both contributed to HTO in the forest atmosphere. During the growing season, transpiration was the principal contributor of HTO to the forest atmosphere, while during the dormant season, the main source of atmospheric HTO was evaporation from the surface soil. Seasonal changes and the characteristics of vegetation will influence the relative importance of evaporation and transpiration as sources of atmospheric HTO near the ground in temperate deciduous forests. 8 refs., 9 figs.

  5. Addendum 1 Composite Analysis for the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Vefa Yucel

    2001-11-01

    A disposal authorization statement (DAS) was issued by the U.S. Department of Energy/Headquarters (DOE/HQ) on December 5, 2000, authorizing the DOE's National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office to continue the operation of the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada Test Site for the disposal of low-level waste and mixed low-level waste. Prior to the issuance of the DAS, the Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility Federal Review Group (LFRG) had conducted reviews of the performance assessment (PA) and the composite analysis (CA) for the Area 5 RWMS, in accordance with the requirements of the DOE Radioactive Waste Management Order DOE O 435.1. A brief history of the reviews is as follows. (The reviews were conducted by independent review teams chartered by the LFRG; the review findings and recommendations were issued in review team reports to the LFRG.) The LFRG accepted the initial PA, with conditions, on August 30, 1996. Revision 2.1 to the PA was issued in January 1998, implementing the conditions of acceptance of the 1996 PA. The LFRG reviewed Revision 2.1 as part of the Area 5 RWMS CA review during 2000, and found it acceptable. The CA and the Supplemental Information provided in response to issues identified during the initial review of the CA were accepted by the LFRG. The Supplemental Information (including the responses to four key issues) is included in the Review Team Report to the LFRG, which recommends that it be incorporated into the CA and issued to all known holders of the CA. The Area 5 RWMS DAS requires that the Supplemental Information generated during the DOE/HQ review of the CA be incorporated into the CA within one year of the date of issuance of the DAS. This report, the first addendum to the Area 5 CA, is prepared to fulfill that requirement. The Supplemental Information includes the following: Issues Identified in the Review Team Report; Crosswalk Presentation; and Maintaining Doses As Low As Reasonably

  6. Native Plant Uptake Model for Radioactive Waste Disposal Areas at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    BROWN,THERESA J.; WIRTH,SHARON

    1999-09-01

    This report defines and defends the basic framework, methodology, and associated input parameters for modeling plant uptake of radionuclides for use in Performance Assessment (PA) activities of Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMS) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). PAs are used to help determine whether waste disposal configurations meet applicable regulatory standards for the protection of human health, the environment, or both. Plants adapted to the arid climate of the NTS are able to rapidly capture infiltrating moisture. In addition to capturing soil moisture, plant roots absorb nutrients, minerals, and heavy metals, transporting them within the plant to the above-ground biomass. In this fashion, plant uptake affects the movement of radionuclides. The plant uptake model presented reflects rooting characteristics important to plant uptake, biomass turnover rates, and the ability of plants to uptake radionuclides from the soil. Parameters are provided for modeling plant uptake and estimating surface contaminant flux due to plant uptake under both current and potential future climate conditions with increased effective soil moisture. The term ''effective moisture'' is used throughout this report to indicate the soil moisture that is available to plants and is intended to be inclusive of all the variables that control soil moisture at a site (e.g., precipitation, temperature, soil texture, and soil chemistry). Effective moisture is a concept used to simplify a number of complex, interrelated soil processes for which there are too little data to model actual plant available moisture. The PA simulates both the flux of radionuclides across the land surface and the potential dose to humans from that flux. Surface flux is modeled here as the amount of soil contamination that is transferred from the soil by roots and incorporated into aboveground biomass. Movement of contaminants to the surface is the only transport mechanism evaluated with the model presented here

  7. Hyperspectral laboratory and airborne measurements as tools for local mapping of swelling soils in Orléans area (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grandjean, Gilles; Dufrechou, Gregory; Hohmann, Audrey

    2013-04-01

    Swelling soils contain clay minerals that change volume with water content and cause extensive and expensive damage on infrastructures. Based on spatial distribution of infrastructure damages and existing geological maps, the Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Minières (BRGM, the French Geological Survey) published in 2010 a 1:50 000 swelling hazard map of France. This map indexes the territory to low, intermediate, or high swell susceptibility, but does not display smallest and isolated clays lithologies. At local scale, identification of clay minerals and characterization of swell potential of soils using conventional soil analysis (DRX, chemical, and geotechnical analysis) are slow, expensive, and does not permit integrated measurements. Shortwave infrared (SWIR: 1100-2500 nm) spectral domains are characterized by significant spectral absorption bands that provide an underused tool for estimate the swell potential of soils. Reflectance spectroscopy, using an ASD Fieldspec Pro spectrometer, permits a rapid and less expensive measurement of soil reflectance spectra in the field and laboratory. In order to produce high precision map of expansive soils, the BRGM aims to optimize laboratory reflectance spectroscopy for mapping swelling soils. Geotechnical use of laboratory reflectance spectroscopy for local characterization of swell potential of soils could be assessable from an economical point of view. A new high resolution airborne hyperspectral survey (covering ca. 280 km², 380 channels ranging from 400 to 2500 nm) located at the W of Orléans (Loiret, France) will also be combined with field and laboratory measurements to detect and map swelling soils.

  8. Maintenance Plan for the Performance Assessments and Composite Analyses for the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    V. Yucel

    2002-09-01

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 435.1 requires that performance assessments (PAs) and composite analyses (CAs) for low-level waste (LLW) disposal facilities be maintained by the field offices. This plan describes the activities to be performed in maintaining the Performance Assessment (PA) and Composite Analysis (CA) for the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The Disposal Authorization Statement (DAS) for the continuing operations of a LLW facility at the DOE complex specifies the conditions for operations based on approval of a PA and CA, and requires the facility to implement a maintenance program to assure that these conditions will remain protective of the public health and the environment in the future. The goal of the maintenance program is to provide that assurance. The maintenance process is an iterative one in which changing conditions may result in a revision of PA and CA; the revised PA and CA may impose a different set of conditions for facility operation, closure, and postclosure. The maintenance process includes managing uncertainty, performing annual reviews, submitting annual summary reports to DOE Headquarters (DOE/HQ), carrying out special analyses, and revising the PAs and CAs, if necessary. Management of uncertainty is an essential component of the maintenance program because results of the original PAs and CAs are understood to be based on uncertain assumptions about the conceptual models; the mathematical models and parameters; and the future state of the lands, disposal facilities, and human activities. The annual reviews for the PAs include consideration of waste receipts, facility specific factors, results of monitoring, and results of research and development (R&D) activities. Likewise, results of ongoing R&D, changes in land-use planning, new information on known sources of residual radioactive materials, and identification of new sources may warrant an evaluation to determine

  9. Airborne and ground reconnaissance of part of the syenite complex near Wausau, Marathon county, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vickers, R.C.

    1955-01-01

    Airborne and ground reconnaissance for radioactive minerals in part of the syenite complex near Wausau, Marathon county, Wis., found 12 radioactive mineral localities. The rocks in the area are of Precambrian age and consist of syenite and nepheline syenite, which have intruded older granite, greenstone, quartzite, and argillite. There are very few outcrops, and much of the bedrock is deeply weathered and covered by residual soil. Thorium-bearing zircon pegatite float was found within the area of syenite and nepheline syenite at four localities. Reddish-brown euhedral to subeuhedral crystals of well-zoned zircon (variety cyrtolite) comprise more than 40 percent of some of the specimens. The radioactive mineral at four localities outside the area of syneites was identified as thorogummite, which occurred in nodular masses in residual soil. Alinement of the thorogummite float and associated radioactivity suggests that the thorogummite has resulted from weathering of narrow veins or pegmatites containing thorium-bearing minerals. Unidentified thorium-bearing minerals were found at three localities, and a specimen of allanite weighing about 2 pounds was found at one locality. Shallow trenches at two of the largest radioactivity anomalies showed that the radioactive material extended down into weathered bedrock. The occurrences might warrant additional physical exploration should there be sufficient demand for thorium. Further reconnaissance in the area would probably result in the discovery of additional occurrences.

  10. Evaluation of radioactive exposure from 137Cs in contaminated areas of Northern Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Handl, J; Beltz, D; Botsch, W; Harb, S; Jakob, D; Michel, R; Romantschuk, L D

    2003-04-01

    The paper gives averages of 137Cs deposition densities in soils from three areas in Northern Ukraine measured 12 to 15 y following the Chernobyl accident: in an area near Narodici (75 km west of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in the so-called zone II) heavily contaminated by the Chernobyl fall-out and in areas around Korosten and Zhitomir showing contamination levels to be much lower. The three areas exhibited very different 137Cs deposition densities of 2.2 MBq m(-2), 400 kBq m(-2), and 5 kBq m(-2), respectively. During a 1-y observation, measurements of the 137Cs transfer in the food chain to humans and 137Cs whole body contents dependent on the 137Cs daily intake were carried out under realistic conditions of the rural inhabitants who lived in settlements within zone II. Detailed investigations of components of the daily diet showed that the high 137Cs contamination levels found in soils of zone II do not affect in any way low 137Cs concentrations of all important agricultural products harvested and consumed by villagers. With regard to consumption habits of the population of zone II, mushrooms and wild berries were found to contribute more than 95% of the 137Cs daily intake to the 137Cs whole body content of about 12 kBq (with maximum values up to 760 kBq) measured in a group of inhabitants of zone II during a period from July 1998 to July 1999. The median of the annual dose of these inhabitants from external and internal exposures was 1.2 mSv y(-1) with a geometric standard deviation of 2.6. Excluding extreme habits, the geometric mean of the total exposure was 1.0 mSv y(-1) with a geometric standard deviation of 1.3. PMID:12705449

  11. Evaluation of radioactive exposure from 137Cs in contaminated areas of Northern Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Handl, J; Beltz, D; Botsch, W; Harb, S; Jakob, D; Michel, R; Romantschuk, L D

    2003-04-01

    The paper gives averages of 137Cs deposition densities in soils from three areas in Northern Ukraine measured 12 to 15 y following the Chernobyl accident: in an area near Narodici (75 km west of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in the so-called zone II) heavily contaminated by the Chernobyl fall-out and in areas around Korosten and Zhitomir showing contamination levels to be much lower. The three areas exhibited very different 137Cs deposition densities of 2.2 MBq m(-2), 400 kBq m(-2), and 5 kBq m(-2), respectively. During a 1-y observation, measurements of the 137Cs transfer in the food chain to humans and 137Cs whole body contents dependent on the 137Cs daily intake were carried out under realistic conditions of the rural inhabitants who lived in settlements within zone II. Detailed investigations of components of the daily diet showed that the high 137Cs contamination levels found in soils of zone II do not affect in any way low 137Cs concentrations of all important agricultural products harvested and consumed by villagers. With regard to consumption habits of the population of zone II, mushrooms and wild berries were found to contribute more than 95% of the 137Cs daily intake to the 137Cs whole body content of about 12 kBq (with maximum values up to 760 kBq) measured in a group of inhabitants of zone II during a period from July 1998 to July 1999. The median of the annual dose of these inhabitants from external and internal exposures was 1.2 mSv y(-1) with a geometric standard deviation of 2.6. Excluding extreme habits, the geometric mean of the total exposure was 1.0 mSv y(-1) with a geometric standard deviation of 1.3.

  12. Airborne gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey, Durango A, B, C, and D, Colorado. Volume I. Detail area. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    An airborne combined radiometric and magnetic survey was performed for the Department of Energy (DOE) over the Durango A, Durango B, Durango C, and Durango D Detail Areas of southwestern Colorado. The Durango A Detail Area is within the coverage of the Needle Mountains and Silverton 15' map sheets, and the Pole Creek Mountain, Rio Grande Pyramid, Emerald Lake, Granite Peak, Vallecito Reservoir, and Lemon Reservoir 7.5' map sheets of the National Topographic Map Series (NTMS). The Durango B Detail Area is within the coverage of the Silverton 15' map sheet and the Wetterhorn Peak, Uncompahgre Peak, Lake City, Redcloud Peak, Lake San Cristobal, Pole Creek Mountain, and Finger Mesa 7.5' map sheets of the NTMS. The Durango C Detail Area is within the coverage of the Platoro and Wolf Creek Pass 15' map sheets of the NTMS. The Durango D Detail Area is within the coverage of the Granite Lake, Cimarrona Peak, Bear Mountain, and Oakbrush Ridge 7.5' map sheets of the NTMS. Radiometric data were corrected for live time, aircraft and equipment background, cosmic background, atmospheric radon, Compton scatter, and altitude dependence. The corrected data were statistically evaluated, gridded, and contoured to produce maps of the radiometric variables, uranium, potassium, and thorium; their ratios; and the residual magnetic field. These maps have been analyzed in order to produce a multi-variant analysis contour map based on the radiometric response of the individual geological units. A geochemical analysis has been performed, using the radiometric and magnetic contour maps, the multi-variant analysis map, and factor analysis techniques, to produce a geochemical analysis map for the area.

  13. Radioactivity method.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duval, J.S.

    1980-01-01

    Radioactivity measurements have played an important role in geophysics since about 1935, and they have increased in importance to the present. The most important areas of application have been in petroleum and uranium exploration. Radioactivity measurements have proved useful in geologic mapping, as well as in specialized applications such as reactor-site monitoring. The technological development of the method has reached a plateau, and the future of the method for some applications will depend upon development of more sophisticated data processing and interpretation. -Author

  14. [Mental and physical development of children living in the area of monitoring pollution from a plant for processing and long-term storage of radioactive waste].

    PubMed

    Kirillov, V F; Popova, O L; Mikhaĭlov, A I; Bobrishcheva-Pushkina, N D; Kuznetsova, L Iu; Silaev, A A

    2010-01-01

    Environmental conditions in the area hosting a plant for processing and long storage of low- to moderately-active radioactive waste are described as reasonably safe. Residence in the area does not exert negative influence on the physical and mental development of children. Several indicators of physical development give better estimates than at the control territory. The difference can be accounted for by a better social situation in the study area (housing conditions, financial standing, food patterns, general lifestyle). PMID:21395055

  15. Westinghouse Hanford Company effluent report for 300, 400, and 1100 Area operations for calendar year 1989

    SciTech Connect

    McCarthy, M.J.

    1990-09-01

    The report tabulates both radioactive and nonradioactive liquid and airborne effluent data for 300, 400, and 1100 Area operations at the Hanford Site. The 300 Area is primarily a research and development area. The 400 Area houses the Fast Flux Test Facility. The 1100 Area contains central stores and vehicle maintenance facilities. Releases to the environment from Westinghouse Hanford Company operations within these areas during calendar year 1989 were both consistent with previous years and within regulatory limits. 2 refs., 10 tabs.

  16. Radioactivity measurements in the environment of the Udhampur area, Jammu and Kashmir Himalayas, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Ajay; Kumar, Arvind; Singh, Yudhvir; Singh, Kawaljit; Kumar, Vinod; Singh, Surinder

    LR-115 plastic track detectors have been used for the measurement of radon exhalation rate and radium concentration in soil samples collected from some villages of the Udhampur district, Jammu and Kashmir, India. Uranium concentration has also been determined in these soil samples using the fission track registration technique. Radium concentration in soil samples varies from 5.46 to 19.17 Bqkg-1, whereas uranium concentration varies from 2.53 to 3.65 ppm. The radon exhalation rate in these samples has been found to vary from 6.42 to 22.47 mB kg-1 hr-1. The work is undertaken for health risk assessments due to uranium and radium in the study area. A positive correlation has been observed between uranium and radium, as well as uranium and radon exhalation rate in soil samples.

  17. Infiltration control for low-level radioactive solid waste disposal areas: an assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Arora, H.S.

    1980-11-01

    The primary mode of radionuclide transport from shallow land-disposal sites for low-level wastes can be traced to infiltration of precipitation. This report examines the factors that affect surface water entry and movement in the ground and assesses available infiltration-control technology for solid-waste-disposal sites in the humid eastern portion of the United States. A survey of the literature suggests that a variety of flexible and rigid liner systems are available as barriers for the stored waste and would be effective in preventing water infiltration. Installation of near-surface seals of bentonite clay admixed with dispersive chemicals seem to offer the required durability and low permeability at a reasonable cost. The infiltration rate in a bentonite-sealed area may be further retarded by the application of dispersive chemicals that can be easily admixed with the surface soil. Because the effectiveness of a dispersive chemical for infiltration reduction is influenced by the physico-chemical properties of the soil, appropriate laboratory tests should be conducted prior to field application.

  18. [Present-day 90Sr and 137Cs contamination levels of soil and agricultural products in the East-Urals Radioactive Trace area].

    PubMed

    Kazachenok, N N; Popova, I Ia; Kostiuchenko, V A; Mel'nikov, V S; Usol'tsev, D V

    2009-01-01

    Data represent present-day 90Sr and 137Cs contamination levels of soil and agricultural products (grain, vegetables and forage crops, milk and meat) in the East-Urals Radioactive Trace area, and the accumulation coefficients of these radionuclides in cash crop.

  19. Spatial-temporal variations, sources, and transport of airborne inhalable metals (PM10) in urban and rural areas of northern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, X. S.; Ip, C. C. M.; Li, W.; Tao, S.; Li, X. D.

    2014-05-01

    Atmospheric particle pollution is a serious environmental issue in China, especially the northern regions. Ambient air loadings (ng m-3), pollution sources and apportionment, and transport pathways of trace (Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, V, and Zn) and major (Al, Ca, Fe, and Mg) metals associated with inhalable particulate matters (PM10 aerosols) were characterized in urban, rural village, and rural field areas of seven cities (from inland in the west to the coast in the east: Wuwei, Yinchuan, Taiyuan, Beijing, Dezhou, Yantai, and Dalian) across northern China by taking one 72 h sample each site within a month for a whole year (April 2010 to March 2011). Ambient PM10 pollution in northern China is especially significant in the cold season (October-March) due to the combustion of coal for heating and dust storms in the winter and spring. Owing to variations in emission intensity and meteorological conditions, there is a trend of decrease in PM10 levels in cities from west to east. Both air PM10 and the associated metal loadings for urban and rural areas were comparable, showing that the current pattern of regional pollution in China differs from the decreasing urban-rural-background transect that is usual in other parts of the world. The average metal levels are Zn (276 ng m-3) ≫ Pb (93.7) ≫ Cu (54.9) ≫ Ni (9.37) > V (8.34) ≫ Cd (2.84) > Co (1.76). Judging from concentrations (mg kg-1), enrichment factors (EFs), a multivariate statistical analysis (principal component analysis, PCA), and a receptor model (absolute principal component scores-multiple linear regression analysis, APCS-MLR), the airborne trace metals (Zn, Pb, Cu, and Cd) in northern China were mainly anthropogenic, and mostly attributable to coal combustion and vehicle emissions with additional industrial sources. However, the Co was mostly of crustal origin, and the V and Ni were mainly from soil/dust in the western region and mostly from the petrochemical industry/oil combustion in the east. The

  20. Study on size distributions of airborne particles by aircraft observation in spring over eastern coastal areas of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei; Liu, Hongjie; Yue, Xin; Li, Hong; Chen, Jianhua; Tang, Dagang

    2005-06-01

    The authors studied the size distributions of particles at an altitude of 2000 m by aircraft observation over eastern costal areas of China from Zhuhai, Guangdong to Dalian, Liaoning (0.47 30 μm, 57 channels, including number concentration distribution, surface area concentration distribution and mass concentration distribution). In these cities, the average daily concentrations of PM10 are very high. They are among the most heavily polluted cities in China. The main pollution sources are anthropogenic activities such as wood, coal and oil burning. The observed size distributions show a broad spectrum and unique multi-peak characteristics, indicating no significant impacts of individual sources from urban areas. These results are far different from the distribution type at ground level. It may reflect the comprehensive effect of the regional pollution characteristics. Monitoring results over big cities could to some extent reflect their pollution characteristics.

  1. Hydrogeologic data for existing excavations and the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    The Special Projects Section of Reynolds Electrical & Engineering Co., Inc. is responsible for characterizing the subsurface geology and hydrology of the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) for the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV), Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Waste Management Division. Geologic description, in situ testing, and laboratory analyses of alluvium exposed in existing excavations are important subparts to the Area 5 Site Characterization Program designed to determine the suitability of the RWMS for disposal of low level waste mixed waste and transuranic waste. The primary purpose of the Existing Excavation Project is two-fold: first, to characterize important hydrologic properties of the near surface alluvium, thought to play an important role in the infiltration and redistribution of water and solutes through the upper unsaturated zone at the Area 5 RWMS; and second, to provide guidance for the design of future sampling and testing programs. The justification for this work comes from the state of Nevada review of the original DOE/NV Part B Permit application submitted in 1988 for disposal of mixed wastes at the RWMS. The state of Nevada determined that the permit was deficient in characterization data concerning the hydrogeology of the unsaturated zone. DOE/NV agreed with the state and proposed the study of alluvium exposed in existing excavations as one step toward satisfying these important site characterization data requirements. Other components of the site characterization process include the Science Trench Borehole and Pilot Well Projects.

  2. Liquefaction susceptibility assessment in fluvial plains using airborne lidar: the case of the 2012 Emilia earthquake sequence area (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Civico, R.; Brunori, C. A.; De Martini, P. M.; Pucci, S.; Cinti, F. R.; Pantosti, D.

    2015-11-01

    We report a case study from the Po River plain region (northern Italy), where significant liquefaction-related land and property damage occurred during the 2012 Emilia seismic sequence. We took advantage of a 1 m pixel lidar digital terrain model (DTM) and of the 2012 Emilia coseismic liquefaction data set to (a) perform a detailed geomorphological study of the Po River plain area and (b) quantitatively define the liquefaction susceptibility of the geomorphologic features that experienced different abundance of liquefaction. One main finding is that linear topographic highs of fluvial origin - together with crevasse splays, abandoned riverbeds and very young land reclamation areas - acted as a preferential location for the occurrence of liquefaction phenomena. Moreover, we quantitatively defined a hierarchy in terms of liquefaction susceptibility for an ideal fluvial environment. We observed that a very high liquefaction susceptibility is found in coincidence with fluvial landforms, a high-to-moderate liquefaction susceptibility within a buffer distance of 100 and 200 m from mapped fluvial landforms and a low liquefaction susceptibility outside fluvial landforms and relative buffer areas. Lidar data allowed a significant improvement in mapping with respect to conventionally available topographic data and/or aerial imagery. These results have significant implications for accurate hazard and risk assessment as well as for land-use planning. We propose a simple geomorphological approach for liquefaction susceptibility estimation. Our findings can be applied to areas beyond Emilia that are characterized by similar fluvial-dominated environments and prone to significant seismic hazard.

  3. Hydrological and meteorological data for an unsaturated-zone study area near the Radioactive Waste Management Complex, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho, 1988 and 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Pittman, J.R.

    1995-01-01

    Trenches and pits at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory have been used for burial of radioactive waste since 1952. In 1985, the US Geological Survey, in cooperation with the US Department of Energy, began a multi-phase study of the geohydrology of the RWMC to provide a basis for estimating the extent of and the potential for migration of radionuclides in the unsaturated zone beneath the waste trenches and pits. This phase of the study is being conducted to provide hydrological and meteorological data for an area adjacent to the northern boundary of the RWMC.

  4. Terrestrial radioactivity of the Jabal Eghei area in southern Libya and assessment of the associated environmental risks.

    PubMed

    Tereesh, Mehdi Bashir; Radenkovic, Mirjana B; Kovacevic, Jovan; Miljanic, Scepan S

    2013-01-01

    Activity concentrations of main terrestrial radioisotopes (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K were measured in geological samples collected in Libya's Jabal Eghei area, in order to contribute to the establishment of a baseline map of the environmental radioactivity levels and to estimate the associated environmental risk to the population. Activity concentrations ranged from 22 to 5256 Bq kg(-1) for (226)Ra, from 11 to 221 Bq kg(-1) for (232)Th and from 132.0 to 2304 Bq kg(-1) for (40)K. Using these results, representative risk factors were calculated: the total absorbed gamma dose rate in air (ranged from 25.5 to 2434.3 nGy h(-1) with a mean value of 251.8 nGy h(-1)), the radium equivalent activity (55-5281 Bq kg(-1), with the mean value of 537 Bq kg(-1)), external hazard index (0.149-14.24, with a mean value of 1.451) and annual outdoor effective dose (31.3-2985.4 μSv, with a mean value of 308.9 μSv). Accordingly, the radiation risk is above the world average, mainly as the consequence of discovered uranium anomalies.

  5. Natural radioactivity and radiation hazard assessment of phosphate mining, Quseir-Safaga area, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaafar, Ibrahim; El-Shershaby, Amal; Zeidan, Ibrahim; El-Ahll, Lina Sayed

    2016-06-01

    Quseir-Safaga area, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt, includes Duwi Formation, which contains uranium-bearing phosphate beds. The present work used the integrated carborne γ-ray spectrometric data, X-ray analysis and HPGe γ-ray spectrometer data to investigate the radioactive zones at this area. Carborne γ-ray spectrometric survey revealed an increase of equivalent uranium, up to 182 ppm. Maps were drawn to show the results of the three radioelements K, eU, eTh and the eU/eTh ratio. The eU and (eU/eTh) maps reveal that there are twelve important anomalies, associated mainly with phosphate mines. The Hamrawein mines at the northwestern part in the study area seem to represent the highest U-anomalies. Twelve phosphate samples were collected from the determined twelve anomalies. They were analyzed with HPGe detector gamma-ray spectrometer. It was found that the results of radioelement concentrations by carborne survey agree well with that obtained by HPGe. Both of them show that phosphate mines effectively contribute to eU anomalies, occurring in the study area. Meanwhile, 40K, 238U and 232Th concentrations in phosphate samples range from 91 to 169, 864 to 3104 and 28.4 to 106 Bq/kg respectively. The highest concentration of 238U (3104 Bq/kg) occurs in the north of the studied area, close to Hamrawein city. The average concentration of 238U in the analyzed samples is 1766 Bq/kg, which is 53 times higher than the worldwide average value reaching 33 Bq/kg. The highest 232Th concentration value reaching 106 Bq/kg is 2.4 times higher than the worldwide value attaining 45 Bq/kg. The absorbed dose rate for the phosphate samples shows the highest value reaching 1468 nGy/h. This is more than 25 times the worldwide average value 58 nGy/h. The annual effective absorbed dose is also high and reached 1.8 mSv/y, which is about twice higher than the permitted value for public exposure of 1.0 mSv/y. The maximum external hazardous index value of 9.2 is more than nine times the unity

  6. Potential exposures to airborne and settled surface dust in residential areas of lower Manhattan following the collapse of the World Trade Center--New York City, November 4-December 11, 2001.

    PubMed

    2003-02-21

    Following the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, which destroyed the World Trade Center (WTC) in lower Manhattan, the New York City (NYC) Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), with assistance from the U.S. Public Health Service (PHS) Commissioned Corps Readiness Force and the WTC Environmental Assessment Working Group, assessed the composition of outdoor and indoor settled surface and airborne dust in residential areas around the WTC and in comparison areas. This report summarizes the results of the investigation, which found 1) similar levels of airborne total fibers in lower and in upper Manhattan, 2) greater percentage levels of synthetic vitreous fibers (SVF) and mineral components of concrete and building wallboard in settled dust of residential areas in lower Manhattan than in upper Manhattan, and 3) low levels of asbestos in some settled surface dust in lower Manhattan residential areas. Based in part on the results of this investigation, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is cleaning and sampling residential areas as requested by lower Manhattan residents. In addition, to assess any short- or long-term health effects of smoke, dust, and airborne substances around the WTC site, DOHMH and ATSDR are developing a registry that will track the health of persons who were most highly exposed to these materials.

  7. A First Look at Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) Data in an Area of Altered Volcanic Rocks and Carbonate Formations, Hot Creek Range, South Central Nevada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, S. C.; Taranik, J. V.; Mouat, D. A.

    1985-01-01

    Three flight lines of Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) data were collected in 128 bands between 1.2 and 2.4 microns in the Hot Creek Range, Nevada on July 25, 1984. The flight lines are underlain by hydrothermally altered and unaltered Paleozoic carbonates and Tertiary rhyolitic to latitic volcanics in the Tybo mining district. The original project objectives were to discriminate carbonate rocks from other rock types, to distinguish limestone from dolomite, and to discriminate carbonate units from each other using AIS imagery. Because of high cloud cover over the prime carbonate flight line and because of the acquisition of another flight line in altered and unaltered volcanics, the study has been extended to the discrimination of alteration products. In an area of altered and unaltered rhyolites and latites in Red Rock Canyon, altered and unaltered rock could be discriminated from each other using spectral features in the 1.16 to 2.34 micron range. The altered spectral signatures resembled montmorillonite and kaolinite. Field samples were gathered and the presence of montmorillonite was confirmed by X-ray analysis.

  8. Role of light and heavy minerals on natural radioactivity level of high background radiation area, Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Ramasamy, V; Sundarrajan, M; Suresh, G; Paramasivam, K; Meenakshisundaram, V

    2014-02-01

    Natural radionuclides ((238)U, (232)Th and (40)K) concentrations and eight different radiological parameters have been analyzed for the beach sediments of Kerala with an aim of evaluating the radiation hazards. Activity concentrations ((238)U and (232)Th) and all the radiological parameters in most of the sites have higher values than recommended values. The Kerala beach sediments pose significant radiological threat to the people living in the area and tourists going to the beaches for recreation or to the sailors and fishermen involved in their activities in the study area. In order to know the light mineral characterization of the present sediments, mineralogical analysis has been carried out using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic technique. The eight different minerals are identified and they are characterized. Among the various observed minerals, the minerals such as quartz, microcline feldspar, kaolinite and calcite are major minerals. The relative distribution of major minerals is determined by calculating extinction co-efficient and the values show that the amount of quartz is higher than calcite and much higher than microcline feldspar. Crystallinity index is calculated to know the crystalline nature of quartz present in the sediments. Heavy mineral separation analysis has been carried out to know the total heavy mineral (THM) percentage. This analysis revealed the presence of nine heavy minerals. The minerals such as monazite, zircon, magnetite and illmenite are predominant. Due to the rapid and extreme changes occur in highly dynamic environments of sandy beaches, quantities of major light and heavy minerals are widely varied from site to site. Granulometric analysis shows that the sand is major content. Multivariate statistical (Pearson correlation, cluster and factor) analysis has been carried out to know the effect of mineralogy on radionuclide concentrations. The present study concluded that heavy minerals induce the (238)U and (232)Th

  9. Airborne Geophysical Surveys Applied to Hydrocarbon Resource Development Environmental Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, B. D.; Ball, L. B.; Finn, C.; Kass, A.; Thamke, J.

    2014-12-01

    Application of airborne geophysical surveys ranges in scale from detailed site scale such as locating abandoned well casing and saline water plumes to landscape scale for mapping hydrogeologic frameworks pertinent to ground water and tectonic settings relevant to studies of induced seismicity. These topics are important in understanding possible effects of hydrocarbon development on the environment. In addition airborne geophysical surveys can be used in establishing baseline "snapshots", to provide information in beneficial uses of produced waters, and in mapping ground water resources for use in well development. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has conducted airborne geophysical surveys over more than 20 years for applications in energy resource environmental studies. A majority of these surveys are airborne electromagnetic (AEM) surveys to map subsurface electrical conductivity related to plumes of saline waters and more recently to map hydrogeologic frameworks for ground water and plume migration. AEM surveys have been used in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming to characterize the near surface geologic framework for siting produced water disposal ponds and for beneficial utilization in subsurface drip irrigation. A recent AEM survey at the Fort Peck Reservation, Montana, was used to map both shallow plumes from brine pits and surface infrastructure sources and a deeper concealed saline water plume from a failed injection well. Other reported applications have been to map areas geologically favorable for shallow gas that could influence drilling location and design. Airborne magnetic methods have been used to image the location of undocumented abandoned well casings which can serve as conduits to the near surface for coproduced waters. They have also been used in conjunction with geologic framework studies to understand the possible relationships between tectonic features and induced earthquakes in the Raton Basin. Airborne gravity as well as developing deeper

  10. In-situ Ground-Based and Airborne Formaldehyde Measurements in the Houston Area During TexAQS-II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rappenglueck, B.; Byun, D.; Alvarez, S.; Buhr, M.; Coarfa, V.; Czader, B.; Dasgupta, P.; Estes, M.; Kim, S.; Leuchner, M.; Luke, W.; Shauck, M.; Zanin, G.

    2007-12-01

    Formaldehyde is considered to play a significant role in summertime photochemistry in the Houston area, in particular it is considered an important source for radicals. Secondary formation seems to be the most important fraction of ambient HCHO. Enhanced nighttime values may indicate primary sources. Potential sources may include mobile sources such as traffic exhaust, in particular not well maintained Diesel engines. Other possible sources may include point sources such as coffee roasting and flares from refineries. In this study we focused on the TexAQS-II continuous in-situ formaldehyde data set based on Hantzsch reaction which was obtained in the Ship Channel area (HRM3 and Lynchburg Ferry site) and at the Moody Tower for several weeks. We also include in-situ HCHO measurements obtained with the same technique aboard the Baylor aircraft during TexAQS-II flight missions. Formaldehyde data was compared to several trace gases that are supposed to be coemitted including CO (traffic), ethylene (flares), and SO2 (industry). In order to keep photochemical processes at a minimum special focus was on nighttime data. Case studies will be discussed where meteorological conditions including recirculation and boundary layer developments seem to play a major role in the redistribution of HCHO. Observations will be compared to CMAQ model studies.

  11. Special Analysis of the Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site at the Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    National Security Technologies, LLC, Environmental Management

    2012-09-30

    This report describes the methods and results of a special analysis (SA) of the Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) on the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). The purpose of the SA is to determine if the approved performance assessment (PA) and composite analysis (CA) (Shott et al., 2001) remain valid. The Area 3 RWMS PA and CA were prepared as a single document and received conditional approval on October 6, 1999. A conditional Disposal Authorization Statement (DAS) for the Area 3 RWMS was issued on October 20, 1999. Since preparation of the approved PA and CA, new information and additional environmental monitoring data have been used to update the PA and CA. At the same time, continual advancements in computer processors and software have allowed improvement to the PA and CA models. Annual reviews of the PA and CA required by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order DOE O 435.1 have documented multiple changes occurring since preparation of the PA and CA. Potentially important changes include: Development of a new and improved baseline PA and CA model implemented in the probabilistic GoldSim simulation platform. A significant increase in the waste inventory disposed at the site. Revision and updating of model parameters based on additional years of site monitoring data and new research and development results. Although changes have occurred, many important PA/CA issues remain unchanged, including the site conceptual model, important features, events, and processes, and the points of compliance. The SA is performed to document the current status of the PA/CA model and to quantitatively assess the impact of cumulative changes on the PA and CA results. The results of the SA are used to assess the validity of the approved PA/CA and make a determination if revision of the PA or CA is necessary. The SA was performed using the Area 3 RWMS, version 2.102, GoldSim model, the current baseline PA/CA model. Comparison of the maximum SA results with the PA

  12. The effects of meteorological factors on airborne fungal spore concentration in two areas differing in urbanisation level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, M.; Ribeiro, H.; Delgado, J. L.; Abreu, I.

    2009-01-01

    Although fungal spores are an ever-present component of the atmosphere throughout the year, their concentration oscillates widely. This work aims to establish correlations between fungal spore concentrations in Porto and Amares and meteorological data. The seasonal distribution of fungal spores was studied continuously (2005-2007) using volumetric spore traps. To determine the effect of meteorological factors (temperature, relative humidity and rainfall) on spore concentration, the Spearman rank correlation test was used. In both locations, the most abundant fungal spores were Cladosporium, Agaricus, Agrocybe, Alternaria and Aspergillus/Penicillium, the highest concentrations being found during summer and autumn. In the present study, with the exception of Coprinus and Pleospora, spore concentrations were higher in the rural area than in the urban location. Among the selected spore types, spring-autumn spores ( Coprinus, Didymella, Leptosphaeria and Pleospora) exhibited negative correlations with temperature and positive correlations both with relative humidity and rainfall level. On the contrary, late spring-early summer (Smuts) and summer spores ( Alternaria, Cladosporium, Epicoccum, Ganoderma, Stemphylium and Ustilago) exhibited positive correlations with temperature and negative correlations both with relative humidity and rainfall level. Rust, a frequent spore type during summer, had a positive correlation with temperature. Aspergillus/Penicillium, showed no correlation with the meteorological factors analysed. This knowledge can be useful for agriculture, allowing more efficient and reliable application of pesticides, and for human health, by improving the diagnosis and treatment of respiratory allergic disease.

  13. A Simple Method for Collecting Airborne Pollen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kevan, Peter G.; DiGiovanni, Franco; Ho, Rong H.; Taki, Hisatomo; Ferguson, Kristyn A.; Pawlowski, Agata K.

    2006-01-01

    Pollination is a broad area of study within biology. For many plants, pollen carried by wind is required for successful seed set. Airborne pollen also affects human health. To foster studies of airborne pollen, we introduce a simple device--the "megastigma"--for collecting pollen from the air. This device is flexible, yielding easily obtained data…

  14. A Section-based Method For Tree Species Classification Using Airborne LiDAR Discrete Points In Urban Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chunjing, Y. C.; Hui, T.; Zhongjie, R.; Guikai, B.

    2015-12-01

    As a new approach to forest inventory utilizing, LiDAR remote sensing has become an important research issue in the past. Lidar researches initially concentrate on the investigation for mapping forests at the tree level and identifying important structural parameters, such as tree height, crown size, crown base height, individual tree species, and stem volume etc. But for the virtual city visualization and mapping, the traditional methods of tree classification can't satisfy the more complex conditions. Recently, the advanced LiDAR technology has generated new full waveform scanners that provide a higher point density and additional information about the reflecting characteristics of trees. Subsequently, it was demonstrated that it is feasible to detect individual overstorey trees in forests and classify species. But the important issues like the calibration and the decomposition of full waveform data with a series of Gaussian functions usually take a lot of works. What's more, the detection and classification of vegetation results relay much on the prior outcomes. From all above, the section-based method for tree species classification using small footprint and high sampling density lidar data is proposed in this paper, which can overcome the tree species classification issues in urban areas. More specific objectives are to: (1)use local maximum height decision and four direction sections certification methods to get the precise locations of the trees;(2) develop new lidar-derived features processing techniques for characterizing the section structure of individual tree crowns;(3) investigate several techniques for filtering and analyzing vertical profiles of individual trees to classify the trees, and using the expert decision skills based on percentile analysis;(4) assess the accuracy of estimating tree species for each tree, and (5) investigate which type of lidar data, point frequency or intensity, provides the most accurate estimate of tree species

  15. Estimation of radioactive contamination of soils from the "Balapan" and the "Experimental field" technical areas of the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site.

    PubMed

    Evseeva, T; Belykh, E; Geras'kin, S; Majstrenko, T

    2012-07-01

    In spite of the long history of the research, radioactive contamination of the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site (SNTS) in the Republic of Kazakhstan has not been adequately characterized. Our cartographic investigation has demonstrated highly variable radioactive contamination of the SNTS. The Cs-137, Sr-90, Eu-152, Eu-154, Co-60, and Am-241 activity concentrations in soil samples from the "Balapan" site were 42.6-17646, 96-18250, 1.05-11222, 0.6-4865, 0.23-4893, and 1.2-1037 Bq kg(-1), correspondingly. Cs-137 and Sr-90 activity concentrations in soil samples from the "Experimental field" site were varied from 87 up to 400 and from 94 up to 1000 Bq kg(-1), respectively. Activity concentrations of Co-60, Eu-152, and Eu-154 were lower than the minimum detectable activity of the method used. Concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides (K-40, Ra-226, U-238, and Th-232) in the majority of soil samples from the "Balapan" and the "Experimental field" sites did not exceed typical for surrounding of the SNTS areas levels. Estimation of risks associated with radioactive contamination based on the IAEA clearance levels for a number of key radionuclides in solid materials shows that soils sampled from the "Balapan" and the "Experimental field" sites might be considered as radioactive wastes. Decrease in specific activity of soil from the sites studied up to safety levels due to Co-60, Cs-137, Sr-90, Eu-152, Eu-154 radioactive decay and Am-241 accumulation-decay will occur not earlier than 100 years. In contrast, soils from the "Experimental field" and the "Balapan" sites (except 0.5-2.5 km distance from the "Chagan" explosion point) cannot be regarded as the radioactive wastes according safety norms valid in Russia and Kazakhstan.

  16. Assessment of radioactive materials and heavy metals in the surface soil around uranium mining area of Tongliao, China.

    PubMed

    Haribala; Hu, Bitao; Wang, Chengguo; Gerilemandahu; Xu, Xiao; Zhang, Shuai; Bao, Shanhu; Li, Yuhong

    2016-08-01

    Natural and artificial radionuclides and heavy metals in the surface soil of the uranium mining area of Tongliao, China, were measured using gamma spectrometry, flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry, graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry and microwave dissolution atomic fluorescence spectrometry respectively. The estimated average activity concentrations of (238)U, (232)Th, (226)Ra, (40)K and (137)Cs are 27.53±16.01, 15.89±5.20, 12.64±4.27, 746.84±38.24 and 4.23±4.76Bq/kg respectively. The estimated average absorbed dose rate in the air and annual effective dose rate are 46.58±5.26nGy/h and 57.13±6.45μSv, respectively. The radium equivalent activity, external and internal hazard indices were also calculated and their mean values are within the acceptable limits. The heavy metal concentrations of Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, Hg and As from the surface soil were measured and their health risks were then determined. Although the content of Cd is much higher than the average background in China, its non-cancer and cancer risk indices are all within the acceptable ranges. These calculated hazard indices to estimate the potential radiological health risk in soil and the dose rate are well below their permissible limit. In addition the correlations between the radioactivity concentrations of the radionuclides and the heavy metals in soil were determined by the Pearson linear coefficient.

  17. Assessment of radioactive materials and heavy metals in the surface soil around uranium mining area of Tongliao, China.

    PubMed

    Haribala; Hu, Bitao; Wang, Chengguo; Gerilemandahu; Xu, Xiao; Zhang, Shuai; Bao, Shanhu; Li, Yuhong

    2016-08-01

    Natural and artificial radionuclides and heavy metals in the surface soil of the uranium mining area of Tongliao, China, were measured using gamma spectrometry, flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry, graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry and microwave dissolution atomic fluorescence spectrometry respectively. The estimated average activity concentrations of (238)U, (232)Th, (226)Ra, (40)K and (137)Cs are 27.53±16.01, 15.89±5.20, 12.64±4.27, 746.84±38.24 and 4.23±4.76Bq/kg respectively. The estimated average absorbed dose rate in the air and annual effective dose rate are 46.58±5.26nGy/h and 57.13±6.45μSv, respectively. The radium equivalent activity, external and internal hazard indices were also calculated and their mean values are within the acceptable limits. The heavy metal concentrations of Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, Hg and As from the surface soil were measured and their health risks were then determined. Although the content of Cd is much higher than the average background in China, its non-cancer and cancer risk indices are all within the acceptable ranges. These calculated hazard indices to estimate the potential radiological health risk in soil and the dose rate are well below their permissible limit. In addition the correlations between the radioactivity concentrations of the radionuclides and the heavy metals in soil were determined by the Pearson linear coefficient. PMID:27107776

  18. Aging of mineral dust during transport from the Sahara into the Cape Verde area - results from airborne measurements during SAMUM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinzierl, B.; Sauer, D.; Esselborn, M.; Petzold, A.; Veira, A.; Rose, M.; Mund, S.; Wirth, M.; Ansmann, A.; Tesche, M.; Groß, S.; Freudenthaler, V.

    2012-04-01

    The Saharan Mineral Dust Experiment (SAMUM) was conducted to better understand the properties of fresh and aged mineral dust. Within SAMUM, two field missions were performed: SAMUM-1 (summer 2006, Morocco) focused on the chemical, microphysical, optical and radiative properties of fresh dust aerosol in the vertical column over the Sahara, while SAMUM-2 (winter 2008, Cape Verde) concentrated on the properties of aged dust and the mixing of mineral dust with biomass burning aerosol. During both field experiments, the DLR Falcon research aircraft was equipped with an extensive set of aerosol instruments for size, volatility, and absorption measurements, impactor sampling for chemical analyses and with a nadir-looking High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL). In the Cape Verde area, we found a complex stratification with dust covering the altitude range below 2 km and tropical biomass burning layers aloft. We show that the aerosol type of individual aerosol layers can be classified based on depolarization and lidar ratios and, in addition, on in situ measured Ångström exponents of absorption åap. The dust layers had a geometrical depth of 1.3 ± 0.4 km and showed a median åap of 3.95. The median effective diameter Deff was 2.5 μm and the dust layers over Cape Verde yielded clear signals of aging: large particles were depleted due to gravitational settling and the accumulation mode diameter was shifted towards larger sizes as a result of coagulation. The tropical biomass layers had a depth of 2.0 ± 1.1 km and were characterized by a median åap of 1.34. They always contained a certain amount of large dust particles and showed a median Deff of 1.1 μm and a fine mode Deff,fine of 0.33. The dust and biomass burning layers had a median aerosol optical depth (AOD) of 0.23 and 0.09, respectively. The median contributions of the dust and biomass burning layers to the AOD of the total atmospheric column below 10 km were 75 and 37%, respectively. We present the properties of

  19. Airborne laser topographic mapping results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krabill, W. B.; Collins, J. G.; Link, L. E.; Swift, R. N.; Butler, M. L.

    1984-01-01

    The results of terrain mapping experiments utilizing the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Airborne Oceanographic Lidar (AOL) over forested areas are presented. The flight tests were conducted as part of a joint NASA/U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (CE) investigation aimed at evaluating the potential of an airborne laser ranging system to provide cross-sectional topographic data on flood plains that are difficult and expensive to survey using conventional techniques. The data described in this paper were obtained in the Wolf River Basin located near Memphis, TN. Results from surveys conducted under winter 'leaves off' and summer 'leaves on' conditions, aspects of day and night operation, and data obtained from decidous and coniferous tree types are compared. Data processing techniques are reviewed. Conclusions relative to accuracy and present limitations of the AOL, and airborne lidar systems in general, to terrain mapping over forested areas are discussed.

  20. Using a bank of predatory fish samples for bioindication of radioactive contamination of aquatic food chains in the area affected by the Chernobyl accident.

    PubMed

    Kryshev, I I; Ryabov, I N; Sazykina, T G

    1993-11-01

    From the analysis of experimental data on radioactive contamination of various fish, it is suggested that predatory fish specimens can be used as bioindicators of radionuclide accumulation in reservoir food chains of the Chernobyl emergency area. The increased content of cesium radionuclides were detected in the muscle tissue of predatory fish collected in various regions of the Chernobyl emergency area. In most of the water bodies studied, maximum contamination levels of predatory fish by radionuclides of cesium occurred in 1987-1988, whereas in 'nonpredatory' fish the concentration of cesium was maximum, as a rule, in the first year following the accident. The exposure doses of fish of various ecological groups and ages are estimated. The exposure doses of various population groups, using fish from contaminated water bodies, are also estimated. When forming the environmental data bank for the Chernobyl accident zone it is suggested that perch, pike-perch and pike be used as bioindicators of radioactive contamination of food chains.

  1. Result Summary for the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site Performance Assessment Model Version 4.110

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2011-07-20

    Results for Version 4.110 of the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) performance assessment (PA) model are summarized. Version 4.110 includes the fiscal year (FY) 2010 inventory estimate, including a future inventory estimate. Version 4.110 was implemented in GoldSim 10.11(SP4). The following changes have been implemented since the last baseline model, Version 4.105: (1) Updated the inventory and disposal unit configurations with data through the end of FY 2010. (1) Implemented Federal Guidance Report 13 Supplemental CD dose conversion factors (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1999). Version 4.110 PA results comply with air pathway and all-pathways annual total effective dose (TED) performance objectives (Tables 2 and 3, Figures 1 and 2). Air pathways results decrease moderately for all scenarios. The time of the maximum for the air pathway open rangeland scenario shifts from 1,000 to 100 years (y). All-pathways annual TED increases for all scenarios except the resident scenario. The maximum member of public all-pathways dose occurs at 1,000 y for the resident farmer scenario. The resident farmer dose was predominantly due to technetium-99 (Tc-99) (82 percent) and lead-210 (Pb-210) (13 percent). Pb-210 present at 1,000 y is produced predominantly by radioactive decay of uranium-234 (U-234) present at the time of disposal. All results for the postdrilling and intruder-agriculture scenarios comply with the performance objectives (Tables 4 and 5, Figures 3 and 4). The postdrilling intruder results are similar to Version 4.105 results. The intruder-agriculture results are similar to Version 4.105, except for the Pit 6 Radium Disposal Unit (RaDU). The intruder-agriculture result for the Shallow Land Burial (SLB) disposal units is a significant fraction of the performance objective and exceeds the performance objective at the 95th percentile. The intruder-agriculture dose is due predominantly to Tc-99 (75 percent) and U-238 (9.5 percent). The acute

  2. Flood Assessment at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site and the Proposed Hazardous Waste Storage Unit, DOE/Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Schmeltzer, J. S.; Millier, J. J.; Gustafson, D. L.

    1993-01-01

    A flood assessment at the Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) and the proposed Hazardous Waste Storage Unit (HWSU) in Area 5 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) was performed to determine the 100-year flood hazard at these facilities. The study was conducted to determine whether the RWMS and HWSU are located within a 100-year flood hazard as defined by the Federal Emergency Management Agency, and to provide discharges for the design of flood protection.

  3. Assessing inhalation exposure from airborne soil contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Shinn, J.H.

    1998-04-01

    A method of estimation of inhalation exposure to airborne soil contaminants is presented. this method is derived from studies of airborne soil particles with radioactive tags. The concentration of contaminants in air (g/m{sup 3}) can be derived from the product of M, the suspended respirable dust mass concentration (g/m{sup 3}), S, the concentration of contaminant in the soil (g/g), and E{sub f}, an enhancement factor. Typical measurement methods and values of M, and E{sub f} are given along with highlights of experiences with this method.

  4. Modeling for Airborne Contamination

    SciTech Connect

    F.R. Faillace; Y. Yuan

    2000-08-31

    The objective of Modeling for Airborne Contamination (referred to from now on as ''this report'') is to provide a documented methodology, along with supporting information, for estimating the release, transport, and assessment of dose to workers from airborne radioactive contaminants within the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) subsurface during the pre-closure period. Specifically, this report provides engineers and scientists with methodologies for estimating how concentrations of contaminants might be distributed in the air and on the drift surfaces if released from waste packages inside the repository. This report also provides dose conversion factors for inhalation, air submersion, and ground exposure pathways used to derive doses to potentially exposed subsurface workers. The scope of this report is limited to radiological contaminants (particulate, volatile and gaseous) resulting from waste package leaks (if any) and surface contamination and their transport processes. Neutron activation of air, dust in the air and the rock walls of the drift during the preclosure time is not considered within the scope of this report. Any neutrons causing such activation are not themselves considered to be ''contaminants'' released from the waste package. This report: (1) Documents mathematical models and model parameters for evaluating airborne contaminant transport within the MGR subsurface; and (2) Provides tables of dose conversion factors for inhalation, air submersion, and ground exposure pathways for important radionuclides. The dose conversion factors for air submersion and ground exposure pathways are further limited to drift diameters of 7.62 m and 5.5 m, corresponding to the main and emplacement drifts, respectively. If the final repository design significantly deviates from these drift dimensions, the results in this report may require revision. The dose conversion factors are further derived by using concrete of sufficient thickness to simulate the drift

  5. Structural geology of the proposed site area for a high-level radioactive waste repository, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Potter, C.J.; Day, W.C.; Sweetkind, D.S.; Dickerson, R.P.

    2004-01-01

    Geologic mapping and fracture studies have documented the fundamental patterns of joints and faults in the thick sequence of rhyolite tuffs at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, the proposed site of an underground repository for high-level radioactive waste. The largest structures are north-striking, block-bounding normal faults (with a subordinate left-lateral component) that divide the mountain into numerous 1-4-km-wide panels of gently east-dipping strata. Block-bounding faults, which underwent Quaternary movement as well as earlier Neogene movement, are linked by dominantly northwest-striking relay faults, especially in the more extended southern part of Yucca Mountain. Intrablock faults are commonly short and discontinuous, except those on the more intensely deformed margins of the blocks. Lithologic properties of the local tuff stratigraphy strongly control the mesoscale fracture network, and locally the fracture network has a strong influence on the nature of intrablock faulting. The least faulted part of Yucca Mountain is the north-central part, the site of the proposed repository. Although bounded by complex normal-fault systems, the 4-km-wide central block contains only sparse intrablock faults. Locally intense jointing appears to be strata-bound. The complexity of deformation and the magnitude of extension increase in all directions away from the proposed repository volume, especially in the southern part of the mountain where the intensity of deformation and the amount of vertical-axis rotation increase markedly. Block-bounding faults were active at Yucca Mountain during and after eruption of the 12.8-12.7 Ma Paintbrush Group, and significant motion on these faults postdated the 11.6 Ma Rainier Mesa Tuff. Diminished fault activity continued into Quaternary time. Roughly half of the stratal tilting in the site area occurred after 11.6 Ma, probably synchronous with the main pulse of vertical-axis rotation, which occurred between 11.6 and 11.45 Ma. Studies of

  6. [The genetic consequences of the radioactive contamination of populations of Arabidopsis thaliana growing in a 30-kilometer area of the accident at the Chernobyl Atomic Electric Power Station].

    PubMed

    Abramov, V I; Dineva, S V; Rubanovich, A V; Shevchenko, V A

    1995-01-01

    Annually during six years since 1986 dynamics of the mutation load in Arabidopsis populations was studied. Frequency of the embryonic lethal mutations was studied with Muller embryonic test. First two years after the accident an increase of mutation load in Arabidopsis populations was observed at all levels of radioactive contamination. In the areas with contamination up to 10 mR/h the mutation load decreased to the control level by 1990. In the areas with contamination up to 130 mR/h the mutation load exceeds the control by 4-8 times.

  7. New developments to support decision-making in contaminated inhabited areas following incidents involving a release of radioactivity to the environment.

    PubMed

    Andersson, K G; Brown, J; Mortimer, K; Jones, J A; Charnock, T; Thykier-Nielsen, S; Kaiser, J C; Proehl, G; Nielsen, S P

    2008-03-01

    The Chernobyl accident demonstrated that releases from nuclear installations can lead to significant contamination of large inhabited areas. A new generic European decision support handbook has been produced on the basis of lessons learned on the management of contaminated inhabited areas. The handbook comprises detailed descriptions of 59 countermeasures in a standardised datasheet format, which facilitates a comparison of features. It also contains guidance in the form of decision flowcharts, tables, check lists and text to support identification of optimised solutions for managing the recovery of inhabited areas within a framework consistent with ICRP recommendations. A new comprehensive inhabited-area dose model is also being developed for implementation in the ARGOS and RODOS decision support systems. Shortcomings of previous models are demonstrated. Decision support modelling in relation to malicious dispersion of radioactive matter in inhabited areas is also discussed. Here, the implications of, e.g., particle sizes and dispersion altitude are highlighted.

  8. A review of forty-five years study of Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors. Residual radioactivity in neutron-exposed objects and residual alpha radioactivity in black rain areas.

    PubMed

    Sakanoue, M; Komura, K; Tan, K

    1991-03-01

    The residual Eu-142 radioactivity due to the atomic bomb explosion in 1945 was first found in 1976 by in-situ high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry at Hiroshima. Since then, various studies on this nuclide have continued not only in Hiroshima but also in Nagasaki and they have contributed to the reevaluation of the neutron dose due to the A-bombing. By radiochemical separation methods and alpha-ray spectrometry, rather high levels of plutonium were found in the surface soil and in the bottom sediment of water reservoir which were collected at "Black rain area" in Nagasaki. The U-234/U-238 activity ratios for the uranium leached with 0.1 HNO3 from the surface of soil samples were found to be relatively higher for the samples which were collected at "Black rain area" in Hiroshima.

  9. 2008 Annual Summary Report for the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada: Review of the Performance Assessments and Composite Analyses

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2009-03-30

    The Maintenance Plan for the Performance Assessments and Composite Analyses for the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites at the Nevada Test Site requires an annual review to assess the adequacy of the Performance Assessments (PAs) and Composite Analyses (CAs) for each of the facilities, with the results submitted annually to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Headquarters. The Disposal Authorization Statements for the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) also require that such reviews be made and that secondary or minor unresolved issues be tracked and addressed as part of the maintenance plan. The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) performed an annual review in fiscal year (FY) 2008 by evaluating operational factors and research results that impact the continuing validity of the PAs and CAs. This annual summary report presents data and conclusions from the FY 2008 review, and determines the adequacy of the PAs and CAs. Operational factors (e.g., waste forms and containers, facility design, and waste receipts), closure plans, monitoring results, and research and development (R&D) activities were reviewed to determine the adequacy of the PAs. Likewise, the environmental restoration activities at the Nevada Test Site relevant to the sources of residual radioactive material that are considered in the CAs, the land-use planning, and the results of the environmental monitoring and R&D activities were reviewed to determine the adequacy of the CAs.

  10. 2009 Annual Summary Report for the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada: Review of the Performance Assessments and Composite Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2010-03-15

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office performed an annual review of the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Wate Management Site (RWMS) Performance Assessments (PAs) and Composite Analyses (CAs) in fiscal year (FY) 2009. This annual summary report presents data and conclusions from the FY 2009 review, and determines the adequacy of the PAs and CAs. Operational factors (e.g., waste forms and containers, facility design, and waste receipts), closure plans, monitoring results, and research and development (R&D) activities were reviewed to determine the adequacy of the PAs. Likewise, the environmental restoration activities at the Nevada Test Site relevant to the sources of residual radioactive material that are considered in the CAs, the land-use planning, and the results of the environmental monitoring and R&D activities were reviewed to determine the adequacy of the CAs.

  11. Vitrification of M-Area Mixed (Hazardous and Radioactive) F006 Wastes: I. Sludge and Supernate Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C.M.

    2001-10-05

    Technologies are being developed by the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Nuclear Facility sites to convert low-level and mixed (hazardous and radioactive) wastes to a solid stabilized waste form for permanent disposal. One of the alternative technologies is vitrification into a borosilicate glass waste form. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has declared vitrification the Best Demonstrated Available Technology (BDAT) for high-level radioactive mixed waste and produced a Handbook of Vitrification Technologies for Treatment of Hazardous and Radioactive Waste. The DOE Office of Technology Development (OTD) has taken the position that mixed waste needs to be stabilized to the highest level reasonably possible to ensure that the resulting waste forms will meet both current and future regulatory specifications. Stabilization of low level and hazardous wastes in glass are in accord with the 1988 Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC), then the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL), Professional Planning Committee (PPC) recommendation that high nitrate containing (low-level) wastes be incorporated into a low temperature glass (via a sol-gel technology). The investigation into this new technology was considered timely because of the potential for large waste volume reduction compared to solidification into cement.

  12. The Continuous wavelet in airborne gravimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, X.; Liu, L.

    2013-12-01

    Airborne gravimetry is an efficient method to recover medium and high frequency band of earth gravity over any region, especially inaccessible areas, which can measure gravity data with high accuracy,high resolution and broad range in a rapidly and economical way, and It will play an important role for geoid and geophysical exploration. Filtering methods for reducing high-frequency errors is critical to the success of airborne gravimetry due to Aircraft acceleration determination based on GPS.Tradiontal filters used in airborne gravimetry are FIR,IIR filer and so on. This study recommends an improved continuous wavelet to process airborne gravity data. Here we focus on how to construct the continuous wavelet filters and show their working principle. Particularly the technical parameters (window width parameter and scale parameter) of the filters are tested. Then the raw airborne gravity data from the first Chinese airborne gravimetry campaign are filtered using FIR-low pass filter and continuous wavelet filters to remove the noise. The comparison to reference data is performed to determinate external accuracy, which shows that continuous wavelet filters applied to airborne gravity in this thesis have good performances. The advantages of the continuous wavelet filters over digital filters are also introduced. The effectiveness of the continuous wavelet filters for airborne gravimetry is demonstrated through real data computation.

  13. Rooting Characteristics of Vegetation Near Areas 3 and 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites at the Nevada Test Site--Part 1

    SciTech Connect

    D. J. Hansen

    2003-09-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy emplaced high-specific-activity low-level radioactive wastes and limited quantities of classified transuranic wastes in Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) boreholes from 1984 to 1989. The boreholes are located at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in southern Nevada. The boreholes were backfilled with native alluvium soil. The surface of these boreholes and trenches is expected to be colonized by native vegetation in the future. Considering the long-term performance of the disposal facilities, bioturbation (the disruption of buried wastes by biota) is considered a primary release mechanism for radionuclides disposed in GCD boreholes as well as trenches at both Areas 3 and 5 RWMSs. This report provides information about rooting characteristics of vegetation near Areas 3 and 5 RWMSs. Data from this report are being used to resolve uncertainties involving parameterization of performance assessment models used to characterize the biotic mixing of soils and radionuclide transport processes by biota. The objectives of this study were to: (1) survey the prior ecological literature on the NTS and identify pertinent information about the vegetation, (2) conduct limited field studies to describe the current vegetation in the vicinity of Areas 3 and 5 RWMSs so as to correlate findings with more extensive vegetation data collected at Yucca Mountain and the NTS, ( 3 ) review prior performance assessment documents and evaluate model assumptions based on current ecological information, and (4) identify data deficiencies and make recommendations for correcting such deficiencies.

  14. Radioimmunotherapy with radioactive nanoparticles: Biological doses and treatment efficiency for vascularized tumors with or without a central hypoxic area

    SciTech Connect

    Bouchat, V.; Nuttens, V. E.; Michiels, C.; and others

    2010-04-15

    Purpose: Radioactive atoms attached to monoclonal antibodies are used in radioimmunotherapy to treat cancer while limiting radiation to healthy tissues. One limitation of this method is that only one radioactive atom is linked to each antibody and the deposited dose is often insufficient to eradicate solid and radioresistant tumors. In a previous study, simulations with the Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended code showed that physical doses up to 50 Gy can be delivered inside tumors by replacing the single radionuclide by a radioactive nanoparticle of 5 nm diameter containing hundreds of radioactive atoms. However, tumoral and normal tissues are not equally sensitive to radiation, and previous works did not take account the biological effects such as cellular repair processes or the presence of less radiosensitive cells such as hypoxic cells. Methods: The idea is to adapt the linear-quadratic expression to the tumor model and to determine biological effective doses (BEDs) delivered through and around a tumor. This BED is then incorporated into a Poisson formula to determine the shell control probability (SCP) which predicts the cell cluster-killing efficiency at different distances ''r'' from the center of the tumor. BED and SCP models are used to analyze the advantages of injecting radioactive nanoparticles instead of a single radionuclide per vector in radioimmunotherapy. Results: Calculations of BED and SCP for different distances r from the center of a solid tumor, using the non-small-cell lung cancer as an example, were investigated for {sup 90}Y{sub 2} O{sub 3} nanoparticles. With a total activity of about 3.5 and 20 MBq for tumor radii of 0.5 and 1.0 cm, respectively, results show that a very high BED is deposited in the well oxygenated part of the spherical carcinoma. Conclusions: For either small or large solid tumors, BED and SCP calculations highlight the important benefit in replacing the single {beta}-emitter {sup 90}Y attached to each antibody by a {sup

  15. [RADIATION HYGIENIC MONITORING AT THE AREA OF THE LOCATION OF THE FAR EASTERN CENTER FOR RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT (FEC "DALRAO"--BRANCH OF FSUE "ROSRAO")].

    PubMed

    Kiselev, S M; Shandala, N K; Akhromeev, S V; Gimadova, T I; Seregin, V A; Titov, A V; Biryukova, N G

    2015-01-01

    Intensification ofactivities in the field of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and radioactive waste (RW) management in the Far East region of Russia assumes an increase of the environmental load on the territories adjacent to the enterprise and settlements. To ensure radiation safety during works on SNF and radioactive waste management in the standard mode of operation and during the rehabilitation works in the contaminated territories, there is need for the optimization of the existing system of radiation-hygienic monitoring, aimed at the implementation of complex dynamic observation of parameters of radiation-hygienic situation and radiation amount of the population living in the vicinity of the Far Eastern Center for Radioactive Waste Management (FEC "DALRAO"). To solve this problem there is required a significant amount of total and enough structured information on the character of the formation of the radiation situation, the potential ways of the spread of man-made pollution to the surrounding area, determining the radiation load on the population living in the vicinity of the object. In this paper there are presented the results of field studies of the radiation situation at the plant FEC "DALRAO", which were obtained during the course of expedition trips in 2009-2012.

  16. Identifying areas with potential for high indoor radon levels: analysis of the national airborne radiometric reconnaissance data for California and the Pacific Northwest

    SciTech Connect

    Moed, B.A.; Nazaroff, W.W.; Nero, A.V.; Schwehr, M.B.; Van Heuvelen, A.

    1984-04-01

    Radon-222 is an important indoor air pollutant which, through the inhalation of its radioactive decay products, accounts for nearly half of the effective dose equivalent to the public from natural ionizing radiation. Indoor radon concentrations vary widely, largely because of local and regional differences in the rate of entry from sources. The major sources are soil and rock near building foundations, earth-based building materials, and domestic water; of these, soil and rock are thought to be predominant in many buildings with higher-than-average concentrations. Thus, one key factor in determining radon source potential is the concentration of radium, the progenitor of radon, in surficial rocks and soils. Aerial radiometric data were analyzed, collected for the National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program, for seven Western states to: (1) provide information on the spatial distribution of radium contents in surficial geologic materials for those states; and (2) investigate approaches for using the aerial data, which have been collected throughout the contiguous United States and Alaska, to identify areas where high indoor radon levels may be common. Radium concentrations were found to be relatively low in central and western portions of Washington, Oregon, and northern California; they were found to be relatively high in central and southern California. A field validation study, conducted along two flight-line segments near Spokane, Washington, showed close correspondence between the aerial data, in situ measurements of both radium content and radon flux from soil, and laboratory measurements of both radium content of and radon emanation rate from soil samples. 99 references, 11 figures, 3 tables.

  17. A brief analysis and description of transuranic wastes in the Subsurface Disposal Area of the radioactive waste management complex at INEL

    SciTech Connect

    Arrenholz, D.A.; Knight, J.L.

    1991-08-01

    This document presents a brief summary of the wastes and waste types disposed of in the transuranic contaminated portions of the Subsurface Disposal Area of the radioactive waste management complex at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory from 1954 through 1970. Wastes included in this summary are organics, inorganics, metals, radionuclides, and atypical wastes. In addition to summarizing amounts of wastes disposed and describing the wastes, the document also provides information on disposal pit and trench dimensions and contaminated soil volumes. The report also points out discrepancies that exist in available documentation regarding waste and soil volumes and make recommendations for future efforts at waste characterization. 19 refs., 3 figs., 17 tabs.

  18. Using geologic conditions and multiattribute decision analysis to determine the relative favorability of selected areas for siting a high-level radioactive waste repository

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, W.; Edgar, D.E.; Baker, C.H.; Buehring, W.A.; Whitfield, R.G.; Van Luik, A.E.J.; Sood, M.K.; Flower, M.F.J.; Warren, M.F.; Jusko, M.J.; Peerenboom, J.P.; Bogner, J.E.

    1988-05-01

    A method is presented for determining the relative favorability of geologically complex areas for isolating high-level radioactive wastes. In applying the method to the northeastern region of the United States, seismicity and tectonic activity were the screening criteria used to divide the region into three areas of increasing seismotectonic risk. Criteria were then used to subdivide the area of lowest seismotectonic risk into six geologically distinct subareas including characteristics, surface-water and groundwater hydrology, potential human intrusion, site geometry, surface characteristics, and tectonic environment. Decision analysis was then used to identify the subareas most favorable from a geologic standpoint for further investigation, with a view to selecting a site for a repository. Three subareas (parts of northeastern Vermont, northern New Hampshire, and western Maine) were found to be the most favorable, using this method and existing data. However, because this study assessed relative geologic favorability, no conclusions should be drawn concerning the absolute suitability of individual subareas for high-level radioactive waste isolation. 34 refs., 7 figs., 20 tabs.

  19. Radioactive iodine uptake

    MedlinePlus

    ... much radioactive iodine is taken up by your thyroid gland in a certain time period. A similar test ... over the area of your neck where the thyroid gland is located. The probe detects the location and ...

  20. Special Analysis of Transuranic Waste in Trench T04C at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Greg Shott, Vefa Yucel, Lloyd Desotell

    2008-05-01

    This Special Analysis (SA) was prepared to assess the potential impact of inadvertent disposal of a limited quantity of transuranic (TRU) waste in classified Trench 4 (T04C) within the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The Area 5 RWMS is a low-level radioactive waste disposal site in northern Frenchman Flat on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The Area 5 RWMS is regulated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under DOE Order 435.1 and DOE Manual (DOE M) 435.1-1. The primary objective of the SA is to evaluate if inadvertent disposal of limited quantities of TRU waste in a shallow land burial trench at the Area 5 RWMS is in compliance with the existing, approved Disposal Authorization Statement (DAS) issued under DOE M 435.1-1. In addition, supplemental analyses are performed to determine if there is reasonable assurance that the requirements of Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 191, Environmental Radiation Protection Standards for Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level, and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes, can be met. The 40 CFR 191 analyses provide supplemental information regarding the risk to human health and the environment of leaving the TRU waste in T04C. In 1989, waste management personnel reviewing classified materials records discovered that classified materials buried in trench T04C at the Area 5 RWMS contained TRU waste. Subsequent investigations determined that a total of 102 55-gallon drums of TRU waste from Rocky Flats were buried in trench T04C in 1986. The disposal was inadvertent because unclassified records accompanying the shipment indicated that the waste was low-level. The exact location of the TRU waste in T04C was not recorded and is currently unknown. Under DOE M 435.1-1, Chapter IV, Section P.5, low-level waste disposal facilities must obtain a DAS. The DAS specifies conditions that must be met to operate within the radioactive waste management basis, consisting of a

  1. Cesium distribution and phases in proxy experiments on the incineration of radioactively contaminated waste from the Fukushima area.

    PubMed

    Saffarzadeh, Amirhomayoun; Shimaoka, Takayuki; Kakuta, Yoshitada; Kawano, Takashi

    2014-10-01

    After the March 11, 2011 Tohoku earthquake and Fukushima I Nuclear Power Plant accident, incineration was initially adopted as an effective technique for the treatment of post-disaster wastes. Accordingly, considerable amounts of radioactively contaminated residues were immediately generated through incineration. The level of radioactivity associated with radiocesium in the incineration ash residues (bottom ash and fly ash) became significantly high (several thousand to 100,000 Bq/kg) as a result of this treatment. In order to understand the modes of occurrence of radiocesium, bottom ash products were synthesized through combusting of refuse-derived fuel (RDF) with stable Cs salts in a pilot incinerator. Microscopic and microanalytical (SEM-EDX) techniques were applied and the following Cs categories were identified: low and high concentrations in the matrix glass, low-level partitioning into some newly-formed silicate minerals, partitioning into metal-sulfide compounds, and occurring in newly-formed Cs-rich minerals. These categories that are essentially silicate-bound are the most dominant forms in large and medium size bottom ash particles. It is expected that these achievements provide solutions to the immobilization of radiocesium in the incineration ash products contaminated by Fukushima nuclear accident.

  2. Cesium distribution and phases in proxy experiments on the incineration of radioactively contaminated waste from the Fukushima area.

    PubMed

    Saffarzadeh, Amirhomayoun; Shimaoka, Takayuki; Kakuta, Yoshitada; Kawano, Takashi

    2014-10-01

    After the March 11, 2011 Tohoku earthquake and Fukushima I Nuclear Power Plant accident, incineration was initially adopted as an effective technique for the treatment of post-disaster wastes. Accordingly, considerable amounts of radioactively contaminated residues were immediately generated through incineration. The level of radioactivity associated with radiocesium in the incineration ash residues (bottom ash and fly ash) became significantly high (several thousand to 100,000 Bq/kg) as a result of this treatment. In order to understand the modes of occurrence of radiocesium, bottom ash products were synthesized through combusting of refuse-derived fuel (RDF) with stable Cs salts in a pilot incinerator. Microscopic and microanalytical (SEM-EDX) techniques were applied and the following Cs categories were identified: low and high concentrations in the matrix glass, low-level partitioning into some newly-formed silicate minerals, partitioning into metal-sulfide compounds, and occurring in newly-formed Cs-rich minerals. These categories that are essentially silicate-bound are the most dominant forms in large and medium size bottom ash particles. It is expected that these achievements provide solutions to the immobilization of radiocesium in the incineration ash products contaminated by Fukushima nuclear accident. PMID:24911259

  3. Post-Closure Evaluation of the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites at the Nevada National Security Site in Support of the Site-Wide Environmental Impact Statement

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2011-04-26

    The post-closure performance of the Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) and Area 5 RWMS are evaluated for the Site-Wide Environmental Impact Statement using current performance assessment and composite analysis methods and models. Two alternatives with different future waste volumes and inventories are evaluated. The No Action Alternative evaluates the inventory disposed through fiscal year (FY) 2010 plus an additional 4.5E5 cubic meters (m3) (1.59E7 cubic feet [ft3]) of waste disposed at the Area 5 RWMS. The Expanded Operations Alternative evaluates the FY 2010 inventory plus an additional 1.42E6 m3 (5.03E7 ft3) of waste disposed at the Area 5 RWMS and 4.93E4 m3 (1.74E6 ft3) disposed at the Area 3 RWMS. Both the No Action and Expanded Operations Alternatives have a reasonable expectation of meeting all performance objectives of U.S. Department of Energy Order DOE O 435.1, “Radioactive Waste Management.” No significant difference between the two alternatives was found because the waste concentrations are similar. The performance assessment model assesses radiological risk for residents at the RWMS boundary where risk is more closely related to waste concentration than total waste inventory. Results for the composite analysis also indicate that the dose constraint and dose limit can be met for both alternatives.

  4. Hydrologic and Meteorological Data for an Unsaturdated-Zone Study Area near the Radioactive Waste Management Complex, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho, 1990-96

    SciTech Connect

    K. S. Perkins, J. R. Nimmo, J. R. Pittman

    1998-01-01

    Trenches and pits at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (formerly known as the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory) have been used for burial of radioactive waste since 1952. In 1985, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, began a multi-phase study of the geohydrology of the RWMC to provide a basis for estimating the extent of and the potential for migration of radionuclides in the unsaturated zone beneath the waste trenches and pits. This phase of the study provides hydrologic and meteorological data collected at a designated test trench area adjacent to the northern boundary of the RWMC SDA from 1990 through 1996. The test trench area was constructed by the USGS in 1985. Hydrologic data presented in this report were collected during 1990-96 in the USGS test trench area. Soil-moisture content measurement from disturbed and undisturbed soil were collected approximately monthly during 1990-96 from 11 neutron-probe access holes with a neutron moisture gage. In 1994, three additional neutron access holes were completed for monitoring. A meteorological station inside the test trench area provided data for determination of evapotranspiration rates. The soil-moisture and meteorological data are contained in files on 3-1/2 inch diskettes (disks 1 and 2) included with this report. The data are presented in simple American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) format with tab-delimited fields. The files occupy a total of 1.5 megabytes of disk space.

  5. Using a bank of predatory fish samples for bioindication of radioactive contamination of aquatic food chains in the area affected by the Chernobyl accident.

    PubMed

    Kryshev, I I; Ryabov, I N; Sazykina, T G

    1993-11-01

    From the analysis of experimental data on radioactive contamination of various fish, it is suggested that predatory fish specimens can be used as bioindicators of radionuclide accumulation in reservoir food chains of the Chernobyl emergency area. The increased content of cesium radionuclides were detected in the muscle tissue of predatory fish collected in various regions of the Chernobyl emergency area. In most of the water bodies studied, maximum contamination levels of predatory fish by radionuclides of cesium occurred in 1987-1988, whereas in 'nonpredatory' fish the concentration of cesium was maximum, as a rule, in the first year following the accident. The exposure doses of fish of various ecological groups and ages are estimated. The exposure doses of various population groups, using fish from contaminated water bodies, are also estimated. When forming the environmental data bank for the Chernobyl accident zone it is suggested that perch, pike-perch and pike be used as bioindicators of radioactive contamination of food chains. PMID:8272836

  6. Magnetic airborne survey - geophysical flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Barros Camara, Erick; Nei Pereira Guimarães, Suze

    2016-06-01

    This paper provides a technical review process in the area of airborne acquisition of geophysical data, with emphasis for magnetometry. In summary, it addresses the calibration processes of geophysical equipment as well as the aircraft to minimize possible errors in measurements. The corrections used in data processing and filtering are demonstrated with the same results as well as the evolution of these techniques in Brazil and worldwide.

  7. 2013 Annual Summary Report for the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites at the Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada; Review of the Performance Assessments and Composite Analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Shott, Gregory

    2014-03-01

    The Maintenance Plan for the Performance Assessments and Composite Analyses for the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites at the Nevada Test Site (National Security Technologies, LLC 2007a) requires an annual review to assess the adequacy of the performance assessments (PAs) and composite analyses (CAs), with the results submitted to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management. The Disposal Authorization Statements for the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) also require that such reviews be made and that secondary or minor unresolved issues be tracked and addressed as part of the maintenance plan (DOE 1999a, 2000). The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office performed an annual review of the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMS PAs and CAs for fiscal year (FY) 2013. This annual summary report presents data and conclusions from the FY 2013 review, and determines the adequacy of the PAs and CAs. Operational factors (e.g., waste forms and containers, facility design, and waste receipts), closure plans, monitoring results, and research and development (R&D) activities were reviewed to determine the adequacy of the PAs. Likewise, the environmental restoration activities at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) relevant to the sources of residual radioactive material that are considered in the CAs, the land-use planning, and the results of the environmental monitoring and R&D activities were reviewed to determine the adequacy of the CAs. Important developments in FY 2013 include the following: • Development of a new Area 5 RWMS closure inventory estimate based on disposals through FY 2013 • Evaluation of new or revised waste streams by special analysis • Development of version 4.115 of the Area 5 RWMS GoldSim PA/CA model The Area 3 RWMS has been in inactive status since July 1, 2006, with the last shipment received in April 2006. The FY 2013 review of operations

  8. Quality assurance for measurements of the radioactivity in the area of the"Horia Hulubei" National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, IFIN-HH.

    PubMed

    Stochioiu, Ana; Luca, Aurelian; Sahagia, Maria; Margineanu, Romul Mircea; Tudor, Ion

    2012-10-01

    This paper presents one part of the activities deployed by the Laboratory for Environment and Personnel Dosimetry (LDPM) of IFIN-HH, namely the radiological monitoring of the environment within the Institute's area and its surrounding influence zone, according to the program approved by the National Regulatory Body for Nuclear Activities, CNCAN. The representative reports regard the radioactive content of soil, surface and underground water, cultivated and spontaneous vegetation, aerosols and atmospheric fallout, sediments. The common requirement is that the measured quantities be precise and the reported values be reliable and credible. This goal is achieved by maintaining a Quality System, verified within the obtaining and maintaining of the laboratory accreditation, according to the international standard ISO/IEC 17025:2005.The LDPM is accredited by the Romanian accreditation body, RENAR, member of the European Accreditation, EA and is designed by CNCAN as a notified testing laboratory. Many measurements were performed in collaboration with the Radionuclide Metrology Laboratory (RML) from IFIN-HH, RENAR accredited and CNCAN notified for calibration and for testing in the field of radioactivity measurement. This paper proposes a short presentation of the important aspects in our activity: i. description of equipment, samplingmethods, processing and measurement of environmental samples; ii. validation of equipment and methods by participation in international and national proficiency tests; iii. a five year follow chart, containing the results in measurement of samples; iv. a recent application, with a wide impact in Romanian mass media: the credible daily report on the possible influence of Fukushima accident over the Romanian environmental radioactivity. PMID:22466303

  9. NCRP Program Area Committee 2: Operational Radiation Safety.

    PubMed

    Goldin, Eric M; Pryor, Kathryn H

    2016-02-01

    Program Area Committee 2 of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements provides guidance for radiation safety in occupational settings in a variety of industries and activities. The Committee completed three reports in recent years covering recommendations for the development and administration of radiation safety programs for smaller educational institutions, requirements for self-assessment programs that improve radiation safety and identify and correct deficiencies, and a comprehensive process for effective investigation of radiological incidents. Ongoing work includes a report on sealed radioactive source controls and oversight of a report on radioactive nanomaterials focusing on gaps within current radiation safety programs. Future efforts may deal with operational radiation safety programs in fields such as the safe use of handheld and portable x-ray fluorescence analyzers, occupational airborne radioactive contamination, unsealed radioactive sources, or industrial accelerators.

  10. Geophex Airborne Unmanned Survey System

    SciTech Connect

    Won, I.L.; Keiswetter, D.

    1995-12-31

    Ground-based surveys place personnel at risk due to the proximity of buried unexploded ordnance (UXO) items or by exposure to radioactive materials and hazardous chemicals. The purpose of this effort is to design, construct, and evaluate a portable, remotely-piloted, airborne, geophysical survey system. This non-intrusive system will provide stand-off capability to conduct surveys and detect buried objects, structures, and conditions of interest at hazardous locations. During a survey, the operators remain remote from, but within visual distance of, the site. The sensor system never contacts the Earth, but can be positioned near the ground so that weak geophysical anomalies can be detected. The Geophex Airborne Unmanned Survey System (GAUSS) is designed to detect and locate small-scale anomalies at hazardous sites using magnetic and electromagnetic survey techniques. The system consists of a remotely-piloted, radio-controlled, model helicopter (RCH) with flight computer, light-weight geophysical sensors, an electronic positioning system, a data telemetry system, and a computer base-station. The report describes GAUSS and its test results.

  11. Determining a pre-mining radiological baseline from historic airborne gamma surveys: a case study.

    PubMed

    Bollhöfer, Andreas; Beraldo, Annamarie; Pfitzner, Kirrilly; Esparon, Andrew; Doering, Che

    2014-01-15

    Knowing the baseline level of radioactivity in areas naturally enriched in radionuclides is important in the uranium mining context to assess radiation doses to humans and the environment both during and after mining. This information is particularly useful in rehabilitation planning and developing closure criteria for uranium mines as only radiation doses additional to the natural background are usually considered 'controllable' for radiation protection purposes. In this case study we have tested whether the method of contemporary groundtruthing of a historic airborne gamma survey could be used to determine the pre-mining radiological conditions at the Ranger mine in northern Australia. The airborne gamma survey was flown in 1976 before mining started and groundtruthed using ground gamma dose rate measurements made between 2007 and 2009 at an undisturbed area naturally enriched in uranium (Anomaly 2) located nearby the Ranger mine. Measurements of (226)Ra soil activity concentration and (222)Rn exhalation flux density at Anomaly 2 were made concurrent with the ground gamma dose rate measurements. Algorithms were developed to upscale the ground gamma data to the same spatial resolution as the historic airborne gamma survey data using a geographic information system, allowing comparison of the datasets. Linear correlation models were developed to estimate the pre-mining gamma dose rates, (226)Ra soil activity concentrations, and (222)Rn exhalation flux densities at selected areas in the greater Ranger region. The modelled levels agreed with measurements made at the Ranger Orebodies 1 and 3 before mining started, and at environmental sites in the region. The conclusion is that our approach can be used to determine baseline radiation levels, and provide a benchmark for rehabilitation of uranium mines or industrial sites where historical airborne gamma survey data are available and an undisturbed radiological analogue exists to groundtruth the data.

  12. Ground-water flow near two radioactive-waste-disposal areas at the Western New York Nuclear Service Center, Cattaraugus County, New York; results of flow simulation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bergeron, M.P.; Bugliosi, E.F.

    1988-01-01

    Two adjacent burial areas were excavated in a clay-rich till at a radioactive waste disposal site near West Valley in Cattaraugus County, N.Y.: (1) which contains mainly low-level radioactive wastes generated onsite by a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant, has been in operation since 1966; and (2) which contains commercial low-level radioactive wastes, was operated during 1963-75. Groundwater below the upper 3 meters of till generally moves downward through a 20- to 30-meter thick sequence of tills underlain by lacustrine and kame-delta deposits of fine sand and silt. Groundwater in the weathered, upper 3 meters of till can move laterally for several meters before either moving downward into the kame-delta deposits or discharging to the land surface. A two-dimensional finite-element model that simulates two vertical sections was used to evaluate hydrologic factors that control groundwater flow in the till. Conditions observed during March 1983 were reproduced accurately in steady-state simulations that used four isotropic units of differing hydraulic conductivity to represent two fractured and weathered till units near land surfaces, an intermediate group of isolated till zones that contain significant amounts of fine sand and silt, and a sequence of till units at depths that have been consolidated by overburden pressure. Recharge rates used in the best-fit simulation ranged from 1.4 cm/yr along smooth, sloping or compacted surfaces to 3.8 cm/yr near swampy areas. Values of hydraulic conductivity and infiltration used in the calibrated best-fit model were nearly identical to values used in a previous model analysis of the nearby commercial-waste burial area. Results of the model simulations of a burial pit assumed to be filled with water indicate that water near the bottom of the burial pit would migrate laterally in the shallow, weathered till for 5 to 6 meters before moving downward into the unweathered till, and water near the top of the pit would move laterally

  13. Quality Assurance Program Plan for radionuclide airborne emissions monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Vance, L.M.

    1993-07-01

    This Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) describes the quality assurance requirements and responsibilities for radioactive airborne emissions measurements activities from regulated stacks are controlled at the Hanford Site. Detailed monitoring requirements apply to stacks exceeding 1% of the standard of 10 mrem annual effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual from operations of the Hanford Site.

  14. Geodetic Imaging Lidar: Applications for high-accuracy, large area mapping with NASA's upcoming high-altitude waveform-based airborne laser altimetry Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blair, J. B.; Rabine, D.; Hofton, M. A.; Citrin, E.; Luthcke, S. B.; Misakonis, A.; Wake, S.

    2015-12-01

    Full waveform laser altimetry has demonstrated its ability to capture highly-accurate surface topography and vertical structure (e.g. vegetation height and structure) even in the most challenging conditions. NASA's high-altitude airborne laser altimeter, LVIS (the Land Vegetation, and Ice Sensor) has produced high-accuracy surface maps over a wide variety of science targets for the last 2 decades. Recently NASA has funded the transition of LVIS into a full-time NASA airborne Facility instrument to increase the amount and quality of the data and to decrease the end-user costs, to expand the utilization and application of this unique sensor capability. Based heavily on the existing LVIS sensor design, the Facility LVIS instrument includes numerous improvements for reliability, resolution, real-time performance monitoring and science products, decreased operational costs, and improved data turnaround time and consistency. The development of this Facility instrument is proceeding well and it is scheduled to begin operations testing in mid-2016. A comprehensive description of the LVIS Facility capability will be presented along with several mission scenarios and science applications examples. The sensor improvements included increased spatial resolution (footprints as small as 5 m), increased range precision (sub-cm single shot range precision), expanded dynamic range, improved detector sensitivity, operational autonomy, real-time flight line tracking, and overall increased reliability and sensor calibration stability. The science customer mission planning and data product interface will be discussed. Science applications of the LVIS Facility include: cryosphere, territorial ecology carbon cycle, hydrology, solid earth and natural hazards, and biodiversity.

  15. Westinghouse Hanford Company effluent report for 300 and 400 area operations for calendar year 1987

    SciTech Connect

    McCarthy, M.J.

    1989-02-01

    Releases from the facilities in the 300 and 400 Areas remain well within the applicable administrative control values (ACV). No significant trends were noted in either the airborne or liquid effluent data. Airborne and liquid radioactive effluents constitute a major portion of the effluent sampling and monitoring program. Radioactive releases from facilities in the 300 and 400 Areas, which are operated by Westinghouse Hanford, totaled 36.5 Ci. Noble gases released from the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) represented 36.3 Ci of this total. Nonradioactive airborne emissions from the 384 Powerhouse remained far below regulatory limits. The only other potential source of significant nonradioactive airborne emissions are the defense reactor fuel fabrication facilities located in the 300 Area. However, these facilities were shut down during calendar year (CY) 1987 and, therefore, were not a significant emission source. The fuel fabrication facilities are currently being placed in cold standby. There are a number of nonradioactive liquid effluent streams located in the 300 and 400 Areas. Of these, only the 300 Area process sewer system has a significant potential for the release of chemical contaminants to the environment. The other liquid effluent streams (e.g., the sanitary waste systems or the water treatment plant filter backwash) are single purpose, adequately characterized, and not significantly threatened by chemical contaminants. 3 refs., 7 tabs.

  16. Assessment of flood hazard at the radioactive waste management site in Area 5 of the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    French, R.H.; Lombardo, W.S.

    1984-07-01

    The Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) is located at the junction of major alluvial fans, to the east and west, with several smaller fans merging from the north. The conclusion is, the RWMS is likely to be hit several times during an assumed design life of 150 years by flash flood events of significant magnitude. This conclusion was arrived at by using regional peak flood equations developed by the U.S. Geological Survey and various hypotheses regarding flood processes on alluvial fans. It should be noted that the flood hazard at the RWMS is not necessarily greater than it would be for any facility of a similar size and design life located on any alluvial fan in Southern Nevada. Further, the berm on the upslope side of the RWMS may offer some protection; however, the degree of protection provided by this berm was not evaluated. Although this analysis is subject to a number of limitations, which are noted and discussed within, the conclusion is substantiated by the fact that the RWMS is located on a number of alluvial fans which were formed by erosional processes that are still active. Although protective measures for the site can be developed, the development of such mitigation plans should include not only a careful consideration of the probability that the site will be hit by a flood event, but also a careful consideration of the consequences of such a hit. This report is a focused analysis of the probability that the RWMS will be hit by a flash flood, but does not address what the consequences of such an event might be. 5 references, 19 figures, 18 tables.

  17. Estimating the water table under the Radioactive Waste Management Site in Area 5 of the Nevada Test Site the Dupuit-Forcheimer approximation

    SciTech Connect

    Lindstrom, T.F.; Barker, L.E.; Cawlfield, D.E.; Daffern, D.D.; Dozier, B.L.; Emer, D.F.; Strong, W.R.

    1992-01-01

    A two-dimensional steady-state water-flow equation for estimating the water table elevation under a thick, very dry vadose zone is developed and discussed. The Dupuit assumption is made. A prescribed downward vertical infiltration/evaporation condition is assumed at the atmosphere-soil interface. An approximation to the square of the elevation head, based upon multivariate cubic interpolation methods, is introduced. The approximation is forced to satisfy the governing elliptic (Poisson) partial differential equation over the domain of definition. The remaining coefficients are determined by interpolating the water table at eight boundary points.'' Several realistic scenarios approximating the water table under the Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) in Area 5 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) are discussed.

  18. Estimating the water table under the Radioactive Waste Management Site in Area 5 of the Nevada Test Site the Dupuit-Forcheimer approximation

    SciTech Connect

    Lindstrom, F.T.; Barker, L.E.; Cawlfield, D.E.; Daffern, D.D.; Dozier, B.L.; Emer, D.F.; Strong, W.R.

    1992-01-01

    A two-dimensional steady-state water-flow equation for estimating the water table elevation under a thick, very dry vadose zone is developed and discussed. The Dupuit assumption is made. A prescribed downward vertical infiltration/evaporation condition is assumed at the atmosphere-soil interface. An approximation to the square of the elevation head, based upon multivariate cubic interpolation methods, is introduced. The approximation is forced to satisfy the governing elliptic (Poisson) partial differential equation over the domain of definition. The remaining coefficients are determined by interpolating the water table at eight ``boundary points.`` Several realistic scenarios approximating the water table under the Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) in Area 5 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) are discussed.

  19. Preliminary design of a biological treatment facility for trench water from a low-level radioactive waste disposal area at West Valley, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Rosten, R.; Malkumus, D.; Sonntag, T.; Sundquist, J.

    1993-03-01

    The New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) owns and manages a State-Licensed Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Area (SDA) at West Valley, New York. Water has migrated into the burial trenches at the SDA and collected there, becoming contaminated with radionuclides and organic compounds. The US Environmental Protection Agency issued an order to NYSERDA to reduce the levels of water in the trenches. A treatability study of the contaminated trench water (leachate) was performed and determined the best available technology to treat the leachate and discharge the effluent. This paper describes the preliminary design of the treatment facility that incorporates the bases developed in the leachate treatability study.

  20. Treatability studies on mixed (radioactive and hazardous) M-Area F006 waste sludge: Vitrification via the Reactive Additive Stabilization Process (RASP)

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C.M.; Pickett, J.B.; Ramsey, W.G.; Beam, D.C.

    1994-06-01

    Solidification of mixed (hazardous and radioactive) waste sludges into glass is being examined at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The M-Area operations at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken, South Carolina, produced reactor components for nuclear weapons materials for the US Department of Energy. The resulting waste is currently being stored in nine tanks. The total volume in storage of was initially {approximately}1,200,000 gallons of which {approximately} 1/3 is a gelatinous hydroxide sludge. Vitrification of the sludge into glass is an attractive option because it reduces the waste volume by {approximately}85% and reduces final disposal volume by 96% compared to alternative stabilization technologies. The large volume reductions allow for large associated savings in disposal and/or long term storage costs.

  1. 10 CFR 835.209 - Concentrations of radioactive material in air.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Concentrations of radioactive material in air. 835.209... External Exposure § 835.209 Concentrations of radioactive material in air. (a) The derived air... exposures to airborne radioactive material. (b) The estimation of internal dose shall be based on...

  2. Assessment of natural and artificial radioactivity levels and radiation hazards and their relation to heavy metals in the industrial area of Port Said city, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Attia, T E; Shendi, E H; Shehata, M A

    2015-02-01

    A detailed gamma ray spectrometry survey was carried out to make an action in environmental impact assessment of urbanization and industrialization on Port Said city, Egypt. The concentrations of the measured radioelements U-238, Th-232 in ppm, and K-40 %, in addition to the total counts of three selected randomly dumping sites (A, B, and C) were mapped. The concentration maps represent a base line for the radioactivity in the study area in order to detect any future radioactive contamination. These concentrations are ranging between 0.2 and 21 ppm for U-238 and 0.01 to 13.4 ppm for Th-232 as well as 0.15 to 3.8 % for K-40, whereas the total count values range from 8.7 to 123.6 uR. Moreover, the dose rate was mapped using the same spectrometer and survey parameters in order to assess the radiological effect of these radioelements. The dose rate values range from 0.12 to 1.61 mSv/year. Eighteen soil samples were collected from the sites with high radioelement concentrations and dose rates to determine the activity concentrations of Ra-226, Th-232, and K-40 using HPGe spectrometer. The activity concentrations of Ra-226, Th-232, and K-40 in the measured samples range from 18.03 to 398.66 Bq kg(-1), 5.28 to 75.7 Bq kg(-1), and 3,237.88 to 583.12 Bq kg(-1), respectively. In addition to analyze heavy metal for two high reading samples (a 1 and a 10) which give concentrations of Cd and Zn elements (a 1 40 ppm and a 10 42 ppm) and (a 1 0.90 ppm and a 10 0.97 ppm), respectively, that are in the range of phosphate fertilizer products that suggested a dumped man-made waste in site A. All indicate that the measured values for the soil samples in the two sites of three falls within the world ranges of soil in areas with normal levels of radioactivity, while site A shows a potential radiological risk for human beings, and it is important to carry out dose assessment program with a specifically detailed monitoring program periodically.

  3. [Characteristics of erythrocyte lipids in blood of tundra voles (Microtus oeconomus Pall.) inhabiting areas with increased natural radioactivity].

    PubMed

    Shevchenko, O G; Shuktomova, I I; Shishkina, L N

    2011-01-01

    Interrelations between the lipid characteristics of the blood erythrocytes and 226Ra accumulation in the body of tundra voles (Microtus oeconomus Pall.) inhabiting areas with different levels of the radiation background were investigated. It is shown that the ratio of the phospholipid (PL) fractions which cause the blood erythrocyte structure depends on the phase of the population cycle, as well as on the sex and age of tundra voles. The statistically significant interrelation between lysoforms and the sphingomielin content has been revealed in the blood erythrocyte PL of tundra voles; its scale somewhat differs for the animals from the reference and Ra areas. The peroxide concentration in the blood erythrocyte lipids of tundra voles from the Ra area exceeded the control values in all mature groups of the animals trapped at the depression phase of the population density. The 226Ra content in the bodies of the tundra voles which were trapped in the Ra area at the increased phase of the population cycle is for certain higher than that for the animals from the reference area. Interrelations between the lipid peroxidation parameters in the blood erythrocytes and the body 226Ra content for separate sex-age groups of tundra voles have been revealed.

  4. A Technique for Airborne Aerobiological Sampling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mill, R. A.; And Others

    1972-01-01

    Report of a study of airborne micro-organisms collected over the Oklahoma City Metropolitan area and immediate environments, to investigate the possibility that a cloud of such organisms might account for the prevalence of some respiratory diseases in and around urban areas. (LK)

  5. [The dose estimation to the population as a result of radioactive contamination of the Semipalatinsk Test area].

    PubMed

    Spiridonova, S I; Mukusheva, M K; Shubina, O A; Solomatin, V M; Epifanova, I E

    2008-01-01

    The results are presented from estimation of spatial distribution of 137Cs and 90Sr contamination densities in the areas of horses and sheep grazing within the Semipalatinsk Test Site. Dose burdens to various cohorts of the population living within the STS and consuming contaminated animal products are predicted. Doses of shepherds in the most contaminated pasture areas have been found to exceed the accepted limit (1 mSv/y). The conclusion is made about the need for further studies on the risk assessment of the STS population exposure above the accepted limits.

  6. Downscaling of Airborne Wind Energy Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fechner, Uwe; Schmehl, Roland

    2016-09-01

    Airborne wind energy systems provide a novel solution to harvest wind energy from altitudes that cannot be reached by wind turbines with a similar nominal generator power. The use of a lightweight but strong tether in place of an expensive tower provides an additional cost advantage, next to the higher capacity factor and much lower total mass. This paper investigates the scaling effects of airborne wind energy systems. The energy yield of airborne wind energy systems, that work in pumping mode of operation is at least ten times higher than the energy yield of conventional solar systems. For airborne wind energy systems the yield is defined per square meter wing area. In this paper the dependency of the energy yield on the nominal generator power for systems in the range of 1 kW to 1 MW is investigated. For the onshore location Cabauw, The Netherlands, it is shown, that a generator of just 1.4 kW nominal power and a total system mass of less than 30 kg has the theoretical potential to harvest energy at only twice the price per kWh of large scale airborne wind energy systems. This would make airborne wind energy systems a very attractive choice for small scale remote and mobile applications as soon as the remaining challenges for commercialization are solved.

  7. 2011 Annual Summary Report for the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites at the Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada: Review of the Performance Assessments and Composite Analyses

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2012-03-20

    The Maintenance Plan for the Performance Assessments and Composite Analyses for the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites at the Nevada Test Site (National Security Technologies, LLC, 2007a) requires an annual review to assess the adequacy of the Performance Assessments (PAs) and Composite Analyses (CAs), with the results submitted annually to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management. The Disposal Authorization Statements for the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) also require that such reviews be made and that secondary or minor unresolved issues be tracked and addressed as part of the maintenance plan (DOE, 1999a; 2000). The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office performed an annual review of the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMS PAs and CAs for fiscal year (FY) 2011. This annual summary report presents data and conclusions from the FY 2011 review, and determines the adequacy of the PAs and CAs. Operational factors (e.g., waste forms and containers, facility design, and waste receipts), closure plans, monitoring results, and research and development (R and D) activities were reviewed to determine the adequacy of the PAs. Likewise, the environmental restoration activities at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) (formerly the Nevada Test Site) relevant to the sources of residual radioactive material that are considered in the CAs, the land-use planning, and the results of the environmental monitoring and R and D activities were reviewed to determine the adequacy of the CAs. Important developments in FY 2011 include the following: (1) Operation of a new shallow land disposal unit and a new Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA)-compliant lined disposal unit at the Area 5 RWMS; (2) Development of new closure inventory estimates based on disposals through FY 2011; (3) Evaluation of new or revised waste streams by special analysis; (4) Development of

  8. Test Area for Remedial Actions (TARA) site characterization and dynamic compaction of low-level radioactive waste trenches. FY 1988 progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, E. C.; Spalding, B. P.; Lee, S. Y.; Hyder, L. K.

    1989-01-01

    As part of a low-level radioactive waste burial ground stabilization and closure technology demonstration project, a group of five burial trenches in Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 6 was selected as a demonstration site for testing trench compaction, trench grouting, and trench cap installation and performance. This report focuses on site characterization, trench compaction, and grout-trench leachate compatibility. Trench grouting and cap design and construction will be the subject of future reports. The five trenches, known as the Test Area for Remedial Actions (TARA) site, are contained within a hydrologically isolated area of SWSA 6; for that reason, any effects of stabilization activities on site performance and groundwater quality will be separable from the influence of other waste disposal units in SWSA 6. To obviate the chronic problem of burial trench subsidence and to provide support for an infiltration barrier cap, these five trenches were dynamically compacted by repeated dropping of a 4-ton weight onto each trench from heights of approximately 7 m.

  9. Airborne lidar experiments at the Savannah River Plant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krabill, William B.; Swift, Robert N.

    1985-01-01

    The results of remote sensing experiments at the Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Nuclear Facility utilizing the NASA Airborne Oceanographic Lidar (AOL) are presented. The flights were conducted in support of the numerous environmental monitoring requirements associated with the operation of the facility and for the purpose of furthering research and development of airborne lidar technology. Areas of application include airborne laser topographic mapping, hydrologic studies using fluorescent tracer dye, timber volume estimation, baseline characterization of wetlands, and aquatic chlorophyll and photopigment measurements. Conclusions relative to the usability of airborne lidar technology for the DOE for each of these remote sensing applications are discussed.

  10. Airborne particulate matter in spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Acceptability limits and sampling and monitoring strategies for airborne particles in spacecraft were considered. Based on instances of eye and respiratory tract irritation reported by Shuttle flight crews, the following acceptability limits for airborne particles were recommended: for flights of 1 week or less duration (1 mg/cu m for particles less than 10 microns in aerodynamic diameter (AD) plus 1 mg/cu m for particles 10 to 100 microns in AD); and for flights greater than 1 week and up to 6 months in duration (0.2 mg/cu m for particles less than 10 microns in AD plus 0.2 mg/cu m for particles 10 to 100 microns in AD. These numerical limits were recommended to aid in spacecraft atmosphere design which should aim at particulate levels that are a low as reasonably achievable. Sampling of spacecraft atmospheres for particles should include size-fractionated samples of 0 to 10, 10 to 100, and greater than 100 micron particles for mass concentration measurement and elementary chemical analysis by nondestructive analysis techniques. Morphological and chemical analyses of single particles should also be made to aid in identifying airborne particulate sources. Air cleaning systems based on inertial collection principles and fine particle collection devices based on electrostatic precipitation and filtration should be considered for incorporation into spacecraft air circulation systems. It was also recommended that research be carried out in space in the areas of health effects and particle characterization.

  11. Genotoxicity of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Nitro-Derived in Respirable Airborne Particulate Matter Collected from Urban Areas of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    PubMed Central

    Ramos de Rainho, Claudia; Machado Corrêa, Sérgio; Luiz Mazzei, José; Alessandra Fortes Aiub, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    Air pollution toxic effects are mainly attributed to small inhalable particulates with an aerodynamic diameter of less than 2.5 µm (PM 2.5). Our objective was to investigate mutagenic and clastogenic activity in PM samples collected in Rio de Janeiro. Samples were collected using a high-volume sampler at three sites: with low traffic and (2) and (3) with a heavy traffic. Six polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were quantified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and the derivative strains YG1021 and YG1024 were used in mutagenicity assays in the presence of organic extracts (10–50 µg/ plate) with and without exogenous metabolization. Allium cepa test was performed to evaluate possible cytotoxic and clastogenic activities. The highest PM 2.5 µm (132.73 µm/m3) and PAH values (1.22 ng/m3 for benzo(a)pyrene) were detected at site 3. High mutagenic frameshift responses in absence and presence of metabolic activation were detected at site 3. The participation of nitroarenes and dinitroarenes was detected in the total mutagenicity of the extracts studied. The cytotoxic effect and the abnormalities detected by Allium cepa test can be attributed to the PAH nitroderivatives in the organic extracts. Evaluation of the genotoxicity of urban airborne particulate matter is important as a basis for decision making by regulatory authorities. PMID:23738331

  12. Genotoxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and nitro-derived in respirable airborne particulate matter collected from urban areas of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil).

    PubMed

    Ramos de Rainho, Claudia; Machado Corrêa, Sérgio; Luiz Mazzei, José; Alessandra Fortes Aiub, Claudia; Felzenszwalb, Israel

    2013-01-01

    Air pollution toxic effects are mainly attributed to small inhalable particulates with an aerodynamic diameter of less than 2.5 µ m (PM 2.5). Our objective was to investigate mutagenic and clastogenic activity in PM samples collected in Rio de Janeiro. Samples were collected using a high-volume sampler at three sites: with low traffic and (2) and (3) with a heavy traffic. Six polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were quantified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and the derivative strains YG1021 and YG1024 were used in mutagenicity assays in the presence of organic extracts (10-50 µ g/ plate) with and without exogenous metabolization. Allium cepa test was performed to evaluate possible cytotoxic and clastogenic activities. The highest PM 2.5 µ m (132.73 µ m/m(3)) and PAH values (1.22 ng/m(3) for benzo(a)pyrene) were detected at site 3. High mutagenic frameshift responses in absence and presence of metabolic activation were detected at site 3. The participation of nitroarenes and dinitroarenes was detected in the total mutagenicity of the extracts studied. The cytotoxic effect and the abnormalities detected by Allium cepa test can be attributed to the PAH nitroderivatives in the organic extracts. Evaluation of the genotoxicity of urban airborne particulate matter is important as a basis for decision making by regulatory authorities. PMID:23738331

  13. In-situ grouting of the low-level radioactive waste disposal silos at ORNL`s Solid Waste Storage Area Six

    SciTech Connect

    Francis, C.W.; Farmer, C.D.; Stansfield, R.G.

    1993-07-01

    At Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), one method of solid low-level radioactive waste disposal has been disposed of in below-grade cylindrical concrete silos. Located in Solid Waste Storage Area 6 (SWSA 6), each silo measures 8 ft in diameter and 20 ft deep. Present day operations involve loading the silos with low-level radioactive waste and grouting the remaining void space with a particulate grout of low viscosity. Initial operations involving the disposal of wastes into the below-grade silos did not include the grouting process. Grouting was stated as a standard practice (in late 1988) after discovering that {approximately}75% of the silos accumulated water in the bottom of the silos in the {approximately}2 years after capping. Silo water (leachate) contained a wide range of types and concentrations of radionuclides. The migration of contaminated leachate out of the silo into adjoining soil and groundwater was considered to be a serious environmental concern. This report describes how a specially designed particulate-base grout was used to grout 54 silos previously filled with low-level radioactive waste. Grouting involved three steps: (1) silo preparation, (2) formulation and preparation of the grout mixture, and (3) injection of the grout into the silos. Thirty-five of the 54 silos grouted were equipped with a 3-in.-diam Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) pipe used to monitor water levels in the silos. A method for rupturing the bottom section of these PVC wells was developed so that grout could be pumped to the bottom of those silos. Holes (2-in. diam) were drilled through the {approximately}18 in. thick concrete to fill the remaining 19 wells without the PVC monitoring wells. The formulation of grout injected into the silos was based on a Portland Type I cement, flyash, sand, and silica fume admixture. Compressive strength of grout delivered to SWSA6 during grouting operations averaged 1,808 lb/in{sup 2} with a bulk density of 3,549 lb/yd{sup 3}.

  14. Exposure level and distribution characteristics of airborne bacteria and fungi in Seoul metropolitan subway stations.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki Youn; Kim, Yoon Shin; Kim, Daekeun; Kim, Hyeon Tae

    2011-01-01

    The exposure level and distribution characteristics of airborne bacteria and fungi were assessed in the workers' activity areas (station office, bedroom, ticket office and driver's seat) and passengers' activity areas (station precinct, inside the passenger carriage, and platform) of the Seoul metropolitan subway. Among investigated areas, the levels of airborne bacteria and fungi in the workers' bedroom and station precincts were relatively high. No significant difference was found in the concentration of airborne bacteria and fungi between the underground and above ground activity areas of the subway. The genera identified in all subway activity areas with a 5% or greater detection rate were Staphylococcus, Micrococcus, Bacillus and Corynebacterium for airborne bacteria and Penicillium, Cladosporium, Chrysosporium, Aspergillus for airborne fungi. Staphylococcus and Micrococcus comprised over 50% of the total airborne bacteria and Penicillium and Cladosporium comprised over 60% of the total airborne fungi, thus these four genera are the predominant genera in the subway station. PMID:21173524

  15. Restoration of areas disturbed by site studies for a mined commercial radioactive waste repository: The Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP)

    SciTech Connect

    Brandt, C.A.; Rickard, W.H. Jr.; Biehert, R.W.; Newell, R.L.; Page, T.L.

    1989-01-01

    The Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP) was undertaken to environmentally characterize a portion of the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site in Washington State as a potential host for the nation's first mined commercial nuclear waste repository. Studies were terminated by Congress in 1987. Between 1976 and 1987, 72 areas located across the Hanford Site were disturbed by the BWIP. These areas include borehole pads, a large Exploratory Shaft Facility, and the Near Surface Test Facility. Most boreholes were cleared of vegetation, leveled, and stabilized with a thick layer of compacted pit-run gravel and sand. The Near Surface Test Facility consists of three mined adits, a rock-spoils bench, and numerous support facilities. Restoration began in 1988 with the objective of returning sites to pre-existing conditions using native species. The Hanford Site retains some of the last remnants of the shrub-steppe ecosystem in Washington. The primary constraints to restoring native vegetation at Hanford are low precipitation and the presence of cheatgrass, an extremely capable alien competitor. 5 figs.

  16. Airborne GLM Simulator (FEGS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quick, M.; Blakeslee, R. J.; Christian, H. J., Jr.; Stewart, M. F.; Podgorny, S.; Corredor, D.

    2015-12-01

    Real time lightning observations have proven to be useful for advanced warning and now-casting of severe weather events. In anticipation of the launch of the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) onboard GOES-R that will provide continuous real time observations of total (both cloud and ground) lightning, the Fly's Eye GLM Simulator (FEGS) is in production. FEGS is an airborne instrument designed to provide cal/val measurements for GLM from high altitude aircraft. It consists of a 5 x 5 array of telescopes each with a narrow passband filter to isolate the 777.4 nm neutral oxygen emission triplet radiated by lightning. The telescopes will measure the optical radiance emitted by lightning that is transmitted through the cloud top with a temporal resolution of 10 μs. When integrated on the NASA ER-2 aircraft, the FEGS array with its 90° field-of-view will observe a cloud top area nearly equal to a single GLM pixel. This design will allow FEGS to determine the temporal and spatial variation of light that contributes to a GLM event detection. In addition to the primary telescope array, the instrument includes 5 supplementary optical channels that observe alternate spectral emission features and will enable the use of FEGS for interesting lightning physics applications. Here we present an up-to-date summary of the project and a description of its scientific applications.

  17. Geomorphic assessment of late Quaternary volcanism in the Yucca Mountain area, southern Nevada: Implications for the proposed high-level radioactive waste repository

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, S.G.; McFadden, L.D.; Renault, C.E.; Crowe, B.M.

    1991-03-01

    Volcanic hazard studies for high-level radioactive waste isolation in the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada, require a detailed understanding of Quaternary volcanism to forecast rates of volcanic processes. Recent studies of the Quaternary Cima volcanic fields in southern California have demonstrated that K-Ar dates of volcanic landforms are consistent with their geomorphic and pedologic properties. The systematic change of these properties with time may be used to provide age estimates of undated or questionably dated volcanic features. The reliability of radiometric age determinations of the youngest volcanic center, Lathrop Wells, near the proposed Yucca Mountain site in Nevada has been problematic. In this study, a comparison of morphometric, pedogenic, and stratigraphic data establishes that correlation of geomorphic and soil properties between the Cima volcanic field and the Yucca Mountain area is valid. Comparison of the Lathrop Wells cinder cone to a 15-20 ka cinder cone in California shows that their geomorphic-pedogenic properties are similar and implies that the two cones are of similar age. The authors of ca. 0.27 Ma for the latest volcanic activity at Lathrop Wells, approximately 20 km from the proposed repository, may be in error by as much as an order of magnitude and that the most recent volcanic activity is no older than 20 ka.

  18. Geomorphic assessment of late Quaternary volcanism in the Yucca Mountain area, southern Nevada: Implications for the proposed high-level radioactive waste repository

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wells, S. G.; McFadden, L. D.; Renault, C. E.; Crowe, B. M.

    1990-06-01

    Volcanic hazard studies for high-level radioactive waste isolation in the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada, require a detailed understanding of Quaternary volcanism to forecast rates of volcanic processes. Recent studies of the Quaternary Cima volcanic field in southern California have demonstrated that K-Ar dates of volcanic landforms are consistent with their geomorphic and pedologic properties. The systematic change of these properties with time may be used to provide age estimates of undated or questionably dated volcanic features. The reliability off radiometric age determinations of the youngest volcanic center, Lathrop Wells, near the proposed Yucca Mountain site in Nevada has been problematic. In this study, a comparison of morphometric, pedogenic, and stratigraphic data establishes that correlation of geomorphic and soil properties between the Cima volcanic field and the Yucca Mountain area is valid. Comparison of the Lathrop Wells cinder cone to a 15-20 ka cinder cone in California shows that their geomorphic-pedogenic properties are similar and implies that the two cones are of similar age. We conclude that previous determinations of ca. 0.27 Ma for the latest volcanic activity at Lathrop Wells, approximately 20 km from the proposed repository, may be in error by as much as an order of magnitude and that the most recent volcanic activity is no older than 20 ka.

  19. Mars Airborne Prospecting Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinkraus, J. M.; Wright, M. W.; Rheingans, B. E.; Steinkraus, D. E.; George, W. P.; Aljabri, A.; Hall, J. L.; Scott, D. C.

    2012-06-01

    One novel approach towards addressing the need for innovative instrumentation and investigation approaches is the integration of a suite of four spectrometer systems to form the Mars Airborne Prospecting Spectrometers (MAPS) for prospecting on Mars.

  20. Radioactive characterization of leachates and efflorescences in the neighbouring areas of a phosphogypsum disposal site as a preliminary step before its restoration.

    PubMed

    Gázquez, M J; Mantero, J; Mosqueda, F; Bolívar, J P; García-Tenorio, R

    2014-11-01

    After the recent closure of certain phosphoric acid plants located in the South-West of Spain, it has been decided to restore a big extension (more than six hundred hectares) of salt-marshes, where some million tonnes of phosphogypsum (PG), the main by-product generated by these plants, had been disposed of. This PG is characterized by its content of high activity concentrations of several radionuclides from the uranium series, mainly (226)Ra, (210)Pb, and (210)Po and, to a lesser extent, U-isotopes. The PG disposal area can be considered as a potential source of radionuclides into their nearby environment, through the waters which percolate from them and through the efflorescences formed in their surroundings. For this reason, a detailed radioactive characterization of the mentioned waters and efflorescences has been considered essential for a proper planning of the restoration tasks to be applied in the near future in the zone. To this end, U-isotopes, (234)Th, (230)Th, (226)Ra, (210)Pb and (210)Po activity concentrations have been determined by applying both alpha-particle and gamma-ray spectrometric techniques to selected water and efflorescence aliquots collected in the area. The analysis of the obtained results has enabled to obtain information about the geochemical behaviour in the area of the different radionuclides analyzed; and the conclusion to be drawn that, in the restoration plan under preparation, both the prohibition of outflowing waters from the disposal area to the neighbouring salt-marshes, and the removal of all the efflorescences now disseminated in their surroundings are essential. PMID:25014882

  1. Estimating the water table under the Radioactive Waste Management Site in Area 5 of the Nevada Test Site: The Dupuit-Forcheimer approximation

    SciTech Connect

    Lindstrom, F.T.; Barker, L.E.; Cawlfield, D.E.; Daffern, D.D.; Dozier, B.L.; Emer, D.F.; Strong, W.R.

    1992-06-01

    To adequately manage the low level nuclear waste (LLW) repository in Area 5 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), a knowledge of the water table under the site is paramount. The estimated thickness of the arid intermountain basin alluvium is roughly 900 feet. Very little reliable water table data for Area 5 currently exists. The Special Projects Section of the Reynolds Electrical & Engineering Co., Inc. Waste Management Department is currently formulating a long-range drilling and sampling plan in support of a Resource Conservation Recovery Act (RCRA) Part B permit waiver for groundwater monitoring and liner systems. An estimate of the water table under the LLW repository, called the Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) in Area 5, is needed for the drilling and sampling plan. Very old water table elevation estimates at about a dozen widely scattered test drill holes, as well as water wells, are available from declassified US Geological Survey, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and Los Alamos National Laboratory drilling logs. A three-dimensional steady-state water-flow equation for estimating the water table elevation under a thick, very dry vadose zone is developed using the Dupuit assumption. A prescribed positive vertical downward infiltration/evaporation condition is assumed at the atmosphere/soil interface. An approximation to the square of the elevation head, based upon multivariate cubic interpolation methods, is introduced. The approximate is forced to satisfy the governing elliptic (Poisson) partial differential equation over the domain of definition. The remaining coefficients are determined by interpolating the water table at eight ``boundary point.`` Several realistic scenarios approximating the water table under the RWMS in Area 5 of the NTS are discussed.

  2. Radioactive characterization of leachates and efflorescences in the neighbouring areas of a phosphogypsum disposal site as a preliminary step before its restoration.

    PubMed

    Gázquez, M J; Mantero, J; Mosqueda, F; Bolívar, J P; García-Tenorio, R

    2014-11-01

    After the recent closure of certain phosphoric acid plants located in the South-West of Spain, it has been decided to restore a big extension (more than six hundred hectares) of salt-marshes, where some million tonnes of phosphogypsum (PG), the main by-product generated by these plants, had been disposed of. This PG is characterized by its content of high activity concentrations of several radionuclides from the uranium series, mainly (226)Ra, (210)Pb, and (210)Po and, to a lesser extent, U-isotopes. The PG disposal area can be considered as a potential source of radionuclides into their nearby environment, through the waters which percolate from them and through the efflorescences formed in their surroundings. For this reason, a detailed radioactive characterization of the mentioned waters and efflorescences has been considered essential for a proper planning of the restoration tasks to be applied in the near future in the zone. To this end, U-isotopes, (234)Th, (230)Th, (226)Ra, (210)Pb and (210)Po activity concentrations have been determined by applying both alpha-particle and gamma-ray spectrometric techniques to selected water and efflorescence aliquots collected in the area. The analysis of the obtained results has enabled to obtain information about the geochemical behaviour in the area of the different radionuclides analyzed; and the conclusion to be drawn that, in the restoration plan under preparation, both the prohibition of outflowing waters from the disposal area to the neighbouring salt-marshes, and the removal of all the efflorescences now disseminated in their surroundings are essential.

  3. Levels of radioactivity in Qatar

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Thani, A.A.; Abdul-Majid, S.; Mohammed, K.

    1995-12-31

    The levels of natural and man-made radioactivity in soil and seabed were measured in Qatar to assess radiation exposure levels and to evaluate any radioactive contamination that may have reached the country from fallout or due to the Chernobyl accident radioactivity release. Qatar peninsula is located on the Arabian Gulf, 4500 km from Chernobyl, and has an area of {approximately}11,600 km{sup 2} and a population of {approximately}600,000.

  4. Radioactive Wastes.

    PubMed

    Choudri, B S; Baawain, Mahad

    2016-10-01

    Papers reviewed herein present a general overview of radioactive waste activities around the world in 2015. These include safety assessments, decommission and decontamination of nuclear facilities, fusion facilities, transportation and management solutions for the final disposal of low and high level radioactive wastes (LLW and HLW), interim storage and final disposal options for spent fuel (SF), and tritiated wastes, with a focus on environmental impacts due to the mobility of radionuclides in water, soil and ecosystem alongwith other progress made in the management of radioactive wastes. PMID:27620100

  5. Radioactive Wastes.

    PubMed

    Choudri, B S; Baawain, Mahad

    2015-10-01

    Papers reviewed herein present a general overview of radioactive waste activities around the world in 2014. These include safety assessments, decommission and decontamination of nuclear facilities, fusion facilities, transportation and management solutions for the final disposal of low and high level radioactive wastes (LLW and HLW), interim storage and final disposal options for spent fuel (SF), and tritiated wastes, with a focus on environmental impacts due to the mobility of radionuclides in water, soil and ecosystem alongwith other progress made in the management of radioactive wastes.

  6. Radioactive Wastes.

    PubMed

    Choudri, B S; Baawain, Mahad

    2016-10-01

    Papers reviewed herein present a general overview of radioactive waste activities around the world in 2015. These include safety assessments, decommission and decontamination of nuclear facilities, fusion facilities, transportation and management solutions for the final disposal of low and high level radioactive wastes (LLW and HLW), interim storage and final disposal options for spent fuel (SF), and tritiated wastes, with a focus on environmental impacts due to the mobility of radionuclides in water, soil and ecosystem alongwith other progress made in the management of radioactive wastes.

  7. Radioactive Wastes.

    PubMed

    Choudri, B S; Baawain, Mahad

    2015-10-01

    Papers reviewed herein present a general overview of radioactive waste activities around the world in 2014. These include safety assessments, decommission and decontamination of nuclear facilities, fusion facilities, transportation and management solutions for the final disposal of low and high level radioactive wastes (LLW and HLW), interim storage and final disposal options for spent fuel (SF), and tritiated wastes, with a focus on environmental impacts due to the mobility of radionuclides in water, soil and ecosystem alongwith other progress made in the management of radioactive wastes. PMID:26420096

  8. 2012 Annual Summary Report for the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites at the Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada: Review of the Performance Assessments and Composite Analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Shott, G.

    2013-03-18

    The Maintenance Plan for the Performance Assessments and Composite Analyses for the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites at the Nevada Test Site (National Security Technologies, LLC 2007a) requires an annual review to assess the adequacy of the performance assessments (PAs) and composite analyses (CAs), with the results submitted to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management. The Disposal Authorization Statements for the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) also require that such reviews be made and that secondary or minor unresolved issues be tracked and addressed as part of the maintenance plan (DOE 1999a, 2000). The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office performed an annual review of the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMS PAs and CAs for fiscal year (FY) 2012. This annual summary report presents data and conclusions from the FY 2012 review, and determines the adequacy of the PAs and CAs. Operational factors (e.g., waste forms and containers, facility design, and waste receipts), closure plans, monitoring results, and research and development (R&D) activities were reviewed to determine the adequacy of the PAs. Likewise, the environmental restoration activities at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) relevant to the sources of residual radioactive material that are considered in the CAs, the land-use planning, and the results of the environmental monitoring and R&D activities were reviewed to determine the adequacy of the CAs. Important developments in FY 2012 include the following: Release of a special analysis for the Area 3 RWMS assessing the continuing validity of the PA and CA; Development of a new Area 5 RWMS closure inventory estimate based on disposals through FY 2012; Evaluation of new or revised waste streams by special analysis; and Development of version 4.114 of the Area 5 RWMS GoldSim PA model. The Area 3 RWMS has been in inactive status since

  9. Health and ecological hazards due to natural radioactivity in soil from mining areas of Nasarawa State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Aliyu, Abubakar Sadiq; Ibrahim, Umar; Akpa, Chidozie Timothy; Garba, Nuraddeen Nasiru; Ramli, Ahmad Termizi

    2015-01-01

    Nasarawa State is located in north central Nigeria and it is known as Nigeria's home of solid minerals. It is endowed with barite, copper, zinc, tantalite and granite. Continuous releases of mining waste and tailings into the biosphere may result in a build-up of radionuclides in air, water and soil. This work therefore aims to measure the activity concentration levels of primordial radionuclides in the soil/sediment samples collected from selected mines of the mining areas of Nasarawa State. The paper also assesses the radiological and radio ecological impacts of mining activities on the residents of mining areas and their environment. The activity concentrations of primordial radionuclides ((226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K) in the surface soils/sediment samples were determined using sodium iodide-thallium gamma spectroscopy. Seven major mines were considered with 21 samples taken from each of the mines for radiochemistry analysis. The human health hazard assessment was conducted using regulatory methodologies set by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, while the radio ecological impact assessment was conducted using the ERICA tool v. 1.2. The result shows that the activity concentrations of (40)K in the water ways of the Akiri copper and the Azara barite mines are 60 and 67% higher than the world average value for (40)K, respectively. In all mines, the annual effective dose rates (mSv y(-1)) were less than unity, and a maximum annual gonadal dose of 0.58 mSv y(-1) is received at the Akiri copper mine, which is almost twice the world average value for gonadal dose. The external hazard indices for all the mines were less than unity. Our results also show that mollusc-gastropod, insect larvae, mollusc-bivalve and zooplankton are the freshwater biotas with the highest dose rates ranging from 5 to 7 µGy h(-1). These higher dose rates could be associated with zinc and copper mining at Abuni and Akiri, respectively. The most exposed

  10. Health and ecological hazards due to natural radioactivity in soil from mining areas of Nasarawa State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Aliyu, Abubakar Sadiq; Ibrahim, Umar; Akpa, Chidozie Timothy; Garba, Nuraddeen Nasiru; Ramli, Ahmad Termizi

    2015-01-01

    Nasarawa State is located in north central Nigeria and it is known as Nigeria's home of solid minerals. It is endowed with barite, copper, zinc, tantalite and granite. Continuous releases of mining waste and tailings into the biosphere may result in a build-up of radionuclides in air, water and soil. This work therefore aims to measure the activity concentration levels of primordial radionuclides in the soil/sediment samples collected from selected mines of the mining areas of Nasarawa State. The paper also assesses the radiological and radio ecological impacts of mining activities on the residents of mining areas and their environment. The activity concentrations of primordial radionuclides ((226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K) in the surface soils/sediment samples were determined using sodium iodide-thallium gamma spectroscopy. Seven major mines were considered with 21 samples taken from each of the mines for radiochemistry analysis. The human health hazard assessment was conducted using regulatory methodologies set by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, while the radio ecological impact assessment was conducted using the ERICA tool v. 1.2. The result shows that the activity concentrations of (40)K in the water ways of the Akiri copper and the Azara barite mines are 60 and 67% higher than the world average value for (40)K, respectively. In all mines, the annual effective dose rates (mSv y(-1)) were less than unity, and a maximum annual gonadal dose of 0.58 mSv y(-1) is received at the Akiri copper mine, which is almost twice the world average value for gonadal dose. The external hazard indices for all the mines were less than unity. Our results also show that mollusc-gastropod, insect larvae, mollusc-bivalve and zooplankton are the freshwater biotas with the highest dose rates ranging from 5 to 7 µGy h(-1). These higher dose rates could be associated with zinc and copper mining at Abuni and Akiri, respectively. The most exposed

  11. Environmental assessment for the Area 5 radioactive waste management site access improvement at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    1997-11-01

    The United States Department of Energy has prepared an Environmental Assessment which analyzes the potential environmental effects of improving access to its AREA 5 RWMS at the NTS. The EA evaluates the potential impacts of constructing an extension of the Cane Springs Road between Mercury Highway and the 5-01 Road. Three alternative actions are also evaluated: (1) construction of a new road along the existing alignment of the Powerline Road between Mercury Highway and the 5-01 Road, (2) upgrading the existing 5-01 Road, and (3) taking no action. The purpose and need for improving access to the RWMS are addressed in Section 1.0 of the EA. A detailed description of the proposed action and alternatives is in Section 2.0. Section 3.0 describes the affected environment and Section 4.0 the environmental effects of the proposed action and alternatives. Health and transportation effects, accident scenarios, cumulative effects, and other relevant information are found in Sections 5.0 through 12.0 of the EA. DOE determined that the alternative action of upgrading the existing 5-01 Road would best meet the needs of the agency.

  12. The Bayo Canyon/radioactive lanthanum (RaLa) program

    SciTech Connect

    Dummer, J.E.; Taschner, J.C.; Courtright, C.C.

    1996-04-01

    LANL conducted 254 radioactive lanthanum (RaLa) implosion experiments Sept. 1944-March 1962, in order to test implosion designs for nuclear weapons. High explosives surrounding common metals (surrogates for Pu) and a radioactive source containing up to several thousand curies of La, were involved in each experiment. The resulting cloud was deposited as fallout, often to distances of several miles. This report was prepared to summarize existing records as an aid in evaluating the off-site impact, if any, of this 18-year program. The report provides a historical setting for the program, which was conducted in Technical Area 10, Bayo Canyon about 3 miles east of Los Alamos. A description of the site is followed by a discussion of collateral experiments conducted in 1950 by US Air Force for developing an airborne detector for tracking atmospheric nuclear weapons tests. All known off-site data from the RaLa program are tabulated and discussed. Besides the radiolanthanum, other potential trace radioactive material that may have been present in the fallout is discussed and amounts estimated. Off-site safety considerations are discussed; a preliminary off-site dose assessment is made. Bibliographical data on 33 persons important to the program are presented as footnotes.

  13. Simulated Radioactivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boettler, James L.

    1972-01-01

    Describes the errors in the sugar-cube experiment related to radioactivity as described in Project Physics course. The discussion considers some of the steps overlooked in the experiment and generalizes the theory beyond the sugar-cube stage. (PS)

  14. Radioactivity Calculations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onega, Ronald J.

    1969-01-01

    Three problems in radioactive buildup and decay are presented and solved. Matrix algebra is used to solve the second problem. The third problem deals with flux depression and is solved by the use of differential equations. (LC)

  15. Concentrating Radioactivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrmann, Richard A.

    1974-01-01

    By concentrating radioactivity contained on luminous dials, a teacher can make a high reading source for classroom experiments on radiation. The preparation of the source and its uses are described. (DT)

  16. A study on the levels of radioactivity in fish samples from the experimental lakes area in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing; Rennie, Michael D; Sadi, Baki; Zhang, Weihua; St-Amant, Nadereh

    2016-03-01

    To better understand background radiation levels in country foods, a total of 125 fish samples were collected from three lakes (Lake 226, Lake 302 and Lake 305) in the Experimental Lakes Area (ELA) in Ontario of Canada during the summer of 2014. Concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides ((226)Ra, (210)Pb and (210)Po) as well as anthropogenic radionuclides ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) were measured. This study confirmed that (210)Po is the dominant contributor to radiation doses resulting from fish consumption. While concentrations of (210)Pb and (226)Ra were below conventional detection limits, (210)Po was measured in almost all fish samples collected from the ELA. The average concentration was about 1.5 Bq/kg fresh weight (fw). None of the fish samples analysed in this study contained any detectable levels of (134)Cs. An average (137)Cs level of 6.1 Bq/kg fw was observed in freshwater fishes harvested in the ELA, almost twice that of samples measured in the National Capital Region of Canada in 2014 and more than 20 times higher than the levels observed in marine fish harvested from the Canadian west coast in 2013 and 2014. However, it is important to note that the concentrations of (137)Cs in fish samples from these inland lakes are considered very low from a radiological protection perspective. The resulting radiation dose for people from fish consumption would be a very small fraction of the annual dose from exposure to natural background radiation in Canada. The results indicate that fishes from inland lakes do not pose a radiological health concern.

  17. Enhanced detection of 3D individual trees in forested areas using airborne full-waveform LiDAR data by combining normalized cuts with spatial density clustering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, W.; Krzystek, P.; Heurich, M.

    2013-10-01

    A detailed understanding of the spatial distribution of forest understory is important but difficult. LiDAR remote sensing has been developing as a promising additional instrument to the conventional field work towards automated forest inventory. Unfortunately, understory (up to 50% of the top-tree height) in mixed and multilayered forests is often ignored due to a difficult observation scenario and limitation of the tree detection algorithm. Currently, the full-waveform (FWF) LiDAR with high penetration ability against overstory crowns can give us new hope to resolve the forest understory. Former approach based on 3D segmentation confirmed that the tree detection rates in both middle and lower forest layers are still low. Therefore, detecting sub-dominant and suppressed trees cannot be regarded as fully solved. In this work, we aim to improve the performance of the FWF laser scanner for the mapping of forest understory. The paper is to develop an enhanced methodology for detecting 3D individual trees by partitioning point clouds of airborne LiDAR. After extracting 3D coordinates of the laser beam echoes, the pulse intensity and width by waveform decomposition, the newly developed approach resolves 3D single trees are by an integrated approach, which delineates tree crowns by applying normalized cuts segmentation to the graph structure of local dense modes in point clouds constructed by mean shift clustering. In the context of our strategy, the mean shift clusters approximate primitives of (sub) single trees in LiDAR data and allow to define more significant features to reflect geometric and reflectional characteristics towards the single tree level. The developed methodology can be regarded as an object-based point cloud analysis approach for tree detection and is applied to datasets captured with the Riegl LMS-Q560 laser scanner at a point density of 25 points/m2 in the Bavarian Forest National Park, Germany, respectively under leaf-on and leaf-off conditions

  18. Summary of Natural Resources that Potentially Influence Human Intrusion at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2007-06-01

    In 1993, Raytheon Services Nevada completed a review of natural resource literature and other sources to identify potentially exploitable resources and potential future land uses near the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nye County, Nevada, that could lead to future inadvertent human intrusion and subsequent release of radionuclides to the accessible environment. National Security Technologies, LLC, revised the original limited-distribution document to conform to current editorial standards and U.S. Department of Energy requirements for public release. The researchers examined the potential for future development of sand, gravel, mineral, petroleum, water resources, and rural land uses, such as agriculture, grazing, and hunting. The study was part of the performance assessment for Greater Confinement Disposal boreholes. Sand and gravel are not considered exploitable site resources because the materials are common throughout the area and the quality at the Area 5 RWMS is not ideal for typical commercial uses. Site information also indicates a very low mineral potential for the area. None of the 23 mining districts in southern Nye County report occurrences of economic mineral deposits in unconsolidated alluvium. The potential for oil and natural gas is low for southern Nye County. No occurrences of coal, tar sand, or oil shale on the NTS are reported in available literature. Several potential future uses of water were considered. Agricultural irrigation is impractical due to poor soils and existing water supply regulations. Use of water for geothermal energy development is unlikely because temperatures are too low for typical commercial applications using current technology. Human consumption of water has the most potential for cause of intrusion. The economics of future water needs may create a demand for the development of deep carbonate aquifers in the region. However, the Area 5 RWMS is not an optimal location for

  19. Modeling duration of time lived in a residence, a community and mobility in rural areas of Merced and Ventura, California to assess potential health risks to airborne contaminants.

    PubMed

    Driver, Jeffrey; Price, Paul; vanWesenbeeck, Ian; Kaplan, William; Holden, Larry; Ross, John; Landenberger, Bryce

    2016-11-01

    A de novo population mobility survey of 800 households (random digit dialing-based phone interviews) was conducted in high demand areas of the agricultural fumigant, 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) in Merced and Ventura counties of California. The survey included approximately 20 questions relating to the length of time individuals had lived in the high demand areas in each county, and also relating to weekly and annual mobility patterns. Lifetime inhalation exposures to 1,3-D are determined, in part, by the number of years individuals spend in an area where the fumigant is used. The purpose of the survey was to provide location-specific data for probabilistic modeling of long-term inhalation exposures to 1,3-D. The survey found that the majority of residents do not live in a high demand area or in the same house (99.99%) for 70years (a default assumption used by some regulatory agencies). It was also observed that residents move frequently and are mobile day-to-day and week-to-week, within the use area. Finally, estimates of total residency duration, derived from the survey results indicate that median times spent within a high demand area (which could include more than one residential location) were 18 and 26years for Ventura and Merced high demand areas, respectively. The average time spent in the high demand areas was 22 and 27years for the Ventura and Merced community, respectively. Less than 0.01% of the populations in either of the high demand areas spend 70years in the same house. PMID:27436777

  20. Modeling duration of time lived in a residence, a community and mobility in rural areas of Merced and Ventura, California to assess potential health risks to airborne contaminants.

    PubMed

    Driver, Jeffrey; Price, Paul; vanWesenbeeck, Ian; Kaplan, William; Holden, Larry; Ross, John; Landenberger, Bryce

    2016-11-01

    A de novo population mobility survey of 800 households (random digit dialing-based phone interviews) was conducted in high demand areas of the agricultural fumigant, 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) in Merced and Ventura counties of California. The survey included approximately 20 questions relating to the length of time individuals had lived in the high demand areas in each county, and also relating to weekly and annual mobility patterns. Lifetime inhalation exposures to 1,3-D are determined, in part, by the number of years individuals spend in an area where the fumigant is used. The purpose of the survey was to provide location-specific data for probabilistic modeling of long-term inhalation exposures to 1,3-D. The survey found that the majority of residents do not live in a high demand area or in the same house (99.99%) for 70years (a default assumption used by some regulatory agencies). It was also observed that residents move frequently and are mobile day-to-day and week-to-week, within the use area. Finally, estimates of total residency duration, derived from the survey results indicate that median times spent within a high demand area (which could include more than one residential location) were 18 and 26years for Ventura and Merced high demand areas, respectively. The average time spent in the high demand areas was 22 and 27years for the Ventura and Merced community, respectively. Less than 0.01% of the populations in either of the high demand areas spend 70years in the same house.

  1. Assessment of ambient gamma dose rate around a prospective uranium mining area of South India - A comparative study of dose by direct methods and soil radioactivity measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karunakara, N.; Yashodhara, I.; Sudeep Kumara, K.; Tripathi, R. M.; Menon, S. N.; Kadam, S.; Chougaonkar, M. P.

    Indoor and outdoor gamma dose rates were evaluated around a prospective uranium mining region - Gogi, South India through (i) direct measurements using a GM based gamma dose survey meter, (ii) integrated measurement days using CaSO4:Dy based thermo luminescent dosimeters (TLDs), and (iii) analyses of 273 soil samples for 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K activity concentration using HPGe gamma spectrometry. The geometric mean values of indoor and outdoor gamma dose rates were 104 nGy h-1 and 97 nGy h-1, respectively with an indoor to outdoor dose ratio of 1.09. The gamma dose rates and activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K varied significantly within a small area due to the highly localized mineralization of the elements. Correlation study showed that the dose estimated from the soil radioactivity is better correlated with that measured directly using the portable survey meter, when compared to that obtained from TLDs. This study showed that in a region having localized mineralization in situ measurements using dose survey meter provide better representative values of gamma dose rates.

  2. Airborne space laser communication system and experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiao-Ming; Zhang, Li-zhong; Meng, Li-Xin

    2015-11-01

    Airborne space laser communication is characterized by its high speed, anti-electromagnetic interference, security, easy to assign. It has broad application in the areas of integrated space-ground communication networking, military communication, anti-electromagnetic communication. This paper introduce the component and APT system of the airborne laser communication system design by Changchun university of science and technology base on characteristic of airborne laser communication and Y12 plan, especially introduce the high communication speed and long distance communication experiment of the system that among two Y12 plans. In the experiment got the aim that the max communication distance 144Km, error 10-6 2.5Gbps - 10-7 1.5Gbps capture probability 97%, average capture time 20s. The experiment proving the adaptability of the APT and the high speed long distance communication.

  3. Exploratory Meeting on Airborne Doppler Lidar Wind Velocity Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fichtel, G. H. (Editor); Kaufman, J. W. (Editor); Vaughan, W. W. (Editor)

    1980-01-01

    The scientific interests and applications of the Airborne Doppler Lidar Wind Velocity Measurement System to severe storms and local weather are discussed. The main areas include convective phenomena, local circulation, atmospheric boundary layer, atmospheric dispersion, and industrial aerodynamics.

  4. Urban greenness influences airborne bacterial community composition.

    PubMed

    Mhuireach, Gwynne; Johnson, Bart R; Altrichter, Adam E; Ladau, Joshua; Meadow, James F; Pollard, Katherine S; Green, Jessica L

    2016-11-15

    Urban green space provides health benefits for city dwellers, and new evidence suggests that microorganisms associated with soil and vegetation could play a role. While airborne microorganisms are ubiquitous in urban areas, the influence of nearby vegetation on airborne microbial communities remains poorly understood. We examined airborne microbial communities in parks and parking lots in Eugene, Oregon, using high-throughput sequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene on the Illumina MiSeq platform to identify bacterial taxa, and GIS to measure vegetation cover in buffer zones of different diameters. Our goal was to explore variation among highly vegetated (parks) versus non-vegetated (parking lots) urban environments. A secondary objective was to evaluate passive versus active collection methods for outdoor airborne microbial sampling. Airborne bacterial communities from five parks were different from those of five parking lots (p=0.023), although alpha diversity was similar. Direct gradient analysis showed that the proportion of vegetated area within a 50m radius of the sampling station explained 15% of the variation in bacterial community composition. A number of key taxa, including several Acidobacteriaceae were substantially more abundant in parks, while parking lots had higher relative abundance of Acetobacteraceae. Parks had greater beta diversity than parking lots, i.e. individual parks were characterized by unique bacterial signatures, whereas parking lot communities tended to be similar to each other. Although parks and parking lots were selected to form pairs of nearby sites, spatial proximity did not appear to affect compositional similarity. Our results also showed that passive and active collection methods gave comparable results, indicating the "settling dish" method is effective for outdoor airborne sampling. This work sets a foundation for understanding how urban vegetation may impact microbial communities, with potential implications for designing

  5. Urban greenness influences airborne bacterial community composition.

    PubMed

    Mhuireach, Gwynne; Johnson, Bart R; Altrichter, Adam E; Ladau, Joshua; Meadow, James F; Pollard, Katherine S; Green, Jessica L

    2016-11-15

    Urban green space provides health benefits for city dwellers, and new evidence suggests that microorganisms associated with soil and vegetation could play a role. While airborne microorganisms are ubiquitous in urban areas, the influence of nearby vegetation on airborne microbial communities remains poorly understood. We examined airborne microbial communities in parks and parking lots in Eugene, Oregon, using high-throughput sequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene on the Illumina MiSeq platform to identify bacterial taxa, and GIS to measure vegetation cover in buffer zones of different diameters. Our goal was to explore variation among highly vegetated (parks) versus non-vegetated (parking lots) urban environments. A secondary objective was to evaluate passive versus active collection methods for outdoor airborne microbial sampling. Airborne bacterial communities from five parks were different from those of five parking lots (p=0.023), although alpha diversity was similar. Direct gradient analysis showed that the proportion of vegetated area within a 50m radius of the sampling station explained 15% of the variation in bacterial community composition. A number of key taxa, including several Acidobacteriaceae were substantially more abundant in parks, while parking lots had higher relative abundance of Acetobacteraceae. Parks had greater beta diversity than parking lots, i.e. individual parks were characterized by unique bacterial signatures, whereas parking lot communities tended to be similar to each other. Although parks and parking lots were selected to form pairs of nearby sites, spatial proximity did not appear to affect compositional similarity. Our results also showed that passive and active collection methods gave comparable results, indicating the "settling dish" method is effective for outdoor airborne sampling. This work sets a foundation for understanding how urban vegetation may impact microbial communities, with potential implications for designing

  6. Airborne data acquisition techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Arro, A.A.

    1980-01-01

    The introduction of standards on acceptable procedures for assessing building heat loss has created a dilemma for the contractor performing airborne thermographic surveys. These standards impose specifications on instrumentation, data acquisition, recording, interpretation, and presentation. Under the standard, the contractor has both the obligation of compliance and the requirement of offering his services at a reasonable price. This paper discusses the various aspects of data acquisition for airborne thermographic surveys and various techniques to reduce the costs of this operation. These techniques include the calculation of flight parameters for economical data acquisition, the selection and use of maps for mission planning, and the use of meteorological forecasts for flight scheduling and the actual execution of the mission. The proper consideration of these factors will result in a cost effective data acquisition and will place the contractor in a very competitive position in offering airborne thermographic survey services.

  7. Airborne gamma radiation soil moisture measurements over short flight lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peck, Eugene L.; Carrol, Thomas R.; Lipinski, Daniel M.

    1990-01-01

    Results are presented on airborne gamma radiation measurements of soil moisture condition, carried out along short flight lines as part of the First International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project Field Experiment (FIFE). Data were collected over an area in Kansas during the summers of 1987 and 1989. The airborne surveys, together with ground measurements, provide the most comprehensive set of airborne and ground truth data available in the U.S. for calibrating and evaluating airborne gamma flight lines. Analysis showed that, using standard National Weather Service weights for the K, Tl, and Gc radiation windows, the airborne soil moisture estimates for the FIFE lines had a root mean square error of no greater than 3.0 percent soil moisture. The soil moisture estimates for sections having acquisition time of at least 15 sec were found to be reliable.

  8. Airborne rain mapping radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, W. J.; Parks, G. S.; Li, F. K.; Im, K. E.; Howard, R. J.

    1988-01-01

    An airborne scanning radar system for remote rain mapping is described. The airborne rain mapping radar is composed of two radar frequency channels at 13.8 and 24.1 GHz. The radar is proposed to scan its antenna beam over + or - 20 deg from the antenna boresight; have a swath width of 7 km; a horizontal spatial resolution at nadir of about 500 m; and a range resolution of 120 m. The radar is designed to be applicable for retrieving rainfall rates from 0.1-60 mm/hr at the earth's surface, and for measuring linear polarization signatures and raindrop's fall velocity.

  9. RADIOACTIVE BATTERY

    DOEpatents

    Birden, J.H.; Jordan, K.C.

    1959-11-17

    A radioactive battery which includes a capsule containing the active material and a thermopile associated therewith is presented. The capsule is both a shield to stop the radiations and thereby make the battery safe to use, and an energy conventer. The intense radioactive decay taking place inside is converted to useful heat at the capsule surface. The heat is conducted to the hot thermojunctions of a thermopile. The cold junctions of the thermopile are thermally insulated from the heat source, so that a temperature difference occurs between the hot and cold junctions, causing an electrical current of a constant magnitude to flow.

  10. NASA Airborne Lidar July 1991

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-05-26

    NASA Airborne Lidar July 1991 Data from the 1991 NASA Langley Airborne Lidar flights following the eruption of Pinatubo in July ... and Osborn [1992a, 1992b]. Project Title:  NASA Airborne Lidar Discipline:  Field Campaigns ...

  11. NASA Airborne Lidar May 1992

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-05-26

    NASA Airborne Lidar May 1992 An airborne Nd:YAG (532 nm) lidar was operated by the NASA Langley Research Center about a year following the June 1991 eruption of ... Osborn [1992a, 1992b].  Project Title:  NASA Airborne Lidar Discipline:  Field Campaigns ...

  12. Carbon Isotopes in Unsaturated-Zone Gases and Ground Water Near a Radioactive-Waste Disposal Area, Amargosa Desert Research Site, Nye County, Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stonestrom, D. A.; Michel, R. L.; Evans, W. C.; Smith, T. R.; Smith, T. R.; Prudic, D. E.; Striegl, R. G.; Haas, H.; Brockman, F. J.; Andraski, B. J.

    2001-12-01

    To test hypotheses about radionuclide distribution and transport, vertical profiles of 14C in carbon dioxide were determined on gas samples from a 110-m deep unsaturated zone 32, 100, and 3,000 m from a low-level radioactive-waste disposal area. A direct-scintillation-counting method for radiocarbon was developed that minimized sample handling and compared favorably with the more labor-intensive benzene-synthesis method. Values of δ 13C in pore gas were determined by isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Gross gas compositions were determined by chromatography. Gross gas compositions 100 m from the disposal area were similar to those at the 3,000-m site, i.e., relatively unperturbed, except that O2 levels at the 100-m site were slightly depleted in the 34-48 m depth interval ( ~19.5% versus ~20.8% O2 by volume). Radiocarbon levels at the 100-m site peaked at ~2,000 percent modern carbon (PMC) near land surface and decreased monotonically to <100 PMC at depths below 58 m. Gross gas composition 32 m from the disposal area displayed a well-defined CO2 peak that reached 2.0-2.5% by volume at a depth of 24 m. 14C levels showed a roughly coincident peak that reached 6x105 PMC at the 24 m depth. Elevated levels of tritium and volatile organic-carbon compounds accompanied the CO2 and 14C peaks. Corresponding δ 13CO2 values were shifted -7 to -10 permil from unperturbed values. This shift to lighter values is suggestive of fractionation during microbial production of 14CO2 from disposed waste. Core samples from the affected depths were dry and virtually devoid of microbes, with <4x103 colony forming units per gram of sediment, suggesting that the hypothesized microbial activity occurs closer to the emplacement trenches. Ground water at the 32-m site had a 14C level in dissolved inorganic carbon of 845 PMC in March 2000. Ground water from an adjacent well had a 14C level of 26 PMC in 1989 and 323 PMC in 1999. The low levels of 14C in ground water relative to those in

  13. The analysis of spatial and temporal changes of land cover and land use in the reclaimed areas with the application of airborne orthophotomaps and LANDSAT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szostak, Marta; Wężyk, Piotr; Hawryło, Paweł; Pietrzykowski, Marcin

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possible use of geoinformatics tools and generally available geodata for mapping land cover/use on the reclaimed areas. The choice of subject was dictated by the growing number of such areas and the related problem of their restoration. Modern technology, including GIS, photogrammetry and remote sensing are relevant in assessing the reclamation effects and monitoring of changes taking place on such sites. The LULC classes mapping, supported with thorough knowledge of the operator, is useful tool for the proper reclamation process evaluation. The study was performed for two post-mine sites: reclaimed external spoil heap of the sulfur mine Machów and areas after exploitation of sulfur mine Jeziórko, which are located in the Tarnobrzeski district. The research materials consisted of aerial orthophotos, which were the basis of on-screen vectorization; LANDSAT satellite images, which were used in the pixel and object based classification; and the CORINE Land Cover database as a general reference to the global maps of land cover and land use.

  14. Global deposition of airborne dioxin.

    PubMed

    Booth, Shawn; Hui, Joe; Alojado, Zoraida; Lam, Vicky; Cheung, William; Zeller, Dirk; Steyn, Douw; Pauly, Daniel

    2013-10-15

    We present a global dioxin model that simulates one year of atmospheric emissions, transport processes, and depositions to the earth's terrestrial and marine habitats. We map starting emission levels for each land area, and we also map the resulting deposits to terrestrial and marine environments. This model confirms that 'hot spots' of deposition are likely to be in northern Europe, eastern North America, and in parts of Asia with the highest marine dioxin depositions being the northeast and northwest Atlantic, western Pacific, northern Indian Ocean and the Mediterranean. It also reveals that approximately 40% of airborne dioxin emissions are deposited to marine environments and that many countries in Africa receive more dioxin than they produce, which results in these countries being disproportionately impacted. Since human exposure to dioxin is largely through diet, this work highlights food producing areas that receive higher atmospheric deposits of dioxin than others.

  15. The optimisation of electrokinetic remediation for heavy metals and radioactivity contamination on Holyrood-Lunas soil (acrisol species) in Sri Gading Industrial Area, Batu Pahat, Johor, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Mohamed Johar, S; Embong, Z

    2015-11-01

    The optimisation of electrokinetic remediation of an alluvial soil, locally named as Holyrood-Lunas from Sri Gading Industrial Area, Batu Pahat, Johor, Malaysia, had been conducted in this research. This particular soil was chosen due to its relatively high level of background radiation in a range between 139.2 and 539.4 nGy h(-1). As the background radiation is correlated to the amount of parent nuclides, (238)U and (232)Th, hence, a remediation technique, such as electrokinetic, is very useful in reducing these particular concentrations of heavy metal and radionuclides in soils. Several series of electrokinetics experiments were performed in laboratory scale in order to study the influence of certain electrokinetic parameters in soil. The concentration before (pre-electrokinetic) and after the experiment (post-electrokinetic) was determined via X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis technique. The best electrokinetic parameter that contributed to the highest achievable concentration removal of heavy metals and radionuclides on each experimental series was incorporated into a final electrokinetic experiment. Here, High Pure Germanium (HPGe) was used for radioactivity elemental analysis. The XRF results suggested that the most optimised electrokinetic parameters for Cr, Ni, Zn, As, Pb, Th and U were 3.0 h, 90 volts, 22.0 cm, plate-shaped electrode by 8 × 8 cm and in 1-D configuration order whereas the selected optimised electrokinetic parameters gave very low reduction of (238)U and (232)Th at 0.23 ± 2.64 and 2.74 ± 23.78 ppm, respectively. PMID:25920778

  16. Environmental Public Health Survelliance for Exposure to Respiratory Health Hazards: A Joint NASA/CDC Project to Use Remote Sensing Data for Estimating Airborne Particulate Matter Over the Atlanta, Georgia Metropolitan Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Rickman, Douglas; Mohammad, Al-Hamdan; Crosson, William; Estes, Maurice, Jr.; Limaye, Ashutosh; Qualters, Judith

    2008-01-01

    Describes the public health surveillance efforts of NASA, in a joint effort with the Center for Disease Control (CDC). NASA/MSFC and the CDC are partners in linking nvironmental and health data to enhance public health surveillance. The use of NASA technology creates value - added geospatial products from existing environmental data sources to facilitate public health linkages. The venture sought to provide remote sensing data for the 5-country Metro-Atlanta area and to integrate this environmental data with public health data into a local network, in an effort to prevent and control environmentally related health effects. Remote sensing data used environmental data (Environmental Protection Agency [EPA] Air Quality System [AQS] ground measurements and MODIS Aerosol Optical Depth [AOD]) to estimate airborne particulate matter over Atlanta, and linked this data with health data related to asthma. The study proved the feasibility of linking environmental data (MODIS particular matter estimates and AQS) with health data (asthma). Algorithms were developed for QC, bias removal, merging MODIS and AQS particulate matter data, as well as for other applications. Additionally, a Business Associate Agreement was negotiated for a health care provider to enable sharing of Protected Health Information.

  17. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Tichler, J.; Norden, K.; Congemi, J. )

    1989-10-01

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commercial light water reactors during 1987 have been compiled and reported. Data on solid waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports issued by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1987 release data are summarized in tabular form. Data covering specific radionuclides are summarized. 16 tabs.

  18. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Tichler, J.; Norden, K.; Congemi, J. )

    1991-05-01

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commercial light water reactors during 1988 have been compiled and reported. Data on solid waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports issued by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1988 release data are summarized in tabular form. Data covering specific radionuclides are summarized. 16 tabs.

  19. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Tichler, J.; Benkovitz, C.

    1981-11-01

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commercial light water reactors during 1979 have been compiled and reported. Data on solid waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports issued by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1979 release data are compared with previous year's releases in tabular form. Data covering specific radionuclides are summarized.

  20. Radioactive Waste.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blaylock, B. G.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of radioactive waste disposal, covering publications of 1976-77. Some of the studies included are: (1) high-level and long-lived wastes, and (2) release and burial of low-level wastes. A list of 42 references is also presented. (HM)

  1. Radioactive wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Devarakonda, M.S.; Hickox, J.A.

    1996-11-01

    This paper provides a review of literature published in 1995 on the subject of radioactive wastes. Topics covered include: national programs; waste repositories; mixed wastes; decontamination and decommissioning; remedial actions and treatment; and environmental occurrence and transport of radionuclides. 155 refs.

  2. Radionuclides, Heavy Metals, and Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Soils Collected Around the Perimeter of Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Area G during 2006

    SciTech Connect

    P. R. Fresquez

    2007-02-28

    Twenty-one soil surface samples were collected in March around the perimeter of Area G, the primary disposal facility for low-level radioactive solid waste at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Three more samples were collected in October around the northwest corner after elevated tritium levels were detected on an AIRNET station located north of pit 38 in May. Also, four soil samples were collected along a transect at various distances (48, 154, 244, and 282 m) from Area G, starting from the northeast corner and extending to the Pueblo de San Ildefonso fence line in a northeasterly direction (this is the main wind direction). Most samples were analyzed for radionuclides ({sup 3}H, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239,240}Pu, {sup 241}Am, {sup 234}U, {sup 235}U, and {sup 238}U), inorganic elements (Al, Ba, Be, Ca, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Ni, K, Na, V, Hg, Zn, Sb, As, Cd, Pb, Se, Ag, and Tl) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations. As in previous years, the highest levels of {sup 3}H in soils (690 pCi/mL) were detected along the south portion of Area G near the {sup 3}H shafts; whereas, the highest concentrations of {sup 241}Am (1.2 pCi/g dry) and the Pu isotopes (1.9 pCi/g dry for {sup 238}Pu and 5 pCi/g dry for {sup 239,240}Pu) were detected along the northeastern portions near the transuranic waste pads. Concentrations of {sup 3}H in three soil samples and {sup 241}Am and Pu isotopes in one soil sample collected around the northwest corner in October increased over concentrations found in soils collected at the same locations earlier in the year. Almost all of the heavy metals, with the exception of Zn and Sb in one sample each, in soils around the perimeter of Area G were below regional statistical reference levels (mean plus three standard deviations) (RSRLs). Similarly, only one soil sample collected on the west side contained PCB concentrations--67 {micro}g/kg dry of aroclor-1254 and 94 {micro}g/kg dry of aroclor-1260. Radionuclide and inorganic element

  3. Occurrence and carcinogenic potential of airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in some large-scale enclosed/semi-enclosed vehicle parking areas.

    PubMed

    Li, Huiru; Zeng, Xiangying; Zhang, Delin; Chen, Pei; Yu, Zhiqiang; Sheng, Guoying; Fu, Jiamo; Peng, Ping'an

    2014-06-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) originating from vehicle exhaust have aroused much attention due to their potential healthy effect. In this study, air samples were collected from three representative parking lots in a metropolitan area, analyzed for PAHs and evaluated for inhalation risk. Atmospheric PAH levels of these parking areas ranged between 1,178-4,793 ng m(-3), one order of magnitude higher than general urban areas. Their benzo[a]pyrene equivalent (BaPeq) values varied in 11.0-98.0 ng m(-3), far exceeding the air quality standard of WHO (1.0 ng m(-3)). Monte Carlo simulation (100,000 trials) results suggest that the potential lifetime inhalation cancer risks of PAHs were 0.27 × 10(-5) to 7.11 × 10(-5) for park employees, which are in the acceptable range acknowledged by US EPA (1.0 × 10(-6) to 1.0 × 10(-4)). Several source diagnostic methods proved that vehicle exhaust was the dominant PAH contributor of these parks with the contribution percentages being >53%; oil combustion and/or coal combustion were other important sources. Logarithms of gas-particle distribution coefficients (Kps) of PAHs in all studied parks were linearly correlated with those of both their sub-cooled vapor pressures (pLs) and octanol-air partition coefficients (KOAs). The correlation coefficients indicated that both adsorption onto black carbon and absorption into organic matter were involved in the partition process, but the latter was dominant. PMID:24797904

  4. Airborne Fraunhofer Line Discriminator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gabriel, F. C.; Markle, D. A.

    1969-01-01

    Airborne Fraunhofer Line Discriminator enables prospecting for fluorescent materials, hydrography with fluorescent dyes, and plant studies based on fluorescence of chlorophyll. Optical unit design is the coincidence of Fraunhofer lines in the solar spectrum occurring at the characteristic wavelengths of some fluorescent materials.

  5. Recognizing Airborne Hazards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Christian M.

    1990-01-01

    The heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems in older buildings often do not adequately handle air-borne contaminants. Outlines a three-stage Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) assessment and describes a case in point at a Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, school. (MLF)

  6. Airborne asbestos in buildings.

    PubMed

    Lee, R J; Van Orden, D R

    2008-03-01

    The concentration of airborne asbestos in buildings nationwide is reported in this study. A total of 3978 indoor samples from 752 buildings, representing nearly 32 man-years of sampling, have been analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. The buildings that were surveyed were the subject of litigation related to suits alleging the general building occupants were exposed to a potential health hazard as a result the presence of asbestos-containing materials (ACM). The average concentration of all airborne asbestos structures was 0.01structures/ml (s/ml) and the average concentration of airborne asbestos > or = 5microm long was 0.00012fibers/ml (f/ml). For all samples, 99.9% of the samples were <0.01 f/ml for fibers longer than 5microm; no building averaged above 0.004f/ml for fibers longer than 5microm. No asbestos was detected in 27% of the buildings and in 90% of the buildings no asbestos was detected that would have been seen optically (> or = 5microm long and > or = 0.25microm wide). Background outdoor concentrations have been reported at 0.0003f/ml > or = 5microm. These results indicate that in-place ACM does not result in elevated airborne asbestos in building atmospheres approaching regulatory levels and that it does not result in a significantly increased risk to building occupants.

  7. International Symposium on Airborne Geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mogi, Toru; Ito, Hisatoshi; Kaieda, Hideshi; Kusunoki, Kenichiro; Saltus, Richard W.; Fitterman, David V.; Okuma, Shigeo; Nakatsuka, Tadashi

    2006-05-01

    Airborne geophysics can be defined as the measurement of Earth properties from sensors in the sky. The airborne measurement platform is usually a traditional fixed-wing airplane or helicopter, but could also include lighter-than-air craft, unmanned drones, or other specialty craft. The earliest history of airborne geophysics includes kite and hot-air balloon experiments. However, modern airborne geophysics dates from the mid-1940s when military submarine-hunting magnetometers were first used to map variations in the Earth's magnetic field. The current gamut of airborne geophysical techniques spans a broad range, including potential fields (both gravity and magnetics), electromagnetics (EM), radiometrics, spectral imaging, and thermal imaging.

  8. Airborne gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey. Volume I. Detail areas. Final report. Christmas Mountains, Solitario, Green Valley/O-2 Ranch, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    Data were collected by a helicopter equipped with a gamma-ray spectrometer with a large crystal volume, and with a high sensitivity proton precession magnetometer. The radiometric system was calibrated at the Walker Field Calibration pads and the Lake Mead Dynamic Test Range. Data quality was ensured during the survey by daily test flights and equipment checks. Radiometric data were corrected for live time, aircraft and equipment background, cosmic background, atmospheric radon, Compton scatter, and altitude dependence. The corrected data were statistically evaluated, gridded, and contoured to produce maps of the radiometric variables, uranium, potassium, and thorium; their ratios; and the residual magnetic field. These maps have been analyzed in order to produce a multi-variant analysis contour map based on the radiometric response of the individual geological units. A geochemical analysis has been performed; using the radiometric and magnetic contour maps, the multi-variant analysis map, and factor analysis techniques; to produce a geochemical analysis map for the area. Volume I contains a description of the systems used in the survey, a discussion of the calibration of the systems, the data collection procedures, the data processing procedures, the data presentation, the interpretation rationale, and the interpretation methodology. Separate Volumes II-A and II-B for each detail area contain the data displays and the interpretation results.

  9. Neotectonic implications by geophysical surveys of topographic features identified by Airborne Laser Scanning in the Neusiedlersee/Ferto area (Austria/Hungary)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timár, G.; Székely, B.; Zámolyi, A.; Houseman, G.; Stuart, G.; Grasemann, B.; Dombrádi, E.; Galsa, A.; Spahic, D.; Draganits, E.

    2009-04-01

    The area around the Lake Neudsiedlersee (Lake Fertő in Hungarian) was analysed to understand its neotectonic activity and gather possible explanations of the features of the topography and microtopography. The area consists of two, considerably different parts in terms of topography and geomorphology. The western and north-western shores of the lake are connected to the Leitha Mts., a low ridge (its relative height is about 300 meters) that connects the Alpine orogen in the SW with the Carpathians to NE bounded by active strike-slip faulting. In this part of the area, several outcrops were investigated, of which the one at St. Margarethen was systematically measured by multielectric sounding and GPR, and an other one at St. Georgen, north of Eisenstadt, was used for auxiliary data gathering. The eastern and southern shores, belonging to the Pannonian Basin, are mostly flatlands, parts of the Little Hungarian Plain with extremely low relief and no real natural drainage. The small variations of the surface altitude (less than ten meters), referred to as microtopography here, are due to elongated ridges and extremely shallow perennial or temporal playa lakes. In order to understand better the subsurface structure, a multimethod approach has been applied. Geophysical survey methods (vertical electric sounding, land seismics, gravity measurements) were carried out to describe the layer structure of this area, especially a zone, north of Illmitz, connected to interesting elements of microtopography. The identification of microtopographic features were carried out using high resolution digital elevation datasets, derived from Aerial Laser Scannings (ALS). Seismic measurements were carried out also in the lake itself to understand the structural geological settings of the lake bottom to the depth of ca. 50 meters. All of these measurements were made in the framework of a common student fieldwork of the Eötvös University, the University of Leeds and the University of

  10. Photoreactivation in Airborne Mycobacterium parafortuitum

    PubMed Central

    Peccia, Jordan; Hernandez, Mark

    2001-01-01

    Photoreactivation was observed in airborne Mycobacterium parafortuitum exposed concurrently to UV radiation (254 nm) and visible light. Photoreactivation rates of airborne cells increased with increasing relative humidity (RH) and decreased with increasing UV dose. Under a constant UV dose with visible light absent, the UV inactivation rate of airborne M. parafortuitum cells decreased by a factor of 4 as RH increased from 40 to 95%; however, under identical conditions with visible light present, the UV inactivation rate of airborne cells decreased only by a factor of 2. When irradiated in the absence of visible light, cellular cyclobutane thymine dimer content of UV-irradiated airborne M. parafortuitum and Serratia marcescens increased in response to RH increases. Results suggest that, unlike in waterborne bacteria, cyclobutane thymine dimers are not the most significant form of UV-induced DNA damage incurred by airborne bacteria and that the distribution of DNA photoproducts incorporated into UV-irradiated airborne cells is a function of RH. PMID:11526027

  11. [Air-borne disease].

    PubMed

    Lameiro Vilariño, Carmen; del Campo Pérez, Victor M; Alonso Bürger, Susana; Felpeto Nodar, Irene; Guimarey Pérez, Rosa; Pérez Alvarellos, Alberto

    2003-11-01

    Respiratory protection is a factor which worries nursing professionals who take care of patients susceptible of transmitting microorganisms through the air more as every day passes. This type of protection covers the use of surgical or hygienic masks against the transmission of infection by airborne drops to the use of highly effective masks or respirators against the transmission of airborne diseases such as tuberculosis or SARS, a recently discovered disease. The adequate choice of this protective device and its correct use are fundamental in order to have an effective protection for exposed personnel. The authors summarize the main protective respiratory devices used by health workers, their characteristics and degree of effectiveness, as well as the circumstances under which each device is indicated for use. PMID:14705591

  12. Dose calculations for the concrete water tunnels at 190-C Area, Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Kamboj, S.; Yu, C.

    1997-01-01

    The RESRAD-BUILD code was used to calculate the radiological dose from the contaminated concrete water tunnels at the 190-C Area at the Hanford Site. Two exposure scenarios, recreationist and maintenance worker, were considered. A residential scenario was not considered because the material was assumed to be left intact (i.e., the concrete would not be rubbleized because the location would not be suitable for construction of a house). The recreationist was assumed to use the tunnel for 8 hours per day for 1 week as an overnight shelter. The maintenance worker was assumed to spend 20 hours per year working in the tunnel. Six exposure pathways were considered in calculating the dose. Three external exposure pathways involved penetrating radiation emitted directly from the contaminated tunnel floor, emitted from radioactive particulates deposited on the tunnel floor, and resulting from submersion in airborne radioactive particulates. Three internal exposure pathways involved inhalation of airborne radioactive particulates; inadvertent direct ingestion of removable, contaminated material on the tunnel floor; and inadvertent indirect ingestion of airborne particulates deposited on the tunnel floor. The gradual removal of surface contamination over time and the ingrowth of decay products were considered in calculating the dose at different times. The maximum doses were estimated to be 1.5 mrem/yr for the recreationist and 0.34 mrem/yr for the maintenance worker.

  13. MLS airborne antenna research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, C. L.; Burnside, W. D.

    1975-01-01

    The geometrical theory of diffraction was used to analyze the elevation plane pattern of on-aircraft antennas. The radiation patterns for basic elements (infinitesimal dipole, circumferential and axial slot) mounted on fuselage of various aircrafts with or without radome included were calculated and compared well with experimental results. Error phase plots were also presented. The effects of radiation patterns and error phase plots on the polarization selection for the MLS airborne antenna are discussed.

  14. Airborne forest fire research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattingly, G. S.

    1974-01-01

    The research relating to airborne fire fighting systems is reviewed to provide NASA/Langley Research Center with current information on the use of aircraft in forest fire operations, and to identify research requirements for future operations. A literature survey, interview of forest fire service personnel, analysis and synthesis of data from research reports and independent conclusions, and recommendations for future NASA-LRC programs are included.

  15. Modeling Airborne Gravimetry with High-Degree Harmonic Expansions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, Simon; Wang, Yan Ming; Roman, Daniel

    2010-05-01

    Since its official unveiling at the 2008 General Assembly of the European Geosciences Union, EGM2008 has demonstrated that high-degree harmonic expansions constitute a useful and effective final representation for high-resolution global gravitational models. However, such expansions also provide a versatile means of capturing (modeling), inter-comparing, and optimally combining local and regional high-resolution terrestrial data sets of different types. Here we present a general recipe for using high-degree expansions to capture, downward-continue and assimilate airborne survey data. This approach relies on the production of two ‘competing' high-degree expansions. A first, ‘terrestrial-only' expansion incorporates EGM2008 globally, and high-resolution terrestrial gravimetry regionally. This expansion can be used to upward-continue the regional terrestrial data to the flight level of the airborne survey, such that the terrestrial gravimetry outside the survey area can be merged with the airborne data inside the survey area, all at flight level. Harmonic analysis of this merged data set, also at flight level, yields a second ‘airborne-augmented' expansion, which closely matches the ‘terrestrial-only' expansion outside the survey area, but which also closely reproduces the airborne survey data inside the survey area. Capturing the airborne and terrestrial data in this way means that downward-continuation of the airborne data, as well as spectral/spatial comparison (and ultimate combination) of the airborne data with the terrestrial (and satellite) data, can all be achieved through spherical- and ellipsoidal-harmonic synthesis of these two competing expansions, and their spectral combination. This general approach is illustrated with a worked example.

  16. Geologic processes in the RWMC area, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory: Implications for long term stability and soil erosion at the radioactive waste management complex

    SciTech Connect

    Hackett, W.R.; Tullis, J.A.; Smith, R.P.

    1995-09-01

    The Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) is the disposal and storage facility for low-level radioactive waste at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Transuranic waste and mixed wastes were also disposed at the RWMC until 1970. It is located in the southwestern part of the INEL about 80 km west of Idaho Falls, Idaho. The INEL occupies a portion of the Eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP), a low-relief, basalt, and sediment-floored basin within the northern Rocky Mountains and northeastern Basin and Range Province. It is a cool and semiarid, sagebrush steppe desert characterized by irregular, rolling terrain. The RWMC began disposal of INEL-generated wastes in 1952, and since 1954, wastes have been accepted from other Federal facilities. Much of the waste is buried in shallow trenches, pits, and soil vaults. Until about 1970, trenches and pits were excavated to the basalt surface, leaving no sediments between the waste and the top of the basalt. Since 1970, a layer of sediment (about 1 m) has been left between the waste and the basalt. The United States Department of Energy (DOE) has developed regulations specific to radioactive-waste disposal, including environmental standards and performance objectives. The regulation applicable to all DOE facilities is DOE Order 5820.2A (Radioactive Waste Management). An important consideration for the performance assessment of the RWMC is the long-term geomorphic stability of the site. Several investigators have identified geologic processes and events that could disrupt a radioactive waste disposal facility. Examples of these {open_quotes}geomorphic hazards{close_quotes} include changes in stream discharge, sediment load, and base level, which may result from climate change, tectonic processes, or magmatic processes. In the performance assessment, these hazards are incorporated into scenarios that may affect the future performance of the RWMC.

  17. Mutagenicity of airborne particles.

    PubMed

    Chrisp, C E; Fisher, G L

    1980-09-01

    The physical and chemical properties of airborne particles are important for the interpretation of their potential biologic significance as genotoxic hazards. For polydisperse particle size distributions, the smallest, most respirable particles are generally the most mutagenic. Particulate collection for testing purposes should be designed to reduce artifact formation and allow condensation of mutagenic compounds. Other critical factors such as UV irradiation, wind direction, chemical reactivity, humidity, sample storage, and temperature of combustion are important. Application of chemical extraction methods and subsequent class fractionation techniques influence the observed mutagenic activity. Particles from urban air, coal fly ash, automobile and diesel exhaust, agricultural burning and welding fumes contain primarily direct-acting mutagens. Cigarette smoke condensate, smoke from charred meat and protein pyrolysates, kerosene soot and cigarette smoke condensates contain primarily mutagens which require metabolic activation. Fractionation coupled with mutagenicity testing indicates that the most potent mutagens are found in the acidic fractions of urban air, coal fly ash, and automobile diesel exhaust, whereas mutagens in rice straw smoke and cigarette smoke condensate are found primarily in the basic fractions. The interaction of the many chemical compounds in complex mixtures from airborne particles is likely to be important in determining mutagenic or comutagenic potentials. Because the mode of exposure is generally frequent and prolonged, the presence of tumor-promoting agents in complex mixtures may be a major factor in evaluation of the carcinogenic potential of airborne particles.

  18. Mammalian airborne allergens.

    PubMed

    Aalberse, Rob C

    2014-01-01

    Historically, horse dandruff was a favorite allergen source material. Today, however, allergic symptoms due to airborne mammalian allergens are mostly a result of indoor exposure, be it at home, at work or even at school. The relevance of mammalian allergens in relation to the allergenic activity of house dust extract is briefly discussed in the historical context of two other proposed sources of house dust allergenic activity: mites and Maillard-type lysine-sugar conjugates. Mammalian proteins involved in allergic reactions to airborne dust are largely found in only 2 protein families: lipocalins and secretoglobins (Fel d 1-like proteins), with a relatively minor contribution of serum albumins, cystatins and latherins. Both the lipocalin and the secretoglobin family are very complex. In some instances this results in a blurred separation between important and less important allergenic family members. The past 50 years have provided us with much detailed information on the genomic organization and protein structure of many of these allergens. However, the complex family relations, combined with the wide range of post-translational enzymatic and non-enzymatic modifications, make a proper qualitative and quantitative description of the important mammalian indoor airborne allergens still a significant proteomic challenge. PMID:24925404

  19. Radioactivity and foods

    SciTech Connect

    Olszyna-Marzys, A.E. )

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe and contrast two relationships between radiation and food--on the one hand, beneficial preservation of food by controlled exposure to ionizing radiation; and, on the other, contamination of food by accidental incorporation of radioactive nuclides within the food itself. In food irradiation, electrons or electromagnetic radiation is used to destroy microorganisms and insects or prevent seed germination. The economic advantages and health benefits of sterilizing food in this manner are clear, and numerous studies have confirmed that under strictly controlled conditions no undersirable changes or induced radioactivity is produced in the irradiated food. An altogether different situation is presented by exposure of food animals and farming areas to radioactive materials, as occurred after the major Soviet nuclear reactor accident at Chenobyl. This article furnishes the basic information needed to understand the nature of food contamination associated with that event and describes the work of international organizations seeking to establish appropriate safe limits for levels of radioactivity in foods.

  20. Airborne Submillimeter Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zmuidzinas, J.

    1998-01-01

    This is the final technical report for NASA-Ames grant NAG2-1068 to Caltech, entitled "Airborne Submillimeter Spectroscopy", which extended over the period May 1, 1996 through January 31, 1998. The grant was funded by the NASA airborne astronomy program, during a period of time after the Kuiper Airborne Observatory was no longer operational. Instead. this funding program was intended to help develop instrument concepts and technology for the upcoming SOFIA (Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy) project. SOFIA, which is funded by NASA and is now being carried out by a consortium lead by USRA (Universities Space Research Association), will be a 747 aircraft carrying a 2.5 meter diameter telescope. The purpose of our grant was to fund the ongoing development of sensitive heterodyne receivers for the submillimeter band (500-1200 GHz), using sensitive superconducting (SIS) detectors. In 1997 July we submitted a proposal to USRA to construct a heterodyne instrument for SOFIA. Our proposal was successful [1], and we are now continuing our airborne astronomy effort with funding from USRA. A secondary purpose of the NAG2-1068 grant was to continue the anaIN'sis of astronomical data collected with an earlier instrument which was flown on the NASA Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO). The KAO instrument and the astronomical studies which were carried out with it were supported primarily under another grant, NAG2-744, which extended over October 1, 1991 through Januarv 31, 1997. For a complete description of the astronomical data and its anailysis, we refer the reader to the final technical report for NAG2-744, which was submitted to NASA on December 1. 1997. Here we report on the SIS detector development effort for SOFIA carried out under NAG2-1068. The main result of this effort has been the demonstration of SIS mixers using a new superconducting material niobium titanium nitride (NbTiN), which promises to deliver dramatic improvements in sensitivity in the 700

  1. Airborne Chemical Sensing with Mobile Robots

    PubMed Central

    Lilienthal, Achim J.; Loutfi, Amy; Duckett, Tom

    2006-01-01

    Airborne chemical sensing with mobile robots has been an active research area since the beginning of the 1990s. This article presents a review of research work in this field, including gas distribution mapping, trail guidance, and the different subtasks of gas source localisation. Due to the difficulty of modelling gas distribution in a real world environment with currently available simulation techniques, we focus largely on experimental work and do not consider publications that are purely based on simulations.

  2. Airborne electronics for automated flight systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graves, G. B., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    The increasing importance of airborne electronics for use in automated flight systems is briefly reviewed with attention to both basic aircraft control functions and flight management systems for operational use. The requirements for high levels of systems reliability are recognized. Design techniques are discussed and the areas of control systems, computing and communications are considered in terms of key technical problems and trends for their solution.

  3. Progress on detection of radioactivity by airborne equipment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stead, Frank W.

    1949-01-01

    Coincidence and anti-coincidence counting rate meters and also an air conductivity meter have been installed in a transport plane to measure gamma radiation from ground sources. Materials containing 0.01 percent uranium can be detected at 500 feet and at an airspeed of 150 miles per hour.

  4. Geology of the Arco-Big Southern Butte area, eastern Snake River Plain, and volcanic hazards to the radioactive waste management complex, and other waste storage and reactor facilities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuntz, Mel A.; Kork, John O.

    1978-01-01

    The Arco-Big Southern Butte area of the eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho, includes a volcanic rift zone and more than 70 Holocene and late Quaternary basalt volcanoes. The Arco volcanic rift zone extends southeast for 50 km from Arco to about 10 km southeast of Big Southern Butte. The rift zone is the locus of extensional faults, graben, fissure basaltic volcanic vents, several rhyolite domes at Big Southern Butte, and a ferrolatite volcano at Cedar Butte. Limited radiometric age data and geological field criteria suggest that all volcanism in the area is younger than 700,000 years; at least 67 separate basaltic eruptions are estimated to have occurred within the last 200,000 years. The average volcanic recurrence interval for the Arco-Big Southern Butte area is approximately one eruption per 3,000 years. Radioactive waste storage and reactor facilities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory may be subject to potential volcanic hazards. The geologic history and inferred past volcanic events in the Arco-Big Southern Butte area provide a basis for assessing the volcanic hazard. It is recommended that a radiometric age-dating study be performed on rocks in cored drill holes to provide a more precise estimate of the eruption recurrence interval for the region surrounding and including the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. It is also recommended that several geophysical monitoring systems (dry tilt and seismic) be installed to provide adequate warning of future volcanic eruptions.

  5. PHARUS airborne SAR concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snoeij, Paul; Pouwels, Henk; Koomen, Peter J.; Hoogeboom, Peter

    1995-11-01

    PHARUS (phased array universal SAR) is an airborne SAR concept which is being developed in the Netherlands. The PHARUS system differs from other airborne SARs by the use of a phased array antenna, which provides both for the flexibility in the design as well as for a compact, light-weight instrument that can be carried on small aircraft. The concept allows for the construction of airborne SAR systems on a common generic basis but tailored to specific user needs and can be seen as a preparation for future spaceborne SAR systems using solid state transmitters with electronically steerable phased array antenna. The whole approach is aimed at providing an economic and yet technically sophisticated solution to remote sensing or surveying needs of a specific user. The solid state phased array antenna consists of a collection of radiating patches; the design flexibility for a large part resides in the freedom to choose the number of patches, and thereby the essential radar performance parameters such as resolution and swath width. Another consequence of the use of the phased array antenna is the system's compactness and the possibility to rigidly mount it on a small aircraft. The use of small aircraft of course considerably improves the cost/benefit ratio of the use of airborne SAR. Flight altitude of the system is flexible between about 7,000 and 40,000 feet, giving much operational freedom within the meteo and airspace control limits. In the PHARUS concept the airborne segment is complemented by a ground segment, which consists of a SAR processor, possibly extended by a matching image processing package. (A quick look image is available in real-time on board the aircraft.) The SAR processor is UNIX based and runs on easily available hardware (SUN station). Although the additional image processing software is available, the SAR processing software is nevertheless designed to be able to interface with commercially available image processing software, as well as being able

  6. Depth profiles of radioactive cesium in soil using a scraper plate over a wide area surrounding the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant, Japan.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Norihiro; Mikami, Satoshi; Shimoura, Susumu; Takahashi, Junko; Nakano, Masakazu; Shimada, Kiyotaka; Uno, Kiichiro; Hagiwara, Shigetomo; Saito, Kimiaki

    2015-01-01

    During the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) accident, radioactive cesium was released in the environment and deposited on the soils. Depth profiles of radioactive cesium in contaminated soils provide useful information not only for radiation protection and decontamination operations but also for geoscience and radioecology studies. Soil samples were collected using a scraper plate three times between December 2011 and December 2012 at 84 or 85 locations within a 100-km radius of the Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP. In most of the obtained radioactive cesium depth profiles, it was possible to fit the concentration to a function of mass depth as either an exponential or hyperbolic secant function. By using those functions, following three parameters were estimated: (i) relaxation mass depth β (g cm(-2)), (ii) effective relaxation mass depth βeff (g cm(-2)), which is defined for a hyperbolic secant function as the relaxation mass depth of an equivalent exponential function giving the same air kerma rate at 1 m above the ground as the inventory, and (iii) 1/10 depth L1/10 (cm), at which the soil contains 90% of the inventory. The average β value (wet weight) including ones by hyperbolic secant function in December 2012, was 1.29 times higher than that in December 2011. In fact, it was observed that depth profiles at some study sites deviated from the typical exponential distributions over time. These results indicate the gradual downward migration of radioactive cesium in the soils. The L1/10 values in December 2012 were summarized and presented on a map surrounding the Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP, and the average value of L1/10 was 3.01 cm (n = 82) at this time. It was found that radioactive cesium remained within 5 cm of the ground surface at most study sites (71 sites). The sech function can also be used to estimate the downward migration rate V (kg m(-2) y(-1)). The V values in December 2012 (n = 25) were in good agreement with those found by a

  7. Depth profiles of radioactive cesium in soil using a scraper plate over a wide area surrounding the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant, Japan.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Norihiro; Mikami, Satoshi; Shimoura, Susumu; Takahashi, Junko; Nakano, Masakazu; Shimada, Kiyotaka; Uno, Kiichiro; Hagiwara, Shigetomo; Saito, Kimiaki

    2015-01-01

    During the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) accident, radioactive cesium was released in the environment and deposited on the soils. Depth profiles of radioactive cesium in contaminated soils provide useful information not only for radiation protection and decontamination operations but also for geoscience and radioecology studies. Soil samples were collected using a scraper plate three times between December 2011 and December 2012 at 84 or 85 locations within a 100-km radius of the Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP. In most of the obtained radioactive cesium depth profiles, it was possible to fit the concentration to a function of mass depth as either an exponential or hyperbolic secant function. By using those functions, following three parameters were estimated: (i) relaxation mass depth β (g cm(-2)), (ii) effective relaxation mass depth βeff (g cm(-2)), which is defined for a hyperbolic secant function as the relaxation mass depth of an equivalent exponential function giving the same air kerma rate at 1 m above the ground as the inventory, and (iii) 1/10 depth L1/10 (cm), at which the soil contains 90% of the inventory. The average β value (wet weight) including ones by hyperbolic secant function in December 2012, was 1.29 times higher than that in December 2011. In fact, it was observed that depth profiles at some study sites deviated from the typical exponential distributions over time. These results indicate the gradual downward migration of radioactive cesium in the soils. The L1/10 values in December 2012 were summarized and presented on a map surrounding the Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP, and the average value of L1/10 was 3.01 cm (n = 82) at this time. It was found that radioactive cesium remained within 5 cm of the ground surface at most study sites (71 sites). The sech function can also be used to estimate the downward migration rate V (kg m(-2) y(-1)). The V values in December 2012 (n = 25) were in good agreement with those found by a

  8. Airborne Oceanographic Lidar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bressel, C.; Itzkan, I.; Nunes, J. E.; Hoge, F.

    1977-01-01

    The Airborne Oceanographic Lidar (AOL), a spatially scanning range-gated device installed on board a NASA C-54 aircraft, is described. The AOL system is capable of measuring topographical relief or water depth (bathymetry) with a range resolution of plus or minus 0.3 m in the vertical dimension. The system may also be used to measure fluorescent spectral signatures from 3500 to 8000 A with a resolution of 100 A. Potential applications of the AOL, including sea state measurements, water transparency assessments, oil spill identification, effluent identification and crop cover assessment are also mentioned.

  9. A simulation of the transport and fate of radon-220 derived from thorium-232 low-level waste in the near-surface zone of the Radioactive Waste Management Site in Area 5 of the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Lindstrom, F.T.; Cawlfield, D.E.; Donahue, M.E.; Emer, D.F.; Shott, G.J.

    1992-07-01

    US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A (DOE, 1988) requires performance assessment of all new and existing low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal sites. An integral part of performance assessment is estimating the fluxes of radioactive gases such as radon-220 and radon-222. Mathematical models, which point out data needs and therefore drive site characterization, provide a logical means of performing the required flux estimations. Thorium-232 Waste, consisting largely of thorium hydroxide and thorium oxides, has been approved for disposal in shallow trenches and pits at the LLW Radioactive Waste Management Site in Area 5 of the Nevada Test Site. A sophisticated gas transport model, CASCADR8 (Lindstrom et al., 1992), was used to simulate the transport and fate of radon-220 from its source of origin nine feet below a closure cap of native soil, through the dry alluvial earth, to its point of release to the atmosphere. CASCADR8 is an M-chain gas-phase radionuclide transport and fate model. It has been tailored to the site-specific needs of the dry desert environment of southern Nevada. It is based on the mass balance principle for each radionuclide and uses gas-phase diffusion as well as barometric pressure-induced advection as its main modes of transport.

  10. Effectiveness of bomber deployed autonomous airborne vehicles in finding rail mobile SS-24s

    SciTech Connect

    Abey, A.E.; Erickson, S.A.; Norquist, P.D.

    1990-08-01

    Computer simulation predictions of the effectiveness of autonomous airborne vehicles in finding rail mobile SS-24s are presented. Effectiveness is discussed for several autonomous airborne vehicle endurances and survivabilities for the search area southwest of Moscow. The effect of where the Soviets place the SS-24s on the rail network was also investigated. The simulation predicts significant variations in the ability of a multi-autonomous airborne vehicle system to find SS-24s with these parameters. 12 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Effects of particle size and velocity on burial depth of airborne particles in glass fiber filters

    SciTech Connect

    Higby, D.P.

    1984-11-01

    Air sampling for particulate radioactive material involves collecting airborne particles on a filter and then determining the amount of radioactivity collected per unit volume of air drawn through the filter. The amount of radioactivity collected is frequently determined by directly measuring the radiation emitted from the particles collected on the filter. Counting losses caused by the particle becoming buried in the filter matrix may cause concentrations of airborne particulate radioactive materials to be underestimated by as much as 50%. Furthermore, the dose calculation for inhaled radionuclides will also be affected. The present study was designed to evaluate the extent to which particle size and sampling velocity influence burial depth in glass-fiber filters. Aerosols of high-fired /sup 239/PuO/sub 2/ were collected at various sampling velocities on glass-fiber filters. The fraction of alpha counts lost due to burial was determined as the ratio of activity detected by direct alpha count to the quantity determined by photon spectrometry. The results show that burial of airborne particles collected on glass-fiber filters appears to be a weak function of sampling velocity and particle size. Counting losses ranged from 0 to 25%. A correction that assumes losses of 10 to 15% would ensure that the concentration of airborne alpha-emitting radionuclides would not be underestimated when glass-fiber filters are used. 32 references, 21 figures, 11 tables.

  12. Assessment of Airborne Particles. Fundamentals, Applications, and Implications to Inhalation Toxicity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercer, Thomas T., Ed.; And Others

    Concern over chemical and radioactive particulate matter in industry and over rapidly increasing air pollution has stimulated research both on the properties of airborne particles and methods for assessing them and on their biological effects following inhalation. The Third Rochester International Conference on Environmental Toxicity was,…

  13. Airborne concentrations of peanut protein.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Rodney M; Barnes, Charles S

    2013-01-01

    Food allergy to peanut is a significant health problem, and there are reported allergic reactions to peanuts despite not eating or having physical contact with peanuts. It is presumed that an allergic reaction may have occurred from inhalation of airborne peanut allergens. The purpose of this study was to detect the possible concentrations of airborne peanut proteins for various preparations and during specific activities. Separate Ara h 1 and Ara h 2 monoclonal enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and a polyclonal sandwich enzyme immunoassay for peanuts were used to detect the amount of airborne peanut protein collected using a Spincon Omni 3000 air collector (Sceptor Industries, Inc., Kansas City, MO) under different peanut preparation methods and situations. Air samples were measured for multiple peanut preparations and scenarios. Detectable amounts of airborne peanut protein were measured using a whole peanut immunoassay when removing the shells of roasted peanut. No airborne peanut allergen (Ara h 1 or Ara h 2) or whole peanut protein above the LLD was measured in any of the other peanut preparation collections. Ara h 1, Ara h 2, and polyclonal peanut proteins were detected from water used to boil peanuts. Small amounts of airborne peanut protein were detected in the scenario of removing shells from roasted peanuts; however, Ara h 1 and Ara h 2 proteins were unable to be consistently detected. Although airborne peanut proteins were detected, the concentration of airborne peanut protein that is necessary to elicit a clinical allergic reaction is unknown.

  14. Airborne ballistic camera tracking systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redish, W. L.

    1976-01-01

    An operational airborne ballistic camera tracking system was tested for operational and data reduction feasibility. The acquisition and data processing requirements of the system are discussed. Suggestions for future improvements are also noted. A description of the data reduction mathematics is outlined. Results from a successful reentry test mission are tabulated. The test mission indicated that airborne ballistic camera tracking systems are feasible.

  15. Airborne concentrations of peanut protein.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Rodney M; Barnes, Charles S

    2013-01-01

    Food allergy to peanut is a significant health problem, and there are reported allergic reactions to peanuts despite not eating or having physical contact with peanuts. It is presumed that an allergic reaction may have occurred from inhalation of airborne peanut allergens. The purpose of this study was to detect the possible concentrations of airborne peanut proteins for various preparations and during specific activities. Separate Ara h 1 and Ara h 2 monoclonal enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and a polyclonal sandwich enzyme immunoassay for peanuts were used to detect the amount of airborne peanut protein collected using a Spincon Omni 3000 air collector (Sceptor Industries, Inc., Kansas City, MO) under different peanut preparation methods and situations. Air samples were measured for multiple peanut preparations and scenarios. Detectable amounts of airborne peanut protein were measured using a whole peanut immunoassay when removing the shells of roasted peanut. No airborne peanut allergen (Ara h 1 or Ara h 2) or whole peanut protein above the LLD was measured in any of the other peanut preparation collections. Ara h 1, Ara h 2, and polyclonal peanut proteins were detected from water used to boil peanuts. Small amounts of airborne peanut protein were detected in the scenario of removing shells from roasted peanuts; however, Ara h 1 and Ara h 2 proteins were unable to be consistently detected. Although airborne peanut proteins were detected, the concentration of airborne peanut protein that is necessary to elicit a clinical allergic reaction is unknown. PMID:23406937

  16. BOREAS RSS-12 Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Nickeson, Jaime (Editor); Lobitz, Brad; Spanner, Michael; Wrigley, Robert

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS RSS-12 team collected both ground and airborne sunphotometer measurements for use in characterizing the aerosol optical properties of the atmosphere during the BOREAS data collection activities. These measurements are to be used to: 1) measure the magnitude and variability of the aerosol optical depth in both time and space; 2) determine the optical properties of the boreal aerosols; and 3) atmospherically correct remotely sensed data acquired during BOREAS. This data set contains airborne tracking sunphotometer data that were acquired from the C-130 aircraft during its flights over the BOREAS study areas. The data cover selected days and times from May to September 1994. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  17. Bench-scale treatability testing of biological, UV oxidation, distillation, and ion-exchange treatment of trench water from a low-level radioactive waste disposal area at West Valley, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Sundquist, J.A.; Gillings, J.C.; Sonntag, T.L.; Denault, R.P.

    1993-03-01

    Ecology and Environment, Inc. (E and E), under subcontract to Pacific Nuclear Services (PNS), conducted for the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) treatability tests to support the selection and design of a treatment system for leachate from Trench 14 of the West Valley State-Licensed, Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Area (SDA). In this paper E and E presents and discusses the treatability test results and provides recommendations for the design of the full-scale treatment system.

  18. Special Analysis for the Disposal of the Neutron Products Incorporated Sealed Source Waste Stream at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Shott, Gregory

    2014-08-31

    The purpose of this special analysis (SA) is to determine if the Neutron Products Incorporated (NPI) Sealed Sources waste stream (DRTK000000056, Revision 0) is suitable for disposal by shallow land burial (SLB) at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS). The NPI Sealed Sources waste stream consists of 850 60Co sealed sources (Duratek [DRTK] 2013). The NPI Sealed Sources waste stream requires a special analysis (SA) because the waste stream 60Co activity concentration exceeds the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) Action Levels.

  19. Geologic and hydrologic data collected during 1976-1983 at the Sheffield low-level radioactive waste disposal site and adjacent areas, Sheffield, Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foster, J.B.; Garklavs, George; Mackey, G.W.

    1984-01-01

    Hydrogeologic studies were conducted at the low-level radioactive-waste disposal site near Sheffield, Illinois, from 1976-84. Data in this report include water levels in wells, lake stages, inorganic, organic, and radiometric chemical analyses of ground and surface water, hydraulic conductivities of glacial materials, grain-size distribution, clay and carbonate mineralogy, and cation exchange capacities of the glacial materials. Also included are results of petrographic analyses, physical measurements of wells, stratigraphy and lithology of cores collected from test wells, and horizontal coordinates of wells.

  20. Measurement of resuspended aerosol in the Chernobyl area. Part III. Size distribution and dry deposition velocity of radioactive particles during anthropogenic enhanced resuspension.

    PubMed

    Garger, E K; Paretzke, H G; Tschiersch, J

    1998-10-01

    During anthropogenic activities, such as agricultural soil management and traffic on unpaved roads, size distribution measurements were performed of atmospheric particulate radionuclides at a site in the Chernobyl 30-km exclusion zone. Analysis of cascade impactor measurements showed an increase of the total atmospheric radioactivity. In the cases of harrowing by a tractor and traffic on unpaved roads, a common shape of the size distribution was found with two maxima, the first in the 2-4 microm range, the second in the 12-20 microm range. The size distributions were compared to measurements during wind-driven resuspension. Particle number concentration measurements with an Aerodynamic Particle Sizer showed a dynamic dependence of the particle concentration in different size ranges on anthropogenic action. The increase of the mean concentration was for the large particles more than one order of magnitude higher than for fine particles during anthropogenic enhanced resuspension. From the measurement of the mass concentration, the radioactive loading could be estimated. An enrichment of radionuclides on resuspended particles (compared to soil particles) was found, with the highest enrichment for large particles. Micrometeorological considerations showed that large particles may frequently be subject to medium range transport. The dry deposition velocity was measured; the mean value of 0.026 m s(-1) +/- 0.016 m s(-1) is typical for 6-9 microm diameter particles.

  1. RESRAD. Site-Specific Residual Radioactivity

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, C.

    1989-06-01

    RESRAD is designed to derive site-specific guidelines for allowable residual concentrations of radionuclides in soil. A guideline is defined as a radionuclide concentration or a level of radiation or radioactivity that is acceptable if a site is to be used without radiological restrictions. Guidelines are expressed as (1) concentrations of residual radionuclides in soil, (2) concentrations of airborne radon decay products, (3) levels of external gamma radiation, (4) levels of radioactivity from surface contamination, and (5) concentrations of residual radionuclides in air and water. Soil is defined as unconsolidated earth material, including rubble and debris that may be present. The controlling principles of all guidelines are (1) the annual radiation dose received by a member of the critical population group from the residual radioactive material - predicted by a realistic but reasonably conservative analysis and averaged over a 50 year period - should not exceed 100 mrem/yr, and (2) doses should be kept as low as reasonably achievable. All significant exposure pathways for the critical population group are considered in deriving soil guidelines. These pathways include direct exposure to external radiation from the contaminated soil material; internal radiation from inhalation of airborne radionuclides; and internal radiation from ingestion of plant foods grown in the contaminated soil, meat and milk from livestock fed with contaminated fodder and water, drinking water from a contaminated well, and fish from a contaminated pond.

  2. Radioactive waste storage issues

    SciTech Connect

    Kunz, D.E.

    1994-08-15

    In the United States we generate greater than 500 million tons of toxic waste per year which pose a threat to human health and the environment. Some of the most toxic of these wastes are those that are radioactively contaminated. This thesis explores the need for permanent disposal facilities to isolate radioactive waste materials that are being stored temporarily, and therefore potentially unsafely, at generating facilities. Because of current controversies involving the interstate transfer of toxic waste, more states are restricting the flow of wastes into - their borders with the resultant outcome of requiring the management (storage and disposal) of wastes generated solely within a state`s boundary to remain there. The purpose of this project is to study nuclear waste storage issues and public perceptions of this important matter. Temporary storage at generating facilities is a cause for safety concerns and underscores, the need for the opening of permanent disposal sites. Political controversies and public concern are forcing states to look within their own borders to find solutions to this difficult problem. Permanent disposal or retrievable storage for radioactive waste may become a necessity in the near future in Colorado. Suitable areas that could support - a nuclear storage/disposal site need to be explored to make certain the health, safety and environment of our citizens now, and that of future generations, will be protected.

  3. Radioactive deposits of Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lovering, T.G.

    1953-01-01

    Thirty-five occurrences of radioactive rocks had been reported from Nevada prior to 1952. Twenty-five of these had been investigated by the U. S. Geological Survey and the U. S. Atomic Energy Commission. Of those investigated, uranium minerals were identified in 13; two contained a thorium mineral (monazite); the source of radioactivity on 7 properties was not ascertained; and one showed no abnormal radioactivity. Of the other reported occurrences, one is said to contain uraniferous hydrocarbons and 9 are placers containing thorian monazite. Pitchblende occurs at two localities; the East Walker River area, and the Stalin's Present prospect, where it is sparsely disseminated in tabular bodies cutting granitic rocks. Other uranium minerals found in the state include: carnotite, tyuyamunite, autunite, torbernite, gummite, uranophane, kasolite, and an unidentified mineral which may be dumontit. Monazite is the only thorium mineral of possible economic importance that has been reported. From an economic standpoint 9 only 4 of the properties examined showed reserves of uranium ore in 1952; these are: the Green Monster mine, which shipped 5 tons of ore to Marysvale, Utah, during 1951, the Majuba Hill mine, the Stalin's Present prospect, and the West Willys claim in the Washington district. Reserves of ore grade are small on all of these properties and probably cannot be developed commercially unless an ore-buying station is set up nearby. No estimate has been made of thorium reserves and no commercial deposits of thorium are known.

  4. Radioactive deposits of Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lovering, T.G.

    1954-01-01

    Thirty-five occurrences of radioactive rocks had been reported from Nevada prior to 1952. Twenty-five of these had been investigated by personnel of the U. S. Geological Surveyor of the U. S. Atomic Energy Commission. Of those investigated, uranium minerals were identified at 13 sites; two sites contained a thorium mineral (monazite); the source of radioactivity on nine properties was not ascertained, and one showed no abnormal radioactivity. Of the other reported occurrences, one is said to contain uraniferous hydrocarbons and nine are placers containing thorian monazite. Pitchblende occurs at two localities, the East Walker River area, and the Stalin's Present prospect, where it is sparsely disseminated in tabular bodies cutting granitic rocks. Other uranium minerals found in the state include: carnotite, tyuyamunite, autunite, torbernite, gummite, uranophane, kasolite, and an unidentified mineral which may be dumontite. Monazite is the only thorium mineral of possible economic importance that has been reported. From an economic standpoint, only four of the properties examined showed reserves of uranium ore in 1952; these are: the Green Monster mine, which shipped 5 tons of ore to Marysvale, Utah, during 1951; the Majuba Hill mine; the Stalin's Present prospect; and the West Willys claim in the Washington district. No estimate has been made of thorium reserves and no commercial deposits of thorium are known.

  5. An assessment of the airborne route in hepatitis B transmission.

    PubMed

    Petersen, N J

    1980-01-01

    The experimental and epidemiologic evidence for airborne transmission of hepatitis B is inconclusive and our efforts to detect airborne HBsAg or blood in environments where hepatitis B transmission occurs have been uniformly unsuccessful. In the specific areas investigated: dialysis centers, laboratories, and dental operatories, other major routes of transmission that can explain the spread of hepatitis B invariably are present. Therefore, while airborne taansmission is theoretically possible and probably has occurred, at this time its contribution to the overfall hepatitis B problem cannot be quantitated. we fell comfortable in concluding that airborne HBV does not play a major role in hepatitis B transmission and that true airborne infections are probably rare. Because of the fine line airborne transmission from contract transmission via droplets, we feel it important to emphasize the need to take those precautions that protect against the latter. These include the use of gloves where surfaces become contaminated and masks and glasses to protect the eyes, nose and mouth where the possibility of spatter exists.

  6. Geoid determination by airborne gravimetry - principles and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forsberg, R.; Olesen, A. V.

    2009-12-01

    The operational development of long-range airborne gravimetry has meant that large areas can be covered in a short time frame with high-quality medium-wavelength gravity field data, perfectly matching the needs of geoid determination. Geoid from a combination of surface, airborne and satellite data not only is able to cover the remaining large data voids on the earth, notably Antarctica and tropical jungle regions, but also provide seamless coverage across the coastal zone, and tie in older marine and land gravity data. Airborne gravity can therefore provide essential data for GPS applications both on land and at sea, e.g. for marine construction projects such as bridges, wind mill farms etc. Current operational accuracies with the DTU-Space/UiB airborne system are in the 1-2 mGal range, which translates into geoid accuracies of 5-10 cm, dependent on track spacing. In the paper we will outline the current accuracy of airborne gravity and geoid determination, and show examples from recent international airborne gravity campaigns, aimed at either providing national survey infrastructure, or scientific applications for e.g. oceanography or sea-ice thickness determination.

  7. Radioactive decay.

    PubMed

    Groch, M W

    1998-01-01

    When a parent radionuclide decays to its daughter radionuclide by means of alpha, beta, or isomeric transition, the decay follows an exponential form, which is characterized by the decay constant lambda. The decay constant represents the probability per unit time that a single radioatom will decay. The decay equation can be used to provide a useful expression for radionuclide decay, the half-life, the time when 50% of the radioatoms present will have decayed. Radiotracer half-life has direct implications in nuclear imaging, radiation therapy, and radiation safety because radionuclide half-life affects the ability to evaluate tracer kinetics and create appropriate nuclear images and also affects organ, tumor, and whole-body radiation dose. The number of radioatoms present in a sample is equal to the activity, defined as the number of transitions per unit time, divided by the decay constant; the mass of radioatoms present in a sample can be calculated to determine the specific activity (activity per unit mass). The dynamic relationship between the number of parent and daughter atoms present over time may lead to radioactive equilibrium, which takes two forms--secular and transient--and has direct relevance to generator-produced radionuclides.

  8. Airborne agent concentration analysis

    DOEpatents

    Gelbard, Fred

    2004-02-03

    A method and system for inferring airborne contaminant concentrations in rooms without contaminant sensors, based on data collected by contaminant sensors in other rooms of a building, using known airflow interconnectivity data. The method solves a least squares problem that minimizes the difference between measured and predicted contaminant sensor concentrations with respect to an unknown contaminant release time. Solutions are constrained to providing non-negative initial contaminant concentrations in all rooms. The method can be used to identify a near-optimal distribution of sensors within the building, when then number of available sensors is less than the total number of rooms. This is achieved by having a system-sensor matrix that is non-singular, and by selecting that distribution which yields the lowest condition number of all the distributions considered. The method can predict one or more contaminant initial release points from the collected data.

  9. Airborne Wind Turbine

    SciTech Connect

    2010-09-01

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: Makani Power is developing an Airborne Wind Turbine (AWT) that eliminates 90% of the mass of a conventional wind turbine and accesses a stronger, more consistent wind at altitudes of near 1,000 feet. At these altitudes, 85% of the country can offer viable wind resources compared to only 15% accessible with current technology. Additionally, the Makani Power wing can be economically deployed in deep offshore waters, opening up a resource which is 4 times greater than the entire U.S. electrical generation capacity. Makani Power has demonstrated the core technology, including autonomous launch, land, and power generation with an 8 meter wingspan, 20 kW prototype. At commercial scale, Makani Power aims to develop a 600 kW, 28 meter wingspan product capable of delivering energy at an unsubsidized cost competitive with coal, the current benchmark for low-cost power.

  10. On the impact of airborne gravity data to fused gravity field models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolkas, Dimitrios; Fotopoulos, Georgia; Braun, Alexander

    2016-06-01

    In gravity field modeling, fused models that utilize satellite, airborne and terrestrial gravity observations are often employed to deal with erroneous terrestrially derived gravity datasets. These terrestrial datasets may suffer from long-wavelength systematic errors and inhomogeneous data coverage, which are not prevalent in airborne and satellite datasets. Airborne gravity acquisition plays an essential role in gravity field modeling, providing valuable information of the Earth's gravity field at medium and short wavelengths. Thus, assessing the impact of airborne gravity data to fused gravity field models is important for identifying problematic regions. Six study regions that represent different gravity field variability and terrestrial data point-density characteristics are investigated to quantify the impact of airborne gravity data to fused gravity field models. The numerical assessments of these representative regions resulted in predictions of airborne gravity impact for individual states and provinces in the USA and Canada, respectively. Prediction results indicate that, depending on the terrestrial data point-density and gravity field variability, the expected impact of airborne gravity can reach up to 3mGal (in terms of standard deviation) in Canada and Alaska (over areas of 1° × 1°). However, in the mainland US region, small changes are expected (0.2-0.4 mGal over areas of 1° × 1°) due to the availability of high spatial resolution terrestrial data. These results can serve as a guideline for setting airborne gravity data acquisition priorities and for improving future planning of airborne gravity surveys.

  11. Alternative analysis of airborne laser data collected within conventional multi-parameter airborne geophysical surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahl, Andreas; Supper, R.; Motschka, K.; Schattauer, I.

    2010-05-01

    For the interpretation of airborne gamma-ray spectrometry as well as airborne electromagnetics it is of great importance to determine the distance between the geophysical sensor and the ground surface. Since radar altimeters do not penetrate vegetation, laser altimeters became popular in airborne geophysics over the past years. Currently the airborne geophysical platform of the Geological Survey of Austria (GBA) is equipped with a Riegl LD90-3800VHS-FLP high resolution laser altimeter, measuring the distances according to the first and the last reflected pulse. The goal of the presented study was to explore the possibilities of deriving additional information about the survey area from the laser data and to determine the accuracy of such results. On one hand the difference between the arrival time of the first and the last reflected pulse can be used to determine the height of the vegetation. This parameter is for example important for the correction of damping effects on airborne gamma-ray measurements caused by vegetation. Moreover especially for groundwater studies at catchment scale, this parameter can also be applied to support the spatial assessment of evapotranspiration. In combination with the altitude above geoid, determined by a GPS receiver, a rough digital elevation model of the survey area can be derived from the laser altimetry. Based on a data set from a survey area in the northern part of Austria, close to the border with the Czech Republic, the reliability of such a digital elevation model and the calculated vegetation height was tested. In this study a mean deviation of -1.4m, with a standard deviation of ±3.4m, between the digital elevation model from Upper Austria (25m spatial resolution) and the determined elevation model was determined. We also found an obvious correlation between the calculated vegetation heights greater 15m and the mapped forest published by the ‘Department of Forest Inventory' of the ‘Federal Forest Office' of Austria

  12. Airborne myxomycete spores: detection using molecular techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamono, Akiko; Kojima, Hisaya; Matsumoto, Jun; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Fukui, Manabu

    2009-01-01

    Myxomycetes are organisms characterized by a life cycle that includes a fruiting body stage. Myxomycete fruiting bodies contain spores, and wind dispersal of the spores is considered important for this organism to colonize new areas. In this study, the presence of airborne myxomycetes and the temporal changes in the myxomycete composition of atmospheric particles (aerosols) were investigated with a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based method for Didymiaceae and Physaraceae. Twenty-one aerosol samples were collected on the roof of a three-story building located in Sapporo, Hokkaido Island, northern Japan. PCR analysis of DNA extracts from the aerosol samples indicated the presence of airborne myxomycetes in all the samples, except for the one collected during the snowfall season. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of the PCR products showed seasonally varying banding patterns. The detected DGGE bands were subjected to sequence analyses, and four out of nine obtained sequences were identical to those of fruiting body samples collected in Hokkaido Island. It appears that the difference in the fruiting period of each species was correlated with the seasonal changes in the myxomycete composition of the aerosols. Molecular evidence shows that newly formed spores are released and dispersed in the air, suggesting that wind-driven dispersal of spores is an important process in the life history of myxomycetes. This study is the first to detect airborne myxomycetes with the use of molecular ecological analyses and to characterize their seasonal distribution.

  13. MITAS: multisensor imaging technology for airborne surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, John D.

    1991-08-01

    MITAS, a unique and low-cost solution to the problem of collecting and processing multisensor imaging data for airborne surveillance operations has been developed, MITAS results from integrating the established and proven real-time video processing, target tracking, and sensor management software of TAU with commercially available image exploitation and map processing software. The MITAS image analysis station (IAS) supports airborne day/night reconnaissance and surveillance missions involving low-altitude collection platforms employing a suite of sensors to perform reconnaissance functions against a variety of ground and sea targets. The system will detect, locate, and recognize threats likely to be encountered in support of counternarcotic operations and in low-intensity conflict areas. The IAS is capable of autonomous, near real-time target exploitation and has the appropriate communication links to remotely located IAS systems for more extended analysis of sensor data. The IAS supports the collection, fusion, and processing of three main imaging sensors: daylight imagery (DIS), forward looking infrared (FLIR), and infrared line scan (IRLS). The MITAS IAS provides support to all aspects of the airborne surveillance mission, including sensor control, real-time image enhancement, automatic target tracking, sensor fusion, freeze-frame capture, image exploitation, target data-base management, map processing, remote image transmission, and report generation.

  14. Airborne Cloud Computing Environment (ACCE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardman, Sean; Freeborn, Dana; Crichton, Dan; Law, Emily; Kay-Im, Liz

    2011-01-01

    Airborne Cloud Computing Environment (ACCE) is JPL's internal investment to improve the return on airborne missions. Improve development performance of the data system. Improve return on the captured science data. The investment is to develop a common science data system capability for airborne instruments that encompasses the end-to-end lifecycle covering planning, provisioning of data system capabilities, and support for scientific analysis in order to improve the quality, cost effectiveness, and capabilities to enable new scientific discovery and research in earth observation.

  15. 10 CFR 20.1902 - Posting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... HIGH RADIATION AREA.” (d) Posting of airborne radioactivity areas. The licensee shall post each airborne radioactivity area with a conspicuous sign or signs bearing the radiation symbol and the words “CAUTION, AIRBORNE RADIOACTIVITY AREA” or “DANGER, AIRBORNE RADIOACTIVITY AREA.” (e) Posting of areas...

  16. 10 CFR 20.1902 - Posting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... HIGH RADIATION AREA.” (d) Posting of airborne radioactivity areas. The licensee shall post each airborne radioactivity area with a conspicuous sign or signs bearing the radiation symbol and the words “CAUTION, AIRBORNE RADIOACTIVITY AREA” or “DANGER, AIRBORNE RADIOACTIVITY AREA.” (e) Posting of areas...

  17. 10 CFR 20.1902 - Posting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... HIGH RADIATION AREA.” (d) Posting of airborne radioactivity areas. The licensee shall post each airborne radioactivity area with a conspicuous sign or signs bearing the radiation symbol and the words “CAUTION, AIRBORNE RADIOACTIVITY AREA” or “DANGER, AIRBORNE RADIOACTIVITY AREA.” (e) Posting of areas...

  18. 10 CFR 20.1902 - Posting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... HIGH RADIATION AREA.” (d) Posting of airborne radioactivity areas. The licensee shall post each airborne radioactivity area with a conspicuous sign or signs bearing the radiation symbol and the words “CAUTION, AIRBORNE RADIOACTIVITY AREA” or “DANGER, AIRBORNE RADIOACTIVITY AREA.” (e) Posting of areas...

  19. 10 CFR 20.1902 - Posting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... HIGH RADIATION AREA.” (d) Posting of airborne radioactivity areas. The licensee shall post each airborne radioactivity area with a conspicuous sign or signs bearing the radiation symbol and the words “CAUTION, AIRBORNE RADIOACTIVITY AREA” or “DANGER, AIRBORNE RADIOACTIVITY AREA.” (e) Posting of areas...

  20. Study of airborne science experiment management concepts for application to space shuttle. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulholland, D. R.; Reller, J. O., Jr.; Neel, C. B.; Haughney, L. C.

    1973-01-01

    The management concepts and operating procedures are documented as they apply to the planning of shuttle spacelab operations. Areas discussed include: airborne missions; formulation of missions; management procedures; experimenter involvement; experiment development and performance; data handling; safety procedures; and applications to shuttle spacelab planning. Characteristics of the airborne science experience are listed, and references and figures are included.